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Sample records for bank policy implications

  1. Assessment of selected world bank policies and their implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The review x-rayed some World Bank policies and their implications on the fight against poverty in Nigeria. World Bank policies on education, structural adjustment programme, water privatization, deregulation/liberalization and their implications on the fight against poverty in Nigeria were analyzed. In the review it was found ...

  2. Opposite policy implications in the theory of money and banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson D. P. Bertolai

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent financial crisis creates a demand for welfare-based models of financial regulation and liquidity shortages. In this paper, we review policy implications from two cornerstone models and show that they imply different responses in terms of intertemporal returns of financial liabilities. In the first case, a version of the Cavalcanti and Wallace (1999, random-matching model, monitored agents are led to promote inflation in bank-issued money. In the second case, a sequential-service version of the Diamond and Dybvig (1983 model of bank runs with insolvency, increases in long-run returns can prevent bank runs by reducing the provision of liquidity.

  3. assessment of selected world bank policies and their implications on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LUCY

    Nigeria. World Bank policies on education, structural adjustment programme, water privatization, deregulation/liberalization and their implications on the fight against poverty in Nigeria were ... necessities, assets, and income. It is a condition of general deprivation whose manifestation in the form of social inferiority, isolation, ...

  4. assessment of selected world bank policies and their implications on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LUCY

    terms such as globalization or liberalization can be used to describe such ... In her history,. Nigeria has not staged a conscious fight against poverty since its independent in 1960 as she is doing now. Thus, the significance of this paper is to enable policy makers and ... World Bank: Historical overview. World Bank is a term ...

  5. THE IMPLICATIONS OF MARKETING ACTIVITY IN RISK ANALYSIS, CORE ELEMENT OF LENDING POLICY TO COMMERCIAL BANKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Florin-Mihai

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present financial context first affected by the lack of trust generated by the important bankruptcies in the USA and secondly by the global economic crisis, financial institutions are more than ever focused on applying market research, customer segmentation procedures and based upon them adapted credit strategies. The process is based on the fundaments of the marketing mix, much more carefully than before in order to maximize efficiency and market position or to consolidate, increase market share by taking advantage of opportunities or diminishing the effects of the present unfavorable economic climate. Analysis procedures based on differential risk models can be identified, the starting point being precisely the involvement of marketing by the market segmentation process and the concepts of “customer centricity” and “client relationship management”, specific credit policies being based upon them. The present paper intends to bring forth the client segmentation criteria practiced by top Romanian commercial banks, as the right segmentation process will reflect on the typology of financing over time. Furthermore, client segmentation tends to influence banking management in order to administer the risks arising from the credit activities, as it is in strict connection to the elements and processes involved in determining a correct rating of the applicants for funding.

  6. Payments and Central Bank Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Søren

    outcomes in the money market. The third, "Collateralized Lending and Central Bank Collateral Policy", considers the emergence of credit constraints under collateralized lending, and how central banks use collateral policy to mitigate these constraints. While the chapters can be read independently...

  7. The Bank Lending Channel of Monetary Policy Transmission in A Dual Banking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansor H. Ibrahim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of monetary policy on bank lending in a dual banking system, i.e. Malaysia. Making use of an unbalanced panel data set of 38 Islamic and conventional banks covering mostly 2001-2014, we find evidence that variations in monetary policy affect lending growth of Islamic banks and, to some extent, conventional banks. The results further reveal that, in conformity with studies using aggregate Islamic financing data, the Islamic financing growth reacts more strongly to monetary policy changes. Moreover, we find no marked difference between full-fledged Islamic banks and Islamic bank subsidiaries in their responses to monetary policy. While we also document some evidence indicating the significant relations between bank-specific variables and lending growth, the bank-specific variables do not seem to have any role in impacting the potency of the bank lending channel. Finally, we find that lending growth is directly related to economic growth, suggesting procyclicality of bank lending/financing in Malaysia. These results have important implications for effective implementation of monetary policy and further development of Islamic banks in Malaysia.

  8. ROLE OF DEPOSIT POLICY FOR UKRAINIAN BANKING INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda Bova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to define and demonstrate the role of deposit policy for banking institutions, summarize and highlight the problems and its solutions in deposit policy of Ukraine that provides economic downturn and recovery. Appropriate selection and implementation of the deposit policy objectives, its operational structure and tools determines the degree of development of financial inclusion, which generate developed financial market, ensures public confidence to the deposit services, and increases the level of savings that positively affects the banking system financial stability and economy in the country in whole. It is because of availability and security deposit services, commercial banks of Ukraine have the opportunity to increase its resource base due to savings of the population. Methodology. The paper is based on a synthesis of data to explore the bank deposit policy situation. The paper considers the scientific and theoretical approaches for the developing the deposit policy management. It contains the analysis of the dynamics and current situation and conditions of the resource potential of banking institutions in Ukraine. Results of the article shows direct dependency between savings, consumption and deposit policy, therefore every banking institution includes the mechanism of banking management of the development and implementation of deposit policy. Also, this management defines the deposit policy directions according to the conditions of bank resources mobilization and its applying in active operations. The obtained results confirm that the term “deposit policy” is too complex, but it is investigated in interaction with banking activity. It is explained how deposit policy influences banking system and has impact on economic growth in general. Practical implications. The research creates methodological approaches to the measurement of effectiveness of deposit policy. Also, it studies the existing ones. It provides

  9. Monetary Policy and Excessive Bank Risk Taking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agur, I.; Demertzis, M.

    2010-01-01

    If monetary policy is to aim at financial stability, how would it change? To analyze this question, this paper develops a general-form model with endogenous bank risk profiles. Policy rates affect both bank incentives to search for yield and the cost of wholesale funding. Financial stability

  10. THE POLICY OF THE EXCHANGE RATE PROMOTED BY NATIONAL BANK OF ROMANIA AND ITS IMPLICATIONS UPON THE FINANCIAL STABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chifane Cristina

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The more profound world economic crisis has strongly marked the evolution of the Romanian financial system. The size of current account deficit, the relatively high external financing needs and the dependence of the banks on it, the high ratio between loans in foreign currency and deposits in foreign currency made of the Romanian economy, a risky destination for investors. In these conditions, since the end of 2008 and throughout 2009, the government's economic program was focused on reducing the external deficit in both public and private sector, on minimizing the effects of recession, on avoiding a crisis of the exchange rate and on cooling the inflationary pressures.

  11. INSOLVENCY AND BANK FINANCIAL POLICY

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela GÖNDÖR

    2011-01-01

    Insolvency is one of the most often used actions in the economic intern environment. This can be used by companies as a tool for obtaining the restructuring of bank loans or to provide shelter to enforcement. For banks, that means serious problems because they are forced to fully provisioned credit granted to companies that enter into insolvency, even if the rates are paid to date or with small delays, any guaranties was held. In this situation, for banks in Romania, the perception of risk is...

  12. Credit Policy within BRD Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moraru Camelia

    2017-01-01

    It has been found that credit is indispensable to an economy, which is why the method of granting itis significant and, in this sense, the function of the bank of financial analyst plays an important rolein orienting resources towards the most efficient placements.

  13. Regulation of Communication Policy of Modern Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketova Natalia, P.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows the need for effective communication commercial banks, revealed the possibility of interaction with customers through advertising, sponsorship, philanthropy, sales promotion, lobbying of interests of banking institutions. The principles for the regulation of communications to ensure consistency of communication complex, which cause a complex effect on the external environment, the creation of adaptive system of marketing communications. It is proved that the possibilities of implementing an active communication policy of modern banks in recent years is constantly increasing. This contributes to the extension of Internet technologies, the creation of remote service channels, the emergence of new tools and technologies to attract and retain customers. On the example of JSC "Sberbank of Russia" presented the technology of using the traditional tools of ATL and BTL communications, the formation of the system CSR – corporate social responsibility, building contact with customers, enhancing their loyalty to the Bank. Reveals the areas of regulation of the savings Bank of its activities on the creation of the daily value of services based on the principles of involvement and co-operation of the system "Client - Bank", "Bank - Company", "Bank – Employees".

  14. A Study of Philippine Monetary and Banking Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Bautista, Ernesto D.

    1992-01-01

    This study assesses the Philippine monetary and banking policies with the view of identifying preferred policy options and features of a monetary and banking policy program supportive of overall economic growth and agro-industrial development. It describes the following: the impact of existing monetary and banking policy on short- and long-term economic development and the legislative and administrative measures required to adopt and implement such a monetary and banking policy. It also ident...

  15. Macroprudential policies on banking system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionuţ Mircea

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The macro-prudential tool kit deals with those risks that contributed to the outbreak of the last economic crisis or materialized during it, namely the excessive credit growth, the excessive price assets growth driven by the credit growth, the excessive increase in leverage, the liquidity risk, the volatile capital flows and foreign currency lending. It can be argued that macro-prudential policies underestimated the systemic risks mentioned, although they were better positioned than other policies aimed at financial stability. The impact of macro-prudential policy is difficult to be determined, because is usually applied simultaneously and in the same direction with other macroeconomic policies. Thus, it is necessary a better coordination of policies and a better calibration of instruments in order to get a quick and effective response during their implementation. These must be in line with national specificities and the risks identified. Until the new macro-prudential tools introduced by Basel III will prove their effectiveness, the issue of finding proper tools is still open.

  16. Industries and the bank lending effects of bank credit demand and monetary policy in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raabe, K.; Arnold, I.J.M.; Kool, C.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents evidence on the industry effects of bank lending in Germany and asks whether bank lending to single industries depends on industry-specific bank credit demand or on monetary policy as determinant of bank credit supply. To this end, we estimate individual bank lending functions

  17. Forest sector: A world bank policy paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Forests are the most extensive terrestrial ecosystem, and nearly 500 million people depend on forests for their livelihood. Since the World Bank issued its forestry sector policy paper in 1978, there has been growing concern about the accelerated rate of destruction of the remaining primary forests in various parts of the world. The policy paper identifies two key challenges: to slow the alarmingly rapid rates of deforestation, especially (although not exclusively) in the tropical moist forests, and to ensure adequate planting of new trees to meet the rapidly growing demand for fuelwood in developing countries. The Bank intends to move vigorously to promote the conservation of natural forests and the sustainable development of managed forestry resources

  18. Online customer experience: Implications for digital banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štavljanin Velimir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Banks will be facing great challenges in the coming period. Some of these challenges are a lack of differentiation, disloyal customers, new non-traditional competitors, increased interaction and expectations from digital channels. Many consulting firms, but also the academic community, propose a solution in the form of implementing the concept of customer experience management. As research shows that a large number of challenges come from the online environment, it is necessary for banks to ensure excellence in the online environment by applying the concept of online customer experience. In order to create this experience, it is up to the banks to meet all the necessary antecedents, which can involve the elements in terms of control, processes and content. This can be a very difficult job if one is unfamiliar with the basics, but it could also be a rewarding job which will reflect on the business performance. Although the focus of the paper is online customer experience, even in the developed countries 'digital' customers are rare. Most of them are multichannel oriented and an important aspect is the multichannel integration and the strategy focused on customer experience. This paper presents an overview of the literature in the field of online customer experience, with the aim of introducing the public with the concept as well as presenting the implications which this concept has for digital banking.

  19. The effects of credit policy on bank performance: Evidence from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the effects of credit policy on bank performance using data on selected Commercial Banks. Using a triangulation of methods such as quantitative data collection, questionnaire, and review of the existing literature, the paper evaluates the banking sector performance: its deepening over ...

  20. The transmission of monetary policy through conventional and islamic banks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaheer, S.; Ongena, S.; van Wijnbergen, S.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the differences in banks' responses to monetary policy shocks across bank size, liquidity, and type, i.e., conventional versus Islamic, in Pakistan between 2002:II to 2010:I. We find that following a monetary contraction, small banks with liquid balance sheets cut their lending less

  1. Dividend Payout Policy of Conventional Banking and Islamic Banking in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhan Ahmed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the difference between the dividend payout policy of Islamic banks and conventional banks in Pakistan for a period from 2012 to 2016 analyzing the data through regression using Least Square Method (OLS. Specifically, the study aims to study the impact of the profitability, liquidity, revenue growth and financial leverage on the dividend payout policy of the Islamic Banks and conventional banks of Pakistan and how Islamic banks dividend policy differs from conventional banks. This study concludes that the factors like liquidity and financial leverage should be considered and addressed accordingly, because these are key indicators to help policymakers and investors in assessing the performance of the Islamic Banking Industry. DOI: 10.15408/aiq.v10i1.6103

  2. MONETARY POLICY FORCE EFFECT BY MEANS OF BANKS MONEY CREATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria COCIUG

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the context of modern economy, banks play an essential role for sustainable growth, by ensuring economy with financial resources and driving impulses of monetary policy to economy. Monetary authorities influence significantly the bank's ability to fulfill this role. Thus, to achieve macroeconomic objectives, there is promoted particular monetary policy and are implemented various practical regulations for banks. In this article, we want to identify the existing relationship between monetary policy followed by the authorities and the ability of banks to create money with its impact on various practical regulations.

  3. The trade-off between monetary policy and bank stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, Martien; Mergaerts, Frederik; Meuleman, Elien; Vennet, Rudi Vander

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates how monetary policy interventions by the European Central Bank and the Federal Reserve affect the stock market perception of bank systemic risk. In a first step, we identify monetary policy shocks using a structural VAR approach by exploiting the changes of the volatility of

  4. Financial Frictions and Real Implications of Macroprudential Policies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Derviz, Alexis

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 26 (2012), s. 333-368 ISSN 1555-4961 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Debt * Equity * Bank * Default * Macroprudential policy Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/E/Derviz- financial frictions and real implications of macroprudential policies.pdf

  5. Environmental management: The bank's policy approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    In order to play a leadership role in the environmental recovery of central and eastern Europe, the Bank will pursue the following policy priorities: assistance to the countries of operations in environmental policy formulation, including the development of effective legal and regulatory instruments, the adoption of appropriate emissions and effluents standards and the creation of the institutional and human resources capacity to monitor and enforce them; promoting the use of a variety of economic instruments to address the underlying cause of environmental degradation and the adoption of market-based techniques in environmental management programmes; encouraging the development of an environmental goods and services industry in the countries of operations, of commercially viable investments in environmental technologies and pollution prevention and control, and by funding environmental infrastructure projects; initiation of, or support for, special studies and programmes to address regional and national environmental problems and to promote environmental education within the population and institutions of the countries of operations; adoption of adequate environmental assessment, management planning, audit and monitoring procedures throughout its activities; and promoting the adoption and implementation of procedures for provision of information to, and consultation with, all levels of government and the general public - especially potentially affected parties - concerning environmental matters

  6. World bank's role in the electric power sector: Policies for effective institutional, regulatory, and financial reform. World Bank policy paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The policy paper is based on the World Bank Industry and Energy Department's ongoing policy and research work, which (1) examines experiences of industrial countries and the Bank's borrowers in developing their power sectors, (2) analyzes issues facing these sectors, and (3) describes options for dealing with these issues in developing countries. The paper is supported by a large body of research

  7. Unconventional Monetary Policy and Bank Risk Taking in Euro Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Pleșcău

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Central banking over the world has changed after the 2008 financial crisis. Monetary policyhas expanded the array of instruments it used in order to influence the macro economy. Majorcentral banks started using not only traditional, conventional instruments, but also some nonstandardmeasures in order to avoid economic collapse and sustain the banking system. The aim ofthis paper is to analyse the impact of European Central Bank unconventional instruments,measured using the change in its balance sheet, on the bank risk-taking of commercial banks fromEurozone, captured by Z-Score. Our findings point to an increase of bank risk-taking, due to theuse of unconventional monetary policy measures.

  8. Central Banks Exit Strategies in Theory and Practice. The Case of the Polish National Bank's Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Szelągowska

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper makes an attempt in discussing the pros and cons of central banks exiting from unconventional monetary policy strategies. Having in mind the latest international economic research concerning the optimal entrance and exit strategies of the zero interest rate policy, it is worth discussing the results of the contemporary central banks in preserving the financial system and supporting the real economy. The main aim of this paper is the assessment of the Polish central bank's low rate interest rates policy effectiveness and to find out its influence on the economy. The following research problem is discussed: should central banks use the exit strategy from zero interest rates and if yes, why and when. This task requires to put forward the following research hypothesis: too late implementation of the cycle of low interest rates by the National Bank of Poland does not help improvement of the Polish economy situation.

  9. Correlates of Success in World Bank Development Policy Lending

    OpenAIRE

    Moll, Peter; Geli, Patricia; Saavedra, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the correlates of success of development policy lending operations of the World Bank between 2004 and 2012. The paper uses a data set constructed of individual loan characteristics and ex-post loan ratings produced by the World Bank's Independent Evaluation Group. Departing from the related literature, the paper focuses mostly on examining the impact of loan characteris...

  10. The Transmission of Monetary Policy through Conventional and Islamic Banks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaheer, S.; Ongena, S.; van Wijnbergen, S.J.G.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the differences in banks’ responses to monetary policy shocks across bank size, liquidity, and type, i.e., conventional versus Islamic, in Pakistan between 2002:II to 2010:I. We find that following a monetary contraction, small banks with liquid balance sheets cut their lending less

  11. The transmission of monetary policy through conventional and Islamic banks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaheer, S.; Ongena, S.; van Wijnbergen, S.J.G.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the differences in banks’ responses to monetary policy shocks across bank size, liquidity, and type—i.e., conventional versus Islamic—in Pakistan between 2002:Q2 and 2010:Q1. We find that following a monetary contraction, small banks with liquid balance sheets cut their lending less

  12. THE POLITICS OF BANKING: GLOBALISATION AND DOMESTIC POLICY CHANGE

    OpenAIRE

    Sukarman, Widigdo

    2015-01-01

    The current article aims to elaborate on the history of bank policy modifications as a response towards economic and financial change, mainly due to globalisation. The centralstatus of banks in the economy causes a need for the government to protect it in many forms that differ from one country to another. Bank policy makers that are closed oresoteric and are short-lived must be opened up to be able to receive long term ideas. The process is also marked intensively with competing interests be...

  13. The role of ethical banks in health care policy and financing in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Solans, Josep; Duaigues, Mónica; Balot, Jordi; García-Gutierrez, Juan Carlos

    2009-01-01

    Ethical, social, or civic banks, constitute a secondary source of financing, which is particularly relevant in Southern and Central Europe. However there is no information on the scientific literature on this source of health care financing. We review the characteristics of saving banks in Spain and illustrate the contribution of one institution "Obra Social Caixa Catalunya" (OS-CC) to the health care financing in Spain. Savings bank health care funding was equivalent to 3 percent of the public health expenditure for 2008. The programs developed by OS-CC illustrate the complex role of savings banks in health financing, provision, training, and policy, particularly in the fields of integrated care and innovation. Financing is a basic tool for health policy. However, the role of social banking in the development of integrated care networks has been largely disregarded, in spite of its significant contribution to complementary health and social care in Southern and Central Europe. Decision makers both at the public health agencies and at the social welfare departments of savings banks should become aware of the policy implications and impact of savings bank activities in the long-term care system.

  14. Scoring Models of Bank Credit Policy Management

    OpenAIRE

    Aida Hanic; Emina Zunic; Adnan Dzelihodzic

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present how credit scoring models can be used in financial institutions, in this case in banks, in order to simplify credit lending. Unlike traditional models of credit analysis, scoring models provides valuation based on numerical score who represent clients’ possibility to fulfil their obligation. Using credit scoring models, bank can create a numerical snapshot of consumers risk profile. One of the most important characteristic of scoring models is objectivity w...

  15. World Bank policy research : a historical overview

    OpenAIRE

    Dethier, Jean-Jacques

    2009-01-01

    The World Bank is a leading intellectual institution on development. It is a world leader in analytical studies in areas including poverty measurement, delivery of social services, impact evaluation, measurement of development outcomes, international trade and migration. It is also a leader in development data, including the Living Standard Measurement Surveys; the enterprise surveys, and...

  16. Factors Affecting the Financing Policy of Commercial Banks in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W/Michael Shibru

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Determining the optimal capital structure is one of the most fundamental policy decisions faced by financial managers. Since optimal debt ratio influences firm’s value, different firms determine capital structures at different levels to maximize the value of their firms. Thus, this study examines the relationship between leverage and firm specific (profitability, tangibility, growth, risk, size and liquidity determinants of capital structure decision, and the theories of capital structure that can explain the capital structure of banks in Ethiopia. In order to investigate these issues a mixed method research approach is utilized, by combining documentary analysis and in-depth interviews. More specifically, the study uses twelve years (2000 - 2011 data for eight banks in Ethiopia.   The findings show that profitability, size, tangibility and liquidity of the banks are important determinants of capital structure of banks in Ethiopia. However, growth and risk of banks are found to have no statistically significant impact on the capital structure of banks in Ethiopia. In addition, the results of the analysis indicate that pecking order theory is pertinent theory in Ethiopian banking industry, whereas there are little evidence to support static trade-off theory and the agency cost theory. Therefore, banks should give consideration to profitability, size, liquidity and tangibility when they determine their optimum capital structure.

  17. MONETARY POLICY SHOCKS AND ISLAMIC BANKS DEPOSITS IN INDONESIAN DUAL BANKING SYSTEM AFTER THE FINANCIAL CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Affandi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Use of riba (usury in the economic system remained a key factor that led to financial crisis since theinception of modern economy in the late of 17th century. Implementation of interest based monetary policystipulated rampant speculation as common practices in the global financial sector. Although Islamic bankingwas governed by syariah (Divine Law, which was assumed to be resilient from distress, the volatility ofinterest movement would generally affect Islamic banks operations in a dual banking system. This paperwould look at this issue and would empirically explore the dynamic inter-relationships between deposits ofIslamic banks with monetary policy variables in Indonesia. In terms of market share, as of 2009, Islamicbanking asset in Indonesia was a meager 2%. The industry had been affected by few monetary policy shockson its deposits and financing. The study would employ vector auto regression model (VAR to explore thedynamics between the variables. The study would focus on data from 2004 to 2008 or performance after theAsian financial crisis. The results from these tests determined that shariah based deposits played significantrole in transmitting monetary policy effects to the economy. This study found that Islamic banking depositsin Indonesia were not sensitive to monetary policy changes. This study also concluded that IndonesianIslamic banks were resilient to financial crisis.

  18. Formation of strategy and policy of banking credit operations management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Lysenok

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the strategic management of credit operations as the activities on credit strategies of banking institutions, the formation of goals, objectives, and the choice of methods to achieve them. The basis of this is the strategic management analysis of the factors affecting the lending operations, strategic planning, communication mechanisms of strategic and tactical decisions, monitoring the implementation of the strategy and timely adjustments. For the purpose of effective implementation of the developed strategy, the article argues that banks in modern conditions should develop their own internal credit policy which should cover the essential elements and principles of credit at these banks. The study determines that the credit policy is based on the factors determined by the amount of capital assets and loan portfolio, the structure of its clientele, specialization, location, presence of branch network, the situation in the money market.

  19. Monetary policy, banking and heterogeneous agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolski, M.

    2012-01-01

    The influence of heterogeneous expectations on monetary policy performance has gained a lot of attention in the recent years. It proved to be an important factor that, under some circumstances, may even destabilize the economy (Massaro, 2012). This paper investigates the phenomenon of heterogeneous

  20. Factors affecting the Adoption of Online Banking in Ghana: Implications for Bank Managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perkins Ed-Zilla Daniel

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Internet usage in Ghana is on the increase and all indications points to the direction of the possibility of its application on online banking to be successful. However, online banking adoption that will lead to a cashless economy is facing doubts. This paper aimed at critically examining the factors that influence the adoption of online banking in Ghana. The study was based on TAM (Technology Acceptance Model, which has been used expansively in similar studies, a descriptive cross-sectional mixed-methodology approach was used. To generalize the findings the researchers used a multi case study approach to help find out the factors that influence online banking adoption. Data was analysed by using multiple Regression Analysis in SPSS to generate ANOVA results. The results showed that the original constructs of TAM i.e. Perceived Usefulness (PU, Perceived Ease of Use (PEOU as well as the extensions of government support, trust and security were all significant to customers’ intensions to adopt online banking. An implication for bank Managers is that they should concentrate on the promotion and advancement of the priceless paybacks that are gained from ‘Intended and Unintended Benefits’ such as lower transaction fees, high deposit rates among others which are realized from the usage online of banking linked to Perceived Usefulness

  1. The reaction of bank lending to monetary policy in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Takeda

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the relevance of the "bank lending channel'' of monetary policy transmission in Brazil. Disaggregated monthly data of the Brazilian banks balance sheets from December 1994 to December 2001 are analyzed. In addition to the short-term interest rate, we consider the effects of another monetary policy instrument frequently used in Brazil, represented by reserve requirements on overall banks deposits - demand, savings, and time deposits. Dynamic panel data techniques are employed. Our results suggest that the impact of reserve requirements is relevant and stronger for larger banks loans. This finding results from the progressive reserve rates required from banks, which affect to a greater extent banks with larger deposit volumes.Este artigo avalia o canal de empréstimos bancários na transmissão da política monetária. A análise foca os dados mensais desagregados do balanço patrimonial dos bancos comerciais brasileiros de dezembro de 1994 a dezembro de 2001. Em adição à taxa básica de juros de curto prazo, este estudo considera também os efeitos de um outro instrumento de política monetária usado freqüentemente no Brasil, representado pelos recolhimentos compulsórios sobre os depósitos à vista, de poupança e a prazo. A partir de técnicas de análise de dados em painel dinâmico, os resultados dos testes sugerem que o impacto dos compulsórios é relevante e é mais forte sobre os empréstimos dos grandes bancos, conclusão que decorre de recolhimentos compulsórios de caráter progressivo, que afetam mais fortemente os bancos com maiores volumes de depósitos.

  2. Alternative banking: theory and evidence from Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Von Mettenheim

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Since financial liberalization in the 1980s, non-profit maximizing, stakeholder-oriented banks have outperformed private banks in Europe. This article draws on empirical research, banking theory and theories of the firm to explain this apparent anomaly for neo-liberal policy and contemporary market-based banking theory. The realization of competitive advantages by alternative banks (savings banks, cooperative banks and development banks has significant implications for conceptions of bank change, regulation and political economy.

  3. Over-reaction to Policy Signals, and Central Bank Optimal Communication Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naini Ahmad-Reza Jalali

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the theoretical arguments and counter arguments regarding central bank optimal communication policy in an environment with imperfect common knowledge and strategic complementarity. More specifically, the paper discusses the environment in which full transparency is no longer necessarily the superior strategy. Uncertainty about the underlying economic state in the presence of dispersed information is the basis for the emergence of imperfect common knowledge. These issues are further discussed in an augmented Lucas-island model. Full policy transparency in this setting leads to overreliance to central bank public policy signals, resulting in the expectations coordination away from fundamentals - dubbed as over-reaction to central bank announcements. Optimal communication policy in this context entails strategies to limit over-reaction via partial transparency or partial publicity.

  4. The National Bank of Romania monetary policy characteristics in addition to the current financial crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Sambotin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering the starting point for research the Central Bank key role in economic life, through the implementation of the monetary policy, by exercising prudential control and supervision of commercial banks, the present paper proposes an analysis of the National Bank of Romania monetary policy coordinates in the frame of the increased intensification harsh effects of the global economic crisis.

  5. Risk Implications of Energy Policy Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kitzing, Lena

    papers and a working paper), based on a combination of micro-economic and policy analysis. Financial theory is used for the quantitative analysis of investment problems under uncertainty, including mean-variance portfolio theory, real option analysis, Monte Carlo simulations and time series analysis...... show, both qualitatively and quantitatively, that policy makers cannot neglect risk implications when designing RES support instruments without compromising either on effectiveness or cost-efficiency of energy policy. The central research questions are: how can risk implications of RES policy...... instruments be integrated into policy design, so that the policies provide adequate investment incentives? And can the consideration of such risk implications in policy design make overall energy policy more successful? These questions are answered in seven research papers (four journal papers, two conference...

  6. THE IMPACT OF MONETARY POLICY ON BANK CREDIT DURING ECONOMIC CRISIS: INDONESIA’S EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Mongid

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The monetary policy mechanism by which monetary policy was transmitted to thereal economy had emerged as the pivotal discussion topic recently. This paper tried to discussthe impact of Bank Indonesia’s monetary policy on loan bank. By using simple loan bankframework we concluded that monetary policies were able to influence loan bank. Themonetary variables such as discount rate policy, base money and exchange rate policy werevery important in determining the banking credit. As the credit was very important to influencesthe economic activitiy, the result provided evidence that monetary policy was important as atool to control economic activity via credit channel. The validity of this study challenged thehypotheses that monetary policy was death. However, monetary policy maker should carefullyconsider the soundness of the banking industry because it was a strategic partner for monetaryauthority to control the economic activities.

  7. Knowledge Banking in Global Education Policy: A Bibliometric Analysis of World Bank Publications on Public-Private Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menashy, Francine; Read, Robyn

    2016-01-01

    As a leading mobilizer of international development and educational knowledge, the World Bank has been critiqued in two key areas: (1) the dominance of economic thinking in its policies, and (2) its Northern-generated knowledge which informs its work in the Global South. In this paper, we investigate the disciplinary foundation of Bank knowledge,…

  8. Monetary policy change of the Central bank of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kraś Ireneusz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The National Bank of Poland is an institution which, in conjunction with the government is responsible for the implementation of country’s economic policy reinforces its democratic character. Provisions of its operation are governed by the Constitution of The Republic of Poland and by the Act on the National Bank of Poland. To this end, the objective of the present research is to analyse the proposed amendments in the Act on the NBP. The latter concerns the amendment procedures, term of office and the rotations and numbers of Monetary Policy Council. The remaining part of the analyses is dedicated to the issue of dismissal of a MPC’s member in conjunction with the prohibition of occupying other positions, the adoption of the NBP’s financial statements and the separation of instruments of monetary policy’s instruments for stability of domestic financial system. Introduced changes in the proposed draft reduce the independence of the NBP while making it more subject to the Cabinet. Following the result of further consultations on the draft of Act on the NBP, provisions which reduce the independence of the NBP shall be partially removed.

  9. 12 CFR 225.175 - What risk management, record keeping and reporting policies are required to make merchant banking...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What risk management, record keeping and reporting policies are required to make merchant banking investments? 225.175 Section 225.175 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BANK HOLDING...

  10. 12 CFR 1500.6 - What risk management, record keeping and reporting policies are required to make merchant banking...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What risk management, record keeping and reporting policies are required to make merchant banking investments? 1500.6 Section 1500.6 Banks and Banking DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GENERAL PROVISIONS MERCHANT BANKING INVESTMENTS § 1500.6 What risk...

  11. 12 CFR 225.143 - Policy statement on nonvoting equity investments by bank holding companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations Financial Holding Companies Interpretations § 225.143 Policy statement... nonvoting in the hands of the investing company, may result in such a substantial position of leverage over... investments by bank holding companies. 225.143 Section 225.143 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM...

  12. Banks' risk appetite, heterogeneity and monetary policy: evidence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study therefore recommends that the Federal Government of Nigeria, through the agency of the Central Bank, should continue to keenly monitor the entire banking system, but particularly the systemically important banks (SIBs) to avoid distress or crisis in the financial system. Again, the unsystemic banks that are seen ...

  13. World bank's role in the electric power sector: Policies for effective institutional, regulatory, and financial reform. World Bank policy paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    The policy paper is based on the World Bank Industry and Energy Department's ongoing policy and research work, which (1) examines experiences of industrial countries and the Bank's borrowers in developing their power sectors, (2) analyzes issues facing these sectors, and (3) describes options for dealing with these issues in developing countries. The paper is supported by a large body of research.

  14. Policy implications for familial searching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joyce; Mammo, Danny; Siegel, Marni B; Katsanis, Sara H

    2011-11-01

    In the United States, several states have made policy decisions regarding whether and how to use familial searching of the Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) database in criminal investigations. Familial searching pushes DNA typing beyond merely identifying individuals to detecting genetic relatedness, an application previously reserved for missing persons identifications and custody battles. The intentional search of CODIS for partial matches to an item of evidence offers law enforcement agencies a powerful tool for developing investigative leads, apprehending criminals, revitalizing cold cases and exonerating wrongfully convicted individuals. As familial searching involves a range of logistical, social, ethical and legal considerations, states are now grappling with policy options for implementing familial searching to balance crime fighting with its potential impact on society. When developing policies for familial searching, legislators should take into account the impact of familial searching on select populations and the need to minimize personal intrusion on relatives of individuals in the DNA database. This review describes the approaches used to narrow a suspect pool from a partial match search of CODIS and summarizes the economic, ethical, logistical and political challenges of implementing familial searching. We examine particular US state policies and the policy options adopted to address these issues. The aim of this review is to provide objective background information on the controversial approach of familial searching to inform policy decisions in this area. Herein we highlight key policy options and recommendations regarding effective utilization of familial searching that minimize harm to and afford maximum protection of US citizens.

  15. The Formation of New Monetary Policies: Decisions of Central Banks on the Great Recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Esther Castro

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect that the Great Recession had on monetary policies has led to the profound reorientation of central banks’ actions from 2007 to 2013. The purpose of this work is to analyze the monetary policies applied by the main central banks, mainly the European Central Bank, the Federal Reserve System of USA and the Bank of Japan, in order to raise thoughts on the guidelines that central banks should follow in the future. In the first section the bases of monetary policy before the crisis are described; in the second we explain the change in the orientation of the role of central banks during the crisis; and finally, we synthesize the bases on which the economic debate is taking place on the orientation of future monetary policies. We conclude that, in so far as the inoperativeness of transmission mechanisms still persists, monetary policies will remain in a process of change.

  16. Economic and policy implications of pandemic influenza.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Braeton J.; Starks, Shirley J.; Loose, Verne W.; Brown, Theresa Jean; Warren, Drake E.; Vargas, Vanessa N.

    2010-03-01

    Pandemic influenza has become a serious global health concern; in response, governments around the world have allocated increasing funds to containment of public health threats from this disease. Pandemic influenza is also recognized to have serious economic implications, causing illness and absence that reduces worker productivity and economic output and, through mortality, robs nations of their most valuable assets - human resources. This paper reports two studies that investigate both the short- and long-term economic implications of a pandemic flu outbreak. Policy makers can use the growing number of economic impact estimates to decide how much to spend to combat the pandemic influenza outbreaks. Experts recognize that pandemic influenza has serious global economic implications. The illness causes absenteeism, reduced worker productivity, and therefore reduced economic output. This, combined with the associated mortality rate, robs nations of valuable human resources. Policy makers can use economic impact estimates to decide how much to spend to combat the pandemic influenza outbreaks. In this paper economists examine two studies which investigate both the short- and long-term economic implications of a pandemic influenza outbreak. Resulting policy implications are also discussed. The research uses the Regional Economic Modeling, Inc. (REMI) Policy Insight + Model. This model provides a dynamic, regional, North America Industrial Classification System (NAICS) industry-structured framework for forecasting. It is supported by a population dynamics model that is well-adapted to investigating macro-economic implications of pandemic influenza, including possible demand side effects. The studies reported in this paper exercise all of these capabilities.

  17. Policy implications for familial searching

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Joyce; Mammo, Danny; Siegel, Marni B; Katsanis, Sara H

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In the United States, several states have made policy decisions regarding whether and how to use familial searching of the Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) database in criminal investigations. Familial searching pushes DNA typing beyond merely identifying individuals to detecting genetic relatedness, an application previously reserved for missing persons identifications and custody battles. The intentional search of CODIS for partial matches to an item of evidence offers law enforce...

  18. Insights on monetary policy and public banking in Brazil (2008-2012)

    OpenAIRE

    Soihet, Elena; Cabral, Cesar Murilo Nogueira

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: This paper aims to analyze the effect of monetary and banking policy during the subprime crises between 2008 and 2009 and afterwards (2010-2012). The main actions and the monetary policy of the Brazilian Central Bank are also discussed. We found that at the peak of the crisis, the main lever for restoration of the Brazilian economy was related to domestic economic policy measures, particularly the ones implemented by the main state-owned banks: Caixa Econômica Federal, Banco do Bras...

  19. Monetary policy and banking supervision: still at arm's length? A comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donato Masciandaro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available By the early 2000s an increasing number of countries had adopted a well-defined central bank framework, characterized by two intertwined features: stronger specialization for the banking authority in achieving monetary policy goals, and a lessening of its traditional responsibilities for the safeguard of financial stability within its institutional perimeter. The fundamental effect was that Central Bank Involvement in Supervision (CBIS generally decreased. But then, after the Financial Crisis erupted in 2008, reforms have been undertaken and projects are being discussed to reconsider the role of the central bank in the field of supervisory tasks. The main research question is then: how is CBIS moving? This article offers two contributions. Firstly, the economics of the relationship between central banking, monetary policy and banking supervision is reviewed. Secondly, the current situation of CBIS in 88 countries around the world is analyzed.

  20. Transnational Education: Current Developments and Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jianxin

    2009-01-01

    Ever since the transnational education trend took off since the 1980s, transnational education has come to bearing political, economic and cultural implications. Different approaches have been formulated to achieve specific policy objectives by both importing and exporting countries. Such approaches demonstrate a four dimensional composition,…

  1. Regulatory Cascading: Limitations of Policy Design in European Banking Structural Reforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spendzharova, Aneta

    2016-01-01

    This article examines banking structural reforms introduced in the European Union (EU), placed in an international context. The concept of ‘regulatory cascading’ is put forward to investigate how European policy-makers tackle complex multi-faceted problems, such as that of banks which are ‘too big

  2. Consumer Loans in Cambodia: Implications on Banking Stability

    OpenAIRE

    Meng, Channarith

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the fast development of consumer loans including housing loans in Cambodia to check whether or not such a development posts any stability risk to banking system in Cambodia. Using stress-testing method, the paper finds that current level of consumer loans provided by banks does yet creates a big threat to the banking stability in Cambodia. Rather, the surge reflects consequences of positive development in the banking system and economy as a whole, including the rise of mid...

  3. THE CRUCIAL ROLE OF CENTRAL BANK TRANSPARENCY IN ASSESSING THE MONETARY POLICY COMMITTEE MECHANISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumiter Florin Cornel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the past, central banks used to be very reserved regarding their activities, strategies and monetary policy decisions and actions. As central banks become more and more independent, transparency gained importance based upon accountability arguments. An important fact for adopting an increasing central bank transparency lies in its importance of influencing the development of expectations. The concept of central bank transparency has emerged in the economic literature relatively later than some other key concepts. The widespread agreement of an inflation targeting regime and a more transparent central bank is desired by the most central banks around the world in the context of the need of the public disclosure of macroeconomic models, the quarterly time series for indicators like: inflation, output, budgetary deficit, public debt, interest rate, inflation expectations, the public announcement of the monetary policy decisions, objectives and targets, the publication of some key monetary tools like: inflation report, financial stability report, monetary policy committee report, annual report. These are all key issues in the construction of a more transparent and independent central bank in the context of a good global governance. Moreover, for the fruitful success of the central bank, latum sensu, and monetary policy, stricto sensu, it must be encompassed a complex monetary policy committee mechanism. This complex mechanism must by edowed with the collegial approach of the monetary policy committee, structure of the voting mechanism within the committee, the importance of the person which announces the changes within the interest rates and the public disclosure of these information’s enriched in a communication strategy. This communication strategy is very important for assessing and public understanding of the central bank’s actions but also for communicating the objectives, targets and forward looking approaches of the monetary

  4. Pre-emptive policy for systemic banking crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.C.; Suarez, J.

    2000-01-01

    Systemic banking crises often result from widespread imprudent lending, driven by strong incentives for risk taking and connected lending. This paper identifies a counterbalancing incentive for in-dividual banks to act prudently in the face of widespread risk taking among its competitors. In

  5. Implications of e-commerce for banking and finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heng, Michael S.H.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to show that e-commerce holds the potential totransform banking and financial systems. There are three aspects in which e-commercecan affect banking and finance. First, banks and financial firms can use thetechnology and business practice of e-commerce to market their

  6. The Bank of Russia’s Policy under Crisis: Prejudices or Honest Mistakes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliy Anatolyevich Rudyakov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the Bank of Russia’s policy in recent years. Comparative analysis of the Bank’s policy with those of other countries with structurally similar economies, shows that the Bank of Russia is following a dysfunctional policy. The basic manifestation of this policy is not only the wrong definition of the Bank’s function, but also doubtful implementation mechanisms of this function. Pro-cyclical character of the Bank of Russia’s activity leads to a greater strengthening of a resource economic model. The study shows that without an adjustment of the Bank’s monetary policy Russian economy will just keep reproducing a steady tough environment that mostly aims at short-term restrictions but not at change stimulation. One of indispensable prerequisites of such adjustment is to create a macroeconomic policy which will be more adequate to the economy’s growth and development

  7. Talking about monetary policy: the virtues (and vice?) of central bank communication

    OpenAIRE

    Alan Blinder

    2009-01-01

    Central banks, which used to be so secretive, are communicating more and more these days about their monetary policy. This development has proceeded hand in glove with a burgeoning new scholarly literature on the subject. The empirical evidence, reviewed selectively here, suggests that communication can move financial markets, enhance the predictability of monetary policy decisions, and perhaps even help central banks achieve their goals. A number of theoretical drawbacks to greater communica...

  8. HETEROGENEOUS BANK LENDING RESPONSES TO MONETARY POLICY: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlata Kovtun

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The monetary policy affects the regional economy through interest rates and its main parameter the Bank of Russia key rate. But do all the banks in the regions respond uniformly to monetary policy changes? The effects of monetary policy actions can vary across the regions within an economic entity, depending on the regional industrial output, the financial structure, household incomes, lending activity, etc. The analysis of the article aims to determine the monetary policy instruments that influence the development or degradation of the regional banking sector in Russia. This helps to identify the heterogeneous commercial bank responses to changes in conducted monetary policy. In order to assess the effects of macroeconomic shocks and instruments of banking supervision on lending activity, the Ordinary Least Squares estimator and Generalized Least Squares technique were applied. The Taylor rule was used to calculate the desired level of interest rate for the each region and, then, to compare the results with the Central Bank interest rate. The empirical results, described in the context of the regional analysis, demonstrate that Central Bank’s interest rate does not affect the lending activity in most of the regions. Finally, the author summarizes conclusions one can draw from the results and provides recommendations for economic policy makers, based on the results of empirical analysis.

  9. The impact of monetary policy on bank lending rate in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.T. Matemilola

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The pass-through of the policy rates to bank lending rate is an important subject matter because it measures the effectiveness of monetary policy to control inflation or stabilize the economy. This study investigates the long-run interest rate pass-through of the money market rate to the bank lending rate and asymmetric adjustment of the bank lending rate. The study applies the momentum threshold autoregressive and asymmetric error correction models. The asymmetric error correction results reveal that bank lending rate adjusts to a decrease in the money market rate in South Africa. The findings suggest that the South African commercial banks adjust their lending rate downward but the lending rate appears rigid upward, which supports the customer reaction hypothesis.

  10. Income inequality: Implications and relevant economic policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arestis Philip

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this contribution is to discuss closely the implications of income inequality and the economic policies to tackle it, especially so in view of inequality being one of the main causes of the 2007/2008 international financial crisis and the “great recession” that subsequently emerged. Wealth inequality is also important in this respect, but the focus is on income inequality. Ever since the financial crisis and the subsequent “great recession”, inequality of income, and wealth, has increased and the demand for economic policy initiatives to produce a more equal distribution of income and wealth has become more urgent. Such reduction would help to increase the level of economic activity as has been demonstrated again more recently. A number of economic policy initiatives for this purpose will be the focus of this contribution.

  11. Basic Indicators of Systemic Risk in the EU Banking Sector. Implications for Banking Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sum Katarzyna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The issue of systemic risk regulation and management has gained substantial attention following the latest financial crisis. In the case of the EU it became crucial to deal with the systemic risk problem on a supranational level since the banking sectors of the member countries are highly integrated. While substantial measures have been undertaken to mitigate systemic risk in the EU, the discussion of further reforms continues. This study’s goal is to assess basic indicators of systemic risk in the EU banking sector by using three complementary methods: a forward-looking stock market data analysis, an EU-stress test analysis for systemically important banks, and an empirical investigation of the relation between banking regulation and systemic risk as measured by bank balance sheet indicators. The results lead to a recommendation of further necessary regulatory reforms, which appear in the conclusion.

  12. Monetary policy rules of the National Bank of Kazakhstan (in Russian)

    OpenAIRE

    Bulat Mukhamediyev

    2007-01-01

    The issue of monetary policy rules in Kazakhstan is studied. It is established that at each stage of economic development the National Bank used a certain rule. In particular, it is revealed that during the post-crisis period after reaching macroeconomic stability the short term interest rate, rather than the monetary base, was used as a monetary policy tool.

  13. Adjusting policy to institutional, cultural and biophysical context conditions: The case of conservation banking in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carsten Mann; James D. Absher

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the political construction of a policy instrument for matching particular institutional, biophysical and cultural context conditions in a social–ecological system, using the case of conservation banking in California as an example. The guiding research question is: How is policy design negotiated between various actors on its way from early...

  14. Central Bank forecasts and disclosure policy: Why it pays to be optimistic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.C.W. Eijffinger (Sylvester); M.F. Tesfaselassie (Mewael)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn a model with forward-looking behavior, we study disclosure policy when a central bank has private information on the future state of the economy. We find that the effects of advance disclosure depend on the presence of uncertainty about policy targets when the shock occurs. With

  15. Interest Rate Policy Of Selected Central Banks In Central And Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GRABIA TOMASZ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to present and evaluate interest rate policies of three selected central banks in Central and Eastern Europe (Poland, the Czech Republic, and Hungary from 2001 to 2013. The study consists of an introduction (Section 1 and three main parts. The introduction contains a theoretical description of the role of interest rate policy, the dilemmas connected with it, as well as an analysis of the strategies and goals of monetary policies of the National Bank of Poland (NBP, the Czech National Bank (CzNB, and the National Bank of Hungary (NBH in the context of existing legal and institutional conditions. In turn, the first empirical part (Section 2 examines how the analysed central banks responded to changes in inflation, unemployment, and economic growth rates. The tools of the analysis are the nominal and real interest rates of those banks. The subsequent research part (Section 3 attempts to evaluate the degree of the contractionary nature of interest rate policies in specific countries in the context of the Taylor rule. The text ends with a summary (Section 4 encompassing concise conclusions drawn from the earlier analyses.

  16. Policy impact of the Indonesian Central Bank certificate related on loan interest rate to the demand growth of property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirjodirdjo, B.; Asjari, H. Y.

    2018-04-01

    The Indonesian economic indicators shown a positive progress in the last three years, Foreign exchange reserves position of the end of March 2017 stood at US 121.8 billion higher than the position of the end of 2015 amounted to US 105.9 billion of the end of 2015. This reserve would ensure the resilience and maintaining sustainable Indonesian economic growth in the future. Although Indonesia’s foreign exchange is better, the structure of expenditure in the country is still less than ideal due the proportion of spending of consumer goods is far greater than the capital goods and tend to be unproductive spending. This needs to be regulated so that in the long term does not cause balance of payments deficit. Therefore, Indonesian Central Bank took a policy to raise interest rates for retail banks from 6% to 7.25% per annum gradually up to present. Policies relating to the interest rates on loans are intended to reduce the proportion of debt financing of consumer goods, however, these policies have implications to various economic sectors and one of those is property sector. A lot of research has been conducted related the impact of loan interest to the property sector but most of it is still in partial related to the ability the people to buy. However, this research has tried to see the implication of the macro Economic Policy of Indonesian Central Bank to the property sector as a systemic problem. This paper is going to present the study on the effects of these policies on the property sector, especially residence house. To obtain a comprehensive analysis and capture the relationship between interest rate policies and their impacts to the property sector, in this study the model developed and simulated using system dynamic methodology as an approach. Various scenarios are applied to the model to get an accurate information about how and when the effectiveness of the policy related to the property sector can be enforced. The result of this study can be delivered to

  17. The effects of credit policy on bank performance: Evidence from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To limit credit risk, all the 3 banks assess the customer's credit worthiness with the help of 5Cs namely: Character, Capacity, Capital, Collateral and. Conditions. This indicates that each type of loan application must go through loan description process, preferred maturity period, indication on maximum allowable amount, and ...

  18. The monetary policy of the European Central Bank in modern conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavitskaya Irina, L.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the monetary policy analysis of the European Central Bank (ECB under the present crisis conditions. The paper systematizes the ECB monetary policy in today's crisis and researches it at different stages of the crisis. A detailed analysis showed that the ECB's monetary policy is significantly different from the actions of other central banks during the current crisis (for example, the Federal Reserve. Thus, the ECB unconventional monetary policy combined with traditional measures, but does not replace them. Often ECB use credit easing instead of quantitative easing. The ECB's monetary policy used not only to combat the financial crisis, such as the Fed, but also to deal with the debt crisis. These features of the ECB’s monetary policy were due to both the institutional characteristics of the European Union, as well as special conditions of flow of the financial crisis in the euro zone.

  19. Factors Impacting Bank Net Interest Margin and the Role of Monetary Policy: Evidence from Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Hasan Yılmaz

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigate factors affecting net interest margin (NIM of commercial banks in Turkey. Especially, our results highlight the relation between unconventional monetary policy shocks and bank margins. To this end, first, we conduct an identification analysis about which parameters of asymmetric interest corridor framework are important in explaining variations in NIM. Using industry-level data, we show that there exists a pass through from BIST interbank overnight repo/reverse repo market rate and weighted average cost of funding (WACF to bank loan and deposit rates. As a result of reduced-form Vector Autoregression (VAR analysis we find the existence of a transmission mechanism from BIST rate and WACF to commercial loan rate, consumer loan rate and deposit rate. Same pass through to loan and deposit rates is also shown in individual bank level with the Panel Vector Autoregression (Panel VAR analysis in the case of 16 commercial banks in Turkey during the period 2011Q1-2016Q1. After the identification analysis, we examine the relationship between NIM and policy rates through System Generalized Method of Moments (GMM techniques by controlling bank specific, industry related and macroeconomic factors. We find that a change in the monetary policy rate has significant and positive impact on NIM. Among bank-specific factors, equity ratio and operating expenses are found to be significantly affecting NIM during the sample period. Our empirical findings also stress the significance of lag values of NIM. Estimations conducted with standardized variables indicate that economic significance of lag values and bank specific variables are larger than that of policy.

  20. IMPLICATIONS OF CREDIT RISK TRANSFER ON BANK PERFORMANCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria COCIUG

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the financial crisis has demonstrated the fragility of the banking sector and the need to implement new technologies that would allow not only insurance against the most important credit risk - credit risk, but development of lending segment. In such conditions, transfer of credit risk is an efficient and actual way to diversify the banks exposure for credit risk by the presence of those who are willing to take on some of this risk. Taking of credit risk can be achieved through credit derivatives, securitization and sale of loans, being selected the most advantageous technique for the bank. The current situation of the national banking sector requires solving the problem of bad loans, which, unfortunately, are increasing, by implementing new techniques for credit risk management according with EU directives.

  1. Negative Impacts of the Neo-liberal Policies on the Banking Sector in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossitsa Rangelova Pavlova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available From the beginning of the 1970s until the last global financial and economic crisis in 2008-2009, neo-liberal ideas guided economic policy development. It is worth noting that the Central and Eastern European countries transformed their economies from centrally planned to а market type at the peak of the liberal policies. Bulgaria offers a particularly interesting example because the country encountered a very difficult transition from one extreme of an economic system organization to another. The paper considers the reforms in the Bulgarian banking sector during the transition period from a centrally planned to a market type economy (from 1989 onward through the implementation of neo-liberal policies. The development of the banking sector and its transformation is analyzed throughout the two main periods: before and after the transition. The latter is divided into two sub-periods (phases beginning with the early 1990s, followed by the financial and bank crisis in the country, the introduction of a currency board regime in 1997, and stabilization, and ending with the global crisis in 2008-2009. This article summarizes that during the transition period, a modern banking system was established to accumulate profit rather than to promote economic growth. Following a chronological order, the negative effects of the liberalization of the Bulgarian banking sector are specified: the exportation of ownership (and control upon banking system assets, unfair asset redistribution, the emergence of the local oligarchy, the weak protection of the taxpayers and others.

  2. ASSESSMENT OF SOCIO-ORIENTED POLICY IN BANKING INSTITUTIONS OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lunkina Tatyana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In today’s globalized conditions, the question of socially responsible business and the formation of an appropriate concept and policies for managing it are more relevant. Scientists are investigating this issue in two aspects, namely, from a theoretical and practical point of view. The first aspect is the study of the essence of CSR, the conduct of entrepreneurial activity, the functioning mechanism of the market principles in this concept, the definition of the place of social orientation in modern conditions. The second aspect is the study of practical positions, the separation of this concept from the standpoint of warning and risk management, assessment of the level of social responsibility and summing up the rating, summarizing all the results, as well as the establishment of a standard that will regulate such relationships. But, in our opinion, the implementation of such socially-oriented moments is not possible without identifying a certain number of indicators, reflecting the real situation and the impact of social factors on the banking institutions. This explains the relevance of studying the assessment of socially-oriented policies of banking institutions. Purpose. The purpose of this article is to determine the approaches to the assessment of socially-oriented policies of banking institutions, as well as to determine the place of rating assessment in the current conditions of the functioning of institutions and organizations. Results. The article describes approaches of socially-oriented banking policy in Ukraine. A quantitative approach is drawn, which directly includes the assessment of the level of social investment through the conduct of socially responsible activities by banking institutions. The qualitative approach according to which social reports and social ratings are compiled is investigated. The social indicators that influence the formation of a socially oriented political management system by business

  3. Umbilical cord cell banking--implications for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunning, Jennifer

    2005-09-01

    The first successful cord cell transplant to a sibling with Fanconi's anaemia took place 15 years ago. This proven utility of cord blood led to the establishment of cord blood banks both private and public and there are now nearly 100 cord blood banks worldwide. It is estimated that over 200,000 cord blood units (CBU) are held by the private sector and over 160,000 CBU are registered with the largest public cord blood registry. There is a tension between private cord blood banks, which store CBU for autologous or family use, and public banks, which store CBU for unrelated use and the ethics of private cord blood storage has been questioned. But more general ethical questions also arise regarding ownership, consent, confidentiality, costs and quality standards and patenting. In looking at these ethical issues one also needs to look at potential future use of cord blood stem cells. Up until now cord cells have principally been used in the treatment of paediatric blood and immune disorders. Improvements in cell expansion technology will make CBU more appropriate also for treating adults with such disorders. However, it has also been demonstrated that cord blood stem cells have the capacity to differentiate into other types of cells, neuronal, bone, epithelial and muscle which would have a future role to play in cell therapy and regenerative medicine.

  4. Umbilical cord cell banking-implications for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunning, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    The first successful cord cell transplant to a sibling with Fanconi's anaemia took place 15 years ago. This proven utility of cord blood led to the establishment of cord blood banks both private and public and there are now nearly 100 cord blood banks worldwide. It is estimated that over 200,000 cord blood units (CBU) are held by the private sector and over 160,000 CBU are registered with the largest public cord blood registry. There is a tension between private cord blood banks, which store CBU for autologous or family use, and public banks, which store CBU for unrelated use and the ethics of private cord blood storage has been questioned. But more general ethical questions also arise regarding ownership, consent, confidentiality, costs and quality standards and patenting. In looking at these ethical issues one also needs to look at potential future use of cord blood stem cells. Up until now cord cells have principally been used in the treatment of paediatric blood and immune disorders. Improvements in cell expansion technology will make CBU more appropriate also for treating adults with such disorders. However, it has also been demonstrated that cord blood stem cells have the capacity to differentiate into other types of cells, neuronal, bone, epithelial and muscle which would have a future role to play in cell therapy and regenerative medicine

  5. Oceanic implications for climate change policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeil, Ben I.

    2006-01-01

    Under the United Nations convention on the law of the sea (1982), each participating country maintains exclusive economic and environmental rights within the oceanic region extending 200 nm from its territorial sea, known as the exclusive economic zone (EEZ). Although the ocean within each EEZ is undoubtedly an anthropogenic CO 2 sink, it has been over-looked within international climate policy. In this paper I use an area-weighted scaling argument to show that the inclusion of the EEZ CO 2 sink within national carbon accounts would have significant implications in tracking national greenhouse commitments to any future climate change policy initiative. The advantages and disadvantages for inclusion of the EEZ CO 2 sink into global climate change policy are also explored. The most compelling argument for including the EEZ CO 2 sink is that it would enhance the equity and resources among coastal nations to combat and adapt against future climate change that will inherently impact coastal nations more so than land locked nations. If included, the funds raised could be used for either monitoring or adaptive coastal infrastructure among the most vulnerable nations. On the other hand, the EEZ anthropogenic CO 2 sink cannot be directly controlled by human activities and could be used as a disincentive for some developed nations to reduce fossil-fuel related greenhouse gas emissions. This may therefore dampen efforts to ultimately reduce atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. In consideration of these arguments it is therefore suggested that an 'EEZ clause' be added to Kyoto and any future international climate policy that explicitly excludes its use within national carbon accounts under these international climate frameworks

  6. Monetary policy implications of financial innovation: In-depth analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bernoth, Kerstin; Gebauer, Stefan; Schäfer, Dorothea

    2017-01-01

    In this policy brief, we argue that the financial innovations triggered by the FinTech industry have the potential to affect the transmission of monetary policy as well as the informational content of important monetary indicators. The growing FinTech industry could contribute substantially to the emergence of nonbank finance as a substitute for traditional commercial bank finance. While the overall effect of nonbank finance on monetary policy transmission is not yet clear, we argue that regu...

  7. The Effect of Sharia Monetary Policy and Financing Quality on Financial Performance in Sharia Banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhfiatun Muhfiatun

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to explain the effect of sharia monetary policy instruments and financing quality on the financial performance of sharia banks. The research sample includes Bank Muamalat Indonesia, Bank Syariah Mandiri, Bank Mega Syariah Indonesia, Bank Rakyat Indonesia Syariah, Bank Syariah Bukopin, BCA Syariah, BNI Syariah, and Bank Jabar Banten Syariah. The financial ratios used in this research are Return on Assets (ROA and Quick Ratio (QR. The financing qualities used here are murabahah, mudharabah, and musharakah. The sharia monetary policy instruments used are GWM and SBIS. The research uses Partial Least Squares as the data analysis instrument. The research result shows that the financing qualities of mudharabah and musharakah, and SBIS, do not affect ROA, while the variables of murabahah financing and GWM do affect ROA. The variable with significant effect on QR is ROA, as murabahah financing quality; GWM and SBIS; and the other two variables of musharakah and mudharabah do not affect QR. The contribution of the financing quality variables of murabahah, mudharabah, musharakah, GWM and SBIS in explaining the effect on the ROA variable is 0.071 or 7.1%, and the other 92.9% are affected by other variables not in the current research model. The contribution of murabahah, mudarabah and musyarakah, GWM and SBIS in explaining the effect on QR is 0.7578 or 75.78% and the remaining 24.22% is the effect of other variables not in this research model.     Keywords: financing quality, sharia monetary policy instrument, financing performance, ROA

  8. Central Bank Communication and Monetary Policy : A Survey of Theory and Evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blinder, Alan S.; Ehrmann, Michael; Fratzscher, Marcel; De Haan, Jakob; Jansen, David-Jan

    2008-01-01

    Over the last two decades, communication has become an increasingly important aspect of monetary policy. These real-world developments have spawned a huge new scholarly literature on central bank communication-mostly empirical, and almost all of it written in this decade. We survey this ever-growing

  9. Healthcare quality improvement -- policy implications and practicalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esain, Ann Elizabeth; Williams, Sharon J; Gakhal, Sandeep; Caley, Lynne; Cooke, Matthew W

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to explore quality improvement (QI) at individual, group and organisational level. It also aims to identify restraining forces using formative evaluation and discuss implications for current UK policy, particularly quality, innovation, productivity and prevention. Learning events combined with work-based projects, focusing on individual and group responses are evaluated. A total of 11 multi-disciplinary groups drawn from NHS England healthcare Trusts (self-governing operational groups) were sampled. These Trusts have different geographic locations and participants were drawn from primary, secondary and commissioning arms. Mixed methods: questionnaires, observations and reflective accounts were used. The paper finds that solution versus problem identification causes confusion and influences success. Time for problem solving to achieve QI was absent. Feedback and learning structures are often not in place or inflexible. Limited focus on patient-centred services may be related to past assumptions regarding organisational design, hence assumptions and models need to be understood and challenged. The authors revise the Plan, Do, Study; Act (PDSA) model by adding an explicit problem identification step and hence avoiding solution-focused habits; demonstrating the need for more formative evaluations to inform managers and policy makers about healthcare QI processes. - Although UK-centric, the quality agenda is a USA and European theme, findings may help those embarking on this journey or those struggling with QI.

  10. Definitions of fuel poverty: Implications for policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This paper outlines why the definition of fuel poverty is important in policy formulation and describes how the Government's current definitions evolved from the original concept. It discusses the determination of income and fuel costs and the possibilities for a relative and common European measure. It examines problems inherent in assessing fuel costs as a percentage of income and puts forward the arguments for a ‘budget standard’ approach. The paper illustrates how the size of the problem depends on the definition and chosen threshold and suggests advantages for a rating scale. It illustrates how the income composition and thresholds also govern the distribution of the target populations and the relative importance of the main causal factors, and examines the consequent policy implications. It explores the definition of vulnerable households and the importance of severity and questions whether the UK fuel poverty strategy is targeted at households least able to afford their fuel costs (as the name implies) or primarily those at risk from excess winter and summer mortality and morbidity. Finally, after examining the role of supplementary indicators, it looks at the opportunities for changing the definition and comments on the Government review of the definition and targets. - Highlights: ► There are major failings in the existing official definitions of fuel poverty. ► expressing fuel costs as a percentage of income is a poor indicator of fuel poverty. ► A budget standard approach provides a more consistent, meaningful and fairer measure. ► The scale and nature of the problem changes dramatically with different definitions. ► The definition is crucial to the mix of policies and allocation of resources required.

  11. Policy implications of technologies for cognitive enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarewitz, Daniel R. (Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ); Karas, Thomas H.

    2007-02-01

    The Advanced Concepts Group at Sandia National Laboratory and the Consortium for Science, Policy and Outcomes at Arizona State University convened a workshop in May 2006 to explore the potential policy implications of technologies that might enhance human cognitive abilities. The group's deliberations sought to identify core values and concerns raised by the prospect of cognitive enhancement. The workshop focused on the policy implications of various prospective cognitive enhancements and on the technologies/nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology, and cognitive science--that enable them. The prospect of rapidly emerging technological capabilities to enhance human cognition makes urgent a daunting array of questions, tensions, ambitions, and concerns. The workshop elicited dilemmas and concerns in ten overlapping areas: science and democracy; equity and justice; freedom and control; intergenerational issues; ethics and competition; individual and community rights; speed and deliberations; ethical uncertainty; humanness; and sociocultural risk. We identified four different perspectives to encompass the diverse issues related to emergence of cognitive enhancement technologies: (1) Laissez-faire--emphasizes freedom of individuals to seek and employ enhancement technologies based on their own judgment; (2) Managed technological optimism--believes that while these technologies promise great benefits, such benefits cannot emerge without an active government role; (3) Managed technological skepticism--views that the quality of life arises more out of society's institutions than its technologies; and (4) Human Essentialism--starts with the notion of a human essence (whether God-given or evolutionary in origin) that should not be modified. While the perspectives differ significantly about both human nature and the role of government, each encompasses a belief in the value of transparency and reliable information that can allow public discussion and

  12. South African banks and their online privacy policy statements: A content analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah K. Kabanda

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In Internet banking and Internet-related transactions, security and privacy are of great concern. To alleviate these concerns, the South African government has promulgated the Electronic Communications and Transactions (ECT Act No. 25 of 2002. The Act regulates all electronic communication transactions in South Africa. Business organisations implement the Act by, for example, posting a privacy policy statement on their websites, which, in accordance with the requirements of the ECT Act, states how the organisation will use any personal identifiable information provided by the client. This study investigates whether South African banks that subscribe to the ECT Act comply with the principles relating to the protection of a consumer’s personal information. The study employed the research methods of content analysis and interviews. The findings indicate that some banks only complied with a few of the ECT Act principles, which, according to the interview respondents, undermines the levels of trust which are in play between their banks and themselves. The respondents themselves were not fully aware of all the ECT Act requirements. This lack of awareness results in consumers failing to assess the comprehensiveness of their bank’s policy statements and to what extent such banks comply with the ECT Act.

  13. Low tumour cell content in a lung tumour bank: implications for molecular characterisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Felicia; Duhig, Edwina E; Clarke, Belinda E; McCaul, Elizabeth; Passmore, Linda; Courtney, Deborah; Windsor, Morgan; Naidoo, Rishendren; Franz, Louise; Parsonson, Kylie; Yang, Ian A; Bowman, Rayleen V; Fong, Kwun M

    2017-10-01

    Lung cancer encompasses multiple malignant epithelial tumour types, each with specific targetable, potentially actionable mutations, such that precision management mandates accurate tumour typing. Molecular characterisation studies require high tumour cell content and low necrosis content, yet lung cancers are frequently a heterogeneous mixture of tumour and stromal cells. We hypothesised that there may be systematic differences in tumour cell content according to histological subtype, and that this may have implications for tumour banks as a resource for comprehensive molecular characterisation studies in lung cancer. To investigate this, we estimated tumour cell and necrosis content of 4267 samples resected from 752 primary lung tumour specimens contributed to a lung tissue bank. We found that banked lung cancer samples had low tumour cell content (33%) generally, although it was higher in carcinoids (77.5%) than other lung cancer subtypes. Tumour cells comprise a variable and often small component of banked resected tumour samples, and are accompanied by stromal reaction, inflammation, fibrosis, and normal structures. This has implications for the adequacy of unselected tumour bank samples for diagnostic and molecular investigations, and further research is needed to determine whether tumour cell content has a significant impact on analytical results in studies using tissue from tumour bank resources. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Testing the Nonlinearity of the Phillips Curve. Implications for Monetary Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgiana BALABAN

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the nonlinearity of the Phillips Curve and its implications for monetary policy. To investigate the trade-off between output gap and inflation volatility we used a backward-looking model type. The data for our empirical analysis is obtained from the Area Wide Model (AWM Database (from 1970 to 2008 for Euro area and National Institute of Statistics (from 2000 to 2009 for Romania and has quarterly frequency. The results of econometric tests indicate a significant estimated coefficient of the output gap for Romania, compared with the Eurozone; we find no significant evidence of nonlinearity of the Phillips curve in the European Monetary Union. This suggests that the optimal choice for European Central Bank should be a fixed inflation targeting, while the National Bank of Romania's monetary policy strategy should aim a flexible inflation targeting.

  15. The importance and role of the Central Bank in the creation of a healthy monetary and investment policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šmigić-Miladinović Jasmina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper's starting point is finding an answer to the question: What kind of monetary policy should be followed by the Central bank in new market circumstances? As a major monetary institution, the Central bank should provide credibility for its monetary policy, which is particularly important during a macroeconomic stabilisation. In order to choose the most appropriate monetary policy, its creators should be familiar with the monetary policy's effects on economic activities, first of all on investment activities and the period in which they may occur. The Central bank uses its special status and authorisations to control monetary trends, to keep and handle foreign exchange reserves, to keep banks' required reserves, to manage the country's debt, to be the final creditor of the banking system, to take care of the banking system's liquidity. That is why the Central bank has become important for the functioning of the whole financial market, and especially the monetary market. The Central bank has both direct and indirect influence on the most important events on financial markets, financial system, as well as a wider influence - on a country's whole economy. In order to envisage the financial market's impact on monetary and investment policies, one should begin with the Central bank's role on the financial market, and at the same time analyse the financial market's instruments and institutions.

  16. banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2017-01-01

    The thaw period was a kind of bank from which our country set sail towards unexplored horizons. The series on the Moscow Palace of Young Pioneers is continued by the article by Felix Novikov (144-151, who writes about the history of the design of this wonderful building, today’s monument of architecture of Soviet modernism.

  17. Variation in macronutrients in human bank milk: influencing factors and implications for human milk banking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michaelsen, K F; Skafte, L; Badsberg, J H

    1990-01-01

    Protein (P), fat (F), and carbohydrate (C) concentration in expressed human bank milk was determined by infrared analysis of 2,554 samples from 224 mothers. The mean contents of P, F, C, and energy (E, calculated from P, F, and C) were 9.0 g/L, 39.0 g/L, 71.9 g/L, and 696 kcal/L, respectively...... with a high P content, we have developed a "high-protein" milk with a P content of about 12 g/L (true protein) and an E content of about 725 kcal/L. Thus, by continuous monitoring of macronutrient content in human bank milk it is possible to develop a "high-protein" milk with sufficient P and E content...... decreased exponentially during the 1st 8 months, followed by an increase during the following months. The F content decreased during the 1st 4 months, followed by an almost linear increase. The possible influence of different maternal characteristics on the macronutrient content of the milk was examined...

  18. Comparison of Monetary Policy Actions and Central Bank Communication on Tackling Asset Price Bubbles-Evidence from China's Stock Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ou; Liu, Zhixin

    2016-01-01

    We examine the different effects of monetary policy actions and central bank communication on China's stock market bubbles with a Time-varying Parameter SVAR model. We find that with negative responses of fundamental component and positive responses of bubble component of asset prices, contractionary monetary policy induces the observed stock prices to rise during periods of large bubbles. By contrast, central bank communication acts on the market through expectation guidance and has more significant effects on stock prices in the long run, which implies that central bank communication be used as an effective long-term instrument for the central bank's policymaking.

  19. The effect of monetary policy of Central Bank on activities of Tehran Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Vazifehdust

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the relationship between monetary policy and activity of the Tehran Stock Exchange. The statistical population of the research consists of all companies listed in Tehran Stock Exchange and central bank monetary policy variables including time series generated by the central bank seasonally. For the purpose of data analysis, econometric autoregressive system models, and two-stage ADF regression with unit roots test, co-integration and reliability were used to determine level of effect and type of effect of the four components of monetary policy on exchange activity. The results of this study show that there is a strong relation between share price index and monetary policy variables and between monetary policy variables and trading volume. However, the relation between monetary policy variables and cash yield index was not so strong, but monetary policy variables’ effect on stock exchange activity was acceptable considering strong relation between the two first variables. It is suggested that if this work is done using non-linear models, it will yield better results.

  20. AN ECONOMIC PERSPECTIVE AND POLICY IMPLICATION FOR SOCIAL ENTERPRISE

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon-Doo Kim; Seok Yoon; Heon-Goo Kim

    2014-01-01

    This study looked at the current status of Korean social enterprises and their problems and suggested governmental policy implications for enhancing the competitiveness of social enterprises. As the study methods, the current status of social enterprises was analyzed and performance of social enterprise support was examined and then policy implications for promoting the social enterprises were analyzed. First, the direction of governmental policy regarding the promotion of social enterprise s...

  1. Implications of structural policies on the wheat market – comparative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Structural policy instruments can directly influence agricultural production, productivity, and other market variables. Using a Cobb-Douglas market model, we quantitatively assess national and global implications of structural policies on the wheat market, determined by technical progress and other structural policy measures ...

  2. Real Implications of Bursting Asset Price Bubbles in Economies with Bank Credit

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Derviz, Alexis

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 1 (2011), s. 92-116 ISSN 0015-1920 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : bank * credit * asset price * bubble * macroprudential policy Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.346, year: 2011

  3. Economic policy uncertainty, credit risks and banks’ lending decisions: Evidence from Chinese commercial banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinwei Chi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Using data for Chinese commercial banks from 2000 to 2014, this paper examines the effects of economic policy uncertainty (EPU on banks’ credit risks and lending decisions. The results reveal significantly positive connections among EPU and non-performing loan ratios, loan concentrations and the normal loan migration rate. This indicates that EPU increases banks’ credit risks and negatively influences loan size, especially for joint-equity banks. Given the increasing credit risks generated by EPU, banks can improve operational performance by reducing loan sizes. Further research indicates that the effects of EPU on banks’ credit risks and lending decisions are moderated by the marketization level, with financial depth moderating the effect on banks’ credit risks and strengthening it on lending decisions.

  4. Determinants of corporate dividend payment policies: A case of the banking industry in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Kasozi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Dividends are of strategic importance to organisations because they form the nexus of organisations’ capital structures and have an important bearing on firm value. Consequently, this study sought to investigate factors affecting dividend policy formulations and practices of South African banks by assessing the application of ex ante dividend theory literature on these firms. Our approach followed a mixed-methods design of analysis with a behavioural stand point of eliciting responses from banking experts through a survey. Findings indicate that factors relating to financial performance, investor needs and preferences and regulatory considerations are crucial for dividend decisions among banks. Overall, findings cast doubt on signalling, clientele and catering hypotheses, yet find favourable support for agency and lifecycle theories

  5. Bank Size, Risk-taking and Capital Regulation in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad M. RAHMAN

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the impact of bank size on bank regulatory capital ratios and risk-taking behavior using a panel dataset of 30 Bangladeshi commercial banks over the period 2008-2012. The relationship between bank regulatory capital ratios and bank risk-taking is also examined. For empirical analysis, generalized methods of moments (GMM panel method are used to explore the relationships among bank size, regulatory capital ratios and risk-taking behavior. Empirical results show that large banks hold lower amount of capital and take higher level of risk. Findings also show a reverse relationship between bank capital levels and bank risk-taking; that is, banks holding higher levels of regulatory capital are significantly less risky. Findings of this study has important implications for the Bangladeshi government, policy makers, banking regulators and bank stakeholders regarding bank size, regulatory capital requirements and overall banking sector risk-taking behavior.

  6. A diaper bank and home visiting partnership: Initial exploration of research and policy questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Lois S; Condon, Eileen M; Deng, Shirley Z; Ordway, Monica Roosa; Marchesseault, Crista; Miller, Andrea; Alfano, Janet Stolfi; Weir, Alison M

    2018-03-01

    The cost of diapering an infant can place a significant financial strain on families living in poverty. Partnerships between diaper banks and home visiting programs for young families may offer an innovative solution to expanding the reach and impact of diaper banks in low-income communities. The purpose of this pilot study was to uncover preliminary information about the functions of diaper distribution through home visiting programs, and to inform future research and policy questions regarding diaper distribution to families in need. In this descriptive qualitative pilot study, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 6 home visitors from Minding the Baby ® (MTB), a home visiting intervention for young parents. MTB clinicians routinely distribute diapers in partnership with The Diaper Bank in Connecticut. We used directed content analysis to code and analyze interview transcripts. These preliminary findings indicate that partnerships between home visiting programs and diaper banks may benefit families by improving diaper access, reducing stigma, and fostering trusting relationships with home visitors. Home visiting program benefits including engagement or re-engagement with families may need to be balanced with potential effects on clinical and therapeutic relationships. Recommendations for next steps in research and related policy questions are discussed. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Article Review on World Bank Report, Optimal Design for a Minimum Wage Policy in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Nurrachmi, Rininta; Mad-Ahin, Ashanee; Waeowanjit, Phimpaporn; Kareemarif Arif, Naz Abdul

    2012-01-01

    There are many pros and cons with the implementation of minimum wage in Malaysia, since it is the first time. This article review is to analyze the World Bank report on Malaysian minimum wage policy that will be implemented in 2013. There are strength and weakness on the report. Moreover the review will also be analyzed from Islamic perspective since majority population in Malaysia is Muslim.

  8. World Bank agricultural policies, poverty and income inequality in Sub-Saharan Africa 1

    OpenAIRE

    Howard Stein

    2010-01-01

    The original logic underlying the World Bank's structural adjustment policies in Africa was that the removal of state-created distortions would not only improve efficiency in the operation of markets but also enhance income equality and reduce poverty. The paper explores the linkage between adjustment and the deteriorating income distribution and rising poverty in sub-Saharan Africa with a focus on the rural sector where most of the population earns its livelihoods. The pattern observed is a ...

  9. Estimating the Effective Lower Bound for the Czech National Bank's Policy Rate

    OpenAIRE

    Kolcunova, Dominika; Havranek, Tomas

    2018-01-01

    The paper focuses on the estimation of the effective lower bound for the Czech National Bank's policy rate. The effective lower bound is determined by the value below which holding and using cash would be more convenient than deposits with negative yields. This bound is approximated based on storage, the insurance and transportation costs of cash and the costs associated with the loss of the convenience of cashless payments and complemented with the estimate based on interest charges, which p...

  10. Evaluation of dividend policy of some selected public and private sector banks in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhaskar Biswas

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Dividend is the part of profits of a company, which is distributable among its shareholders according to the decision taken and resolution passed in the meeting of Board of Directors. Dividend policy plays an important role for maintaining good image of company in the capital market and in providing source of low cost finance for financing for the profitable future investment proposals. In the present study, an attempt has been made to evaluate the dividend policy adopted by some selected public and private sector banks in India during the period of study March 2006 to March 2015.

  11. Hazardous Times for Monetary Policy : What do Twenty-three Million Bank Loans Say about the Effects of Monetary Policy on Credit Risk?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiminez, G.; Ongena, S.; Saurina, J.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the impact of the stance and path of monetary policy on the level of credit risk of individual bank loans and on lending standards. We employ the Credit Register of the Bank of Spain that contains detailed monthly information on virtually all loans granted by all credit institutions

  12. The Epidemiological Transition: Policy and Planning Implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The key words employed were: Epidemiological Transition with particular emphasis on policy and planning implications in developing countries. Several studies have outlined definitions, stages and historical perspectives of epidemiological transition, as well as the scenarios in developed and developing countries.

  13. Dependence on carbonated water: Clinical and policy implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Kumar Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of caffeine dependence syndrome with preference for a specific brand of carbonated water (popularly known as soft drinks or colas is discussed to highlight the clinical and policy implications.

  14. The central bank issuing policy and Fisher´s equation of exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Pospíšil

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The issue of money and establishing interest rates are the main activities of central banks. Through this, the banks immediately influence the behaviour of households, companies, financial markets and the state with the impact on real outcome, employment and prices. When monitoring the issue of money, it is necessary to focus not only on its volume, but also on the attributes and functions carried by money. Among the first economists who considered the quality monetary aspect were J. Locke, D. Hume, D. Ricardo and others. The founders of modern monetarism of the 20th century were I. Fisher and M. Friedman. Fisher was the first to define the equation of monetary equilibrium in the present-day form. The objective of the paper is to point out different approaches to the equation and its modifications and different meanings of its variables. As regards the monetary aggregate M – Money – the paper also deals with the denomination of the aggregate to its various elements, which is significant for fulfilling monetary policy targets. This approach is very important especially at present in the time of crisis when central banks are performing their policy considering contradictory targets of price stability and economic growth.

  15. Anti-crisis monetary policy on the example of selected central banks in 2007-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Kluczyński

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article was to present the actions of the monetary authorities in the light of the recent financial crisis. Destabilization of global markets and the economic recession that began with the collapse of Lehman Brothers meant that the standard monetary policy emerged ineffective in combating the crisis. The article shows how two major central banks of the world that is, the FED and the ECB, through modifying the existing instruments of monetary policy and the introduction of completely new tools tried to restore liquidity in the financial markets, after the standard monetary policy instruments have been insufficient and ineffective. In contrast, activities of the NBP also shown, which were primarily preventive aspect.

  16. The broad credit and bank capital channels of monetary policy transmission in the core and peripheral Euro Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvo Dajcman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the paper is to identify and estimate transmission of monetary policy impulses through the broad credit and bank capital monetary policy transmission channels in the “core” and “peripheral” countries of the euro area. We employ the Euro Area Banking Lending Survey to identify the channels. Following identification, we employ the data in a panel vector autoregression model (PVAR to investigate the pass-through of the standard and nonstandard monetary policy impulses to the gross domestic product (GDP, inflation, and volume of loans. The results imply that channels are interrelated and the broad credit channel is relatively stronger than the bank capital channel, while the relative importance of the bank capital channel is higher in peripheral than core euro area countries.

  17. The cross-country implications of alternative climate policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Aijun; Du, Nan; Wei, Qian

    2014-01-01

    Because of worldwide growing concerns about global climate change, great interest has been expressed in the potential of alternative climate policies to reduce global carbon emissions. In this paper, we compare cross-country implications of alternative climate policies, including unilateral and multilateral climate policies. Our main findings are as follows. Firstly, there are large differences in cross-country effects of alternative unilateral climate policies, when the same given carbon emission reductions are achieved in each abating country respectively. Meanwhile, cross-border externalities undermine efficiency of unilateral climate policies. Secondly, there are significant differences in cross-country implications of alternative multilateral climate policies, when the same global emission reductions are allocated in several different ways among abating countries. Thirdly, it is difficult to reach a stable global climate treaty, since any abating country has the incentive to argue for small carbon emission reductions. Finally, multilateral climate policies can reduce the negative impacts of cross-border externalities, but cannot cure all cross-border externalities. Looking ahead, it will be a great policy challenge for the world to reduce carbon emissions in a cost-effective way. - highlights: • We compare impacts of unilateral climate policies across countries. • We compare effects of alternative multilateral climate policies. • We explore whether cross-border externalities disappear under multilateral climate policies

  18. Bank regulation and banking stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A.; Thakor, A.V.

    2014-01-01

    This note discusses some issues in bank closure policy from a financial stability standpoint and how these issues have evolved since we first raised the question of how a reputation-driven divergence of interests between bank regulators and taxpayers may distort bank closure policy in our 1993 paper

  19. Policy implications of transportation network companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This policy brief presents a brief introduction to transportation network companies (TNCs) and their services, a review of state-level legislation across the United States, and the municipal regulations that have been implemented in Texas in response...

  20. Public banking of umbilical cord blood or storage in a private bank: testing social and ethical policy in northeastern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parco, Sergio; Vascotto, Fulvia; Visconti, Patrizia

    2013-01-01

    VDRL (75.0%) tests (P banks for storage of CB-SC. The cryopreservation, for future autologous personal or family use, is possible only by sending to foreign private banks, with a further fee of €300. These regulations confirm that Italian legislation tries to increase the anonymous allogenic donations and the number of CB-CS bags stored in the free-cost public system, that are available to anyone with therapeutic needs. Private banking is used almost exclusively by the wealthier local population. In the public system, many physicians continue to use older Italian laws regarding syphilis diagnosis, and NRBC interference on WBC count may have an impact on cord blood harvesting. Our findings suggest that in the EU there is no consensus policy on donor management. The value of storage for potential use within the family is useful only with collaboration between the public and the private systems.

  1. Modeling of the interest rate policy of the central bank of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelomentsev, A. G.; Berg, D. B.; Detkov, A. A.; Rylova, A. P.

    2017-11-01

    This paper investigates interactions among money supply, exchange rates, inflation, and nominal interest rates, which are regulating parameters of the Central bank policy. The study is based on the data received from Russian source in 2002-2016. The major findings are 1) the interest rate demonstrates almost no relation with inflation; 2) ties of money supply and the nominal interest rate are strong; 3) money supply and inflation show meaningful relations only in comparison to their growth rates. We have developed a dynamic model, which can be used in forecasting of macroeconomic processes.

  2. Poverty crisis in the Third World: the contradictions of World Bank policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, P

    1991-01-01

    Politicians, the mainstream media, and orthodox social science have all been telling us of a final victory of capitalism over socialism, suggesting that capitalism is the only viable option for solving the world's problems. Yet, the global capitalist system is itself entering the third decade of a profound structural crisis, the costs of which have been borne largely by the exploited and oppressed peoples of the underdeveloped periphery. While the World Bank's latest World Development Report recognizes the current poverty crisis in the third world, its "two-part strategy" for alleviating poverty is based on an inadequate analysis of how peripheral capitalist development marginalizes the basic needs of the third world poor. Hence, the World Bank's assertion that free-market policies are consistent with effective antipoverty programs does not confront the class structures and global capitalist interests bound up with the reproduction of mass poverty in the third world. The World Bank's subordination of the basic needs of the poor to free-market adjustments and reforms in fact suggests that the real purpose of its "two-part strategy" is to ensure continued extraction of surplus from third world countries by maintaining the basic structure of imperialist underdevelopment.

  3. An Item Bank to Measure Systems, Services, and Policies: Environmental Factors Affecting People With Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jin-Shei; Hammel, Joy; Jerousek, Sara; Goldsmith, Arielle; Miskovic, Ana; Baum, Carolyn; Wong, Alex W; Dashner, Jessica; Heinemann, Allen W

    2016-12-01

    To develop a measure of perceived systems, services, and policies facilitators (see Chapter 5 of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health) for people with neurologic disabilities and to evaluate the effect of perceived systems, services, and policies facilitators on health-related quality of life. Qualitative approaches to develop and refine items. Confirmatory factor analysis including 1-factor confirmatory factor analysis and bifactor analysis to evaluate unidimensionality of items. Rasch analysis to identify misfitting items. Correlational and analysis of variance methods to evaluate construct validity. Community-dwelling individuals participated in telephone interviews or traveled to the academic medical centers where this research took place. Participants (N=571) had a diagnosis of spinal cord injury, stroke, or traumatic brain injury. They were 18 years or older and English speaking. Not applicable. An item bank to evaluate environmental access and support levels of services, systems, and policies for people with disabilities. We identified a general factor defined as "access and support levels of the services, systems, and policies at the level of community living" and 3 local factors defined as "health services," "community living," and "community resources." The systems, services, and policies measure correlated moderately with participation measures: Community Participation Indicators (CPI) - Involvement, CPI - Control over Participation, Quality of Life in Neurological Disorders - Ability to Participate, Quality of Life in Neurological Disorders - Satisfaction with Role Participation, Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Ability to Participate, PROMIS Satisfaction with Role Participation, and PROMIS Isolation. The measure of systems, services, and policies facilitators contains items pertaining to health services, community living, and community resources. Investigators and clinicians can measure

  4. Climate policy implications for agricultural water demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaturvedi, Vaibhav [Joint Global Change Research Inst., College Park, MD (United States); Hejazi, Mohamad I. [Joint Global Change Research Inst., College Park, MD (United States); Edmonds, James A. [Joint Global Change Research Inst., College Park, MD (United States); Clarke, Leon E. [Joint Global Change Research Inst., College Park, MD (United States); Kyle, G. Page [Joint Global Change Research Inst., College Park, MD (United States); Davies, Evan [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Wise, Marshall A. [Joint Global Change Research Inst., College Park, MD (United States); Calvin, Katherine V. [Joint Global Change Research Inst., College Park, MD (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Energy, water and land are scarce resources, critical to humans. Developments in each affect the availability and cost of the others, and consequently human prosperity. Measures to limit greenhouse gas concentrations will inevitably exact dramatic changes on energy and land systems and in turn alter the character, magnitude and geographic distribution of human claims on water resources. We employ the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), an integrated assessment model to explore the interactions of energy, land and water systems in the context of alternative policies to limit climate change to three alternative levels: 2.5 Wm-2 (445 ppm CO2-e), 3.5 Wm-2 (535 ppm CO2-e) and 4.5 Wm-2 (645 ppm CO2-e). We explore the effects of two alternative land-use emissions mitigation policy options—one which taxes terrestrial carbon emissions equally with fossil fuel and industrial emissions, and an alternative which only taxes fossil fuel and industrial emissions but places no penalty on land-use change emissions. We find that increasing populations and economic growth could be anticipated to almost triple demand for water for agricultural systems across the century even in the absence of climate policy. In general policies to mitigate climate change increase agricultural demands for water still further, though the largest changes occur in the second half of the century, under both policy regimes. The two policies examined profoundly affected both the sources and magnitudes of the increase in irrigation water demands. The largest increases in agricultural irrigation water demand occurred in scenarios where only fossil fuel emissions were priced (but not land-use change emission) and were primarily driven by rapid expansion in bioenergy production. In these scenarios water demands were large relative to present-day total available water, calling into question whether it would be physically possible to produce the associated biomass energy. We explored the potential of improved

  5. Public policy for start-up entrepreneurship with venture capital and bank finance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keuschnigg, Christian; Nielsen, Søren Bo

    2003-01-01

    This paper proposes and analyses a model of start-up investment. Innovative entrepreneursare commercially inexperienced and can benefit from venture capital support. Only part ofthem succeed in matching with a venture capitalist while the rest must resort to standard bankfinance. We consider a nu...... a number of policies to promote entrepreneurship and venture capitalbacked innovation.JEL Classification: D82, G24, G28, H24.Keywords: venture capital bank finance, matching, moral hazard, public policy.......This paper proposes and analyses a model of start-up investment. Innovative entrepreneursare commercially inexperienced and can benefit from venture capital support. Only part ofthem succeed in matching with a venture capitalist while the rest must resort to standard bankfinance. We consider...

  6. National Security Implications of Global Warming Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Although numerous historical examples demonstrate how actual climate change has contributed to the rise and fall of powers, global warming , in and of...become convinced that global warming is universally bad and humans are the primary cause, political leaders may develop ill-advised policies restricting

  7. Policy and Ethical Implications of Biosocial Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udry, J. Richard

    1995-01-01

    Social scientists are often concerned that research on biological causes of behavior will encourage biologically-based public policy. By simultaneously examining both social and biological causes of behavior, biosocial research models prevent simplistic biological thinking. Concludes that biosocial models clarify ethical problems rather than…

  8. Purchase of SME-related ABS by theBank of Japan: Monetary Policy and SME financing in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Hideaki Hirata; Tokiko Shimizu

    2003-01-01

    The BOJ recently announced its intention to purchase asset backed securities (ABS) whose underlying assets are closely related to SME economic activities. One important motivation for this policy arises from the idea that utilizing modern financial tools, i.e., securitization, can be a possible way to solve the overconcentration or excess accumulation of credit risks in the banking sector, albeit it would be a rare move for central banks to buy private debt. The outright purchase is expected ...

  9. Bioavailability: implications for science/cleanup policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denit, Jeffery; Planicka, J. Gregory

    1998-12-01

    This paper examines the role of bioavailability in risk assessment and cleanup decisions. Bioavailability refers to how chemicals ''behave'' and their ''availability'' to interact with living organisms. Bioavailability has significant implications for exposure risks, cleanup goals, and site costs. Risk to human health and the environment is directly tied to the bioavailability of the chemicals of concern.

  10. Rising Inequality in Asia and Policy Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Zhuang, Juzhong; Kanbur, Ravi; Rhee, Changyong

    2014-01-01

    This paper looks at the recent trends of rising inequality in developing Asia, asks why inequality matters, examines the driving forces of rising inequality, and proposes policy options for tackling high and rising inequality. Technological change, globalization, and market-oriented reform have driven Asia’s rapid growth, but have also had significant distributional consequences. These factors have favored owners of capital over labor, skilled over unskilled workers, and urban and coastal a...

  11. Implications of Electronic Commerce for Fiscal Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goolsbee, Austan

    In this chapter, I will consider both sides of the relationship between electronic commerce and fiscal policy. For the impact of electronic commerce on fiscal policy, I will pay particular attention to the potential sales-tax revenue losses. The data suggest that the potential losses are actually modest over the next several years. I will also consider the reverse relationship - how fiscal policy affects Internet commerce. Here the evidence suggests that taxes have a sizable effect. I point out, though, that this only supports special treatment if there is some positive externality. Without one, the tax system will lead to excessive online buying to avoid taxes. I will then deal the neglected issue of taxes and Internet access, which can create large deadweight costs both because demand may be price-sensitive and because taxes can slow the spread of new technologies. Finally, I offer some discussion of the international context of taxes and the Internet and the international temptations to raise rates on E-commerce.

  12. CURRENT STATUS AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS FOR FOSTERING SOCIAL ENTREPRENEUR

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon-Doo Kim; Seok Yoon

    2012-01-01

    In this study, problems in current status of social entrepreneurs in Korea were examined and further policy issues for them were suggested as well. For the methodology, the study analyzed the drawbacks and policy implication of fostering social entrepreneurs through Focus Group Interview (FGI) on analysis of present condition of incubating social entrepreneur and programs for it. First, it should escape from personnel expense-centered one and convert to ecosystem-centered or division-centered...

  13. Implications of China's one-child policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardee, K

    1984-05-01

    China's ambitious efforts to control its population have been effective, for the annual growth rate declined from 2.3% to 1.4% between 1971-81. The government's goal is to keep the population to 1.2 billion by the year 2000 and either maintain that as a stable population, or, ideally, to reduce the population to 700 million, deemed the optimum population that China's natural resources can sustain. The government is using a 1 child policy as a means of achieving this goal. It is apparent that the 1 child policy will cause significant changes in the society's demographic structure and contribute to social stress. The age structure is being altered, the ratio of males to females reflects a desire for the only child to be a son, and there are conflicts between the new economic policy and the call for limits on the number of children. The state is powerful enough to enforce its policy in urban areas but will most likely need to be content with a 2-child compromise in the countryside. Like most developing countries, China has a young population now. In 1980, 36% of the people were 14 years old or younger, whereas only 5% of the population were 65 and older. Each Chinese worker supported .93 dependents (the dependency ratio), mostly young children. The economy is geared to a young population, and the government must provide pediatric medical care, day care, and schools. If Chinese couples reduce their family size to slightly more than 1.5 children per couple, the dependency ratio will improve initially as the percentage of workers increases until 2015. After that a large percentage of workers would reach retirement age. The Chinese government promises increased retirement benefits for retirees and community aid to elderly with no family to support them. Statistics show that currently only 10% of the urban population is covered by pensions and only 1% of men and women of retirement age in rural areas receive community aid. To increase the number of people assisted would be

  14. SYSTEMIC CRISIS MANAGEMENT AND THE IMPACT ON MONETARY POLICY. THE INVOLVEMENT OF CENTRAL BANKS. AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana GIBA

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In a systemic crisis, many institutions in the financial system may face a lack of liquidity and central banks, as lenders of last resort, have to support them in order to ensure their financial stability. The question is: To what extent the involvement of central banks in systemic crises management, by providing liquidity to credit institutions, affects their ability to accomplish the central goal of monetary policy - price stability?To answer this question, through this study, we conducted an empiricalanalysis on the effect which central banks’ involvement in systemic crises management, through liquidity support, has on monetary policy objectives, mainly on price stability. Using a principal components analysis, we built a Monetary policy index and we developed a regression model between this index and the liquidity support provided by central banks in systemic crises.The conclusion we reached is that the provision of liquidity by the central bank to banking institutions in the system affects its monetary policy objectives only on the short -term. Specifically, providing liquidity support leads to an increase in both monetary aggregates and consumer price index in the first two years of the crisis, after which there is a significant dilution of this impact.

  15. Water Banks: Using Managed Aquifer Recharge to Meet Water Policy Objectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon B. Megdal

    2014-05-01

    . This paper describes water banking in Arizona from a policy perspective and identifies reasons for its implementation. It goes on to explore conditions under which water banking could successfully be applied to other parts of the world, specifically including Australia.

  16. Nuclear power phaseout policy and the economic implications for Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfaffenberger, W.

    1999-01-01

    Implementation of Germany's nuclear power phaseout policy and the expected consequences are discussed in this paper, referring to environmental aspects and Germany's international commitments under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, implications for the national economy, the required structural transformation of the energy industry, and changes in the general legal setting for the energy sector. Proposals are discussed for modifying the planned nuclear power phaseout policy so as to make the process of winding down nuclear generation more compatible with economic, social, and environmental policy conditions. (orig./CB) [de

  17. Prescription drug abuse: problem, policies, and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Janice

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an overview on prescription drug abuse and highlights a number of related legislative bills introduced during the 112th Congress in response to this growing epidemic. Prescription drug abuse has emerged as the nation's fastest growing drug problem. Although prescription drugs have been used effectively and appropriately for decades, deaths from prescription pain medicine in particular have reached epidemic proportions. Bills related to prescription drug abuse introduced during the 112th Congress focus on strengthening provider and consumer education, tracking and monitoring prescription drug abuse, improving data collection on drug overdose fatalities, combating fraud and abuse in Medicare and Medicaid programs, reclassifying drugs to make them more difficult to prescribe and obtain, and enforcing stricter penalties for individuals who operate scam pain clinics and sell pain pills illegitimately. This article underscores the importance of a multifaceted approach to combating prescription drug abuse and concludes with implications for nursing. Copyright © 2013. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  18. Innovation and inter-firm linkages : new implications for policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooteboom, B

    1999-01-01

    This article discusses the implications for competition, innovation and learning of different forms of inter-firm linkage, ways to govern them, different 'generic systems' of innovation, and government policy. It employs a transformed theory of transactions that can deal with innovation and

  19. Nigeria's National Population Policy and its Implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper compared Nigeria's national population policy and programme with those of other Third World countries and examined the implications for sustainable development in the 21st century, considering the trend of events in the country since 1999. it argued that when compared to those of China and India in terms of ...

  20. The Epidemiological Transition: Policy and Planning Implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relevant literatures were reviewed from medical journals, library search and internet source using Google search engine as well as international, national and local journals. The key words employed were: Epidemiological Transition with particular emphasis on policy and planning implications in developing countries.

  1. Understanding Homophobic Behavior and Its Implications for Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteat, V. Paul; Russell, Stephen T.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we consider recent advances in scholarship on homophobic bullying, and implications for policy and practice. We first consider toward whom homophobic behavior is directed, drawing attention to the nuances among LGBT youth, and the realities of homophobic bullying for heterosexual or straight youth. We review the correlates or…

  2. Patient dumping. Status, implications, and policy recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansell, D A; Schiff, R L

    1987-03-20

    Patient dumping, or the transfer of patients from private to public hospitals because of economic or social factors, is on the increase throughout the United States. Focusing on the dumping of patients by hospital emergency departments, the authors examine the economic, ethical, legal, and medical aspects of the problem. Although 22 states and the federal government have enacted statutes requiring hospitals to provide emergency care regardless of ability to pay and requiring that patients be stabilized before transfer to another hospital, Ansell and Schiff contend that even the best of these laws are deficient in defining such terms as "emergency" and "patient stability" and that monitoring and enforcement of existing laws and the guidelines of the American College of Emergency Physicians are inadequate. They propose a policy that no patient in need of emergency hospitalization should be denied admission or transferred for economic reasons.

  3. Emerging energy technologies impacts and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grubb, M.

    1992-01-01

    Technical change is a key factor in the energy world. Failure to recognize the potential for technical change, and the pace at which it may occur, has limited the accuracy and usefulness of past energy projections. conversely, programs to develop and deploy advanced energy technologies have often proved disappointing in the face of technical and commercial obstacles. This book examines important new and emerging energy technologies, and the mechanisms by which they may develop and enter the market. The project concentrates on the potential and probable role of selected energy technologies-which are in existence and likely to be of rapidly growing importance over the next decade-and the way in which market conditions and policy environment may affect their implementation

  4. Do Central Banks React to House Prices?

    OpenAIRE

    Finocchiaro, Daria; Queijo von Heideken, Virginia

    2007-01-01

    The substantial fluctuations in house prices recently experienced by many industrialized economies have stimulated a vivid debate on the possible implications for monetary policy. In this paper, we ask whether the U.S. Fed, the Bank of Japan and the Bank of England have reacted to house prices. We study the responses of these central banks by estimating a structural model for each country where credit constrained agents borrow against real estate. The main result is that house price movements...

  5. Cost effectiveness of GHG mitigation options and policy implication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, K. S. [Korea Institute for Industrial Economics and Trade, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-04-01

    This paper represents the summary findings and conclusions of several studies implemented about microeconomics and macroeconomics marginal costs of GHG abatement policies. Financial, economic, and, where possible, environmental microeconomics costs of reducing GHGs are estimated by a World Bank team. Six energy-related CO{sub 2} mitigation policy options are applied to estimate the macroeconomics costs of GHG emission reduction, the macroeconomics impacts on the Chinese economy. In terms of policy, conservation is a better option to cope with a restrictive mitigation constraint, assuming a developing country can achieve planned energy-saving targets. Without a CO{sub 2} emission constraint or with less restrictive CO{sub 2} emission constraints, however, the simulation results indicate that a conservation strategy may be less attractive than fuel substitution in a developing country, mainly due to the economic dampening effect of reduced production in the energy sectors. This finding suggests that an often-cited costless or negative-cost energy conservation policy may not be a better option when a less restrictive mitigation target is in force. This does not mean that the potential for energy efficiency improvements in a developing country is not worthwhile, but that the overall macroeconomics impacts should be considered before implementing the policy option. (author). 9 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Policy implications of the Strategic Defense Initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodwin, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    Specific topics include: the technological feasibility of proposed components and architectures; the compatibility of the proposed systems with existing and proposed arms control agreements, with special emphasis upon the ABM Treaty, Outer Space Treaty, the Defense and Space Treaty, and the START Treaty; the compatibility of proposed systems with classical warfare doctrine and the four modern strategic nuclear doctrines of Massive Retaliation, Assured Destruction, Countervailing and Flexible Response; the economics of strategic defense including an assessment of overall governmental spending, of the suballocation for defense, and of the feasibility of defensive systems which are cost-effective at the margin; and, in summary, an assessment of the New Strategic Concept which balances arms control, offensive forces, and defensive forces. This study falls within the realm of defense policy analysis in that it attempts to determine whether the administration's proposed Strategic Defense Initiative, as well as the long-term strategic defensive systems derived from SDI research, constitute efficient, desirable allocation of scarce government resources - especially in a period of seemingly relaxed superpower tensions and numerous demands upon those resources

  7. The policy of green economy in developing countries and policy implications for Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Thi Phuong loan

    2017-01-01

    Green economy is emerging as a new development trend in the World because the global economy is facing environmental and ecosystem risks. For developing economies, green economy is seen as an opportunity and an optimal choice to change the conventional economic growth model towards sustainable development. Therefore, the research topic "The policy of green economy in developing countries and policy implications for Vietnam" is chosen for this study. This study aims to clarify the concept of g...

  8. Structural adjustment programmes on the African continent : the theoretical foundations of IMF/World Bank reform policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meilink, H.A.

    2003-01-01

    Since the early 1980s the majority of countries in sub-Saharan Africa embarked on the implementation of IMF/World Bank designed 'structural adjustment programmes' (SAPs). This paper examines the theoretical underpinnings of the SAPs. It shows that IMF policies are based on a theoretical framework

  9. 12 CFR 225.142 - Statement of policy concerning bank holding companies engaging in futures, forward and options...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (REGULATION Y) Regulations Financial Holding Companies Interpretations § 225.142 Statement of policy... agency securities and money market instruments. (a) Purpose of financial contract positions. In.... Accordingly, the Board believes that any positions that bank holding companies or their nonbank subsidiaries...

  10. BASEL III – IMPLICATIONS OF THE NEW AGREEMENT UPON THE BANKING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLADA RAMONA IOANA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Global banking crisis generated by the subprime crisis in the U.S., received in December 2010, as a response from the Committee on Banking Supervision of the Bank for International Settlements, new capital adequacy rules for banks under the Basel III title: International framework for measurement, standardization and monitoring of liquidity risk, and Basel III: A global regulatory framework for banks and a sounder banking system with new capital adequacy rules for banks. These regulations are the focus of global financial reform to prevent future occurrence of banking crises.

  11. IMPLICATIONS OF CROSS-BORDER MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS IN THE POLISH BANKING SECTOR IN THE CONTEXT OF THE GLOBAL FINANCIAL CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZBIGNIEW KORZEB

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the implications of the global financial crisis upon the Polish banking sector, formed under the influence of cross-border mergers and acquisitions. It illustrates the consequences of financial problems of foreign strategic shareholders in banks operating in Poland upon the stability of the entire banking system. It presents the proposed future directions of action to protect the stability of the banking system. It seems that in the case of a banking system as special as the Polish one, the key role will belong to the quality of the three main pillars of control over the work of banks: supervisory institutions, market discipline an corporate governance.

  12. Child development in developing countries: child rights and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britto, Pia Rebello; Ulkuer, Nurper

    2012-01-01

    The Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey was used to provide information on feeding practices, caregiving, discipline and violence, and the home environment for young children across 28 countries. The findings from the series of studies in this Special Section are the first of their kind because they provide information on the most proximal context for development of the youngest children in the majority world using one of the only data sets to study these contexts across countries. Using the framework of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, in particular the Rights to Survival, Development and Protection, findings are explained with implications for international and national-level social policies. Implications are also discussed, with respect to policy makers and the larger international community, who have the obligation to uphold these rights. © 2012 The Authors. Child Development © 2012 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  13. Public perceptions of energy system risks: some policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, K.; Otway, H.J.

    1980-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction; perceptions, beliefs and attitudes; the survey of public perceptions and attitudes towards energy systems; attitudes towards the five energy systems (nuclear, coal, oil, solar and hydro); perceptions of energy systems - the underlying dimensions of belief (economic benefits; environmental risk; psychological and physical risk; indirect risk; technology development); differential analysis of the perceptions of those pro and con nuclear energy; summary of perceptions of energy systems - relevance to the Austrian dilemma; policy implications. (U.K.)

  14. The Global Financial Crisis: Analysis and Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-04

    encourages terrorist activity. The precipitous drop in the price of oil holds important implications for countries, such as Russia, Mexico, Venezuela ...and Venezuela , all of which share a heavy dependence on commodity exports and weak economic policy frameworks. In each of these countries, bond...particular, including textiles and various machinery exports, raising tensions between the two major trade partners of the regional customs union, Mercosur

  15. To assess the investment policy and investment activity of banks of Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Mandron V.; Buzaeva O.

    2016-01-01

    A priority to increase the profits of banks is investment operations in the stock market. Investment banking includes activities on raising capital using capital market instruments with the objective of capital appreciation. The article describes the investment objectives of the banks to improve their profitability, financial stability and enhance the effectiveness of the whole. The basic tools that enable banks to achieve the relevant objectives: profit, risk diversification, the maintenance...

  16. Awareness of food nutritive value and eating practices among Nigerian bank workers: Implications for nutritional counseling and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eze, Ngozi M; Maduabum, Felicia O; Onyeke, Nkechi G; Anyaegunam, Ngozi J; Ayogu, Chinwe A; Ezeanwu, Bibian Amaka; Eseadi, Chiedu

    2017-03-01

    Adequate nutrition is an important aspect of a healthy lifestyle for all individuals, including bank staff. The objective of this study was to investigate the awareness of food nutritive value and eating practices among bank workers in Lagos State, Nigeria.The study adopted a cross-sectional descriptive survey design. A purposive sample of 250 bank workers took part in the study. Means and Student t tests were employed for data analysis.Results showed that bank workers were aware of the nutritive value of foods, and that eating practices commonly adopted included skipping breakfast, eating breakfast at work, buying food at work from the bank canteen, eating in between meals, buying snacks as lunch, and consuming soft drinks daily, among others. There were no significant differences between male and female bank workers in mean responses on food nutritive value or in eating practices adopted.Good eating habits will help bank workers not only to improve their nutritional well-being, but also to prevent nutrition-related diseases. The implications for nutritional counseling and education are discussed in the context of these findings.

  17. 12 CFR 1261.11 - Conflict-of-interests policy for Bank directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... 1261.11 Section 1261.11 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS..., property, or relationship that involves receiving or providing something of monetary value, and includes... whom a director has a business relationship, including, but not limited to: (i) Any corporation or...

  18. National monetary policy by regional design: the evolving role of the Federal Reserve banks in Federal Reserve System policy

    OpenAIRE

    David C. Wheelock

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines the history of Federal Reserve Bank input into Federal Reserve System monetary policymaking. From the Fed's founding in 1914 through the Great Depression, the Reserve Banks held the balance of power. Dissatisfaction with the Fed's performance, however, led to a wholesale reorganization in 1935 that greatly enhanced the authority of the Federal Reserve Board, but retained a role for the Federal Banks through the membership of their presidents on the FOMC, as well as in sett...

  19. Older and incarcerated: policy implications of aging prison populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psick, Zachary; Simon, Jonathan; Brown, Rebecca; Ahalt, Cyrus

    2017-03-13

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore the policy Implications of aging prison populations. Design/methodology/approach An examination of the worldwide aging trend in prison and its implications for correctional policy, including an examination of population aging in California prisons as a case example of needed reform. Findings Prison populations worldwide are aging at an unprecedented rate, and age-related medical costs have had serious consequences for jurisdictions struggling to respond to the changes. These trends are accompanied by a growing body of evidence that old age is strongly correlated with desistance from criminal behavior, suggesting an opportunity to at least partially address the challenges of an aging prison population through early release from prison for appropriate persons. Originality/value Some policies do exist that aim to reduce the number of older, chronically ill or disabled and dying people in prison, but they have not achieved that goal on a sufficient scale. An examination of the situation in California shows that recognizing how the healthcare needs of incarcerated people change as they age - and how aging and aging-related health changes often decrease an older person's likelihood of repeat offense - is critical to achieving effective and efficient policies and practices aimed at adequately caring for this population and reducing their numbers in prisons when appropriate.

  20. BioMagResBank (BMRB) as a partner in the Worldwide Protein Data Bank (wwPDB): new policies affecting biomolecular NMR depositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markley, John L.; Ulrich, Eldon L.; Berman, Helen M.; Henrick, Kim; Nakamura, Haruki; Akutsu, Hideo

    2008-01-01

    We describe the role of the BioMagResBank (BMRB) within the Worldwide Protein Data Bank (wwPDB) and recent policies affecting the deposition of biomolecular NMR data. All PDB depositions of structures based on NMR data must now be accompanied by experimental restraints. A scheme has been devised that allows depositors to specify a representative structure and to define residues within that structure found experimentally to be largely unstructured. The BMRB now accepts coordinate sets representing three-dimensional structural models based on experimental NMR data of molecules of biological interest that fall outside the guidelines of the Protein Data Bank (i.e., the molecule is a peptide with 23 or fewer residues, a polynucleotide with 3 or fewer residues, a polysaccharide with 3 or fewer sugar residues, or a natural product), provided that the coordinates are accompanied by representation of the covalent structure of the molecule (atom connectivity), assigned NMR chemical shifts, and the structural restraints used in generating model. The BMRB now contains an archive of NMR data for metabolites and other small molecules found in biological systems

  1. The Importance of Banks in Foreign Exchange and the Implications of the Currency Risk over the Bank Management

    OpenAIRE

    Vasile DEDU; Florin Alexandru DUNA

    2011-01-01

    The concentration and the role of the banks in the development of the currency market represents the first element on influencing the major players and their strategies on a global scale. The currency market is considered the system of the relations between financial and currency exchanges explained by the relation of buying and selling currency or buying-selling deposits throughout foreign coins. This market is also called FOREX (Foreign exchange market), being the biggest financial market i...

  2. Bank Finance For Small And Medium-Sized Enterprises In Sri Lanka: Issues And Policy Reforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamage Pandula

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Access to bank finance is necessary to create an economic environment that enables Small and Medium-sized enterprises (SMEs to grow and prosper. The SMEs in Sri Lanka, however, face significant constraints to access bank finance. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the access to bank finance and related issues in the SME sector of Sri Lanka. The paper is exploratory in nature and reviews the bank financing situation for SMEs in Sri Lanka, as well as provides an overview of constraints faced by the banks (supply-side and SMEs (demand-side. The paper also highlights some good practices in SME lending from international experience and outlines some recommendations to help overcome the constraints faced by the banks and SMEs. The recommendations discussed in this paper may be of importance to policymakers, not only in Sri Lanka, but in many other developing countries in a similar stage of economic growth.

  3. Policy Implications of Limiting Immigrant Concentration in Danish Public Schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Simon Calmar; Thomsen, Mette Kjærgaard

    2011-01-01

    Immigrant students in Denmark on average perform worse in lower secondary school than native Danish students. Part of the effect may not stem from the immigrant students themselves, but from the student composition at the school. From a policy perspective, the latter aspect is quite interesting...... since it is more feasible to change student composition in schools than the socioeconomic status of the individual students.This article describes theoretically the circumstances under which total student achievement can be increased by reallocating certain groups of students. Empirical analyses......’ educational outcome, by limiting the share of immigrant students at grade level at any one school to less than 50 percent. The policy implications of this finding are discussed....

  4. Diversity in soil seed bank of Sinai and implications for conservation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Key words: Sinai, soil seed bank, arid environments, diversity indices, conservation, restoration. INTRODUCTION. Soil seed banks are ... In arid ecosystems soil seed banks are characterized by high spatial and temporal ...... Germinable alkali sacaton seed content of soils in the Rio Puerco Basin, West Central New Mexico.

  5. Implications of e-commerce for banking and finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heng, Michael S.H.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to show that e-commerce holds the potential totransform banking and financial systems. There are three aspects in which e-commercecan affect banking and finance. First, banks and financial firms can use thetechnology and business practice of e-commerce to market their

  6. Soil seed banks in four 22-year-old plantations in South China: implications for restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun Wang; Hai Ren; Long Yang; Danyan Li; Qinfeng. Guo

    2009-01-01

    To better understand the potentials of the soil seed banks in facilitating succession towards a morenatural forest of native tree species, we quantified the size and composition of the soil seed banks inestablished plantations in South China. The seed banks were from four typical 22-year-old plantations, i.e., legume, mixed-...

  7. FISCAL - BUDGETARY POLICY IMPLICATIONS ON THE SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC RELAUNCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHIRCULESCU MARIA FELICIA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to highlight the implications of fiscal policy and budgetary measures on the Romanian economy after its inclusion on the coordinates of the market economy. Thus, we analyzed the evolution of macroeconomic indicators in conjunction with fiscal measures adopted. The research shows that the measures adopted in fiscal plan were passed on the economy, the effects of registration are often contrary to those expected. Giving a leading role financial tax system generally increased tax burden, accompanied by a low collection rate, repeated changes in tax laws and poor economic conditions concrete. In this context, the creation, allocation and optimal redistribution of budget resources are useful elements in the sustainable recovery of economic growth. I believe that fiscal policy is a permanent policy contestable numerous debates about the effectiveness of using a tax system for purposes other than financial concern namely monetary resources needed to cover expenditure for social or collective needs. Fiscal integrity in the decision process of traders produce permanent changes in their original condition, a change in behavior due to their concern objectively to find those ways of organizing and selling activities to generate the lowest tax burden. I appreciate that fiscal policy remains a tool of macroeconomic adjustment to national authorities. This means that the responsibility of maintaining budgetary balance and the responsibility of maintaining balance in the real economy will always return to the National Government.

  8. Does central bank communication really lead to better forecasts of policy decisions? New evidence based on a Taylor rule model for the ECB

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturm, Jan-Egbert; De Haan, Jakob

    Nowadays, it is widely believed that greater disclosure and clarity over policy may lead to greater predictability of central bank actions. We examine whether communication by the European Central Bank (ECB) adds information compared to the information provided by a Taylor rule model in which

  9. The Third Pillar of the Basel Accord: Evidence of borrower discipline in the Kyrgyz banking system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Demetrio Tovar-García

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We empirically study the asset side of market discipline in the banking system of the Kyrgyz Republic, examining whether borrowers are willing to pay higher interest rates to high-quality banks. Based on dynamic panel models and a dataset with bank information from 23 banks over the period 2010–2012, our findings suggest the presence of market discipline induced by borrowers. In other words, banks with higher capital ratios and liquidity charge higher interest rates on loans. This result has several implications for the banking policy in Kyrgyzstan, where we can recommend to policymakers a disclosure policy following the Third Pillar of Basel III, because not only can the bank's creditors use bank information to penalize the excessive bank risk, but borrowers can also use this information to discipline their banks.

  10. Explaining Policy Responses to Danish and Irish Banking Failures during the Financial Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kluth, Michael Friederich; Lynggaard, Kennet

    2013-01-01

    responsibility for sector losses and only later defined terms for industry contributions. In Denmark, a negotiated settlement from the outset transferred most of the risk associated with banking failures collectively to the banking sector. The article assesses two explanations for these different responses: 1...

  11. Questions about fiscal policy: Implications from the financial crisis of 2008-2009

    OpenAIRE

    N. Gregory Mankiw

    2010-01-01

    This article is a modified version of remarks given at the Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia’s policy forum “Policy Lessons from the Economic and Financial Crisis,” December 4, 2009. The presentation was made during a panel discussion that also included James Bullard and John Taylor.

  12. Metering: EU policy and implications for fuel poor households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darby, Sarah J.

    2012-01-01

    Fuel poverty is a function of household energy consumption, income, and the cost of delivered energy. The paper discusses ways in which current EU policy on the development of ‘smart’ metering could affect fuel poor households. The main focus is on developments in electricity metering and the development of ‘active demand’ and smart grids, so that demand can be matched closely with available supply. Advances in metering and related technologies open the way to time-of-use charging, easier switching between suppliers and between credit payment and prepayment, direct load control of some end-uses by the utility, greater scope for microgeneration, and improved consumption feedback for customers. These options open up both uncertainties and risks. The paper offers definitions and discussion of various functions of smart metering, summarizes the EU policy background, and considers some possible equity implications of rolling out a new generation of meters. There follows an assessment of potential implications to the fuel poor of changes to metering, based on a review of the literature on energy feedback, tariffing, and supplier–customer relationships. Much of the discussion is based on the UK experience, with examples from other EU member states and, where appropriate, from other parts of the world. - Highlights: ► Smart meters are part of general upgrading of electricity and gas networks. ► EU policy is to roll out the meters to 80%+ of the population by 2020. ► Improved feedback and prepayment metering may benefit the fuel poor. ► Remote disconnection and data privacy are issues for all consumers. ► We need careful assessment of potential gains and losses to the fuel poor.

  13. A longitudinal study of human milk composition in the second year postpartum: implications for human milk banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Maryanne T; Fogleman, April D; Newburg, David S; Allen, Jonathan C

    2017-01-01

    While the composition of human milk has been studied extensively in the first year of lactation, there is a paucity of data regarding human milk composition beyond one year postpartum. Policies vary at milk banks around the world regarding how long lactating women are eligible to donate their milk. The primary purpose of this study is to describe longitudinal changes in human milk composition in the second year postpartum to support the development of evidence based guidelines regarding how long lactating women can donate human milk to a milk bank. Nineteen lactating women in North Carolina provided monthly milk samples from 11 months to 17 months postpartum (N = 131), and two non-profit milk banks provided (N = 33) pooled, unpasteurized milk samples from 51 approved donors less than one year postpartum. There was a significant increase (P milk between 11 and 17 months postpartum, while zinc and calcium concentrations declined, and no changes were observed in lactose, fat, iron and potassium. Human milk in the second year postpartum contained significantly higher concentrations of total protein, lactoferrin, lysozyme and Immunoglobulin A, than milk bank samples, and significantly lower concentrations of zinc, calcium, iron and oligosaccharides. Accepting milk bank donations beyond one year postpartum is a potential strategy for increasing the supply of donor milk, but may require mineral fortification. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Robust monetary policy, structural breaks, and nonlinearities in the reaction function of the Central Bank of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Bezerra de Medeiros

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we seek to investigate the existence of nonlinearities in the reaction function of the Central Bank of Brazil arising from this policymaker's uncertainties about the effects of the output gap on inflation. Theoretically, we follow Tillmann (2011 to obtain a nonlinear optimal monetary policy rule that is robust to uncertainty about the output-inflation trade-off of the Phillips Curve. In addition, we perform structural break tests to assess possible changes in the conduct of the Brazilian monetary policy during the inflation-targeting regime. The results indicate that: (i the uncertainties about the slope in the Phillips curve implied nonlinearities in the Central Bank of Brazil's reaction function; (ii we cannot reject the hypothesis of a structural break in the monetary rule parameters occurring in the third quarter of 2003; (iii there was an increase in the response of the Selic rate to output gap and a weaker response to the current inflation gap in Meirelles–Tombini's administration; and (iv the Central Bank of Brazil has also reacted to the exchange rate in Meirelles–Tombini's administration.

  15. Comparison of Monetary Policy Actions and Central Bank Communication on Tackling Asset Price Bubbles—Evidence from China’s Stock Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ou; Liu, Zhixin

    2016-01-01

    We examine the different effects of monetary policy actions and central bank communication on China’s stock market bubbles with a Time-varying Parameter SVAR model. We find that with negative responses of fundamental component and positive responses of bubble component of asset prices, contractionary monetary policy induces the observed stock prices to rise during periods of large bubbles. By contrast, central bank communication acts on the market through expectation guidance and has more significant effects on stock prices in the long run, which implies that central bank communication be used as an effective long-term instrument for the central bank’s policymaking. PMID:27851796

  16. Bank acquisitions of investment dealers: Canadian evidence and implications for Glass-Steagall reform

    OpenAIRE

    Nancy D. Ursel

    2000-01-01

    This paper analyzes the 1987 change in Canadian legislation permitting commercial banks to engage in investment banking, and makes comparisons to the US, where similar regulatory change is under way. The study focuses on the impact of such regulatory change on issue costs for corporations raising seasoned common equity. The findings indicate that although regulatory reform per se has had no effect on issue costs, costs for issues handled by a bank-owned underwriter are lower than those handle...

  17. ROMANIAN BANKS LIQUIDITY MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BATRANCEA MARIA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Most transactions or financial commitments have implications for a bank liquidity. Transactions are particularly vulnerable to liquidity problems at a specific institution. Therefore, one can deduce the importance of the correct calculation and liquidity indicator, not only for the bank concerned, but especially for NBR uses that bank risk management tool. That is why the authors took into consideration a sample of banks in Romania to show to what extent the banking crisis has influenced the development banks.

  18. Financial Literacy and Economic Outcomes: Evidence and Policy Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Olivia S; Lusardi, Annamaria

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews what we have learned over the past decade about financial literacy and its relationship to financial decision-making around the world. Using three questions, we have surveyed people in several countries to determine whether they have the fundamental knowledge of economics and finance needed to function as effective decision-makers. We find that levels of financial literacy are low not only in the United States. but also in many other countries including those with well-developed financial markets. Moreover, financial illiteracy is particularly acute for some demographic groups, especially women and the less-educated. These findings are important since financial literacy is linked to borrowing, saving, and spending patterns. We also offer new evidence on financial literacy among high school students drawing on the 2012 Programme for International Student Assessment implemented in 18 countries. Last, we discuss the implications of this research for policy.

  19. Choice of forest map has implications for policy analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seebach, Lucia Maria; McCallum, Ian; Fritz, Steffen

    2012-01-01

    and harmonised approach at the European level. However, they possess different characteristics in terms of spatial detail or thematic accuracy. Little attention has been paid to the effect of these characteristics on simulation models and the resultant policy implications. In this study we tested whether...... the choice of a forest map has substantial influence on model output, i.e. if output differences can be related to the input differences. A sensitivity analysis of the spatially explicit Global Forest Model (G4M) was performed using four different forest maps: the pan-European high resolution forest...... utilization of forest biomass. The sensitivity analysis showed that the choice of the forest cover map has a major influence on the model outputs in particular at the country-level, while having less influence at the EU27 level. Differences between the input datasets are strongly reflected in the outputs...

  20. Nonlinear Monetary Policy Rules: An Essay in the Comparative Study on Egyptian and Tunisian Central Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosra Baaziz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the behavior of monetary authorities in Tunisia and Egypt, in response to changes in macroeconomic variables over time based on LSTR model. In this sense, we estimate Taylor-type equations for short-term interest rate in Tunisia and Egypt using quarterly data covering the period 1998.Q4–2013.Q2. We find strong evidence that the real decision-making process followed by these central banks varies from one central bank to another and that it exhibits nonlinear patterns that better capture special events and unexpected contingencies i.e., the terrorist attack in the US in September 2001, the global financial crisis in 2008, and the effect of political instability with the onset of the revolution. Additionally, the presence of asymmetries in the reaction function of the Tunisian and Egyptian Bank requires disconnection from their automatic pilot rules and use of judgement to make decisions.

  1. Geo hazard studies and their policy implications in Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauch, W.

    2007-05-01

    Nicaragua, situated at the Central American Subduction zone and placed in the trajectory of tropical storms and hurricanes, is a frequent showplace of natural disasters which have multiplied the negative effects of a long term socioeconomic crisis leaving Nicaragua currently as the second poorest country of the Americas. In the last years, multiple efforts were undertaken to prevent or mitigate the affectation of the natural phenomena to the country. National and local authorities have become more involved in disaster prevention policy and international cooperation boosted funding for disaster prevention and mitigation measures in the country. The National Geosciences Institution (INETER) in cooperation with foreign partners developed a national monitoring and early warning system on geological and hydro-meteorological phenomena. Geological and risk mapping projects were conducted by INETER and international partners. Universities, NGO´s, International Technical Assistance, and foreign scientific groups cooperated to capacitate Nicaraguan geoscientists and to improve higher education on disaster prevention up to the master degree. Funded by a World Bank loan, coordinated by the National System for Disaster Prevention, Mitigation and Attention (SINAPRED) and scientifically supervised by INETER, multidisciplinary hazard and vulnerability studies were carried out between 2003 and 2005 with emphasis on seismic hazard. These GIS based works provided proposals for land use policies on a local level in 30 municipalities and seismic vulnerability and risk information for each single building in Managua, Capital of Nicaragua. Another large multidisciplinary project produced high resolution air photos, elaborated 1:50,000 vectorized topographic maps, and a digital elevation model for Western Nicaragua. These data, integrated in GIS, were used to assess: 1) Seismic Hazard for Metropolitan Managua; 2) Tsunami hazard for the Pacific coast; 3) Volcano hazard for Telica

  2. Compulsive Buying among College Students: An Investigation of Its Antecedents, Consequences, and Implications for Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, James A.

    1998-01-01

    This study investigated the incidence, antecedents, consequences, and policy implications of compulsive buying among college students (n=300). Details contributing factors and discusses the relationship between credit card use and compulsive buying. Discusses the implications for consumer policy and suggestions for further research. (JOW)

  3. Macroprudential Policy, Countercyclical Bank Capital Buffers and Credit Supply : Evidence from the Spanish Dynamic Provisioning Experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiménez, G.; Ongena, S.; Peydro, J.L.; Saurina, J.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: We analyze the impact of the countercyclical capital buffers held by banks on the supply of credit to firms and their subsequent performance. Countercyclical ‘dynamic’ provisioning that is unrelated to specific loan losses was introduced in Spain in 2000, and modified in 2005 and 2008.

  4. 12 CFR Appendix C to Part 225 - Small Bank Holding Company Policy Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... U.S. Internal Revenue Code may exclude from debt subordinated debentures issued to the United States... stockholders' equity, the bank holding company should account for its investments in the common stock of... prospective growth, asset quality, the ability to meet debt servicing requirements without placing an undue...

  5. The Central Bank of Nigeria's Cashless Policy: A Major Panacea for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mrs Afam

    ISSN 2070--0083 (Online). DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/afrrev.v8i4.16 .... the banking sector and, consequently, the customer, in terms of cash management, frequent printing of currency notes, ... by pessimism, fears, despondency and reaction from some quarters in the country. Some of the several questions being asked ...

  6. 76 FR 35959 - Capital Adequacy Guidelines; Small Bank Holding Company Policy Statement: Treatment of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ... securities issued to the Treasury through the Small Business Lending Fund established under the Small... allowing S-Corp BHCs and Mutual BHCs that issue SBLF Subordinated Securities to the Treasury to exclude the... the Internal Revenue Code, S-Corp BHCs may not issue more than one class of equity security. Bank...

  7. Frictions, Persistence, and Central Bank Policy in an Experimental Dynamic Stochastic General Equilibrium Economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noussair, C.N.; Pfajfar, D.; Zsiros, J.

    2011-01-01

    New Keynesian dynamic stochastic general equilibrium models are the principal paradigm currently employed for central bank policymaking. In this paper, we construct experimental economies, populated with human subjects, with the structure of a New Keynesian DSGE model. We give individuals monetary

  8. The identification of technology regimes in banking : Implications for the market power-fragility nexus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetter, M.; Poghosyan, T.

    Neglecting the existence of different technologies in banking can contaminate efficiency, market power, and other performance measures. By simultaneously estimating (i) technology regimes conditional on exogenous factors, (ii) efficiency conditional on risk management, and (iii) Lerner indices of

  9. THE INDONESIAN BANK CRISIS AND RESTRUCTURING: LESSONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR OTHER DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Mari PANGESTU

    2003-01-01

    Drawing on the Indonesian experience in 1997, this paper demonstrates the complexity of managing banking crises deals. It aims at deriving conclusions from this experience for other developing countries facing similar problems. The paper also refers to comparative experiences of other countries, in particular Malaysia and Thailand, examines the IMF programme and reveals its shortcomings. The key question is to what extent the ineffectiveness and slow progress of bank restructuring, corporate ...

  10. The Definition of Inflation According to Mises: Implications for the Debate on Free Banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Cachanosky

    Full Text Available The discussion of what is and what is not inflation has become central among the Austrian economists in their debate between free banking with fractional reserves versus banking with 100-percent reserve. Many Austrians also turn to the writings of Mises to find out what the dean of Austrian Economics thought about inflation, but there is no agreement on the interpretation of his writings either. This article tries to contribute to the interpretation of Mises’ concept of inflation.

  11. The Farm Credit Situation: Implications for Agricultural Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, J. Bruce

    1986-01-01

    Examines issues regarding current farm finance situation from a public policy perspective: origins and causes of current situation, available policy options for dealing with the problems, and impacts of policy options. (NEC)

  12. ‘Business, as usual: the policy priorities of the World Bank's discourses on youth unemployment, and the global financial crisis'

    OpenAIRE

    Fergusson, Ross; Yeates, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    International governmental organisations (IGO) are an active presence in youth unemployment policy. This article undertakes a detailed analysis of the formative role of one IGO - the World Bank (WB) – in the framing of policy in this issue area. It charts the WB’s emergence as a powerful political actor in this policy field and identifies the ideational content of its discourses. Four principal themes are identified: skills deficits; the effects of employment regulation and social protection ...

  13. The 1992 World Administrative Radio Conference: Technology and Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-01

    As the 20th century draws to a close, new radio technologies and services are poised to change the ways we communicate. Radio waves already make possible a wide range of services considered commonplace--AM and FM radio broadcasting, television, cellular telephones, remote garage-door openers, and baby monitors. Advances in radio technology are giving birth to even more new products and services, including pocket-sized telephones that may allow people to make and receive calls anywhere in the world, high-definition televisions (HDTV) with superior quality pictures and sound, and static-free digital radios. The 1992 World Administrative Radio Conference (WARC-92) authorized frequencies for many of these new radio communication services, and granted additional frequencies for many existing services, including international broadcasting, satellite-based mobile communications, and communications in space. The effects of these changes will be felt well into the 21st century as countries around the world develop and deploy new communications systems to serve the needs of consumers, businesses, and governments. For the United States, the decisions made at the conference will critically affect how we develop new radio technologies and applications, how competitive this country will be in radio communications equipment and services, and how effectively the United States can exercise its role as a leader in world radio communication policymaking. This study of the outcomes and implications of WARC-92 was requested by the House Committee on Energy and Commerce and the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. OTA was asked to evaluate the success of U.S. proposals at the conference, discuss the implications of the decisions made for U.S. technology and policy development, and identify options for improving U.S. participation in future world radio communication conferences.

  14. Quantifying the spatial implications of future land use policies in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Roux, A.; Augustijn-Beckers, Petronella

    2017-01-01

    Land use policies have a definite and lasting impact on the way that cities grow; however, it is difficult for policy- and decision-makers to observe and quantify the implications of their land use policies and strategies. There is thus a need for information and tools that can adequately support

  15. Environmental impacts and regulatory policy implications of spray disposal of dredged material in Louisiana wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahoon, D.R.; Cowan, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    The capabilities of a new wetland dredging technology were assessed along with associated newly developed state and federal regulatory policies to determine if policy expectations realistically match the technological achievement. Current regulatory practices require amelioration of spoil bank impacts upon abandonment of an oil/gas well, but this may not occur for many years or decades, if at all. Recently, a dreding method (high-pressure spray spoil disposal) was developed that does not create a spoil bank in the traditional sense. Its potential for reducing environmental impacts was recognized immediately by regulatory agencies for whom minimizing spoil bank impacts is a major concern. The use of high-pressure spray disposal as a suitable alternative to traditional dreding technology has been adopted as policy even though its value as a management tool has never been tested or verified. A qualitative evaluation at two spoil disposal sites in saline marsh indicates that high-pressure spray disposal may indeed have great potential to minimize impacts, but most of this potential remains unverified. Also, some aspects of current regulatory policy may be based on unrealistic expectations as to the ability of this new technology to minimize or eliminate spoil bank impacts.

  16. Large blackouts in North America: Historical trends and policy implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hines, Paul [School of Engineering, 301 Votey Hall, University of Vermont, 33 Colchester Avenue, Burlington, VT 05405 (United States); Apt, Jay [Carnegie Mellon Electricity Industry Center, Department of Engineering and Public Policy and Tepper School of Business, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Talukdar, Sarosh [Carnegie Mellon Electricity Industry Center, Department of Engineering and Public Policy and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)

    2009-12-15

    Using data from the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) for 1984-2006, we find several trends. We find that the frequency of large blackouts in the United States has not decreased over time, that there is a statistically significant increase in blackout frequency during peak hours of the day and during late summer and mid-winter months (although non-storm-related risk is nearly constant through the year) and that there is strong statistical support for the previously observed power-law statistical relationship between blackout size and frequency. We do not find that blackout sizes and blackout durations are significantly correlated. These trends hold even after controlling for increasing demand and population and after eliminating small events, for which the data may be skewed by spotty reporting. Trends in blackout occurrences, such as those observed in the North American data, have important implications for those who make investment and policy decisions in the electricity industry. We provide a number of examples that illustrate how these trends can inform benefit-cost analysis calculations. Also, following procedures used in natural disaster planning we use the observed statistical trends to calculate the size of the 100-year blackout, which for North America is 186,000 MW. (author)

  17. Large blackouts in North America: Historical trends and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hines, Paul; Apt, Jay; Talukdar, Sarosh

    2009-01-01

    Using data from the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) for 1984-2006, we find several trends. We find that the frequency of large blackouts in the United States has not decreased over time, that there is a statistically significant increase in blackout frequency during peak hours of the day and during late summer and mid-winter months (although non-storm-related risk is nearly constant through the year) and that there is strong statistical support for the previously observed power-law statistical relationship between blackout size and frequency. We do not find that blackout sizes and blackout durations are significantly correlated. These trends hold even after controlling for increasing demand and population and after eliminating small events, for which the data may be skewed by spotty reporting. Trends in blackout occurrences, such as those observed in the North American data, have important implications for those who make investment and policy decisions in the electricity industry. We provide a number of examples that illustrate how these trends can inform benefit-cost analysis calculations. Also, following procedures used in natural disaster planning we use the observed statistical trends to calculate the size of the 100-year blackout, which for North America is 186,000 MW.

  18. Carrying capacity: the tradition and policy implications of limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Deane Abernethy

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Within just the last few centuries, science and technology have enlarged human capabilities and population size until humans now take, for their own use, nearly half of the Earth's net terrestrial primary production. An ethical perspective suggests that potentials to alter, or further increase, humanity's use of global resources should be scrutinized through the lenses of self-interested foresightedness and respect for non-human life. Without overtly invoking ethics, studies of the carrying capacity achieve just this objective. Carrying capacity is an ecological concept that expresses the relationship between a population and the natural environment on which it depends for ongoing sustenance. Carrying capacity assumes limits on the number of individuals that can be supported at a given level of consumption without degrading the environment and, therefore, reducing future carrying capacity. That is, carrying capacity addresses long-term sustainability. Worldviews differ in the importance accorded to the carrying capacity concept. This paper addresses three worldviews - ecological, romantic, and entrepreneurial - and explores the ethics and the policy implications of their contrasting perspectives.

  19. World bank's role in the electric power sector: Policies for effective institutional, regulatory, and financial reform. World Bank policy paper. Funcion del banco mundial en el sector de la electricidad: politicas para efectuar una reforma institucional, regulatoria y financiera eficaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    The paper outlines the World Bank's new policies for the energy sector. It recommends several new policies to improve the performance of the electric power sector in developing countries. Bank loans for electric power will go first to countries clearly committed to improving the performance of their power sectors. The Bank will also discourage subsidies on energy prices and will encourage private investment in utilities. And it will provide financing to help the least developed countries import power where local generation is not practical.

  20. Central bank instruments, fiscal policy regimes, and the requirements for equilibrium determinacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schabert, A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the role of the monetary instrument choice for local equilibrium determinacy under sticky prices and different fiscal policy regimes. Corresponding to Benhabib et al.'s results for interest rate feedback rules [Benhabib, J., Schmitt-Grohé, S., Uribe, M., 2001. Monetary policy and

  1. What Should Central Banks Target? Evidence on the Impact of Monetary Policy Regimes on Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Chong, Terence Tai Leung; Wong, Kin Ming

    2015-01-01

    Economists and policy-makers have long sought the ideal framework for monetary policy as it is arguably one of the most important tools for government to influence the economy. Exchange rate and inflation are believed to be the most appealing anchors for providing guidance to the conduct of monetary policy and are thus widely used in the real world. Most existing studies on the effect of exchange-rate arrangements and inflation targeting on economic growth suffer from the absence of a clear c...

  2. The many faces of cyber-crime: the implications on e-banking | Ayo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of the associated snags which have hindered in no small measure the wide application of IT. This paper reviews the different forms of crime perpetrated through IT, the effects on e-banking and the possible solutions for a wider acceptability. Keywords: cyber-crime, cyber-terrorism, cyber-extortion, public key infrastructure, ...

  3. Diversity in soil seed bank of Sinai and implications for conservation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Understanding the diversity level of seed bank is important for designing conservation and restoration programs especially in arid ecosystems. A diverse of diversity indices has been used in evaluating seed communities regardless of its suitability to measure the ecological quality of the targeted biological community.

  4. Inseminating fresh or cryopreserved semen for maximum efficiency: implications for gene banks and industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing germplasm collections in gene banks for animal genetic resources requires establishing germplasm collection goals, that consider capturing the genetic diversity of the population in question and the amount of germplasm required for reconstitution of the population or for other purposes. C...

  5. Rational Choise and Policy Implementation; Implications for Interorganizational Network Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Toole, Laurence J.

    1995-01-01

    Research on interorganizational policy implementation continues to be characterized by diverse theoretical approaches. It is perhaps surprising to observe, however, that formal and especially rational-choice approaches have been essentially neglected in the study of policy implementation processes.

  6. Expanding the Visibility of Women's Work: Policy Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messias, DeAnne K. Hilfinger; Regev, Hanna; Im, Eun-Ok; Spiers, Judith A.; Van, Paulina; Meleis, Afaf Ibrahim

    1997-01-01

    Social conceptualization and media images of women's work affect health and social policy formation. Nurses can expand the visibility of women's work and promote gender-sensitive policies within and outside the profession. (SK)

  7. The Fate of Failed Bank Material and Implications for Lateral Retreat: Lake Tahoe Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, A.; Thomas, R. E.

    2009-12-01

    The ability to deterministically predict the critical conditions for streambank failure in alluvial materials has improved markedly in recent years. Analytic tools such as the Bank-Stability and Toe-Erosion Model (BSTEM) account for a broad range of controlling processes and factors including hydraulic erosion of the bank toe, positive and negative pore-water pressures, layers of varying geotechnical resistance and root reinforcement. When failure is predicted, the failed mass is assumed to be transported away from the section by the flow, either as a single mass or as dispersed aggregates. Field observations indicate, however, that in cases where cohesive strength is high, either due to the effective cohesion of the soil skeleton or due to dense mats of fine roots, the failed block comes to rest in the vicinity of the bank toe. In this case, the resistance of the bank-toe region to hydraulic scour may be increased markedly and resistance to geotechnical failure may also be increased by buttressing. Conversely, deposition of blocks at bank toes may cause flow acceleration and scour landward of the block, resulting in further undercutting of the bank mass. Failure to account for these processes can lead to errors in predicting of rates of failure frequency, lateral retreat and streambank loadings.Once deposited at the bank toe, failed blocks can be eroded by hydraulic forces either as a mass and/or by erosion of aggregates comprising the block. Field research on the nature of hydraulic resistance and block erosion has been conducted along selected reaches of the Upper Truckee River (UTR) and Trout Creek, Lake Tahoe Basin, California. Block materials are generally characterized by lower apparent cohesive strength than their in situ counterparts due to the lower values of matric suction owing to their proximity to the water surface. Still, submerged jet-test device conducted in root-permeated blocks show critical shear stresses one to two orders of magnitude greater

  8. Modeling expectations in agent-based models: an application to central bank's communication and monetary policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salle, I.L.

    2015-01-01

    Expectations play a major role in macroeconomic dynamics, especially regarding the conduct of monetary policy. Yet, modeling the interplay between communication, expectations and aggregate outcomes remains a challenging task, mainly because this requires deviation from the paradigm of rational

  9. Stimulating a Great Lakes coastal wetland seed bank using portable cofferdams: implications for habitat rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, K.P.; Wilcox, D.A.; Wiley, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Coastal wetland seed banks exposed by low lake levels or through management actions fuel the reestablishment of emergent plant assemblages (i.e., wetland habitat) critical to Great Lakes aquatic biota. This project explored the effectiveness of using portable, water-filled cofferdams as a management tool to promote the natural growth of emergent vegetation from the seed bank in a Lake Erie coastal wetland. A series of dams stretching approximately 450??m was installed temporarily to isolate hydrologically a 10-ha corner of the Crane Creek wetland complex from Lake Erie. The test area was dewatered in 2004 to mimic a low-water year, and vegetation sampling characterized the wetland seed bank response at low, middle, and high elevations in areas open to and protected from bird and mammal herbivory. The nearly two-month drawdown stimulated a rapid seed-bank-driven response by 45 plant taxa. Herbivory had little effect on plant species richness, regardless of the location along an elevation gradient. Inundation contributed to the replacement of immature emergent plant species with submersed aquatic species after the dams failed and were removed prematurely. This study revealed a number of important issues that must be considered for effective long-term implementation of portable cofferdam technology to stimulate wetland seed banks, including duration of dewatering, product size, source of clean water, replacement of damaged dams, and regular maintenance. This technology is a potentially important tool in the arsenal used by resource managers seeking to rehabilitate the functions and values of Great Lakes coastal wetland habitats.

  10. Nigerian language policy and its implication in the school curriculum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper observes that the Nigerian language policy, failed to take into consideration the socio-linguistic habits of Nigerians. Since English language is a focal point for communication it then implies that policy makers to formulate language policies based on realities of language need. This is the only way that the ...

  11. Monetary and Fiscal Policy Interaction and the Relationship between the Central Bank and the Government. (The Case of Republic of Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Chironachi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author is analyzing the impact of fiscal and monetary policies on the dynamics of the exchange rate, inflation and other macroeconomic variables. The author investigates the forms of strategic interaction between the Government and the Central Bank in designing and implementing these policies. As a result, the author concludes the necessity of institutions cooperation in the development and implementation of monetary and fiscal policy measures, but also concluded that the responsible institutions must remain independent in achieving an efficient monetary and fiscal policy of the Republic of Moldova.

  12. North Korea's nuclear weapons development. Implications for future policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollack, J.D.

    2010-01-01

    This essay assesses North Korea's long-standing quest for nuclear weapons; alternative strategies for inhibiting Pyongyang's weapons development; and the potential implications for regional security and nonproliferation should the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) retain and enhance its weapons programs. North Korea's pursuit of a nuclear weapons capability has long provoked heated debate among policy makers and research analysts about the purposes of engagement with the North, reflecting the repeated frustrations in efforts to negotiate Korean denuclearization. These debates reflect widely divergent views of the North Korean regime; its sustainability as an autonomous political, economic, and military system; and the potential consequences of continued nuclear development in this isolated, highly idiosyncratic state. These questions assume additional salience as North Korea approaches a leadership succession for only the second time in its six-decade history. The effort to inhibit North Korea's pursuit of nuclear weapons is among the longest running and least successful sagas in international security and non-proliferation policy of the past quarter century. In early 2010, Pyongyang claims a rudimentary nuclear capability by possession of weaponized plutonium, the conduct of two nuclear tests, and advances in the production of enriched uranium as an alternative means of fissile material production, though the latter step is nominally justified as a source for reactor fuel. North Korea defends its pursuit of a nuclear deterrent to counter what Pyongyang deems existential threats posed by the United States.Despite the resumption of high-level diplomatic contact between Washington and Pyongyang in late 2009, realization of a non-nuclear Korean Peninsula remains a very remote prospect. The DPRK insists that a peace agreement between the U.S. and North Korea and hence the cessation of 'hostile DPRK-U.S. relations' are necessary before any consideration of

  13. Risk assessment as rhetorical practice: The ironic mathematics behind terrorism, banking, and public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danisch, Robert

    2013-02-01

    The twin problems of possible terrorist attacks and a global economic recession have been, and continue to be, critical components of contemporary political culture. At the center of both problems is the assessment of future risk. To calculate the probability that a loan will default or to estimate the likelihood of an act of bioterrorism crippling an American city is to engage in the quantitative science of risk assessment. The process of risk assessment is an attempt to rationalize the uncertainty and contingency of the future. In this essay, I read risk assessments made by the Department of Homeland Security and by major banks during the recent financial collapse as examples of rhetorical practice. As such, I show the rhetorical form and function of risk assessments in order to determine the effect that they have on contemporary political culture.

  14. Global dollar credit: links to US monetary policy and leverage

    OpenAIRE

    Robert N. McCauley; Patrick McGuire; Vladyslav Sushko

    2015-01-01

    Since the global financial crisis, banks and bond investors have increased the outstanding US dollar credit to non-bank borrowers outside the United States from $6 trillion to $9 trillion. This increase has implications for understanding global liquidity and monetary policy transmission. We analyse the links between US monetary policy, leverage and flows into bond funds, on the one hand, and dollar credit extended to non-US borrowers, on the other. Prior to the crisis, global banks drew on lo...

  15. Operational risk mangement and implications for bank's economic capital - a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Chalupka, Radovan; Teplý, Petr

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we review the actual operational data of an anonymous Central European Bank, using two approaches described in the literature: the loss distribution approach and the extreme value theory (EVT). Within the EVT analysis, two estimation methods were applied; the standard maximum likelihood estimation method and the probability weighted method (PWM). Our results proved a heavy-tailed pattern of operational risk data consistent with the results documented by other researchers in this...

  16. Grazing impact on desert plants and soil seed banks: Implications for seed-eating animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pol, Rodrigo G.; Sagario, M. Cecilia; Marone, Luis

    2014-02-01

    We assess whether the knowledge of livestock diet helps to link grazing effects with changes in plant cover and soil seed bank size, aiming at inferring the consequences of grazing on seed-eating animals. Specifically, we test whether continuous and heavy grazing reduce the cover, number of reproductive structures and seed reserves of the same grass species whose seeds are selected and preferred by granivorous animals in the central Monte desert, Argentina. Grass cover and the number of grass spikes usually diminished under grazing conditions in the two localities studied (Telteca and Ñacuñán), and soil seed bank was consistently reduced in all three years evaluated owing to a decline of perennial grass and forb seeds. In particular, the abundance of those seeds selected and preferred by birds and ants (in all cases grass species) declined 70-92% in Ñacuñán, and 52-72% in Telteca. Reduction of perennial grass cover and spike number in grazed sites reinforced the causal link between livestock grazing and the decline of grass soil seed reserves throughout failed plant reproduction. Grass seed bank depletion suggests that grazing may trigger a "cascade" of mechanisms that affect the abundance and persistence of valuable fodder species as well as the availability of seed resources for granivorous animals.

  17. The Process of Immigrant Acculturation: Recent Findings and Policy Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Gary

    1980-01-01

    Describes new perspectives on immigrant acculturation in the disciplines of history, mental health, and language studies. Discusses the implications of these new perspectives for national policymaking. (ST)

  18. Equilibrium Implications of Fiscal Policy with Tax Evasion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busato, Francesco; Chiarini, Bruno; Rey, Guido M.

    This paper studies equilibrium effects of fiscal policy disturbances within a dynamic general equilibrium model where tax evasion and underground activities are explicitly incorporated. There are three mainresults. (i) The underground sector mitigates the distortionary impact of fiscal policies......, while lesseningthe drop (and the rise) of aggregate production after restrictive (expansionary) tax shocks. (ii) Taxevasion and underground economy can rationalize expansionary response to contractionary fiscal policies;(iii) A dynamic general equilibrium with tax evasion gives a rational justification...

  19. Fertilizer Reduction Policies in Developed Countries: Suitability and Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Fang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reviewed and analyzed the specific practices, implementation effects and applicable conditions of fertilizer reduction policies in the EU, US and Japan, explored the common laws and general conditions in the formulation of environmental orientation, and pro vided feasible policy recommendations for the formulation of fertilizer reduction policies in China. This study showed that fertilizer reduction policies in each country had their own advantages and disadvantages, and the applicable conditions were different. The EU's command and control policy was applicable to the situation of less farm households and the same agricultural planting type or farm type. The economic in centive policy in the US was applicable to the situation of more farm households, relatively perfect agricultural market system and sensitive price formation mechanism, while the public participation policy in Japan was applicable to regions with more relevant agricultural groups and strong economy. China should learn from each of these policies and make a comprehensive choice in the formulation of fertilizer reduc tion policies. Therefore, China should proceed from improving the agricultural price mechanism and the pollution-free agricultural products certification system as well as encouraging and supporting the development of large scale production units, and then promote the adoption of environmentally friendly technology through the guidance of market mechanism, ensure the effective implementation of environmental stan dards through farmers' integration and improve farmers' environmental awareness through propaganda guidance, so as to ensure the effective implementation of different types(command and control policy, economic incentive policy and public participation policyof fertilizer reduc tion policies.

  20. Modern Monetary Policy and Central Bank Governance : A Story of Two Tales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Masciandaro, D.

    The objective of this note is to present the evolution of both the economics and the political economy of monetary policy in the last three decades – first the Great Moderation and then the Financial Crisis – as a story of two intertwined tales: on the one side the tale of how to govern money and

  1. Money, the Banking System and Monetary Policy in Canada: A Teaching Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Douglas C. A.; Staunton, Ted, Ed.

    One of a series of teaching units designed to introduce secondary school students to the Canadian economy, this handbook contains instructional materials on Canada's monetary system and policy. Material is organized and presented in terms of specific topic readings and illustrative activities. The topics covered in six sections are money, the…

  2. Determinants of Self-Employment Dynamics and their Implications on Entrepreneurial Policy Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Millán

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the main results of the empirical research on self-employment dynamics —particularly entry and success— and discusses their possible implications on entrepreneurial policy effectiveness. The main goal of this study is to promote a debate on this topic, encouraging conditional analyses that serve as guidance in the design of a policy agenda.

  3. Taiwan-U.S. Relations: Developments and Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-02

    relations with the People’s Republic of China (PRC) and an important component of U.S. policy in Asia. Official U.S. relations with the Republic of China ...8 Corruption Investigations: Former Chen Administration...................................................... 10 Special Expense Accounts...16 Maintain and Reaffirm the Current AOne- China @ Policy....................................................... 16 Change

  4. Political implications of US nuclear-export-policy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson-Freese, J.S.

    1981-01-01

    There has been a great deal of international debate regarding how effective strict export controls on nuclear-energy supplies are toward a non-proliferation goal. With the Carter Administration, the debate was heightened by a new, more-vigorous US nuclear-export policy, much of which was codified by the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act of 1978 (NNPA). Because of the US position in both the international non-proliferation regime and nuclear export market, the NNPA has had far-reaching consequences. The thesis of this paper is that a nuclear-export policy that fails to consider its short-term ramifications, as the NNPA has been accused of, will be self-defeating. If the US wants a viable worldwide nuclear non-proliferation policy, it must first direct its efforts toward building a domestic non-proliferation consensus, and then worldwide, rather than first setting a highly controversial policy and expecting other nations to fall into line. This work provides a comprehensive case study of US nuclear-export policy between the years 1976 to 1980 in support of the thesis. Further, the behavior and impact of the interest groups which seem to shape US nuclear-export policies is examined, and recommendations made regarding the role of groups in nuclear policy-making and implementation. Finally, recommendations are made regarding non-proliferation policy for the future, as it relates to nuclear exports

  5. Education Policies: Potential Impacts and Implications in Australia and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Tiffany

    2016-01-01

    Australian education is delivered through government and independent systems. This article discusses how education policies on gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, intersex, and queer students in these different sectors have affected school climates. It describes how previously published policy analysis and survey data on Australian gay, lesbian,…

  6. Global Warming: Its Implications for U.S. National Security Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-19

    The approach to this topic will be to look at the science behind anthropogenic global warming . Is man largely responsible for causing global warming due...paper will then investigate the nexus between global warming and U.S. national security policy. It will address the challenges facing U.S. leaders and...policy makers as they tackle the issue of global warming and its implications for U.S. policy. Finally it will conclude with recommendations for those

  7. Tissue banking, patient rights, and confidentiality: tensions in law and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, T

    2004-01-01

    The collection, storage and analysis of tissue samples, including genetic data, has become an increasingly common part of biomedical research. Though there are many scientific justifications for the creation of tissue and DNA databanks, the storage and use of human tissue continues to create legal dilemmas. In this paper, the impact and relevance of existing common law principles are reviewed. It is noted that the Canadian common law rules covering consent and confidentiality may create challenges for the research community. Emerging health information legislation does, however, create a somewhat more lenient research environment, largely because these laws allow, in some circumstances, research on identifiable health information without consent. Nevertheless, conflicts between existing common law, research ethics policy and new health information legislation illustrate profound policy dilemmas created by research involving storage and use of tissue and genetic material.

  8. Political economy constraints on carbon pricing policies: What are the implications for economic efficiency, environmental efficacy, and climate policy design?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, Jesse D.

    2014-01-01

    Economists traditionally view a Pigouvian fee on carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas emissions, either via carbon taxes or emissions caps and permit trading (“cap-and-trade”), as the economically optimal or “first-best” policy to address climate change-related externalities. Yet several political economy factors can severely constrain the implementation of these carbon pricing policies, including opposition of industrial sectors with a concentration of assets that would lose considerable value under such policies; the collective action nature of climate mitigation efforts; principal agent failures; and a low willingness-to-pay for climate mitigation by citizens. Real-world implementations of carbon pricing policies can thus fall short of the economically optimal outcomes envisioned in theory. Consistent with the general theory of the second-best, the presence of binding political economy constraints opens a significant “opportunity space” for the design of creative climate policy instruments with superior political feasibility, economic efficiency, and environmental efficacy relative to the constrained implementation of carbon pricing policies. This paper presents theoretical political economy frameworks relevant to climate policy design and provides corroborating evidence from the United States context. It concludes with a series of implications for climate policy making and argues for the creative pursuit of a mix of second-best policy instruments. - Highlights: • Political economy constraints can bind carbon pricing policies. • These constraints can prevent implementation of theoretically optimal carbon prices. • U.S. household willingness-to-pay for climate policy likely falls in the range of $80–$200 per year. • U.S. carbon prices may be politically constrained to as low as $2–$8 per ton of CO 2 . • An opportunity space exists for improvements in climate policy design and outcomes

  9. Policy implications of greenhouse warming: Mitigation, adaptation, and the science base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This book discusses the policy implications of greenhouse warming by examining three major areas: general summary of information about the greenhouse effect leading to a framework for policy; the science basis for the greenhouse effect; mitigation of greenhouse warming. Each section contains 9-13 chapters on specific subjects including the following: overview of greenhouse gases; policy implications; internations considerations; climate records and models; sea levels; temperature rise estimation; energy management at several levels; nonenergy emission reduction; human populations; deforestation. Conclusions are summarized at the end of each section

  10. U.S.Stock Market Crashes and Their Aftermath: Implications for Monetary Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Eugene White; Frederic Mishkin

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines fifteen historical episodes of stock market crashes and their aftermath in the United States over the last one hundred years. Our basic conclusion from studying these episodes is that financial instability is the key problem facing monetary policy makers and not stock market crashes, even if they reflect the possible bursting of a bubble. With a focus on financial stability rather than the stock market, the response of central banks to stock market fluctuations is more lik...

  11. US stock market crashes and their aftermath: Implications for monetary policy

    OpenAIRE

    Mishkin, Frederic S.; White, Eugene N.

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines fifteen historical episodes of stock market crashes and their aftermath in the United States over the last one hundred years. Our basic conclusion from studying these episodes is that financial instability is the key problem facing monetary policy makers and not stock market crashes, even if they reflect the possible bursting of a bubble. With a focus on financial stability rather than the stock market, the response of central banks to stock market fluctuations is more lik...

  12. Modelling Central Bank Independence and Inflation: Deus Ex Machina?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumiter Florin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Central bank independence represents the core element of assessing the complex relationship between government and central bank, having at background the fundamental issue of a free monetary policy decision-making process from the hands of the political circle. However, central bank independence is a multilevel concept within some social, economic and behavioral implications both for the central banks and for the society at whole. Central bank independence is needed in order to establish an autonomous central bank with a high degree of freedom in choosing its’ instruments, objectives, techniques and tactics. Moreover, a high degree of transparency for the public disclosure and monitoring of central bank operation and transaction is needed for the social barometer of the central bank. Consequently the central bank must have a high degree of accountability and responsibility vis - á - vis of the most democratic institution, i.e. Parliament. In this article it is presented a comprehensive study regarding the complex relationship between central bank independence and inflation by modeling these two monetary policy panacea, in order to make a fine tuning regarding the causal relationship established in a heterodox manner.

  13. THE INFLUENCE OF MARKET TO BOOK VALUE, ANNUAL TAX, AND RISK TOWARDS DIVIDEND POLICY IN BANKING COMPANY LISTED IN INDONESIA STOCK EEXCHANGE (IDX PERIOD 2010-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gatot Nazir Ahmad

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effects Market to Book Ratio, Risk and Annual Tax toward Dividend Policy in Banking companies listed of Indonesia Stock Exchange in the period of 2010-2014. This study use Market to Book Value, Annual Tax and Risk as independent variable. As for the dependent variable is a dummy variable with categories of company gives dividend and companies not give dividend. The sample used in this study is 24 banking companies listed of Indonesia Stock Exchange in the period of 2011-2014.The method in this study is analysis logistic regression. Research shows that Market to Book Value and Annual Tax has positive but not significant to Dividend policy, whereas Risk has positive and significant effect to Dividend policy.

  14. A Social Work Approach to Policy: Implications for Population Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzi, Angela R.; Allen, Heidi L.; Martinson, Melissa L.; Salas-Wright, Christopher P.; Jantz, Kathryn; Crevi, Katherine; Rosenbloom, David L.

    2017-01-01

    The substantial disparities in health and poorer outcomes in the United States relative to peer nations suggest the need to refocus health policy. Through direct contact with the most vulnerable segments of the population, social workers have developed an approach to policy that recognizes the importance of the social environment, the value of social relationships, and the significance of value-driven policymaking. This approach could be used to reorient health, health care, and social policies. Accordingly, social workers can be allies to public health professionals in efforts to eliminate disparities and improve population health. PMID:29236535

  15. Renewable energy policies in promoting financing and investment among the East Asia Summit countries: Quantitative assessment and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Youngho; Fang, Zheng; Li, Yanfei

    2016-01-01

    Many countries have implemented various policies for renewable energy development ranging from setting power purchase agreements and the legislation of renewable energy requirements to providing incentives and imposing carbon taxes. The evaluation of the effectiveness of such policies, however, is fragmented, which raises a need for a comprehensive analysis. This paper aims to assess whether and how policies promoting renewable energy investment have achieved the intended goals. It employs five broadly defined criteria - market, uncertainty, profitability, technology, and financial resources - to build an index to assess respectively if such policies have helped create a market for renewable energy, maximize potential profits, reduce risks relating to the investment, develop and adopt new technologies, and improve the access to financial resources. Each criterion is reflected by three indicators. Values of each indicator are converted into ordinal values for analysis. The index not only scans comprehensively all relevant renewable energy investment policies in the East Asia Summit countries, but also provides systematic and quantitative measures to compare the effectiveness of policies in these countries with respect to the creation of market, the degree of uncertainty, the potential of profitability, the development and adoption of technology and the accessibility of financial resources. - Highlights: •This paper evaluate renewable energy policies in 16 East Asia Summit countries. •Five criteria are used to build the quantitative index. •They are market, profitability, legislation, technology, and financial resources. •Policy implications are drawn based on the index.

  16. Inactivation of high-risk human papillomaviruses by Holder pasteurization: implications for donor human milk banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donalisio, Manuela; Cagno, Valeria; Vallino, Marta; Moro, Guido E; Arslanoglu, Sertac; Tonetto, Paola; Bertino, Enrico; Lembo, David

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have recently reported the detection of oncogenic human papillomaviruses (HPV) in human milk of a minority of lactating mothers. These findings raised safety concerns in the context of human donor milk banking given the potential risk of HPV transmission to recipient infants. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the Holder pasteurization, a procedure currently in use in human donor milk banks for milk pasteurization, completely inactivates high-risk and low-risk HPV. HPV pseudoviruses (PsV) were generated, spiked into cell culture medium or donor human milk and subjected to thermal inactivation. HPV PsV infectivity and morphological integrity was analyzed by cell-based assay and by electron microscopy, respectively. The Holder pasteurization completely inactivated the infectivity of high-risk (types 16 and 18) and low-risk (type 6) HPV both in cell culture medium and in human milk causing PsV particle disassembly. The results presented here indicate that the Holder pasteurization is an efficient procedure to inactivate high-risk and low-risk HPV thus preventing the potential risk of their transmission through human donor milk.

  17. Bank and sovereign debt risk

    OpenAIRE

    Darracq Paries, Matthieu; Faia, Ester; Rodriguez-Palenzuela, Diego

    2013-01-01

    Euro area data show a positive connection between sovereign and bank risk, which increases with banks' and sovereign long run fragility. We build a macro model with banks subject to incentive problems and liquidity risk (in the form of liquidity based banks' runs) which provides a link between endogenous bank capital and macro and policy risk. Our banks also invest in risky government bonds used as capital buffer to self-insure against liquidity risk. The model can replicate the positive conn...

  18. EU environmental state aid policy: wide implications, narrow participation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flaam, Karoline

    2008-11-15

    This article investigates the 2008 reform of the EU's environmental state aid guidelines, with an eye to determining the degree of external pressure and lobbyism towards environmental state aid policies. What is found is a strikingly low level of external pressure on the policy-field, not least on the part of the private sector. In fact, EU environmental state aid policy is largely the making of a few Commission officials, without much external 'interference'. The article discusses possible reasons for this, and asks whether state aid policy-making might be marked less by clear and established interests and utility maximising, and more by actors constrained by complexity and bounded rationality. (author). refs.,tab

  19. The Problem Trap: Implications of Policy Archaeology Methodology for Anti-Bullying Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    James Scheurich argues that practices of policy--normalized over time through repetition--serve three purposes. They structure social problems for which policy is designed to address; construct certain people, implicitly or explicitly, as problem individuals; and shape policy solutions. Following Foucault, he offers what he calls Policy…

  20. IMPROVING DEPOSIT POLICY BANK ON THE BASIS OF ANALYSIS OF THE INFLUENCE OF DEPOSIT PORTFOLIO STRUCTURE ON FORMATION OF INVESTMENT RESOURCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viadrova I.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The banking system as a part of the national economy contributes to the development of various branches of economy and trade, enabling the realization of economic interests of economic entities. One of the important tasks of the monetary system is the accumulation of financial resources necessary for the implementation of credit and investment projects and their further distribution. This task is performed by banking institutions by attracting funds from individuals and legal entities. The size of the bank’s resource base and the scale of its operations depend on the operations of attraction of funds. The priority task of the banking institution is the predominance of attracting long-term investments over short-term ones. That is why the problem that exists in the disproportion of the maturity of borrowed funds, the prevalence of short-term deposits over long-term and the minimum amount of long-term resources in the bank’s deposit portfolio is particularly relevant. Purpose. The purpose of the work is to generalize the theoretical aspects of bank deposit activity and to determine the optimal structure of the deposit portfolio for carrying out of credit and investment activity. Results. The article summarizes the essence of the concept of “deposit policy”, identifies the peculiarities of its formation and analyzes the main external and internal factors that have an impact on the deposit policy of domestic banks. The analysis of the dynamics and structure of deposit operations of banks at the state level was carried out and the analysis of deposit policy of a bank of foreign bank groups – PJSC “Ukrsotsbank” for 2010-2017 was provided. In this work, the factors of influence are investigated: external and internal, which determine the ways of formation of deposit policy by banks of Ukraine. The influence of the structure of the deposit portfolio of Ukrainian banks on the formation of the investment resource is analyzed

  1. Nonmedical Prescription Drug Use: Theory and Policy Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriele Camera; Bryan Engelhardt

    2014-01-01

    The illicit nonmedical use of prescription drugs is studied in a model where individuals with imperfectly observable health conditions seek prescription drugs for either medical or nonmedical reasons. The equilibrium number of medical and nonmedical users is endogenous and depends on economic and non-economic barriers to drugs consumption, such as pricing, health care costs, refill policies, monitoring programs, and the medical community’s prescription standards. The results show policies cen...

  2. National drug policy: implications of the 'tough on drugs' ideology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, R

    2001-10-01

    Australia has emerged over the last decade as a world leader in drug policy. According to Single and Rohl (1997 pvii) Australia's National Drug Strategy 'has been characterised by a unique combination of features which have brought it international attention and acclaim'. The strength of Australia's policy has been its emphasis on both licit and illicit drugs, and also its clear articulation of harm minimisation as a guiding principle in all areas of action. The key policy goals recognised the harm associated with all substances and sought results in key areas of alcohol-related problems, tobacco-related problems, under-age consumption, prescription medication problems and illicit drug use. However, Australia has a new drug policy document for the new millennium, The National Drug Strategic Framework 1998 - 2002. As a result of a conservative influence in national politics, this framework has moved from the harm minimisation philosophy to a moralistic 'tough on drugs' philosophy that stresses zero tolerance, law enforcement and abstinence. There is a risk that Australia will experience an increase in adverse health, social and economic consequences as a result of this new policy direction. Nurses need to think critically about the 'tough on drugs' ideology. There is a risk that significant adverse affects may occur for their drug-using patients as a result of this policy change. In their practice, nurses need to challenge the validity of a punitive response, and to commit themselves to improving the health and safety of the illicit drug-using community.

  3. Central Banking after the Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Frederick S. Mishkin

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores where central banking is heading after the recent financial crisis. First it discusses the central bank consensus before the crisis and then outlines the key facts learned from the crisis that require changes in the way central banks conduct their business. Finally, it discusses four main areas in which central banks are altering their policy frameworks: 1) the interaction between monetary and financial stability policies, 2) nonconventional monetary policy, 3) risk manage...

  4. THE IMPLICATIONS OF SINGLE EURO PAYMENTS AREA (SEPA ON BANKING EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaita-Cosmin POPOVICI

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available With the creation of the euro by the Maastricht Treaty in 1992, European integration has deepened. Even with this step done the financial market is fragmented. In order to eliminate this disadvantage, the European Union has taken a number of measures. The first step is the Financial Services Action Plan in 2000, through the Lisbon Strategy. Second is the European Commission Regulation 2560/2001 to harmonise fees for cross border and domestic euro transactions. Third is the first pan-European Automated Clearing House in 2003. Last great step made is the Single Euro Payments Area (SEPA in 2008. In this paper, we want to research the degree of implementation of SEPA by using quantitative indicators: credit transfers, direct debits and payment cards, and the effects of this system on bank efficiency.

  5. Evolutions in food marketing, quantifying the impact, and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Georgina

    2013-03-01

    A case study on interactive digital marketing examined the adequacy of extant policy controls and their underpinning paradigms to constrain the effects of this rapidly emerging practice. Findings were interactive digital marketing is expanding the strategies available to promote products, brands and consumer behaviours. It facilitates relational marketing; the collection of personal data for marketing; integration of the marketing mix, and provides a platform for consumers to engage in the co-creation of marketing communications. The paradigmatic logic of current policies to constrain youth-oriented food marketing does not address the interactive nature of digital marketing. The evidence base on the effects of HFSS marketing and policy interventions is based on conceptualizations of marketing as a force promoting transactions rather than interactions. Digital technologies are generating rich consumer data. Interactive digital technologies increase the complexity of the task of quantifying the impact of marketing. The rapidity of its uptake also increases urgency of need to identify appropriate effects measures. Independent analysis of commercial consumer data (appropriately transformed to protect commercial confidentiality and personal privacy) would provide evidence sources for policy on the impacts of commercial food and beverage marketing and policy controls. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Contaminants in Sludge: Implications for Management Policies and Land Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dentel, Steven K.

    2003-07-01

    Policies on sludge (or biosolids) management vary widely, particularly when decisions must be made on what to do with the final product. This paper examines the two principal rationales with which such decisions are made, and through which scientific knowledge is included in the process. These rationales are risk analysis (risk assessment and management), and the criterion of sustainability. Both are found to be potentially arbitrary due to the difficulty in defining the individual constituents necessary to relate environmental phenomena to environmental policy. To place the difficulties in a practical context, this paper presents research results from three recent projects concerned with contaminants in sludge (phosphorus, flocculant polymers, and polymer-surfactant aggregates), and uses the findings to exemplify the dilemma encountered in policy making. A path forward is proposed. (author)

  7. Industrial clusters in the Finnish economy. Strategies and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luukkainen, S.

    2001-04-01

    Technology is currently the most important determinant of the long-term economic growth as it explains for at least half of the growth of the industrialised nations. Economists have demonstrated that R and D performed by the innovating company generates widespread value in the economy through technology diffusion. The objective of the private financing is, however, to increase the value of the innovating company and the spillovers to other companies are there not so important. The market failure created by the R and D spillovers is thus one of the main justifications for government policies. The advancement of spillovers by government's actions can be called cluster policy. The objective of this study is to produce knowledge to support decision making in the realisation of an efficient cluster-oriented technology policy. The Finnish industrial clusters are identified by a quantitative value chain analysis, and their economic profiles are analysed. Also, a solid framework is presented that describes how to evaluate the economic impacts of a R and D project from the cluster policy point of view. The clusters should be seen as a technology policy tools, by which the domestic industrial structures can be analysed and developed. In this kind of decision making it is important to understand the mechanisms of technology diffusion. Concrete technology policy occurs in the selection of the publicly financed R and D projects. In the selection of the supported-projects it is crucial to evaluate the economic impacts of project proposals in advance. That is why economic indicators like measures of spillovers are needed The governments should fund R and D projects that have the highest social rate of return and would otherwise be underfunded or delayed. (orig.)

  8. Macroeconomic policy interaction: State dependency and implications for financial stability in UK: A systemic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ali Nasir

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The association between economic and financial stabilities and influence of macroeconomic policies on the financial sector creates scope of active policy role in financial stability. As a contribution to the existing body of knowledge, this study has analysed the implications of macroeconomic policy interaction/coordination for financial stability, proxied by financial assets, i.e. equity and bonds price oscillation. The critical review and analysis of the existing literature on the subject suggests that there is also ample evidence of interdependence between monetary and fiscal policies and this interrelation necessitates coordination between them for the sake of financial stability. There is also a case for analysing the symmetry of financial markets responses to macroeconomic policy interaction. On methodological and empirical grounds, it is vital to test the robustness of policy recommendations to overcome the limitation of a single empirical approach (Jeffrey–Lindley’s paradox. Hence, the Frequentist and Bayesian approaches should be used in commentary manner. The policy interaction and optimal policy combination should also be analysed in the context of institutional design and major financial events to gain insight into the implications of policy interaction in the periods of stable economic and financial environments as well as period of financial and economic distress.

  9. Bank Relationship and Firm Profitability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degryse, H.A.; Ongena, S.

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines how bank relationships affect firm performance. An empirical implication of recent theoretical models is that firms maintaining multiple bank relationships are less profitable than their single-bank peers. We investigate this empirical implication using a data set containing

  10. Exertional Heat Illness among Secondary School Athletes: Statewide Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Jill; Slota, Peggy; Zamboni, Beth

    2018-01-01

    Exertional heat illness (EHI) is a leading cause of preventable death among student athletes. While causes and preventative measures for EHI are known, school districts may not be implementing evidence-based practices. This descriptive, exploratory study explored school policies, resources, and practices of coaches in a mid-Atlantic state in the…

  11. Rehabilitation Policy and Practice in Romania: Implications for Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rak, Eniko C.

    2007-01-01

    This article provides a comprehensive account of the Romanian rehabilitation service delivery system. After a short presentation of disability issues during communism, the article shifts focus to a detailed review of current advancements in disability policy and legislation, prevalence, diagnosis, service delivery system and procedures, and…

  12. Measuring Medicaid Physician Participation Rates and Implications for Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommers, Benjamin D; Kronick, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Policy makers continue to debate Medicaid expansion under the Affordable Care Act, and concerns remain about low provider participation in the program. However, there has been little research on how various measures of physician participation may reflect different elements of capacity for care within the Medicaid program and how these distinct measures correlate with one another across states. Our objectives were to describe several alternative measures of provider participation in Medicaid using recently publicly available data, to compare state rankings across these different metrics, and to discuss potential advantages and disadvantages of each measure for research and policy purposes. Overall, we find that Medicaid participation as measured by raw percentages of physicians taking new Medicaid patients is only weakly correlated with population-based measures that account for both participation rates and the numbers of physicians per capita or physicians per Medicaid beneficiary. Participation rates for all physicians versus primary care physicians also offer different information about state-level provider capacity. Policy makers should consider multiple dimensions of provider access in assessing policy options in Medicaid, and further research is needed to evaluate the linkages between these provider-based measures and beneficiaries' perceptions of access to care in the program. Copyright © 2016 by Duke University Press.

  13. Curricular Critique of an Environmental Education Policy: Implications for Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karrow, Douglas D.; Fazio, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a curricular critique of an environmental education policy framework called "Acting Today, Shaping Tomorrow" (Ontario Ministry of Education, 2009). Answers to the following two curricular questions: "What should be taught?" and "How it should be taught?" frame the critique. Scrutiny of the latter…

  14. The Economics of Wind Power in China and Policy Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zifa Liu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In 2009, the implementation of feed-in tariff (FIT and attractive public subsidies for onshore wind farms aroused great investment enthusiasm and spurred remarkable development of wind power in China. Meanwhile, rapid learning-by-doing has significantly cut down the cost of wind turbines and the capital cost of wind farms as well. Therefore, it is the right time to examine the appropriateness of the existing FIT policy for wind power in China. In this paper, we employ the analytical framework for levelized cost of electricity (LCOE to model the generation cost of wind power. Results show that the existing FIT policy is attractive to investors, but serious curtailment and turbine quality issues could make wind power unprofitable. Meanwhile, rapid substantial decreases in the cost of wind power have made it competitive to coal power in 2013, implying that it is possible and necessary to reform the FIT policy for new wind farms. In the future, energy policies for onshore wind power in China could be concentrated on reducing the integration cost, so as to reduce the overall system cost.

  15. From Print to Digital: Implications for Dictionary Policy and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper looks at some familiar editorial and presentational conventions, and considers which are no longer appropriate in the digital medium — and what new policies might replace them. Keywords: Definitions, example sentences, digital media, exclusion Criteria, gatekeeper, lexicographic conventions, online dictionary ...

  16. Languages of Instruction: Policy Implications for Education in Africa ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This synopsis report was prepared under the auspices of the Association for the Development of Education in Africa (ADEA) Working Group on Educational Research and Policy Analysis (WGER&PA), in collaboration with the ADEA Secretariat. The research reviews on which the report is based were commissioned after ...

  17. The retirement cliff: Power plant lives and their policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rode, David C.; Fischbeck, Paul S.; Páez, Antonio R.

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines more than a century of U.S. power plant additions and retirements in conjunction with several decades of utility capital investment data. While policy analyses often invoke assumptions of power plant book life, relatively little analysis has focused on the physical life of power-generating assets. The average age of the U.S. generator fleet has increased significantly over time despite continued investment, in part because more recent investment has tended to focus on shorter-lived assets. This may be due in part to risk-averse power sector investors and lenders responding rationally to regulatory uncertainty in a deregulated market environment. Power plant retirement trends suggest that the pace of retirements will increase significantly in the decade after 2030 for most reasonable estimates of physical life. These capital investment trends have important consequences for carbon policy and highlight the importance of including consideration of the longer term—particularly when evaluating more significant decarbonization policies. - Highlights: • Many policy analyses neglect the physical lives of power plants. • A large database of U.S. power plant additions and retirements is examined. • The average age of power plants has steadily increased despite growing investment. • Long-term CO 2 reduction strategies are challenged by increases in plant retirements.

  18. Policy Implications and Suggestions on Administrative Measures of Urban Flood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. V.; Lee, M. J.; Lee, C.; Yoon, J. H.; Chae, S. H.

    2017-12-01

    The frequency and intensity of floods are increasing worldwide as recent climate change progresses gradually. Flood management should be policy-oriented in urban municipalities due to the characteristics of urban areas with a lot of damage. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to prepare a flood susceptibility map by using data mining model and make a policy suggestion on administrative measures of urban flood. Therefore, we constructed a spatial database by collecting relevant factors including the topography, geology, soil and land use data of the representative city, Seoul, the capital city of Korea. Flood susceptibility map was constructed by applying the data mining models of random forest and boosted tree model to input data and existing flooded area data in 2010. The susceptibility map has been validated using the 2011 flood area data which was not used for training. The predictor importance value of each factor to the results was calculated in this process. The distance from the water, DEM and geology showed a high predictor importance value which means to be a high priority for flood preparation policy. As a result of receiver operating characteristic (ROC), random forest model showed 78.78% and 79.18% accuracy of regression and classification and boosted tree model showed 77.55% and 77.26% accuracy of regression and classification, respectively. The results show that the flood susceptibility maps can be applied to flood prevention and management, and it also can help determine the priority areas for flood mitigation policy by providing useful information to policy makers.

  19. L'euro e il comportamento delle grandi banche nell'UME: strategie imprenditoriali e politica monetaria (The euro and the large banks' behaviour within the EMU - entrepreneurial strategies and monetary policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. BORCHERT

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper connects different business cultures of large banks in various countries of the EMU with monetary policy issue of the ECB. First, the banks' competitive potential as well as their strategic behaviour is outlined. Furthermore, a cluster analysis exhibits some banking groups according to the liability-orientation of the largest EMU-banks, and a factor analysis gives some additional information about their asset-orientation; both business-orientations play an important role for the efficiency of monetary policy. Finally, the different cash requirements within the various European coun-tries might lead to totally new bank strategies, yielding to an internationali-sation of large bank-credits. JEL: F15, G21

  20. Public policy, participation and the third position: the implication of engaging communities on their own terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Brian J; Vicary, David A; Browne, Alison L; Guard, Neil

    2009-03-01

    Policy development and implementation should be fundamental for community psychologists in their endeavors to create social change. Policy necessarily is engaged at broad social and political levels, but it is mediated through communities and individuals, and thus appealing for our discipline. We argue that there are increasing opportunities for social input in liberal democracies with the growing awareness of the need to consider social factors in policy. Public participation is one aspect of policy development, but it can be problematic and can disempowered communities, especially disadvantaged communities. Using the framework of the 'third position', a case study of attempts to ameliorate institutional oppression of Australian Aboriginal people through policy change is described. Structural reform to community engagement is described in terms of empowerment and capacity building. Power relationships are deconstructed to allow understandings of the dynamics of policy change, and the broader implications for community psychological praxis are discussed.

  1. Forensic and policy implications of the transracial adoption debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, E E

    1995-01-01

    The adoption of black children by white families continues to garner significant attention from legislatures, the media, and scholars in many disciplines. Still, forensic psychiatrists have said little about this form of transracial adoption, and they seem willing to allow other disciplines to map out singlehandedly the public policy in this area. This policy is expected to affect an estimated 175,000 black children nationally who live in some form of out-of-home placement. Forensic psychiatrists should increase their understanding of and involvement in the debate over this special form of adoption. This article highlights several principles that must be better understood if forensic psychiatrists are to participate in the debate with clarity and understanding.

  2. Trump and the GOP agenda: implications for retirement policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madland, David; Rowell, Alex

    2018-04-11

    Policymakers need to act to protect Americans' retirement security. A significant portion of Americans are at risk of not being able to maintain their standard of living in retirement and research suggests that this percentage is likely to grow. This commentary provides background on the current state of American retirement, highlights recent efforts to reform retirement policy, and predicts what to expect under President Donald Trump. Retirement has not been a major focus of national policymakers in recent years. Early actions during the Trump administration to undo Obama administration policies may make it more difficult for individuals to save for retirement. While it is impossible to predict the future with any certainty, long standing trends and recent political developments suggest that major action will not be taken during the Trump presidency to boost retirement security.

  3. The cell based therapy and the policy implications in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Bratati; Basak, Saroj K; Ganguly, Nirmal K

    2011-01-01

    The recent scientific development using stem or other differentiated cells has generated great hopes for treatment of various diseases. Major thrust has been given to formulate country specific laws and regulations considering international guidelines to conduct research and clinical applications of "Cell Based Therapy" (CBT) all over the world. Attempts have made in this review to discuss the current policies that are practiced by various countries in the areas related to CBT with special emphasis on CBT related research and development in India. The two major funding agencies of Government of India e.g. Department of Biotechnology (DBT) and Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), have jointly formulated the "Guidelines for Stem Cell Research and Therapy" in 2007 which requires update and revision. Based on the review of the current world scenario of CBT research and development, suggestions have been made for the development of a new CBT policy that will help in progress of research and patient treatment in India.

  4. Chimeras, moral status, and public policy: implications of the abortion debate for public policy on human/nonhuman chimera research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streiffer, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Researchers are increasingly interested in creating chimeras by transplanting human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) into animals early in development. One concern is that such research could confer upon an animal the moral status of a normal human adult but then impermissibly fail to accord it the protections it merits in virtue of its enhanced moral status. Understanding the public policy implications of this ethical conclusion, though, is complicated by the fact that claims about moral status cannot play an unfettered role in public policy. Arguments like those employed in the abortion debate for the conclusion that abortion should be legally permissible even if abortion is not morally permissible also support, to a more limited degree, a liberal policy on hESC research involving the creation of chimeras.

  5. Rural-Urban Migration and Unemployment: Theory and Policy Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Zenou, Yves

    2010-01-01

    We develop a regional model where, in the city, unemployment prevails because of too high (efficiency) wages, while, in the rural area, workers are paid at their marginal productivity. We characterize the steady-state equilibrium and show that it is unique. We then consider two policies: decreasing urban unemployment benefits and subsidizing urban employment. We find that decreasing the unemployment benefit in the city creates urban jobs and reduces rural-urban migration since new migrants ha...

  6. Human trafficking in Southeast Asia causes and policy implications

    OpenAIRE

    Betz, Diana L.

    2009-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited This thesis examines human trafficking within Southeast Asia to identify the similarities and differences between the causes of labor and sex trafficking. The thesis also analyzes how three case study countries have tailored their antitrafficking policies to causes present in their country. The causes examined are divided into two distinct categories, universal and specific. The universal causes studied are large-scale social issues af...

  7. The Economic Value of Personal Information and Policy Implication

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jiin; Nam, Changi; Kim, Seongcheol

    2015-01-01

    Personal information is essential in an information-oriented society for societal development and as a valuable business resource. However, because of poor management and a lack of proper protection, leakage of personal information can take place over time, and the standard for compensation is not well established. In order to establish appropriate policies for its protection, we need to know the economic value of personal information. Using conjoint analysis, we analyze the potential value o...

  8. The (Biological or Cultural) Essence of Essentialism: Implications for Policy Support among Dominant and Subordinated Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soylu Yalcinkaya, Nur; Estrada-Villalta, Sara; Adams, Glenn

    2017-01-01

    Most research links (racial) essentialism to negative intergroup outcomes. We propose that this conclusion reflects both a narrow conceptual focus on biological/genetic essence and a narrow research focus from the perspective of racially dominant groups. We distinguished between beliefs in biological and cultural essences, and we investigated the implications of this distinction for support of social justice policies (e.g., affirmative action) among people with dominant (White) and subordinated (e.g., Black, Latino) racial identities in the United States. Whereas, endorsement of biological essentialism may have similarly negative implications for social justice policies across racial categories, we investigated the hypothesis that endorsement of cultural essentialism would have different implications across racial categories. In Studies 1a and 1b, we assessed the properties of a cultural essentialism measure we developed using two samples with different racial/ethnic compositions. In Study 2, we collected data from 170 participants using an online questionnaire to test the implications of essentialist beliefs for policy support. Consistent with previous research, we found that belief in biological essentialism was negatively related to policy support for participants from both dominant and subordinated categories. In contrast, the relationship between cultural essentialism and policy support varied across identity categories in the hypothesized way: negative for participants from the dominant category but positive for participants from subordinated categories. Results suggest that cultural essentialism may provide a way of identification that subordinated communities use to mobilize support for social justice.

  9. The (Biological or Cultural Essence of Essentialism: Implications for Policy Support among Dominant and Subordinated Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Soylu Yalcinkaya

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Most research links (racial essentialism to negative intergroup outcomes. We propose that this conclusion reflects both a narrow conceptual focus on biological/genetic essence and a narrow research focus from the perspective of racially dominant groups. We distinguished between beliefs in biological and cultural essences, and we investigated the implications of this distinction for support of social justice policies (e.g., affirmative action among people with dominant (White and subordinated (e.g., Black, Latino racial identities in the United States. Whereas, endorsement of biological essentialism may have similarly negative implications for social justice policies across racial categories, we investigated the hypothesis that endorsement of cultural essentialism would have different implications across racial categories. In Studies 1a and 1b, we assessed the properties of a cultural essentialism measure we developed using two samples with different racial/ethnic compositions. In Study 2, we collected data from 170 participants using an online questionnaire to test the implications of essentialist beliefs for policy support. Consistent with previous research, we found that belief in biological essentialism was negatively related to policy support for participants from both dominant and subordinated categories. In contrast, the relationship between cultural essentialism and policy support varied across identity categories in the hypothesized way: negative for participants from the dominant category but positive for participants from subordinated categories. Results suggest that cultural essentialism may provide a way of identification that subordinated communities use to mobilize support for social justice.

  10. Learning to lend for off-grid solar power: policy lessons from World Bank loans to India, Indonesia, and Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Damian; Hope, Chris [Cambridge Univ., Judge Inst. of Management Studies, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2000-02-01

    The World Bank has sought to advance the diffusion of solar photovoltaic (PV) technology for off-grid applications in the developing world. As these systems are fundamentally different to centralised power stations and conventional rural electrification, the World Bank has been learning how best to lend for such technology. This study seeks to highlight the lessons learnt from the World Bank's first loans for off-grid PV to India, Indonesia, and Sri Lanka. It uses lifetime cost analysis to justify continued intervention in this sector, and it draws on theories of innovation diffusion to guide analysis and ultimately policy recommendations. Because of the special role of entrepreneurial start up companies in the rural PV sector, the paper also uses a company cash flow model to demonstrate the efficacy of various supply-side policies. Finally, the study concludes with a checklist of policy lessons and a consideration of the role of the International Finance Corporation in this sector. (Author)

  11. The policy implications of the different interpretations of the cost-effectiveness of renewable electricity support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Río, Pablo del; Cerdá, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    The cost-effectiveness of support for renewable electricity is a main criterion to assess the success of policy instruments, together with effectiveness. The costs of support are also a source of significant concern for governments all over the world. However, significant confusion exists in the literature on the cost-effectiveness of public support for renewable electricity. While some authors define the concept of cost-effectiveness as that which complies with the equimarginality principle, many others, including documents from relevant organisations (European Commission, International Energy Agency, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) define it as “the lowest costs of support”, generally equating it with the minimisation of consumer costs. The aim of this paper is to clarify the differences between both approaches and their policy implications regarding the choice of instruments and design elements. It is shown that they partly overlap and that their policy implications clearly differ, leading to very different policy prescriptions. While the former favours technology neutral instruments and design elements, the “minimisation of consumer costs” approach favours instruments and design elements which adjust support levels to the costs of the technologies. - Highlights: • Significant confusion exists in the literature on the cost-effectiveness of public support for renewable electricity. • Clarify the differences between two main approaches to cost-effectiveness. • Policy implications clearly differ, leading to very different policy prescriptions

  12. Rotenone Decreases Hatching Success in Brine Shrimp Embryos by Blocking Development: Implications for Zooplankton Egg Banks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph A Covi

    Full Text Available While many zooplankton species recover quickly after the treatment of water resources with the piscicide, rotenone, some fail to reach pretreatment population density or, in rare cases, do not reappear at all. The variable impact of rotenone on zooplankton populations could stem from differences in the capacity of species to switch entirely to anaerobic catabolic pathways in the presence of rotenone, which blocks mitochondrial electron transport. Alternatively, variable responses among species could originate from differences in permeability of dormant life-stages to lipophilic chemicals like rotenone. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of rotenone on development, emergence and hatching of zooplankton embryos that lack both the anaerobic capacity to develop in the presence of rotenone and a permeability barrier to prevent the entry of rotenone during dormancy. Post-diapause embryos of the brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana, were employed as a model system, because they are permeable to lipophilic compounds when dechorionated and require aerobic conditions to support development. Early development in this species is also well characterized in the literature. Brine shrimp embryos were exposed to rotenone while development was either slowed by chilling or suspended by anoxia. Development, emergence and hatching were then observed in rotenone-free artificial seawater. The data presented demonstrate that rotenone freely diffuses across the embryonic cuticle in a matter of hours, and prevents development and emergence after brief exposures to ecologically relevant concentrations (0.025-0.5 mg L-1 of the piscicide. Neither the removal of rotenone from the environment, nor the removal of embryonic water with a hypertonic solution, are sufficient to reverse this block on development and emergence. These data indicate that rotenone could impair recruitment from egg banks for species of zooplankton that lack both an embryonic

  13. Outsourcing central banking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoury, Sarkis Joseph; Wihlborg, Clas

    2005-01-01

    The literature on Currency Boards (CB) stops at the water edge in terms of dealing with the totality of the functions of a central bank. Monetary policy, and banking supervisioncan be "outsourced" in an open economy with substantial foreign direct investment (FDI)in the banking sector if political...... nationalism does not trump economic rationality. An orthodox CB renders the central banking function redundant in terms of interest rate and exchange rate determination. FDI in banking could perform the same role for the supervisory function of central banks. We use the case of Estonia to illustrate...... the feasibility of, and constraints on, outsourcing of central bank functions. A brief discussion of the Argentinian experience is used for contrast.Key words: Currency Board, Foreign Banks, Supervision, Regional Integration,outsourcing....

  14. Potentials and policy implications of energy and material efficiency improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Levine, Mark; Price, Lynn; Martin, Nathan; van den Broek, Richard; Block, Kornelis

    1997-01-01

    There is a growing awareness of the serious problems associated with the provision of sufficient energy to meet human needs and to fuel economic growth world-wide. This has pointed to the need for energy and material efficiency, which would reduce air, water and thermal pollution, as well as waste production. Increasing energy and material efficiency also have the benefits of increased employment, improved balance of imports and exports, increased security of energy supply, and adopting environmentally advantageous energy supply. A large potential exists for energy savings through energy and material efficiency improvements. Technologies are not now, nor will they be, in the foreseeable future, the limiting factors with regard to continuing energy efficiency improvements. There are serious barriers to energy efficiency improvement, including unwillingness to invest, lack of available and accessible information, economic disincentives and organizational barriers. A wide range of policy instruments, as well as innovative approaches have been tried in some countries in order to achieve the desired energy efficiency approaches. These include: regulation and guidelines; economic instruments and incentives; voluntary agreements and actions, information, education and training; and research, development and demonstration. An area that requires particular attention is that of improved international co-operation to develop policy instruments and technologies to meet the needs of developing countries. Material efficiency has not received the attention that it deserves. Consequently, there is a dearth of data on the qualities and quantities for final consumption, thus, making it difficult to formulate policies. Available data, however, suggest that there is a large potential for improved use of many materials in industrialized countries.

  15. Conservation, biodiversity and infectious disease: scientific evidence and policy implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Hillary S.; Wood, Chelsea L.; Kilpatrick, A. Marm; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Nunn, Charles L.; Vincent, Jeffrey R.

    2017-01-01

    Habitat destruction and infectious disease are dual threats to nature and people. The potential to simultaneously advance conservation and human health has attracted considerable scientific and popular interest; in particular, many authors have justified conservation action by pointing out potential public health benefits . One major focus of this debate—that biodiversity conservation often decreases infectious disease transmission via the dilution effect—remains contentious. Studies that test for a dilution effect often find a negative association between a diversity metric and a disease risk metric, but how such associations should inform conservation policy remains unclear for several reasons. For one, diversity and infection risk have many definitions, making it possible to identify measures that conform to expectations. Furthermore, the premise that habitat destruction consistently reduces biodiversity is in question, and disturbance or conservation can affect disease in many ways other than through biodiversity change. To date, few studies have examined the broader set of mechanisms by which anthropogenic disturbance or conservation might increase or decrease infectious disease risk to human populations. Due to interconnections between biodiversity change, economics and human behaviour, moving from ecological theory to policy action requires understanding how social and economic factors affect conservation.This Theme Issue arose from a meeting aimed at synthesizing current theory and data on ‘biodiversity, conservation and infectious disease’ (4–6 May 2015). Ecologists, evolutionary biologists, economists, epidemiologists, veterinary scientists, public health professionals, and conservation biologists from around the world discussed the latest research on the ecological and socio-economic links between conservation, biodiversity and infectious disease, and the open questions and controversies in these areas. By combining ecological understanding

  16. Central Bank Autonomy, The Money Stock And Price Developments ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This artcle uses on econometric model to analyse central bank policy on the money stock and prices by investigating the relationship among the components of the balance sheet using data from the BOT spanning from 1986 to 2001. The results indicate that the behavior of the BOTs balance sheet has strong implications of ...

  17. Transboundary air pollution in Asia: Model development and policy implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Tracey

    2001-12-01

    This work investigates transboundary air pollution in Asia through atmospheric modeling and public policy analysis. As an example of models actively shaping environmental policy, the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution in Europe (LRTAP) is selected as a case study. The LRTAP Convention is the only mulit- lateral air pollution agreement to date, and results from the RAINS integrated assessment model were heavily used to calculate nationally differentiated emission ceilings. Atmospheric chemistry and transport are included in RAINS through the use of transfer coefficients (or ``source-receptor relationships'') relating pollutant transfer among European nations. Following past work with ATMOS to simulate sulfur species in Asia, here ATMOS is developed to include odd-nitrogen. Fitting with the linear structure of ATMOS and the emphasis on computational efficiency, a simplified chemical scheme developed for use in the NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Global Chemical Transport Model (GFDL GCTM) is adopted. The method solves for the interconversions between NOx, HNO3, and PAN based on five reaction rates stored in look-up tables. ATMOS is used to calculate source-receptor relationships for Asia. Significant exchange of NOy occurs among China, North and South Korea, and Japan. On an annual average basis, China contributes 18% to Japan's total nitrate deposition, 46% to North Korea, and 26% to South Korea. Nitrate deposition is an important component of acidification (along with sulfate deposition), contributing 30-50% to the acid burden over most of Japan, and more than 50% to acid deposition in southeast Asia, where biomass burning emits high levels of NOx. In evaluating the policy-relevance of results from the ATMOS model, four factors are taken into account: the uncertainty and limitations of ATMOS, the environmental concerns facing Asia, the current status of the scientific community in relation to regional air pollution in the region, and

  18. Mexico's petroleum and US policy: implications for the 1980s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronfeldt, D.; Nehring, R.; Gandara, A.

    1980-06-01

    This report examines selected factor affecting Mexico's future petroleum policies, and then assesses various implications of Mexico's petroleum for US interests and policies. After a brief introduction, the report is divided into three sections. The first offers a detailed analysis of Mexico's petroleum resources and production possibilities. The second considers petroleum as a symbolic issue of profound significance for Mexican nationalism. The final section provides an assessment of these and other factors for US interests, objectives, and policy options during the 1980s.

  19. German nuclear policy reconsidered. Implications for the electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuersch, Michaela; Lindenberger, Dietmar; Malischek, Raimund; Nagl, Stephan; Panke, Timo; Trueby, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    In the aftermath of the nuclear catastrophe in Fukushima, German nuclear policy has been reconsidered. This paper demonstrates the economic effects of an accelerated nuclear phase-out on the German electricity generation sector. A detailed optimization model for European electricity markets is used to analyze two scenarios with different lifetimes for nuclear plants (phase-out vs. prolongation). Based on political targets, both scenarios assume significant electricity demand reductions and a high share of generation from renewable energy sources in Germany. Our principal findings are: First, nuclear capacities are mainly replaced by longer lifetimes of existing coal-fired plants and the construction of new gas-fired plants. Second, fossil fuel-based generation and power imports increase, while power exports are reduced in response to the lower nuclear generation. Third, despite the increased fossil generation, challenging climate protection goals can still be achieved within the framework of the considered scenarios. Finally, system costs and electricity prices are clearly higher. We conclude that the generation sector can generally cope with an accelerated nuclear phase-out under the given assumptions. Yet, we emphasize that such a policy requires a substantial and costly transformation of the supply and the demand side.

  20. Global obesity: trends, risk factors and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Vasanti S; Willett, Walter C; Hu, Frank B

    2013-01-01

    The worldwide increase in obesity and related chronic diseases has largely been driven by global trade liberalization, economic growth and rapid urbanization. These factors continue to fuel dramatic changes in living environments, diets and lifestyles in ways that promote positive energy balance. Nutritional transitions in low-income and middle-income countries are typically characterized by increases in the consumption of animal fat and protein, refined grains, and added sugar. This change is coupled with reductions in physical activity owing to more mechanized and technologically driven lifestyles. Given the high costs of obesity and comorbidities in terms of health-care expenditure and quality of life, prevention strategies are paramount, particularly in low-income and middle-income countries that must manage coexisting infectious diseases and undernutrition in addition to the obesity epidemic. As countries become increasingly urbanized, undernutrition and obesity can exist side by side within the same country, community or household, which is a particular challenge for health systems with limited resources. Owing to the scope and complexity of the obesity epidemic, prevention strategies and policies across multiple levels are needed in order to have a measurable effect. Changes should include high-level global policies from the international community and coordinated efforts by governments, organizations, communities and individuals to positively influence behavioural change.

  1. RENEWABLE ENERGY: POLICY ISSUES AND ECONOMIC IMPLICATIONS IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulden Boluk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Current energy policy of Turkey is to increase the renewable energy share in total energy and to maximize benefit from existing potential until next 15 years. It was planed that the share of renewable energy resources in electricity production would be at least 30% by 2023 and government ensured some incentives such as feed-in tariff, investment incentives etc. for renewable energy. Moreover Turkish Energy Regulatory Agency (EMRA announced that biofuel blending would be mandatory starting from 2013 and 2014 for bioethanol (2% and biodiesel (1%, respectively. This study examines the current situation and potential of renewable resources and evaluates the impacts of renewable energy policy both on the energy sector and whole national economy. Renewable energy targets can generate around 275-545 thousand direct jobs possibilities in energy sector and 7.9 thousand tones natural gas and 464 thousand cubic meters fossil fuel saving by 2023. Net trade impact of renewable energy targets will be aggravated due to mandatory biodiesel blending since Turkey has oilseed deficit. In Turkey, utilization of all type of resources will contribute to economy but most feasible and sustainable renewable energy is biomass. Between the other renewables, biomass would provide highest social well-being in the country.

  2. Impact of Macroeconomic Policies on Poverty and Unemployment Rates in Nigeria, Implications for Attaining Inclusive Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Nwosa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examined the effect of macroeconomic policies on unemployment and poverty rates in Nigeria from 1980 to 2013 with implication to achieving inclusive growth. The inability of macroeconomic policies in addressing the rising issues unemployment and poverty rates in Nigeria despite the impressive economic growth experience over the last decades has increasingly called for the need for the pursuance of inclusive growth to address the social issues of unemployment and poverty rate. Previous studies have not considered the extent to which macroeconomic policies affects unemployment and poverty rate in Nigeria, and the implication of this relationship to the attainment of inclusive growth in Nigeria. The study adopts the Ordinary Least Square (OLS technique. The study observed that among macroeconomic policy variables only exchange rate significantly influenced unemployment rate while only fiscal policy significantly influenced and poverty rate. This implies that present macroeconomic policies in Nigeria do not guarantee the attainment of inclusive growth in Nigeria. The contribution of the paper is that to achieve inclusive growth that guarantees high employment and reduced poverty rate, there is the need for a re-examination of macroeconomic policy management in Nigeria.

  3. Investigating Policy Implications for the Abolition of Corporal Punishment in Secondary Schools in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindiki, Jonah Nyaga

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to investigate policy implications for the abolition of corporal punishment in secondary schools in Kenya. Adopting a survey design, using questionnaires, interviews and documentation, a sample of 355 was selected from target population of 3228 teachers, students and parents. The data were analysed thematically.…

  4. Teacher Transfer Policy and the Implications for Equity in Urban School Districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krei, Melinda Scott

    Policies and practices associated with intra-district teacher transfers in urban school districts were examined, exploring the implications for educational equity of this aspect of teacher mobility. Human capital theory and the theory of internal labor markets and their institutional rules provided the primary theoretical focus of the research.…

  5. Environmental Implications of Dynamic Policies on Food Consumption and Waste Handling in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Martin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study will review the environmental implications of dynamic policy objectives and instruments outlined in the European Union 7th Framework Programme (EU-FP7 Project DYNAmic policy MIXes for absolute decoupling of EU resource use from economic growth (DYNAMIX to address reductions in food consumption, food waste and a change in waste handling systems. The environmental implications of reductions in protein intake, food waste reductions, food waste management and donations are addressed using a life cycle approach to find the greenhouse gas (GHG emissions, land use and water consumption. Data are provided from the Statistics Division of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAOSTAT food balance sheets for the European Union (EU with a base year of 2010 and life cycle inventory (LCI data from a meta-study of available GHG, land use and water consumption data for major food products. The implications are reviewed using a number of scenarios for the years 2030 and 2050 assuming policy instruments are fully effective. Results indicate that reductions in animal-based protein consumption significantly reduce environmental impacts, followed thereafter by reductions in food waste (assuming this also reduces food consumption. Despite the positive implications the policy mixes may have for targets for decoupling, they are not enough to meet GHG emissions targets for the EU outlined in the DYNAMIX project, although land and water use have no significant change compared to 2010 levels.

  6. In Retirement Migration, Who Counts? A Methodological Question with Economic Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, William H., III; Bradley, Don E.; Longino, Charles F., Jr.; Stoller, Eleanor P.; Serow, William J.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: We examine the methodological and economic policy implications of three operationalizations of retirement migration. Design and Methods: We compared the traditional age-based definition of retirement migration and two retirement-based definitions, based on degree of labor-force participation and retirement income, by using the 2000 U.S.…

  7. Africa\\'s oil and gas sector: Implications for U.S. Policy | Cohen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Africa\\'s oil and gas sector: Implications for U.S. Policy. A Cohen, R Alasa. Abstract. In this thought provoking paper, the author opines that Africa's oil producing nations are more at a geographical advantage to attract capital investments to the region to develop their energy resources than their Middle East counterparts; ...

  8. The Public-Private Divide in Ethiopian Higher Education: Issues and Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nega, Mulu

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the current issues on the public-private divide in the Ethiopian higher education landscape and their policy implications. It critically examines issues related to legal and regulatory frameworks in order to understand the public-private divide in the Ethiopian higher education context. The article is based on two premises.…

  9. Implications of an Aging Labor Force for Human Resource Development Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Gerard M.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Demographic trends show that areas such as Kentucky, Japan, and Sweden are experiencing very limited labor force growth and heavier reliance on older workers as the younger population declines. Implications of an aging work force for policy involve pensions, health benefits, retraining, flexible work options, and income support programs. (SK)

  10. Recycling of sewage in Swedish municipalities - Policy implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soederberg, H.

    1997-12-31

    The construction of sewage treatment plants, which increased dramatically during the sixties in Sweden, was based on the idea that sewage is a waste, despite the fact that it contains considerable amounts of nourishment. Environmental research today, focuses more and more on recycling and on the potential resource inherent in sewage. This chapter deals with how to manage a change from problem elimination to recycling of resources, and discuss such from an institutional perspective. A shift towards recycling implies a shift of techniques, decision-makers and process strategies. Implementation of recycling will need strategic principles, and thereby results from research focusing common property resource management can be used in the policy process 32 refs, 5 figs

  11. Perspectives on African Challenges: Cross Cutting Issues and Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    asylum   seekers .  Increasing  state  capacity   should  go  hand  in  hand  with  training  in  international...is  the  author  of  numerous   books  and  articles  on  the  topic  of  food  policy,  including:   The  Human...London:  Zed   Books ,   2008),  and  No  Refuge:  The  Crisis  of  Refugee

  12. Food inflation in South Africa: some implications for economic policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangasamy, Logan

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the trends in food price movements in South Africa between 1980 and 2008. There are three main results emanating from the analysis in this paper. Firstly, food price movements have played a large role in generating inflationary episodes in South Africa. Secondly, while external influences do matter, South African food price movements are mainly due to domestic influences. This implies that national policy has an important role to play in taming domestic food price inflation. Thirdly, given the strong second round impacts, food price movements warrant special attention in monetary policymaking. Core measures of inflation that exclude food price movements may not accurately reflect the underlying inflationary pressures in the economy and could compromise the attainment of the goal of price stability.

  13. Adolescent suicide prevention. Current research and social policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, A F; Zigler, E

    1993-02-01

    The rate of adolescent suicide has increased dramatically in the past few decades, prompting several interventions to curb the increase. Unfortunately, many of the intervention efforts have not benefited from current research findings because the communication between researchers and those who develop the interventions is inadequate. Of specific concern are the increasingly popular curriculum-based suicide prevention programs, which have not demonstrated effectiveness and may contain potentially deleterious components. This article reviews the current epidemiological research in adolescent suicide and suggests how this knowledge could be used more effectively to reduce the rate of adolescent suicide. Recommendations include support for integrated primary prevention efforts; suicide prevention education for professionals; education and policies on firearm management; education for the media about adolescent suicide; more efficient identification and treatment of at-risk youth, including those exposed to suicidal behavior; crisis intervention; and treatment for suicide attempters.

  14. Can consumers bank on mergers?

    OpenAIRE

    Kerton, Robert / R

    2003-01-01

    How big do banks need to be to gain all the economies of scale? The largest Canadian banks already achieve scale economies and further increases in size can make them "too big to fail." Available evidence indicates normal monopoly risks will be passed on to Canadian firms and consumers if the largest banks merge. Improved service will make Canada's banks world competitive. Despite the banks' enthusiasm for heft to enter the US market, policy measures exist to prevent mergers that are contr...

  15. Early nurse attrition in New Zealand and associated policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, L; Clendon, J

    2018-03-01

    To examine the factors contributing to nurses choosing to exit the nursing profession before retirement age. Population growth, ageing and growing demand for health services mean increased demand for nurses. Better retention could help meet this demand, yet little work has been done in New Zealand to understand early attrition. An online survey of registered and enrolled nurses and nurse practitioners who had left nursing was used. This study reports analysis of responses from 285 ex-nurses aged under 55. The primary reasons nurses left the profession were as follows: workplace concerns; personal challenges; career factors; family reasons; lack of confidence; leaving for overseas; unwillingness to complete educational requirements; poor work-life balance; and inability to find suitable nursing work. Most nurses discussed their intentions to leave with a family member or manager and most reported gaining transferrable skills through nursing. Nurses leave for many reasons. Implementing positive practice environments and individualized approaches to retaining staff may help reduce this attrition. Generational changes in the nature of work and careers mean that nurses may continue to leave the profession sooner than anticipated by policymakers. If the nursing workforce is to be able to meet projected need, education, recruitment and retention policies must urgently address issues leading to early attrition. In particular, policies improving the wider environmental context of nursing practice and ensuring that working environments are safe and nurses are well supported must be developed and implemented. Equally, national nursing workforce planning must take into account that nursing is no longer viewed as a career for life. © 2017 International Council of Nurses.

  16. Toddler drinks, formulas, and milks: Labeling practices and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L; Romo Palafox, Maria J; Harris, Jennifer L

    2018-04-01

    Toddler drinks are a growing category of drinks marketed for young children 9-36 months old. Medical experts do not recommend them, and public health experts raise concerns about misleading labeling practices. In the U.S., the toddler drink category includes two types of products: transition formulas, marketed for infants and toddlers 9-24 months; and toddler milks, for children 12-36 months old. The objective of this study was to evaluate toddler drink labeling practices in light of U.S. food labeling policy and international labeling recommendations. In January 2017, we conducted legal research on U.S. food label laws and regulations; collected and evaluated toddler drink packages, including nutrition labels and claims; and compared toddler drink labels with the same brand's infant formula labels. We found that the U.S. has a regulatory structure for food labels and distinct policies for infant formula, but no laws specific to toddler drinks. Toddler drink labels utilized various terms and images to identify products and intended users; made multiple health and nutrition claims; and some stated there was scientific or expert support for the product. Compared to the same manufacturer's infant formula labels, most toddler drink labels utilized similar colors, branding, logos, and graphics. Toddler drink labels may confuse consumers about their nutrition and health benefits and the appropriateness of these products for young children. To support healthy toddler diets and well-informed decision-making by caregivers, the FDA can provide guidance or propose regulations clarifying permissible toddler drink labels and manufacturers should end inappropriate labeling practices. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The learning potential of photovoltaics: implications for energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwaan, Bob van der; Rabl, Ari

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the prospects for cost reductions of flat panel photovoltaic (PV) electricity. Current PV production cost ranges are presented, in terms of cost per peak W and cost per kWh, for single crystalline and multi-crystalline silicon, as well as for thin-film technologies. Possible decreases of these costs are assessed, as expected based on learning curves. The cumulative production needed to reach 'breakeven' (at which PV is competitive with conventional alternatives) is estimated for a range of values of the learning curve parameter. The cost of this cumulative production is calculated, and the question is posed whether and how the 'cost cap' can be bridged, the latter being the difference between what this cumulative production will cost and what it would cost if it could be produced at a currently competitive level. We also estimate how much PV could gain if external costs (due to environmental and health damage) of energy were internalised, for example by an energy tax. The conclusions are: (1) mainly due its high costs, PV electricity is unlikely to play a major role in global energy supply and carbon emissions abatement before 2020, (2) extrapolating past learning curves, one can expect its costs to decrease significantly, so that a considerable PV electricity share world-wide could materialise after 2020, (3) niche-market applications, e.g. using stand-alone systems in remote areas, are crucial for continuing 'the ride along the learning curve', (4) damage costs of conventional (fossil) power sources are considerable, and they could provide an important part of the rationale behind major policy efforts to encourage increased use of PV. The costs involved with such policies would be elevated, but a considerable share of these costs could be justified by the fact that conventional power damage costs constitute a significant fraction of the cost gap, although probably not enough to close it

  18. 12 CFR 337.11 - Effect on other banking practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effect on other banking practices. 337.11 Section 337.11 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY UNSAFE AND UNSOUND BANKING PRACTICES § 337.11 Effect on other banking practices. Nothing in...

  19. Can education policy be health policy? Implications of research on the social determinants of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, M David; Low, Barbara J; Baumler, Elizabeth R; Huynh, Phuong T

    2005-12-01

    Research on the social determinants of health has demonstrated robust correlations between several social factors, health status, and life expectancy. Some of these factors could be modified through policy intervention. National-level public policies explicitly based on population health research are in various stages of development in many Western countries, but in spite of evident need, seemingly not at all in the United States. Because research shows such a strong association between education and good health, we offer evidence to show that at least two pressing problems in American society, namely the uneven distribution of educational attainment and health disparities linked to socioeconomic position, may be ameliorated through policy initiatives that link quality early childhood care, child development programs, and parental training in a seamless continuum with strengthened K-12 education.

  20. Strategic Planning And Performance Of Commercial Banks In Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hope Ngozi Nzewi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study explored the relationship between strategic planning and performance of commercial banks in Nigeria. Specifically it determined the nature of relationship that existed between total assets and profit after tax of the selected banks. Exploratory research design was employed.Secondary data were sourced from the Nigerian Exchange Fact Book 2011 to 2013. Linear regression and Pearson bivariate correlation analytical techniques were used. Findings revealed that there is a weak positive relationship between the total assets and profit after tax of the selected commercial banks. The policy implication is that any meaningful profitability of the commercial banks in Nigeria must ensure proper institution and comprehensive execution of the strategic planning processes by the various managers of the selected commercial banks.

  1. Identity politics: implications for gender analysis policy and training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erturk, Y

    1997-01-01

    As attention has shifted from a concern for citizenship, equality, and welfare to ideas of empowerment, equity, and governance, the locus of competition over power has rested with "identity politics," a recognition of cultural diversity that claims the legitimate right to produce alternative definitions and symbols of identity in public space. The change in identity formation from universal/national to fractured/tribalizing has implications for gender relations in contexts where patriarchal power controls production and reproduction. Except for feminism, all discourses in the current competition over identity politics are patriarchal. A look at the forces of change that shifted the process of modernization to a process of globalization reveals that, while modernization tends to standardize, globalization embraces the contradictory forces of universalizing and diversifying trends. Issues of identity and inequality were not problematic until the modern and the traditional subsumed each other and, thus, revealed the inherent contradictions of modernization. The diversifying forces that jeopardize the transnationalization of identity into membership in a "human society" include 1) language differences among the working classes, 2) growing global inequalities, and 3) collective memories of antagonistic histories. An analysis of gender based on identity politics can be conducted on a macro-level to understand the reluctance of central governments to initiate certain interventions, competing needs, new contradictions, changing gender roles, and the importance of promoting a global social contract.

  2. I movimenti di capitali bancari con l'estero e la politica monetaria italiana. (International movements of bank funds and monetary policy in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. MASERA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Since the lira was declared convertible in December 1958, the Italian monetary authorities have been making increasing use of changes in the Italian banks’ foreign position as a policy instrument. The present article analyses in detail how the Italian monetary authorities have used their powers to control banks’ foreign exchange borrowing and lending as a means to restrict or expand domestic liquidity. In general, the flows of bank money to and from abroad have been regulated by the central bank as to make the process of balance-of-payments adjustment more flexible, and hence to attenuate the effects of the liquidity gains and losses due to the surpluses and deficits generated by autonomous operations with abroad. The analysis confirms that when bank credits are used without appropriate measures designed to re-establish basic equilibrium in the balance of payments, they may give rise to speculative capital movements. The author argues that while Italian monetary policy made an effective impact on the course of the economic cycle, it could not control the cycle itself.JEL: E52, F31, F32

  3. Farmers’ Awareness of Ecosystem Services and the Associated Policy Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangfang Xun

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the primary factors influencing farmers’ awareness of ecosystem services. This study, through questionnaires, conducts research on farmers’ awareness of and demand for ecosystem service functions. The research encapsulates 156 households from 21 groups of villagers in the Guangxi Karst Ecological Immigration District in China. The results of the factors influencing farmers’ awareness of ecosystem services, analyzed using a regression model, show that: (1 Farmers are concerned with ecosystem service functions that directly benefit them; however, they do not sufficiently understand the ecosystem’s ecological security maintenance or cultural landscape functions; (2 Farmers’ awareness of ecosystem service functions is not consistent with their corresponding demand, including the ecosystem’s leisure and entertainment, social security, disaster prevention and water purification services; (3 Education level, land area cultivated by the household, proportion of the household’s income from agriculture and immigration status directly affect farmers’ awareness of ecosystem services; (4 Farmers’ personal characteristics, family characteristics and subjective attitudes have different effects on the level of ecological service cognition. Understanding farmers’ awareness of ecosystem services, and the influencing factors can help policymakers and development managers plan local development and policies, and enable harmonious development of the human-earth system in immigration regions of China.

  4. Regarding zygotes as persons: implications for public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, L Lewis; Brown, Douglas

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the notion put forward by certain groups (largely as a consequence of their opposition to elective abortion) that the immediate post-fertilization cellular entity - the zygote - is a person and should be given full moral status. Because the zygote has none of the inherent characteristics necessary to be regarded as a person in the traditional philosophical sense (e.g., John Locke or Immanuel Kant), some advocates of this position attempt to advance their case with arguments based on the genetic potential of the human zygote to develop into a person. We argue that this position represents a flawed use of human genetics and ignores the extraordinarily inefficient and wasteful nature of human reproduction. We then explore the public policy consequences that would follow from granting the zygote full moral status. We conclude that the logical consequences of granting the zygote full moral status would require a revolutionary restructuring of many basic social institutions, especially the health care system. The social, political, and economic changes that would be required if the zygote is enshrined as a person in law constitute a convincing reductio ad absurdum that demonstrates the danger in taking this position seriously.

  5. Alcohol dependence: international policy implications for prison populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffmann Norman G

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In light of the emphasis on drug abuse, this study explored the relative prevalence of substance use disorders among United Kingdom (UK prison inmates in the context of findings from a general inmate population in the United States (US. The lead author of the report conducted a structured diagnostic interview with 155 new admissions to one of two prisons in the UK using the CAAPE (Comprehensive Addiction And Psychological Evaluation, a structured diagnostic interview, to ensure consistent assessments. The US sample consisted of 6,881 male inmates in a state prison system evaluated with an automated version of the SUDDS-IV (Substance Use Disorder Diagnostic Schedule-IV interview. Results Alcohol dependence emerged as the most prevalent substance use disorder in both UK prisons and in the US sample. Relative frequencies of abuse and dependence for alcohol and other drugs revealed that dependence on a given substance was more prevalent than abuse ad defined by the current diagnostic criteria. Conclusion Despite the emphasis on drugs in correctional populations, alcohol dependence appears to be the most prominent substance use disorder among the incarcerated in both the US and UK and must be considered in developing treatment programs and policy priorities.

  6. Public Transport Service Provisions and Policy Implications for Columbarium Trips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.Y. Szeto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Grave-sweeping is one of the popular special events in Asian cities, especially in Chinese societies, in which families express filial piety to their ancestors during two traditional grave-sweeping festivals in a year. The extraordinary high travel demand is often attracted to columbaria within a relative short period around the festivals, and induces severe impacts to the local traffic. It is challenging for the government and private operators to formulate a public transport service setting to satisfactorily cater all the visitors' travel demand. This paper aims to propose an optimization framework to identify the optimal provisions of public transport services for columbarium trips to achieve consumer surplus or profit maximization. Numerical studies are carried out using the travel demand data collected from a selected columbarium, to examine the effects of different public transport service settings to the policy objectives in various cases. The model results show that the current situation is neither consumer surplus nor profit optimum. Improvement schemes are suggested in relation to allow various fares during different visit periods and provide multiple public transport feeder services to serve the visitors during the high travel demand period.

  7. Caring: Implications for Child Care and for Family Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roderic Beaujot

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Canadian families have changed, in part due to an economy that provides more work opportunities for women, and a cultural orientation that values equal opportunity and diversity in families. In spite of the change, both quantitative and qualitative evidence suggest a continued preference for mothers to spend considerable time with children, especially in the infant and toddler years. Thus, in an average couple, the presence of young children in the home brings wives to reduce their paid work and husbands to increase their paid work. Our reading of parental preferences suggests an interest in more services for young children in the form of early childhood education and child care, but also an interest in policies that would allow parents to spend more time with children through parental leaves, part-time work with good benefits, and subsidies that supplement market income. Many options available to two-parent families are often less feasible for lone parents, giving a higher priority to child care.

  8. BANKING BUSINESS MODELS IN UKRAINIAN BANKING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya Onyshchenko

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to work out and characterize bank business models that are formed in Ukraine. Methodology. Our research we will spend among banks that are functioning on the Ukrainian financial market and are not on the stage of liquidation, so the sample under study in our work is comprised of 131 banks which are different in their ownership structure and size. The core of the methodology is a statistical clustering algorithm that allows identifying the groups of banks (clusters with similar business models as banks with similar business model strategies have made similar choices regarding the composition of their assets and liabilities. The cluster analyses were taken on the base of seven chosen indicators: bank loans, bank liabilities, enterprise loans, enterprise liabilities, household loans, household liabilities and trading assets. Results. The traditional business model of bank is worked out. The bank business models that are functioning in Ukraine are identified on the base of cluster analyses using balance sheet characteristics of 131 Ukrainian banks. We find that in Ukraine were formed three types of bank business models: “Focused retail”, “Diversified retail” and “Corporative retail”. The description of each model is given. Practical implications. More detailed research of distinguished models allows not only to find out the main advantages and disadvantages of each bank model, but also the main problems that follow the development of Ukrainian banking sector. Identifying of bank models and their studying simplifies searching and elaboration of regulatory instruments as there is a two-way causation between regulation and bank business models. This implies a symbiotic relationship between regulation and bank business models: business models respond to regulation which in turn responds to the evolution of new business models. Value/originality. Such survey is conducted at the first time among Ukrainian banks. The

  9. Renewable energy and policy options in an integrated ASEAN electricity market: Quantitative assessments and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Youngho; Li, Yanfei

    2015-01-01

    Energy market integration (EMI) in the ASEAN region is a promising solution to relieve the current immobilization of its renewable energy resources and would serve the fast increasing demand for electricity in the region. EMI could be further extended with coordinated policies in carbon pricing, renewable energy portfolio standards (RPS), and feed-in-tariffs (FIT) in the ASEAN countries. Using a linear dynamic programming model, this study quantitatively assesses the impacts of EMI and the above-mentioned policies on the development of renewable energy in the power generation sector of the region, and the carbon emissions reduction achievable with these policies. According to our results, EMI is expected to significantly promote the adoption of renewable energy. Along with EMI, FIT appears to be more cost-effective than RPS and is recommended for the ASEAN region, albeit political barriers for policy coordination among the countries might be a practical concern. In addition, an RPS of 30% electricity from renewable sources by 2030, which is considered politically a “low-hanging fruit”, would achieve moderate improvements in carbon emissions reductions and renewable energy development, while incurring negligible increases in the total cost of electricity. -- Highlights: •Energy market integration (EMI), carbon pricing, RPS, and FIT are examined for ASEAN. •EMI is a promising and feasible solution to promote renewable energy for ASEAN. •Along with EMI, FIT appears to be more cost-effective than RPS for ASEAN. •RPS of 30% by 2030 appears to be reasonable and feasible for ASEAN. •Coordinating FIT and RPS policies under EMI among ASEAN is advised

  10. Risk of HLA Homozygous Cord Blood Transplantation: Implications for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Banking and Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishima, Yasuo; Azuma, Fumihiro; Kashiwase, Koichi; Matsumoto, Kayoko; Orihara, Takeshi; Yabe, Hiromasa; Kato, Shunichi; Kato, Koji; Kai, Shunro; Mori, Tetsuo; Nakajima, Kazunori; Morishima, Satoko; Satake, Masahiro; Takanashi, Minoko; Yabe, Toshio

    2018-02-01

    Clinical application of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS) in autologous settings has just begun. To overcome the high time and cost barriers in the individual production of autologous iPS, the use of allogeneic iPS with a homozygous human leukocyte antigen (HLA) haplotype (HLA-homo HP) has been proposed. Cord blood transplantation (CBT) is a suitable model for evaluating the allogeneic immunogenicity of iPS transplantation from HLA-homo donors. We analyzed 1,374 Japanese single cord blood transplant pairs who were retrospectively typed as HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, -DQB1, and -DPB1. Among these, six pairs with donor HLA homo-patient-HLA hetero (homo-hetero) were found, all of which showed favorable neutrophil engraftment. Multivariate analysis revealed a significantly elevated engraftment risk (HR = 1.59) compared with hetero-hetero pairs with HLA 1-2 locus mismatch (789 pts) and comparative risk (HR = 1.23) compared with hetero-hetero pairs with 0 mismatch (104 pts). These results for CBT with HLA-homo HP cord blood carry an important implication, namely the possibility that HLA-homo iPS transplantation results in favorable engraftment. Furthermore, we obtained detailed information on HLA alleles and haplotypes of HLA-homo. All donor HLA-homo HPs had a common specific ethnicity and high conservation of the HLA region, and one of two patient heterogeneous HPs invariably shared the same HP as donor HLA-homo HP, and another non-shared patient HP was mismatched with 1 to 4 HLA alleles of HLA-A, -B, -C, and -DRB1 loci in the GVH direction. These findings indicate that patients possessing a single common HLA haplotype have a higher chance of yielding HLA-homo iPS. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2018;7:173-179. © 2017 The Authors Stem Cells Translational Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AlphaMed Press.

  11. Teacher-student relationship climate and school outcomes: implications for educational policy initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barile, John P; Donohue, Dana K; Anthony, Elizabeth R; Baker, Andrew M; Weaver, Scott R; Henrich, Christopher C

    2012-03-01

    In recent discussions regarding concerns about the academic achievement of US students, educational policy makers have suggested the implementation of certain teacher policies. To address the limited empirical research on the putative educational impact of such policies, this study used multilevel structural equation models to investigate the longitudinal associations between teacher evaluation and reward policies, and student mathematics achievement and dropout with a national sample of students (n = 7,779) attending one of 431 public high schools. The student sample included an equal number of boys and girls averaging 16 years of age, and included a White (53%) majority. This study examined whether associations between teacher policies and student achievement were mediated by the teacher-student relationship climate. Results of this study were threefold. First, teacher evaluation policies that allowed students to evaluate their teachers were associated with more positive student reports of the classroom teaching climate. Second, schools with teacher reward policies that included assigning higher performing teachers with higher performing students had a negative association with student perceptions of the teaching climate. Lastly, schools with better student perceptions of the teaching climate were associated with lower student dropout rates by students' senior year. These findings are discussed in light of their educational policy implications.

  12. Economic and policy implications of the cumulative carbon budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, M. R.; Otto, F. E. L.; Otto, A.; Hepburn, C.

    2014-12-01

    The importance of cumulative carbon emissions in determining long-term risks of climate change presents considerable challenges to policy makers. The traditional notion of "total CO2-equivalent emissions", which forms the backbone of agreements such as the Kyoto Protocol and the European Emissions Trading System, is fundamentally flawed. Measures to reduce short-lived climate pollutants benefit the current generation, while measures to reduce long-lived climate pollutants benefit future generations, so there is no sense in which they can ever be considered equivalent. Debates over the correct metric used to compute CO2-equivalence are thus entirely moot: both long-lived and short-lived emissions will need to be addressed if all generations are to be protected from dangerous climate change. As far as long-lived climate pollutants are concerned, the latest IPCC report highlights the overwhelming importance of carbon capture and storage in determining the cost of meeting the goal of limiting anthropogenic warming to two degrees. We will show that this importance arises directly from the cumulative carbon budget and the role of CCS as the technology of last resort before economic activity needs to be restricted to meet ambitious climate targets. It highlights the need to increase the rate of CCS deployment by orders of magnitude if the option of avoiding two degrees is to be retained. The difficulty of achieving this speed of deployment through conventional incentives and carbon-pricing mechanisms suggests a need for a much more direct mandatory approach. Despite their theoretical economic inefficiency, the success of recent regulatory measures in achieving greenhouse gas emissions reductions in jurisdictions such as the United States suggests an extension of the regulatory approach could be a more effective and politically acceptable means of achieving adequately rapid CCS deployment than conventional carbon taxes or cap-and-trade systems.

  13. Clean coal use in China: Challenges and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Xu; Snowden, Simon; McLellan, Benjamin C.; Höök, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    Energy consumption in China is currently dominated by coal, a major source of air pollution and carbon emissions. The utilization of clean coal technologies is a likely strategic choice for China at present, however, although there have been many successes in clean coal technologies worldwide, they are not widely used in China. This paper examines the challenges that China faces in the implementation of such clean coal technologies, where the analysis shows that those drivers that have a negative bearing on the utilization of clean coal in China are mainly non-technical factors such as the low legal liability of atmospheric pollution related to coal use, and the lack of laws and mandatory regulations for clean coal use in China. Policies for the development of clean coal technologies are in their early stages in China, and the lack of laws and detailed implementation requirements for clean coal require resolution in order to accelerate China's clean coal developments. Currently, environmental pollution has gained widespread attention from the wider Chinese populace and taking advantage of this opportunity provides a space in which to regain the initiative to raise people’s awareness of clean coal products, and improve enterprises’ enthusiasm for clean coal. - Highlights: • Clean coal is not widely used in China due to many management issues. • Legal liability of pollution related with coal utilization is too low in China. • China is lack of laws and mandatory regulations for clean coal utilization. • It is difficult to accelerate clean coal utilization by incentive subsidies alone.

  14. Population levels of sport participation: implications for sport policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eime, R M; Harvey, J T; Charity, M J; Payne, W R

    2016-08-09

    Participation in sport can contribute to health-enhancing levels of leisure-time physical activity. There are recent reports that participation in sport in Australia is decreasing. However, these studies are limited to ages 15 years and over. This study integrates sports club membership data from five popular team sports and investigates sport participation across the lifespan (4-100 years) by sex and region (metropolitan/non-metropolitan). Overall participant numbers per annum increased from 414,167 in 2010 to 465,403 in 2012 corresponding to a rise in the proportion of Victorian's participating in these sports from 7.5 % in 2010 to 8.3 % in 2012. The highest proportion of participants was in the 10-14 year age range, with participation rates of 36 % in 2010 and 40 % in 2012. There was a considerably lower participation rate in the 15-19 year age group compared to the 10-14 age group, in all three years studied, and the decline continued progressively with increasing age. Male and female age profiles of participation were generally similar in shape, but the female peak at age 10-14 was sharper than for the males, and conversely there were very few 4 year old female participants. Participation rates were generally higher in non-metropolitan than metropolitan areas; the difference increased with increasing age from 4 to 34 years, then steadily declined, reaching parity at around 60 years of age. It is a positive sign that participation in these popular sports increased by over 50,000 participants from 2010 to 2012. Large proportions of the population aged 5-14 participate in club based sport. Participation rates decline sharply in late adolescence, particularly for females, and while this may not be a concern from a broad health perspective so long as they transition into other forms of physical activity, it is certainly a matter of concern for the sport sector. It is recommended that sport policy places a higher priority on grass-roots participation and

  15. Standards for arsenic in drinking water: Implications for policy in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Andrew T; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth; Gamboa-Loira, Brenda; Cebrián, Mariano E

    2017-11-01

    Global concern about arsenic in drinking water and its link to numerous diseases make translation of evidence-based research into national policy a priority. Delays in establishing a maximum contaminant level (MCL) to preserve health have increased the burden of disease and caused substantial and avoidable loss of life. The current Mexican MCL for arsenic in drinking water is 25 μg/l (2.5 times higher than the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendation from 1993). Mexico's struggles to set its arsenic MCL offer a compelling example of shortcomings in environmental health policy. We explore factors that might facilitate policy change in Mexico: scientific evidence, risk communication and public access to information, economic and technological resources, and politics. To raise awareness of the health, societal, and economic implications of arsenic contamination of drinking water in Mexico, we suggest action steps for attaining environmental policy change and better protect population health.

  16. Policy implications of trends in Turkey's meat sector with respect to 2023 vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Fahri; Bilgic, Abdulbaki; Terin, Mustafa; Guler, Irfan O

    2013-12-01

    Turkey has become one of the leading emerging economies in the world being second after China as the highest economically growing country with 8.9% economic growth rate in 2010. Forecasting impacts of this development in coming 10 years might have very important policy implications for the meat sector in the framework of 2013 vision of Turkey. In this study, annual time series data which contain several key variables of meat sector in last 26 years (1987-2012) are used to forecast the variables of the coming twelve years (2013-2024) to drive policy implications by considering the impacts of high economic growths, crises and major policy changes. Forecasted future values of the variables for 2023 in the sector are assessed and compared with recent national and international values to drive policy implications. The results show that the economic growth results in the increase in per capita income and thus increased demand for meat seemed to foster the meat sector. Therefore, these macroeconomic indicators need to be better in addition to improvements at micro level for establishing competitive meat sector and thus reaching aimed consumption level of meat. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A fraud prevention policy: Its relevance and implication at a university of technology in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Rorwana

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Using research grants administrators and their clients (academic researchers as the lens, this paper investigated the relevance and implication of a fraud prevention policy at a University of Technology (UoT in South Africa. The paper adopted a quantitative approach in which closed-ended questions were complemented by open-ended questions in the survey questionnaire in the attempt to capture the perceptions of both research grants administrators and their clients on the relevance and implications of a fraud and irregularity prevention policy. The results indicate that both research grants administrators (71.4 %, and their clients (73% do not know if UoTx has a fraud and irregularity policy. While only 36% of research grants administrators indicated that they would feel safe reporting deceitful activities, a slight majority (59% of the clients reported same. With regards to the steps to follow to report fraudulent activity, it was noted that while all (100% the research grants administrators noted that they were clueless, ironically an overwhelming majority of their clients indicated otherwise. Notwithstanding, both research grants administrators and their clients (93% and 95% respectively concurred that a fraud prevention policy was necessary for UoTx. The implication is that having phenomenal controls that are not effectively publicized, monitored or worse still overridden by someone are useless.

  18. The macroeconomics of banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kwaak, C.G.F.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis studies the macroeconomic effectiveness of monetary and fiscal policy in an environment where commercial banks are undercapitalized after a financial crisis and have large holdings of (risky) government bonds on their balance sheets. An undercapitalized banking system cannot perfectly

  19. Earning and caring: demographic change and policy implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beaujot, Roderic

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishSeeking to define families as groups of people who share earning and caringactivities, we contrast theoretical orientations that see advantages to a division of labour orcomplementary roles, in comparison to orientations that see less risk and greater companionship in acollaborative model based on sharing paid and unpaid work, or co-providing and co-parenting. It isimportant to look both inside and outside of families, or at the changing gendered links betweenearning and caring, to understand change both in families and in the work world. It is proposed thatequal opportunity by gender has advanced further in the public sphere associated with education andwork, than in the private family sphere associated with everyday life. Time-use data [from Canada]indicate that, on average, men carry their weight in terms of total productive time (paid plus unpaidwork, but that women make much more of the accommodations between family and work. Fertility islikely to be lowest in societies that offer women equal opportunity in the public sphere but wherefamilies remain traditional in terms of the division of work. Policies are discussed that would reducethe dependency between spouses, and encourage a greater common ground between men and women in earningand caring.FrenchEn cherchant à définir la famille comme étant un groupe de personnes partageant les activités relatives au fait de gagner de l'argent et de prendre soin des autres, nous nous distinguons des théories préconisant la division du travail ou les rôles complémentaires comparativement au modèle collaboratif qui a l'avantage de présenter moins de risque et plus de compagnonnage et qui est fondé sur le partage du travail rémunéré et non rémunéré, le travail à l'extérieur de la maison et le parentage. Il est important de voir ce qui se passe à l'intérieur et à l'extérieur de la famille ou de considérer les liens changeant d'après le sexe entre le rôle de pourvoyeur et

  20. Revival of Legacy of Tooke and Gibson: Implications for Monetary Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehman Atiq-ur

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The monetary policy rules used by central banks these days are based on the assumption that inflation could be reduced by increasing interest rate. On contrary, Tooke (1774-1858, the forefather of monetary economics, was of the view that the relationship between interest rate and inflation should be positive. His view was based on simple logic, ‘interest is a part of cost, and therefore, the increase in interest rate should increase inflation by increasing cost of production (Tooke, 1838’. Tooke’s view has got support from a number of empirical evidence including Gibson (1923 who found positive correlation between two variables for UK data over a period of 200 years. On the other hand, mainstream economic thinking on which the actual monetary practices are based ignored any possibility of positive relationship between interest rate and inflation throughout the history. The existence of Tooke’s cost side effects of monetary policy is a serious concern because if these effects exist than the use of monetary policy would be counterproductive. Using the data from entire globe, I attempt to explore the nature of relationship between the interest rate and inflation. I found that the data supports the perception of Tooke and Gibson and denies that the effectiveness of monetary policy currently adapted by the correlation between interest rate and inflation is positive. The results are robust to sample size, sample period, and various definitions of interest rate and inflation.

  1. FRACTIONAL BANKING

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Klimikova

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the reasons of the present financial problems lies In understanding the substance of fractional reserve banking. The substance of fractional banking is in lending more money than the bankers have. Banking of partial reserves is an alternative form which links deposit banking and credit banking. Fractional banking is causing many unfavorable economic impacts in the worldwide system, specifically an inflation.

  2. Technologies, Democracy and Digital Citizenship: Examining Australian Policy Intersections and the Implications for School Leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Moyle

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There are intersections that can occur between the respective peak Australian school education policy agendas. These policies include the use of technologies in classrooms to improve teaching and learning as promoted through the Melbourne Declaration on Educational Goals for Young Australians and the Australian Curriculum; and the implementation of professional standards as outlined in the Australian Professional Standard for Principals and the Australian Professional Standards for Teachers. These policies create expectations of school leaders to bring about change in classrooms and across their schools, often described as bringing about ‘quality teaching’ and ‘school improvement’. These policies indicate that Australian children should develop ‘democratic values’, and that school principals should exercise ‘democratic values’ in their schools. The national approaches to the implementation of these policies however, is largely silent on promoting learning that fosters democracy through education, or about making connections between teaching and learning with technologies, school leadership and living in a democracy. Yet the policies promote these connections and alignments. Furthermore, understanding democratic values, knowing what is a democracy, and being able to use technologies in democratic ways, has to be learned and practiced. Through the lens of the use of technologies to build digital citizenship and to achieve democratic processes and outcomes in schools, these policy complexities are examined in order to consider some of the implications for school leadership.

  3. Legalization of marijuana for non-medical use: health, policy, socioeconomic, and nursing implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkin, Anne

    2014-09-01

    The legalization of marijuana is a controversial issue with implications for health care providers, policy makers, and society at large. The use of marijuana for medical reasons is accepted in many states. However, legal sale of the drug for non-medical use began for the first time on January 1, 2014, in Colorado, following a relaxation of marijuana restrictions that is unprecedented worldwide. News reports have indicated that sales of the drug have been brisk. Marijuana-infused food products have been unexpectedly popular, exceeding sales projections. Marijuana use is associated with numerous physical and mental disorders and could result in addiction. Evidence suggests its potency has increased since the 1980s. Colorado has established regulations regarding the sale of marijuana for non-medical use, but concerns still exist. The current article offers a discussion of the health, public policy, socioeconomic, and nursing implications of the legalization of marijuana for non-medical use.

  4. Massachusetts Et Al. v Environmental Protection Agency: Implications For Public Health Policy And Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Payne, Perry W.; Rosenbaum, Sara

    2007-01-01

    This installment of Law and the Public's Health reviews the U.S. Supreme Court's April 2, 2007, decision in Massachusetts et al. v Environmental Protection Agency1 and considers its implications for public health policy and practice. This landmark decision focused on a central concern in administrative law; namely, when an agency vested with the authority to regulate in the public's health has the power to refuse to carry out a legislative directive. The subject of the case was regulation of ...

  5. Economics and National Security: Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    156 Prepared by Dick K. Nanto, Specialist in Industry and Trade, Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade Division . 157 International Labour Office...security. The economy has always been there both to provide the funds and materiel for defense and to provide economic security for most households ...Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade Division . Economics and National Security: Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy Congressional Research

  6. Implications of DSM-5 for Health Care Organizations and Mental Health Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Richard J; Guo, Kristina L

    2016-01-01

    The American Psychiatric Association (APA) has made major changes in the way mental illness is conceptualized, assessed, and diagnosed in its new diagnostic manual, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), published in 2013, and has far reaching implications for health care organizations and mental health policy. This paper reviews the four new principles in DSM-5: 1) A spectrum (also called "dimensional") approach to the definition of mental illness; 2) recognition of the role played by environmental risk factors related to stress and trauma in predisposing, precipitating, and perpetuating mental illness; 3) cultural relativism in diagnosis and treatment of mental illness; and 4) recognizing the adverse effects of psychiatric medications on patients. Each of these four principles will be addressed in detail. In addition, four major implications for health care organizations and mental health policy are identified as: 1) prevention; 2) client-centered psychiatry; 3) mental health workers retraining; and 4) medical insurance reform. We conclude that DSM- 5's new approach to diagnosis and treatment of mental illness will have profound implications for health care organizations and mental health policy, indicating a greater emphasis on prevention and cure rather than long-term management of symptoms.

  7. The Role Of Modeling Assumptions And Policy Instruments in Evaluating The Global Implications Of U.S. Biofuel Policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oladosu, Gbadebo A [ORNL; Kline, Keith L [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    The primary objective of current U.S. biofuel law the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) is to reduce dependence on imported oil, but the law also requires biofuels to meet carbon emission reduction thresholds relative to petroleum fuels. EISA created a renewable fuel standard with annual targets for U.S. biofuel use that climb gradually from 9 billion gallons per year in 2008 to 36 billion gallons (or about 136 billion liters) of biofuels per year by 2022. The most controversial aspects of the biofuel policy have centered on the global social and environmental implications of its potential land use effects. In particular, there is an ongoing debate about whether indirect land use change (ILUC) make biofuels a net source, rather sink, of carbon emissions. However, estimates of ILUC induced by biofuel production and use can only be inferred through modeling. This paper evaluates how model structure, underlying assumptions, and the representation of policy instruments influence the results of U.S. biofuel policy simulations. The analysis shows that differences in these factors can lead to divergent model estimates of land use and economic effects. Estimates of the net conversion of forests and grasslands induced by U.S. biofuel policy range from 0.09 ha/1000 gallons described in this paper to 0.73 ha/1000 gallons from early studies in the ILUC change debate. We note that several important factors governing LUC change remain to be examined. Challenges that must be addressed to improve global land use change modeling are highlighted.

  8. Welfare Implications of Alternative Monetary Policy Rules: A New Keynesian DSGE Model for Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yağcıbaşı Özge Filiz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been extensive research on the conduct of monetary policy in small open economies that are subject to inflation and output fluctuations. Policymakers should decide whether to implement strict inflation targeting or to respond to the changes in output fluctuations while conducting monetary policy rule. This study aims to examine the response of alternative monetary policy rules to Turkish economy by means of a DSGE model that is subject to demand and technology shocks. The New Keynesian model we used is borrowed from Gali (2015 and calibrated for the Turkish economy. Welfare effects of alternative Taylor rules are evaluated under different specifications of central bank loss function. One of the main findings of this paper is that in the case of a technology shock, strict inflation targeting rules provide the minimum welfare loss under all loss function configurations. On the contrary, the losses are weakened if the monetary authority responds to output fluctuations in the presence of a demand shock. Finally, there exists a trade-off between the volatility of output and inflation in case of a technology shock, while the volatility of both variables moves in the same direction in response to a demand shock.

  9. World energy markets and uncertainty to the year 2100: implications for greenhouse policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorpe, S.; Sterland, B.; Jones, B.P.; Wallace, N.A.; Pugsley, S.-A.

    1991-01-01

    This study analyses the implications for long run world and regional economic growth and energy markets of possible international action to counter the enhanced greenhouse effect and examines the design of effective policy responses acceptable to all nations. The implications for energy trade of greenhouse policy responses will be of considerable importance to Australia, a major energy exporter. The main issue examined is the effect of responses to climate change directed at the energy sector on energy markets and economic growth. Regional and global economic growth and energy demands under various policy responses were simulated using a long run partial equilibrium model of world energy markets and fossil fuel pollution. It is concluded that the consequences of the enhanced greenhouse effect are surrounded by uncertainty, which creates problems in the design of a policy regime. The effectiveness of a carbon tax increases with greater international cooperation. The effect of carbon taxes is to encourage switching from fossil fuels to renewable and nuclear technologies rather than to reduce energy consumption or economic growth. New technology to improve the efficiency of power generation from coal, could by reducing costs and promoting fuel switching to coal, actually increase CO{sub 2} emissions. 40 refs., 10 figs., 30 tabs

  10. Impact of the World Bank Group's Social and Environmental Policies on Extractive Companies and Financial Institutions : Phase One

    OpenAIRE

    Gilboy, Andrew; Everett, Richard

    2003-01-01

    The World Bank Group (WBG) has emerged as a standard bearer that members of the international corporate community assess themselves against, often regardless of whether they are involved in a direct funding relationship. For example, a trend has been noted that some extractive industry companies, who, for the most part are not direct recipients of WBG assistance, are changing the way they ...

  11. Do a law's policy implications affect beliefs about its constitutionality? An experimental test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furgeson, Joshua R; Babcock, Linda; Shane, Peter M

    2008-06-01

    Although a substantial empirical literature has found associations between judges' political orientation and their judicial decisions, the nature of the relationship between policy preferences and constitutional reasoning remains unclear. In this experimental study, law students were asked to determine the constitutionality of a hypothetical law, where the policy implications of the law were manipulated while holding all legal evidence constant. The data indicate that, even with an incentive to select the ruling best supported by the legal evidence, liberal participants were more likely to overturn laws that decreased taxes than laws that increased taxes. The opposite pattern held for conservatives. The experimental manipulation significantly affected even those participants who believed their policy preferences had no influence on their constitutional decisions.

  12. Social ecology and behavioral medicine: implications for training, practice, and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokols, D

    2000-01-01

    Social ecology offers a conceptual framework for understanding the etiology of multiple health problems and a basis for designing broad-gauge educational, therapeutic, and policy interventions to enhance personal and community well-being. Implications of social ecology for behavioral medicine are considered in relation to the development of diagnostic and therapeutic practices, professional training programs, and health policies implemented at municipal, state, and national levels. By influencing the training and practices of healthcare professionals and the decisions of corporate and community leaders, behavioral medicine can expand the scope and impact of future interventions beyond the health gains achievable through provision of direct services to patient populations. Potential barriers to establishing ecologically based health programs and policies and directions for research at the interface of behavioral medicine, social ecology, and public health are discussed.

  13. A Biological Security Motivation System for Potential Threats: Are There Implications for Policy-Making?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Z Woody

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Research indicates that there is a specially adapted, hard-wired brain circuit, the security motivation system, which evolved to manage potential threats, such as the possibility of contamination or predation. The existence of this system may have important implications for policy-making related to security. The system is sensitive to partial, uncertain cues of potential danger, detection of which activates a persistent, potent motivational state of wariness or anxiety. This state motivates behaviours to probe the potential danger, such as checking, and to correct for it, such as washing. Engagement in these behaviours serves as the terminating feedback for the activation of the system. Because security motivation theory makes predictions about what kinds of stimuli activate security motivation and what conditions terminate it, the theory may have applications both in understanding how policy-makers can best influence others, such as the public, and also in understanding the behavior of policy-makers themselves.

  14. Mitigating Evidentiary Bias in Planning and Policy-Making; Comment on “Reflective Practice: How the World Bank Explored Its Own Biases?”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Parkhurst

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The field of cognitive psychology has increasingly provided scientific insights to explore how humans are subject to unconscious sources of evidentiary bias, leading to errors that can affect judgement and decision-making. Increasingly these insights are being applied outside the realm of individual decision-making to the collective arena of policy-making as well. A recent editorial in this journal has particularly lauded the work of the World Bank for undertaking an open and critical reflection on sources of unconscious bias in its own expert staff that could undermine achievement of its key goals. The World Bank case indeed serves as a remarkable case of a global policy-making agency making its own critical reflections transparent for all to see. Yet the recognition that humans are prone to cognitive errors has been known for centuries, and the scientific exploration of such biases provided by cognitive psychology is now well-established. What still remains to be developed, however, is a widespread body of work that can inform efforts to institutionalise strategies to mitigate the multiple sources and forms of evidentiary bias arising within administrative and policy-making environments. Addressing this gap will require a programme of conceptual and empirical work that supports robust development and evaluation of institutional bias mitigation strategies. The cognitive sciences provides a scientific basis on which to proceed, but a critical priority will now be the application of that science to improve policy-making within those agencies taking responsibility for social welfare and development programmes.

  15. Biodiversity and Habitat Markets—Policy, Economic, and Ecological implications of Market-Based Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pindilli, Emily; Casey, Frank

    2015-10-26

    This report is a primer on market-like and market-based mechanisms designed to conserve biodiversity and habitat. The types of markets and market-based approaches that were implemented or are emerging to benefit biodiversity and habitat in the United States are examined. The central approaches considered in this report include payments for ecosystem services, conservation banks, habitat exchanges, and eco-labels. Based on literature reviews and input from experts and practitioners, the report characterizes each market-based approach including policy context and structure; the theoretical basis for applying market-based approaches; the ecological effectiveness of practices and tools for measuring performance; and the future outlook for biodiversity and habitat markets. This report draws from previous research and serves as a summary of pertinent information associated with biodiversity and habitat markets while providing references to materials that go into greater detail on specific topics.

  16. Islamic banking

    OpenAIRE

    Pak, Viktoriya

    2010-01-01

    The thesis is focused on introduction of Islamic banking system. Morover part of the work is devoted to a detailed description of the history of Islamic banking, on explanation of the principles on which the banking system is based. Also are analyzed in detail the basic Islamic banking products. And at the end are presented the advantages and disadvantages of the Islamic banking system.

  17. Uganda; Financial System Stability Assessment, including Reports on the Observance of Standards and Codes on the following topics: Monetary and Financial Policy Transparency, Banking Supervision, Securities Regulation, and Payment Systems

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents findings of Uganda’s Financial System Stability Assessment, including Reports on the Observance of Standards and Codes on Monetary and Financial Policy Transparency, Banking Supervision, Securities Regulation, Insurance Regulation, Corporate Governance, and Payment Systems. The banking system in Uganda, which dominates the financial system, is fundamentally sound, more resilient than in the past, and currently poses no threat to macroeconomic stability. A major disruption ...

  18. Medical tourism and policy implications for health systems: a conceptual framework from a comparative study of Thailand, Singapore and Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Pocock, Nicola S; Phua, Kai Hong

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Medical tourism is a growing phenomenon with policy implications for health systems, particularly of destination countries. Private actors and governments in Southeast Asia are promoting the medical tourist industry, but the potential impact on health systems, particularly in terms of equity in access and availability for local consumers, is unclear. This article presents a conceptual framework that outlines the policy implications of medical tourism's growth for health systems, draw...

  19. Accountability of central banks: aspects and quantification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. DE HAAN

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The work examines the relationship between central bank independence and accountability. The authors do this by using an indicator for central bank accountability based on the laws of 16 central banks. Central bank accountability is identified as having three distinct features, namely, the explicit definition and ranking of the objectives of monetary policy, the transparency of the actual monetary policy, and the final responsibility to monetary policy.

  20. Understanding farmers' strategic decision-making processes and the implications for biodiversity conservation policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmar-Bowers, Quentin; Lane, Ruth

    2009-02-01

    The conservation of biodiversity is an important issue world wide and in Australia the maintenance of native biodiversity on farms makes an important contribution to overall conservation objectives. This paper seeks to explain Australian farmers' rationale for maintaining biodiversity on their farms for personal as opposed to business reasons by developing a decision-systems theory from in-depth interviews. This difference has implications for policy development. The decision-systems theory is divided into two main sections. The first section contains five parts. (1) A hierarchy of motivation stories, (2) the concept of suitability and availability of opportunities, (3) a hierarchy of three decision-systems, (4) the concept of personal career paths, (5) the concept of Lenses. The second section contains one part, a policy classification system called 'boxes of influence' that suggests how policy developers can use the information in the first section to develop new biodiversity conservation policy. The paper suggests that decision-systems theory could be used to shed new light on current trends in agriculture and become an important investigative tool for policy development concerning the conservation of biodiversity on farms.

  1. A critical examination of the U.S. nursing shortage: contributing factors, public policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Rebekah L; Abrahamson, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Despite short-lived periods of adequacy in nurse availability, the nursing shortage has endured. In order to better understand the myriad factors that influence the current shortage of nurses, as well as possible solutions, this project addresses the influence of social factors and government policy on nurse staffing inadequacy. When the government intervenes in a philosophically free-market economy, the assumption is that a problem, such as the current nursing shortage, could not be solved without such intervention. PURPOSE. Nursing care arguably falls into the realm of protecting the common good, and therefore requires government oversight. We provide a critical analysis of policy intervention efforts into the nursing shortage debate by examining the passage of legislation, the provision of educational assistance, and the establishment of minimum staffing requirements and minimum quality standards for reimbursement, which all impact nursing supply and demand. RESULTS. Arguments supporting and opposing policy intervention in general, and its impact on the overall provision of nursing care in the United States, were examined. Without policy incentive to place financial value on the quality of care provided by nurses, a simple increase in the number of available nurses is unlikely to solve the current problem. IMPLICATIONS. Important considerations that should be factored into policy creation include measurement and compensation for quality care, the nature of recruitment efforts of new nurses, and the complex nature of a nursing work.

  2. Banking contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Sochorová, Silvie

    2012-01-01

    Resumé - Bank Contracts Bank Contracts are an integral part of our everyday lives. Citizen and bussines entities used bank contracts very often. Despite this fact we can't find legal definition in the Czech law. Banking contracts understand contracts that are signed by banks in their business activities and obligations under these contracts arise. While the banking contracts have been widely used, in Czech law there is not too much literature and judgements abou this issue. Lack of legislatio...

  3. Systemic risk and heterogeneous leverage in banking networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzubaş, Tolga Umut; Saltoğlu, Burak; Sever, Can

    2016-11-01

    This study probes systemic risk implications of leverage heterogeneity in banking networks. We show that the presence of heterogeneous leverages drastically changes the systemic effects of defaults and the nature of the contagion in interbank markets. Using financial leverage data from the US banking system, through simulations, we analyze the systemic significance of different types of borrowers, the evolution of the network, the consequences of interbank market size and the impact of market segmentation. Our study is related to the recent Basel III regulations on systemic risk and the treatment of the Global Systemically Important Banks (GSIBs). We also assess the extent to which the recent capital surcharges on GSIBs may curb financial fragility. We show the effectiveness of surcharge policy for the most-levered banks vis-a-vis uniform capital injection.

  4. A shell-derived time history of bomb 14C on Georges Bank and its Labrador Sea implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidman, C.R.; Jones, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    Bomb-produced radiocarbon has been used in the past as an important tracer of ocean circulation and as a valuable tool for calculating CO 2 air-sea exchange. However, previous studies of the ocean's time-varying bomb 14 C record have been confined exclusively to analyzing banded corals, and thus their application has been limited to the lower latitudes. The first time history of bomb 14 C from the high-latitude North Atlantic Ocean is obtained from a 54-year-old mollusc specimen, (Bivalvia) Arctica islandica, which was collected live from Georges Bank (41 degrees N) in 1990. The annual growth bands of its shell were analyzed for Δ 14 C using accelerator mass spectrometry, producing a Δ 14 C time history from 1939 to 1990. The depleted condition of the Georges Bank bomb 14 C signal relative to two coral-derived North Atlantic Δ 14 C time histories suggests a significant deepwater source for the waters on Georges Bank. Supported by previous work linking the origin of waters on Georges Bank to the Labrador Sea, the Δ 14 C budget on Georges Bank is modeled as Labrador Sea water, which largely becomes confined to the shelf and partially equilibrates with the atmosphere during a 1-year transit time from the Labrador Sea to Georges Bank. This model is also used to estimate a time history of bomb 14 C for the Labrador Sea. Prebomb Δ 14 C values calculated for the surface Labrador Sea suggest that a greater inventory of bomb 14 C has accumulated here than has previously been reported. Deduced variations in the ventilation and/or 14 CO 2 uptake rates in the Labrador Sea correspond with observed changes in surface salinity of the Labrador Sea, suggesting a reduction in deepwater formation during the late 1960s and 1970s. 59 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Implications of sperm banking for health-related quality of life up to 1 year after cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacey, A; Merrick, H; Arden-Close, E; Morris, K; Rowe, R; Stark, D; Eiser, C

    2013-01-01

    Background: Sperm banking is recommended for all men diagnosed with cancer where treatment is associated with risk of long-term gonadatoxicity, to offer the opportunity of fatherhood and improved quality of life. However, uptake of sperm banking is lower than expected and little is known about why men refuse. Our aims were to determine: (i) demographic and medical variables associated with decisions about banking and (ii) differences in quality of life between bankers and non-bankers at diagnosis (Time 1 (T1)) and 1 year later (Time 2 (T2)). Methods: Questionnaires were completed by 91 men (response rate=86.67%) at T1 and 78 (85.71% response rate) at T2. Results: In all, 44 (56.41%) banked sperm. They were younger and less likely to have children than non-bankers. In a subset of men who were not sure if they wanted children in the future (n=36), 24 banked sperm. Among this group, those who banked were younger, more satisfied with clinic appointments and less worried about the health of future children. At T2, there were no differences in quality of life between bankers and non-bankers. Conclusion: For those who are uncertain about future reproductive plans, decisions depend on their health on diagnosis and satisfaction with clinic care. We conclude that extra care should be taken in counselling younger men who may have given little consideration to future parenting. Results support previous findings that the role of the doctor is vital in facilitating decisions, especially for those who are undecided about whether they wanted children in the future or not. PMID:23470465

  6. An Investigation of Creative Climate of University R&D Centers and Policy Implications for Innovation in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Chunfang; Rasmussen, Palle; Chemi, Tatiana

    2017-01-01

    The chapter focuses on the influences of science and technology (S&T) policies on creative climate of university R&D centers in China that provide policy implications for improving roles of university R&D in innovation system. The empirical data came from two questionnaire surveys, one...

  7. Quantifying the spatial implications of future land use policies in South Africa: Reshaping a city through land use modelling

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Le Roux, Alize

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Land use policies have a definite and lasting impact on the way that cities grow, however, the change in land use only gets observed many years later. As such, it is difficult for policy and decision makers to observe and quantify the implications...

  8. BANK LENDING EVOLUTION IN ROMANIA DURING 2008-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Mihai LEOVEANU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The period of global nuisance of banking and financial sector during the international financial crisis continues to have overwhelming implications in the current period, which requires careful research of monetary and financial phenomena locally and globally. In this sense, this article aims to highlight key aspects of the Romanian investment environment in the context of international economic environment and monetary policy transmission mechanisms in the Romanian economy. Following this approach, the study focuses on analyzing the financial position of banks operating in Romania, the evolution of lending by type of entity and positive/negative aspects about the impact of monetary policy measures and the NBR regulations on bank lending. The study shows conclusively the positive and the negative effects of lending evolution on the Romanian economy, on the solvency and bankruptcy risk of Romanian companies and on the behavior of debtors and creditors in credit relationships.

  9. IMPLICATIONS OF THE EU MULTI-LEVEL GOVERNANCE IN THE FIELD OF COMPETITION POLICY – A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE CHARACTERISTICS OF COHESION AND COMPETITION POLICIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Bonciu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at analyzing the intrinsic characteristics of the European Union and to show that these characteristics objectively require the implementation of multi-level governance. A comparative analysis of the European Union’s cohesion and competition policy is presented from the point of view of these elements. Further on, given the implications of the economic crisis, the paper explores the possible translation from multi-level governance to polycentric governance and its implications for the cohesion and competition policies.

  10. Rural Households’ Adaptation to Climate Change and its Implications for Policy Designs in Lijiang, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Yuan

    . The thesis, carried out in three mountain villages in southwest China, seeks to advance the understanding of local adaptation process and its implications for vulnerability and policy designs. In particular, the research contributes to quantitative assessment of current and forward-looking adaptation...... quantitative approaches to model adaptation behaviour. The thesis consists of four papers. Paper 1 looks at households’ livelihood dynamics during the past three decades, its drivers and implications for vulnerability. Paper 2 investigates households’ motivations to adapt ex-ante to drought in relation...... changes in social-ecological systems. The PhD research demonstrates 1) the interwoven impacts of co-evolving socio-economic, political and environmental changes in shaping livelihood changes and households’ vulnerability; 2) the usefulness to accommodate key cognitive processes, such as risk perception...

  11. International labour migration in the Asian-Pacific region: patterns, policies and economic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athukorala, P

    1993-11-01

    "This paper reviews the literature on international labour migration from and within the Asian-Pacific region. It deals with patterns and characteristics of migration flows, government policies towards labour migration, and economic implications of labour migration for both labour-exporting and importing countries in the region. The indications are that, despite gradual slowing down of labour flows to the western industrial countries and the Middle East, labour migration will continue to be a major economic influence on surplus-labour countries in the region. As an integral part of the growth dynamism in the region, labour migration has now begun to take on a regional dimension, with immense implications for the process of industrial restructuring in high growth economies and the changing pattern of economic interdependence among countries." excerpt

  12. On the economic analysis of problems in energy efficiency: Market barriers, market failures, and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanstad, A.H.; Koomey, J.G.; Levine, M.D.

    1993-01-01

    In his recent paper in The Energy Journal, Ronald Sutherland argues that several so-called ''market barriers'' to energy efficiency frequently cited in the literature are not market failures in the conventional sense and are thus irrelevant for energy policy. We argue that Sutherland has inadequately analyzed the idea of market barrier and misrepresented the policy implications of microeconomics. We find that economic theory, correctly interpreted, does not provide for the categorical dismissal of market barriers. We explore important methodological issues underlying the debate over market barriers, and discuss the importance of reconciling the findings of non-economic social sciences with the economic analysis of energy demand and consumer decision-making. We also scrutinize Sutherland's attempt to apply finance theory to rationalize high implicit discount rates observed in energy-related choices, and find this use of finance theory to be inappropriate

  13. On the economic analysis of problems in energy efficiency: Market barriers, market failures, and policy implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanstad, A.H.; Koomey, J.G.; Levine, M.D.

    1993-01-01

    In his recent paper in The Energy Journal, Ronald Sutherland argues that several so-called ``market barriers`` to energy efficiency frequently cited in the literature are not market failures in the conventional sense and are thus irrelevant for energy policy. We argue that Sutherland has inadequately analyzed the idea of market barrier and misrepresented the policy implications of microeconomics. We find that economic theory, correctly interpreted, does not provide for the categorical dismissal of market barriers. We explore important methodological issues underlying the debate over market barriers, and discuss the importance of reconciling the findings of non-economic social sciences with the economic analysis of energy demand and consumer decision-making. We also scrutinize Sutherland`s attempt to apply finance theory to rationalize high implicit discount rates observed in energy-related choices, and find this use of finance theory to be inappropriate.

  14. On the economic analysis of problems in energy efficiency: Market barriers, market failures, and policy implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanstad, A.H.; Koomey, J.G.; Levine, M.D.

    1993-01-01

    In his recent paper in The Energy Journal, Ronald Sutherland argues that several so-called market barriers'' to energy efficiency frequently cited in the literature are not market failures in the conventional sense and are thus irrelevant for energy policy. We argue that Sutherland has inadequately analyzed the idea of market barrier and misrepresented the policy implications of microeconomics. We find that economic theory, correctly interpreted, does not provide for the categorical dismissal of market barriers. We explore important methodological issues underlying the debate over market barriers, and discuss the importance of reconciling the findings of non-economic social sciences with the economic analysis of energy demand and consumer decision-making. We also scrutinize Sutherland's attempt to apply finance theory to rationalize high implicit discount rates observed in energy-related choices, and find this use of finance theory to be inappropriate.

  15. Psychotherapy research in historical perspective. Implications for mental health care policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, R L; Orlinsky, D E

    1996-08-01

    This article is a sketch of the historical development of the field of behavioral and non-behavioral therapy research. Four phases are characterized: (1) establishing scientific research (1927-1954), (2) searching for scientific rigor (1955-1969), (3) expansion and organization (1970-1983), and (4) consolidation and reformulation (1984-present). Continuities between and key developments within successive phases are outlined, with emphasis given to methodological innovations. The corroboration of select findings about process and outcome and the development of several critical discourses within the third and fourth phases have implications for the provision of mental health care and for policy discussions.

  16. A Game of Two Elderly Care Facilities: Competition, Mothballing Options, and Policy Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congcong Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article develops a model to investigate the entry strategies of private investors to the elderly care service market, with the purpose of explaining the reasons behind dilemma of low signing rate plaguing China’s Public-Private Partnership projects. We focus on the competition between two private investors with or without mothballing options under price uncertainty. After the derivation of equilibria of entry strategies, we employ numerical examples to analyze the dependencies of entry thresholds on market parameters, cost parameters, subsidy, and possession of mothballing option. Conclusions are drawn and some policy implications are given with the intention to alleviate the problem of low signing rate.

  17. Status Concern and Relative Deprivation in China: Measures, Empirical Evidence and Economic and Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, CHEN

    2017-01-01

    Status concern and feelings of relative deprivation affect individual behaviour and well-being. Traditional norms and the alarming inequality in China have made relative deprivation increasingly intense for the Chinese population. This article reviews empirical literature on China that attempts to test the relative deprivation hypothesis, and also reviews the origins and pathways of relative deprivation, compares its economic measures in the literature and summarises the scientific findings. Drawing from solid empirical evidence, the author discusses the important policy implications on redistribution, official regulations and grassroots sanctions, and relative poverty alleviation. PMID:29033479

  18. Gender, international migration and social reproduction: implications for theory, policy, research and networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong T-d

    1996-01-01

    "This paper aims to contribute to the development of an analytical framework that provides the space for the understanding of female migrants as reproductive workers in a cross-national transfer of labor. It will first provide some hypothetical guidelines for the explanation of female migration in the context of reproductive labor. Based on accessible data, a discussion on the case of Japan will be presented to highlight the main issues and problems concerning female migrants as reproductive workers. Finally, implications on policy-making and networking at the international and national level will be analyzed and discussed, taking into account the specific ideological, political and socioeconomic constraints." excerpt

  19. Predicting turnover and retention in nursing home administrators: management and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, D A; Schwab, R C

    2000-06-01

    Administrator turnover and its impact on the quality of patient care are important concerns in the nursing home industry. This study evaluates a model to determine which factors, attitudes, and personal characteristics can predict tenure. Responses to a survey from 290 nursing home administrators (NHAs) who furnished data on their previous positions were analyzed using logistic regression methods. The extracted model correlates tenure with the administrator's past patterns of stability, community attachment, organizational commitment, and facility performance. The model is particularly effective (85% accuracy) in flagging NHAs who are likely to depart within their first 3 years of employment. Implications of these findings for recruitment, retention, and licensure policy are discussed.

  20. Review of hookah tobacco smoking among college students: policy implications and research recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gathuru, Irene M; Tarter, Ralph E; Klein-Fedyshin, Michele

    2015-01-01

    About 30% of college students have smoked hookah tobacco. Although most students perceive this product to be innocuous and non-addictive, hookah tobacco increases the risk for disease and nicotine dependence. Currently, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) does not regulate the manufacture, distribution, or sale of hookah tobacco. Empirical literature pertaining to hookah tobacco smoking is reviewed with a focus on the implications for regulatory policy. PubMed, PsycINFO, and Scopus databases were searched to locate articles published in English. The literature search combined several key words including "hookahs", "college", "advertising", "health effects", and "health policy". Smoking hookah tobacco may play a role in the initiation of smoking among tobacco-naïve college students and may portend persistent smoking among those who have smoked cigarettes. College students are typically nondaily, social smokers. They do not perceive that their heightened risk for tobacco diseases and nicotine dependence relates to their smoking behavior. However, few public health messages target college-age adults to counter media messages that endorse hookah tobacco smoking. Given that the FDA is not authorized to ban specific tobacco products, policy actions should focus on the development of effective risk communication strategies that target college-age adults and on limiting the accessibility of hookah tobacco products to these adults. Accordingly, a research agenda that would inform these policy actions is proposed.

  1. IMPLEMENTATION OF TRADE LAWS: IMPLICATIONS IN THE PRICE CONTROL POLICY OF COMMUNITY NEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engkus Engkus

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available [Implementation Of Trade Laws: Implications In The Price Control Policy Of Community Needs] Issuing the act no 7 year 2014 about tade, Indonesia has new hope to design the obscene of social basic requirements were going on all this time. The main problem in the research that “increasing and decreasing pricefluctuatively” has became repeatedly in Ramadhan. It has been caused by some factors: Unbalancing Supply and demand not done optimally yet. The aim of the research to collect data, facta and problems analyses them and directly or indirectlywe want to know and increase for academic nuance as theorital, also who want to know about them deeply. The research is qualitative research, using the technical of theresearch are observation, interview, documental history and documental audio visual. The results of research, before, at the moment, after Ramadhan, the price of social basic requirements still increasely and fluctuatively. Government intervention, by short term policy not touched social basic requirements continously yet. So piling them were not clearness of official. Raring supply, increasing demand, It has been caused by social increasing consumption, Finally high increasing price. Conclusion: The price control social basic requirements policy, complately by redesign comprehensive, transparancy, participative and continuosly policy, from central government to local government towards nation autonomy in food. Keywords: Increasing Price, clearness of official, Control.

  2. Implications of the Private Property Right to the Community Forest Businesses Formalization through the Certification Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bramasto Nugroho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the implication of formalization of community forest business efforts through mandatory timber legality certification policy. Field survey was conducted in March–April 2012 in 3 districts in Central of Java namely Blora, Wonogiri, and Wonosobo District. The results showed that community forest is mainly planting in their private owned land. It brings 2 consequences. Firstly, their willingness to manage their forest sustainably was emerged without any enforcement from external parties. Secondly, there were autonomous in decision making in their way to manage their forest such as they only planted tree species that easy to sell and valuable, they only cut their trees when they need huge money for children schooling, marriage, illness, and housing. The autonomous decision making gives also the owners (farmers other alternatives to utilize their land otherwise planting the trees. It is mean, if the policy is decreasing the potential benefits from growing the trees, they can also convert their community forest into other business in which profitable and easy to sell their products. From those facts, it seems the formalization of community forest business through mandatory certification is not a proper policy to enhance the community forest.Keywords: community forest, formalization, policy, private property, timber legality DOI: 10.7226/jtfm.19.3.178

  3. The economics of environmental policy in Poland: implications for countries in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livingston, M.L.; Bochniarz, Z.; Bolan, R.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this article is to generate insights into the problems and opportunities faced by countries in transition in implementing environmental policy based on the recent experience of Poland. There is much to be learned from the experience of the country that arguably took the riskiest and boldest path of environmental and economic institutional change. The experience of Poland can be enlightening in terms of the problems and opportunities in establishing an institutional framework that can validate the long term legitimacy of sustainable development as a national goal. From the unique set of circumstances facing Poland, lessons can be derived for other countries in transition. The paper begins by introducing the basic welfare economics of institutional choice. The theoretical arguments are presented in terms general to institutional design and specific to environmental policy. Subsequently, the recent experience of Poland in terms of the problems faced and key environmental policy innovations are documented. The concluding section presents policy implications that can be drawn from the Polish experience and speculates about their applicability to other countries in transition. 28 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs

  4. Long-term climate policy implications of phasing out fossil fuel subsidies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwanitz, Valeria Jana; Piontek, Franziska; Bertram, Christoph; Luderer, Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    It is often argued that fossil fuel subsidies hamper the transition towards a sustainable energy supply as they incentivize wasteful consumption. We assess implications of a subsidy phase-out for the mitigation of climate change and the low-carbon transformation of the energy system, using the global energy–economy model REMIND. We compare our results with those obtained by the International Energy Agency (based on the World Energy Model) and by the Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD-Model ENV-Linkages), providing the long-term perspective of an intertemporal optimization model. The results are analyzed in the two dimensions of subsidy phase-out and climate policy scenarios. We confirm short-term benefits of phasing-out fossil fuel subsidies as found in prior studies. However, these benefits are only sustained to a small extent in the long term, if dedicated climate policies are weak or nonexistent. Most remarkably we find that a removal of fossil fuel subsidies, if not complemented by other policies, can slow down a global transition towards a renewable based energy system. The reason is that world market prices for fossil fuels may drop due to a removal of subsidies. Thus, low carbon alternatives would encounter comparative disadvantages. - Highlights: • We assess implications of phasing out fossil fuel subsidies on the mitigation of climate change. • The removal of subsidies leads to a net-reduction in the use of energy. • Emission reductions contribute little to stabilize greenhouse gases at 450 ppm if not combined with climate policies. • Low carbon alternatives may encounter comparative disadvantages due to relative price changes at world markets

  5. A Technical and Policy Case Study of Large-Scale Rescue and Redistribution of Perishable Foods by the "Leket Israel" Food Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Dana; Hod-Ovadia, Smadar; Troen, Aron M

    2017-06-01

    Food banks seeking to rescue and redistribute highly nutritious perishable foods to simultaneously alleviate food insecurity and reduce food waste often encounter practical, ethical, and political dilemmas. We present a case study of "Leket Israel," an Israeli food bank that uses an effective large-scale logistical model for the rescue and redistribution of perishable food and discuss the challenges and solutions it offers. The organization operates in a rich country plagued with poverty and inequality, where the government passively encourages nongovernmental organizations to respond to the serious and growing problem of food insecurity. Operating under a business-to-business model, Leket Israel distributes food via intermediary nonprofit organizations (NPOs), enriching the food they provide with fresh produce. Food is obtained through an Agricultural Gleaning project, Self-Growing Farm project, and Meal Rescue project. The partnering NPOs then distribute the food to people in need. Although the rescue and redistribution of highly perishable food is more costly and complex than acquiring, storing, and distributing dried and staple foods and it requires specialized knowledge and infrastructure in order to maintain rigorous safety standards, it improves the nutritional quality of the aid. In 2015, Leket Israel distributed 15 217 389 kg of food, 90% of which was fruit and vegetables, to 180 partnering NPOs nationwide, reaching an estimated 175 000 recipients. "Leket Israel" offers a valuable model that can be studied and emulated by international nutrition scientists, practitioners, and policy makers who are seeking to reduce food insecurity and food waste in other countries.

  6. Politica bancaria e sviluppo economico: rileggendo l'era menichelliana e quella attuale (Banking policy and economic development: re-reading the menichellian era and the present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Sarcinelli

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Il basso tasso di crescita dell’Italia, anche nel contesto internazionale ed europeo, ha spinto a confrontare gli anni ’50 con gli ultimi dieci o quindici. Dall’analisi emerge che, se si esclude l’iniziale liberalizzazione del commercio internazionale, il periodo che vide la più vigorosa crescita dell’Italia fu caratterizzato dall’economia mista, da monopoli pubblici e posizioni private dominanti, da una politica monetaria e bancaria basata su controlli diretti ed esercizi di persuasione morale individuale, tutte condizioni oggi ritenute sfavorevoli alla crescita. Al contrario, nella fase attuale l’enfasi è stata sul modello di economia liberale, con liberalizzazioni, privatizzazioni di imprese produttive e di banche, politiche incentrate sugli incentivi e sul mercato. Purtroppo, la scienza economica non ha ancora trovato il paradigma generale che spiega la ricchezza delle nazioni a prescindere dal contesto e dagli uomini che lo animano.  The low growth rate of Italy, also in international and European context, has led to compare the 50s with the last ten or fifteen. The analysis shows that, apart from the initial liberalization of international trade, the period that saw the most vigorous growth in Italy was characterized from a mixed economy, with public monopolies and dominant positions private, from a monetary and banking policy based of direct controls and exercises of individual moral suasion, all conditions previously deemed unfavorable to growth. On the contrary, at this stage the emphasis was on the model of liberal economy, with liberalization, privatization of productive enterprises and banks, policies based on incentives and market. Unfortunately, the economic science has not yet found a general paradigm that explains the wealth of nations regardless of the context and the men who animate it. JEL Codes: B31, E65, N14, O10Keywords: tasso di crescita, commercio internazionale, politica monetaria, politica bancaria

  7. Public participation and environmental impact assessment: Purposes, implications, and lessons for public policy making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Faircheallaigh, Ciaran

    2010-01-01

    In recent years the need to enhance public participation in Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), and the efficacy of alternative mechanisms in achieving this goal, have been central themes in the EIA literature. The benefits of public participation are often taken for granted, and partly for this reason the underlying rationale for greater public participation is sometimes poorly articulated, making it more difficult to determine how to pursue it effectively. The reasons for seeking public participation are also highly diverse and not always mutually consistent. There has been limited analysis of the implications of different forms and degrees of public participation for public decision making based on EIA, and little discussion of how experience with public participation in EIA relates to debates about participation in policy making generally. This paper distinguishes various purposes for public participation in EIA, and discusses their implications for decision making. It then draws on some general models of public participation in policy making to consider how approaches to participation in EIA can be interpreted and valued, and asks what EIA experience reveals about the utility of these models. It argues that the models pay insufficient attention to the interaction that can occur between different forms of public participation; and to the fact that public participation raises issues regarding control over decision making that are not subject to resolution, but must be managed through ongoing processes of negotiation.

  8. The emergence and policy implications of converging new technologies integrated from the nanoscale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roco, M. C.

    2005-01-01

    Science based on the unified concepts on matter at the nanoscale provides a new foundation for knowledge creation, innovation, and technology integration. Convergent new technologies refers to the synergistic combination of nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology and cognitive sciences (NBIC), each of which is currently progressing at a rapid rate, experiencing qualitative advancements, and interacting with the more established fields such as mathematics and environmental technologies (Roco and Bainbridge, 2002). It is expected that converging technologies will bring about tremendous improvements in transforming tools, new products and services, enable human personal abilities and social achievements, and reshape societal relationships.After a brief overview of the general implications of converging new technologies, this paper focuses on its effects on R and D policies and business models as part of changing societal relationships. These R and D policies will have implications on investments in research and industry, with the main goal of taking advantage of the transformative development of NBIC. Introduction of converging technologies must be done with respect of immediate concerns (privacy, toxicity of new materials, etc.) and longer-term concerns including human integrity, dignity and welfare. The efficient introduction and development of converging new technologies will require new organizations and business models, as well as solutions for preparing the economy, such as multifunctional research facilities, integrative technology platforms, and global risk governance

  9. The emergence and policy implications of converging new technologies integrated from the nanoscale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roco, M. C. [National Science Foundation (United States)], E-mail: mroco@nsf.gov

    2005-06-15

    Science based on the unified concepts on matter at the nanoscale provides a new foundation for knowledge creation, innovation, and technology integration. Convergent new technologies refers to the synergistic combination of nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology and cognitive sciences (NBIC), each of which is currently progressing at a rapid rate, experiencing qualitative advancements, and interacting with the more established fields such as mathematics and environmental technologies (Roco and Bainbridge, 2002). It is expected that converging technologies will bring about tremendous improvements in transforming tools, new products and services, enable human personal abilities and social achievements, and reshape societal relationships.After a brief overview of the general implications of converging new technologies, this paper focuses on its effects on R and D policies and business models as part of changing societal relationships. These R and D policies will have implications on investments in research and industry, with the main goal of taking advantage of the transformative development of NBIC. Introduction of converging technologies must be done with respect of immediate concerns (privacy, toxicity of new materials, etc.) and longer-term concerns including human integrity, dignity and welfare. The efficient introduction and development of converging new technologies will require new organizations and business models, as well as solutions for preparing the economy, such as multifunctional research facilities, integrative technology platforms, and global risk governance.

  10. African female immigration to the United States and its policy implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kevin J.A.; Logan, Ikubolajeh

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the dynamics of female African immigration and settlement in the United States and discusses the research and policy implications for these processes. It highlights a significant surge in female immigration from African than non-African countries in recent years. This surge is driven by female immigration from Africa’s countries most populous countries, from countries affected by civil conflicts, and from English-speaking countries in the region. African women are also more likely to arrive as unmarried single than other female immigrants. In addition, they had the highest prevalence of Bachelors, Masters, or Doctorate degrees among women in the US. African females were also about twice more likely to be enrolled in US Educational institutions compared to other women. Those in the labor force were more likely to work as nursing professionals than in technical occupational groups such as engineering and computing. The study concludes by discussing the research and policy implications of these findings for countries in the developing world. PMID:25097267

  11. Landscape Transformation in Tropical Latin America: Assessing Trends and Policy Implications for REDD+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del Carmen Vera Diaz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Important transformations are underway in tropical landscapes in Latin America with implications for economic development and climate change. Landscape transformation is driven not only by national policies and markets, but also by global market dynamics associated with an increased role for transnational traders and investors. National and global trends affect a disparate number of social, political and economic interactions taking place at the local level, which ultimately shapes land-use and socio-economic change. This paper reviews five different trajectories of landscape change in tropical Latin America, and discusses their implications for development and conservation: (1 Market-driven growth of agribusiness; (2 expansion and modernization of traditional cattle ranching; (3 slow growth of peasant agriculture; (4 logging in production forest frontiers; and (5 resurgence of agro-extractive economies. Contrasting trade-offs between economic development and forest conservation emerge across these landscapes, calling for nuanced policy responses to manage them in the context of climate change. This discussion sets the background to assess how reduction of emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and enhancing carbon stocks (REDD+ aims should be better aligned with current landscape trajectories and associated actors to better address climate-change mitigation in forest landscapes with effective and equitable outcomes.

  12. The emergence and policy implications of converging new technologies integrated from the nanoscale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roco, M. C.

    2005-06-01

    Science based on the unified concepts on matter at the nanoscale provides a new foundation for knowledge creation, innovation, and technology integration. Convergent new technologies refers to the synergistic combination of nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology and cognitive sciences (NBIC), each of which is currently progressing at a rapid rate, experiencing qualitative advancements, and interacting with the more established fields such as mathematics and environmental technologies (Roco & Bainbridge, 2002). It is expected that converging technologies will bring about tremendous improvements in transforming tools, new products and services, enable human personal abilities and social achievements, and reshape societal relationships. After a brief overview of the general implications of converging new technologies, this paper focuses on its effects on R&D policies and business models as part of changing societal relationships. These R&D policies will have implications on investments in research and industry, with the main goal of taking advantage of the transformative development of NBIC. Introduction of converging technologies must be done with respect of immediate concerns (privacy, toxicity of new materials, etc.) and longer-term concerns including human integrity, dignity and welfare. The efficient introduction and development of converging new technologies will require new organizations and business models, as well as solutions for preparing the economy, such as multifunctional research facilities, integrative technology platforms, and global risk governance.

  13. QUING WHY paper: Framing gender intersections in the European Union: what implications for the quality of intersectionality in policies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Lise Rolandsen; Lombardo, Emanuela

    This paper explores the extent to which the emergence of an anti-discrimination policy in the European Union (EU) implies a shift in EU gender equality policies towards an intersectional approach. The frame analysis of EU gender equality policy documents shows that intersectional dimensions...... are increasingly present but they are treated implicitly and from a separate perspective, and the inclusion of a wide range of inequalities often implies a degendering of the policy content. We assess the implications of the identified intersectionality trends for the quality of intersectionality in gender...

  14. Policy-Making Theory as an Analytical Framework in Policy Analysis: Implications for Research Design and Professional Advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    Policy studies are a recent addition to the American Physical Therapy Association's Research Agenda and are critical to our understanding of various federal, state, local, and organizational policies on the provision of physical therapist services across the continuum of care. Policy analyses that help to advance the profession's various policy agendas will require relevant theoretical frameworks to be credible. The purpose of this perspective article is to: (1) demonstrate the use of a policy-making theory as an analytical framework in a policy analysis and (2) discuss how sound policy analysis can assist physical therapists in becoming more effective change agents, policy advocates, and partners with other relevant stakeholder groups. An exploratory study of state agency policy responses to address work-related musculoskeletal disorders is provided as a contemporary example to illustrate key points and to demonstrate the importance of selecting a relevant analytical framework based on the context of the policy issue under investigation. © 2016 American Physical Therapy Association.

  15. Mobile Phone Banking Usage Behaviour: An Australian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majharul Talukder

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available While the use of mobile phones in financial transactions is witnessing phenomenal growth at the international level, its growth has been relatively slow in Australia. Drawing on the theory of reasoned action and technology adoption framework, this paper reports the results concerning a survey of mobile phone users for banking transactions in Australia. The paper specifically identified the factors affecting usage behaviour when mobile phone banking services were engaged. The findings broaden and deepen our understanding of the usage of mobile-based banking in the information age. This paper contributes to the knowledge of this subject by including identification and testing of constructs of predictors regarding mobile phone banking, which are additional to those employed in the extant theories indicated above. The findings of this paper have important policy implications for banks in terms of understanding the underlying factors that drive customers’ mobile banking for financial transactions. Accordingly, design strategies have been developed to promote mobile phone banking – a cost effective channel for delivering financial services.

  16. Financial and economic approach: Financial & banking sector development pact from the perspective of the euro area European economic policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodoropoulos Theodore E.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Powerful obstacles to the further integration of repot, bond and equity markets remain the still fragmented securities settlement industry in Europe, which charges much higher fees for cross border transactions than for domestic transactions, and differences in legal systems. This paper describes the main developments in the euro area financial markets before and after the introduction of the single currency. It looks at the evolution of the euro area financial structure in the last few years. Interestingly in various dimensions the financial structure of euro area countries seems to become more diverse over time. We assess the progress towards financial integration in the most important euro-area financial segments, namely money and equity markets, as well as banking. The available data suggest that the unsecured money market strongly integrated with the introduction of the euro, as the single currency and related euro-area-wide large-value payment systems link the different countries well. Also, some progress occurred in the integration of euro-area equity markets, as stock exchanges in a few countries merged to form Euronext and professional asset managers replaced country allocation by sector allocation strategies. Overall, while asset holdings have become more international in the euro area since the introduction of the single currency, securities markets are still much less integrated than in the US. In the area of retail banking the increased homogeneity of interest rates seems to be driven more by macroeconomic convergence than by market integration. In addition we consider a wide range of other determinants, such as foreign debt or net foreign assets, terms of trade, government debt and regulated prices.

  17. The Bolger conference on PDE-5 inhibition and HIV risk: implications for health policy and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Raymond C; Catania, Joseph A; Ehrhardt, Anke A; Burnett, Arthur L; Lue, Tom F; McKenna, Kevin; Heiman, Julia R; Schwarcz, Sandy; Ostrow, David G; Hirshfield, Sabina; Purcell, David W; Fisher, William A; Stall, Ron; Halkitis, Perry N; Latini, David M; Elford, Jonathan; Laumann, Edward O; Sonenstein, Freya L; Greenblatt, David J; Kloner, Robert A; Lee, Jay; Malebranche, David; Janssen, Erick; Diaz, Rafael; Klausner, Jeffrey D; Caplan, Arthur L; Jackson, Graham; Shabsigh, Ridwan; Khalsa, Jag H; Stoff, David M

    2006-11-01

    Recent reports have linked the use of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5) inhibitors with increased rates of high-risk sexual behavior and HIV transmission in some individuals. A National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)-funded, multidisciplinary conference was convened to evaluate scientific research, clinical and ethical considerations, and public policy implications of this topic. Published and unpublished findings on effects of PDE-5 inhibitors on sexual behavior; published guidelines and management recommendations. Leading investigators in relevant disciplines (e.g., public health, epidemiology, medical ethics, urology, psychology) participated in a 2-day meeting, including representatives of government, scientific, and regulatory agencies (the Centers for Disease Control, Food and Drug Administration, NIMH, and the National Institute on Drug Abuse). Panelists provided critical reviews of substantive areas of research, followed by question and answer sessions on each topic. On the second day, working groups were convened to identify critical gaps and priorities in three major areas: (i) research and evaluation needs; (ii) prevention strategies and clinical management issues; and (iii) policy and prevention implications. Research needs and priorities were categorized into four specific areas: (i) basic and clinical/laboratory research; (ii) epidemiology and risk factors; (iii) social-behavioral processes and interventions; and (iv) prevention/policy and educational needs. Identified gaps in the available data include populations at risk (e.g., risk among heterosexuals, risk profiles among subpopulations of men who have sex with men) and the specific role of PDE-5 inhibitors in HIV seroconversion. Specific areas of emphasis were the need for safer sex counseling, comprehensive sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening and follow-up when indicated, avoidance of potentially dangerous drug interactions, and potential benefits of testosterone replacement for HIV

  18. PATHWAYS TO SUSTAINABLE BANKING MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan (Santamarian Oana Raluca

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes one of the major challenges of the future: the sustainable development of the society. Sustainability is now increasingly recognized as central to the growth of emerging market economies. For the banking sector, this represents both a demand for greater social and environmental responsibility as well as a new landscape of business opportunity. Several years ago, the main part of the banks did not consider the social and environmental problems relevant for their operations. Recently, the banks began to realize the major impact of the sustainable development over the way of ulterior development of the society and, implicitly over the way of creating of the banking value in the future. In this context, the development of a banking management system, based on sustainable principles represents one of the provocations of these days.Starting from literature in the sustainable banking management field in this paper are presented several relevant issues related to risk management in the context of sustainable banking financing: the need to implement the sustainable management principles in financial and banking industry; the role of banks in sustainable development of society; social and environmental risk management policies, events that have shaped the role of the banking sector in sustainable development; international standards regarding sustainable banking management such us: Equator Principles for sustainable investment projects’ financing or GRI principles for sustainable reporting. Furthermore, we developed a practical case study related to the implementation of sustainable banking management at Bank of America.

  19. Sustainable development, demography and sexual and reproductive health: inseparable linkages and their policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The greatest challenge today is to meet the needs of current and future generations, of a large and growing world population, without imposing catastrophic pressures on the natural environment. Meeting this challenge depends on decisive policy changes in three areas: more inclusive economic growth, greener economic growth, and population policies. This article focuses on efforts to address and harness demographic changes for sustainable development, which are largely outside the purview of the current debate. Efforts to this end must be based on the recognition that demographic changes are the cumulative result of individual choices and opportunities, and that demographic changes are best addressed through policies that enlarge these choices and opportunities, with a focus on ensuring unrestricted and universal access to sexual and reproductive health information and services, empowering women to fully participate in social, economic and political life, and investing in the education of the younger generation beyond the primary level. The article provides a strong argument for why the Programme of Action that was agreed at the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) 20 years ago continues to hold important implications and lessons for the formulation of the post-2015 development agenda, which is expected to supersede the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Influence of smallholder farmers’ perceptions on adaptation strategies to climate change and policy implications in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Obert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Smallholder agricultural production is largely affected by climate change and variability. Despite the negative effects brought by climate variability, smallholder farmers are still able to derive livelihoods. An understanding of factors that influence farmers’ responses and adaptation to climate variability can improve decision making for governments and development partners. This study investigated farmers’ perceptions and adaptation strategies to climate change and how these influence adaptation policies at local level. A survey was conducted with 100 households randomly selected from Chiredzi district. Data collected was used to derive farmer perceptions to climate change as well as the influence of their perceptions and subsequent adaptation methods to ensuing local agricultural adaptation measures and policies. The results indicated that smallholder farmers perceived general reduction in long-term annual rainfall and rising local average temperatures. Adverse trends in rainfall and average temperature perceived by farmers were consistent with empirical data. These perceptions and other socio-economic factors helped to shape smallholder farmer agricultural adaptation strategies. Policy implications are that the government and development partners should seek ways to assist autonomous adaptations by farmers through investments in planned adaptation initiatives.

  1. Reproductive tourism in Argentina: clinic accreditation and its implications for consumers, health professionals and policy makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Elise; Behrmann, Jason; Martin, Carolina; Williams-Jones, Bryn

    2010-08-01

    A subcategory of medical tourism, reproductive tourism has been the subject of much public and policy debate in recent years. Specific concerns include: the exploitation of individuals and communities, access to needed health care services, fair allocation of limited resources, and the quality and safety of services provided by private clinics. To date, the focus of attention has been on the thriving medical and reproductive tourism sectors in Asia and Eastern Europe; there has been much less consideration given to more recent 'players' in Latin America, notably fertility clinics in Chile, Brazil, Mexico and Argentina. In this paper, we examine the context-specific ethical and policy implications of private Argentinean fertility clinics that market reproductive services via the internet. Whether or not one agrees that reproductive services should be made available as consumer goods, the fact is that they are provided as such by private clinics around the world. We argue that basic national regulatory mechanisms are required in countries such as Argentina that are marketing fertility services to local and international publics. Specifically, regular oversight of all fertility clinics is essential to ensure that consumer information is accurate and that marketed services are safe and effective. It is in the best interests of consumers, health professionals and policy makers that the reproductive tourism industry adopts safe and responsible medical practices.

  2. Carbon dioxide emissions and climate change: policy implications for the cement industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehan, R.; Nehdi, M.

    2005-01-01

    There is growing awareness that the cement industry is a significant contributor to global carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions. It is expected that this industry will come under increasing regulatory pressures to reduce its emissions and contribute more aggressively to mitigating global warming. It is important that the industry's stakeholders become more familiar with greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and associated global warming issues, along with emerging policies that may affect the future of the industry. This paper discusses climate change, the current and proposed actions for mitigating its effects, and the implications of such actions for the cement industry. International negotiations on climate change are summarized and mechanisms available under the Kyoto Protocol for reducing greenhouse gas emissions are explained. The paper examines some of the traditional and emerging policy instruments for greenhouse gas emissions and analyses their merits and drawbacks. The applicability, effectiveness and potential impact of these policy instruments for the global cement industry in general and the Canadian cement industry in particular are discussed with recommendations for possible courses of action

  3. A new approach to measure speculation in the oil futures market and some policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Leo H.; Nguyen, Chi M.; Chan, Kam C.

    2015-01-01

    We propose using a new relative measure, the speculative ratio, defined as trading volume divided by open interest, to gauge speculative activity in the oil futures market. We apply the speculative ratio to examine the relation between basis and speculative activity in the oil futures market before and after the financialization of the oil market in 2003. Our finding suggests that the oil futures market is dominated by uninformed speculators in the post-financialization period. Our finding carries several practical policy implications, as follows: (1) both the commodity exchange and the regulator should design regulations and trading policies that improve basis risk; (2) on the commodity exchange side, new policies on margin requirements and position limits for speculators should be implemented; (3) margin requirements should be based on the level of basis risk; (4) regulators should speed up implementation of the position limit rule in the Dodd–Frank Act; and (5) stronger and more meaningful enforcement actions by regulators are required to punish and deter market manipulators. - Highlights: • Use a new speculative ratio to gauge speculative activities in oil futures market. • Examine the relation between basis and speculative activities. • The new speculative ratio also works well in the post-2008 oil bubble period. • Oil futures market is dominated by uninformed speculators in post-financialization in 2003.

  4. Policy implications of considering pre-commitments in U.S. aggregate energy demand system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowland, Christopher S.; Mjelde, James W.; Dharmasena, Senarath

    2017-01-01

    Linear approximations of the Generalized Almost Ideal Demand System and Almost Ideal Demand System for U.S. energy are compared to contrast the explicit inclusion and exclusion of pre-committed consumption levels. Results indicate that pre-commitment levels, the quantity of a good that is consumed in the short run with little regard for price, helps to better explain energy demand in the U.S. compared to the system that does not explicitly consider pre-commitments. Policy implications are if pre-commitments are a legitimate assumption, larger price changes are necessary to achieve a given policy objective than if there are no pre-commitments. - Highlights: • Pre-commitments are the quantity that is consumed with little regard for price. • Demand systems with pre-commitment levels better explain energy demand. • Elasticities from assuming pre-commitments are more elastic. • Estimated elasticities apply to discretionary and not pre-commitment consumption. • Pre-commitments require larger price changes to achieve a given policy objective.

  5. Project-Based Market Competition and Policy Implications for Sustainable Developments in Building and Construction Sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Ren Yan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Building and construction sectors are significant contributors to the global economy, but their energy consumption necessitates greater commitment to sustainable developments. There is therefore a growing demand for green innovation in the form of cleaner production and policies to meet the modern requirements of sustainability. However, the nature in which public work is undertaken is in an environment of project-based market competition, whereby contractors routinely bid for contracts under specific project awarding systems, and variations are accompanied with the unique scope of individual projects before the final goods or services are delivered. A comprehensive understanding of the characteristics and contractors’ behavior in systems could help to identify the leverage points of policies. This paper proposes a system dynamics model, with quantitative analysis and simulations, to demonstrate the problems of a system with different project awarding systems and ineffective market performance. The framework of market efficiency and performance measures has been proposed to evaluate the project-based competition mechanism. Managerial policy implications for market efficiency and sustainable developments can thus be systematically discussed and compared through iterative computer simulations and scenario analysis.

  6. Irrigation efficiency and water-policy implications for river-basin resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, C. A.; Vicuña, S.; Blanco-Gutiérrez, I.; Meza, F.; Varela-Ortega, C.

    2013-07-01

    Rising demand for food, fiber, and biofuels drives expanding irrigation withdrawals from surface- and groundwater. Irrigation efficiency and water savings have become watchwords in response to climate-induced hydrological variability, increasing freshwater demand for other uses including ecosystem water needs, and low economic productivity of irrigation compared to most other uses. We identify three classes of unintended consequences, presented here as paradoxes. Ever-tighter cycling of water has been shown to increase resource use, an example of the efficiency paradox. In the absence of effective policy to constrain irrigated-area expansion using "saved water", efficiency can aggravate scarcity, deteriorate resource quality, and impair river-basin resilience through loss of flexibility and redundancy. Water scarcity and salinity effects in the lower reaches of basins (symptomatic of the scale paradox) may partly be offset over the short-term through groundwater pumping or increasing surface water storage capacity. However, declining ecological flows and increasing salinity have important implications for riparian and estuarine ecosystems and for non-irrigation human uses of water including urban supply and energy generation, examples of the sectoral paradox. This paper briefly examines policy frameworks in three regional contexts with broadly similar climatic and water-resource conditions - central Chile, southwestern US, and south-central Spain - where irrigation efficiency directly influences basin resilience. The comparison leads to more generic insights on water policy in relation to irrigation efficiency and emerging or overdue needs for environmental protection.

  7. Policy implications of achievement testing using multilevel models: The case of Brazilian elementary schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Gomes Menezes

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale educational assessment has been established as source of descriptive, evaluative and interpretative information that influence educational policies worldwide throughout the last third of the 20th century. In the 1990s the Brazilian Ministry of Education developed the National Basic Education Assessment System (SAEB that regularly measures management, resource and contextual school features and academic achievement in public and private institutions. In 2005, after significant piloting and review of the SAEB, a new sampling strategy was taken and Prova Brasil became the new instrument used by the Ministry to assess skills in Portuguese (reading comprehension and Mathematics (problem solving, as well as collecting contextual information concerning the school, principal, teacher, and the students. This study aims to identify which variables are predictors of academic achievement of fifth grade students on Prova Brasil. Across a large sample of students, multilevel models tested a large number of variables relevant to student achievement. This approach uncovered critical variables not commonly seen as significant in light of other achievement determinants, including student habits, teacher ethnicity, and school technological resources. As such, this approach demonstrates the value of MLM to appropriately nuanced educational policies that reflect critical influences on student achievement. Its implications for wider application for psychology studies that may have relevant impacts for policy are also discussed.

  8. The Water Demand of Energy: Implications for Sustainable Energy Policy Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaveh Madani

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available With energy security, climate change mitigation, and sustainable development as three main motives, global energy policies have evolved, now asking for higher shares of renewable energies, shale oil and gas resources in the global energy supply portfolios. Yet, concerns have recently been raised about the environmental impacts of the renewable energy development, supported by many governments around the world. For example, governmental ethanol subsidies and mandates in the U.S. are aimed to increase the biofuel supply while the water footprint of this type of energy might be 70–400 times higher than the water footprint of conventional fossil energy sources. Hydrofracking, as another example, has been recognized as a high water-intensive procedure that impacts the surface and ground water in both quality and quantity. Hence, monitoring the water footprint of the energy mix is significantly important and could have implications for energy policy development. This paper estimates the water footprint of current and projected global energy policies, based on the energy production and consumption scenarios, developed by the International Energy Outlook of the U.S. Energy Information Administration. The outcomes reveal the amount of water required for total energy production in the world will increase by 37%–66% during the next two decades, requiring extensive improvements in water use efficiency of the existing energy production technologies, especially renewables.

  9. 12 CFR 347.214 - Branch established under section 5 of the International Banking Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Branch established under section 5 of the International Banking Act. 347.214 Section 347.214 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY INTERNATIONAL BANKING Foreign Banks § 347.214 Branch established...

  10. Determinants of Egyptian Banking Sector Profitability: Time-Series Analysis from 2004-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba Youssef Hashem

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to examine the determinants of banking sector profitability in Egypt to shed light on the most influential variables that have a significant impact on the performance of this vital sector. Design/methodology/approach - The analysis includes a time series model of quarterly data from 2004 to 2014. The model utilizes Cointegration technique to investigate the long-run relationship between the return on equity as a proxy for bank profitability and several bank-specific variables including liquidity, capital adequacy, and percentage of non-performing loans. In addition, Vector Error Correction Model (VECM is utilized to explore the short-run dynamics of the model and the speed of adjustment to reach the long-run equilibrium. Findings - The main findings of this work show that banking sector profitability is inversely related to capital adequacy, the percentage of loan provisions and the ratio of deposits to total assets. On the other hand, it is positively related to the size of the banking sector which implies that the banking sector exhibits economies of scale. Research limitations/implications - The implications of this work is that it helps reveal the major factors affecting bank performance in the short-run and long-run, and hence provide bank managers and monetary policy makers with beneficial insights on how to enhance bank performance. Since the banking sector represents one of the main engines of financing investment, enhancing the efficiency of this sector would contribute to economic growth and prosperity Originality/value - The Vector error correction model showed that about 4% of the disequilibrium is corrected each quarter to reach the long run equilibrium. In addition, all bank specific variables were found to affect profitability in the long-run only. This study would serve as a base that further work on Egyptian banking sector profitability can build on by incorporating more variables in the

  11. Low enrolment in Ugandan Community Health Insurance Schemes: underlying causes and policy implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Criel Bart

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the promotion of Community Health Insurance (CHI in Uganda in the second half of the 90's, mainly under the impetus of external aid organisations, overall membership has remained low. Today, some 30,000 persons are enrolled in about a dozen different schemes located in Central and Southern Uganda. Moreover, most of these schemes were created some 10 years ago but since then, only one or two new schemes have been launched. The dynamic of CHI has apparently come to a halt. Methods A case study evaluation was carried out on two selected CHI schemes: the Ishaka and the Save for Health Uganda (SHU schemes. The objective of this evaluation was to explore the reasons for the limited success of CHI. The evaluation involved review of the schemes' records, key informant interviews and exit polls with both insured and non-insured patients. Results Our research points to a series of not mutually exclusive explanations for this under-achievement at both the demand and the supply side of health care delivery. On the demand side, the following elements have been identified: lack of basic information on the scheme's design and operation, limited understanding of the principles underlying CHI, limited community involvement and lack of trust in the management of the schemes, and, last but not least, problems in people's ability to pay the insurance premiums. On the supply-side, we have identified the following explanations: limited interest and knowledge of health care providers and managers of CHI, and the absence of a coherent policy framework for the development of CHI. Conclusion The policy implications of this study refer to the need for the government to provide the necessary legislative, technical and regulative support to CHI development. The main policy challenge however is the need to reconcile the government of Uganda's interest in promoting CHI with the current policy of abolition of user fees in public facilities.

  12. Wheeling and Banking Strategies for Optimal Renewable Energy Deployment. International Experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Vora, Ravi [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mathur, Shivani [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Madrigal, Paola [Energy Regulatory Commission (Mexico); Chatterjee, Sushanta K. [Central Electricity Regulatory Commission (India); Shah, Rakesh [SunEdison, Mumbai (India)

    2016-03-01

    This paper defines the principles of wheeling (i.e., transmission) tariffs and renewable energy (RE) banking provisions and their role in RE deployment in countries with plans for large-scale RE. It reviews experiences to date in the United States, Mexico, and India and discusses key policy and regulatory considerations for devising more effective wheeling and/or banking provisions for countries with ambitious RE deployment targets. The paper addresses the challenges of competing needs of stakeholders, especially those of RE generators, distribution utilities, and transmission network owners and operators. The importance of wheeling and banking and their effectiveness for financial viability of RE deployment is also explored. This paper aims to benefit policymakers and regulators as well as key renewable energy stakeholders. Key lessons for regulators include: creating long-term wheeling and banking policy certainty, considering incentivizing RE through discounted transmission access, and assessing the cost implications of such discounts, as well as expanding access to renewable energy customers.

  13. Large-scale carbonate platform development of Cay Sal Bank, Bahamas, and implications for associated reef geomorphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purkis, Sam; Kerr, Jeremy; Dempsey, Alexandra; Calhoun, Andrew; Metsamaa, Liisa; Riegl, Bernhard; Kourafalou, Villy; Bruckner, Andrew; Renaud, Philip

    2014-10-01

    The Bahama Archipelago consists of an arcuate chain of carbonate platforms. Average water depths on the platform-tops, such as the Great Bahama Bank (GBB), are typically 10 m or less, with coral reef-rimmed margins, thick sediment accumulations, and the frequent occurrence of islands. There are, however, exceptions. For example, Cay Sal Bank (CSB), a little studied detached Bahamian carbonate platform with depths ranging from 30 to 7 m, is only slightly deeper than the GBB, but devoid of islands, lacks platform-margin coral reefs and holds little sediment on the platform-top; the platform is incipiently drowned. CSB is interesting as it is conspicuously larger (6000 sq. km) than other incipiently drowned platforms in the region, such as Serranilla Bank (1100 sq. km) and the Cat Island platform (1500 sq. km). Field and remote sensing data are assembled to provide insight into the sedimentology and geomorphology of the CSB. The influence of ocean climate, regional hydrodynamics, and Holocene flooding history are investigated to understand why platform-margin coral reef growth on CSB has been unable to keep pace with Holocene sea-level rise. A decade of regional sea-surface temperature data for the Bahamas report CSB to be situated in the same ocean climate regime as GBB. Temperature cannot explain the platform's different morphologies. The Florida Current has been evoked as a possible reason for the immature development of platform-top processes on the CSB, but numeric modeling suggests its influence to be restricted to the deep flanks of the bank. Further, sediment distribution on CSB, including infill patterns of karst depressions, suggest trade winds (easterlies) to drive platform-top hydrodynamics. By assembling a satellite-derived bathymetry map, it can be shown that CSB flooded earlier and at relatively higher rates of Holocene sea-level rise than its neighboring platforms. Flooding history is identified as the most feasible explanation for the atypical

  14. Observed salinity changes in the Alappuzha mud bank, southwest coast of India and its implication to hypothesis of mudbank formation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Muraleedharan, K.R.; DineshKumar, P.K.; B. Srijith; PrasannaKumar, S.; John, Sebin; NaveenKumar, K.R.

    in the laboratory as follows. Ambient seawater sample from close to the bottom and bottom surficial sediment from the mud bank station (Fig. 1) was collected on 12th April 2014 using Niskin sampler and Van Veen grab respectively. The salinity of the collected... sample was determined using EuTech electrode meter in the shore laboratory. Subsequently, 10g of sediment was suspended uniformly with 1 liter of ambient seawater, each time, and salinity was determined. This was continued until a concentration of 250...

  15. 12 CFR 615.5335 - Bank net collateral ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bank net collateral ratio. 615.5335 Section 615... POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Surplus and Collateral Requirements § 615.5335 Bank net collateral ratio. (a) Each bank shall achieve and at all times maintain a net collateral ratio of at least...

  16. Health risks of climate change: An assessment of uncertainties and its implications for adaptation policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Projections of health risks of climate change are surrounded with uncertainties in knowledge. Understanding of these uncertainties will help the selection of appropriate adaptation policies. Methods We made an inventory of conceivable health impacts of climate change, explored the type and level of uncertainty for each impact, and discussed its implications for adaptation policy. A questionnaire-based expert elicitation was performed using an ordinal scoring scale. Experts were asked to indicate the level of precision with which health risks can be estimated, given the present state of knowledge. We assessed the individual scores, the expertise-weighted descriptive statistics, and the argumentation given for each score. Suggestions were made for how dealing with uncertainties could be taken into account in climate change adaptation policy strategies. Results The results showed that the direction of change could be indicated for most anticipated health effects. For several potential effects, too little knowledge exists to indicate whether any impact will occur, or whether the impact will be positive or negative. For several effects, rough ‘order-of-magnitude’ estimates were considered possible. Factors limiting health impact quantification include: lack of data, multi-causality, unknown impacts considering a high-quality health system, complex cause-effect relations leading to multi-directional impacts, possible changes of present-day response-relations, and difficulties in predicting local climate impacts. Participants considered heat-related mortality and non-endemic vector-borne diseases particularly relevant for climate change adaptation. Conclusions For possible climate related health impacts characterised by ignorance, adaptation policies that focus on enhancing the health system’s and society’s capability of dealing with possible future changes, uncertainties and surprises (e.g. through resilience, flexibility, and adaptive capacity) are

  17. The influence of bank employees on bank customer relationship management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Rootman

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Despite extensive research in services marketing, much is still unknown to specific service providers on the influence of their employees on their services. This paper attempts to address this limitation and investigates the influence of employees on the customer relationship management (CRM of banks. The primary objective of this paper is to investigate the influence of selected independent variables, namely attitude and knowledgeability, on the CRM of banks. Design/Methodology/Approach: An empirical investigation was conducted with a structured questionnaire with items that related to banks' CRM in terms of attitude and knowledgeability. The sample consisted of 290 banking clients in the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan area and the response rate was 91.03%. Findings: Significant positive relationships exist between both the knowledgeability, and attitude of bank employees and a bank's CRM. These relationships imply that more extensive knowledgeability and more positive attitudes of bank employees lead to improved, maintained relationships between a bank and its clients. Employees play an important role in banks’ client relationships. Implications: Banks should focus on increasing their employees' knowledgeability and improving their attitude to ensure higher levels of CRM. This paper provides strategies for banks and could create greater awareness among South African banks of the advantages of CRM, how their employees influence their CRM, and ways to adapt to these influences. Originality/Value: No study has focused exclusively on CRM within banks in South Africa. Prior research focused on customer service and service quality; both possible results of superior CRM. However, this research differs, as it identifies the variables influencing CRM in banks in South Africa. It is proposed that this paper will be beneficial for South African banks, as the recommendations may be used to ensure higher levels of CRM in banks.

  18. Extending Recidivism Monitoring for Drug Courts: Methods Issues and Policy Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVall, Kristen E; Gregory, Paul D; Hartmann, David J

    2017-01-01

    A wealth of research has been amassed documenting the effectiveness of drug treatment courts in addressing the needs of substance-abusing individuals involved with the criminal justice system. However, there is a relative dearth of research that examines the long-term impact of these programs on recidivism rates for both drug treatment court graduates and those unsuccessfully discharged from the program. In this study, we examine which demographic and programmatic/legal factors influence program disposition and recidivism rates of participants (both graduates and those unsuccessfully discharged) across the 5 years following their discharge from a drug treatment court program located in a suburban city in the Midwest. The study sample consists of 249 (N = 249) male participants who have been out of the program for more than 5 years. Results from the univariate and multivariate analyses are provided, as well as policy implications, directions for future research, and study limitations. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. The transport implications of siting policies for the disposal of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, I.A.

    1986-01-01

    This report has been produced to be complementary to the previously issued report ''The Transport Implications of Regional Policies for The Disposal of Intermediate Level Radioactive Wastes''. The same combinations of disposal facilities have been used so that direct comparison with intermediate waste results can be made. Low level wastes and short-lived intermediate level wastes for near-surface disposal are assumed to share a common infrastructure on the rail system and hence a methodology of separating total costs between these two waste types has been derived. Two transport modes, road and rail have been analysed. Hybrid transport, a combination of road and rail systems, has not been examined since no site is considered to produce sufficient waste to justify a dedicated rail service. Sellafield, has not been included in this examination since it is assumed to be served by its own disposal site at Drigg. (author)

  20. Interviewing children in custody cases: implications of research and policy for practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saywitz, Karen; Camparo, Lorinda B; Romanoff, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Research on child interviewing has burgeoned over the past 25 years as expectations about children's agency, competence, and participation in society have changed. This article identifies recent trends in research, policy, and theory with implications for the practice of interviewing children in cases of contested divorce and for the weight to be given the information children provide. A number of fields of relevant research are identified, including studies of families who have participated in the family law system, studies of child witnesses in the field, experimental studies of the effects of interview techniques on children's memory and suggestibility, and ethnographic methods that elicit children's views of their own experiences. Finally, a set of 10 principles for practice are delineated based on the best available science. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. The Neurobiology of "Food Addiction" and Its Implications for Obesity Treatment and Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Adrian; Hendrikse, Joshua; Lee, Natalia; Yücel, Murat; Verdejo-Garcia, Antonio; Andrews, Zane; Hall, Wayne

    2016-07-17

    There is a growing view that certain foods, particularly those high in refined sugars and fats, are addictive and that some forms of obesity can usefully be treated as a food addiction. This perspective is supported by a growing body of neuroscience research demonstrating that the chronic consumption of energy-dense foods causes changes in the brain's reward pathway that are central to the development and maintenance of drug addiction. Obese and overweight individuals also display patterns of eating behavior that resemble the ways in which addicted individuals consume drugs. We critically review the evidence that some forms of obesity or overeating could be considered a food addiction and argue that the use of food addiction as a diagnostic category is premature. We also examine some of the potential positive and negative clinical, social, and public policy implications of describing obesity as a food addiction that require further investigation.

  2. Ownership concentration and bank profitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peterson Kitakogelu Ozili

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate whether ownership concentration influences bank profitability in a developing country context. We focus on bank ownership concentration measured as the amount of direct equity held by a majority shareholder categorised into: high ownership concentration, moderate ownership concentration and disperse ownership. We find that banks with high ownership concentration have higher return on assets, higher net interest margin and higher recurring earning power while banks with dispersed ownership have lower return on assets but have higher return on equity. Also, higher cost efficiency improves the return on assets of widely-held banks and the return on equity of banks with moderate ownership. The findings have implications. JEL: Code: G3, G34, G31, Keywords: Corporate governance, Ownership structure, Agency theory, Profitability, Firm performance, Banks, Return on asset, Return on equity

  3. A qualitative exploration of the human resource policy implications of voluntary counselling and testing scale-up in Kenya: applying a model for policy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Kenya experienced rapid scale up of HIV testing and counselling services in government health services from 2001. We set out to examine the human resource policy implications of scaling up HIV testing and counselling in Kenya and to analyse the resultant policy against a recognised theoretical framework of health policy reform (policy analysis triangle). Methods Qualitative methods were used to gain in-depth insights from policy makers who shaped scale up. This included 22 in-depth interviews with Voluntary Counselling and Testing (VCT) task force members, critical analysis of 53 sets of minutes and diary notes. We explore points of consensus and conflict amongst policymakers in Kenya and analyse this content to assess who favoured and resisted new policies, how scale up was achieved and the importance of the local context in which scale up occurred. Results The scale up of VCT in Kenya had a number of human resource policy implications resulting from the introduction of lay counsellors and their authorisation to conduct rapid HIV testing using newly introduced rapid testing technologies. Our findings indicate that three key groups of actors were critical: laboratory professionals, counselling associations and the Ministry of Health. Strategic alliances between donors, NGOs and these three key groups underpinned the process. The process of reaching consensus required compromise and time commitment but was critical to a unified nationwide approach. Policies around quality assurance were integral in ensuring standardisation of content and approach. Conclusion The introduction and scale up of new health service initiatives such as HIV voluntary counselling and testing necessitates changes to existing health systems and modification of entrenched interests around professional counselling and laboratory testing. Our methodological approach enabled exploration of complexities of scale up of HIV testing and counselling in Kenya. We argue that a better

  4. Current trends of banking innovations

    OpenAIRE

    A.M. Karminskiy; O.R. Zhdanova

    2013-01-01

    The current stage of the global banking system development takes place in an increasingly competitive environment and unstable financial markets. One of the key factors of bank's successful development is a policy of continuous innovative behavior. Nowadays innovation is a key factor of bankingnstability, competitiveness and sustainable growth.The aim of the article. The main goal of this article is to examine key trends of banking innovations and innovative in Russia. Experience in the devel...

  5. Credit risk management in banks

    OpenAIRE

    Pětníková, Tereza

    2014-01-01

    The subject of this diploma thesis is managing credit risk in banks, as the most significant risk faced by banks. The aim of this work is to define the basic techniques, tools and methods that are used by banks to manage credit risk. The first part of this work focuses on defining these procedures and describes the entire process of credit risk management, from the definition of credit risk, describing credit strategy and policy, organizational structure, defining the most used credit risk mi...

  6. The outlook for crude oil supply and demand in Australia and its energy policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-08-01

    Australia's oil reserves and production have contributed significantly to national economic prosperity and growth since the first large scale discoveries in Bass Strait in the 1960s. As a finite, non-renewable resource, the reserves ultimately must decline. In 1988 the forecast was that Australia's oil production would begin to decline in the mid 1990s and then rapidly tail off by the late 1990s. With this in mind, AMEC Ministers agreed in 1988 that a Working Group should review the energy policy implications of the forecast decline in the production of petroleum. The Working Group's findings are presented in this booklet. Chapter 2 examines the outlook for demand for petroleum products in Australia until 2005. This Chapter is based on current Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics (ABARE) forecasts as well as savings in fuel demand that are potentially available from fuel efficiency and fuel switching measures. Chapter 3, which includes BMR's recently revised petroleum production forecasts, looks at the outlook for crude oil and condensate production, also to 2005. Chapter 4 discusses the range of government initiatives already in place to foster the efficient exploration and production of petroleum in Australia. This Chapter also examines the outlook for Australian alternative liquid fuels. Chapter 5, which is based on analysis by ABARE, broadly examines the possible macroeconomic implications of declining oil production for Australia while Chapter 6 examines the issue of energy security and in particular its relationship with oil self sufficiency. Finally, Chapter 7 identifies some energy policy considerations and recommendations arising out of the Working Group's analysis. 7 tabs, 3 figs

  7. Challenges and policy implications of gas reform in Italy and Ukraine: Evidence from a benchmarking analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncharuk, Anatoliy G.; Storto, Corrado lo

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a cross-country benchmarking study of natural gas distribution to final consumers and compares two samples of companies in Italy and Ukraine. A 2-stage DEA procedure calculating efficiency of gas providers and identifying critical context factors and policy issues that affect it is implemented. Both countries are low performing in terms of operators’ technical and scale efficiency and there is room to design more efficient market configurations. Some issues need attention to develop an effective gas market policy: a) search for efficiency requires accurate investigation of its main drivers that depend on context factors; b) while greater efficiency is necessary to reduce cost and increase service quality, at different stages of progress of the reform process other goals may be more important; c) gas industry reform process should be planned adopting a systemic perspective as its development does not remain confined to the sector, but implies changes in the whole country economy, particularly when the gas market is of primary relevance to the economy; d) a more comprehensive package of reforms may be necessary to make gas market reform successful; e) even though the gas market reform is an economic process, it has unavoidably social and political implications. - Highlights: • Benchmarking of natural gas distribution industry in Italy and Ukraine is performed. • Average industry inefficiency is about 27% and decreasing returns to scale are dominant. • Gas industry reform process should be planned adopting a systemic perspective. • Gas reform needs a more comprehensive package of reforms and/or supporting legislation to be successful. • Gas industry reform has social and political implications.

  8. Can taxes tame the banks?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Devereux, Michael P.; Johannesen, Niels; Vella, John

    In the wake of the financial crisis, a number of countries have introduced levies on bank borrowing with the aim of reducing risk in the financial sector. This paper studies the behavioral responses to the bank levies and evaluates the policy. We find that the levies induced banks to borrow less...... but also to hold more risky assets. The reduction in funding risk clearly dominates for banks with high capital ratios but is exactly offset by the increase in portfolio risk for banks with low capital ratios. This suggests that while the levies have reduced the total risk of relatively safe banks......, they have done nothing to curb the risk of relatively risky banks, which presumably pose the greatest threat to financial stability...

  9. Water stress, water transfer and social equity in Northern China--implications for policy reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Ximing

    2008-04-01

    Water stress in Northern China is characterized with major, inefficient irrigation water use and rapidly growing non-agricultural water demands, as well as limited water quantity and declining water quality. Water use in the region is undergoing transfer from agricultural to municipal and industrial sectors. Currently, part of the economic loss and environmental damage due to water stress can be considered as a consequence of water transfer failures, including the current transfers, which hurt farmers' livelihood and income, and the needed transfers, which industry and cities have been waiting for but have not received. This paper starts with a discussion of the causes of water stress in Northern China, which is fundamental to understand the necessity and complexity of agricultural water transfers. Following that, it reviews water transfers in Northern China as a cause for concern over the social stability, economy and environment of the region. Based on an integrated analysis of economic, environmental, fiscal and social implications, this paper begins by identifying critical barriers to smooth water redistribution; and ends with implications for policy reforms, ensuring that farmers can and will save water. It is concluded that the decisions of water reallocation under water stress should be shared by communities at all levels, from the local to the national, to ensure equal access of water, especially the availability of the basic water need for all groups.

  10. Parents' perceptions of causes of and solutions for school violence: implications for policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, Melanie J; Emshoff, James; Buck, Chad A; Cook, Sarah L

    2006-05-01

    This study explores perceptions of causes of and solutions for school violence in a sample of 202 parents interviewed in the wake of nationally publicized school shootings. We also investigate the effects the school shootings had on children, parents' perceptions regarding firearms, and changes in parenting behavior. Parents exhibited strong support for almost all proposed causes and solutions, and we address their desire for immediate and often invasive interventions to prevent future violence. We contrast parents' perceptions with their own parenting behaviors and with literature on effective interventions. Results are discussed within the context of policy implications.Editors' Strategic Implications: Parents' perceptions and behaviors are frequently influenced by history effects. The national attention received by school shootings provided an opportunity for exploration of those perceptions and self-reported behaviors. The authors provide evidence from timely surveys that parents struggle with identifying causal factors that may contribute to school violence and consequently support a myriad of strategies for intervention including very invasive environmental preventive strategies. The findings suggest that social scientists should play a proactive role in translating research-supported preventive strategies to effective replications in the community and make research available in formats that are available and comprehensible by the lay public.

  11. Comparative preimplantation genetic diagnosis policy in Europe and the USA and its implications for reproductive tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle J Bayefsky

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Unlike many European nations, the USA has no regulations concerning the use of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD, a technique employed during some fertility treatments to select embryos based on their genes. As such, PGD can and is used for a variety of controversial purposes, including sex selection, selection for children with disabilities such as deafness, and selection for ‘saviour siblings’ who can serve as tissue donors for sick relatives. The lack of regulation, which is due to particular features of the US political and economic landscape, has ethical and practical implications for patients seeking PGD around the world. This paper contrasts the absence of PGD oversight in the USA with existing PGD policies in Switzerland, Italy, France and the UK. The primary reasons why PGD is not regulated in the USA are addressed, with consideration of factors such as funding for assisted reproductive technology treatmemt and the proximity of PGD to the contentious abortion debate. The obstacles that would need to be overcome in the USA for PGD to be regulated in the future are outlined. Then, the significance of the current divergence in PGD policy for patients around the world are discussed. Regulatory differences create opportunities for reproductive tourism, which result in legal, health and moral challenges. The paper concludes with comments on the need for policymakers around the world to balance respect for the characters and constitutions of their individual countries with appreciation of the needs of infertile patients across the globe.

  12. Comparative preimplantation genetic diagnosis policy in Europe and the USA and its implications for reproductive tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayefsky, Michelle J

    2016-12-01

    Unlike many European nations, the USA has no regulations concerning the use of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), a technique employed during some fertility treatments to select embryos based on their genes. As such, PGD can and is used for a variety of controversial purposes, including sex selection, selection for children with disabilities such as deafness, and selection for 'saviour siblings' who can serve as tissue donors for sick relatives. The lack of regulation, which is due to particular features of the US political and economic landscape, has ethical and practical implications for patients seeking PGD around the world. This paper contrasts the absence of PGD oversight in the USA with existing PGD policies in Switzerland, Italy, France and the UK. The primary reasons why PGD is not regulated in the USA are addressed, with consideration of factors such as funding for assisted reproductive technology treatmemt and the proximity of PGD to the contentious abortion debate. The obstacles that would need to be overcome in the USA for PGD to be regulated in the future are outlined. Then, the significance of the current divergence in PGD policy for patients around the world are discussed. Regulatory differences create opportunities for reproductive tourism, which result in legal, health and moral challenges. The paper concludes with comments on the need for policymakers around the world to balance respect for the characters and constitutions of their individual countries with appreciation of the needs of infertile patients across the globe.

  13. Creating value in health care through big data: opportunities and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roski, Joachim; Bo-Linn, George W; Andrews, Timothy A

    2014-07-01

    Big data has the potential to create significant value in health care by improving outcomes while lowering costs. Big data's defining features include the ability to handle massive data volume and variety at high velocity. New, flexible, and easily expandable information technology (IT) infrastructure, including so-called data lakes and cloud data storage and management solutions, make big-data analytics possible. However, most health IT systems still rely on data warehouse structures. Without the right IT infrastructure, analytic tools, visualization approaches, work flows, and interfaces, the insights provided by big data are likely to be limited. Big data's success in creating value in the health care sector may require changes in current polices to balance the potential societal benefits of big-data approaches and the protection of patients' confidentiality. Other policy implications of using big data are that many current practices and policies related to data use, access, sharing, privacy, and stewardship need to be revised. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  14. Informal care and the self-management partnership: implications for Australian health policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essue, Beverley M; Jowsey, Tanisha; Jeon, Yun-Hee; Mirzaei, Masoud; Pearce-Brown, Carmen L; Aspin, Clive; Usherwood, Tim P

    2010-11-01

    The Serious and Continuing Illness Policy and Practice Study (SCIPPS) aims to improve the care and support for patients with chronic illness and their family carers. Here we describe the carers' contribution to the self-management partnership and discuss the policy and practice implications that are relevant to improving the support available for informal care in Australia. A secondary analysis of SCIPPS data. Fourteen carers of patients between 45 and 85 years with chronic heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and diabetes were conveniently sampled from western Sydney and the Australian Capital Territory. Semi-structured interviews were conducted. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Key roles that carers perform in the self-management partnership included: home helper; lifestyle coach; advocate; technical care manager; and health information interpreter. Two negative consequences of juggling these roles included: self-neglect and conflict. Rigid eligibility criteria limit carers' access to essential support programs which underestimates and undervalues their contributions to the self-management partnership. Support services should focus on the development of practical skills to perform the caregiving roles. In addition, health professionals require support to work more effectively with carers to minimise the conflict that can overshadow the care and self-management partnership.

  15. Comparative preimplantation genetic diagnosis policy in Europe and the USA and its implications for reproductive tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayefsky, Michelle J

    2017-01-01

    Unlike many European nations, the USA has no regulations concerning the use of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), a technique employed during some fertility treatments to select embryos based on their genes. As such, PGD can and is used for a variety of controversial purposes, including sex selection, selection for children with disabilities such as deafness, and selection for ‘saviour siblings’ who can serve as tissue donors for sick relatives. The lack of regulation, which is due to particular features of the US political and economic landscape, has ethical and practical implications for patients seeking PGD around the world. This paper contrasts the absence of PGD oversight in the USA with existing PGD policies in Switzerland, Italy, France and the UK. The primary reasons why PGD is not regulated in the USA are addressed, with consideration of factors such as funding for assisted reproductive technology treatmemt and the proximity of PGD to the contentious abortion debate. The obstacles that would need to be overcome in the USA for PGD to be regulated in the future are outlined. Then, the significance of the current divergence in PGD policy for patients around the world are discussed. Regulatory differences create opportunities for reproductive tourism, which result in legal, health and moral challenges. The paper concludes with comments on the need for policymakers around the world to balance respect for the characters and constitutions of their individual countries with appreciation of the needs of infertile patients across the globe. PMID:28959787

  16. Interrogating the Contested Spaces of Rural Aging: Implications for Research, Policy, and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Mark W; Winterton, Rachel

    2018-01-18

    Informed by a critical turn underway in rural gerontology, this article explores how the intersection of global and local trends relating to population aging and rural change create contested spaces of rural aging. The aim is to build our understanding of rural as a dynamic context within which the processes, outcomes, and experiences of aging are created, confronted, and contested by older adults and their communities. A review of key developments within gerontology and rural studies reveals how competing policies, discourses, and practices relating to healthy aging and aging in place, rural citizenship and governmentality, and social inclusion and inequality combine in particular ways to empower or disempower a diverse range of older rural adults aging in a diverse range of rural communities. The article provides a contextually sensitive perspective on potential sources of conflict and exclusion for older adults in dynamic rural spaces and further enhances our understanding of how rural physical and social environments are constructed and experienced in older age. A framework for interrogating emergent questions about aging in rural contexts is developed and implications for advancing research, policy, and practice are discussed. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Policy implications of complementary and alternative medicine use in Australia: data from the National Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinks, Jean; Hollingsworth, Bruce

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the drivers of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use in the general population in Australia and to identify key policy implications. The National Health Survey 2007/2008, a representative survey of the Australian population, provides information on CAM use (practitioners and products) in the last 12 months. All adult respondents (N=15,779) aged 18 years or older are included in this study. Logistic regression is employed to determine the effect of socio-economic, condition-specific, health behavior variables, and private health insurance status on CAM use. In addition to socio-economic variables known to affect CAM use, individuals who have a chronic condition, particularly a mental health condition, are more likely to use CAM. There does not appear to be a correlation between CAM use and more frequent General Practitioner use; however, ancillary private health insurance is correlated with a greater likelihood of CAM use, as expected. The Australian government does not currently intervene in the CAM market in a systematic way. CAM is clearly considered to be a legitimate and important component of health care for many Australians, despite the limited availability of clinical evidence for its efficacy and safety. Policy interventions may include the regulation of CAM products, practitioners, and information as well as providing subsidies for cost-effective modalities.

  18. Organic nitrogen storage in mineral soil: Implications for policy and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Andrew H; Cotrufo, M Francesca

    2016-05-01

    Nitrogen is one of the most important ecosystem nutrients and often its availability limits net primary production as well as stabilization of soil organic matter. The long-term storage of nitrogen-containing organic matter in soils was classically attributed to chemical complexity of plant and microbial residues that retarded microbial degradation. Recent advances have revised this framework, with the understanding that persistent soil organic matter consists largely of chemically labile, microbially processed organic compounds. Chemical bonding to minerals and physical protection in aggregates are more important to long-term (i.e., centuries to millennia) preservation of these organic compounds that contain the bulk of soil nitrogen rather than molecular complexity, with the exception of nitrogen in pyrogenic organic matter. This review examines for the first time the factors and mechanisms at each stage of movement into long-term storage that influence the sequestration of organic nitrogen in the mineral soil of natural temperate ecosystems. Because the factors which govern persistence are different under this newly accepted paradigm we examine the policy and management implications that are altered, such as critical load considerations, nitrogen saturation and mitigation consequences. Finally, it emphasizes how essential it is for this important but underappreciated pool to be better quantified and incorporated into policy and management decisions, especially given the lack of evidence for many soils having a finite capacity to sequester nitrogen. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Resident Perspectives on Work-Life Policies and Implications for Burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westercamp, Nicole; Wang, Raziya S; Fassiotto, Magali

    2018-02-01

    As resident burnout increases, there is a need for better awareness, resources, and interventions. Challenges in balancing work and life priorities have been implicated in contributing to physician burnout. Institutional work-life policies (WLPs) are critical tools to meet work-life needs. This study investigates the influence of WLPs on residents' experiences. The authors emailed a SurveyMonkey link to the APA chief resident and Minority Fellow listservs and directly to 94 psychiatry program directors and 52 fellowship directors nationwide to distribute a survey to residents regarding WLP use and barriers, as well as burnout. Estimated response rate was 12-23%. The authors assessed the anonymous responses using SPSS to evaluate for relationships between awareness of WLPs, perceptions/barriers surrounding their usage, and burnout. The authors analyzed 255 responses. Awareness and use of policies ranged from 2 to 33%. A prominent barrier to WLPs is that use results in shifting workload to co-residents (48% agree). Respondents who perceived leadership to view use of WLPs as a sign of weakness (16% agree) were less likely to use WLPs (t (89) = -3.52, p burnout (41%) perceived vastly higher barriers to using WLPs as compared to those without burnout. This study supports the need for further investigation of WLPs to mitigate resident burnout and identifies important perceived barriers that affect the use of WLPs including low awareness, potential for shifting workload to co-residents, and negative perceptions of leadership attitudes toward WLPs.

  20. Irrigation efficiency and water-policy implications for river basin resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, C. A.; Vicuña, S.; Blanco-Gutiérrez, I.; Meza, F.; Varela-Ortega, C.

    2014-04-01

    Rising demand for food, fiber, and biofuels drives expanding irrigation withdrawals from surface water and groundwater. Irrigation efficiency and water savings have become watchwords in response to climate-induced hydrological variability, increasing freshwater demand for other uses including ecosystem water needs, and low economic productivity of irrigation compared to most other uses. We identify three classes of unintended consequences, presented here as paradoxes. Ever-tighter cycling of water has been shown to increase resource use, an example of the efficiency paradox. In the absence of effective policy to constrain irrigated-area expansion using "saved water", efficiency can aggravate scarcity, deteriorate resource quality, and impair river basin resilience through loss of flexibility and redundancy. Water scarcity and salinity effects in the lower reaches of basins (symptomatic of the scale paradox) may partly be offset over the short-term through groundwater pumping or increasing surface water storage capacity. However, declining ecological flows and increasing salinity have important implications for riparian and estuarine ecosystems and for non-irrigation human uses of water including urban supply and energy generation, examples of the sectoral paradox. This paper briefly considers three regional contexts with broadly similar climatic and water-resource conditions - central Chile, southwestern US, and south-central Spain - where irrigation efficiency directly influences basin resilience. The comparison leads to more generic insights on water policy in relation to irrigation efficiency and emerging or overdue needs for environmental protection.

  1. WTO Agreement on Agriculture and its Implication on Rural Development Policies in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erokhin Vasily

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at overview of the history and major contents of the Agreement on Agriculture of the World Trade Organization. Special attention is paid to implications of the Agreement for agricultural and trade policies in developing countries, including Russia, recently accessed the WTO. The differential treatment that developing countries receive under the agreement is investigated. The paper includes an overview of the recently adopted State Program of the Russian Federation for Development of Agriculture and Regulation of Agricultural Commodities Markets in 2013-2020. The research considers four applications of the given State Program: compliance with WTO requirements, state support of agriculture, provision of food security, and ensurance of sustainable rural development. The paper results in the conclusion that state policies in the sphere of rural development have to evolve beyond the traditional, sector-based model, with its almost exclusive focus on agriculture. Contemporary set of tools to ensure sustainable rural development should be based on the multi-sectoral strategies and programs that identify and better exploit the development potential of rural area through a variety of factors: national food security, agricultural production, liberalization of trade and foreign economic activities, support of local producers and rural households, rural infrastructure, environmental and recreational potential.

  2. Banking on the Nation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn Sørensen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I analyse the narratives of four Danish central bank governors from the late nineteenth century until the mid-1990s. By conducting a historical analysis informed by neo-institutional theory, I show how these central bank governors were continuously involved in public debates over...... the appropriateness and desirability of their decisions and policies. In these debates, interpretations and reproductions of Danish national identity were central to the governors' claims to legitimacy. I argue that past narratives of the Danish central bank and its governors enabled and framed future legitimacy...... claims and that the central bank and its governors gradually became embedded in national identity. Thus, the article highlights the historical development of the co-configuring relationship between Danish national identity and the legitimacy of monetary organization....

  3. Consumer perceptions of smart grid development: Results of a Hong Kong survey and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mah, Daphne Ngar-yin; Vleuten, Johannes Marinus van der; Hills, Peter; Tao, Julia

    2012-01-01

    Consumers have a major role to play in smart grid technologies which can be instrumental in addressing climate change and energy challenges. However, little is known about how consumers perceive, and how they might respond to the opportunities that smart grid technologies offer. This paper reports the results from a Hong Kong survey (n=505). It contributes to the literature by providing a better understanding of the perceptions and behaviour of electricity consumers about the possible deployment of smart grids. Our results indicate that Hong Kong consumers generally welcomed smart grid technologies and had a preference for energy saving, energy efficiency and renewable energy while they showed a high level of opposition to nuclear power. They displayed an interest in playing a much more informed and active role in energy decision-making, but they were sensitive to tariff increases. Motivations and barriers for consumers to support smart grid developments are also discussed. We conclude with a discussion of policy implications for effective consumer engagement. More policy attention is needed on demand-side measures, introducing institutional and regulatory changes, and modifying relationships between consumers, the government and utilities. - Highlights: ► Consumers have a major role in smart grid technologies. ► This paper reports findings of a Hong Kong survey on how consumers perceive and respond. ► Hong Kong consumers are interested in being informed and playing an active role in energy decision-making. ► Motivations and barriers are discussed. ► Policy recommendations for effective consumer engagement are suggested.

  4. Living with a carbon allowance: The experiences of Carbon Rationing Action Groups and implications for policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, Rachel A.

    2012-01-01

    Carbon Rationing Action Groups (CRAGs) are grassroots voluntary groups of citizens concerned about climate change, who set themselves a carbon allowance each year and provide support to members seeking to reduce their direct carbon emissions from household energy use and personal transport. Some groups have a financial penalty for carbon emitted in excess of the ration, and systems whereby under-emitters are rewarded using the monies collected from over-emitters. CRAGs therefore operate the nearest scheme in existence to the proposed policy of Personal Carbon Trading (PCT). This paper reports the findings of a study of the opinions and experiences of individuals involved in CRAGs (‘CRAGgers’). In general, interviewees have made significant behavioural changes and emissions reductions, but many would be unwilling to sell spare carbon allowances within a national PCT system. The choices made by CRAGgers with respect to the design and operation of their ‘carbon accounting’, their experiences of reducing fossil fuel energy use, and their views on personal carbon trading at CRAG and national level are discussed. Some possible implications for PCT and other policies are considered, as well as the limitations of CRAGs in informing an understanding of the potential impacts and operation of PCT. - Highlights: ► Reports opinions and experiences of members of Carbon Rationing Action Groups (CRAGs). ► Many interviewees have made significant reductions to their carbon footprint. ► CRAGs offer insights into individuals' experiences of living with a carbon allowance. ► Most CRAGs involve highly motivated individuals and avoid trading. ► They nonetheless offer some insights into Personal Carbon Trading and other policies.

  5. Shedding light on solar technologies-A techno-economic assessment and its policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, Michael; Schmidt, Tobias S.; Wiederkehr, David; Schneider, Malte

    2011-01-01

    Solar power technologies will have to become a major pillar in the world's future energy system to combat climate change and resource depletion. However, it is unclear which solar technology is and will prove most viable. Therefore, a comprehensive comparative assessment of solar technologies along the key quantitative and qualitative competitiveness criteria is needed. Based on a literature review and detailed techno-economic modeling for 2010 and 2020 in five locations, we provide such an assessment for the three currently leading large-scale solar technologies. We show that today these technologies cannot yet compete with conventional forms of power generation but approach competitiveness around 2020 in favorable locations. Furthermore, from a global perspective we find that none of the solar technologies emerges as a clear winner and that cost of storing energy differs by technology and can change the order of competitiveness in some instances. Importantly, the competitiveness of the different technologies varies considerably across locations due to differences in, e.g., solar resource and discount rates. Based on this analysis, we discuss policy implications with regard to fostering the diffusion of solar technologies while increasing the efficiency of policy support through an adequate geographical allocation of solar technologies. - Highlights: → We conduct a comprehensive comparative assessment of solar technologies (CSP/PV). → While solar technologies approach competitiveness in 2020, no clear winner emerges. → Solar resource and discount rate heavily impact competitiveness of solar technologies. → Adequate geographical allocation of solar technologies increases policy efficiency. → Focus on key cost down levers and strategic co-benefits of solar technologies needed.

  6. Global Banking System Regulatory Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleh Mozhovyi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The international and domestic experience shows that the main factors of financial destabilization during the financial crises are in the banking sector. The article reveals that the vulnerability of the financial system is connected with functions, deposit and credit transactions, risks distribution and ensuring liquidity; banks act as a major factor in stabilisation measures in the current context of globalization processes, since the economic stability of banking activities relates directly to all the entities and only stable banking system can withstand the crisis phenomena. Therefore, as a result of the analysis, it is proved that not only reduction of risks of banks is needed, but also introduction of the effective supervision system over implementation of the requirements and standards to prevent these risks. According to modern international approaches, banks use the so-called prudential supervision, which is based on the risk management assessment policy on the part of the Bank’s management, and regulatory bodies contribute to implementation of such policy. The authors have concluded that not only modern specificity of banks, but also the impact of supervision systems and regulation of modern trends in development of the banking should be analysed. Application of the general regulatory principles and banking risks methodology is required. The task of supervision is distribution of reliable risk management practices in the banking system, taking into account national peculiarities of development.

  7. “Oil price shocks and fiscal policy management: Implications for Nigerian economic planning (1980-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aremo, A.G.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available High Oil price fluctuations have been a common feature in Nigeria and these have considerably constituted a major source of fiscal policy disturbance to the Nigerian economy as well as the economies of other oil producing countries of the world. The over-reliance on oil production for income generation combined with local undiversified revenue and export bases is an issue for concern. This has policy implications for economic policy and in particular fiscal policy management. The motivation for this study is to examine the effect of oil price shock on fiscal policy in the country. Using structural vector autoregression (SVAR methodology, the effects of crude oil price fluctuations on two major key fiscal policy variables (government expenditure (GEXP and government revenue (GREV, money supply (MS2 and GDP were examined. The results showed that oil prices have significant effect on fiscal policy in Nigeria within the study period of 1980:1 to 2009:4. The study also revealed that oil price shock affects GREV and GDP first before reflecting on fiscal expenditure. The study suggests strongly that diversification of the economy is necessary in order to minimize the consequences of oil price fluctuations on government revenue, by implication government expenditure planning in the country.

  8. A Case Study with an Identified Bully: Policy and Practice Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huddleston, Lillie

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Bullying is a serious public health problem that may include verbal or physical injury as well as social isolation or exclusion. As a result, research is needed to establish a database for policies and interventions designed to prevent bullying and its negative effects. This paper presented a case study that contributed to the literature by describing an intervention for bullies that has implications for research, practice and related policies regarding bullying.Methods: An individualized intervention for an identified bully was implemented using the Participatory Culture-Specific Intervention Model (PCSIM; Nastasi, Moore, & Varjas, 2004 with a seventh-grade middle school student. Ecological and culture-specific perspectives were used to develop and implement the intervention that included psychoeducational sessions with the student and consultation with the parent and school personnel. A mixed methods intervention design was used with the following informants: the target student, the mother of the student, a teacher and the school counselor. Qualitative data included semi-structured interviews with the parent, teacher and student, narrative classroom observations and evaluation/feedback forms filled out by the student and interventionist. Quantitative data included the following quantitative surveys (i.e., Child Posttraumatic Stress Reaction Index [CPTS-RI] and the Behavior Assessment Scale for Children, 2nd Edition. Both qualitative and quantitative data were used to evaluate the acceptability, integrity and efficacy of this intervention.Results: The process of intervention design, implementation and evaluation are described through an illustrative case study. Qualitative and quantitative findings indicated a decrease in internalizing, externalizing and bullying behaviors as reported by the teacher and the mother, and a high degree of acceptability and treatment integrity as reported by multiple stakeholders.Conclusion: This case

  9. Liquidity, Banking, and Bank Failures.

    OpenAIRE

    Williamson, Stephen D

    1988-01-01

    A multiperiod model with risk-neutral agents is constructed in which a liquidity problem arises in an equilibrium with decentralized tradin g in capital, which banking institutions are able to alleviate. Depos it contracts provide for early withdrawal, banks hold debt, and agent s who borrow from banks hold compensating balances. Institutional col lapse, or a state of the world when bank failures are experienced, is associated with a high demand for liquidity, low output, and a lower than ave...

  10. Is shadow banking really banking?

    OpenAIRE

    Bryan J. Noeth; Rajdeep Sengupta

    2011-01-01

    To those who don't know, the term "shadow banking" probably has a negative connotation. This primer draws parallels between what has been termed the shadow banking sector and the traditional banking sector—showing that they are similar in many ways.

  11. Russian Federation : The Demographic Transition and Its Implications for Adult Learning and Long-Term Care Policies

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    This report describes the demographic transition in the Russian Federation and its implications for adult learning and long-term care policies. The population of Russia is aging and declining rapidly compared to other European nations. Russia's current age structure results from decades of complex demographic trends that have created a population structure with increasingly fewer young peo...

  12. Threats to the Sustainability of the Outsourced Call Center Industry in the Philippines: Implications for Language Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friginal, Eric

    2009-01-01

    This study overviews current threats to the sustainability of the outsourced call center industry in the Philippines and discusses implications for macro and micro language policies given the use of English in this cross-cultural interactional context. This study also summarizes the present state of outsourced call centers in the Philippines, and…

  13. Strategic environmental noise mapping: methodological issues concerning the implementation of the EU Environmental Noise Directive and their policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, E; King, E A

    2010-04-01

    This paper explores methodological issues and policy implications concerning the implementation of the EU Environmental Noise Directive (END) across Member States. Methodologically, the paper focuses on two key thematic issues relevant to the Directive: (1) calculation methods and (2) mapping methods. For (1), the paper focuses, in particular, on how differing calculation methods influence noise prediction results as well as the value of the EU noise indicator L(den) and its associated implications for comparability of noise data across EU states. With regard to (2), emphasis is placed on identifying the issues affecting strategic noise mapping, estimating population exposure, noise action planning and dissemination of noise mapping results to the general public. The implication of these issues for future environmental noise policy is also examined. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Strategic environmental noise mapping: methodological issues concerning the implementation of the EU Environmental Noise Directive and their policy implications.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, E

    2010-04-01

    This paper explores methodological issues and policy implications concerning the implementation of the EU Environmental Noise Directive (END) across Member States. Methodologically, the paper focuses on two key thematic issues relevant to the Directive: (1) calculation methods and (2) mapping methods. For (1), the paper focuses, in particular, on how differing calculation methods influence noise prediction results as well as the value of the EU noise indicator L(den) and its associated implications for comparability of noise data across EU states. With regard to (2), emphasis is placed on identifying the issues affecting strategic noise mapping, estimating population exposure, noise action planning and dissemination of noise mapping results to the general public. The implication of these issues for future environmental noise policy is also examined.

  15. Economic analysis of participation in physical activity in England: implications for health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anokye, Nana Kwame; Pokhrel, Subhash; Fox-Rushby, Julia

    2014-09-14

    Changing the relative price of (in) activity is an important tool for health policies. Nonetheless, to date, analyses of correlates of physical activity (PA) have excluded the notion of price. Using the first nationwide dataset on prices of PA for England, we explore for the first time how money and time prices are associated with PA (in general) and specific activities. A nationally representative telephone follow-up survey to Health Survey for England (HSE) 2008 was undertaken in 2010. The sample covered individuals who reported to have undertaken some PA in the HSE 2008. Questions focussed on: ex-post money and time prices; type and quantity of PA; perceived benefits of PA and socio-economic details. Count regression models (all activities together, and swimming, workout, walking separately) were fitted to investigate the variation in quantity of PA. Of 1683 respondents, 83% participated in PA (one or more activities), and spent an average of £2.40 per occasion of participation in PA and 23 minutes travelling. Participation in PA was negatively associated with money prices per occasion (i.e. family member/child care fees, parking fees, and facility charges) and travel time price. Participation in PA was more sensitive to travel time price than money price. Among the specific activities, the money price effect was highest for swimming with a 10% higher price associated with 29% fewer occasions of swimming; followed by workout (3% fewer occasions) and walking (2% fewer occasions). Only swimming and workout were sensitive to travel time price. People who felt doing PA could help them 'get outdoors', 'have fun', or 'lose weight' were likely to do more PA. Two main policy implications emerge from the findings. First, the results support the notion that positive financial incentives, e.g. subsidising price of participation, could generally lead to an increase in quantity of PA among those already exercising. Second, such policies could lead to desired policy goals if

  16. Political Strategies and Language Policies: The European Union Lisbon Strategy and Its Implications for the EU's Language and Multilingualism Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzyzanowski, Michal; Wodak, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the interplay between the politics and policies of multilingualism by looking at the role of political macro-strategies in shaping language and multilingualism policies within the European Union. The paper focuses on the relationship between the European Union's 2000-2010 Lisbon Strategy on the European Knowledge-Based Economy…

  17. The impact of bank size and funding risk on bank stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Adusei

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Does bank size significantly explain the variations in bank stability? Does bank funding risk significantly impact bank stability? This paper addresses these two questions with data from the rural banking industry in Ghana. Controlling for credit risk, liquidity risk, diversification in the business model, profitability, inflation, financial structure and gross domestic product, the results suggest that an increase in the size of a rural bank results in an increase in its stability. The results also show that funding risk positively impacts bank stability. The positive relationship between size and bank stability has important repercussions for the current debate on whether or not to constrain bank size to insulate the financial system from future crisis. The positive relationship between funding risk and bank stability also has important implications for the current debate on funding of retail banks.

  18. The Effect of Foreign Bank Presence on Domestic Banks Performance: An Evidence from a Developing Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Bashir

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the effect of foreign bank presence on the behaviour of domestic banks by using the annual data of 37 commercial banks comprising of 7 foreign and 30 domestic banks for the time period of 2007 to 2011. We investigated how net interest margin, return on assets, overhead costs, cost to income and nonperforming loans are effected by the foreign bank presence. We have used panel regression analysis employing bank specific fixed effect model. As a developing country case, the results suggest that the increase in foreign bank share effects the interest margins and profitability of domestic banks in a decreasing manner. It wouldn't be erroneous to express that foreign banks have a positive effect on the competitive environment of domestic banks increasing overall banking standard in Pakistan, the licensing policies should be further liberalized to let new entrants further improve the domestic financial intermediation system.

  19. Exploring public perceptions of solutions to tree diseases in the UK: Implications for policy-makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepson, Paul; Arakelyan, Irina

    2017-10-01

    Tree diseases are on the increase in many countries and the implications of their appearance can be political, as well as ecological and economic. Preventative policy approaches to tree diseases are difficult to formulate because dispersal pathways for pest and pathogens are numerous, poorly known and likely to be beyond human management control. Genomic techniques could offer the quickest and most predictable approach to developing a disease tolerant native ash. The population of European Ash ( Fraxinus Excelsi or) has suffered major losses in the last decade, due to the onset of Hymenoscyphus fraxineus (previously called Chalara Fraxinea ) commonly known in the UK as ash dieback. This study presents evidence on the public acceptability of tree-breed solutions to the spread of Chalara , with the main aim to provide science and policy with an up-stream 'steer' on the likely public acceptability of different tree breeding solutions. The findings showed that whilst there was a firm anti-GM and ' we shouldn't tamper with nature ' attitude among UK publics, there was an equally firm and perhaps slightly larger pragmatic attitude that GM (science and technology) should be used if there is a good reason to do so, for example if it can help protect trees from disease and help feed the world. The latter view was significantly stronger among younger age groups (Millennials), those living in urban areas and when the (GM)modified trees were destined for urban and plantation, rather than countryside settings. Overall, our findings suggest that the UK government could consider genomic solutions to tree breeding with more confidence in the future, as large and influential publics appear to be relaxed about the use of genomic techniques to increase tolerance of trees to disease.

  20. Transformative Change for an Inclusive Society: Insights from Social Innovations and Implications for Policy Innovation and innovation Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weaver, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Our societies experience challenges of inclusion and cohesion and suffer (evidently) from multiple problems associated with exclusion across economic, social, political and many other dimensions. The challenge of building more inclusive societies is recognized at highest policy levels. The Europe

  1. Transformative Change for an Inclusive Society: : Insights from Social Innovations and Implications for Policy Innovation and innovation Policy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weaver, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Our societies experience challenges of inclusion and cohesion and suffer (evidently) from multiple problems associated with exclusion across economic, social, political and many other dimensions. The challenge of building more inclusive societies is recognised at highest policy levels. The Europe

  2. Promotional activities of banks in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelenović Vera

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on banking sector in Serbia, particulary on promotional activities of banks in public and on media. The authors of paper tried to find cause and effect relationship between business success and working quality on the one hand and investment in promotion activities of bank on the other hand, like important instrument of bank's business policy realization. Promotional activities appear like successful instrument in order to increase satisfaction of the bank's clients, which effect the increase of successfulness of banks' business.

  3. ONLINE BANKING IN THE ROMANIAN BANKING SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    IMOLA DRIGĂ

    2014-01-01

    In the world of banking, the development of IT has a huge effect on development of more flexible payments methods and more user-friendly banking services. Recently, modern electronic banking services, internet and mobile banking, have rejuvenated banking transactions. Electronic banking over the Internet is one of the newest e-banking services with several benefits both for banks and for customers. The paper aims to provide an overview of online banking services highlighting various aspect...

  4. The global diffusion of organ transplantation: trends, drivers and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Sarah L; Hirth, Richard; Mahíllo, Beatriz; Domínguez-Gil, Beatriz; Delmonico, Francis L; Noel, Luc; Chapman, Jeremy; Matesanz, Rafael; Carmona, Mar; Alvarez, Marina; Núñez, Jose R; Leichtman, Alan

    2014-11-01

    Rising incomes, the spread of personal insurance, lifestyle factors adding to the burden of illness, ageing populations, globalization and skills transfer within the medical community have increased worldwide demand for organ transplantation. The Global Observatory on Donation and Transplantation, which was built in response to World Health Assembly resolution WHA57.18, has conducted ongoing documentation of global transplantation activities since 2007. In this paper, we use the Global Observatory's data to describe the current distribution of - and trends in - transplantation activities and to evaluate the role of health systems factors and macroeconomics in the diffusion of transplantation technology. We then consider the implications of our results for health policies relating to organ donation and transplantation. Of the World Health Organization's Member States, most now engage in organ transplantation and more than a third performed deceased donor transplantation in 2011. In general, the Member States that engage in organ transplantation have greater access to physician services and greater total health spending per capita than the Member States where organ transplantation is not performed. The provision of deceased donor transplantation was closely associated with high levels of gross national income per capita. There are several ways in which governments can support the ethical development of organ donation and transplantation programmes. Specifically, they can ensure that appropriate legislation, regulation and oversight are in place, and monitor donation and transplantation activities, practices and outcomes. Moreover, they can allocate resources towards the training of specialist physicians, surgeons and transplant coordinators, and implement a professional donor-procurement network.

  5. Innovative Strategy in Shrimp Potiguar: Asymmetries Power Generation and Implications for Policy Innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Baldi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the technological trajectory and the actors – public and private - political behave in the carciniculture network (cultivate of shrimp in the federal estate of Rio Grande do Norte. The research was based on both embeddedness and cluster policy approach. The case study was based on bibliographic, archives, and empirical data, whose primary data were collected through semi-structured interviews carried on with 10 members of different organizations from carciniculture sector in the period 2009-2010, as well as interviews already conducted in the area since the year 2005. These data were submitted to content analysis with longitudinal and descriptive approach. Along the technological trajectory of the cluster we highlighted opportunities and limits for innovative strategies generated by asymmetries of power and ability to influence actors in the network. We highlight the relationship between 'power network' and 'links established with public actors' as well as the implications for innovation along the trajectory generated by a more or less state interference.

  6. Measuring food availability and access in African-American communities: implications for intervention and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odoms-Young, Angela M; Zenk, Shannon; Mason, Maryann

    2009-04-01

    Obesity is a major public health concern in the U.S. As compared to whites, minority populations are disproportionately at risk, with the highest prevalence rates of overweight and obesity occurring among African American women. Although researchers and policymakers argue that environmental approaches have the greatest potential to reverse the rising prevalence of obesity, critical gaps remain in our understanding of the complex mechanisms that underlie the associations between neighborhood food environments and weight status. A major challenge has been the need for reliable and valid measures to assess aspects of the neighborhood food environment that encourage or inhibit healthful eating behaviors and weight management. Investigators have made considerable gains in the development of tools and approaches to measure neighborhood food environments overall, but few studies focus on the specific challenges and issues associated with characterizing neighborhood food environments in communities of color. This paper highlights important considerations for measuring food environments in African-American neighborhoods and their implications for developing programmatic and policy solutions to reduce racial disparities in overweight.

  7. Addressing inequalities in physical activity participation: implications for public health policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Ruth F; Boeri, Marco; Tully, Mark A; Donnelly, Paul; Kee, Frank

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the characteristics of those doing no moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) (0 days/week), some MVPA (1-4 days/week) and sufficient MVPA (≥ 5 days/week) to meet the guidelines in order to effectively develop and target PA interventions to address inequalities in participation. A population survey (2010/2011) of 4653 UK adults provided data on PA and socio-demographic characteristics. An ordered logit model investigated the covariates of 1) participating in no PA, 2) participating in some PA, and 3) meeting the PA guidelines. Model predictions were derived for stereotypical subgroups to highlight important policy and practice implications. Mean age of participants was 45 years old (95% CI 44.51, 45.58) and 42% were male. Probability forecasting showed that males older than 55 years of age (probability=0.20; 95% CI 0.11, 0.28), and both males (probability=0.31; 95% CI 0.17, 0.45) and females (probability=0.38; 95% CI 0.27, 0.50) who report poor health are significantly more likely to do no PA. Understanding the characteristics of those doing no MVPA and some MVPA could help develop population-level interventions targeting those most in need. Findings suggest that interventions are needed to target older adults, particularly males, and those who report poor health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Knowledge about nicotine among HIV-positive smokers: Implications for tobacco regulatory science policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacek, Lauren R; Rass, Olga; Johnson, Matthew W

    2017-02-01

    The present paper describes the general knowledge of smoking and nicotine among a sample of current smokers living with HIV (n=271) who were recruited via Amazon Mechanical Turk. Descriptive statistics were used to report sociodemographic and smoking characteristics, as well as knowledge about smoking and nicotine. The sample was comprised of relatively light smokers, both in terms of cigarettes per day (M=8.1, SD=9.7) and dependence (67.5% had low dependence according to the Heaviness of Smoking Index). The majority of participants correctly identified smoking as being a potential cause of various smoking-related conditions and correctly identified constituents in cigarette smoke. However, a majority of participants also misattributed nicotine as being a potential cause of smoking-related illness. Accurate knowledge about nicotine was low. These misperceptions are of particular concern for vulnerable populations, such as persons living with HIV, who are disproportionately burdened by the prevalence of smoking and associated morbidities and mortality. These misperceptions could have unintended consequences in the wake of a potential nicotine reduction policy, such that reduced nicotine content products are perceived as safer than normal nicotine content products currently available for sale. Additionally, incorrect knowledge about nicotine has implications for the uptake and continued use of nicotine replacement therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Observations on quality senior health business: success patterns and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ya-Ting; Hsu, Yi-Hsin Elsa; Chen, Ya-Mei; Su, Shyi; Chang, Yao-Mao; Iqbal, Usman; Yujiro, Handa; Lin, Neng-Pai

    2016-04-01

    Population ageing is a global issue that affects almost every country. Most ageing researches focused on demand side and studies related to supply side were relatively scarce. This study selected quality enterprises focus on ageing health and analysed their patterns on providing quality services successfully. Our study selected quality senior health enterprises and explored their success patterns through face-to-face semi-structured in-depth interviews with CEO of each enterprise in 2013. Thirty-three quality senior health enterprises in Taiwan. Thirty-three CEO's of enterprises were interviewed individually. None. Core values and vision, historical development, organization structure, services/products provided, delivering channels, customer relationships and further development strategies. Our results indicated success patterns for senior enterprises that there were meeting diversified lifestyles and substitutive needs for the elderly and their caregivers, providing a total solution for actual/virtual integration and flexible one-stop shopping services. We classified these enterprises by used degree of clicks-and-mortar of services and residing situation of the elderly. Industry characteristics and policy implications were summarized. Our observations will serve as a primary evidenced base for enterprises developing their senior market, and also for opening dialogue between customers and enterprises to facilitate valuable opportunities for co-creation between the supply and demand sides. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care; all rights reserved.

  10. Constraining East Asian CO2 emissions with GOSAT retrievals: methods and policy implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, C.; Henze, D. K.; Deng, F.

    2017-12-01

    The world largest CO2 emissions are from East Asia. However, there are large uncertainties in CO2 emission inventories, mainly because of imperfections in bottom-up statistics and a lack of observations for validating emission fluxes, particularly over China. Here we tried to constrain East Asian CO2 emissions with GOSAT retrievals applying 4-Dvar GEOS-Chem and its adjoint model. We applied the inversion to only the cold season (November - February) in 2009 - 2010 since the summer monsoon and greater transboundary impacts in spring and fall greatly reduced the GOSAT retrievals. In the cold season, the a posteriori CO2 emissions over East Asia generally higher by 5 - 20%, particularly Northeastern China shows intensively higher in a posteriori emissions ( 20%), where the Chinese government is recently focusing on mitigating the air pollutants. In another hand, a posteriori emissions from Southern China are lower 10 - 25%. A posteriori emissions in Korea and Japan are mostly higher by 10 % except over Kyushu region. With our top-down estimates with 4-Dvar CO2 inversion, we will evaluate the current regional CO2 emissions inventories and potential uncertainties in the sectoral emissions. This study will help understand the quantitative information on anthropogenic CO2 emissions over East Asia and will give policy implications for the mitigation targets.

  11. Green Economy Performance and Green Productivity Growth in China’s Cities: Measures and Policy Implication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianglong Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Resource depletion and environmental degradation have become serious challenges for China’s sustainable development. This paper constructs indicators to assess China’s green economy performance and green productivity growth, in which economic expansion, resource conservation and environmental protection need to be incorporated simultaneously. For this purpose, we combine non-radial directional distance function and meta-frontier Malmquist productivity to develop the indicators. The methodology also allows for the decomposition of driving forces of China’s green economy. Moreover, the dataset employed in this paper allows for the evaluation of 275 cities in China during the period 2003–2012. The main findings are as follows. First, most of China’s cities did not perform efficiently in terms of the green economy, with an average score of only 0.233. Second, the growth rate of green productivity is slower than real GDP, and the green productivity growth in China is only moderate. Third, innovation is the main driving force of China’s green productivity growth, but the central region lags behind when it comes to green innovation. Fourth, artificial local protectionism and transport limitations impede the progress of cities that perform ineffectively in the green economy. Based on our empirical findings, we provide policy implications and suggestions for enhancing China’s green economy performance and productivity growth.

  12. Central Bank independence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile DEDU

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the key aspects regarding central bank’s independence. Most economists consider that the factor which positively influences the efficiency of monetary policy measures is the high independence of the central bank. We determined that the National Bank of Romania (NBR has a high degree of independence. NBR has both goal and instrument independence. We also consider that the hike of NBR’s independence played an important role in the significant disinflation process, as headline inflation dropped inside the targeted band of 3% ± 1 percentage point recently.

  13. Determinants of Bank Profitability in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Osuagwu, Eze

    2014-01-01

    There are increasing scholarly debates on the direction of policy to effectively improve the performance of banks. Some scholars argue that bank performance is enhanced by improvements in the internal organization and managerial efficiency, others argue that industry wide factors are integral to bank performance. In recent times, the direction of literature has shown that macroeconomic factors play a significant role in determining bank profitability. This paper investigates the determinants ...

  14. Investing in Climate Change. Dutch Banks Compared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buurgaard Nielsen, J.; Pols, D.; Van Gelder, J.W.; Denie, S.; Scheire, C.

    2007-06-01

    This report is the first comparison of the climate change performance of Dutch banks that analyses the actual investments of these banks. It reviews a substantial share of each bank's portfolio, according to three criteria: how much they invest in the main cause of climate change, fossil fuels; how much they invest in the main alternative to fossil fuels, renewable energy; the bank's plans and policies to limit their contribution to climate change

  15. APPLIED ISSUES ABOUT BANKING RISK MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Geanina Clipici

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The following paper emphasizes the need to deepen the understanding of the notion of banking risk management by explaining the significant risks the bank encounters during financial exercises as well as their additional entries. The study of the paper will focus on UniCredit Bank during the years 2014 and  2015 on all types of risks, in which we will provide comprehensive data on how the UniCredit Bank management applies its risk policies.

  16. Economic and Policy Review - Vol 13, No 4 (2007)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    F G Carneiro. High oil prices and the African economy. African Development Bank Group. Africa\\'s oil and gas sector: Implications for U.S. Policy. A Cohen, R Alasa. Diversifying Nigeria\\'s petroleum industry. I Aigbedion, S E Iyayi. The Nigerian petroleum downstream sector and product pricing: Issues and the way forward.

  17. CO2 Capture from the Air: Technology Assessment and Implications for Climate Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, D. W.

    2002-05-01

    It is physically possible to capture CO2 directly from the air and immobilize it in geological structures. Today, there are no large-scale technologies that achieve air capture at reasonable cost. Yet, strong arguments suggest that it will comparatively easy to develop practical air capture technologies on the timescales relevant to climate policy [1]. This paper first analyzes the cost of air capture and then assesses the implications for climate policy. We first analyze the lower bound on the cost needed for air capture, describing the thermodynamic and physical limits to the use of energy and land. We then compare the costs of air capture to the cost of capture from combustion exhaust streams. While the intrinsic minimum energy requirement is larger for air capture, we argue that air capture has important structural advantages, such as the reduction of transport costs and the larger potential for economies of scale. These advantages suggest that, in the long-run air capture be competitive with other methods of achieving deep emissions reductions. We provide a preliminary engineering-economic analysis of an air capture system based on CaO to CaCO3 chemical looping [1]. We analyze the possibility of doing the calcination in a modified pressurized fluidized bed combustor (PFBC) burning coal in a CO2 rich atmosphere with oxygen supplied by an air separation unit. The CaCO3-to-coal ratio would be ~2:1 and the system would be nearly thermally neutral. PFBC systems have been demonstrated at capacities of over 100 MW. Such systems already include CaCO3 injection for sulfur control, and operate at suitable temperatures and pressures for calcination. We assess the potential to recover heat from the dissolution of CaO in order to reduce the overall energy requirements. We analyze the possibility of adapting existing large water/air heat exchangers for use as contacting systems to capture CO2 from the air using the calcium hydroxide solution. The implications of air capture

  18. Brain Gain / Circulation Policy and International Student Policy in Korea : In Light of its Migration Policy and Implications for Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Yuriko

    2015-01-01

    In the knowledge based economy, brain gain has vital importance for many countries. However, the non-English speaking countries, such as Korea and Japan, face a similar disadvantage in attracting talented foreigners. International student policy plays an important role in attracting and fostering future talents in such countries. In this paper, the characteristics of international student policy and brain gain/circulation policy of Korea will be analyzed in light of its emigration history and...

  19. What Drives Failed Policy at the World Bank? An inside Account of New Aid Modalities to Higher Education: Context, Blame, and Infallibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappleye, Jeremy; Un, Leang

    2018-01-01

    This article analyses recent World Bank interventions aimed at improving higher education and local research capacity in low-income countries. Our empirical entry point is a critical analysis of the Development and Innovation Grant (DIG) scheme the Bank rolled out in Cambodia (2010-2015), a virtual carbon copy export of its Academic Initiative…

  20. Children, Families and Poverty: Definitions, Trends, Emerging Science and Implications for Policy. Social Policy Report. Volume 26, Number 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aber, Lawrence; Morris, Pamela; Raver, Cybele

    2012-01-01

    Now, more than ever, it is crucial to address the topic of children and poverty in the U.S., given current scientific knowledge about poverty's influence on children and effective strategies to mitigate its negative impact. In this report, we summarize the best available information on definitions and trends in child poverty, policy responses to…

  1. Implications of Environmental Stress during Seed Development on Reproductive and Seed Bank Persistence Traits in Wild Oat (Avena fatua L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Patrick Fuerst

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Weeds produce seed under a wide range of conditions, depending on timing of emergence, prevailing crop, soil microsites, and climatic conditions, among other factors. We hypothesized that the maturation environment during weed seed development will influence reproductive allocation and seed persistence traits, such as seed dormancy and vigor, and needs to be considered when formulating weed management strategies. This research evaluated the effects of shade and drought stress on reproductive allocation, seed dormancy and seed vigor in select lines of wild oat (Avena fatua L.. Plants were grown in the greenhouse under drought stress and shade. Harvested seed were subjected to controlled after-ripening and aging regimes. Drought and shade reduced reproductive allocation and resulted in seed with less intense primary dormancy compared to the plants grown under resource-rich conditions, but had no apparent effect on seed vigor. Our data provide additional support to the hypothesis that seed dormancy within a species is a highly plastic trait that can be strongly influenced by the growth conditions of the mother plant. Such plasticity may have important implications for establishing ecologically-based weed control criteria on which threshold-based weed management systems are implemented.

  2. The ethical and policy implications of research on income inequality and child well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, Kate E; Wilkinson, Richard G

    2015-03-01

    Child well-being is important for lifelong health and well-being. Although there is a robust evidence base linking social determinants of health (eg, relative poverty and income inequality) to child well-being, social and public health policy tends to focus on interventions to mitigate their effects, rather than remove the root causes. The goal of this study was to examine associations between child well-being and income inequality. We compared reported rates of childhood well-being in the 2007 and 2013 UNICEF reports on child well-being in wealthy countries. Twenty indicators of child well-being (excluding child poverty) were defined consistently in both the 2007 and 2013 reports. These variables were used to create an indicator of change in child well-being over the approximate decade 2000 to 2010. For our analyses of income inequality, we used the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development Gini coefficient of income inequality for 2009 and change between 2000 and 2009, respectively. The overall index of child well-being in 2013 was closely and negatively correlated with income inequality (r = -0.60, P = .004) but not with average income (r = -0.3460, P = .12). Adjustment for income inequality, children in relative poverty, and the child poverty gap did not change the lack of association between average income and child well-being in 2013 in wealthy countries. Between 2000 and 2010, child well-being scores improved most in Italy, Norway, Portugal, the United Kingdom, and Germany. The biggest declines were seen in Sweden, Canada, Japan, Switzerland, and France. Countries that experienced the largest increases in income inequality had significantly greater declines in child well-being (r = -0.51, P = .02). Children born into socioeconomically disadvantaged families suffer worse child well-being and its lifelong implications, in all societies, worldwide. Our analyses show, however, that some wealthy societies are able to mitigate these inequalities; these

  3. Factors associated with female genital mutilation in Burkina Faso and its policy implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Donna

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Female genital mutilation (FGM usually undertaken between the ages of 1-9 years and is widely practised in some part of Africa and by migrants from African countries in other parts of the world. Laws prohibit FGM in almost every country. FGM can cause immediate complications (pain, bleeding and infection and delayed complications (sexual, obstetric, psychological problems. Several factors have been associated with an increased likelihood of FGM. In Burkina Faso, the prevalence of FGM appears to have increased in recent years. Methods We investigated social, demographic and economic factors associated with FGM in Burkina Faso using the 2003 Demographic Health Survey (DHS. The DHS is a nationally representative cross-sectional survey (multistage stratified random sampling of households of women of reproductive age (15-49 years. Associations between potential risk factors and the prevalence of FGM were explored using χ2 and t-tests and Mann Whitney U-test as appropriate. Logistic regression modelling was used to investigate social, demographic and economic risk factors associated with FGM. Main outcome measures i whether a woman herself had had FGM; ii whether she had one or more daughters with FGM. Results Data were available on 12,049 women. Response rates by region were at least 90%. Women interviewed were representative of the underlying populations of the different regions of Burkina Faso. Seventy seven percent (9267 of the women interviewed had had FGM. 7336 women had a daughter of whom 2216 (30.2% had a daughter with FGM and 334 (4.5% said that they intended that their daughter should have it. Univariate analysis showed that age, religion, wealth, ethnicity, literacy, years of education, household affluence, region and who had responsibility for health care decisions in the household had (RHCD were all significantly related to the two outcomes (p Conclusions and Policy implications Factors associated with FGM are varied

  4. Medical tourism and policy implications for health systems: a conceptual framework from a comparative study of Thailand, Singapore and Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Medical tourism is a growing phenomenon with policy implications for health systems, particularly of destination countries. Private actors and governments in Southeast Asia are promoting the medical tourist industry, but the potential impact on health systems, particularly in terms of equity in access and availability for local consumers, is unclear. This article presents a conceptual framework that outlines the policy implications of medical tourism's growth for health systems, drawing on the cases of Thailand, Singapore and Malaysia, three regional hubs for medical tourism, via an extensive review of academic and grey literature. Variables for further analysis of the potential impact of medical tourism on health systems are also identified. The framework can provide a basis for empirical, in country studies weighing the benefits and disadvantages of medical tourism for health systems. The policy implications described are of particular relevance for policymakers and industry practitioners in other Southeast Asian countries with similar health systems where governments have expressed interest in facilitating the growth of the medical tourist industry. This article calls for a universal definition of medical tourism and medical tourists to be enunciated, as well as concerted data collection efforts, to be undertaken prior to any meaningful empirical analysis of medical tourism's impact on health systems. PMID:21539751

  5. Medical tourism and policy implications for health systems: a conceptual framework from a comparative study of Thailand, Singapore and Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocock, Nicola S; Phua, Kai Hong

    2011-05-04

    Medical tourism is a growing phenomenon with policy implications for health systems, particularly of destination countries. Private actors and governments in Southeast Asia are promoting the medical tourist industry, but the potential impact on health systems, particularly in terms of equity in access and availability for local consumers, is unclear. This article presents a conceptual framework that outlines the policy implications of medical tourism's growth for health systems, drawing on the cases of Thailand, Singapore and Malaysia, three regional hubs for medical tourism, via an extensive review of academic and grey literature. Variables for further analysis of the potential impact of medical tourism on health systems are also identified. The framework can provide a basis for empirical, in country studies weighing the benefits and disadvantages of medical tourism for health systems. The policy implications described are of particular relevance for policymakers and industry practitioners in other Southeast Asian countries with similar health systems where governments have expressed interest in facilitating the growth of the medical tourist industry. This article calls for a universal definition of medical tourism and medical tourists to be enunciated, as well as concerted data collection efforts, to be undertaken prior to any meaningful empirical analysis of medical tourism's impact on health systems.

  6. Medical tourism and policy implications for health systems: a conceptual framework from a comparative study of Thailand, Singapore and Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phua Kai Hong

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Medical tourism is a growing phenomenon with policy implications for health systems, particularly of destination countries. Private actors and governments in Southeast Asia are promoting the medical tourist industry, but the potential impact on health systems, particularly in terms of equity in access and availability for local consumers, is unclear. This article presents a conceptual framework that outlines the policy implications of medical tourism's growth for health systems, drawing on the cases of Thailand, Singapore and Malaysia, three regional hubs for medical tourism, via an extensive review of academic and grey literature. Variables for further analysis of the potential impact of medical tourism on health systems are also identified. The framework can provide a basis for empirical, in country studies weighing the benefits and disadvantages of medical tourism for health systems. The policy implications described are of particular relevance for policymakers and industry practitioners in other Southeast Asian countries with similar health systems where governments have expressed interest in facilitating the growth of the medical tourist industry. This article calls for a universal definition of medical tourism and medical tourists to be enunciated, as well as concerted data collection efforts, to be undertaken prior to any meaningful empirical analysis of medical tourism's impact on health systems.

  7. ONLINE BANKING IN THE ROMANIAN BANKING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IMOLA DRIGĂ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the world of banking, the development of IT has a huge effect on development of more flexible payments methods and more user-friendly banking services. Recently, modern electronic banking services, internet and mobile banking, have rejuvenated banking transactions. Electronic banking over the Internet is one of the newest e-banking services with several benefits both for banks and for customers. The paper aims to provide an overview of online banking services highlighting various aspects globally as well as in the Romanian banking system. Even if there already are several studies on web banking, this topic still remains a resourceful area for academic research in the next decade.

  8. China's coke industry: Recent policies, technology shift, and implication for energy and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huo, Hong; Lei, Yu; Zhang, Qiang; Zhao, Lijian; He, Kebin

    2012-01-01

    China is the largest coke producer in the world, accounting for over 60% of the world coke production, which makes the coke industry in China a significant coal consumer and air pollutant emitter. Recently, China has taken a series of measures to improve energy efficiency and reduce emissions from the coke industry, including eliminating old and low energy-efficiency coking technologies, promoting advanced technologies, and strengthening energy and environmental requirements on coking processes. As a consequence, China's coke industry is experiencing an unprecedented technology shift, which was characterized by the elimination of old, inefficient, and polluting indigenous ovens and small machinery ones within 10 years. This study examines the policies and the prompt technology shift in China's coke industry, as well as the associated energy and environmental effects, and discusses the implications with respect to the development of the coke industry in China towards a more efficient and clean future. As China sets stricter requirements on energy efficiency and the ambient environment, a more significant change focusing on technologies of energy saving and emission reduction is urgently needed at present. Those mature technologies, including coke dry quenching, coke oven gas recycle, fine particle removal, etc., should be enforced in the near future. - Highlights: ► With 60% of world coke output, China's coke making has big energy/pollution issues. ► Actions were taken to improve energy and environmental performance of coke plants. ► China's coke industry is experiencing an unprecedented technology shift. ► Another shift, focusing on technologies of energy and emission saving, is needed. ► More measurement studies on coking emissions are needed given the importance.

  9. PUBLIC EXPENDITURE POLICY IN THE CONTEXT OF ECONOMIC CRISIS - CHALLENGES AND IMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrisor Mihai - Bogdan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Public spending is a key component for both public finances and government financial policy. In this situation, government expenditures are made in direct relation with the results of governance with economic and financial crises and global social welfare of the nation. From this perspective, our article aims to highlight the correlation between public expenditure and budgetary financial and economic crisis and, also, state government responses, anticipating their impact on medium and long term. Also, in the context of the crisis and the concomitent lack of public revenue, we identify the pillars on which to base the budget reduction in public expenditure. The implications of the economic crisis in Romania are analyzed along with proposed measures to be followed by the Government through budgetary fiscal strategy. In relation to the purpose and objectives of the research, documentation was made both in terms of bibliographic resources and the plan of legislative documents and quantitative reporting. We believe that the issue of increasing allocative efficiency of resources is vital to counter the current crisis, but also to maximize the positive effects of public interventions in general and from another state, we consider that state and, consequently, public expenditure budget which should be used to replace the market, can not be regarded as some suggest to be founded and we suggest a line for developed countries. This work was supported by the grant “Post-doctoral studies in Economics: program for continuous forming of elite researchers – SPODE”, contract POSDRU/89/1.5/S/61755, project financed by the European Social Fund, by the Operational Sectorial Program Development of Human Resources 2007-2013.

  10. Implications of transportation policies on energy and environment in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhakal, Shobhakar

    2003-01-01

    This paper estimates and analyzes the historical and future trends of energy demand and environmental emissions from passenger transportation of the Kathmandu Valley covering CO 2 , CO, HC, NO x , SO 2 , total suspended particles (TSP) and lead (Pb). It uses the Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning System framework for constructing future scenarios up to year 2020 and analyzing their implications; these scenarios mainly deal with the traffic improvement measures, promotion of public transportation and electric vehicles. The results estimate over a four-fold increase in energy demand in 1988-2000. TSP increase of 4.5 times in this period is the major concern since high particulate concentration is already above World Health Organization guidelines. Under the non-intervention scenario, energy demand in 2020 is estimated to be 2.7 times that in the year 2000. Similarly, 2.5 times increase of TSP in 2020 from the year 2000 is estimated that would further increase the TSP concentrations. The scenario analyses suggest that increasing vehicle speed, promoting public transportation and promoting electric vehicles could reduce energy demand by 28%, 28% and 18%, respectively, while promoting a reasonably comfortable condition on overcrowded public transportation could increase energy demand by 10% from non-intervention scenario. For TSP, any future measures would not be enough unless the attention is not paid to in-use vehicle stock. A mix of all the policies mentioned above has potentials to cut down CO 2 emissions to over 60% from the non-intervention case in 2020

  11. Approaches and uncertainties in nutrient budgets; Implications for nutrient management and environmental policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oenema, O.; Kros, J.; Vries, de W.

    2003-01-01

    Nutrient budgets of agroecosystems are constructed either (i) to increase the understanding of nutrient cycling, (ii) as performance indicator and awareness raiser in nutrient management and environmental policy, or (iii) as regulating policy instrument to enforce a certain nutrient management

  12. Analysis of policy implications and challenges of the Cuban health assistance program related to human resources for health in the Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asante Augustine D

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cuba has extended its medical cooperation to Pacific Island Countries (PICs by supplying doctors to boost service delivery and offering scholarships for Pacific Islanders to study medicine in Cuba. Given the small populations of PICs, the Cuban engagement could prove particularly significant for health systems development in the region. This paper reviews the magnitude and form of Cuban medical cooperation in the Pacific and analyses its implications for health policy, human resource capacity and overall development assistance for health in the region. Methods We reviewed both published and grey literature on health workforce in the Pacific including health workforce plans and human resource policy documents. Further information was gathered through discussions with key stakeholders involved in health workforce development in the region. Results Cuba formalised its relationship with PICs in September 2008 following the first Cuba-Pacific Islands ministerial meeting. Some 33 Cuban health personnel work in Pacific Island Countries and 177 Pacific island students are studying medicine in Cuba in 2010 with the most extensive engagement in Kiribati, the Solomon Islands, Tuvalu and Vanuatu. The cost of the Cuban medical cooperation to PICs comes in the form of countries providing benefits and paying allowances to in-country Cuban health workers and return airfares for their students in Cuba. This has been seen by some PICs as a cheaper alternative to training doctors in other countries. Conclusions The Cuban engagement with PICs, while smaller than engagement with other countries, presents several opportunities and challenges for health system strengthening in the region. In particular, it allows PICs to increase their health workforce numbers at relatively low cost and extends delivery of health services to remote areas. A key challenge is that with the potential increase in the number of medical doctors, once the local students

  13. Social cost of carbon pricing of power sector CO2: accounting for leakage and other social implications from subnational policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bistline, John E.; Rose, Steven K.

    2018-01-01

    In environments where climate policy has partial coverage or unequal participation, carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions or economic activity may shift to locations and sectors where emissions are unregulated. This is referred to as leakage. Leakage can offset or augment emissions reductions associated with a policy, which has important environmental and economic implications. Although leakage has been studied at national levels, analysis of leakage for subnational policies is limited. This is despite greater market integration and many existing state and regional environmental regulations in the US. This study explores leakage potential, net emissions changes, and other social implications in the US energy system with regionally differentiated pricing of power sector CO2 emissions. We undertake an economic analysis using EPRI’s US-REGEN model, where power sector CO2 emissions are priced in individual US regions with a range of social cost of carbon (SCC) values. SCC estimates are being considered by policy-makers for valuing potential societal damages from CO2 emissions. In this study, we evaluate the emissions implications within the SCC pricing region, within the power sector outside the SCC region, and outside the power sector (i.e. in the rest of the energy system). Results indicate that CO2 leakage is possible within and outside the electric sector, ranging from negative 70% to over 80% in our scenarios, with primarily positive leakage outcomes. Typically ignored in policy analysis, leakage would affect CO2 reduction benefits. We also observe other potential societal effects within and across regions, such as higher electricity prices, changes in power sector investments, and overall consumption losses. Efforts to reduce leakage, such as constraining power imports into the SCC pricing region likely reduce leakage, but could also result in lower net emissions reductions, as well as larger price increases. Thus, it is important to look beyond leakage and consider a

  14. BANK GUARANTEES

    OpenAIRE

    Vasile NEME

    2012-01-01

    The present study propose the analyse of the irrevocable commitment of a bank entity towards a determined person, through which guarantees a certain legal conduct of its client, and, in case of breach, assumes the payment obligation of a determined amount of money. This kind of legal technique it is called bank guarantee and in the usual business language it is called “Letter of Bank Guarantee”. The determined reason to choose this scientific initiative it is the frequency of this kind of fin...

  15. Exploring State Policy Regarding Teachers Removing License Endorsements: Short Term and Long Term Policy Implications. Vol. 13 No. 47

    OpenAIRE

    Penelope Earley; S. David Brazer

    2005-01-01

    This study explores and begins baseline documentation of state policies governing teachers' voluntary removal of endorsement areas from their licenses. Through a survey of state licensure officers we find that most states allow teachers to remove endorsements, though the specifics of how this can be done vary from state to state. The No Child Left Behind Act and the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act may help motivate teachers to remove endorsements. By defining teacher qualification...

  16. Exploring State Policy Regarding Teachers Removing License Endorsements: Short Term and Long Term Policy Implications. Vol. 13 No. 47

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penelope Earley

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available This study explores and begins baseline documentation of state policies governing teachers' voluntary removal of endorsement areas from their licenses. Through a survey of state licensure officers we find that most states allow teachers to remove endorsements, though the specifics of how this can be done vary from state to state. The No Child Left Behind Act and the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act may help motivate teachers to remove endorsements. By defining teacher qualifications and setting expectations that all students will achieve adequate yearly progress on state examinations, these two pieces of legislation place additional pressure on teachers of general population and at-risk students. Thus, federal policy contributes to a dilemma playing out at the state level: Policies enacted to improve classroom instruction may increase pressure on qualified teachers that potentially drives some of them away from special needs classrooms that most require high quality service. As demands on them mount, teachers may look for ways to relieve some stress points. Removing a license endorsement becomes one such tool to avoid teaching in classrooms of students with learning challenges. If significant numbers of teachers remove license endorsements, labor market dislocations may follow. Additional study is needed in the future to further document how states do or do not regulate endorsement removal, the extent to which teachers are aware of and have utilized this option, and how school, district, and state administrators and decision makers respond to license endorsement removal.

  17. Forks in the Road. Alternative Routes for International Climate Policies and their Implications for the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slingerland, S.; Meyer, L.; Van Vuuren, D.; Den Elzen, M.

    2011-11-01

    Several scenarios are possible for future international climate policies, each with a different role in the climate negotiations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). These scenarios assume policies that are comparable to the current policies, as well as more fragmented and more integrated international climate policies. The various alternative routes have been assessed with respect to their potential consequences. These assessments showed that none of the proposed routes could fully replace the current negotiation process under the UNFCCC, but rather that they could contribute to generating societal support for future climate policies. In addition, the report presents an analysis of how the Netherlands could use this development of alternative routes for international climate policy. Possible responses by the Netherlands to each of these scenarios would depend on the degree to which climate change as a policy topic is considered a priority in the Netherlands.

  18. Sources of Regional Banks Capitalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Sergeevna Miroshnichenko

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Searching of sources to increase the capitalization of Russian banks is an important economic problem for both the national and regional economy. Moreover, a strong capital base allows to credit institutions to meet the demands of economic agents for banking service. The research focuses on the choice of sources of regulatory capital for the banks of Tyumen region in the context of changing supervisory requirements in the period of 2005–2016, in different phases of the business cycle. We apply econometric methods of statistical information using IBM SPSS Statistics software. We have calculated the individual correlations of regional banks’ capital with gross domestic product (GDP (excluding gross regional product (GRP and GRP (with the exception of the effect of GDP. These calculations have shown that the capital of regional banks is related only to GDP. The increase in the capital of regional banks is accompanied by a change in its structure: the share of authorized capital has halved, and the share of subordinated debt has grown. All sources of capital, other than the reserve fund, are related to GDP. Authorized capital is associated with the profit of profitable lending institutions; retained earnings in the capital of regional banks — with the aggregated amount of risks of the banking system of the Russian Federation. Subordinated debt, like capital as a whole, is negatively affected by the profitability of the banking sector. The change in the capital of regional banks is determined by the change in retained earnings, subordinated debt and reserve fund. Modelling of these relations has allowed to obtain a system of equations. This system synthesizes linear regression models of changing the capital of regional banks in the context of their sourcing. The results of this study are significant for theoretical justification and practical development of a balanced financial policy of regional banks. Our research will contribute to

  19. Study of US/EU National Innovation Policies Based on Nanotechnology Development, and Implications for Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim, Jung Sun

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently US/EU governments are utilizing nanotechnology as a key catalyst to support national innovation policies with economic recovery goals. US/EU nano policies have been serving as a global model to various countries, including Korea. So the authors initially seek to understand US/EU national innovation policy interconnections, and then find the role of nanotechnology development within. To strengthen national policy coherence, nanotechnology development strategies are under evolution as an innovation catalyst for promoting commercialization. To strategically support nano commercialization, EHS (Environmental, Health, Safety and informatics are invested as priority fields to strengthen social acceptance and sustainability of nano enabled products. The current study explores US/EU national innovation policies including nano commercialization, EHS, and Informatics. Then obtained results are utilized to analyze weaknesses of Korean innovation systems of connecting creative economy and nanotechnology development policies. Then ongoing improvements are summarized focusing on EHS and informatics, which are currently prominent issues in international nanotechnology development.

  20. Credibility of Central Bank Independence Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Timo T Valila

    1999-01-01

    The specific role of central bank independence in determining the overall credibility of monetary policy is addressed in this paper. It is argued that the credibility of delegating monetary policy to an independent central bank is endogenous to the credibility of the inflation target because a “conservative” inflation target may not be compatible with the fiscal policy stance. Also, lack of transparency in designing the institutional set-up is shown to be welfare-reducing.

  1. Regional differences in Chinese SO2 emission control efficiency and policy implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q. Q.; Wang, Y.; Ma, Q.; Yao, Y.; Xie, Y.; He, K.

    2015-06-01

    -phase oxidation, which is more sensitive to SO2 emissions change than aqueous oxidation. In addition, NC makes the largest contribution to inter-regional transport of sulfur within China and to the transport fluxes to the western Pacific. The policy implication of this is that China needs to carefully design a regionally specific implementation plan of realizing its SO2 emissions reduction target in order to maximize the resulting air quality benefits, not only for China but for the downwind regions, with emphasis on reducing emissions from NC, where SO2 emissions have decreased at a slower rate than national total emissions in the previous FYP period.

  2. Monetary burden of health impacts of air pollution in Mumbai, India: implications for public health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patankar, A M; Trivedi, P L

    2011-03-01

    Mumbai, a mega city with a population of more than 12 million, is experiencing acute air pollution due to commercial activity, a boom in construction and vehicular traffic. This study was undertaken to investigate the link between air pollution and health impacts for Mumbai, and estimate the monetary burden of these impacts. Cross-sectional data were subjected to logistic regression to analyse the link between air pollution and health impacts, and the cost of illness approach was used to measure the monetary burden of these impacts. Data collected by the Environmental Pollution Research Centre at King Edward Memorial Hospital in Mumbai were analysed using logistic regression to investigate the link between air pollution and morbidity impacts. The monetary burden of morbidity was estimated through the cost of illness approach. For this purpose, information on treatment costs and foregone earnings due to illness was obtained through the household survey and interviews with medical practitioners. Particulate matter (PM(10)) and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) emerged as the critical pollutants for a range of health impacts, including symptoms such as cough, breathlessness, wheezing and cold, and illnesses such as allergic rhinitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study developed the concentration-response coefficients for these health impacts. The total monetary burden of these impacts, including personal burden, government expenditure and societal cost, is estimated at 4522.96 million Indian Rupees (INR) or US$ 113.08 million for a 50-μg/m(3) increase in PM(10), and INR 8723.59 million or US$ 218.10 million for a similar increase in NO(2). The estimated monetary burden of health impacts associated with air pollution in Mumbai mainly comprises out-of-pocket expenses of city residents. These expenses form a sizable proportion of the annual income of individuals, particularly those belonging to poor households. These findings have implications for public

  3. Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS) in Southwestern Border States: Examining Trends, Population Correlates, and Implications for Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussaini, Khaleel S; Garcia Saavedra, Luigi F

    2018-03-23

    Introduction Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) is withdrawal syndrome in newborns following birth and is primarily caused by maternal drug use during pregnancy. This study examines trends, population correlates, and policy implications of NAS in two Southwest border states. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional analysis of Hospital Inpatient Discharge Data (HIDD) was utilized to examine the incidence of NAS in the Southwest border states of Arizona (AZ) and New Mexico (NM). All inpatient hospital births in AZ and NM from January 1, 2008 through December 31, 2013 with ICD9-CM codes for NAS (779.5), cocaine (760.72), or narcotics (760.75) were extracted. Results During 2008-2013 there were 1472 NAS cases in AZ and 888 in NM. The overall NAS rate during this period was 2.83 per 1000 births (95% CI 2.68-2.97) in AZ and 5.31 (95% CI 4.96-5.66) in NM. NAS rates increased 157% in AZ and 174% in NM. NAS newborns were more likely to have low birth weight, have respiratory distress, more likely to have feeding difficulties, and more likely to be on state Medicaid insurance. AZ border region (border with Mexico) had NAS rates significantly higher than the state rate (4.06 per 1000 births [95% CI 3.68-4.44] vs. 2.83 [95% CI 2.68-2.97], respectively). In NM, the border region rate (2.09 per 1000 births [95% CI 1.48-2.69]) was significantly lower than the state rate (5.31 [95% CI 4.96-5.66]). Conclusions Despite a dramatic increase in the incidence of NAS in the U.S. and, in particular, the Southwest border states of AZ and NM, there is still scant research on the overall incidence of NAS, its assessment in the southwest border, and associated long-term outcomes. The Healthy Border (HB) 2020 binational initiative of the U.S.-Mexico Border Health Commission is an initiative that addresses several public health priorities that not only include chronic and degenerative diseases, infectious diseases, injury prevention, maternal and child health but also mental health and

  4. Extending coverage to informal sector populations in Kenya: design preferences and implications for financing policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okungu, Vincent; Chuma, Jane; Mulupi, Stephen; McIntyre, Diane

    2018-01-09

    Universal health coverage (UHC) is important in terms of improving access to quality health care while protecting households from the risk of catastrophic health spending and impoverishment. However, progress to UHC has been hampered by the measures to increase mandatory prepaid funds especially in low- and middle-income countries where there are large populations in the informal sector. Important considerations in expanding coverage to the informal sector should include an exploration of the type of prepayment system that is acceptable to the informal sector and the features of such a design that would encourage prepayment for health care among this population group. The objective of the study was to document the views of informal sector workers regarding different prepayment mechanisms, and critically analyze key design features of a future health system and the policy implications of financing UHC in Kenya. This was part of larger study which involved a mixed-methods approach. The following tools were used to collect data from informal sector workers: focus group discussions [N = 16 (rural = 7; urban = 9)], individual in-depth interviews [N = 26 (rural = 14; urban = 12)] and a questionnaire survey [N = 455(rural = 129; urban = 326)]. Thematic approach was used to analyze qualitative data while Stata v.11 involving mainly descriptive analysis was used in quantitative data. The tools mentioned were used to collect data to meet various objectives of a larger study and what is presented here constitutes a small section of the data generated by these tools. The findings show that informal sector workers in rural and urban areas prefer different prepayment systems for financing UHC. Preference for a non-contributory system of financing UHC was particularly strong in the urban study site (58%). Over 70% in the rural area preferred a contributory mechanism in financing UHC. The main concern for informal sector workers regardless of

  5. Online responses to the ending of the one-child policy in China: implications for preconception care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fuqin; Bao, Jiaming; Boutain, Doris; Straughn, Marcia; Adeniran, Olusola; DeGrande, Heather; Harrell, Stevan

    2016-06-24

    A critical analysis of online public postings in response to the news about the ending of China's one-child policy was conducted. The specific study aims were to 1) identify the dominant public discourse in response to the news about the ending of the one-child policy and the beginning of the new two-child policy, and 2) explore implications for preconception care from the public discourse. Data sources were 10 top-ranked, online news media sites in China, including one Hong Kong-based media site. Selected online sites announced the news about the ending of the one-child policy on 29 October 2015. Online postings associated with the first news release of each online media site before midnight of 29 October were collected and analyzed. Critical discourse analysis was used for data analysis. Three main discourse concepts were identified. The online postings referenced the concepts of cost, generation, and timing with regard to the ending of the one-child policy and the beginning of the new two-child policy. Each concept represents an aspect of the public's view of preconception care, particularly interconception care, in China. These findings suggest that the change in the family planning policy may not result in a huge surge in the population in a short period of time, as some may opt not to have a second child. Nonetheless, there is an urgent need to incorporate interconception care into various health initiatives, as it is a time-sensitive choice for many couples to have a second child.

  6. Sustainable diet policy development: implications of multi-criteria and other approaches, 2008-2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Tim; Mason, Pamela

    2017-12-04

    The objective of the present paper is to draw lessons from policy development on sustainable diets. It considers the emergence of sustainable diets as a policy issue and reviews the environmental challenge to nutrition science as to what a 'good' diet is for contemporary policy. It explores the variations in how sustainable diets have been approached by policy-makers. The paper considers how international United Nations and European Union (EU) policy engagement now centres on the 2015 Sustainable Development Goals and Paris Climate Change Accord, which require changes across food systems. The paper outlines national sustainable diet policy in various countries: Australia, Brazil, France, the Netherlands, Qatar, Sweden, UK and USA. While no overarching common framework for sustainable diets has appeared, a policy typology of lessons for sustainable diets is proposed, differentiating (a) orientation and focus, (b) engagement styles and (c) modes of leadership. The paper considers the particularly tortuous rise and fall of UK governmental interest in sustainable diet advice. Initial engagement in the 2000s turned to disengagement in the 2010s, yet some advice has emerged. The 2016 referendum to leave the EU has created a new period of policy uncertainty for the UK food system. This might marginalise attempts to generate sustainable diet advice, but could also be an opportunity for sustainable diets to be a goal for a sustainable UK food system. The role of nutritionists and other food science professions will be significant in this period of policy flux.

  7. The effect of corporate social responsibility disclosures on financial performance in the banking industry: empirical study on Egyptian banking sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Racha El Moslemany

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper to establish the relationship between corporate social responsibility disclosure and financial performance in the Egyptian banking sector. Only three banks were included in the study because Corporate Social Responsibility is a new concept that has not yet been fully established in the banking sector in Egypt. Secondary data were obtained from the annual financial reports of the banks for the period from 2008 to 2011. Corporate social responsibility score was obtained using content analysis of reports of the companies on various components of corporate social responsibility as reported in their annual financial reports. The present study identified four dimensions in the pilot study: Environment, Community, Customer, and Employee. Descriptive analysis was used to describe data collected such as Pearson correlation method. The authors used regression analysis to study the relationship between the dependent variables and the independent variables and the bank age and bank size were used as control variables in the analysis. The results indicated an insignificant relationship between the independent variables (corporate social responsibility toward environment, community, customer, and employee used in the model and the dependent variables Corporate Financial Performance as measured by (ROA, ROE, NPM, and EPS. The results of the study proved the absence of a significant relationship between the dependent and the independent variables as a whole. Yet, some relationships were found concerning individual measures. The major limitation of this paper is the sample size. In addition, failure of corporations to disclose CSR in the annual reports will have a material effect on these findings. The findings of this paper have practical implications on the management of Banks in Egypt to re-think and re-strategize their CSR policies that incorporate social and economic performance to improve their CFP.

  8. The Effects of Foreign Bank Participation on the Turkish Banking System and Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleyman Degirmen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available There is an assertion that the participation of foreign banks in emerging markets is often thought to improve overall bank soundness. Therefore, if the share of foreign banks in a national banking system is large, the system will quickly overcome both financial or currency crises, and quickly recover itself. Since Turkey has been experienced mentioned crises, the aim of this study is to reveal if the assertion is valid for Turkey. Our expectation from the study using VAR method is to reach a conclusion that countries with large market share of foreign banks have safely passed the crises by virtue of foreign banks’ best management policies. The test results indicate that foreign banks have more positive effect for helping TBS capital structure; foreign bank participation did not cause any decline in loans and last one, after crisis, existence of foreign banks worsens TBS’ liquidity in interest and exchange rate shocks.

  9. Competition and market contestability of banks: Evidence from emerging financial market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muntazir Hussain

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The study is an attempt to investigate the nature of competition and market contestability of 35 Pakistani banks for the period of 2007-2011 by employing Panzar and Rosse (PR-model. The test of competition overall sample (2007-2011 suggest that banks in Pakistan in state of monopolistic competition and market is in equilibrium. The sub sample (2007-2009 result of competition and equilibrium are similar as for sample period (2007-2011 suggesting that revenue produced during this period is state of monopolistic competition. Finally the results of sample period (2010-2011 suggest that banks in Pakistan are instate of perfect competition however, the market in not in long-run equilibrium. The results have interesting policy implications; it is suggested to encourage the foreign banks presence to improve the competitive condition of banking industry so that to ensure the exit and entrance of banks in the industry to increase the competition and produce the variety of product to improve banks performance and customer satisfaction.

  10. Race and Populist Radical Right Discourses: Implications for Roma Education Policy in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugosi, Nicole V. T.

    2015-01-01

    Non-government organizations and policy makers agree that the best route to eradicating the widespread discrimination and poverty among the Roma is to improve the quality of and access to education. A cursory glance at the Hungarian Government website suggests that policy makers are on top of the problem with good laws and initiatives in place.…

  11. Perceptions and Implications of No-Fee School Policy: School-Based Management Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naong, M. N.

    2013-01-01

    The inception of no-fee schools and a school-fee exemption policy has become a contentious issue but also an exciting one for school managers in South Africa. Managers opposed to the policy have cited amongst others things, academic standards dropping, as well as parents who can afford to pay jumping on the bandwagon and refusing to pay. While the…

  12. Technologies, Democracy and Digital Citizenship: Examining Australian Policy Intersections and the Implications for School Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyle, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    There are intersections that can occur between the respective peak Australian school education policy agendas. These policies include the use of technologies in classrooms to improve teaching and learning as promoted through the "Melbourne Declaration on Educational Goals for Young Australians" and the "Australian Curriculum";…

  13. Do Cooperative Banks Really Serve Agricultural Sector in Poland?

    OpenAIRE

    Zawojska, Aldona; Siudek, Tomasz

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to assess the potential of cooperative banks for serving agricultural sector in Poland and to identify the areas with the most development potential. We discuss the transformation process in the cooperative banking system under market economy, and in particular investigate importance of cooperative banks for farms' financing on the basis of our survey of banks. Moreover, the role of cooperative banks in transmission of Government policy supporting farm sector in Poland...

  14. On the Implications of Knowledge Bases for Regional Innovation Policies in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassink Robert

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Regional innovation policies have been criticised for being too standardised, one-size-fits-all and place-neutral in character. Embedded in these debates, this paper has two aims: first, to analyse whether industries with different knowledge bases in regions in Germany have different needs for regional innovation policies, and secondly, to investigate whether knowledge bases can contribute to the fine-tuning of regional innovation policies in particular and to a modern, tailor-made, place-based regional innovation policy in general. It concludes that although needs differ due to differences in knowledge bases, those bases are useful only to a limited extent in fine-tuning regional innovation policies

  15. The mediterranean solar plan, the symbol of a Euro-Mediterranean partnership? the european investment bank at the service of a policy for renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontaine-Vive, Ph. de

    2009-01-01

    The European Investment Bank (EIB) was created in 1958 following the adoption of the Rome Treaty, this bank has lent support to economic growth and solidarity inside and outside the European Union. The energy sector is exemplary of the bank's ability to adapt and of its concern for a certain idea of Europe. This priority is examined from three complementary angles: the EIB and renewable energy; the EIB and the partnership for energy with our Mediterranean neighbors; and the EIB and the Mediterranean Solar Plan. It is recalled that in 2008, the EIB invested more than 10*10 9 euros in the energy sector including 2.2*10 9 euros for renewable energies

  16. Impact, regulation and health policy implications of physician migration in OECD countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simoens Steven

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the face of rising demand for medical services due to ageing populations, physician migration flows are increasingly affecting the supply of physicians in Organisation for Economic Co-operation and development (OECD countries. This paper offers an integrated perspective on the impact of physician migration on home and host countries and discusses international regulation and policy approaches governing physician migration. Methods Information about migration flows, international regulation and policies governing physician migration were derived from two questionnaires sent to OECD countries, a secondary analysis of EUROSTAT Labour Force Surveys, a literature review and official policy documents of OECD countries. Results OECD countries increasingly perceive immigration of foreign physicians as a way of sustaining their physician workforce. As a result, countries have entered into international agreements regulating physician migration, although their success has been limited due to the imposition of licensing requirements and the protection of vested interests by domestic physicians. OECD countries have therefore adopted specific policies designed to stimulate the immigration of foreign physicians, whilst minimising its negative impact on the home country. Measures promoting immigration have included international recruitment campaigns, less strict immigration requirements and arrangements that foster shared learning between health care systems. Policies restricting the societal costs of physician emigration from developing countries such as good practice guidelines and taxes on host countries have not yet produced their expected effect or in some cases have not been established at all. Conclusions Although OECD countries generally favour long-term policies of national self-sufficiency to sustain their physician workforce, such policies usually co-exist with short-term or medium-term policies to attract foreign physicians

  17. Electronic Banking And Bank Performance In Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-01

    Mar 1, 2013 ... The findings of this study have motivated new recommendations for bank customers, bank management and shareholders with regard to electronic banking adoption for banking operations. Keywords: Electronic banking, returns on assets (ROA), returns on Equity (ROE), difference between means and ...

  18. 12 CFR 619.9140 - Farm Credit bank(s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Farm Credit bank(s). 619.9140 Section 619.9140 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9140 Farm Credit bank(s). Except as otherwise defined, the term Farm Credit bank(s) includes Farm Credit Banks...

  19. Meeting Students’ Expectations in an Arab ICLHE/EMI Context: Implications for ELT Education Policy and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali S.M. Al-Issa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Students’ expectations have seldom received any attention in English Language Teaching (ELT education research in the Arab World in general and in Integrated Content and Language in Higher Education (ICLHE/English Medium Instruction (EMI English for Academic Purposes (EAP in particular, despite their importance for policy and practice. This mixed-method study investigates the expectations of 50 students attending an ICLHE/EMI EAP course at College of Law, Sultan Qaboos University (SQU in the Sultanate of Oman. The results have shown that the students had course materials and content and course pedagogy and design implementation expectations. The results have further revealed that the teacher played a key role in meeting his students’ expectations through his effective teaching. The findings have important implications for ICLHE/EMI policy implementation in other similar local, regional and global contexts.

  20. Welfare implications of the renewable fuel standard with an integrated tax-subsidy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skolrud, Tristan D.; Galinato, Gregmar I.

    2017-01-01

    This paper derives the optimal integrated tax-subsidy policy where one input is taxed and revenues are used to subsidize the use of a substitute input to reduce greenhouse gas emissions given the existing policies under the Renewable Fuel Standard policies. We measure the welfare effects and impact on cellulosic ethanol production after implementing the tax-subsidy policy using a general equilibrium model. A revenue-neutral integrated tax-subsidy scheme leads to a small positive tax rate for crude oil and a large positive subsidy for cellulosic ethanol because the former has a larger emissions coefficient than the latter. The overall welfare effects of an integrated tax subsidy scheme are less than a 1% increase for the economy but the growth in the cellulosic ethanol industry could range from 28% to 238% because the revenues from taxing crude oil are directly used to subsidize cellulosic ethanol production. - Highlights: • We derive an integrated tax-subsidy interacting with the Renewable Fuel Standard. • The policy is revenue-neutral. • Policy results in a small crude oil tax and a large cellulosic ethanol subsidy. • Simulations indicate a welfare-increasing optimal policy. • Growth in the cellulosic ethanol industry ranges from 28% to 238%.