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  1. Spectrum of female commercial sex work in Bangui, Central African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Classification of professional and non-professional female sex workers (FSWs) into different categories, never previously reported in the Central African Republic (CAR), may be useful to assess the dynamics of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic, design operational intervention programmes to combat HIV ...

  2. Antimicrobial Resistance of Enteric Salmonella in Bangui, Central African Republic

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    Christian Diamant Mossoro-Kpinde

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The number of Salmonella isolated from clinical samples that are resistant to multiple antibiotics has increased worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of resistant Salmonella enterica isolated in Bangui. Methods. All enteric Salmonella strains isolated from patients in 2008 were identified and serotyped, and the phenotypes of resistance were determined by using the disk diffusion method. Nine resistance-associated genes, blaTEM, blaOXA, blaSHV, tetA, aadA1, catA1, dhfrA1, sul I, and sul II, were sought by genic amplification in seven S.e. Typhimurium strains. Results. The 94 strains isolated consisted of 47 S.e. Typhimurium (50%, 21 S.e. Stanleyville (22%, 18 S.e. Enteritidis (19%, 4 S.e. Dublin (4%, 4 S.e. Hadar (4%, and 1 S.e. Papuana (1%. Twenty-five (28% were multiresistant, including 20 of the Typhimurium serovar (80%. Two main phenotypes of resistance were found: four antibiotics (56% and to five antibiotics (40%. One S.e. Typhimurium isolate produced an extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL. Only seven strains of S.e. Typhimurium could be amplified genically. Only phenotypic resistance to tetracycline and aminosides was found. Conclusion. S. Typhimurium is the predominant serovar of enteric S. enterica and is the most widely resistant. The search for resistance genes showed heterogeneity of the circulating strains.

  3. Evidence of multiple insecticide resistance mechanisms in Anopheles gambiae populations in Bangui, Central African Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olé Sangba, Marina Lidwine; Sidick, Aboubakar; Govoetchan, Renaud; Dide-Agossou, Christian; Ossè, Razaki A; Akogbeto, Martin; Ndiath, Mamadou Ousmane

    2017-01-13

    Knowledge of insecticide resistance status in the main malaria vectors is an essential component of effective malaria vector control. This study presents the first evaluation of the status of insecticide resistance in Anopheles gambiae populations from Bangui, the Central African Republic. Anopheles mosquitoes were reared from larvae collected in seven districts of Bangui between September to November 2014. The World Health Organisation's bioassay susceptibility tests to lambda-cyhalothrin (0.05%), deltamethrin (0.05%), DDT (4%), malathion (5%), fenitrothion (1%) and bendiocarb (0.1%) were performed on adult females. Species and molecular forms as well as the presence of L1014F kdr and Ace-1 R mutations were assessed by PCR. Additional tests were conducted to assess metabolic resistance status. After 1 h exposure, a significant difference of knockdown effect was observed between districts in all insecticides tested except deltamethrin and malathion. The mortality rate (MR) of pyrethroids group ranging from 27% (CI: 19-37.5) in Petevo to 86% (CI: 77.6-92.1) in Gbanikola; while for DDT, MR ranged from 5% (CI: 1.6-11.3) in Centre-ville to 39% (CI: 29.4-49.3) in Ouango. For the organophosphate group a MR of 100% was observed in all districts except Gbanikola where a MR of 96% (CI: 90-98.9) was recorded. The mortality induced by bendiocarb was very heterogeneous, ranging from 75% (CI: 62.8-82.8) in Yapele to 99% (CI: 84.5-100) in Centre-ville. A high level of kdr-w (L1014F) frequency was observed in all districts ranging from 93 to 100%; however, no kdr-e (L1014S) and Ace-1 R mutation were found in all tested mosquitoes. Data of biochemical analysis showed significant overexpression activities of cytochrome P450, GST and esterases in Gbanikola and Yapele (χ 2  = 31.85, df = 2, P resistance to DDT and pyrethroids as well as precocious emergence of resistance to carbamates were detected among A. gambiae mosquitoes from Bangui, including target-site mutations

  4. Spectrum of female commercial sex work in Bangui, Central African Republic.

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    Longo, Jean De Dieu; Simaléko, Marcel Mbéko; Ngbale, Richard; Grésenguet, Gérard; Brücker, Gilles; Bélec, Laurent

    2017-12-01

    Classification of professional and non-professional female sex workers (FSWs) into different categories, never previously reported in the Central African Republic (CAR), may be useful to assess the dynamics of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic, design operational intervention programmes to combat HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and to adapt these programmes to the broad spectrum of sexual transactions in the CAR. Our study proposes a socio-behavioural classification of FSWs living in the CAR and engaged in transactional and commercial sex. Thus, the aims of the study were these: (i) to categorize FSWs according to socio-anthropologic criteria in Bangui and (ii) to examine the association between a selection of demographic and risk variables with the different categories of female sex work as an outcome. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted in 2013 to describe the spectrum of commercial sex work (CSW) in Bangui among 345 sexually active women having more than 2 sexual partners, other than their regular partner, during the prior 3 months and reporting to have received money or gifts in return for their sexual relationships. According to socio-behavioural characteristics, FSWs were classified into six different categories. Professional FSWs, constituting 32.5% of the interviewed women, were divided in two categories: pupulenge (13.9%), i.e., dragonflies (sometimes called gba moundjou, meaning literally look at the White) consisting of roamers, who travel around the city to hotels and nightclubs seeking wealthy clients, with a preference for French men; and the category of kata (18.6%), i.e., FSWs working in poor neighbourhoods. Non-professional FSWs, constituting 67.5% of the interviewed women, were divided into four categories: street and market vendors (20.8%), students (19.1%), housewives (15.7%) and unskilled civil servants (11.9%). In general, CSW in the CAR presents a remarkably heterogeneous phenomenon. Risk

  5. Behavioral risk factors of breast cancer in Bangui of Central African Republic: A retrospective case-control study.

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    Augustin Balekouzou

    , groundnut, soybean, alcohol, habit of keeping money in bras, overweight and obesity were associated with breast cancer risk among Central African women living in Bangui. Women living in Bangui should be more cautious on the behavioral risk associated with breast cancer.

  6. Risk factors for HIV infection among female sex workers in Bangui, Central African Republic.

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    Longo, Jean De Dieu; Simaleko, Marcel Mbeko; Diemer, Henri Saint-Calvaire; Grésenguet, Gérard; Brücker, Gilles; Belec, Laurent

    2017-01-01

    The aims of the study were i) to categorize female sex workers (FSW) according to socio-anthropologic criteria in Bangui; ii) to examine the association between a selection of demographic and risk variables with the different categories of female sex work as outcome, and iii) to investigate factors associated with HIV status. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted to describe the spectrum of commercial sex work in Bangui among 345 sexually active women. After collection of social and behavioral characteristics, each woman received a physical examination and a blood sample was taken for biological analyses, including HIV testing. The relationships between sociodemographic characteristics, behavioral variables involved in high risk for HIV as well as biological results were investigated by bivariate analysis in relationship with FSW categories as main outcomes, and by bivariate analysis followed by multivariate logistic regression analysis in relationship with HIV as the main outcome. The strength of statistical associations was measured by crude and adjusted Odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals. The typology of FSW comprised six different categories. Two groups were the "official" professional FSW primarily classified according to their locations of work [i) "kata"(18.55%) representing women working in poor neighborhoods of Bangui; ii) "pupulenge" (13.91%) working in hotels and night clubs to seek white men]. Four groups were "clandestine" nonprofessional FSW classified according to their reported main activity [i) "market and street vendors" (20.86%); ii) "schoolgirls or students" (19.13%) involved in occasional transactional sex (during holidays); iii) "housewives or unemployed women" (15.65%); iv) "civil servants" (11.88%) working as soldiers or in the public sector]. The overall prevalence of HIV-1 was 19.12% (66/345). HIV varied according to FSW categories. Thus, among professional FSW, the HIV prevalence was 6-fold higher in "kata

  7. Pattern of the Antimalarials Prescription during Pregnancy in Bangui, Central African Republic

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    Alexandre Manirakiza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of this study was to identify the antimalarials prescribed during the pregnancy and to document their timing. Method. From June to September 2009, a survey was conducted on 565 women who gave birth in the Castors maternity in Bangui. The antenatal clinics cards were checked in order to record the types of antimalarials prescribed during pregnancy according to gestational age. Results. A proportion of 28.8% ANC cards contained at least one antimalarial prescription. The commonest categories of antimalarials prescribed were: quinine (56.7%, artemisinin-based combinations (26.8% and artemisinin monotherapy (14.4%. Among the prescriptions that occurred in the first trimester of pregnancy, artemisinin-based combinations and artemisinin monotherapies represented the proportions of (10.9% and (13.3%. respectively. Conclusion. This study showed a relatively high rate (>80% of the recommended antimalarials prescription regarding categories of indicated antimalarials from national guidelines. But, there is a concern about the prescription of the artemisinin derivatives in the first trimester of pregnancy, and the prescription of artemisinin monotherapy. Thus, the reinforcement of awareness activities of health care providers on the national malaria treatment during pregnancy is suggested.

  8. Pattern of the Antimalarials Prescription during Pregnancy in Bangui, Central African Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manirakiza, Alexandre; Soula, Georges; Laganier, Remi; Klement, Elise; Djallé, Djibrine; Methode, Moyen; Madji, Nestor; Heredeïbona, Luc Salva; Le Faou, Alain; Delmont, Jean

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. The aim of this study was to identify the antimalarials prescribed during the pregnancy and to document their timing. Method. From June to September 2009, a survey was conducted on 565 women who gave birth in the Castors maternity in Bangui. The antenatal clinics cards were checked in order to record the types of antimalarials prescribed during pregnancy according to gestational age. Results. A proportion of 28.8% ANC cards contained at least one antimalarial prescription. The commonest categories of antimalarials prescribed were: quinine (56.7%), artemisinin-based combinations (26.8%) and artemisinin monotherapy (14.4%). Among the prescriptions that occurred in the first trimester of pregnancy, artemisinin-based combinations and artemisinin monotherapies represented the proportions of (10.9%) and (13.3%). respectively. Conclusion. This study showed a relatively high rate (>80%) of the recommended antimalarials prescription regarding categories of indicated antimalarials from national guidelines. But, there is a concern about the prescription of the artemisinin derivatives in the first trimester of pregnancy, and the prescription of artemisinin monotherapy. Thus, the reinforcement of awareness activities of health care providers on the national malaria treatment during pregnancy is suggested. PMID:22312567

  9. Risk factors for HIV infection among female sex workers in Bangui, Central African Republic.

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    Jean De Dieu Longo

    Full Text Available The aims of the study were i to categorize female sex workers (FSW according to socio-anthropologic criteria in Bangui; ii to examine the association between a selection of demographic and risk variables with the different categories of female sex work as outcome, and iii to investigate factors associated with HIV status.A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted to describe the spectrum of commercial sex work in Bangui among 345 sexually active women. After collection of social and behavioral characteristics, each woman received a physical examination and a blood sample was taken for biological analyses, including HIV testing. The relationships between sociodemographic characteristics, behavioral variables involved in high risk for HIV as well as biological results were investigated by bivariate analysis in relationship with FSW categories as main outcomes, and by bivariate analysis followed by multivariate logistic regression analysis in relationship with HIV as the main outcome. The strength of statistical associations was measured by crude and adjusted Odds ratios (OR and their 95% confidence intervals.The typology of FSW comprised six different categories. Two groups were the "official" professional FSW primarily classified according to their locations of work [i "kata"(18.55% representing women working in poor neighborhoods of Bangui; ii "pupulenge" (13.91% working in hotels and night clubs to seek white men]. Four groups were "clandestine" nonprofessional FSW classified according to their reported main activity [i "market and street vendors" (20.86%; ii "schoolgirls or students" (19.13% involved in occasional transactional sex (during holidays; iii "housewives or unemployed women" (15.65%; iv "civil servants" (11.88% working as soldiers or in the public sector]. The overall prevalence of HIV-1 was 19.12% (66/345. HIV varied according to FSW categories. Thus, among professional FSW, the HIV prevalence was 6-fold higher in "kata

  10. The prevalence of hepatitis B virus markers in a cohort of students in Bangui, Central African Republic.

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    Komas, Narcisse P; Baï-Sepou, Souleyman; Manirakiza, Alexandre; Léal, Josiane; Béré, Aubin; Le Faou, Alain

    2010-07-29

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the major cause of chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. The global epidemiological scenario of HBV infection has been changing rapidly over the last two decades due to an effective immunization programme initiated by the World Health Organization. The objective of this study is to estimate the prevalence of HBV in apparently healthy young people and to identify the risk factors of transmission of the HBV among this population in Bangui. Dried blood Spots from 801 adolescent high school and young adult university students were prepared by spotting a drop of whole blood (4 spots) from the same fingerprick onto Whatman filter paper. A blood sample aliquot eluted from DBS was then processed with commercial ELISA tests (Abbott Murex, Dartfort, UK) to detect HBsAg antigen, Anti-HBc and Anti-HBs antibodies). The overall prevalence was 42.3% for antibody to hepatitis B core antigen, 15.5% for HBsAg of which 1.3% of HBsAg alone. HBV familial antecedents, sexual activity and socioeconomic conditions were the main risk factors of HBV infection encountered in the adolescents and young adults. These results show for the first time the high prevalence of HBV in apparently healthy young people in Bangui. This high prevalence is age- and sex-independent. Transmission risk factors were a familial antecedent of HBV, no utilisation of condoms and public scholarship. To lower HBV prevalence, an adequate program of active screening and vaccination for adolescents and young adults should be implemented, along with a universal immunization program.

  11. The prevalence of hepatitis B virus markers in a cohort of students in Bangui, Central African Republic

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    Béré Aubin

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV is the major cause of chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. The global epidemiological scenario of HBV infection has been changing rapidly over the last two decades due to an effective immunization programme initiated by the World Health Organization. The objective of this study is to estimate the prevalence of HBV in apparently healthy young people and to identify the risk factors of transmission of the HBV among this population in Bangui. Methods Dried blood Spots from 801 adolescent high school and young adult university students were prepared by spotting a drop of whole blood (4 spots from the same fingerprick onto Whatman filter paper. A blood sample aliquot eluted from DBS was then processed with commercial ELISA tests (Abbott Murex, Dartfort, UK to detect HBsAg antigen, Anti-HBc and Anti-HBs antibodies. Results The overall prevalence was 42.3% for antibody to hepatitis B core antigen, 15.5% for HBsAg of which 1.3% of HBsAg alone. HBV familial antecedents, sexual activity and socioeconomic conditions were the main risk factors of HBV infection encountered in the adolescents and young adults. Conclusion These results show for the first time the high prevalence of HBV in apparently healthy young people in Bangui. This high prevalence is age- and sex-independent. Transmission risk factors were a familial antecedent of HBV, no utilisation of condoms and public scholarship. To lower HBV prevalence, an adequate program of active screening and vaccination for adolescents and young adults should be implemented, along with a universal immunization program.

  12. Spectrum of female commercial sex work in Bangui, Central African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-11-01

    Nov 1, 2017 ... Our study proposes a socio-behavioural classification of .... In the context of the extreme poverty of the CAR, female CSW ... night clubs, hotels, foreign military premises and popularly .... students (19.1%) involved in occasional transactional sex, par- ...... International Journal of STD & AIDS, 10, 609–614.

  13. New introduction and spread of rabies among dog population in Bangui.

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    Nakouné, E; Digol, M; Konamna, X; Selekon, B; Le Faou, A

    2012-08-01

    Rabies is endemic in the Central African Republic (CAR) and a neglected enzootic disease which represents a serious public health problem. Before April 2009, rabies was not a notifiable disease in CAR. Vaccination of animals is expensive and not commonly done. In 2005, none rabies case was recorded in Bangui. To understand how rabies was introduced and propagated in the city of Bangui from 2006 to 2008, we analyzed samplings of dog brain as well as reviewed the records of dog owners. A total of 86 out of 101 samples (84.8%) tested positive for rabies virus during this period. Previous phylogenetic analysis of some strains circulating in Bangui between 2006 and 2008 indicated that virus of cosmopolitan and Africa 2 clade are found. Given the time frame and location of these samples, one possible explanation for this alarming result may be that two different strains of rabies virus were introduced at different times in Bangui. Stray dogs are solely responsible for the spread of the epidemic. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. African Journals Online: Central African Republic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Central African Republic. Home > African Journals Online: Central African Republic. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This ...

  15. OPV strains circulation in HIV infected infants after National Immunisation Days in Bangui, Central African Republic

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    Menard Didier

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Humans are the only host of polioviruses, thus the prospects of global polio eradication look reasonable. However, individuals with immunodeficiencies were shown to excrete vaccine derived poliovirus for long periods of time which led to reluctance to prolong the vaccination campaign for fear of this end result. Therefore, we aimed to assess the duration of excretion of poliovirus after the 2001 National Immunization Days according to Human immunodeficiency virus status. Findings Fifty three children were enrolled. Sequential stool samples were collected in between National Immunisation Days rounds and then every month during one year. Children were classified into 2 groups: no immunodepression (n = 38, immunodepression (n = 15 according to CD4+ lymphocytes cells count. Thirteen poliovirus strains were isolated from 11 children: 5 Human immunodeficiency virus positive and 6 Human immunodeficiency virus negative. None of the children excreted poliovirus for more than 4 weeks. The restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis showed that all strains were of Sabin origin including a unique Polio Sabine Vaccine types 2 and 3 (S2/S3 recombinant. Conclusions From these findings we assume that Human immunodeficiency virus positive children are not a high risk population for long term poliovirus excretion. More powerful studies are needed to confirm our findings.

  16. Surveillance of Canine Rabies in the Central African Republic: Impact on Human Health and Molecular Epidemiology.

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    Vianney Tricou

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Although rabies represents an important public health threat, it is still a neglected disease in Asia and Africa where it causes tens of thousands of deaths annually despite available human and animal vaccines. In the Central African Republic (CAR, an endemic country for rabies, this disease remains poorly investigated.To evaluate the extent of the threat that rabies poses in the CAR, we analyzed data for 2012 from the National Reference Laboratory for Rabies, where laboratory confirmation was performed by immunofluorescence and PCR for both animal and human suspected cases, and data from the only anti-rabies dispensary of the country and only place where post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP is available. Both are located in Bangui, the capital of the CAR. For positive samples, a portion of the N gene was amplified and sequenced to determine the molecular epidemiology of circulating strains.In 2012, 966 exposed persons visited the anti-rabies dispensary and 632 received a post-exposure rabies vaccination. More than 90% of the exposed persons were from Bangui and its suburbs and almost 60% of them were under 15-years of age. No rabies-related human death was confirmed. Of the 82 samples from suspected rabid dogs tested, 69 were confirmed positive. Most of the rabid dogs were owned although unvaccinated. There was a strong spatiotemporal correlation within Bangui and within the country between reported human exposures and detection of rabid dogs (P<0.001. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that three variants belonging to Africa I and II lineages actively circulated in 2012.These data indicate that canine rabies was endemic in the CAR in 2012 and had a detrimental impact on human health as shown by the hundreds of exposed persons who received PEP. Implementation of effective public health interventions including mass dog vaccination and improvement of the surveillance and the access to PEP are urgently needed in this country.

  17. Surveillance of Canine Rabies in the Central African Republic: Impact on Human Health and Molecular Epidemiology

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    Tricou, Vianney; Bouscaillou, Julie; Kamba Mebourou, Emmanuel; Koyanongo, Fidèle Dieudonné; Nakouné, Emmanuel; Kazanji, Mirdad

    2016-01-01

    Background Although rabies represents an important public health threat, it is still a neglected disease in Asia and Africa where it causes tens of thousands of deaths annually despite available human and animal vaccines. In the Central African Republic (CAR), an endemic country for rabies, this disease remains poorly investigated. Methods To evaluate the extent of the threat that rabies poses in the CAR, we analyzed data for 2012 from the National Reference Laboratory for Rabies, where laboratory confirmation was performed by immunofluorescence and PCR for both animal and human suspected cases, and data from the only anti-rabies dispensary of the country and only place where post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) is available. Both are located in Bangui, the capital of the CAR. For positive samples, a portion of the N gene was amplified and sequenced to determine the molecular epidemiology of circulating strains. Results In 2012, 966 exposed persons visited the anti-rabies dispensary and 632 received a post-exposure rabies vaccination. More than 90% of the exposed persons were from Bangui and its suburbs and almost 60% of them were under 15-years of age. No rabies-related human death was confirmed. Of the 82 samples from suspected rabid dogs tested, 69 were confirmed positive. Most of the rabid dogs were owned although unvaccinated. There was a strong spatiotemporal correlation within Bangui and within the country between reported human exposures and detection of rabid dogs (Pcanine rabies was endemic in the CAR in 2012 and had a detrimental impact on human health as shown by the hundreds of exposed persons who received PEP. Implementation of effective public health interventions including mass dog vaccination and improvement of the surveillance and the access to PEP are urgently needed in this country. PMID:26859829

  18. Central African Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-01

    The Central African Republic contains 242,000 square miles, which rolling terrain almost 2000 feet above sea level. The climate is tropical, and it has a population of 2.8 million people with a 2.5% growth rate. There are more than 80 ethnic groups including Baya 34%, Banda 28%, Sara 10%, Mandja 9%, Mboum 9%, and M'Baka 7%. The religions are traditional African 35%, protestant 25%, Roman Catholic 25%, and Muslim 15%, and the languages are French and Sangho. The infant mortality rate is 143/1000, with expectancy at 49 years and a 40% literacy rate. The work force of 1 million is 70% agricultural, industry 6% and commerce and service 6% and government 3%. The government consists of a president assisted by cabinet ministers and a single party. Natural resources include diamonds, uranium, timber, gold, and oil, and major industries are beverages, textiles, and soap. Agricultural products feature coffee, cotton, peanuts, tobacco, food crops and livestock. Most of the population live in rural areas and most of the 80 ethnic groups have their own language. This is one of the world's least developed countries, with a per capita income of $375/year. The main problems with development are the poor transportation infrastructure, and the weak internal and international marketing systems. The US and various international organizations have aided in agriculture development, health programs, and family planning. US investment is mainly in diamond and gold mining, and although oil drilling has been successful it is not economically feasible at current prices.

  19. Central African Journal of Medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Central African Journal of Medicine is a quarterly refereed general medical journal which seeks to promote the practice and science of medicine in Africa. Emphasis is placed on general medical topics, reflecting common and important conditions in the region. The journal also covers related medical fields. Submissions ...

  20. Unusual and unique distribution of anal high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV among men who have sex with men living in the Central African Republic.

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    Ralph-Sydney Mboumba Bouassa

    Full Text Available High-risk (HR human papillomavirus (HPV infection remains a great concern in relation to African men who have sex with men (MSM, especially those infected with HIV. The prevalence of HR-HPV and associated risk factors was estimated in a cross-sectional observational study covering MSM living in Bangui, Central African Republic.MSM receiving care at the Centre National de Référence des Infections Sexuellement Transmissibles et de la Thérapie Antirétrovirale, Bangui, were included. HIV serostatus and socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics were collected. HPV DNA was detected and genotyped on anal swabs using Anyplex™ II HPV28 test (Seegene, South Korea, and HSV DNA by in-house real-time PCR. Logistic regression analyses were used to determine risk factors associated with HPV outcomes.42 MSM (mean age, 23.2 years; range, 14-39 including 69.1% HIV-1-positive and 30.9% HIV-negative were prospectively enrolled. The prevalence of anal HPV was 69.1%, including 82.7% of HR-HPV which were multiple in 52.0%. The most prevalent genotypes were HPV-35, HPV-58, HPV-59 and HPV-31. While, HPV-16 and HPV-18 were present in a minority of samples. Multiple HR-HPV infection was more frequent in HIV-positive MSM (41.4% with 2.7 genotypes per anal samples than in HIV-negative (7.7% with 1.5 genotypes per anal samples. HPV types included in the prophylactic Gardasil-9® vaccine were detected in 68.9% of specimens and HPV-58 was the most frequently detected. MSM infected by HPV-16 and HPV-18 were all infected by HIV-1. Few anal swabs (11.9% contained HSV-2 DNA without relationship with HPV detection. Condomless receptive anal intercourse was the main risk factor to being infected with any type of HPV and condomless insertive anal intercourse was significantly less associated with HPV contamination than receptive anal intercourse (Odd ratio = 0.02.MSM in Bangui are at-risk of HIV and HR-HPV anal infections. The unusual distribution of HPV-35 as

  1. GEOCHEMISTRY AND ISOTOPE HYDROLOGY OF AN URBAN AQUIFER, SUBTROPICAL AFRICA, CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HUSSEIN, M.F.; ISLAM, A.; GAMAL, S.; GAETAN, M.; DJEBEBE, C.

    2008-01-01

    Africa south of the Great Sahara has abundant water resources, however, its aquifers are seldom studied and/or inadequately managed. This study presents a geochemical and isotope hydrology study on the aquifer of Bangui city, the capital of the Central African Republic (RCA), on the northern borders of Congo with RCA.The obtained chemical data demonstrated the role of biogenic CO 2 gas, solid phases and cation exchange in the hydrochemistry of the studied groundwater. The conjunctive use of the major dissolved constituents and the isotope contents ( 18 O and 2 H) showed that the alteration of primary silicates and the dissolution of carbonates are the predominant processes that locally define the zones of dilute and relatively charged groundwater, respectively.The isotope data illustrated that evaporation is non-significantly contributing to the water loss from the aquifer, while transpiration (process that goes almost without isotopic fractionation) is prevailing in the water balance of the local drainage basin, with a significant fraction of the transpired vapour being recycled. An isotopic i nverse continental effect(eastward from Cameron to RCA) is explained through differences in air temperatures, amount and altitude of precipitation rather than by inverse movement of humid air masses westward in Central Africa

  2. [Stress syndrome in patients receiving outpatient treatment at the General Hospital, in Bangui, in a context of armed conflict].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpembi, Magloire Nkosi; Lukeba, Thierry; Mayemba, Damien; Massamba, Victoria Kubuta; Ma Nzuzi, Thierry Matonda; Gokara, Symphorien; Vermeiren, Etienne; Mananga Lelo, Gilbert; Ma Miezi, Samuel Mampunza

    2018-01-01

    in Africa's zones of conflict, recent studies report a high frequency of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) particularly in community settings. This study aimed to contribute to a better management of patients experiencing violence subsequent to the Central African Republic socio-political conflict. We conducted a cross-sectional study of the medical records of patients receiving outpatient treatment in the Doctors Without Borders/Médecins Sans Frontières (France) Trauma Center, Bangui. 33.33% (n=35) of patients had PTSD, while 17.14% (n=18) of patients had acute stress syndrome. Stress syndrome (SS) was associated with female sex, rape, anxiety and depression. Rape multiplied the risk of SS occurrence by 8. The average age was 30 years (P25:22 years; P75:40 years). The majority of patients had mood disorder (63.81%; n=67). Insomnia was present in 62.83% (n=66) of patients. Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was present in 44.76 % of patients. Depression was found in 40.95% (n=43) of patients. The obtained results show how the society, apart from militia members, is affected by conflict-related violence in the country. These results can enrich the reflections on health organisation and on the management of patients in Central African, by considering the impact of conflict-related acute stress syndome in the short, medium and long term.

  3. Insecticide resistance status of the Anopheles funestus population in Central African Republic: a challenge in the war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangba, Marina Lidwine Olé; Deketramete, Tanguy; Wango, Solange Patricia; Kazanji, Mirdad; Akogbeto, Martin; Ndiath, Mamadou Ousmane

    2016-04-25

    In the Central African Republic, malaria is a major public health problem and the leading cause of death among children. This disease appears to be hyperendemic but no substantial entomological data, including data on Anopheles spp. susceptibility to insecticides, is available. This study evaluates, for the first time in the CAR, the status of insecticide resistance in the Anopheles funestus population, the second major vector of malaria in Africa. WHO standard bioassay susceptibility tests were performed on the An. funestus population using F1 generation from gravid females mosquitoes (F0) collected by manual aspirator sampling of households in Gbanikola, Bangui in October 2014 to assess: (i) An. funestus susceptibility to bendiocarb, malathion, permethrin, lamda-cyhalothrin, deltamethrin and DDT, and (ii) the effect of pre-exposure to the piperonyl butoxide (PBO) synergist on insecticide susceptibility. Additional tests were conducted to investigate metabolic resistance status (cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, glutathione S-transferases, and esterases). A high phenotypic resistance of An. funestus population to malathion, DDT and pyrethroids was observed with a mortality rate ranging from 23 to 74%. For the pyrethroid groups, the mortality rate was 35, 31 and 23% for lambda-cyhalothrin, deltamethrin, and permethrin, respectively. In contrast a 100% mortality rate to bendiocarb was recorded. Knockdown time (KDT) was long for all pyrethroids, DDT and malathion with KDT50 higher than 50 min. Pre-exposure of An. funestus to PBO synergist significantly restored susceptibility to all pyrethroids (Fisher's exact test P P450 monooxygenases, esterases and glutatione S-transferases in the resistance of An. funestus population from Gbanikola (Wilcoxon test P resistance to insecticide was detected in An. funestus population from the district of Gbanikola, Bangui. This study suggests that detoxifying enzymes are involved in insecticide resistance of An. funestus. However

  4. Factors associated with stunting in healthy children aged 5 years and less living in Bangui (RCA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale Vonaesch

    Full Text Available Stunting remains a major public health concern worldwide. Although its global prevalence is slowly decreasing, the actual number of affected children is still rising in Sub-Saharan Africa. In the Central African Republic (CAR, about one third of all children below the age of five are stunted. Stunting is correlated with many long-term consequences, including poor cognitive development and a higher rate of morbidity and mortality, making stunting a major contributor to poverty. In CAR, little is known about the factors that contribute to stunting. This study aimed at analysing, in a cross-sectional study, the main factors associated with stunting in a group of 414 children recruited between December 2011 and November 2013, aged five years or less and living in Bangui. For all children, demographic, socio-economic and anthropometric data were recorded and asymptomatic enteropathogen carriage was assessed in stool samples using classical microbiological assays. The study group had a mean age of 14.2±10 months. Fifty-eight percent (292/414 were boys, and 36 percent (148/414 exhibited stunted growth. Of the stunted children, 51% (75/148 showed a moderate delay in linear growth for their age group [height-for-age z-score (HAZ between -2 and -3 SD] while 49% (73/148 presented a severe delay (HAZ 2 SD; aOR: 3.21; 95% CI: 1.50; 6.90 of overweight compared to normal weight] as also being significantly associated with stunting. This is the first study showing that even in the poorest countries of the world there is an association of stunting with being overweight.

  5. Factors associated with stunting in healthy children aged 5 years and less living in Bangui (RCA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonaesch, Pascale; Tondeur, Laura; Breurec, Sébastien; Bata, Petula; Nguyen, Liem Binh Luong; Frank, Thierry; Farra, Alain; Rafaï, Clotaire; Giles-Vernick, Tamara; Gody, Jean Chrysostome; Gouandjika-Vasilache, Ionela; Sansonetti, Philippe; Vray, Muriel

    2017-01-01

    Stunting remains a major public health concern worldwide. Although its global prevalence is slowly decreasing, the actual number of affected children is still rising in Sub-Saharan Africa. In the Central African Republic (CAR), about one third of all children below the age of five are stunted. Stunting is correlated with many long-term consequences, including poor cognitive development and a higher rate of morbidity and mortality, making stunting a major contributor to poverty. In CAR, little is known about the factors that contribute to stunting. This study aimed at analysing, in a cross-sectional study, the main factors associated with stunting in a group of 414 children recruited between December 2011 and November 2013, aged five years or less and living in Bangui. For all children, demographic, socio-economic and anthropometric data were recorded and asymptomatic enteropathogen carriage was assessed in stool samples using classical microbiological assays. The study group had a mean age of 14.2±10 months. Fifty-eight percent (292/414) were boys, and 36 percent (148/414) exhibited stunted growth. Of the stunted children, 51% (75/148) showed a moderate delay in linear growth for their age group [height-for-age z-score (HAZ) between -2 and -3 SD] while 49% (73/148) presented a severe delay (HAZ 2 SD; aOR: 3.21; 95% CI: 1.50; 6.90 of overweight compared to normal weight] as also being significantly associated with stunting. This is the first study showing that even in the poorest countries of the world there is an association of stunting with being overweight.

  6. East and Central African Journal of Surgery: About this journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    East and Central African Journal of Surgery: About this journal. Journal Home > East and Central African Journal of Surgery: About this journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  7. Archives: East and Central African Journal of Surgery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 40 of 40 ... Archives: East and Central African Journal of Surgery. Journal Home > Archives: East and Central African Journal of Surgery. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  8. Hysteresis in the Central African Rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietsch, Stephan Alexander; Elias Bednar, Johannes; Gautam, Sishir; Petritsch, Richard; Schier, Franziska; Stanzl, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    Past climate change caused severe disturbances of the Central African rainforest belt, with forest fragmentation and re-expansion due to drier and wetter climate conditions. Besides climate, human induced forest degradation affected biodiversity, structure and carbon storage of Congo basin rainforests. Information on climatically stable, mature rainforest, unaffected by human induced disturbances, provides means of assessing the impact of forest degradation and may serve as benchmarks of carbon carrying capacity over regions with similar site and climate conditions. BioGeoChemical (BGC) ecosystem models explicitly consider the impacts of site and climate conditions and may assess benchmark levels over regions devoid of undisturbed conditions. We will present a BGC-model validation for the Western Congolian Lowland Rainforest (WCLRF) using field data from a recently confirmed forest refuge, show model - data comparisons for disturbed und undisturbed forests under different site and climate conditions as well as for sites with repeated assessment of biodiversity and standing biomass during recovery from intensive exploitation. We will present climatic thresholds for WCLRF stability, analyse the relationship between resilience, standing C-stocks and change in climate and finally provide evidence of hysteresis.

  9. An update on human bartonelloses | Pretorius | Central African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Central African Journal of Medicine. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 46, No 7 (2000) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  10. Country watch: Central African Republic (CAR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubel, J; Sobela, F; Voga, P

    1997-01-01

    This article describes the activities of the Community Peer AIDS Education Project, initiated in 1995 in the Central African Republic (CAR). The CAR project was created by the National AIDS Committee (NAC) and the US Peace Corps. A 4-day workshop was held at the onset for project staff and consultants. Staff developed a simple monitoring and evaluation (M&E) system that emphasizes "learning." M&E schemes measure project outputs, expenditures, and other measures of program implementation in order to help staff gradually improve implementation. M&E helps staff document activities, share information, and learn from the implementation process. Project activities are documented by maintaining community logbooks, taking photos of significant aspects of the educational activities, and leading informal discussion groups. The CAR project engaged in sharing and learning activities by holding meetings with peer leaders, team meetings, meetings with project managers, and meetings with the NAC. Once a month, peer field coordinators conducted a structured exercise with peer leaders. One aim was to gain their feedback on the successes and constraints of activities. Another was to make suggestions on how to improve activities. These structured exercises are recorded as lessons learned in a project book. Team meetings are held periodically. During meetings, staff review project books and photos and discuss successes and problems encountered. Project manager meetings provide time to share lessons learned and to suggest project strengthening options. NAC meetings between the project manager and field coordinators allow for a bottom-up learning process. CAR project staff were receptive to M&E efforts.

  11. Uranium potential of the Central African Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangoto, R.

    2014-01-01

    Several factors determine the long-term sustainability of nuclear power. The terms of reference of the URAM-2014 already give very valuable insights on the future of nuclear energy. The combination of all these factors plus the new ores discoveries generated by ongoing exploration efforts can satisfy nuclear power by long and sunny days. Member countries of the IAEA, such as the Central African Republic (CAR), are each called in what concerns him to invest in shares arising on these factors. The mineral potential of the CAR which is pretty well supplied with at least 470 mineral occurrences, but few are mined other than some gold and diamond enterprises that are operated by craftsmen. The weakness of its economy does not allow the CAR to undertake by itself work to highlight possible extensions of these occurrences in depth and that might constitute possible mineable deposits. Note the presence occurrences of rare earths elements among these occurrences. The uranium exploration which started since 1947 in the CAR has not yet been able to progress to allow the country to join the list of producer countries. The door for a new producer is unfortunately very narrow. Its unique sedimentary Bakouma site of uranium mineralization is known. However, the Areva Company, for internal reasons, suspended the completion of research there. Expectations are that this uranium deposit may see its beginning of extraction in the future, but it is also expected that exploration will continue in granite, pegmatite and metamorphic rocks using new exploration technologies in the framework of public-private partnership. (author)

  12. East and Central African Journal of Surgery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    health institutions. Thus many patients present with advanced malignancies when surgery for cure is impossible and only palliative care can be offered. Unfortunately many African countries lack both facilities and specialists in palliative care. Until recently palliative care was not even included in the curriculum for medical.

  13. East and Central African Journal of Surgery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cough, diphtheria and measles. These no longer reach epidemic proportions in Africa as they did 30 years ago. But against a background of over- population, war and malnutrition, malaria and the diarrhoea1 diseases take an increasing toll of African children. In the cities, the diseases associated with affluence and gluttony ...

  14. Central nervous system tuberculosis | Cherian | African Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Health Sciences. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 11, No 1 (2011) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should load ...

  15. East and Central African Journal of Surgery: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Prof. Ignatius Kakande Editor-in-Chief Association of Surgeons of East Africa. East and Central African Journal of Surgery. P.O. Box 7051. Kampala. Uganda. Alternative email: igkakande@gmail.com. Phone: +256 772 501 745. Email: ecajs@gmail.com ...

  16. Over grafting donor site | Rogers | East and Central African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    East and Central African Journal of Surgery. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 14, No 2 (2009) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Over grafting donor site. AD Rogers, AK ...

  17. East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 1. Vol. 8(2) 40 - 42. Constituents of the Stem Bark of Dombeya Rotundifolia Hochst. S.N. NDWIGAH*', G.N. THOITHI', J.W. MWANGI~ AND 1.0. KIBWAGE'. 'Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, University of Nairobi,. P. 0.

  18. 59 East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Vol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pharm-chem

    East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. Vol. 16 (2013). There is a misconception that traditional medicine is unique to developing countries of Africa, Asia and. South America. This is certainly not true. Traditional medicine, often referred to as "alternative medicine", is widely used in developed countries ...

  19. Putative Lineage of Novel African Usutu Virus, Central Europe

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-10-15

    Sarah Gregory reads an abridged version of "Putative Lineage of Novel African Usutu Virus, Central Europe.".  Created: 10/15/2015 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 10/15/2015.

  20. Primary cerebral angitis of the central nervous | Das | East African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Various medications like intravenous immunoglobulin, antibiotics, acyclovir, methyl prednisolone and management for raised intracranial pressure were instituted. She rapidly deteroriated and died on tenth hospital day. Only at autopsy was the diagnosis of primary angitis of central nervous system established. East African ...

  1. East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences is dedicated to all aspects of Pharmaceutical Sciences research and is published in English. The scientific papers published in the Journal fall into three main categories: review papers, original research papers and short communications. Review papers in ...

  2. Disturbance, diversity and distributions in Central African rain forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemerden, van B.S.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study is to gain insight in the impact of human land use on plant community composition, diversity and levels of endemism in Central African rain forest. Human disturbance in this region is causing large-scale habitat degradation. The two most widespread forms of land use are

  3. Hepatitis B and hepatitis D virus infections in the Central African Republic, twenty-five years after a fulminant hepatitis outbreak, indicate continuing spread in asymptomatic young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narcisse Patrice Komas

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis delta virus (HDV increases morbidity in Hepatitis B virus (HBV-infected patients. In the mid-eighties, an outbreak of HDV fulminant hepatitis (FH in the Central African Republic (CAR killed 88% of patients hospitalized in Bangui. We evaluated infections with HBV and HDV among students and pregnant women, 25 years after the fulminant hepatitis (FH outbreak to determine (i the prevalence of HBV and HDV infection in this population, (ii the clinical risk factors for HBV and/or HDV infections, and (iii to characterize and compare the strains from the FH outbreak in the 1980s to the 2010 HBV-HDV strains. We performed a cross sectional study with historical comparison on FH-stored samples (n = 179 from 159 patients and dried blood-spots from volunteer students and pregnant women groups (n = 2172. We analyzed risk factors potentially associated with HBV and HDV. Previous HBV infection (presence of anti-HBc occurred in 345/1290 students (26.7% and 186/870 pregnant women (21.4%(p = 0.005, including 110 students (8.8% and 71 pregnant women (8.2%, who were also HBsAg-positive (p = 0.824. HDV infection occurred more frequently in pregnant women (n = 13; 18.8% than students (n = 6; 5.4% (p = 0.010. Infection in childhood was probably the main HBV risk factor. The risk factors for HDV infection were age (p = 0.040, transfusion (p = 0.039, and a tendency for tattooing (p = 0.055 and absence of condom use (p = 0.049. HBV-E and HDV-1 were highly prevalent during both the FH outbreak and the 2010 screening project. For historical samples, due to storage conditions and despite several attempts, we could only obtain partial HDV amplification representing 25% of the full-length genome. The HDV-1 mid-eighties FH-strains did not form a specific clade and were affiliated to two different HDV-1 African subgenotypes, one of which also includes the 2010 HDV-1 strains. In the Central African Republic, these findings indicate a high prevalence of previous and

  4. Central nervous system tuberculosis | Cherian | African Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Central nervous system (CNS) involvement, one of the most devastating clinical manifestations of tuberculosis (TB) is noted in 5 to 10% of extrapulmonary TB cases, and accounts for approximately 1% of all TB cases. Definitive diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) depends upon the detection of the tubercle bacilli in ...

  5. Distribution and Numbers of Pygmies in Central African Forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Olivero

    Full Text Available Pygmy populations occupy a vast territory extending west-to-east along the central African belt from the Congo Basin to Lake Victoria. However, their numbers and actual distribution is not known precisely. Here, we undertake this task by using locational data and population sizes for an unprecedented number of known Pygmy camps and settlements (n = 654 in five of the nine countries where currently distributed. With these data we develop spatial distribution models based on the favourability function, which distinguish areas with favourable environmental conditions from those less suitable for Pygmy presence. Highly favourable areas were significantly explained by presence of tropical forests, and by lower human pressure variables. For documented Pygmy settlements, we use the relationship between observed population sizes and predicted favourability values to estimate the total Pygmy population throughout Central Africa. We estimate that around 920,000 Pygmies (over 60% in DRC is possible within favourable forest areas in Central Africa. We argue that fragmentation of the existing Pygmy populations, alongside pressure from extractive industries and sometimes conflict with conservation areas, endanger their future. There is an urgent need to inform policies that can mitigate against future external threats to these indigenous peoples' culture and lifestyles.

  6. Yellow fever risk assessment in the Central African Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Junior, Alberto Novaes; Heukelbach, Jorg

    2015-04-01

    Yellow fever still causes high burden in several areas of sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America. There are few well-designed epidemiological studies and limited data about yellow fever in Africa. Staples et al., in a recently published paper in Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene, performed a nationwide study in the Central African Republic (CAR) assessing infection risk and the operational impact of preventive measures. The rapid assessment of human, non-human and mosquito data call attention to the potential risk of future yellow fever outbreaks in the CAR and elsewhere. The study reinforces the need for intensified applied and operational research to address problems and human capacity needs in the realm of neglected tropical diseases in the post-2015 agenda. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Yellow fever risk assessment in the Central African Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staples, J Erin; Diallo, Mawlouth; Janusz, Kristen B; Manengu, Casimir; Lewis, Rosamund F; Perea, William; Yactayo, Sergio; Sall, Amadou A

    2014-10-01

    Starting in 2008, the Central African Republic (CAR) experienced an unprecedented number of reported yellow fever (YF) cases. A risk assessment of YF virus (YFV) activity was conducted to estimate potential disease risk and vaccine needs. A multistage cluster sampling design was used to sample humans, non-human primates, and mosquitoes in distinct ecologic zones. Humans and non-human primates were tested for YFV-specific antibodies; mosquitoes were tested for YFV RNA. Overall, 13.3% (125/938) of humans were found to have naturally-acquired YFV antibodies. Antibody levels were higher in zones in the southern and south central regions of CAR. All sampled non-human primates (n=56) were known YFV reservoirs; one tested positive for YFV antibodies. Several known YF vectors were identified including Aedes africanus, Ae. aegypti, Ae. luteocephalus, and Ae. simpsoni. Several more urban locations were found to have elevated Breateau and Container indices for Ae. aegypti. A country-wide assessment of YF risk found YFV to be endemic in CAR. The potential for future YF cases and outbreaks, however, varied by ecologic zone. Improved vaccination coverage through mass campaign and childhood immunization was recommended to mitigate the YF risk. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. African American and Hispanic American sportsmen in the north central region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan Marsinko; John Dwyer

    2003-01-01

    Public forest managers need an awareness and understanding of their clients in order to better address their needs for recreational uses of forest lands. This study examines and characterizes African American and Hispanic American sportsmen (hunters and anglers) in the North Central Region of the United Stares (IA, IL, IN, MI, MN, MO, WI) and compares them to African...

  9. East and Central African Journal of Surgery http://www.bioline.org.br ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patrick

    East and Central African Journal of Surgery ... Investigations and intra-operative findings were suggestive of testicular torsion. We report this case because of its unusual ... The diagnosis is made mainly through clinical examination and signs.

  10. East and Central African Journal of Surgery Volume 15 Number 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    East and central African Journal of Surgery. Page 122 ... curriculum by integrating the basic and clinical sciences focusing on organ system and featuring early .... 5. identify the different radiological and imaging investigations. 6. know how to ...

  11. East and Central African Journal of Surgery Volume 15 Number 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    East and central African Journal of Surgery. Page 136 ... at school. Early presentation, immediate intervention and treatment can prevent grave .... Bank DE, Diaz L, Behrman DA, Delaney J, Bizzocco S. Tongue entrapment in an aluminum.

  12. Central diabetes insipidus in an African Grey parrot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkey, Simon R; Wood, Catherine; de Matos, Ricardo; Ledbetter, Eric C; Morrisey, James K

    2010-08-15

    A 5.5-year-old sexually intact female African Grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus) was evaluated for a 1-year history of pronounced polyuria and polydipsia. The bird also had a 1-month history of signs of mild depression and mydriasis. Physical examination revealed a thin body condition and incomplete bilateral mydriasis. Other examination findings as well as CBC and screening radiography results were unremarkable. Plasma biochemical analysis revealed mild hypernatremia. The bird had a 3.3% loss in body weight over 170 minutes during a water deprivation test, and urine osmolality remained low. After IM administration of 0.9 microg of desmopressin, the rate of weight loss decreased substantially and urine osmolality increased 300% over the following 200 minutes. Initial attempts to treat the bird with orally administered desmopressin failed to correct the polydipsia and polyuria. Ultimately, IM administration of 24 microg of desmopressin/kg (10.9 microg/lb) every 12 hours yielded a noticeable reduction in water consumption and urine production over a 6- to 8-hour period. Eight months later, the bird was returned for a recheck examination, at which time it was in good health and continued to respond to the medication. Despite continued response to the medication, right-sided internal ophthalmoparesis was detected 16 months after the initial diagnosis. To the authors' knowledge, central diabetes insipidus in birds has not been reported. The condition should be considered in birds with clinical signs of disease similar to those in mammals. Long-term IM administration of desmopressin may be a viable treatment option.

  13. West and Central African Research and Education Networking ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    For universities and research centres around the world, the Internet has become an ... This will include undertaking feasibility studies, developing a strategic plan, ... Internet protocol resources : a tool for positioning African higher education ...

  14. Central African Journal of Medicine - Vol 60, No 4 (2014)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Original Abstracts - Supplementary · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. The Annual Medical Research Day Conference Contributors, 1-18. ISSN: 0008-9176. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's ...

  15. Abnormal rotation of the right kidney | Chaudhary | Central African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ://dx.doi.org/10.4314/cajm.v46i1.8517 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News.

  16. Causes of visual disability among Central Africans with diabetes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    I read with great interest the article by Mvitu and. Longo-Mbenza that appeared in a recent issue of. African Heath Sciences.¹ In that paper, the authors were interested in determining whether diabetes is an independent and significant determinant of visual disability. I commend them for performing this study. However a ...

  17. [Evaluation of the level of endemic tuberculosis in a survey of Banqui (Central African Republic)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarda, J; Monges, J; Pujol, C; Ndoyo, J; Samba, M; Monges, P; Merouze, J; Testa, J

    1993-01-01

    A cluster sample survey on tuberculosis has been carried out in Bangui in February 1988. The bimodal distribution of the diameters of IDR on children aged between 5 to 9, gives evidence of a circulation of some non typical mycobacteriae and enables to fix the limit of positivity at 14 mm. The prevalence rate of the tuberculotic infection is 7.9 +/- 1.7% in the surveyed children population at school. The annual risk of infection is evaluated at 1.09% that ranks the Centrafrican Republic in the countries with a low prevalence rate.

  18. TESTING NONLINEAR INFLATION CONVERGENCE FOR THE CENTRAL AFRICAN ECONOMIC AND MONETARY COMMUNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Anoruo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses nonlinear unit root testing procedures to examine the issue of inflation convergence for the Central African Economic and Monetary Community (CEMAC member states including Cameron, Central African Republic, Chad, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon and the Republic of Congo. The results from nonlinear STAR unit root tests suggest that inflation differentials for the sample countries are nonlinear and mean reverting processes. These results provide evidence of inflation convergence among countries within CEMAC. The finding of inflation convergence indicates the feasibility of a common monetary policy and/or inflation targeting regime within CEMAC.

  19. The central noradrenergic system: an overview | Viljoen | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The central noradrenergic system belongs to a group of brainstem neuromodulatory systems previously referred to as the ascending reticular activating system. In this article a heuristic model is presented of the central noradrenergic system depicting the major projections to other cerebral areas, its interactions with other ...

  20. Humans and great apes cohabiting the forest ecosystem in central african republic harbour the same hookworms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hasegawa, H.; Modrý, David; Kitagawa, M.; Shutt, K. A.; Todd, A.; Kalousová, B.; Profousová, I.; Petrželková, Klára Judita

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 3 (2014), e2715 ISSN 1935-2735 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Necator spp. * mountain gorillas * infection * chimpanzees * Dzanga-Sangha Protected Areas * Central African Republic Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 4.446, year: 2014

  1. Central African Journal of Medicine - Vol 60, No 9-12 (2016)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Central African Journal of Medicine - Vol 60, No 9-12 (2016). Journal Home > Archives > Vol 60, No 9-12 (2016). Supplementary Issue. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue ...

  2. Quantifying the scale and socioeconomic drivers of bird hunting in Central African forest communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Whytock, Robin C.; Morgan, Bethan J.; Awa, Taku; Bekokon, Zacharie; Abwe, Ekwoge A.; Buij, Ralph; Virani, Munir; Vickery, Juliet A.; Bunnefeld, Nils

    2018-01-01

    Global biodiversity is threatened by unsustainable exploitation for subsistence and commerce, and tropical forests are facing a hunting crisis. In Central African forests, hunting pressure has been quantified by monitoring changes in the abundance of affected species and by studying wild meat

  3. An inter-religious humanitarian response in the Central African Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Mahony

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Inter-religious action has played a key role in ensuring that social cohesion and inter-religious mediation remain on the international agenda in relation to response in the Central African Republic, where people’s faith is an integral part of their identity but where it has been manipulated in a horrific way.

  4. Ecological and economic impacts of gorilla-based tourism in Dzanga-Sangha, Central African Republic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, A.

    2001-01-01

    This thesis investigates the potential role of tourism in the funding of protected area management in the Congo Basin. An assessment of the protected areas and gazetted forests of the Central African Republic (CAR) showed that only about one third of the protected areas is more or less

  5. East and Central African Journal of Surgery Volume 15 Number 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    East and Central African Journal of Surgery Volume 15 Number 2. ... Makerere University,School of Biomedical sciences Department of Anatomy, P.O Box 7072, ..... should be borne in mind when locating the nerve for a regional block in the ...

  6. Behavioral responses of gorillas to habituation in the Dzanga-Ndoki National Park, Central African Republic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, A.; Cipolletta, C.; Brunsting, A.M.H.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2004-01-01

    We monitored the impact of habituation for tourism through changes in gorillas' behavior during the habituation process at Bai Hokou (Dzanga-Ndoki National Park, Central African Republic) from August 1996 to December 1999. From August 1998 onwards we focused on one gorilla group: the Munye. During

  7. The European Union’s Military Operation in the Central African Republic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højstrup Christensen, Gitte; Norvanto, Elisa; Mandrup, Thomas

    Since the Central African Republic (CAR) gained its independence from France in 1960, the country has been troubled with internal conflicts. The country’s instability is characterised by post-colonial ethnic tensions, poverty, crime, military coups, government corruption and a weak security secto...

  8. Humans and great apes cohabiting the forest ecosystem in Central African Republic harbour the same hookworms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hasegawa, H.; Modrý, D.; Kitagawa, M.; Shutt, K. A.; Todd, A.; Kalousová, B.; Profousová, I.; Petrželková, Klára Judita

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 3 (2014), e2715 ISSN 1935-2735 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/0927 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Necator spp. * mountain gorillas * infection * chimpanzees * Dzanga-Sangha Protected Areas, Central African Republic Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 4.446, year: 2014

  9. Basement control in the development of the early cretaceous West and Central African rift system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurin, Jean-Christophe; Guiraud, René

    1993-12-01

    The structural framework of the Precambrian basement of the West and Central African Rift System (WCARS) is described in order to examine the role of ancient structures in the development of this Early Cretaceous rift system. Basement structures are represented in the region by large Pan-African mobile belts (built at ca. 600 Ma) surrounding the > 2 Ga West African, Congo and Sao Francisco cratons. Except for the small Gao trough (eastern Mali) located near the contact nappe of the Pan-African Iforas suture zone along the edge of the West African craton, the entire WCARS is located within the internal domains of the Pan-African mobile belts. Within these domains, two main structural features occur as the main basement control of the WCARS: (1) an extensive network of near vertical shear zones which trend north-south through the Congo, Brazil, Nigeria, Niger and Algeria, and roughly east-west through northeastern Brazil and Central Africa. The shear zones correspond to intra-continental strike-slip faults which accompanied the oblique collision between the West African, Congo, and Sao Francisco cratons during the Late Proterozoic; (2) a steep metamorphic NW-SE-trending belt which corresponds to a pre-Pan-African (ca. 730 Ma) ophiolitic suture zone along the eastern edge of the Trans-Saharian mobile belt. The post-Pan-African magmatic and tectonic evolution of the basement is also described in order to examine the state of the lithosphere prior to the break-up which occurred in the earliest Cretaceous. After the Pan-African thermo-tectonic event, the basement of the WCARS experienced a long period of intra-plate magmatic activity. This widespread magmatism in part relates to the activity of intra-plate hotspots which have controlled relative uplift, subsidence and occasionally block faulting. During the Paleozoic and the early Mesozoic, this tectonic activity was restricted to west of the Hoggar, west of Aïr and northern Cameroon. During the Late Jurassic

  10. Central African Journal of Medicine - Vol 46, No 11 (2000)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The incidence of cleft lip, cleft palate, hydrocephalus and spina bifida at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Blantyre, Malawi. B C Msamati, P S Igbigbi, J E Chisi. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/cajm.v46i11.8572 ...

  11. West and Central African Partnership for Maternal, Newborn, Child ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    High rates of maternal death and teen pregnancy persist in West and Central Africa. Research and programming efforts are not sustainably reducing these rates. The challenge is how to link the evidence on useful health interventions with evidence on how to deliver the interventions effectively. This project aims to build the ...

  12. Extent and ecological consequences of hunting in Central African rainforests in the twenty-first century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abernethy, K A; Coad, L; Taylor, G; Lee, M E; Maisels, F

    2013-01-01

    Humans have hunted wildlife in Central Africa for millennia. Today, however, many species are being rapidly extirpated and sanctuaries for wildlife are dwindling. Almost all Central Africa's forests are now accessible to hunters. Drastic declines of large mammals have been caused in the past 20 years by the commercial trade for meat or ivory. We review a growing body of empirical data which shows that trophic webs are significantly disrupted in the region, with knock-on effects for other ecological functions, including seed dispersal and forest regeneration. Plausible scenarios for land-use change indicate that increasing extraction pressure on Central African forests is likely to usher in new worker populations and to intensify the hunting impacts and trophic cascade disruption already in progress, unless serious efforts are made for hunting regulation. The profound ecological changes initiated by hunting will not mitigate and may even exacerbate the predicted effects of climate change for the region. We hypothesize that, in the near future, the trophic changes brought about by hunting will have a larger and more rapid impact on Central African rainforest structure and function than the direct impacts of climate change on the vegetation. Immediate hunting regulation is vital for the survival of the Central African rainforest ecosystem.

  13. Decreased thermal sweating of central sudomotor mechanism in African and Korean men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong Beom; Kim, Jeong Ho

    2018-05-01

    Tropical natives sweat less and preserve more body fluid than temperate natives, tolerating heat stress. However, the mechanisms involved in such sweating reduction have not been fully elucidated. We examined the sudomotor responses of men of African (n = 36) and Korean (n = 41) ancestry during hot water (43 °C) leg immersion (central sudomotor response). Correlations between mean body temperature, basal metabolic rate (BMR), and sweat rate were also examined. All procedures were done in an automated climate chamber. Local skin temperatures and BMR were measured and mean body temperature was calculated. Sweating activities which include evaporative loss rate, sweat onset time, sweat rate, sweat volume, and whole-body sweat loss volume were examined. In the heat load test, Africans showed lower mean body and local skin temperatures than Koreans before and after heating. Before and after heating, BMR declined significantly in Africans, while that of Koreans declined less. Local sweat onset time increased more in Africans than in Koreans. Local evaporative loss rate, local sweat volume, local sweat rate, and whole body sweat loss volume were reduced in Africans compared with Koreans. There were positive associations of mean body temperature and resting BMR with mean sweat rate. In conclusion, we observed a larger reduction of sudomotor activity in tropical Africans than in temperate Koreans, which was associated with their lower mean body temperature and lower resting BMR. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Generalization and fine mapping of European ancestry-based central adiposity variants in African ancestry populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneyama, S; Yao, J; Guo, X; Fernandez-Rhodes, L; Lim, U; Boston, J; Buzková, P; Carlson, C S; Cheng, I; Cochran, B; Cooper, R; Ehret, G; Fornage, M; Gong, J; Gross, M; Gu, C C; Haessler, J; Haiman, C A; Henderson, B; Hindorff, L A; Houston, D; Irvin, M R; Jackson, R; Kuller, L; Leppert, M; Lewis, C E; Li, R; Le Marchand, L; Matise, T C; Nguyen, K-Dh; Chakravarti, A; Pankow, J S; Pankratz, N; Pooler, L; Ritchie, M D; Bien, S A; Wassel, C L; Chen, Y-D I; Taylor, K D; Allison, M; Rotter, J I; Schreiner, P J; Schumacher, F; Wilkens, L; Boerwinkle, E; Kooperberg, C; Peters, U; Buyske, S; Graff, M; North, K E

    2017-02-01

    Central adiposity measures such as waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) are associated with cardiometabolic disorders independently of body mass index (BMI) and are gaining clinically utility. Several studies report genetic variants associated with central adiposity, but most utilize only European ancestry populations. Understanding whether the genetic associations discovered among mainly European descendants are shared with African ancestry populations will help elucidate the biological underpinnings of abdominal fat deposition. To identify the underlying functional genetic determinants of body fat distribution, we conducted an array-wide association meta-analysis among persons of African ancestry across seven studies/consortia participating in the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) consortium. We used the Metabochip array, designed for fine-mapping cardiovascular-associated loci, to explore novel array-wide associations with WC and WHR among 15 945 African descendants using all and sex-stratified groups. We further interrogated 17 known WHR regions for African ancestry-specific variants. Of the 17 WHR loci, eight single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in four loci were replicated in the sex-combined or sex-stratified meta-analyses. Two of these eight independently associated with WHR after conditioning on the known variant in European descendants (rs12096179 in TBX15-WARS2 and rs2059092 in ADAMTS9). In the fine-mapping assessment, the putative functional region was reduced across all four loci but to varying degrees (average 40% drop in number of putative SNPs and 20% drop in genomic region). Similar to previous studies, the significant SNPs in the female-stratified analysis were stronger than the significant SNPs from the sex-combined analysis. No novel associations were detected in the array-wide analyses. Of 17 previously identified loci, four loci replicated in the African ancestry populations of this

  15. Generalization and fine mapping of European ancestry-based central adiposity variants in African ancestry populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneyama, Sachiko; Yao, Jie; Guo, Xiuqing; Fernandez-Rhodes, Lindsay; Lim, Unhee; Boston, Jonathan; Buzková, Petra; Carlson, Christopher S.; Cheng, Iona; Cochran, Barbara; Cooper, Richard; Ehret, Georg; Fornage, Myriam; Gong, Jian; Gross, Myron; Gu, C. Charles; Haessler, Jeff; Haiman, Christopher A.; Henderson, Brian; Hindorff, Lucia A.; Houston, Denise; Irvin, Marguerite R.; Jackson, Rebecca; Kuller, Lew; Leppert, Mark; Lewis, Cora E.; Li, Rongling; Le Marchand, Loic; Matise, Tara C.; Nguyen, Khanh-Dung H.; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Pankow, James S.; Pankratz, Nathan; Pooler, Loreall; Ritchie, Marylyn D.; Bien, Stephanie A.; Wassel, Christina L.; Chen, Yii-Der I.; Taylor, Kent D.; Allison, Matthew; Rotter, Jerome I.; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Wilkens, Lynne; Boerwinkle, Eric; Kooperberg, Charles; Peters, Ulrike; Buyske, Steven; Graff, Mariaelisa; North, Kari E.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives Central adiposity measures such as waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) are associated with cardiometabolic disorders independently of BMI and are gaining clinically utility. Several studies report genetic variants associated with central adiposity, but most utilize only European ancestry populations. Understanding whether the genetic associations discovered among mainly European descendants are shared with African ancestry populations will help elucidate the biological underpinnings of abdominal fat deposition. Subjects/Methods To identify the underlying functional genetic determinants of body fat distribution, we conducted an array-wide association meta-analysis among persons of African ancestry across seven studies/consortia participating in the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) consortium. We used the Metabochip array, designed for fine mapping cardiovascular associated loci, to explore novel array-wide associations with WC and WHR among 15 945 African descendants using all and sex-stratified groups. We further interrogated 17 known WHR regions for African ancestry-specific variants. Results Of the 17 WHR loci, eight SNPs located in four loci were replicated in the sex-combined or sex-stratified meta-analyses. Two of these eight independently associated with WHR after conditioning on the known variant in European descendants (rs12096179 in TBX15-WARS2 and rs2059092 in ADAMTS9). In the fine mapping assessment, the putative functional region was reduced across all four loci but to varying degrees (average 40% drop in number of putative SNPs and 20% drop in genomic region). Similar to previous studies, the significant SNPs in the female stratified analysis were stronger than the significant SNPs from the sex-combined analysis. No novel associations were detected in the array-wide analyses. Conclusions Of 17 previously identified loci, four loci replicated in the African ancestry populations of

  16. Exploration for uranium in a tropical country: a case history in the Central African Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina, P.

    1983-01-01

    A total-count aerial radiometric survey carried out in the Central African Republic, in a wet tropical environment, led to the discovery of several anomalies, which were found to be bound to laterites overlying in Archean, quarzite-micaschist metamorphic series. Ground verification included several techniques: regional photogeology, radiometry and stream sediment geochemistry. Each anomalous spot was studied in detail by radiometric and geochemical grids, local topographic study and trenching through the lateritic profile. (author)

  17. Sedimentary processes in the Carnot Formation (Central African Republic) related to the palaeogeographic framework of Central Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Censier, Claude; Lang, Jacques

    1999-08-01

    The depositional environment, provenance and processes of emplacement of the detrital material of the Mesozoic Carnot Formation are defined, by bedding and sedimentological analysis of its main facies, and are reconstructed within the palaeogeographic framework of Central Africa. The clastic material was laid down between probably the Albian and the end of the Cretaceous, in a NNW-oriented braided stream fluvial system that drained into the Doba Trough (Chad) and probably also into the Touboro Basin (Cameroon). The material was derived from weathering of the underlying Devonian-Carboniferous Mambéré Glacial Formation and of the Precambrian schist-quartzite complex located to the south of the Carnot Formation. These results provide useful indications as to the provenance of diamonds mined in the southwest Central African Republic.

  18. Space Radar Image of Central African Gorilla Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This is a false-color radar image of Central Africa, showing the Virunga Volcano chain along the borders of Rwanda, Zaire and Uganda. This area is home to the endangered mountain gorillas. This C-band L-band image was acquired on April 12, 1994, on orbit 58 of space shuttle Endeavour by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR). The area is centered at about 1.75 degrees south latitude and 29.5 degrees east longitude. The image covers an area 58 kilometers by 178 kilometers (48 miles by 178 miles). The false-color composite is created by displaying the L-band HH return in red, the L-band HV return in green and the C-band HH return in blue. The dark area in the bottom of the image is Lake Kivu, which forms the border between Zaire (to the left) and Rwanda (to the right). The airport at Goma, Zaire is shown as a dark line just above the lake in the bottom left corner of the image. Volcanic flows from the 1977 eruption of Mt. Nyiragongo are shown just north of the airport. Mt. Nyiragongo is not visible in this image because it is located just to the left of the image swath. Very fluid lava flows from the 1977 eruption killed 70 people. Mt. Nyiragongo is currently erupting (August 1994) and will be a target of observation during the second flight of SIR-C/X-SAR. The large volcano in the center of the image is Mt. Karisimbi (4,500 meters or 14,800 feet). This radar image highlights subtle differences in the vegetation and volcanic flows of the region. The faint lines shown in the purple regions are believed to be the result of agriculture terracing by the people who live in the region. The vegetation types are an important factor in the habitat of the endangered mountain gorillas. Researchers at Rutgers University in New Jersey and the Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund in London will use this data to produce vegetation maps of the area to aid in their study of the remaining 650 gorillas in the region. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet

  19. Central corneal thickness of Caucasians, Chinese, Hispanics, Filipinos, African Americans, and Japanese in a glaucoma clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghaian, Elsa; Choe, Joyce E; Lin, Shan; Stamper, Robert L

    2004-12-01

    To characterize the central corneal thickness (CCT) of Asian (Chinese, Japanese, and Filipino), Caucasian, Hispanic, and African American patients in a multiethnic glaucoma practice. Retrospective study (chart review). Glaucomatous (n = 600) and nonglaucomatous (n = 201) eyes of 801 patients examined in a San Francisco glaucoma clinic from June 2002 to April 2004 who met inclusion criteria were included in the study. The 6 racial (ethnic) groups represented in the study were Caucasian (n = 186, 23.2%), Chinese (n = 157, 19.6%), Japanese (n = 121, 15.1%), Hispanic (n = 116, 14.5%), Filipino (n = 114, 14.2%), and African American (n = 107, 13.4%). Central corneal thickness was measured by means of ultrasound pachymetry in Asian (Chinese, Japanese, and Filipino), Caucasian, Hispanic, and African American participants with glaucomatous and normal eyes. The relationship between CCT and race was investigated using multivariate regression analyses, controlling for confounders. One eye of each of 801 participants was included for analysis. Correlation of mean CCT with race, glaucoma diagnosis, age, spherical equivalent, gender, and history of ocular surgery. The mean CCT of all participants was 542.9 mum. Central corneal thicknesses of Chinese (555.6 microm), Caucasian (550.4 microm), Filipino (550.6 microm), and Hispanic (548.1 microm) participants did not significantly differ. The CCT of Japanese participants (531.7 microm) was significantly less than that of Caucasians, Chinese, Filipinos, and Hispanics (all, Pvalues of CCT were significantly related to older age (PFilipinos. Caucasians, Chinese, Hispanics, and Filipinos have comparable CCT measurements, whereas the corneas of African Americans are significantly thinner. Additionally, older individuals; glaucoma suspects; and participants with NTG, POAG, PEX, and CACG have thinner corneas. Ocular hypertensives, however, have thicker corneas.

  20. On the Ethnic Origins of African Development: Chiefs and Precolonial Political Centralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalopoulos, Stelios; Papaioannou, Elias

    2015-01-01

    We report on recent findings of a fruitful research agenda that explores the importance of ethnic-specific traits in shaping African development. First, using recent surveys from Sub-Saharan African countries, we document that individuals identify with their ethnic group as often as with the nation pointing to the salience of ethnicity. Second, we focus on the various historical and contemporary functions of tribal leaders (chiefs) and illustrate their influence on various aspects of the economy and the polity. Third, we elaborate on a prominent dimension of ethnicity, that of the degree of complexity of pre-colonial political organization. Building on insights from the African historiography, we review recent works showing a strong association between pre-colonial centralization and contemporary comparative development both across and within countries. We also document that the link between pre-colonial political centralization and regional development -as captured by satellite images of light density at night-is particularly strong in areas outside the vicinity of the capitals, where due to population mixing and the salience of national institutions ethnic traits play a lesser role. Overall, our evidence is supportive to theories and narratives on the presence of a “dual” economic and institutional environment in Africa. PMID:27011760

  1. Alluvial diamond resource potential and production capacity assessment of the Central African Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirico, Peter G.; Barthelemy, Francis; Ngbokoto, Francois A.

    2010-01-01

    In May of 2000, a meeting was convened in Kimberley, South Africa, and attended by representatives of the diamond industry and leaders of African governments to develop a certification process intended to assure that rough, exported diamonds were free of conflict concerns. This meeting was supported later in 2000 by the United Nations in a resolution adopted by the General Assembly. By 2002, the Kimberly Process Certification Scheme (KPCS) was ratified and signed by diamond-producing and diamond-importing countries. Over 70 countries were included as members of the KPCS at the end of 2007. To prevent trade in "conflict diamonds" while protecting legitimate trade, the KPCS requires that each country set up an internal system of controls to prevent conflict diamonds from entering any imported or exported shipments of rough diamonds. Every diamond or diamond shipment must be accompanied by a Kimberley Process (KP) certificate and be contained in tamper-proof packaging. The objective of this study was (1) to assess the naturally occurring endowment of diamonds in the Central African Republic (potential resources) based on geological evidence, previous studies, and recent field data and (2) to assess the diamond-production capacity and measure the intensity of mining activity. Several possible methods can be used to estimate the potential diamond resource. However, because there is generally a lack of sufficient and consistent data recording all diamond mining in the Central African Republic and because time to conduct fieldwork and accessibility to the diamond mining areas are limited, two different methodologies were used: the volume and grade approach and the content per kilometer approach. Estimates are that approximately 39,000,000 carats of alluvial diamonds remain in the eastern and western zones of the CAR combined. This amount is roughly twice the total amount of diamonds reportedly exported from the Central African Republic since 1931. Production capacity is

  2. The representation of love among Brazilians, Russians and Central Africans: A comparative analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koyanongo E.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is dedicated to the cultural specificities of three typical collective groups with respect to the representation of love. The research subject focuses on the cross-cultural similarities and differences in how love is conceptualized among highly educated citizens of Brazil (50, Russia (50, and Central Africa (50 (age range 21–60; M = 34. We used “The Classical ideas of love: acceptance and distancing” questionnaire (I.A. Djidaryan, E.V. Belovol, & O.V. Maslova and the “Directed associations with ‘love’ as the wordstimulus” technique (on the basis of C.G. Jung’s associative experiment and P. Vergès’s methodology. The results show similarities and differences in how love is represented among the groups. The following similarities were found: Love is seen as all that is good and kind about a person, a way to become better. At the peripheral level, the social representation of love includes friendship, patience, and passion. At the point of cross-cultural differences, it was found that: a The main emotion reflecting how love is represented for Brazilians is honesty, for Russians — suffering, for Central Africans — tenderness; b Brazilians understand love as a sensual, personal moral choice; Russians perceive love as an obstacle, a problem in itself; Central Africans conceptualize love as God-given and ennobling of the person; c love is conceptualized as something inherent and family-oriented among Russians, intrapersonal and intimate among Brazilians, and divine among Central Africans. The results mean that within peripheral confines, the notion of love among the groups matches to a certain extent R. Sternberg’s triangle of love, while its core zone is culturally specific.

  3. Academic Race Stereotypes, Academic Self-Concept, and Racial Centrality in African American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeke, Ndidi A.; Howard, Lionel C.; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Rowley, Stephanie J.

    2010-01-01

    The relation between academic race stereotype endorsement and academic self-concept was examined in two studies of seventh- and eighth-grade African Americans. Based on expectancy-value theory, the authors hypothesized that academic race stereotype endorsement would be negatively related to self-perceptions. Furthermore, it was anticipated that the relation between stereotype endorsement and self-perceptions would be moderated by racial centrality. The hypothesis was supported in two independent samples. Among students with high racial centrality, endorsement of traditional race stereotypes was linked to lower self-perceptions of academic competence. The stereotype/self-concept relation was nonsignificant among youth for whom race was less central to their identities. These results confirm the supposition of expectancy-value theory and illustrate the interweaving of group and individual identity with motivational beliefs. PMID:20625536

  4. [Integrated screening for HIV, syphilis, and toxoplasmosis among pregnant women in the Central African Republic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamba, E P; Nambei, W S; Kamandji, L

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of syphilis and toxoplasmosis infection in pregnant women in the Central African Republic who were and were not HIV-infected, in the framework of HIV surveillance. This case-control study included 270 HIV(+) and 217 HIV(-) pregnant women among 4 750 women who attended prenatal-care clinics throughout the Central African Republic from November 2011 through January 2012. Blood specimens were collected and serological evidence of HIV1/2 was analyzed by ELISA1 and ELISA2. The Toxoplasma gondii antibody was detected with the Toxo-Hai Fumouze(®) diagnostic kit. A VDRL test was performed to screen for syphilis in all study participants. Of the 434 samples tested, 33 (7.60%) were positive for syphilis: 21 (9.7%) among HIV(+) and 12 (5.5%) among HIV(-) women (p = 0.1031); 221 (50.90%) were positive for toxoplasmosis: 117 (53.9%) among HIV(+) and 104 (47.9%) among HIV(-) women (p = 0, 2119). Coinfection with HIV, syphilis, and toxoplasmosis was found in 6.00%. No association was found between coinfection and age, parity, and residence area. The rate of syphilis infection was very high in pregnant women living in rural areas (ORcrude = 4.37; 95% CI = 2,11, 9.05). This study showed a high prevalence of toxoplasmosis and syphilis in pregnant women in the Central African Republic, regardless of their HIV infection status. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are common in pregnant women living in rural areas. It may be appropriate to include routine serological screening tests to determine of toxoplasmosis, syphilis and HIV in pregnant women in this country.

  5. Age and Isotopic Studies of Some Pan-African Granite from North-Central Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breemen, O. van; Pidgeon, R.T.; Bowden, P.

    1977-01-01

    Twenty-nine Rb-Sr whole-rock isotopic analyses and three U-Pb zircon analyses on foliated granites and largely unfoliated charnockitic rocks indicate that the central part of the Pan-African belt in west Africa was characterised by intense orogenic plutonism. These data and Rb-Sr analyses on muscovite books from late cross-cutting pegmatites indicate that the peak of magmatic activity occurred 610 +- 10 m.y.ago. Initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios for the granitic and charnockitic rocks are in the range 0.7065-0.7125, and indicate a significantly older crustal component in the magmas

  6. Present-day central African forest is a legacy of the 19th century human history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin-Rivat, Julie; Fayolle, Adeline; Favier, Charly; Bremond, Laurent; Gourlet-Fleury, Sylvie; Bayol, Nicolas; Lejeune, Philippe; Beeckman, Hans; Doucet, Jean-Louis

    2017-01-17

    The populations of light-demanding trees that dominate the canopy of central African forests are now aging. Here, we show that the lack of regeneration of these populations began ca. 165 ya (around 1850) after major anthropogenic disturbances ceased. Since 1885, less itinerancy and disturbance in the forest has occurred because the colonial administrations concentrated people and villages along the primary communication axes. Local populations formerly gardened the forest by creating scattered openings, which were sufficiently large for the establishment of light-demanding trees. Currently, common logging operations do not create suitable openings for the regeneration of these species, whereas deforestation degrades landscapes. Using an interdisciplinary approach, which included paleoecological, archaeological, historical, and dendrological data, we highlight the long-term history of human activities across central African forests and assess the contribution of these activities to present-day forest structure and composition. The conclusions of this sobering analysis present challenges to current silvicultural practices and to those of the future.

  7. [Epilepsy and its impact in northwest region of the Central African Republic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernet-Bernady, P; Tabo, A; Druet-Cabanac, M; Poumale, F; Ndoma, V; Lao, H; Bouteille, B; Dumas, M; Preux, P M

    1997-01-01

    In African countries, epilepsy is an important public health problem with major medical, socio-cultural, and economic implications. This study was carried out to evaluate attitudes towards epilepsy in the Central African Republic. A total of 187 epileptic patients were included. Only 20.9% of the study population were married. School attendance never exceeded the elementary level. Epilepsy was active in 98.4% of patients who continued to present attacks despite extensive treatment which was either poorly complied with or inadequate. Attitudes towards epilepsy remain rooted in belief in supernatural phenomenon and evil spirits with use of traditional therapies involving abstinence from certain foods and use of laxative agents to drive out evil forces. Epileptics are excluded from their families and not allowed to attend school but, in our study, they were not prevented from the work place since 70% held jobs. In this study, 54% of epileptics believed that the disease was contagious, 55.6% that it was incurable, and 20.9% that it was due occult or supernatural causes. While precise quantification is impossible, our experience based on interviews with patients and frequent observation of burn wounds suggests that moral and physical suffering is immense among epileptics in the Central African Republic. Epilepsy in Black Africa is a major public health problem requiring serious attention from government officials, health care specialists, and the families of patients. Better information to promote awareness of the non-contagious nature of the disease, greater support for families of patients, and improvement in treatment compliance are essential.

  8. Inside the "African cattle complex": animal burials in the holocene central Sahara.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savino di Lernia

    Full Text Available Cattle pastoralism is an important trait of African cultures. Ethnographic studies describe the central role played by domestic cattle within many societies, highlighting its social and ideological value well beyond its mere function as 'walking larder'. Historical depth of this African legacy has been repeatedly assessed in an archaeological perspective, mostly emphasizing a continental vision. Nevertheless, in-depth site-specific studies, with a few exceptions, are lacking. Despite the long tradition of a multi-disciplinary approach to the analysis of pastoral systems in Africa, rarely do early and middle Holocene archaeological contexts feature in the same area the combination of settlement, ceremonial and rock art features so as to be multi-dimensionally explored: the Messak plateau in the Libyan central Sahara represents an outstanding exception. Known for its rich Pleistocene occupation and abundant Holocene rock art, the region, through our research, has also shown to preserve the material evidence of a complex ritual dated to the Middle Pastoral (6080-5120 BP or 5200-3800 BC. This was centred on the frequent deposition in stone monuments of disarticulated animal remains, mostly cattle. Animal burials are known also from other African contexts, but regional extent of the phenomenon, state of preservation of monuments, and associated rock art make the Messak case unique. GIS analysis, excavation data, radiocarbon dating, zooarchaeological and isotopic (Sr, C, O analyses of animal remains, and botanical information are used to explore this highly formalized ritual and the lifeways of a pastoral community in the Holocene Sahara.

  9. The Genetic Contribution of West-African Ancestry to Protection against Central Obesity in African-American Men but Not Women: Results from the ARIC and MESA Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimentidis, Yann C; Arora, Amit; Zhou, Jin; Kittles, Rick; Allison, David B

    2016-01-01

    Over 80% of African-American (AA) women are overweight or obese. A large racial disparity between AA and European-Americans (EA) in obesity rates exists among women, but curiously not among men. Although socio-economic and/or cultural factors may partly account for this race-by-sex interaction, the potential involvement of genetic factors has not yet been investigated. Among 2814 self-identified AA in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study, we estimated each individual's degree of West-African genetic ancestry using 3437 ancestry informative markers. We then tested whether sex modifies the association between West-African genetic ancestry and body mass index (BMI), waist-circumference (WC), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), adjusting for income and education levels, and examined associations of ancestry with the phenotypes separately in males and females. We replicated our findings in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (n = 1611 AA). In both studies, we find that West-African ancestry is negatively associated with obesity, especially central obesity, among AA men, but not among AA women (pinteraction = 4.14 × 10(-5) in pooled analysis of WHR). In conclusion, our results suggest that the combination of male gender and West-African genetic ancestry is associated with protection against central adiposity, and suggest that the large racial disparity that exists among women, but not men, may be at least partly attributed to genetic factors.

  10. The face of Ebola: changing frequency of haemorrhage in the West African compared with Eastern-Central African outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petti, Stefano; Messano, Giuseppe Alessio; Vingolo, Enzo Maria; Marsella, Luigi Tonino; Scully, Crispian

    2015-12-11

    The West-African (WA) Zaire Ebolavirus disease (EVD) outbreak was characterized by an exceptionally high number of cases and deaths as compared with the Eastern-Central African (ECA) outbreaks. Despite the Zaire Ebolavirus being the most lethal for humans, case-fatality rate, close to 80 % in ECA outbreaks, almost halved to 47 % in Guinea-Liberia-Sierra Leone (WA). Such an improvement was due to the remarkable implementation of international humanitarian aids. Some studies also suggested that the long human-to-human transmission cycle occurred in WA, gave rise to human adaptation and consequent immune escape. Haemorrhage, the main feature in seriously infected EVD patients, is due to the immune system that triggers the infected endothelial cells which expose the spike-like glycoprotein (GP) of the virion on their surface. If the human adaptation hypothesis holds true, the proportion of EVD patients with haemorrhage in the WA outbreak should be lower than in the ECA outbreaks due to immune escape. Therefore, the aim of this meta-analysis was to compare the relative frequencies of three typical haemorrhagic symptoms (conjunctival -CB, nasal -NB, gingival -GB- bleedings) in the ECA and WA outbreaks. Literature searches were performed through PubMed and Scopus using generic keywords; surveys including at least ten patients reporting CB, NB, GB relative frequencies were extracted and split into ECA and WA. The meta-analytical methods chosen were based on the levels of between-study heterogeneity and publication bias. Pooled CB, NB, GB relative frequencies in ECA and WA were estimated and compared. Subgroup analysis including only studies on Zaire Ebolavirus also was performed. Fifteen studies (10 ECA, 5 WA) were located with 4,867 (CB), 3,859 (NB), 4,278 (GB) EVD patients overall. GB pooled relative frequency was 45.3 % (95 % confidence interval -95 CI, 34.7-56.1 %) and 18.0 % (95 CI, 6.0-34.5 %), in ECA and WA; NB was 10.6 % (95 CI, 5.7-16.8 %) and 1.3 % (1

  11. Post-collisional magmatism in the central East African Orogen: The Maevarano Suite of north Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodenough, K.M.; Thomas, Ronald J.; De Waele, B.; Key, R.M.; Schofield, D.I.; Bauer, W.; Tucker, R.D.; Rafahatelo, J.-M.; Rabarimanana, M.; Ralison, A.V.; Randriamananjara, T.

    2010-01-01

    Late tectonic, post-collisional granite suites are a feature of many parts of the Late Neoproterozoic to Cambrian East African Orogen (EAO), where they are generally attributed to late extensional collapse of the orogen, accompanied by high heat flow and asthenospheric uprise. The Maevarano Suite comprises voluminous plutons which were emplaced in some of the tectonostratigraphic terranes of northern Madagascar, in the central part of the EAO, following collision and assembly during a major orogeny at ca. 550 Ma. The suite comprises three main magmatic phases: a minor early phase of foliated gabbros, quartz diorites, and granodiorites; a main phase of large batholiths of porphyritic granitoids and charnockites; and a late phase of small-scale plutons and sheets of monzonite, syenite, leucogranite and microgranite. The main phase intrusions tend to be massive, but with variably foliated margins. New U-Pb SHRIMP zircon data show that the whole suite was emplaced between ca. 537 and 522 Ma. Geochemically, all the rocks of the suite are enriched in the LILE, especially K, and the LREE, but are relatively depleted in Nb, Ta and the HREE. These characteristics are typical of post-collisional granitoids in the EAO and many other orogenic belts. It is proposed that the Maevarano Suite magmas were derived by melting of sub-continental lithospheric mantle that had been enriched in the LILE during earlier subduction events. The melting occurred during lithospheric delamination, which was associated with extensional collapse of the East African Orogen. ?? 2009 Natural Environment Research Council.

  12. Mitochondrial, Y-chromosomal and autosomal variation in Mbenzele Pygmies from the Central African Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostou, Paolo; Coia, Valentina; Spedini, Gabriella; Destro-Bisol, Giovanni

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, we carry out a combined analysis of autosomal (ten microsatellites and an Alu insertion), mitochondrial (HVR-1 sequence, 360 nucleotides) and Y-chromosomal (seven microsatellites) variation in the Mbenzele Pygmies from the Central African Republic. This study focuses on two important questions concerning the admixture and origin of African Pygmies. Ethnographic observations suggest a sex-biased gene flow between the Bantus and Pygmies, an issue which could be clarified through genetic analyses may shed light. A study of intrapopulational variation of mtDNA and Y-chromosome produces results in accordance with the hypothesized matrimonial behaviour. In fact, while shared mitochondrial haplotypes belonging to the L1c5 (or L1c1a1 clade) sub-haplogroup provides evidence of a Pygmy-to-Bantu female biased gene flow, a male biased gene flow from Bantu to Pygmies is supported by the distribution of the Y-chromosomes bearing M2 mutation. The second part of our study regards the question of the genetic relationships between Western and Eastern Pygmies. Our results favour the pre-Bantu hypothesis which suggests that the two Pygmy groups separated in ancient times (at least 18,000 years ago), whereas they do not support the recent divergence and differential admixture hypothesis which posits their separation as a consequence of the Bantu expansion (2,000-3,000 years ago).

  13. Ranging and grouping patterns of a western lowland gorilla group at Bai Hokou, Central African Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remis, M J

    1997-01-01

    The ranging and grouping patterns of a gorilla group were studied during 27 months from 1990-1992 at the Bai Hokou study site, Central African Republic. The study group ranged far daily (average = 2.3 km/day) and had a large home range (22.9 km2), relative to mountain gorillas, and ranging patterns differed between years. During 1990-1992, the bimale study group foraged less cohesively and had more flexible grouping patterns than mountain gorillas. The study group sometimes split into two distinct foraging subgroups, each led by a silverback, and these subgroups occasionally slept apart (mean = 950 m apart). Lowland gorillas rely on many of the same fruit resources as sympatric chimpanzees, and under certain demographic situations gorillas, like sympatric chimpanzees, may adapt their foraging group size to reduce intragroup feeding competition. However, the fiber content of the lowland gorilla diet likely relaxes constraints on foraging party size and facilitates group cohesion relative to chimpanzees.

  14. Food Security Monitoring via Mobile Data Collection and Remote Sensing: Results from the Central African Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enenkel, Markus; See, Linda; Karner, Mathias; Álvarez, Mònica; Rogenhofer, Edith; Baraldès-Vallverdú, Carme; Lanusse, Candela; Salse, Núria

    2015-01-01

    The Central African Republic is one of the world's most vulnerable countries, suffering from chronic poverty, violent conflicts and weak disaster resilience. In collaboration with Doctors without Borders/Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF), this study presents a novel approach to collect information about socio-economic vulnerabilities related to malnutrition, access to resources and coping capacities. The first technical test was carried out in the North of the country (sub-prefecture Kabo) in May 2015. All activities were aimed at the investigation of technical feasibility, not at operational data collection, which requires a random sampling strategy. At the core of the study is an open-source Android application named SATIDA COLLECT that facilitates rapid and simple data collection. All assessments were carried out by local MSF staff after they had been trained for one day. Once a mobile network is available, all assessments can easily be uploaded to a database for further processing and trend analysis via MSF in-house software. On one hand, regularly updated food security assessments can complement traditional large-scale surveys, whose completion can take up to eight months. Ideally, this leads to a gain in time for disaster logistics. On the other hand, recording the location of every assessment via the smart phones' GPS receiver helps to analyze and display the coupling between drought risk and impacts over many years. Although the current situation in the Central African Republic is mostly related to violent conflict it is necessary to consider information about drought risk, because climatic shocks can further disrupt the already vulnerable system. SATIDA COLLECT can easily be adapted to local conditions or other applications, such as the evaluation of vaccination campaigns. Most importantly, it facilitates the standardized collection of information without pen and paper, as well as straightforward sharing of collected data with the MSF headquarters or other

  15. Exploring the potential offered by legacy soil databases for ecosystem services mapping of Central African soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdoodt, Ann; Baert, Geert; Van Ranst, Eric

    2014-05-01

    Central African soil resources are characterised by a large variability, ranging from stony, shallow or sandy soils with poor life-sustaining capabilities to highly weathered soils that recycle and support large amounts of biomass. Socio-economic drivers within this largely rural region foster inappropriate land use and management, threaten soil quality and finally culminate into a declining soil productivity and increasing food insecurity. For the development of sustainable land use strategies targeting development planning and natural hazard mitigation, decision makers often rely on legacy soil maps and soil profile databases. Recent development cooperation financed projects led to the design of soil information systems for Rwanda, D.R. Congo, and (ongoing) Burundi. A major challenge is to exploit these existing soil databases and convert them into soil inference systems through an optimal combination of digital soil mapping techniques, land evaluation tools, and biogeochemical models. This presentation aims at (1) highlighting some key characteristics of typical Central African soils, (2) assessing the positional, geographic and semantic quality of the soil information systems, and (3) revealing its potential impacts on the use of these datasets for thematic mapping of soil ecosystem services (e.g. organic carbon storage, pH buffering capacity). Soil map quality is assessed considering positional and semantic quality, as well as geographic completeness. Descriptive statistics, decision tree classification and linear regression techniques are used to mine the soil profile databases. Geo-matching as well as class-matching approaches are considered when developing thematic maps. Variability in inherent as well as dynamic soil properties within the soil taxonomic units is highlighted. It is hypothesized that within-unit variation in soil properties highly affects the use and interpretation of thematic maps for ecosystem services mapping. Results will mainly be based

  16. Food Security Monitoring via Mobile Data Collection and Remote Sensing: Results from the Central African Republic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Enenkel

    Full Text Available The Central African Republic is one of the world's most vulnerable countries, suffering from chronic poverty, violent conflicts and weak disaster resilience. In collaboration with Doctors without Borders/Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF, this study presents a novel approach to collect information about socio-economic vulnerabilities related to malnutrition, access to resources and coping capacities. The first technical test was carried out in the North of the country (sub-prefecture Kabo in May 2015. All activities were aimed at the investigation of technical feasibility, not at operational data collection, which requires a random sampling strategy. At the core of the study is an open-source Android application named SATIDA COLLECT that facilitates rapid and simple data collection. All assessments were carried out by local MSF staff after they had been trained for one day. Once a mobile network is available, all assessments can easily be uploaded to a database for further processing and trend analysis via MSF in-house software. On one hand, regularly updated food security assessments can complement traditional large-scale surveys, whose completion can take up to eight months. Ideally, this leads to a gain in time for disaster logistics. On the other hand, recording the location of every assessment via the smart phones' GPS receiver helps to analyze and display the coupling between drought risk and impacts over many years. Although the current situation in the Central African Republic is mostly related to violent conflict it is necessary to consider information about drought risk, because climatic shocks can further disrupt the already vulnerable system. SATIDA COLLECT can easily be adapted to local conditions or other applications, such as the evaluation of vaccination campaigns. Most importantly, it facilitates the standardized collection of information without pen and paper, as well as straightforward sharing of collected data with the MSF

  17. Situation Report--Bahrain, Central African Republic, Gabon, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lesotho, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Swaziland, Syria, Yemen Arab Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in twelve foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Bahrain, Central African Republic, Gabon, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lesotho, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Swaziland, Syria, and Yemen Arab Republic. Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two…

  18. Distal microbiome composition of habituated western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) at Dzanga Sangha, Central African Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gomez, A.; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Yeoman, C. J.; White, B. A.; Stumpf, R. M.; Nelson, K. E.; Gillis, M.; Torralba, M.; Wilson, B. A.; Leigh, S. R.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 75, S1 (2013), s. 72 ISSN 0275-2565. [Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists /36./. 19.06.2013-22.06.2013, San Juan] Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Gorilla * Central African Republic Subject RIV: EG - Zoology http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ajp.22188/pdf

  19. A profile of informal traders in four South African city central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The situation in South African cities is no exception as the unemployment rate ... 1. INTRODUCTION. In developing countries, state resources and formal employment opportunities .... like labour-force surveys in resource- constrained African ...

  20. [Microbiological surveillance: viral hemorrhagic fever in Central African Republic: current serological data in man].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakounné, E; Selekon, B; Morvan, J

    2000-01-01

    An investigation was conducted between 1994 and 1997 in forested areas of the Central African Republic (CAR) to determine the seroprevalence of IgG antibodies against several haemorrhagic fever viruses present in the region. Sera were obtained from 1762 individuals in two groups (Pygmy and Bantu locuted populations) living in 4 forested areas in the south of the country. Sera were tested for IgG antibodies against Ebola, Marburg, Rift Valley fever (RVF), Yellow fever (YF) and Hantaviruses by enzyme immunoassay (EIA), and against Lassa virus by immunofluorescent assay. The prevalence of IgG antibodies was 5.9% for Ebola, 2% for Marburg, 6.9% pour RVF, 6.5% for YF, 2% for Hantaan. No antibodies were detected against Lassa, Seoul, Puumala and Thottapalayam viruses. No IgM antibodies were detected against RVF and YF viruses. The distribution of antibodies appears to be related to tropical rain forest areas. This study indicates that several haemorrhagic fever viruses are endemic in forested areas of the CAR and could emerge due to environmental modification.

  1. Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) tool use in the Ngotto Forest, Central African Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Thurston C; Fouts, Roger S; Fouts, Deborah H

    2005-03-01

    Over a 7-month period, stick tools constructed by chimpanzees were collected and measured at the Ngotto Forest site in Central African Republic. The chimpanzees were found to use tools to dip for ants and to probe for honey. The basic descriptions of these tools and the contexts in which they were found are presented. The lengths of two of the tool types were compared with the use of a t-test for independent groups. It was found that the lengths of the tools differed significantly depending upon their function. The location and habitat type of each tool site were plotted on a map. The tool types were distributed throughout the southern part of the study area, and with one exception all tool sites were found in the same type of habitat. Two tool sites with two other types of tools (honey hammer/club and ant club) were found. The tool types at Ngotto are compared with those found at other chimpanzee field sites, and the implications for diversity in chimpanzee material culture are discussed. Copyright (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Population genetics of Glossina palpalis palpalis from central African sleeping sickness foci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solano Philippe

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glossina palpalis palpalis (Diptera: Glossinidae is widespread in west Africa, and is the main vector of sleeping sickness in Cameroon as well as in the Bas Congo Province of the Democratic Republic of Congo. However, little is known on the structure of its populations. We investigated G. p. palpalis population genetic structure in five sleeping sickness foci (four in Cameroon, one in Democratic Republic of Congo using eight microsatellite DNA markers. Results A strong isolation by distance explains most of the population structure observed in our sampling sites of Cameroon and DRC. The populations here are composed of panmictic subpopulations occupying fairly wide zones with a very strong isolation by distance. Effective population sizes are probably between 20 and 300 individuals and if we assume densities between 120 and 2000 individuals per km2, dispersal distance between reproducing adults and their parents extends between 60 and 300 meters. Conclusions This first investigation of population genetic structure of G. p. palpalis in Central Africa has evidenced random mating subpopulations over fairly large areas and is thus at variance with that found in West African populations of G. p. palpalis. This study brings new information on the isolation by distance at a macrogeographic scale which in turn brings useful information on how to organise regional tsetse control. Future investigations should be directed at temporal sampling to have more accurate measures of demographic parameters in order to help vector control decision.

  3. Gastrointestinal protists and helminths of habituated agile mangabeys (Cercocebus agilis) at Bai Hokou, Central African Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pafčo, Barbora; Tehlárová, Zuzana; Jirků Pomajbíková, Kateřina; Todd, Angelique; Hasegawa, Hideo; Petrželková, Klára J; Modrý, David

    2018-02-01

    Infectious diseases including those caused by parasites can be a major threat to the conservation of endangered species. There is thus a great need for studies describing parasite infections of these species in the wild. Here we present data on parasite diversity in an agile mangabey (Cercocebus agilis) group in Bai Hokou, Dzanga-Sangha Protected Areas (DSPA), Central African Republic. We coproscopically analyzed 140 mangabey fecal samples by concentration techniques (flotation and sedimentation). Agile mangabeys hosted a broad diversity of protistan parasites/commensals, namely amoebas (Entamoeba spp., Iodamoeba buetschlli), a Buxtonella-like ciliate and several parasitic helminths: strongylid and spirurid nematodes, Primasubulura sp., Enterobius sp., and Trichuris sp. Importantly, some of the detected parasite taxa might be of potential zoonotic importance, such as Entamoeba spp. and the helminths Enterobius sp., Trichuris sp., and strongylid nematodes. Detailed morphological examination of ciliate cysts found in mangabeys and comparison with cysts of Balantioides coli from domestic pigs showed no distinguishing structures, although significant differences in cyst size were recorded. Scanning or transmission electron microscopy combined with molecular taxonomy methods are needed to properly identify these ciliates. Further studies using molecular epidemiology are warranted to better understand cross-species transmission and the zoonotic potential of parasites in sympatric non-human primates and humans cohabiting DSPA. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. 60,000 years of interactions between Central and Eastern Africa documented by major African mitochondrial haplogroup L2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Marina; Alshamali, Farida; Silva, Paula; Carrilho, Carla; Mandlate, Flávio; Jesus Trovoada, Maria; Černý, Viktor; Pereira, Luísa; Soares, Pedro

    2015-07-27

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup L2 originated in Western Africa but is nowadays spread across the entire continent. L2 movements were previously postulated to be related to the Bantu expansion, but L2 expansions eastwards probably occurred much earlier. By reconstructing the phylogeny of L2 (44 new complete sequences) we provide insights on the complex net of within-African migrations in the last 60 thousand years (ka). Results show that lineages in Southern Africa cluster with Western/Central African lineages at a recent time scale, whereas, eastern lineages seem to be substantially more ancient. Three moments of expansion from a Central African source are associated to L2: (1) one migration at 70-50 ka into Eastern or Southern Africa, (2) postglacial movements (15-10 ka) into Eastern Africa; and (3) the southward Bantu Expansion in the last 5 ka. The complementary population and L0a phylogeography analyses indicate no strong evidence of mtDNA gene flow between eastern and southern populations during the later movement, suggesting low admixture between Eastern African populations and the Bantu migrants. This implies that, at least in the early stages, the Bantu expansion was mainly a demic diffusion with little incorporation of local populations.

  5. Early anthropogenic impact on Western Central African rainforests 2,600 y ago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcin, Yannick; Deschamps, Pierre; Ménot, Guillemette; de Saulieu, Geoffroy; Schefuß, Enno; Sebag, David; Dupont, Lydie M.; Oslisly, Richard; Brademann, Brian; Mbusnum, Kevin G.; Onana, Jean-Michel; Ako, Andrew A.; Epp, Laura S.; Tjallingii, Rik; Strecker, Manfred R.; Brauer, Achim; Sachse, Dirk

    2018-03-01

    A potential human footprint on Western Central African rainforests before the Common Era has become the focus of an ongoing controversy. Between 3,000 y ago and 2,000 y ago, regional pollen sequences indicate a replacement of mature rainforests by a forest–savannah mosaic including pioneer trees. Although some studies suggested an anthropogenic influence on this forest fragmentation, current interpretations based on pollen data attribute the ‘‘rainforest crisis’’ to climate change toward a drier, more seasonal climate. A rigorous test of this hypothesis, however, requires climate proxies independent of vegetation changes. Here we resolve this controversy through a continuous 10,500-y record of both vegetation and hydrological changes from Lake Barombi in Southwest Cameroon based on changes in carbon and hydrogen isotope compositions of plant waxes. δ13C-inferred vegetation changes confirm a prominent and abrupt appearance of C4 plants in the Lake Barombi catchment, at 2,600 calendar years before AD 1950 (cal y BP), followed by an equally sudden return to rainforest vegetation at 2,020 cal y BP. δD values from the same plant wax compounds, however, show no simultaneous hydrological change. Based on the combination of these data with a comprehensive regional archaeological database we provide evidence that humans triggered the rainforest fragmentation 2,600 y ago. Our findings suggest that technological developments, including agricultural practices and iron metallurgy, possibly related to the large-scale Bantu expansion, significantly impacted the ecosystems before the Common Era.

  6. Dramatic Declines of Montane Frogs in a Central African Biodiversity Hotspot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschfeld, Mareike; Blackburn, David C.; Doherty-Bone, Thomas M.; Gonwouo, LeGrand Nono; Ghose, Sonia; Rödel, Mark-Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Amphibian populations are vanishing worldwide. Declines and extinctions of many populations have been attributed to chytridiomycosis, a disease induced by the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). In Africa, however, changes in amphibian assemblages were typically attributed to habitat change. We conducted a retrospective study utilizing field surveys from 2004–2012 of the anuran faunas on two mountains in western Cameroon, a hotspot of African amphibian diversity. The number of species detected was negatively influenced by year, habitat degradation, and elevation, and we detected a decline of certain species. Because another study in this region revealed an emergence of Bd in 2008, we screened additional recent field-collected samples and also pre-decline preserved museum specimens for the presence of Bd supporting emergence before 2008. When comparing the years before and after Bd detection, we found significantly diminished frog species richness and abundance on both mountains after Bd emergence. Our analyses suggest that this may be the first disease-driven community-level decline in anuran biodiversity in Central Africa. The disappearance of several species known to tolerate habitat degradation, and a trend of stronger declines at higher elevations, are consistent with Bd-induced declines in other regions. Not all species decreased; populations of some species remained constant, and others increased after the emergence of Bd. This variation might be explained by species-specific differences in infection probability. Increased habitat protection and Bd-mitigation strategies are needed for sustaining diverse amphibian communities such as those on Mt. Manengouba, which contains nearly half of Cameroon’s frog diversity. PMID:27149624

  7. Spatio-Temporal Variability of Western Central African Convection from Infrared Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derbetini A. Vondou

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study has used Meteosat infrared brightness temperature images to investigate the regional and interannual variability of Central African cloudiness. Spatial and temporal variability were investigated using half–hourly data from the Meteosat-7 during June–July–August (JJA of 1998–2002. The full domain of study (1.5E–17E, 1N–15N was divided into six regions and statistics in each region were derived. Analysis of the dependence of cloud fraction to the brightness temperature threshold is explored both over land and ocean. Three diurnal cycle regimes (continental, oceanic, and coastal are depicted according to the amplitude and peak time. Over regions of relatively flat terrain, results indicate enhancement of deep convection in the afternoon followed by a gradual decrease in the night. The diurnal cycle of convection is characterised by afternoon and early evening (around 15:00–18:00 LST maxima located mainly downwind of the major mountain chains, and a more rapid nighttime decay. In terms of the harmonic amplitude, the diurnal signal shows significant regional contrast with the strongest manifestation over the Adamaoua Plateau and the weakest near the South Cameroon Plateau. This remarkable spatial dependence is clear evidence of orographic and heterogeneous land-surface impacts on convective development. Oceanic region exhibits weak activity of convective cloudiness with a maximum at noon. It is suggested that daytime heating of the land surface and moist environment may play a role in determining the spatial distribution of cloud fraction. This study further demonstrates the importance of the Cameroon coastline concavity and coastal mountains in regulating regional frequencies of convection and their initialization. The strength of the diurnal cycle of convective activity depends on mountain height, mean flow, coastal geometry.

  8. Dramatic Declines of Montane Frogs in a Central African Biodiversity Hotspot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mareike Hirschfeld

    Full Text Available Amphibian populations are vanishing worldwide. Declines and extinctions of many populations have been attributed to chytridiomycosis, a disease induced by the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd. In Africa, however, changes in amphibian assemblages were typically attributed to habitat change. We conducted a retrospective study utilizing field surveys from 2004-2012 of the anuran faunas on two mountains in western Cameroon, a hotspot of African amphibian diversity. The number of species detected was negatively influenced by year, habitat degradation, and elevation, and we detected a decline of certain species. Because another study in this region revealed an emergence of Bd in 2008, we screened additional recent field-collected samples and also pre-decline preserved museum specimens for the presence of Bd supporting emergence before 2008. When comparing the years before and after Bd detection, we found significantly diminished frog species richness and abundance on both mountains after Bd emergence. Our analyses suggest that this may be the first disease-driven community-level decline in anuran biodiversity in Central Africa. The disappearance of several species known to tolerate habitat degradation, and a trend of stronger declines at higher elevations, are consistent with Bd-induced declines in other regions. Not all species decreased; populations of some species remained constant, and others increased after the emergence of Bd. This variation might be explained by species-specific differences in infection probability. Increased habitat protection and Bd-mitigation strategies are needed for sustaining diverse amphibian communities such as those on Mt. Manengouba, which contains nearly half of Cameroon's frog diversity.

  9. Quality and safety of beef produced in Central African Sub-region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bawe M. Nfor

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this research is to provide a general situation of cattle slaughtered in Cameroon, as a representative example for the Central African Sub-region. The quality and safety of beef from the abattoir of Yaoundé, the largest in Cameroon, were considered. From January 2009 to March 2012, the pre-slaughter conditions and characteristics of 1953 cattle carcasses were recorded, as well as the pH of m. longissimus thoracis 24 h after slaughter. From these carcasses, 60 were selected to represent the bulls slaughtered. The quality parameters and composition of m. longissimus thoracis were carried out. The origin of most of the cattle was the Guinea High Savannah (74.6%, and transhumance was the common production system (75.5%. Gudali (45.6%, White Fulani (33.3% and Red Mbororo (20.3% breeds were predominant. Carcass weight was affected by rearing system and cattle category, and it markedly varied during year. Considering meat quality, the fat content was low (1.2% and similar between breeds, moreover Gudali showed the toughest meat. Of the cows slaughtered, 27% were pregnant and the most common abnormal conditions encountered were ectoparasites, fatigue, lameness, fungal-like skin lesions, enlarged lymph nodes, respiratory distress, nodular lesions. More than 20% of the carcasses had some organs condemned, mainly for liver flukes (5.17%, and 1.0% of them were completely condemned due to tuberculosis, that also affected 3.28% of lungs. These data could aid authorities draw up programmes with the aim to strengthen cattle production, improve beef supply, control and prevent the observed diseases, and promote the regional trade.

  10. Contrasted continental rifting via plume-craton interaction: Applications to Central East African Rift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Koptev

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The East African Rift system (EARS provides a unique system with the juxtaposition of two contrasting yet simultaneously formed rift branches, the eastern, magma-rich, and the western, magma-poor, on either sides of the old thick Tanzanian craton embedded in a younger lithosphere. Data on the pre-rift, syn-rift and post-rift far-field volcanic and tectonic activity show that the EARS formed in the context of the interaction between a deep mantle plume and a horizontally and vertically heterogeneous lithosphere under far-field tectonic extension. We bring quantitative insights into this evolution by implementing high-resolution 3D thermo-mechanical numerical deformation models of a lithosphere of realistic rheology. The models focus on the central part of the EARS. We explore scenarios of plume-lithosphere interaction with plumes of various size and initial position rising beneath a tectonically pre-stretched lithosphere. We test the impact of the inherited rheological discontinuities (suture zones along the craton borders, of the rheological structure, of lithosphere plate thickness variations, and of physical and mechanical contrasts between the craton and the embedding lithosphere. Our experiments indicate that the ascending plume material is deflected by the cratonic keel and preferentially channeled along one of its sides, leading to the formation of a large rift zone along the eastern side of the craton, with significant magmatic activity and substantial melt amount derived from the mantle plume material. We show that the observed asymmetry of the central EARS, with coeval amagmatic (western and magmatic (eastern branches, can be explained by the splitting of warm material rising from a broad plume head whose initial position is slightly shifted to the eastern side of the craton. In that case, neither a mechanical weakness of the contact between the craton and the embedding lithosphere nor the presence of second plume are required to

  11. Genetic variation at the ApoB 3' HVR minisatellite locus in the Mbenzele Pygmies from the Central African Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destro-Bisol, Giovanni; Belledi, Michele; Capelli, Cristian; Maviglia, Riccardo; Spedini, Gabriella

    2000-09-01

    This study analyzes the polymorphic minisatellite ApoB 3' HVR in the Mbenzele Pygmies from the Central African Republic. A total of 14 alleles was observed, with frequencies ranging from 0.020 (19, 21, 27, and 45 repeat unit alleles) to 0.210 (37 repeat unit allele). Departure from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was not statistically significant. The estimated heterozygosity was 0.874 +/- 0.016. Taking data from the literature into consideration, the results support the hypothesis that the Africans are different from non-Africans due to greater ApoB 3' HVR genetic diversity and a unimodal profile of ApoB 3' HVR allele frequency distribution. Interpopulational relationships were also analyzed using an F(ST) based genetic distance. The results highlight the similarity between the Mbenzele Pygmies and Bantu-speaking groups (Ewondo and Zulu), and the divergence between the Mbenzele and San, the two groups which are often considered to be the most direct descendants of proto-Africans. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 12:588-592, 2000. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Rayleigh Wave Phase Velocities Beneath the Central and Southern East African Rift System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, A. N.; Miller, J. C.

    2017-12-01

    This study uses the Automated Generalized Seismological Data Function (AGSDF) method to develop a model of Rayleigh wave phase velocities in the central and southern portions of the East African Rift System (EARS). These phase velocity models at periods of 20-100s lend insight into the lithospheric structures associated with surficial rifting and volcanism, as well as basement structures that pre-date and affect the course of rifting. A large dataset of >700 earthquakes is used, comprised of Mw=6.0+ events that occurred between the years 1995 and 2016. These events were recorded by a composite array of 176 stations from twelve non-contemporaneous seismic networks, each with a distinctive array geometry and station spacing. Several first-order features are resolved in this phase velocity model, confirming findings from previous studies. (1) Low velocities are observed in isolated regions along the Western Rift Branch and across the Eastern Rift Branch, corresponding to areas of active volcanism. (2) Two linear low velocity zones are imaged trending southeast and southwest from the Eastern Rift Branch in Tanzania, corresponding with areas of seismic activity and indicating possible incipient rifting. (3) High velocity regions are observed beneath both the Tanzania Craton and the Bangweulu Block. Furthermore, this model indicates several new findings. (1) High velocities beneath the Bangweulu Block extend to longer periods than those found beneath the Tanzania Craton, perhaps indicating that rifting processes have not altered the Bangweulu Block as extensively as the Tanzania Craton. (2) At long periods, the fast velocities beneath the Bangweulu Block extend eastwards beyond the surficial boundaries, to and possibly across the Malawi Rift. This may suggest the presence of older, thick blocks of lithosphere in regions where they are not exposed at the surface. (3) Finally, while the findings of this study correspond well with previous studies in regions of overlapping

  13. Thrusting and transpressional shearing in the Pan-African nappe southwest El-Sibai core complex, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Wahed, Mohamed A. Abd.

    2008-01-01

    The Wadi El-Shush area in the Central Eastern Desert (CED) of Egypt is occupied by the Sibai core complex and its surrounding Pan-African nappe complex. The sequence of metamorphic and structural events in the Sibai core complex and the enveloping Pan-African nappe can be summarized as follows: (1) high temperature metamorphism associated with partial melting of amphibolites and development of gneissic and migmatitic rocks, (2) between 740 and 660 Ma, oblique island arc accretion resulted in Pan-African nappe emplacement and the intrusion of syn-tectonic gneissic tonalite at about 680 ± 10 Ma. The NNW-SSE shortening associated with oblique island arc accretion produced low angle NNW-directed thrusts and open folds in volcaniclastic metasediments, schists and isolated serpentinite masses (Pan-African nappe) and created NNE-trending recumbent folds in syn-tectonic granites. The NNW-SSE shortening has produced imbricate structures and thrust duplexes in the Pan-African nappe, (3) NE-ward thrusting which deformed the Pan-African nappe into SW-dipping imbricate slices. The ENE-WSW compression event has created NE-directed thrusts, folded the NNW-directed thrusts and produced NW-trending major and minor folds in the Pan-African nappe. Prograde metamorphism (480-525 °C at 2-4.5 kbar) was synchronous with thrusting events, (4) retrograde metamorphism during sinistral shearing along NNW- to NW-striking strike-slip shear zones (660-580 Ma), marking the external boundaries of the Sibai core complex and related to the Najd Fault System. Sinistral shearing has produced steeply dipping mylonitic foliation and open plunging folds in the NNW- and NE-ward thrust planes. Presence of retrograde metamorphism supports the slow exhumation of Sibai core complex under brittle-ductile low temperature conditions. Arc-accretion caused thrusting, imbrication and crustal thickening, whereas gravitational collapse of a compressed and thickened lithosphere initiated the sinistral movement

  14. East and Central African Journal of Surgery Volume 15 Number 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    population live10 and own about 20% of the world's vehicles. The WHO African ... used as a base line for future progression and comparison, these are Motorization index (Vehicle .... Motor vehicle crash. 782. 0. 0. 0 ... Electric accident. 36. 0. 0.

  15. Contrasted continental rifting via plume-craton interaction : Applications to Central East African Rift

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koptev, Alexander; Burov, Evgueni; Calais, Eric; Leroy, Sylvie; Gerya, Taras; Guillou-Frottier, Laurent; Cloetingh, Sierd

    The East African Rift system (EARS) provides a unique system with the juxtaposition of two contrasting yet simultaneously formed rift branches, the eastern, magma-rich, and the western, magma-poor, on either sides of the old thick Tanzanian craton embedded in a younger lithosphere. Data on the

  16. Ecology of malaria infections in western lowland gorillas inhabiting Dzanga Sangha Protected Areas, Central African Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mapua, M. I.; Qablan, M. A.; Pomajbíková, K.; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Hůzová, Z.; Rádrová, J.; Votýpka, J.; Todd, A.; Jirků, M.; Leendertz, F. H.; Lukeš, J.; Neel, C.; Modrý, D.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 142, č. 7 (2015), s. 890-900 ISSN 0031-1820 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Plasmodium spp. * African great apes * malaria * lowland gorilla Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 3.031, year: 2015

  17. Academic Race Stereotypes, Academic Self-Concept, and Racial Centrality in African American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeke, Ndidi A.; Howard, Lionel C.; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Rowley, Stephanie J.

    2009-01-01

    The relation between academic race stereotype endorsement and academic self-concept was examined in two studies of seventh- and eighth-grade African Americans. Based on expectancy-value theory, the authors hypothesized that academic race stereotype endorsement would be negatively related to self-perceptions. Furthermore, it was anticipated that…

  18. Cross-hemispheric transport of central African biomass burning pollutants: implications for downwind ozone production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Real

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Pollutant plumes with enhanced concentrations of trace gases and aerosols were observed over the southern coast of West Africa during August 2006 as part of the AMMA wet season field campaign. Plumes were observed both in the mid and upper troposphere. In this study we examined the origin of these pollutant plumes, and their potential to photochemically produce ozone (O3 downwind over the Atlantic Ocean. Their possible contribution to the Atlantic O3 maximum is also discussed. Runs using the BOLAM mesoscale model including biomass burning carbon monoxide (CO tracers were used to confirm an origin from central African biomass burning fires. The plumes measured in the mid troposphere (MT had significantly higher pollutant concentrations over West Africa compared to the upper tropospheric (UT plume. The mesoscale model reproduces these differences and the two different pathways for the plumes at different altitudes: transport to the north-east of the fire region, moist convective uplift and transport to West Africa for the upper tropospheric plume versus north-west transport over the Gulf of Guinea for the mid-tropospheric plume. Lower concentrations in the upper troposphere are mainly due to enhanced mixing during upward transport. Model simulations suggest that MT and UT plumes are 16 and 14 days old respectively when measured over West Africa. The ratio of tracer concentrations at 600 hPa and 250 hPa was estimated for 14–15 August in the region of the observed plumes and compares well with the same ratio derived from observed carbon dioxide (CO2 enhancements in both plumes. It is estimated that, for the period 1–15 August, the ratio of Biomass Burning (BB tracer concentration transported in the UT to the ones transported in the MT is 0.6 over West Africa and the equatorial South Atlantic.

    Runs using a photochemical trajectory model, CiTTyCAT, initialized with the observations, were used to estimate

  19. Central African Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program: building and strengthening regional workforce capacity in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andze, Gervais Ondobo; Namsenmo, Abel; Illunga, Benoit Kebella; Kazambu, Ditu; Delissaint, Dieula; Kuaban, Christopher; Mbopi-Kéou, Francois-Xavier; Gabsa, Wilfred; Mulumba, Leopold; Bangamingo, Jean Pierre; Ngulefac, John; Dahlke, Melissa; Mukanga, David; Nsubuga, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The Central African Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program (CAFELTP) is a 2-year public health leadership capacity building training program. It was established in October 2010 to enhance capacity for applied epidemiology and public health laboratory services in three countries: Cameroon, Central African Republic, and the Democratic Republic of Congo. The aim of the program is to develop a trained public health workforce to assure that acute public health events are detected, investigated, and responded to quickly and effectively. The program consists of 25% didactic and 75% practical training (field based activities). Although the program is still in its infancy, the residents have already responded to six outbreak investigations in the region, evaluated 18 public health surveillance systems and public health programs, and completed 18 management projects. Through these various activities, information is shared to understand similarities and differences in the region leading to new and innovative approaches in public health. The program provides opportunities for regional and international networking in field epidemiology and laboratory activities, and is particularly beneficial for countries that may not have the immediate resources to host an individual country program. Several of the trainees from the first cohort already hold leadership positions within the ministries of health and national laboratories, and will return to their assignments better equipped to face the public health challenges in the region. They bring with them knowledge, practical training, and experiences gained through the program to shape the future of the public health landscape in their countries.

  20. Smoking and pregnancy outcome among African-American and white women in central North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savitz, D A; Dole, N; Terry, J W; Zhou, H; Thorp, J M

    2001-11-01

    Despite extensive research on tobacco smoking during pregnancy, few studies address risks among African-American and white women, groups that differ in brand preference and smoking habits. The Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition Study is a prospective cohort study that included 2,418 women with detailed information on smoking during pregnancy, including brand, number of cigarettes per day, and changes during pregnancy. We analyzed risk of preterm birth (age deliveries in relation to tobacco use. Pregnant African-American smokers differed markedly from whites in brand preference (95% vs 26% smoked menthol cigarettes) and number of cigarettes per day (1% of African-Americans and 12% of whites smoked 20+ cigarettes per day). Smoking was not related to risk of preterm birth overall, but cotinine measured at the time of delivery was (adjusted odds ratio = 2.2, 95% confidence interval = 1.1-4.5). A clear association and dose-response gradient was present for risk of fetal growth restriction (risk ratio for 20+ cigarettes/day = 2.4, 95% confidence interval = 1.4-4.0). Associations of tobacco use with preterm premature rupture of amniotic membrane resulting in preterm birth were notably stronger than the associations with other types of preterm birth.

  1. The LATEA metacraton (Central Hoggar, Tuareg shield, Algeria): behaviour of an old passive margin during the Pan-African orogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liégeois, Jean Paul; Latouche, Louis; Boughrara, Mustapha; Navez, Jacques; Guiraud, Michel

    2003-10-01

    Historically, the Tuareg shield is divided into three parts bordered by mega-shear zones with the centre, the Central Polycyclic Hoggar, characterized by Archaean and Palaeoproterozoic lithologies. Nearly 10 years ago, the Tuareg shield was shown to be composed of 23 displaced terranes [Geology 22 (1994) 641] whose relationships were deciphered in Aı̈r to the SE [Precambr. Res. 67 (1994) 59]. The Polycyclic Central Hoggar terranes were characterized by the presence of well preserved Archaean/Palaeoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic lithologies. We show here that the terranes from Central Hoggar (Laouni, Azrou-n-Fad, Tefedest, Egéré-Aleksod) belonged to a single old passive margin, to which we gave the acronym name LATEA, which behaved as a craton during the Mesoproterozoic and the Early-Middle Neoproterozoic but was partly destabilized and dissected during the Late Neoproterozoic as a consequence of its involvement as a passive margin in the Pan-African orogen. An early Pan-African phase consisted of thrust sheets including garnet-bearing lithologies (eclogite, amphibolite, gneiss) that can be mapped and correlated in three LATEA terranes. In the Tin Begane area, P- T- t paths have been established from >15 kbar--790 °C (eclogite) to 4 kbar--500 °C (greenschist retrogression) through 12 kbar--830 °C (garnet amphibolite) and 8 kbar--700 °C (garnet gneiss), corresponding to the retrograde path of a Franciscan-type loop. Sm-Nd geochronology on minerals and laser ablation ICP-MS on garnet show the mobility of REE, particularly LREE, during the retrograde greenschist facies that affects, although slightly, some of these rocks. The amphibolite-facies metamorphism has been dated at 685 ± 19 Ma and the greenschist facies at 522 ± 27 Ma. During the thrust phase, the Archaean-Palaeoproterozoic basement was only locally affected by the Pan-African tectonics. LATEA behaved as a craton. Other juvenile terranes were also thrust early onto LATEA: the Iskel island arc at

  2. Central African Journal of Medicine - Vol 61, No 1-4 (2015)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Etiology and risk factors of meningitis in patients admitted at a Central Hospital ... rupture of the Achilles tendon in a rat model · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT ... An echocardiography audit to determine and characterise rheumatic heart ...

  3. East and Central African Journal of Surgery http://www.bioline.org.br ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patrick

    populations in Asia, far-east, and North America. By far reported cases ... Zomba Central hospital with long standing history of a giant scalp cutenous horn for about 28 years .Excision ... educative pathologies goes under reported. Case Report.

  4. Attainment of MDGs through tourism in the Central African sub-region: Implications for local economic development in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert N. Kimbu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the role and contribution of tourism to local economic development and in the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals one and seven dealing with extreme poverty alleviation and environmental sustainability in the biodiversity endowed Central African sub-region. The concepts of sustainable tourism development and local economic development (in sub-Saharan Africa are examined. Through field observations and semi-structured interviews with 21 tourism industry stakeholders in Cameroon, an analysis of tourism’s role and future in LED and in the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals 1 & 7 is undertaken. The core challenges presently inhibiting tourism’s development thereby limiting its contribution to local economic development and the attainment of these goals in Cameroon are identified and a framework within which tourism’s contribution can be increased is proposed.

  5. Non-uniform splitting of a single mantle plume by double cratonic roots : Insight into the origin of the central and southern East African Rift System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koptev, Alexander; Cloetingh, Sierd; Gerya, Taras; Calais, Eric; Leroy, Sylvie

    Using numerical thermo-mechanical experiments we analyse the role of an active mantle plume and pre-existing lithospheric thickness differences in the structural development of the central and southern East African Rift system. The plume-lithosphere interaction model setup captures the essential

  6. Institutional perceptions, adaptive capacity and climate change response in a post-conflict country: a case study from Central African Republic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, H.C.P.; Smit, B.; Somorin, O.A.; Sonwa, D.J.; Ngana, F.

    2013-01-01

    The Central African Republic (CAR) faces increased vulnerability to climate change because it is a low-income country with low adaptive capacity; a situation that is exacerbated by recent civil conflict. This research analysed the perceptions of decision-makers within, and the response of diverse

  7. Critical Internal Factors Influencing The Centralization Of Stock Procurement Processes In A South African Municipality

    OpenAIRE

    Zwelihle Wiseman Nzuza; Lawrence Mpele Lekhanya

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was threefold: 1) to examine the internal factors influencing centralization of stock procurement processes, 2) to assess the relationship between demographic factors and staff understanding of Information Communication Technology (ICT) with performance improvement, and 3) to examine the relationship between prevention of corruption with management commitment. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 82 members of staff from procurement division in a ...

  8. Fundamental Flaws in the Architecture of the European Central Bank: The Possible End of the Euro Zone and its Effects to East African Community (EAC Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nothando Moyo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available European countries embarked on a European integration programme that saw the formation of the Euro, which has emerged as a major currency (Blair, 1999 that was introduced in 1998. With the Euro, came the establishment of the European Central Bank. Thus this study seeks to investigate the flaws in the formation of the European Central Bank that surfaced during the major economic crisis in Europe. The crisis revealing the gaps in the formation and structure of the European central bank have created major challenges for the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU. Through an extant review of literature the study will examine the East African Community Countries, investigating the ties they have to the euro zone to analyse how the crisis has affected them. Furthermore, the study will analyse what would happen to the growth patterns of the East African Countries and the various prospects they may have should the Eurozone come to an end.

  9. Understanding the Adolescent Gap in HIV Testing Among Clients of Antenatal Care Services in West and Central African Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helleringer, Stephane

    2017-09-01

    New HIV infections among children have declined significantly more slowly in West and central African countries (WCA) than in eastern and southern African countries between 2009 and 2015. Since adolescent fertility is particularly high in WCA countries, frequent mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV may in part be due to low coverage of HIV testing among adolescents during antenatal care (ANC). We investigated this adolescent gap in HIV testing using survey data from the demographic and health surveys and multiple indicators cluster surveys collected in 21 WCA countries since 2009. We found significant adolescent gaps in HIV testing in 12 out of 21 WCA countries, with the largest gap observed in Nigeria. In countries with a significant adolescent gap in HIV testing, we used Fairlie decompositions to assess what proportion of these gaps were explained by age-related differences in the distribution of (a) marital status, (b) socioeconomic status (SES), (c) MTCT-related knowledge, and (d) patterns of ANC utilization. Differences in SES and MTCT-related knowledge were the most consistent determinants of adolescent gaps in HIV testing during ANC. Differences in ANC utilization (e.g., fewer and possibly delayed ANC visits) also contributed to the adolescent gap in 8 out of 12 countries. Interventions that improve knowledge of MTCT risks, and/or promote the sustained use of ANC services, could help engage HIV-infected adolescents who become pregnant in PMTCT services. Targeting these interventions at the most disadvantaged households will be crucial in further reducing HIV infections among children.

  10. The Impact of Everyday Discrimination and Racial Identity Centrality on African American Medical Student Well-Being: a Report from the Medical Student CHANGE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Sylvia P; Hardeman, Rachel; Burke, Sara E; Cunningham, Brooke; Burgess, Diana J; van Ryn, Michelle

    2016-09-01

    Positive psychological well-being is an important predictor of and contributor to medical student success. Previous work showed that first-year African American medical students whose self-concept was highly linked to their race (high racial identity centrality) were at greater risk for poor well-being. The current study extends this work by examining (a) whether the psychological impact of racial discrimination on well-being depends on African American medical students' racial identity centrality and (b) whether this process is explained by how accepted students feel in medical school. This study used baseline data from the Medical Student Cognitive Habits and Growth Evaluation (CHANGE) Study, a large national longitudinal cohort study of 4732 medical students at 49 medical schools in the USA (n = 243). Regression analyses were conducted to test whether medical student acceptance mediated an interactive effect of discrimination and racial identity centrality on self-esteem and well-being. Both racial identity centrality and everyday discrimination were associated with negative outcomes for first-year African American medical students. Among participants who experienced higher, but not lower, levels of everyday discrimination, racial identity centrality was associated with negative outcomes. When everyday discrimination was high, but not low, racial identity was negatively related to perceived acceptance in medical school, and this in turn was related to increased negative outcomes. Our results suggest that discrimination may be particularly harmful for African American students who perceive their race to be central to their personal identity. Additionally, our findings speak to the need for institutional change that includes commitment and action towards inclusivity and the elimination of structural racism.

  11. Measuring human rights violations in a conflict-affected country: results from a nationwide cluster survey in Central African Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts Les

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Measuring human rights violations is particularly challenging during or after armed conflict. A recent nationwide survey in the Central African Republic produced estimates of rates of grave violations against children and adults affected by armed conflict, using an approach known as the "Neighborhood Method". Methods In June and July, 2009, a random household survey was conducted based on population estimates from the 2003 national census. Clusters were assigned systematically proportional to population size. Respondents in randomly selected households were interviewed regarding incidents of killing, intentional injury, recruitment into armed groups, abduction, sexual abuse and rape between January 1, 2008 and the date of interview, occurring in their homes' and those of their three closest neighbors. Results Sixty of the selected 69 clusters were surveyed. In total, 599 women were interviewed about events in 2,370 households representing 13,669 persons. Estimates of annual rates of each violation occurring per 1000 people in each of two strata are provided for children between the ages of five and 17, adults 18 years of age and older and the entire population five years and older, along with a combined and weighted national rate. The national rates for children age five to 17 were estimated to be 0.98/1000/year (95% CI: 0.18 - 1.78 for recruitment, 2.56/1000/year (95% CI: 1.50 - 3.62 for abduction, 1.13/1000/year (95% CI: 0.33 - 1.93 for intentional injury, 10.72/1000 girls/year (95% CI: 7.40 - 14.04 for rape, and 4.80/1000 girls/year (95% CI: 2.61 - 6.00 for sexual abuse. No reports of any violation against a person under the age of five were recorded and there were no reports of rape or sexual abuse of males. No children were reported to have been killed during the recall period. Rape and abduction were the most frequently reported events. Conclusions The population-based figures greatly augment existing information on

  12. Emergence of quinolone resistance among extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in the Central African Republic: genetic characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Thierry

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cross-resistance to quinolones and beta-lactams is frequent in Enterobacteriaceae, due to the wide use of these antibiotics clinically and in the food industry. Prescription of one of these categories of antibiotic may consequently select for bacteria resistant to both categories. Genetic mechanisms of resistance may be secondary to a chromosomal mutation located in quinolone resistance determining region of DNA gyrase or topoisomerase IV or to a plasmid acquisition. The insertion sequence ISCR1 is often associated with qnr and may favour its dissemination in Gram-negative bacteria. The aim of this study was to determine the genetic mechanism of quinolone resistance among extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae strains in the Central African Republic. Findings Among seventeen ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolated from urine, pus or stool between January 2003 and October 2005 in the Central African Republic, nine were resistant to ciprofloxacin (seven from community patients and two from hospitalized patients. The ESBL were previously characterized as CTX-M-15 and SHV-12. Susceptibility to nalidixic acid, norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin, and the minimal inhibitory concentrations of these drugs were determined by disc diffusion and agar dilution methods, respectively. The presence of plasmid-borne ISCR1-qnrA region was determined by PCR and amplicons, if any, were sent for sequencing. Quinolone resistance determining region of DNA gyrase gyrA gene was amplified by PCR and then sequenced for mutation characterization. We found that all CTX-M-producing strains were resistant to the tested quinolones. All the isolates had the same nucleotide mutation at codon 83 of gyrA. Two Escherichia coli strains with the highest MICs were shown to harbour an ISCR1-qnrA1 sequence. This genetic association might favour dissemination of resistance to quinolone and perhaps other antibiotics among Enterobacteriaceae

  13. Effects of biomarkers of oxidative stress damage on prevalence and severity of visual disability among black Central Africans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo-Mbenza, B; Muaka, M Mvitu; Yokobo, E Cibanda; Phemba, I Longo; Mokondjimobe, E; Gombet, T; Ndembe, D Kibokela; Mona, D Tulomba; Masamba, S Wayiza

    2012-01-01

    Because of the demographic transition, lifestyle changes, urbanization, and nutrition transition, Central Africans are at higher risk of ocular diseases associated with oxidative stress and visual disability. This study aimed to estimate the normal values of oxidant status defined by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL), 8-Isoprostane and 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and to determine their pathogenic role in the prevalence and the severity of visual disability among these black Africans. This was a cross-sectional study, run in a case-control study randomly selected from Kinshasa province, DR Congo. The study included 150 type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients (cases) matched for sex and age to 50 healthy non diabetic controls. Logistic regression models were used to identify independent determinants of visual disability. The presence rates were 8.5% for blindness, 20.5% for visual impairment and 29% for visual disability including blindness and visual impairment. After adjusted for taro leaves intake, red beans intake, T2DM, aging, waist circumference, and systolic blood pressure, we identified low education level (OR=3.3 95%CI 1.5-7.2; p=0.003), rural-urban migration (OR=2.6 95% CI 1.2-5.6; p=0.017), and high Ox-LDL (OR=2.3 95% CI 1.1-4.7; p=0.029) as the important independent determinants of visual disability. After adjusted for education, intake of red beans, intake of taro leaves, triglycerides, and T2DM, we identified no intake of safou fruit (OR=50.7 95% CI 15.2-168.5; pvisual disability. After adjusted for education level, no intake of red beans, no intake of Taro leaves, triglycerides, and T2DM, we identified no intake of Safou fruit (OR=43.1 95% CI 13.7-135.4; pvisual disability. Visual disability remains a public health problem in Central Africa. Antioxidant supplement, fruit intake, nutrition education, control of migration, and blocking of oxidative stress are crucial steps for delayed development of vision loss.

  14. Soil does not explain monodominance in a Central African tropical forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelvin S-H Peh

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Soil characteristics have been hypothesised as one of the possible mechanisms leading to monodominance of Gilbertiodendron dewerei in some areas of Central Africa where higher-diversity forest would be expected. However, the differences in soil characteristics between the G. dewevrei-dominated forest and its adjacent mixed forest are still poorly understood. Here we present the soil characteristics of the G. dewevrei forest and quantify whether soil physical and chemical properties in this monodominant forest are significantly different from the adjacent mixed forest.We sampled top soil (0-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-30 cm and subsoil (150-200 cm using an augur in 6 × 1 ha areas of intact central Africa forest in SE Cameroon, three independent patches of G. dewevrei-dominated forest and three adjacent areas (450-800 m apart, all chosen to be topographically homogeneous. Analysis--subjected to Bonferroni correction procedure--revealed no significant differences between the monodominant and mixed forests in terms of soil texture, median particle size, bulk density, pH, carbon (C content, nitrogen (N content, C:N ratio, C:total NaOH-extractable P ratio and concentrations of labile phosphorous (P, inorganic NaOH-extractable P, total NaOH-extractable P, aluminium, barium, calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, potassium, selenium, silicon, sodium and zinc. Prior to Bonferroni correction procedure, there was a significant lower level of silicon concentration found in the monodominant than mixed forest deep soil; and a significant lower level of nickel concentration in the monodominant than mixed forest top soil. Nevertheless, these were likely to be the results of multiple tests of significance.Our results do not provide clear evidence of soil mediation for the location of monodominant forests in relation to adjacent mixed forests. It is also likely that G. dewevrei does not influence soil chemistry in the monodominant forests.

  15. Soil does not explain monodominance in a Central African tropical forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peh, Kelvin S-H; Sonké, Bonaventure; Lloyd, Jon; Quesada, Carlos A; Lewis, Simon L

    2011-02-10

    Soil characteristics have been hypothesised as one of the possible mechanisms leading to monodominance of Gilbertiodendron dewerei in some areas of Central Africa where higher-diversity forest would be expected. However, the differences in soil characteristics between the G. dewevrei-dominated forest and its adjacent mixed forest are still poorly understood. Here we present the soil characteristics of the G. dewevrei forest and quantify whether soil physical and chemical properties in this monodominant forest are significantly different from the adjacent mixed forest. We sampled top soil (0-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-30 cm) and subsoil (150-200 cm) using an augur in 6 × 1 ha areas of intact central Africa forest in SE Cameroon, three independent patches of G. dewevrei-dominated forest and three adjacent areas (450-800 m apart), all chosen to be topographically homogeneous. Analysis--subjected to Bonferroni correction procedure--revealed no significant differences between the monodominant and mixed forests in terms of soil texture, median particle size, bulk density, pH, carbon (C) content, nitrogen (N) content, C:N ratio, C:total NaOH-extractable P ratio and concentrations of labile phosphorous (P), inorganic NaOH-extractable P, total NaOH-extractable P, aluminium, barium, calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, potassium, selenium, silicon, sodium and zinc. Prior to Bonferroni correction procedure, there was a significant lower level of silicon concentration found in the monodominant than mixed forest deep soil; and a significant lower level of nickel concentration in the monodominant than mixed forest top soil. Nevertheless, these were likely to be the results of multiple tests of significance. Our results do not provide clear evidence of soil mediation for the location of monodominant forests in relation to adjacent mixed forests. It is also likely that G. dewevrei does not influence soil chemistry in the monodominant forests.

  16. Sociocultural behavior, sex-biased admixture, and effective population sizes in Central African Pygmies and non-Pygmies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdu, Paul; Becker, Noémie S A; Froment, Alain; Georges, Myriam; Grugni, Viola; Quintana-Murci, Lluis; Hombert, Jean-Marie; Van der Veen, Lolke; Le Bomin, Sylvie; Bahuchet, Serge; Heyer, Evelyne; Austerlitz, Frédéric

    2013-04-01

    Sociocultural phenomena, such as exogamy or phylopatry, can largely determine human sex-specific demography. In Central Africa, diverging patterns of sex-specific genetic variation have been observed between mobile hunter-gatherer Pygmies and sedentary agricultural non-Pygmies. However, their sex-specific demography remains largely unknown. Using population genetics and approximate Bayesian computation approaches, we inferred male and female effective population sizes, sex-specific migration, and admixture rates in 23 Central African Pygmy and non-Pygmy populations, genotyped for autosomal, X-linked, Y-linked, and mitochondrial markers. We found much larger effective population sizes and migration rates among non-Pygmy populations than among Pygmies, in agreement with the recent expansions and migrations of non-Pygmies and, conversely, the isolation and stationary demography of Pygmy groups. We found larger effective sizes and migration rates for males than for females for Pygmies, and vice versa for non-Pygmies. Thus, although most Pygmy populations have patrilocal customs, their sex-specific genetic patterns resemble those of matrilocal populations. In fact, our results are consistent with a lower prevalence of polygyny and patrilocality in Pygmies compared with non-Pygmies and a potential female transmission of reproductive success in Pygmies. Finally, Pygmy populations showed variable admixture levels with the non-Pygmies, with often much larger introgression from male than from female lineages. Social discrimination against Pygmies triggering complex movements of spouses in intermarriages can explain these male-biased admixture patterns in a patrilocal context. We show how gender-related sociocultural phenomena can determine highly variable sex-specific demography among populations, and how population genetic approaches contrasting chromosomal types allow inferring detailed human sex-specific demographic history.

  17. Molecular Characterization of the Kamese Virus, an Unassigned Rhabdovirus, Isolated from Culex pruina in the Central African Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simo Tchetgna, Huguette Dorine; Nakoune, Emmanuel; Selekon, Benjamin; Gessain, Antoine; Manuguerra, Jean-Claude; Kazanji, Mirdad; Berthet, Nicolas

    2017-06-01

    Rhabdoviridae is one of the most diversified families of RNA viruses whose members infect a wide range of plants, animals, and arthropods. The members of this family are classified into 13 genera and >150 unassigned viruses. Here, we sequenced the complete genome of a rhabdovirus belonging to the Hart Park serogroup, the Kamese virus (KAMV), isolated in 1977 from Culex pruina in the Central African Republic. The genomic sequence showed an organization typical of rhabdoviruses with additional genes in the P-M and G-L intergenic regions, as already reported for the Hart Park serogroup. Our Kamese strain (ArB9074) had 98% and 78.8% nucleotide sequence similarity with the prototypes of the KAMV and Mossuril virus isolated in Uganda and Mozambique in two different Culex species, respectively. Moreover, the protein sequences had 98-100% amino acid similarity with the prototype of the KAMV, except for an additional gene (U3) that showed a divergence of 6%. These molecular data show that our strain of the KAMV is genetically close to the Culex annuliorus strain that was circulating in Uganda in 1967. However, this study suggests the need to improve our knowledge of the KAMV to better understand its behavior, its life cycle, and its potential reservoirs.

  18. Mitochondrial DNA reveals regional and interregional importance of the central Mediterranean African shelf for loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Casale

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The wide north African continental shelf in the central Mediterranean is known to be one of the few important areas in the basin for loggerhead turtles in the neritic stage. In order to assess the origin of these turtles, sequences of the mtDNA control region were obtained from 70 turtles caught by bottom trawlers in the area, and compared with known sequences from turtles from Mediterranean and Atlantic nesting sites. Five haplotypes were identified (Haplotype diversity = 0.262; nucleotide diversity = 5.4×10-3. Specific haplotypes indicate contributions from distant rookeries such as Turkey and the Atlantic, which shows that Atlantic turtles entering the Mediterranean while in the oceanic phase use at least one Mediterranean continental shelf as a neritic foraging ground. A new haplotype and another one previously found only in foraging areas, highlight the genetic information gaps for nesting sites, which undermine powerful mixed stock analyses. Despite these limitations, the results reveal the regional importance of the study area as a neritic foraging ground for turtles that are probably from most of the Mediterranean nesting aggregates. Therefore, reducing turtle mortality resulting from the high fishing effort in the area should be regarded as key for Mediterranean turtle conservation and is also possibly important for Atlantic populations.

  19. Pan-African tectonic evolution in central and southern Cameroon: transpression and transtension during sinistral shear movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngako, V.; Affaton, P.; Nnange, J. M.; Njanko, Th.

    2003-04-01

    Kinematic analysis of the central Cameroon shear zone (CCSZ) and its Sanaga fault relay, indicate early sinistral shear movement (phase D 2) that was later followed by a dextral shear movement (phase D 3) during the Pan-African orogeny. The correlation of tectonic events among the CCSZs, thrusting of the Yaounde Group and the deformation in the Lom Group indicate a diachronous deposition history of these groups, where the Yaounde Group is pre-kinematic while the sedimentary and magmatic rocks of the Lom basin are syn-kinematic. Sinistral shear movements along the CCSZ and Sanaga faults are correlated with metamorphism and thrusting of the Yaounde granulites onto the Congo craton, on one hand, and to the opening of the Lom pull-apart basin, oblique to the shear zone, on the other. Kinematic interactions between shear and thrust movements characterize transpression, whereas interactions between shear and oblique normal fault movements characterize transtension. Resulting kinematic indicators show that the Lom basin represents a sinistral transtensional relay of the Sanaga fault. Greenschist-facies metamorphism in the Lom Group rocks dominantly affected by a monophase tectonic evolution were achieved during the late dextral shear movements along the Sanaga fault.

  20. Geomagnetic secular variation at the African observatories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haile, T.

    2002-10-01

    Geomagnetic data from ten observatories in the African continent with time series data length of more than three decades have been analysed. All-day annual mean values of the D, H and Z components were used to study secular variations in the African region. The residuals in D, H and Z components obtained after removing polynomial fits have been examined in relation to the sunspot cycle. The occurrence of the 1969-1970 worldwide geomagnetic impulse in each observatory is studied. It is found that the secular variation in the field can be represented for most of the observatories with polynomials of second or third degree. Departures from these trends are observed over the Southern African region where strong local magnetic anomalies have been observed. The residuals in the geomagnetic field components have been shown to exhibit parallelism with the periods corresponding to double solar cycle for some of the stations. A clear latitudinal distribution in the geomagnetic component that exhibits the 1969-70 jerk is shown. The jerk appears in the plots of the first differences in H for the southern most observatories of Hermanus, Hartebeesthoek, and Tsuemb, while the Z plots show the jerk for near equatorial and equatorial stations of Antananarivo, Luanda Belas, Bangui and Addis Ababa. There is some indication for this jerk in the first difference plots of D for the northern stations of M'Bour and Tamanrasset. The plots of D rather strongly suggest the presence of a jerk around 1980 at most of the stations. (author)

  1. Identification of pathogens for differential diagnosis of fever with jaundice in the Central African Republic: a retrospective assessment, 2008–2010

    OpenAIRE

    Gadia, Christelle Luce Bobossi; Manirakiza, Alexandre; Tekpa, Gaspard; Konamna, Xavier; Vickos, Ulrich; Nakoune, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    Background Febrile jaundice results clinically in generalized yellow coloration of the teguments and mucous membranes due to excess plasma bilirubin, accompanied by fever. Two types are found: conjugated and unconjugated bilirubin jaundice. Jaundice is a sign in several diseases due to viruses (viral hepatitis and arbovirus), parasites (malaria) and bacteria (leptospirosis). In the Central African Republic (CAR), only yellow fever is included on the list of diseases for surveillance. The aim ...

  2. Phytochemical Screening, Antifungal and Antibacterial Effect of Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides and Zanthoxylum macrophylum Used in Traditional Medicine in Yamboro (Central African Republic)

    OpenAIRE

    E. Kosh-Komba; L. Aba Toumnou; I. Zinga; I. Touckia

    2017-01-01

    The knowledge of traditional medicine has always guided the search for new cures. Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides and Zanthoxylum macrophylum, (Rutaceae) are used as medicinal plants in Central African Republic for bacteria and fungi treatment. The aim of this study is to investigate in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activities of water-alcohol extract of leave, bark and root of Z. zanthoxyloides and Z. macrophylum and the phytochemistry group of some secondary metabolic. The results of an...

  3. Health expenditure and economic growth - a review of the literature and an analysis between the economic community for central African states (CEMAC) and selected African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piabuo, Serge Mandiefe; Tieguhong, Julius Chupezi

    2017-12-01

    African leaders accepted in the year 2001 through the Abuja Declaration to allocate 15% of their government expenditure on health but by 2013 only five (5) African countries achieved this target. In this paper, a comparative analysis on the impact of health expenditure between countries in the CEMAC sub-region and five other African countries that achieved the Abuja declaration is provided. Data for this study was extracted from the World Development Indicators (2016) database, panel ordinary least square (OLS), fully modified ordinary least square (FMOLS) and dynamic ordinary least square (DOLS) were used as econometric technic of analysis. Results showed that health expenditure has a positive and significant effect on economic growth in both samples. A unit change in health expenditure can potentially increase GDP per capita by 0.38 and 0.3 units for the five other African countries that achieve the Abuja target and for CEMAC countries respectively, a significant difference of 0.08 units among the two samples. In addition, a long-run relationship also exist between health expenditure and economic growth for both groups of countries. Thus African Economies are strongly advised to achieve the Abuja target especially when other socio-economic and political factors are efficient.

  4. Isolation and molecular characterization of Chikungunya virus from the Andaman and Nicobar archipelago, India: evidence of an East, Central, and South African genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muruganandam, N; Chaaithanya, I K; Senthil, G S; Shriram, A N; Bhattacharya, D; Jeevabharathi, G S; Sudeep, A B; Pradeepkumar, N; Vijayachari, P

    2011-12-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an Alphavirus belonging to the family Togaviridae. In 2006, CHIKV infection struck the Andaman and Nicobar archipelago, with an attack rate of 60%. There were more than 10 cases with acute flaccid paralysis simulating the Guillian Barre Syndrome. The majority of the patients presented severe joint pain. The cause for such an explosive nature of the outbreak with increased morbidity was not known. The isolation of CHIKV was attempted and succeeded from nine subjects presenting clinical symptoms of Chikungunya fever. The cDNA of all the isolates was sequenced for partial E1 and nsP1 genes. Sequences were aligned based on the double locus sequence typing concept. The phylogenetic analysis shows that sequences of Andaman isolates grouped with the East, Central, and South African genotype of virus isolates from India, Sri Lanka, and Réunion. The genetic distance between Andaman isolates and the Réunion isolates was very small. The phylogenetic analysis confirmed the origin of the isolates responsible for the first ever confirmed CHIKV outbreak in these islands to be the East, Central, and South African genotype. In this manuscript, we discuss the involvement of the East, Central, and South African strain with the Chikungunya fever outbreak in this archipelago and double locus sequence typing as a first time approach.

  5. Standardising visual control devices for tsetse flies: Central and West African species Glossina palpalis palpalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dramane Kaba

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glossina palpalis palpalis (G. p. palpalis is one of the principal vectors of sleeping sickness and nagana in Africa with a geographical range stretching from Liberia in West Africa to Angola in Central Africa. It inhabits tropical rain forest but has also adapted to urban settlements. We set out to standardize a long-lasting, practical and cost-effective visually attractive device that would induce the strongest landing response by G. p. palpalis for future use as an insecticide-impregnated tool in area-wide population suppression of this fly across its range. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Trials were conducted in wet and dry seasons in the Ivory Coast, Cameroon, the Democratic Republic of Congo and Angola to measure the performance of traps (biconical, monoconical and pyramidal and targets of different sizes and colours, with and without chemical baits, at different population densities and under different environmental conditions. Adhesive film was used as a practical enumerator at these remote locations to compare landing efficiencies of devices. Independent of season and country, both phthalogen blue-black and blue-black-blue 1 m(2 targets covered with adhesive film proved to be as good as traps in phthalogen blue or turquoise blue for capturing G. p. palpalis. Trap efficiency varied (8-51%. There was no difference between the performance of blue-black and blue-black-blue 1 m(2 targets. Baiting with chemicals augmented the overall performance of targets relative to traps. Landings on smaller phthalogen blue-black 0.25 m(2 square targets were not significantly different from either 1 m(2 blue-black-blue or blue-black square targets. Three times more flies were captured per unit area on the smaller device. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Blue-black 0.25 m(2 cloth targets show promise as simple cost effective devices for management of G. p. palpalis as they can be used for both control when impregnated with insecticide and for

  6. Evaluating the SEVIRI Fire Thermal Anomaly Detection Algorithm across the Central African Republic Using the MODIS Active Fire Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick H. Freeborn

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Satellite-based remote sensing of active fires is the only practical way to consistently and continuously monitor diurnal fluctuations in biomass burning from regional, to continental, to global scales. Failure to understand, quantify, and communicate the performance of an active fire detection algorithm, however, can lead to improper interpretations of the spatiotemporal distribution of biomass burning, and flawed estimates of fuel consumption and trace gas and aerosol emissions. This work evaluates the performance of the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI Fire Thermal Anomaly (FTA detection algorithm using seven months of active fire pixels detected by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS across the Central African Republic (CAR. Results indicate that the omission rate of the SEVIRI FTA detection algorithm relative to MODIS varies spatially across the CAR, ranging from 25% in the south to 74% in the east. In the absence of confounding artifacts such as sunglint, uncertainties in the background thermal characterization, and cloud cover, the regional variation in SEVIRI’s omission rate can be attributed to a coupling between SEVIRI’s low spatial resolution detection bias (i.e., the inability to detect fires below a certain size and intensity and a strong geographic gradient in active fire characteristics across the CAR. SEVIRI’s commission rate relative to MODIS increases from 9% when evaluated near MODIS nadir to 53% near the MODIS scene edges, indicating that SEVIRI errors of commission at the MODIS scene edges may not be false alarms but rather true fires that MODIS failed to detect as a result of larger pixel sizes at extreme MODIS scan angles. Results from this work are expected to facilitate (i future improvements to the SEVIRI FTA detection algorithm; (ii the assimilation of the SEVIRI and MODIS active fire products; and (iii the potential inclusion of SEVIRI into a network of geostationary

  7. Socioeconomic development as a determinant of the levels of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in the inhabitants of Western and Central African countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luzardo, Octavio P.; Boada, Luis D.; Carranza, Cristina; Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto; Valerón, Pilar F.; Zumbado, Manuel; Camacho, María; Arellano, José Luis Pérez

    2014-01-01

    Several studies of environmental samples indicate that the levels of many persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are increasing in Africa, but few studies have been conducted in humans. Simultaneously, many African countries are experiencing a rapid economic growth and implementing information and communication technologies (ICT). These changes have generated high amounts of electronic waste (e-waste) that have not been adequately managed. We tested the hypothesis that the current levels of two main classes of POPs in Western and Central African countries are affected by the degree of socioeconomic development. We measured the levels of 36 POPs in the serum of recent immigrants (N = 575) who came from 19 Sub-Saharan countries to the Canary Islands (Spain). We performed statistical analyses on their anthropometric and socioeconomic data. High median levels of POPs were found in the overall sample, with differences among the countries. Organochlorine pesticide (OCP) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels increased with age. People from low-income countries had significantly higher OCP levels and much lower PCB levels than those from high-income countries. We found a significant association between the implementation of ICT and PCB contamination. Immigrants from the countries with a high volume of imports of second-hand electronic equipment had higher PCB levels. The economic development of Africa and the e-waste generation have directly affected the levels of POPs. The POP legacies of these African populations most likely are due to the inappropriate management of the POPs' residues. - Highlights: • Higher levels of organochlorine pesticides in Africans from low-income countries • Higher levels of PCBs in Africans from high-income countries • Levels of PCBs are significantly higher in people from West Africa. • Significant association between implementation of ICT and PCB contamination • High volume of second-hand electronic equipment is associated

  8. Socioeconomic development as a determinant of the levels of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in the inhabitants of Western and Central African countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luzardo, Octavio P., E-mail: operez@dcc.ulpgc.es [Toxicology Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Boada, Luis D. [Toxicology Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Carranza, Cristina [Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Unit, Hospital Universitario Insular de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Medical Sciences and Surgery Department, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto; Valerón, Pilar F.; Zumbado, Manuel; Camacho, María [Toxicology Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Arellano, José Luis Pérez [Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Unit, Hospital Universitario Insular de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Medical Sciences and Surgery Department, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain)

    2014-11-01

    Several studies of environmental samples indicate that the levels of many persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are increasing in Africa, but few studies have been conducted in humans. Simultaneously, many African countries are experiencing a rapid economic growth and implementing information and communication technologies (ICT). These changes have generated high amounts of electronic waste (e-waste) that have not been adequately managed. We tested the hypothesis that the current levels of two main classes of POPs in Western and Central African countries are affected by the degree of socioeconomic development. We measured the levels of 36 POPs in the serum of recent immigrants (N = 575) who came from 19 Sub-Saharan countries to the Canary Islands (Spain). We performed statistical analyses on their anthropometric and socioeconomic data. High median levels of POPs were found in the overall sample, with differences among the countries. Organochlorine pesticide (OCP) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels increased with age. People from low-income countries had significantly higher OCP levels and much lower PCB levels than those from high-income countries. We found a significant association between the implementation of ICT and PCB contamination. Immigrants from the countries with a high volume of imports of second-hand electronic equipment had higher PCB levels. The economic development of Africa and the e-waste generation have directly affected the levels of POPs. The POP legacies of these African populations most likely are due to the inappropriate management of the POPs' residues. - Highlights: • Higher levels of organochlorine pesticides in Africans from low-income countries • Higher levels of PCBs in Africans from high-income countries • Levels of PCBs are significantly higher in people from West Africa. • Significant association between implementation of ICT and PCB contamination • High volume of second-hand electronic equipment is associated

  9. Calibration of hydroclimate proxies in freshwater bivalve shells from Central and West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelemen, Zita; Gillikin, David P.; Graniero, Lauren E.; Havel, Holly; Darchambeau, François; Borges, Alberto V.; Yambélé, Athanase; Bassirou, Alhou; Bouillon, Steven

    2017-07-01

    Freshwater bivalve shell oxygen and carbon stable isotope ratios (δ18O, δ13C) may act as recorders of hydroclimate (e.g., precipitation-evaporation balance, discharge) and aquatic biogeochemistry. We investigate the potential of these hydroclimate proxies measured along the growth axis of shells collected from the Oubangui River (Bangui, Central African Republic) and the Niger River (Niamey, Niger). Biweekly water samples and in situ measurements collected over several years, along with daily discharge data from both sites allowed a direct comparison with proxies recorded in the shells. Data from a total of 14 unionid shells, including three species (Chambardia wissmanni, Aspatharia dahomeyensis, and Aspatharia chaiziana), confirmed that shells precipitate carbonate in oxygen isotope equilibrium with ambient water. Because water temperature variations were small, shell δ18O values (δ18Oshell) also accurately record the seasonality and the range observed in water δ18O (δ18Ow) values when calculated using an average temperature. Calculated δ18Ow values were in good agreement over the entire record of measured δ18Ow values, thus δ18Oshell records can be reliably used to reconstruct past δ18Ow values. Discharge and δ18Ow values from both rivers fit a logarithmic relationship, which was used to attempt reconstruction of past hydrological conditions, after calculating δ18Ow values from δ18Oshell values. A comparison with measured discharge data suggests that for the two rivers considered, δ18Oshell data are good proxies for recording discharge conditions during low(er) discharge levels, but that high discharge values cannot be accurately reconstructed due to the large scatter in the discharge-δ18Ow relationship. Moreover, periods of bivalve shell growth cessation due to high turbidity or air exposure should be taken into account. While δ13C values of dissolved inorganic carbon in both rivers showed clear seasonality and correlated well with discharge

  10. Ecology of malaria infections in western lowland gorillas/ninhabiting Dzanga Sangha Protected Areas, Central African/nRepublic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mapua, M. I.; Qablan, M. A.; Pomajbíková, Kateřina; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Hůzová, Z.; Rádrová, Jana; Votýpka, Jan; Todd, A.; Jirků, Milan; Leendertz, F. H.; Lukeš, Julius; Neel, C.; Modrý, David

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 142, č. 7 (2015), s. 890-900 ISSN 0031-1820 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : African great apes * malaria * lowland gorilla * Plasmodium spp. Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.031, year: 2015

  11. Search Results | Page 111 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Impact Assessment of UN Peacebuilding Support in Central Africa. The United Nations Peacebuilding Support Office in Bangui, Central African Republic, operates under a mandate from the UN Security Council to help consolidate peace and national reconciliation, strengthen democratic institutions to promote the rul.

  12. Socioeconomic development as a determinant of the levels of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in the inhabitants of Western and Central African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzardo, Octavio P; Boada, Luis D; Carranza, Cristina; Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto; Valerón, Pilar F; Zumbado, Manuel; Camacho, María; Arellano, José Luis Pérez

    2014-11-01

    Several studies of environmental samples indicate that the levels of many persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are increasing in Africa, but few studies have been conducted in humans. Simultaneously, many African countries are experiencing a rapid economic growth and implementing information and communication technologies (ICT). These changes have generated high amounts of electronic waste (e-waste) that have not been adequately managed. We tested the hypothesis that the current levels of two main classes of POPs in Western and Central African countries are affected by the degree of socioeconomic development. We measured the levels of 36 POPs in the serum of recent immigrants (N=575) who came from 19 Sub-Saharan countries to the Canary Islands (Spain). We performed statistical analyses on their anthropometric and socioeconomic data. High median levels of POPs were found in the overall sample, with differences among the countries. Organochlorine pesticide (OCP) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels increased with age. People from low-income countries had significantly higher OCP levels and much lower PCB levels than those from high-income countries. We found a significant association between the implementation of ICT and PCB contamination. Immigrants from the countries with a high volume of imports of second-hand electronic equipment had higher PCB levels. The economic development of Africa and the e-waste generation have directly affected the levels of POPs. The POP legacies of these African populations most likely are due to the inappropriate management of the POPs' residues. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The Impacts of U.S. Cotton Programs on the West and Central African Countries Cotton Export Earnings

    OpenAIRE

    Fadiga, Mohamadou L.; Mohanty, Samarendu; Pan, Suwen

    2005-01-01

    This study uses a stochastic simulation approach based on a partial equilibrium structural econometric model of the world fiber market to examine the effects of a removal of U.S. cotton programs on the world market. The effects on world cotton prices and African export earnings were analyzed. The results suggest that on average an elimination of U.S. cotton programs would lead to a marginal increase in the world cotton prices thus resulting in minimal gain for cotton exporting countries in Af...

  14. Molecular markers of anti-malarial drug resistance in Central, West and East African children with severe malaria

    OpenAIRE

    Nguetse, Christian N.; Adegnika, Ayola Akim; Agbenyega, Tsiri; Ogutu, Bernhards R.; Krishna, Sanjeev; Kremsner, Peter G.; Velavan, Thirumalaisamy P.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Plasmodium falciparum multidrug resistance 1 (PfMDR1), P. falciparum Ca(2+)-ATPase (PfATP6) and Kelch-13 propeller domain (PfK13) loci are molecular markers of parasite susceptibility to anti-malarial drugs. Their frequency distributions were determined in the isolates collected from children with severe malaria originating from three African countries. METHODS: Samples from 287 children with severe malaria [(Gabon: n = 114); (Ghana: n = 89); (Kenya: n = 84)] were genotyped fo...

  15. Vegetation response to the "African Humid Period" termination in Central Cameroon (7° N – new pollen insight from Lake Mbalang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Servant

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A new pollen sequence from the Lake Mbalang (7°19´ N, 13°44´ E, 1110 m a.s.l. located on the eastern Adamawa plateau, in Central Cameroon, is presented in this paper to analyze the Holocene African Humid Period (AHP termination and related vegetation changes at 7° N in tropical Africa, completing an important transect for exploring shifts in the northern margin of the African Monsoon. This sequence, spanning the last 7000 cal yr BP, shows that the vegetation response to this transitional climatic period was marked by significant successional changes within the broad context of long-term aridification. Semi-deciduous/sub-montane forest retreat in this area is initially registered as early as ca. 6100 cal yr BP and modern savannah was definitely established at ca. 3000 cal yr BP and stabilized at ca. 2400 cal yr BP; but a slight forest regeneration episode is observed between ca. 5200 and ca. 4200 cal yr BP. In this area with modern high rainfall, increasing in the length of the dry season during the AHP termination linked to a contraction of the northern margin of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ from ca. 6100 cal yr BP onward, probably associated with decreasing in cloud cover and/or fog frequency, has primarily controlled vegetation dynamics and above all the disappearance of the forested environment on the Adamawa plateau. Compared to previous studies undertaken in northern tropical and Central Africa, this work clearly shows that the response of vegetation to transitional periods between climatic extremes such as the AHP termination might be different in timing, mode and amplitude according to the regional climate of the study sites, but also according to the stability of vegetation before and during these climatic transitions.

  16. Does living in an urban environment confer advantages for childhood nutritional status? Analysis of disparities in nutritional status by wealth and residence in Angola, Central African Republic and Senegal.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kennedy, G.L.; Nantel, G.; Brouwer, I.D.; Kok, F.J.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between childhood undernutrition and poverty in urban and rural areas. Design: Anthropometric and socio-economic data from Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys in Angola-Secured Territory (Angola ST), Central African Republic and

  17. The Pan-African Kekem gabbro-norite (West-Cameroon), U-Pb zircon age, geochemistry and Sr-Nd isotopes: Geodynamical implication for the evolution of the Central African fold belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwékam, Maurice; Affaton, Pascal; Bruguier, Olivier; Liégeois, Jean-Paul; Hartmann, Gerald; Njonfang, Emmanuel

    2013-08-01

    The Kekem shoshonitic gabbro-norite association is part of the high-K calc-alkaline (HKCA) post-collisional magmatism, a major feature of the Pan-African Belt in Cameroon. LA-ICP-MS U-Pb zircon analyses provide an age of 576 ± 4 Ma for the Kekem complex. This age is interpreted as dating the emplacement of the massif during the waning stage of the Pan-African orogeny. The latter is related to dextral movements along the Central Cameroon Shear Zone (CCSZ). The REE patterns display enriched LREE (LaN/YbN = 14.2-23.5) while HREE present a nearly flat profile (DyN/YbN = 1.3-1.7), and the La/Sm and Sm/Yb ratios led to propose that the Kekem gabbro-norites have been derived from the partial melting of a garnet-spinel lherzolite mantle source. The negative Nb-Ta and Ti anomalies and the positive Pb anomalies indicate that this mantle source was modified by contribution of a subduction-related material. The low Ce/Pb (2.6-10.4) and Th/Yb ratios associated to high Ba/La ratios, indicate that source enrichment could be related to slab derived fluids. As a whole, the Kekem geochemical features suggest that primary gabbro-noritic magmas derived from a subduction-modified mantle source (metasomatised lithospheric mantle). Moderately high 86Sr/87Sr initial ratios (0.7068-0.7082), low ɛNd (-5 to -9) and old Nd TDM model ages (1.6-1.8 Ga) are interpreted to result from contamination of Neoproterozoic mantle by the Paleoproterozoic crust. The ca. 576 Ma movements along the CCSZ are related to a Neoproterozoic metacratonization of the northern margin of the Congo craton during the Pan-African orogeny. This metacratonization led to vertical planar lithospheric delamination along lithospheric transcurrent faults, asthenospheric uprise and partial melting of the Paleoproterozoic lithospheric mantle.

  18. Longo et al., Afr. J. Infect. Dis. (2016) 10 (1): 29 – 31 http://dx.doi.org ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proff.Adewunmi

    Background: Atypical and exceptional clinical presentation of full blown AIDS may be observed in sub-Saharan Africa. We report herein the case of a Central African 37-year-old male patient .... The WHO/Bangui clinical case definition of AIDS in Black Africa. Status of 1986-1991. Annales de Médecine Interne (Paris), 143: ...

  19. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-04-26

    Apr 26, 2016 ... Management of biomedical waste in two medical laboratories in Bangui, Central. African Republic .... specific. However, to regulate waste management, health facilities often use the hygiene .... Liquid wastes are directly dumped into pipes running waters without ..... What is known about this topic. •. In CAR ...

  20. The centrality of water resources to the realization of Sustainable Development Goals (SDG. A review of potentials and constraints on the African continent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Mugagga

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Africa is endowed with vast water resources including but not limited to lakes, rivers, swamps and underground aquifers. However, the way of life in Africa does not reflect this kind of wealth owing majorly to degradation and underutilization of these water resources. This review discusses the centrality of water resources in Africa's pursuit of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs. Following the Sustainable Development Model, the paper thematically examines and synthesizes the importance and potentials of water resources to Africa's development through exploring their contributions and limitations to the various economic sectors namely; agricultural and livestock production, energy, manufacturing and processing, tourism, health, fisheries, trade and other institutional mechanisms such as payment for ecosystem services (PES, mutual cooperation and economic cooperation. Data were collected by review of online peer-reviewed and grey literature published between the year 2000 and 2015. It is observed that sustainable management of water and sanitation for all (SDG 6 will be central to the attainment of all the other SDGs (particularly SDG 1 (No poverty, 2 (No hunger, 3 (Good health, 14 (life below water and 15 (life on land across Africa. African states should therefore increase their commitment to water conservation and management as this will significantly decide Africa's future development paths.

  1. Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage: Clinical and computed tomography findings in predicting in-hospital mortality in Central Africans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Lelo Tshikwela

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH constitutes now 52% of all strokes. Despite of its deadly pattern, locally there is no clinical grading scale for ICH-related mortality prediction. The first objective of this study was to develop a risk stratification scale (Kinshasa ICH score by assessing the strength of independent predictors and their association with in-hospital 30-day mortality. The second objective of the study was to create a specific local and African model for ICH prognosis. Materials and Methods: Age, sex, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, smoking, alcohol intake, and neuroimaging data from CT scan (ICH volume, Midline shift of patients admitted with primary ICH and follow-upped in 33 hospitals of Kinshasa, DR Congo, from 2005 to 2008, were analyzed using logistic regression models. Results: A total of 185 adults and known hypertensive patients (140 men and 45 women were examined. 30-day mortality rate was 35% (n=65. ICH volume>25 mL (OR=8 95% CI: 3.1-20.2; P 7 mm, a consequence of ICH volume, was also a significant predictor of mortality. The Kinshasa ICH score was the sum of individual points assigned as follows: Presence of coma coded 2 (2 × 2 = 4, absence of coma coded 1 (1 × 2 = 2, ICH volume>25 mL coded 2 (2 × 2=4, ICH volume of ≤25 mL coded 1(1 × 2=2, left hemispheric site of ICH coded 2 (2 × 1=2, and right hemispheric site of hemorrhage coded 1(1 × 1 = 1. All patients with Kinshasa ICH score ≤7 survived and the patients with a score >7 died. In considering sex influence (Model 3, points were allowed as follows: Presence of coma (2 × 3 = 6, absence of coma (1 × 3 = 3, men (2 × 2 = 4, women (1 × 2 = 2, midline shift ≤7 mm (1 × 3 = 3, and midline shift >7 mm (2 × 3 = 6. Patients who died had the Kinshasa ICH score ≥16. Conclusion: In this study, the Kinshasa ICH score seems to be an accurate method for distinguishing those ICH patients who need continuous and special management

  2. Seismicity and lithospheric structure of Central Mozambique: implications for the southward propagation of the East African Rift System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, J. F. B. D.; Domingues, A.

    2017-12-01

    South of latitude 5ºS, there is scarce support for a single preferred location of continental rifting in SE Africa. Building on the complexity already displayed further north around the Victoria microplate, the structures associated with rifting activity are now distributed over three branches: one directed towards the SW through Zambia and into the Okawango rift in Botswana; one running offshore along the Mozambique Channel; and a central rift system through lake Malawi and Central Mozambique. Our investigation focuses on this central branch, whose tectonic relevance was highlighted by the M7 Machaze earthquake in 2006. Through the temporary deployment of 30 broadband stations in central Mozambique we were able to document that the Shire and Urema grabens linking the Malawi rift to the Machaze epicentral area are seismically active, correlating with a 300 km long narrow band of seismicity reaching the lower crust. No significant seismicity was recorded along the Mazenga graben, south of the Machaze epicentral area. A tomographic model derived from ambient noise analysis showed a strong correlation between the seismicity and a sharp NNE-SSW boundary between the fast crust of the Zimbabwe and Kaapvaal cratons and slower crust underneath the Mozambique Coastal Plains. The seismicity shuts down were this trend rotates to a more N-S direction as the Lebombo monocline is approached. 20th Century seismicity of SE Africa shows a clear cluster in time, with five M>6 earthquakes concentrated in the 1950's, distributed along the edges of the Zimbabwe craton and spanning distances of 600 km. Spatial correlation with such range is hard to reconcile with stress transmission in the crust and may point to the interaction of the cratonic root with asthenospheric flow. Under this light, the M6.5 Central Botswana earthquake of April 2017 and the M7 Machaze earthquake of 2006, both located in the vicinity of the borders of the Kaapvaal craton, may bear a similar correlation. The

  3. A new fossil cichlid from the Middle Miocene in the East African Rift Valley (Tugen Hills, Central Kenya: First record of a putative Ectodini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Altner

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Identification of fossil cichlids is difficult, because the currently used diagnostic morphological characters for living cichlids are mostly soft tissue based and such characters are hardly preserved in fossils. During our recent fieldwork in the Central Kenya Rift (E-Africa, we discovered several exceptionally well-preserved fossil cichlids, which can be assigned to different lineages among the African Pseudocrenilabrinae. Here we present one of those new specimens. Its most conspicuous character is a lateral line divided into three segments. This specimen was found in the lacustrine sediments of the Middle Miocene site Waril, Tugen Hills, Kenya. The site represents the deposits of an ancient freshwater lake ca. 9-10 million years ago. Previous work on fossil leaves from the same site allow for the reconstruction of open vegetation surrounding the lake and pronounced dry seasons. Among the main further characteristics of the new fossil cichlid is a lachrimal with six lateral line canals, big cycloid scales and a low number of dorsal fin spines (XIII. The latter two characters are traceable in several members of tribes within the Pseudocrenilabrinae. However, a lachrimal with six lateral line canals is exclusively found in certain tribes of the EAR (East African Radiation within the Pseudocrenilabrinae. Moreover, the unique lateral line pattern is solely present in two genera of the EAR tribe Ectodini. However, the fossil shows cycloid scales, while modern Ectodini have ctenoid scales. Taken all evidence together, this fossil may perhaps represent an ancient lineage related to the Ectodini. Up to date, there is no definite fossil record of the members of the EAR. Our fossil may represent the first reliable calibration point for this group, which would be consistent with the previously reconstructed diversification time of the H-lineage (EAR tribes, except Boulengerochromini, Bathybatini, Trematocarini and Lamprologini and the Lamprologini ca

  4. A comparison of the Goldmann applanation and non-contact (Keeler Pulsair EasyEye) tonometers and the effect of central corneal thickness in indigenous African eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babalola, O E; Kehinde, A V; Iloegbunam, A C; Akinbinu, T; Moghalu, C; Onuoha, I

    2009-03-01

    The Keeler Pulsair EasyEye non-contact tonometer (NCT) was introduced into practice at Rachel Eye Center Abuja, Nigeria, where the patients are indigenous Africans. This was compared to the 'gold standard' Goldmann applanation tonometer (GAT) to determine if the instrument was accurate in Africans, with particular reference to the influence of central corneal thickness (CCT). 174 eyes of 88 patients were analysed. Pachymetry was performed using Sonomed PacScan AP300, and GAT with the Haag Streit R-900. Pachymetric corrections of NCT (NCTc) and GAT (GATc) were carried out with the Sonomed algorithm. Pearson's correlation r, linear regression analysis, Student t-test and Bland-Altman analysis were used to compare the instruments. Mean NCT readings were similar (17.36 mmHg) to mean GAT (17.42 mmHg; p = 0.769). GAT/NCT correlation coefficient, r, was 0.883 as compared with 0.868 for GATc/NCTc. The linear regression equation was GAT = 2.79 + 0.84*NCT (r(2) = 0.78). Forty-five per cent of differences were within 1 mmHg, while 79% were within 3 mmHg. This was similar to findings in some studies on Caucasians. Bland-Altman analysis however suggested that the spread of differences was wider than in those studies. Outliers (differences more than 5 mmHg) sometimes reflected difficulties encountered with GAT in routine practice. Mean CCT was 537.9 microm, (S.D. 38.4, 95% confidence interval 532.1-543.7 microm) and CCT appeared lower than in Caucasians. Both GAT and NCT IOP tended to rise with increasing CCT but NCT had a greater tendency to do so. Regression analysis suggested that NCT IOP increased by 0.6 mmHg for every 10 mum increase in CCT, compared to 0.4 mmHg for GAT. Thirty-eight per cent of the patients preferred NCT as opposed to 25% GAT. The Keeler Pulsair EasyEye gives reliable measurements of IOP in African eyes but is significantly affected by CCT. Particularly in borderline cases where management decisions have to be taken, it may be necessary to have pachymetric

  5. Cervical Klippel-Feil syndrome predisposing an elderly African man to central cord myelopathy following minor trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Olufemi Adeleye, A; Olusola Akinyemi, R

    2010-01-01

    An otherwise-healthy, active 83-year-old Nigerian man developed reversible central cord myelopathy from a mild fall on a level surface. Cervical spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed C5, 6, and 7 block vertebrae and marked disc extrusions only at the immediately adjoining upper and lower non-fused segments of the cervical spine. There was no spinal canal stenosis otherwise. We think that the unique presentation of this case of Klippel-Feil syndrome further supports the impression th...

  6. The African oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, Mark; Griffiths, Thalia

    1999-10-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Adding value to African hydrocarbons in a global energy market; North Africa; East Africa; West Africa; Central Africa; Southern Africa; Strategies for Africa; Outlook. (Author)

  7. Gravity study of the Central African Rift system: a model of continental disruption 2. The Darfur domal uplift and associated Cainozoic volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermingham, P. M.; Fairhead, J. D.; Stuart, G. W.

    1983-05-01

    Gravity studies of the Darfur uplift, Western Sudan, show it to be associated with a circular negative Bouguer anomaly, 50 mGal in amplitude and 700 km across. A three-dimensional model interpretation of the Darfur anomaly, using constraints deduced from geophysical studies of similar but more evolved Kenya and Ethiopia domes, suggests either a low-density laccolithic body at mid-lithospheric depth (~ 60 km) or a thinned lithosphere with emplacement at high level of low-density asthenospheric material. The regional setting of the Darfur uplift is described in terms of it being an integral part of the Central African Rift System which is shown to be broadly equivalent to the early to middle Miocene stage in the development of the Afro-Arabian Rift System. Comparisons between these rift systems suggest that extensional tectonics and passive rifting, resulting in the subsiding sedimentary rift basins associated with the Ngaoundere, Abu Gabra, Red Sea and Gulf of Aden rifts, are more typical of the early stage development of passive continental margins than the active domal uplift and development of rifted features associated with the Darfur, Kenya and Ethiopia domes.

  8. Identification of pathogens for differential diagnosis of fever with jaundice in the Central African Republic: a retrospective assessment, 2008-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadia, Christelle Luce Bobossi; Manirakiza, Alexandre; Tekpa, Gaspard; Konamna, Xavier; Vickos, Ulrich; Nakoune, Emmanuel

    2017-11-29

    Febrile jaundice results clinically in generalized yellow coloration of the teguments and mucous membranes due to excess plasma bilirubin, accompanied by fever. Two types are found: conjugated and unconjugated bilirubin jaundice. Jaundice is a sign in several diseases due to viruses (viral hepatitis and arbovirus), parasites (malaria) and bacteria (leptospirosis). In the Central African Republic (CAR), only yellow fever is included on the list of diseases for surveillance. The aim of this study was to identify the other pathogens that can cause febrile jaundice, for better management of patients. Between 2008 and 2010, 198 sera negative for yellow fever IgM were randomly selected from 2177 samples collected during yellow fever surveillance. Laboratory analyses targeted four groups of pathogens: hepatitis B, C, delta and E viruses; dengue, chikungunya, Zika, Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever, West Nile and Rift Valley arboviruses; malaria parasites; and bacteria (leptospirosis). Overall, 30.9% sera were positive for hepatitis B, 20.2% for hepatitis E, 12.3% for hepatitis C and 8.2% for malaria. The majority of positive sera (40.4%) were from people aged 16-30 years. Co-infection with at least two of these pathogens was also found. These findings suggest that a systematic investigation should be undertaken of infectious agents that cause febrile jaundice in the CAR.

  9. Effects of group dynamics and diet on the ranging patterns of a western gorilla group (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) at Bai Hokou, Central African Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipolletta, Chloé

    2004-10-01

    This study describes how group dynamics and diet have influenced the ranging patterns of a western gorilla group at Bai Hokou, Central African Republic. The results are compared with those from an earlier study [Cipolletta, International Journal of Primatology, 2003], when the same group was larger and undergoing the process of habituation to humans. Data were obtained from maps of the gorillas' travel routes, direct observations, and analysis of fecal samples. Through the years, the group has experienced a decrease in size, from eight to three individuals, with periods of membership fluctuation. The male's search for new mates resulted in a larger home range than was recorded when the group consisted of more individuals. Moreover, despite an average group size of three throughout this study, the monthly range and mean daily path length (DPL) were also larger when the group was acquiring/losing members in new areas, than when no new members joined or left the group. Fruit was consumed year-round, although more heavily so during wet months. The influence of fruit consumption on the ranging patterns was concealed initially by the effect of habituation [Cipolletta, International Journal of Primatology, 2003], and later (at least partially) by the male's search for new mates. In the last 14 months of the study, when the group numbered only three individuals and was ranging in a restricted area, the average DPL, but not the monthly range, increased when the gorillas were consuming more fruit.

  10. Hepatitis B virus exposure during childhood in Cameroon, Central African Republic and Senegal after the integration of HBV vaccine in the expanded program on immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey-Cuille, Marie-Anne; Njouom, Richard; Bekondi, Claudine; Seck, Abdoulaye; Gody, Chrysostome; Bata, Petulla; Garin, Benoit; Maylin, Sarah; Chartier, Loic; Simon, François; Vray, Muriel

    2013-10-01

    More than 2 billion people worldwide have been exposed to hepatitis B virus (HBV). To prevent these infections, Senegal and Cameroon integrated the HBV vaccine into their Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) in 2005, as did the Central African Republic (CAR) in 2008. We evaluated the prevalence of HBV exposure and infection after the integration of the HBV vaccine in the EPI. An observational cross-sectional study was conducted among the hospitalized children 3 months to 6 years of age in Cameroon, CAR and Senegal. Plasma was collected for the detection of anti-HBc, anti-HBs and hepatitis B surface antigen in children with anti-HBc and anti-HBs. Between April 2009 and May 2010, 1783 children were enrolled, 19.4% of whom were anti-HBc positive. The percentage of children with anti-HBc was 44.4% among the children younger than 6 months, decreasing after 6 months to reach 18.8% at 12 months. This decline was followed by a rapid increase in anti-HBc positivity rate in CAR observed as early as 12 months of age compared with Cameroon and Senegal, where the anti-HBc increased between 18 and 36 months of age, respectively. The prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen-positive children was significantly higher in CAR than that in Cameroon and Senegal (5.1% versus 0.7% and 0.2%; P Senegal suggests a positive impact of HBV vaccination.

  11. Measurement, "scriptural economies," and social justice: governing HIV/AIDS treatments by numbers in a fragile state, the Central African Republic (CAR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Pierre-Marie

    2017-04-01

    Fragile states have been raising increasing concern among donors since the mid-2000s. The policies of the Global Fund to fight HIV/AIDS, Malaria, and Tuberculosis (GF) have not excluded fragile states, and this source has provided financing for these countries according to standardized procedures. They represent interesting cases for exploring the meaning and role of measurement in a globalized context. Measurement in the field of HIV/AIDS and its treatment has given rise to a private outsourcing of expertise and auditing, thereby creating a new form of value based on the social process of registration and the creation of realities produced by the intervention itself. These "scriptural economies" must be questioned in terms of the production of knowledge, but also in terms of social justice. Governing HIV/AIDS treatments by numbers in a fragile state is explored in this article through the experience of the Central African Republic (CAR) in terms of epidemiology and access to antiretroviral drugs. The unexpected effects of performance-based programs in this context underline the need for global health governance to be re-embedded into a social justice framework. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Radiometric, magnetic, and gravity study of the Quixadá batholith, central Ceará domain (NE Brazil): evidence for Pan-African/Brasiliano extension-controlled emplacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes de Castro, David; Mariano Gomes Castelo Branco, Raimundo; Martins, Guttenberg; Araújo de Castro, Neivaldo

    2002-10-01

    A geophysical survey was conducted in the central Ceará domain of the Borborema Province (NE Brazil). The aim of this investigation was to find geophysical evidence for the emplacement of the Quixadá batholith, which is a granitic body probably situated in the local extensional site in the oblique collisional regime of the Pan-African/Brasiliano collage. Remote sensing and airborne geophysical data provided information on the regional deformation that affected the intrusion and surrounding country rocks. In addition, a gravity study was used to determine the three-dimensional geometry and constrain the emplacement model of the Quixadá granite at depth. The trajectories of structural and magnetic lineaments suggest that the regional deformation is strongly influenced by dextral transcurrent movements of the major shear zones. The batholith, which shows an unusual positive gravity anomaly and a low U counts, displays a subhorizontal floor with several gently dipping areas, which are interpreted as magma feeder channels. The 2300 m thick root zones are roughly aligned with NE-SW-trending shear zones. Finally, the internal architecture of the pluton suggests that the Quixadá batholith was emplaced in a dilational shear zone tip area at the north end of Quixeramobim shear zone.

  13. Characterisation of Central-African emissions based on MAX-DOAS measurements, satellite observations and model simulations over Bujumbura, Burundi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gielen, Clio; Hendrick, Francois; Pinardi, Gaia; De Smedt, Isabelle; Stavrakou, Trissevgeni; Yu, Huan; Fayt, Caroline; Hermans, Christian; Bauwens, Maité; Ndenzako, Eugene; Nzohabonayo, Pierre; Akimana, Rachel; Niyonzima, Sébastien; Müller, Jean-Francois; Van Roozendael, Michel

    2016-04-01

    Central Africa is known for its strong biogenic, pyrogenic, and to a lesser extent anthropogenic emissions. Satellite observations of species like nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and formaldehyde (HCHO), as well as inverse modelling results have shown that there are large uncertainties associated with the emissions in this region. There is thus a need for additional measurements, especially from the ground, in order to better characterise the biomass-burning and biogenic products emitted in this area. We present MAX-DOAS measurements of NO2, HCHO, and aerosols performed in Central Africa, in the city of Bujumbura, Burundi (3°S, 29°E, 850m). A MAX-DOAS instrument has been operating at this location by BIRA-IASB since late 2013. Aerosol-extinction and trace-gases vertical profiles are retrieved by applying the optimal-estimation-based profiling tool bePRO to the measured O4, NO2 and HCHO slant-column densities. The MAX-DOAS vertical columns and profiles are used for investigating the diurnal and seasonal cycles of NO2, HCHO, and aerosols. Regarding the aerosols, the retrieved AODs are compared to co-located AERONET sun photometer measurements for verification purpose, while in the case of NO2 and HCHO, the MAX-DOAS vertical columns and profiles are used for validating GOME-2 and OMI satellite observations. To characterise the biomass-burning and biogenic emissions in the Bujumbura region, the trace gases and aerosol MAX-DOAS retrievals are used in combination to MODIS fire counts/radiative-power and GOME-2/OMI NO2 and HCHO satellite data, as well as simulations from the NOAA backward trajectory model HYSPLIT. First results show that HCHO seasonal variation around local noon is driven by the alternation of rain and dry periods, the latter being associated with intense biomass-burning agricultural activities and forest fires in the south/south-east and transport from this region to Bujumbura. In contrast, NO2 is seen to depend mainly on local emissions close to the city, due

  14. Analyzing implementation dynamics using theory-driven evaluation principles: lessons learnt from a South African centralized chronic dispensing model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magadzire, Bvudzai Priscilla; Marchal, Bruno; Mathys, Tania; Laing, Richard O; Ward, Kim

    2017-12-04

    Centralized dispensing of essential medicines is one of South Africa's strategies to address the shortage of pharmacists, reduce patients' waiting times and reduce over-crowding at public sector healthcare facilities. This article reports findings of an evaluation of the Chronic Dispensing Unit (CDU) in one province. The objectives of this process evaluation were to: (1) compare what was planned versus the actual implementation and (2) establish the causal elements and contextual factors influencing implementation. This qualitative study employed key informant interviews with the intervention's implementers (clinicians, managers and the service provider) [N = 40], and a review of policy and program documents. Data were thematically analyzed by identifying the main influences shaping the implementation process. Theory-driven evaluation principles were applied as a theoretical framework to explain implementation dynamics. The overall participants' response about the CDU was positive and the majority of informants concurred that the establishment of the CDU to dispense large volumes of medicines is a beneficial strategy to address healthcare barriers because mechanical functions are automated and distribution of medicines much quicker. However, implementation was influenced by the context and discrepancies between planned activities and actual implementation were noted. Procurement inefficiencies at central level caused medicine stock-outs and affected CDU activities. At the frontline, actors were aware of the CDU's implementation guidelines regarding patient selection, prescription validity and management of non-collected medicines but these were adapted to accommodate practical realities and to meet performance targets attached to the intervention. Implementation success was a result of a combination of 'hardware' (e.g. training, policies, implementation support and appropriate infrastructure) and 'software' (e.g. ownership, cooperation between healthcare

  15. Evaluation of Minerals, Phytochemical Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Mexican, Central American, and African Green Leafy Vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Aguilar, Dulce M; Grusak, Michael A

    2015-12-01

    The green leafy vegetables Cnidoscolus aconitifolius and Crotalaria longirostrata are native to Mexico and Central America, while Solanum scabrum and Gynandropsis gynandra are native to Africa. They are consumed in both rural and urban areas in those places as a main food, food ingredient or traditional medicine. Currently, there is limited information about their nutritional and phytochemical composition. Therefore, mineral, vitamin C, phenolic and flavonoid concentration, and antioxidant activity were evaluated in multiple accessions of these leafy vegetables, and their mineral and vitamin C contribution per serving was calculated. The concentrations of Ca, K, Mg and P in these leafy vegetables were 0.82-2.32, 1.61-7.29, 0.61-1.48 and 0.27-1.44 mg/g fresh weight (FW), respectively. The flavonoid concentration in S. scabrum accessions was up to 1413 μg catechin equivalents/g FW, while the highest antioxidant activities were obtained in C. longirostrata accessions (52-60 μmol Trolox equivalents/g FW). According to guidelines established by the US Food and Drug Administration, a serving size (30 g FW) of C. longirostrata would be considered an excellent source of Mo (20 % or more of the daily value), and a serving of any of these green leafy vegetables would be an excellent source of vitamin C. Considering the importance of the minerals, phytochemicals and antioxidants in human health and their presence in these indigenous green leafy vegetables, efforts to promote their consumption should be implemented.

  16. Using IKONOS and Aerial Videography to Validate Landsat Land Cover Maps of Central African Tropical Rain Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, T.; Laporte, N. T.

    2003-12-01

    Compared to the traditional validation methods, aerial videography is a relatively inexpensive and time-efficient approach to collect "field" data for validating satellite-derived land cover map over large areas. In particular, this approach is valuable in remote and inaccessible locations. In the Sangha Tri-National Park region of Central Africa, where road access is limited to industrial logging sites, we are using IKONOS imagery and aerial videography to assess the accuracy of Landsat-derived land cover maps. As part of a NASA Land Cover Land Use Change project (INFORMS) and in collaboration with the Wildlife Conservation Society in the Republic of Congo, over 1500km of aerial video transects were collected in the Spring of 2001. The use of MediaMapper software combined with a VMS 200 video mapping system enabled the collection of aerial transects to be registered with geographic locations from a Geographic Positioning System. Video frame were extracted, visually interpreted, and compared to land cover types mapped by Landsat. We addressed the limitations of accuracy assessment using aerial-base data and its potential for improving vegetation mapping in tropical rain forests. The results of the videography and IKONOS image analysis demonstrate the utility of very high resolution imagery for map validation and forest resource assessment.

  17. Attainment of MDGs through tourism in the Central African sub-region: Implications for local economic development in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert N. Kimbu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo examina el papel y la contribución del turismo al desarrollo económico local y en persecución de los Objetivos de Desarrollo del Milenio uno y siete referentes a la mitigación de la probreza extrama y la sostenibilidad ambiental en la biodiversa región de Africa Central. Los conceptos de desarrollo sostenible del turismo y desarrollo económico local (en le África subsahariana son exami-nados. A través de observaciones de campo y entrevistas semi-estructuradas con 21 partes interesadas de la industria turística de Camerún, se lleva a cabo un análisis del papel y del futuro del turismo en el desarrollo económico local y del logro de los Objetivos de Desarrollo del Milenio 1 y 7. Los actuales desafíos que inhiben el desarrollo turístico limitando su contribución al desarrollo económico y local son identificados y un marco dentro del cual el turismo puede contribuir es propuesto.

  18. Institutional capacity for health systems research in East and Central African schools of public health: knowledge translation and effective communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayah, Richard; Jessani, Nasreen; Mafuta, Eric M

    2014-06-02

    Local health systems research (HSR) provides policymakers and practitioners with contextual, evidence-based solutions to health problems. However, producers and users of HSR rarely understand the complexities of the context within which each operates, leading to the "know-do" gap. Universities are well placed to conduct knowledge translation (KT) integrating research production with uptake. The HEALTH Alliance Africa Hub, a consortium of seven schools of public health (SPHs) in East and Central Africa, was formed to build capacity in HSR. This paper presents information on the capacity of the various SPHs to conduct KT activities. In 2011, each member of the Africa Hub undertook an institutional HSR capacity assessment using a context-adapted and modified self-assessment tool. KT capacity was measured by several indicators including the presence of a KT strategy, an organizational structure to support KT activities, KT skills, and institutional links with stakeholders and media. Respondents rated their opinions on the various indicators using a 5-point Likert scale. Averages across all respondents for each school were calculated. Thereafter, each school held a results validation workshop. A total of 123 respondents from all seven SPHs participated. Only one school had a clear KT strategy; more commonly, research was disseminated at scientific conferences and workshops. While most respondents perceived their SPH as having strong institutional ties with organizations interested in HSR as well as strong institutional leadership, the organizational structures required to support KT activities were absent. Furthermore, individual researchers indicated that they had little time or skills to conduct KT. Additionally, institutional and individual links with policymakers and media were reported as weak. Few SPHs in Africa have a clear KT strategy. Strengthening the weak KT capacity of the SPHs requires working with institutional leadership to develop KT strategies designed

  19. Institutional capacity for health systems research in East and Central African Schools of Public Health: strengthening human and financial resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite its importance in providing evidence for health-related policy and decision-making, an insufficient amount of health systems research (HSR) is conducted in low-income countries (LICs). Schools of public health (SPHs) are key stakeholders in HSR. This paper, one in a series of four, examines human and financial resources capacities, policies and organizational support for HSR in seven Africa Hub SPHs in East and Central Africa. Methods Capacity assessment done included document analysis to establish staff numbers, qualifications and publications; self-assessment using a tool developed to capture individual perceptions on the capacity for HSR and institutional dialogues. Key informant interviews (KIIs) were held with Deans from each SPH and Ministry of Health and non-governmental officials, focusing on perceptions on capacity of SPHs to engage in HSR, access to funding, and organizational support for HSR. Results A total of 123 people participated in the self-assessment and 73 KIIs were conducted. Except for the National University of Rwanda and the University of Nairobi SPH, most respondents expressed confidence in the adequacy of staffing levels and HSR-related skills at their SPH. However, most of the researchers operate at individual level with low outputs. The average number of HSR-related publications was only capacity. This study underscores the need to form effective multidisciplinary teams to enhance research of immediate and local relevance. Capacity strengthening in the SPH needs to focus on knowledge translation and communication of findings to relevant audiences. Advocacy is needed to influence respective governments to allocate adequate funding for HSR to avoid donor dependency that distorts local research agenda. PMID:24888371

  20. Diet-related buccal dental microwear patterns in Central African Pygmy foragers and Bantu-speaking farmer and pastoralist populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Romero

    Full Text Available Pygmy hunter-gatherers from Central Africa have shared a network of socioeconomic interactions with non-Pygmy Bantu speakers since agropastoral lifestyle spread across sub-Saharan Africa. Ethnographic studies have reported that their diets differ in consumption of both animal proteins and starch grains. Hunted meat and gathered plant foods, especially underground storage organs (USOs, are dietary staples for pygmies. However, scarce information exists about forager-farmer interaction and the agricultural products used by pygmies. Since the effects of dietary preferences on teeth in modern and past pygmies remain unknown, we explored dietary history through quantitative analysis of buccal microwear on cheek teeth in well-documented Baka pygmies. We then determined if microwear patterns differ among other Pygmy groups (Aka, Mbuti, and Babongo and between Bantu-speaking farmer and pastoralist populations from past centuries. The buccal dental microwear patterns of Pygmy hunter-gatherers and non-Pygmy Bantu pastoralists show lower scratch densities, indicative of diets more intensively based on nonabrasive foodstuffs, compared with Bantu farmers, who consume larger amounts of grit from stoneground foods. The Baka pygmies showed microwear patterns similar to those of ancient Aka and Mbuti, suggesting that the mechanical properties of their preferred diets have not significantly changed through time. In contrast, Babongo pygmies showed scratch densities and lengths similar to those of the farmers, consistent with sociocultural contacts and genetic factors. Our findings support that buccal microwear patterns predict dietary habits independent of ecological conditions and reflect the abrasive properties of preferred or fallback foods such as USOs, which may have contributed to the dietary specializations of ancient human populations.

  1. Capacity development in food composition database management and nutritional research and education in Central and Eastern European, Middle Eastern and North African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurinović, M; Witthöft, C M; Tepšić, J; Ranić, M; Hulshof, P J M; Hollman, P C; Porubska, J; Gohar, A; Debeljak-Martačić, J; Petrović-Oggiano, G; Novaković, R; Glibetić, M; Oshaug, A

    2010-11-01

    Capacity development (CD) in food and nutrition is much more than formal training and includes human resource development, and organisational, institutional and legal framework development with the aim of enhancing nutrition-relevant knowledge and skills to support infrastructural development. The goal of the European Food Information Resource (EuroFIR) Network of Excellence has been to develop and integrate food composition data throughout Europe. EuroFIR joined forces in CD with the United Nations (UN) University and UN System Standing Committee on Nutrition, the Network for Capacity Development in Nutrition in Central and Eastern Europe, the Central and Eastern European Countries Food Data Systems network and with the Middle East and North African Capacity Building Initiative. The aim of this paper is to discuss an inventory of the status of food composition databases (FCDBs) and the training needs of compilers in non-EuroFIR countries in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), and to present the CD achieved through EuroFIR and other network collaborations. Two online questionnaires were created addressing the FCDB status and specific training needs in countries of the targeted regions. Data were collected during 2006-2008 and then analysed. Subsequently, CD activities were organised. Contacts were established in 19 CEE and 7 MENA countries, of which several had national food composition tables, but no electronic versions. Education, training, workshops, networking and the sharing of experiences were uniformly requested. Subsequently, CD activities in EuroFIR were organised focussing on food composition courses, exchange visits, workshops and individual training for PhD students, junior scientists and other staff categories, as well as conferences linked to food composition research and food information. To facilitate CD activities, EuroFIR has signed a Memorandum of Understanding with the Czech Republic, Hungary

  2. Microstructures and magnetic fabrics of the Ngaoundéré granite pluton (Cameroon): Implications to the late-Pan-African evolution of Central Cameroon Shear Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawaï, Daouda; Tchameni, Rigobert; Bascou, Jérome; Awe Wangmene, Salomon; Fosso Tchunte, Périclex Martial; Bouchez, Jean-Luc

    2017-05-01

    The Ngaoundéré granite pluton, in Central-North Cameroon, located near the Central Cameroon Shear zone (CCSZ), and previously studied for its petrography and geochemistry, is characterized by the absence of macroscopic markers of deformation. In this study, we report microstructures and magnetic fabrics (AMS) of this pluton and discuss the relationship with the Pan-African evolution of the CCSZ. The pluton consists of a porphyritic Hbl-Bt-monzogranite at its rim and a porphyritic biotite-granite at its core, a petrographic distribution denoting a normal zoning pattern, i.e. more silicic toward the centre. As expected, magnetic susceptibilities values also exhibit a zoning pattern in agreement with petrographic zonation. Thermomagnetic data indicate that this pluton is dominantly ferromagnetic in behaviour. As indicated by its microstructures, the pluton has suffered a continuum of deformation from the magmatic state to the high temperature solid-state during magma crystallization and solidification. The magnetic foliations dominantly strike NE-SW and dip moderately to steeply and the lineations mostly plunge shallowly to the NE or SW, roughly parallel to NE-to ENE-trending Central Cameroun Shear Zone (CCSZ). The foliation poles define a girdle pattern with a zone axis (52°/11°) rather close to the best line of the lineations (44°/21°). These fabrics correlate with the structures of the country rocks ascribed by several workers to a regional transpression. Toward the margins of the pluton, particularly the northern one, the lineations tend to rotate from NE to N in azimuth. This change is interpreted as due to strain partitioning, simple shearing with NE-SW extension being relayed by compression toward the northern pluton border. This new magnetic fabric study suggests that the Ngaoundéré pluton (poorly dated at c. 575 Ma) was emplaced during the late stages of the CCSZ dextral transpressive movement. It also provides some more constraints on the correlation

  3. Pronounced Seasonal Changes in the Movement Ecology of a Highly Gregarious Central-Place Forager, the African Straw-Coloured Fruit Bat (Eidolon helvum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Fahr

    Full Text Available Straw-coloured fruit bats (Eidolon helvum migrate over vast distances across the African continent, probably following seasonal bursts of resource availability. This causes enormous fluctuations in population size, which in turn may influence the bats' impact on local ecosystems. We studied the movement ecology of this central-place forager with state-of-the-art GPS/acceleration loggers and concurrently monitored the seasonal fluctuation of the colony in Accra, Ghana. Habitat use on the landscape scale was assessed with remote sensing data as well as ground-truthing of foraging areas.During the wet season population low (~ 4000 individuals, bats foraged locally (3.5-36.7 km in urban areas with low tree cover. Major food sources during this period were fruits of introduced trees. Foraging distances almost tripled (24.1-87.9 km during the dry season population peak (~ 150,000 individuals, but this was not compensated for by reduced resting periods. Dry season foraging areas were random with regard to urban footprint and tree cover, and food consisted almost exclusively of nectar and pollen of native trees.Our study suggests that straw-coloured fruit bats disperse seeds in the range of hundreds of meters up to dozens of kilometres, and pollinate trees for up to 88 km. Straw-coloured fruit bats forage over much larger distances compared to most other Old World fruit bats, thus providing vital ecosystem services across extensive landscapes. We recommend increased efforts aimed at maintaining E. helvum populations throughout Africa since their keystone role in various ecosystems is likely to increase due to the escalating loss of other seed dispersers as well as continued urbanization and habitat fragmentation.

  4. Behavioral responses of one western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) group at Bai Hokou, Central African Republic, to tourists, researchers and trackers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klailova, Michelle; Hodgkinson, Chloe; Lee, Phyllis C

    2010-09-01

    Gorilla tourism, widely perceived as a lucrative industry, is propelled by strong market demand with programs in five countries and for three of four gorilla subspecies. Human presence may negatively affect wild gorillas, potentially lowering immunity and increasing the likelihood of acquiring human-borne disease. Yet, behavioral impacts of humans on wild gorilla behavior remain largely unexplored, particularly for western lowland gorillas. We evaluate the impact of tourist presence, human observer numbers (tourists, trackers, and researchers), and human observer distance on the behavior of one habituated gorilla group at Bai Hokou, Central African Republic. Behavioral data were collected for more than 12 months from January 2007. Of silverback aggressive events, 39% (N=229) were human directed, but 65% were low-level soft barks. Adult females, and one in particular, were responsible for the highest number of aggressive events toward humans. Humans maintained closer proximity to the silverback when tourists were present, although tourist numbers had no significant impact on overall group activity budgets or rates of human-directed aggression. However, as research team size increased, group feeding rates decreased. Close observer-silverback distance correlated with a decrease in his feeding rates and an increase in human monitoring. He directed less aggression toward observers at distances >10 m, although observers spent 48.5% of time between 6 and 10 m of the silverback. We discuss gorilla personality as a factor in human-directed aggression. We explore whether the current 7 m distance limit governing gorilla tourism, based on disease transmission risks, is sufficient considering the potential behavioral stressor of close human presence. We recommend increasing minimum observation distance to >10 m where possible, decreasing observer group sizes, particularly after a visit consisting of maximum numbers and restricting tourist access to 1 visit/day. 2010 Wiley

  5. Pronounced Seasonal Changes in the Movement Ecology of a Highly Gregarious Central-Place Forager, the African Straw-Coloured Fruit Bat (Eidolon helvum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahr, Jakob; Abedi-Lartey, Michael; Esch, Thomas; Machwitz, Miriam; Suu-Ire, Richard; Wikelski, Martin; Dechmann, Dina K N

    2015-01-01

    Straw-coloured fruit bats (Eidolon helvum) migrate over vast distances across the African continent, probably following seasonal bursts of resource availability. This causes enormous fluctuations in population size, which in turn may influence the bats' impact on local ecosystems. We studied the movement ecology of this central-place forager with state-of-the-art GPS/acceleration loggers and concurrently monitored the seasonal fluctuation of the colony in Accra, Ghana. Habitat use on the landscape scale was assessed with remote sensing data as well as ground-truthing of foraging areas. During the wet season population low (~ 4000 individuals), bats foraged locally (3.5-36.7 km) in urban areas with low tree cover. Major food sources during this period were fruits of introduced trees. Foraging distances almost tripled (24.1-87.9 km) during the dry season population peak (~ 150,000 individuals), but this was not compensated for by reduced resting periods. Dry season foraging areas were random with regard to urban footprint and tree cover, and food consisted almost exclusively of nectar and pollen of native trees. Our study suggests that straw-coloured fruit bats disperse seeds in the range of hundreds of meters up to dozens of kilometres, and pollinate trees for up to 88 km. Straw-coloured fruit bats forage over much larger distances compared to most other Old World fruit bats, thus providing vital ecosystem services across extensive landscapes. We recommend increased efforts aimed at maintaining E. helvum populations throughout Africa since their keystone role in various ecosystems is likely to increase due to the escalating loss of other seed dispersers as well as continued urbanization and habitat fragmentation.

  6. African Solutions to African Problems?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmanuel, Nikolas G.; Schwartz, Brendan

    2017-01-01

    . The emergence of Déby’s Chad depends both on its ability to accomplish sub-imperial tasks encouraged by these actors, while obfuscating undemocratic governance and human rights abuses at home. Nonetheless, Déby’s role in regional security has helped him achieve a certain degree of agency in his relationship...... and maintain control of the state. These range from “liberal” desires to help control the region’s trouble spots in places like Mali, to clearly illiberal medaling in the domestic affairs of neighbors like the Central African Republic, with the fight against Boko Haram somewhere in the middle. This paper seeks...

  7. How many species and under what names? Using DNA barcoding and GenBank data for west Central African amphibian conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L Deichmann

    Full Text Available Development projects in west Central Africa are proceeding at an unprecedented rate, often with little concern for their effects on biodiversity. In an attempt to better understand potential impacts of a road development project on the anuran amphibian community, we conducted a biodiversity assessment employing multiple methodologies (visual encounter transects, auditory surveys, leaf litter plots and pitfall traps to inventory species prior to construction of a new road within the buffer zone of Moukalaba-Doudou National Park, Gabon. Because of difficulties in morphological identification and taxonomic uncertainty of amphibian species observed in the area, we integrated a DNA barcoding analysis into the project to improve the overall quality and accuracy of the species inventory. Based on morphology alone, 48 species were recognized in the field and voucher specimens of each were collected. We used tissue samples from specimens collected at our field site, material available from amphibians collected in other parts of Gabon and the Republic of Congo to initiate a DNA barcode library for west Central African amphibians. We then compared our sequences with material in GenBank for the genera recorded at the study site to assist in identifications. The resulting COI and 16S barcode library allowed us to update the number of species documented at the study site to 28, thereby providing a more accurate assessment of diversity and distributions. We caution that because sequence data maintained in GenBank are often poorly curated by the original submitters and cannot be amended by third-parties, these data have limited utility for identification purposes. Nevertheless, the use of DNA barcoding is likely to benefit biodiversity inventories and long-term monitoring, particularly for taxa that can be difficult to identify based on morphology alone; likewise, inventory and monitoring programs can contribute invaluable data to the DNA barcode library and

  8. Country Presentation. Central African Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulin Poussoumandji-Ouinga, P.

    2010-01-01

    No incident related to the illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive materials has been yet reported in the country. However, rumors relating to the orphaned sources exist due to buried radioactive waste and former radiotherapy activities. Illicit trafficking of nuclear materials and radioactive materials is a new threat for the law enforcement agents.This is contributed by absence of dedicated equipment for radiation detection either at the border or within the country, lack of awareness of agents in charge of enforcement control, porosity of the border, absence of a protocol for exchanging information between Customs, intelligence and Police Service

  9. Malaria case management by community health workers in the Central African Republic from 2009-2014: overcoming challenges of access and instability due to conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruckstuhl, Laura; Lengeler, Christian; Moyen, Jean Méthode; Garro, Helle; Allan, Richard

    2017-09-29

    In the Central African Republic (CAR), decades of armed conflict have crippled the public health system. This has left the population without timely access to life-saving services and therefore vulnerable to the numerous consequences of infectious diseases, including malaria. As a response, in 2008 an international non-governmental organization started a network of community health workers (CHWs) in the highly malaria-endemic region of northwest CAR. The area has experienced years of violent clashes between rebel groups and seen hundreds of thousands of people displaced. Data from routine patient registers from 80 CHWs working in Paoua and Markounda sub-prefectures were entered and retrospectively reviewed. The time period covered December 2009-April 2014 and hence different stages of conflict and unrest. Several indicators were measured over time, including malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT) positivity rates, CHW reporting rates, and malnutrition indicators. Among nearly 200,000 people who consulted a CHW during this period, 81% were found to be positive for malaria parasites by RDT. In total, 98.9% of these positive cases were appropriately treated with artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). Only 1.2% of RDT negative cases were incorrectly treated with an ACT. Monthly data from each CHW were regularly reported, with more than 96% of CHWs reporting each month in the first 3 years of the project. However, since the coup d'état in March 2013, the number of CHWs reporting each month decreased as the programme battled the additional constraints of civil war. Although the political crisis affected the CHWs, the programme showed that it could reach those most vulnerable and continue some level of care at all times. In addition, this programme revealed that surveillance could be maintained in conflict zones. This paper fills a significant gap in the knowledge of malaria control in CAR and this is especially important for agencies which must often decide in a

  10. Act No. 1989.003 of 23 March 1989 fixing the general principles of public health in the Central African Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    This Central African Republic Act provides the following with respect to the right to health care: "1. All citizens have the right to health. 2. All citizens shall be entitled to a free choice of physician. 3. The rights referred to in Sections 1 and 2 shall be conditional on the financial contribution of the citizen in question for the various health benefits made available to him by the public health services as a whole. 4. The Government shall define general policy, determine the organization and functioning of the public and private health services, and improvement of the health of the population, and to improve the lot of the individuals and social groups making up the national community. 5. In order to ensure that establishments in the public sector function properly, their administration shall be carried out either within the normal framework of the financial system of the public sector or in partial independence. 6. The tariffs for all of the services provided in establishments in the public sector shall be fixed within the framework of the Law on finance. 7. In the payment of health costs, the practice of payment by a third party shall be authorized. To this end, contracts to meet the costs of health services for employees in the private or public sectors may be concluded between, on the one hand, the department responsible for public health, and, on the other, private corporations and undertakings, quasi-public corporations, associations and corporations, and mutual social welfare associations. 8. Civil servants and other employees of the State and their families and other social and economic categories shall contribute to health costs in accordance with a proportion which shall be defined by a decree adopted in the Council of Ministers. 9. The State shall meet the health costs of patients recognized as welfare cases. Only patients holding a welfare card may have their expenses met in this way. The card shall be issued by the State or local authorities in

  11. Demography, maternal health and the epidemiology of malaria and other major infectious diseases in the rural department Tsamba-Magotsi, Ngounie Province, in central African Gabon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Zoleko Manego

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sub-Saharan Africa is undergoing an epidemiological transition from a predominance of infectious diseases to non-communicable and lifestyle related conditions. However, the pace of this transition and the pattern of disease epidemiology are uneven between affluent urban and rural poor populations. To address this question for a remote rural region located in the central African rainforest region of Gabon, this study was conducted to assess reasons for health care attendance and to characterize the epidemiology of malaria and other major infectious diseases for the department of Tsamba Magotsi. Methods Major causes for health care attendance were collected from local hospital records. Cross sectional population based surveys were performed for the assessment of local malaria epidemiology. Pregnant women attending antenatal care services were surveyed as a sentinel population for the characterization of chronic viral and parasitic infections in the community. Results Infectious diseases were responsible for 71% (7469 of a total of 10,580 consultations at the formal health care sector in 2010. Overall, malaria – defined by clinical syndrome – remained the most frequent cause for health care attendance. A cross sectional malaria survey in 840 asymptomatic individuals residing in Tsamba Magotsi resulted in a Plasmodium spp. infection prevalence of 37%. The infection rate in 2–10 year old asymptomatic children – a standard measure for malaria endemicity – was 46% (100 of 217 with P. falciparum as predominant species (79%. Infection with other plasmodial species (P. ovale and P. malariae presented most commonly as coinfections (23.2%. Prevalence of HIV, HBV, and syphilis were 6.2, 7.3, and 2.5%, respectively, in cross-sectional assessments of antenatal care visits of pregnant women. Urogenital schistosomiasis and the filarial pathogens Loa loa and Mansonella perstans are highly prevalent chronic parasitic infections

  12. Spatial analysis from remotely sensed observations of Congo basin of East African high Land to drain water using gravity for sustainable management of low laying Chad basin of Central Africa

    OpenAIRE

    B. Modu; B. Herbert

    2014-01-01

    The Chad basin which covers an area of about 2.4 million kilometer square is one of the largest drainage basins in Africa in the centre of Lake Chad .This basin was formed as a result of rifting and drifting episode, as such it has no outlet to the oceans or seas. It contains large area of desert from the north to the west. The basin covers in part seven countries such as Chad, Nigeria, Central African Republic, Cameroun, Niger, Sudan and Algeria. It is named Chad basin because 43.9%...

  13. AFRICAN JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC REVIEW

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Kazungu

    African Journal of Economic Review, Volume IV, Issue 1, January 2016 ..... owned by the Central Government through Forestry and Beekeeping Division of the Ministry of ...... American Statistical Association, 84(408), 862-874. Heckman, J.

  14. Genetic diversity and difference within and between bitter and sweet African bush mango trees (Irvingia spp., Irvingiaceae) in West and Central Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vihotogbé, R.; Berg, van den R.G.; Missinhoun, A.A.; Sinsin, B.; Sosef, M.S.M.

    2015-01-01

    Economically important food tree species in sub-Saharan Africa should be domesticated to enhance their production within agro forestry systems. The African bush mango trees (Irvingia species) are highly preserved and integrated in agro forestry systems in tropical Africa. However, the taxonomic

  15. Second workshop of participants in the Joint FAO-IOC-WHO-IAEA-UNEP project on monitoring of pollution in the marine environment of the West and Central African Region (WACAF/2 - first phase)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Second Workshop of Participants in the Joint FAO-IOC-WHO-IAEA-UNEP Project on Monitoring of Pollution in the Marine Environment of the West and Central African Region (WACAF/2) was attended by 29 participants from 10 countries (Senegal, The Gambia, Sierra Leone, Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana, Benin, Nigeria, Cameroun, Congo and Gabon). Levels of metals, chlorinated hydrocarbons and petroleum components in marine biota were discussed in seven scientific reports which were presented by the participating scientists (Cote d'Ivoire, Sierra Leone, Nigeria, The Gambia, ghana and Cameroun). Three of the presented reports were on organochlorines and four dealt with trace metal levels in marine organisms. The Representative of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) reviewed the results obtained during the data quality assurance intercalibration exercises carried out in the region during the first phase. The result received are still within acceptable range. However, there seems to be a trend for values to be higher than the range of finally certified concentrations. Considering that most results were clearly better in the second exercise, after equipment service, part of the earlier deviation might be attributed to instrument malfunctions. These results can be regarded as fairly encouraging for the future development in the West and Central African marine pollution monitoring programme. Refs, tabs

  16. African Journals Online: Portugal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Democratic Republic, Congo, Republic, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Curaçao, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Arab Rep.

  17. African Journals Online: Tuvalu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Democratic Republic, Congo, Republic, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Curaçao, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Arab Rep.

  18. African Journals Online: Romania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Democratic Republic, Congo, Republic, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Curaçao, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Arab Rep.

  19. African Journals Online: Austria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Democratic Republic, Congo, Republic, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Curaçao, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Arab Rep.

  20. African Journals Online: Palau

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Democratic Republic, Congo, Republic, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Curaçao, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Arab Rep.

  1. African Journals Online: Comoros

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Democratic Republic, Congo, Republic, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Curaçao, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Arab Rep.

  2. African Journals Online: Myanmar

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Democratic Republic, Congo, Republic, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Curaçao, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Arab Rep.

  3. African Journals Online: Lesotho

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Democratic Republic, Congo, Republic, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Curaçao, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Arab Rep.

  4. African Journals Online: Latvia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Democratic Republic, Congo, Republic, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Curaçao, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Arab Rep.

  5. African Journals Online: Bhutan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Democratic Republic, Congo, Republic, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Curaçao, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Arab Rep.

  6. African Journals Online: Senegal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Africa Development. Africa Development is the quarterly bilingual journal of CODESRIA. It is a social science journal whose major focus is on issues which are central to the development of society. Its principal objective is to provide a forum for the exchange of ideas among African scholars from a variety of intellectual ...

  7. African Anthropologist

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... It provides a forum for African and Africanist anthropologists to publish research reports, articles, book ... A Qualitative Exploration · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  8. South African Medical Journal - Vol 106, No 6 (2016)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Medical Journal. ... Central Drug Authority's position statement on cannabis · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT ... An overview of cancer research in South African academic and research institutions, 2013 - 2014 ...

  9. African Journals Online: African Studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 56 of 56 ... Research Review of the Institute of African Studies. Please note: As of 2013 the Research Review of the Institute of African Studies is now publishing under the title Contemporary Journal of African Studies. You can view the CJAS pages on AJOL here: http://www.ajol.info/index.php/contjas/index.

  10. Superposition de la tectonique éburnéenne et panafricaine dans les granitoïdes de la bordure nord du craton ouest africain, boutonniére de Zenaga, Anti-Atlas central, Maroc(Pan-african overprint on Eburnian granitoids at the northern boundary of the West African Craton, Zenaga Inlier, central Anti-Atlas, Morocco)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennih, N.; Laduron, D.; Greiling, R. O.; Errami, E.; de Wall, H.; Boutaleb, M.

    2001-05-01

    The Zenaga Inlier shows a comprehensive record of the Eburnian and Pan-African Orogenies. The Eburnian is characterised by high-temperature regional metamorphism and complex magmatism. The early (Azguemerzi) granodiorite has an isotopic mantle signature and was emplaced diapirically during the Eburnian Orogeny causing local thermal metamorphism. The foliation observed in this granitoid is a result of the interference between its primary syn-emplacement foliation and the regional foliation under amphibolite-facies conditions. The northern part of Zenaga has been intruded by the leucocratic granites of Tazenakht. These granites are cut by mylonites and phyllonites, corresponding to the Pan-African shear zones and accompanied with sub-greenschist-facies metamorphism during the Pan-African Orogeny. The deformation was the result of a regional sinistral transpressive event. This study in the northern part of the West African Craton shows the superposition of the Pan-African on the Eburnian Orogeny and the presence of a major fault in the Anti-Atlas.

  11. Fault kinematics and tectonic stress in the seismically active Manyara Dodoma Rift segment in Central Tanzania Implications for the East African Rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macheyeki, Athanas S.; Delvaux, Damien; De Batist, Marc; Mruma, Abdulkarim

    2008-07-01

    The Eastern Branch of the East African Rift System is well known in Ethiopia (Main Ethiopian Rift) and Kenya (Kenya or Gregory Rift) and is usually considered to fade away southwards in the North Tanzanian Divergence, where it splits into the Eyasi, Manyara and Pangani segments. Further towards the south, rift structures are more weakly expressed and this area has not attracted much attention since the mapping and exploratory works of the 1950s. In November 4, 2002, an earthquake of magnitude Mb = 5.5 struck Dodoma, the capital city of Tanzania. Analysis of modern digital relief, seismological and geological data reveals that ongoing tectonic deformation is presently affecting a broad N-S trending belt, extending southward from the North Tanzanian Divergence to the region of Dodoma, forming the proposed "Manyara-Dodoma Rift segment". North of Arusha-Ngorongoro line, the rift is confined to a narrow belt (Natron graben in Tanzania) and south of it, it broadens into a wide deformation zone which includes both the Eyasi and Manyara grabens. The two-stage rifting model proposed for Kenya and North Tanzania also applies to the Manyara-Dodoma Rift segment. In a first stage, large, well-expressed topographic and volcanogenic structures were initiated in the Natron, Eyasi and Manyara grabens during the Late Miocene to Pliocene. From the Middle Pleistocene onwards, deformations related to the second rifting stage propagated southwards to the Dodoma region. These young structures have still limited morphological expressions compared to the structures formed during the first stage. However, they appear to be tectonically active as shown by the high concentration of moderate earthquakes into earthquake swarms, the distribution of He-bearing thermal springs, the morphological freshness of the fault scarps, and the presence of open surface fractures. Fault kinematic and paleostress analysis of geological fault data in basement rocks along the active fault lines show that recent

  12. Stepwise introduction of the 'Best Care Always' central-line-associated bloodstream infection prevention bundle in a network of South African hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, G A; Brink, A J; Messina, A P; Feldman, C; Swart, K; van den Bergh, D

    2017-09-01

    Healthcare-associated infection (HCAI) remains a major international problem. The 'Best Care Always!' (BCA) campaign was launched in South Africa to reduce preventable HCAI, including central-line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI). The intervention took place in 43 Netcare Private Hospitals, increasing later to 49 with 958 intensive care units (ICUs) and 439 high-care (HC) beds and 1207 ICUs and 493 HC beds, respectively. Phase 1, April 2010 to March 2011, ICU infection prevention and control (IPC) nurse-driven change: commitment from management and doctors and training of IPC nurses. Bundle compliance and infections per 1000 central-line-days were incorporated as standard IPC measures and captured monthly. Phase 2, April 2011 to March 2012, breakthrough collaborative method: multiple regional learning sessions for nursing leaders, IPC nurses and unit managers. Phase 3, April 2012 to May 2016: sustained goal-setting, benchmarks, ongoing audits. A total of 1,119,558 central-line-days were recorded. Bundle compliance improved significantly from a mean of 73.1% [standard deviation (SD): 11.2; range: 40.6-81.7%] in Phase 1 to a mean of 90.5% (SD: 4.7; range: 76.5-97.2%) in Phase 3 (P = 0.0004). The CLABSI rate declined significantly from a mean of 3.55 (SD: 0.82; range: 2.54-5.78) per 1000 central-line-days in Phase 1 to a mean of 0.13 (SD: 0.09; range: 0-0.33) (P hospitals resulted in significant decreases in CLABSI. Copyright © 2017 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. African Zoology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Zoology, a peer-reviewed research journal, publishes original scientific contributions and critical reviews that focus principally on African fauna in terrestrial, freshwater, and marine ecosystems. Research from other regions that advances practical and theoretical aspects of zoology will be considered. Rigorous ...

  14. Strengthening African Union for African Integration: An African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... in the international state system and seek for African initiative in solving African problems. ... of the African Union by examining the efforts of African Leaders towards African integration, ...

  15. Characterization of Wildfire-Induced Aerosol Emissions From the Maritime Continent Peatland and Central African Dry Savannah with MISR and CALIPSO Aerosol Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Huikyo; Jeong, Su-Jong; Kalashnikova, Olga; Tosca, Mika; Kim, Sang-Woo; Kug, Jong-Seong

    2018-03-01

    Aerosol plumes from wildfires affect the Earth's climate system through regulation of the radiative budget and clouds. However, optical properties of aerosols from individual wildfire smoke plumes and their resultant impact on regional climate are highly variable. Therefore, there is a critical need for observations that can constrain the partitioning between different types of aerosols. Here we present the apparent influence of regional ecosystem types on optical properties of wildfire-induced aerosols based on remote sensing observations from two satellite instruments and three ground stations. The independent observations commonly show that the ratio of the absorbing aerosols is significantly lower in smoke plumes from the Maritime Continent than those from Central Africa, so that their impacts on regional climate are different. The observed light-absorbing properties of wildfire-induced aerosols are explained by dominant ecosystem types such as wet peatlands for the Maritime Continent and dry savannah for Central Africa, respectively. These results suggest that the wildfire-aerosol-climate feedback processes largely depend on the terrestrial environments from which the fires originate. These feedbacks also interact with climate under greenhouse warming. Our analysis shows that aerosol optical properties retrieved based on satellite observations are critical in assessing wildfire-induced aerosols forcing in climate models. The optical properties of carbonaceous aerosol mixtures used by state-of-the-art chemistry climate models may overestimate emissions for absorbing aerosols from wildfires over the Maritime Continent.

  16. Comprehensive Screening of Some West and Central African Sesame Genotypes for Drought Resistance Probing by Agromorphological, Physiological, Biochemical and Seed Quality Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komivi Dossa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sesame is an important crop in West and Central Africa playing a role of an alternative cash crop for smallholders. However, sesame productivity is highly impaired by drought. This study aimed at identifying some drought-resistant genotypes and efficient screening traits in large sesame germplasm. Ten genotypes were examined based on 21 biochemical, physiological, agromorphological and seed quality traits under three weeks of water stress. A high variability for drought resistance was observed among the genotypes. The genotypes WC17, WC18 and WC14 were drought resistant, WC12, WC13, WC06 and WC03 were moderately drought resistant while, WC02, WC10 and WC08 were drought sensitive, based on principal component analysis. The resistant genotypes exhibited both avoidance and tolerance features including increase of the root system, reduced water loss, highest activity of antioxidative enzymes and accumulation of proline. They produced higher biomass and had higher ability to maintain seed quality under drought stress compared with the sensitive genotypes. Strong accumulation (~200% ratio stress/control of biochemical markers including superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, catalase and proline could be regarded as an important indicator for selecting drought resistant genotypes. This study represents a reference for future research towards developing new varieties with improved drought resistance in West and Central Africa.

  17. African Zoology - Vol 50, No 4 (2015)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arachnida: Araneae) in a central South African grassland habitat · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD ... Nesting ecology of Ferruginous Duck Aythya nyroca in north-eastern Algeria · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  18. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter C

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 13 of 13 ... ... all fields of experimental biology including biochemistry, physiology, pharmacology, ... The Central African Journal of Medicine is a quarterly refereed ... scientific papers and technical reports in all the field of Chemistry (pure ...

  19. Marinobufagenin is related to elevated central and 24-h systolic blood pressures in young black women: the African-PREDICT Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Michél; Smith, Wayne; Wei, Wen; Fedorova, Olga V; Schutte, Aletta E

    2018-03-01

    Marinobufagenin (MBG) is an endogenous steroidal α1-Na + K + -ATPase inhibitor. Because of its role in sodium handling, MBG has been associated with both antihypertensive and prohypertensive effects in normal physiology and pathology. MBG is positively associated with blood pressure in Dahl salt-sensitive rats exhibiting a similar hypertensive phenotype to black populations, characterized by impaired urinary Na + excretion. However, clinical studies exploring blood pressure (BP)-related effects of MBG in black populations are scant. We determined whether the MBG/Na + ratio (assessing the effectiveness of Na + excretion resistance to MBG) is related to systolic BP (SBP) in young black men and women, compared to whites. We included 331 apparently healthy participants (20-30 years) (42.9% black, 43.8% men) on a habitual diet. We obtained 24-h and central SBP, and 24-h urinary Na + and MBG levels. We found no ethnic differences in MBG, Na + or MBG/Na + . MBG excretion correlated positively with Na + excretion in all groups and to SBP in white men and black women (p ≤ 0.011). In black women only SBP related positively to MBG/Na + in single and multi-variable adjusted regression models: central SBP (R 2  = 0.26; ß = 0.28; p = 0.039), 24-h SBP (R 2  = 0.46; ß = 0.30; p = 0.011), daytime (R 2  = 0.38; ß = 0.28; p = 0.023) and nighttime SBP (R 2  = 0.38; ß = 0.33; p = 0.009). In contrast, inverse associations of MBG/Na + with nighttime SBP were evident in white women (r = -0.20; p = 0.038) but lost significance after multiple adjustments (R 2  = 0.36; ß = -0.13; p = 0.12). We found independent positive associations of SBP with MBG/Na + in black women. This data supports the concept that reduced MBG-mediated Na + excretion can contribute to adverse hemodynamics.

  20. African financial systems: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Allen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We start by providing an overview of financial systems in the African continent. We then consider the regions of Arab North Africa, West Africa, East and Central Africa, and Southern Africa in more detail. The paper covers, among other things, central banks, deposit-taking banks, non-bank institutions, such as the stock markets, fixed income markets, insurance markets, and microfinance institutions.

  1. Institutional capacity for health systems research in East and Central African schools of public health: experiences with a capacity assessment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessani, Nasreen; Lewy, Daniela; Ekirapa-Kiracho, Elizabeth; Bennett, Sara

    2014-06-02

    Despite significant investments in health systems research (HSR) capacity development, there is a dearth of information regarding how to assess HSR capacity. An alliance of schools of public health (SPHs) in East and Central Africa developed a tool for the self-assessment of HSR capacity with the aim of producing institutional capacity development plans. Between June and November 2011, seven SPHs across the Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda implemented this co-created tool. The objectives of the institutional assessments were to assess existing capacities for HSR and to develop capacity development plans to address prioritized gaps. A mixed-method approach was employed consisting of document analysis, self-assessment questionnaires, in-depth interviews, and institutional dialogues aimed at capturing individual perceptions of institutional leadership, collective HSR skills, knowledge translation, and faculty incentives to engage in HSR. Implementation strategies for the capacity assessment varied across the SPHs. This paper reports findings from semi-structured interviews with focal persons from each SPH, to reflect on the process used at each SPH to execute the institutional assessments as well as the perceived strengths and weaknesses of the assessment process. The assessment tool was robust enough to be utilized in its entirety across all seven SPHs resulting in a thorough HSR capacity assessment and a capacity development plan for each SPH. Successful implementation of the capacity assessment exercises depended on four factors: (i) support from senior leadership and collaborators, (ii) a common understanding of HSR, (iii) adequate human and financial resources for the exercise, and (iv) availability of data. Methods of extracting information from the results of the assessments, however, were tailored to the unique objectives of each SPH. This institutional HSR capacity assessment tool and the process for its utilization

  2. African Journals Online: El Salvador

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Democratic Republic, Congo, Republic, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Curaçao, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Arab Rep.

  3. African Journals Online: Costa Rica

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Democratic Republic, Congo, Republic, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Curaçao, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Arab Rep.

  4. African Journals Online: Saint Bartelemey

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Democratic Republic, Congo, Republic, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Curaçao, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Arab Rep.

  5. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals OnLine (AJOL) is the world's largest online library of ... AJOL works to change this, so that African-origin research output is available to Africans ... South African Medical Journal ... Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences.

  6. Immunizations and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Immunizations Immunizations and African Americans African American adults are less ... 19 to 35 months had comparable rates of immunization. African American women are as likely to have ...

  7. Long-term monitoring of microsporidia, Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections in western Lowland Gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) at different stages of habituation in Dzanga Sangha Protected Areas, Central African Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sak, Bohumil; Petrzelkova, Klara J; Kvetonova, Dana; Mynarova, Anna; Shutt, Kathryn A; Pomajbikova, Katerina; Kalousova, Barbora; Modry, David; Benavides, Julio; Todd, Angelique; Kvac, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Infectious diseases pose one of the greatest threats to endangered species, and a risk of gastrointestinal parasite transmission from humans to wildlife has always been considered as a major concern of tourism. Increased anthropogenic impact on primate populations may result in general changes in communities of their parasites, and also in a direct exchange of parasites between humans and primates. To evaluate the impact of close contact with humans on the occurrence of potentially zoonotic protists in great apes, we conducted a long-term monitoring of microsporidia, Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections in western lowland gorillas at different stages of the habituation process, humans, and other wildlife in Dzanga-Sangha Protected Areas in the Central African Republic. We detected Encephalitozoon cuniculi genotypes I and II (7.5%), Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotype D and three novel genotypes (gorilla 1-3) (4.0%), Giardia intestinalis subgroup A II (2.0%) and Cryptosporidium bovis (0.5%) in gorillas, whereas in humans we found only G. intestinalis subgroup A II (2.1%). In other wild and domestic animals we recorded E. cuniculi genotypes I and II (2.1%), G. intestinalis assemblage E (0.5%) and C. muris TS03 (0.5%). Due to the non-specificity of E. cuniculi genotypes we conclude that detection of the exact source of E. cuniculi infection is problematic. As Giardia intestinalis was recorded primarily in gorilla groups with closer human contact, we suggest that human-gorilla transmission has occurred. We call attention to a potentially negative impact of habituation on selected pathogens which might occur as a result of the more frequent presence of humans in the vicinity of both gorillas under habituation and habituated gorillas, rather than as a consequence of the close contact with humans, which might be a more traditional assumption. We encourage to observe the sections concerning hygiene from the IUCN best practice guidelines for all sites where increased human

  8. African Environment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental Studies and Regional Planning Bulletin African Environment is published in French and English, and for some issues, in Arabic. (only the issue below has been received by AJOL). Vol 10, No 3 (1999). DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access. Table of ...

  9. Central African Journal of Medicine: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The diskette must be IBM compatible on Word Perfect format up to version 6.1. ... State the main outcome measurement(s) as planned before data collection began. ... The text of observational and experimental articles is usually, but not.

  10. East and Central African Journal of Surgery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    School were made guinea pigs for a new syllabus of English Language for Scientists. As I remember it now, the course consisted of exercises whereby masses of scientific data had to be analyzed and the results .expressed in good ... reviewed journal open to submission of papers from. In those days of relative prosperity, ...

  11. East and Central African Journal of Surgery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Childhood blindness and visual impairment in an underserved population in South West Nigeria: A clinic-based study · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Michaeline A. Isawumi, 2-10 ...

  12. Central African Journal of Medicine: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  13. Central African Security: Conflict in the Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    forces put up little resistance when Tutsi soldiers helped Congolese rebels, headed by Laurent Desire Kabila, to seize the town of Goma and other...government of national unity. In this scenario, the different parties have three choices: first is to accept Kabila as both head of state and head of...Sese Seko was selected by Belgium and American Intelligence in Brussels in 1959. He was also unwittingly put on a trampoline from which he could

  14. African Journals Online: African Studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 56 ... Africa Development is the quarterly bilingual journal of CODESRIA. .... relationship in the family, workplace, schools and organisations. .... activities, and personalities driving the democracy and development agenda in the region; 4. Conflict .... with preference for the results of African and Africanist studies.

  15. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has also been difficult for African researchers to access the work of other African academics. In partnership with hundreds of journals from all over the continent, AJOL works to change this, so that African-origin research output is available to Africans and to the rest of the world. AJOL is ... African Journal of AIDS Research.

  16. Long-term monitoring of microsporidia, Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections in western Lowland Gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla at different stages of habituation in Dzanga Sangha Protected Areas, Central African Republic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohumil Sak

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infectious diseases pose one of the greatest threats to endangered species, and a risk of gastrointestinal parasite transmission from humans to wildlife has always been considered as a major concern of tourism. Increased anthropogenic impact on primate populations may result in general changes in communities of their parasites, and also in a direct exchange of parasites between humans and primates. AIMS: To evaluate the impact of close contact with humans on the occurrence of potentially zoonotic protists in great apes, we conducted a long-term monitoring of microsporidia, Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections in western lowland gorillas at different stages of the habituation process, humans, and other wildlife in Dzanga-Sangha Protected Areas in the Central African Republic. RESULTS: We detected Encephalitozoon cuniculi genotypes I and II (7.5%, Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotype D and three novel genotypes (gorilla 1-3 (4.0%, Giardia intestinalis subgroup A II (2.0% and Cryptosporidium bovis (0.5% in gorillas, whereas in humans we found only G. intestinalis subgroup A II (2.1%. In other wild and domestic animals we recorded E. cuniculi genotypes I and II (2.1%, G. intestinalis assemblage E (0.5% and C. muris TS03 (0.5%. CONCLUSION: Due to the non-specificity of E. cuniculi genotypes we conclude that detection of the exact source of E. cuniculi infection is problematic. As Giardia intestinalis was recorded primarily in gorilla groups with closer human contact, we suggest that human-gorilla transmission has occurred. We call attention to a potentially negative impact of habituation on selected pathogens which might occur as a result of the more frequent presence of humans in the vicinity of both gorillas under habituation and habituated gorillas, rather than as a consequence of the close contact with humans, which might be a more traditional assumption. We encourage to observe the sections concerning hygiene from the IUCN best

  17. Obesity and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... youthonline . [Accessed 08/18/2017] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY People who are overweight are more likely to ...

  18. African Journals Online: Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 29 of 29 ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... African and international non-governmental organizations (NGOs); African and .... for scholars and practitioners in all spheres of biological sciences to publish ...

  19. Retraction | Simon | African Zoology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Panthera leo) ina. West African national park”. African Zoology is publishing an Editorial Expression of Concern regarding the following article: “New records of a threatened lion population (Panthera leo) in a West African national park” by ...

  20. Shared breastfeeding in central Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramharter, Michael; Chai, Sanders K.; Adegnika, Ayola A.; Klöpfer, Anna; Längin, Matthias; Agnandji, Selidji T.; Oyakhirome, Sunny; Schwarz, Norbert G.; Grobusch, Martin P.; Issifou, Saadon; Kremsner, Peter G.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, shared breastfeeding is described asa novel risk factor for vertical HIV transmission. This cross-sectional survey conducted in the central African country Gabon found that 40% of lactating mothers also breastfed other children than their own, and as many children were additionally

  1. A QUEST FOR A UNIQUE AFRICAN CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    2017-07-01

    Jul 1, 2017 ... Theology, and then, Nyamiti‟s ideas on the nature and method in African Theology and his ability to unite it ... Nyamiti‟s (1969) precise definition of African Theology is the very self-same. Christian ..... Central Africa. Malawi: ...

  2. African Journal of Neurological Sciences - 2009 Vol. 28 No 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HISTOIRE DU FOYER DE LA TRYPANOSOMOSE HUMAINE AFRICAINE DE NOLA EN REPUBLIQUE. CENTRAFRICAINE, DE 1971 à 2004. HISTORY OF HUMAN AFRICAN TRYPANOSOMIASIS OF NOLA IN CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC,. FROM 1971 TO 2004. MBELESSO Pascal 1. KOONA-KOONA Joseph Adonis ...

  3. Fibroadenoma in women in Ghana | Bewtra | Pan African Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Fibroadenoma is the commonest benign tumor of female breast. It is particularly common in young women in Africa. Method: This paper describes the clinicopathologic features of fibroadenoma of breast in African women from central Ghana and compares them to the data from African-American women.

  4. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has also been difficult for African researchers to access the work of other African academics. In partnership with hundreds of journals from all over the continent, AJOL works to change this, so that African-origin research output is available to Africans and to the rest of the ... Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics.

  5. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals OnLine (AJOL) is the world's largest and pre-eminent collection of peer-reviewed, African-published scholarly journals. Historically, scholarly information has flowed from North to South and from West to East. It has also been difficult for African researchers to access the work of other African academics.

  6. Trends in African philosophy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JONATHAN

    In the contention of Oladipo (2006), the debate on the idea of. African philosophy which has been divided into trends or schools, dates back to the 1960's and 70's, which constitute the modern epoch of African philosophy, when some African thinkers began to question the perspective that traditional African beliefs and.

  7. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has also been difficult for African researchers to access the work of other African ... search for an article by title, author/s or keywords,; and find other information sources ... Southern African Business Review; The role played by the South African ... The Basis of Distinction Between Qualitative and Quantitative Research in ...

  8. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has also been difficult for African researchers to access the work of other African academics. In partnership with hundreds of journals from all over the continent, AJOL works to change this, so that African-origin research output is available to Africans and ... Featured Country: South Africa, Featured Journal: Ergonomics SA ...

  9. Cross-Reactivity of Filariais ICT Cards in Areas of Contrasting Endemicity of Loa loa and Mansonella perstans in Cameroon: Implications for Shrinking of the Lymphatic Filariasis Map in the Central African Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanji, Samuel; Amvongo-Adjia, Nathalie; Koudou, Benjamin; Njouendou, Abdel Jelil; Chounna Ndongmo, Patrick W; Kengne-Ouafo, Jonas A; Datchoua-Poutcheu, Fabrice R; Fovennso, Bridget Adzemye; Tayong, Dizzle Bita; Fombad, Fanny Fri; Fischer, Peter U; Enyong, Peter I; Bockarie, Moses

    2015-11-01

    . perstans prevalence (Spearman's rho = - 0.200; p = 0.747) and Mf density (Odds ratio = 1.8; 95%CI: 0.8-4.2; p = 0.192). This study has confirmed the strong association between the ICT positivity and L. loa intensity (Mf/ml of blood) at the individual level. Furthermore, the study has demonstrated that ICT positivity is strongly associated with high L. loa prevalence. These results suggest that the main confounding factor for positive ICT test card results are high levels of L. loa. The findings may indicate that W. bancrofti is much less prevalent in the Central African region where L. loa is highly endemic than previously assumed and accurate re-mapping of the region would be very useful for shrinking of the map of LF distribution.

  10. Cross-Reactivity of Filariais ICT Cards in Areas of Contrasting Endemicity of Loa loa and Mansonella perstans in Cameroon: Implications for Shrinking of the Lymphatic Filariasis Map in the Central African Region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Wanji

    2015-11-01

    ICT results was found only in areas with an L. loa Mf prevalence above 15%. In contrast, there was no association between ICT positivity and M. perstans prevalence (Spearman's rho = - 0.200; p = 0.747 and Mf density (Odds ratio = 1.8; 95%CI: 0.8-4.2; p = 0.192.This study has confirmed the strong association between the ICT positivity and L. loa intensity (Mf/ml of blood at the individual level. Furthermore, the study has demonstrated that ICT positivity is strongly associated with high L. loa prevalence. These results suggest that the main confounding factor for positive ICT test card results are high levels of L. loa. The findings may indicate that W. bancrofti is much less prevalent in the Central African region where L. loa is highly endemic than previously assumed and accurate re-mapping of the region would be very useful for shrinking of the map of LF distribution.

  11. West African Journal of Industrial and Academic Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Osuagwwu

    West African Journal of Industrial and Academic Research December 2016 v0l. ... 1Civil Engineering Department, Collage of Science and Engineering .... P.K. Guha (2009) maintenance and Repairs of Buildings published by new central Book ...

  12. African Journals Online: Syrian Arab Republic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Democratic Republic, Congo, Republic, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Curaçao, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Arab Rep.

  13. African Journals Online: Curaçao

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Democratic Republic, Congo, Republic, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Curaçao, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Arab Rep.

  14. African Crop Science Journal - Vol 21 (2013)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    M Barungi, DH Ng'ong'ola, A Edriss, J Mugisha, 637-646 ... Innovation platforms for establishment and management of community nurseries in the central highlands of Ethiopia. EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT ... Scaling Sustainable Land management Innovations: The African Highland Initiative Devolution Model. EMAIL FREE ...

  15. Heart Disease and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Heart Disease Heart Disease and African Americans Although African American adults are ... were 30 percent more likely to die from heart disease than non-Hispanic whites. African American women are ...

  16. South African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The South African Medical Journal is published by the South African Medical Association, which represents ... G Watermeyer, S Thomson, 399-402 ... Assessing the value of Western Cape Provincial Government health administrative data and ...

  17. African Crop Science Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL ... The African Crop Science Journal, a quarterly publication, publishes original ... interactions, information science, environmental science and soil science.

  18. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lwati: A Journal of Contemporary Research. Vol 14, No 3 (2017) ... Journal of Business and Administrative Studies. Vol 6, No 2 (2014) ... Vol 11 (2015): African Journal of Educational Studies in Mathematics and Sciences Vol. 11, 2015. African ...

  19. South African Music Studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAMUS: South African Music Studies is the official organ for the South African ... Shifty Records in Apartheid South Africa: Innovations in Independent Record ... Experiences of Belonging and Exclusion in the Production and Reception of ...

  20. Liberalism and African Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindima, Harvey

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the effect of liberalism on the African understanding of education, community, and religion. Describes ways in which the European intrusion, that is, colonial governments, schools, and churches, undermined traditional African life and thought. (DM)

  1. African Studies Monographs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The African Studies Monographs is a serial that promotes research and scholarship on the African perspective worldwide. This includes matters of philosophy, history, literature, arts and culture, environment, gender, politics, administration crisis management, etc.

  2. Range and Frequency of Africanized Honey Bees in California (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Yoshiaki; Kohn, Joshua R.

    2015-01-01

    Africanized honey bees entered California in 1994 but few accounts of their northward expansion or their frequency relative to European honey bees have been published. We used mitochondrial markers and morphometric analyses to determine the prevalence of Africanized honeybees in San Diego County and their current northward progress in California west of the Sierra Nevada crest. The northernmost African mitotypes detected were approximately 40 km south of Sacramento in California’s central valley. In San Diego County, 65% of foraging honey bee workers carry African mitochondria and the estimated percentage of Africanized workers using morphological measurements is similar (61%). There was no correlation between mitotype and morphology in San Diego County suggesting Africanized bees result from bidirectional hybridization. Seventy percent of feral hives, but only 13% of managed hives, sampled in San Diego County carried the African mitotype indicating that a large fraction of foraging workers in both urban and rural San Diego County are feral. We also found a single nucleotide polymorphism at the DNA barcode locus COI that distinguishes European and African mitotypes. The utility of this marker was confirmed using 401 georeferenced honey bee sequences from the worldwide Barcode of Life Database. Future censuses can determine whether the current range of the Africanized form is stable, patterns of introgression at nuclear loci, and the environmental factors that may limit the northern range of the Africanized honey bee. PMID:26361047

  3. African Anthropologist: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. The African Anthropologist is a biannual journal of the Pan African Anthropological Association. It provides a forum for African and Africanist anthropologists to publish articles, research reports, review articles, and book reviews. The views expressed in any published material are those of the authors and ...

  4. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals OnLine (AJOL) is the world's largest and pre-eminent collection of peer-reviewed, African-published scholarly journals. Historically ... African Research Review; The Roles of Information Communication Technologies in Education: Review Article with Emphasis to the Computer and Internet Ethiopian Journal ...

  5. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reviewed, African-published scholarly journals. Historically, scholarly information has flowed from North to South and from West to East. It has also been difficult for African researchers to access the work of other African academics. In partnership with ...

  6. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has also been difficult for African researchers to access the work of other African academics. ... search for an article by title, author/s or keywords,; and find other information ... Southern African Business Review; Project Work by Students for First ... The Basis of Distinction Between Qualitative and Quantitative Research in ...

  7. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has also been difficult for African researchers to access the work of other African ... search for an article by title, author/s or keywords,; and find other information ... Southern African Business Review; Effect of Globalization on Sovereignty of States ... The Basis of Distinction Between Qualitative and Quantitative Research in ...

  8. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has also been difficult for African researchers to access the work of other African ... search for an article by title, author/s or keywords,; and find other information sources ... Southern African Business Review; Conflicts in Africa: Meaning, Causes, ... The Basis of Distinction Between Qualitative and Quantitative Research in ...

  9. African Journals Online: Health

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 167 ... African Journal of AIDS Research (AJAR) is a peer-reviewed ... The African Journal of Drug & Alcohol Studies is an international ... The Journal has been produced through the efforts of Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI) and the African .... in basic and clinical medical sciences as well as dentistry.

  10. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation. Vol 17, No 4 (2017). African Health Sciences. Vol 6, No 1 (2015). Nigeria Journal of Pure and Applied Physics. Vol 5, No 2 (2017). Journal of Student Affairs in Africa. Vol 14, No 1 (2017). Annals of African Surgery. Vol 63, No 7-9 (2018).

  11. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reviewed, African-published scholarly journals. Historically ... It has also been difficult for African researchers to access the work of other African academics. In partnership with ... Vol 15, No 1 (2018). SAHARA-J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS.

  12. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    West African Journal of Applied Ecology. Vol 6, No 2 (2017). Filosofia Theoretica: Journal of African Philosophy, Culture and Religions. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL ...

  13. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In partnership with hundreds of journals from all over the continent, AJOL works to change this, so that African-origin research output is available to Africans and to ... African Journal of AIDS Research. Vol 35, No 2 (2017). Zimbabwe Veterinary Journal. Vol 34, No 1 (2018). Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review.

  14. Africanized bees extend their distribution in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wei; McBroome, Jakob; Rehman, Mahwish; Johnson, Brian R

    2018-01-01

    Africanized honey bees (Apis mellifera) arrived in the western hemisphere in the 1950s and quickly spread north reaching California in the 1990s. These bees are highly defensive and somewhat more difficult to manage for commercial purposes than the European honey bees traditionally kept. The arrival of these bees and their potentially replacing European bees over much of the state is thus of great concern. After a 25 year period of little systematic sampling, a recent small scale study found Africanized honey bees in the Bay Area of California, far north of their last recorded distribution. The purpose of the present study was to expand this study by conducting more intensive sampling of bees from across northern California. We found Africanized honey bees as far north as Napa and Sacramento. We also found Africanized bees in all counties south of these counties. Africanized honey bees were particularly abundant in parts of the central valley and Monterey. This work suggests the northern spread of Africanized honey bees may not have stopped. They may still be moving north at a slow rate, although due to the long gaps in sampling it is currently impossible to tell for certain. Future work should routinely monitor the distribution of these bees to distinguish between these two possibilities.

  15. Strengthening African Union for African Integration: An African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    to secure African continent, speed up development process, and strengthen our survival ... Regional integration generally involves a somewhat complex web of cooperation ... networking of various government institutions to provide and shape.

  16. Gastric cancers at Kibogora Hospital | Ntakiyiruta | East and Central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    East and Central African Journal of Surgery. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 14, No 1 (2009) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  17. Local habitat drivers of macrobenthos in the northern, central and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Local habitat drivers of macrobenthos in the northern, central and southern KwaZulu-Natal Bight, South Africa. ... African Journal of Marine Science ... and bottom water physico-chemistry were determined at a significantly larger spatial scale.

  18. Geochemistry and geochronology Rb-Sr, K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar of the Pan-African granitic complexes of the Tamanrasset area (Algeria): relationships with the associated Sn-W mineralizations and tectonic evolution of Central Hoggar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertrand, J.M.; Zimmermann, J.L.; Dautel, D.; Boullier, A.M.; Bouabsa, L.; Farrar, E.; Archibald, D.A.; Moulahoum, O.

    1992-01-01

    New field mapping, petrographic and mineralogic, geochemical and geochronological data allow us to distinguish two successive magmatic suites with contrasting geochemistry: (1) granites with subalkaline affinity between 615 Ma (Anfeg) and 576 Ma (Tifferkit); (2) peraluminous magmatism and Li-F specialized leucogranites with associated Sn-W mineralization between 539 and 525 Ma. Such a magmatic evolution is interpreted as resulting from thickening of the continental crust during the Pan-African collision. Earliest magmas show mantle contribution and were formed close to the crust-mantle boundary where synchronous crustal stacking developed in amphibolite facies conditions. Latest peraluminous magmatism of crustal derivation and albite-topaz leucogranites appear to be controlled by localized extensional structures, 80 Ma after the main tectono-metamorphic event

  19. AFRICAN SOLUTIONS TO AFRICA'S PROBLEMS? AFRICAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ilse van der Walt

    characterised by a volatile mix of conflict, instability and state weakness, and analysts ... to ensure peace, security and stability on the continent at national, ... half a dozen African economies have been growing at more than 6 per cent per year.

  20. African Journal of Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search ... The African (formerly South African) Journal of Marine Science provides an international forum for the publication of original scientific contributions or critical reviews, ...

  1. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Continuing Medical Education; Establishing financial markets in Ethiopia: the environmental foundation, challenges and opportunities ... Ethiopian Journal of Education and Sciences; Gender Relations in ... South African Actuarial Journal.

  2. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopian Journal of Education and Sciences; Educational leadership and ... Ethiopian Journal of Education and Sciences; Establishing financial markets in Ethiopia: the environmental foundation, challenges ... South African Actuarial Journal.

  3. Regional variation in smoking among African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, G; Polednak, A P; Bendel, R

    1999-08-01

    The impact of geographic region and metropolitan residence on smoking prevalence among African Americans has not been adequately examined. This study analyzed 5 years of data from the National Health Interview Survey (1990-1994) on current smoking and regional variation among 16,738 African Americans. Results. Respondents in the West had the lowest unadjusted smoking prevalence rates and Midwest residents had the highest. Current smoking was lower among African Americans living in non-central cities than in central cities even after adjusting for several sociodemographic covariates. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that black women in the South were significantly less likely to be smokers compared with any other gender/region group. These findings suggest the significance of gender and regional factors such as the social history of migration, social stress and racism, exposure to tobacco advertisement, variations in cultural influences, community structures, and coping strategies in under standing African American smoking behavior. Copyright 1999 American Health Foundation and Academic Press.

  4. South African Family Practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Family Practice(SAFP) is a peer-reviewed scientific journal, which strives to ... The content of SAFP is designed to reflect and support further development of the broad ... Vol 60, No 2 (2018) ... of doctors and physiotherapists in the rehabilitation of people living with HIV · EMAIL ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  5. East African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The East African Medical Journal is intended for publication of papers on ... research on problems relevant to East Africa and other African countries will receive special ... Analysis of survival patterns of TB‐HIV co‐infected patients in relation to ...

  6. Annals of African Surgery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The goal of the Annals of African Surgery is to provide a medium for the exchange of current information between surgeons in the African region. The journal embraces surgery in all its aspects; basic science, clinical research, experimental research, surgical education. It will assist surgeons in the region to keep abreast of ...

  7. African Peacekeepers in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmanuel, Nikolas G.

    2015-01-01

    behind African participation in United Nations (UN) peacekeeping operations in Africa. In doing so, this research focuses on US military aid and foreign troop training from 2002 to 2012, and its impact on African deployments into UN peacekeeping missions in Africa. As can be expected, such third...

  8. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Historically, scholarly information has flowed from North to South and from West to East. It has also been difficult for African researchers to access the work of other African academics. In partnership with hundreds of journals from all ... Featured Country: Nigeria, Featured Journal: Nigeria Journal of Business Administration ...

  9. African Journals Online: Guernsey

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Guernsey. Home > African Journals Online: Guernsey. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access ...

  10. African Journals Online: Grenada

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Grenada. Home > African Journals Online: Grenada. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access ...

  11. African Journals Online: India

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: India. Home > African Journals Online: India. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access. Afghanistan ...

  12. African Journals Online: Barbados

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Barbados. Home > African Journals Online: Barbados. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access ...

  13. African Journals Online: Malta

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Malta. Home > African Journals Online: Malta. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access. Afghanistan ...

  14. African Journals Online: Bahamas

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Bahamas. Home > African Journals Online: Bahamas. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access ...

  15. African Journals Online: Liechtenstein

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Liechtenstein. Home > African Journals Online: Liechtenstein. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access ...

  16. African Journals Online: Vanuatu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Vanuatu. Home > African Journals Online: Vanuatu. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access ...

  17. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In partnership with hundreds of journals from all over the continent, AJOL works to change this, so that African-origin research output is available to Africans and to the rest of the world. ... AFRREV IJAH: An International Journal of Arts and Humanities; Human Rights under the Ethiopian Constitution: A Descriptive Overview

  18. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopian Journal of Education and Sciences; Conflicts in Africa: Meaning, Causes, Impact and Solution African Research Review; The competitive advantage of nations: is Porter's Diamond Framework a new theory that explains the international competitiveness of countries? Southern African Business Review; The Rise of ...

  19. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals OnLine (AJOL) is the world's largest and pre-eminent collection of peer-reviewed, African-published scholarly journals. Historically, scholarly information ... Ethiopian Journal of Education and Sciences; Advertising practice in Nigeria: Development, new trends, challenges and prospects. EJOTMAS: Ekpoma ...

  20. African Journals Online: Aruba

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Aruba. Home > African Journals Online: Aruba. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access. Afghanistan ...

  1. African Journals Online: Kazakhstan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Kazakhstan. Home > African Journals Online: Kazakhstan. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access ...

  2. African Journals Online: Switzerland

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Switzerland. Home > African Journals Online: Switzerland. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access ...

  3. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In partnership with hundreds of journals from all over the continent, AJOL works to change this, so that African-origin research output is available to Africans and to the rest of the world. AJOL is a Non-Profit Organisation based ... International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology. Vol 4, No 1 (2012). International ...

  4. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In partnership with hundreds of journals from all over the continent, AJOL works to change this, so that African-origin research output is available to Africans and to the rest of the world. AJOL is a Non-Profit Organisation ... Featured Country: Nigeria, Featured Journal: Journal of Applied Science, Engineering and Technology ...

  5. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has also been difficult for African researchers to access the work of other ... search for an article by title, author/s or keywords,; and find other information ... Southern African Business Review; Income Tax Assignment under the ... Mizan Law Review; The Basis of Distinction Between Qualitative and Quantitative Research in ...

  6. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has also been difficult for African researchers to access the work of other ... search for an article by title, author/s or keywords,; and find other information ... Southern African Business Review; The Basis of Distinction Between Qualitative and ...

  7. Archives: African Health Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 67 ... Archives: African Health Sciences. Journal Home > Archives: African Health Sciences. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 50 of 67 Items, 1 2 > >> ...

  8. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mizan Law Review; The competitive advantage of nations: is Porter's Diamond Framework a new theory that explains the international competitiveness of countries? ... African Journal of Biotechnology; The application of just administrative action in the South African environmental governance sphere: An analysis of some ...

  9. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Continuing Medical Education; The competitive advantage of nations: is Porter's Diamond Framework a new theory that explains the international competitiveness of ... African Journal of Biotechnology; The application of just administrative action in the South African environmental governance sphere: An analysis of some ...

  10. Annals of African Medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Annals of African Medicine is published by the Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto, Nigeria and the Annals of African Medicine Society. The Journal is intended to serve as a medium for the publication of research findings in the broad field of Medicine in Africa and other developing countries, and ...

  11. African Journals Online: Andorra

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Andorra. Home > African Journals Online: Andorra. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access ...

  12. African Journals Online: Ireland

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Ireland. Home > African Journals Online: Ireland. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access. Afghanistan ...

  13. African Journals Online: Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 221 ... African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology ... The African Journal of Drug & Alcohol Studies is an international scientific journal ... d) Critical or analytical reviews in the area of theory, policy, or research in Dentistry. e) Reviews of recently published books or group of books which would be of ...

  14. African Journals Online: Belgium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Belgium. Home > African Journals Online: Belgium. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access ...

  15. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In partnership with hundreds of journals from all over the continent, AJOL works to change this, so that African-origin research output is available to Africans and to ... Ergonomics SA. Vol 9, No 1 (2017). Inkanyiso: Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. Vol 14, No 5 (2017). Journal of Pharmaceutical and Allied Sciences.

  16. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals OnLine (AJOL) is the world's largest and pre-eminent collection of peer-reviewed, African-published scholarly journals. ... Continuing Medical Education; The competitive advantage of nations: is Porter's Diamond Framework a new theory that explains the international competitiveness of countries?

  17. Keeping African Masks Real

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddington, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Art is a good place to learn about our multicultural planet, and African masks are prized throughout the world as powerfully expressive artistic images. Unfortunately, multicultural education, especially for young children, can perpetuate stereotypes. Masks taken out of context lose their meaning and the term "African masks" suggests that there is…

  18. African Art Teaching Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanda, Jacqueline

    Three different models for the teaching of African art are presented in this paper. A comparison of the differences between the approaches of Western art historians and African art historians informs the articulation of the three models--an approach for determining style, another for dealing with analysis, and a third for synthetic interpretation.…

  19. Inspired by African Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heintz, June Rutledge

    1991-01-01

    Argues that African art helps children to learn vital art concepts and enlarges their understanding of the role of art in human culture. Outlines a unit on African art based on animals. Students created fabric designs and illustrated folktales and fables. Provides a list of free resources. (KM)

  20. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals OnLine (AJOL) is the world's largest and pre-eminent collection of peer-reviewed, African-published scholarly journals. Historically, scholarly information has flowed ... Thought and Practice; Advertising practice in Nigeria: Development, new trends, challenges and prospects. EJOTMAS: Ekpoma Journal of ...

  1. African American Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    African American Suicide Fact Sheet Based on 2012 Data (2014) Overview • In 2012, 2,357 African Americans completed suicide in the U.S. Of these, 1,908 (80. ... rate of 9.23 per 100,000). The suicide rate for females was 1.99 per 100, ...

  2. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In partnership with hundreds of journals from all over the continent, AJOL works to change this, so that African-origin research output is available to Africans ... Global Journal of Geological Sciences. Vol 16, No 1 (2018). Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences. Vol 7, No 1 (2017). Nigeria Journal of Pure and Applied Physics.

  3. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Oral Health. Vol 35, No 1-2 (2017). Egyptian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. Vol 7, No 3 (2017). African Journal of Chemical Education. Vol 8, No 2 (2017): Journal of Language, Technology & Entrepreneurship in Africa. Journal of Language, Technology & Entrepreneurship in Africa.

  4. Archives: African Studies Monographs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Archives: African Studies Monographs. Journal Home > Archives: African Studies Monographs. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 5 of 5 Items. 2007. Vol 8 (2007) ...

  5. African Journals Online: Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 12 of 12 ... The African Crop Science Journal, a quarterly publication, publishes original ... by the African Health Journals Partnership Project that is funded by the US .... the role, development, management and improvement of higher education from an ... France, France, MEtropolitan, French Guiana, French Polynesia ...

  6. African Health Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Health Sciences is an open access, free online, internationally ... by the African Health Journals Partnership Project that is funded by the US National .... Homa Ahmadzia, Sarah Cigna, Imelda Namagembe, Charles Macri, France ... Workers (HEWs) delivering integrated community case management (iCCM) of ...

  7. Human Rights and the African Renaissance | Acheampong | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines the idea of African renaissance in relation to the teaching of human rights in African schools. It explores the connection between the African Renaissance and human rights, and whether there is a specific African concept of human rights. In the light of these discussions, the article sketches a perspective ...

  8. The African Diaspora in continental African struggles for freedom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In light of this realization, this article discusses the contributions of the African Diaspora towards continental African liberation from European colonial domination, with a view to theorizing the implications of this history on the criticism of African Renaissance literature. Focusing on Diasporan African agency in organizing ...

  9. African bees to control African elephants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollrath, Fritz; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain

    2002-11-01

    Numbers of elephants have declined in Africa and Asia over the past 30 years while numbers of humans have increased, both substantially. Friction between these two keystone species is reaching levels which are worryingly high from an ecological as well as a political viewpoint. Ways and means must be found to keep the two apart, at least in areas sensitive to each species' survival. The aggressive African bee might be one such method. Here we demonstrate that African bees deter elephants from damaging the vegetation and trees which house their hives. We argue that bees can be employed profitably to protect not only selected trees, but also selected areas, from elephant damage.

  10. Identification of Wild Boar-Habitat Epidemiologic Cycle in African Swine Fever Epizootic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenais, Erika; Ståhl, Karl; Guberti, Vittorio; Depner, Klaus

    2018-04-01

    The African swine fever epizootic in central and eastern European Union member states has a newly identified component involving virus transmission by wild boar and virus survival in the environment. Insights led to an update of the 3 accepted African swine fever transmission models to include a fourth cycle: wild boar-habitat.

  11. African leafy vegetables in South Africa | Jan van Rensburg | Water SA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article the term 'African leafy vegetables' was adopted to refer to the collective of plant species which are used as leafy vegetables and which are referred to as morogo or imifino by African people in South Africa. Function is central in this indigenous concept, which is subject to spatial and temporal variability in terms ...

  12. Identification of Wild Boar–Habitat Epidemiologic Cycle in African Swine Fever Epizootic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ståhl, Karl; Guberti, Vittorio; Depner, Klaus

    2018-01-01

    The African swine fever epizootic in central and eastern European Union member states has a newly identified component involving virus transmission by wild boar and virus survival in the environment. Insights led to an update of the 3 accepted African swine fever transmission models to include a fourth cycle: wild boar–habitat. PMID:29553337

  13. Who's out there? A profile of informal traders in four South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A profile of informal traders in four South African city central business districts. ... Town and Regional Planning ... By using data gathered among street traders in four major metropolitan areas of South Africa, this article seeks to provide a current profile of individuals that are involved in street trading in South African cities.

  14. African Journal on Conflict Resolution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The African Journal on Conflict Resolution (AJCR) publishes the writings of a wide range of African and international authors in the field, but emphasis has deliberately been kept on African writers and the thinking emerging from African universities, colleges and organisations. Other websites assiciated with this Journal: ...

  15. Cancer statistics for African Americans, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSantis, Carol; Naishadham, Deepa; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2013-05-01

    In this article, the American Cancer Society estimates the number of new cancer cases and deaths for African Americans and compiles the most recent data on cancer incidence, mortality, survival, and screening prevalence based upon incidence data from the National Cancer Institute, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries and mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics. It is estimated that 176,620 new cases of cancer and 64,880 deaths will occur among African Americans in 2013. From 2000 to 2009, the overall cancer death rate among males declined faster among African Americans than whites (2.4% vs 1.7% per year), but among females, the rate of decline was similar (1.5% vs 1.4% per year, respectively). The decrease in cancer death rates among African American males was the largest of any racial or ethnic group. The reduction in overall cancer death rates since 1990 in men and 1991 in women translates to the avoidance of nearly 200,000 deaths from cancer among African Americans. Five-year relative survival is lower for African Americans than whites for most cancers at each stage of diagnosis. The extent to which these disparities reflect unequal access to health care versus other factors remains an active area of research. Overall, progress in reducing cancer death rates has been made, although more can and should be done to accelerate this progress through ensuring equitable access to cancer prevention, early detection, and state-of-the-art treatments. Copyright © 2013 American Cancer Society, Inc.

  16. African communalism and globalization | Etta | African Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Research Review. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 10, No 3 (2016) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should load ...

  17. AFRICAN SOLUTIONS TO AFRICA'S PROBLEMS? AFRICAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ilse van der Walt

    foreign policy challenge from which most others will ultimately emanate.46 .... African politics easily degenerates into a life-and-death struggle over private ... material interest and power balancing dominate as “predictability based on a set of ..... Due to its proximity to conflict areas, civil society has been able to work at.

  18. Africans Consuming Hair, Africans Consumed by Hair

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... are anything to go by, Africans, it seems to us, are more amenable to flexible, ... to recognise and provide for the present absences and the absent presences of ... Beauty is as much a work of nature as it is the outcome of working on nature.

  19. Impact of the insecticide endosulfan on growth of the African giant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    690 ... for pest control in cocoa plantations may impair the growth of African giant snails. Key words: ... central nervous system poison (IPCS, 1988). Acute ..... aquatic organisms of off-target deposition of endosulfan applied by aircraft. Environ.

  20. Black versus Black: The Relationship among African, African American, and African Caribbean Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jennifer V.; Cothran, Mary E.

    2003-01-01

    Surveyed people of African descent regarding relationships among African, African-American, and African-Caribbean persons, focusing on contact and friendship, travel to countries of the diaspora, cross-cultural communication, thoughts and stereotypes, and education. Most respondents had contacts with the other groups, but groups had preconceived…

  1. Central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The beginning of spring in central Chile looked like this to SeaWiFS. The snow-covered Andes mark the country's eastern border, and phytoplankton blooms and river sediment plumes fill the waters off its west coast. A large eddy due west of Concepcion is highlighted by the phytoplankton it contains.

  2. Afrique Centrale

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PR BOKO

    (Afrique Centrale) : peuplement de protozoaires ciliés et macro invertébrés ... Le lac d'Obili est un écosystème aquatique situé en plein cœur de Yaoundé en ...... électrique des eaux est assez stable, autour de 200 ; ce qui suppose que la ...

  3. African rainforests: past, present and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhi, Yadvinder; Adu-Bredu, Stephen; Asare, Rebecca A.; Lewis, Simon L.; Mayaux, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The rainforests are the great green heart of Africa, and present a unique combination of ecological, climatic and human interactions. In this synthesis paper, we review the past and present state processes of change in African rainforests, and explore the challenges and opportunities for maintaining a viable future for these biomes. We draw in particular on the insights and new analyses emerging from the Theme Issue on ‘African rainforests: past, present and future’ of Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. A combination of features characterize the African rainforest biome, including a history of climate variation; forest expansion and retreat; a long history of human interaction with the biome; a relatively low plant species diversity but large tree biomass; a historically exceptionally high animal biomass that is now being severely hunted down; the dominance of selective logging; small-scale farming and bushmeat hunting as the major forms of direct human pressure; and, in Central Africa, the particular context of mineral- and oil-driven economies that have resulted in unusually low rates of deforestation and agricultural activity. We conclude by discussing how this combination of factors influences the prospects for African forests in the twenty-first century. PMID:23878339

  4. African rainforests: past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhi, Yadvinder; Adu-Bredu, Stephen; Asare, Rebecca A; Lewis, Simon L; Mayaux, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The rainforests are the great green heart of Africa, and present a unique combination of ecological, climatic and human interactions. In this synthesis paper, we review the past and present state processes of change in African rainforests, and explore the challenges and opportunities for maintaining a viable future for these biomes. We draw in particular on the insights and new analyses emerging from the Theme Issue on 'African rainforests: past, present and future' of Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. A combination of features characterize the African rainforest biome, including a history of climate variation; forest expansion and retreat; a long history of human interaction with the biome; a relatively low plant species diversity but large tree biomass; a historically exceptionally high animal biomass that is now being severely hunted down; the dominance of selective logging; small-scale farming and bushmeat hunting as the major forms of direct human pressure; and, in Central Africa, the particular context of mineral- and oil-driven economies that have resulted in unusually low rates of deforestation and agricultural activity. We conclude by discussing how this combination of factors influences the prospects for African forests in the twenty-first century.

  5. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals OnLine (AJOL) is the world's largest online library of ... and find other information sources and more resources for researchers and journals. ... Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal/Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad.

  6. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals OnLine (AJOL) is the world's largest online library of ... and find other information sources and more resources for researchers and journals. ... Nnamdi Azikiwe University Journal of International Law and Jurisprudence.

  7. Whither the African University

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sam

    reform. 1. Associate Professor, Department of Philosophy, Addis Ababa University ..... reduce African universities to virtually vocational schools. The World ..... theories, established institutions, and widely held beliefs according to the cannons ...

  8. African Research Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof

    imports over exports leading to unfavourable balance of payments, low domestic ... on the subject examine the effect of FDI on economic growth and a few ..... Given that the data sample in this thesis covers the selected African countries,.

  9. A South African Perspective

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    ... subject-oriented terminography, translation-oriented terminography and linguistic .... The South African language policy promotes the equitable use of the offi- ... management, trade negotiations, provision of services, job security and institu-.

  10. adicating African Wars:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    countries, African decision makers nonetheless began to reconsider the role and place of military ..... challenged the war—fighting paradigm for armed forces or the 2003 Gulf ..... Carlisle: Strategic Studies Institute, US Army War College. Evans ...

  11. African Research Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof

    Indexed African Journals Online: www.ajol.info .... that a person's behaviour is inspired by what he wants or needs at that ... (polytechnic lecturers) was based on the prediction of the coefficient of determination .... Purchasing & Supply. 57. 55.

  12. African Americans and Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us Donate In This Section African Americans and Glaucoma email Send this article to a friend by ... and eventually, in developing more effective treatments. Does glaucoma treatment differ? Although treatment varies for all individuals, ...

  13. EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2003-11-11

    Nov 11, 2003 ... East African Medical Journal Vol. ... Lecturer/Consultant Surgeon, Paediatric Surgery Unit, Department of Surgery, College of Medical Sciences, University of Calabar, .... mind and the results obtained were however satisfying.

  14. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mizan Law Review; The Basis of Distinction Between Qualitative and Quantitative Research in Social Science: Reflection on Ontological, Epistemological and Methodological Perspectives Ethiopian Journal of ... South African Journal of Education; An approach to the neck mass ... Madagascar Conservation & Development.

  15. African Research Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof

    Indexed African Journals Online: www.ajol.info ... This study investigated the relationship between conflict management styles and teachers' productivity ... Key words: conflict, conflict management styles, teachers productivity, public secondary.

  16. Southern African Business Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Southern African Business Review is a refereed and accredited scientific journal of the College of Economic and Management Sciences of the .... The effects of extended water supply disruptions on the operations of SMEs · EMAIL FREE ...

  17. African Health Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Health Sciences is an open access, free online, internationally ... Ebola virus disease: assessment of knowledge, attitude and practice of nursing ... and immune system modulation by aerobic versus resisted exercise training for elderly ...

  18. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013). International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology. Vol 5, No 3 (2013). International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology. Vol 30, No 1 (2018). South African Journal of Sports Medicine. Vol 66 (2014). Vulture News.

  19. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Featured Country: Ghana, Featured Journal: Journal of Business Research. Most recent issues on AJOL: Vol 13 (2017). African Journal of Educational Studies in Mathematics and Sciences. Vol 7 (2017) ... Vol 6, No 2 (2014). Journal of ...

  20. African Health Sciences: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Health Sciences is an internationally refereed, free access, journal publishing original articles on research, clinical practice, public health, policy, planning, ... Makerere University School of Medicine, College of Health Sciences

  1. African Journals Online: Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 27 of 27 ... African Journal of Educational Studies in Mathematics and Sciences .... The Ghana Medical Journal is a peer-reviewed, open access journal ... The Journal of Business Research (JBR) is an International journal published by ...

  2. African Crop Science Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Crop Science Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 1, No 2 (1993) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  3. African Crop Science Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Crop Science Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 22 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  4. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Science: Reflection on Ontological, Epistemological and Methodological Perspectives Ethiopian Journal of Education and Sciences; The Tuskegee Syphilis Study: Some Ethical Reflections Thought and Practice; Educational leadership and management: theory, policy and practice. South African Journal of Education ...

  5. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reviewed, African-published scholarly journals. Historically, scholarly information has flowed from North to South and from West to East. It has also been difficult ... Featured Country: Egypt, Arab Rep. Featured Journal: Alexandria Journal of Medicine ...

  6. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals OnLine (AJOL) is the world's largest and pre-eminent ... The competitive advantage of nations: is Porter's Diamond Framework a new ... Advertising practice in Nigeria: Development, new trends, challenges and prospects

  7. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals OnLine (AJOL) is the world's largest and pre-eminent ... Continuing Medical Education; The competitive advantage of nations: is Porter's ... Ethiopian Journal of Education and Sciences; Advertising practice in Nigeria: ...

  8. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals OnLine (AJOL) is the world's largest and pre-eminent collection ... Continuing Medical Education; The competitive advantage of nations: is Porter's ... AFRREV IJAH: An International Journal of Arts and Humanities; Advertising ...

  9. African Journals Online: Zimbabwe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 12 of 12 ... SAFERE: Southern African Feminist Review. SAFERE provides women with a writing platform which is feminist in content and ... The Zimbabwe Journal of Educational Research comprised of four sections: Scholarly articles ...

  10. Southern African Business Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern African Business Review. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 20, No 1 (2016) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  11. A pastoral evaluation and responses to the challenge of spiritual insecurity in African pastoral ministry and Christianity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vhumani Magezi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that there is a form of Christian syncretism operating in African Christians� use of traditional African powers to address their spiritual insecurity challenges that arises from their former traditional African worldview of spiritual powers. It provides an overview description of the nature of the spiritual insecurity which still grips African Christians by delving into the traditional African worldview of spiritual powers (such as the notions of a Supreme Being, lesser divinities, spirits and ancestors and the centrality of traditional powers such as diviners in addressing this insecurity. After underscoring the aforementioned, this article proceeds to demonstrate three predominant views proposed by theological scholars as a response to the spiritual insecurity of African Christians. The first stance calls African Christians to discontinue with anything that is linked to traditional African spiritual worldview because Christianity entails a complete new ontological being. The second stance disapproves African Christians� reliance on traditional African powers and then proceeds to argue that Christian ministry should identify positives within the African spiritual world system and worldview that is useful and can be imported for use in contextualising the gospel. The third position advocates for Christians� continual reliance on traditional African spiritual powers in addressing their African contextual needs. In doing this, the weaknesses and strengths of these approaches are established with the view to outline an alternative biblical theological basis to ensure biblical Christianity in the challenging African contexts of spiritual insecurity. This article concludes by drawing from various theological responses to the spiritual insecurity of African Christians to ensure Christian ministry that is thoroughly biblical and contextual in African Christianity.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: This

  12. The African Credit Trap

    OpenAIRE

    Svetlana Andrianova; Badi H. Baltagi; Panicos O. Demetriades; David Fielding

    2010-01-01

    We put forward a plausible explanation of African financial underdevelopment in the form of a bad credit market equilibrium. Utilising an appropriately modified IO model of banking, we show that the root of the problem could be unchecked moral hazard (strategic loan defaults) or adverse selection (a lack of good projects). We provide empirical evidence from a large panel of African banks which suggests that loan defaults are a major factor inhibiting bank lending when the quality of regulatio...

  13. African American Diaspora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Brown

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united.  The population of blacks past downs a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape from poverty of enslavement and to establish a way of life through tradition. A way of personal freedoms was through getting a good education that lead to a better foundation and a better way of life. With regard to all historic migrations (forced and voluntary, the African Union defined the African diaspora as "[consisting] of people of African origin living outside the continent, irrespective of their citizenship and nationality and who are willing to contribute to the development of the continent and the building of the African Union." Its constitutive act declares that it shall "invite and encourage the full participation of the African diaspora as an important part of our continent, in the building of the African Union."

  14. Prevalence of malnutrition among HIV-infected children in Central and West-African HIV-care programmes supported by the Growing Up Programme in 2011: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesson, Julie; Masson, David; Adonon, Arsène; Tran, Caroline; Habarugira, Capitoline; Zio, Réjane; Nicimpaye, Léoncie; Desmonde, Sophie; Serurakuba, Goreth; Kwayep, Rosine; Sare, Edith; Konate, Tiefing; Nimaga, Abdoulaye; Saina, Philemon; Kpade, Akossiwa; Bassuka, Andrée; Gougouyor, Gustave; Leroy, Valériane

    2015-05-26

    The burden of malnutrition among HIV-infected children is not well described in sub-Saharan Africa, even though it is an important problem to take into account to guarantee appropriate healthcare for these children. We assessed the prevalence of malnutrition and its associated factors among HIV-infected children in HIV care programmes in Central and West-Africa. A cross-sectional study was conducted from September to December 2011 among the active files of HIV-infected children aged 2-19 years old, enrolled in HIV-care programmes supported by the Sidaction Growing Up Programme in Benin, Burundi, Cameroon, Côte d'Ivoire, Mali, Chad and Togo. Socio-demographics characteristics, anthropometric, clinical data, and nutritional support were collected. Anthropometric indicators, expressed in Z-scores, were used to define malnutrition: Height-for-age (HAZ), Weight-for-Height (WHZ) for children children ≥5 years. Three types of malnutrition were defined: acute malnutrition (WHZ/BAZ malnutrition (HAZ malnutrition (WHZ/BAZ malnutrition. Overall, 1350 HIV-infected children were included; their median age was 10 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 7-13 years), 49 % were girls. 80 % were on antiretroviral treatment (ART), for a median time of 36 months. The prevalence of malnutrition was 42 % (95 % confidence interval [95% CI]: 40-44 %) with acute, chronic and mixed malnutrition at 9 % (95% CI: 6-12 %), 26 % (95% CI: 23-28 %), and 7 % (95% CI: 5-10 %), respectively. Among those malnourished, more than half of children didn't receive any nutritional support at the time of the survey. Acute malnutrition was associated with male gender, severe immunodeficiency, and the absence of ART; chronic malnutrition with male gender and age (malnutrition with male gender, age (malnutrition. The prevalence of malnutrition in HIV-infected children even on ART remains high in HIV care programmes. Anthropometric measurements and appropriate nutritional care of malnourished HIV

  15. Geoconservation - a southern African and African perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimold, Wolf Uwe

    1999-10-01

    In contrast to Europe, where geoconservation is actively pursued in most countries and where two international symposia on this subject have been staged in 1991 and 1996, geoconservation in Africa has indeed a very poor record. Considering the wealth of outstanding geological sites and the importance African stratigraphy has within the global geological record, pro-active geoconservation on this continent has not featured very prominently to date. In the interest of science, education and tourism, unique and typical geosites need to be identified, catalogued, and prioritised with the aim being their protection. Most African countries do not have vibrant non-governmental organisations such as a strong geological society, which could drive projects like geoconservation, or strong support from the private sector for environmental work. Here, a case is made for the role that established National Geological Surveys, some of which are already involved with retroactive environmental geological work, could play in the forefront of pro-active geoconservation and site protection.

  16. Europa central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel BARTOSEK

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available La investigación francesa continúa interesándose por Europa Central. Desde luego, hay límites a este interés en el ambiente general de mi nueva patria: en la ignorancia, producto del largo desinterés de Francia por este espacio después de la Segunda Guerra Mundial, y en el comportamiento y la reflexión de la clase política y de los medios de comunicación (una anécdota para ilustrar este ambiente: durante la preparación de nuestro coloquio «Refugiados e inmigrantes de Europa Central en el movimiento antifascista y la Resistencia en Francia, 1933-1945», celebrado en París en octubre de 1986, el problema de la definición fue planteado concreta y «prácticamente». ¡Y hubo entonces un historiador eminente, para quién Alemania no formaría parte de Europa Central!.

  17. The Need to Re-Conceptualize African 'Traditional' Religion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First Lady

    definitions of religion, point out the areas of misconception about African religion ... concrete deity or not‖ by William James (1902) opens up the idea of religion .... a belief which is also very central in the Judeo-Christian faith, especially in.

  18. African Safety Promotion: A Journal of Injury and Violence Prevention

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Safety Promotion: A Journal of Injury and Violence Prevention (ASP) is a forum for discussion and debate among scholars, policy-makers and practitioners active in the field of injury prevention and safety promotion. ASP seeks to promote research and dialogue around a central public health issue that affects Africa, ...

  19. Equity development programmes for academic staff at South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current academic staff profile in South African Higher Education reflects much of the skewdness of the past. The central dilemma faced by these institutions is how to achieve an equitable ratio in the short and medium terms. In response to government concerns expressed through the National Plan on Higher Education, ...

  20. Towards an indigenous African bioethics | Behrens | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One way is for African bioethicists to begin to apply indigenous African philosophy, thought and values to ethical issues. This project is important (i) to restore dignity; (ii) because a bioethics grounded in indigenous ideas is more likely to be accepted by Africans; and (iii) because such ideas can enrich bioethical discourse.

  1. African Journals: An Evaluation of their Use in African Universities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of African published journals in two African universities was surveyed through the use of questionnaire, interviews, journal usage count and citation analysis. The survey reveals that African published journals are not popular with academics because of lack of bibliographic and physical access. For conclusion to be ...

  2. Association of substance use disorders with childhood trauma but not African genetic heritage in an African American cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducci, Francesca; Roy, Alec; Shen, Pei-Hong; Yuan, Qiaoping; Yuan, Nicole P; Hodgkinson, Colin A; Goldman, Lynn R; Goldman, David

    2009-09-01

    Genetic variation influences differential vulnerability to addiction within populations. However, it remains unclear whether differences in frequencies of vulnerability alleles contribute to disparities between populations and to what extent ancestry correlates with differential exposure to environmental risk factors, including poverty and trauma. The authors used 186 ancestry-informative markers to measure African ancestry in 407 addicts and 457 comparison subjects self-identified as African Americans. The reference group was 1,051 individuals from the Human Genome Diversity Cell Line Panel, which includes 51 diverse populations representing most worldwide genetic diversity. African Americans varied in degrees of African, European, Middle Eastern, and Central Asian genetic heritage. The overall level of African ancestry was actually smaller among cocaine, opiate, and alcohol addicts (proportion=0.76-0.78) than nonaddicted African American comparison subjects (proportion=0.81). African ancestry was associated with living in impoverished neighborhoods, a factor previously associated with risk. There was no association between African ancestry and exposure to childhood abuse or neglect, a factor that strongly predicted all types of addictions. These results suggest that African genetic heritage does not increase the likelihood of genetic risk for addictions. They highlight the complex interrelation between genetic ancestry and social, economic, and environmental conditions and the strong relation of those factors to addiction. Studies of epidemiological samples characterized for genetic ancestry and social, psychological, demographic, economic, cultural, and historical factors are needed to better disentangle the effects of genetic and environmental factors underlying interpopulation differences in vulnerability to addiction and other health disparities.

  3. central t

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel R. Piña Monarrez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Dado que la Regresión Ridge (RR, es una estimación sesgada que parte de la solución de la regresión de Mínimos Cuadrados (MC, es vital establecer las condiciones para las que la distribución central t de Student que se utiliza en la prueba de hipótesis en MC, sea también aplicable a la regresión RR. La prueba de este importante resultado se presenta en este artículo.

  4. Central sleep apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep apnea - central; Obesity - central sleep apnea; Cheyne-Stokes - central sleep apnea; Heart failure - central sleep apnea ... Central sleep apnea results when the brain temporarily stops sending signals to the muscles that control breathing. The condition ...

  5. African Journal of Aquatic Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING ... The African Journal of Aquatic Science is an international journal devoted to the ... papers and short articles in all the aquatic science fields including limnology, ...

  6. South African Journal of Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The South African Journal of Education (SAJE) publishes original research articles reporting on research ... professional scientist and which critically evaluate the research done in a specific field in education; ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  7. Mental Health and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Mental Health Mental Health and African Americans Poverty level affects mental health ... compared to 120% of non-Hispanic whites. 1 MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...

  8. African Journal of Biotechnology: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... The African Journal of Biotechnology (AJB) (ISSN 1684-5315) provides rapid publication of .... Authors may still request (in advance) that the editorial board waive some of the handling fee ...

  9. African-Americans and Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share Plus on Google Plus African-Americans and Alzheimer's alz.org | IHaveAlz Introduction 10 Warning Signs Brain ... African-Americans are at a higher risk for Alzheimer's disease. Many Americans dismiss the warning signs of ...

  10. African Studies Monographs: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. The African Studies Monographs is a serial that promotes research and scholarship on the African perspective worldwide. This includes matters of philosophy, history, literature, arts and culture, environment, gender, politics, administration crisis management, etc.

  11. Leadership in the African context

    OpenAIRE

    M. Masango

    2002-01-01

    The Western world has always viewed the African continent as plagued by corruption; dictatorship; military coups; rebellious leaders; greediness; misuse of power; and incompetent, politically unstable leaders - in effect, suspicious leaders who undermine their own democracies. This paper analyzes African leadership and its impact by concentrating on three historical eras, namely; the African Religious era; the Christian era, and the era of Globalization. These affected African leadership. In ...

  12. African Cultural Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Holbrook, Jarita C; Medupe, R. Thebe; Current Archaeoastronomy and Ethnoastronomy research in Africa

    2008-01-01

    Astronomy is the science of studying the sky using telescopes and light collectors such as photographic plates or CCD detectors. However, people have always studied the sky and continue to study the sky without the aid of instruments this is the realm of cultural astronomy. This is the first scholarly collection of articles focused on the cultural astronomy of Africans. It weaves together astronomy, anthropology, and Africa. The volume includes African myths and legends about the sky, alignments to celestial bodies found at archaeological sites and at places of worship, rock art with celestial imagery, and scientific thinking revealed in local astronomy traditions including ethnomathematics and the creation of calendars. Authors include astronomers Kim Malville, Johnson Urama, and Thebe Medupe; archaeologist Felix Chami, and geographer Michael Bonine, and many new authors. As an emerging subfield of cultural astronomy, African cultural astronomy researchers are focused on training students specifically for do...

  13. Parsing the Gulf between Africans and African Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashly Nsangou

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The rise in African immigrants to the US provides an opportunity to assess relations between Africans and African Americans in college. An online survey of 322 current and recently-graduated college students (including 45 Africans, 160 African Americans, and 117 whites assessed respondents’ experiences of racism in US high schools and colleges. Semi-structured interviews of 30 students (10 African, 10 African American and 10 white students supplemented these data. Even within a sociopolitical context of more visible racial intolerance, Black intra-racial cohesion was absent. Although more first- and second-generation Africans (73% felt that they had been judged while living in the US compared to African Americans (34% or whites (20%, for 70–80% of respondents, this had occurred only in high school. Despite experiencing these judgments, Africans’ identity related more to their focus on education than their race, reflected in a higher proportion who felt intense family pressure to attend college (65% compared to African Americans (37% and whites (39%. Interview data confirmed previous reports in the literature that African Americans lack a sense of connection to Africans, attributed to Africans’ purported sense of superiority and disregard for African Americans’ ongoing struggle to end oppression. These mixed-methods data suggest that intermingling in the college environment has not resulted in first- and second-generation Africans and African Americans sharing a common in-group, race-based identity. We discuss the implications of overlooking ethnic distinctions due to presumptions of racial homogeneity that deprive Black individuals of their uniqueness.

  14. CONTEMPORARY AFRICAN PHILOSOPHY: EMERGENT ISSUES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dean SPGS NAU

    another on meta-philosophical issues about African philosophy, their successors, in ... Key Words: African identity, hermeneutics and culture, ... Even the quest to overcome the hegemony of Western ..... African philosophers to rethink the principles, concepts, attitudes ... there is a certain openness to new possibilities at the.

  15. African Journal of International Affairs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The African Journal of International Affairs (AJIA) is a bi-annual publication of CODESRIA, Dakar, Senegal. It offers a platform for analyses on contemporary issues in African International Affairs in relation to global developments as they affect Africa. AJIA welcomes contributions in English and in French from both African ...

  16. African names for American plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andel, van T.R.

    2015-01-01

    African slaves brought plant knowledge to the New World, sometimes applying it to related plants they found there and sometimes bringing Old World plants with them. By tracing the linguistic parallels between names for plants in African languages and in communities descended from African slaves,

  17. African Journals Online: South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 96 ... African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation ... continent of Africa, to contribute to developing home-grown (African) methods ... Envisaged readers are academic researchers, teachers and students and practitioners in the ... that have relevance to the South African educational context.

  18. The Struggles over African Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maseko, Pam; Vale, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In this interview, African Language expert Pam Maseko speaks of her own background and her first encounter with culture outside of her mother tongue, isiXhosa. A statistical breakdown of South African languages is provided as background. She discusses Western (originally missionary) codification of African languages and suggests that this approach…

  19. Perspectives for nuclear electricity in Central Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wa Kalenga, M.

    1977-01-01

    The paper analyses the energy system of the Central African countries and evaluates the projected global demand of energy. It compares the economy of the nuclear solution for satisfying future demands in relation to other forms of energy available in the region. Finally, it discusses the role that the countries involved can play in the fuel cycle (supply of raw material, possibilities of fuel enrichment). (author)

  20. Perspectives for nuclear electricity in central Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wa Kalenga, M.

    1977-01-01

    The paper analyses the energetic system of Central African countries and evaluate the projected global demand of energy. It compares the economy of the nuclear solution for the satisfaction of future demand versus other forms of energy available in the region. It appreciates finally the role that the countries involved can play in the fuel cycle (supply of raw material, possibilities of fuel enrichment) [fr

  1. The Kazanga festival : ethnicity as cultural mediation and transformation in central western Zambia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binsbergen, van W.M.J.

    1994-01-01

    This paper explores the cultural dynamics of ethnicity in the context of a postcolonial African State, Zambia. The opening sections define ethnicity and pinpoint its central dilemma: while unmistakably constructed and thus selectively empowering the brokers coordinating the construction process,

  2. Aspects of size and geography of an African cyberspace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Nwagwu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, data on web links collected from 15 African countries, three with the highest Internet penetration in each of North, West, Central, East, and South regions were used to study the number and origins of links to Africa. The sample has a ratio of one Internet user per 12 persons. Altogether, all African countries generated a total of 124,047,702 Web pages and 30,546,967 inlinks to the pages, an average of about 0.25 links per page. But the sample constituted which 28% of all the countries in the region generated 98,629,700 pages and 21,272,500 inlinks, an average of about 0.21 inlinks per page. South Africa ranked highest in web pages and web links per population and also received the highest number of inlinks from other African countries and the G8. However, Kenya linked other African countries more than the others did. Population size does not relate to number of web pages, self-inlinks, and inlinks or penetration, but relates positively with number of Internet users. Among others, a major step in boosting use of Internet resources in Africa will be in developing policies that will encourage African countries to use information developed by other African countries.

  3. Central hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Central hypothyroidism is defined as hypothyroidism due to insufficient stimulation by thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH of an otherwise normal thyroid gland. It has an estimated prevalence of approximately 1 in 80,000 to 1 in 120,000. It can be secondary hypothyroidism (pituitary or tertiary hypothyroidism (hypothalamus in origin. In children, it is usually caused by craniopharyngiomas or previous cranial irradiation for brain tumors or hematological malignancies. In adults, it is usually due to pituitary macroadenomas, pituitary surgeries or post-irradiation. Fatigue and peripheral edema are the most specific clinical features. Diagnosis is established by the presence of normal to low-normal TSH on the background of low-normal thyroid hormones, confirmed by the thyrotropin releasing hormone stimulation test. Therapy includes use of levothyroxine titrated to improvement in symptomology and keeping free T4 in the upper limit of normal reference range.

  4. The Genetic Structure and History of Africans and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tishkoff, Sarah A.; Reed, Floyd A.; Friedlaender, Françoise R.; Ehret, Christopher; Ranciaro, Alessia; Froment, Alain; Hirbo, Jibril B.; Awomoyi, Agnes A.; Bodo, Jean-Marie; Doumbo, Ogobara; Ibrahim, Muntaser; Juma, Abdalla T.; Kotze, Maritha J.; Lema, Godfrey; Moore, Jason H.; Mortensen, Holly; Nyambo, Thomas B.; Omar, Sabah A.; Powell, Kweli; Pretorius, Gideon S.; Smith, Michael W.; Thera, Mahamadou A.; Wambebe, Charles; Weber, James L.; Williams, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    Africa is the source of all modern humans, but characterization of genetic variation and of relationships among populations across the continent has been enigmatic. We studied 121 African populations, four African American populations, and 60 non-African populations for patterns of variation at 1327 nuclear microsatellite and insertion/deletion markers. We identified 14 ancestral population clusters in Africa that correlate with self-described ethnicity and shared cultural and/or linguistic properties. We observed high levels of mixed ancestry in most populations, reflecting historical migration events across the continent. Our data also provide evidence for shared ancestry among geographically diverse hunter-gatherer populations (Khoesan speakers and Pygmies). The ancestry of African Americans is predominantly from Niger-Kordofanian (~71%), European (~13%), and other African (~8%) populations, although admixture levels varied considerably among individuals. This study helps tease apart the complex evolutionary history of Africans and African Americans, aiding both anthropological and genetic epidemiologic studies. PMID:19407144

  5. Epidemiology of human African trypanosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco JR

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Jose R Franco,1 Pere P Simarro,1 Abdoulaye Diarra,2 Jean G Jannin1 1World Health Organization, Control of Neglected Tropical Diseases, Innovative and Intensified Disease Management, Geneva, Switzerland; 2World Health Organization, Inter Country Support Team for Central Africa, Regional Office for Africa, Libreville, Gabon Abstract: Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT, or sleeping sickness, is caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, which is a chronic form of the disease present in western and central Africa, and by Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, which is an acute disease located in eastern and southern Africa. The rhodesiense form is a zoonosis, with the occasional infection of humans, but in the gambiense form, the human being is regarded as the main reservoir that plays a key role in the transmission cycle of the disease. The gambiense form currently assumes that 98% of the cases are declared; the Democratic Republic of the Congo is the most affected country, with more than 75% of the gambiense cases declared. The epidemiology of the disease is mediated by the interaction of the parasite (trypanosome with the vectors (tsetse flies, as well as with the human and animal hosts within a particular environment. Related to these interactions, the disease is confined in spatially limited areas called “foci”, which are located in Sub-Saharan Africa, mainly in remote rural areas. The risk of contracting HAT is, therefore, determined by the possibility of contact of a human being with an infected tsetse fly. Epidemics of HAT were described at the beginning of the 20th century; intensive activities have been set up to confront the disease, and it was under control in the 1960s, with fewer than 5,000 cases reported in the whole continent. The disease resurged at the end of the 1990s, but renewed efforts from endemic countries, cooperation agencies, and nongovernmental organizations led by the World Health Organization succeeded to raise awareness and

  6. Do You See What I See? Effects of Group Consciousness on African American Women's Attributions to Prejudice

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Kimberly R.

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the effects of three types of group consciousness among African American women ("ethnic," "feminist," and "womanist") on prejudice attributions and appraised personal significance ("centrality") of a negative intergroup event. African American female college students (N = 123) imagined themselves in an audiotaped scenario in…

  7. East ad Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Peak ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ant "le absorbance difference method of spectral suppression [5,6,8,23-251. 0:~ C1. This number study of examines deconvolution the possibility algorithms of for ... LDC-constametric 3000 dual piston pump (LDC-. Milton Roy, Rivera Beach, F1 USA) was employed. The HPLC column used for the experiment was a 100 x ...

  8. Teaching medical ethics | Mielke | Central African Journal of Medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Vol 46, No 3 (2000) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access. Teaching medical ethics. J Mielke. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FULL ...

  9. Seeing Central African forests through their largest trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastin, J.F.; Barbier, N.; Réjou-Méchain, M.; Fayolle, A.; Gourlet-Fleury, S.; Maniatis, D.; Haulleville, De T.; Baya, F.; Beeckman, H.; Beina, D.; Couteron, P.; Chuyong, G.; Dauby, G.; Doucet, J.L.; Droissart, V.; Dufrêne, M.; Ewango, C.E.N.; Gillet, F.; Gonmadje, C.H.; Hart, T.; Kavali, T.; Kenfack, D.; Libalah, M.; Malhi, Y.; Makana, J.R.; Pélissier, R.; Ploton, P.; Serckx, S.; Sonké, B.; Stevart, T.; Thomas, D.W.; Cannière, De C.; Bogaert, J.

    2015-01-01

    Large tropical trees and a few dominant species were recently identified as the main structuring elements of tropical forests. However, such result did not translate yet into quantitative approaches which are essential to understand, predict and monitor forest functions and composition over large,

  10. zst and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quality of Antiretroviral Drugs Analyzed in the Drug Analysis and Research Unit During. 2000-2003 ... The quality of drugs in the Kenyan market has .... 0.d. prnol. P. PC. IH-NMR. r. f.. r.h.. RSD. rPm. r.m.s.. S ft2 m2. SD. SE. S.T.P.. TLC uv. VS.

  11. 54 East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Vol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Jande

    2Regional Medical Office Mwanza, P.O. Box 132, Mwanza, Tanzania. 3Department ... 16 (2013) parents/guardians at Kibaha District, Eastern. Tanzania, revealed that majority of the childhood ... The data was double entered in Microsoft Excel.

  12. East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Vol.13 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    The Influence of Gender Related Factors on Access to Antiretroviral Therapy in ... disadvantage in accessing HIV/AIDS treatment. .... of study population by marital status. Marital status. Male. Female. Total. Single. 11 ... Never went to school. 1.

  13. East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences - Vol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytosterols from Dombeya torrida (J. F. Gmel.) EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. SN Ndwigah, GN Thoithi, JW Mwangi, BK Amugune, HN Mugo, IO Kibwage, 44-48 ...

  14. Central Challenges Confronting the African State: Rethinking Its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sulaiman.adebowale

    2008-04-09

    Apr 9, 2008 ... people. Prolonged authoritarianism on the continent has been maintained ... delves into concrete realities and makes suggestions for ending the quagmire of the ... hegemony, being led by an imperial superpower that lays claim to. 2. ..... There are indications that suggest the existence of American military.

  15. East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Format and Style: Typing should be double-spaced with 3 cm margins on all sides. For the sake of uniformity, American spelling should be adopted throughout. In all sections of the manuscript the font used should be large and easy to read. The beginning of paragraph should be clearly shown. Pages should be numbered ...

  16. Necrotizing fasciitis of breast | Salati | East and Central African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Necrotizing fasciitis is an uncommon and rapidly progressive, life-threatening soft tissue infection. Necrotizing fasciitis of breast is even rarely encountered. We managed one such 32 years old nondiabetic, obese lady who developed necrotising fascitis of right breast after lumpectomy. Management involved wide ...

  17. East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences - Vol 5 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigation of Possible Antidotal Effects of Activated Charcoal, Sodium Bicarbonate, Hydrogen Peroxide and Potassium Permanganate in Zinc Phosphide Poisoning · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. CK Maitai, DK Njoroge, KO Abuga, AM Mwaura, ...

  18. Cameroon is a central African country with an estimated population ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (53.37 %) of the dental surgeons were females aged 41-50 years, worked in private practice ... graduated a total of 48 students in 2014 and are projected to graduate 490 dentists by ... Forty percent of them were employed by the government and only 20% of the dental ... index of 0.357 out of the 191 member countries of.

  19. the case of central african republic (car) and cameroon

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRACE

    destroying lives and families, and creating a society of orphans and refugees. A situation of political instability will bring uncertainty in the current government, which will cause it not ... Studies on the positive analysis of political groups use the concept of political instability to .... age physical strength and memory deteriorate.

  20. East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    management of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and whether they use their knowledge appropriately in managing their clients with STDs syndromes. A comparison was made between community pharmacists who graduated before and after the introduction of STDsIHIV management program in the Faculty of.

  1. West and Central African Partnership for Maternal, Newborn, Child ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Research and programming efforts are not sustainably reducing these rates. ... Bridging gaps and barriers to better health outcomes A partnership of leading West ... International Water Resources Association, in close collaboration with IDRC, ...

  2. Central African Journal of Medicine - Vol 48 (2002)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation of symptomatic Malaria parasitaemia and anaemia in nursery and primary School children in Buea District Cameroon. TK Njuo Akenji, EA Ajame, EA Achidi. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/cajm.v48i1.8415 · Nutrition knowledge and food choice among black students in South Africa. K Peltzer.

  3. Understanding medical ethics | Little | Central African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moral thinking is embedded within cultures, and we use ethics all the time in our ... values that reflect a particular view of the importance of human life in quantity and ... of the determination to provide care for the ill within the limits of resource ...

  4. Central oxygen pipeline failure | Mostert | Southern African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anaesthetic and critical care staff play a governing role in the comprehension of a hospital's oxygen delivery system and associated contingency plans for internal disaster management. Therefore, staff must be thoroughly prepared and properly trained to support an institution-wide emergency response in the event of ...

  5. Central African Journal of Medicine - Vol 60, No 2 (2014)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anaemia and iron deficiency in peri-urban school children born in a National HIV Prevention Programme in Zimbabwe: A cross-sectional study · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. P Kuona, G Mashavave, GQ Kandawasvika, MP Mapingure, M Masanganise, ...

  6. Central African Journal of Medicine - Vol 60, No 3 (2014)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of HIV among people with physical disabilities in Rwanda · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. JB Munymana, VRP M'Kumbuzi, HT Mapira, I Nzabanterura, I Uwamariya, E Shema, 62-69 ...

  7. Central African Journal of Medicine - Vol 60, No 1 (2014)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Childhood cancers in Zimbabwe: a 10 year review of the Zimbabwe National cancer registry data · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. I Chitsike, N Ndlovu, P Kuona, AM Nyakabau, W Kadzatsa, I Ticklay, G Chimhini, E Chokonunga, 1-8 ...

  8. East and Central African Journal of Surgery: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anything reproduced from published work must give the original source in full ... State the factual findings and estimates with statistical significance or ... ethical clearance); Results present findings in a logical sequence with tables ... Reference to abstracts are discouraged and to unpublished communications not accepted.

  9. east and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KIBWAGE. Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, College of Health Sciences, ... causing pneumonia, URTI, UTI and soft tissue obtained through the office of Registrar, ... were from private and public sources including.

  10. Central African Journal of Medicine - Vol 46, No 3 (2000)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chlamydia trachomatis in a symptomatic and asymptomatic men: detection in urine by enzyme immunoassay. P R Mason, L Gwanzura, S Gregson, D K Katzenstein. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/cajm.v46i3.8526 ...

  11. East and Central African Journal of Surgery: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  12. Multinationals, CSR and partnerships in Central African conflict countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.; Lenfant, F.

    2013-01-01

    Attention has increased for the potential role of multinational enterprises (MNEs) in helping address conflict issues and/or furthering peace and reconciliation as part of their corporate social responsibility (CSR) policies. However, while existing literature emphasises the importance for MNEs to

  13. Causes of visual disability among Central Africans with diabetes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) remains a common and one of the major causes of blindness in the developed and western societies. The same situation is shown in emerging economic areas (5,6). In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) however, the issues of visual disability due to diabetes mellitus (DM) are overshadowed ...

  14. Causes of visual disability among Central Africans with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mvitu Muaka, M; Longo-Mbenza, B

    2012-06-01

    Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) remains a common and one of the major causes of blindness in the developed and western societies. The same situation is shown in emerging economic areas (5,6). In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) however, the issues of visual disability due to diabetes mellitus (DM) are overshadowed by the presence of the prevalent and common nutritional deficiency diseases and eye infections This clinic-based study was conducted to determine whether diabetic retinopathy is independently related to visual disability in black patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) from Kinshasa, Congo. A total of 299 urban patients with DM and low income including 108 cases of visual disability and matched for time admission and DM type to 191 controls, were assessed. Demographic, clinical, and ophthalmic data were assessed using univariate and multivariate analyses. Age ≥60 years, female sex, presence of diabetic retinopathy (DR), proliferative DR, shorter DM duration, glaucoma, macular oedema, diabetic nephropathy were the univariate risk factors of visual disability. Using logistic regression model, visual disability was significantly associated with female sex and diabetic retinopathy. The risk of visual disability is 4 times higher in patients with diabetic retinopathy and 2 times higher in females with DM. Therefore, to prevent further increase of visual disability, the Congolese Ministry of Health should prioritize the eye care in patients with DM.

  15. Free-living amoebae isolated in the Central African Republic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bathing sites and cerebrospinal fluid from patients died of bacterial meningitis untagged were explored by culture and PCR and the amplicons were sequenced which allowed to characterize the species found. Only species of the genus Tetramitus, namely T. Entericus, T. waccamawensis and T.sp similar to those already ...

  16. 16 East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Vol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    An increase in the incidence of tuberculosis has been observed in prison populations. A descriptive cross sectional study was designed to assess the knowledge of tuberculosis among sick prisoners. Patients were interviewed using a questionnaire. Sixty per cent of those interviewed had been in prison for periods ranging ...

  17. Cameroon is a central African country with an estimated population ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information collected included age, gender, year of graduation ... The association between gender and characteristics of the ... dentists from the United States of America, the United. Kingdom and ..... likelihood of the gap widening further as reflected from the ... more oral diseases and can afford to pay for their own treatment.

  18. Multinationals, CSR and Partnerships in Central African Conflict Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Kolk (Ans); F. Lenfant (François)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAttention has increased for the potential role of Multinational Enterprises (MNEs) in helping address conflict issues and/or furthering peace and reconciliation as part of their corporate social responsibility policies. However, while existing literature emphasises the importance for

  19. East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An Approach to Effective Disinfection of Salon Items [clippers, combs and scissors]. O.S. OLONITOLA'*, P.F. OLURINOLA~ ... 2~epartment of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical. Sciences, Ahmadu Bello ... antimicrobial products with increased value over those currently available.

  20. East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences - Vol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Native and Pregelatinised Fonio starches on compression, mechanical and release properties of paracetamol tablet formulations · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. J Muazu, H Musa, PG Bhatia ...

  1. 14\\ k , East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eggs are displayed in figure 1. The mean hatching rate measured was 98.8 % and 96.8 % for distilled water (placebo) and 0.02 % ethanol (negative control) respectively. The values obtained with the various concentrations of mebendazole differed significantly from those obtained with the placebo and negative control (P< ...

  2. East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences - Vol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some Neuropharmacological Effects of the Crude Venom Extract of Conus musicus in Mice · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. K Balamurgan, D Akalanka, S Raju, A Raju, 28-33. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ecajps.v10i2.9758 ...

  3. 32 East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Vol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    pyrrolizidine alkaloids, nitrosamines and tannins. Nitrites commonly distributed in plants can easily be converted to nitrosamines. These substances have been found in beers and other plant derived beverages. Some unidentified chemicals in smoke from firewood commonly used by rural people are implicated in.

  4. A review of malaria in pregnancy | Madziyire | Central African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malaria causes over 10000 maternal and 200000 neonatal deaths a year globally. Fifty million pregnant women are at risk of acquiring malaria of which half of them are in Sub-Saharan Africa. It is caused by the plasmodium parasite, which is transmitted by the vector female Anopheles mosquito. Plasmodium falciparum is ...

  5. East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Vol. 7 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1996-04-24

    Apr 24, 1996 ... 3 Pharmaceutical Sciences Division, School of Pharmacy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, ... albinism should use sunscreens labeled with a Sun .... that were subjected to stability testing. Ingredients. Form-. Form- Form-.

  6. East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    both insulin and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Centella asiatica ... with moderately low temperatures and high rainfall [I]. .... C), activated charcoal, aluminium oxide (neutral grade), D ... ethanol and shaken on an electric shaker for 2.

  7. African Journals Online: Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 30 of 30 ... African Research Review (AFRREV) is a Peer Reviewed ... AFRREV IJAH: An International Journal of Arts and Humanities ... in the world; the Journal also enhances exchange of ideas among scientists engaged in research ... This journal content is now open access and licensed under Creative Commons ...

  8. South African Gastroenterology Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fees for medical services: money and medicine. Carl Schulenburg. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Article Metrics. Metrics Loading ... Metrics powered by PLOS ALM · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  9. South African Gastroenterology Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IBS - the beginning and the end: clinical review. Keith Pettengell. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Article Metrics. Metrics Loading ... Metrics powered by PLOS ALM · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/sagr.v1i1.30693 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE ...

  10. South African Gastroenterology Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Homepage Image. The South African Gastroenterology Reviewis written by specialists in the field. Its aim is to publish articles pertinent to the practising Gastroenterologist in South Africa. It is distributed to a broad spectrum of clinicians who have an interest in clinical gastroenterology and hepatology. Other websites ...

  11. African Journals Online: Swaziland

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The journal publishes research papers, case studies, essays and review articles as well as first hand experiences in soil, plant, water and animal sciences, natural resources management, home economics and nutrition, and other related areas of relevance to the Southern African Development Community (SADC) region in ...

  12. South African Actuarial Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Actuarial Journalis published by the Actuarial Society of South Africa (ASSA). It is issued free to members of ASSA and will also be made available to them on the Society's website for access via the Internet. The focus of SAAJ is on actuarial research–particularly, but not exclusively, on research of relevance to ...

  13. The African Family Physician

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    North America and Europe, and these serve us well up to a point. When a colleague ... Maybe we need a different set of principles to work by in the Afri- ... base the balance. ... The African Family Physician is dedicated to life-long learning and.

  14. African Journals Online: Mozambique

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This biannual, peer reviewed journal aims at providing space for sharing and debating issues of social, political and economic development not only for academic consumption, but also for policy considerations. Launched in 2011, the African Journal of Governance and Development has grown from strength to strength.

  15. South African Crime Quarterly

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Crime Quarterly is an inter-disciplinary peer-reviewed journal that promotes professional discourse and the publication of research on the subjects of crime, criminal justice, crime prevention, and related matters including state and non-state responses to crime and violence. South Africa is the primary focus for ...

  16. Depression and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have insurance or can’t afford treatment, your community may have publicly-funded mental health centers or programs that charge you according to ... how he found healing in an African American community. Other Resources ... Institute of Mental Health Phone Number: 301-443-4513 Toll Free Number: ...

  17. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Continuing Medical Education; The competitive advantage of nations: is Porter's Diamond Framework a new theory that explains the international competitiveness of countries? Southern African Business Review; The Basis of Distinction Between Qualitative and Quantitative Research in Social Science: Reflection on ...

  18. South African Airborne Operations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    makes them suitable for a number of different and demanding roles. ... financial constraints make it generally impossible for rebel groupings and even national ... followed their chief by successfully parachuting as well.2. During the ... More than 60 South African officers and a handful of other ranks did serve on secondment.

  19. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern African Business Review; Effect of Globalization on Sovereignty of States Nnamdi Azikiwe University Journal of International Law and Jurisprudence; The Influence of Motivation on Employees' Performance: A Study of Some Selected Firms in Anambra State AFRREV IJAH: An International Journal of Arts and ...

  20. African Communalism and Globalization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    info

    to man if we take the Bible account of creation into consideration. .... in his discussion on the role of traditional education as further quoted by Kigongo, ... the system of the community's teaching and learning, the child must learn to know ... high estimation of the community in African thought and practice, higher than that of.

  1. African Oral Tradition Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Doris

    1985-01-01

    Presents the basic principles of two systems for notating African music and dance: Labanotation (created to record and analyze movements) and Greenotation (created to notate musical instruments of Africa and to parallel Labanotation whereby both music and dance are incorporated into one integrated score). (KH)

  2. Conversations in African Philosophy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JONATHAN

    Conversational philosophy is articulated by Jonathan O. Chimakonam as the new wave of philosophical practice both in “place” and in “space”. This journal adopts and promotes this approach to philosophizing for African philosophy. Readers are encouraged to submit their conversational piece (maximum of 2000 words) ...

  3. South African Airborne Operations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africa carried out numerous airborne operations during the latter part .... It was a lesson the French had learned and were learning in Indo-China and ..... South African government, concerned that the conflict would spill across their northern border, ...... the Super Frelon and it was an outstanding helicopter at sea level.

  4. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals OnLine (AJOL) is the world's largest and pre-eminent collection of peer-reviewed, ... Featured Country: Ethiopia, Featured Journal: AFRREV STECH: An International Journal of Science and Technology ... Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences. Vol 38, No 2 ... Journal of Applied Biosciences.

  5. African Research Review: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The African Research Review publishes original research output in the areas of Arts, Education, Social Sciences, Pure and applied Sciences, Engineering and ... Final selection of papers for publication in the Journal will be based on paper originality, technical quality, use of language and overall contribution to knowledge.

  6. Archives: African Research Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 48 of 48 ... AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News. OTHER RESOURCES... for Researchers · for Journals · for Authors · for Policy Makers · about Open Access ...

  7. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Continuing Medical Education; The competitive advantage of nations: is Porter's Diamond Framework a new theory that explains the international ... Ethiopian Journal of Education and Sciences; The application of just administrative action in the South African environmental governance sphere: An analysis of some ...

  8. African Journals Online: Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 100 of 221 ... International Journal of Basic, Applied and Innovative Research ... Regional headquarters of the Pan-African Gender and Peace Research Group. ... Faculty of Health Sciences and Technology and Faculty of Dentistry. Through excellence in education and research and clinical service, College of ...

  9. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFRREV IJAH: An International Journal of Arts and Humanities; Educational leadership and management: theory, policy and practice. South African Journal of Education; Book Review: Insurance in Ethiopia: Historical Development, Present Status and Future Challenges Journal of Business and Administrative Studies ...

  10. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopian Journal of Education and Sciences; Educational leadership and management: theory, policy and practice. South African Journal of Education; An approach to the neck mass. Continuing Medical Education; Crime and Punishment in Igbo Customary Law: The Challenge of Nigerian Criminal Jurisprudence OGIRISI: ...

  11. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    More about AJOL and the challenges we work to address. AJOL hosts ... Southern African Business Review; Income Tax Assignment under the Ethiopian Constitution: Issues to Worry About Mizan Law ... AFRREV IJAH: An International Journal of Arts and Humanities; Effect of Globalization on Sovereignty of States Nnamdi ...

  12. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern African Business Review; The Roles of Information Communication Technologies in Education: Review Article with Emphasis to the Computer and ... AFRREV IJAH: An International Journal of Arts and Humanities; Book Review: Insurance in Ethiopia: Historical Development, Present Status and Future Challenges

  13. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopian Journal of Education and Sciences; The competitive advantage of nations: is Porter's Diamond Framework a new theory that explains the international competitiveness of countries? Southern African Business Review; Income Tax Assignment under the Ethiopian Constitution: Issues to Worry About Mizan Law ...

  14. East African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Paris, France, K. C. Takarinda, BSc, MSc, International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung ... Kenya and T. Galgalo, MSc, African Field Epidemiology Network. ... times more likely to develop active TB than those ... isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT), intensified TB case ... The capital city, where this study took place, had a.

  15. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shakespeare in Southern Africa. Vol 28, No 1 (2018). Ethiopian Journal of Agricultural Sciences. Vol 15, No 1 (2018). SAHARA-J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS. Vol 20, No 10 (2017). Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice. Vol 108, No 2 (2018). South African Medical Journal. Vol 21, No 1 (2018). Nigerian Journal of ...

  16. African Studies Monographs: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. Manuscripts should be sent to The Series Editor, African Studies Monographs, OOP Ltd, P.O. Box 4893, Somolu, Lagos State, Nigeria or Dr Karo Ogbinaka, Department of Philosophy, Faculty of Arts, University of Lagos, Akoka, Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria. Electronic submission should be on Microsoft Word and ...

  17. Female genital mutilation in African and African American women's literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja Marinšek

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The article builds on the existing dispute between African and African American women writers on the competence of writing about female genital mutilation (FGM, and tries to determine the existence and nature of the differences between the writings of these two groups. The author uses comparative analysis of two popular African and African American novels, comparing their ways of describing FGM, its causes and consequences, the level ob objectivity and the style of the narrations.This is followed by a discussion on the reasons for such differences, incorporating a larger circle of both African and African American women authors, at the same time analysing the deviance within the two groups. While the differences between African American writers are not that great, as they mostly fail to present the issue from different points of view, which is often the result of their lack of direct knowledge of the topic, African authors' writing is in itself discovered to be ambivalent and not at all invariable. The reasons for such ambivalence are then discussed in greater context, focusing on the effect of the authors' personal contact with circumcision as well as their knowledge and acceptance of Western values. The author concludes by establishing the African ambivalent attitude towards FGM, which includes different aspects of the issue, as the most significant difference between their and African American writers' description of this practice.

  18. SADCC: challenging the "South African connection.".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebenow, J G

    1982-01-01

    The Southern African Development Coordination Conference (SADCC) which unites 9 states with a combined population of 60 million, has as its objective the task of promoting economic development and realizing economic independence. In many respects the strain of neocolonialism that Southern Africa faces at this time is even more virulent than that facing West, Central, and East Africa. In the latter regions the surrender of political authority by colonial administrators frequently left the commercial, agricultural, and industrial interests of the European powers in continued control of the economies of the former colonies. The fate of economic development plans was determined by situations and decisions made in places distant from the African continent. In the case of Southern Africa, the withdrawal or expulsion of European colonialists has found whites in neighboring South Africa most eager to step into the economic breech. For most of the Southern African states this variant strain of the neocolonial virus creates a dual problem: the independent states acting separately have been no match for South Africa; and the acquiescence of independent African states in forging economic links with South Africa has impeded the liberation efforts of Africans in Namibia and the Republic of South Africa. Discussion focus turns to the challenges that confront SADCC; transport as the most significant factor accounting for the dependency of SADCC states upon South Africa; the role of minerals in dependency; other aspects of dependency; South Africa's proposed Constellation of States; the origins and objectives of SADCC; and dollars and donors. SADCC planning for economic liberation has been conducted against the background of a counterproposal advanced by South Africa's government, which put the Republic at the center of an expanded network of economic linkages within the entire southern African region. While being formally rejected, the Constellation of States scheme does have

  19. Leadership in the African context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Masango

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available The Western world has always viewed the African continent as plagued by corruption; dictatorship; military coups; rebellious leaders; greediness; misuse of power; and incompetent, politically unstable leaders - in effect, suspicious leaders who undermine their own democracies. This paper analyzes African leadership and its impact by concentrating on three historical eras, namely; the African Religious era; the Christian era, and the era of Globalization. These affected African leadership. In addition, many brilliant minds left the continent in search of greener pastures. A review of these three eras will help us understand how leadership shifted from African values into Western concepts. The role of missionaries lead African people to live with both an African and a Western concept of life. In spite of the above problems, our past leaders did their best in addressing the difficulties they faced during the three eras. African concepts of leadership were often regarded as barbaric and uncultured. Structures were evaluated by Western standards. Due to globalisation, African leaders, through programmes like NEPAD, are going back to basics, drawing on African concepts of unity among its leadership. Effectiveness or life-giving leadership is emerging and empowering villagers/communities in the continent. This type of leadership is innovative and has brought new hope for the continent.

  20. Genome-wide Ancestry and Demographic History of African-Descendant Maroon Communities from French Guiana and Suriname.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes-Lima, Cesar; Gessain, Antoine; Ruiz-Linares, Andres; Bortolini, Maria-Cátira; Migot-Nabias, Florence; Bellis, Gil; Moreno-Mayar, J Víctor; Restrepo, Berta Nelly; Rojas, Winston; Avendaño-Tamayo, Efren; Bedoya, Gabriel; Orlando, Ludovic; Salas, Antonio; Helgason, Agnar; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Sikora, Martin; Schroeder, Hannes; Dugoujon, Jean-Michel

    2017-11-02

    The transatlantic slave trade was the largest forced migration in world history. However, the origins of the enslaved Africans and their admixture dynamics remain unclear. To investigate the demographic history of African-descendant Marron populations, we generated genome-wide data (4.3 million markers) from 107 individuals from three African-descendant populations in South America, as well as 124 individuals from six west African populations. Throughout the Americas, thousands of enslaved Africans managed to escape captivity and establish lasting communities, such as the Noir Marron. We find that this population has the highest proportion of African ancestry (∼98%) of any African-descendant population analyzed to date, presumably because of centuries of genetic isolation. By contrast, African-descendant populations in Brazil and Colombia harbor substantially more European and Native American ancestry as a result of their complex admixture histories. Using ancestry tract-length analysis, we detect different dates for the European admixture events in the African-Colombian (1749 CE; confidence interval [CI]: 1737-1764) and African-Brazilian (1796 CE; CI: 1789-1804) populations in our dataset, consistent with the historically attested earlier influx of Africans into Colombia. Furthermore, we find evidence for sex-specific admixture patterns, resulting from predominantly European paternal gene flow. Finally, we detect strong genetic links between the African-descendant populations and specific source populations in Africa on the basis of haplotype sharing patterns. Although the Noir Marron and African-Colombians show stronger affinities with African populations from the Bight of Benin and the Gold Coast, the African-Brazilian population from Rio de Janeiro has greater genetic affinity with Bantu-speaking populations from the Bight of Biafra and west central Africa. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. OGIRISI: a New Journal of African Studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OGIRISI is a multidisciplinary journal. Its principal scope definition is focus on Africa. It therefore welcomes articles that attend to the African world, existence and development; African worldview and values; African symbols and institutions; African situation and the globalizing world; African problems and prospects. Reviews ...

  2. Tribe and Village in African Organizations and Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Simon Ulrik

    2016-01-01

    literature play a central role in African management and business. Practical implications – The paper concludes that manager should recognize the negative effects that may follow from a rejection of these socio-cultural patterns of behaviour. Originality/value – It introduces Marshall Sahlins’ theory......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to show that organizational behaviour and business relations in African countries reflect preindustrial social norms typical of kinship based, rural communities such as in-group/out-group differentiation, reliance on kinship and the use of gift......-exchange to create and strengthen social bonds. Design/methodology/approach – Two books on African management are interpreted using anthropological and sociological theory as the analytical perspective. Findings – The analysis of the two works suggests that the preindustrial patterns described in the anthropological...

  3. HIV/AIDS stigma and religiosity among African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muturi, Nancy; An, Soontae

    2010-06-01

    African American women are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS compared with other ethnicities, accounting for two-thirds (67%) of all women diagnosed with HIV. Despite their increased risk of HIV infection, few studies have been conducted to understand culture-specific factors leading to their vulnerability. Given the central role of religious organizations in African American communities, this study explored whether and to what extent religiosity plays a role in stigma toward HIV/AIDS. Results of hierarchical regression showed that after controlling for key factors, religiosity was a significant factor predicting the level of religious stigma. Those with high religiosity displayed significantly higher stigma, associating HIV/AIDS with a curse or punishment from God. Verbatim responses to an open-ended question also revealed seemingly ingrained prejudice against HIV/AIDS from a religious perspective. The findings point to the important role of faith-based organizations (FBOs) in addressing HIV/AIDS issues within African American communities.

  4. African Environmental Change from the Pleistocene to the Anthropocene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoag, Colin Brewster; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2018-01-01

    This review explores what past environmental change in Africa—and African people’s response to it—can teach us about how to cope with life in the Anthropocene. Organized around four drivers of change—climate; agriculture and pastoralism; megafauna; and imperialism, colonialism, and capitalism......—our review focuses on key regions and debates, including dynamics of the Sahara-Sahel zones; the structure and function of savannas and Central African rainforests; and efforts at nature conservation. Contingent environmental change is a recurring theme in the history of the continent, producing a mosaic...... floral and faunal biogeography. With high levels of poverty, fast population growth, and potentially dramatic impacts expected from future climate change, Africa is emblematic of the kinds of social and ecological precariousness many fear will characterize the future globally. African people’s innovation...

  5. Understanding traditional African healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokgobi, M G

    2014-09-01

    Traditional African healing has been in existence for many centuries yet many people still seem not to understand how it relates to God and religion/spirituality. Some people seem to believe that traditional healers worship the ancestors and not God. It is therefore the aim of this paper to clarify this relationship by discussing a chain of communication between the worshipers and the Almighty God. Other aspects of traditional healing namely types of traditional healers, training of traditional healers as well as the role of traditional healers in their communities are discussed. In conclusion, the services of traditional healers go far beyond the uses of herbs for physical illnesses. Traditional healers serve many roles which include but not limited to custodians of the traditional African religion and customs, educators about culture, counselors, social workers and psychologists.

  6. African mining '91

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The second 'African Mining' conference was held in June 1991, and followed the first event held in May 1987. That full four-year period was characterized by substantial changes in the political and economic climate of many countries in both hemispheres. The results of many of these changing facets of our industry are described in the papers in African Mining'91. Many of the papers deal with advances in technology, which is the main reason for the meeting. There are 37 papers under the headings general, mining, metallurgy and geology and exploration. Most papers are concerned with gold, copper and mineral mining. One paper concerning uranium mining operations in Namibia is indexed separately. (author)

  7. African agricultural trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Sandrey, Ron

    2015-01-01

    This article starts with a profile of African agricultural trade. Using the pre-release version 9.2 of the GTAP database, we then show that the results for tariff elimination on intra-African trade are promising, but these tariff barriers are not as significant as the various trade-related barriers...... outside of tariffs. Impressive results were forecast by simulating both a 50% reduction in what can be considered traditional non-tariff barriers and a modest 20% reduction in the costs associated with transit time delays at customs, terminals and internal land transportation. Gains from tariff...... elimination, non-tariff barrier reductions and time in transit cost reductions are likely to be cumulative and would generate very large gains to Africa. The policy implications are clear: while cooperation will enhance the gains, much of the benefits will result from unilateral actions and regional...

  8. Understanding traditional African healing

    OpenAIRE

    MOKGOBI, M.G.

    2014-01-01

    Traditional African healing has been in existence for many centuries yet many people still seem not to understand how it relates to God and religion/spirituality. Some people seem to believe that traditional healers worship the ancestors and not God. It is therefore the aim of this paper to clarify this relationship by discussing a chain of communication between the worshipers and the Almighty God. Other aspects of traditional healing namely types of traditional healers, training of tradition...

  9. South African drilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    According to the president of the South African Drilling Association, the drilling industry is meeting head-on the challenges created by the worldwide recession. The paper is a synopsis of several of the papers presented at the SADA symposium and a look at several mining-related drilling projects in South Africa. These papers include grouting techniques, the use of impregnated bits in hard rock drilling, tunnel boring for mines, surveying improvement methods and the use of explosives to increase groundwater yield

  10. Seeking an African Einstein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrani, Matin

    2008-07-01

    A new postgraduate centre for maths and computer science is set to open in the Nigerian capital of Abuja this month as part of an ambitious plan to find the "next Einstein" in Africa. The centre will provide advanced training to graduate students from across Africa in maths and related fields. It will seek to attract the best young African scientists and nurture their talents as problem-solvers and teachers.

  11. South African Astronomical Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Work at the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) in recent years, by both staff and visitors, has made major contributions to the fields of astrophysics and astronomy. During 1986 the SAAO has been involved in studies of the following: galaxies; celestial x-ray sources; magellanic clouds; pulsating variables; galactic structure; binary star phenomena; nebulae and interstellar matter; stellar astrophysics; open clusters; globular clusters, and solar systems

  12. Diversity among African pygmies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando V Ramírez Rozzi

    Full Text Available Although dissimilarities in cranial and post-cranial morphology among African pygmies groups have been recognized, comparative studies on skull morphology usually pull all pygmies together assuming that morphological characters are similar among them and different with respect to other populations. The main aim of this study is to compare cranial morphology between African pygmies and non-pygmies populations from Equatorial Africa derived from both the Eastern and the Western regions in order to test if the greatest morphological difference is obtained in the comparison between pygmies and non-pygmies. Thirty three-dimensional (3D landmarks registered with Microscribe in four cranial samples (Western and Eastern pygmies and non-pygmies were obtained. Multivariate analysis (generalized Procrustes analysis, Mahalanobis distances, multivariate regression and complementary dimensions of size were evaluated with ANOVA and post hoc LSD. Results suggest that important cranial shape differentiation does occur between pygmies and non-pygmies but also between Eastern and Western populations and that size changes and allometries do not affect similarly Eastern and Western pygmies. Therefore, our findings raise serious doubt about the fact to consider African pygmies as a homogenous group in studies on skull morphology. Differences in cranial morphology among pygmies would suggest differentiation after divergence. Although not directly related to skull differentiation, the diversity among pygmies would probably suggest that the process responsible for reduced stature occurred after the split of the ancestors of modern Eastern and Western pygmies.

  13. Cystic Medulloblastoma in a child | Agrawal | East and Central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    East and Central African Journal of Surgery. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 14, No 1 (2009) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Cystic Medulloblastoma in a child. A Agrawal ...

  14. Implications of food aid and remittances for West African food import demand

    OpenAIRE

    Kiawu, James; Jones, Keithly G

    2013-01-01

    The influence of food aid and remittances on West African food import demand is evaluated using a Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) model. Our results show that imports of oilseeds and the rest of the agricultural products category are highly price elastic, and that fruit and vegetables and dairy products are least responsive to price changes. Food aid did not influence West African food imports, but remittances were found to be statistically significant in determining food imports. The infl...

  15. Association of African Universities : Education and Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Association of African Universities : Education and Research Networking Unit. The Association of African Universities (AAU), headquartered in Accra, Ghana, is an international nongovernmental organization (NGO) that promotes cooperation between African universities and with the international community.

  16. Against African Communalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olúfẹ́mi Táíwò

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Communalism and its cognates continue to exercise a vise grip on the African intellectual imaginary. Whether the discussion is in ethics or social philosophy, in metaphysics or even, on occasion, epistemology, the play of communalism, a concept expounded in the next section, is so strong that it is difficult to escape its ubiquity. In spite of this, there is little serious analysis of the concept and its implications in the contemporary context. Yet, at no other time than now can a long-suffering continent use some robust debates on its multiple inheritances regarding how to organize life and thought in order to deliver a better future for its population. Given the continual resort to communalism as, among others, the standard of ethical behavior, the blueprint for restoring Africans to wholeness and organizing our social life, as well as a template for political reorganization across the continent, one cannot overemphasize the importance of contributing some illumination to the discourse surrounding the idea. This essay seeks to offer a little illumination in this respect. Additionally, it offers a criticism of what all—proponents and antagonists alike—take to be a defensible version of communalism: moderate communalism. I shall be arguing that communalism, generally, has a problem with the individual. And the African variant of it, mostly subscribed to by the African scholars discussed below and defended by them as something either peculiar to or special in Africa, has an even harder time accommodating the individual. Yet, as history shows, until the modern age in which individualism is the principle of social ordering and mode of social living, a situation that privileges the individual, above all, various forms of communalism never really accorded the individual the recognition and forbearances that we now commonly associate with the idea. The strongest variants of moderate communalism discussed here have a difficult time taking the

  17. African Diaspora Associations in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vammen, Ida Marie; Trans, Lars Ove

    2011-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, an increasing number of African migrants have come to Denmark, where they have formed a large number of migrant associations. This chapter presents selected findings from a comprehensive survey of African diaspora associations in Denmark and focuses specifically on their tr......Since the early 1990s, an increasing number of African migrants have come to Denmark, where they have formed a large number of migrant associations. This chapter presents selected findings from a comprehensive survey of African diaspora associations in Denmark and focuses specifically...

  18. African Ancestry Is Associated with Higher Intraocular Pressure in Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nannini, Drew; Torres, Mina; Chen, Yii-Der I; Taylor, Kent D; Rotter, Jerome I; Varma, Rohit; Gao, Xiaoyi

    2016-01-01

    Intraocular pressure (IOP) is a major risk factor, as well as the only modifiable risk factor, for glaucoma. Racial differences have been observed in IOP measurements with individuals of African descent experiencing the highest IOP when compared with other ethnic groups. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between genetic ancestry and IOP in Latinos. Population-based genetic association study. A total of 3541 participants recruited from the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. Study participants were genotyped using the Illumina OmniExpress BeadChip (∼730K markers). We used STRUCTURE to estimate individual genetic ancestry. Simple and multiple linear regression, as well as quantile regression, analyses were performed to investigate the relationship between genetic ancestry and IOP. The relationship between genetic ancestry and IOP in Latinos. African ancestry was significantly associated with higher IOP in Latinos in our simple linear regression analysis (P = 0.002). After adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, central corneal thickness, and type 2 diabetes, this association remained significant (P = 0.0005). The main association was modified by a significant interaction between African ancestry and hypertension (P = 0.037), with hypertensive individuals experiencing a greater increase in IOP with increasing African ancestry. To our knowledge, we demonstrate for the first time that African ancestry and its interaction with hypertension are associated with higher IOP in Latinos. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Diabetic Health of African American Grandmothers Raising their Grandchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana L. Carthron

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose The purpose of this study is to compare the health of primary caregiving African American grandmothers with diabetes with African American women with diabetes who were not primary caregivers. Design Using a comparative, descriptive, cross-sectional design, 34 African American primary caregiving grandmothers were compared with 34 non-caregiving women with diabetes mellitus; women aged 55–75 years were recruited for this study throughout the central Arkansas. Methods To measure the overall health, data on blood pressure, body mass index measurements, HbA1c levels, total cholesterol, and urine protein and creatinine levels were collected from all the participants. Results Statistically significant differences between the caregivers and non-caregivers groups in systolic pressure ( t = −3.42, P = 0.001 and diastolic pressure ( t = −3.790, P = 0.000 and urine protein ( W = 294.00, P = 0.000 were noted. Additionally, a clinically significant difference in HbA1c was noted between groups. Conclusion Differences in systolic and diastolic pressures, urine protein, and clinically significant differences in HbA1c suggest that African American primary caregiving grandmothers with diabetes mellitus may have more difficulty in maintaining their diabetic health than non-caregiving African American women.

  20. African American Perceptions about Crime in Cincinnati, Ohio since the 2001 Riots: Over a Decade Later

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derrick J. Jenkins, Sr. Ph.D.

    2013-06-01

    Conclusion: The results indicate that there was little difference in African American perceptions of violence in Cincinnati in 2001 and 11 years later in 2012. Most people felt that violence in Cincinnati is a very serious problem, with more than half of the respondents indicating that in the past 3 years violence in Cincinnati stayed the same. More importantly, these findings emphasize that the riots in Cincinnati is not a central event in the African American community, instead for some, it represents another example of why violence always seem to exist and there is a low morale among the African American community and police officers.