Sample records for bani kanana northern

  1. Magnetic and electrical properties in BaNiS2-type solid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irizawa, Akinori; Yoshimura, Kazuyoshi; Kosuge, Koji


    The magnetic and electrical properties are reported in the new solid solutions BaCo 1-x Cu x S 2 and BaNi 1-x Fe x S 2 . Both compounds show spin-glass-like behavior, although the type of spin frustrations is different with each other. BaCo 1-x Cu x S 2 shows a competition type spin-glass behavior with reentrant phenomenon from antiferromagnetic to spin-glass at low temperatures. BaNi 1-x Fe x S 2 shows a dilute type spin-glass behavior together with super-paramagnetic properties. The temperature variation of 57 Fe Moessbauer spectra in BaNi 0.8 Fe 0.2 S 2 is explicable in a framework of cluster-glass. (author)

  2. First application of OSL dating to a chalcolithic well structure in Qulban Bani Murra, Jordan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al Khasawneh, Sahar; Murray, Andrew Sean; Gebel, Hans Georg


    This study presents the first OSL dates for a well structure presumed to have been built by pastoralists in Qulban Bani Murra, Jordan. The site is assumed to belong to the Chalcolithic culture (5th millennium BC). It includes partly megalithic burial fields connected to a water management system...

  3. Pengaruh Metode Karyawisata Terhadap Kreativitas Menggambar Anak di Taman Kanak-Kanak Bani Toifur Kabupaten Nganjuk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratna Pangastuti


    Full Text Available Many kinds of learning methods for early age level in stimulate all aspects of its development. One of the methods is karyawisata method. With this method the children directly faced with concrete objects that corresponds to its development stage. In addition to play and and imagine, early children have extraordinary creativity level. In this study researchers want to know how much the influence of karyawisata method against the ability of creativity of early childhood (kindergarten through activities such as drawing. Where the drawing included in the learning achievement indicator on the Fine motoric aspects. this study use the quantitative approach and analysis technique with product moment in order to measure the scale of "influence" against two variables variable X as bound namely karyawisata method and a variable Y as free namely creativity. While the population is all the students of class B kindergarten of bani Toifur Nganjuk Regency. From the collected data and data processing obtained the result that the table of the value of the "r" product moment with df of 18, on the rank of the significance of 5 percent obtained r_table = 0,444. Because the r_xy on the rank of the significance of 5 percent greater than r_tables, 0.47 > 0,444 dors to write it on the rank of the significance of 5 percent zero hypothesis was rejected, while the alternative hypothesis is received. This means that between both variables X and Y is the influence of the karyawisata method against creativity drawing children in kindergarten of Bani Toifur there is a significant positive correlation

  4. Importance of nonlocal electron correlation in the BaNiS2 semimetal from quantum oscillations studies (United States)

    Klein, Yannick; Casula, Michele; Santos-Cottin, David; Audouard, Alain; Vignolles, David; Fève, Gwendal; Freulon, Vincent; Plaçais, Bernard; Verseils, Marine; Yang, Hancheng; Paulatto, Lorenzo; Gauzzi, Andrea


    By means of Shubnikov-de Haas and de Haas-van Alphen oscillations, and ab initio calculations, we have studied the Fermi surface of high-quality BaNiS2 single crystals, with mean free path l ˜400 Å . The angle and temperature dependence of quantum oscillations indicates a quasi-two-dimensional Fermi surface, made of an electronlike tube centered at Γ , and of four holelike cones, generated by Dirac bands, weakly dispersive in the out-of-plane direction. Ab initio electronic structure calculations, in the density functional theory framework, show that the inclusion of screened exchange is necessary to account for the experimental Fermi pockets. Therefore, the choice of the functional becomes crucial. A modified HSE hybrid functional with 7% of exact exchange outperforms both GGA and GGA +U density functionals, signaling the importance of nonlocal screened-exchange interactions in BaNiS2, and, more generally, in 3 d compensated semimetals.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sulthon


    Full Text Available This paper examines the role of the prophet Muhammad's preaching in resolving internal conflicts of Quraysh tribe and conflicts between the Quraysh tribe with a descendant of Mustaliq. The goal is to reconstruct their conflicts and Muhammad's position in the middle of the conflict. For that purpose, the data collected from the books of Sirah Nabawiyah as the main source and analyzed so that it can be drawn the conflict relationship between the two tribes and the resolution. The results of the study found the conflict between the Quraysh tribe of the descendant of Mustaliq can be tracked since their ancestors, respectively, before the advent of Muhammad. Fundamental issues regarding with conflicts dealing with political power, self-esteem and group identity. The triggers of conflict that almost rising the violent conflicts between the other were a misunderstanding. In resolving the conflict, the prophet prefers peaceful means despite ever using violence in the form of war. Tulisan ini mengkaji peran dakwah nabi Muhammad dalam menyelesaikan konflik intern suku Quraish maupun konflik antara suku Quraish dengan bani Mustaliq. Tujuannya, merekonstruksi relasi konflik antara mereka dan posisi Muhammad di tengah tengah konflik tersebut. Untuk tujuan itu, data dihimpun dari kitab-kitab Sirah Nabawiyah sebagai sumber utama dan dianalisis sehingga tergambar relasi-konflik tokoh-tokoh dari kedua suku tersebut dan penyelesaiannya. Hasil kajian menemukan, konflik antara suku Quraish dengan bani Mustaliq dapat dilacak sejak nenek moyang mereka masing-masing, sebelum kenabian Muhammad. Issu pokok terjadinya konflik berkenaan dengan persoalan politik kekuasaan, harga diri dan identitas kelompok. Pemicu konflik yang nyaris menimbulkan kekerasan antara lain adalah kesalahpahaman. Dalam menyelesaikan konflik, nabi lebih mengutamakan jalan damai meski pernah menggunakan kekerasan dalam bentuk

  6. Investigation of the spin-1 honeycomb antiferromagnet BaNi2V2O8 with easy-plane anisotropy (United States)

    Klyushina, E. S.; Lake, B.; Islam, A. T. M. N.; Park, J. T.; Schneidewind, A.; Guidi, T.; Goremychkin, E. A.; Klemke, B.; Mânsson, M.


    The magnetic properties of the two-dimensional, S =1 honeycomb antiferromagnet BaNi2V2O8 have been comprehensively studied using dc susceptibility measurements and inelastic neutron scattering techniques. The magnetic excitation spectrum is found to be dispersionless within experimental resolution between the honeycomb layers, while it disperses strongly within the honeycomb plane where it consists of two gapped spin-wave modes. The magnetic excitations are compared to linear spin-wave theory allowing the Hamiltonian to be determined. The first- and second-neighbor magnetic exchange interactions are antiferromagnetic and lie within the ranges 10.90 meV ≤Jn≤13.35 meV and 0.85 meV ≤Jn n≤1.65 meV, respectively. The interplane coupling Jout is four orders of magnitude weaker than the intraplane interactions, confirming the highly two-dimensional magnetic behavior of this compound. The sizes of the energy gaps are used to extract the magnetic anisotropies and reveal substantial easy-plane anisotropy and a very weak in-plane easy-axis anisotropy. Together these results reveal that BaNi2V2O8 is a candidate compound for the investigation of vortex excitations and Berezinsky-Kosterliz-Thouless phenomenon.

  7. Multi-Site Validation of the SWAT Model on the Bani Catchment: Model Performance and Predictive Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamilatou Chaibou Begou


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the performance and predictive uncertainty of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model on the Bani River Basin, at catchment and subcatchment levels. The SWAT model was calibrated using the Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE approach. Potential Evapotranspiration (PET and biomass were considered in the verification of model outputs accuracy. Global Sensitivity Analysis (GSA was used for identifying important model parameters. Results indicated a good performance of the global model at daily as well as monthly time steps with adequate predictive uncertainty. PET was found to be overestimated but biomass was better predicted in agricultural land and forest. Surface runoff represents the dominant process on streamflow generation in that region. Individual calibration at subcatchment scale yielded better performance than when the global parameter sets were applied. These results are very useful and provide a support to further studies on regionalization to make prediction in ungauged basins.

  8. Low-temperature magnetothermal transport investigation of a Ni-based superconductor BaNi2As2: evidence for fully gapped superconductivity. (United States)

    Kurita, N; Ronning, F; Tokiwa, Y; Bauer, E D; Subedi, A; Singh, D J; Thompson, J D; Movshovich, R


    We have performed low-temperature specific heat and thermal conductivity measurements of the Ni-based superconductor BaNi2As2 (T{c}=0.7 K) in a magnetic field. In a zero field, thermal conductivity shows T-linear behavior in the normal state and exhibits a BCS-like exponential decrease below T{c}. The field dependence of the residual thermal conductivity extrapolated to zero temperature is indicative of a fully gapped superconductor. This conclusion is supported by the analysis of the specific heat data, which are well fit by the BCS temperature dependence from T{c} down to the lowest temperature of 0.1 K.

  9. Order-disorder phase formation in the complex perovskite compounds Ba(Ni1/3Nb2/3)O3 and Ba(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, K.S.; Kim, I.T.; Kim, C.D.


    The order-disorder phase formation of the complex perovskite compounds Ba(Ni 1/3 Nb 2/3 )O 3 (BNN) and Ba(Zn 1/3 Nb 2/3 )O 3 (BZN) was investigated using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive spectroscopy. The BNN and BZN samples were sintered over a temperature range of 1,200 to 1,500 C in air for 2 h. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy showed that these compounds exhibited a 1:2 ordering on the B-site within a narrow temperature range. When BNN and BZN were sintered above 1,400 and 1,350 C, respectively, a liquid phase formed in the grain boundary which was accompanied by disordering. The composition of the liquid phase resembled that of pyrochlore, with a small amount of nickel for BNN or zinc for BZN. The disordering with the formation of the liquid phase was attributed to the increase in defect concentration

  10. Laparoscopic splenectomy: Consensus and debatable points | Bani ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. The emergence of minimally invasive techniques has broadened interest in splenectomy for a variety of haematological illnesses. Laparoscopic splenectomy (LS) is currently considered the gold standard for the treatment of various haematological disorders. Purpose. The literature was reviewed to highlight ...

  11. الحركة الفكرية في طرابلس الغرب عهد بني خزرون Intellectual Movement in Tripoli (Bani Khozron era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Firas Salim Hayawi أ.د.فراس سليم حياوي


    Full Text Available Bani Khozronis a family it's Pedigree to the tribe Zenata, ruled Tripoli over one hundred and fifty years began at filfle bin Said in 391 AH / 1000 AD and ended by Mohammed bin Khozron Last princes and who was expelled from the city of Tripoli in 540 AH / 1146 AD, which had cleared to them of the atmosphere when left Muizzledineallah al Fatimid to Egypt so the independing Tripoli and overpowering as between them and the Fatimids of difficulties. The Zenata succession of Umayyad in Andalusia and with prejudiceSaeed bin khazer Ben Vlfol sided to Sanhaja so honor by Beijing bin zirivery honor and made him rule Tunbh and closer links to link their clan by marriage, so as to marry one of the daughters Saeed bin khazer has successive events in Morocco and that made Pepper worried about the intentions of Sanhaja It is reluctant to cooperate with the Badis, and then the war between him and the Addis year 389 AH / 999 AD onwards Vofelt him pepper to the realms of the plug, and there I turned around Zenata, offering Bjmuah and occupied Tripoli in 390 AH / 1000 AD, and the foundations of the state fluctuated her life between the ebb and flow due to the conflict with Sanhaja so that was the end, as we mentioned in 540 AH / 1146 AD. On the whole, this study sheds light on the history of intellectual movement in the city of Tripoli during the reign of BaniKhozron in the political, intellectual and economic aspects. And it proceeded to study novels relevant to the subject of research and discussion analysis.

  12. northern Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Zoology and Marine Biology, University of Dar es Salaam,. P O Box 35064, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania ... National Parks and neighbouring villages in northern Tanzania between 1993 and l996 (Kabigumila 1998a). Most of ..... International Congress ofChelonian Conservation. SOPTOM,. Gonfaron France. pp: ...

  13. Northern Pintail (United States)

    Clark, Robert G.; Fleskes, Joseph P.; Guyn, Karla L.; Haukos, David A.; Austin, Jane E.; Miller, Michael R.


    This medium-sized dabbling duck of slender, elegant lines and conservative plumage coloration is circumpolar in distribution and abundant in North America, with core nesting habitat in Alaska and the Prairie Pothole Region of southern Canada and the northern Great Plains. Breeders favor shallow wetlands interspersed throughout prairie grasslands or arctic tundra. An early fall migrant, the species arrives on wintering areas beginning in August, after wing molt, often forming large roosting and feeding flocks on open, shallow wetlands and flooded agricultural fields. The birds consume grains, marsh plant seeds, and aquatic invertebrates throughout fall and winter.Northern Pintails are among the earliest nesting ducks in North America, beginning shortly after ice-out in many northern areas. Individuals form new pair bonds each winter but are highly promiscuous during the nesting season, with mated and unmated males often involved in vigorous, acrobatic Pursuit Flights. Annual nest success and productivity vary with water conditions, predation, and weather. Females build nests on the ground, often far from water. Only the female incubates; her mate leaves shortly after incubation begins. Ducklings hatch together in one day, follow the female to water after a day in the nest, and fledge by July or August. Adults and ducklings consume mainly aquatic invertebrates during the breeding season.Predators and farming operations destroy many thousands of Northern Pintail nests annually; farming has also greatly reduced the amount of quality nesting cover available. Winter habitats are threatened by water shortages, agricultural development, contamination, and urbanization. Periods of extended drought in prairie nesting regions have caused dramatic population declines, usually followed by periods of recovery. Over the long term, however, the continental population of Northern Pintails has declined significantly from 6 million birds in the early 1970s to less than 3 million in

  14. Northern forests, Chapter 7 (United States)

    L.H. Pardo; C.L. Goodale; E.A. Lilleskov; L.H. Geiser


    The Northern Forests ecological region spans much of Canada, from Saskatchewan to Newfoundland; its southern portion extends into the northern United States (CEC 1997). The U.S. component includes the northern hardwood and spruce-fir forest types and encompasses parts of the Northeast (mountainous regions in Pennsylvania, New York, New Jersey, Connecticut,...

  15. Northern star js plaskett

    CERN Document Server

    Broughton, R Peter


    Northern Star explores Plaskett's unorthodox and fascinating life from his rural roots near Woodstock through his days as a technician at the University of Toronto to his initiation in astronomy at the Dominion Observatory in Ottawa.

  16. Northern Lights Chase Tours : Experiences from Northern Norway


    Bertella, Giovanna


    This study is focused on the development of northern lights chase tourism, a particular type of northern lights tourism consisting in guided tours that have the goal to find good views of the northern lights. The theoretical approach is based on the understanding of the northern lights experience as a visual experience, and on the recognition of the tourism practitioners as the driving force to new product development. The empirical case concerns the recent development of northern lights chas...

  17. Northern Dimension: Participant Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busygina Irina


    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the “Northern Dimension” initiative of the EU which also includes North-West Russia, Norway and Iceland. It is noted that the “Northern Dimension” in the theoretical perspective can be considered as part of strategic multi-level interactions between member-states of the EU and Russia. On this basis, the authors analyze implications and effects of the strategic interdependence of all the EU-Russia relation levels.

  18. Northern Ireland: an anomaly. (United States)

    Simpson, A


    The British Abortion Act of 1967, which makes abortion legal up to 28 weeks, does not extend to Northern Ireland, where abortion is still regulated by the 1861 Offences Against the Person Act, which makes abortion a felony, and the 1929 Infant Life Preservation Act, which prohibits abortion after the 28th week of pregnancy. The Bourne Judgment of 1928, in which a court held in favor of one Dr. Alex Bourne, who performed an early abortion, may be cited as precedent, but not as law. A woman in Northern Ireland may have an abortion only on the National Health Service and only if pregnancy is life-threatening, if she is mentally retarded, or if the child is likely to be abnormal. How many abortions are actually performed in Northern Ireland each year is not known. Essentially, women with unwanted pregnancies have only 3 options: to have the baby, to risk a back street abortion, and to go to England. Since 1967, 20,000 Northern Irish women have had abortions in England, but it is a privilege reserved for the wealthy because the woman must bear the expenses of traveling to England, establishing residency there, and paying hospital fees. All of this takes time and results in many women having late abortions. The women also must bear the stigma of having done something of which neither church in Northern Ireland approves. Northern Irish women, quite simply, do not have the same rights as women in England, Scotland, and Wales.

  19. Northern Plains 'Crater' (United States)


    10 December 2004 The lower left (southwest) corner of this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the location of a somewhat filled and buried meteor impact crater on the northern plains of Mars. The dark dots are boulders. A portion of a similar feature is seen in the upper right (northeast) corner of the image. This picture, showing landforms (including the odd mound north/northeast of the crater) that are typical of the martian northern lowland plains, was obtained as part of the MGS MOC effort to support the search for a landing site for the Phoenix Mars Scout lander. Phoenix will launch in 2007 and land on the northern plains in 2008. This image is located near 68.0oN, 227.4oW, and covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. The scene is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  20. Northern Plains Buried Craters (United States)


    22 December 2003This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows three circular features on the martian northern plains near 70.7oN, 311.7oW. These circular features are the locations of meteor impact craters that have been buried beneath the plains. Much of the northern plains shares this story, in which thousands of old craters have been filled or partially filled and then thinly buried beneath textured plains. The picture covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  1. Northern blotting analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Knud; Nielsen, Henrik


    Northern blotting analysis is a classical method for analysis of the size and steady-state level of a specific RNA in a complex sample. In short, the RNA is size-fractionated by gel electrophoresis and transferred by blotting onto a membrane to which the RNA is covalently bound. Then, the membrane...... the gap to the more laborious nuclease protection experiments....

  2. insurgencies in northern Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    insurgency, the RUF would attack villages, hacking civilians to death, while those who would be abducted would have their arms and limbs hacked off. The LRA uses similar tactics on civilians (Apuuli 2004). The question that arises then is: In view of the LRA's continued atrocities against the people of northern Uganda, ...

  3. Northern blotting analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Knud; Nielsen, Henrik


    is analysed by hybridization to one or more specific probes that are labelled for subsequent detection. Northern blotting is relatively simple to perform, inexpensive, and not plagued by artefacts. Recent developments of hybridization membranes and buffers have resulted in increased sensitivity closing...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Dec 2, 2004 ... It is recommended that deforestation and bush burning that will reduce vegetation cover and enhance evaporation from the soils should be checked through education of the citizens. Northern Region has vast areas of arable land which prospective farmers take advantage off. Such people cultivate the land ...

  5. Northern blotting analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Knud; Nielsen, Henrik


    Northern blotting analysis is a classical method for analysis of the size and steady-state level of a specific RNA in a complex sample. In short, the RNA is size-fractionated by gel electrophoresis and transferred by blotting onto a membrane to which the RNA is covalently bound. Then, the membran...

  6. Northern Pintail (Anas acuta) (United States)

    Austin, J.E.; Miller, M.R.; Poole, A.; Gill, F.


    The Northern Pintail is a medium-sized dabbling duck of slender, elegant lines and conservative plumage coloration. It is circumpolar in distribution and abundant in North America, with core nesting habitat in Alaska and the Prairie Pothole Region of southern Canada and the northern Great Plains. Breeders favor shallow wetlands interspersed throughout prairie grasslands or arctic tundra. An early fall migrant, the species arrives on wintering areas beginning in August, after wing molt, often forming large roosting and feeding flocks on open, shallow wetlands and flooded agricultural fields. The birds consume grains, marsh plant seeds, and aquatic invertebrates throughout the fall and winter. Northern Pintails are among the earliest nesting ducks in North America, beginning shortly after ice-out in many northern areas. Individuals form new pair bonds each winter but are highly promiscuous during the nesting season, with mated and unmated males often involved in vigorous, acrobatic Pursuit Flights. Annual nest success and productivity vary with water conditions, predation, and weather. Females build nests on the ground, often long distances from water. Only the female incubates; her mate leaves shortly after incubation begins. Ducklings hatch together in one day, follow the female to water after a day in the nest, and fledge by July or August. Adults and ducklings consume mainly aquatic invertebrates during the breeding season. Predators and farming operations destroy many thousands of Northern Pintail nests annually; farming has also greatly reduced the amount of quality nesting cover available. Winter habitats are threatened by water shortages, agricultural development, contamination, and urbanization. Periods of extended drought in prairie nesting regions have caused dramatic population declines, usually followed by periods of recovery. Over the long term, however, the continental population of Northern Pintails has declined significantly from 6 million birds in

  7. Northern pipelines : backgrounder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Most analysts agree that demand for natural gas in North America will continue to grow. Favourable market conditions created by rising demand and declining production have sparked renewed interest in northern natural gas development. The 2002 Annual Energy Outlook forecasted U.S. consumption to increase at an annual average rate of 2 per cent from 22.8 trillion cubic feet to 33.8 TCF by 2020, mostly due to rapid growth in demand for electric power generation. Natural gas prices are also expected to increase at an annual average rate of 1.6 per cent, reaching $3.26 per thousand cubic feet in 2020. There are currently 3 proposals for pipelines to move northern gas to US markets. They include a stand-alone Mackenzie Delta Project, the Alaska Highway Pipeline Project, and an offshore route that would combine Alaskan and Canadian gas in a pipeline across the floor of the Beaufort Sea. Current market conditions and demand suggest that the projects are not mutually exclusive, but complimentary. The factors that differentiate northern pipeline proposals are reserves, preparedness for market, costs, engineering, and environmental differences. Canada has affirmed its role to provide the regulatory and fiscal certainty needed by industry to make investment decisions. The Government of the Yukon does not believe that the Alaska Highway Project will shut in Mackenzie Delta gas, but will instead pave the way for development of a new northern natural gas industry. The Alaska Highway Pipeline Project will bring significant benefits for the Yukon, the Northwest Territories and the rest of Canada. Unresolved land claims are one of the challenges that has to be addressed for both Yukon and the Northwest Territories, as the proposed Alaska Highway Pipeline will travel through traditional territories of several Yukon first Nations. 1 tab., 4 figs

  8. Northern Pintail Telemetry [ds231 (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Using radio-telemetry, female northern pintail (Anas acuta) survival, distribution, and movements during late August-March in Central California were determined...

  9. Virginia Tech To Showcase Northern Virginia Research


    Cunningham, Deborah


    Virginia Tech graduate students and faculty members in Northern Virginia will display and explain their most current research at the first Virginia Tech at Northern Virginia Research Exposition April 17 at the Northern Virginia Center in Fairfax.

  10. Flight tracks, Northern California TRACON (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset contains the records of all the flights in the Northern California TRACON. The data was provided by the aircraft noise abatement office...

  11. Northern Fur Seal Food Habits (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains food habits samples, usually scats, collected opportunistically on northern fur seal rookeries and haulouts in Alaska from 1987 to present....

  12. Tornadoes Strike Northern Wisconsin (United States)


    A series of tornadoes ripped through the Upper Midwest region of the United States in the evening of June 7, 2007. At least five different tornadoes touched down in Wisconsin, according to the Associated Press, one of which tore through the Bear Paw Resort in northern Wisconsin. Despite dropping as much as fifteen centimeters (six inches) of rain in some places and baseball-size hail in others, authorities were reporting no deaths attributable to the storm system, and only a smattering of injuries, but considerable property damage in some areas. When the MODIS instrument on NASA's Terra satellite observed the area on June 9, 2007, the track torn through the woods by one of the tornadoes stands out quite clearly. This photo-like image uses data collected by MODIS in the normal human vision range to give a familiar natural-looking appearance. The landscape is largely a checkerboard of farms, towns, roads, and cities. The pale land is predominantly farmland where crops have not fully grown in yet. Dark blue shows the winding path of rivers and lakes dotting the landscape. The large blue lake on the east (right) side of the image is Lake Michigan. Towns and cities, including the city of Green Bay, are gray. To the north side, farmland gives way to dark green as land use shifts from agriculture to the Menominee Indian Reservation and Nicolet National Forest. The diagonal slash through the dark green forested land shows the tornado track. Bare land was revealed where the tornado tore down trees or stripped vegetation off the branches. The high-resolution image provided above is at MODIS' full spatial resolution (level of detail) of 250 meters per pixel. The MODIS Rapid Response System provides this image at additional resolutions.

  13. Northern Eurasia Future Initiative (NEFI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groisman, Pavel; Shugart, Herman; Kicklighter, David


    prepare societies for future developments. A key principle of NEFI is that these developments must now be secured through science-based strategies codesigned with regional decision-makers to lead their societies to prosperity in the face of environmental and institutional challenges. NEESPI scientific......During the past several decades, the Earth system has changed significantly, especially across Northern Eurasia. Changes in the socio-economic conditions of the larger countries in the region have also resulted in a variety of regional environmental changes that can have global consequences....... The Northern Eurasia Future Initiative (NEFI) has been designed as an essential continuation of the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI), which was launched in 2004. NEESPI sought to elucidate all aspects of ongoing environmental change, to inform societies and, thus, to better...

  14. Titan's Stratospheric Condensibles at High Northern Latitudes During Northern Winter (United States)

    Anderson, Carrie; Samuelson, R.; Achterberg, R.


    The Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer (IRIS) instrument on board Voyager 1 caught the first glimpse of an unidentified particulate feature in Titan's stratosphere that spectrally peaks at 221 per centimeter. Until recently, this feature that we have termed 'the haystack,' has been seen persistently at high northern latitudes with the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) instrument onboard Cassini, The strength of the haystack emission feature diminishes rapidly with season, becoming drastically reduced at high northern latitudes, as Titan transitions from northern winter into spring, In contrast to IRIS whose shortest wavenumber was 200 per centimeter, CIRS extends down to 10 per centimeter, thus revealing an entirely unexplored spectral region in which nitrile ices have numerous broad lattice vibration features, Unlike the haystack, which is only found at high northern latitudes during northern winter/early northern spring, this geometrically thin nitrile cloud pervades Titan's lower stratosphere, spectrally peaking at 160 per centimeter, and is almost global in extent spanning latitudes 85 N to 600 S, The inference of nitrile ices are consistent with the highly restricted altitude ranges over which these features are observed, and appear to be dominated by a mixture of HCN and HC3N, The narrow range in altitude over which the nitrile ices extend is unlike the haystack, whose vertical distribution is significantly broader, spanning roughly 70 kilometers in altitude in Titan's lower stratosphere, The nitrile clouds that CIRS observes are located in a dynamically stable region of Titan's atmosphere, whereas CH4 clouds, which ordinarily form in the troposphere, form in a more dynamically unstable region, where convective cloud systems tend to occur. In the unusual situation where Titan's tropopause cools significantly from the HASI 70.5K temperature minimum, CH4 should condense in Titan's lower stratosphere, just like the aforementioned nitrile clouds, although

  15. The outlook for northern forests (United States)

    Stephen R. Shifley; W. Keith Moser; Sherri Wormstead; Francisco X. Aguilar


    The forests of the Northern United States have been remarkably resilient to nearly four centuries of immigration and settlement with associated anthropogenic disturbances caused by farming, logging, burning, urbanization, trade, and many other factors. Although resilient, forests conditions have been significantly impacted by humans as is illustrated by the extent of...

  16. NUMA: A Northern Paiute History. (United States)

    Inter-Tribal Council of Nevada, Reno.

    One in a series of four histories of native Nevadans, this volume presents the story of the Northern Paiute people, or Numa, who lived, hunted, and travelled in the Great Basin area which occupies one-third of present day Nevada and parts of Oregon, Idaho, and California. Based on interviews with tribal elders and research conducted at numerous…

  17. Mitigating Radicalism in Northern Nigeria (United States)


    protectorates through indigenous rulers—merely institutionalized existing divisions. With the building of infrastructure—such as new railway lines— immigrant ...laborers and traders from the south settled into can- tonments in most major northern cities. The effect of these sabon gari (“ strangers ’ quarters” in

  18. June 1990 Northern, Iran Images (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A magnitude 7.7 earthquake occurred in the Gilan Province between the towns of Rudbar and Manjil in northern Iran on Thursday, June 21, 1990 (June 20 at 21:00 GMT)....

  19. Neuropsychiatric perspectives on nodding syndrome in northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    trauma and the emergence of epidemic NS in Northern Uganda. ... NS could present as an association of childhood complex PTSD, (called Developmental Trauma Disorder), occurring in the chronically war-traumatised children of Northern Uganda, ...

  20. The Northern Lights Experience - Negotiation strategies


    Smedseng, Nina


    With rapidly increasing tourist numbers, the potential in commercialising the Northern Lights has grown immensely over the last few years, and one can only imagine what possibilities the future holds for professional Northern Lights experience providers. One of the biggest challenges of the Northern Lights experiences is how to deal with the natural conditions and constraints of this ever shifting phenomenon. The experience providers cannot guarantee sightings of the Northern Lights eve...

  1. Seismic and Geophysical Characterization of Northern Asia (United States)


    SEISMIC AND GEOPHYSICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF NORTHERN ASIA Kevin Mackey1, Hans Hartse2, Kazuya Fujita1, Michael Pasyanos3, and Michael Begnaud2...improve the calibration of northern Asia for nuclear explosion monitoring purposes. This project builds off previous work, and is a cooperative...propagation characteristics in northern Asia . Our work will further improve location and detection and discrimination capabilities, crustal and upper

  2. Offshore northern Europe, the challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergseth, S.


    This paper relates to challenges of the offshore activity in the North Sea. It is appropriate to address these challenges in the context of generating values through efficient management of resources, markets, safety and technology, as the challenges lie therein. The petroleum industry is built to turn natural resources into market value, assuring broad benefits to stake holders and shareholders. In the following, the challenges facing the industry the industry offshore Northern Europe is examined on this background

  3. Royal villas in Northern Europe


    Iversen, Frode


    This paper concerns land use and peasant society relating to settlements, power, and state formation in Northern Europe in the period 500–1200 AD, combining archaeological and written evidence in spatial landscape studies. In the mainly rural society in the Middle Ages, political and economic power seems to have been based on control over land, including people, land, and estates. The king and his followers travelled between a limited numbers of royal villas, located in the coastal areas ...

  4. Northern Security and Global Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    -unipolar", indicating a period of flux and of declining US unipolar hegemony. Drawing together contributions from key thinkers in the field, Northern Security and Global Politics explores how this situation has affected the Nordic-Baltic area by addressing two broad sets of questions. First, it examines what impact....... This book will be of much interest to students of Nordic and Baltic politics, international security, foreign policy and IR....

  5. Adapting consociation to Northern Ireland


    Coakley, John


    This paper looks at the concept of consociational government (or the principle of fully-fledged power sharing) as it has evolved in recent comparative studies of the politics of divided societies. It describes the stages through which this concept moved to the centre of the political agenda in Northern Ireland, based on contributions by policy makers, academics, journalists and others. It reviews the difficult history of efforts to translate this principle into practice, noting the challenge ...

  6. Asset dynamics in Northern Nigeria:


    Dillon, Andrew; Quiñones, Esteban J.


    This paper examines household asset dynamics and gender-differentiated asset inequality over a 20-year period (1988–2008) in northern Nigeria. We show that the initial endowments of both household capital and livestock holdings are inconsistent with the poverty trap hypothesis but that tracking rules for households in panel surveys may lead to differences in empirical results on poverty traps. We also investigate whether initial household endowments contributed to gender-differentiated future...

  7. Chemical pollution of northern seas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savinova, T.N.


    An extensive review is presented on petroleum and chlorinated hydrocarbon pollution in waters and marine organisms of the North Atlantic and of the North, Baltic, Norwegian, and Barents Seas. Data are presented on the bioaccumulation of those pollutants in the organs and tissues of sea birds and of marine biota at various trophic levels. The effects of pollutants on plankton in northern seas are discussed. Factors affecting the bioaccumulation of toxic substances in fish are also examined. It has been discovered that residual quantities of polychlorinated biphenyls, chlorinated pesticides and their metabolites, and petroleum hydrocarbons are present everywhere at all water levels in northern seas. Of particular concern is the fact that maximum concentrations of contaminants have been recorded in the most productive regions, including shelf and estuary zones, the euphotic zone, and areas of upwelling. Both individual toxic substances and their combinations disrupt normal functioning of ecosystems in northern seas, causing a change in the level of primary production and a decline in fish productivity. Pollutant accumulation in commercially valuable organisms represents a serious threat to human health. 424 refs., 13 figs., 15 tabs

  8. Pteridophyta collected in Northern Nigeria and Northern Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan kornaś


    Full Text Available 25 species of Pteridophyta were collected in Northern Nigeria (mainly the Lake Chad Basin and the Mandara Mts. and in the neighbouring parts of Cameroon. 11 of them have not been recorded previously from this area: Isoetes schweinfurthii A. Br. in Bak., Selaginella tenerrima A. Br. ex Kuhn, Ophioglossum gomenzianum Welw. ex A. Br., Marsilea coromandeliana Willd., M. distorta A. Br., M. nubica A. Br., M. subterranea Lepr. ex A. Br., Azolla africana Desv., Ceratopteris richardii Brogn., Adiantum capillus-veneris Linn., and Actiniopleris semiflabellata Pic. Ser.

  9. The Northern Manitoba Mining Academy (United States)

    Alexandre, Paul


    The Northern Manitoba Mining Academy (NMMA, is a new educational institution located in Flin Flon, Manitoba. It is associated with the University College of the North and is specifically intended to serve the needs of the Northern Manitoban communities with regards to job creation by providing training in a variety of mining, construction, and exploration related areas. NMMA's mission is to provide innovative and responsible solutions for the creation of a knowledgeable, skilled, and sustainable workforce within a vibrant, mineral-rich resource industry. It facilitates strategic training initiatives and research activities in order to strengthen the social, economic, and environmental benefits of a robust mining and resources sector. In terms of education, NMMA offers its own programs, mostly short courses in health and safety, courses organized by the University College of the North (wilderness safety, prospecting, and exploration), and courses organized in association with provincial Industries-Based Safety Programs and Associations (a variety of construction-related trades). However, the programming is not limited to those courses already on the syllabus: the Academy operates on open-doors policy and welcomes people with their unique and diverse needs; it prides itself in its ability to tailor or create specific on-demand courses and deliver them locally in the North. The Northern Manitoba Mining Academy also provides access to its world-class facilities for field-based undergraduate courses, as well as graduate students and researchers doing field work. Full sample preparation facilities are offered to students and scientists in all natural and environmental sciences.

  10. Earliest Urbanism in Northern Mesopotamia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skuldbøl, Tim Boaz Bruun

    fieldwork on the mound of Tell Brak and in its immediate surroundings, as well as the author’s own new comparative ceramic studies, which provide the basis for improvements in chronology of the Late Chalcolithic period in northern Mesopotamia. This extensive empirical material is presented as archaeological...... reports, which are integrated to form Part 1 of the dissertation. In Part 2, a set of theoretical approaches to the rise of cities is considered, in light of the new information from Tell Brak, with a view to suggesting future approaches towards the urbanization process. Total printed: 470 pages incl...

  11. Calculating competition in thinned northern hardwoods. (United States)

    Sharon A. Winsauer; James A. Mattson


    Describes four methods of calculating competition to individual trees and compares their effectiveness in explaining the 3-year growth response of northern hardwoods after various mechanized thinning practices.

  12. Giant Reed Distribution - Northern California [ds333 (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Arundo Distribution layer is a compilation of Arundo donax observations in northern and central California, obtained from several sources, including Arundo...

  13. Groundwater management in northern Iraq (United States)

    Stevanovic, Zoran; Iurkiewicz, Adrian


    Groundwater is vital and the sole resource in most of the studied region of northern Iraq. It has a significant role in agriculture, water supply and health, and the elimination of poverty in rural areas. Although Iraq is currently dramatically disturbed by complex political and socio-economic problems, in its northern part, i.e. the Kurdish-inhabited region, fast urbanization and economic expansion are visible everywhere. Monitoring and water management schemes are necessary to prevent aquifer over-exploitation in the region. Artificial recharge with temporary runoff water, construction of subsurface dams and several other aquifer management and regulation measures have been designed, and some implemented, in order to improve the water situation. Recommendations, presented to the local professionals and decision-makers in water management, include creation of Water Master Plans and Water User Associations, synchronization of drilling programmes, rehabilitation of the existing well fields, opening of new well fields, and the incorporation of new spring intakes in some areas with large groundwater reserves, as well as construction of numerous small-scale schemes for initial in situ water treatment where saline groundwater is present.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawzi Mohamed Agael


    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the identification of different influences on the built environment, and those which have a physical and psychological impact on people. The aim of this study is to analyze the impact of the built environment on the lives of people. The interrelationship between people and built environment is based on human perception. This research will explore this relationship further in order to develop a clear understanding of the ways in which architecture may influence peoples’ perceptions and experiences. Additionally, the research entails a comparison between two important theories: the first is an Image of the city derived using the Mental Map Theory; the second is related to Space Syntax Theory. The two theories will be applied in two different cities in Libya with the aim of assessing the importance of their interrelationship and how it may be understood more clearly. This paper will also provide guidelines for improving urban design and planning standards with the end goal of producing a high quality perception by those who actually use the space. Moreover, it concludes with a number of research avenues that should be pursued to answer how the properties of built environment affect human perception.

  15. Love and sickle-cell | Bani | Abia State University Medical Students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abia State University Medical Students' Association Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 1, No 1 (2000) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ...

  16. The Effectiveness of Blended Learning in Improving Students' Achievement in Third Grade's Science in Bani Kenana (United States)

    Khader, Nisreen Saleh Khader


    The study aimed at identifying the effectiveness of blended learning in improving students' achievement in the third grade's science in the traditional method. The study sample consisted of (108) male and female students, who were divided into two groups: experimental and control. The experimental group studied the units and changes of the…



    Fawzi Mohamed Agael; Özlem Özer


    This paper is concerned with the identification of different influences on the built environment, and those which have a physical and psychological impact on people. The aim of this study is to analyze the impact of the built environment on the lives of people. The interrelationship between people and built environment is based on human perception. This research will explore this relationship further in order to develop a clear understanding of the ways in which architecture may influence peo...

  18. Environmental overview of geothermal development: northern Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slemmons, D.B.; Stroh, J.M.; Whitney, R.A. (eds.)


    Regional environmental problems and issues associated with geothermal development in northern Nevada are studied to facilitate environmental assessment of potential geothermal resources. The various issues discussed are: environmental geology, seismicity of northern Nevada, hydrology and water quality, air quality, Nevada ecosystems, noise effects, socio-economic impacts, and cultural resources and archeological values. (MHR)

  19. African Journals Online: Northern Mariana Islands

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Northern Mariana Islands. Home > African Journals Online: Northern Mariana Islands. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This ...

  20. Sowing pregerminated northern red oak acorns (United States)

    Richard M. Godman; Gilbert A. Mattson


    Northern red oak is extremely difficult to regenerate, although it has produced good acorn crops nearly half of the last 32 years in northern Wisconsin. Field trials have shown that for successful seeding, you must protect acorns from predation by wildlife and sow them when temperatures are most favorable for germination.

  1. The Alcoholism Situation in a Northern City (United States)

    Martynov, M. Iu.; Martynova, D. Iu.


    Alcohol abuse in Russia has been increasing in recent years, especially in northern regions, as has the incidence of alcohol-related disease rates. A survey was conducted in Surgut (the Khanty-Mansi autonomous okrug) that determined the factors lending to the prevalence of alcohol abuse among the population of the northern city and assessed the…

  2. Commedia dell'arte in northern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bent


    a contextulized introduction to commedia dell'arte in Northern European countries in the 17. to 19. centuries: from charlatans to satirical comedians and pantomimes......a contextulized introduction to commedia dell'arte in Northern European countries in the 17. to 19. centuries: from charlatans to satirical comedians and pantomimes...

  3. Northern Security and Global Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    -unipolar", indicating a period of flux and of declining US unipolar hegemony. Drawing together contributions from key thinkers in the field, Northern Security and Global Politics explores how this situation has affected the Nordic-Baltic area by addressing two broad sets of questions. First, it examines what impact...... declining unipolarity - with a geopolitical shift to Asia, a reduced role for Europe in United States policy, and a more assertive Russia - will have on regional Nordic-Baltic security. Second, it takes a closer look at how the regional actors respond to these changes in their strategic environment....... This book will be of much interest to students of Nordic and Baltic politics, international security, foreign policy and IR....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Theilen-Willige


    Full Text Available Based on LANDSAT ETM and Digital Elevation Model (DEM data derived by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM, 2000 of the coastal areas of Northern Venezuela were investigated in order to detect traces of earlier tsunami events. Digital image processing methods used to enhance LANDSAT ETM imageries and to produce morphometric maps (such as hillshade, slope, minimum and maximum curvature maps based on the SRTM DEM data contribute to the detection of morphologic traces that might be related to catastrophic tsunami events. These maps combined with various geodata such as seismotectonic data in a GIS environment allow the delineation of coastal regions with potential tsunami risk. The LANDSAT ETM imageries merged with digitally processed and enhanced SRTM data clearly indicate areas that might be prone by flooding in case of catastrophic tsunami events.

  5. Increasing Northern Hemisphere water deficit (United States)

    McCabe, Gregory J.; Wolock, David M.


    A monthly water-balance model is used with CRUTS3.1 gridded monthly precipitation and potential evapotranspiration (PET) data to examine changes in global water deficit (PET minus actual evapotranspiration) for the Northern Hemisphere (NH) for the years 1905 through 2009. Results show that NH deficit increased dramatically near the year 2000 during both the cool (October through March) and warm (April through September) seasons. The increase in water deficit near 2000 coincides with a substantial increase in NH temperature and PET. The most pronounced increases in deficit occurred for the latitudinal band from 0 to 40°N. These results indicate that global warming has increased the water deficit in the NH and that the increase since 2000 is unprecedented for the 1905 through 2009 period. Additionally, coincident with the increase in deficit near 2000, mean NH runoff also increased due to increases in P. We explain the apparent contradiction of concurrent increases in deficit and increases in runoff.

  6. Case studies: Northern Saskatchewan, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Northern Saskatchewan comprises an area of about 350 000 km 2 . In 1951 the population was 11 000 people but by 2003 it was approaching 40 000, of whom about 87% are aboriginal, consisting of either First Nations or Metis people. The first uranium mining area developed in northern Saskatchewan was Uranium City, north of Lake Athabasca. These first mines started production in the early 1950s. Of the 10 producing mines, only Eldorado Nuclear remained in operation after 1965. The development of Uranium City, including better services such as a hospital, drew some aboriginals into the area. There was some aboriginal employment in the early mines but, with few exceptions, these employees only stayed a short time. The mining companies developed training programmes to prepare aboriginals for regular, wage earning jobs. This included lifestyle training such as how to manage personal finances. Further extensive training programmes were required on the job to help these employees become fully contributing members of the workforce, who could advance in their jobs, expand their job opportunities and earnings, and in order to reduce turnover. The question of accommodating mine staff is a complex one, including several options. The first option, a company town, can be developed adjacent to the mine site. It is owned by the company and accommodates everyone who works at the mine and in its service industries. This can result in lower cost accommodation for mine staff with the benefit of no personal capital investment that cannot be recouped after mine closure. The capital cost to the mining company is higher; there is an administrative cost to managing and maintaining many houses, apartments and bunkhouses, and the decommissioning problem at the end of mine life is bigger. Initial developments in northern Saskatchewan were based on the company town concept. At the time there were 25 or more advanced exploration projects in the Uranium City area, 10 of which developed into

  7. Bioactive compounds from northern plants. (United States)

    Hohtola, Anja


    Northern conditions are characterised by long days with much light and low temperatures during the growing season. It has been chimed that herbs and berries grown in the north are stronger tasting compared to those of southern origin. The compounds imparting aroma and color to berries and herbs are secondary metabolites which in plants mostly act as chemical means of defense. Recently, the production of secondary metabolites using plant cells has been the subject of expanding research. Light intensity, photoperiod and temperature have been reported to influence the biosynthesis of many secondary metabolites. Native wild aromatic and medicinal plant species of different families are being studied to meet the needs of raw material for the expanding industry of e.g., health-promoting food products known as nutraceutics. There are already a large number of known secondary compounds produced by plants, but the recent advances in modern extraction and analysis should enable many more as yet unknown compounds to be found, characterised and utilised. Rose root (Rhodiola rosea) is a perennial herbaceous plant which inhabits mountain regions throughout Europe, Asia and east coastal regions of North America. The extract made from the rhizomes acts as a stimulant like the Ginseng root. Roseroot has been categorized as an adaptogen and is reported to have many pharmacological properties. The biologically active components of the extract are salitroside tyrosol and cinnamic acid glycosides (rosavin, rosarin, rosin). Round-leaved sundew (Drosera rotundifolia L.) has circumboreal distribution. It inhabits nutrient-poor, moist and sunny areas such as peat bogs and wetlands. Sundew leaves are collected from the wild-type for various medicinal preparations and can be utilized in treating e.g., as an important "cough-medicine" for different respiratory diseases. The antimicrobial activity of extracts of aerial parts against various bacteria has been investigated. Drosera produces

  8. Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center (United States)



    The Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center (NPWRC) conducts integrated research to fulfill the Department of the Interior's responsibilities to the Nation's natural resources. Located on 600 acres along the James River Valley near Jamestown, North Dakota, the NPWRC develops and disseminates scientific information needed to understand, conserve, and wisely manage the Nation's biological resources. Research emphasis is primarily on midcontinental plant and animal species and ecosystems of the United States. During the center's 40-year history, its scientists have earned an international reputation for leadership and expertise on the biology of waterfowl and grassland birds, wetland ecology and classification, mammalian behavior and ecology, grassland ecosystems, and application of statistics and geographic information systems. To address current science challenges, NPWRC scientists collaborate with researchers from other U.S. Geological Survey centers and disciplines (Biology, Geography, Geology, and Water) and with biologists and managers in the Department of the Interior (DOI), other Federal agencies, State agencies, universities, and nongovernmental organizations. Expanding upon its scientific expertise and leadership, the NPWRC is moving in new directions, including invasive plant species, restoration of native habitats, carbon sequestration and marketing, and ungulate management on DOI lands.

  9. Roman whetstone production in northern Gaul (Belgium and northern France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Thiébaux


    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the latest research on the production of Roman whetstones in northern Gaul. To date, little has been written about this specialised industry. However, three workshops producing whetstones were discovered recently in the north of Gaul in Buizingen (Province of Flemish Brabant, Belgium, Nereth (Province of Liège, Belgium and Le Châtelet-sur-Sormonne (Department of Ardennes, France. Production debris and rough-outs recovered at these sites allowed us to reconstruct the operational sequence of manufacture, from the choice of raw material to the finished product. Technological studies enabled us to determine the production stages and highlight the similarities and differences between the three study areas. Analyses of the materials reveal the use of fine-grained sedimentary and low-grade metamorphic rocks outcropping near the workshops. All these rocks are linked to the Caledonian inliers of Brabant-London, Stavelot-Venn, and Rocroi. The large amount of waste found at Le Châtelet-sur-Sormonne, far more than that recovered at Buizingen and Nereth, is indicative of the economic importance of this whetstone workshop. This importance is reflected in the fact that whetstones from Le Châtelet-sur-Sormonne are distributed over a large area throughout Belgium, France (Nord-Pas-de-Calais, Picardie and Champagne-Ardenne regions, Germany, and the Netherlands. This paper presents the waste and rough-outs from the three production sites. It also defines rock types and their origins and offers insights into whetstone manufacturing processes and techniques.

  10. Northern Pintail - Flight Path Telemetry [ds117 (United States)

    California Department of Resources — North-south flight paths of radio-tagged female northern pintails were monitored in a section of Highway 152 near Los Banos, California during 4 and 11 November and...

  11. Northern star J.S. Plaskett

    CERN Document Server

    Broughton, R Peter


    Northern Star explores Plaskett's unorthodox and fascinating life from his rural roots near Woodstock through his days as a technician at the University of Toronto to his initiation in astronomy at the Dominion Observatory in Ottawa.

  12. Northern California 36 arc-second DEM (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 36-second Northern California Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 36-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is...

  13. Northern California 6 arc-second DEM (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 6-second Northern California Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 6-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is...

  14. Biological processes of the northern Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Madhupratap, M.; Parulekar, A.H.

    , increases in the abundances of microzooplankton may lead to higher standing stocks of mesozooplankton. Blooms of phytoplankton and swarms of zooplankton are common in the northern Indian Ocean and influence rates of particle fluxes into the ocean interiors...

  15. Review: Popular Northern Sotho Dictionary | Mashamaite | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. T.J. Kriel (original compiler), D.J. Prinsloo and B.P. Sathekge (compilers — revised edition). Popular Northern Sotho Dictionary. 1997. 335 pp. ISBN 1 86890 001 0. Cape Town: Pharos. Price R37,95.

  16. The Lemmatization of Copulatives in Northern Sotho*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    copulatives in Northern Sotho dictionaries will also be critically evaluated, especially in terms of frequency of use and target users' needs. Keywords: LEXICOGRAPHY, LEMMATIZATION, COPULATIVES, INFORMATION. RETRIEVAL, ACCESS STRUCTURE, ELECTRONIC DICTIONARY, MACROSTRUCTURE,.

  17. Child malnutrition in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulugeta, A.; Hagos, F.; Kruseman, G.; Linderhof, V.G.M.; Stroecker, B.; Abraha, Z.; Yohannes, M.; Samuel, G.G.


    Objective: Estimate levels of and identify factors contributing to child malnutrition in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: Rural communities from four zones of Tigray. Subjects: Three hundred and eighteen under five children representing 587 randomly selected

  18. Northern Investment Risks in Human Capital Formation: Russian Experience


    Kotyrlo, Elena


    Historically, the northern Russian regions have been an object of a special socio-economic policy, united by extreme climate conditions, geographical isolation and rich natural resources reserves. Northern investment risks in human capital formation are proposed in the paper, as an indicator of investment conditions, which can be employed to improve policy of human development in the northern regions of Russia. Northern investment risks encompass uncertainties associated with extreme northern...

  19. Viral diseases of northern ungulates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Frölich


    Full Text Available This paper describes viral diseases reported in northern ungulates and those that are a potential threat to these species. The following diseases are discussed: bovine viral diarrhoea/mucosal disease (BVD/MD, alphaherpesvirus infections, malignant catarrhal fever (MCF, poxvirus infections, parainfluenza type 3 virus infection, Alvsborg disease, foot-and-mouth disease, epizootic haemorrhage disease of deer and bluetongue disease, rabies, respiratory syncytial virus infection, adenovirus infection, hog-cholera, Aujeszky's disease and equine herpesvirus infections. There are no significant differences in antibody prevalence to BVDV among deer in habitats with high, intermediate and low density of cattle. In addition, sequence analysis from the BVDV isolated from roe deer (Capreolus capreolus showed that this strain was unique within BVDV group I. Distinct BVDV strains might circulate in free-ranging roe deer populations in Germany and virus transmission may be independent of domestic livestock. Similar results have been obtained in a serological survey of alpha-herpesviruses in deer in Germany. Malignant catarrhal fever was studied in fallow deer (Cervus dama in Germany: the seroprevalence and positive PCR results detected in sheep originating from the same area as the antibody-positive deer might indicate that sheep are the main reservoir animals. Contagious ecthyma (CE is a common disease in domestic sheep and goats caused by the orf virus. CE has been diagnosed in Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis, mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus, Dall sheep (Ovis dalli, chamois (Rupkapra rupi-capra, muskox {Ovibos moschatus and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus. Most parainfluenza type 3 virus infections are mild or clinically undetectable. Serological surveys in wildlife have been successfully conducted in many species. In 1985, a new disease was identified in Swedish moose (Alces alces, designated as Alvsborg disease. This wasting syndrome probably

  20. Climatic variability, plant phenology, and northern ungulates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, E.; Stenseth, N.C. [Univ. of Oslo (Norway)


    Models of climate change predict that global temperatures and precipitation will increase within the next century, with the most pronounced changes occurring in northern latitudes and during winter. A large-scale atmospheric phenomenon, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), is a strong determinant of both interannual variation and decadal trends in temperatures and precipitation during winter in northern latitudes, and its recent persistence in one extreme phase may be a substantial component of increases in global temperatures. Hence, the authors investigated the influences of large-scale climatic variability on plant phenology and ungulate population ecology by incorporating the NAO in statistical analyses of previously published data on: (1) the timing of flowering by plants in Norway, and (2) phenotypic and demographic variation in populations of northern ungulates. The authors analyzed 137 time series on plant phenology for 13 species of plants in Norway spanning up to 50 yr and 39 time series on phenotypic and demographic traits of 7 species of northern ungulates from 16 populations in North America and northern Europe spanning up to 30 yr.

  1. Proposed purchasing, employment and training policies for northern projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Manitoba Hydro is about to embark on a major construction project in the northern part of the province. Important considerations involved in this project include purchasing the necessary materials, products, and services, and employing a suitable work force. An outline is presented of draft policies being considered by Manitoba Hydro to enhance northern-aboriginal and northern participation in its future development projects in northern Manitoba. The policies are presented in four sections: purchasing for northern construction and operation activities; training and employment for construction of a generation station and expansion of a converter station; training and employment for construction of a major north-south transmission line; and training and employment for northern operations and maintenance work at existing facilities. Aspects of these policies include giving preference in purchasing to northern and aboriginal businesses, training initiatives and employee counselling for aboriginal employees, and hiring preferences directed toward northern aboriginals and northern residents

  2. The Maritime Cultural Landscape of Northern Patagonia (United States)

    Lira, Nicolás


    This article is a contribution to the study of the indigenous navigation and its boats in the region of northern Patagonia. This article also aims to contribute to the understanding of indigenous navigation practices and technologies and their origins from prehistoric times to the mid-twentieth century. It presents and discusses the concept of Westerdahl's Maritime Cultural Landscape in relation to other landscape concepts. This model is applied to northern Patagonia in order to discuss if it is possible to speak of a true maritime culture in the region. For this purpose, archaeological, historical and ethnographic data are presented in an integrative and innovative methodology for the discipline. Finally, the Maritime Cultural Landscape model will allow the integration of aquatic and terrestrial landscapes as routes traveled by native inhabitants of northern Patagonia and southern Chile, and propose an important and diversified maritime, river and lake tradition.

  3. Poleward intrusion in the northern Galician shelf (United States)

    Alvarez, I.; Ospina-Alvarez, N.; deCastro, M.; Varela, M.; Gomez-Gesteira, M.; Prego, R.


    The evolution of a warm water mass related to the Iberian Poleward Current (IPC) was characterized along the northern Galician shelf in November 2008 by means of Sea Surface Temperature and wind data. It was observed that under upwelling favorable conditions water temperature decreased along the northern coast and a temperature break appeared between Cape Vilano and Cape Ortegal showing a relaxation of the poleward intrusion. The effect of the IPC was also analyzed inside the Northern Galician Rias taking into account the hydrographical and biogeochemical properties measured on November 18. Water driven by the IPC was observed close to the mouth of the rias, around Cape Estaca de Bares, causing a nutrient salts decrease. Inside the rias a slight biological activity was found near surface resulting from fluvial contributions.

  4. Climate impacts on northern Canada: regional background. (United States)

    Prowse, Terry D; Furgal, Chris; Bonsal, Barrie R; Peters, Daniel L


    Understanding the implications of climate change on northern Canada requires a background about the size and diversity of its human and biogeophysical systems. Occupying an area of almost 40% of Canada, with one-third of this contained in Arctic islands, Canada's northern territories consist of a diversity of physical environments unrivaled around the circumpolar north. Major ecozones composed of a range of landforms, climate, vegetation, and wildlife include: Arctic, boreal and taiga cordillera; boreal and taiga plains; taiga shield; and northern and southern Arctic. Although generally characterized by a cold climate, there is an enormous range in air temperature with mean annual values being as high as -5 degrees C in the south to as low as -20 degrees C in the high Arctic islands. A similar contrast characterizes precipitation, which can be > 700 mm y(-1) in some southern alpine regions to as low as 50 mm y(-1) over islands of the high Arctic. Major freshwater resources are found within most northern ecozones, varying from large glaciers or ice caps and lakes to extensive wetlands and peat lands. Most of the North's renewable water, however, is found within its major river networks and originates in more southerly headwaters. Ice covers characterize the freshwater systems for multiple months of the year while permafrost prevails in various forms, dominating the terrestrial landscape. The marine environment, which envelops the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, is dominated by seasonal to multiyear sea ice often several meters thick that plays a key role in the regional climate. Almost two-thirds of northern Canadian communities are located along coastlines with the entire population being just over 100 000. Most recent population growth has been dominated by an expansion of nonaboriginals, primarily the result of resource development and the growth of public administration. The economies of northern communities, however, remain quite mixed with traditional land

  5. Rural telemedicine project in northern New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zink, S.; Hahn, H.; Rudnick, J.; Snell, J.; Forslund, D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Martinez, P. [Northern New Mexico Community Coll., Espanola, NM (United States)


    A virtual electronic medical record system is being deployed over the Internet with security in northern New Mexico using TeleMed, a multimedia medical records management system that uses CORBA-based client-server technology and distributed database architecture. The goal of the NNM Rural Telemedicine Project is to implement TeleMed into fifteen rural clinics and two hospitals within a 25,000 square mile area of northern New Mexico. Evaluation of the project consists of three components: job task analysis, audit of immunized children, and time motion studies. Preliminary results of the evaluation components are presented.

  6. Mobile rural youth in northern Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gough, Katherine; Birch-Thomsen, Torben


    Young people in northern Ghana are growing up in a very different environment from their southern counterparts. While the south is the locus of the major cities, industries, and most important cash crops, the north is primarily rural with an agricultural base, much of it subsistence. This distinc......Young people in northern Ghana are growing up in a very different environment from their southern counterparts. While the south is the locus of the major cities, industries, and most important cash crops, the north is primarily rural with an agricultural base, much of it subsistence....... This distinction between the southern core and northern periphery has a long history, stemming from when the country of Ghana came into being. Under colonial rule, the north was treated as a cheap source of labour to support the development of the export sector concentrated in the coastal port towns......, followed by structural adjustment programmes and neoliberalism, have all contributed to increasing the inequality between the north and the south. Although Ghana has now joined the ranks of lower middle-income countries, its northern part lags behind, with 22.2% of the population living below the poverty...

  7. Seismic activity of northern and central Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deichmann, N.; Ballarin Dolfin, D.; Kastrup, U.


    The present report is part of an ongoing study by the Swiss Seismological Service, that was initiated by Nagra almost 20 years ago. It is devoted to the detailed monitoring of the earthquake activity in northern and central Switzerland. The main objective of this study is to provide information about the locations of active deformation and the state of stress in the Earth's crust and to relate these to the geological features visible at the surface. Originally, this seismotectonic investigation was restricted to the northern part of Switzerland; later it was extended also to the central part. Concerning the seismotectonics of northern Switzerland, this report constitutes a continuation of earlier publications. Here we review the seismic activity and earthquake focal mechanisms of the last 10 years and subsequently derive a comprehensive picture of the deformation and stress in the Earth's crust of northern Switzerland, based on all data available up to the end of 1999. Concerning the seismotectonics of central Switzerland, this publication constitutes the first publicly available report. (author) [de

  8. Domestic violence in Gulu, Northern Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    health, law enforcement and justice system in the areas, leaving many victims of domestic violence to suffer10. Several reports on the conflict in northern Uganda have noted domestic violence as one of the most pervasive violations of the rights of women and girls and a major public health problem in the region10.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Only 4 patients were identified from the hospitals records. Myasthenia gravis appears uncommon in this environment. Reasons for the apparent rarity of this condition and other autoimmune diseases in the environment are discussed. Key words: Myasthenia gravis, northern Nigeria, autoimmunity (Annals Af Med: 2002 1(1): ...

  10. Historic Hydroclimatic Variability in Northern Mexico (United States)

    José Villanueva-Diaz; J. Cerano-Paredes; D.W. Stahle; B. H. Luckman; M.D. Therrell; M.K. Cleaveland; G. Gutierrez-Garcia


    The understanding of historic hydroclimatic variability is basic to plan for a proper management of limited water resources in northern Mexico. The objective of this study was to develop a network of tree-ring chronologies for climate reconstruction and to analyze the influence of circulatory patterns, such as ENSO. Climatic sensitive treering chronologies were...

  11. northern Sandveld, Western Cape, South Afric

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The Department of Water Affairs and Forestry (DWAF) is currently carrying out detailed hydrogeological studies within the northern Sandveld area, Western Cape, South Africa. In addition, preliminary studies funded by DWAF, have also been carried out in the area assessing hydrological, ecological and botanical ...

  12. Marketing Practices of Northern Minnesota Sawmills (United States)

    E.W. Forbes; R.W. Rowe


    Most of the lumber produced in northern Minnesota is marketed in Minnesota, and the marketing area increases as mill size increases. Aspen is a dominant species. About 45 percent of the lumber is graded; concentration and grading would improve marketing. Less than one-third of the by-products are marketed

  13. The Times and the Northern Ireland Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zouhaïr Abassi


    Full Text Available Abstract: In societies in conflict the role of the media is supposed to be neutral and to report conflicts fairly and with balanced analyses. By their public debates on conflicts they are also supposed to take part in pacifying societies and in helping to bring peace. Cottle (1997, for instance, explained that even though some findings related to the British media and its reporting of the Northern Ireland conflict were relevant, he argued that they needed revision. Consequently, he proposed new paradigms of media studies. Elliott (1977 and Curtis(1996 showed that the British media concentrated on violence in general and on republican violence in particular. Moreover, they argued that the British media neglected social and political contexts in their reporting of the conflict. The aim of this paper is then to examine some aspects of how the British media cover the Northern Ireland conflict. We studied the coverage of the Northern Ireland conflict by The (London Times (1990-1995. We used a discourse analysis method to study the paper’s discourse structure in its representation of the Northern Ireland conflict.

  14. The visual arts in Northern Ireland hospitals.


    Cromie, H.


    Since 1989 there has been a burgeoning of the visual arts in Northern Ireland hospitals. This paper compares the three organisational models for hospital arts currently operating within the Province and in an overview discusses ways to coordinate working practice for future development of the visual arts in local hospitals. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3

  15. Coping with rainfall variability in northern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trærup, Sara Lærke Meltofte


    This chapter explores a potential relationship between rainfall data and household self-reported harvest shocks and local (spatial) variability of harvest shocks and coping strategies based on a survey of 2700 rural households in the Kagera region of northern Tanzania. In addition, correlations...

  16. Nursing care after death in Northern Ireland. (United States)

    Pearce, Lynne


    Essential facts According to the Registrar General Annual Report published in August 2016 there were 15,548 deaths in Northern Ireland in 2015, with almost two thirds being of people aged 75 or more. Almost half (48%) occurred in NHS hospitals, with a further 20% in other hospitals or nursing homes.

  17. Controlling human oesophagostomiasis in northern Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ziem, Juventus Benogle


    This thesis describes aspects of the epidemiology and attempts to control infection and pathology due to the nematode parasite Oesophagostomum bifurcum . In northern Ghana and Togo O. bifurcum is an important parasite of humans; elsewhere it is predominantly seen as a parasite of non-human primates.

  18. Unexpected Rift Valley fever outbreak, northern Mauritania. (United States)

    El Mamy, Ahmed B O; Baba, Mohamed Ould; Barry, Yahya; Isselmou, Katia; Dia, Mamadou L; El Kory, Mohamed O B; Diop, Mariam; Lo, Modou Moustapha; Thiongane, Yaya; Bengoumi, Mohammed; Puech, Lilian; Plee, Ludovic; Claes, Filip; de La Rocque, Stephane; Doumbia, Baba


    During September-October 2010, an unprecedented outbreak of Rift Valley fever was reported in the northern Sahelian region of Mauritania after exceptionally heavy rainfall. Camels probably played a central role in the local amplification of the virus. We describe the main clinical signs (hemorrhagic fever, icterus, and nervous symptoms) observed during the outbreak.

  19. Aisle-truss houses of Northern Jutland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eybye, Birgitte Tanderup


    , which make them relevant to research. This paper investigates resource-saving and sustainable principles in the aisle-truss houses of Thy, Northern Jutland. General features as well as three cases of the one-wing dwelling aisle-truss houses are studied. The aim is to improve the understanding of aisle...

  20. The Northern Principle and its Afterlives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Carsten


    In Hegel’s Lectures on Philosophy of Right the ‘northern principle’ denotes historical and systematic account of the relation between political thought and Christian faith from St Paul to Luther. Hegel’s stance is explained on the backdrop of his criticism of early modern theories of natural right....... Labuschagne, S. Žižek R. Pippin, P. Ricoeur....

  1. The northern global change research program (United States)

    Richard A. Birdsey; John L. Hom; Marla Emery


    The Forest Service goal for global change research is to establish a sound scientific basis for making regional, national, and international resource management and policy decisions in the context of global change issues. The objectives of the Northern Global Change Program (NGCP) are to understand: (1) what processes in forest ecosystems are sensitive to physical and...

  2. Patients undergoing dacryocystorhinostomy surgery in northern Iran ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The authors suggest regarding high prevalence of sinusitis and allergies in Northern Iran, checking by ENT specialist is beneficial to exact diagnosis and programming for treatment of this kind of patients. Keywords: Dacryocystitis, Dacryocystorhinostomy surgery, Mucopurulent, Nasolacrimal duct obstruction, Tearing ...

  3. The visual arts in Northern Ireland hospitals. (United States)

    Cromie, H


    Since 1989 there has been a burgeoning of the visual arts in Northern Ireland hospitals. This paper compares the three organisational models for hospital arts currently operating within the Province and in an overview discusses ways to coordinate working practice for future development of the visual arts in local hospitals.

  4. The visual arts in Northern Ireland hospitals. (United States)

    Cromie, H.


    Since 1989 there has been a burgeoning of the visual arts in Northern Ireland hospitals. This paper compares the three organisational models for hospital arts currently operating within the Province and in an overview discusses ways to coordinate working practice for future development of the visual arts in local hospitals. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 PMID:8533183

  5. Freshwater reservoir effect variability in Northern Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente; Heinemeier, Jan


    Kayhude at the river Alster and Schlamersdorf at the river Trave, both in Schleswig-Holstein, Northern Germany. Measurements on modern materials from these rivers may not give a single reservoir age correction that can be applied to archaeological samples, but they will show the order of magnitude...

  6. Biomass statistics for the Northern United States (United States)

    Eric H. Wharton; Gerhard K. Raile


    The USDA Forest Service now estimates biomass during periodic resource inventories. Such biomass estimates quantify more of the forest resource than do traditional volume inventories that concentrate on tree boles. More than 48 percent of the aboveground tree biomass in the northern United States can be found in woody material outside of the boles. Tree biomass in the...

  7. Placing our northern hardwood woodlots under management (United States)

    Russell J. Hutnik


    Do you own a woodlot? Does it contain mostly northern hardwoods - that is, beech, birch, maple, and ash, with some hemlock and spruce? If the answers to these two questions are "yes," then you may be interested in the work that is carried on at the Bartlett Experimental Forest in New Hampshire. This is one of the field laboratories established by the U. S....

  8. From Poetry to Music: "Northern Lullaby" (United States)

    Cardany, Audrey Berger


    Nancy White Carlstrom's children's book, "Northern Lullaby," conjures through poetry the beauty of the Alaskan landscape in the evening. The book provides an opportunity for music teachers to help their students transform text and visual images to music. The author describes connections for reading comprehension in the general music…

  9. Nitrite maxima in the Northern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sankaranarayanan, V.N.; DeSousa, S.N.; Fondekar, S.P.

    There are 2 nitrite maxima in the Northern Arabian Sea, one at the thermocline depth and the other at depths between 300 and 500 m. The 2nd maximum is more prominent in the northeastern part of the Arabian Sea. The 1st maximum is associated...

  10. Religion, Education and Conflict in Northern Ireland (United States)

    Barnes, L. Philip


    The aim of this article is to re-evaluate and reaffirm the contribution of the churches and of Christianity to the realization in Northern Ireland schools of legitimate and progressive educational values such as the cultivation of tolerance, moral integrity and civic virtue. Implicit in this is a critique of educational initiatives that seek to…

  11. Reducing vulnerability among pastoralists in Northern Kenya

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    lands and water, and land degradation, even as climate change increases the stress on their herds. Research on climate-related vulnerability among pastoralist communities in Mandera and Turkana in Northern Kenya, led by the Kenyan NGO Practical Action, is shedding light on the biophysical impacts of drought, and its ...

  12. Ecological units of the Northern Region: Subsections (United States)

    John A. Nesser; Gary L. Ford; C. Lee Maynard; Debbie Dumroese


    Ecological units are described at the subsection level of the Forest Service National Hierarchical Framework of Ecological Units. A total of 91 subsections are delineated on the 1996 map "Ecological Units of the Northern Region: Subsections," based on physical and biological criteria. This document consists of descriptions of the climate, geomorphology,...

  13. Otological emergencies among the northern Nigerian children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Acute suppurative otitis media, acute otitis media and foreign body insertion into the ear still constitute the common otological emergencies in Northern Nigeria. These are all preventable emergencies through community health education, training of community health worker to recognize the symptom and signs ...

  14. Framing the issues affecting northern forests (United States)

    Stephen R. Shifley; Francisco X. Aguilar; Nianfu Song; Susan I. Stewart; David J. Nowak; Dale D. Gormanson; W. Keith Moser; Sherri Wormstead; Eric J. Greenfield


    People in the North are concerned about forests, especially the forests near to them. Concerns reflect their diverse connections to forests and the many ways that rural and urban forests affect their quality of life. A recent analysis by Dietzman et al. (2011) summarized more than 700 comments about issues facing northern forests. The comments came from 74 print and...

  15. Forests of the Northern United States (United States)

    Stephen R. Shifley; Francisco X. Aguilar; Nianfu Song; Susan I. Stewart; David J. Nowak; Dale D. Gormanson; W. Keith Moser; Sherri Wormstead; Eric J. Greenfield


    Bounded by Maine, Maryland, Missouri, and Minnesota, the 20 Northern States have a larger population and a higher proportion of forest cover than other comparably sized U.S. regions. Forest-associated issues across the North include insect and disease pests, invasive species, forest management capacity, management standards, biodiversity, forest fragmentation, water...

  16. Fighting malaria in Northern Peru | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    Sep 7, 2016 ... When large-scale irrigation came to Peru's northern coast in the 1960s and 1970s, it brought with it an explosion in agriculture — and one of the world's deadliest diseases. An IDRC-funded project is changing irrigation practices to help turn the tide against malaria​. This article is part of an ongoing series ...

  17. Planktonic ostracods of the northern Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    George, J.; Nair, V.R.

    Thirty-two species of ostracods were identified from 712 samples collected from northern Indian Ocean. Two of them belong to Cypridinidae and the rest to Halocyprididae. Most of the species are common to those of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans...

  18. Demographic change in the northern forest (United States)

    Kenneth M. Johnson; Susan I. Stewart; Miranda H. Mockrin


    The Northern Forest spans more than 26 million acres across Maine, New Hampshire, New York, and Vermont. With densely settled urban cores, sprawling suburbs, struggling industrial and forest products towns, fast growing recreational areas, and isolated rural villages, the region includes many of the diverse strands that together compose the demographic fabric of the...

  19. Forest carbon sinks in the northern hemisphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goodale, C.L.; Apps, M.J.; Birdsey, R.A.; Field, C.B.; Heath, L.S.; Houghton, R.A.; Jenkins, J.C.; Kohlmaier, G.H.; Kurz, W.; Liu, S.R.; Nabuurs, G.J.; Nilsson, S.; Shvidenko, A.Z.


    There is general agreement that terrestrial systems in the Northern Hemisphere provide a significant sink for atmospheric CO2; however, estimates of the magnitude and distribution of this sink vary greatly. National forest inventories provide strong, measuretment-based constraints on the magnitude

  20. Seasonal prevailing surface winds in Northern Serbia (United States)

    Tošić, Ivana; Gavrilov, Milivoj B.; Marković, Slobodan B.; Ruman, Albert; Putniković, Suzana


    Seasonal prevailing surface winds are analyzed in the territory of Northern Serbia, using observational data from 12 meteorological stations over several decades. In accordance with the general definition of prevailing wind, two special definitions of this term are used. The seasonal wind roses in 16 directions at each station are analyzed. This study shows that the prevailing winds in Northern Serbia have northwestern and southeastern directions. Circulation weather types over Serbia are presented in order to determine the connections between the synoptic circulations and prevailing surface winds. Three controlling pressure centers, i.e., the Mediterranean cyclone, Siberian high, and the Azores anticyclone, appear as the most important large-scale factors that influence the creation of the prevailing winds over Northern Serbia. Beside the synoptic cause of the prevailing winds, it is noted that the orography of the eastern Balkans has a major influence on the winds from the second quadrant. It was found that the frequencies of circulation weather types are in agreement with those of the prevailing winds over Northern Serbia.

  1. The Northern Wheatear Oenanthe oenanthe in the Sahel of West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Palearctic migrant birds are declining, including the Northern Wheatear, and some of the causes of these declines are likely to be operating on their wintering grounds in Africa. We examined seasonal and spatial variation in wintering densities of Northern Wheatears in northern Nigeria, and explored the species' habitat ...

  2. Adverbial descriptions in Northern Sotho | Pretorius | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owing to a virtual lack of a 'basic adverbs' word class in Northern Sotho, the objective of this article is to investigate some language strategies which are exploited to express adverbial meanings in this language. In popular Northern Sotho grammar books, it is clearly stated that adverbs in Northern Sotho are usually derived ...

  3. Offshore Wind Atlas for Northern European Seas (United States)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Karagali, Ioanna; Astrup, Poul; Badger, Merete; Mouche, Alexis; Stoffelen, Ad


    Offshore winds are investigated in detail in the EU- Norsewind project - short for Northern Seas Wind Index Database - that aims to produce an offshore wind atlas for the Northern European Seas including the Baltic Sea, the North Sea and the Irish Sea. The results are preliminary as they are from mid-term in the project (2008-2012). The results include mean wind speeds from Envisat ASAR, QuikSCAT and SSM/I compared to masts. The spatial variability across the area is clearly identified with major coastal effects in the enclosed seas. The long-term trend analysis does not indicate any trend in the different wind speed bins investigated during 23 years. The next step is further comparison to ground-based lidar data and atmospheric model results.

  4. Dependency on aquaculture in northern Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Minh, Hanh; Phan, Van Thi; Nghia, Nguyen Huu


    Whilst a range of studies address the aquaculture livelihoods in southern Vietnam’s Mekong Delta, the role of aquaculture in northern Vietnam remains less described. We, therefore, conducted interviews with 199 households in the two northern provinces Quang Ninh and Nghe An in 2014 to analyse...... the dependence on aquaculture in these two provinces and amongst farmers specializing in shrimp and freshwater fish production, respectively. Further, we tested the ability of different socio-economic variables to explain the observed reliance on aquaculture using an ANCOVA model. The study identifies...... a substantial reliance on aquaculture of farmers in the study area with at least half of their income generated by aquaculture. Our analyses highlight that the educational background of farmers explain their engagement in aquaculture better than how long they have worked as aquaculture farmers. Freshwater fish...

  5. Trace gas fluxes from northern peatlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, T. [McGill Univ., Montreal (Canada). Geography Dept.


    Peatlands cover large areas in northern environments: 1.1, 0.1 and 1.7 x 10{sup 4} km{sup 2} in Canada, Finland and the former Soviet Union, respectively. Interest has been generated into the role these extensive areas of peatlands play in controlling the chemistry of the atmosphere. In particular, it has become established that peatlands can be a source of methane (CH{sub 4}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), and a sink of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), the latter through the rates of plant production exceeding the rate of decomposition of plant material and peat. In this presentation the recent advances in trace gas flux measurements in northern peatlands are presented. (16 refs.)

  6. Uranium and thorium deposits of Northern Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, J.A.; Gould, K.L.


    This, the second edition of the uranium-thorium deposit inventory, describes briefly the deposits of uranium and/or thorium in northern Ontario, which for the purposes of this circular is defined as that part of Ontario lying north and west of the Grenville Front. The most significant of the deposits described are fossil placers lying at or near the base of the Middle Precambrian Huronian Supergroup. These include the producing and past-producing mines of the Elliot Lake - Agnew Lake area. Also included are the pitchblende veins spatially associated with Late Precambrian (Keweenawan) diabase dikes of the Theano Point - Montreal River area. Miscellaneous Early Precambrian pegmatite, pitchblende-coffinite-sulphide occurrences near the Middle-Early Precambrian unconformity fringing the Lake Superior basin, and disseminations in diabase, granitic rocks, alkalic complexes and breccias scattered throughout northern Ontario make up the rest of the occurrences

  7. Making 3D movies of Northern Lights (United States)

    Hivon, Eric; Mouette, Jean; Legault, Thierry


    We describe the steps necessary to create three-dimensional (3D) movies of Northern Lights or Aurorae Borealis out of real-time images taken with two distant high-resolution fish-eye cameras. Astrometric reconstruction of the visible stars is used to model the optical mapping of each camera and correct for it in order to properly align the two sets of images. Examples of the resulting movies can be seen at

  8. Recent climate changes in the northern hemisphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trenberth, K.E.


    The consistency of analyzed changes in surface wind stress, sea level pressures and surface temperatures between 1980-86 and previous periods indicates the reality of statistically significant and substantial climate changes in the Northern Hemisphere, especially over the North Pacific, on decadal time scales. Cooling in North Pacific sea surface temperatures and warming along the west coast of North America and Alaska are ascribed mainly to the changes in thermal advection associated with a deeper and more extensive Aleutian Low

  9. Ethno-botanical studies from northern Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afzal, S.; Afzal, N.


    In this research paper efforts have been made to document the ethno-botanical knowledge of important plant species found in Northern Pakistan. It includes Thandiani, Galiat, Kaghan, Swat, Buner, Dir, Chitral and Northern Areas of Pakistan. The area has many climatic and vegetation zones or biomes. Locals residing in mountainous areas belonging to various ethnic groups are traditionally utilizing plants over many generations; these ethnic groups have their distinct life style, belief, traditions and cultural heritage. Plant collection and data regarding traditional uses in various areas of Northern Pakistan has been done periodically in different flowering /fruiting seasons. Locals of old age belonging to various ethnic groups were personally interviewed for establishing uses of plants. Photography is done for easy identification and habitat recognition. Collected plant specimens and seeds were preserved. Plant species were dried, mounted, identified and authenticated. Seventy six species were known to have traditional and ethno botanical uses. Plants have been utilized for many generations. Ethnic groups have distinct life style and have different economic uses for these plants. Due to unsustainable exploitation of natural habitats scarcity of drug plants has occurred. As consequence some species are depleting and may become extinct in near future, e. g. Morchella esculenta, Colchicum lueteum and Viola serpens are just a few of these. Although some sporadic information is available about the flora of this region but very little documented record of the ethno-botanically important plants has been established. It is expected that this research paper will be beneficial for students, researchers, farmers, foresters and general public. On the basis of data obtained it is concluded that ethno-botanical Flora of Northern Pakistan is quite rich and is diverse, due to the difference in altitude, climate and other topographic conditions. (author)

  10. Food irradiation - a Northern Ireland dimension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMurray, C.H.; Stevenson, M.H.


    Irradiation is a technology which has been exploited in a wide variety of industries ranging from sterilization of medical products and polymer modification to applications with respect to food. Whilst food irradiation has recently become a controversial subject, the process has been studied for many years. Many products could be irradiated to advantage and these need to be thoroughly investigated before final recommendations can be made as to the commercial feasibility and suitability of the processing technology in the Northern Ireland context

  11. Milk Processing System in Ladak, Northern India


    平田, 昌弘


    To understand the milk processing system in northern India, where is located in the central region of the Asian continent, and discuss its characteristics and developing process, eight households of agro-pastoralists were surveyed in Ladak, September of 2007 and then the milk processing system was compared with those in surrounding areas. The techniques of fermented milk processing series and milk cream separating series ware shared over ethnic groups among the agro-pastoralists of Ladak. The...

  12. The Ephemeral Wetlands of Central Northern Namibia


    Griffin, M.; Kolberg, H.; Simmons, R.


    The ephemeral wetland system of central northern Namibia consists of the Etosha Pan, Lake Oponono and the Cuvelai inland delta/drainage. This is by far the largest wetland system in Namibia, covering some 30,000km2. The area can be subdivided into several distinct habitats, each with its distinguishing biodiversity. The Cuvelai drainage system is characterized by open, grassy drainage channels known as 'oshanas'. These are lined by the palm Hyphaene ventricosa and Colophospermum mopane tre...

  13. Phenylketonuria and the peoples of Northern Ireland. (United States)

    Zschocke, J; Mallory, J P; Eiken, H G; Nevin, N C


    The comparison of regional patterns of recessive disease mutations is a new source of information for studies of population genetics. The analysis of phenylketonuria (PKU) mutations in Northern Ireland shows that most major episodes of immigration have left a record in the modern genepool. The mutation 165T can be traced to the Palaeolithic people of western Europe who, in the Mesolithic period, first colonised Ireland. R408W (on haplotype 1) in contrast, the most common Irish PKU mutation, may have been prevalent in the Neolithic farmers who settled in Ireland after 4500 BC. No mutation was identified that could represent European Celtic populations, supporting the view that the adoption of Celtic culture and language in Ireland did not involve major migration from the continent. Several less common mutations can be traced to the Norwegian Atlantic coast and were probably introduced into Ireland by Vikings. This indicates that PKU has not been brought to Norway from the British Isles, as was previously argued. The rarity in Northern Ireland of IVS12nt1, the most common mutation in Denmark and England, indicates that the English colonialization of Ireland did not alter the local genepool in a direction that could be described as Anglo-Saxon. Our results show that the culture and language of a population can be independent of its genetic heritage, and give some insight into the history of the peoples of Northern Ireland.

  14. Wildfires in northern Siberian larch dominated communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharuk, Viacheslav I; Dvinskaya, Maria L; Im, Sergey T; Ranson, Kenneth J


    The fire history of the northern larch forests within the permafrost zone in a portion of northern Siberia (∼66°N, 100°E) was studied. Since there is little to no human activity in this area, fires within the study area were mostly caused by lightning. Fire return intervals (FRI) were estimated on the basis of burn marks on tree stems and dates of tree natality. FRI values varied from 130 to 350 yr with a 200 ± 50 yr mean. For southerly larch dominated communities, FRI was found to be shorter (77 ± 20 yr at ∼ 61°N, and 82 ± 7 at 64°N), and it was longer at the northern boundary (∼71°) of larch stands (320 ± 50 yr). During the Little Ice Age period in the 16th–18th centuries, FRI was approximately twice as long those as recorded in this study. Fire caused changes in the soil including increases in soil drainage and permafrost thawing depth, and a radial growth increase to about twice the background value (with more than six times observed in extreme cases). This effect may simulate the predicted warming impact on the larch growth in the permafrost zone.

  15. Wildfires in Northern Siberian Larch Dominated Communities (United States)

    Khaurk, Viacheslav I.; Ranson, Kenneth J.; Dvinskaya, Maria L.; Im, Sergey T.


    The fire history of the northern larch forests within the permafrost zone in a portion of northern Siberia (approx 66 deg N, 100 deg E) was studied. Since there is little to no human activities in this area fires within the study area were mostly caused by lightning. Fire return intervals (FRI) were estimated based on burn marks on tree stems and dates of tree natality. FRI values varied from 130 yr to 350 yr with 200 +/- 50 yr mean. In southerly larch dominated communities FRI was found to be shorter (77 +/- 20 yr at approx 61 deg. N, and 82 +/- 7 at 64 deg N), and longer at the northern boundary (approx 71 deg) of larch stands (320 +/- 50 yr). During the Little Ice Age period in the 16th to 18th centuries FRI was approximately twice as long as recorded in this study. Fire caused changes in the soil including increases in soil drainage and permafrost thawing depth and a radial growth increase of about 2 times (with more than 6 times observed). This effect may simulate the predicted warming impact on the larch growth in the permafrost zone.

  16. The Northern Voice: Listening to Indigenous and Northern Perspectives on Management of Data in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana L. Church


    Full Text Available The Canadian Cryospheric Information Network and Polar Data Catalogue (CCIN/PDC provide: (1 a trusted archive to store data from Canadian cryospheric research and (2 a public access portal to this information. The CCIN/PDC has since expanded its collection to include data from health, ecological, social, and other sciences. Since its inception, CCIN/PDC has engaged Indigenous and northern Canadians to understand and meet their information needs. This paper describes three instances of such engagement and next steps for enhanced interaction and support. First, feedback from northern and Indigenous communities led to the development of PDC Lite. Compared to the full-featured online PDC Search application, PDC Lite accommodates slower Internet speeds and allows one to search by particular northern communities. PDC Lite continues to be improved by input from the people that it serves. Next, to facilitate discussion and strengthen collaborative relationships within the polar data community, CCIN/PDC co-hosted two major meetings in 2015. Emerging from both these events was a need to prioritize what has been termed 'human interoperability' and the need to have Indigenous and northern community involvement at all levels of data management. Future plans for CCIN/PDC include more effective partnerships in which we work with and listen to northern and Indigenous Canadians to better understand their requirements for data management services and expertise. Our ultimate goal is to provide, through collaboration with partners, data, information, and expertise that facilitate northern and Indigenous Canadians’ access to publicly-archived data and enable and support management of their own data and resources.

  17. From the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative to the Northern Eurasia Future Initiative (United States)

    Streletskiy, D. A.; Groisman, P. Y.; Shugart, H. H., Jr.; Gulev, S.; Maksyutov, S. S.; Qi, J.


    Since 2004, the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI) - an interdisciplinary program of internationally-supported Earth systems and science research - has addressed large-scale and long-term manifestations of climate and environmental changes over Northern Eurasia and their impact on the Global Earth system. With 40 books and more than 1500 peer-reviewed journal publications to its credit, NEESPI's output can now be used to directly support decision-making for societal needs. Specifically, it was decided to shift gradually the foci of regional studies in Northern Eurasia towards applications with the following major Science Question: "What dynamic and interactive change(s) will affect societal well-being, activities, and health, and what might be the mitigation and adaptation strategies that could support sustainable development and decision-making activities in Northern Eurasia?" To answer this question requires a stronger socio-economic component in the ongoing and future regional studies focused on sustainable societal development under changing climatic and environmental conditions. The NEESPI Research Team has reorganized itself into "Northern Eurasia Future Initiative" (NEFI) and developed a new Science Plan released in June 2016. The Plan underwent a 6-month-long public review and was finalized at the end of 2016. Its description was thereafter split between two review papers: Groisman et al. (2017) and Monier et al. (2017). The first paper describes the Plan rationale and a new set of topical questions. The second paper describes a major modeling approach that will be employed in addressing the "what to do" questions of the NEFI Research (cf., presentation by Monier et al. at this Session). In the current presentation, we outline the new NEFI research foci and present latest NEFI findings including international projects in the Eurasian Arctic, boreal zone, and the Dry Land Belt of Northern Eurasia (cf., also presentations at sister

  18. Northern homelands, northern frontier: linking culture and economic security in contemporary livelihoods in boreal and cold temperate forest communities in northern Canada (United States)

    Andrew J. Chapeskie


    This paper highlights the environmental pressures that have historically been brought to bear on the northern forests of Canada. It then presents the idea of the northern frontier forests of Canada as Indigenous landscapes whose ecological diversity and abundance have historically been nurtured in no small measure by their original inhabitants. It then proposes how...

  19. Neotectonics in the northern equatorial Brazilian margin (United States)

    Rossetti, Dilce F.; Souza, Lena S. B.; Prado, Renato; Elis, Vagner R.


    An increasing volume of publications has addressed the role of tectonics in inland areas of northern Brazil during the Neogene and Quaternary, despite its location in a passive margin. Hence, northern South America plate in this time interval might have not been as passive as usually regarded. This proposal needs further support, particularly including field data. In this work, we applied an integrated approach to reveal tectonic structures in Miocene and late Quaternary strata in a coastal area of the Amazonas lowland. The investigation, undertaken in Marajó Island, mouth of the Amazonas River, consisted of shallow sub-surface geophysical data including vertical electric sounding and ground penetrating radar. These methods were combined with morphostructural analysis and sedimentological/stratigraphic data from shallow cores and a few outcrops. The results revealed two stratigraphic units, a lower one with Miocene age, and an upper one of Late Pleistocene-Holocene age. An abundance of faults and folds were recorded in the Miocene deposits and, to a minor extent, in overlying Late Pleistocene-Holocene strata. In addition to characterize these structures, we discuss their origin, considering three potential mechanisms: Andean tectonics, gravity tectonics related to sediment loading in the Amazon Fan, and rifting at the continental margin. Amongst these hypotheses, the most likely is that the faults and folds recorded in Marajó Island reflect tectonics associated with the history of continental rifting that gave rise to the South Atlantic Ocean. This study supports sediment deposition influenced by transpression and transtension associated with strike-slip divergence along the northern Equatorial Brazilian margin in the Miocene and Late Pleistocene-Holocene. This work records tectonic evidence only for the uppermost few ten of meters of this sedimentary succession. However, available geological data indicate a thickness of up to 6 km, which is remarkably thick for

  20. Accumulation of carbon in northern mire ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolonen, K.; Turunen, J.; Alm, J. [Joensuu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Biology; Korhola, A. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Lab. of Physical Geography; Jungner, H. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dating Lab.; Vasander, H. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology


    The basic feature in the functional ecology of any mire ecosystem is retardation of the effective decay of organic material resulting in a conspicuous accumulation of plant debris as peat overtime. The carbon accumulation process is slow, and climatic change may have an impact on the carbon cycle of peatlands, therefore, it has been of interest to study the rate of carbon accumulation by geological methods from dated peat strata. The approach is hampered by several facts. First, the mires vary enormously as to their vegetation and hydrology and hence their production and decay properties. It follows that a great number of study sites are needed. Second, the peat in mires expands both vertically and laterally, and this requires a spatial reconstruction of carbon accumulation within a mire basin. Third, simple geological methods cannot account for the actual rate of carbon accumulation in peat, and finally, an additional carbon sink in the mire ecosystems can be the mineral subsoil beneath peat. The proposed warming will perhaps shift northwards the existing climatic mire regimes and, thus, the northern aapa fens will change to Sphagnum bogs that are more effective in sequestering carbon, but distinctly less effective in their CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emanation. The role of mire fires in more remote northern areas may then become another important factor. The answer to the important question of future total sequestration of carbon to peatlands depends on the precipitation and its seasonal distribution pattern. Most climatic scenarios predict a decrease in the evaporation surplus during the summer at northern regions. Presumably, the consequent lowering of the water table would improve growth of forest on mires and simultaneously decrease the methane fluxes from peat. The combined net effect could be a clear restraining of the radiative forcing

  1. Modeling global change impacts on Northern Eurasia (United States)

    Kicklighter, D. W.; Monier, E.; Sokolov, A. P.; Zhuang, Q.; Melillo, J. M.; Reilly, J. M.


    Northern Eurasia is a major player in the global carbon budget and includes roughly 70% of the Earth's boreal forest and more than two-thirds of the Earth's permafrost. The region has experienced dramatic climate change (increase in temperature, growing season length, floods and droughts), natural disturbances (wildfires and insect outbreaks), and land-use change (timber harvest, urbanization, expansion and abandonment of agricultural lands) over the past century. These large environmental and socioeconomic impacts have major implications for the carbon cycle in the region. Northern Eurasia is made up of a diverse set of ecosystems that range from deserts to forests, with significant areas of croplands, pastures, and urban areas. As such, it represents a complex system with substantial challenges for the modeling community. We provide an overview of past, ongoing and possible future efforts of the integrated modeling of global change for Northern Eurasia. First, we review the variety of existing modeling approaches to investigate specific components of Earth system dynamics in the region. While there are a limited number of studies that try to integrate various aspects of the Earth system through scale, teleconnections or processes, there are few systematic analyses of the various feedbacks among components within the Earth system. As a result, there is a lack of knowledge of the relative importance of such feedbacks, and it is unclear how relevant current studies, which do not account for these feedbacks, may be for policymaking. Next, we review the role of Earth system models, and their advantages/limitations compared to detailed single component models. We further introduce human activity models (e.g., global trade, economic models, demographic models), and the need for Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs), a suite of models that couple human activity models to Earth System Models. Finally, we examine emerging issues that require a representation of the coupled

  2. Evaporite karst of northern lower Michigan (United States)

    Black, T.J.


    Michigan has three main zones of evaporite karst: collapse breccia in Late Silurian deposits of the Mackinac Straits region; breccia, collapse sinks, and mega-block collapse in Middle Devonian deposits of Northern Lower Michigan, which overlaps the preceding area; and areas of soil swallows in sinks of Mississippian deposits between Turner and Alabaster in Arenac and Iosco counties, and near Grand Rapids in Kent County. The author has focused his study on evaporite karst of the Middle Devonian deposits. The Middle Devonian depos its are the Detroit River Group: a series consisting of limestone, dolomite, shale, salt, gypsum, and anhydrite. The group occurs from subcrop, near the surface, to nearly 1400 feet deep from the northern tip of the Southern Peninsula to the south edge of the "solution front" Glacial drift is from zero to 350 feet thick. Oil and gas exploration has encountered some significant lost-circulation zones throughout the area. Drilling without fluid returns, casing-seal failures, and lost holes are strong risks in some parts of the region. Lost fluid returns near the top of the group in nearby areas indicate some karst development shortly after deposition. Large and irregular lost-circulation zones, linear and patch trends of large sink holes, and 0.25 mile wide blocks of down-dropped land in the northern Lower Peninsula of Michigan were caused by surface- and ground-water movement along faults into the Detroit River Group. Glaciation has removed some evidence of the karst area at the surface. Sinkhole development, collapse valleys, and swallows developed since retreat of the glacier reveal an active solution front in the Detroit River Group.

  3. Freshwater reservoir effect variability in Northern Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, B.; Heinemeier, J.


    The freshwater reservoir effect is a potential problem when radiocarbon dating fish bones, shells, human bones, or food crusts on pottery from sites near rivers or lakes. The reservoir age in hardwater rivers can be up to several thousand years and may be highly variable. Accurate 14C dating of f...... that can also be expected for the past. This knowledge will be applied to the dating of food crusts on pottery from the Mesolithic sites Kayhude at the Alster River and Schlamersdorf at the Trave River, both in Schleswig-Holstein, northern Germany....

  4. Offshore wind market outlook in Northern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimenta de Miranda, Wilfried; Trulsson, Ola; Ekloef, Eva-Britt; Niemenen, Karel


    After more than 10 years of slow developments, the offshore wind market is now accelerating. Thanks to a sustained political drive from UK and Germany, the rest of Northern Europe is now following the path as offshore wind is being recognized as one of the key resources available to the EU to meet its renewable energy ambitions. Exposed to increasing technical issues, rising costs and the financial crisis, lessons learned are now being shared and integrated throughout Europe and appropriate regulatory and planning reforms are now being deployed to speed the deployment of offshore wind. (Author)

  5. Characteristics of Swarm Seismicity in Northern California (United States)

    Chiorini, S.; Lekic, V.


    Seismic swarms are characterized by an anomalously large number of earthquakes compared to the background rate of seismicity that are tightly clustered in space (typically, one to tens of kilometers) and time (typically, days to weeks). However, why and how swarms occur is poorly understood, partly because of the difficulty of identifying the range of swarm behaviors within large seismic catalogs. Previous studies have found that swarms, compared to other earthquake sequences, appear to be more common in extensional (Vidale & Shearer, 2006) and volcanic settings (Hayashi & Morita, 2003). In addition, swarms more commonly exhibit migration patterns, consistent with either fluid diffusion (Chen & Shearer, 2011; Chen et al., 2012) or aseismic creep (Lohman & McGuire, 2007), and are preferentially found in areas of enhanced heat flow (Enescu, 2009; Zaliapin & Ben Zion, 2016). While the swarm seismicity of Southern California has been studied extensively, that of Northern California has not been systematically documented and characterized. We employed two complementary methods of swarm identification: the approach of Vidale and Shearer (2006; henceforth VS2006) based on a priori threshold distances and timings of quakes, and the spatio-temporal distance metric proposed by Zaliapin et al. (2008; henceforth Z2008) in order to build a complete catalog of swarm seismicity in Northern California spanning 1984-2016 (Waldhauser & Schaff, 2008). Once filtered for aftershocks, the catalog allows us to describe the main features of swarm seismicity in Northern California, including spatial distribution, association or lack thereof with known faults and volcanic systems, and seismically quiescent regions. We then apply a robust technique to characterize the morphology of swarms, leading to subsets of swarms that are oriented either vertically or horizontally in space. When mapped, vertical swarms show a significant association with volcanic regions, and horizontal swarms with

  6. PREFACE: Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (United States)

    Groisman, Pavel; Soja, Amber J.


    The Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI) was launched five years ago with the release of its Science Plan ( Gradually, the Initiative was joined by numerous international projects and launched in the European Union, Russia, United States, Canada, Japan, and China. Currently, serving as an umbrella for more than 130 individual research projects (always with international participation) and with a 15M annual budget, this highly diverse initiative is in full swing. Since the first NEESPI focus issue (Pavel Groisman et al 2007 Environ. Res. Lett. 2 045008 (1pp)) in December 2007, several NEESPI Workshops and Sessions at International Meetings have been held that strengthen the NEESPI grasp on biogeochemical cycle and cryosphere studies, climatic and hydrological modeling, and regional NEESPI components in the Arctic, non- boreal Eastern Europe, Central Asia, northern Siberia, and mountainous regions of the NEESPI domain. In May 2009, an overview NEESPI paper was published in the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society (BAMS) (Pavel Groisman et al 2009 Bull. Am. Met. Soc. 90 671). This paper also formulated a requirement to the next generation of NEESPI studies to work towards attaining a higher level of integration of observation programs, process studies, and modeling, across disciplines. Three books devoted to studies in different regions of Northern Eurasia prepared by the members of the NEESPI team have appeared and/or are scheduled to appear in 2009. This (second) ERL focus issue dedicated to climatic and environmental studies in Northern Eurasia is composed mostly from the papers that were presented at two NEESPI Open Science Sessions at the Annual Fall Meeting of the American Geophysical Union (December 2008, San Francisco, CA) and at the General Assembly of the European Geosciences Union (April 2009, Vienna, Austria), as well as at the specialty NEESPI Workshops convened in Jena, Helsinki, Odessa, Urumqi

  7. Dreyfusia nordmannianae in Northern and Central Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Hans Peter; Havill, N.P.; Akbulut, S.


    The silver fir woolly adelgid, Dreyfusia nordmannianae, is the most severe pest occurring on Abies nordmanniana in Central and Northern Europe. The adelgid is particularly damaging to trees in Christmas tree plantations. Dreyfusia nordmannianae is native to the Caucasus region and alien to Europe......, where its natural enemy complex is less diverse compared to its area of origin. Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence data from the samples of D. nordmannianae collected in its native range and Europe and from the samples of Dreyfusia piceae and Dreyfusia prelli collected in Europe and North America...

  8. The power markets of Northern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorvatn, K.; Bjoerndalen, J.


    This is the first of two main reports of the project ''Strategy for export of Norwegian electric power''. The first part of the report gives a general presentation of the power supply situation, as well as the institutional and market structure of the various countries of Northern Europe. In the second part, focus is put on the political conditions that influence the international power trade. On this basis, Norway's possibilities for export of electric power are discussed in the third and last part of the report. 19 refs., 3 figs., 14 tabs

  9. Biogeochemical processes in the northern Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaye-Haake, B.; Guptha, M.V.S.; Murty, V.S.N.; Ittekkot, V.

    in the northern Indian Ocean’’, and from national research programs of India and Germany con- ducted as a contribution to the international JGOFS Process Study in the Arabian Sea. Addi- tional contributions cover research carried out within India’s Polymetallic... of coccolithophorids in addition to organic carbon and carbonate con- centrations and accumulation rates for a 200ka record Prabhu and Shankar show that glacial stages 2,4 and 6 have had higher productivities in the eastern Arabian Sea at about 151N. They, moreover...

  10. Forest Fires in Russia and Northern China (United States)


    Smoke plumes from forest fires scattered along the border between the Russian Far East and northern China are clearly visible in this true-color image from the Sea-viewing Wide-Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) on June 16, 2000. Fires in Siberia occur every summer, and severe outbreaks occur every ten years or so, with the most recent in 1998. The fires are ignited by lightning, and are so remote that it is impossible to fight them effectively. Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  11. Making 3D movies of Northern Lights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hivon Eric


    Full Text Available We describe the steps necessary to create three-dimensional (3D movies of Northern Lights or Aurorae Borealis out of real-time images taken with two distant high-resolution fish-eye cameras. Astrometric reconstruction of the visible stars is used to model the optical mapping of each camera and correct for it in order to properly align the two sets of images. Examples of the resulting movies can be seen at

  12. Northern red oak volume growth on four northern Wisconsin habitat types (United States)

    Michael Demchik; Kevin M. Schwartz; Rory Braun; Eric. Scharenbrock


    Northern red oak (Quercus rubra) grows across much of Wisconsin. Using site factors to aid in prediction of volume and basal area increment facilitates management of red oak and other species of interest. Currently, habitat type (Wisconsin Habitat Type Classification System) is often determined when stands are inventoried. If habitat type were...

  13. Natural regeneration of northern hardwoods in the northern Great Lakes Region. (United States)

    Carl H. Tubbs


    Reviews silvical and silvicultural information about natural regeneration pertinent to forestry practices in Lake State northern hardwood types. Seed production; effects of light, moisture, temperature and competition on establishment and growth; and how damage affects mortality rates and form are covered. Clearcutting, selection, and shelterwood experiments are...

  14. British Ceramics on the Northern European Periphery: Creamware Marketing in Nineteenth-Century Northern Finland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mullins, P.R.; Ylimaunu, T.; Brooks, A.; Kallio-Seppä, T.; Kuorilehto, M.; Nurmi, R.; Oikarinen, T.; Herva, V.-P.; Symonds, J.


    In 1822, a devastating town fire sealed a large ceramic assemblage from a store in the town of Oulu in northern Finland. Excavations of the merchant’s stock recovered over a hundred kilograms of ceramics that was almost entirely composed of undecorated creamware, a ware and decorative type whose

  15. Detecting the limits of northern and southern lineages of tanoak in northern California (United States)

    Eduardo Sandoval-Castro; Richard S. Dodd


    Two chloroplast lineages of tanoak (Notholithocarpus densiflorus) meet between Korbel and Hoopa in the North Coast of California. Our earlier work suggests these lineages arose from southern and northern glacial refugia and this region represents their colonizing fronts. Earlier, we detected only one population of mixed lineages, suggesting that...

  16. Sonoma Ecology Center Northern California Arundo Distribution Data (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Arundo Distribution layer is a compilation of Arundo donax observations in northern and central California, obtained from numerous sources, including Arundo...

  17. Fences and grazing management in northern Namibia (United States)

    Prudat, Brice; Bloemertz, Lena; Kuhn, Nikolaus J.


    Since Namibian independence, many fences have been erected in the communal land of the Ohangwena region in northern Namibia. Most fencing issues discussed so far in the region concern large-scale fencing of communal land by the new Namibian elite. Rarely discussed are the fences erected around small-scale farmers' parcels. This paper will discuss the impact of such increased small-scale fencing activities in northern Namibia. Fencing of land has different functions, including protection of fields against livestock and securing property rights. However, not all community members can afford the monetary and labor costs involved. In the annual agricultural cycle of the study area, livestock is left un-herded after the harvest of most crops. They can then feed on available crop remains and grass on the fields. The livestock then freely utilizes unfenced and unprotected land. This system has the advantage to accelerate crop degradation and fertilize the soils. However, by erecting efficient fences, the new middle-class community members concentrate fertility in their own field, thereby degrading agricultural soils of poorer farmers. Potentially, such small-scale fencing of land has therefore an impact on sol quality and thus fosters degradation of unfenced cropland. By using fences as features to determine the limits of the new land rights, the ongoing Communal Land Reform may not only promote the erection of fences, but may also have a negative impact on soil quality and potentially food security of small-scale farmers without cattle.

  18. Rainfall variability and seasonality in northern Bangladesh (United States)

    Bari, Sheikh Hefzul; Hussain, Md. Manjurul; Husna, Noor-E.-Ashmaul


    This paper aimed at the analysis of rainfall seasonality and variability for the northern part of South-Asian country, Bangladesh. The coefficient of variability was used to determine the variability of rainfall. While rainfall seasonality index ( SI ) and mean individual seasonality index ( \\overline{SI_i} ) were used to identify seasonal contrast. We also applied Mann-Kendall trend test and sequential Mann-Kendall test to determine the trend in seasonality. The lowest variability was found for monsoon among the four seasons whereas winter has the highest variability. Observed variability has a decreasing tendency from the northwest region towards the northeast region. The mean individual seasonality index (0.815378 to 0.977228) indicates that rainfall in Bangladesh is "markedly seasonal with a long dry season." It was found that the length of the dry period is lower at the northeastern part of northern Bangladesh. Trend analysis results show no significant change in the seasonality of rainfall in this region. Regression analysis of \\overline{SI_i} and SI, and longitude and mean individual seasonality index show a significant linear correlation for this area.

  19. Mineralogy of fossil resins in Northern Eurasia (United States)

    Bogdasarov, M. A.


    The investigation is focused on identification and origin of fossil resins from the Cretaceous, Tertiary, and Quaternary sediments of Northern Eurasia on the basis of detailed study of their physical and chemical characteristics: morphology; size; mass; density; optical, mechanical, and thermal properties; chemical composition; etc. The composition of amorphous organic minerals with polymeric structure, fossil resins included, is studied with IR spectrometry, the EPR method, derivatography at low heating rates, XRD, chemical analysis, emission spectrometry, etc. The results of investigation summarized for the Baltic-Dnieper, North Siberian, and Far East amber-bearing provinces show some similarity of fossil resins in combination with specific features inherent to each province. Resins from the Baltic-Dnieper province should be termed as amber (succinite). Their variety is the most characteristic of Northern and Eastern Europe. Amber-like fossil resins from the North Siberian and Far East provinces are irrelevant to succinite. They usually occur as brittle resins, namely, retinite and gedanite, without jewelry value. Viscous fossil resin rumänite with an expected high economic value occurs in the Far East, on the shore of Sakhalin Island.

  20. Northern New Mexico regional airport market feasibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drake, R.H.; Williams, D.S.


    This report is about the market for airline travel in northern New Mexico. Interest in developing a northern New Mexico regional airport has periodically surfaced for a number of years. The New Mexico State Legislature passed a memorial during the 1998 Second Session calling for the conduct of a study to determine the feasibility of building a new regional airport in NNM. This report is a study of the passenger market feasibility of such an airport. In addition to commercial passenger market feasibility, there are other feasibility issues dealing with siting, environmental impact, noise, economic impact, intermodal transportation integration, region-wide transportation services, airport engineering requirements, and others. These other feasibility issues are not analyzed in any depth in this report although none were discovered to be show-stoppers as a by-product of the authors doing research on the passenger market itself. Preceding the need for a detailed study of these other issues is the determination of the basic market need for an airport with regular commercial airline service in the first place. This report is restricted to an in-depth look at the market for commercial passenger air service in NNM. 20 figs., 8 tabs.

  1. Pharmaceutical ethnobotany in Northern Navarra (Iberian Peninsula). (United States)

    Cavero, R Y; Akerreta, S; Calvo, M I


    This paper provides significant ethnobotanical information on pharmaceutical plant uses in Northern Navarra from an area known both for its high biological diversity and its cultural significance, suggesting the survival of uses lost elsewhere. Collect, analyze and evaluate the ethnobotanical knowledge about medicinal plants in Northern Navarra (Iberian Peninsula) with 4243 km(2) and 71,069 inhabitants. We performed semi-structured interviews with 253 informants (mean age 69; 61% women, 39% men) in 120 locations, identified the plant reported and analyzed the results, comparing them with those from other territories. The informants reported data on 174 medicinal plants belonging to 63 botanical families. This work is focused on human medicinal plant uses, which represent 98% of the pharmaceutical uses (1725 use reports). The species with the highest number of cites are Chamaemelum nobile, Sambucus nigra and Verbena officinalis, with a long tradition of use in The Mountain (Navarra). All different plant parts are used; aerial part is exploited more frequently than other plant parts. Most of the listed remedies use a single ingredient, typically soaked in water. Usually, the administration is primarily oral followed by topical applications. The main ailments treated are digestive troubles, wounds and dermatological problems, and respiratory affections. Informants reported 24 new or scarcely cited uses for 23 medicinal plants. For 35% of the species (8) we have not found bibliographical references in the scientific literature and 48% (11) have only one to three references. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Floods in Canada and Northern Minnesota (United States)


    During the first half of June, heavy rains inundated northern Minnesota and southern Canada, giving rise to floods that drove hundreds of people from their homes and drenched more than 300,000 acres of prime farmland. This false-color image of the flood (right) was acquired on June 15, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The worst of the flooding occurred on the border of Canada and Minnesota along the Roseau River, which now resembles a lake in the center of the image. The town of Roseau, Minnesota, which sits in the eastern end of the newly formed lake, was hit the hardest. Nearly all the buildings in the town took heavy water damage and many residents were forced to leave. Widespread flooding across an eight county region in Minnesota has drenched nearly 300,000 to 500,000 acres of farmland altogether. Many of the farmers hit lost 100 percent of their crops and will be unable to plant again for the season. Last week, President Bush declared northern Minnesota a disaster area. Normally, the Roseau River cannot even be seen on a MODIS image (left, acquired May 21, 2002), and the surrounding area is dry. In the false-color images, sage green, rusty orange, and blue is land, and water is black. Clouds are white and pink. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  3. Trophic ecology of largemouth bass and northern pike in allopatric and sympatric assemblages in northern boreal lakes (United States)

    Soupir, Craig A.; Brown, Michael L.; Kallemeyn, Larry W.


    Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and northern pike (Esox lucius) are top predators in the food chain in most aquatic environments that they occupy; however, limited information exists on species interactions in the northern reaches of largemouth bass distribution. We investigated the seasonal food habits of allopatric and sympatric assemblages of largemouth bass and northern pike in six interior lakes within Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota. Percentages of empty stomachs were variable for largemouth bass (38-54%) and northern pike (34.7-66.7%). Fishes (mainly yellow perch, Perca flavescens) comprised greater than 60% (mean percent mass, MPM) of the northern pike diet during all seasons in both allopatric and sympatric assemblages. Aquatic insects (primarily Odonata and Hemiptera) were important in the diets of largemouth bass in all communities (0.0-79.7 MPM). Although largemouth bass were observed in the diet of northern pike, largemouth bass apparently did not prey on northern pike. Seasonal differences were observed in the proportion of aquatic insects (P = 0.010) and fishes (P = 0.023) in the diets of northern pike and largemouth bass. Based on three food categories, jackknifed classifications correctly classified 77 and 92% of northern pike and largemouth bass values, respectively. Percent resource overlap values were biologically significant (greater than 60%) during at least one season in each sympatric assemblage, suggesting some diet overlap.

  4. The Lemmatization of Copulatives in Northern Sotho *

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.J. Prinsloo


    Full Text Available

    Abstract: For learners of Northern Sotho as a second or even foreign language, the copulative system is probably the most complicated grammatical system to master. The encoding needs of such learners, i.e. to find enough information in dictionaries in order to actively use copulatives in speech and writing, are poorly served in currently available dictionaries. The aim of this article is to offer solutions to the lemmatization problems regarding copulatives in Northern Sotho and to propose guiding entries for paper and electronic dictionaries which could serve as models for future dictionaries. It will be illustrated that the maximum utilisation of macrostructural and microstructural strategies as well as the mediostructure is called for in order to reach this objective. Prerequisites will be to reconstruct the entire copulative system in a user-friendly way, to abstract the rules governing the use of copulatives and to isolate the appropriate lemmas. The treatment of copulatives in Northern Sotho dictionaries will also be critically evaluated, especially in terms of frequency of use and target users' needs.


    Opsomming: Die lemmatisering van kopulatiewe in Noord-Sotho. Vir aanleerders van Noord-Sotho as tweede of vreemde taal is die kopulatief waarskynlik die mees komplekse grammatiese sisteem om te bemeester. Die enkoderende behoeftes van sulke aanleerders, dit is om genoegsame inligting in woordeboeke te verkry ten einde kopulatiewe in spraak en skrif aktief te kan gebruik, word nie bevredig in beskikbare woordeboeke nie. Die doel van hierdie artikel is om oplossings aan die hand te doen vir die lemmatiseringsprobleme ten opsigte van kopulatiewe in Noord-Sotho en om gidsinskrywings voor te hou wat as modelle kan dien vir

  5. Cenozoic stratigraphy of the Sahara, Northern Africa (United States)

    Swezey, Christopher S.


    This paper presents an overview of the Cenozoic stratigraphic record in the Sahara, and shows that the strata display some remarkably similar characteristics across much of the region. In fact, some lithologies of certain ages are exceptionally widespread and persistent, and many of the changes from one lithology to another appear to have been relatively synchronous across the Sahara. The general stratigraphic succession is that of a transition from early Cenozoic carbonate strata to late Cenozoic siliciclastic strata. This transition in lithology coincides with a long-term eustatic fall in sea level since the middle Cretaceous and with a global climate transition from a Late Cretaceous–Early Eocene “warm mode” to a Late Eocene–Quaternary “cool mode”. Much of the shorter-term stratigraphic variability in the Sahara (and even the regional unconformities) also can be correlated with specific changes in sea level, climate, and tectonic activity during the Cenozoic. Specifically, Paleocene and Eocene carbonate strata and phosphate are suggestive of a warm and humid climate, whereas latest Eocene evaporitic strata (and an end-Eocene regional unconformity) are correlated with a eustatic fall in sea level, the build-up of ice in Antarctica, and the appearance of relatively arid climates in the Sahara. The absence of Oligocene strata throughout much of the Sahara is attributed to the effects of generally low eustatic sea level during the Oligocene and tectonic uplift in certain areas during the Late Eocene and Oligocene. Miocene sandstone and conglomerate are attributed to the effects of continued tectonic uplift around the Sahara, generally low eustatic sea level, and enough rainfall to support the development of extensive fluvial systems. Middle–Upper Miocene carbonate strata accumulated in northern Libya in response to a eustatic rise in sea level, whereas Upper Miocene mudstone accumulated along the south side of the Atlas Mountains because uplift of the

  6. Megafans of the Northern Kalahari Basin (United States)

    Wilkinson, M. J.; Miller, R. McG.; Eckardt, F.; Kreslavsky, M. A.


    We identify eleven megafans (partial cones of fluvial sediment, >80 km radius) in the northern Kalahari Basin, using several criteria based on VIS and IR remotely sensed data and SRTM-based surface morphology reconstructions. Two other features meet fewer criteria of the form which we class as possible megafans. The northern Kalahari megafans are located in a 1700 km arc around the southern and eastern flanks of the Angola's Bié Plateau, from northern Namibia through northwest Botswana to western Zambia. Three lie in the Owambo subbasin centered on the Etosha Pan, three in the relatively small Okavango rift depression, and five in the Upper Zambezi basin. The population includes the well-known Okavango megafan (150 km), Namibia's Cubango megafan, the largest megafan in the region (350 km long), and the largest nested group (the five major contiguous megafans on the west slopes of the upper Zambezi Valley). We use new, SRTM-based topographic roughness data to discriminate various depositional surfaces within the flat N. Kalahari landscapes. We introduce the concepts of divide megafans, derived megafans, and fan-margin rivers. Conclusions. (i) Eleven megafan cones total an area of 190,000 sq km. (ii) Different controls on megafan size operate in the three component basins: in the Okavango rift structural controls become the prime constraint on megafan length by controlling basin dimensions. Megafans in the other les constricted basins appear to conform to classic relationships fan area, slope, and feeder-basin area. (iii) Active fans occupy the Okavango rift depression with one in the Owambo basin. The rest of the population are relict but recently active fans (surfaces are relict with respect to activity by the feeder river). (iv) Avulsive behavior of the formative river-axiomatic for the evolution of megafans-has resulted in repeated rearrangements of regional drainage, with likely effects in the study area well back into the Neogene. Divide megafans comprise the

  7. An Analysis of the Oxford Bilingual School Dictionary: Northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    "extra" as the learner's active vocabulary is reinforced during look-up activities. As pointed out by Potgieter (2012: ... become part and parcel of the Northern Sotho vocabulary. Through this the dictionary is ..... ising the acquisition and fostering of a deeper knowledge of Northern Sotho in the future. In the words of Landau ...

  8. Plastic ingestion by the northern fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis) in Iceland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuehn, S.; Franeker, van J.A.


    In 2011, northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) from Iceland were used to test the hypothesis that plastic debris decreases at northern latitudes in the Atlantic when moving away from major human centres of coastal and marine activities. Stomach analyses of Icelandic fulmars confirm that plastic

  9. Contaminants in northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) exposed to plastic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ask, A.; Anker-Nilssen, T.; Herzke, D.; Trevail, Alice; Franeker, van J.A.; Gabrielsen, G.W.


    Northern fulmars are seabirds which feed exclusively at sea, and as such, they are useful indicators of ocean health. Marine plastic pollution is an ever-increasing and global issue that affects the northern fulmar as they are frequently found to have ingested plastic. In this report we investigate

  10. Inland Aquaculture and Adaptation to Climate Change in Northern ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Documents. The effects of warning information about flow conditions on the performance of river cage aquaculture in the Nan River, Northern Thailand. Documents ... Documents. The role of middlemen networks and markets in responding to climate variability and extremes in the aquaculture sector in Northern Thailand ...

  11. 47 Ethical Challenge of Desertification in Northern Nigeria Mark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    that leads to other practical actions, it will save both human and natural environment in Northern Nigeria. Introduction. One of the crucial crises that humanity .... alternative sources of domestic energy such as kerosene, gas and electricity. One source of conflict in Northern Nigeria is often the struggle over grazing lands and ...

  12. Bereavement Counselling in Uganda and Northern Ireland: A Comparison (United States)

    Montgomery, Lorna; Owen-Pugh, Valerie


    Therapeutic interventions for bereavement in Northern Ireland and in the Sub-Saharan African country of Uganda are compared. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with Ugandan (n = 18) and Northern Irish (n = 20) therapists. These were thematically analysed. The findings focused on: the counselling context, the characteristics of counsellors,…

  13. Story-telling strategies employed in three Northern Sotho detective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A short introduction will be given to the history of literary writing in Northern Sotho until the 1950s when the first example of detective writing appeared in Ramaila's volume of short stories, Molomatsebe. Subsequently, the story-telling strategies used by three Northern Sotho authors, namely Ramaila, Matlala and Lebopa ...

  14. The northern hardwood forests of the Anthracite Region (United States)

    C. F. Burnham; M. J. Ferree; F. E. Cunningham


    The northern hardwood type forest is found only in the northern counties of the Anthracite Region. It dominates the highlands from Sullivan County on the west, to Monroe County on the east. The early lumbermen back in the 1860's, according to Illick and Frontz, "found (some) valleys, hillsides and mountains covered with a dense growth of enormous white pine...

  15. Food habits of Northern Goshawks nesting in south central Wyoming (United States)

    John R. Squires


    Northern Goshawks (Accipiter gentiles) nesting in south central Wyoming consumed at least 33 species of prey; 14 were mammals and 19 were birds. Based on percent occurrence in regurgitated pellets, dominant (>10% frequency) prey species included: red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus; present in 50% of pellets), Northern Flicker (Colaptes auratus; 34...

  16. Silvicultural guide for northern hardwoods in the northeast (United States)

    William B. Leak; Mariko Yamasaki; Robbo. Holleran


    This revision of the 1987 silvicultural guide includes updated and expanded silvicultural information on northern hardwoods as well as additional information on wildlife habitat and the management of mixed-wood and northern hardwood-oak stands. The prescription methodology is simpler and more field-oriented. This guide also includes an appendix of familiar tables and...

  17. Perceptions of and Attitudes towards Male Infertility in Northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the perceptions of male infertility in northern Botswana and their implications for efficacious family planning and AIDS prevention programmes in the country. HIV rates are rapidly increasing in northern Botswana and it is estimated that nearly 30% of the population are infected. A significant factor in ...

  18. Assessing the Economic Efficiency of Maize Production in Northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    May 1, 2017 ... efficiency of maize production in northern Ghana using cross-sectional data for the 2011/2012 cropping season. Conventional inputs such as farm size, seed, fertilizer, labour and weedicides were statistically significant and had positive effects on maize output in northern Ghana using the Cobb-Douglas ...

  19. Drinking and Smoking Habits of Students at Northern Territory University. (United States)

    Roberts, Kathryn L.; Jackson, Adrian S.

    Persons in the Northern Territory who drink have the highest per capita daily consumption of alcohol and the highest rate of tobacco smoking in Australia. This study identifies the drinking patterns and demographic and personal variables that might predict risk levels for Northern Territory University (NTU) students and therefore give direction to…

  20. The Impact of Insects in the Northern Hardwoods Type (United States)

    H. J. Macaloney


    The northern hardwoods type occupies about 16 percent -- 8.2 million acres -- of the commercial forest land in the Lake States. The timber has high unit values and represents about 42 percent of the total value of all the commercial forest in the region. Increasing values and markets for northern hardwoods in recent years have stressed the need for better quality in...

  1. Economic burden of motorcycle accidents in Northern Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Motorcycles are the most popular means of transportation in northern Ghana, and their accidents are major causes of out-patient attendance and admis-sions in the Bolgatanga Municipality. Objective: This paper estimates the economic burden of motorcycle accidents in the Bolgatanga Municipality in Northern ...

  2. An Analysis of the Oxford Bilingual School Dictionary: Northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Oxford Bilingual School Dictionary: Northern Sotho and English (De Schryver 2007) is a welcome addition to dictionaries that have been compiled for school use in particular. Its novelty and appeal lie in the fact that the lemmas and Northern Sotho mini-grammar are based on a corpus of general language usage and ...

  3. Cryptosporidium and Cryptosporidiosis in Calves at Jos, Northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cryptosporidium and Cryptosporidiosis in Calves at Jos, Northern Nigeria. VA Pam, DA Dakul, COE Onwuliri. Abstract. This study investigated the occurrence of cryptosporidium and cryptosporidiosis in calves from Jos, Northern Nigeria. Two hundred fecal samples were collected from the calves, recruited for an all year ...

  4. Investigation of Breast Cancer Risk Factors in northern states of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Breast cancer is the most common type of cancers and leading cause of death among women worldwide. In Sudan breast cancer is the most common type of cancer and its incidence has been rising for the past two decades. Objective: To investigate whether the breast risk factors of northern states (Northern ...

  5. Adverbial descriptions in Northern Sotho | Pretorius | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owing to the fact that in most cases, no one-to-one lexical equivalence exists between Northern Sotho and for instance English adverbs, the compilers of Northern Sotho-English dictionaries find it difficult to accommodate the different strategies in these dictionaries. In this article, various ways of conveying adverbial ...

  6. The Lemmatisation of adverbs in northern Sotho | Prinsloo | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this article is to offer solutions to the lemmatisation problems regarding adverbs in Northern Sotho and to propose guiding entries for paper and electronic dictionaries which could serve as models for future dictionaries. The treatment of adverbs in Northern Sotho dictionaries will also be criti-cally evaluated, ...

  7. Vegetation and Species Diversity in the Northern Sector of Eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study aims to assess the vegetation and plant diversity in relation to edaphic factors at three sites (Cairo- Suez, Ain Sokhnia-Makattam desert roads and Wadi Hagul) in northern sector of Eastern Desert. The results revealed that northern sector of Eastern Desert (The Galalah Desert) harbors had 95 species (36 annuals ...

  8. Barriers to Adult Learners of an Isolated Northern Community. (United States)

    Hilts, David J.

    In 1991, a study was conducted to determine perceptions regarding the deterrents to college attendance among adult learners in an isolated northern community. The study consisted of a survey of 40 students at the Fort Nelson campus of Northern Lights College (NLC) in British Columbia, and a follow-up interview of eight of the survey respondents.…

  9. Traditional medicine trade in vulture parts in northern Nigeria | Saidu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report findings on the vulture trade in northern Nigeria, where it is commonly practised especially to supply the traditional medicine industry. We administered an open-ended questionnaire to 113 traditional, predominantly Hausa medicinal traders in 39 markets within eight states in northern Nigeria. Of the interviewed ...

  10. Response of northern hardwood forests to nutrient perturbation (United States)

    Christopher Eagar; Scott Bailey; Amey Bailey


    Substantial amounts of calcium have been depleted from the soils of northern hardwood forests in northern New Engtand over the past 50 years. Portions of this depleted calcium have been incorporated into the biomass of the aggrading forests; however, significant amounts have been leached into drainage waters and lost from the ecosystem.

  11. Physical intimate partner violence in northern India. (United States)

    Ragavan, Maya I; Iyengar, Kirti; Wurtz, Rebecca M


    In this article, we examine perceptions about the definition of physical intimate partner violence (IPV) in northern India utilizing feminist perspectives as a framework. We interviewed 56 women and 52 men affiliated with a health services nongovernmental organization in the Udaipur district of Rajasthan. We transcribed, coded, and analyzed the interviews utilizing grounded theory. We found that perceptions regarding physical IPV were associated with both structural and ideological patriarchal beliefs and microlevel constructs such as alcohol use. We discovered multiple types of physical IPV in the study region, including rationalized violence (socially condoned violence perpetrated by a husband against his wife), unjustified violence (socially prohibited violence perpetrated by a husband against his wife), and majboori violence (violence perpetrated by a wife against her husband). Our results add to the breadth of research available about IPV in India and create a framework for future research and IPV prevention initiatives.

  12. Distributed generation in small remote Northern communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malcolm, D.G.


    The presentation discusses the physical and social challenges of reliable and environmentally sound electricity generation in remote northern communities in Canada. There are several hundred remote communities in the boreal region of Canada and throughout the Arctic. Electrical energy requirements are usually a few megawatts. Access to some Arctic remote communities is by air and small water craft only, except when winters are cold enough for winter roads to be constructed for a few weeks each year. These communities, as well as new mining operations and their camp communities, provide a market segment for small reactors. However, there are social acceptance hurdles to be addressed. Trust-building is a must when working with First Nations, Metis, and Inuit communities, and this requires community presence long before proposals for new generation facilities are presented.

  13. Distribution of TPM in Northern Europe. (United States)

    Wängberg, Ingvar; Munthe, John; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Gårdfeldt, Katarina; Iverfeldt, Ake; Sommar, Jonas


    Total particulate mercury (TPM) in air has been measured during five 2-week campaigns at five measurement sites in Northern Europe. The measurements covered four seasons and the result constitutes a unique TPM data set from this region. Evidence for transport of TPM on a regional scale is reported as well as the historical trend of TPM in south of Sweden. All TPM measurements were made using a new mini particulate sampler. The device consists of a quartz fibre filter contained in a quarts glass filter holder and is a modified version of the MiniSamplr. This approach proves to be reliable and more cost efficient in comparison to alternative methods. Tests made to evaluate the performance of the sampler in terms of precision and comparability with sampling on Teflon membrane filters are also reported.

  14. Paleoceanography. Antarctic role in Northern Hemisphere glaciation. (United States)

    Woodard, Stella C; Rosenthal, Yair; Miller, Kenneth G; Wright, James D; Chiu, Beverly K; Lawrence, Kira T


    Earth's climate underwent a major transition from the warmth of the late Pliocene, when global surface temperatures were ~2° to 3°C higher than today, to extensive Northern Hemisphere glaciation (NHG) ~2.73 million years ago (Ma). We show that North Pacific deep waters were substantially colder (4°C) and probably fresher than the North Atlantic Deep Water before the intensification of NHG. At ~2.73 Ma, the Atlantic-Pacific temperature gradient was reduced to <1°C, suggesting the initiation of stronger heat transfer from the North Atlantic to the deep Pacific. We posit that increased glaciation of Antarctica, deduced from the 21 ± 10-meter sea-level fall from 3.15 to 2.75 Ma, and the development of a strong polar halocline fundamentally altered deep ocean circulation, which enhanced interhemispheric heat and salt transport, thereby contributing to NHG. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  15. Ground use by northern muriquis (Brachyteles hypoxanthus). (United States)

    Mourthé, Italo M C; Guedes, Danusa; Fidelis, Janaína; Boubli, Jean P; Mendes, Sérgio L; Strier, Karen B


    Many arboreal primates descend to the ground, a custom that may occur more frequently in disturbed habitats, and in the presence of researchers to whom the primates are habituated. In this paper, we describe opportunistic observations of ground use in two groups of northern muriquis (Brachyteles hypoxanthus) at the RPPN Feliciano Miguel Abdala, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Members of both groups were observed drinking, resting, feeding, playing, and traveling on the ground to different degrees, and variation in the levels of habituation of the two groups may be responsible for the differences in the distribution of their terrestrial activities. The potential increase in vulnerability to predation or disease owing to ground use has implications for the conservation of this critically endangered species. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Coping with Rainfall Variability in Northern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trærup, Sara Lærke Meltofte


    This paper explores a potential relationship between rainfall data and household self-reported harvest shocks and local (spatial) variability of harvest shocks and coping strategies based on a survey of 2700 rural households in the Kagera region of northern Tanzania. In addition, correlations...... of household reported harvest shocks differs significantly between districts and correspond to the observed variability in local climate patterns. Coping strategies are focused on spreading risks and include reduced consumption, casual employment, new crops, external support and the selling of assets....... There are no large differences in applied coping strategies across the region, but district-level data demonstrate how local strategies differ between localities within the districts. The results emphasize that in order to target rural policies and make them efficient, it is important to take into account the local...

  17. Cervical cytology EQA--the Northern experience. (United States)

    Cross, P; Shiell, A


    The experience of the Northern region using the 1995 draft National Gynaecological Cervical Cytology External Quality Assurance (EQA) Scheme is given. Over three rounds, 390 staff reporting Cervical Cytology took part, and using a cumulative non-numeric marking scheme, five participants were deemed "unacceptable" at the end of three rounds. A total of 3450 responses were given to the 40 test slides used, with an overall false-positive rate of 5.9% and a false-negative rate of 1.4%. Grading was assessed for pathologists, and many appeared to perform badly by accumulating discrepancies for non-clinically-significant grading differences. The problems of slide selection/staining and grading consistency/accuracy are highlighted. This EQA scheme serves its dual function of education and identifying poor performance. It must be seen as a viable EQA scheme, although other options must be considered, given advances in technology.

  18. Northern Jutland as an Intertextual Location

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft; Christensen, Jørgen Riber


    . The hypothesis is that places can appear not only as places in their own right, but also as locations in media contexts at the same time. They may have been used in films and TV series, so that they have become known in this way. E.g., the Odessa Steps from Sergei Eisenstein's Battleship Potemkin (1925) or Mount...... Rushmore's presidential sculptures from Hitchcock's North by Northwest (1959). More generally, places may also appear as stereotypical location topoi. E.g., underground car parks are recognized from innumerable crime films and thrillers as a dramaturgically perilous location, and not just as an Augé......-non-place. They are not just places to park. In the same sense, already in 1981 in his treatment of hyperreality Baudrillard claimed that America in itself was a sign, as America could only be recognized from media and films and not cognized in itself. The article will view Northern Jutland in this light, and places...

  19. 77 FR 48512 - Northern Indiana Public Service Company; Notice of Application for Amendment of License and... (United States)


    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Indiana Public Service Company; Notice of Application for Amendment..., 2012. d. Applicant: Northern Indiana Public Service Company (licensee). e. Name of Project: Norway... Supervisor-- Chemical and Environmental Compliance, Northern Indiana Public Service Company, 1414 W. Broadway...

  20. 75 FR 61786 - Northern Lights Fund Trust, et al.; Notice of Application (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Northern Lights Fund Trust, et al.; Notice of Application September 30, 2010. AGENCY: Securities... invest in certain financial instruments. Applicants: Northern Lights Fund Trust (``NLFT''), Arrow Investment Advisors, LLC (``AIA''), and Northern Lights Distributors, LLC (``NLD''). Filing Dates: The...

  1. Cortinarius sect. Armillati in northern Europe. (United States)

    Niskanen, Tuula; Kytövuori, Ilkka; Liimatainen, Kare


    Cortinarius sect. Armillati (subgenus Telamonia) was studied extensively based on morphology and molecular data. A total of about 1000 specimens, mostly from Fennoscandia, were revised. The nomenclature of the species was confirmed by sequencing the type material. Phylogenetic relationships were inferred by analyses of ITS, and the results were compared with the morphological and ecological data. Based on macro- and micromorphological characters, as well as molecular data, section Armillati contains only the medium to large species with slightly hygrophanous pileus and ± reddish or in some species yellowish brown to rose brown universal veils. The other red-brown-veiled species, previously included in Armillati, seem to belong to at least seven different sections or clades: sect. Anthracini, sect. Boulderenses, sect. Brunneotincti p.p., sect. Cinnabarini, sect. Fulvescentes, /Fuscoperonatus, and /Praestigiosus. Our study recognized six Armillati species from northern Europe: C. armillatus, C. luteo-ornatus, C. paragaudis, and three species described as new, C. pinigaudis, C. roseoarmillatus, and C. suboenochelis. The former three also occur in North America. Two additional species, C. subarmillatus (Japan) and C. quercoarmillatus (Costa Rica), are known outside the area. Based on the phylogenetic analysis, the species associated with deciduous trees, C. armillatus, C. quercoarmillatus, and C. roseoarmillatus, all with dextrinoid, thick-walled spores, formed a separate group from the mainly conifer-associated species, C. luteo-ornatus, C. paragaudis, C. pinigaudis and C. suboenochelis, all with fairly thin to moderately thick-walled, indextrinoid to moderately dextrinoid spores. Descriptions of the northern European species are provided, the distribution is mapped and their taxonomy, ecology, distribution, and relationships are discussed. A total of 64 new sequences of 12 species are reported including 17 sequences from type material. Our study also suggests that

  2. Northern peatlands in global climatic change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laiho, R.; Laine, J.; Vasander, H. [eds.] [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology


    Northern peatlands are important in regulating the global climate. While sequestering carbon dioxide, these peatlands release ca. 24-39 Tg methane annually to the atmosphere. This is 5-20 % of the annual anthropogenic methane emissions to the atmosphere. The greenhouse gas balance of peatlands may change as a consequence of water level draw-down after land-use change, or if summers become warmer and drier, as has been predicted for high latitudes after climatic warming. Subsequent emissions of methane would decrease, whereas emissions of carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide would increase. Within the Finnish Research Programme on Climate Change (SILMU), the research project `Carbon Balance of Peatlands and Climate Change` (SUOSILMU) has been under progress since 1990. It is a co-operative research project, with research groups from the Universities of Helsinki and Joensuu, the Finnish Forest Research Institute, the National Public Health Institute and the Finnish Environment Agency. The research consortium of this project organised a workshop entitled `Northern Peatlands in Global Climatic Change - Hyytiaelae Revisited` October 8-12, 1995. The main objective of the workshop was to review the state of the art of the carbon cycling research in natural and managed peatlands. The role of peatlands in the greenhouse effect, their response and feedback to the predicted climate change, and the consequences of land-use changes were assessed, and the future research needs were evaluated. The latest information on the role of peatlands in the atmospheric change was given in 50 posters and 4 key lectures. Results of SUOSILMU projects were demonstrated during a 1-day field excursion to one of the intensive study sites, Lakkasuo near Hyytiaelae

  3. Aetiology of shigellosis in northern Pakistan. (United States)

    Ahmed, Khalil; Shakoori, Farah R; Shakoori, A R


    People of northern Pakistan face health hazards because of poor sanitation practices. Bacterial gastrointestinal infections are very common, and sometimes outbreaks occur. The present study was aimed at evaluating and analyzing infestation of Shigella spp. in patients with suspected gastroenteritis and ascertaining the status of antibiotic therapy. Five hundred and eighty-five faecal samples of patients with suspected gastroenteritis, referred to the District Headquarter Hospital Gilgit, were investigated for common enteropathogenic bacteria from July 1997 to September 1999. Seventy-seven (13.2%) of the faecal specimens were infected with different strains of Shigella spp., 61% of which were Shigella dysenteriae, 15.6% were S. flexneri, and 23.4% were Shigella sp. All Shigella strains were sensitive to ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, and enoxacin. Sixty-one percent of the strains were resistant to both ampicillin and chloramphenicol, and 3.9% to ampicillin and nalidixic acid, while 10.4% were resistant to ampicillin alone and 14.3% to chloramphenicol only. Only 10.4% of the strains were sensitive to all the antibiotics tested. Sixty strains of Shigella spp. were processed for isolation of plasmids, and 58 (97%) of these antibiotic-resistant bacteria harboured at least one plasmid. The number of plasmids varied from 1 to 9. Escherichia coli C600 were transformed with the isolated plasmids. Transformants, containing 23-kb plasmid, resisted growth in media containing antibiotics, thereby indicating that antibiotic resistance is plasmid-borne. Based on the findings of the study, it is concluded that the infestation of Shigella spp. is high in northern Pakistan, the aetiological agents are highly resistant to chloramphenicol and ampicillin, and the antibiotic resistance is mediated by the 23-kb plasmid.

  4. Imaging Lithospheric-scale Structure Beneath Northern Altiplano in Southern Peru and Northern Bolivia (United States)

    Kumar, A.; Wagner, L. S.; Beck, S. L.; Zandt, G.; Long, M. D.


    The northern Altiplano plateau of southern Peru and northern Bolivia is one of the highest topographic features on the Earth, flanked by Western and Eastern Cordillera along its margin. It has strongly influenced the local and far field lithospheric deformation since the early Miocene (Masek et al., 1994). Previous studies have emphasized the importance of both the crust and upper mantle in the evolution of Altiplano plateau (McQuarrie et al., 2005). Early tomographic and receiver function studies, south of 16° S, show significant variations in the crust and upper mantle properties in both perpendicular and along strike direction of the Altiplano plateau (Dorbath et. al., 1993; Myers et al., 1998; Beck and Zandt, 2002). In order to investigate the nature of subsurface lithospheric structure below the northern Altiplano, between 15-18° S, we have determined three-dimensional seismic tomography models for Vp and Vs using P and S-wave travel time data from two recently deployed local seismic networks of CAUGHT and PULSE. We also used data from 8 stations from the PERUSE network (PERU Subduction Experiment). Our preliminary tomographic models show a complex variation in the upper mantle velocity structure with depth, northwest and southeast of lake Titicaca. We see the following trend, at ~85 km depth, northwest of lake Titicaca: low Vp and Vs beneath the Western Cordillera, high Vs beneath the Altiplano and low Vp and Vs beneath the Eastern Cordillera. This low velocity anomaly, beneath Eastern Cordillera, seems to coincide with Kimsachata, a Holocene volcano in southern Peru. At depth greater than ~85 km: we find high velocity anomaly beneath the Western Cordillera and low Vs beneath the Altiplano. This high velocity anomaly, beneath Western Cordillera, coincides with the well-located Wadati-Benioff zone seismicity and perhaps represents the subducting Nazca slab. On the southeast of lake Titicaca, in northern Bolivia, we see a consistently high velocity anomaly

  5. Background document for climate change policy options in Northern Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, J.


    This paper presents an initial compilation of background material in support of the development of climate change policy options for the jurisdictions of Yukon, Northwest Territories and Nunavut in Northern Canada. While Northern Canada contributes only a small fraction of the world's greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, scientists forecast changes in average annual temperatures to be among the highest in the world. The Northern Climate Exchange at Yukon College was created in March 2001 to address this issue and to help guide northerners in what they can do now and in the future. This paper includes an annotated bibliography of a total of 75 international, national, and territorial policy documents and major reference documents relevant to climate change issues. It is meant to be a resource for researchers, policy analysts and government officials developing policy options and implementing programs for Northern Canada. While each of the three northern territories are at a different stage in the evolution of their climate change activities, they are all striving to develop strategies and action plans and to initiate the implementation of those plans. It is recognized that many long-standing programs and initiatives, particularly in the areas of energy efficiency and alternate energy, will help northern jurisdictions address their climate change objectives. The three territories are cooperating to deliver their message to the federal government. 75 refs., 4 figs

  6. Hypoxia in the Northern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, Virginia H [ORNL


    Since 1985, scientists have been documenting a hypoxic zone in the Gulf of Mexico each year. The hypoxic zone, an area of low dissolved oxygen that cannot support marine life, generally manifests itself in the spring. Since marine species either die or flee the hypoxic zone, the spread of hypoxia reduces the available habitat for marine species, which are important for the ecosystem as well as commercial and recreational fishing in the Gulf. Since 2001, the hypoxic zone has averaged 16,500 km{sup 2} during its peak summer months, an area slightly larger than the state of Connecticut, and ranged from a low of 8,500 km{sup 2} to a high of 22,000 km{sup 2}. To address the hypoxia problem, the Mississippi River/Gulf of Mexico Watershed Nutrient Task Force (or Task Force) was formed to bring together representatives from federal agencies, states, and tribes to consider options for responding to hypoxia. The Task Force asked the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy to conduct a scientific assessment of the causes and consequences of Gulf hypoxia through its Committee on Environment and Natural Resources (CENR). In 2000 the CENR completed An Integrated Assessment: Hypoxia in the Northern Gulf of Mexico (or Integrated Assessment), which formed the scientific basis for the Task Force's Action Plan for Reducing, Mitigating, and Controlling Hypoxia in the Northern Gulf of Mexico (Action Plan, 2001). In its Action Plan, the Task Force pledged to implement ten management actions and to assess progress every 5 years. This reassessment would address the nutrient load reductions achieved, the responses of the hypoxic zone and associated water quality and habitat conditions, and economic and social effects. The Task Force began its reassessment in 2005. In 2006 as part of the reassessment, USEPA's Office of Water, on behalf of the Task Force, requested that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Science Advisory Board (SAB) convene an independent

  7. Marine reptiles from the Late Cretaceous of northern Patagonia (United States)

    Gasparini, Z.; Casadio, S.; Fernández, M.; Salgado, L.


    During the Campanian-Maastrichtian, Patagonia was flooded by the Atlantic and reduced to an archipelago. Several localities of northern Patagonia have yielded marine reptiles. Analysis of several assemblages suggests that the diversity and abundance of pelagic marine reptiles in northern Patagonia was higher by the end of the Cretaceous than previously thought. Several plesiosaurids, including Aristonectes parvidens and the polycotylid Sulcusuchus, and the first remains of mosasaurinae have been found. The Cretaceous marine reptile record from South America is scanty. Nevertheless, materials described here suggest that Tethyan and Weddelian forms converged in northern Patagonia, as seen with invertebrates.

  8. Radon in dwellings in Northern Ireland. 1993 review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, B.; Lomas, P.; O'Riordan, M.


    Measurements of radon made in some 1500 dwellings throughout Northern Ireland by the autumn of 1993 show that the average concentration is 19 Bq m -3 with some values up to fifty times higher. Around 30 of these dwellings are above the Action Level of 200 Bq m -3 adopted by the Government. Data are presented in considerable detail and various forms. Several hundred dwellings in Northern Ireland are estimated to exceed the Action Level, most of which are in a separately designated Affected Area in the southeast. Recommendations are made to promote the discovery and remedy of dwellings above the Action Level throughout Northern Ireland. (author)

  9. Primary immunodeficiency diseases in Northern Iran. (United States)

    Mohammadzadeh, I; Moazzami, B; Ghaffari, J; Aghamohammadi, A; Rezaei, N

    Primary immunodeficiency diseases (PID) are a heterogeneous group of inherited disorders, characterised by recurrent severe infections, autoimmunity and lymphoproliferation. Despite impressive progress in identification of novel PID, there is an unfortunate lack of awareness among physicians in identification of patients with PID, especially in non-capital cities of countries worldwide. This study was performed in a single-centre paediatric hospital in Northern Iran during a 21-year period (1994-2015). Ninety-four patients were included in this study. The majority of cases had antibody deficiencies (37.23%), followed by well-defined syndromes with immunodeficiency in 16 (17.02%), phagocytic disorders in 15 patients (15.95%), complement deficiencies in 15 patients (15.95%), immunodeficiencies affecting cellular and humoral immunity in nine patients (9.57%), disease of immune dysregulation in three (3.19%), and defects in intrinsic and innate immunity in one (1.06%). It seems that there are major variations in frequency of different types of PID in different regions of a country. Therefore, reporting local data could provide better ideas to improve the local health care system strategists and quality of care of PID patients. Copyright © 2017 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Northern fowl mite (Ornithonyssus sylviarum) in Sweden. (United States)

    Jansson, D S; Otman, F; Lundqvist, L; Höglund, J; Engström, A; Chirico, J


    Haematophagous mites were collected from the vent region and plumage of chickens in six hobby flocks of ornamental breeds in Sweden, one of which included turkeys. Soiled vent skin and feathers, dermatitis, hyperkeratosis, skin necroses and ulcers were observed in 12 necropsied birds from two of the flocks. The mites were identified as the northern fowl mite Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Mesostigmata: Macronyssidae). This was supported by sequence analysis of a 642-bp region in the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene (COI) in mites collected from five flocks, which showed 97-99% sequence similarity to O. sylviarum by blast analysis. Pairwise sequence comparisons revealed nucleotide variations in the range of 0-2.8%, whereas amino acid sequences were highly conserved. This paper represents one of very few records of O. sylviarum in European poultry, and is the first to report COI sequence data for O. sylviarum from poultry in Europe. © 2014 The Royal Entomological Society.

  11. Continuing Intense Malaria Transmission in Northern Uganda (United States)

    Proietti, Carla; Pettinato, Davide D.; Kanoi, Bernard N.; Ntege, Edward; Crisanti, Andrea; Riley, Eleanor M.; Egwang, Thomas G.; Drakeley, Chris; Bousema, Teun


    Recent reports of reductions in malaria transmission in several African countries have resulted in optimism that malaria can be eliminated in parts of Africa where it is currently endemic. It is not known whether these trends are global or whether they are also present in areas where political instability has hindered effective malaria control. We determined malaria parasite carriage and age-dependent antibody responses to Plasmodium falciparum antigens in cross-sectional surveys in Apac, northern Uganda that was affected by political unrest. Under-five parasite prevalence was 55.8% (115/206) by microscopy and 71.9% (41/57) by polymerase chain reaction. Plasmodium ovale alone, or as a co-infection, was detected in 8.6% (12/139) and Plasmodium malariae in 4.3% (6/139) of the infections. Age seroprevalence curves gave no indication of recent changes in malaria transmission intensity. Malaria control remains a tremendous challenge in areas that have not benefited from large-scale interventions, illustrated here by the district of Apac. PMID:21540398

  12. Environmental factors along the Northern Sea Route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fjeld, P.E.


    The Northern Sea Route runs ca 5,600 nautical miles across the top of Russia from Murmansk to Vladivostok, and includes half of the Arctic basin. An environmental impact assessment is needed for this route because of the potential for commercial shipping to disturb the vulnerable Arctic environment along the route. For example, Russian development of oil and gas resources in the area served by the route is expected to rise dramatically in the near future. Drilling in the route area offshore has already begun, and potential blowouts or tanker spills are of concern. A pilot study on the environment along this route was conducted in 1990/91, focusing on a study of the literature and communications with Russian scientists working on Arctic ecology. Existing data seem to be insufficient and generally only cover the westernmost and easternmost parts of the route. A five-year research plan is proposed to provide an inventory of Arctic species in the route area and levels of contaminants present, to assess the environmental sensitivity of the area, and analyze impacts that increased shipping might have on the environment. Protection measures will also be suggested. 1 fig

  13. Solar energy in the Northern Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djuikom, M.; Ndjomaha, Ch.; Vandenbergh, M.


    In 2003, the Cameroon Ministry of the Environment and Forestry has initiated a research project for studying the promotion of renewable energies and their impact on rural development. This work has been realized jointly with the department of Economy and Rural Development of the Agronomic University of Gembloux (Belgium), the Centre Des Etudes de L'Environnement et de Developpement du Cameroun (CEDC, Maroua) and the Institut fur Solare Energieversorgungstechnik (ISET, Germany). This initiative comes when the electricity sector in Cameroon has been facing important changes (Privatization of the national company of electricity, creation of a rural electrification agency, multiplication of the dialogues and seminars around the strategies of promotion for renewable energies, frequent black-outs during the dry season). The first objective of the project is to contribute to a better knowledge of the situation of the use of renewable energies in Cameroon. Therefore, Mrs Marthe Djuikom undertook from July to September 2003 a socio-economic survey on the use of solar energy in the northern Cameroon. The next step will be the creation of an energy program at the CEDC with the following tasks: promotion of photovoltaic technology, support of local and international synergies on the organisational aspects, training, information and coordination of reflexions at the local level for the promotion of rural electrification projects. (authors)

  14. Virtual Northern analysis of the human genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan H Hurowitz


    Full Text Available We applied the Virtual Northern technique to human brain mRNA to systematically measure human mRNA transcript lengths on a genome-wide scale.We used separation by gel electrophoresis followed by hybridization to cDNA microarrays to measure 8,774 mRNA transcript lengths representing at least 6,238 genes at high (>90% confidence. By comparing these transcript lengths to the Refseq and H-Invitational full-length cDNA databases, we found that nearly half of our measurements appeared to represent novel transcript variants. Comparison of length measurements determined by hybridization to different cDNAs derived from the same gene identified clones that potentially correspond to alternative transcript variants. We observed a close linear relationship between ORF and mRNA lengths in human mRNAs, identical in form to the relationship we had previously identified in yeast. Some functional classes of protein are encoded by mRNAs whose untranslated regions (UTRs tend to be longer or shorter than average; these functional classes were similar in both human and yeast.Human transcript diversity is extensive and largely unannotated. Our length dataset can be used as a new criterion for judging the completeness of cDNAs and annotating mRNA sequences. Similar relationships between the lengths of the UTRs in human and yeast mRNAs and the functions of the proteins they encode suggest that UTR sequences serve an important regulatory role among eukaryotes.

  15. A comparison of site index curves for northern hardwood species. (United States)

    Willard H. Carmean


    Gives an inventory and compares site index curves for 13 northern hardwood species. Differences illustrate the need for more precise site index curves that are applicable to local soil and site conditions.

  16. Squaring the Circle: Attempting Peace in Northern Ireland

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marchi, Gina


    Finding a political framework for self-government in Northern Ireland that will be supported by both nationalists and unionists is referred to as a modern day attempt to do the impossible-to 'square the circle...

  17. ISLSCP II Northern Hemisphere Monthly Snow Cover Extent (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This ISLSCP data set is derived from the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) Northern Hemisphere EASE-Grid Weekly Snow Cover and Sea Ice Extent...

  18. Northern fur seal pup weights, Pribilof Islands, Alaska, 1957-present (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database contains northern fur seal pup mass and length data by date, island, rookery and sex on the Pribilof Islands, Alaska, collected between 1957-2012. Mass...

  19. Northern Fur Seal Captures and Tag Sightings Data (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains information regarding the capture, tagging and re-sighting of northern fur seals on the Pribilof Islands and Bogoslof Island, Alaska, from 1986...

  20. The Surface Circulation of the Northern Arabian Sea

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kindle, John


    Prior to the Arabian Sea Expedition of 1994-1995, researchers' understanding of the northern Arabian Sea's response to the seasonally reversing monsoon cycle was based on climatological ship drift reports...

  1. Can IVF save the northern white rhino from extinction? (United States)


    As the last male northern white rhino is euthanased, leaving just two females - his daughter and granddaughter - what is the future for this subspecies? Sophie Ingledew explains. British Veterinary Association.

  2. Multisensor Analyzed Sea Ice Extent - Northern Hemisphere (MASIE-NH) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Multisensor Analyzed Sea Ice Extent Northern Hemisphere (MASIE-NH) products provide measurements of daily sea ice extent and sea ice edge boundary for the...

  3. Organochlorine pesticide residues in the northern Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shailaja, M.S.; Sarkar, A.

    periodic monitoring of the levels of the major pollutants. One on-going exercise has been to evaluate, qualitatively and quantitatively, the persistent organochlorine pesticide residues in the Northern Indian Ocean. The baseline levels of some...

  4. Rapid assessment of loiasis endemicity in northern Edo State, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -Edo and Etsako East LGAs located in the northern part of Edo State, Nigeria was conducted to determine the endemicity of the disease and to classify the communities according to the level of risk to loiasis related adverse reactions.

  5. Prediction Center (CPC) Tropical/ Northern Hemisphere Teleconnection Pattern Index (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly tabulated index of the Tropical/ Northern Hemisphere teleconnection pattern. The data spans the period 1950 to present. The index is derived from a rotated...

  6. ISLSCP II Northern Hemisphere Monthly Snow Cover Extent (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This ISLSCP data set is derived from the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) Northern Hemisphere EASE-Grid Weekly Snow Cover and Sea Ice Extent product which...

  7. Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands ESI: HABITATS (Habitat Polygons) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for benthic marine habitats and plants in Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Vector polygons in this...

  8. Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for reef, pelagic, benthic, and estuarine fish species in Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Vector...

  9. Silvicultural guide for northern hardwood types in the Northeast (revised) (United States)

    William B. Leak; Dale S. Solomon; Paul S. DeBald


    A practical guide to the management of northern hardwoods for timber production in New England and New York. Both even-aged management are considered, and specific treatments are prescribed for a range of stand conditions and management objectives.

  10. Northern North Pacific Regional Climatology (NCEI Accession 0156768) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Northern North Pacific (NNP) plays a significant role in long-term earth and ocean climate change. It is also a region of high importance for regional marine...

  11. Northern Mariana Islands Marine Monitoring Team Reef Flat Surveys (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands' (CNMI) interagency marine monitoring team conducts surveys on reef flat areas on the islands of Saipan, Tinian and...

  12. Climate of the northern Indian Ocean and associated productivity

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sastry, J.S.; Gopinathan, C.K.

    The climatic factors likely to influence the phytoplankton production in the northern Indian Ocean are examined. The major cause for the high productivity of the Arabian Sea is the nutrient enrichment of the euphotic zone by upwelling especially off...

  13. Interhemispheric asynchrony of the sleep EEG in northern fur seals. (United States)

    Mukhametov, L M; Lyamin, O I; Polyakova, I G


    In northern fur seals the two brain hemispheres can generate the EEG slow waves during sleep not only simultaneously, as in all the terrestrial mammals investigated, but also independently as in dolphins.

  14. Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands ESI: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for intertidal-, reef-, and mangrove-associated invertebrate species in Guam and the Northern Mariana...

  15. Civil Rights, Human Rights and Terrorism in Northern Ireland. (United States)

    Dowling, Kathryn


    Reviews political events of the past decade in Northern Ireland, focusing particularly on national and international legal actions relating to civil and human rights. The roles of England and, more briefly, the United States are discussed. (GC)

  16. Modelling the Main Ionospheric Trough Across the Northern Hemisphere

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mitchell, Cathryn


    This report results from a contract tasking University of Bath as follows: The contractor will investigate disturbances in the Northern Hemisphere ionosphere using a Multi-instrument data analysis (MIDAS) imaging algorithm...

  17. Key Lake human resources and northern business initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudar, R.; McIntyre, J.; McInnes, B.P.


    The Key Lake Operation is committed to a policy of maximizing Saskatchewan, and particularly northern Saskatchewan, employment and business opportunities. The participation rate of northern people in the Key Lake operation's workforce has risen from 23.8% in 1983, to 42% today. Cameco's objective is to achieve 50% representation of residents of Saskatchewan's north in the Key Lake workforce by 1995. The company also extends this strategic objective to contractors. All contractors are required to maximize employment opportunities for residents of Saskatchewan's north, and report employment levels to the company as a condition of the contract. Today, contractors at the Key Lake site have achieved a northern participation rate of 47%. This paper highlights strategies for increasing northern/aboriginal participation and provides several examples of successes from these initiatives. (author)

  18. Factors Affecting Success of IT Projects in Northern Cyprus


    Izadpanah, Arash; İlkan, Mustafa


    This research would try to give an overview of the IT projects in Northern Cyprus. The study covers IT project management aspect based on a survey from main cities in Northern Cyprus. In addition to the survey, authors managed an IT project during the research period to add self-experiences to this research. As discussion, this paper combines understanding of the relevant theory and literature review of IT project management with the results of the survey. This research aims to investigate IT...

  19. The carbon holdings of northern Ecuador's mangrove forests


    Hamilton, Stuart E.; Lovette, John; Borbor, Mercy; Millones, Marco


    Within a GIS environment, we combine field measures of mangrove diameter, mangrove species distribution, and mangrove density with remotely sensed measures of mangrove location and mangrove canopy cover to estimate the mangrove carbon holdings of northern Ecuador. We find that the four northern estuaries of Ecuador contain approximately 7,742,999 t (plus or minus 15.47 percent) of standing carbon. Of particular high carbon holdings are the Rhizophora mangle dominated mangrove stands found in-...

  20. Atmospheric circulation in northern hemisphere and north atlantic oscillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Александр Вадимович Холопцев


    Full Text Available Conditions under which statistical connections of interannual changes of repitition duration periods in Northern hemisphere of elementary circulation mechanisms associated to meridional northern and meridional southern groups with variations of North Atlantic oscillation are significant were revealed. It is shown, that the characteristics changes of these connections taking place in modern period can be caused by distribution changes of distribution of sea surface temperatures

  1. Adapting online learning for Canada's Northern public health workforce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marnie Bell


    Full Text Available Background . Canada's North is a diverse, sparsely populated land, where inequalities and public health issues are evident, particularly for Aboriginal people. The Northern public health workforce is a unique mix of professional and paraprofessional workers. Few have formal public health education. From 2009 to 2012, the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC collaborated with a Northern Advisory Group to develop and implement a strategy to strengthen public health capacity in Canada's 3 northern territories. Access to relevant, effective continuing education was identified as a key issue. Challenges include diverse educational and cultural backgrounds of public health workers, geographical isolation and variable technological infrastructure across the north. Methods . PHAC's Skills Online program offers Internet-based continuing education modules for public health professionals. In partnership with the Northern Advisory Group, PHAC conducted 3 pilots between 2008 and 2012 to assess the appropriateness of the Skills Online program for Northern/Aboriginal public health workers. Module content and delivery modalities were adapted for the pilots. Adaptations included adding Inuit and Northern public health examples and using video and teleconference discussions to augment the online self-study component. Results . Findings from the pilots were informative and similar to those from previous Skills Online pilots with learners in developing countries. Online learning is effective in bridging the geographical barriers in remote locations. Incorporating content on Northern and Aboriginal health issues facilitates engagement in learning. Employer support facilitates the recruitment and retention of learners in an online program. Facilitator assets included experience as a public health professional from the north, and flexibility to use modified approaches to support and measure knowledge acquisition and application, especially for First Nations, Inuit and

  2. Beaches and Bluffs of Puget Sound and the Northern Straits (United States)


    of Puget Sound and the Northern Straits, from the mouth of the Elwha River on the northern Olympic Peninsula to the Whatcom County border with...Driftwood Key in Hood Canal (Hirschi et al. 2003), Lagoon Point and Sandy Hook on Whidbey Island, and Sandy Point, Whatcom County. Marinas in in Whatcom County’s Mud/ Chuckanut Bay and Padden Creek estuary, Skagit County’s Fidalgo Bay, Pierce County’s Chamber’s Bay, and the south- west

  3. Diplomacy and the polio immunization boycott in Northern Nigeria. (United States)

    Kaufmann, Judith R; Feldbaum, Harley


    The boycott of polio vaccination in three Northern Nigerian states in 2003 created a global health crisis that was political in origin. This paper traces the diplomatic actions that were taken by the Global Polio Eradication Initiative, the United Nations, and the U.S. government, to restart polio vaccination and resolve the crisis. The polio vaccination boycott in Northern Nigeria provides a useful case study of the practice of global health diplomacy.

  4. Vegetative substrates used by larval northern pike in Rainy and Kabetogama Lakes, Minnesota (United States)

    Anne L. Timm; Rodney B. Pierce


    Our objective was to identify characteristics of aquatic vegetative communities used as larval northern pike nursery habitat in Rainy and Kabetogama lakes, glacial shield reservoirs in northern Minnesota. Quatrefoil light traps fished at night were used to sample larval northern pike in 11 potential nursery areas. Larval northern pike were most commonly sampled among...

  5. 78 FR 58293 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Northern New Mexico (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Northern New Mexico...), Northern New Mexico (known locally as the Northern New Mexico Citizens' Advisory Board [NNMCAB]). The... CONTACT: Menice Santistevan, Northern New Mexico Citizens' Advisory Board, 94 Cities of Gold Road, Santa...

  6. Comparative ability of northern pintails, gadwalls, and northern shovelers to metabolize foods (United States)

    Miller, M.R.


    Feeding trials were used to compare the ability of northern pintails (Anas acuta), gadwalls (A. strepera), and northern shovelers (A. clypeata) to metabolize energy from a turkey starter ration, alfalfa pellets, and common barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crusgalli) seeds. No differences (P > 0.05) were detected among the three species for any of the three foods (kg body weight/day basis), for dry matter intake (DMI), body weight gain (BWG), apparent metabolizable energy (AME), or metabolized energy (MEE) on any given diet consumed in quantities large enough to promote body weight gain. The AME content of alfalfa was 57% less than the value for turkey starter and 50% less than for barnyardgrass seeds. All three species metabolized more energy and gained weight faster when fed turkey starter. Energy modeling may be facilitated if additional research verifies that all species of dabbling ducks have equal ability to obtain energy from foods available to them in the wild. Behavioral and morphological factors may be more important in defining feeding niches than digestive physiology, at least for the three duck species tested, at the time of year of the experiments, and within the limits of the quality of foods used.

  7. Seismic risk assessment of Navarre (Northern Spain) (United States)

    Gaspar-Escribano, J. M.; Rivas-Medina, A.; García Rodríguez, M. J.; Benito, B.; Tsige, M.; Martínez-Díaz, J. J.; Murphy, P.


    The RISNA project, financed by the Emergency Agency of Navarre (Northern Spain), aims at assessing the seismic risk of the entire region. The final goal of the project is the definition of emergency plans for future earthquakes. With this purpose, four main topics are covered: seismic hazard characterization, geotechnical classification, vulnerability assessment and damage estimation to structures and exposed population. A geographic information system is used to integrate, analyze and represent all information colleted in the different phases of the study. Expected ground motions on rock conditions with a 90% probability of non-exceedance in an exposure time of 50 years are determined following a Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment (PSHA) methodology that includes a logic tree with different ground motion and source zoning models. As the region under study is located in the boundary between Spain and France, an effort is required to collect and homogenise seismological data from different national and regional agencies. A new homogenised seismic catalogue, merging data from Spanish, French, Catalonian and international agencies and establishing correlations between different magnitude scales, is developed. In addition, a new seismic zoning model focused on the study area is proposed. Results show that the highest ground motions on rock conditions are expected in the northeastern part of the region, decreasing southwards. Seismic hazard can be expressed as low-to-moderate. A geotechnical classification of the entire region is developed based on surface geology, available borehole data and morphotectonic constraints. Frequency-dependent amplification factors, consistent with code values, are proposed. The northern and southern parts of the region are characterized by stiff and soft soils respectively, being the softest soils located along river valleys. Seismic hazard maps including soil effects are obtained by applying these factors to the seismic hazard maps

  8. Gas seepage in the Northern Adriatic Sea (United States)

    Matilde Ferrante, Giulia; Donda, Federica; Volpi, Valentina; Tinivella, Umberta


    In the Northern Adriatic Sea, the occurrence of gas seepage has been widely documented. However, the origin of seeping gas was not clearly constrained. Geophysical data with different scale of resolution, i.e. multichannel seismic profiles, CHIRP and morpho-bathymetry data collected in 2009 and 2014 by OGS reveal that several the gas-enriched fluid vents are deeply rooted. In fact, the entire Plio-Quaternary succession is characterized by widespread seismic anomalies represented by wipe-out zones and interpreted as gas chimneys. They commonly root at the base of the Pliocene sequence but also within the Paleogene succession, where they appear to be associated to deep-seated, Mesozoic-to-Paleogene faults. These chimneys originate and terminate at different stratigraphic levels; they also commonly reach the seafloor, where rock outcrops interpreted as authigenic carbonate deposits have been recognized. In places, gas is then capable to escape in the water column as shown by numerous gas flares. On going studies are addressed to: 1. re-examining the structural setting of the study area, in order to verify a possible structural control on chimney distribution and gas migration; 2. performing geochemical analysis on gas which have been sampled in some key emission points; 3. a quantitative analysis of some selected boreholes well logs (made available through the public VidePi database ( aimed to estimate the amount of gas present in sediments. This work presents the preliminary results regarding the latter aspect of our research. In a first instance, for each selected borehole the geophysical logs have been digitized. This procedure consists in a manual picking of curves, in a set system of reference. Static corrections for vertical offset are made at this stage. Logs are then divided by type and converted in common scales, amplifications and units. Every log is resampled in order to cut high frequencies not useful in the comparison with seismic data

  9. Gender and livelihoods in northern Pakistan. (United States)

    Joekes, S


    This article reports on findings from a study in 1993-94 on women and sustainable development in Hunza and Nagar districts in the Karakorum mountains of northern Pakistan. The study aims to explore the impact of development on women's work burden and sustainable use of natural resources. Local natural resource management has been a complex system of agro-pastoralist use, with poor yields. Modernization resulted in construction of the Karakorum Highway in 1978 and the Aga Khan Support Program, which mobilized the community in irrigation and agricultural projects. Village organizations were formed as a forum for community decision making and information exchange. These changes resulted in the doubling of household income during 1983-92. Agricultural productivity increased without compromising soil fertility. Livestock herds doubled during 1976-86. The road created the opportunity for new strategies for improving income. Wholesale markets became accessible. Tourism increased, the economy diversified in ways that increased women's income and control of income, and demand for education increased. Women reported that the increased demands on workload were worth the improved standard of living. Gendered work was reallocated, and division of labor changed among women of various ages. Village councils began protecting depleted forest reserves. Men collected wood on the higher slopes, according to anthropomorphic and spiritual beliefs. Women's knowledge of the environment was greater with age and specific to the tasks performed. Men and women did not have permanently fixed gender roles. Women were not exclusive managers of the environment. Women benefited the most from technology that was in their interest and not controlled by men.

  10. Radioactivity in the northern seas of europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Fernando P.; Madruga, Maria Jose; Oliveira, Joao M.; Gouveia, Jorge M.; Silva, Lidia


    The recent accidents with nuclear powered Russian submarines, such as the Kursk and the K-159, that took place in the Arctic Seas, give rise to high concerns of the public and the media about the radioactive contamination of marine ecosystems and radiological safety of the European population. Those accidents were preceded by decades of discharges of radioactive liquid effluents into coastal seas of Europe and the dumping of packed radioactive waste into the North Atlantic. Being Portugal one country with high consumption rate of seafood caught in its own coastal waters as well as in far seas including the Ar tic seas, the investigation of the radioactive contamination of fish was investigated. Analysis of fish from the Sea of Labrador, Sea of Iceland and Barents Sea, has shown that gamma-emitting radionuclides of artificial origin are in general not detected. The only gamma emitting radionuclide present is Cs-137, in concentrations not higher than 0.3 Bq/kg. This radionuclide originates in the deposition of radioactive fallout following nuclear weapon tests performed in the fifties and sixties. Radionuclides in fish from northern regions and in fish from the Portuguese coast generally are present in concentrations lower than those currently reported for fish from the Irish Sea and the Baltic Sea, impacted with the discharges of radioactive waste from Sellafield and the deposition of fallout from Chernobyl, respectively. Nevertheless, the potential for future accidents and the radioactive waste dumped into the North Atlantic may in the future modify this scenario and potentially increase the currently very low radionuclide concentration in fish included in the Portuguese diet. Therefore, the research and radiological surveillance must be maintained in order to monitor the radiological risk and to ensure the quality of food available to consumers. (author)

  11. Systematic skin cancer screening in Northern Germany. (United States)

    Breitbart, Eckhard W; Waldmann, Annika; Nolte, Sandra; Capellaro, Marcus; Greinert, Ruediger; Volkmer, Beate; Katalinic, Alexander


    The incidence of skin cancer is increasing worldwide. For decades, opportunistic melanoma screening has been carried out to respond to this burden. However, despite potential positive effects such as reduced morbidity and mortality, there is still a lack of evidence for feasibility and effectiveness of organized skin cancer screening. The main aim of the project was to evaluate the feasibility of systematic skin cancer screening. In 2003, the Association of Dermatological Prevention was contracted to implement the population-based SCREEN project (Skin Cancer Research to Provide Evidence for Effectiveness of Screening in Northern Germany) in the German state of Schleswig-Holstein. A two-step program addressing malignant melanoma and nonmelanocytic skin cancer was implemented. Citizens (aged ≥ 20 years) with statutory health insurance were eligible for a standardized whole-body examination during the 12-month study period. Cancer registry and mortality data were used to assess first effects. Of 1.88 million eligible citizens, 360,288 participated in SCREEN. The overall population-based participation rate was 19%. A total of 3103 malignant skin tumors were found. On the population level, invasive melanoma incidence increased by 34% during SCREEN. Five years after SCREEN a substantial decrease in melanoma mortality was seen (men: observed 0.79/100,000 and expected 2.00/100,000; women: observed 0.66/100,000 and expected 1.30/100,000). Because of political reasons (resistance as well as lack of support from major German health care stakeholders), it was not possible to conduct a randomized controlled trial. The project showed that large-scale systematic skin cancer screening is feasible and has the potential to reduce skin cancer burden, including mortality. Based on the results of SCREEN, a national statutory skin cancer early detection program was implemented in Germany in 2008. Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All

  12. Possession states in Northern Sri Lanka. (United States)

    Somasundaram, Daya; Thivakaran, T; Bhugra, Dinesh


    Possession states are still commonly seen in developing societies as acceptable cultural phenomena in normal persons as well as in those with psychiatric illness. 'Possession' is defined here as the experience of being taken over, controlled or occupied by another spirit or force. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study of possession states among psychiatric patients, general population and popular adepts in Northern Sri Lanka, using semi-structured questionnaires and clinical observations. Thirty psychiatric patients were identified as having possession states. They were compared with 30 controls each from the general population admitted to a general hospital outpatient department and selected popular adepts in the community. The latter are individuals who are well known as having possession states. An analysis of social factors and other variables showed that education, marital status, age, employment, strength of belief, alterations in personality, past or family psychiatric history, previous exposure to similar phenomena, help-seeking behavior and treatment outcome differed between the three groups. Religion of the subjects or recent changes in values showed no correlation with possession while monetary gain from possession states showed only a partial correlation. Western medical treatment was of value only when possession states were seen as part of psychotic illness. Possession is a spectrum of experiential and behavioral phenomena seen in culturally acceptable form in normal people, popular adepts, as well as manifestations of psychotic illness. Possession states which fit normal cultural stereotypes could, if necessary, be better managed by traditional methods. However, clinicians need to be familiar with culturally abnormal forms of possession which are manifestations of psychotic illness that benefit from western psychiatric treatment. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel

  13. Crustal thickness variations in northern Morocco (United States)

    Mancilla, Flor de Lis; Stich, Daniel; Morales, José; Julià, Jordi; Diaz, Jordi; Pazos, Antonio; Córdoba, Diego; Pulgar, Javier A.; Ibarra, Pedro; Harnafi, Mimoun; Gonzalez-Lodeiro, Francisco


    During the TopoIberia experiment, a total of 26 seismic broadband stations were recording in northern Morocco, providing for the first time extended regional coverage for investigating structure and seismotectonics of the southern branch of the Betic-Rif arc, its foreland, and the Atlas domain. Here, we analyze P-to-S converted waves in teleseismic receiver functions to infer gross crustal properties as thickness and Vp/Vs ratio. Strong lateral variations of the crustal thickness are observed throughout the region. Crustal thicknesses vary between 22 and 44 km and display a simple geographic pattern that divides the study area into three domains: entire northwestern Morocco underlain by a thickened crust with crustal thicknesses between 35 and 44 km; northeastern Morocco affected by significant crustal thinning, with crustal thicknesses ranging from 22 to 30 km, with the shallowest Moho along the Mediterranean coast; and an extended domain of 27-34 km thick crust, farther south which includes the Atlas domain and its foreland regions. Vp/Vs ratios show normal values of ˜1.75 for most stations except for the Atlas domain, where several stations give low Vp/Vs ratios of around 1.71. The very sharp transition from thick crust in northwestern Morocco to thin crust in northeastern Morocco is attributed to regional geodynamics, possibly the realm of present-day subcrustal dynamics in the final stage of western Mediterranean subduction. Crustal thicknesses just slightly above 30 km in the southern domain are intriguing, showing that high topography in this region is not isostatically compensated at crustal level.

  14. Northern gas : Arctic Canada and Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantin, D.


    This paper discusses supply challenges in relation to Northern gas availability in Arctic Canada and Alaska. A background of BP Canada Energy Company was provided. It was suggested that gas from traditional North American basins would not meet demand, and that incremental sources of supply would be needed. A map of traditional and non-tradition supply sources was presented along with details of supply and infrastructure investment requirements from 2003-2025. The roles of producers, local distribution companies, pipelines and policy makers in infrastructure development were examined. Potential resources in Alaska and the Mackenzie Delta were discussed, along with details of the Mackenzie Valley Pipeline project and exploration activities. Alaska's North Slope gas resource was reviewed. Several large projects devolving from the Alaska Gas Pipeline represent an anticipated total investment of $20 billion. Various regulatory and economic conditions necessary for the successful completion of the project include the Alaska Fiscal Contract; Alaska gas provisions in the Federal Energy Bill; details of the Canadian regulatory process; and cost reductions and market outlooks. It was concluded that the Alaska Gas Pipeline would provide thousands of jobs and provide stability of long-term gas prices as well as meeting North America's energy needs. In addition, the pipeline would provide $16 billion in Canadian government revenues and $40 billion in US government revenues. The pipeline would provide 4.5 billion cubic feet per day of clean energy, with half the carbon dioxide emissions of coal. It would also provide hundreds of billions of dollars in consumer savings. tabs, figs

  15. Child malnutrition in Tigray, northern Ethiopia. (United States)

    Mulugeta, A; Hagos, F; Kruseman, G; Linderhof, V; Stoecker, B; Abraha, Z; Yohannes, M; Samuel, G G


    Estimate levels of and identify factors contributing to child malnutrition in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. Cross-sectional survey. Rural communities from four zones of Tigray. Three hundred and eighteen under five children representing 587 randomly selected households were included. Among the children surveyed, 46.9%, 33.0% and 11.6% were stunted,underweight and wasted, respectively. Older children were more likely to be undernourished. Stunting increases from 16% in the second half of the first year to 53% in children 24 months and older. Similarly, underweight increases from 10% in the first six months to 36.5% in children aged 24 months and older. A very high proportion of the mothers (80%) initiated feeding of newborns with pre-lacteal feeds primarily butter or water. Family foods and cereal-based porridge were the main complementary foods after six months. Child age, maternal anthropometric characteristics, inadequate complementary foods, the use of prelacteal feeds and area of residence were the main contributing factors to child undernutrition. Undernutrition gets worse as the children grow older. The energy and nutrient density of the complementary foods are low as the foods were prepared from a limited number of local staple cereals without the addition of sugar, fat/oil or animal products. More importantly, these foods are diluted with water to reduce their viscosity. This makes the quality and quantity of the foods insufficient to prevent stunting and underweight. Promotion of traditional household technologies such as germination and fermentation may be affordable measures to improve the quality of the complementary foods. Thus, sustained nutrition education programmes focusing on appropriate complementary feeding practices are recommended.

  16. Spatial models of Northern Bobwhite populations for conservation planning (United States)

    Twedt, Daniel J.; Wilson, R. Randy; Keister, Amy S.


    Since 1980, northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) range-wide populations declined 3.9% annually. Within the West Gulf Coastal Plain Bird Conservation Region in the south-central United States, populations of this quail species have declined 6.8% annually. These declines sparked calls for land use change and prompted implementation of various conservation practices. However, to effectively reverse these declines and restore northern bobwhite to their former population levels, habitat conservation and management efforts must target establishment and maintenance of sustainable populations. To provide guidance for conservation and restoration of habitat capable of supporting sustainable northern bobwhite populations in the West Gulf Coastal Plain, we modeled their spatial distribution using landscape characteristics derived from 1992 National Land Cover Data and bird detections, from 1990 to 1994, along 10-stop Breeding Bird Survey route segments. Four landscape metrics influenced detections of northern bobwhite: detections were greater in areas with more grassland and increased aggregation of agricultural lands, but detections were reduced in areas with increased density of land cover edge and grassland edge. Using these landscape metrics, we projected the abundance and spatial distribution of northern bobwhite populations across the entire West Gulf Coastal Plain. Predicted populations closely approximated abundance estimates from a different cadre of concurrently collected data but model predictions did not accurately reflect bobwhite detections along species-specific call-count routes in Arkansas and Louisiana. Using similar methods, we also projected northern bobwhite population distribution circa 1980 based on Land Use Land Cover data and bird survey data from 1976 to 1984. We compared our 1980 spatial projections with our spatial estimate of 1992 populations to identify areas of population change. Additionally, we used our projection of the spatial

  17. Euroscepticism in Italy: Evolution of Northern League Political Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg N. Barabanov


    Full Text Available Abstract: The article examines the key stages of the establishment of Italy’s Northern League as a rightwing hard eurosceptic party. Being initially a continual supporter of European integration and considering the transition to common currency as an opportunity available only to northern regions, which could secede and form an independent state, Northern League after losing the main point of its political agenda when the whole Italy joined the Economic and Monetary Union in 1998, became a eurosceptically-oriented party, which it is up to now. The authors dwell on the focal points of the party’s anti-EU program: Italy’s exit from the eurozone, the formation of Europe of macroregions, the reformation of supranational institutes and decision-making procedures. However, while confronting the Northern League policy with that of National Front in France and UKIP in the United Kingdom, the authors come to the conclusion that Euroscepticism for the former is just a sign of the shift in priorities rather than a strategy as for the latter. This can be explained by the fact that National Front and UKIP are still to fight for the place in the national mainstream, while Northern League has become its integral part long before. Nevertheless, under the new leadership of M.Salvini Northern League managed to become the fourth party on the national level according to the results of European parliament elections in 2014 and established itself as a significant power opponent to EU policy on a number of important issues, such as anti-Russian sanctions. Moreover, frequent visits of party members to Moscow and the party’s outspoken support of Russia on Crimea’s entrance into the Russian Federation provide an opportunity to consider Northern League a potential conductor of Russian interests in the European Union.

  18. All Christians? Experiences of science educators in Northern Ireland (United States)

    Murphy, Colette; Hickey, Ivor; Beggs, Jim


    In this paper we respond to Staver's article (this issue) on an attempt to resolve the discord between science and religion. Most specifically, we comment on Staver's downplaying of difference between Catholics and Protestants in order to focus on the religion-science question. It is our experience that to be born into one or other of these traditions in some parts of the world (especially Northern Ireland) resulted in starkly contrasting opportunities, identities and practices in becoming and being science educators. The paper starts with a short contextual background to the impact of religion on schooling and higher education in Northern Ireland. We then explore the lives and careers of three science/religious educators in Northern Ireland: Catholic (Jim) and Protestant (Ivor) males who are contemporaries and whose experience spans pre-Troubles to post-conflict and a Catholic female (Colette) who moved to Northern Ireland during the Troubles as a teenager. Finally, we discuss the situation regarding the teaching of creationism and evolution in Northern Ireland—an issue has recently generated high public interest. The Chair of the Education Committee of the Northern Ireland Assembly recently stated that "creationism is not for the RE class because I believe that it can stand scientific scrutiny and that is a debate which I am quite happy to encourage and be part of…" (News Letter 2008). It could be the case that the evolution debate is being fuelled as a deliberate attempt to undermine some of the post-conflict collaboration projects between schools and communities in Northern Ireland.

  19. Glacier area changes in Northern Eurasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khromova, Tatiana; Nosenko, Gennady; Kutuzov, Stanislav; Muraviev, Anton; Chernova, Ludmila


    Glaciers are widely recognized as key indicators of climate change. Recent evidence suggests an acceleration of glacier mass loss in several key mountain regions. Glacier recession implies landscape changes in the glacial zone, the origin of new lakes and activation of natural disaster processes, catastrophic mudflows, ice avalanches, outburst floods, etc. The absence or inadequacy of such information results in financial and human losses. A more comprehensive evaluation of glacier changes is imperative to assess ice contributions to global sea level rise and the future of water resources from glacial basins. One of the urgent steps is a full inventory of all ice bodies and their changes. The first estimation of glacier state and glacier distribution on the territory of the former Soviet Union has been done in the USSR Glacier Inventory (UGI) published in 1965–1982. The UGI is based on topographic maps and air photos and reflects the status of the glaciers in the 1940s–1970s. There is information about 28 884 glaciers with an area of 7830.75 km 2 in the inventory. It covers 25 glacier systems in Northern Eurasia. In the 1980s the UGI has been transformed into digital form as a part of the World Glacier Inventory (WGI). Recent satellite data provide a unique opportunity to look again at these glaciers and to evaluate changes in glacier extent for the second part of the 20th century. About 15 000 glacier outlines for the Caucasus, Polar Urals, Pamir Alay, Tien Shan, Altai, Kamchatka and Russian Arctic have been derived from ASTER and Landsat imagery and can be used for glacier change evaluation. Results of the analysis indicate the steady trend in glacier shrinkage in all mountain regions for the second part of the 20th century. Glacier area loss for the studied regions varies from 13% (Tien Shan) to 22.3% (Polar Urals). The common driver, most likely, is an increase in summer air temperature. There is also a very large variability in the degree of

  20. Northern European long term climate archives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohl, Veronica [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden)


    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company is responsible for the management and disposal of Sweden's radioactive waste. It is intended to deposit the spent nuclear fuel in a deep geological repository. This repository shall keep the radiotoxic material separated from humans and the environment for extended periods, from decades to millennia and possibly to geological timescales. During this time perspective climate induced changes such as shore-level displacement and evolution of permafrost and ice sheets are expected to occur which may affect the repository. The possible occurrence, extent and duration of these long-term changes, are therefore of interest when considering the assessment of repository performance and safety. The main climate parameters determining both surface and subsurface conditions are temperature and precipitation. As a result of the last advance of the Weichselian ice sheet only few geological archives exist, which contain information on past climatic conditions in Sweden before c 16,000 years BP. The purpose of this literature review is to compile and evaluate available information from Scandinavian, Northern and Central European geological archives, which record climatic conditions during the Weichselian time period. The compilation provides paleotemperature data sets, which may be used to explore the possible evolution of periglacial permafrost in Sweden. This report is a synopsis of 22 publications detailing climatic and environmental changes during the Weichselian time period in Northwestern Europe based on quantified paleotemperature records. Some of the data is presented as temperature curves which were digitised specifically for this report. The time range covered by the different publications varies considerably. Only few authors dealt with the whole Weichselian period and the majority cover only a few thousand years. This however is not considered to influence the reliability of the archives. The reason for the

  1. Hydrocarbon Induced Seismicity in Northern Netherlands (United States)

    Dost, B.; Spetzler, J.; Kraaijpoel, D.; Caccavale, M.


    The northern Netherlands has been regarded aseismic until the first earthquakes started in 1986, after more than 25 years of gas production from the one of the largest on-shore gas-fields in the World, the Groningen field, and accompanying smaller gas fields. Due to the shallow sources, at approximately 3 km depth, even small magnitude events cause considerable damage to buildings in the region. Since the largest recorded event in the Groningen field in 2012 with ML= 3,6, more than 30.000 damage claims were received by the mining company. Since 1995 a seismic monitoring network is operational in the region, consisting of 8 200m deep boreholes with 4 levels of 3C 4,5 Hz geophones. The network was designed for a location threshold of ML=1,5 over a 40x 80 km region. Average station separation was 20 km. At the end of 2014, 245 events have been recorded with ML ≥ 1,5, out of a total of 1100. Since 2003 a new mining law is in place in the Netherlands, which requires for each gas field in production a seismic risk analysis. Initially, due to the small number of events for specific fields, a general hazard (PSHA) was calculated for all gas-fields and a maximum magnitude was estimated at ML = 3,9. Since 2003 an increase in the activity rate is observed for the Groningen field, leading to the development of new models and a re-assessment of parameters like the maximum magnitude. More recently these models are extended to seismic risk, where also the fragility of the regional buildings is taken into account. Understanding the earthquake process is essential in taking mitigation measures. Continued research is focused on reducing the uncertainties in the hazard and risk models and is accompanied by an upgrade of the monitoring network. In 2014 a new dense network was designed to monitor the Groningen gas field in this region (30*40 km) with an average separation of 4 km. This allows an improved location threshold (M>0,5) and location accuracy (50-100m). A detailed P- and S

  2. Northern European long term climate archives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohl, Veronica


    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company is responsible for the management and disposal of Sweden's radioactive waste. It is intended to deposit the spent nuclear fuel in a deep geological repository. This repository shall keep the radiotoxic material separated from humans and the environment for extended periods, from decades to millennia and possibly to geological timescales. During this time perspective climate induced changes such as shore-level displacement and evolution of permafrost and ice sheets are expected to occur which may affect the repository. The possible occurrence, extent and duration of these long-term changes, are therefore of interest when considering the assessment of repository performance and safety. The main climate parameters determining both surface and subsurface conditions are temperature and precipitation. As a result of the last advance of the Weichselian ice sheet only few geological archives exist, which contain information on past climatic conditions in Sweden before c 16,000 years BP. The purpose of this literature review is to compile and evaluate available information from Scandinavian, Northern and Central European geological archives, which record climatic conditions during the Weichselian time period. The compilation provides paleotemperature data sets, which may be used to explore the possible evolution of periglacial permafrost in Sweden. This report is a synopsis of 22 publications detailing climatic and environmental changes during the Weichselian time period in Northwestern Europe based on quantified paleotemperature records. Some of the data is presented as temperature curves which were digitised specifically for this report. The time range covered by the different publications varies considerably. Only few authors dealt with the whole Weichselian period and the majority cover only a few thousand years. This however is not considered to influence the reliability of the archives. The reason for the varying

  3. Community-based study on intracerebral hemorrhage in northern Hokkaido. Northern Hokkaido Stroke Study (NOHSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sako, Kazuhiro; Shirai, Wakako; Tokumitu, Naoki; Aizawa, Shizuka


    A survey on stroke was conducted to evaluate the incidence of intracerebral hemorrhage and the prevalence of risk factors. The subjects, comprising those patients who suffesed a stroke, were registered on the Northern Hokkaido Stroke Study between July 2002 and June 2006. The severity of their illness was rated by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) at hospital admission, while their outcome was determined by the mortality within 3 months and the mRS (modified Rankin Scale score). Of the 1,046 registered stroke patients, 271 (25.9%) were found to suffer from cerebral hemorrhage. Their mean age was 70.3±11.7 years; male-to-female ratio, 154/117; mean NIHSS at admission, 11.8±8.1; mortality within 3 months, 19.2%; and percentage who regained independence within 3 months (mRS: ≤2), 32.5%. A history of hypertension was found in 72.6%, and 13.7% had no treatment. MRI (T2*) revealed micro-hemorrhage outside the lesions in 67.5%. Forty-seven patients (17.3%) were taking anti-platelet agents at the onset of intracerebral hemorrhage. There was no significant difference between the mortalities of the anti-platelet-agent-users and non-users but the percentage of those regaining independence within 3 months was 19.1% for the users against 37.3% for the non-users (p=0.0177), with a significantly poor outcome in the user group. In northern Hokkaido, the incidence of cerebral hemorrhage remains high, and the percentage of those with poorly controlled or uncontrolled hypertension was 30%. These findings suggest a need to educate not only the inhabitants themselves but also the physicians engaged in their care. (author)

  4. Hydrocarbon potential of Altiplano and northern Subandean, Bolivia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edman, J.D.; Kirkpatrick, J.R.; Lindsey, D.D.; Lowell, J.D.; Cirbian, M.; Lopez, M.


    Seismic, stratigraphic, structural, and geochemical data from the Altiplano, northern Subandean, and northern plains of Bolivia were interpreted in order to evaluate the exploration potential of each province. Identification of three possible source rock intervals, primarily the Devonian and secondarily the Permian and Cretaceous, was used as the basis for recognizing active hydrocarbon systems. For those areas containing source intervals, their analysis revealed that possible reservoir and seal units range in age from Paleozoic to Tertiary; the majority of structures, however, are Eocene or younger. With these general concepts in mind, traps were identified in all three sedimentary provinces. In the northern Altiplano, the most prospective area is along the eastern margin near a southwest and west-vergent thrust belt where hanging-wall anticlines and a warped Eocene-Oligocene(.) unconformity surface form the most likely potential traps. In the central and southern Altiplano, both thrust-related and wrench-related structures present possible exploration targets. In the northern Subandean and Beni plains north of the Isiboro-Chapare area, traps can be classified into two broad groups. First, there are a wide variety of structural traps within the northern Subandean thrust belt, the most attractive of which are footwall structures that have been shielded from surface flushing by hanging-wall strata. Second, in the plains just northeast of the thrust belt, hydrocarbons sourced from the remnant Paleozoic basin may have migrated onto the Isarsama and Madidi highs.

  5. Geomorphology and landscape organization of a northern peatland complex (United States)

    Richardson, M. C.


    The geomorphic evolution of northern peatlands is governed by complex ecohydrological feedback mechanisms and associated hydro-climatic drivers. For example, prevailing models of bog development (i.e. Ingram's groundwater mounding hypothesis and variants) attempt to explicitly link bog dome characteristics to the regional climate based on analytical and numerical models of lateral groundwater flow and the first-order control of water table position on rates of peat accumulation. In this talk I will present new results from quantitative geomorphic analyses of a northern peatland complex at the De Beers Victor diamond mine site in the Hudson Bay Lowlands of northern Ontario. This work capitalizes on spatially-extensive, high-resolution topographic (LiDAR) data to rigorously test analytical and numerical models of bog dome development in this landscape. The analysis and discussion are then expanded beyond individual bog formations to more broadly consider ecohydrological drivers of landscape organization, with implications for understanding and modeling catchment-scale runoff response. Results show that in this landscape, drainage patterns exhibit relatively well-organized characteristics consistent with observed runoff responses in six gauged research catchments. Interpreted together, the results of these geomorphic and hydrologic analyses help refine our understanding of water balance partitioning among different landcover types within northern peatland complexes. These findings can be used to help guide the development of appropriate numerical model structures for hydrologic prediction in ungauged peatland basins of northern Canada.


    Salo, Eeva; Griffiths, Elizabeth P.; Farstad, Teresa; Schiller, Bodil; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Yashiro, Mayumi; Uehara, Ritei; Best, Brookie M.; Burns, Jane C.


    Background We sought to compare the epidemiologic features of Kawasaki disease (KD) in three Northern European countries and Japan. Methods Data were obtained from discharge databases for hospitals in Finland, Norway, and Sweden from 1999–2009 and from nationwide epidemiologic surveys in Japan from 1998–2008. Annual incidence for each country was calculated using regional census data. Results During the 11-year period, 1,390 KD patients were recorded in the registries of the three Northern European countries. Average annual incidence rates per 100,000 children less than 5 years were: Finland 11.4, Norway 5.4, and Sweden 7.4. Overall, 86.4% of Japanese KD patients were less than 5 years compared to only 67.8% in the four Northern European countries (p<0.001). Conclusions The incidence of KD in Northern Europe was constant over the study period and much lower than in Japan. There was a significant age difference between Northern European and Japanese KD patients that remains unexplained. PMID:22726311

  7. 'Mixed' religion relationships and well-being in Northern Ireland. (United States)

    McAloney, Kareena


    Religion plays a pivotal role in intergroup and interpersonal relationships in Northern Ireland, and individuals traditionally marry within their own religious group. However, 'mixed' marriages between Catholics and Protestants do occur and present an interesting, yet under researched, dynamic within this divided society. Both religion and committed relationships have been associated with physical and psychological health, but little is known about how divergence in religious beliefs within relationships impacts on health. A secondary data analysis of the Northern Ireland cohort of the Understanding Society: the UK Household Longitudinal Study was conducted to investigate the impact of mixed religion relationships on physical and psychological well-being in Northern Ireland. Less than 10% of relationships were mixed religion relationships, and being in a mixed relationship was associated with poorer mental health but not with physical health. Mixed religion relationships in Northern Ireland are relatively uncommon in Northern Ireland, but are an important form of intergroup contact, as such it is important to fully understand the implications for the individuals involved and develop mechanisms to support those individuals psychological well-being.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Anatol’evna Naidenova


    Full Text Available The main tools of sustainable development of the country as a whole and its individual regions are federal and regional budgets. At the same time a prerequisite for the use of this tool is its equilibrium. It is the basic principle of a responsible fiscal policy. The article describes the factors to equilibrium. on the budgets of the northern regions of the Russian Federation. The measures to ensure budgetary equilibrium in the northern regions of the Russian Federation are offered.The purpose of the article. Substantiating the measures to balance the budgets of the northern Russian Federation subjects on the basis of analysis of the factors that directly affect the mobilization of potential tax revenues to regional budgets.Method and methodology of work. Theoretical and empirical methods, analysis, synthesis, induction, deduction.Results of the study. To ensure factors unbalanced budgets northern territories. The proposals the balance of revenues and expenditures of the regional budgets of the northern regions of the Russian Federation are submitted.Application area. Finance authorities of subjects of the Russian Federation.

  9. Extreme river flow dependence in Northern Scotland (United States)

    Villoria, M. Franco; Scott, M.; Hoey, T.; Fischbacher-Smith, D.


    Various methods for the spatial analysis of hydrologic data have been developed recently. Here we present results using the conditional probability approach proposed by Keef et al. [Appl. Stat. (2009): 58,601-18] to investigate spatial interdependence in extreme river flows in Scotland. This approach does not require the specification of a correlation function, being mostly suitable for relatively small geographical areas. The work is motivated by the Flood Risk Management Act (Scotland (2009)) which requires maps of flood risk that take account of spatial dependence in extreme river flow. The method is based on two conditional measures of spatial flood risk: firstly the conditional probability PC(p) that a set of sites Y = (Y 1,...,Y d) within a region C of interest exceed a flow threshold Qp at time t (or any lag of t), given that in the specified conditioning site X > Qp; and, secondly the expected number of sites within C that will exceed a flow Qp on average (given that X > Qp). The conditional probabilities are estimated using the conditional distribution of Y |X = x (for large x), which can be modeled using a semi-parametric approach (Heffernan and Tawn [Roy. Statist. Soc. Ser. B (2004): 66,497-546]). Once the model is fitted, pseudo-samples can be generated to estimate functionals of the joint tails of the distribution of (Y,X). Conditional return level plots were directly compared to traditional return level plots thus improving our understanding of the dependence structure of extreme river flow events. Confidence intervals were calculated using block bootstrapping methods (100 replicates). We report results from applying this approach to a set of four rivers (Dulnain, Lossie, Ewe and Ness) in Northern Scotland. These sites were chosen based on data quality, spatial location and catchment characteristics. The river Ness, being the largest (catchment size 1839.1km2) was chosen as the conditioning river. Both the Ewe (441.1km2) and Ness catchments have

  10. Job turnover and regional attrition among physiotherapists in northern Ontario. (United States)

    Noh, S; Beggs, C E


    Results of an initial study indicated that the most significant factor affecting retention for Physiotherapists in Northern Ontario was perceived opportunity for career development. A follow-up study was completed two years later to determine: 1) actual job turnover and regional attrition among physiotherapists in Northern Ontario; and 2) the predictive validity of variables identified in the first study regarding job turnover and regional attrition. Job turnover occurred in 29.5% of those sampled and the regional attrition rate was 12%. Discriminant function analysis revealed factors affecting job turnover and regional attrition including professional experience, practice location, opportunity for career development and size of community of residence. Based on previous intention, indicated by participants, follow-up revealed that the initial study correctly predicted 77.5% of those who changed their jobs and 74.1% of those who left Northern Ontario. Identified factors provide direction for the development of strategies for recruitment and retention of physiotherapists.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Akopov


    Full Text Available The dynamic changes in inter-regional differences in the social development of the regions of the North are traced. The increased value of social differentiation of northern regions as compared to the total of 88 and 72 (without northern regions of the Russian Federation and the process of their convergence was revealed on the basis of statistical characteristics. Four social types of the regions – highly-developed, developed, underdeveloped and problematic – were singled out by the method of the main components of the factorial analysis and hierarchical cluster Vord analysis. Each type needs development of goal-directed state regional policy aimed at smoothing and increasing of well-being of the population of northern regions.

  12. Market Imperfections on the power markets in northern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Klaus


    Up till now, most analyses of the northern European electricity liberalisation have assumed that a perfect competitive electricity market can be obtained. It has not been taken into account that a number of imperfections will inevitably occur - at least during the transition period. These imperfe...... not be achieved. The aim of this paper is to survey market imperfections and their influence on the liberalisation processes in northern Europe......Up till now, most analyses of the northern European electricity liberalisation have assumed that a perfect competitive electricity market can be obtained. It has not been taken into account that a number of imperfections will inevitably occur - at least during the transition period....... These imperfections can be technical, economic or tradition-bound, and can also have political characteristics. It is important to recognise and incorporate the market imperfections in the liberalisation policy and analysis. Otherwise, the purposes of the liberalisation and other energy policy goals may...

  13. Northern Territory Emergency Response: criticism, support and redesign. (United States)

    Evans, Brendon W


    The recent Federal Government Report and Media release, Stronger Futures in the Northern Territory: Report on Consultations and its claim of 'widespread Indigenous Support' has brought the topic of the Northern Territory Emergency Response (the Intervention) back into the public mind. This article provides a synthesis of four years of debate around the Northern Territory Emergency Response, at a time when the program is nearing the end of its time frame. It outlines the main arguments supporting the Intervention, the central criticisms and the government's response to these evaluations, with the aim of providing a primer or summary for health professionals to the discussion around this important public issue. © 2012 The Author. Australian Journal of Rural Health © National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  14. Responses of northern forest plants to atmospheric changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laine, K.; Huttunen, S.; Kauppi, M.; Ohtonen, R.; Laehdesmaeki, P. [Oulu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Biology


    This research programme has been under way since 1990 to study the long-term synergistic effects of air pollutants and changing climatic conditions on the northern forest ecosystem and to increase the knowledge of climatic change and its consequences for the fragile northern nature. Ecological, physiological, morphological and biochemical methods have been used to study the responses of forest trees, dwarf shrubs, lichens and soil biology to environmental changes. The research programme is divided into four subprojects concentrating on different ecosystem levels. The subprojects are: (1) life, growth and survival strategies of northern dwarf shrubs under the pressure of a changing environment, (2) forest trees under the impact of air pollutants, increasing CO{sub 2} and UV-B, (3) susceptibility of lichens to air pollution and climatic change and (4) impact of elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} on soil biology with special reference to carbon allocation and N fixation in symbiotic systems. This report summarizes the results of short-term experiments which showed many ecological and physiological changes in almost all elements of the northern boreal forests. These species-level measurements focused on the key species of the northern boreal forest, which have been thought to be useful in large-scale ecosystem experiments and modelling. The results will also facilitate the further studies on the patterns of plant species distribution and northern ecosystem function with respect to the environmental parameters that are expected to change along with global change (e.g. temperature, airchemistry, UV-B, snow condition)

  15. Geologic map of the northern plains of Mars (United States)

    Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Skinner, James A.; Hare, Trent M.


    The northern plains of Mars cover nearly a third of the planet and constitute the planet's broadest region of lowlands. Apparently formed early in Mars' history, the northern lowlands served as a repository both for sediments shed from the adjacent ancient highlands and for volcanic flows and deposits from sources within and near the lowlands. Geomorphic evidence for extensive tectonic deformation and reworking of surface materials through release of volatiles occurs throughout the northern plains. In the polar region, Planum Boreum contains evidence for the accumulation of ice and dust, and surrounding dune fields suggest widespread aeolian transport and erosion. The most recent regional- and global-scale maps describing the geology of the northern plains are largely based on Viking Orbiter image data (Dial, 1984; Witbeck and Underwood, 1984; Scott and Tanaka, 1986; Greeley and Guest, 1987; Tanaka and Scott, 1987; Tanaka and others, 1992a; Rotto and Tanaka, 1995; Crumpler and others, 2001; McGill, 2002). These maps reveal highland, plains, volcanic, and polar units based on morphologic character, albedo, and relative ages using local stratigraphic relations and crater counts. This geologic map of the northern plains is the first published map that covers a significant part of Mars using topography and image data from both the Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey missions. The new data provide a fresh perspective on the geology of the region that reveals many previously unrecognizable units, features, and temporal relations. In addition, we adapted and instituted terrestrial mapping methods and stratigraphic conventions that we think result in a clearer and more objective map. We focus on mapping with the intent of reconstructing the history of geologic activity within the northern plains, including deposition, volcanism, erosion, tectonism, impact cratering, and other processes with the aid of comprehensive crater-density determinations. Mapped areas include all

  16. The Genome of the Northern Sea Otter (Enhydra lutris kenyoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha J. Jones


    Full Text Available The northern sea otter inhabits coastal waters of the northern Pacific Ocean and is the largest member of the Mustelidae family. DNA sequencing methods that utilize microfluidic partitioned and non-partitioned library construction were used to establish the sea otter genome. The final assembly provided 2.426 Gbp of highly contiguous assembled genomic sequences with a scaffold N50 length of over 38 Mbp. We generated transcriptome data derived from a lymphoma to aid in the determination of functional elements. The assembled genome sequence and underlying sequence data are available at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI under the BioProject accession number PRJNA388419.

  17. ABCGheritage project - promoting geotourism in northern Finland, northern Norway and the Kola Peninsula (United States)

    Pihlaja, Jouni; Johansson, Peter; Lauri, Laura S.


    Nature tourism has been a growing business sector in the Barents area during the recent decades. With the purpose to develop nature tourism in a sustainable way, a cooperation project ABCGheritage - Arctic Biological, Cultural and Geological Heritage has been carried out. Project has received partial funding from the EU Kolarctic ENPI program. In the geoheritage part of the project the main activities were aimed to develop pro-environmental ways of geotourism in the area. The three main participants in the geoheritage part of the project are the Geological Survey of Finland, Northern Finland Office, the Geological Institute of the Kola Science Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Bioforsk Soil and Environment from northeastern Norway. The duration of the project is 2012-2014 and most of the work has already been completed even if most of the results are not published yet. Totally ten different tasks have been implemented in the geological part of the project. The largest task has been the preparation of a geological outdoor map and guide book of the Khibiny Tundra locating in the central part of the Kola Peninsula. In Finland already 11 such maps have been published, and the experiences gained during their production have been used in this project, too. Geological heritage trails to the Khibiny Tundra have also been created and they will be drawn on the map. The second concrete result is the Barents Tour for Geotourist -guide, which will be published as a guide book, web pages and an exhibition. The route comprises ca 35 best geological demonstration sites along the circle route from northern Finland to northeastern Norway, from there to Kola Peninsula and then back to Finland. Information of the route will be available for all interested travelers. In addition to the geological outdoor map of the Khibiny Tundra and "Barents Tour for Geotourists"-guide, the primary outputs of the project are the geological nature trails on the field, geological

  18. Agrosilvopastoral Systems in Northern Thailand and Northern Laos: Minority Peoples’ Knowledge versus Government Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalathon Choocharoen


    Full Text Available Traditional agrosilvopastoral systems have been an important component of the farming systems and livelihoods of thousands of ethnic minority people in the uplands of Mainland Southeast Asia. Drawing on a combination of qualitative and participatory inquiries in nine ethnic minority communities, this study emphasizes the complex articulation of local farmers’ knowledge which has been so far excluded from governmental development and conservation policies in the northern uplands of Thailand and Laos. Qualitative analysis of local knowledge systems is performed using the Agroecological Knowledge Toolkit (AKT5 software. Results show that ethnic minorities in the two countries perceive large ruminants to be a highly positive component of local forest agro-ecosystems due to their contribution to nutrient cycling, forest fire control, water retention, and leaf-litter dispersal. The knowledge and perceptions of agrosilvopastoral farmers are then contrasted with the remarkably different forestry policy frameworks of the two countries. We find that the knowledge and diversity of practices exercised by ethnic minority groups contrasts with the current simplified and negative image that government officials tend to construct of agrosilvopastoral systems. We conclude that local knowledge of forest-livestock systems can offer alternative or complementary explanations on ecological cause-and-effect relationships which may need further scientific investigation and validation.

  19. The link between BMI and waist circumference in northern Iranian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and Objectives: Waist circumference and not body mass index explains a greater variance in obesity-related health risk. The present study assesses the link between BMI and WC in Iranian adults. Methods: In a population based cross- sectional study on 3600 adults, northern Iran, we investigated the link ...

  20. Weather Effects on Maize Yields in Northern China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, Baojing; Kooten, van G.C.


    In the present study, the effect of weather on maize yields in northern China was examined using data from 10 districts in Inner Mongolia and two in Shaanxi province. A regression model with a flexible functional form was specified on the basis of agronomic considerations. Explanatory variables

  1. Yield stability of some groundnut accessions in northern Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yield stability of 12 groundnut accessions mainly developed by ICRISAT and two check varieties were tested in multilocational trials covering four locations in northern Ghana during the 1994, 1996, and 1997 cropping seasons. The trial for each year was arranged in a randomized complete block design with four ...

  2. Are Greenhouse Gas Signals of Northern Hemisphere winter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulbrich, U.; Leckebusch, G.C.; Grieger, J.; Kew, S.F.


    For Northern Hemisphere extra-tropical cyclone activity, the dependency of a potential anthropogenic climate change signal on the identification method applied is analysed. This study investigates the impact of the used algorithm on the changing signal, not the robustness of the climate change

  3. Strategies for the control of desertification in northern Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Northern part of Nigeria especially the frontline states comprising of Bauchi/ Gombe, Borno, Yobe, Jigawa, Kano, Katsina, Sokoto/Zamfara and Kebbi which lie roughly North of latitude 120N face serious threats of desertification occasioned by over exposure of the fragile environment mostly through improper farming ...

  4. Northern goshawk broadcast surveys: Hawk response variables and survey cost (United States)

    Suzanne M. Joy; Richard T. Reynolds; Douglas G. Leslie


    We examined responses of Northern Goshawks (Accipter gentilis) to taped broadcast calls of conspecifics in tree-harvest areas and around alternate goshawk nests on Kaibab National Forest, Arizona, in 1991 and 1992. Forest areas totaling 476 km2 were systematically surveyed for goshawks. Ninety responses by adult and juvenile goshawks were elicited...

  5. Diversity of avian haemosporidians in arid zones of northern Venezuela. (United States)

    Belo, Nayara O; Rodríguez-Ferraro, Adriana; Braga, Erika M; Ricklefs, Robert E


    Arid zones of northern Venezuela are represented by isolated areas, important from an ornithological and ecological perspective due to the occurrence of restricted-range species of birds. We analysed the prevalence and molecular diversity of haemosporidian parasites of wild birds in this region by screening 527 individuals (11 families and 20 species) for parasite mitochondrial DNA. The overall prevalence of parasites was 41%, representing 17 mitochondrial lineages: 7 of Plasmodium and 10 of Haemoproteus. Two parasite lineages occurred in both the eastern and western regions infecting a single host species, Mimus gilvus. These lineages are also present throughout northern and central Venezuela in a variety of arid and mesic habitats. Some lineages found in this study in northern Venezuela have also been observed in different localities in the Americas, including the West Indies. In spite of the widespread distributions of some of the parasite lineages found in northern Venezuela, several, including some that are relatively common (e.g. Ven05 and Ven06), have not been reported from elsewhere. Additional studies are needed to characterize the host and geographical distribution of avian malaria parasite lineages, which will provide a better understanding of the influence of landscape, vector abundance and diversity, and host identity on haemosporidian parasite diversity and prevalence.

  6. "The Northern Lights" Investigative Reporting Covers Deadly Decisions. (United States)

    Srour, George


    Presents a story package from the high school newspaper "The Northern Lights," called "Deadly Decisions." Includes an editorial, an eyewitness account, a timeline of the coverage itself, an interview with a local TV reporter, photographs, and a graph of the events the stories covered. (SR)

  7. Heating and dehumidification in production greenhouses at northern latitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempkes, F.; Zwart, De H.F.; Munoz, P.; Montero, J.I.; Baptista, F.J.; Giuffrida, F.; Gilli, Celine; Stepowska, Agnieszka; Stanghellini, C.


    The majority of greenhouses in northern latitudes are heated, in the winter mainly for temperature control and year round to control humidity. Heating is accepted by most organic regulations in different countries; if heating efficiently and the energy source is predominantly renewable energy,

  8. Indications of neotectonic crust motion in Northern Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haldimann, P.


    Indications of possible Pleistocene and Holocene tectonic activity in northern Switzerland have been found by an analysis of irregular erosional forms in the subcrop, abnormal gradients of accumulative gravel terraces and particular developments of the river course. (author) 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  9. Caulokaempferia pubescens (Zingiberaceae - A New Species from Northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boonmee Phokham


    Full Text Available A new species of Caulokaempferia K. Larsen (Zingiberaceae, C. pubescens Picheans. & Phokham, from Changwat Mae Hong Son in Northern Thailand is reported. Full descriptions, together with ink line–drawing with water color and photographic illustrations are given. Relationship of this new species with their phylogenetically closest related taxa, C. larsenii Suksathan & Triboun, is also discussed.

  10. Ethnobotanical evaluation of some plant resources in Northern part ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethnobotanical evaluation of some plant resources in Northern part of Pakistan. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... An ethnobotanical study on the medicinal and economic plants of Malam Jabba valley, District Swat was conducted with the aims of documenting the inventory of medicinal plants, examinining the current ...

  11. Mangrove Forests of Northern KwaZulu-Natal: Sediment Conditions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract—The state of mangroves in the large forests of northern KwaZulu-. Natal (KZN), South Africa, was assessed in terms of sediment characteristics and population structure in 2007. The tallest trees with the widest diameter at breast height were found at Mhlathuze (Avicennia marina) and Echwebeni (Bruguiera.

  12. Changes in abundance of the northern Benguela sardine stock ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... system-wide environmental changes were an important factor in the decline of the sardine stock at that time. Anomalous oceanographic conditions, such as extensive hypoxic shelf waters in 1993/94 and a Benguela Niño in 1995, support this conclusion. Keywords: environmental effects, fishing effects, northern Benguela, ...

  13. Health complaints of high school students in the Northern Province ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    Department of Medical Psychology, University of Vienna Medical School, Vienna, Austria. * To whom correspondence should be addressed. The article reports on a study of the health complaints of high school students in the Northern Province of South Africa, taboo themes in their families, and the relationship between the ...

  14. Detection, Quantification and Monitoring of Prosopis in the Northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fritz Schoeman

    Invasive Prosopis species pose a significant threat to biodiversity and ecosystem services in the. Northern Cape Province of South Africa. The objective of the study was to use Remote Sensing and. Geographical Information System (GIS) techniques to: (i) reveal areas susceptible to future invasion, (ii) describe the current ...

  15. Silvicultural guide for northern white-cedar (eastern white cedar) (United States)

    Emmanuelle Boulfroy; Eric Forget; Philip V. Hofmeyer; Laura S. Kenefic; Catherine Larouche; Guy Lessard; Jean-Martin Lussier; Fred Pinto; Jean-Claude Ruel; Aaron. Weiskittel


    Northern white-cedar (eastern white cedar; Thuja occidentalis L.) is an important tree species in the northeastern United States and adjacent Canada, occurring both in pure stands and as a minor species in mixed stands of hardwoods or other softwoods. Yet practitioners have little and often contradictory information about cedar ecology and...

  16. Depression and exposure to violence among Venda and Northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Depression and exposure to violence among Venda and Northern Sotho adolescents in South Africa. JM Bach, D Louw. Abstract. Objective: Despite the high levels of violence in South Africa, a lacunae in research exists regarding the influence of violence exposure on children. This study investigated the correlation ...

  17. In vitro propagation of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) (United States)

    G. Vengadesan; Paula M. Pijut


    In vitro propagation of northern red oak (Quercus rubra) shoots was successful from cotyledonary node explants excised from 8-wk-old in vitro grown seedlings. Initially, four shoots per explant were obtained on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 4.4 µM 6-benzylaminopurine (BA), 0.45 ...

  18. Opinion: Autopsy practice in northern Nigeria | Malami | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Surgical Research. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 4, No 3 (2002) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Opinion: Autopsy practice in northern Nigeria.

  19. Triassic volcanic units in coastal region of Antofagasta, northern Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basso, M.; Cortes, J.A.; Marinovic, N


    U-Pb geochronological evidence of a Middle to Late Triassic volcanic event was found in the coastal region of Antofagasta, northern Chile (23 o -23 o 30 ). Two new ages were obtained from rhyolitic tuffs and an associated dome, which have classically been attributed to the Jurassic La Negra Formation (au)

  20. Socioeconomic status and cutaneous malignant melanoma in Northern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idorn, L W; Wulf, H C


    Socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM), also in Northern Europe despite equal access to health care. SES per se is not responsible for this association which must be ascribed to important risk factors for CMM such as intermittent UVR exposure, and screening...

  1. Women Poetry from Northern Nigeria: A Bibliographical Note | Bala ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many critics have decried what is often called “the zero presence” of the female voice in Nigerian poetry: Nigerian female writers trail behind their male counterparts for a number of reasons (literary, historical and cultural). This is more pronounced if not more acute in Northern Nigeria, where literature of English expression ...

  2. Haematology outreach clinics in the Free State and Northern Cape

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    patients' domicile, how they were referred, types of diagnoses and ... The intention was to offer a more accessible and affordable service to more patients in the Free State and Northern Cape, in accordance with provincial policy.' The Departments of ... The cost would have been higher if consultants had had to stay over.

  3. Survival of northern red oak acorns after fall burning (United States)

    L.R. Auchmoody; H. Clay Smith; H. Clay Smith


    Survival of recently fallen northern red oak acorns after exposure to a cool fall burn was evaluated in northwestern Pennsylvania. Although no acorns were consumed by the fire, some were charred. Between 40 and 49 percent of the acorns in the litter were destroyed. The fire was not hot enough to kill Curculio larvae within the acorns. Burned acorns infested with...

  4. Insecticide use and practices among cotton farmers in northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is an important cash crop in Uganda. Insecticide application practices among cotton growers in northern Uganda were examined to determine the pests targeted and the compliance of control measures with the standards recommended by the Uganda's Cotton Development Organization ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Tourism Offer in Romania and Northern Transylvania – Territorial Disparities. Explaining spatiality has been in the focus of tourism geographers since the beginnings, and the examination of spatial processes still represents a major challenge for researchers, knowing that there is no segment in the functioning of society in which spatiality is not present. The approach was to consider tourism as a complex spatial phenomenon, in order to explain better its processes. Romanian literature abounds in descriptive research of travel and tourism, discussing quantitative and qualitative issues, attraction classifications, tourism potential and geographic dispersal. However, a serious deficit manifests in explanatory research. Therefore, this paper aims to analyze the territorial disparities in the tourism offer of Romania, in generally and of Northern Transylvania in particularly, in the light of current trends characterizing the national tourism industry. Besides spatial characteristics, this paper also deals with tourism penetration on regional level, and territorial concentration of accommodation capacity in the region of Northern Transylvania. The results show that in the moderately-high saturated destination of Northern Transylvania the accommodation capacity in use is spatially concentrated and only a few localities can be regarded as the strongholds of the accommodation basis. The study brings novel results especially for tourism planning, but also provides a basis for further research.

  6. Terrestrial ecological responses of climate change in the Northern hemisphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forchhammer, M.C.


    Focusing on the single most important atmospheric phenomenon in the Northern hemisphere, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the author reviews the recent studies coupling the NAO with the ecology of a wide range of terrestrial organisms. In particular, the author focuses on low variations in the NAO affect phenotypic variation in life history Traits and, ultimately, dynamics of populations and of interacting species. (LN)

  7. The Determinants of Training in SMEs in Northern Ireland (United States)

    Reid, Renee S.; Harris, Richard I. D.


    This study looks at SME spending on training in Northern Ireland. We include a range of human resource management functions, as well as workforce characteristics, the external environment, size, and the impact of changes in ownership status as important determinants of training expenditure in SMEs. Particular attention is also paid to the…

  8. Surgical reconstruction of Northern Uganda war victims. | Kalanzi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Aid groups estimate that since 1086 when the war conflicts in Northern Uganda started, over 30,000 people have died in the insurgency and over 20,000 people have remained maimed. Arising from the conflict, innocent civilians have had their limbs, lips, eyes, ears, noses, breasts, fingers and toes cut off.

  9. Risk assessment of precipitation extremes in northern Xinjiang, China (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Pei, Ying; Zhang, Yanwei; Ge, Quansheng


    This study was conducted using daily precipitation records gathered at 37 meteorological stations in northern Xinjiang, China, from 1961 to 2010. We used the extreme value theory model, generalized extreme value (GEV) and generalized Pareto distribution (GPD), statistical distribution function to fit outputs of precipitation extremes with different return periods to estimate risks of precipitation extremes and diagnose aridity-humidity environmental variation and corresponding spatial patterns in northern Xinjiang. Spatiotemporal patterns of daily maximum precipitation showed that aridity-humidity conditions of northern Xinjiang could be well represented by the return periods of the precipitation data. Indices of daily maximum precipitation were effective in the prediction of floods in the study area. By analyzing future projections of daily maximum precipitation (2, 5, 10, 30, 50, and 100 years), we conclude that the flood risk will gradually increase in northern Xinjiang. GEV extreme value modeling yielded the best results, proving to be extremely valuable. Through example analysis for extreme precipitation models, the GEV statistical model was superior in terms of favorable analog extreme precipitation. The GPD model calculation results reflect annual precipitation. For most of the estimated sites' 2 and 5-year T for precipitation levels, GPD results were slightly greater than GEV results. The study found that extreme precipitation reaching a certain limit value level will cause a flood disaster. Therefore, predicting future extreme precipitation may aid warnings of flood disaster. A suitable policy concerning effective water resource management is thus urgently required.

  10. Domestic violence in Gulu, Northern Uganda | Kitara | East and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: When guns fell silent in the post conflict northern Uganda, another form of physical injuries has come in place, Domestic Violence also commonly referred to as Gender based violence. This injury from violence leading to physical trauma is one of the leading public health problems in this region. We describe ...

  11. Species boundaries in non-tropical Northern Hemisphere Owls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voous, K.H.


    A survey is presented of the status of species boundaries in nontropical Northern Hemisphere owls in order to investigate the reality of the biological and geographical species concept applied to these owls in current handbooks. At the same time the practicability of evolutionary systematics as

  12. Economcis of cattle fattening with crop residues in Northern Guinea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to investigate the economics of Cattle fattening with crop residues in Northern Guinea Savannah Ecological Zone of Nigeria, Data were collected from 100 respondents between January to December, 1999 using simple random sampling technique. Interview method was employed. The data were ...

  13. Temporal geoelectric behaviour of dyke aquifers in northern Deccan ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vertical electrical resistivity soundings (VES) were carried out over four major dykes of Nandurbar district in the northern Deccan Volcanic Province (DVP) of Maharashtra to investigate the subsurface geological conditions, with an aim of identifying zones with groundwater resource potential. Dykes can act as pathways or ...

  14. Forest conditions and trends in the northern United States (United States)

    Stephen R. Shifley; Francisco X. Aguilar; Nianfu Song; Susan I. Stewart; David J. Nowak; Dale D. Gormanson; W. Keith Moser; Sherri Wormstead; Eric J. Greenfield


    This section describes current conditions and trends for the 20 Northern States by focusing on selected characteristics associated with forest sustainability. Its format is based upon a set of 64 indicators within 7 broad criteria that the United States and 11 other countries have adopted under the auspices of the Montréal Process Working Group on Criteria and...

  15. Vernacular Architecture of Northern Nigeria in the Light of Sustainability (United States)

    Danja, Isa Ibrahim; Li, Xue; Dalibi, S. G.


    Nigeria, a country located in the Western part of Africa has been the site of numerous kingdoms and tribal states over the millennia and is divided in to Northern and Southern parts with the Hausa-Fulani’s, a diverse but culturally homogeneous people living in the northern part of Nigeria. The vernacular architecture of the Northern Nigeria (VANN) is perhaps one of the least known but most beautiful of the medieval age, over the centuries a tradition of fine architecture has flourished in the area, the variety and quality of buildings are bound to generate much delight and enthusiasm in anyone who is interested in buildings. Many of their early buildings such as mosques and palaces are bright and colorful. This architectural style is known as Tubali which means the traditional architecture in the Hausa language and globally known as Vernacular Architecture (VA). VANN has many unique features which distinguish it from any other architecture. All buildings, be it modern or old has an impact on the environment; hence the need for sustainable measures and practices regarding such buildings. The aim of this research paper is to examine the features of VANN in the light of sustainability. Reviewed literatures were used to identify the various features of the Vernacular Architecture in the Northern Nigeria which were critically examined in the light of sustainability and its concept. The result showcased the various features of VANN in the light of sustainability and also discussed the factors hindering the sustainable endeavors of VANN with respect to such features.

  16. Sengi (elephant-shrew) observations from northern coastal Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biodiversity of northern coastal Kenya is poorly understood because security problems and poor infrastructure have discouraged access to the area. However, the wooded areas in the region have great potential for harbouring unique and rare species, including sengis or elephant-shrews (Macroscelidea). Based on ...

  17. Transverse lie in labor: A study from Kaduna, Northern Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: During the period there were 16633 deliveries and 30 women with transversely lying fetuses, giving an incidence of 1 in 554 deliveries. Forty percent of the cases were neglected transverse lies. The para 4 and above group had the highest incidence of 2.69/1000. Northern minorities ethnic group had the highest ...

  18. Mangrove Forests of Northern KwaZulu-Natal: Sediment Conditions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The state of mangroves in the large forests of northern KwaZulu-Natal (KZN), South Africa, was assessed in terms of sediment characteristics and population structure in 2007. The tallest trees with the widest diameter at breast height were found at Mhlathuze (Avicennia marina) and Echwebeni (Bruguiera gymnorrhiza and ...

  19. Rainfall response to Dam/Irrigation projects in Northern Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we examine the possibility that the increasing number and size of dam/irrigation projects in northern Nigeria are having a corresponding increase in rainfall in spite of the threat of climate change. We modeled the rainfall trends over 11 meteorological stations over a period of 34 years (1971 - 2004). The trends ...

  20. Food habits of bald eagles wintering in northern Arizona (United States)

    Teryl G. Grubb; Roy G. Lopez


    We used pellets collected from roosts to supplement incidental foraging observations to identify prey species of Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucoughalus) and to evaluate spatial and temporal trends in their food habits while wintering in northern Arizona between 1994-96. We analyzed 1057 pellets collected from 14 roosts, and identified five mammal and...

  1. A survey of cardinalfish (Apogonidae) of Antsiranana Bay, northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cardinalfish of Antsiranana Bay, northern Madagascar, were surveyed over an 11 month period by underwater census employing a simple search pattern using self-contained underwater breathing apparatus. Over this period 15 species were observed including one species not previously recorded in Madagascar, ...

  2. Effects of extreme global warming in Northern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drews, Martin; Christensen, Jens Hesselbjerg


    In this Climate Research (CR) Special, the Centre for Regional Change in the Earth System (CRES) brings together scientific expertise (ranging from climate to social sciences) with practitioners and stakeholders to present thematic research addressing gaps in (1) our understanding of climate-syst...... in this CR Special highlight potential effects of extreme global warming with a focus on Denmark and northern Europe....

  3. Temperature variations as evidence of climate change in northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper seeks to investigate whether evolving temperature patterns over northern Nigeria agree with the projections made by global warming and climate change models. The data used are screen air temperature on a monthly time scale. These data were obtained from the database of the Nigerian Meteorological ...

  4. The Aledjo Quartzitic Ruins in Northern Togo: Genesis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In northern Togo, the Aledjo Mountains represent a NE-SW to ENE-WSW trending segment of the Pan-African Dahomeyide orogen. This mainly quartzitic topography belongs to the external zone of the belt and, more precisely, to the eastern assemblage of the Atacora Structural Unit. It corresponds to a ruiniform landscape ...

  5. Reproduction of the shorthorn sculpin Myoxocephalus scorpius in northern Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luksenburg, JA; Pedersen, T; Falk-Petersen, IB

    The reproduction and life history events of the shorthorn sculpin Myoxocephalus scorpius were studied in an unexploited high latitude population in Tromso, northern Norway. Shorthorn sculpins were sampled from November 1998 to March 1999 to determine sex ratio, spawning period, oogenesis, fecundity,

  6. Primary Humanities--A Perspective from Northern Ireland (United States)

    Greenwood, Richard; Richardson, Norman; Gracie, Anita


    The word "humanities" does not appear in the current Northern Ireland Curriculum (NIC). Geography and history are taught within an Area of Learning called "The World Around Us" which also contains science and technology. The curriculum has a strong emphasis on an integrated, "connected learning" way of teaching and…

  7. The Current State of Reproductive Health in Rural Northern Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria has one of the highest maternal mortality ratios in the world, and most deaths occur in the northern part of the country. Concerns about the persistence of the problem prompted some Nigerian academics to partner with their American colleagues to establish a postgraduate fellowship programme that builds the ...

  8. The visibility of non-communicable diseases in Northern Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: WHO and Uganda's Ministry of Health emphasize the need to address the growing burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Treatment for these conditions is urgent in northern Uganda where war has negatively affected both health and the public health care system. Objectives: We aimed to explore the ...

  9. Microstructures of Early Jurassic (Toarcian) shales of Northern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houben, M.E.; Barnhoorn, A.; Wasch, L.; Trabucho-Alexandre, J.; Peach, C.J.; Drury, M.R.


    The Toarcian (Early Jurassic) Posidonia Shale Formation is a possible unconventional gas source in Northern Europe and occurs within the Cleveland Basin (United Kingdom), the Anglo-Paris Basin (France), the Lower Saxony Basin and the Southwest Germany Basin (Germany), and the Roer Valley Graben, the

  10. Is the underdevelopment of northern Ghana a case of environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since the late 1990s, the arguably most problematic regions in Ghana—the three northern regions, accounting for half of the country's landscape yet the least developed—have come under increased academic scrutiny. This article seeks to interrogate some conventional arguments which attempt to attribute the region's ...

  11. Fossil Microorganisms in Archaean deposits of Northern Karelia (United States)

    Astafieva, M. M.; Hoover, R. B.; Rozanov, A. Y.; Vrevskiy, A. B.


    Newly found biomorphic microstructures from the Upper Archaean (lopian) rocks from Northern Karelia are described. The presence of various microorganisms of bacterial nature and even cyanobacteria (and possibly eukaryotic forms) is suggested. The necessity of employing methods of electron microscopy, as well as traditional methods, while studying the very early manifestations of life in Archaean and Early Proterozoic is noted.

  12. fracture systems in the younger granite rocks around fobur, northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Bowden, P. and Turner, D.C., 1974. Peralkaline and associated ring complexes in the Nigerian-Niger. Province, West Africa. In: The Alkaline Rocks,. H. Serensen (ed) John Willey, New York. pp.330-351. Bowden, P., Whitley, J.E. and Van Breeman, O., 1989. Geochemical studies on the Younger Granites of northern Nigeria.

  13. Guide to wildlife tree management in New England northern hardwoods (United States)

    Carl H. Tubbs; Richard M. DeGraaf; Mariko Yamasaki; William M. Healy


    Presents information on the culture and management of trees that have value as components of wildlife habitat in the northern hardwood and associated types in New England. Background information is provided for choosing the most suitable trees for wildlife habitats and for estimat ing the impact of timber production. Suggestions are made for choosing the numbers of...

  14. Sagebrush-ungulate relationships on the Northern Yellowstone Winter Range (United States)

    Carl L. Wambolt


    Sagebrush (Artemisia) taxa have historically been the landscape dominants over much of the Northern Yellowstone Winter Range (NYWR). Their importance to the unnaturally large ungulate populations on the NYWR throughout the twentieth century has been recognized since the 1920s. Sagebrush-herbivore ecology has been the focus of research on the NYWR for...

  15. Epidemiology of chronic kidney disease in northern region of Senegal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an emerging worldwide epidemic but few data are available in African populations. We aimed to assess prevalence of CKD in adult populations of Saint-Louis (northern Senegal). Methods: In a population-based survey between January and May 2012, we included 1,037 adults ...

  16. Modelling Peatland Hydrology: Three cases from Northern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Querner, E.P.; Mioduszewski, W.; Povilaitis, A.; Slesicka, A.


    Many of the peatlands that used to extend over large parts of Northern Europe have been reclaimed for agriculture. Human influence continues to have a major impact on the hydrology of those that remain, affecting river flow and groundwater levels. In order to understand this hydrology it is

  17. Effects of riparian buffers on hydrology of northern seasonal ponds (United States)

    Randall K. Kolka; Brian J. Palik; Daniel P. Tersteeg; James C. Bell


    Although seasonal ponds are common in northern, glaciated, forested landscapes, forest management guidelines are generally lacking for these systems. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of riparian buffer type on seasonal pond hydrology following harvest of the adjacent upland forest. A replicated block design consisting of four buffer treatments...

  18. Inland Aquaculture and Adaptation to Climate Change in Northern ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    However, research on climate change and aquaculture is limited compared to many other agricultural activities. This project focuses on tilapia grown in farm ponds or floating cages in rivers and reservoirs in northern Thailand. It explores both how aquaculture practices should adapt to changing climatic conditions and the ...

  19. girl child education: what is the future in northern nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Key words: Girl child education, school enrolment, retention, gender parity, maternal mortality, northern Nigeria. Introduction. Education is an important foundation to imp-rove the status of women and has also been recognised as a fundamental strategy for development. No sustaina- ble development is possible if women ...

  20. Colonial Conflicts in Contemporary Northern Ghana: A Historical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Northern Ghana has witnessed phenomenal increases in armed conflicts over the past three decades. Many of these conflicts are 'colonial conflicts' rooted in colonial policies, but some others have no reference to colonialism as they are occasioned by endogenous factors. The Kusasi-Mamprusi and Nawuri-Gonja conflicts ...

  1. Lemmatization of reflexives in Northern Sotho | Prinsloo | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this article is to evaluate current strategies in the lemmatization of reflexives in Northern Sotho. In particular the so-called "traditional" approach according to which reflexives are lemmatized randomly, as well as the more "rule orientated" alternative, will be critically evaluated mainly against the background of ...

  2. Women and Liberal Peacebuilding in Post- Conflict Northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines women's participation in post-conflict peacebuilding activities within the neo-liberal peace theory and framework. Using qualitative approach, the study gathered information from 40 women and several key informants working and living in post-conflict northern Uganda. The paper utilizes this ...

  3. The regulation of uranium mining in the Northern Territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wedd, M.


    The regulatory framework developed for uranium mining operations in the Northern Territory is reviewed. The respective roles of the Commonwealth Government, State Government and other regulatory authority are described. Whilst complex, expensive and cumbersome the regulatory process has so far ensured input from diverse interest groups and it allowed for environmental protection control in the Alligator River Region

  4. Culturally and economically important nontimber forest products of northern Maine (United States)

    Michelle J. Baumflek; Marla R. Emery; Clare. Ginger


    Nontimber forest products (NTFPs) gathered for food, medicine, craft, spiritual, aesthetic, and utilitarian purposes make substantial contributions to the economic viability and cultural vitality of communities. In the St. John River watershed of northern Maine, people identifying with cultural groups including Acadian, Maliseet, Mi'kmaq, Scotch-Irish, and Swedish...

  5. Health complaints of high school students in the Northern Province ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    The article reports on a study of the health complaints of high school students in the Northern Province of South Africa, taboo themes in their families, and the relationship between the two. Five hundred and twenty-nine (529) high school students filled in a self-rating questionnaire designed to identify their health complaints ...

  6. Rainfall response to dam/irrigation projects in northern Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we examine the possibility that the increasing number and size of dam/irrigation projects in northern Nigeria are having a corresponding increase in rainfall in spite of the threat of climate change. We modeled the rainfall trends over 11 meteorological stations over a period of 34 years (1971 - 2004). The trends ...

  7. Geostatistical interpolation for modelling SPT data in northern Izmir

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India) Keywords. Kriging; SPT; site investigations; land-use planning; modelling; Northern Izmir. Abstract. In this study, it was aimed to map the corrected Standard Penetration Test(SPT) values in Karşıyaka city center by kriging approach. Six maps were prepared by this ...

  8. Newcomer Pupils in Northern Ireland: A Pastoral Perspective (United States)

    Jones, Sharon Jayne


    Rapid changes in Northern Ireland's demographic, resulting in an increasingly multicultural and multilingual school population, are presenting new opportunities and challenges for schools in a region emerging from a troubled recent past. Reflecting on this from a pastoral perspective, this article focuses on the relationships between the school…

  9. An ecological and phytogeographic study of northern Surinam savannas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donselaar, van J.


    Geology and soils in general Surinam is situated at the northern edge of the very old and stable Guiana shield. Six-sevenths of the country’s surface are occupied by formations belonging to the shield and designated together as the basal complex. However, the Roraima formation does not belong to the

  10. Maquiladoras, Women's Work, and Unemployment in Northern Mexico. (United States)

    Tiano, Susan


    Uses Marxist/feminist concepts to explain employment patterns among female workers in multinational maquiladoras (assembly plants) in northern Mexico. Concludes that maquiladoras have not alleviated regional unemployment for either sex, but have created a docile low-wage work force that includes a pool of surplus labor. Contains 48 references. (SV)

  11. Language of Power: Pidgin in the Colonial Governance of Northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ANDCORPgh changing the world


    Mar 15, 2015 ... And pidgin was hard to replace. Keywords: intermediaries, pidgin, colonial administration, Northern Nigeria, evolution. Pidgin is English modified by another language or multiple other languages. In the evolution of pidgin, the original English is termed the superstrate language, denoting the language of the ...

  12. Language of power: Pidgin in the colonial governance of Northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... government in Northern Nigeria, as they lacked a wider medium for inter-ethnic communication. African political agents were employed as intermediaries, based on their knowledge of pidgin and other local languages, enabling them bridge communication between government and chiefs. And pidgin was hard to replace.

  13. Changes in the trophic structure of the northern Benguela before ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exploitation of marine resources has been occurring in the northern Benguela ecosystem for centuries. Understanding the cumulative long-term effects of this exploitation is important toward effective management of the modern system. Retrospective mass-balanced models of the ecosystem have been constructed, using ...

  14. Large herbivore dynamics in northern Gonarezhou National Park, Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gandiwa, E.; Heitkonig, I.M.A.; Gandiwa, P.; Matsvayi, W.; Westhuizen, van der H.; Ngwenya, M.M.


    We compared densities and distribution of wild ungulates and domestic livestock based on aerial surveys conducted during 1991 - 2,010 in northern parts of Gonarezhou National Park (GNP), Zimbabwe. The sampled area covered approximately 320 km(2) (Chipinda Pools area) representing ca. 27 % of the

  15. Survey for Armillaria by plant associations in northern Arizona (United States)

    Christ W. Hoffman; Robert L. Mathiasen; Richard W. Hofstetter; Mary Lou Fairweather; John D. Shaw; John W. Hanna; Ned B. Klopfenstein


    Fungi in the genus Armillaria are associated with an important disease of deciduous and coniferous trees and shrubs in western North America. This study examined the distribution of Armillaria by forest habitat types on the Kaibab National Forest and northern Coconino National Forest, Arizona. Over 400 trees were examined for Armillaria in 76 Interior West Forest...

  16. Parents' expectations of public schooling in the Northern Province of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    Which aspects of public schooling are of greater importance to parents in the Northern Province? •. What are ... skills such as leadership, teamwork, critical thinking, career develop- ment and communication. Citizenship ..... and workplace links: Such links can help learners to acquire workplace skills, attitudes and attributes.

  17. Aspen fencing in northern Arizona: A 15-year perspective (United States)

    James M. Rolf


    Aspen clearcuts in the 1960s and 1970s on the Peaks Ranger District of the Coconino National Forest in northern Arizona failed to regenerate successfully because of browsing primarily by elk. Since 1985, over 400 acres have been successfully regenerated using fencing of various designs to exclude elk. The expense and visual impact of establishing and maintaining over...

  18. Status of fertilization and nutrition research in northern forest types (United States)

    Miroslaw M. Czapowskyj


    Forest fertilization is a useful tool that, when combined with other silvicultural practices, results in increased forest growth. Many experiments have demonstrated that both hardwoods and conifers of the northern forest respond to the addition of one or more nutrients. Examples of pitfalls and successes are given. Present status of research and future research needs...

  19. Acanthosis Nigricans among Northern Plains American Indian Children (United States)

    Brown, Blakely; Noonan, Curtis; Bentley, Bonnie; Conway, Kathrene; Corcoran, Mary; FourStar, Kris; Gress, Shannon; Wagner, Sharon


    The purpose of this study is to present cross-sectional and prospective data on acanthosis nigricans (AN) prevalence in the context of other risk factors for diabetes including high body mass index (BMI), abnormal blood pressure (BP), physical inactivity and family history of diabetes among Northern Plains American Indian (AI) children.…

  20. The Mollusca inhabiting rice fields in northern Cameroon and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A systematic account is given of the freshwater gastropod and bivalve fauna of Ouro-Doukoudje, northern Cameroon, based on a survey conducted from July 2000 to June 2001 at 12 sites in rice fields spanning 800 ha. In total, 14 species were encountered, one of them (Burnupia sp.) being a first record for the area.

  1. Caesarean Risk Factors in Northern Region of Bangladesh: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL) Research Article. Caesarean Risk Factors in Northern Region of. Bangladesh: A Statistical Analysis. Mostafizur Rahman1, Asma Ahmad Shariff1* and Aziz Shafie2. 1Centre for Foundation Studies in Science, 2Department of Geography, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

  2. The print media and conflict resolution in Northern Uganda | Acayo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article reviews the role of the print media in conflict resolution. Using Northern Uganda as a case study, the article seeks to demonstrate that the press can effectively be used either to fuel conflict in a region or to reduce conflict in a region. The article seeks to demonstrate the role played by the print media in conflict and ...

  3. Pattern of defect associated with stem stubs on northern hardwoods (United States)

    Alex L. Shigo


    Decay and discoloration are the principal defects that reduce quality of northern hardwoods in New England. We need to know how to minimize these defects in young growing stock, and how to recognize them in merchantable trees. To determine accurately the amount of internal defect in trees, we must know the quantitative relationships between external signs on stems and...

  4. Watershed Restoration in the Northern Sierra Nevada: A Biotechnical Approach (United States)

    Donna S. Lindquist; Linton Y. Bowie


    A cooperative erosion control project was initiated in 1985 for the North Fork Feather River watershed in California's northern Sierra Nevada due to widespread accelerated erosion. Resulting sedimentation problems have impacted fish, wildlife and livestock resources, and have created operational concerns for hydroelectric facilities located downstream. In response...

  5. Genetic analysis of 55 northern Vietnamese patients with Wilson ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 96; Issue 6. Genetic analysis of 55 northern Vietnamese patients with Wilson disease: seven novel mutations in ATP7B. LE ANH TUAN PHAM TRONG TUE NGUYEN HOANG BICH NGA LE DAT QUOC TRAN CAM TU HO THINH HUY TRAN VAN THANH TA THE HUNG BUI ...

  6. Tillage and Fertilizer Effects on Maize Production in Northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is a major food crop in Ghana but grain yield is often constrained by low soil fertility and water deficits during grain fill. Response of maize to tillage and fertilizer treatments was evaluated in a field experiment from 2000 through 2002 on a sandy loam soil (Typic-plinthic Paleustalf) in Wa in the northern ...

  7. Fire ecology of the forest habitat types of northern Idaho (United States)

    Jane Kapler Smith; William C. Fischer


    Provides information on fire ecology in forest habitat and community types occurring in northern Idaho. Identifies fire groups based on presettlement fire regimes and patterns of succession and stand development after fire. Describes forest fuels and suggests considerations for fire management.

  8. Field Simulation of Global Change: Transplanting Northern Bog Mesocosms Southward

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breeuwer, A.J.G.; Heijmans, M.M.P.D.; Robroek, B.J.M.; Berendse, F.


    A large proportion of northern peatlands consists of Sphagnum-dominated ombrotrophic bogs. In these bogs, peat mosses (Sphagnum) and vascular plants occur in an apparent stable equilibrium, thereby sustaining the carbon sink function of the bog ecosystem. How global warming and increased nitrogen

  9. Shelterwood-planted northern red oaks: integrated costs and options (United States)

    Martin A. Spetich; Daniel Dey; Paul. Johnson


    Tree biology, environmental site conditions, relative monetary costs, management options, and the competitive struggle between planted trees and other vegetation were integrated when underplanting northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedlings in Boston Mountain shelterwoods. This approach provides insight into the collective costs (...

  10. Contraceptive practices of women in Northern Tshwane, Gauteng ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Structuredinterviews were conducted with 83 women in the Northern Tshwane area of the Gauteng Province about their contraceptive practices. All the participants couldgain more knowledge about the effective use ofmodern contraceptives. Knowledge about emergency contraceptives was extremely limited. Although most ...

  11. Chlorine activation and ozone destruction in the northern lowermost stratosphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lelieveld, J; Bregman, A; Scheeren, HA; Strom, J; Carslaw, KS; Fischer, H; Siegmund, PC; Arnold, F


    We report aircraft measurements from the Stratosphere-Troposphere Experiments by Aircraft Measurements (STREAM) II campaign, performed during February 1995 from Kiruna, northern Sweden, near 67 degrees N latitude. We have measured trace species, e.g., O-3, nitrogen compounds, HCl, hydrocarbons, CO,

  12. At Northern Illinois U., Leaders Grapple with a Tragedy (United States)

    Sander, Libby


    At even the best-prepared universities, there is no playbook for handling the crush of tough decisions that comes after a mass shooting rocks an otherwise quiet campus. While colleges and universities have always had tragedies, recent occurences like the shootings at Northern Illinois University and Virginia Tech have fundamentally changed the way…

  13. Field guide to forest plants of northern Idaho (United States)

    Patricia A. Patterson; Kenneth E. Neiman; Jonalea K. Tonn


    This field guide -- designed for use by people with minimal botanical training -- is an identification aid for nearly 200 plant species having ecological indicator value in northern Idaho forest habitat types. It contains line drawings, simplified taxonomic descriptions , characteristics tables, conspectuses, and keys. It emphasizes characteristics useful for field...

  14. Inversion structures in Northern Sotho | Zerbian | Southern African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inversion structures, in which the logical subject appears in postverbal position, are a wide-spread phenomenon among Bantu languages. The paper presents an overview of inversion structures in Bantu languages and describes in detail the inversion constructions in the Southern Bantu language Northern Sotho. It argues ...

  15. Genetic diversity in Cucurbita pepo landraces from northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dendrogram mainly grouped the populations according to their mature fruit colour, and then according to their geographical origin. All genetic parameters indicated that there was plentiful genetic diversity in C. pepo landraces of northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Key words: Cucurbita pepo landraces, genetic ...

  16. Climate of Priest River Experimental Forest, northern Idaho (United States)

    Arnold I. Finklin


    Detailed climatic description of Priest River Experimental Forest; applies to much of the northern Idaho panhandle. Covers year-round pattern and focuses on the fire season. Topographic and local site differences in climate are examined; also, climatic trends or fluctuations during the past 70 years. Includes numerous tables and graphs. Written particularly for forest...

  17. The use of the Arabic script in northern Mozambique | Bonate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Northern Mozambican Muslim population has been using the Arabic script for writing in KiSwahili and local African languages for centuries. Even today, many people continue using this script in private correspondence. Despite the abundance of the documents in this script that are housed at the Mozambique Historical ...

  18. Daily fire occurrence in northern Eurasia from 2002 to 2009 (United States)

    W. M. Hao; H. M. Eissinger; A. Petkov; B. L. Nordgren; Shawn Urbanski


    Northern Eurasia, covering 20% of the global land mass and containing 70% of boreal forest, is extremely sensitive to climate changes. Warmer temperatures in this region have led to less snowfall, earlier spring, longer growing season, and reduced moisture for soil and vegetation in summer. Recently, severe drought and record high temperatures caused catastrophic fires...

  19. Pigment signatures of phytoplankton composition in the northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pigment indices were used to investigate the distribution and composition of phytoplankton in the northern Benguela during the austral spring of 2000, with sampling being conducted on five transect lines between 19°S and 25°S and at other inshore stations on the shelf. Total chlorophyll a concentrations (TChla) at the ...

  20. Cervical epithelial changes in a tertiary hospital in northern Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cervical epithelial changes in a tertiary hospital in northern Nigeria. PH Daru, IC Pam, J Musa, MG Daniyan, OI Silas, OA Adesina, IF Adewole. Abstract. Introduction: Cervical cancer is the commonest gynaecological malignancy in Nigeria, accounting for most deaths from cancers in women. Screening remains one of the ...

  1. Islamic criminal law in northern Nigeria: politics, religion, judicial practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weimann, G.J.


    In 2000 and 2001, twelve northern states of the Federal Republic of Nigeria introduced Islamic criminal law as one of a number of measures aiming at "reintroducing the shari'a." Immediately after its adoption, defendants were sentenced to death by stoning or to amputation of the hand. Apart from a

  2. Boko Haram in northern Nigeria: a Maududian legacy | Dikki ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper establishes this by showing that “Ikhwan al-Muslimun (Muslim Brotherhood) of Egypt, the Jama'at-i-Islami of Pakistan, the Wahabbi views in Saudi Arabia and Islamic revolution of Iran are all indirect propagators of Maududian ideology. This fundamentalist ideological influence in northern Nigeria began with ...

  3. Northern Sotho grammatical descriptions: the design of a tokeniser ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With tokenisation, this ambiguity is removed as the position of the morpheme in the token allows for more accurate analysis of the morpheme. This article focuses on the description of the verbal segment in current Northern Sotho grammars. The different types of verbal elements are investigated as well as all the verbal ...

  4. Demand for Women's Health Services in Northern Nigeria: A Review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    information that can be utilized by programs designed to increase demand for health services. (Afr J Reprod Health 2017; 21[2]:. 96-108). Keywords: Maternal health, family planning, demand-side, Northern Nigeria, literature review. Résumé. La demande et l'utilisation des services de santé des femmes dans le nord du ...

  5. Preparing Teachers in a Divided Society: Lessons from Northern Ireland (United States)

    Pace, Judith L.


    In a divisive age, how do we support beginning teachers in taking up the challenge of teaching controversial topics and creating classroom environments that promote civil discourse? For insights, the author looked to the work of teacher educators in Northern Ireland, a region that is still affected by many generations of intense sectarian…

  6. Shared Education in Northern Ireland: School Collaboration in Divided Societies (United States)

    Gallagher, Tony


    During the years of political violence in Northern Ireland many looked to schools to contribute to reconciliation. A variety of interventions were attempted throughout those years, but there was little evidence that any had produced systemic change. The peace process provided an opportunity for renewed efforts. This paper outlines the experience…

  7. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in northern Mexico ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of the genetic heterogeneity described in Mexican population. Therefore, samples from the northern Mexico were biochem- ically screened for G6PD deficiency, and PCR-RFLPs, and DNA sequencing used to identify mutations in positive samples. The frequency of G6PD deficiency in the population was 0.95% (n = 1993); ...

  8. Is the underdevelopment of northern Ghana a case of environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Savannah Accelerated Development Authority (SADA) is a Government of Ghana agency responsible for coordinating a .... ignored or deferred as a problem to be dealt with in the future. Northern Ghana ..... pre-occupation shifted to stopping the raging tribal wars and slave raids that had plagued the region. (Plange, 1979 ...

  9. Tectonic Geomorphology of the northern Upper Rhine Graben, Germany.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, G; van Balen, R.T.


    This paper focuses on the northern Upper Rhine Graben (URG), which experienced low tectonic deformation and multiple climate changes during Quaternary times. Recently, human modifications have been high. The paper presents the results of a study into the effects of fault activity on the landscape

  10. What drives the biological productivity of the northern Indian Ocean?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Narvekar, J.; Nuncio, M.; Gauns, M.; Sardessai, S.

    The northern Indian Ocean consists of two unique tropical basins: the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. The Arabian Sea is one of the most highly productive regions of the world ocean, while the Bay of Bengal is a basin of low productivity...

  11. Women and Liberal Peacebuilding in Post- Conflict Northern Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    COMMUNITY SOCIAL WORK AGENDA REVISITED? Women and Liberal Peacebuilding in ... information from 40 women and several key informants working and living in post-conflict northern Uganda. The paper .... around conflict commencement, progression, its end and the rebuilding process. Recent scholarship (e.g. ...

  12. Trends in hardwood timber resources for the Northern States (United States)

    Richard H. Widmann; Thomas L. Schmidt


    The forests of the 20-state Northern Region are maturing. The portion of timberland covered by sawtimber-size stands has increased and the area in the sapling/seedling-size stands has decreased. Growing-stock volume has doubled since the early 1950's. Most of the recent gains in volume have occurred on sawtimber-size trees, resulting in large increases in...

  13. Progress towards a lightning ignition model for the Northern Rockies (United States)

    Paul Sopko; Don Latham


    We are in the process of constructing a lightning ignition model specific to the Northern Rockies using fire occurrence, lightning strike, ecoregion, and historical weather, NFDRS (National Fire Danger Rating System), lightning efficiency and lightning "possibility" data. Daily grids for each of these categories were reconstructed for the 2003 fire season (...

  14. Microsatellite markers for northern red oak (Fagaceae: Quercus rubra) (United States)

    Preston R. Aldrich; Charles H. Michler; Weilin Sun; Jeanne Romero-Severson


    We provide primer sequences for 14 (GA)n microsatellite loci developed from northern red oak, an important timber species. We screened loci using two sets of samples. A parent-offspring set included DNA from seven acorns collected from one mother tree along with maternal DNA, to determine that all progeny carried a maternal allele at each locus....

  15. Spawning and development of Lesueurigobius sanzoi ofT northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S.-Afr. Tydskr. Dierk. 1989,24(2). Spawning and development of Lesueurigobius sanzoi ofT northern Namibia. M. P. Olivar. Instituto de Ciencias del Mar, Paseo Nacional sin 08003, Barcelona Spain. Received 22 August 1988; accepted 28 November 1988. The presence of the gobiid Lesueurigobius sanzoi in the Benguela ...

  16. Risk assessment of precipitation extremes in northern Xinjiang, China (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Pei, Ying; Zhang, Yanwei; Ge, Quansheng


    This study was conducted using daily precipitation records gathered at 37 meteorological stations in northern Xinjiang, China, from 1961 to 2010. We used the extreme value theory model, generalized extreme value (GEV) and generalized Pareto distribution (GPD), statistical distribution function to fit outputs of precipitation extremes with different return periods to estimate risks of precipitation extremes and diagnose aridity-humidity environmental variation and corresponding spatial patterns in northern Xinjiang. Spatiotemporal patterns of daily maximum precipitation showed that aridity-humidity conditions of northern Xinjiang could be well represented by the return periods of the precipitation data. Indices of daily maximum precipitation were effective in the prediction of floods in the study area. By analyzing future projections of daily maximum precipitation (2, 5, 10, 30, 50, and 100 years), we conclude that the flood risk will gradually increase in northern Xinjiang. GEV extreme value modeling yielded the best results, proving to be extremely valuable. Through example analysis for extreme precipitation models, the GEV statistical model was superior in terms of favorable analog extreme precipitation. The GPD model calculation results reflect annual precipitation. For most of the estimated sites' 2 and 5-year T for precipitation levels, GPD results were slightly greater than GEV results. The study found that extreme precipitation reaching a certain limit value level will cause a flood disaster. Therefore, predicting future extreme precipitation may aid warnings of flood disaster. A suitable policy concerning effective water resource management is thus urgently required.

  17. Ecological studies on rain forest in Northern Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulz, J.P.


    During the years 1955-1957 ecological data were collected in various types of mesophytic forest occurring in the northern half of central Suriname (fig. 1). Physiognomically as well as floristically these forests correspond with the type of vegetation which in the other parts of tropical America

  18. The Economic Rationale of Recycling Hybrid Seeds in Northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of 126 farmers was conducted with the objective of evaluating the economic rationale for recycling hybrid maize seed in northern Tanzania. About 80% of the sample farmers recycled hybrid and open pollinated maize seeds for three to six years as response to cash constraint and to hedge against production and ...

  19. The lemmatization of copulatives in northern Sotho | Prinsloo | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this article is to offer solutions to the lemmatization problems regarding copulatives in Northern Sotho and to propose guiding entries for paper and electronic dictionaries which could serve as models for future dictionaries. It will be illustrated that the maximum utilisation of macrostructural and microstructural ...

  20. Evaluation of Adherence to Diabetic Treatment in Northern Region ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine medication adherence and predictors of suboptimal adherence in patients with diabetes type 2, and to address the factors that are associated with treatment non-adherence in Northern Region of United Arab Emirates (UAE). Methods: This cross-sectional study involved 200 type 2 diabetes mellitus ...

  1. Sludge fertilization of State Forest land in northern Michigan (United States)

    D.G. Brockway


    A five-year research-demonstration project to examine the logistic, economic, environmental and sociological aspects of municipal wastewater sludge application was conducted on State Forest land occupied by forest types of major commercial importance in northern Michigan. The procedures utilized for site preparation, sludge transportation and sludge application proved...

  2. Moral Reasoning among Nigerian Northern Irish Children: A Cross ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The moral reasoning of 10-11 year old Nigerian children (n=37) was compared to children of the same age (n=48) from Northern Ireland. The research employed the Socio moral Reflection Measure-Short Form (SRM-SF; Gibbs, Basinger & Fuller, 1992) and assessed the measure's usefulness for cross-cultural research.

  3. Pollination biology of northern red and black oak (United States)

    Robert A. Cecich; William W. Haenchen


    Pistillate flower abortion in northern red oak and black oak was evaluated in relation to pollination and fertilization. The presence, position, and characteristics of the pollen grains, pollen tubes, and ovules were determined with bright field and fluorescence microscopy. Flower survival counts were made weekly, from late April to mid- September. Both species have...

  4. The Changing Family in Northern Ireland: Young People and Divorce. (United States)

    Fawcett, Margaret I.


    Interviewed adolescents in Northern Ireland to investigate their experiences with the divorce process and help provided by family, friends, and professionals. They considered the separation/divorce process long, frequently underpinned by acrimony and violence. Extended family and peers provided great support. Many teens used specialist counselors…

  5. Bacteriology of Dried Meat ( Kilishi ) Hawked in Some Northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacterial aetiological agents have been implicated in roughly one-third of the food-borne disease outbreaks worldwide. This study is aimed at detecting the presence of bacterial pathogens in dried meat (kilishi) in northern Nigeria. A total of two hundred (200) samples of kilishi from 12 locations were examined ...

  6. Leishmaniasis in northern and western Africa: a review | Kimutai ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leishmaniasis, one of the highly neglected diseases is currently a significant health problem in northern Africa with a rising concern in western Africa because of co-infection with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). In this review, we present a summarized analysis of the epidemiology, infective species, parasites ...

  7. Endomyocardial Fibrosis in Northern Nigerian Girl | Aliyu | Annals of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Endomyocardial fibrosis (EMF) is a disease of the tropics and subtropics; and the most common cause of restrictive cardiomyopathy. In Nigeria, it is more common in the rain forest zone; though few case reports have been documented in the Northern part of Nigeria; it is often more common amongst adolescents and young ...

  8. Child malnutrition in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia | Mulugeta | East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Estimate levels of and identify factors contributing to child malnutrition in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: Rural ... Child age, maternal anthropometric characteristics, inadequate complementary foods, the use of prelacteal feeds and area of residence were the main contributing

  9. Reducing vulnerability among pastoralists in northern Kenya | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    Apr 21, 2011 ... Research on climate-related vulnerability among pastoralist communities in Mandera and Turkana in Northern Kenya, led by the Kenyan NGO Practical Action, is shedding light on the biophysical impacts of drought, and its social and economic consequences in these remote areas. Climate data confirms ...

  10. An Environmental Scan of Northern Alameda County. Revised. (United States)

    Peralta Community Coll. District, Oakland, CA. Office of Research, Planning and Development.

    An overview is provided of the demographic and economic characteristics of the geographical area defined by the Peralta Community College District's boundaries in Northern Alameda County, California. In addition, projections are presented concerning the population and economy of the county until the year 2005. Highlighted findings of the…

  11. Genetic analysis of 55 northern Vietnamese patients with Wilson ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Le Anh Tuan Pham


    Dec 19, 2017 ... We used Sanger sequencing to identify mutation hot spots in 55 northern Vietnamese with a clinical diagnosis of WD. Mutations were screened and detected by direct. DNA sequencing. A total of 26 different ATP7B gene mutations were identified, including seven novel mutations (five nonsense and.

  12. Evaluation Inquiry in Donor Funded Programmes in Northern Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    May 1, 2016 ... Evaluation Inquiry in Donor Funded Programmes in Northern Ghana: Experiences of Programme Staff. Introduction .... professional planning and cost control, rich communication and learning from experience in ... to enhance the validity and use of the evaluation or to make for the limitations of each other.

  13. Waves off Gopalpur, northern Bay of Bengal during cyclone Phailin.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Amrutha, M.M.; SanilKumar, V.; Anoop, T.R.; Nair, T.M.B.; Nherakkol, A.; Jeyakumar, C.

    The wave statistical parameters during Cyclone Phailin which crossed the northern Bay of Bengal are described based on the Directional Waverider buoy-measured wave data from 8 to 13 October 2013. On 12 October 2013, the cyclone passed within 70 km...

  14. Northern Virginia wineries: understanding visitor motivations for market segmentation (United States)

    Cammeral Geide; Laurie Harmon; Robert Baker


    The wine industry is a rapidly growing sector of Virginia's economy, yet little research has been done on this topic. The purpose of this study was to obtain a better understanding of northern Virginia winery visitors' motivations to help winery operators better focus their marketing efforts. This exploratory research project collected basic information about...

  15. Nest trees of northern flying squirrels in the Sierra Nevada (United States)

    Marc D. Meyer; Douglas A. Kelt; Malcolm P. North


    We examined the nest-tree preferences of northern flying squirrels (Glaucomys sabrinus) in an old-growth, mixed-conifer and red fir (Abies magnifica) forest of the southern Sierra Nevada of California. We tracked 27 individuals to 122 nest trees during 3 summers. Flying squirrels selected nest trees that were larger in diameter and...

  16. Lexical generality as a determinant of extension position in Northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lexical generality as a determinant of extension position in Northern Sotho. ... Further research is required to throw more light onto the question of whether or not extensionordering is determined by the morphology proper as proposed by Hyman (2002) or by morphologyexternalfactors as proposed by Bybee (1985).

  17. Risky Subjectivities in Philip Pullman's "Northern Lights" (United States)

    Mahon, Áine; O'Brien, Elizabeth


    This paper engages the philosophical concepts of subjectification and acknowledgment in conversation with Philip Pullman's young adult novel, "Northern Lights". Our particular focus is Lyra Belacqua, Pullman's central character. Precarious in her vulnerability and in her unknown significance, we read Lyra as usefully negotiating the…

  18. Fracture systems in the younger granite rocks around fobur, northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Outcrop-scale fractures and associated veins found in the Younger Granite rocks around Fobur, Northern Nigeria were studied in relation to similar structures in their host rocks (Migmatites-gneisses -quartzite complex). Fractures and veins attitude (strike and dip) data were collected across the study area and subjected to ...

  19. Beryllium-10 concentrations in water samples of high northern latitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strobl, C.; Eisenhauer, A.; Schulz, V.; Baumann, S.; Mangini, A. [Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften, Heildelberg (Germany); Kubik, P.W. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)


    {sup 10}Be concentrations in the water column of high northern latitudes were not available so far. We present different {sup 10}Be profiles from the Norwegian-Greenland Sea, the Arctic Ocean, and the Laptev Sea. (author) 3 fig., 3 refs.

  20. Genetic analysis of 55 northern Vietnamese patients with Wilson ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Dec 19, 2017 ... Early diagnosis can improve treatment outcome and decrease the rate of disability or even mortality.We used Sanger sequencing to identify mutation hot spots in 55 northern Vietnamese with a clinical diagnosis of WD. Mutations were screened and detected by direct DNA sequencing. A total of 26 different ...

  1. Demand function and elasticities for seed yam in northern Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study employed the conventional demand function analyses to examine the influence of socio-economic variables on seed yam demand in Northern Nigeria. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select 150 seed yam farmers in three major States in 2006. Input-output data and their prices were ...

  2. A new species of Sipapoantha (Genianaceae: Heliae) from northern Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lepis, K.B.; Maas, P.J.M.; Struwe, L.


    A new species from Gentianaceae (tribe Helieae) is described from northern Brazil. Sipapoantha obtusisepala sp. nov. is distinct from the previously single member of the genus, Sipapoantha ostrina, by having a woody and branched habit, sessile and ovate leaves with an acute apex, and a smaller calyx

  3. A new species of Sipapoantha (Gentianaceae: Helieae) from northern Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lepis, K.B.; Maas, P.J.M.; Struwe, L.


    A new species from Gentianaceae (tribe Helieae) is described from northern Brazil. Sipapoantha obtusisepala sp. nov. is distinct from the previously single member of the genus, Sipapoantha ostrina, by having a woody and branched habit, sessile and ovate leaves with an acute apex, and a smaller calyx

  4. Religious Education and the Law in Northern Ireland's Controlled Schools (United States)

    Armstrong, David


    This article examines the legislation under which religious education operates in Northern Ireland's schools. A brief historical sketch identifies the Irish Churches' interest in the educational debates of the 1920s and 1930s. The legislation that established religious education in the curriculum is traced from those debates to the present…

  5. Inversion structures in Northern Sotho | Zerbian | Southern African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It argues that Northern Sotho shows only one inversion structure, namely the impersonal construction. I propose that constructions which arguably constitute cases of locative inversion in neighboring languages can be analysed as impersonal constructions with preposed locative constituents. Evidence from morphosyntax, ...

  6. Pattern of psychoactive substance use in the northern region of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pattern of psychoactive substance use in the northern region of Nigeria. ... African Journal of Drug and Alcohol Studies ... The purpose of this study was to assess the pattern of psychoactive substance use among inmates at Kiru Rehabilitation Centre, Kano in the North Central Region of Nigeria, to determine the extent of ...

  7. Stillbirths at the West Gonja hospital in northern Ghana | Der ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In most parts of Ghana, stillbirths (SBs) do not count in routine mortality data collection and there-fore are not seen as a major public health problem. The aim of this study was to determine still-birth rate, trend, causes and factors associated with stillbirth at the West Gonja Hospital in northern Ghana and offer ...

  8. Does urban vegetation mitigate air pollution in northern conditions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setälä, Heikki; Viippola, Viljami; Rantalainen, Anna-Lea; Pennanen, Arto; Yli-Pelkonen, Vesa


    It is generally accepted that urban vegetation improves air quality and thereby enhances the well-being of citizens. However, empirical evidence on the potential of urban trees to mitigate air pollution is meager, particularly in northern climates with a short growing season. We studied the ability of urban park/forest vegetation to remove air pollutants (NO 2 , anthropogenic VOCs and particle deposition) using passive samplers in two Finnish cities. Concentrations of each pollutant in August (summer; leaf-period) and March (winter, leaf-free period) were slightly but often insignificantly lower under tree canopies than in adjacent open areas, suggesting that the role of foliage in removing air pollutants is insignificant. Furthermore, vegetation-related environmental variables (canopy closure, number and size of trees, density of understorey vegetation) did not explain the variation in pollution concentrations. Our results suggest that the ability of urban vegetation to remove air pollutants is minor in northern climates. -- Highlights: ► The ability of northern urban vegetation to remove air pollutants is minor. ► Vegetation-related environmental variables had no effect on air pollution levels. ► The ability of vegetation to clean air did not differ between summer and winter. ► Dry deposition passive samplers proved applicable in urban air pollution study. -- The ability of urban vegetation to remove air pollutants seems to be minor in northern climates

  9. Late Cretaceous evolution of the northern Sistan suture zone ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Demartis et al. 2011) and Africa (Ferre et al. 1995;. Cecys and Benn 2007; Vegas et al. 2008). ..... pressional and dextral strike-slip movement at least in the later episodes of intrusion, when magma was cooling. .... Internal fabric and strike-slip emplacement of the Pan-. African granite of Solli Hills, northern Nigeria; Tectonics.

  10. NEW RECORD OF DOLICHOPODA FROM NORTHERN IRAN (Orthoptera, Rhaphidophoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Di Russo


    Full Text Available The record of a new sample of Dolichopoda from Northern Iran is reported. The morphological study of this material allowed the authors to attribute the studied specimens to D. Hyrcana Bey-Bienko, 1969, whose geographic distribution now extends eastwards to the Alborz Mountains in North Iran.

  11. Rapid economic analysis of northern hardwood stand improvement options (United States)

    William B. Leak


    Data and methodology are provided for projecting basal area, diameter, volumes, and values by product for northern hardwood stands, and for determining the rate of return on stand improvement investments. The method is rapid, requires a minimum amount of information, and should prove useful for on-the-ground economic analyses.

  12. (HQBF) technology in the Northern Region of Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study focused on the level of adoption of high quality bambara flour (HQBF) processing technology and its impact on end-users. A random sample of 100 women, mainly bambara processors, was selected from Gushiegu/Karaga, Tolon Kumbungu, Savelugu-Nanton, and Tamale districts of the Northern Region of ...

  13. Stroke at a tertiary medical institution in Northern Nigeria: Patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Little is known about the burden of stroke in the northern part of Nigeria as most studies in the country have been in the southern part. The objective of this study was to study the profile of stroke patients and predictors of outcome in a tertiary health centre in Katsina, North-Western Nigeria.. Patients and Method: ...

  14. Northern Forest Futures reporting tools and database guide (United States)

    Patrick D. Miles; Robert J. Huggett; W. Keith. Moser


    The Northern Forest Futures database (NFFDB) supports the reporting of both current and projected future forest conditions for the 20 states that make up the U.S. North, an area bounded by Maine, Maryland, Missouri, and Minnesota. The NFFDB database and attendant reporting tools are available to the public as a Microsoft AccessTM database. The...

  15. Towards a morphological analyser for past tense forms in Northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A sample from the Comprehensive Northern Sotho Dictionary (Ziervogel & Mokgokong, 1985) was used to analyse the formation of tense forms in verb stems with final 'm' and 'n'. The research findings show that stems with final 'm' and 'n' are not governed by the same rules, as purported by some grammars, and that the ...

  16. Boda Boda Injuries in Gulu Regional Hospital, Northern Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Trauma is the commonest indication for surgical admission in Gulu Hospital in Northern Uganda. The situation was made worst by the conflict between the government of Uganda and the LRA. As and when the guns fell silent, the Boda-boda motocycles brought another form of trauma epidemic. These injuries ...

  17. Effects of changes in vegetation on precipitation in the northern ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 125; Issue 3. Effects of changes in vegetation on precipitation in the northern Tianshan Mountains evaluated using multiple time scales. Qinming Qinming Sun Tong Liu Zhiquan Han Yongping Wu Bai-Lian Li. Volume 125 Issue 3 April 2016 pp 507-519 ...

  18. Livelihood activities of migrants from Ghana's northern regions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of socioeconomic development between the northern and southern parts of the country. The findings of this paper have implications for population distribution, occupational mobility and patterns of socioeconomic development across Ghana. Keywords: Livelihood activities, north-south migration, occupational mobility, ...

  19. Assessing drought risk and irrigation need in northern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araya, A.; Stroosnijder, L.


    Long-term climate data of four stations in the northern Ethiopia were analyzed in combination with information from local farmers and documented materials. From this analysis, a suitable drought-assessing technique was developed and site-specific needs for supplementary irrigation were explored.

  20. 76 FR 44493 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sierra Air Quality Management... (United States)


    ... California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sierra Air Quality Management District, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District, and South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... approve revisions to the Northern Sierra Air Quality Management District (NSAQMD), Sacramento Metropolitan...

  1. 76 FR 44535 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sierra Air Quality Management... (United States)


    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sierra Air Quality Management District, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District, and South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the Northern Sierra Air Quality Management District (NSAQMD), Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

  2. Diurnal Variation over the Tropical Monsoon Regions During Northern Summer 1991

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jimenez, Greg


    This study examines diurnal variation of convection over western India, the Bay of Bengal, Indochina and the northern South China Sea during the 1991 northern summer monsoon using combined Japanese (GMS) and Indian (INSAT...

  3. LBA-ECO LC-01 Topographic Data for Intensive Study Areas, Northern Ecuadorian Amazon (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains topographic/geomorphological data associated with the four Intensive Study Areas (ISAs) in the Northern Ecuadorian Amazon (northern...

  4. LBA-ECO LC-01 Topographic Data for Intensive Study Areas, Northern Ecuadorian Amazon (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains topographic/geomorphological data associated with the four Intensive Study Areas (ISAs) in the Northern Ecuadorian Amazon (northern Oriente)...

  5. Territory Boundary Polygons, Northern Marianas Islands (CNMI), 1999, US Census Bureau (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Boundaries of the northern most islands of the Northern Marianas Islands (CNMI). Siapan, Rota and Tinian are not included in these data set. TIGER, TIGER/Line, and...

  6. Compression and Processing of Space Image Sequences of Northern Lights and Sprites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren Otto; Martins, Bo; Jensen, Ole Riis


    Compression of image sequences of auroral activity as northern lights and thunderstorms with sprites is investigated.......Compression of image sequences of auroral activity as northern lights and thunderstorms with sprites is investigated....

  7. Northern nursing practice in a primary health care setting. (United States)

    Vukic, Adele; Keddy, Barbara


    This paper explicates the nature of outpost nursing work, and/or the day-to-day realities of northern nursing practice in a primary health care setting in Canada. The study was carried out to systematically explore the work of nurses in an indigenous setting. Institutional ethnography, pioneered by Dorothy Smith was the methodology used to guide this research. The theoretical perspective of this methodology does not seek causes or links but intends to explicate visible practices. It is intended to explicate the social organization of specific discourses that inform work processes of nurses working in remote indigenous communities. The data originated from various sources including spending 2 weeks in a northern remote community shadowing experienced nurses, taking field notes and audio taping interviews with these nurses. One of the two researchers was a northern practice nurse for many years and has had taught in an outpost nursing programme. As part of the process, texts were obtained from the site as data to be incorporated in the analysis. The lived experiences have added to the analytical understanding of the work of nurses in remote areas. Data uncovered documentary practices inherent to the work setting which were then analysed along with the transcribed interviews and field notes derived from the on-site visit. Identifying disjuncture in the discourse of northern nursing and the lived experience of the nurses in this study was central to the research process. The results indicated that the social organization of northern community nursing work required a broad generalist knowledge base for decision making to work effectively within this primary health care setting. The nurse as 'other' and the invisibility of nurses' work of building a trusting relationship with the community is not reflected in the discourse of northern nursing. Trust cannot be quantified or measured yet it is fundamental to working effectively with the community. The nurses in this study

  8. Water Ice Albedo Variations on the Martian Northern Polar Cap (United States)

    Hale, A. S.; Bass, D. S.; Tamppari, L. K.


    The Viking Orbiters determined that the surface of Mars northern residual cap is water ice. Many researchers have related observed atmospheric water vapor abundances to seasonal exchange between reservoirs such as the polar caps, but the extent to which the exchange between the surface and the atmosphere remains uncertain. Early studies of the ice coverage and albedo of the northern residual Martian polar cap using Mariner 9 and Viking images reported that there were substantial internannual differences in ice deposition on the polar cap, a result which suggested a highly variable Martian climate. However, some of the data used in these studies were obtained at differing values of heliocentric solar longitude (L(sub s)). Reevaluation of this dataset indicated that the residual cap undergoes seasonal brightening throughout the summer, and indicated that this process repeats from year to year. In this study we continue to compare Mariner 9 and Viking Orbiter imaging observations and thermal data of the north residual polar cap to data acquired with Mars Global Surveyor s Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) instrument. In the current study, our goal is to examine all released data from MGS MOC in the northern summer season, along with applicable TES data in order to better understand the albedo variations in the northern summer and their implications on water transport. To date, work has focused primarily on the MOC dataset. In 1999, data acquisition of the northern polar regions began at L(sub s) = 107, although there was little north polar data acquired from L(sub s)= 107 to L(sub s) = 109. We examined a total of 409 images from L(sub s) = 107 to L(sub s)=148. We have also examined data from 2000 from L(sub s)= 93 to L(sub s)= 110; additional progress is ongoing. Here we present a progress report of our observations, and continue to determine their implications for the Martian water cycle.

  9. Thermal refugia against coral bleaching throughout the northern Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Osman, Eslam O.


    Tropical reefs have been impacted by thermal anomalies caused by global warming that induced coral bleaching and mortality events globally. However, there have only been very few recordings of bleaching within the Red Sea despite covering a latitudinal range of 15° and consequently it has been considered a region that is less sensitive to thermal anomalies. We therefore examined historical patterns of sea surface temperature (SST) and associated anomalies (1982–2012) and compared warming trends with a unique compilation of corresponding coral bleaching records from throughout the region. These data indicated that the northern Red Sea has not experienced mass bleaching despite intensive Degree Heating Weeks (DHW) of >15°C-weeks. Severe bleaching was restricted to the central and southern Red Sea where DHWs have been more frequent, but far less intense (DHWs <4°C-weeks). A similar pattern was observed during the 2015–2016 El Niño event during which time corals in the northern Red Sea did not bleach despite high thermal stress (i.e. DHWs >8°C-weeks), and bleaching was restricted to the central and southern Red Sea despite the lower thermal stress (DHWs < 8°C-weeks). Heat stress assays carried out in the northern (Hurghada) and central (Thuwal) Red Sea on four key reef-building species confirmed different regional thermal susceptibility, and that central Red Sea corals are more sensitive to thermal anomalies as compared to those from the north. Together, our data demonstrate that corals in the northern Red Sea have a much higher heat tolerance than their prevailing temperature regime would suggest. In contrast, corals from the central Red Sea are close to their thermal limits, which closely match the maximum annual water temperatures. The northern Red Sea harbours reef-building corals that live well below their bleaching thresholds and thus we propose that the region represents a thermal refuge of global importance.

  10. Changes in active eolian sand at northern Coachella Valley, California (United States)

    Katra, Itzhak; Scheidt, Stephen; Lancaster, Nicholas


    Climate variability and rapid urbanization have influenced the sand environments in the northern Coachella Valley throughout the late 20th century. This paper addresses changes in the spatial relationships among different sand deposits at northern Coachella Valley between two recent time periods by using satellite data acquired from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER). The approach employed here, involving multispectral thermal infrared (TIR) data and spectral mixture analysis, has shown that the major sand deposits can be spatially modeled at northern Coachella Valley. The "coarse-grained (quartz-rich) sand" deposit is associated with active eolian sand, and the "mixed sandy soil" and "fine-grained (quartz-rich) sand" deposits are associated with inactive eolian sand. The fractional abundance images showed a significant decrease between 2000 and 2006 in the percentage of active sand in the major depositional area for fluvial sediment, the Whitewater River, but also in two downwind areas: the Whitewater and Willow Hole Reserves. The pattern of the active sand appears to be related to variations in annual precipitation (wet and dry years) and river discharge in the northern Coachella Valley. We suggest here that recent human modifications to the major watercourses that supply sand affect the capability of fluvial deposition areas to restore sediments over time and consequently the responses of the sand transport system to climate change, becoming more sensitive to dry years where areas of active sand may shrink, degrade, and/or stabilize faster. The approach utilized in this study can be advantageous for future monitoring of sand in the northern Coachella Valley for management of these and similar environments.

  11. 77 FR 26273 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Northern New Mexico (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Northern New Mexico... meeting of the Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB), Northern New Mexico. The... CONTACT: Menice Santistevan, Northern New Mexico Citizens' Advisory Board (NNMCAB), 94 Cities of Gold Road...

  12. 77 FR 47047 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Northern New Mexico (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Northern New Mexico... the Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB), Northern New Mexico. The Federal...: Menice Santistevan, Northern New Mexico Citizens' Advisory Board (NNMCAB), 94 Cities of Gold Road, Santa...

  13. 78 FR 22255 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Northern New Mexico (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Northern New Mexico... Committee of the Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB), Northern New Mexico (known locally as the Northern New Mexico Citizens' Advisory Board [NNMCAB]). The Federal Advisory Committee Act...

  14. 77 FR 53192 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Northern New Mexico (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Northern New Mexico... the Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB), Northern New Mexico. The Federal... CONTACT: Menice Santistevan, Northern New Mexico Citizens' Advisory Board (NNMCAB), 94 Cities of Gold Road...

  15. 76 FR 18540 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Northern New Mexico (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Northern New Mexico... Committee of the Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB), Northern New Mexico (known locally as the Northern New Mexico Citizens' Advisory Board (NNMCAB). The Federal Advisory Committee Act...

  16. 77 FR 20376 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Northern New Mexico (United States)


    ...:15 p.m. ADDRESSES: Bradbury Science Museum, 15th and Central Avenue, Los Alamos, New Mexico. FOR... Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Northern New Mexico AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION...-Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB), Northern New Mexico (known locally as the Northern New Mexico Citizens...

  17. 78 FR 34095 - Adequacy Status of the Idaho, Northern Ada County PM10 (United States)


    ..., Northern Ada County PM 10 State Implementation Plan for Transportation Conformity Purposes AGENCY...), and volatile organic compounds (VOC) for the years 2008, 2015 and 2023 in the Northern Ada County PM... Northern Ada County. The EPA's finding was made pursuant to the adequacy review process for implementation...

  18. The origin of the Northern Subject Rule : subject positions and verbal morphosyntax in older English

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, Nynke; van Kemenade, Ans

    This article presents new evidence for the early history of the Northern Subject Rule in the form of an exhaustive corpus study of plural present-tense indicative verb forms in Northern and Northern Midlands early Middle English, analysed in relation to their syntactic context, including subject

  19. Interim report to the Northern Ecosystem Initiative from the Northern Ecological Monitoring and Assessment Network (EMAN-North)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakelyn, L.; Eamer, J.


    The Northern Ecological Monitoring and Assessment Network (EMAN-North) has received funding for a proposal submitted to the Northern Ecosystems Initiative (NEI) in January 2001. EMAN-North is a network that coordinates ecological monitoring in northern Canada. Its geographic scope comprises 40 per cent of the geographic area of Canada, including Yukon, Northwest Territories and Nunavut, and an area near Churchill, Manitoba. Funding was awarded because the proposed EMAN-North project addressed the NEI priority of Monitoring Ecosystem Status and Trends, and Ecosystem Impacts of Climate Change. The project was also aimed at improving the network's capacity for long-term ecological monitoring, assessment and reporting. Several activities deal specifically with ecological impacts of climate change. This paper described the need and the context for ecological monitoring in northern Canada and defined a strategic direction for EMAN-North. The project will include many individuals involved in ecological monitoring in the north to deliver information on ecosystem changes to decision-makers and the public. refs., tabs., figs

  20. Northern Forest DroughtNet: A New Framework to Understand Impacts of Precipitation Change on the Northern Forest Ecosystem (United States)

    Asbjornsen, H.; Rustad, L.; Templer, P. H.; Jennings, K.; Phillips, R.; Smith, M.


    Recent trends and projections for future change for the U.S. northern forests suggest that the region's climate is becoming warmer, wetter, and, ironically, drier, with more precipitation occurring as large events, separated by longer periods with no precipitation. However, to date, precipitation manipulation experiments conducted in forest ecosystems represent only ~5% of all such experiments worldwide, and our understanding of how the mesic-adapted northern forest will respond to greater frequency and intensity of drought in the future is especially poor. Several important challenges have hampered previous research efforts to conduct forest drought experiments and draw robust conclusions, including difficulties in reducing water uptake by deep and lateral tree roots, logistical and financial constraints to establishing and maintaining large-scale field experiments, and the lack of standardized approaches for determining the appropriate precipitation manipulation treatment (e.g., amount and timing of throughfall displacement), designing and constructing the throughfall displacement infrastructure, identifying key response variables, and collecting and analyzing the field data. The overarching goal of this project is to establish a regional research coordination network - Northern Forest DroughtNet - to investigate the impacts of changes in the amount and distribution of precipitation on the hydrology, biogeochemistry, and carbon (C) cycling dynamics of northern temperate forests. Specific objectives include the development of a standard prototype for conducting precipitation manipulation studies in forest ecosystems (in collaboration with the international DroughtNet-RCN) and the implementation of this prototype drought experiment at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest. Here, we present the advances made thus far towards achieving the objectives of Northern Forest DroughtNet, plans for future work, and an invitation to the larger scientific community interested

  1. A new species of Raricirrus from northern Europe, with notes on its biology and a discussion of the affinities of the genus (Polychaeta: Ctenodrilidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Mary E.; George, J. David


    Zoologi, Polychaeta, Ctenodrilidae, Raricirrus, systematics, reproductive biology, northern Europe......Zoologi, Polychaeta, Ctenodrilidae, Raricirrus, systematics, reproductive biology, northern Europe...

  2. Geological evolution of the Neoproterozoic Bemarivo Belt, northern Madagascar (United States)

    Thomas, Ronald J.; De Waele, B.; Schofield, D.I.; Goodenough, K.M.; Horstwood, M.; Tucker, R.; Bauer, W.; Annells, R.; Howard, K. J.; Walsh, G.; Rabarimanana, M.; Rafahatelo, J.-M.; Ralison, A.V.; Randriamananjara, T.


    The broadly east-west trending, Late Neoproterozoic Bemarivo Belt in northern Madagascar has been re-surveyed at 1:100 000 scale as part of a large multi-disciplinary World Bank-sponsored project. The work included acquisition of 14 U-Pb zircon dates and whole-rock major and trace element geochemical data of representative rocks. The belt has previously been modelled as a juvenile Neoproterozoic arc and our findings broadly support that model. The integrated datasets indicate that the Bemarivo Belt is separated by a major ductile shear zone into northern and southern "terranes", each with different lithostratigraphy and ages. However, both formed as Neoproterozoic arc/marginal basin assemblages that were translated southwards over the north-south trending domains of "cratonic" Madagascar, during the main collisional phase of the East African Orogeny at ca. 540 Ma. The older, southern terrane consists of a sequence of high-grade paragneisses (Sahantaha Group), which were derived from a Palaeoproterozoic source and formed a marginal sequence to the Archaean cratons to the south. These rocks are intruded by an extensive suite of arc-generated metamorphosed plutonic rocks, known as the Antsirabe Nord Suite. Four samples from this suite yielded U-Pb SHRIMP ages at ca. 750 Ma. The northern terrane consists of three groups of metamorphosed supracrustal rocks, including a possible Archaean sequence (Betsiaka Group: maximum depositional age approximately 2477 Ma) and two volcano-sedimentary sequences (high-grade Milanoa Group: maximum depositional age approximately 750 Ma; low grade Daraina Group: extrusive age = 720-740 Ma). These supracrustal rocks are intruded by another suite of arc-generated metamorphosed plutonic rocks, known as the Manambato Suite, 4 samples of which gave U-Pb SHRIMP ages between 705 and 718 Ma. Whole-rock geochemical data confirm the calc-alkaline, arc-related nature of the plutonic rocks. The volcanic rocks of the Daraina and Milanoa groups also

  3. Quaternary evolution of the northern North Sea margin (United States)

    Batchelor, C.; Ottesen, D.; Dowdeswell, J. A.


    At the start of the Quaternary, about 2.7 M yr ago, the bathymetry of the northern North Sea was dominated by the North Sea Basin, which has been infilled subsequently. The Norwegian Channel Ice Stream (NCIS) of the Scandinavian Ice Sheet (SIS) extended to the shelf break during several Mid to Late Quaternary full-glacial periods. However, little is known about Early Quaternary sedimentation on this margin. We use 2D and 3D seismic-reflection data to investigate the shelf and slope architecture and the patterns and processes of sedimentation in the northern North Sea through the Quaternary. The Early Quaternary infill of the northern North Sea Basin is shown to consist predominantly of glacigenic debris-flow deposits (GDFs) derived from an ice sheet that flowed perpendicular to the palaeo-shelf break during full-glacial periods, and contourites that were deposited by an ocean current that flowed parallel to the palaeo-shelf break during periods of reduced glaciation and active thermohaline circulation. This sequence of intercalated GDFs and contourites is suggested to record fluctuations in regional climate that are linked to the c. 41k glacial-interglacial cycles of the Early Quaternary. The Early Quaternary infilling of the northern North Sea Basin may have encouraged the initiation of a major ice stream by increasing the shelf width and reducing the water depth. Close to the onset of the Mid Quaternary, the south-western margin of the SIS was drained by an ice stream that was located partly beneath Måløy Plateau, 60 km east of the position of the NCIS during the Last Glacial Maximum. The changing architecture of the northern North Sea margin had an effect on the palaeo-oceanography of this region. The southward-flowing Norwegian Sea Bottom Water current is interpreted to have been directed into the concave, partially-closed northern North Sea Basin during the Early Quaternary, and to have been deflected progressively northwards as the basin became infilled.

  4. Impacts of Northern Pike on stocked Rainbow Trout in Pactola Reservoir, South Dakota (United States)

    Scheibel, Natalie C.; Dembkowski, Daniel J.; Davis, Jacob L.; Chipps, Steven R.


    Establishment of nonnative Northern Pike Esox lucius in Pactola Reservoir, South Dakota, has prompted concern among biologists about the influence of this species on the lake’s intensively managed salmonid fisheries. Ancedotal information suggests that catch rates of Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss have declined while mean size and abundance of Northern Pike has increased, although quantitative information on diet and growth of the Northern Pike population is lacking. To address potential interactions between Northern Pike and Rainbow Trout, we assessed size-dependent predation by Northern Pike on Rainbow Trout and determined the relative energetic contribution of stocked Rainbow Trout to Northern Pike growth using bioenergetics modeling. Stable isotopes combined with traditional diet analyses revealed that smaller Northern Pike (accounted for 56% of their annual energy consumption. Combining estimates of Northern Pike predation with production costs of catchable-size Rainbow Trout revealed that annual economic losses ranged from US$15,259 to $24,801 per year. Over its lifespan, an age-10 Northern Pike was estimated to consume ~117 Rainbow Trout worth approximately $340. Thus, Northern Pike predation substantially influences salmonid management initiatives and is likely a primary factor contributing to reduced Rainbow Trout abundance and return to anglers in Pactola Reservoir. Strategies for reducing Northern Pike predation on Rainbow Trout include increasing the size of stocked fish or altering the timing and spatial distribution of stocking events.

  5. Late Pleistocene echimyid rodents (Rodentia, Hystricognathi) from northern Brazil. (United States)

    Ferreira, Thais M F; Olivares, Adriana Itati; Kerber, Leonardo; Dutra, Rodrigo P; Avilla, Leonardo S


    Echimyidae (spiny rats, tree rats and the coypu) is the most diverse family of extant South American hystricognath rodents (caviomorphs). Today, they live in tropical forests (Amazonian, coastal and Andean forests), occasionally in more open xeric habitats in the Cerrado and Caatinga of northern South America, and open areas across the southern portion of the continent (Myocastor). The Quaternary fossil record of this family remains poorly studied. Here, we describe the fossil echimyids found in karst deposits from southern Tocantins, northern Brazil. The analyzed specimens are assigned to Thrichomys sp., Makalata cf. didelphoides and Proechimys sp. This is the first time that a fossil of Makalata is reported. The Pleistocene record of echimyids from this area is represented by fragmentary remains, which hinders their determination at specific levels. The data reported here contributes to the understanding of the ancient diversity of rodents of this region, evidenced until now in other groups, such as the artiodactyls, cingulates, carnivores, marsupials, and squamate reptiles.

  6. Synenco Energy's Northern Lights Project : update and key strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshka, E.


    This presentation described the Northern Lights Project and addressed the unique characteristics of oil sands which have led to innovative mine and extraction techniques. A table indicating the mining projects in development was presented with reference to recoverable bitumen and ore grade. The marketing aspects of synthetic crude that influence the choice of bitumen upgrader design and economics were discussed. It was noted that new pipeline developments should open up new market opportunities. The expected market for Synenco crude is the northern portion of the United States Midwest. There may also be a possibility to sell the product as diluent because Synenco crude has a lower vacuum gas oil (VGO) content and more naphtha than other synthetic crude. The properties of Synenco crude components were listed with reference to gravity, density, sulfur content, cetane number, smoke point, and feed quality. The trade-off between capital costs, operating cost and risk mitigation was also examined. tabs., figs

  7. Seismic activity prediction using computational intelligence techniques in northern Pakistan (United States)

    Asim, Khawaja M.; Awais, Muhammad; Martínez-Álvarez, F.; Iqbal, Talat


    Earthquake prediction study is carried out for the region of northern Pakistan. The prediction methodology includes interdisciplinary interaction of seismology and computational intelligence. Eight seismic parameters are computed based upon the past earthquakes. Predictive ability of these eight seismic parameters is evaluated in terms of information gain, which leads to the selection of six parameters to be used in prediction. Multiple computationally intelligent models have been developed for earthquake prediction using selected seismic parameters. These models include feed-forward neural network, recurrent neural network, random forest, multi layer perceptron, radial basis neural network, and support vector machine. The performance of every prediction model is evaluated and McNemar's statistical test is applied to observe the statistical significance of computational methodologies. Feed-forward neural network shows statistically significant predictions along with accuracy of 75% and positive predictive value of 78% in context of northern Pakistan.

  8. Late Silurian trilete spores from northern Jiangsu, China. (United States)

    Wang; Li


    The Late Silurian is generally considered to a particular significant key period in the study of early land vascular plants. A trilete spore assemblage of the Upper Silurian is described from northern Jiangsu, China. This assemblage comprises 11 genera and 20 species of trilete spores (including laevigate, apiculate, perinotrilite, patinate, rarely distally murornate and equatorially crassitate, and three indeterminate trilete miospores forms). It has similarities to those described from coeval assemblages from around the world (e.g., England and South Wales; Tripolitania, Libya; Cornwallis Island, Canadian Arctic; Northwest Spain). The rare cryptospore, only one specimen (Tetrahedraletes sp.) had been found to be associated with the Chinese trilete spore assemblage. The discovery of the trilete spores from Late Silurian rocks indicates the existence of early land plants, some possibly vascular, at that time in northern Jiangsu, China.

  9. The capacity of cargotran sportation along the Northern sea route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Gruzdeva


    Full Text Available This article reveals the prospects for the development of the Northern sea route taking into account all key factors. It includes analysis of the climatic conditions, the infrastructure, the specific breaker assistance, and the production of Arctic resources, peculiarities of state support and the prevalence of vessels with high ice class. The article applies to methods of qualitative and quantitative analysis. The result is identification of prospects of development of the route mainly as a channel of domestic resource transportation. In addition, the article draws attention to the work of the state Commission on development of the Arctic, which may have a key influence on the development of the Northern sea route.

  10. History of Taenia saginata Tapeworms in Northern Russia (United States)

    Konyaev, Sergey V.; Nakao, Minoru; Ito, Akira


    Taenia saginata is the most common species of tapeworm infecting humans. Infection is acquired by eating cysticercus larvae in undercooked beef. A closely related species, T. asiatica, is found in eastern and southeastern Asia. The larvae of T. asiatica develop in viscera of pigs. In northern Russia, there is a third member of this morphologically indistinguishable group. Cysticerci of so-called northern T. saginata are found in cerebral meninges of reindeer, and the unique life cycle is dependent on a native custom of eating raw reindeer brain. We report the winding history of this mysterious tapeworm from the first reports to the present time. In addition, we confirm the position of this parasite as a strain of T. saginata by analyzing a mitochondrial DNA sequence of an archival specimen. The origin of this strain might date back to reindeer domestication and contacts between cattle-herding and reindeer-herding peoples in Asia.

  11. Deconstructing Ethnic Identity of Chinese Children in Northern Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Feng-Bing


    Full Text Available This paper focuses on two groups of sub-ethnic Chinese children respectively migrating from Mainland China and Hong Kong to Northern Ireland. It examines their cultural narratives surrounding topics of their country of origin, their adopted society in Northern Ireland. The paper analyses not only the surface narratives themselves, but also the social, cultural and political context in which such dispositional narratives were nourished and made possible. Theoretically, the author uses BOURDIEU's concept of "habitus" as the analytical tool to interpret and explain such narrative dispositions. Methodologically, the author uses in-depth interviewing and observations to achieve a more objective and overall understanding of their cultural narratives. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0604297

  12. Future distribution of tundra refugia in northern Alaska (United States)

    Hope, Andrew G.; Waltari, Eric; Payer, David C.; Cook, Joseph A.; Talbot, Sandra L.


    Climate change in the Arctic is a growing concern for natural resource conservation and management as a result of accelerated warming and associated shifts in the distribution and abundance of northern species. We introduce a predictive framework for assessing the future extent of Arctic tundra and boreal biomes in northern Alaska. We use geo-referenced museum specimens to predict the velocity of distributional change into the next century and compare predicted tundra refugial areas with current land-use. The reliability of predicted distributions, including differences between fundamental and realized niches, for two groups of species is strengthened by fossils and genetic signatures of demographic shifts. Evolutionary responses to environmental change through the late Quaternary are generally consistent with past distribution models. Predicted future refugia overlap managed areas and indicate potential hotspots for tundra diversity. To effectively assess future refugia, variable responses among closely related species to climate change warrants careful consideration of both evolutionary and ecological histories.

  13. Northern Ireland in Transition: The Role of Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Mailhes


    Full Text Available All post-conflict societies switching to constitutional liberal democracies have to deal with their past through transitional justice mechanisms that offer to hear the victims, try the perpetrators of all types of abuses, introduce peace and reconciliation schemes. It is time for state and non-state organs to account for past crimes. Several countries have successfully tested such mechanisms. Northern Ireland is the ideal ground for transitional justice to operate but it dispels foreign tailor-made models. However, a number of major reforms and projects have addressed sensitive issues in the wake of the Good Friday Agreement. Two key institutions, the police and the criminal justice system, whose responsibility in the conflict was undeniable, have been reformed. Law and lawyers are concerned with these changes and the introduction of a Human Rights culture in Northern Ireland. A clear break with the past must be achieved for transitional justice mechanisms to work successfully.

  14. Comparative reproductive and physiological responses of northern bobwhite and scaled quail to water deprivation (United States)

    Giuliano, W.M.; Patino, R.; Lutz, R.S.


    We compared reproductive and physiological responses of captive female northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) and scaled quail (Callipepla squamata) under control and water deprivation conditions. Scaled quail required less food and water to reproduce successfully under control conditions than northern bobwhite. Additionally, in scaled quail, serum osmolality levels and kidney mass were unaffected by water deprivation, whereas in northern bobwhite, serum osmolality levels increased and kidney mass declined. This finding indicates that scaled quail may have osmoregulatory abilities superior to those of northern bobwhite. Under control conditions, northern bobwhite gained more body mass and produced more but smaller eggs than scaled quail. Under water deprivation conditions, northern bobwhite lost more body mass but had more laying hens with a higher rate of egg production than scaled quail. Our data suggest that northern bobwhite allocated more resources to reproduction than to body maintenance, while scaled quail apparently forego reproduction in favor of body maintenance during water deprivation conditions.

  15. Spatial variation in life history characteristics of common megrim (Lepidorhombus whiffiagonis) on the Northern Shelf (United States)

    Macdonald, P.; Angus (née Laurenson), C. H.; Marshall, C. T.


    In recent years stock structure recommendations for megrim on the Northern Shelf have varied, primarily due to a lack of biological and fishery data. In this study, we compared a number of life history characteristics of the common megrim Lepidorhombus whiffiagonis (Walbaum) between the northern North Sea and Rockall, the latitudinal extremes of the species' distribution on the Northern Shelf. Reproductive timing, sex ratio, maturity and growth were different between the two study areas. Reproductive timing in the northern North Sea was more protracted than at Rockall and other areas. There were differences in sex ratio between the study areas and female megrim in the northern North Sea exhibited different growth rates and larger size at maturity than at Rockall. The results of this study support the recent changes to the definition of the Northern Shelf stocks which recommend that the northern North Sea be treated separately to Rockall.

  16. Invasive plant monitoring for northern U.S. forests (United States)

    William H. McWilliams; Randall S. Morin; Katherine Johnson; W. Keith Moser; James A. Westfall


    Invasive plants are monitored through canopy cover estimates for a list of species developed by FIA for the northern region of the U.S. that is integrated with a national list. Nearly all of the invasive plants on the NRS-FIA list are exotic species, but a few native species are listed. Highly invasive native species such as rhizomatous fern are absent, making the list...

  17. Stratospheric influence on Northern Hemisphere winter climate variability (United States)

    Ouzeau, Gaelle; Douville, Herve; Saint Martin, David


    Despite significant improvements in observing and data assimilation systems, long-range dynamical forecasting remains a difficult challenge for the climate modelling community. The skill of operational seasonal forecasting systems is particularly poor in the northern extratropics where seas surface temperature (SST) has a weaker influence than in the Tropics. It is therefore relevant to look for additional potential sources of long-range climate predictability in the stratosphere using ensembles of global atmospheric simulations. Besides a control experiment where the ARPEGE-Climat model is only driven by SST, parallel simulations have been performed in which an additional control on climate variability has been accounted for through the nudging of the northern extratropical stratosphere towards the ERA40 reanalysis. Though idealized, this original experiment design allows us to compare the relative contribution of the lower and upper boundary forcings on the simulated tropospheric variability. Results show that the stratospheric nudging improves the climatology and interannual variability of the mid-latitude troposphere, especially in winter in the Northern Hemisphere. Major impacts are found in particular on the simulation of the Arctic and North Atlantic oscillations (AO and NAO). Case studies were carried out for the 1976-1977 and 1988-1989 winters, corresponding to extreme phases of the AO. Results confirm the robustness of the positive impact of the nudging, especially for winter 1976-1977 corresponding to relatively weak SST anomalies in the tropical Pacific. A sensitivity study to the model resolution shows that a well-resolved stratosphere is not necessary for the nudging to be efficient. Besides seasonal mean results, analysis of the day-to-day variability in winter allowed us to better understand the stratospheric polar vortex influence on the tropospheric circulation in the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes.

  18. A Polar Projection: The Northern Dimension in Modern Scottish Literature


    Stachura, Michael Jon Anthony


    Drawing on a transnational turn in recent Scottish literary criticism, this dissertation examines a transnational northern dimension in modern Scottish literature. Following a ‘No’ vote in an historic referendum on independence in 2014, the question of what Scotland and ‘Scottishness’ is in a post-referendum twenty-first century world is once again being debated and reimagined. Literature, as always in Scotland, will play a major role in this process. While the nation and national identity re...

  19. Organizational Transparency & Sense Making: The case of Northern Rock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albu, Oana Brindusa; Wehmeier, Stefan


    Organizational transparency is associated with mutual understanding and consensus between the organization and its constituents, but is typically defined as information disclosure. Such definitions pose the risk of simplification and provide incomplete understandings of the transparency phenomenon....... Additionally, research rarely focuses on how transparency is translated within crisis situations. This article presents a sense-making and discourse analysis perspective of transparency. We use the case of the British bank Northern Rock to show how this bank and its stakeholders enacted transparency...

  20. Community care in Northern Ireland: a promising start.


    Tonks, A.


    Integrated health and social services, generous funding, and a special sense of community have got Northern Ireland off to a promising start after the government's community care reforms. Public ignorance about the new arrangements remains a problem, but there is little evidence of serious hardship in any client group. The biggest threat is to nursing and residential homes, which face closure as increasing numbers of elderly and disabled people opt to stay at home. After only a year and witho...

  1. Nominal marking in Northern Tshwa (Kalahari Khoe)1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kate H

    Nominal marking in Northern Tshwa 109. Table 3: Subject pronouns (Nominative). Common. Feminine. Masculine. Tjwao. Tcire. Gǁaba Tjwao Tcire Gǁaba Tjwao Tcire. Gǁaba. 1st ti, tire tcire tcire. Singular. 2nd ca ca ca tca tca tca. 3rd. 'e. 'e. 'e. 'e.ce. 'e.ce. 'e.ce. ' ' ' 1st khabe kham.

  2. Wintering bald eagle trends in northern Arizona, 1975-2000 (United States)

    Teryl G. Grubb


    Between 1975 and 2000, 4,525 sightings of wintering bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) were recorded at Mormon Lake in northern Arizona. Numbers of wintering eagles fluctuated little in the 20 years from 1975 through 1994 (5.5 ± 3.0 mean sightings per day). However, during the winters of 1995 through 1997 local record highs of 59 to 118 eagles...

  3. Birds of sacred groves of northern Kerala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Jyothi


    Full Text Available Sacred groves are patches of vegetation preserved due to  religious or cultural tradition.  They are protected through spiritual beliefs.  Sacred groves provide an excellent abode to the biodiversity of the region where they are located.   Scientific exploration of fauna from sacred groves of India is few and far between.  The present study was conducted to explore the bird diversity and abundance in 15 selected sacred groves of northern Kerala, eight from Kannur District and seven from Kasargod District each.  A total of 111 bird species were observed belonging to 49 families and 16 orders.  The sacred groves of northern Kerala support many of the ‘forest-birds’ such as the Grey Junglefowl Gallus sonneratii, Asian Fairy-bluebird Irena puella, Tickell’s Blue-flycatcher Cyornis tickelliae, Malabar Trogon Harpactes fasciatus, Heart-spotted Woodpecker Hemicircus canente, Malabar Whistling-Thrush Myophonus horsfieldii, Little Spiderhunter Arachnothera longirostra, etc.  The sacred groves of northern Kerala also support two endemic bird species of the Western Ghats, such as the Malabar Grey Hornbill Ocyceros griseus and Rufous Babbler Turdoides subrufa. Five species of raptors and four owl species were reported from the sacred groves of north Kerala during the present study.  The breeding of the White-bellied Sea-Eagle has been reported at Edayilakadu Kavu, a sacred grove in Kasargod District.  The sacred groves of northern Kerala also supported 17 species of long distant migratory birds.  Thazhe Kavu, recorded the Black-headed Ibis Threskiornis melanocephalus, a Near-Threatened bird according to IUCN. 

  4. Institutional analysis of biofuel production in Northern Ghana


    Kwoyiga, Lydia


    The thesis studied the nature of institutional arrangement around biofuel production and how this arrangement has shaped the production outcome of biofuel companies and community development. The study was conducted in two communities of the Yendi Municipal Assembly of the Northern Region of Ghana. In this area, a biofuel company called Biofuel Africa Limited has acquired areas of land and cultivated Jatropha plantations. A total of 32 informants were interviewed to arrive at information ne...

  5. The Holocene Sedimentation in Sandstone Rockshelters of Northern Bohemia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cílek, Václav


    Roč. 11, - (2000), s. 66-69 ISSN 1210-9606. [International Conference on Past Global Changes Upper Pleistocene and Holocene Climatic Variations. Prague, 06.09.2000-09.09.2000] Grant - others:US(XC) National Geographic Society 6330-98 "The last foragers of the Northern Europe" Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3013912 Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  6. Analysis of tiltmeter monitoring of Northern Louisiana salt domes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldon, M.G.; Thoms, R.L.


    Data were recorded at several tiltmeter sites in Northern Louisiana in the vicinity of Vacherie and Rayburn's salt domes. The objective of this data recording and subsequent analysis was to determine, if possible, the present rate of dome vertical movement, or to attempt to establish an upper bound to movement if undetectably small. Biaxial tiltmeters utilized were calibrated to detect extremely small tilts about two principal axes. No statistically significant tilting was observed during this survey. 13 references

  7. Conservation as development in Northern Australia: from policies to ethnography


    Fache, Élodie


    Introduction Since the mid-1990s, “ranger” jobs, groups and programs have been established in many indigenous communities of Northern Australia. “Rangers” form a new category of Aboriginal social actors who are employed and paid to deliver environmental services through their activities that are generally described as “natural (and cultural) resource management”. Their role is presented as based on the formalisation and professionalisation of “traditional” responsibilities towards the land an...

  8. Rural electrification: Waste biomass Russian northern territories. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamian, S. [ECOTRADE, Inc., Glendale, CA (United States)


    The primary objective of this pre-feasibility evaluation is to examine the economic and technical feasibility of replacing distillate fuel with local waste biomass in the village of Verkhni-Ozerski, Arkhangelsk Region, Russia. This village is evaluated as a pilot location representing the off-grid villages in the Russian Northern Territories. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has agreed to provide technical assistance to the Ministry of Fuel and Energy (MFE). MFE has identified the Northern Territories as a priority area requiring NREL`s assistance. The program initially affects about 900 off-grid villages. Biomass and wind energy, and to a lesser extent small hydro (depending on resource availability) are expected to play the dominant role in the program, Geothermal energy may also have a role in the Russian Far East. The Arkhangelsk, Kariela, and Krasnoyarsk Regions, all in the Russian Northern Territories, have abundant forest resources and forest products industries, making them strong candidates for implementation of small-scale waste biomass-to-energy projects. The 900 or so villages included in the renewable energy program span nine administrative regions and autonomous republics. The regional authorities in the Northern Territories proposed these villages to MFE for consideration in the renewable energy program according to the following selection criteria: (a) Remote off-grid location, (b) high cost of transporting fuel, old age of existing power generation equipment, and (d) preliminary determination as to availability of alternative energy resources. Inclusion of indigenous minorities in the program was also heavily emphasized. The prefeasibility study demonstrates that the project merits continuation and a full feasibility analysis. The demonstrated rate of return and net positive cash flow, the willingness of Onegales and local/regional authorities to cooperate, and the immense social benefits are all good reasons to continue the project.

  9. Tourism, biodiversity and protected areas--Review from northern Fennoscandia. (United States)

    Tolvanen, Anne; Kangas, Katja


    Tourist numbers in northern Fennoscandia outweigh those in other northern boreal - arctic regions, which creates a specific need to evaluate the impacts of tourism. This review 1) identifies patterns and trends in the vegetation and wildlife of northern Fennoscandian terrestrial ecosystems as a consequence of tourism and recreation, 2) discusses the implications of findings in terms of the intensity, area and magnitude of impacts, changing climate and management needs under increasing tourist pressure, and 3) identifies research gaps. The reviewed studies show negative environmental and biodiversity impacts that are most pronounced near tourist resorts. The most sensitive plants, birds and mammals decline or disappear from the disturbed sites, and the species composition shifts from 'wild' species to cultural and human associated species. There is little research on the spread of alien species, but the few examples show that alien species can be promoted by tourism activities. Impacts of the use of motorized vehicles have not been widely studied either, despite the extensive track network which can cause disturbance to wildlife. The integrated impacts of tourism and climate change on the vegetation and wildlife was not addressed directly in any of the reviewed studies. In addition, little research has been done on carrying out restoration at tourist areas. Scientific research on these topics is needed to prevent, minimize or restore the most negative ecological impacts of tourism and recreation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Long-term Agroecosystem Research in the Northern Great Plains. (United States)

    Schmer, M.; Sanderson, M.; Liebig, M. A.; Wienhold, B.; Awada, T.; Papiernik, S.; Osborne, S.; Kemp, W.; Okalebo, J. A.; Riedall, W.


    The Northern Great Plains is the bread basket of the United States, accounting for a substantial portion of U.S. agricultural production. This region faces critical challenges regarding balancing food needs, resource conservation (e.g Ogallala aquifer), environmental concerns, and rural economy development. Developing transformative, multifunctional systems will require equally imaginative and efficient tools to help farmers manage complex agroecosystems in a rapidly changing climate. The Northern Plains long-term agroecosystem research (LTAR) site at Mandan, ND and the Platte River High Plains LTAR (ARS/University of Nebraska-Lincoln) at Lincoln, NE in collaboration with USDA-ARS research units in Brookings, SD and Fargo, ND are collaborating to address the grand challenge of providing and sustaining multiple service provisions from Northern Great Plains agroecosystems. We propose to attain these goals through sustainable intensification based on the adoption of conservation agriculture principles including reduced soil disturbance, livestock integration, and greater complexity and diversity in the cropping system. Here, we summarize new concepts these locations have pioneered in dynamic cropping systems, resource use efficiency, and agricultural management technologies. As part of the LTAR network, we will conduct long-term cross-site research to design and assess new agricultural practices and systems aimed at improving our understanding of decision making processes and outcomes across an array of agricultural systems.

  11. Postpartum beliefs and practices in Danbare village, Northern Nigeria. (United States)

    Iliyasu, Z; Kabir, M; Galadanci, H S; Abubakar, I S; Salihu, H M; Aliyu, M H


    Postpartum cultural beliefs and practices are widely prevalent in northern Nigeria. Using a cross-sectional survey, we set out to examine contemporary postpartum beliefs and practices among a cohort of 300 mothers in Danbare village, northern Nigeria. Common postpartum practices included sexual abstinence (100%), physical confinement (88%), hot ritual baths (86%), nursing in heated rooms (84%) and ingestion of gruel enriched with local salt (83%). The majority of mothers (93%) believed that these practices made them stronger and helped them regain their physiologic state. Most respondents believed that non-observance could lead to body swelling, foul-smelling lochia and perineal pain. Mothers with formal education were significantly more likely to believe that these practices were non-beneficial compared with those mothers without formal education (odds ratio (OR) = 9.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 3.6 - 28.8). Almost half of the respondents (49%) said they would continue with these practices. In conclusion, women are still holding on to postpartum cultural beliefs and practices in northern Nigeria. However, educated women could act as useful agents of change towards the elimination of practices harmful to the health of mothers and their children.

  12. Peatmoss (Sphagnum) diversification associated with Miocene Northern Hemisphere climatic cooling? (United States)

    Shaw, A Jonathan; Devos, Nicolas; Cox, Cymon J; Boles, Sandra B; Shaw, Blanka; Buchanan, Alex M; Cave, Lynette; Seppelt, Rodney


    Global climate changes sometimes spark biological radiations that can feed back to effect significant ecological impacts. Northern Hemisphere peatlands dominated by living and dead peatmosses (Sphagnum) harbor almost 30% of the global soil carbon pool and have functioned as a net carbon sink throughout the Holocene, and probably since the late Tertiary. Before that time, northern latitudes were dominated by tropical and temperate plant groups and ecosystems. Phylogenetic analyses of mosses (phylum Bryophyta) based on nucleotide sequences from the plastid, mitochondrial, and nuclear genomes indicate that most species of Sphagnum are of recent origin (ca. Sphagnum species are not only well-adapted to boreal peatlands, they create the conditions that promote development of peatlands. The recent radiation that gave rise to extant diversity of peatmosses is temporally associated with Miocene climatic cooling in the Northern Hemisphere. The evolution of Sphagnum has had profound influences on global biogeochemistry because of the unique biochemical, physiological, and morphological features of these plants, both while alive and after death. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Northern Rivers Basins human health monitoring program : report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabos, S. [Alberta Health, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Health Surveillance


    The Northern River Basins Human Health Monitoring Program was established in 1994 to investigate the possible relationships between various environmental risk factors and the health of northern residents in the province. This report presents the initial analysis of the health program and examines the differences in health outcomes across the province and compares the Northern Rivers Basin Study (NRBS) area with the other areas of the province. A series of maps and graphs showed the prevalence of certain diseases and disorders within the Peace and Athabasca river basins. The focus of the report was on reproductive health, congenital anomalies, respiratory ailments, circulatory diseases, gastrointestinal disorders, endocrine and metabolic disorders, and neurocognitive disorders. The study showed that compared to other areas of the province, the NRBS area had higher incidences of endometriosis, selected congenital anomalies, bronchitis, pneumonia, peptic ulcers and epilepsy. There were three potential exposure pathways to environmental contaminants. These were through ingestion of water or food, inhalation of air and through dermal exposure. refs., tabs., figs.

  14. Northern Rivers Basins human health monitoring program : report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabos, S.


    The Northern River Basins Human Health Monitoring Program was established in 1994 to investigate the possible relationships between various environmental risk factors and the health of northern residents in the province. This report presents the initial analysis of the health program and examines the differences in health outcomes across the province and compares the Northern Rivers Basin Study (NRBS) area with the other areas of the province. A series of maps and graphs showed the prevalence of certain diseases and disorders within the Peace and Athabasca river basins. The focus of the report was on reproductive health, congenital anomalies, respiratory ailments, circulatory diseases, gastrointestinal disorders, endocrine and metabolic disorders, and neurocognitive disorders. The study showed that compared to other areas of the province, the NRBS area had higher incidences of endometriosis, selected congenital anomalies, bronchitis, pneumonia, peptic ulcers and epilepsy. There were three potential exposure pathways to environmental contaminants. These were through ingestion of water or food, inhalation of air and through dermal exposure. refs., tabs., figs

  15. Prediction Equations for Spirometry for Children from Northern India. (United States)

    Chhabra, Sunil K; Kumar, Rajeev; Mittal, Vikas


    To develop prediction equations for spirometry for children from northern India using current international guidelines for standardization. Re-analysis of cross-sectional data from a single school. 670 normal children (age 6-17 y; 365 boys) of northern Indian parentage. After screening for normal health, we carried out spirometry with recommended quality assurance according to current guidelines. We developed linear and nonlinear prediction equations using multiple regression analysis. We selected the final models on the basis of the highest coefficient of multiple determination (R2) and statistical validity. Spirometry parameters: FVC, FEV1, PEFR, FEF50, FEF75 and FEF25-75. The equations for the main parameters were as follows: Boys, Ln FVC = -1.687+0.016*height +0.022*age; Ln FEV1 = -1.748+0.015*height+0.031*age. Girls, Ln FVC = -9.989 +(2.018*Ln(height)) + (0.324*Ln(age)); Ln FEV1 = -10.055 +(1.990*Ln(height))+(0.358*Ln(age)). Nonlinear regression yielded substantially greater R2 values compared to linear models except for FEF50 for girls. Height and age were found to be the significant explanatory variables for all parameters on multiple regression with weight making no significant contribution. We developed prediction equations for spirometry for children from northern India. Nonlinear equations were superior to linear equations.

  16. Cross currents : hydroelectricity and the engineering of northern Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manore, J.L.


    The history of hydroelectric development in northern Ontario was reviewed and analysed with special emphasis on the developments along the Mattagami and Abitibi Rivers. The objective was to examine the important factors that shaped modern hydroelectric development in Canada. System builders, the privately owned Nesbitt Thomson Company, the publicly owned Hydro Electric Power Corporation of Ontario and the eventual evolution of the single power system under Ontario Hydro are chronicled. Broad historical themes such as the technological impacts, regionalism, indigenous rights, plus environmental and economic issues are examined, in addition to an appreciation of the importance of electricity in the manufacturing sector of Ontario, the impact of hydroelectric development on the northern environment and on the northern First Nations, who rely on rivers for their subsistence. Until fairly recently, government policies and interpretations of law often excluded the recognition of Aboriginal uses of river systems, thereby limiting First Nations' peoples ability to practice traditional ways of life. In essence, the book is an account of how the northeastern power system in Ontario shaped the social, political and natural environments and how the development of northeastern power sources by southern power developers shaped the regional interactions between Ontario's north and south. refs., figs

  17. Correlation of Crustal Structures and Seismicity Patterns in Northern Appalachians (United States)

    Yang, X.; Gao, H.


    The earthquake distributions in northern Appalachians are bounded by major geologically-defined terrane boundaries. There is a distinct seismic gap within Taconic Belt between the Western Quebec Seismic Zone (WQSZ) to the west and the seismically active Ganderia terrane to the east. It is not clear, however, what crustal structures control the characteristics of earthquake clustering in this region. Here we present a newly constructed crustal shear velocity model for the northern Appalachians using Rayleigh wave data extracted from ambient noises. Our tomographic model reveals strongly heterogeneous seismic structures in the crust. We observe multiple NW-dipping patches of high-velocity anomalies in the upper crust beneath the southeastern WQSZ. The upper crust shear velocities in the Ganderia and Avalonia region are generally lower than those beneath the WQSZ. The middle crust has relatively lower velocities in the study area. The earthquakes in the study area are constrained within the upper crust. Most of the earthquake hypocenters within the WQSZ are concentrated along the NW-dipping boundaries separating the high-velocity anomalies. In contrast, most of the earthquake hypocenters in the Ganderia and Avalonia region are diffusely distributed without clear vertical lineaments. The orientations of maximum compressive stresses change from W-E in the Ganderia and Avalonia region to SW-NE in the WQSZ. The contrasts in seismicity, velocity, and stress field across the Taconic Belt indicate that the Taconic Belt terrane may act as a seismically inactive buffer zone in northern Appalachians.

  18. The distribution of phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in northern Nigeria. (United States)

    Asimeng, E J


    A survey was carried out in Northern Nigeria to determine the distribution of the species of phlebotomine sandflies in the major vegetation zones: Sahel, Sudan, Northern Guinea Savanna, and Southern Guinea Savanna. The two Old World Genera, Phlebotomus and Sergentomyia, are both represented in the study area, with an overwhelming preponderance of Sergentomyia species; about 99% of the entire collection (12, 951 specimens) belong to the genus Sergentomyia. Out of the thirteen species identified, two belong to the genus Phlebotomus: Phlebotomus duboscqi and Phlebotomus rodhaini; the remaining eleven are species of the genus Sergentomyia grouped under series simillama and two subgenera (antennata, bedfordi, africana, schwetzi, ingrami, and buxtoni in the subgenus Sergentomyia and affinis, adleri, clydei and christophersi under Sintonius subgenus. P. duboscqi occurs in Sahel and Sudan zones whereas P. rodhaini exists mainly in the Guinea Savanna (north and south). In general, the distribution of the species in the subgenus Sergentomyia (particularly antennatta, bedfordi, africana, and schwetzi) cuts across all the four vegetation zones. The least common species, simillima, was found only in the North Guinea Savanna. Members of the Sintonius group were obtained from Sudan and Northern Guinea Savanna zones.

  19. Early Miocene elevation in northern Tibet estimated by palaeobotanical evidence. (United States)

    Sun, Bin; Wang, Yu-Fei; Li, Cheng-Sen; Yang, Jian; Li, Jin-Feng; Li, Ye-Liang; Deng, Tao; Wang, Shi-Qi; Zhao, Min; Spicer, Robert A; Ferguson, David K; Mehrotra, Rakesh C


    The area and elevation of the Tibetan Plateau over time has directly affected Asia's topography, the characteristics of the Asian monsoon, and modified global climate, but in ways that are poorly understood. Charting the uplift history is crucial for understanding the mechanisms that link elevation and climate irrespective of time and place. While some palaeoelevation data are available for southern and central Tibet, clues to the uplift history of northern Tibet remain sparse and largely circumstantial. Leaf fossils are extremely rare in Tibet but here we report a newly discovered early Miocene barberry (Berberis) from Wudaoliang in the Hoh-Xil Basin in northern Tibet, at a present altitude of 4611 ± 9 m. Considering the fossil and its nearest living species probably occupied a similar or identical environmental niche, the palaeoelevation of the fossil locality, corrected for Miocene global temperature difference, is estimated to have been between 1395 and 2931 m, which means this basin has been uplifted ~2-3 km in the last 17 million years. Our findings contradict hypotheses that suggest northern Tibet had reached or exceeded its present elevation prior to the Miocene.

  20. Muskellunge growth potential in northern Wisconsin: implications for trophy management (United States)

    Faust, Matthew D.; Isermann, Daniel A.; Luehring, Mark A.; Hansen, Michael J.


    The growth potential of Muskellunge Esox masquinongy was evaluated by back-calculating growth histories from cleithra removed from 305 fish collected during 1995–2011 to determine whether it was consistent with trophy management goals in northern Wisconsin. Female Muskellunge had a larger mean asymptotic length (49.8 in) than did males (43.4 in). Minimum ultimate size of female Muskellunge (45.0 in) equaled the 45.0-in minimum length limit, but was less than the 50.0-in minimum length limit used on Wisconsin's trophy waters, while the minimum ultimate size of male Muskellunge (34.0 in) was less than the statewide minimum length limit. Minimum reproductive sizes for both sexes were less than Wisconsin's trophy minimum length limits. Mean growth potential of female Muskellunge in northern Wisconsin appears to be sufficient for meeting trophy management objectives and angler expectations. Muskellunge in northern Wisconsin had similar growth potential to those in Ontario populations, but lower growth potential than Minnesota's populations, perhaps because of genetic and environmental differences.