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  1. Isotopic characterization of the Precambrian carbonate aquifers under the city of Bangui (Central African Republic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huneau, Frederic; Djebebe-Ndjiguim, Chantal-Laure; Foto, Eric; Ito, Mari; Celle-Jeanton, Helene; Garel, Emilie; Mabingui, Joseph

    2013-04-01

    The city of Bangui, the capital of the Central African Republic, is located on the right bank of the Ubangi River which is the northernmost tributary of the Congo River. From its foundation in 1889 this city has always suffered from serious problems of water management. This is related to the specificity of the site configuration (steep hills surrounding a large swampy flat valley poorly drained) and to the urbanisation process responsible for the waterproofing of soils and the associated increased runoff processes under tropical humid condition.This paper presents the results of a geochemical and isotopic survey carried out in 2011 aiming at evaluating the type and chemical quality of the groundwater resources of the Bangui region. By combining geological, hydrogeochemical and isotopic data it appears that the underground of Bangui seems favourable to the development of a secured and sustainable water supply from groundwater provided that the conditions of exploitation would be constrained by the local authorities. The deep fractured (and locally kastified) Precambrian carbonate aquifers known as Bimbo and Fatima formations are identified as target resources considering the relatively good quality of the resource from the chemical point of view, and the semi-confined structure of the aquifer preventing the mixing with shallow aquifers already strongly impacted by domestic and industrial pollutions.

  2. [Comparison of the effectiveness of artemether and quinine for treatment of severe malaria in children, Bangui, Central African Republic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobossi-Serengbe, G; Gody, J-C; Fioboy, R; Elowa, J-B; Manirakiza, A

    2015-03-01

    The management of severe malaria is a major challenge in the health care services in sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of artemether and quinine in severe malaria at Complexe pédiatrique of Bangui, Central African Republic. A total of 212 children among 1125 hospital admissions (18.8%), and aged 6 to 59 months were randomly treated with artemether and quinine. Anemia (58.5%) and seizures (33.5%) were the major syndromes observed. On the third day of follow up, a regression of clinical signs and parasite clearance were observed in 98.1% of children treated with artemether and 97.1% of children treated with quinine. The death rate was 2.3% due to anemic and neurological forms. These findings show that the artemether and quinine have similar efficacy. Hence, associated with adequate intensive health care, the use of these antimalarial drugs can significantly reduce mortality from severe malaria in the Central African Republic.

  3. Clinical and epidemiological aspects of a hepatitis E outbreak in Bangui, Central African Republic

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    Komas Narcisse P

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Outbreaks of hepatitis E frequently occur in tropical developing countries during the rainy season due to overflowing drains, short-circuiting of networks of clean water and use of contaminated water from wells. Hepatitis E virus (HEV infections are usually accompanied by general symptoms of acute liver disease. This study was conducted to define the clinical and epidemiological aspects of the HEV outbreak that occurred in May 2004 in Bangui. Methods Blood samples were collected from 411 patients aged 1-87 years, most of whom presented with jaundice, asthenia or signs of uncomplicated malaria, for a transversal study from June 2004 to September 2005. Patients were recruited at 11 health care centres, including two referral hospitals, after they had given informed consent. The diagnosis of HEV was made with a commercial ELISA test to detect IgM and/or IgG antibodies. HEV RNA was amplified by RT-PCR to confirm the presence of the viral genome. Results The most frequent clinical signs found were jaundice (93.4%, vomiting (50.7%, hepatalgia (47.4%, hepatomegaly (30.9% and asthenia (26.8%, which are the general clinical signs of hepatic disease. Acute hepatitis E was found in 213 patients (51.8% who were positive for HEV IgM antibodies. The IgG anti-HEV seroprevalence during this outbreak was high (79.5%. The age group 18-34 years was more frequently infected (91.2% than those aged 1-17 (78.0% or over 34 (64.9% (p -6. RT-PCR performed on 127 sera from the 213 IgM-HEV-positive patients was amplified, and the presence of the viral genome was found in 65 samples. Conclusion Although no specific clinical signs exist for hepatitis E infection, people presenting with jaundice, vomiting, hepatalgia, asthenia, hepatomegaly or distended abdomen with no signs of uncomplicated malaria in tropical developing countries should be sent to a laboratory for testing for hepatitis E.

  4. Seroepidemiology of HIV, syphilis and hepatitis B and C viruses among blood donors in Bangui, Central African Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambei, W S; Rawago-Mandjiza, D; Gbangbangai, E

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of HIV, the hepatitis B and C viruses, and syphilis as well the risk factors for these diseases among blood donors in Bangui, Central Africa Republic. This cross-sectional study examined samples from donors giving blood in August and September, 2013. HIV1/2 antibodies was screened with the Determine and Unigold HIV tests. Hepatitis B surface antigens were detected by sandwich immunochromatographic methods (DIAspot HBsAg test), and antibodies to HCV by the DIAspot test strip. Syphilis was diagnosed with the VDRL and TPHA methods (Omega Diagnostic, UK). The Chi(2) test was used for statistical analysis. The study included samples from 551 individuals, 350 (63.52%) of whom were frequent volunteer donors. In all, 132 (23.95%) were infected with at least one pathogen. The overall seroprevalence rate was 8.89% for HBV, 4.72% for HCV, 4.36% for syphilis, and 5.98% for HIV. Eight patients had two concomitant infections, with HIV-HBV the most common combination. Compared to long-term volunteers, first-time donors were more often infected by at least one of the pathogens we screened for, most especially HVB (OR = 5.06; 95% CI = 4.22-7.11) and syphilis (OR = 2.05; 95% CI = 2.02-7.44). Our findings indicate the high seroprevalence of transfusion-transmitted infections in blood donated in Bangui. The most common combined infections were HIV-HBV. The most common risk factor was a family history of HBV infection, and especially, mother-child transmission. PMID:27412978

  5. Entomological profile of yellow fever epidemics in the Central African Republic, 2006-2010.

    OpenAIRE

    Ngoagouni, Carine; Kamgang, Basile; Manirakiza, Alexandre; Nangouma, Auguste; Paupy, Christophe; Nakoune, Emmanuel; Kazanji, Mirdad

    2012-01-01

    UNLABELLED: ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The causative agent of yellow fever is an arbovirus of the Flaviviridae family transmitted by infected Aedes mosquitoes, particularly in Africa. In the Central African Republic since 2006, cases have been notified in the provinces of Ombella-Mpoko, Ouham-Pende, Basse-Kotto, Haute-Kotto and in Bangui the capital. As the presence of a vector of yellow fever virus (YFV) represents a risk for spread of the disease, we undertook entomological investigations at the...

  6. Entomological profile of yellow fever epidemics in the Central African Republic, 2006–2010

    OpenAIRE

    Ngoagouni Carine; Kamgang Basile; Manirakiza Alexandre; Nangouma Auguste; Paupy Christophe; Nakoune Emmanuel; Kazanji Mirdad

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The causative agent of yellow fever is an arbovirus of the Flaviviridae family transmitted by infected Aedes mosquitoes, particularly in Africa. In the Central African Republic since 2006, cases have been notified in the provinces of Ombella-Mpoko, Ouham-Pende, Basse-Kotto, Haute-Kotto and in Bangui the capital. As the presence of a vector of yellow fever virus (YFV) represents a risk for spread of the disease, we undertook entomological investigations at these sites to id...

  7. Entomological profile of yellow fever epidemics in the Central African Republic, 2006–2010

    OpenAIRE

    Ngoagouni, Carine; Kamgang, Basile; Manirakiza, Alexandre; Nangouma, Auguste; Paupy, Christophe; Nakoune, Emmanuel; Kazanji, Mirdad

    2012-01-01

    UNLABELLED: ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The causative agent of yellow fever is an arbovirus of the Flaviviridae family transmitted by infected Aedes mosquitoes, particularly in Africa. In the Central African Republic since 2006, cases have been notified in the provinces of Ombella-Mpoko, Ouham-Pende, Basse-Kotto, Haute-Kotto and in Bangui the capital. As the presence of a vector of yellow fever virus (YFV) represents a risk for spread of the disease, we undertook entomological investigations at the...

  8. Impact of rejection of non-industrial wastewater treated origin: savex case in batambo district of second Bangui

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    Koyassambia Marcel Landry

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available For many years, cities around the world in general and the CAR (Central African Republic in particular have seen a very alarming pollution problem sometimes sparking fears. This pollution is due both to industrial activity than human activity in the case of deforestation for agricultural reasons. The growth of the urban population of the city of Bangui foreshadows an increase in demand for goods and services at all levels of environmental pressures resulting from the activities of the latter. The degradation of the urban environment in Bangui is the corollary of several factors that require adequate resources to cope. Which implies the establishment of a suitable environmental policy in order to save not only the wells for the consequences of pollution are many factors and other waterborne diseases but also people of the dangers against pollution.

  9. OPV strains circulation in HIV infected infants after National Immunisation Days in Bangui, Central African Republic

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    Menard Didier

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Humans are the only host of polioviruses, thus the prospects of global polio eradication look reasonable. However, individuals with immunodeficiencies were shown to excrete vaccine derived poliovirus for long periods of time which led to reluctance to prolong the vaccination campaign for fear of this end result. Therefore, we aimed to assess the duration of excretion of poliovirus after the 2001 National Immunization Days according to Human immunodeficiency virus status. Findings Fifty three children were enrolled. Sequential stool samples were collected in between National Immunisation Days rounds and then every month during one year. Children were classified into 2 groups: no immunodepression (n = 38, immunodepression (n = 15 according to CD4+ lymphocytes cells count. Thirteen poliovirus strains were isolated from 11 children: 5 Human immunodeficiency virus positive and 6 Human immunodeficiency virus negative. None of the children excreted poliovirus for more than 4 weeks. The restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis showed that all strains were of Sabin origin including a unique Polio Sabine Vaccine types 2 and 3 (S2/S3 recombinant. Conclusions From these findings we assume that Human immunodeficiency virus positive children are not a high risk population for long term poliovirus excretion. More powerful studies are needed to confirm our findings.

  10. Entomological profile of yellow fever epidemics in the Central African Republic, 2006–2010

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    Ngoagouni Carine

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The causative agent of yellow fever is an arbovirus of the Flaviviridae family transmitted by infected Aedes mosquitoes, particularly in Africa. In the Central African Republic since 2006, cases have been notified in the provinces of Ombella-Mpoko, Ouham-Pende, Basse-Kotto, Haute-Kotto and in Bangui the capital. As the presence of a vector of yellow fever virus (YFV represents a risk for spread of the disease, we undertook entomological investigations at these sites to identify potential vectors of YFV and their abundance. Findings Between 2006 and 2010, 5066 mosquitoes belonging to six genera and 43 species were identified. The 20 species of the Aedes genus identified included Ae. aegypti, the main vector of YFV in urban settings, and species found in tropical forests, such as Ae. africanus, Ae. simpsoni, Ae. luteocephalus, Ae. vittatus and Ae. opok. These species were not distributed uniformly in the various sites studied. Thus, the predominant Aedes species was Ae. aegypti in Bangui (90.7 % and Basse-Kotto (42.2 %, Ae. africanus in Ombella-Mpoko (67.4 % and Haute-Kotto (77.8 % and Ae. vittatus in Ouham-Pende (62.2 %. Ae. albopictus was also found in Bangui. The distribution of these dominant species differed significantly according to study site (P Aedes mosquitoes analysed by polymerase chain reaction contained the YFV genome. Conclusion The results indicate a wide diversity of vector species for YFV in the Central African Republic. The establishment of surveillance and vector control programs should take into account the ecological specificity of each species.

  11. Surveillance of Canine Rabies in the Central African Republic: Impact on Human Health and Molecular Epidemiology.

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    Vianney Tricou

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Although rabies represents an important public health threat, it is still a neglected disease in Asia and Africa where it causes tens of thousands of deaths annually despite available human and animal vaccines. In the Central African Republic (CAR, an endemic country for rabies, this disease remains poorly investigated.To evaluate the extent of the threat that rabies poses in the CAR, we analyzed data for 2012 from the National Reference Laboratory for Rabies, where laboratory confirmation was performed by immunofluorescence and PCR for both animal and human suspected cases, and data from the only anti-rabies dispensary of the country and only place where post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP is available. Both are located in Bangui, the capital of the CAR. For positive samples, a portion of the N gene was amplified and sequenced to determine the molecular epidemiology of circulating strains.In 2012, 966 exposed persons visited the anti-rabies dispensary and 632 received a post-exposure rabies vaccination. More than 90% of the exposed persons were from Bangui and its suburbs and almost 60% of them were under 15-years of age. No rabies-related human death was confirmed. Of the 82 samples from suspected rabid dogs tested, 69 were confirmed positive. Most of the rabid dogs were owned although unvaccinated. There was a strong spatiotemporal correlation within Bangui and within the country between reported human exposures and detection of rabid dogs (P<0.001. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that three variants belonging to Africa I and II lineages actively circulated in 2012.These data indicate that canine rabies was endemic in the CAR in 2012 and had a detrimental impact on human health as shown by the hundreds of exposed persons who received PEP. Implementation of effective public health interventions including mass dog vaccination and improvement of the surveillance and the access to PEP are urgently needed in this country.

  12. Revealing the Micro-scale Signature of Endemic Zoonotic Disease Transmission in an African Urban Setting.

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    Hervé Bourhy

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of novel approaches that combine epidemiological and genomic data provides new opportunities to reveal the spatiotemporal dynamics of infectious diseases and determine the processes responsible for their spread and maintenance. Taking advantage of detailed epidemiological time series and viral sequence data from more than 20 years reported by the National Reference Centre for Rabies of Bangui, the capital city of Central African Republic, we used a combination of mathematical modeling and phylogenetic analysis to determine the spatiotemporal dynamics of rabies in domestic dogs as well as the frequency of extinction and introduction events in an African city. We show that although dog rabies virus (RABV appears to be endemic in Bangui, its epidemiology is in fact shaped by the regular extinction of local chains of transmission coupled with the introduction of new lineages, generating successive waves of spread. Notably, the effective reproduction number during each wave was rarely above the critical value of 1, such that rabies is not self-sustaining in Bangui. In turn, this suggests that rabies at local geographic scales is driven by human-mediated dispersal of RABV among sparsely connected peri-urban and rural areas as opposed to dispersion in a relatively large homogenous urban dog population. This combined epidemiological and genomic approach enables development of a comprehensive framework for understanding disease persistence and informing control measures, indicating that control measures are probably best targeted towards areas neighbouring the city that appear as the source of frequent incursions seeding outbreaks in Bangui.

  13. Revealing the Micro-scale Signature of Endemic Zoonotic Disease Transmission in an African Urban Setting.

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    Bourhy, Hervé; Nakouné, Emmanuel; Hall, Matthew; Nouvellet, Pierre; Lepelletier, Anthony; Talbi, Chiraz; Watier, Laurence; Holmes, Edward C; Cauchemez, Simon; Lemey, Philippe; Donnelly, Christl A; Rambaut, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    The development of novel approaches that combine epidemiological and genomic data provides new opportunities to reveal the spatiotemporal dynamics of infectious diseases and determine the processes responsible for their spread and maintenance. Taking advantage of detailed epidemiological time series and viral sequence data from more than 20 years reported by the National Reference Centre for Rabies of Bangui, the capital city of Central African Republic, we used a combination of mathematical modeling and phylogenetic analysis to determine the spatiotemporal dynamics of rabies in domestic dogs as well as the frequency of extinction and introduction events in an African city. We show that although dog rabies virus (RABV) appears to be endemic in Bangui, its epidemiology is in fact shaped by the regular extinction of local chains of transmission coupled with the introduction of new lineages, generating successive waves of spread. Notably, the effective reproduction number during each wave was rarely above the critical value of 1, such that rabies is not self-sustaining in Bangui. In turn, this suggests that rabies at local geographic scales is driven by human-mediated dispersal of RABV among sparsely connected peri-urban and rural areas as opposed to dispersion in a relatively large homogenous urban dog population. This combined epidemiological and genomic approach enables development of a comprehensive framework for understanding disease persistence and informing control measures, indicating that control measures are probably best targeted towards areas neighbouring the city that appear as the source of frequent incursions seeding outbreaks in Bangui. PMID:27058957

  14. Putative Lineage of Novel African Usutu Virus, Central Europe

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-10-15

    Sarah Gregory reads an abridged version of "Putative Lineage of Novel African Usutu Virus, Central Europe.".  Created: 10/15/2015 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 10/15/2015.

  15. Disturbance, diversity and distributions in Central African rain forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemerden, van B.S.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study is to gain insight in the impact of human land use on plant community composition, diversity and levels of endemism in Central African rain forest. Human disturbance in this region is causing large-scale habitat degradation. The two most widespread forms of land use are selecti

  16. Status of the protected areas of the Central African Republic

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    Blom, A.; Prins, H.H.T.; Yamindou, J.

    2004-01-01

    The Central African Republic (CAR) has made an impressive commitment to biodiversity conservation, with a total of 15 protected areas covering about 10.9% of the country. This study critically examines the status of these protected areas in light of their potential for long-term protection of biodiv

  17. Assessment of the Central African Republic Mining Sector

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    This report presents recommendations to assist the promotion of socially and environmentally responsible artisanal mining practices, discusses formalization of the artisanal mining sector, and advises organization into cooperatives in the Central African Republic. Best practices are outlined to improve the working, living, and community conditions of artisanal miners. The mining sector is...

  18. Genetic characterization of Chikungunya virus in the Central African Republic.

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    Desdouits, Marion; Kamgang, Basile; Berthet, Nicolas; Tricou, Vianney; Ngoagouni, Carine; Gessain, Antoine; Manuguerra, Jean-Claude; Nakouné, Emmanuel; Kazanji, Mirdad

    2015-07-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an alphavirus transmitted by the bite of mosquito vectors. Over the past 10 years, the virus has gained mutations that enhance its transmissibility by the Aedes albopictus vector, resulting in massive outbreaks in the Indian Ocean, Asia and Central Africa. Recent introduction of competent A. albopictus vectors into the Central African Republic (CAR) pose a threat of a Chikungunya fever (CHIKF) epidemic in this region. We undertook this study to assess the genetic diversity and background of CHIKV strains isolated in the CAR between 1975 and 1984 and also to estimate the ability of local strains to adapt to A. albopictus. Our results suggest that, local CHIKV strains have a genetic background compatible with quick adaptation to A. albopictus, as previously observed in other Central African countries. Intense surveillance of the human and vector populations is necessary to prevent or anticipate the emergence of a massive CHIKF epidemic in the CAR.

  19. Disturbance, diversity and distributions in Central African rain forest

    OpenAIRE

    Gemerden, van, E.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study is to gain insight in the impact of human land use on plant community composition, diversity and levels of endemism in Central African rain forest. Human disturbance in this region is causing large-scale habitat degradation. The two most widespread forms of land use are selective logging and shifting cultivation. Assessment of the long-term effects of these land uses on plant species composition will provide elements for the identification of effective conservation measu...

  20. Forest Management and Deforestation in central African Republic

    OpenAIRE

    DIMA Francis Auguste Fleury Junior1 , Prof Yi Jing Wu吴宜进2 , DIMA Francis3 , TOUANDIRO Martine3 , MAKI Robert4 , SOMSE MISSILI Francine Chericia5 , DIMA Christian

    2016-01-01

    Nestled in the heart of Africa, Central African Republic is a vast country of 623 000 km2. It has 4.5 million inhabitants, nearly half (49.4) is 18 years and 62% live in rural areas. The country has vast and varied natural resources: A good rainfall, a dense Hydrographic network, rich soil, a basement with significant mining potential, drills and a variety of savannah, a diverse and abundant wildlife. Despite these potentials, economic and socio-health situation continues to deter...

  1. African aerosol and trace-gas emissions from the Central-African Bujumbura station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gielen, Clio; Van Roozendael, Michel; Hendrick, Francois; Pinardi, Gaia; De Smet, Isabelle; Fayt, Caroline; Hermans, Christian; Ndenzako, Eugene; Nzohabonayo, Pierre; Akimana, Rachel

    2015-04-01

    We present aerosol and trace-gas retrievals from the new Central-African measurement site of Bujumbura, where a new MAX-DOAS instrument and cimel sun photometer have been operational since late 2013. This is the first time that MAX-DOAS measurements are performed in Central Africa, which are critical to resolve the large uncertainties of satellite observations of trace gases and aerosols over this area. The Bujumbura region is a source of strong biogenic compounds and biomass burning products, and invaluable to study the export of African emissions to the Indian ocean. Using the bePRO radiative transfer tool, we retrieve aerosol optical depths (AODs) and vertical extinction profiles for aerosols and trace gases such as NO2 and HCHO. The AOD retrievals are compared to the co-located AERONET sun photometer measurements and further analysed to investigate seasonal and diurnal cycles in the observed variability or to detect biomass-burning events.For the trace gases NO2 and HCHO, the ground-based MAX-DOAS vertical columns and profiles are used for tropospheric trace-gas validation of the GOME-2 and OMI satellites. We further discuss the representativity of the site regarding satelitte comparisons and modelling efforts, given its specific orography.

  2. Distribution and Numbers of Pygmies in Central African Forests.

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    Jesús Olivero

    Full Text Available Pygmy populations occupy a vast territory extending west-to-east along the central African belt from the Congo Basin to Lake Victoria. However, their numbers and actual distribution is not known precisely. Here, we undertake this task by using locational data and population sizes for an unprecedented number of known Pygmy camps and settlements (n = 654 in five of the nine countries where currently distributed. With these data we develop spatial distribution models based on the favourability function, which distinguish areas with favourable environmental conditions from those less suitable for Pygmy presence. Highly favourable areas were significantly explained by presence of tropical forests, and by lower human pressure variables. For documented Pygmy settlements, we use the relationship between observed population sizes and predicted favourability values to estimate the total Pygmy population throughout Central Africa. We estimate that around 920,000 Pygmies (over 60% in DRC is possible within favourable forest areas in Central Africa. We argue that fragmentation of the existing Pygmy populations, alongside pressure from extractive industries and sometimes conflict with conservation areas, endanger their future. There is an urgent need to inform policies that can mitigate against future external threats to these indigenous peoples' culture and lifestyles.

  3. Distribution and Numbers of Pygmies in Central African Forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivero, Jesús; Fa, John E; Farfán, Miguel A; Lewis, Jerome; Hewlett, Barry; Breuer, Thomas; Carpaneto, Giuseppe M; Fernández, María; Germi, Francesco; Hattori, Shiho; Head, Josephine; Ichikawa, Mitsuo; Kitanaishi, Koichi; Knights, Jessica; Matsuura, Naoki; Migliano, Andrea; Nese, Barbara; Noss, Andrew; Ekoumou, Dieudonné Ongbwa; Paulin, Pascale; Real, Raimundo; Riddell, Mike; Stevenson, Edward G J; Toda, Mikako; Vargas, J Mario; Yasuoka, Hirokazu; Nasi, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Pygmy populations occupy a vast territory extending west-to-east along the central African belt from the Congo Basin to Lake Victoria. However, their numbers and actual distribution is not known precisely. Here, we undertake this task by using locational data and population sizes for an unprecedented number of known Pygmy camps and settlements (n = 654) in five of the nine countries where currently distributed. With these data we develop spatial distribution models based on the favourability function, which distinguish areas with favourable environmental conditions from those less suitable for Pygmy presence. Highly favourable areas were significantly explained by presence of tropical forests, and by lower human pressure variables. For documented Pygmy settlements, we use the relationship between observed population sizes and predicted favourability values to estimate the total Pygmy population throughout Central Africa. We estimate that around 920,000 Pygmies (over 60% in DRC) is possible within favourable forest areas in Central Africa. We argue that fragmentation of the existing Pygmy populations, alongside pressure from extractive industries and sometimes conflict with conservation areas, endanger their future. There is an urgent need to inform policies that can mitigate against future external threats to these indigenous peoples' culture and lifestyles.

  4. Rock magnetic investigation of possible sources of the Bangui magnetic anomaly

    OpenAIRE

    Ouabego, Mariane; QUESNEL, Yoann; Rochette, Pierre; DEMORY, Francois; Fozing, E. M.; Njanko, T.; Hippolyte, Jean-Claude; Affaton, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    International audience The Bangui magnetic anomaly (BMA) is the largest lithospheric magnetic field anomaly on Earth at low latitudes. Previous studies investigated its geological source using constraints from satellite and ground magnetic field measurements, as well as from surface magnetic susceptibility measurements on rocks from the Panafrican Mobile Belt Zone (PMBZ). Here we combine magnetic field data modelling and rock magnetic property measurements (susceptibility and natural reman...

  5. Differentiating Central Centrifugal Cicatricial Alopecia and Androgenetic Alopecia in African American Men: Report of Three Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Erica C.; Reid, Sophia D.; Callender, Valerie D.; Sperling, Leonard C.

    2012-01-01

    Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia is a scarring alopecia that is predominantly seen in African American women, but occurs less frequently in men. The authors present three cases of African American men with biopsy-proven central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia and detail the clinical presentation, histological findings, and treatment regimens. Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia should be considered in the differential diagnosis when evaluating male patients with vertex hair loss...

  6. Evolutionary model of the oblique rift basins- Central African Rifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kenn-Ming; Cheng, I.-Wen; Wu, Jong-Chang

    2016-04-01

    The geometry of oblique-rifting basin is strongly related with the angle (α) between the trend of rift and that of regional major extensional stress. The main purpose of this study is to investigate characteristics of geometry and kinematics of structure and tectono-stratigraphy during basin evolution of Central African Rifts (CAS). In this study, we simulated the formation of oblique-rifting basin with Particle Flow Code 3-Dimensions-(PFC 3D) and compared the simulation results with the tectonic settings of a series of basin in CAS. CAS started to develop in Early Cretaceous (130Ma) and lasted until the Late Cretaceous (85Ma-80Ma). The following collision between the African and Eurasian plates imposed compressional stress on CAS and folded the strata in the rift basins. Although the characteristics of rift basin formation remain controversial, palinspastic sections constructed in this study show that, in the Early Cretaceous, the rift basins are mainly characterized by normal faults and half-grabens. In the Late Cretaceous, the morphology of the rift basins was altered by large-scaled tectonic compression with the active Borogop Fault of regional scale. Also, en echelon trend of normal faults in the basins were measured and the angles between the trend with that of the rift axes of each basin were demonstrated, indicating that the development of CAS was affected by the regional extensional stress with a dextral component during the rifting process and, therefore, the rift basins were formed by oblique-rifting. In this study, we simulated the oblique-rifting basin model of various α with Particle Flow Code 3-Dimensions-(PFC 3D). The main theory of PFC 3D is based on the Discrete Element Method (DEM), in which parameters are applied to every particle in the models. We applied forces acting on both sides of rift axis, which α are 45°, 60°, 75° and 90° respectively, to simulate basin formation under oblique-rifting process. The study results of simulation

  7. Game over! Wildlife collapse in northern Central African Republic.

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    Bouché, Philippe; Nzapa Mbeti Mange, Roland; Tankalet, Floride; Zowoya, Florent; Lejeune, Philippe; Vermeulen, Cédric

    2012-11-01

    The wildlife populations of northern Central African Republic (CAR) have long suffered intense uncontrolled hunting. Socio-political turmoil in northern CAR that started in 2002 resulted in a rebellion in 2006. An aerial sample count was carried out in northern CAR after the ceasefire to assess the impact of this troubled period on wildlife. The survey was flown at the end of the dry season in February-March 2010. It covered a landscape complex of 95,000 km² comprising national parks, hunting reserves and community hunting areas. Comparison with earlier surveys revealed a dramatic decline of wildlife: the numbers of large mammals fell by 94% in 30 years, probably due to poaching, loss of habitat and diseases brought by illegal movements of cattle. Elephant (Loxodonta africana), Reduncinae and topi (Damaliscus lunatus) populations showed the greatest decline (each over 90%). Other species declined by 70-80% during the same period. The future of wildlife in this area is dark without a strong commitment to provide adequate funding and quickly implement of determined field management. Reinforced cooperation with neighbouring Chad and Sudan is required since they are facing similar problems.

  8. Multiresolution quantification of deciduousness in West Central African forests

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    G. Viennois

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The characterization of leaf phenology in tropical forests is of major importance and improves our understanding of earth-atmosphere-climate interactions. The availability of satellite optical data with a high temporal resolution has permitted the identification of unexpected phenological cycles, particularly over the Amazon region. A primary issue in these studies is the relationship between the optical reflectance of pixels of 1 km or more in size and ground information of limited spatial extent. In this paper, we demonstrate that optical data with high to very-high spatial resolution can help bridge this scale gap by providing snapshots of the canopy that allow discernment of the leaf-phenological stage of trees and the proportions of leaved crowns within the canopy. We also propose applications for broad-scale forest characterization and mapping in West Central Africa over an area of 141 000 km2. Eleven years of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI data were averaged over the wet and dry seasons to provide a dataset of optimal radiometric quality at a spatial resolution of 250 m. Sample areas covered at a very-high (GeoEye and high (SPOT-5 spatial resolution were used to identify forest types and to quantify the proportion of leaved trees in the canopy. The dry season EVI was positively correlated with the proportion of leaved trees in the canopy. This relationship allowed the conversion of EVI into canopy deciduousness at the regional level. On this basis, ecologically important forest types could be mapped, including young secondary, open Marantaceae, Gilbertiodendron dewevrei and swamp forests. We show that in west central African forests, a large share of the variability in canopy reflectance, as captured by the EVI, is due to variation in the proportion of leaved trees in the upper canopy, thereby opening new perspectives for biodiversity and carbon-cycle applications.

  9. Efficacy comparison between anti-malarial drugs in Africans presenting with mild malaria in the Central Republic of Africa: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nambei W.S.

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Drug resistance to Plasmodium falciparum contributes to major health problems in central Africa and, as a consequence, poverty. We have analyzed the efficacy of three currently available antimalarial drugs to treat symptomatic, uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria in semiimmune adults living in Bangui, Central Republic of Africa. 210 consecutive individuals were enrolled in the survey, of which 45 were excluded. Those having received dihydroartemisin proved significantly less parasitemic than those having received quinine per os or sulfadoxin-pyrimethamin (χ2 = 16.93 ; p < 0.05, and 75 % recovered in two days compared to 57 and 44 %, respectively. The 25 % who did not recover benefited from a second cure with dihydroartemisin, which proved 100 % efficient. The most accurate protocol remains to be established by analyzing clinical and parasitological data and taking into account the economics of the country.

  10. Pan-African granulites of central Dronning Maud Land and Mozambique: A comparison within the East-African-Antarctic orogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engvik, A.K.; Elevevold, S.; Jacobs, J.; Tveten, E.; de Azevedo, S.; Njange, F.

    2007-01-01

    Granulite-facies metamorphism is extensively reported in Late Neoproterozoic/Early Palaeozoic time during formation of the East-African-Antarctic orogen (EAAO). Metamorphic data acquired from the Pan-African orogen of central Dronning Maud Land (cDML) are compared with data from northern Mozambique. The metamorphic rocks of cDML are characterised by Opx±Grt-bearing gneisses and Sil+Kfs-bearing metapelites which indicate medium-P granulite-facies metamorphism. Peak conditions, which are estimated to 800-900ºC at pressures up to 1.0 GPa, were followed by near-isothermal decompression during late Pan-African extension and exhumation. Granulite-facies lithologies are widespread in northern Mozambique, and Grt+Cpx-bearing assemblages show that high-P granulite-facies conditions with PT reaching 1.55 GPa and 900ºC were reached during the Pan-African orogeny. Garnet is replaced by symplectites of Pl+Opx+Mag indicating isothermal decompression, and the subsequent formation of Pl+amphibole-coronas suggests cooling into amphibolite facies. It is concluded that high-T metamorphism was pervasive in EAAO in Late Neoproterozoic/Early Paleozoic time, strongly overprinting evidences of earlier metamorphic assemblages.

  11. TESTING NONLINEAR INFLATION CONVERGENCE FOR THE CENTRAL AFRICAN ECONOMIC AND MONETARY COMMUNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Anoruo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses nonlinear unit root testing procedures to examine the issue of inflation convergence for the Central African Economic and Monetary Community (CEMAC member states including Cameron, Central African Republic, Chad, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon and the Republic of Congo. The results from nonlinear STAR unit root tests suggest that inflation differentials for the sample countries are nonlinear and mean reverting processes. These results provide evidence of inflation convergence among countries within CEMAC. The finding of inflation convergence indicates the feasibility of a common monetary policy and/or inflation targeting regime within CEMAC.

  12. Detection of east/central/south African genotype of chikungunya virus in Myanmar, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tun, Mya Myat Ngwe; Thant, Kyaw Zin; Inoue, Shingo; Nabeshima, Takeshi; Aoki, Kotaro; Kyaw, Aung Kyaw; Myint, Tin; Tar, Thi; Maung, Kay Thwe Thwe; Hayasaka, Daisuke; Morita, Kouichi

    2014-08-01

    In 2010, chikungunya virus of the East Central South African genotype was isolated from 4 children in Myanmyar who had dengue-like symptoms. Phylogenetic analysis of the E1 gene revealed that the isolates were closely related to isolates from China, Thailand, and Malaysia that harbor the A226V mutation in this gene.

  13. An inter-religious humanitarian response in the Central African Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Mahony

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Inter-religious action has played a key role in ensuring that social cohesion and inter-religious mediation remain on the international agenda in relation to response in the Central African Republic, where people’s faith is an integral part of their identity but where it has been manipulated in a horrific way.

  14. Detection of East/Central/South African Genotype of Chikungunya Virus in Myanmar, 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Tun, Mya Myat Ngwe; Thant, Kyaw Zin; Inoue, Shingo; Nabeshima, Takeshi; Aoki, Kotaro; Kyaw, Aung Kyaw; Myint, Tin; Tar, Thi; Maung, Kay Thwe Thwe; Hayasaka, Daisuke; Morita, Kouichi

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, chikungunya virus of the East Central South African genotype was isolated from 4 children in Myanmyar who had dengue-like symptoms. Phylogenetic analysis of the E1 gene revealed that the isolates were closely related to isolates from China, Thailand, and Malaysia that harbor the A226V mutation in this gene.

  15. Epidemiology of chicken anemia virus in Central African Republic and Cameroon

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    Snoeck Chantal J

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although chicken anemia virus (CAV has been detected on all continents, little is known about this virus in sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed to detect and characterize CAV for the first time in Central African Republic and in Cameroon. Results An overall flock seroprevalence of 36.7% was found in Central African Republic during the 2008–2010 period. Virus prevalences were 34.2% (2008, 14.3% (2009 and 10.4% (2010 in Central African Republic and 39% (2007 and 34.9% (2009 in Cameroon. CAV DNA was found in cloacal swabs of 76.9% of seropositive chickens, suggesting that these animals excreted the virus despite antibodies. On the basis of VP1 sequences, most of the strains in Central African Republic and Cameroon belonged to 9 distinct phylogenetic clusters at the nucleotide level and were not intermixed with strains from other continent. Several cases of mixed infections in flocks and individual chickens were identified. Conclusions Our results suggest multiple introductions of CAV in each country that later spread and diverged locally. Mixed genotype infections together with the observation of CAV DNA in cloacal samples despite antibodies suggest a suboptimal protection by antibodies or virus persistence.

  16. Molecular characterization of three Zika flaviviruses obtained from sylvatic mosquitoes in the Central African Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthet, Nicolas; Nakouné, Emmanuel; Kamgang, Basile; Selekon, Benjamin; Descorps-Declère, Stéphane; Gessain, Antoine; Manuguerra, Jean-Claude; Kazanji, Mirdad

    2014-12-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging pathogen belonging to the Spondweni serocomplex within the genus Flavivirus. It has been isolated from several mosquito species. Two lineages of ZIKV have been defined by polyprotein homology. Using high-throughput sequencing, we obtained and characterized three complete genomes of ZIKV isolated between 1976 and 1980 in the Central African Republic. The three viruses were isolated from two species of mosquito, Aedes africanus and Ae. opok. Two sequences from Ae. africanus had 99.9% nucleotide sequence identity and 100% amino acid identity, whereas the complete genome obtained from Ae. opok had 98.3% nucleotide identity and 99.4% amino acid identity with the other two genomes. Phylogenetic analysis based on the amino acid sequence of the polyprotein showed that the three ZIKV strains clustered together but diverged from all other ZIKV strains. Our molecular data suggest that a different subtype of West African ZIKV strains circulated in Aedes species in Central Africa.

  17. Aid and Assistance China for Development Socio-Economical and Cultural To Central African Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Yougboko Fatime1 , Prof. Weihong 2 , Mr Gniko- Bombo Joseph3 , PhD Balekouzou Augustin4 , PhD Katombosola Brown5 , Master’s Koyassambia Landry Marcel

    2016-01-01

    The Central African Republic like the heart World, through the vicissitudes given its geographical position. Its accession in 1960 to the Maoist movement has been consolidated by the ChinaAfrica Forum held in October 2000 in Beijing. It is in this perspective that President François Bozize, September 10, 2009, appealed to his Chinese counterpart Hu Jintao to invest in his country especially in the mining and energy sectors. And President Hu Jintao has responded positively to China...

  18. Sentinel site community surveillance of mortality and nutritional status in southwestern Central African Republic, 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Caleo Grazia M; Sy Aly; Balandine Serge; Polonsky Jonathan; Palma Pedro; Grais Rebecca; Checchi Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background During 2010, a community-based, sentinel site prospective surveillance system measured mortality, acute malnutrition prevalence, and the coverage of a Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) intervention in four sous-préfectures of Lobaye prefecture in southwestern Central African Republic. We describe this surveillance system and its evaluation. Methods Within 24 randomly selected sentinel sites, home visitors performed a census, weekly demographic surveillance of births, deaths, ...

  19. Seeing Central African forests through their largest trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastin, J.-F.; Barbier, N.; Réjou-Méchain, M.; Fayolle, A.; Gourlet-Fleury, S.; Maniatis, D.; de Haulleville, T.; Baya, F.; Beeckman, H.; Beina, D.; Couteron, P.; Chuyong, G.; Dauby, G.; Doucet, J.-L.; Droissart, V.; Dufrêne, M.; Ewango, C.; Gillet, J. F.; Gonmadje, C. H.; Hart, T.; Kavali, T.; Kenfack, D.; Libalah, M.; Malhi, Y.; Makana, J.-R.; Pélissier, R.; Ploton, P.; Serckx, A.; Sonké, B.; Stevart, T.; Thomas, D. W.; de Cannière, C.; Bogaert, J.

    2015-08-01

    Large tropical trees and a few dominant species were recently identified as the main structuring elements of tropical forests. However, such result did not translate yet into quantitative approaches which are essential to understand, predict and monitor forest functions and composition over large, often poorly accessible territories. Here we show that the above-ground biomass (AGB) of the whole forest can be predicted from a few large trees and that the relationship is proved strikingly stable in 175 1-ha plots investigated across 8 sites spanning Central Africa. We designed a generic model predicting AGB with an error of 14% when based on only 5% of the stems, which points to universality in forest structural properties. For the first time in Africa, we identified some dominant species that disproportionally contribute to forest AGB with 1.5% of recorded species accounting for over 50% of the stock of AGB. Consequently, focusing on large trees and dominant species provides precise information on the whole forest stand. This offers new perspectives for understanding the functioning of tropical forests and opens new doors for the development of innovative monitoring strategies.

  20. The European Union as a Security Provider: The Securitization of the Conflict in the Central African Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Olsen, Helene; Bak, Camilla; Jensen, Camilla

    2014-01-01

    This project investigates the EU as a provider of security outside the EU. As an example, we chose to analyse, why the EU decided to intervene militarily in the Central African Republic. Our analysis is grounded in a securitization framework and therefore focusses on how the conflict in the Central African Republic has been constructed as a problem within an EU context. To operationalise the analysis we utilised Kingdon’s “Three Stream Model”, which provided a more comprehensive understanding...

  1. Rift Valley Fever Virus Circulating among Ruminants, Mosquitoes and Humans in the Central African Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakouné, Emmanuel; Kamgang, Basile; Berthet, Nicolas; Manirakiza, Alexandre; Kazanji, Mirdad

    2016-01-01

    Background Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) causes a viral zoonosis, with discontinuous epizootics and sporadic epidemics, essentially in East Africa. Infection with this virus causes severe illness and abortion in sheep, goats, and cattle as well as other domestic animals. Humans can also be exposed through close contact with infectious tissues or by bites from infected mosquitoes, primarily of the Aedes and Culex genuses. Although the cycle of RVFV infection in savannah regions is well documented, its distribution in forest areas in central Africa has been poorly investigated. Methodology/Principal Findings To evaluate current circulation of RVFV among livestock and humans living in the Central African Republic (CAR), blood samples were collected from sheep, cattle, and goats and from people at risk, such as stock breeders and workers in slaughterhouses and livestock markets. The samples were tested for anti-RVFV immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies. We also sequenced the complete genomes of two local strains, one isolated in 1969 from mosquitoes and one isolated in 1985 from humans living in forested areas. The 1271 animals sampled comprised 727 cattle, 325 sheep, and 219 goats at three sites. The overall seroprevalence of anti-RVFV IgM antibodies was 1.9% and that of IgG antibodies was 8.6%. IgM antibodies were found only during the rainy season, but the frequency of IgG antibodies did not differ significantly by season. No evidence of recent RVFV infection was found in 335 people considered at risk; however, 16.7% had evidence of past infection. Comparison of the nucleotide sequences of the strains isolated in the CAR with those isolated in other African countries showed that they belonged to the East/Central African cluster. Conclusion and significance This study confirms current circulation of RVFV in CAR. Further studies are needed to determine the potential vectors involved and the virus reservoirs. PMID:27760144

  2. Taxonomy of Atlantic Central African Orchids 1. A New Species of Angraecum set. Pectinaria (Orchidaceae) from Gabon and Equatorial Guinea.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stévart, T.; Cawoy, V.; Damen, T.H.J.; Droissart, V.

    2010-01-01

    During a recent survey of Atlantic central African orchids, we collected four orchid specimens in Rio Muni (Equatorial Guinea) that share the general morphology of Angraecum gabonense, the most frequent member of Angraecum section Pectinaria in Central Africa, but differ in leaf shape and flower siz

  3. Rural communities in the Central African context : the Nkoya of Central Western Zambia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binsbergen, W.M.J.

    1983-01-01

    Nkoya is an ethnic and linguistic label applying to about 50,000 people inhabiting the wooded plateau of Central Western Zambia. The author discusses the valley as the effective rural community and the villages as the main constituent social units within the valley and finally indicates the place of

  4. Clinical outcome of skin yaws lesions after treatment with benzathinebenzylpenicillin in a pygmy population in Lobaye, Central African Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manirakiza Alexandre

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Yaws is a bacterial skin and bone infectious disease caused by Treponema pallidum pertenue. It is endemic, particularly among pygmies in Central African Republic. To assess the clinical cure rate after treatment with benzathinepenicillin in this population, we conducted a cohort survey of 243 patients in the Lobaye region. Findings and conclusion The rate of healing of lesions after 5 months was 95.9%. This relatively satisfactory level of therapeutic response implies that yaws could be controlled in the Central African Republic. Thus, reinforcement of the management of new cases and of contacts is suggested.

  5. Technical Education and Vocational Training in Central Africa. Feasibility Survey of the Regional Development of Rapid Vocational Training: Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, and Gabon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organization for Rehabilitation through Training, Geneva (Switzerland).

    This final report is the result of a survey requested by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and undertaken by the Organization for Rehabilitation through Training (ORT) of four countries (Cameroon, Chad, Central African Republic, and Gabon) and a conference on vocational training sponsored by the Economic and Customs…

  6. Evidence for selection at HIV host susceptibility genes in a West Central African human population

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    Zhao Kai

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV-1 derives from multiple independent transfers of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV strains from chimpanzees to human populations. We hypothesized that human populations in west central Africa may have been exposed to SIV prior to the pandemic, and that previous outbreaks may have selected for genetic resistance to immunodeficiency viruses. To test this hypothesis, we examined the genomes of Biaka Western Pygmies, who historically resided in communities within the geographic range of the central African chimpanzee subspecies (Pan troglodytes troglodytes that carries strains of SIV ancestral to HIV-1. Results SNP genotypes of the Biaka were compared to those of African human populations who historically resided outside the range of P. t. troglodytes, including the Mbuti Eastern Pygmies. Genomic regions showing signatures of selection were compared to the genomic locations of genes reported to be associated with HIV infection or pathogenesis. In the Biaka, a strong signal of selection was detected at CUL5, which codes for a component of the vif-mediated APOBEC3 degradation pathway. A CUL5 allele protective against AIDS progression was fixed in the Biaka. A signal of selection was detected at TRIM5, which codes for an HIV post-entry restriction factor. A protective mis-sense mutation in TRIM5 had the highest frequency in Biaka compared to other African populations, as did a protective allele for APOBEC3G, which codes for an anti-HIV-1 restriction factor. Alleles protective against HIV-1 for APOBEC3H, CXCR6 and HLA-C were at higher frequencies in the Biaka than in the Mbuti. Biaka genomes showed a strong signal of selection at TSG101, an inhibitor of HIV-1 viral budding. Conclusions We found protective alleles or evidence for selection in the Biaka at a number of genes associated with HIV-1 infection or progression. Pygmies have also been reported to carry genotypes protective against HIV-1 for the genes CCR5 and CCL3L1. Our

  7. Mitochondrial, Y-chromosomal and autosomal variation in Mbenzele Pygmies from the Central African Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostou, Paolo; Coia, Valentina; Spedini, Gabriella; Destro-Bisol, Giovanni

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, we carry out a combined analysis of autosomal (ten microsatellites and an Alu insertion), mitochondrial (HVR-1 sequence, 360 nucleotides) and Y-chromosomal (seven microsatellites) variation in the Mbenzele Pygmies from the Central African Republic. This study focuses on two important questions concerning the admixture and origin of African Pygmies. Ethnographic observations suggest a sex-biased gene flow between the Bantus and Pygmies, an issue which could be clarified through genetic analyses may shed light. A study of intrapopulational variation of mtDNA and Y-chromosome produces results in accordance with the hypothesized matrimonial behaviour. In fact, while shared mitochondrial haplotypes belonging to the L1c5 (or L1c1a1 clade) sub-haplogroup provides evidence of a Pygmy-to-Bantu female biased gene flow, a male biased gene flow from Bantu to Pygmies is supported by the distribution of the Y-chromosomes bearing M2 mutation. The second part of our study regards the question of the genetic relationships between Western and Eastern Pygmies. Our results favour the pre-Bantu hypothesis which suggests that the two Pygmy groups separated in ancient times (at least 18,000 years ago), whereas they do not support the recent divergence and differential admixture hypothesis which posits their separation as a consequence of the Bantu expansion (2,000-3,000 years ago).

  8. Post-collisional magmatism in the central East African Orogen: The Maevarano Suite of north Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodenough, K.M.; Thomas, Ronald J.; De Waele, B.; Key, R.M.; Schofield, D.I.; Bauer, W.; Tucker, R.D.; Rafahatelo, J.-M.; Rabarimanana, M.; Ralison, A.V.; Randriamananjara, T.

    2010-01-01

    Late tectonic, post-collisional granite suites are a feature of many parts of the Late Neoproterozoic to Cambrian East African Orogen (EAO), where they are generally attributed to late extensional collapse of the orogen, accompanied by high heat flow and asthenospheric uprise. The Maevarano Suite comprises voluminous plutons which were emplaced in some of the tectonostratigraphic terranes of northern Madagascar, in the central part of the EAO, following collision and assembly during a major orogeny at ca. 550 Ma. The suite comprises three main magmatic phases: a minor early phase of foliated gabbros, quartz diorites, and granodiorites; a main phase of large batholiths of porphyritic granitoids and charnockites; and a late phase of small-scale plutons and sheets of monzonite, syenite, leucogranite and microgranite. The main phase intrusions tend to be massive, but with variably foliated margins. New U-Pb SHRIMP zircon data show that the whole suite was emplaced between ca. 537 and 522 Ma. Geochemically, all the rocks of the suite are enriched in the LILE, especially K, and the LREE, but are relatively depleted in Nb, Ta and the HREE. These characteristics are typical of post-collisional granitoids in the EAO and many other orogenic belts. It is proposed that the Maevarano Suite magmas were derived by melting of sub-continental lithospheric mantle that had been enriched in the LILE during earlier subduction events. The melting occurred during lithospheric delamination, which was associated with extensional collapse of the East African Orogen. ?? 2009 Natural Environment Research Council.

  9. Central African biomes and forest succession stages derived from modern pollen data and plant functional types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lebamba

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available New detailed vegetation reconstructions are proposed in Atlantic Central Africa from a modern pollen data set derived from 199 sites (Cameroon, Gabon and Congo including 131 new sites. In this study, the concept of plant functional classification is improved with new and more detailed plant functional types (PFTs and new aggregations of pollen taxa. Using the biomisation method, we reconstructed (1 modern potential biomes and (2 potential succession stages of forest regeneration, a new approach in Atlantic Central African vegetation dynamics and ecosystem functioning reconstruction. When compared to local vegetation, potential biomes are correctly reconstructed (97.5% of the sites and tropical rain forest (TRFO biome is well identified from tropical seasonal forest (TSFO biome. When the potential biomes are superimposed on the White's vegetation map, only 76.4% of the sites are correctly reconstructed. But using botanical data, correspondence and cluster analyses, the 43 sites from Congo (Mayombe evidence more affinities with those of central Gabon and so they can also be considered as correctly reconstructed as TRFO biome and White's map should be revised. In terms of potential succession stages of forest regeneration, the mature forest (TMFO is well differentiated from the secondary forest (TSFE, but inside this latter group, the young and the pioneer stages are not clearly identified due probably to their low sampling representation. Moreover, linked to their progressive and mosaic character, the boundaries between two forest biomes or two forest stages are not clearly detected and need also a more intensive sampling in such transitions.

  10. Aid and Assistance China for Development Socio-Economical and Cultural To Central African Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yougboko Fatime1 , Prof. Weihong 2 , Mr Gniko- Bombo Joseph3 , PhD Balekouzou Augustin4 , PhD Katombosola Brown5 , Master’s Koyassambia Landry Marcel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Central African Republic like the heart World, through the vicissitudes given its geographical position. Its accession in 1960 to the Maoist movement has been consolidated by the ChinaAfrica Forum held in October 2000 in Beijing. It is in this perspective that President François Bozize, September 10, 2009, appealed to his Chinese counterpart Hu Jintao to invest in his country especially in the mining and energy sectors. And President Hu Jintao has responded positively to China's support in the peace process and economic rehabilitation of CAR. Which marks the presence of China at the head of the CAR in these crisis times. But many development projects have been suspended example China National Petroleum Corporation for the seizure of power by the Seleka coalition March 24, 2013. However, CAR continues to rely on the strategic actions of China in the field of new technology for its agro-pastoral development to food self-sufficiency.

  11. Food Security Monitoring via Mobile Data Collection and Remote Sensing: Results from the Central African Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enenkel, Markus; See, Linda; Karner, Mathias; Álvarez, Mònica; Rogenhofer, Edith; Baraldès-Vallverdú, Carme; Lanusse, Candela; Salse, Núria

    2015-01-01

    The Central African Republic is one of the world’s most vulnerable countries, suffering from chronic poverty, violent conflicts and weak disaster resilience. In collaboration with Doctors without Borders/Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF), this study presents a novel approach to collect information about socio-economic vulnerabilities related to malnutrition, access to resources and coping capacities. The first technical test was carried out in the North of the country (sub-prefecture Kabo) in May 2015. All activities were aimed at the investigation of technical feasibility, not at operational data collection, which requires a random sampling strategy. At the core of the study is an open-source Android application named SATIDA COLLECT that facilitates rapid and simple data collection. All assessments were carried out by local MSF staff after they had been trained for one day. Once a mobile network is available, all assessments can easily be uploaded to a database for further processing and trend analysis via MSF in-house software. On one hand, regularly updated food security assessments can complement traditional large-scale surveys, whose completion can take up to eight months. Ideally, this leads to a gain in time for disaster logistics. On the other hand, recording the location of every assessment via the smart phones’ GPS receiver helps to analyze and display the coupling between drought risk and impacts over many years. Although the current situation in the Central African Republic is mostly related to violent conflict it is necessary to consider information about drought risk, because climatic shocks can further disrupt the already vulnerable system. SATIDA COLLECT can easily be adapted to local conditions or other applications, such as the evaluation of vaccination campaigns. Most importantly, it facilitates the standardized collection of information without pen and paper, as well as straightforward sharing of collected data with the MSF headquarters or

  12. Situation Report--Bahrain, Central African Republic, Gabon, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lesotho, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Swaziland, Syria, Yemen Arab Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in twelve foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Bahrain, Central African Republic, Gabon, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lesotho, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Swaziland, Syria, and Yemen Arab Republic. Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two…

  13. 在中非共和国班吉的治疗失败或复发患者中快速鉴定耐多药结核分枝杆菌%Rapid identification of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis isolates in treatment failure or relapse patients in Bangui, Central African Republic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F.Minime-Lingoupou; 于霞; C. Pierre-Audigier; E. Kassa-Kélémbho; N.Barilone; G.Zandanga; J. Rauzier; V.Cadet-Daniel; A.Le Faou; B.Gicquel

    2011-01-01

    在中非共和国班吉,54株来自治疗失败或复发结核病患者的菌株经检测有40%是耐多药菌株(MDR).通过MTBDR plus线性探针方法或是rpoB测序获得的结果有86%与利福平(RMP)耐药表型一致,与突变受阻扩增系统试验的一致性为71%.RMP敏感株中未发现存在突变.在耐多药菌株中,MTBDR plus与测序在发现katG基因中$315T突变的一致性是95%.50%的耐多药菌株通过pncA测序提示对吡嗪酰胺耐药.了解这些耐药情况有助于低收入国家实施治疗.

  14. Central African Economic and Monetary Community; Staff Report on Common Policies of Member Countries; Public Information Notice on the Executive Board Discussion; and Statement by the Executive Director for the Central African Economic and Monetary Community

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the common policies adopted by the members of the Central African Economic and Monetary Community (CEMAC). The macroeconomic performance was good in 2011 with improved fiscal balances, public investment programs, and higher reserves. However, CEMAC is facing challenges from deep-seated structural problems, including uncoordinated fiscal policy, financial sector weaknesses, and obstacles to growth and competitiveness. The Executive Board recommends monetary policies for fi...

  15. Population structure of clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa from West and Central African countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Cholley

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA has a non-clonal, epidemic population with a few widely distributed and frequently encountered sequence types (STs called 'high-risk clusters'. Clinical P. aeruginosa (clinPA has been studied in all inhabited continents excepted in Africa, where a very few isolates have been analyzed. Here, we characterized a collection of clinPA isolates from four countries of West and Central Africa.184 non-redundant isolates of clinPA from hospitals of Senegal, Ivory Coast, Nigeria, and Central African Republic were genotyped by MLST. We assessed their resistance level to antibiotics by agar diffusion and identified the extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs and metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs by sequencing. The population structure of the species was determined by a nucleotide-based analysis of the entire PA MLST database and further localized on the phylogenetic tree (i the sequence types (STs of the present collection, (ii the STs by continents, (iii ESBL- and MBL-producing STs from the MLST database.We found 80 distinct STs, of which 24 had no relationship with any known STs. 'High-risk' international clonal complexes (CC155, CC244, CC235 were frequently found in West and Central Africa. The five VIM-2-producing isolates belonged to CC233 and CC244. GES-1 and GES-9 enzymes were produced by one CC235 and one ST1469 isolate, respectively. We showed the spread of 'high-risk' international clonal complexes, often described as multidrug-resistant on other continents, with a fully susceptible phenotype. The MBL- and ESBL-producing STs were scattered throughout the phylogenetic tree and our data suggest a poor association between a continent and a specific phylogroup.ESBL- and MBL-encoding genes are borne by both successful international clonal complexes and distinct local STs in clinPA of West and Central Africa. Furthermore, our data suggest that the spread of a ST could be either due to its antibiotic resistance or to features

  16. Endoparasites of western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) at Bai Hokou, Central African Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Andrea S; Kinsella, John M; Cipolletta, Chloe; Deem, Sharon L; Karesh, William B

    2004-10-01

    A coprologic study of free-ranging western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) at Bai Hokou, Dzangha-Ndoki National Park, Central African Republic (2 degrees 51'34''N, 16 degrees 28'03''E) was conducted from October 1999 to November 2000. All 75 fecal samples examined were positive for endoparasites, and each contained at least two species. Parasites present included two genera of amoebae, entodiniomorph ciliates, including Prototapirella gorillae, Troglodytella spp., and Gorillophilus thoracatus, a Balantidium-like organism, strongyle/trichostrongyle eggs (including a presumptive Mammomonogamus sp. and several other genera), Strongyloides sp., Probstmayria sp., a spirurid, a trichuroid, and several unidentified trematodes. Flagellates and cestodes were not found. Despite the presence of a variety of parasite genera, in general, levels of parasitism were low. These data provide baseline parasitologic data for this population as part of a comprehensive health-monitoring program. With the advent of ecotourism in this study area, continued monitoring is indicated for insuring the health of both gorillas and humans in the Bai Hokou study area.

  17. Population genetics of Glossina palpalis palpalis from central African sleeping sickness foci

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    Solano Philippe

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glossina palpalis palpalis (Diptera: Glossinidae is widespread in west Africa, and is the main vector of sleeping sickness in Cameroon as well as in the Bas Congo Province of the Democratic Republic of Congo. However, little is known on the structure of its populations. We investigated G. p. palpalis population genetic structure in five sleeping sickness foci (four in Cameroon, one in Democratic Republic of Congo using eight microsatellite DNA markers. Results A strong isolation by distance explains most of the population structure observed in our sampling sites of Cameroon and DRC. The populations here are composed of panmictic subpopulations occupying fairly wide zones with a very strong isolation by distance. Effective population sizes are probably between 20 and 300 individuals and if we assume densities between 120 and 2000 individuals per km2, dispersal distance between reproducing adults and their parents extends between 60 and 300 meters. Conclusions This first investigation of population genetic structure of G. p. palpalis in Central Africa has evidenced random mating subpopulations over fairly large areas and is thus at variance with that found in West African populations of G. p. palpalis. This study brings new information on the isolation by distance at a macrogeographic scale which in turn brings useful information on how to organise regional tsetse control. Future investigations should be directed at temporal sampling to have more accurate measures of demographic parameters in order to help vector control decision.

  18. The Choice Between External and Domestic Debt in Financing Budget Deficits; The Case of Central and West African Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Philippe Beaugrand; Montfort Mlachila; Boileau Loko

    2002-01-01

    The paper reviews the principles and practical considerations involved in the choice between foreign and domestic financing of fiscal deficits, and derives a series of recommendations broadly applicable to Central and West African countries. The paper develops a simple analytical framework and shows that highly concessional external debt is usually a superior choice to domestic debt in terms of financial costs and risks, even in the face of a probable devaluation. The paper stresses the impor...

  19. [Sero-epidemiological survey of arbovirus diseases in the Bi-Aka pygmies of Lobaye, Central African Republic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sureau, P; Jaeger, G; Pinerd, G; Palisson, M J; Bedaya-N'Garo, S

    1977-01-01

    Sero-epidemiological survey for Arboviruses among Bi-Aka Pigmies of the Lobaye, Central African Empire. A sero-epidemiological survey has been conducted, in 1975-1976, among 349 nomadic Pygmies of the Lobaye area in the Central African Empire, to investigate the prevalence of arbovirus infections. The percentages of individuals with detectable antibodies were 9,5 % for Chikungunya, 13,5 % for Semliki Forest, 5,2 % for Sindbis; 11,7 % for Bunyamwera; 2,3 % for West Nile, 6,3 % for Uganda S, and 8,9 % for Yellow Fever. These results are similar to those found in 1964 by CHIPPAUX in a comparable group of Pigmies of the same area and confirm that the prevalence of arbovirus infections is lower in the nomadic pygmies of the same area and confirm that the prevalence of arbovirus infections is lower in the nomadic Pygmies than in the sedentary Pygmies as well as in the settled bantus of the Lobaye valley villages. Yellow fever specific antibodies detected in this non vaccinated population indicate that latent infections occur in human beings living in the depth of the tropical forest, from the natural sylvatic focus of yellow fever, which remains active as recently proven in the Central African Empire by virus isolations obtained from wild caught mosquitoes.

  20. Dramatic Declines of Montane Frogs in a Central African Biodiversity Hotspot.

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    Mareike Hirschfeld

    Full Text Available Amphibian populations are vanishing worldwide. Declines and extinctions of many populations have been attributed to chytridiomycosis, a disease induced by the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd. In Africa, however, changes in amphibian assemblages were typically attributed to habitat change. We conducted a retrospective study utilizing field surveys from 2004-2012 of the anuran faunas on two mountains in western Cameroon, a hotspot of African amphibian diversity. The number of species detected was negatively influenced by year, habitat degradation, and elevation, and we detected a decline of certain species. Because another study in this region revealed an emergence of Bd in 2008, we screened additional recent field-collected samples and also pre-decline preserved museum specimens for the presence of Bd supporting emergence before 2008. When comparing the years before and after Bd detection, we found significantly diminished frog species richness and abundance on both mountains after Bd emergence. Our analyses suggest that this may be the first disease-driven community-level decline in anuran biodiversity in Central Africa. The disappearance of several species known to tolerate habitat degradation, and a trend of stronger declines at higher elevations, are consistent with Bd-induced declines in other regions. Not all species decreased; populations of some species remained constant, and others increased after the emergence of Bd. This variation might be explained by species-specific differences in infection probability. Increased habitat protection and Bd-mitigation strategies are needed for sustaining diverse amphibian communities such as those on Mt. Manengouba, which contains nearly half of Cameroon's frog diversity.

  1. Dramatic Declines of Montane Frogs in a Central African Biodiversity Hotspot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschfeld, Mareike; Blackburn, David C.; Doherty-Bone, Thomas M.; Gonwouo, LeGrand Nono; Ghose, Sonia; Rödel, Mark-Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Amphibian populations are vanishing worldwide. Declines and extinctions of many populations have been attributed to chytridiomycosis, a disease induced by the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). In Africa, however, changes in amphibian assemblages were typically attributed to habitat change. We conducted a retrospective study utilizing field surveys from 2004–2012 of the anuran faunas on two mountains in western Cameroon, a hotspot of African amphibian diversity. The number of species detected was negatively influenced by year, habitat degradation, and elevation, and we detected a decline of certain species. Because another study in this region revealed an emergence of Bd in 2008, we screened additional recent field-collected samples and also pre-decline preserved museum specimens for the presence of Bd supporting emergence before 2008. When comparing the years before and after Bd detection, we found significantly diminished frog species richness and abundance on both mountains after Bd emergence. Our analyses suggest that this may be the first disease-driven community-level decline in anuran biodiversity in Central Africa. The disappearance of several species known to tolerate habitat degradation, and a trend of stronger declines at higher elevations, are consistent with Bd-induced declines in other regions. Not all species decreased; populations of some species remained constant, and others increased after the emergence of Bd. This variation might be explained by species-specific differences in infection probability. Increased habitat protection and Bd-mitigation strategies are needed for sustaining diverse amphibian communities such as those on Mt. Manengouba, which contains nearly half of Cameroon’s frog diversity. PMID:27149624

  2. Spatio-Temporal Variability of Western Central African Convection from Infrared Observations

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    Derbetini A. Vondou

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study has used Meteosat infrared brightness temperature images to investigate the regional and interannual variability of Central African cloudiness. Spatial and temporal variability were investigated using half–hourly data from the Meteosat-7 during June–July–August (JJA of 1998–2002. The full domain of study (1.5E–17E, 1N–15N was divided into six regions and statistics in each region were derived. Analysis of the dependence of cloud fraction to the brightness temperature threshold is explored both over land and ocean. Three diurnal cycle regimes (continental, oceanic, and coastal are depicted according to the amplitude and peak time. Over regions of relatively flat terrain, results indicate enhancement of deep convection in the afternoon followed by a gradual decrease in the night. The diurnal cycle of convection is characterised by afternoon and early evening (around 15:00–18:00 LST maxima located mainly downwind of the major mountain chains, and a more rapid nighttime decay. In terms of the harmonic amplitude, the diurnal signal shows significant regional contrast with the strongest manifestation over the Adamaoua Plateau and the weakest near the South Cameroon Plateau. This remarkable spatial dependence is clear evidence of orographic and heterogeneous land-surface impacts on convective development. Oceanic region exhibits weak activity of convective cloudiness with a maximum at noon. It is suggested that daytime heating of the land surface and moist environment may play a role in determining the spatial distribution of cloud fraction. This study further demonstrates the importance of the Cameroon coastline concavity and coastal mountains in regulating regional frequencies of convection and their initialization. The strength of the diurnal cycle of convective activity depends on mountain height, mean flow, coastal geometry.

  3. Quality and safety of beef produced in Central African Sub-region

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    Bawe M. Nfor

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this research is to provide a general situation of cattle slaughtered in Cameroon, as a representative example for the Central African Sub-region. The quality and safety of beef from the abattoir of Yaoundé, the largest in Cameroon, were considered. From January 2009 to March 2012, the pre-slaughter conditions and characteristics of 1953 cattle carcasses were recorded, as well as the pH of m. longissimus thoracis 24 h after slaughter. From these carcasses, 60 were selected to represent the bulls slaughtered. The quality parameters and composition of m. longissimus thoracis were carried out. The origin of most of the cattle was the Guinea High Savannah (74.6%, and transhumance was the common production system (75.5%. Gudali (45.6%, White Fulani (33.3% and Red Mbororo (20.3% breeds were predominant. Carcass weight was affected by rearing system and cattle category, and it markedly varied during year. Considering meat quality, the fat content was low (1.2% and similar between breeds, moreover Gudali showed the toughest meat. Of the cows slaughtered, 27% were pregnant and the most common abnormal conditions encountered were ectoparasites, fatigue, lameness, fungal-like skin lesions, enlarged lymph nodes, respiratory distress, nodular lesions. More than 20% of the carcasses had some organs condemned, mainly for liver flukes (5.17%, and 1.0% of them were completely condemned due to tuberculosis, that also affected 3.28% of lungs. These data could aid authorities draw up programmes with the aim to strengthen cattle production, improve beef supply, control and prevent the observed diseases, and promote the regional trade.

  4. Sentinel site community surveillance of mortality and nutritional status in southwestern Central African Republic, 2010

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    Caleo Grazia M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During 2010, a community-based, sentinel site prospective surveillance system measured mortality, acute malnutrition prevalence, and the coverage of a Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF intervention in four sous-préfectures of Lobaye prefecture in southwestern Central African Republic. We describe this surveillance system and its evaluation. Methods Within 24 randomly selected sentinel sites, home visitors performed a census, weekly demographic surveillance of births, deaths, and in- or out-migration, and weekly anthropometry on a sample of children. We evaluated the system through various methods including capture-recapture analysis and repeat census. Results The system included 18,081 people at baseline. Over 32 weeks, the crude death rate was 1.0 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.8-1.2 deaths per 10,000 person-days (35 deaths per 1,000 person-years, with higher values during the rainy season. The under-5 death rate was approximately double. The prevalence of severe acute malnutrition (SAM was 3.0% (95% CI: 2.3-4.0, almost half featuring kwashiorkor signs. The coverage of SAM treatment was 29.1%. The system detected >90% of deaths, and >90% of death reports appeared valid. However, demographic surveillance yielded discrepancies with the census and an implausible rate of population growth, while the predictive value of SAM classification was around 60%. Discussion We found evidence of a chronic health crisis in this remote region. MSF's intervention coverage improved progressively. Mortality data appeared valid, but inaccuracies in population denominators and anthropometric measurements were noted. Similar systems could be implemented in other remote settings and acute emergencies, but with certain technical improvements.

  5. Genetic variation at the ApoB 3' HVR minisatellite locus in the Mbenzele Pygmies from the Central African Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destro-Bisol, Giovanni; Belledi, Michele; Capelli, Cristian; Maviglia, Riccardo; Spedini, Gabriella

    2000-09-01

    This study analyzes the polymorphic minisatellite ApoB 3' HVR in the Mbenzele Pygmies from the Central African Republic. A total of 14 alleles was observed, with frequencies ranging from 0.020 (19, 21, 27, and 45 repeat unit alleles) to 0.210 (37 repeat unit allele). Departure from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was not statistically significant. The estimated heterozygosity was 0.874 +/- 0.016. Taking data from the literature into consideration, the results support the hypothesis that the Africans are different from non-Africans due to greater ApoB 3' HVR genetic diversity and a unimodal profile of ApoB 3' HVR allele frequency distribution. Interpopulational relationships were also analyzed using an F(ST) based genetic distance. The results highlight the similarity between the Mbenzele Pygmies and Bantu-speaking groups (Ewondo and Zulu), and the divergence between the Mbenzele and San, the two groups which are often considered to be the most direct descendants of proto-Africans. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 12:588-592, 2000. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. New fossils from the Paleogene of central Libya illuminate the evolutionary history of endemic African anomaluroid rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coster, Pauline; Beard, K. Christopher; Salem, Mustafa; Chaimanee, Yaowalak; Jaeger, Jean-Jacques

    2015-10-01

    Anomaluroid rodents show interesting biogeographic and macroevolutionary patterns, although their fossil record is meager and knowledge of the natural history of extant members of the clade remains inadequate. Living anomaluroids (Anomaluridae) are confined to equatorial parts of western and central Africa, but the oldest known fossil anomaluroid (Pondaungimys) comes from the late middle Eocene of Myanmar. The first appearance of anomaluroids in the African fossil record coincides with the first appearances of hystricognathous rodents and anthropoid primates there. Both of the latter taxa are widely acknowledged to have originated in Asia, suggesting that anomaluroids may show a concordant biogeographic pattern. Here we describe two new taxa of African Paleogene anomaluroids from sites in the Sirt Basin of central Libya. These include a new Eocene species of the nementchamyid genus Kabirmys, which ranks among the oldest African anomaluroids recovered to date, and a new genus and species of Anomaluridae from the early Oligocene, which appears to be closely related to extant Zenkerella, the only living non-volant anomalurid. Phylogenetic analyses incorporating the new Libyan fossils suggest that anomaluroids are not specially related to Zegdoumyidae, which are the only African rodents known to antedate the first appearance of anomaluroids there. The evolution of gliding locomotion in Anomaluridae appears to conflict with traditional assessments of relationships among living anomalurid taxa. If the historically accepted division of Anomaluridae into Anomalurinae (extant and Miocene Anomalurus and Miocene Paranomalurus) and Zenkerellinae (extant and Miocene Zenkerella and extant Idiurus) is correct, then either gliding locomotion evolved independently in Anomalurinae and Idiurus or non-volant Zenkerella evolved from a gliding ancestor. Anatomical data related to gliding in Anomaluridae are more consistent with a nontraditional systematic arrangement, whereby non

  7. New fossils from the Paleogene of central Libya illuminate the evolutionary history of endemic African anomaluroid rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline eCoster

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Anomaluroid rodents show interesting biogeographic and macroevolutionary patterns, although their fossil record is meager and knowledge of the natural history of extant members of the clade remains inadequate. Living anomaluroids (Anomaluridae are confined to equatorial parts of western and central Africa, but the oldest known fossil anomaluroid (Pondaungimys comes from the late middle Eocene of Myanmar. The first appearance of anomaluroids in the African fossil record coincides with the first appearances of hystricognathous rodents and anthropoid primates there. Both of the latter taxa are widely acknowledged to have originated in Asia, suggesting that anomaluroids may show a concordant biogeographic pattern. Here we describe two new taxa of African Paleogene anomaluroids from sites in the Sirt Basin of central Libya. These include a new Eocene species of the nementchamyid genus Kabirmys, which ranks among the oldest African anomaluroids recovered to date, and a new genus and species of Anomaluridae from the early Oligocene, which appears to be closely related to extant Zenkerella, the only living non-volant anomalurid. Phylogenetic analyses incorporating the new Libyan fossils suggest that anomaluroids are not specially related to Zegdoumyidae, which are the only African rodents known to antedate the first appearance of anomaluroids there. The evolution of gliding locomotion in Anomaluridae appears to conflict with traditional assessments of relationships among living anomalurid taxa. If the historically accepted division of Anomaluridae into Anomalurinae (extant and Miocene Anomalurus and Miocene Paranomalurus and Zenkerellinae (extant and Miocene Zenkerella and extant Idiurus is correct, then either gliding locomotion evolved independently in Anomalurinae and Idiurus or non-volant Zenkerella evolved from a gliding ancestor. Anatomical data related to gliding in Anomaluridae are more consistent with a nontraditional systematic arrangement

  8. Radiation Halos, a Rare Microstructure in Diamonds From the Central African Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicenzi, E. P.; Heaney, P. J.; Snyder, K.; Armstrong, L.

    2002-05-01

    The geochemical characterization of bulk diamonds and associated inclusions as a tool for determining provenance carries significant inherent limitations. Isotopic and trace element signatures are imparted within the mantle during diamond growth; hence, discriminating crystals from a particular region on the Earth's surface on this basis is difficult at best, and impossible (using current technologies) in many cases. In contrast, rare diamond characteristics may provide a partial solution for recognizing stones from a limited number of localities. Here we discuss an analysis of radiation halos in alluvially deposited polycrystalline diamonds (carbonados) from the Central African Republic (CAR). Large amounts of implanted Xe and Kr, as well as isotopic ratios of those elements consistent with fission, in carbonado strongly suggest that diamond crystallization took place in the presence of significant quantities of uranium [1]. Such ionizing radiation ultimately results in the loss of periodicity of the diamond structure. Crystallographically damaged areas produce fewer photons in cathodoluminescence microscopy, and therefore, the metamict regions resulting from point source radiation in diamond can be visualized on the scale of ~1-25 micrometers [2]. Because intermediate daughter products in the decay chain release alpha particles at differing energies, a ``bull's eye'' pattern is produced in 2-D by the point source radiation. Radiation haloes have been previously observed in carbonados and are thought to result from U deposition associated with fluids following diamond formation [3,4]. We have made a series of measurements of the apparent diameter of the largest circle within a damage halo. By comparing the statistical distribution of this dimension to the distribution expected for a series of circles resulting from random sectioning of mono-sized spheres, one can estimate whether the radiation resulted from one or more fluid pulses widely separated in time

  9. Gravity study of the Central African Rift system: A model of continental disruption 1. The Ngaoundere and Abu Gabra Rifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, S. E.; Fairhead, J. D.

    1983-05-01

    A regional compilation of published and unpublished gravity data for Central Africa is presented and reveals the presence of a major rift system, called here, the Central African Rift System. It is proposed that the junction area between the Ngaoundere and Abu Gabra rift arms in Western Sudan forms an incipient intraplate, triple-junction with the as yet unfractured, but domally uplifted and volcanically active, Darfur swell. It is only the Darfur swell that shows any similarities to the uplift and rift history of East Africa. The other two rifts arms are considered to be structurally similar to the early stages of passive margin development and thus reflect more closely the initial processes of continental fragmentation than the structures associated with rifting in East Africa.

  10. Cross-hemispheric transport of central African biomass burning pollutants: implications for downwind ozone production

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    E. Real

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Pollutant plumes with enhanced concentrations of trace gases and aerosols were observed over the southern coast of West Africa during August 2006 as part of the AMMA wet season field campaign. Plumes were observed both in the mid and upper troposphere. In this study we examined the origin of these pollutant plumes, and their potential to photochemically produce ozone (O3 downwind over the Atlantic Ocean. Their possible contribution to the Atlantic O3 maximum is also discussed. Runs using the BOLAM mesoscale model including biomass burning carbon monoxide (CO tracers were used to confirm an origin from central African biomass burning fires. The plumes measured in the mid troposphere (MT had significantly higher pollutant concentrations over West Africa compared to the upper tropospheric (UT plume. The mesoscale model reproduces these differences and the two different pathways for the plumes at different altitudes: transport to the north-east of the fire region, moist convective uplift and transport to West Africa for the upper tropospheric plume versus north-west transport over the Gulf of Guinea for the mid-tropospheric plume. Lower concentrations in the upper troposphere are mainly due to enhanced mixing during upward transport. Model simulations suggest that MT and UT plumes are 16 and 14 days old respectively when measured over West Africa. The ratio of tracer concentrations at 600 hPa and 250 hPa was estimated for 14–15 August in the region of the observed plumes and compares well with the same ratio derived from observed carbon dioxide (CO2 enhancements in both plumes. It is estimated that, for the period 1–15 August, the ratio of Biomass Burning (BB tracer concentration transported in the UT to the ones transported in the MT is 0.6 over West Africa and the equatorial South Atlantic.

    Runs using a photochemical trajectory model, CiTTyCAT, initialized with the observations, were used to estimate

  11. [Leprosy survey conducted in the Central African Republic from 1982 to 1985 among the Ba-Benzele Pygmies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baquillon, G; Scandella, B; Testa, J; Desfontaines, M; André, J; Limbassa, J

    1992-01-01

    A leprosy survey was conducted from 1982 to 1985 among 2650 semi-sedentarized Pygmies in two camp-villages in the Central African Republic. Leprosy is endemic there, with an estimated prevalence rate of 1.05% and an annual detection rate of 0.2%. In view of its close relations with other neighbouring ethnic groups this Pygmy community can be considered as a target population the study of which provides indications on the transmission and typical course of leprosy in the region and also as a potential focus of contamination. However, the concurrent presence of endemic tuberculosis made it necessary during the survey to look for clinical associations of leprosy and tuberculosis in patients so that the standard multidrug treatment schedules comprising rifampicin could be adjusted accordingly.

  12. Attainment of MDGs through tourism in the Central African sub-region: Implications for local economic development in Cameroon

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    Albert N. Kimbu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the role and contribution of tourism to local economic development and in the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals one and seven dealing with extreme poverty alleviation and environmental sustainability in the biodiversity endowed Central African sub-region. The concepts of sustainable tourism development and local economic development (in sub-Saharan Africa are examined. Through field observations and semi-structured interviews with 21 tourism industry stakeholders in Cameroon, an analysis of tourism’s role and future in LED and in the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals 1 & 7 is undertaken. The core challenges presently inhibiting tourism’s development thereby limiting its contribution to local economic development and the attainment of these goals in Cameroon are identified and a framework within which tourism’s contribution can be increased is proposed.

  13. Neurovirulence comparison of chikungunya virus isolates of the Asian and East/Central/South African genotypes from Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiam, Chun Wei; Chan, Yoke Fun; Ong, Kien Chai; Wong, Kum Thong; Sam, I-Ching

    2015-11-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), an alphavirus of the family Togaviridae, causes fever, polyarthritis and rash. There are three genotypes: West African, Asian and East/Central/South African (ECSA). The latter two genotypes have caused global outbreaks in recent years. Recent ECSA CHIKV outbreaks have been associated with severe neurological disease, but it is not known if different CHIKV genotypes are associated with different neurovirulence. In this study, the neurovirulence of Asian (MY/06/37348) and ECSA (MY/08/065) strains of CHIKV isolated in Malaysia were compared. Intracerebral inoculation of either virus into suckling mice was followed by virus titration, histopathology and gene expression analysis of the harvested brains. Both strains of CHIKV replicated similarly, yet mice infected with MY/06/37348 showed higher mortality. Histopathology findings showed that both CHIKV strains spread within the brain (where CHIKV antigen was localized to astrocytes and neurons) and beyond to skeletal muscle. In MY/06/37348-infected mice, apoptosis, which is associated with neurovirulence in alphaviruses, was observed earlier in brains. Comparison of gene expression showed that a pro-apoptotic gene (eIF2αK2) was upregulated at higher levels in MY/06/37348-infected mice, while genes involved in anti-apoptosis (BIRC3), antiviral responses and central nervous system protection (including CD40, IL-10RA, MyD88 and PYCARD) were upregulated more highly in MY/08/065-infected mice. In conclusion, the higher mortality observed following MY/06/37348 infection in mice is due not to higher viral replication in the brain, but to differentially expressed genes involved in host immune responses. These findings may help to identify therapeutic strategies and biomarkers for neurological CHIKV infections.

  14. Breast cancer patients in Libya: Comparison with European and central African patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boder, Jamela Mostafa E; Elmabrouk Abdalla, Fathi B; Elfageih, Mohamed Ahmed; Abusaa, Abuagela; Buhmeida, Abdelbaset; Collan, Yrjö

    2011-03-01

    The present study evaluated the incidence of breast cancer in Libya and described the clinicopathological and demographic features. These features were then compared with corresponding data from patients from sub-Saharan Africa (Nigeria) and Europe (Finland). The study consisted of 234 patients with breast carcinoma, admitted to the African Oncology Institute in Sabratha, Libya, during the years 2002-2006. The pathological features were collected from pathology reports, patient histories from hospital files and the Sabratha Cancer Registry. The demographic differences between the Libyan, Nigerian and Finnish populations were prominent. The mean age of breast cancer patients in Libya was 46 years which was almost identical to that of Nigeria, but much lower than that of Finland. The Libyan breast cancer incidence was evaluated as 18.8 per 100,000 female individuals. This incidence was markedly higher in Finland, but was also high in Nigeria. Libyan and Nigerian breast cancer is predominantly of premenopausal type and exhibits unfavorable characteristics such as high histological grade and stage, large tumor size and frequent lymph node metastases. However, the histological types and histopathological risk features show similar importance regarding survival as European breast cancer cases. Survival in Libya ranks between the rates of survival in Nigeria (lowest) and Finland (highest). In conclusion, in Libya and other African countries, premenopausal breast cancer is more common than postmenopausal breast cancer. However, the opposite is true for Europe. Population differences may be involved, as suggested by the known variation, in the distribution of genetic markers in these populations. Different types of environmental impacts, however, cannot be excluded.

  15. Preliminary investigation of haemoglobin polymorphism and association with morphometric traits in West African Dwarf goats in north central Nigeria

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    Abdulmojeed Yakubu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize the genetic pool of the West African Dwarf (WAD goats using haemoglobin (Hb polymorphism, as well as the association of some morphological traits with the Hb variants. Blood samples were collected from a total of 104 mature goats of both sexes belonging to the WAD breed in north central Nigeria. The red cell lysates were subjected to cellulose acetate electrophoresis and specific staining procedure to reveal the band patterns of haemoglobin. Three co-dominant alleles, causing the presence of three genotypes (AA, AB and AC were detected among individual goats. The frequencies of the A, B and C alleles were 0.69, 0.30 and 0.01, respectively. The corresponding genotype frequencies for AA, AB and AC in the goat population were 0.37, 0.61 and 0.02, respectively. The discrepancy between the observed and the expected genotype number was significant (P0.05 by Hb variants. There is a need for further study encompassing more number of goats covering larger areas, use of DNA markers and their relationship with economic traits as well as performance study for detailed understanding of breed characteristics, conservation and genetic improvement of WAD goats in north central Nigeria.

  16. Recovery of conservation values in Central African rain forest after logging and shifting cultivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemerden, van B.S.; Shu, G.N.; Olff, H.

    2003-01-01

    Secondary forests in Central Africa are increasing in importance for biodiversity conservation as old growth forests outside the few protected areas are disappearing rapidly. We examined vegetation recovery in a lowland rain forest area in Cameroon based on a detailed botanical survey of old growth

  17. Fundamental Flaws in the Architecture of the European Central Bank: The Possible End of the Euro Zone and its Effects to East African Community (EAC Countries

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    Nothando Moyo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available European countries embarked on a European integration programme that saw the formation of the Euro, which has emerged as a major currency (Blair, 1999 that was introduced in 1998. With the Euro, came the establishment of the European Central Bank. Thus this study seeks to investigate the flaws in the formation of the European Central Bank that surfaced during the major economic crisis in Europe. The crisis revealing the gaps in the formation and structure of the European central bank have created major challenges for the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU. Through an extant review of literature the study will examine the East African Community Countries, investigating the ties they have to the euro zone to analyse how the crisis has affected them. Furthermore, the study will analyse what would happen to the growth patterns of the East African Countries and the various prospects they may have should the Eurozone come to an end.

  18. The Impact of Everyday Discrimination and Racial Identity Centrality on African American Medical Student Well-Being: a Report from the Medical Student CHANGE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Sylvia P; Hardeman, Rachel; Burke, Sara E; Cunningham, Brooke; Burgess, Diana J; van Ryn, Michelle

    2016-09-01

    Positive psychological well-being is an important predictor of and contributor to medical student success. Previous work showed that first-year African American medical students whose self-concept was highly linked to their race (high racial identity centrality) were at greater risk for poor well-being. The current study extends this work by examining (a) whether the psychological impact of racial discrimination on well-being depends on African American medical students' racial identity centrality and (b) whether this process is explained by how accepted students feel in medical school. This study used baseline data from the Medical Student Cognitive Habits and Growth Evaluation (CHANGE) Study, a large national longitudinal cohort study of 4732 medical students at 49 medical schools in the USA (n = 243). Regression analyses were conducted to test whether medical student acceptance mediated an interactive effect of discrimination and racial identity centrality on self-esteem and well-being. Both racial identity centrality and everyday discrimination were associated with negative outcomes for first-year African American medical students. Among participants who experienced higher, but not lower, levels of everyday discrimination, racial identity centrality was associated with negative outcomes. When everyday discrimination was high, but not low, racial identity was negatively related to perceived acceptance in medical school, and this in turn was related to increased negative outcomes. Our results suggest that discrimination may be particularly harmful for African American students who perceive their race to be central to their personal identity. Additionally, our findings speak to the need for institutional change that includes commitment and action towards inclusivity and the elimination of structural racism.

  19. A reconstruction of Atlantic Central African biomes and forest succession stages derived from modern pollen data and plant functional types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lebamba

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available New detailed vegetation reconstructions are proposed in Atlantic Central Africa from a modern pollen data set derived from 199 sites (Cameroon, Gabon and Congo including 131 new sites. In this study, the concept of plant functional classification is improved with new and more detailed plant functional types (PFTs and new aggregations of pollen taxa. Using the biomisation method, we reconstructed (1 modern potential biomes and (2 potential succession stages of forest regeneration, a new approach in Atlantic Central African vegetation dynamics and ecosystem functioning reconstruction. When compared to local vegetation, potential biomes are correctly reconstructed (97.5% of the sites and tropical evergreen to semi-evergreen forest (TRFO biome is well identified from semi-deciduous forest (TSFO biome. When the potential biomes are superimposed on the White's vegetation map, only 76.4% of the sites are correctly reconstructed. But using botanical data, correspondence and cluster analyses, the 43 sites from Congo (Mayombe evidence more affinities with those of central Gabon and so they can also be considered as correctly reconstructed as TRFO biome and White's map must be revised. In terms of potential succession stages of forest regeneration, the mature forest (TMFO is well differentiated from the secondary forest (TSFE, but inside this latter group, the young and the pioneer stages are not clearly identified due probably to their low sampling representation. Moreover, linked to their progressive and mosaic character, the boundaries between two forest biomes or two forest stages are not clearly detected and need also a more intensive sampling in such transitions.

  20. Soil does not explain monodominance in a Central African tropical forest

    OpenAIRE

    Peh, KS-H; Lloyd, J; C. A. Quesada; S. L. Lewis; Sonké, B.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Soil characteristics have been hypothesised as one of the possible mechanisms leading to monodominance of Gilbertiodendron dewerei in some areas of Central Africa where higher-diversity forest would be expected. However, the differences in soil characteristics between the G. dewevrei-dominated forest and its adjacent mixed forest are still poorly understood. Here we present the soil characteristics of the G. dewevrei forest and quantify whether soil physical and chemical propertie...

  1. Cattle ticks in Cameroon: is Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus absent in Cameroon and the Central African region?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awa, D N; Adakal, H; Luogbou, N D D; Wachong, K H; Leinyuy, I; Achukwi, M D

    2015-03-01

    In most parts of the world, ticks are rapidly developing resistance to commonly used acaricides thus rendering control difficult. This constraint is further compounded by the introduction of new species in areas where they did not exist before. Such is the case with the introduction into and rapid spread of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in some countries of West Africa. With the looming threat of its further spread in the region, the objective of the present study was to update knowledge on cattle ticks in Cameroon. Among 19,189 ticks collected monthly from 60 animals in 5 herds from March 2012 to February 2013, Rh. (B.) decoloratus was the most abundant species with a relative prevalence of 62.2%, followed by Amblyomma variegatum (28.4%), Rh. (B.) annulatus (0.2%), Rh. (B.) geigyi (0.03%), other Rhipicephalus spp. (8.4%) and Hyalomma spp. (0.3%). Rh. (B.) decoloratus and A. variegatum were also the most widely distributed in space. Infestation rate was generally high, with average tick count/animal of about 80 during peak periods. Tick distribution and abundance in the different sites was as varied as the underlying factors, among which the most important were management systems and climatic factors. The effects of rainfall and temperature were confounded by other factors and difficult to evaluate. However, it appears tick development depends among other factors, on a humidity threshold, above which there is not much more effect. Rh. microplus was not found during this study, but more extensive tick collections have to be done to confirm this. In conclusion, cattle tick infestation in Cameroon remains an important cause for concern. Farmers need assistance in the use and management of acaricides in order to increase their efficiency and reduce the development of resistance. Although Rh. microplus was not found, its introduction from other West African countries is imminent if adequate measures, especially in the control and limitation of animal movements

  2. Comparative phylogeography of eight herbs and lianas (Marantaceae in central African rainforests

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    Alexandra C. Ley

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation history in tropical Africa is still to date hardly known and the drivers of population differentiation and speciation processes are little documented. It has often been postulated that population fragmentations following climate changes have played a key role in shaping the geographic distribution patterns of genetic diversity and in driving speciation. Here we analyzed phylogeographic patterns (chloroplast-DNA sequences within and between eight (sister species of widespread rainforest herbs and lianas from four genera of Marantaceae (Halopegia, Haumania, Marantochloa, Megaphrynium, searching for concordant patterns across species and concordance with the Pleistocene refuge hypothesis. Using 1146 plastid DNA sequences sampled across African tropical lowland rainforest, particularly in the Lower Guinean (LG phytogeographic region, we analyzed intra- and interspecific patterns of genetic diversity, endemism and distinctiveness. Intraspecific patterns of haplotype diversity were concordant among most species as well as with the species-level diversity pattern of Marantaceae. Highest values were found in the hilly areas of Cameroon and Gabon. However, the spatial distribution of endemic haplotypes, an indicator for refuge areas in general, was not congruent across species. Each proposed refuge exhibited high values of endemism for one or a few species indicating their potential role as area of retraction for the respective species only. Thus evolutionary histories seem to be diverse across species. In fact, areas of high diversity might have been both refuge and/or crossing zone of recolonization routes i.e. secondary contact zone.We hypothesize that retraction of species into one or the other refuge happened by chance depending on the species´ distribution range at the time of climate deterioration. The idiosyncratic patterns found in Marantaceae species are similar to those found among tropical tree species, especially in southern LG.

  3. Isotopic and geochemical characterization of groundwater of the Carnot-Berbérati sandstone formation (Western Central African Republic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djebebe-Ndjiguim, Chantal; Foto, Eric; Backo, Salé; Zoudamba, Narcisse; Basse-Keke, Eric; Nguerekossi, Bruno; Alladin, Oscar; Huneau, Frederic; Garel, Emilie; Celle-Jeanton, Helene; Mabingui, Joseph

    2016-04-01

    The hydrogeology of the Cretaceous sandstone formations of Carnot-Berbérati (covering an area of 46.000 km2) in the western part of the central African Republic is poorly known. In order to improve the access of local populations to a clean and safe drinking water resource, new investigations have been carried out in order to characterize groundwater in terms of quality, origin, residence time and sustainability. Two sampling campaigns were organized in August 2014 (rainy period) and April 2015 (dry period) on respectively 31 and 43 points including boreholes, wells and river waters. Conventional hydrogeochemical tools in conjunction with isotope hydrology tools were used to evaluate the water types and the anthropogenic fingerprint on groundwater, their recharge processes and the flow organization scheme. Investigations have shown the existence of interesting amounts of groundwater within what seems a single, well hydraulically connected unconfined aquifer of max. 400m thick. Groundwaters are characterized by two main water types: CaMg-HCO3 (for deep boreholes and river waters) and CaMg-ClNO3 (shallow wells). The latter clearly showing the very strong influence of anthropogenic activities (washing, dumps, latrines) in the near vicinity of wells and boreholes used for the drinking water supply. This is also highlighting the total lack of protection zone around the wells and boreholes. Stable isotopes of the water molecule (18O and 2H) are in agreement with a local recharge of groundwater and show a relatively homogeneous composition within the whole aquifer system. Tritium data indicate a modern recharge with a high renewability potential for shallow groundwater but very low tritium levels are observed in the deepest boreholes indicating the probable occurrence of complex flow conditions within the system in some sectors. From these results and because of its extension and storage potential, the Carnot-Berbérati sandstone aquifer appears as a groundwater resource

  4. Measuring human rights violations in a conflict-affected country: results from a nationwide cluster survey in Central African Republic

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    Roberts Les

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Measuring human rights violations is particularly challenging during or after armed conflict. A recent nationwide survey in the Central African Republic produced estimates of rates of grave violations against children and adults affected by armed conflict, using an approach known as the "Neighborhood Method". Methods In June and July, 2009, a random household survey was conducted based on population estimates from the 2003 national census. Clusters were assigned systematically proportional to population size. Respondents in randomly selected households were interviewed regarding incidents of killing, intentional injury, recruitment into armed groups, abduction, sexual abuse and rape between January 1, 2008 and the date of interview, occurring in their homes' and those of their three closest neighbors. Results Sixty of the selected 69 clusters were surveyed. In total, 599 women were interviewed about events in 2,370 households representing 13,669 persons. Estimates of annual rates of each violation occurring per 1000 people in each of two strata are provided for children between the ages of five and 17, adults 18 years of age and older and the entire population five years and older, along with a combined and weighted national rate. The national rates for children age five to 17 were estimated to be 0.98/1000/year (95% CI: 0.18 - 1.78 for recruitment, 2.56/1000/year (95% CI: 1.50 - 3.62 for abduction, 1.13/1000/year (95% CI: 0.33 - 1.93 for intentional injury, 10.72/1000 girls/year (95% CI: 7.40 - 14.04 for rape, and 4.80/1000 girls/year (95% CI: 2.61 - 6.00 for sexual abuse. No reports of any violation against a person under the age of five were recorded and there were no reports of rape or sexual abuse of males. No children were reported to have been killed during the recall period. Rape and abduction were the most frequently reported events. Conclusions The population-based figures greatly augment existing information on

  5. Emergence of quinolone resistance among extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in the Central African Republic: genetic characterization

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    Frank Thierry

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cross-resistance to quinolones and beta-lactams is frequent in Enterobacteriaceae, due to the wide use of these antibiotics clinically and in the food industry. Prescription of one of these categories of antibiotic may consequently select for bacteria resistant to both categories. Genetic mechanisms of resistance may be secondary to a chromosomal mutation located in quinolone resistance determining region of DNA gyrase or topoisomerase IV or to a plasmid acquisition. The insertion sequence ISCR1 is often associated with qnr and may favour its dissemination in Gram-negative bacteria. The aim of this study was to determine the genetic mechanism of quinolone resistance among extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae strains in the Central African Republic. Findings Among seventeen ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolated from urine, pus or stool between January 2003 and October 2005 in the Central African Republic, nine were resistant to ciprofloxacin (seven from community patients and two from hospitalized patients. The ESBL were previously characterized as CTX-M-15 and SHV-12. Susceptibility to nalidixic acid, norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin, and the minimal inhibitory concentrations of these drugs were determined by disc diffusion and agar dilution methods, respectively. The presence of plasmid-borne ISCR1-qnrA region was determined by PCR and amplicons, if any, were sent for sequencing. Quinolone resistance determining region of DNA gyrase gyrA gene was amplified by PCR and then sequenced for mutation characterization. We found that all CTX-M-producing strains were resistant to the tested quinolones. All the isolates had the same nucleotide mutation at codon 83 of gyrA. Two Escherichia coli strains with the highest MICs were shown to harbour an ISCR1-qnrA1 sequence. This genetic association might favour dissemination of resistance to quinolone and perhaps other antibiotics among Enterobacteriaceae

  6. The representation of love among Brazilians, Russians and Central Africans: A comparative analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Koyanongo E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper is dedicated to the cultural specificities of three typical collective groups with respect to the representation of love. The research subject focuses on the cross-cultural similarities and differences in how love is conceptualized among highly educated citizens of Brazil (50), Russia (50), and Central Africa (50) (age range 21–60; M = 34). We used “The Classical ideas of love: acceptance and distancing” questionnaire (I.A. Djidaryan, E.V. Belovol, & O.V. Maslova) and the “Directed...

  7. Commodity fetichismo, the Holy Spirit, and the turn to Pentecostal and African Independent Churches in Central Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, James

    2005-09-01

    Pentecostal and African Independent Churches have rapidly spread throughout central Mozambique in the aftermath of war and in the midst of a recent structural adjustment program that has hastened commoditization of community life and intensified local inequalities. This extraordinary expansion signals a shift away from reliance on "traditional" healers to treat persistent afflictions believed to have spiritual causes. Survey data and illness narratives collected from recent church recruits and local residents during research in 2002 and 2003 in the city of Chimoio reveal that healers have increased fees and tailored treatments to clients searching for good fortune in ways that have alienated many other help seekers in this changing social environment. While traditional healing has been celebrated in the international health world, community attitudes are less generous; many healers are increasingly viewed with suspicion because of their engagement with malevolent occult forces to foment social conflict, competition, and confrontation for high fees. Church healing approaches offer free and less divisive spiritual protection reinforced by social support in a new collectivity. One vital source of church popularity derives from pastors' efforts to tap the already considerable community anxiety over rising healer fees and their socially divisive treatments in an insecure environment.

  8. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the central roles of two African countries in the evolution and worldwide spread of Zika virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Shu; Shi, Junming; Wang, Jun; Tang, Shuang; Wang, Hualin; Hu, Zhihong; Deng, Fei

    2016-04-01

    Recent outbreaks of Zika virus (ZIKV) infections in Oceania's islands and the Americas were characterized by high numbers of cases and the spread of the virus to new areas. To better understand the origin of ZIKV, its epidemic history was reviewed. Although the available records and information are limited, two major genetic lineages of ZIKV were identified in previous studies. However, in this study, three lineages were identified based on a phylogenetic analysis of all virus sequences from GenBank, including those of the envelope protein (E) and non-structural protein 5 (NS5) coding regions. The spatial and temporal distributions of the three identified ZIKV lineages and the recombination events and mechanisms underlying their divergence and evolution were further elaborated. The potential migration pathway of ZIKV was also characterized. Our findings revealed the central roles of two African countries, Senegal and Cote d'Ivoire, in ZIKV evolution and genotypic divergence. Furthermore, our results suggested that the outbreaks in Asia and the Pacific islands originated from Africa. The results provide insights into the geographic origins of ZIKV outbreaks and the spread of the virus, and also contribute to a better understanding of ZIKV evolution, which is important for the prevention and control of ZIKV infections.

  9. Predominance of hepatitis C virus genotype 4 infection and rapid transmission between 1935 and 1965 in the Central African Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njouom, Richard; Frost, Eric; Deslandes, Sylvie; Mamadou-Yaya, Fleurie; Labbé, Annie-Claude; Pouillot, Régis; Mbélesso, Pascal; Mbadingai, Sylvestre; Rousset, Dominique; Pépin, Jacques

    2009-10-01

    The molecular epidemiology of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in the Central African Republic (CAR) is poorly documented. Thus, we conducted phylogenetic analyses of NS5B gene sequences from 58 HCV-infected inhabitants of a remote area of south-west CAR, which indicated that 48 (82.8%) were infected with genotype 4 (HCV-4), five (8.6%) with genotype 2 and five (8.6%) with genotype 1. HCV-4 strains were highly heterogeneous, containing previously described subtypes 4k (48%), 4c (27%), 4r (4%), 4f (4%) and unclassified subtypes (17%). To estimate the epidemic history of these HCV-4 strains, an evolutionary analysis using the coalescent approach was used. The estimated date of the most recent common ancestor of the CAR HCV-4 strains was 1539 (95% confidence intervals, 1317-1697). They exhibited a rapid, exponential spread from 1935 to 1965, simultaneously with what was recently reported in neighbouring Cameroon and Gabon. The hypothesis of a massive iatrogenic transmission during interventions for the control of endemic tropical diseases is discussed.

  10. Sociocultural behavior, sex-biased admixture, and effective population sizes in Central African Pygmies and non-Pygmies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdu, Paul; Becker, Noémie S A; Froment, Alain; Georges, Myriam; Grugni, Viola; Quintana-Murci, Lluis; Hombert, Jean-Marie; Van der Veen, Lolke; Le Bomin, Sylvie; Bahuchet, Serge; Heyer, Evelyne; Austerlitz, Frédéric

    2013-04-01

    Sociocultural phenomena, such as exogamy or phylopatry, can largely determine human sex-specific demography. In Central Africa, diverging patterns of sex-specific genetic variation have been observed between mobile hunter-gatherer Pygmies and sedentary agricultural non-Pygmies. However, their sex-specific demography remains largely unknown. Using population genetics and approximate Bayesian computation approaches, we inferred male and female effective population sizes, sex-specific migration, and admixture rates in 23 Central African Pygmy and non-Pygmy populations, genotyped for autosomal, X-linked, Y-linked, and mitochondrial markers. We found much larger effective population sizes and migration rates among non-Pygmy populations than among Pygmies, in agreement with the recent expansions and migrations of non-Pygmies and, conversely, the isolation and stationary demography of Pygmy groups. We found larger effective sizes and migration rates for males than for females for Pygmies, and vice versa for non-Pygmies. Thus, although most Pygmy populations have patrilocal customs, their sex-specific genetic patterns resemble those of matrilocal populations. In fact, our results are consistent with a lower prevalence of polygyny and patrilocality in Pygmies compared with non-Pygmies and a potential female transmission of reproductive success in Pygmies. Finally, Pygmy populations showed variable admixture levels with the non-Pygmies, with often much larger introgression from male than from female lineages. Social discrimination against Pygmies triggering complex movements of spouses in intermarriages can explain these male-biased admixture patterns in a patrilocal context. We show how gender-related sociocultural phenomena can determine highly variable sex-specific demography among populations, and how population genetic approaches contrasting chromosomal types allow inferring detailed human sex-specific demographic history.

  11. Soil does not explain monodominance in a Central African tropical forest.

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    Kelvin S-H Peh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Soil characteristics have been hypothesised as one of the possible mechanisms leading to monodominance of Gilbertiodendron dewerei in some areas of Central Africa where higher-diversity forest would be expected. However, the differences in soil characteristics between the G. dewevrei-dominated forest and its adjacent mixed forest are still poorly understood. Here we present the soil characteristics of the G. dewevrei forest and quantify whether soil physical and chemical properties in this monodominant forest are significantly different from the adjacent mixed forest. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We sampled top soil (0-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-30 cm and subsoil (150-200 cm using an augur in 6 × 1 ha areas of intact central Africa forest in SE Cameroon, three independent patches of G. dewevrei-dominated forest and three adjacent areas (450-800 m apart, all chosen to be topographically homogeneous. Analysis--subjected to Bonferroni correction procedure--revealed no significant differences between the monodominant and mixed forests in terms of soil texture, median particle size, bulk density, pH, carbon (C content, nitrogen (N content, C:N ratio, C:total NaOH-extractable P ratio and concentrations of labile phosphorous (P, inorganic NaOH-extractable P, total NaOH-extractable P, aluminium, barium, calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, potassium, selenium, silicon, sodium and zinc. Prior to Bonferroni correction procedure, there was a significant lower level of silicon concentration found in the monodominant than mixed forest deep soil; and a significant lower level of nickel concentration in the monodominant than mixed forest top soil. Nevertheless, these were likely to be the results of multiple tests of significance. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results do not provide clear evidence of soil mediation for the location of monodominant forests in relation to adjacent mixed forests. It is also likely that G

  12. "The Higher the Satellite, the Lower the Culture"? African American Studies in East-Central and Southeastern Europe: The Case of Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Andrzej Antoszek

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the current position of African American studies in Poland, with Poland serving as an exemplar of similar changes taking place in other countries of East-Central and Southeastern Europe. In doing so, the paper highlights the nature of cultural representations or appropriations of blackness outside the United States, which, removed from their roots, start living their own independent lives. The omnipresence of hip-hop, basketball, and, to a lesser extent, black mov...

  13. Central African Economic and Monetary Community; Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes: FATF Recommendations for Anti-Money Laundering and Combating the Financing of Terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2006-01-01

    The report provides a summary of the level of compliance at the Central African Economic and Monetary Community (CEMAC) regional level and provides recommendations to improve compliance. The assessment focuses on the regional Anti-Money Laundering and Combating the Financing of Terrorism (AML-CLT) framework and its conformity with international standard. The paper reviews the institutional framework, laws, regulations, guidelines, and other requirements, and the regulatory and other systems i...

  14. Standardising Visual Control Devices for Tsetse Flies: Central and West African Species Glossina palpalis palpalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaba, Dramane; Zacarie, Tusevo; M'Pondi, Alexis Makumyaviri; Njiokou, Flobert; Bosson-Vanga, Henriette; Kröber, Thomas; McMullin, Andrew; Mihok, Steve; Guerin, Patrick M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Glossina palpalis palpalis (G. p. palpalis) is one of the principal vectors of sleeping sickness and nagana in Africa with a geographical range stretching from Liberia in West Africa to Angola in Central Africa. It inhabits tropical rain forest but has also adapted to urban settlements. We set out to standardize a long-lasting, practical and cost-effective visually attractive device that would induce the strongest landing response by G. p. palpalis for future use as an insecticide-impregnated tool in area-wide population suppression of this fly across its range. Methodology/Principal Findings Trials were conducted in wet and dry seasons in the Ivory Coast, Cameroon, the Democratic Republic of Congo and Angola to measure the performance of traps (biconical, monoconical and pyramidal) and targets of different sizes and colours, with and without chemical baits, at different population densities and under different environmental conditions. Adhesive film was used as a practical enumerator at these remote locations to compare landing efficiencies of devices. Independent of season and country, both phthalogen blue-black and blue-black-blue 1 m2 targets covered with adhesive film proved to be as good as traps in phthalogen blue or turquoise blue for capturing G. p. palpalis. Trap efficiency varied (8–51%). There was no difference between the performance of blue-black and blue-black-blue 1 m2 targets. Baiting with chemicals augmented the overall performance of targets relative to traps. Landings on smaller phthalogen blue-black 0.25 m2 square targets were not significantly different from either 1 m2 blue-black-blue or blue-black square targets. Three times more flies were captured per unit area on the smaller device. Conclusions/Significance Blue-black 0.25 m2 cloth targets show promise as simple cost effective devices for management of G. p. palpalis as they can be used for both control when impregnated with insecticide and for population sampling when

  15. Standardising visual control devices for tsetse flies: Central and West African species Glossina palpalis palpalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dramane Kaba

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glossina palpalis palpalis (G. p. palpalis is one of the principal vectors of sleeping sickness and nagana in Africa with a geographical range stretching from Liberia in West Africa to Angola in Central Africa. It inhabits tropical rain forest but has also adapted to urban settlements. We set out to standardize a long-lasting, practical and cost-effective visually attractive device that would induce the strongest landing response by G. p. palpalis for future use as an insecticide-impregnated tool in area-wide population suppression of this fly across its range. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Trials were conducted in wet and dry seasons in the Ivory Coast, Cameroon, the Democratic Republic of Congo and Angola to measure the performance of traps (biconical, monoconical and pyramidal and targets of different sizes and colours, with and without chemical baits, at different population densities and under different environmental conditions. Adhesive film was used as a practical enumerator at these remote locations to compare landing efficiencies of devices. Independent of season and country, both phthalogen blue-black and blue-black-blue 1 m(2 targets covered with adhesive film proved to be as good as traps in phthalogen blue or turquoise blue for capturing G. p. palpalis. Trap efficiency varied (8-51%. There was no difference between the performance of blue-black and blue-black-blue 1 m(2 targets. Baiting with chemicals augmented the overall performance of targets relative to traps. Landings on smaller phthalogen blue-black 0.25 m(2 square targets were not significantly different from either 1 m(2 blue-black-blue or blue-black square targets. Three times more flies were captured per unit area on the smaller device. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Blue-black 0.25 m(2 cloth targets show promise as simple cost effective devices for management of G. p. palpalis as they can be used for both control when impregnated with insecticide and for

  16. Binary and microsatellite polymorphisms of the Y-chromosome in the Mbenzele pygmies from the Central African Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coia, Valentina; Caglià, Alessandra; Arredi, Barbara; Donati, Francesco; Santos, Fabrício R; Pandya, Arpita; Taglioli, Luca; Paoli, Giorgio; Pascali, Vincenzo; Spedini, Gabriella; Destro-Bisol, Giovanni; Tyler-Smith, Chris

    2004-01-01

    This study analyzes the variation of six binary polymorphisms and six microsatellites in the Mbenzele Pygmies from the Central African Republic. Five different haplogroups (B2b, E(xE3a), E3a, P and BR(xB2b,DE,P)) were observed, with frequencies ranging from 0.022 (haplogroup P) to 0.609 (haplogroup E3a). A comparison of haplogroup frequencies indicates a close genetic affinity between the Mbenzele and the Biaka Pygmies, a finding consistent with the common origin and the geographical proximity of the two populations. The haplogroups P, BR(xB2b,DE,P) and E(xE3a), which are rare in sub-Saharan Africa but common in western Eurasia, were observed with frequencies ranging from 0.022 (haplogroup P) to 0.087 (haplogroup E(xE3a)). Thirty different microsatellite haplotypes were detected, with frequencies ranging from 0.022 to 0.152. The Mbenzele share the highest percent of microsatellite haplotypes with the Biaka Pygmies. Five out seven haplotypes which are shared by the Mbenzele and Biaka Pygmies belong to haplogroup E3a, which suggests that they are of Bantu origin. The plot based on F(st) genetic distances calculated using microsatellite data provides a picture of population relationships which is in part congruent and in part complementary to that obtained using haplogroup frequencies. Finally, the Mbenzele and Biaka Pygmies were found to be markedly more genetically similar using Y-chromosomal than autosomal microsatellites. We suggest that this could be due to the higher phylogenetic stability of Y-chromosome and to the effect of the male-biased gene flow during the Bantu expansion.

  17. Evaluating the SEVIRI Fire Thermal Anomaly Detection Algorithm across the Central African Republic Using the MODIS Active Fire Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick H. Freeborn

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Satellite-based remote sensing of active fires is the only practical way to consistently and continuously monitor diurnal fluctuations in biomass burning from regional, to continental, to global scales. Failure to understand, quantify, and communicate the performance of an active fire detection algorithm, however, can lead to improper interpretations of the spatiotemporal distribution of biomass burning, and flawed estimates of fuel consumption and trace gas and aerosol emissions. This work evaluates the performance of the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI Fire Thermal Anomaly (FTA detection algorithm using seven months of active fire pixels detected by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS across the Central African Republic (CAR. Results indicate that the omission rate of the SEVIRI FTA detection algorithm relative to MODIS varies spatially across the CAR, ranging from 25% in the south to 74% in the east. In the absence of confounding artifacts such as sunglint, uncertainties in the background thermal characterization, and cloud cover, the regional variation in SEVIRI’s omission rate can be attributed to a coupling between SEVIRI’s low spatial resolution detection bias (i.e., the inability to detect fires below a certain size and intensity and a strong geographic gradient in active fire characteristics across the CAR. SEVIRI’s commission rate relative to MODIS increases from 9% when evaluated near MODIS nadir to 53% near the MODIS scene edges, indicating that SEVIRI errors of commission at the MODIS scene edges may not be false alarms but rather true fires that MODIS failed to detect as a result of larger pixel sizes at extreme MODIS scan angles. Results from this work are expected to facilitate (i future improvements to the SEVIRI FTA detection algorithm; (ii the assimilation of the SEVIRI and MODIS active fire products; and (iii the potential inclusion of SEVIRI into a network of geostationary

  18. Long tree-ring chronologies provide evidence of recent tree growth decrease in a Central African tropical forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Battipaglia

    Full Text Available It is still unclear whether the exponential rise of atmospheric CO2 concentration has produced a fertilization effect on tropical forests, thus incrementing their growth rate, in the last two centuries. As many factors affect tree growth patterns, short -term studies might be influenced by the confounding effect of several interacting environmental variables on plant growth. Long-term analyses of tree growth can elucidate long-term trends of plant growth response to dominant drivers. The study of annual rings, applied to long tree-ring chronologies in tropical forest trees enables such analysis. Long-term tree-ring chronologies of three widespread African species were measured in Central Africa to analyze the growth of trees over the last two centuries. Growth trends were correlated to changes in global atmospheric CO2 concentration and local variations in the main climatic drivers, temperature and rainfall. Our results provided no evidence for a fertilization effect of CO2 on tree growth. On the contrary, an overall growth decline was observed for all three species in the last century, which appears to be significantly correlated to the increase in local temperature. These findings provide additional support to the global observations of a slowing down of C sequestration in the trunks of forest trees in recent decades. Data indicate that the CO2 increase alone has not been sufficient to obtain a tree growth increase in tropical trees. The effect of other changing environmental factors, like temperature, may have overridden the fertilization effect of CO2.

  19. Socioeconomic development as a determinant of the levels of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in the inhabitants of Western and Central African countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luzardo, Octavio P., E-mail: operez@dcc.ulpgc.es [Toxicology Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Boada, Luis D. [Toxicology Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Carranza, Cristina [Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Unit, Hospital Universitario Insular de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Medical Sciences and Surgery Department, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto; Valerón, Pilar F.; Zumbado, Manuel; Camacho, María [Toxicology Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Arellano, José Luis Pérez [Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Unit, Hospital Universitario Insular de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Medical Sciences and Surgery Department, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain)

    2014-11-01

    Several studies of environmental samples indicate that the levels of many persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are increasing in Africa, but few studies have been conducted in humans. Simultaneously, many African countries are experiencing a rapid economic growth and implementing information and communication technologies (ICT). These changes have generated high amounts of electronic waste (e-waste) that have not been adequately managed. We tested the hypothesis that the current levels of two main classes of POPs in Western and Central African countries are affected by the degree of socioeconomic development. We measured the levels of 36 POPs in the serum of recent immigrants (N = 575) who came from 19 Sub-Saharan countries to the Canary Islands (Spain). We performed statistical analyses on their anthropometric and socioeconomic data. High median levels of POPs were found in the overall sample, with differences among the countries. Organochlorine pesticide (OCP) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels increased with age. People from low-income countries had significantly higher OCP levels and much lower PCB levels than those from high-income countries. We found a significant association between the implementation of ICT and PCB contamination. Immigrants from the countries with a high volume of imports of second-hand electronic equipment had higher PCB levels. The economic development of Africa and the e-waste generation have directly affected the levels of POPs. The POP legacies of these African populations most likely are due to the inappropriate management of the POPs' residues. - Highlights: • Higher levels of organochlorine pesticides in Africans from low-income countries • Higher levels of PCBs in Africans from high-income countries • Levels of PCBs are significantly higher in people from West Africa. • Significant association between implementation of ICT and PCB contamination • High volume of second-hand electronic equipment is associated

  20. Socioeconomic development as a determinant of the levels of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in the inhabitants of Western and Central African countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several studies of environmental samples indicate that the levels of many persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are increasing in Africa, but few studies have been conducted in humans. Simultaneously, many African countries are experiencing a rapid economic growth and implementing information and communication technologies (ICT). These changes have generated high amounts of electronic waste (e-waste) that have not been adequately managed. We tested the hypothesis that the current levels of two main classes of POPs in Western and Central African countries are affected by the degree of socioeconomic development. We measured the levels of 36 POPs in the serum of recent immigrants (N = 575) who came from 19 Sub-Saharan countries to the Canary Islands (Spain). We performed statistical analyses on their anthropometric and socioeconomic data. High median levels of POPs were found in the overall sample, with differences among the countries. Organochlorine pesticide (OCP) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels increased with age. People from low-income countries had significantly higher OCP levels and much lower PCB levels than those from high-income countries. We found a significant association between the implementation of ICT and PCB contamination. Immigrants from the countries with a high volume of imports of second-hand electronic equipment had higher PCB levels. The economic development of Africa and the e-waste generation have directly affected the levels of POPs. The POP legacies of these African populations most likely are due to the inappropriate management of the POPs' residues. - Highlights: • Higher levels of organochlorine pesticides in Africans from low-income countries • Higher levels of PCBs in Africans from high-income countries • Levels of PCBs are significantly higher in people from West Africa. • Significant association between implementation of ICT and PCB contamination • High volume of second-hand electronic equipment is associated

  1. Whole-genome sequence analyses of Western Central African Pygmy hunter-gatherers reveal a complex demographic history and identify candidate genes under positive natural selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, PingHsun; Veeramah, Krishna R; Lachance, Joseph; Tishkoff, Sarah A; Wall, Jeffrey D; Hammer, Michael F; Gutenkunst, Ryan N

    2016-03-01

    African Pygmies practicing a mobile hunter-gatherer lifestyle are phenotypically and genetically diverged from other anatomically modern humans, and they likely experienced strong selective pressures due to their unique lifestyle in the Central African rainforest. To identify genomic targets of adaptation, we sequenced the genomes of four Biaka Pygmies from the Central African Republic and jointly analyzed these data with the genome sequences of three Baka Pygmies from Cameroon and nine Yoruba famers. To account for the complex demographic history of these populations that includes both isolation and gene flow, we fit models using the joint allele frequency spectrum and validated them using independent approaches. Our two best-fit models both suggest ancient divergence between the ancestors of the farmers and Pygmies, 90,000 or 150,000 yr ago. We also find that bidirectional asymmetric gene flow is statistically better supported than a single pulse of unidirectional gene flow from farmers to Pygmies, as previously suggested. We then applied complementary statistics to scan the genome for evidence of selective sweeps and polygenic selection. We found that conventional statistical outlier approaches were biased toward identifying candidates in regions of high mutation or low recombination rate. To avoid this bias, we assigned P-values for candidates using whole-genome simulations incorporating demography and variation in both recombination and mutation rates. We found that genes and gene sets involved in muscle development, bone synthesis, immunity, reproduction, cell signaling and development, and energy metabolism are likely to be targets of positive natural selection in Western African Pygmies or their recent ancestors.

  2. Antigenic Variation of East/Central/South African and Asian Chikungunya Virus Genotypes in Neutralization by Immune Sera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Chong-Long; Sam, I-Ching; Merits, Andres; Chan, Yoke-Fun

    2016-01-01

    Background Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a re-emerging mosquito-borne virus which causes epidemics of fever, severe joint pain and rash. Between 2005 and 2010, the East/Central/South African (ECSA) genotype was responsible for global explosive outbreaks across India, the Indian Ocean and Southeast Asia. From late 2013, Asian genotype CHIKV has caused outbreaks in the Americas. The characteristics of cross-antibody efficacy and epitopes are poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings We characterized human immune sera collected during two independent outbreaks in Malaysia of the Asian genotype in 2006 and the ECSA genotype in 2008–2010. Neutralizing capacity was analyzed against representative clinical isolates as well as viruses rescued from infectious clones of ECSA and Asian CHIKV. Using whole virus antigen and recombinant E1 and E2 envelope glycoproteins, we further investigated antibody binding sites, epitopes, and antibody titers. Both ECSA and Asian sera demonstrated stronger neutralizing capacity against the ECSA genotype, which corresponded to strong epitope-antibody interaction. ECSA serum targeted conformational epitope sites in the E1-E2 glycoprotein, and E1-E211K, E2-I2T, E2-H5N, E2-G118S and E2-S194G are key amino acids that enhance cross-neutralizing efficacy. As for Asian serum, the antibodies targeting E2 glycoprotein correlated with neutralizing efficacy, and I2T, H5N, G118S and S194G altered and improved the neutralization profile. Rabbit polyclonal antibody against the N-terminal linear neutralizing epitope from the ECSA sequence has reduced binding capacity and neutralization efficacy against Asian CHIKV. These findings imply that the choice of vaccine strain may impact cross-protection against different genotypes. Conclusion/Significance Immune serum from humans infected with CHIKV of either ECSA or Asian genotypes showed differences in binding and neutralization characteristics. These findings have implications for the continued

  3. Strongyloides infections of humans and great apes in Dzanga-Sangha Protected Areas, Central African Republic and in degraded forest fragments in Bulindi, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Hideo; Kalousova, Barbora; McLennan, Matthew R; Modry, David; Profousova-Psenkova, Ilona; Shutt-Phillips, Kathryn A; Todd, Angelique; Huffman, Michael A; Petrzelkova, Klara J

    2016-10-01

    DNA sequence analysis was carried out on Strongyloides spp. larvae obtained from fecal samples of local humans, a wild western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and a central chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) inhabiting Dzanga-Sangha Protected Areas (DSPA), Central African Republic, and eastern chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) living in degraded forest fragments on farmland in Bulindi, Uganda. From humans, both Strongyloides fuelleborni and Strongyloides stercoralis were recorded, though the former was predominant. Only S. fuelleborni was present in the great apes in both areas. Phylogenetic analysis of partial mtDNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (Cox1) and comparison of 18S rDNA hyper variable region IV (HVR-IV) sequences implied that in DSPA S. fuelleborni populations in humans differ from those in the nonhuman great apes. PMID:27180094

  4. Within-population genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum vaccine candidate antigens reveals geographic distance from a Central sub-Saharan African origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Kazuyuki; Mita, Toshihiro; Palacpac, Nirianne M Q; Arisue, Nobuko; Tougan, Takahiro; Kawai, Satoru; Jombart, Thibaut; Kobayashi, Fumie; Horii, Toshihiro

    2013-02-18

    Populations of Plasmodium falciparum, the most virulent human malaria parasite, are diverse owing to wide levels of transmission and endemicity of infection. Genetic diversity of P. falciparum antigens, within and between parasite populations, remains a confounding factor in malaria pathogenesis as well as clinical trials of vaccine candidates. Variation of target antigens in parasite populations may arise from immune pressure depending on the levels of acquired immunity. Alternatively, similar to our study in housekeeping genes [Tanabe et al. Curr Biol 2010;70:1-7], within-population genetic diversity of vaccine candidate antigens may also be determined by geographical distance from a postulated origin in Central sub-Saharan Africa. To address this question, we obtained full-length sequences of P. falciparum genes, apical membrane antigen 1 (ama1) (n=459), circumsporozoite protein (csp) (n=472) and merozoite surface protein 1 (msp1) (n=389) from seven geographically diverse parasite populations in Africa, Southeast Asia and Oceania; and, together with previously determined sequences (n=13 and 15 for csp and msp1, respectively) analyzed within-population single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) diversity. The three antigen genes showed SNP diversity that supports a model of isolation-by-distance. The standardized number of polymorphic sites per site, expressed as θ(S), indicates that 77-83% can be attributed by geographic distance from the African origin, suggesting that geographic distance plays a significant role in variation in target vaccine candidate antigens. Furthermore, we observed that a large proportion of SNPs in the antigen genes were shared between African and non-African parasite populations, demonstrating long term persistence of those SNPs. Our results provide important implications for developing effective malaria vaccines and better understanding of acquired immunity against falciparum malaria. PMID:23295064

  5. The Impacts of U.S. Cotton Programs on the West and Central African Countries Cotton Export Earnings

    OpenAIRE

    Fadiga, Mohamadou L.; Mohanty, Samarendu; Pan, Suwen

    2005-01-01

    This study uses a stochastic simulation approach based on a partial equilibrium structural econometric model of the world fiber market to examine the effects of a removal of U.S. cotton programs on the world market. The effects on world cotton prices and African export earnings were analyzed. The results suggest that on average an elimination of U.S. cotton programs would lead to a marginal increase in the world cotton prices thus resulting in minimal gain for cotton exporting countries in Af...

  6. Variation at 10 protein coding loci in the Mbenzele Pygmies from the Central African Republic and a comparison with microsatellite data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coia, Valentina; Sansonetti, Barbara; Paoli, Giorgio; Tofanelli, Sergio; Spedini, Gabriella; Destro-Bisol, Giovanni

    2002-01-01

    Ten protein coding loci (6-PGD, A1-AT, ACP1, CaII, ESD, GC, GPX1, Hb beta, PGM1, and TF) were analyzed in the Mbenzele Pygmies from the Central African Republic. The frequency data were used to calculate the genetic distances between Mbenzele Pygmies and other African groups. In the principal coordinate plot of FST genetic distances, the Mbenzele cluster together with other Pygmies of the western cluster, the Biaka from C.A.R., Gielli from Cameroon, and Babinga from Congo. By contrast, they are considerably distanced from other Pygmy groups of the eastern cluster (Twa from Rwanda, Mbuti from Zaire). Genetic distances obtained using protein loci were compared with those based on microsatellite loci. The two distance matrices are insignificantly correlated (r = 0.268; one tail probability = 0.332), and the main difference is in the higher genetic affinity between the Mbenzele and Biaka Pygmies observed at the protein level. Although reasons underlying the discrepancy between inter-populational variation at protein and DNA loci are not established with certainty, the comparison suggests that the genetic distance between the Mbenzele and Biaka Pygmies at microsatellite loci could have been shaped by genetic drift.

  7. Impact of anthropogenic and climatic changes on biomass and diversity of the Central African forests, from local to global scale: original methods for new results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortier, Frédéric; Gourlet-Fleury, Sylvie; Ouédraogo, Dakis; Picard, Nicolas; Rossi, Vivien

    2014-05-01

    Forests of the Congo Basin, the second most important remaining block of tropical moist forest in the world, are facing increasing anthropogenic pressure and climate change. Understanding the biomass and diversity dynamics under these pressures is one major challenge for African nations and international communities. This talk aims to present original methods to model, infer, and predict growth, biomass and diversity of Central African forests, as well as new results on the impacts of global change on those forests, at various scales. With respect to methods, we will present theoretical frameworks allowing (i) to model growth processes in species-rich ecosystems like tropical rain forests, (ii) to take into account uncertainties in biomass estimation. In terms of results, we will highlight at a local scale, how human activities as well as climatic variations would impact (i) the composition and diversity of forests, (ii) the dynamics of biomass and growth processes. At a global scale, we will demonstrate how environmental filtering controls the above ground biomass. The number of studies are currently increasing over the Congo Basin through several research projects led by our team (CoForTips, DynAfFor) and contributing to various international organization's programs (Cifor, FAO, Comifac, Ofac).

  8. Vegetation response to the "African Humid Period" termination in Central Cameroon (7° N – new pollen insight from Lake Mbalang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Servant

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A new pollen sequence from the Lake Mbalang (7°19´ N, 13°44´ E, 1110 m a.s.l. located on the eastern Adamawa plateau, in Central Cameroon, is presented in this paper to analyze the Holocene African Humid Period (AHP termination and related vegetation changes at 7° N in tropical Africa, completing an important transect for exploring shifts in the northern margin of the African Monsoon. This sequence, spanning the last 7000 cal yr BP, shows that the vegetation response to this transitional climatic period was marked by significant successional changes within the broad context of long-term aridification. Semi-deciduous/sub-montane forest retreat in this area is initially registered as early as ca. 6100 cal yr BP and modern savannah was definitely established at ca. 3000 cal yr BP and stabilized at ca. 2400 cal yr BP; but a slight forest regeneration episode is observed between ca. 5200 and ca. 4200 cal yr BP. In this area with modern high rainfall, increasing in the length of the dry season during the AHP termination linked to a contraction of the northern margin of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ from ca. 6100 cal yr BP onward, probably associated with decreasing in cloud cover and/or fog frequency, has primarily controlled vegetation dynamics and above all the disappearance of the forested environment on the Adamawa plateau. Compared to previous studies undertaken in northern tropical and Central Africa, this work clearly shows that the response of vegetation to transitional periods between climatic extremes such as the AHP termination might be different in timing, mode and amplitude according to the regional climate of the study sites, but also according to the stability of vegetation before and during these climatic transitions.

  9. Does living in an urban environment confer advantages for childhood nutritional status? Analysis of disparities in nutritional status by wealth and residence in Angola, Central African Republic and Senegal.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kennedy, G.L.; Nantel, G.; Brouwer, I.D.; Kok, F.J.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between childhood undernutrition and poverty in urban and rural areas. Design: Anthropometric and socio-economic data from Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys in Angola-Secured Territory (Angola ST), Central African Republic and Sene

  10. Evolution of the East African Rift System With Special Emphasis on the Central Rift of Kenya: A new Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The East African rift system has been of immense interest to geoscientist since its first account was given by Gregory (1896). Several recent views have followed, showing continuing interest in its evolution Baker et al. 19971; Baker et al. 1972; Baker and Wohlenberg 1971; McConnell 1972; Nyabok 1983; Williams and Truckle 1980; Williams, MacDonald and Leat 1983). This interest is being refueled by modern views which are emerging from our better understanding of plate tectonic processes. The major tectonic events took place during the Miocene and late Pliocene with the attendant volcanism which continued into the late Pleistocene. The late Pleistocene volcanism provided the heat source for the long on-going geothermal activity in the rift zone

  11. The geology of the Matala Dome: an important piece of the Pan-African puzzle in Central Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naydenov, K. V.; Lehmann, J.; Saalmann, K.; Milani, L.; Poterai, J.; Kinnaird, J. A.; Charlesworth, G.; Kramers, J. D.

    2016-04-01

    The Matala Dome (MD), an ENE-trending structure located at the junction between the Pan-African Lufilian and Zambezi belts, is cored by a Gneiss-Schist Unit with uncertain age overlain by a metasedimentary section (Quartzite-Schist Unit, Marble Unit and Carbonate-Siliciclastic Unit) of the Neoproterozoic to Cambrian Katanga Supergroup. The top of the Katangan stratigraphy is represented by synorogenic sedimentary rocks—Upper Siliciclastic Unit. An early event D1 resulted in the development of shallow-dipping metamorphic foliation S1 and pre- to syntectonic growth of garnet and kyanite in the schists of the Quartzite-Schist Unit. Pseudosections and garnet isopleth modelling on schist from this unit defined the peak metamorphism at P = 7.5-9.3 kbar and T = 620-700 °C. U-Pb detrital zircon dating revealed ca. 2.7 Ga source and a high-grade metamorphism during Pan-African times. The S1 foliation was affected by upright folding F2 with ENE-trending axes and associated subvertical crenulation fabric S2 development. The syn-D2 retrogression in the schists is marked by post-S1 staurolite crystallisation and further by chloritisation followed by sericitisation. The D2 event is interpreted to have exhumed the orogenic middle crust and to be responsible for the domal structure of the MD. 40Ar/39Ar dating of muscovite at 529.3 ± 5.6 to 526.3 ± 6.2 is interpreted to date the exhumation event. D2 is correlated with regional N-S shortening event at ca. 530-520 Ma. Based on the lithology, structural record, and time and facies of the metamorphism, a correlation between the MD and the northern part of the Zambezi Belt is suggested.

  12. Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage: Clinical and computed tomography findings in predicting in-hospital mortality in Central Africans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Lelo Tshikwela

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH constitutes now 52% of all strokes. Despite of its deadly pattern, locally there is no clinical grading scale for ICH-related mortality prediction. The first objective of this study was to develop a risk stratification scale (Kinshasa ICH score by assessing the strength of independent predictors and their association with in-hospital 30-day mortality. The second objective of the study was to create a specific local and African model for ICH prognosis. Materials and Methods: Age, sex, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, smoking, alcohol intake, and neuroimaging data from CT scan (ICH volume, Midline shift of patients admitted with primary ICH and follow-upped in 33 hospitals of Kinshasa, DR Congo, from 2005 to 2008, were analyzed using logistic regression models. Results: A total of 185 adults and known hypertensive patients (140 men and 45 women were examined. 30-day mortality rate was 35% (n=65. ICH volume>25 mL (OR=8 95% CI: 3.1-20.2; P 7 mm, a consequence of ICH volume, was also a significant predictor of mortality. The Kinshasa ICH score was the sum of individual points assigned as follows: Presence of coma coded 2 (2 × 2 = 4, absence of coma coded 1 (1 × 2 = 2, ICH volume>25 mL coded 2 (2 × 2=4, ICH volume of ≤25 mL coded 1(1 × 2=2, left hemispheric site of ICH coded 2 (2 × 1=2, and right hemispheric site of hemorrhage coded 1(1 × 1 = 1. All patients with Kinshasa ICH score ≤7 survived and the patients with a score >7 died. In considering sex influence (Model 3, points were allowed as follows: Presence of coma (2 × 3 = 6, absence of coma (1 × 3 = 3, men (2 × 2 = 4, women (1 × 2 = 2, midline shift ≤7 mm (1 × 3 = 3, and midline shift >7 mm (2 × 3 = 6. Patients who died had the Kinshasa ICH score ≥16. Conclusion: In this study, the Kinshasa ICH score seems to be an accurate method for distinguishing those ICH patients who need continuous and special management

  13. Evaluation of minerals, phytochemical compounds and antioxidant activity of Mexican, Central American, and African green leafy vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    The green leafy vegetables Cnidoscolus aconitifolius and Crotalaria longirostrata are native to Mexico and Central America, while Solanum scabrum and Gynandropsis gynandra are native to Africa. They are consumed in both rural and urban areas in those places as a main food, food ingredient or traditi...

  14. Sociocultural Behavior, Sex-Biased Admixture, and Effective Population Sizes in Central African Pygmies and Non-Pygmies

    OpenAIRE

    Verdu, Paul; Becker, Noémie S.A.; Froment, Alain; Georges, Myriam; Grugni, Viola; Quintana-Murci, Lluis; Hombert, Jean-Marie; Van der Veen, Lolke; Le Bomin, Sylvie; Bahuchet, Serge; Heyer, Evelyne; Austerlitz, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Sociocultural phenomena, such as exogamy or phylopatry, can largely determine human sex-specific demography. In Central Africa, diverging patterns of sex-specific genetic variation have been observed between mobile hunter-gatherer Pygmies and sedentary agricultural non-Pygmies. However, their sex-specific demography remains largely unknown. Using population genetics and approximate Bayesian computation approaches, we inferred male and female effective population sizes, sex-specific migration,...

  15. Taxonomy of Atlantic Central African orchids 5. A new species of Angraecum sect. Conchoglossum ( Orchidaceae , Angraecinae ) from Gabon and Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Ječmenica,Vladimir; Droissart, Vincent; Noret, Nausicaa; Stévart, Tariq

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Recent field inventories and taxonomic research in Central Africa have resulted in the discovery of many new orchid species. Five specimens of an apparently new Angraecum species were collected in Gabon and Cameroon. They stand out for their hanging habit and short zig-zag stem. Morphology of leaves and habit is somewhat comparable to Angraecum cultriforme and Angraecum stolzii , two species from East Africa. Flowers of the novelty share the general morphology of Angraecum pyriforme ...

  16. Taxonomy of Atlantic Central African orchids 2. A second species of the rare genus Distylodon (Orchidaceae, Angraecinae) collected in Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Vincent Droissart; Cribb,Phillip J.; Murielle Simo-Droissart; Tariq Stévart

    2014-01-01

    While conducting field inventories in South Cameroon, we collected two specimens of a new species that we considered to belong to the genus Angraecopsis. Afterwards, a careful examination of specimens housed at main herbaria, along with the nomenclatural types, allows us to place it in Distylodon, a monotypic genus previously known from East Africa. Distylodon sonkeanum Droissart, Stévart & P.J.Cribb, sp. nov. was collected in the lowland coastal forest of Atlantic Central Africa. ...

  17. The giant Pan-African Hook Batholith, Central Zambia: A-type magmatism in a syn-collisional setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Lorenzo; Lehmann, Jérémie; Naydenov, Kalin V.; Saalmann, Kerstin; Kinnaird, Judith A.; Daly, J. Stephen; Frei, Dirk; Lobo-Guerrero Sanz, Alberto

    2015-04-01

    The Pan-African Hook Batholith formed during the assembly of the Gondwana supercontinent between 570 and 520 Ma (U-Pb on zircon) as a result of syn-collisional stage interaction between the Congo and Kalahari Cratons1. The extension of the batholith, exposed and undercover, is estimated to be between 25,000 and 30,000 km2. The bimodal magmatism (mafic to predominantly felsic) is characterized by both an alkali-calcic and an alkalic suite, with the felsic rocks featuring a typical A-type, metaluminous, high Fe/Mg and K/Na geochemical signature. The scattered outcrops of gabbroic rocks, both tholeiitic and alkaline, suggest periodic input of mantle material, which, in some cases, interacted with metasomatizing fluids. Fractional crystallization is invoked for the most differentiated products, while Sr-Nd isotopes rule out any significant contribution from crustal assimilation. Exceptionally highly radiogenic Pb isotopes have been measured on both unaltered and hydrothermally altered rocks, and attest to the radiogenic character of the batholith. The Pb isotopes indicate that the anomalous signature was acquired during, or soon after, magma emplacement, and was likely enhanced by metasomatizing fluids. An enrichment in Th and U, affecting large portions of the crust along the southern margin of the Congo Craton, is suggested by comparable anomalous Pb isotopes measured in basement gneisses in the Domes Region, Zambian Copperbelt. Geochemical and isotopic evidence support interaction between mantle components and portions of the deep crust at pressures of rocks along the eastern margin of the pluton indicate that the magma was subsequently emplaced at shallow crustal depths. A crucial contribution to the crustal melting was likely provided by internal radiogenic heat production of the thickened crust, and is in agreement with the high radioactivity of the pluton. A tectono-thermal model where crustal accretion is accompanied by slab retreat and lithospheric mantle

  18. "The Higher the Satellite, the Lower the Culture"? African American Studies in East-Central and Southeastern Europe: The Case of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Antoszek

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the current position of African American studies in Poland, with Poland serving as an exemplar of similar changes taking place in other countries of East-Central and Southeastern Europe. In doing so, the paper highlights the nature of cultural representations or appropriations of blackness outside the United States, which, removed from their roots, start living their own independent lives. The omnipresence of hip-hop, basketball, and, to a lesser extent, black movies and literature has a direct influence on many cultures in which blackness is assigned a superior status. The foundations of this elevated position are often sustained by popular culture's hunger for the new and flashy, which grants the new forms a very peculiar and simulacral character. However, the paper recognizes that the far-reaching appeal of many black voices would likely be impossible without the aid of global channels of communication. The paper also examines a number of examples of black culture translated into and appropriated by various indigenous productions. It does so not only to show the somewhat naïve and even humorous aspects of many such "trans-nations" but also to demonstrate black culture's inspiring role for various local voices.

  19. "The Higher the Satellite, the Lower the Culture"? African American Studies in East-Central and Southeastern Europe: The Case of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Antoszek

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available

    This paper examines the current position of African American studies in Poland, with Poland serving as an exemplar of similar changes taking place in other countries of East-Central and Southeastern Europe. In doing so, the paper highlights the nature of cultural representations or appropriations of blackness outside the United States, which, removed from their roots, start living their own independent lives. The omnipresence of hip-hop, basketball, and, to a lesser extent, black movies and literature has a direct influence on many cultures in which blackness is assigned a superior status. The foundations of this elevated position are often sustained by popular culture's hunger for the new and flashy, which grants the new forms a very peculiar and simulacral character. However, the paper recognizes that the far-reaching appeal of many black voices would likely be impossible without the aid of global channels of communication. The paper also examines a number of examples of black culture translated into and appropriated by various indigenous productions. It does so not only to show the somewhat naïve and even humorous aspects of many such "trans-nations" but also to demonstrate black culture's inspiring role for various local voices.

  20. Molecular genome tracking of East, Central and South African genotype of Chikungunya virus in South-east Asia between 2006 and 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kamol Suwannakarn; Apiradee Theamboonlers; Yong Poovorawan

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To understand the epidemiology of the East, Central and South African(ECSA) genotype of Chikungunya virus(CHIKV)in terms of emerging and re-emerging infections, this study has been aimed at investigating the evolutionary parameters, genomic signatures and molecular tracking of theCHIKV ECSA genotype in South-east Asia and coastal areas of the Indian Ocean between 2006 and 2009 by using phylogenetic analysis and the Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo (BMCMC) evolutionary estimation.Methods: Nearly complete genome sequences of53 CHIKV isolates from all genotypes were subjected to phylogenetic analysis and evolutionary parameter estimation. The amino acids of67of ECSA genotype during2006 to2009 were compared for finding molecular signature tracking. The ECSA genotype signatures were visualized to find the possible transmission root was projected onto a geographic map.Results:Phylogenetic analysis showed theECSA genotype was divided into2 groups. The first group comprises viruses from India and Southeast Asian countries. The second group consists of strains typically circulating in Sri Lanka in2008. The evolutionary parameters of these groups depicted the time of the most recent common ancestor at approximately 7.5years ago. The genomic signatures revealed the positions of amino acid variation in each group.Conclusions:The molecular evolution projected onto a geographical map showed the routes ofCHIKVtransmission from 2006 to2009. Molecular tracking will assist in understanding transmission routes, epidemiology and molecular evolution ofCHIKV.

  1. Gravity study of the Central African Rift system: a model of continental disruption 2. The Darfur domal uplift and associated Cainozoic volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermingham, P. M.; Fairhead, J. D.; Stuart, G. W.

    1983-05-01

    Gravity studies of the Darfur uplift, Western Sudan, show it to be associated with a circular negative Bouguer anomaly, 50 mGal in amplitude and 700 km across. A three-dimensional model interpretation of the Darfur anomaly, using constraints deduced from geophysical studies of similar but more evolved Kenya and Ethiopia domes, suggests either a low-density laccolithic body at mid-lithospheric depth (~ 60 km) or a thinned lithosphere with emplacement at high level of low-density asthenospheric material. The regional setting of the Darfur uplift is described in terms of it being an integral part of the Central African Rift System which is shown to be broadly equivalent to the early to middle Miocene stage in the development of the Afro-Arabian Rift System. Comparisons between these rift systems suggest that extensional tectonics and passive rifting, resulting in the subsiding sedimentary rift basins associated with the Ngaoundere, Abu Gabra, Red Sea and Gulf of Aden rifts, are more typical of the early stage development of passive continental margins than the active domal uplift and development of rifted features associated with the Darfur, Kenya and Ethiopia domes.

  2. Genetics, Morphology, Advertisement Calls, and Historical Records Distinguish Six New Polyploid Species of African Clawed Frog (Xenopus, Pipidae from West and Central Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben J Evans

    Full Text Available African clawed frogs, genus Xenopus, are extraordinary among vertebrates in the diversity of their polyploid species and the high number of independent polyploidization events that occurred during their diversification. Here we update current understanding of the evolutionary history of this group and describe six new species from west and central sub-Saharan Africa, including four tetraploids and two dodecaploids. We provide information on molecular variation, morphology, karyotypes, vocalizations, and estimated geographic ranges, which support the distinctiveness of these new species. We resurrect Xenopus calcaratus from synonymy of Xenopus tropicalis and refer populations from Bioko Island and coastal Cameroon (near Mt. Cameroon to this species. To facilitate comparisons to the new species, we also provide comments on the type specimens, morphology, and distributions of X. epitropicalis, X. tropicalis, and X. fraseri. This includes significantly restricted application of the names X. fraseri and X. epitropicalis, the first of which we argue is known definitively only from type specimens and possibly one other specimen. Inferring the evolutionary histories of these new species allows refinement of species groups within Xenopus and leads to our recognition of two subgenera (Xenopus and Silurana and three species groups within the subgenus Xenopus (amieti, laevis, and muelleri species groups.

  3. Social context of human immunodeficiency virus transmission in Africa: historical and cultural bases of east and central African sexual relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, A

    1989-01-01

    The literature relating to the social context of sexual relations in East and Central Africa has several implications for the heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Colonially created cities in the region still discriminate economically and socially against women. Rapid urbanization is occurring, but migrants maintain strong ties with rural areas. Traditional attitudes towards marriage and sexuality affect urban behavior in the extent of marital stability, the frequency of polygyny, and the emotional bond between spouses. Ethnic groups in Kampala and Nairobi exemplify the cultural foundations of two forms of sexual relations found in the region, one characterized by prostitution and the other by small circles of interchanging lovers. The first results in a more rapid spread of HIV through the urban population and outwards into rural areas. Each pattern exerts unique constraints on behavioral change and requires different prevention campaigns. PMID:2682946

  4. Characterisation of Central-African emissions based on MAX-DOAS measurements, satellite observations and model simulations over Bujumbura, Burundi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gielen, Clio; Hendrick, Francois; Pinardi, Gaia; De Smedt, Isabelle; Stavrakou, Trissevgeni; Yu, Huan; Fayt, Caroline; Hermans, Christian; Bauwens, Maité; Ndenzako, Eugene; Nzohabonayo, Pierre; Akimana, Rachel; Niyonzima, Sébastien; Müller, Jean-Francois; Van Roozendael, Michel

    2016-04-01

    Central Africa is known for its strong biogenic, pyrogenic, and to a lesser extent anthropogenic emissions. Satellite observations of species like nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and formaldehyde (HCHO), as well as inverse modelling results have shown that there are large uncertainties associated with the emissions in this region. There is thus a need for additional measurements, especially from the ground, in order to better characterise the biomass-burning and biogenic products emitted in this area. We present MAX-DOAS measurements of NO2, HCHO, and aerosols performed in Central Africa, in the city of Bujumbura, Burundi (3°S, 29°E, 850m). A MAX-DOAS instrument has been operating at this location by BIRA-IASB since late 2013. Aerosol-extinction and trace-gases vertical profiles are retrieved by applying the optimal-estimation-based profiling tool bePRO to the measured O4, NO2 and HCHO slant-column densities. The MAX-DOAS vertical columns and profiles are used for investigating the diurnal and seasonal cycles of NO2, HCHO, and aerosols. Regarding the aerosols, the retrieved AODs are compared to co-located AERONET sun photometer measurements for verification purpose, while in the case of NO2 and HCHO, the MAX-DOAS vertical columns and profiles are used for validating GOME-2 and OMI satellite observations. To characterise the biomass-burning and biogenic emissions in the Bujumbura region, the trace gases and aerosol MAX-DOAS retrievals are used in combination to MODIS fire counts/radiative-power and GOME-2/OMI NO2 and HCHO satellite data, as well as simulations from the NOAA backward trajectory model HYSPLIT. First results show that HCHO seasonal variation around local noon is driven by the alternation of rain and dry periods, the latter being associated with intense biomass-burning agricultural activities and forest fires in the south/south-east and transport from this region to Bujumbura. In contrast, NO2 is seen to depend mainly on local emissions close to the city, due

  5. Evaluation of Minerals, Phytochemical Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Mexican, Central American, and African Green Leafy Vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Aguilar, Dulce M; Grusak, Michael A

    2015-12-01

    The green leafy vegetables Cnidoscolus aconitifolius and Crotalaria longirostrata are native to Mexico and Central America, while Solanum scabrum and Gynandropsis gynandra are native to Africa. They are consumed in both rural and urban areas in those places as a main food, food ingredient or traditional medicine. Currently, there is limited information about their nutritional and phytochemical composition. Therefore, mineral, vitamin C, phenolic and flavonoid concentration, and antioxidant activity were evaluated in multiple accessions of these leafy vegetables, and their mineral and vitamin C contribution per serving was calculated. The concentrations of Ca, K, Mg and P in these leafy vegetables were 0.82-2.32, 1.61-7.29, 0.61-1.48 and 0.27-1.44 mg/g fresh weight (FW), respectively. The flavonoid concentration in S. scabrum accessions was up to 1413 μg catechin equivalents/g FW, while the highest antioxidant activities were obtained in C. longirostrata accessions (52-60 μmol Trolox equivalents/g FW). According to guidelines established by the US Food and Drug Administration, a serving size (30 g FW) of C. longirostrata would be considered an excellent source of Mo (20 % or more of the daily value), and a serving of any of these green leafy vegetables would be an excellent source of vitamin C. Considering the importance of the minerals, phytochemicals and antioxidants in human health and their presence in these indigenous green leafy vegetables, efforts to promote their consumption should be implemented.

  6. Taxonomy of Atlantic Central African orchids 2. A second species of the rare genus Distylodon (Orchidaceae, Angraecinae collected in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Droissart

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available While conducting field inventories in South Cameroon, we collected two specimens of a new species that we considered to belong to the genus Angraecopsis. Afterwards, a careful examination of specimens housed at main herbaria, along with the nomenclatural types, allows us to place it in Distylodon, a monotypic genus previously known from East Africa. Distylodon sonkeanum Droissart, Stévart & P.J.Cribb, sp. nov. was collected in the lowland coastal forest of Atlantic Central Africa. It is known from a single locality in the surroundings of the Campo-Ma’an National Park. The species differs from D. comptum, by its several-flowered inflorescences, longer leaves and spur, and shorter pedicel and ovary. The species appears to be rare and is assessed as Critically Endangered [CR B2ab(iii] according to IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria. New field investigations are required to attempt to find it in the low-elevation parts of the Campo-Ma’an National Park in Cameroon.

  7. Evaluation of Minerals, Phytochemical Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Mexican, Central American, and African Green Leafy Vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Aguilar, Dulce M; Grusak, Michael A

    2015-12-01

    The green leafy vegetables Cnidoscolus aconitifolius and Crotalaria longirostrata are native to Mexico and Central America, while Solanum scabrum and Gynandropsis gynandra are native to Africa. They are consumed in both rural and urban areas in those places as a main food, food ingredient or traditional medicine. Currently, there is limited information about their nutritional and phytochemical composition. Therefore, mineral, vitamin C, phenolic and flavonoid concentration, and antioxidant activity were evaluated in multiple accessions of these leafy vegetables, and their mineral and vitamin C contribution per serving was calculated. The concentrations of Ca, K, Mg and P in these leafy vegetables were 0.82-2.32, 1.61-7.29, 0.61-1.48 and 0.27-1.44 mg/g fresh weight (FW), respectively. The flavonoid concentration in S. scabrum accessions was up to 1413 μg catechin equivalents/g FW, while the highest antioxidant activities were obtained in C. longirostrata accessions (52-60 μmol Trolox equivalents/g FW). According to guidelines established by the US Food and Drug Administration, a serving size (30 g FW) of C. longirostrata would be considered an excellent source of Mo (20 % or more of the daily value), and a serving of any of these green leafy vegetables would be an excellent source of vitamin C. Considering the importance of the minerals, phytochemicals and antioxidants in human health and their presence in these indigenous green leafy vegetables, efforts to promote their consumption should be implemented. PMID:26490448

  8. Attainment of MDGs through tourism in the Central African sub-region: Implications for local economic development in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert N. Kimbu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo examina el papel y la contribución del turismo al desarrollo económico local y en persecución de los Objetivos de Desarrollo del Milenio uno y siete referentes a la mitigación de la probreza extrama y la sostenibilidad ambiental en la biodiversa región de Africa Central. Los conceptos de desarrollo sostenible del turismo y desarrollo económico local (en le África subsahariana son exami-nados. A través de observaciones de campo y entrevistas semi-estructuradas con 21 partes interesadas de la industria turística de Camerún, se lleva a cabo un análisis del papel y del futuro del turismo en el desarrollo económico local y del logro de los Objetivos de Desarrollo del Milenio 1 y 7. Los actuales desafíos que inhiben el desarrollo turístico limitando su contribución al desarrollo económico y local son identificados y un marco dentro del cual el turismo puede contribuir es propuesto.

  9. Geochronology of the Birim Supergroup of the West African craton in the Wa-Bolé region of west-central Ghana: Implications for the stratigraphic framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kock, G. S.; Armstrong, R. A.; Siegfried, H. P.; Thomas, E.

    2011-01-01

    The Birim rocks of the West African craton comprise belts of greenschist- to amphibolite-grade gneiss and schist, and subparallel basins of greenschist-grade phyllite of volcaniclastic and epiclastic origin, which were intruded by igneous rocks. The granitoids intruded between 2213 and 2060 Ma and overlap with the volcaniclastic units dated between 2211 and 2064 Ma. The simultaneous occurrence of the magmatic events and irregular distribution of the rock ages hamper the formulation of a stratigraphic succession. SHRIMP spot analyses were done on older cores, crystals and rims from 23 rocks from the Bolé-Wa region in west-central Ghana. The crystallization ages range from 2195 to 2118 Ma, the inherited ages from 2876 to 2130 Ma, and metamorphic ages from 2114 to 2090 Ma. Aided by metamorphic, structural and chemical studies an older geotectonic cycle (2195-2150 Ma), containing the Dole and Guropie Suite and Bolé Group, was established. These units were subjected to several orthogonal and shear deformation events. These events were followed by the contemporaneous Sawla calc-alkaline monzonitic plutonism (2132-2126 Ma) and deposition of the epiclastic Maluwe Group (2137-2125 Ma) of calc-alkaline felsic to tholeiitic volcanic origin. Deformation of the basin beds was succeeded by the intrusion of the Tanina Suite granitoids of 2122-2120 Ma, which, themselves, were deformed prior to 2119 Ma. At 2118 Ma syenite and gabbro intruded along conjugate extension fractures. The gabbro and syenite of the Wakawaka Suite were only affected by three events of brittle strike-slip faulting. The first had significant displacement along NNE- to NE-directed shear zones, while the latter only formed conjugate joint systems with limited transport. Palaeo- to Neoarchaean cores, the oldest yet reported in the Baoulé Mossi domain, are restricted to the gneissic Dole Suite biotite granites. The presence of Dole-, Guropie-, Sawla-, and Tanina-aged older cores and grains in younger rocks

  10. Diet-related buccal dental microwear patterns in Central African Pygmy foragers and Bantu-speaking farmer and pastoralist populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Alejandro; Ramírez-Rozzi, Fernando V; De Juan, Joaquín; Pérez-Pérez, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    Pygmy hunter-gatherers from Central Africa have shared a network of socioeconomic interactions with non-Pygmy Bantu speakers since agropastoral lifestyle spread across sub-Saharan Africa. Ethnographic studies have reported that their diets differ in consumption of both animal proteins and starch grains. Hunted meat and gathered plant foods, especially underground storage organs (USOs), are dietary staples for pygmies. However, scarce information exists about forager-farmer interaction and the agricultural products used by pygmies. Since the effects of dietary preferences on teeth in modern and past pygmies remain unknown, we explored dietary history through quantitative analysis of buccal microwear on cheek teeth in well-documented Baka pygmies. We then determined if microwear patterns differ among other Pygmy groups (Aka, Mbuti, and Babongo) and between Bantu-speaking farmer and pastoralist populations from past centuries. The buccal dental microwear patterns of Pygmy hunter-gatherers and non-Pygmy Bantu pastoralists show lower scratch densities, indicative of diets more intensively based on nonabrasive foodstuffs, compared with Bantu farmers, who consume larger amounts of grit from stoneground foods. The Baka pygmies showed microwear patterns similar to those of ancient Aka and Mbuti, suggesting that the mechanical properties of their preferred diets have not significantly changed through time. In contrast, Babongo pygmies showed scratch densities and lengths similar to those of the farmers, consistent with sociocultural contacts and genetic factors. Our findings support that buccal microwear patterns predict dietary habits independent of ecological conditions and reflect the abrasive properties of preferred or fallback foods such as USOs, which may have contributed to the dietary specializations of ancient human populations.

  11. Diet-related buccal dental microwear patterns in Central African Pygmy foragers and Bantu-speaking farmer and pastoralist populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Romero

    Full Text Available Pygmy hunter-gatherers from Central Africa have shared a network of socioeconomic interactions with non-Pygmy Bantu speakers since agropastoral lifestyle spread across sub-Saharan Africa. Ethnographic studies have reported that their diets differ in consumption of both animal proteins and starch grains. Hunted meat and gathered plant foods, especially underground storage organs (USOs, are dietary staples for pygmies. However, scarce information exists about forager-farmer interaction and the agricultural products used by pygmies. Since the effects of dietary preferences on teeth in modern and past pygmies remain unknown, we explored dietary history through quantitative analysis of buccal microwear on cheek teeth in well-documented Baka pygmies. We then determined if microwear patterns differ among other Pygmy groups (Aka, Mbuti, and Babongo and between Bantu-speaking farmer and pastoralist populations from past centuries. The buccal dental microwear patterns of Pygmy hunter-gatherers and non-Pygmy Bantu pastoralists show lower scratch densities, indicative of diets more intensively based on nonabrasive foodstuffs, compared with Bantu farmers, who consume larger amounts of grit from stoneground foods. The Baka pygmies showed microwear patterns similar to those of ancient Aka and Mbuti, suggesting that the mechanical properties of their preferred diets have not significantly changed through time. In contrast, Babongo pygmies showed scratch densities and lengths similar to those of the farmers, consistent with sociocultural contacts and genetic factors. Our findings support that buccal microwear patterns predict dietary habits independent of ecological conditions and reflect the abrasive properties of preferred or fallback foods such as USOs, which may have contributed to the dietary specializations of ancient human populations.

  12. New constraints on the Pan-African tectonics and the role of the Mwembeshi Zone in Central Zambia: Deformation style and timing of two orthogonal shortening events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naydenov, Kalin; Lehmann, Jeremie; Saalmann, Kerstin; Milani, Lorenzo; Kinnaird, Judith; Charlesworth, Guy; Rankin, William; Frei, Dirk

    2014-05-01

    In Central Zambia the Mwembeshi Zone (MwZ) separates two branches of the Late Neoproterozoic - Cambrian Pan-African Orogen: the NE-convex Lufilian Arc and the E-W trending Zambezi Belt whose distinct features emphasize the role of the zone as a regional structural and metamorphic boundary. North of the MwZ, the Hook Batholith was emplaced within the low metamorphic grade Neoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks, and represents the largest Pan-African intrusion in Southern Africa. The granitoids and their host-rocks were affected by two deformation events. During the D1 deformation of E-W shortening, two high-strained zones developed in the batholith. To the NE, the Nalusanga Zone (NZ) is a ~3 km wide NW-striking subvertical sinistral strike-slip shear zone. To the SW, a ~2.5 km wide N-S trending subvertical pure-shear Itezhi-Tezhi Zone (ITZ) formed. In both structures, the granitoids show a smooth transition from weakly deformed rocks to porphyroclastic mylonites. Microstructural analysis defined them as medium metamorphic grade zones, deforming the granitoids at temperatures between 500 and 550°C. The lower greenschist facies metamorphism in the country rocks indicates that the deformation occurred during the cooling of the granitoids. D1 in the metasedimentary rocks east of the Hook batholith formed tight, upright folds with subvertical axial-planar cleavage and NNW-SSE trending axis consistent with the E-W shortening. U-Pb zircon geochronology and cross-cutting relationships between granites bracket D1 deformation between 549 ± 2 Ma and 541 ± 3 Ma in the NZ and in the SE part of the batholith. In the ITZ, the 533 ± 3 Ma age on a deformed granite indicates prolonged E-W shortening during granite emplacement and cooling history. D2 represents a stage of N-S shortening. Airborne geophysical data revealed bending of the N-S trending ITZ and rotation to the east. The D1 structures in the granitoids are cut by D2 north-vergent thrusts and subvertical NW trending

  13. Molecular epidemiology of 58 new African human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) strains: identification of a new and distinct HTLV-1 molecular subtype in Central Africa and in Pygmies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahieux, R; Ibrahim, F; Mauclere, P; Herve, V; Michel, P; Tekaia, F; Chappey, C; Garin, B; Van Der Ryst, E; Guillemain, B; Ledru, E; Delaporte, E; de The, G; Gessain, A

    1997-02-01

    To gain new insights on the origin, evolution, and modes of dissemination of human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-1), we performed a molecular analysis of 58 new African HTLV-1 strains (18 from West Africa, 36 from Central Africa, and 4 from South Africa) originating from 13 countries. Of particular interest were eight strains from Pygmies of remote areas of Cameroon and the Central African Republic (CAR), considered to be the oldest inhabitants of these regions. Eight long-term activated T-cell lines producing HTLV-1 gag and env antigens were established from peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures of HTLV-1 seropositive individuals, including three from Pygmies. A fragment of the env gene encompassing most of the gp21 transmembrane region was sequenced for the 58 new strains, while the complete long terminal repeat (LTR) region was sequenced for 9 strains, including 4 from Pygmies. Comparative sequence analyses and phylogenetic studies performed on both the env and LTR regions by the neighbor-joining and DNA parsimony methods demonstrated that all 22 strains from West and South Africa belong to the widespread cosmopolitan subtype (also called HTLV-1 subtype A). Within or alongside the previously described Zairian cluster (HTLV-1 subtype B), we discovered a number of new HTLV-1 variants forming different subgroups corresponding mainly to the geographical origins of the infected persons, Cameroon, Gabon, and Zaire. Six of the eight Pygmy strains clustered together within this Central African subtype, suggesting a common origin. Furthermore, three new strains (two originating from Pygmies from Cameroon and the CAR, respectively, and one from a Gabonese individual) were particularly divergent and formed a distinct new phylogenetic cluster, characterized by specific mutations and occupying in most analyses a unique phylogenetic position between the large Central African genotype (HTLV-1 subtype B) and the Melanesian subtype (HTLV-1 subtype C). We have

  14. Supervision of Central African Economic and Monetary Community medical market%浅谈中非经济与货币共同体的医药市场监管

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吉迪; 蒋倩; 平其能

    2009-01-01

    目的:为走近中国与中非药品市场交流和中非经济与货币共同体(CEMAC)创建药品共同监管市场提供参考.方法:主要通过文献分析的研究手段,分析中非经济与货币共同体药品市场的现状、目前的形势,并提出了CEMAC在医药市场监管中存在的问题,通过分析提出了完善医药市场的方法.结论:要实现中非药品市场的共同监管,应立足中非各国国情,建立中非共同市场以实现共同监管,同时提供中国关心中非药品市场交流的企业和专家参考文件的目的.%Objective To provide references for the Central African Economic and Monetary Community to set up common medical market.Methods Current situation and problems existing in the Centrat African Economic and Monetary Community were analyzed by literature analysis.Methods of improving the medical market were proposed.Conclusion Central African national conditions should be based on to achieve the common supervision of CEMAC.We should set up the Central African Common Market in order to achieve the purpose of co-regulation.

  15. Behavioral responses of one western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) group at Bai Hokou, Central African Republic, to tourists, researchers and trackers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klailova, Michelle; Hodgkinson, Chloe; Lee, Phyllis C

    2010-09-01

    Gorilla tourism, widely perceived as a lucrative industry, is propelled by strong market demand with programs in five countries and for three of four gorilla subspecies. Human presence may negatively affect wild gorillas, potentially lowering immunity and increasing the likelihood of acquiring human-borne disease. Yet, behavioral impacts of humans on wild gorilla behavior remain largely unexplored, particularly for western lowland gorillas. We evaluate the impact of tourist presence, human observer numbers (tourists, trackers, and researchers), and human observer distance on the behavior of one habituated gorilla group at Bai Hokou, Central African Republic. Behavioral data were collected for more than 12 months from January 2007. Of silverback aggressive events, 39% (N=229) were human directed, but 65% were low-level soft barks. Adult females, and one in particular, were responsible for the highest number of aggressive events toward humans. Humans maintained closer proximity to the silverback when tourists were present, although tourist numbers had no significant impact on overall group activity budgets or rates of human-directed aggression. However, as research team size increased, group feeding rates decreased. Close observer-silverback distance correlated with a decrease in his feeding rates and an increase in human monitoring. He directed less aggression toward observers at distances >10 m, although observers spent 48.5% of time between 6 and 10 m of the silverback. We discuss gorilla personality as a factor in human-directed aggression. We explore whether the current 7 m distance limit governing gorilla tourism, based on disease transmission risks, is sufficient considering the potential behavioral stressor of close human presence. We recommend increasing minimum observation distance to >10 m where possible, decreasing observer group sizes, particularly after a visit consisting of maximum numbers and restricting tourist access to 1 visit/day. PMID:20806337

  16. Investigation into the Epidemiology of African Swine Fever Virus at the Wildlife - Domestic Interface of the Gorongosa National Park, Central Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quembo, C J; Jori, F; Heath, L; Pérez-Sánchez, R; Vosloo, W

    2016-08-01

    An epidemiological study of African swine fever (ASF) was conducted between March 2006 and September 2007 in a rural area adjacent to the Gorongosa National park (GNP) located in the Central Mozambique. Domestic pigs and warthogs were sampled to determine the prevalence of antibodies against ASF virus and the salivary antigens of Ornithodoros spp. ticks, while ticks collected from pig pens were tested for the presence of ASFV. In addition, 310 framers were interviewed to gain a better understanding of the pig value chain and potential practices that could impact on the spread of the virus. The sero-prevalence to ASFV was 12.6% on farms and 9.1% in pigs, while it reached 75% in warthogs. Approximately 33% of pigs and 78% of warthogs showed antibodies against salivary antigens of ticks. The differences in sero-prevalence between farms close to the GNP, where there is greater chance for the sylvatic cycle to cause outbreaks, and farms located in the rest of the district, where pig to pig transmission is more likely to occur, were marginally significant. Ornithodoros spp. ticks were found in only 2 of 20 pig pens outside the GNP, and both pens had ticks testing positive for ASFV DNA. Interviews carried out among farmers indicated that biosecurity measures were mostly absent. Herd sizes were small with pigs kept in a free-ranging husbandry system (65%). Only 1.6% of farmers slaughtered on their premises, but 51% acknowledged allowing visitors into their farms to purchase pigs. ASF outbreaks seemed to have a severe economic impact with nearly 36% of farmers ceasing pig farming for at least 1 year after a suspected ASF outbreak. This study provides the first evidence of the existence of a sylvatic cycle in Mozambique and confirms the presence of a permanent source of virus for the domestic pig value chain. PMID:25483914

  17. Pronounced Seasonal Changes in the Movement Ecology of a Highly Gregarious Central-Place Forager, the African Straw-Coloured Fruit Bat (Eidolon helvum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Fahr

    Full Text Available Straw-coloured fruit bats (Eidolon helvum migrate over vast distances across the African continent, probably following seasonal bursts of resource availability. This causes enormous fluctuations in population size, which in turn may influence the bats' impact on local ecosystems. We studied the movement ecology of this central-place forager with state-of-the-art GPS/acceleration loggers and concurrently monitored the seasonal fluctuation of the colony in Accra, Ghana. Habitat use on the landscape scale was assessed with remote sensing data as well as ground-truthing of foraging areas.During the wet season population low (~ 4000 individuals, bats foraged locally (3.5-36.7 km in urban areas with low tree cover. Major food sources during this period were fruits of introduced trees. Foraging distances almost tripled (24.1-87.9 km during the dry season population peak (~ 150,000 individuals, but this was not compensated for by reduced resting periods. Dry season foraging areas were random with regard to urban footprint and tree cover, and food consisted almost exclusively of nectar and pollen of native trees.Our study suggests that straw-coloured fruit bats disperse seeds in the range of hundreds of meters up to dozens of kilometres, and pollinate trees for up to 88 km. Straw-coloured fruit bats forage over much larger distances compared to most other Old World fruit bats, thus providing vital ecosystem services across extensive landscapes. We recommend increased efforts aimed at maintaining E. helvum populations throughout Africa since their keystone role in various ecosystems is likely to increase due to the escalating loss of other seed dispersers as well as continued urbanization and habitat fragmentation.

  18. The New African Civil-Military Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    on the African continent to embark upon the New African Civil Military Relations (ACMR). In the last decade and half, the implosion of African states exposed to forces of democratization has escalated, manifest in Algeria, Egypt, Mali, Madagascar, Somalia, South Sudan, Central African Republic and Lesotho...... accorded the responsibility of organizing a Session on ACMR. From amongst some of the exciting Abstracts presented, authors submitted these as full chapters for this book which captures International African Studies Perspectives, managed by the African Public Policy & Research Institute (APPRI...

  19. Country Presentation. Central African Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    No incident related to the illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive materials has been yet reported in the country. However, rumors relating to the orphaned sources exist due to buried radioactive waste and former radiotherapy activities. Illicit trafficking of nuclear materials and radioactive materials is a new threat for the law enforcement agents.This is contributed by absence of dedicated equipment for radiation detection either at the border or within the country, lack of awareness of agents in charge of enforcement control, porosity of the border, absence of a protocol for exchanging information between Customs, intelligence and Police Service

  20. Benefiting Africans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Along with thriving Sino-African economic and trade ties,Chinese companies have attached greater importance to their social responsibility to Africans.More than 2,000 sweaters woven by Chinese mothers were sent to orphans and disabled children in Kenya and four other African countries in September. This activity was launched by Hengyuanxiang,aleading Chinese wool manufacturer.

  1. Benefiting Africans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG ZHIPING

    2011-01-01

    Along with thriving Sino-African economic and trade ties,Chinese companies have attached greater importance to their social responsibility to Africans.More than 2,000 sweaters woven by Chinese mothers were sent to orphans and disabled children in Kenya and four other African countries in September.This activity was launched by Hengyuanxiang,a leading Chinese wool manufacturer.

  2. [Prescribing and dispensing generic drugs in the Mambéré-Kadéï health district of the Central African Republic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouala, C; Abeye, J; Somse, P; Maritoux, J; Goumba, A

    2008-04-01

    Good drug prescription and distribution practices are pre-requisites for rational use of essential generic medications. However few studies have been conducted on this topic in sub-Saharan Africa especially in rural areas. The purpose of this study in the Mambéré-Kadei health district of the Central African Republic was to evaluate drug use patterns with special attention to prescribing and dispensing, as a basis for assisting policy makers in planning and identifying intervention strategies. The transverse descriptive survey was undertaken in 14 public health facilities in the Mambéré-Kadéï health district. Data were collected by interviewing care providers and patients immediately after consultation and at the exit of the dispensary. The indicators recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) for investigating drug use patterns in Communities were used for data collection. A total of 512 prescriptions were analysed. The average number of drugs prescribed per consultation was 3.5. Most drugs (68.6%) were prescribed by generic name. Antibiotic use (31.4% of consultations) was frequent and 29% of patients received injections. 82.1% of the drugs were compliant with the national essential drug list. The distribution survey showed that 79.46% of prescriptions were completely filled. No serious distribution errors occurred but 21.5% of the dispensed drugs were inadequately labelled. Patients understood the modalities of use for 69.6% of prescribed drugs. The average consultation and distribution times were 8.3 and 5 minutes respectively. Excessive use of antibiotics and injections and blunderbuss therapy is still observed in Mambéré-Kadei. Many drugs not included on the essential drug list and non-generics are prescribed. Other prescription and distribution problems identified in this survey include poor information on drug use, inadequate labelling of dispensed drugs, and lack of access to standard drug use tools such as a locally adapted essential drug

  3. Genetic diversity and difference within and between bitter and sweet African bush mango trees (Irvingia spp., Irvingiaceae) in West and Central Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vihotogbé, R.; Berg, van den R.G.; Missinhoun, A.A.; Sinsin, B.; Sosef, M.S.M.

    2015-01-01

    Economically important food tree species in sub-Saharan Africa should be domesticated to enhance their production within agro forestry systems. The African bush mango trees (Irvingia species) are highly preserved and integrated in agro forestry systems in tropical Africa. However, the taxonomic deba

  4. Second workshop of participants in the Joint FAO-IOC-WHO-IAEA-UNEP project on monitoring of pollution in the marine environment of the West and Central African Region (WACAF/2 - first phase)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Second Workshop of Participants in the Joint FAO-IOC-WHO-IAEA-UNEP Project on Monitoring of Pollution in the Marine Environment of the West and Central African Region (WACAF/2) was attended by 29 participants from 10 countries (Senegal, The Gambia, Sierra Leone, Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana, Benin, Nigeria, Cameroun, Congo and Gabon). Levels of metals, chlorinated hydrocarbons and petroleum components in marine biota were discussed in seven scientific reports which were presented by the participating scientists (Cote d'Ivoire, Sierra Leone, Nigeria, The Gambia, ghana and Cameroun). Three of the presented reports were on organochlorines and four dealt with trace metal levels in marine organisms. The Representative of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) reviewed the results obtained during the data quality assurance intercalibration exercises carried out in the region during the first phase. The result received are still within acceptable range. However, there seems to be a trend for values to be higher than the range of finally certified concentrations. Considering that most results were clearly better in the second exercise, after equipment service, part of the earlier deviation might be attributed to instrument malfunctions. These results can be regarded as fairly encouraging for the future development in the West and Central African marine pollution monitoring programme. Refs, tabs

  5. Assessing the contributions of East African and West Pacific warming to the 2014 boreal spring East African drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Christopher C.; Shukla, Shraddhanand; Hoell, Andrew; Livneh, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic warming contributed to the 2014 East African drought by increasing East African and west Pacific temperatures, and increasing the gradient between standardized western and central Pacific SST causing reduced rainfall, evapotranspiration, and soil moisture.

  6. Phylogeny of the Lake Tanganyika cichlid species flock and its relationship to the Central and East African haplochromine cichlid fish fauna

    OpenAIRE

    Salzburger, Walter; Meyer, Axel; Baric, Sanja; Verheyen, Erik; Sturmbauer, Christian

    2002-01-01

    Lake Tanganyika, the oldest of the East African Great Lakes, harbors the ecologically, morphologically, and behaviorally most complex of all assemblages of cichlid Fishes, consisting of about 200 described species. The evolutionary old age of the cichlid assemblage, its extreme degree of morphological differentiation, the lack of species with intermediate morphologies, and the rapidity of lineage formation havemade evolutionary reconstruction difficult. The number and origin of seeding lineag...

  7. Model-based analyses of whole-genome data reveal a complex evolutionary history involving archaic introgression in Central African Pygmies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, PingHsun; Woerner, August E; Wall, Jeffrey D; Lachance, Joseph; Tishkoff, Sarah A; Gutenkunst, Ryan N; Hammer, Michael F

    2016-03-01

    Comparisons of whole-genome sequences from ancient and contemporary samples have pointed to several instances of archaic admixture through interbreeding between the ancestors of modern non-Africans and now extinct hominids such as Neanderthals and Denisovans. One implication of these findings is that some adaptive features in contemporary humans may have entered the population via gene flow with archaic forms in Eurasia. Within Africa, fossil evidence suggests that anatomically modern humans (AMH) and various archaic forms coexisted for much of the last 200,000 yr; however, the absence of ancient DNA in Africa has limited our ability to make a direct comparison between archaic and modern human genomes. Here, we use statistical inference based on high coverage whole-genome data (greater than 60×) from contemporary African Pygmy hunter-gatherers as an alternative means to study the evolutionary history of the genus Homo. Using whole-genome simulations that consider demographic histories that include both isolation and gene flow with neighboring farming populations, our inference method rejects the hypothesis that the ancestors of AMH were genetically isolated in Africa, thus providing the first whole genome-level evidence of African archaic admixture. Our inferences also suggest a complex human evolutionary history in Africa, which involves at least a single admixture event from an unknown archaic population into the ancestors of AMH, likely within the last 30,000 yr.

  8. Superposition de la tectonique éburnéenne et panafricaine dans les granitoïdes de la bordure nord du craton ouest africain, boutonniére de Zenaga, Anti-Atlas central, Maroc(Pan-african overprint on Eburnian granitoids at the northern boundary of the West African Craton, Zenaga Inlier, central Anti-Atlas, Morocco)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennih, N.; Laduron, D.; Greiling, R. O.; Errami, E.; de Wall, H.; Boutaleb, M.

    2001-05-01

    The Zenaga Inlier shows a comprehensive record of the Eburnian and Pan-African Orogenies. The Eburnian is characterised by high-temperature regional metamorphism and complex magmatism. The early (Azguemerzi) granodiorite has an isotopic mantle signature and was emplaced diapirically during the Eburnian Orogeny causing local thermal metamorphism. The foliation observed in this granitoid is a result of the interference between its primary syn-emplacement foliation and the regional foliation under amphibolite-facies conditions. The northern part of Zenaga has been intruded by the leucocratic granites of Tazenakht. These granites are cut by mylonites and phyllonites, corresponding to the Pan-African shear zones and accompanied with sub-greenschist-facies metamorphism during the Pan-African Orogeny. The deformation was the result of a regional sinistral transpressive event. This study in the northern part of the West African Craton shows the superposition of the Pan-African on the Eburnian Orogeny and the presence of a major fault in the Anti-Atlas.

  9. Cancer and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Black/African American > Cancer Cancer and African Americans African Americans have the highest mortality rate ... 65MB] At a glance – Top Cancer Sites for African Americans (2008-2012) Cancer Incidence Rates per 100, ...

  10. Evidence of heterogeneous crustal origin for the Pan-African Mbengwi granitoids and the associated mafic intrusions (northwestern Cameroon, central Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbassa, Benoît Joseph; Kamgang, Pierre; Grégoire, Michel; Njonfang, Emmanuel; Benoit, Mathieu; Itiga, Zénon; Duchene, Stéphanie; Bessong, Moïse; Nguet, Pauline Wonkwenmendam; Nfomou, Ntepe

    2016-02-01

    The Mbengwi plutonics consist of intermediate to felsic granitoids forming a continuous magmatic series from monzonite to granite and mafic intrusions. Their mineralogical composition consists of quartz, plagioclases, K-feldspars, biotite, muscovite, and amphibole. The accessory phase includes opaque minerals + titanite ± apatite ± zircon, while secondary minerals are pyrite, phengite, chlorite, epidote, and rarely calcite. These plutonics are assigned high-K calc-alkaline to shoshonitic series, metaluminous to weakly peraluminous and mostly belong to an I-type suite (A/CNK = 0.63-1.2). They are typically post-collisional, with a subduction signature probably being inherited from their protoliths emplaced during the subduction phase. The Sr and Nd isotopic data evidence that these plutonics result from melting of the lower continental crust with variable contribution of the oceanic crust. Their geochemical features are similar to those of western Cameroon granitoids related to the Pan-African D1 event in Cameroon.

  11. Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia

    OpenAIRE

    Collin Blattner; Dennis C Polley; Frank Ferritto; Elston, Dirk M

    2013-01-01

    Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia is a common cause of progressive permanent apical alopecia. This unique form of alopecia includes entities previously know as “hot comb alopecia,” “follicular degeneration syndrome,” “pseudopelade” in African Americans and “central elliptical pseudopelade” in Caucasians. The etiology appears to be multifactorial and the condition occurs in all races.

  12. Improvisation in West African Musics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, David

    1980-01-01

    Discussed is music of the sub-Sahara. Vocal, instrumental, and dance drumming from the Sudan Desert, the North Coast, East Horn, Central and West Africa, and contrapuntal yodeling of Pygmies is described. For African musicians, the ability to improvise, and creativity, are gifts from God. Includes selected readings and recordings. (KC)

  13. Institutional capacity for health systems research in East and Central African schools of public health: experiences with a capacity assessment tool

    OpenAIRE

    Jessani, Nasreen; Lewy, Daniela; Ekirapa-Kiracho, Elizabeth; Bennett, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite significant investments in health systems research (HSR) capacity development, there is a dearth of information regarding how to assess HSR capacity. An alliance of schools of public health (SPHs) in East and Central Africa developed a tool for the self-assessment of HSR capacity with the aim of producing institutional capacity development plans. Methods Between June and November 2011, seven SPHs across the Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, an...

  14. African dance

    OpenAIRE

    Mumberson, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The RE Open will be shown at the Mall Gallery London and the international section was judged by major practitioners and educators, print dealers and collectors, President of RE and Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum Dr Bren Unwin, John Purcell, Deborah Roslund, Colin Harrison, Dave Ferry, and Mark Hampson. Piece selected "African Dance" print.

  15. "African Connection."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelman, Cathy; And Others

    This interdisciplinary unit provides students in grades kindergarten through seventh grade an opportunity to understand diversity through a study of Africa as a diverse continent. The project is designed to provide all elementary students with cultural enrichment by exposing them to African music, art, storytelling, and movement. This project can…

  16. Climatic change and quasi-oscillations in central-west Argentina summer precipitation: main features and coherent behaviour with southern African region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compagnucci, R. H.; Agosta, E. A.; Vargas, W. M.

    observed in the South African counterpart with severe characteristics, thereby continuing the quasi-18-year oscillation. Consequently, the low-frequency coherent behaviour between both the Argentine and South African regions is lost from the mid-1970s. The analysis of association of wet/dry spells and warm/cold, El Niño/La Niña episodes appears to be not significant at scales of year-to-year variability although at decadal to multi-decadal scales the association could be relevant. More than one process of multi-decadal variability of global SSTs could influence the Argentine summer rainfall region and the former bi-decadal teleconnection. Finally, potential hypothetical factors of change are discussed, such as the strengthening of direct and indirect mechanisms of moisture flux transport associated with global warming, low-level atmospheric circulation changes and/or to SSTs mean condition long-term variations over tropical and subtropical South Atlantic and South Pacific oceans.

  17. A-type magmatism in a syn-collisional setting: The case of the Pan-African Hook Batholith in Central Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Lorenzo; Lehmann, Jérémie; Naydenov, Kalin V.; Saalmann, Kerstin; Kinnaird, Judith A.; Daly, J. Stephen; Frei, Dirk; Lobo-Guerrero Sanz, Alberto

    2015-02-01

    The Pan-African Hook Batholith formed during the assembly of the Gondwana supercontinent as a result of syn-collisional stage interaction between the Congo and Kalahari Cratons. The bimodal magmatism (mafic to predominantly felsic) is characterized by both an alkali-calcic and an alkalic suite, with typical A-type, metaluminous, high Fe/Mg and K/Na geochemical signature. Occasionally, sodic granitoids have been documented. Compositions were driven to more differentiated products by fractional crystallization, while Sr-Nd isotopes exclude crustal assimilation during crystallization. Recent new U-Pb age data constrain most of the felsic magmatism between 550 and 540 Ma. Scattered outcrops of gabbroic rocks, both tholeiitic and alkaline, testify to periodic input of mantle material, and, in some cases, to interaction with metasomatizing fluids. Crystallization ages on mafic rocks span from 570 to 520 Ma, thus indicating that they were contemporaneous with the major granitic intrusion, which was the result of a number of successive felsic batches, eventually forming a coalescing batholith. Highly radiogenic Pb isotopic values attest to the radiogenic character of the rocks. Such an anomalous signature was acquired during, or soon after, magma emplacement, perhaps as result of metasomatizing fluids. Enrichment in Th-U of large portions of the crust along this part of the margin of the Congo Craton is suggested. Geochemical and isotopic evidence support the interaction between mantle components and portions of the deep crust at pressure of magmatism. Low-pressure mineral phases in metasedimentary wall rocks along the eastern margin of the pluton indicate that the magma was emplaced at shallow crustal depths. This study further supports the idea that A-type granites, commonly considered to be restricted to anorogenic or extension-related environments, can also occur in compressional regimes.

  18. Obesity and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  19. Sediment-hosted stratabound copper assessment of the Neoproterozoic Roan Group, central African copperbelt, Katanga Basin, Democratic Republic of the Congo and Zambia: Chapter T in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zientek, Michael L.; Bliss, James D.; Broughton, David W.; Christie, Michael; Denning, Paul D.; Hayes, Timothy S.; Hitzman, Murray W.; Horton, John D.; Frost-Killian, Susan; Jack, Douglas J.; Master, Sharad; Parks, Heather L.; Taylor, Cliff D.; Wilson, Anna B.; Wintzer, Niki E.; Woodhead, Jon

    2014-01-01

    This study estimates the location, quality, and quantity of undiscovered copper in stratabound deposits within the Neoproterozoic Roan Group of the Katanga Basin in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Zambia. The study area encompasses the Central African Copperbelt, the greatest sediment-hosted copper-cobalt province in the world, containing 152 million metric tons of copper in greater than 80 deposits. This study (1) delineates permissive areas (tracts) where undiscovered sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits may occur within 2 kilometers of the surface, (2) provides a database of known sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits and prospects, (3) estimates numbers of undiscovered deposits within these permissive tracts at several levels of confidence, and (4) provides probabilistic estimates of amounts of copper and mineralized rock that could be contained in undiscovered deposits within each tract. The assessment, conducted in January 2010 using a three-part form of mineral resource assessment, indicates that a substantial amount of undiscovered copper resources might occur in sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits within the Roan Group in the Katanga Basin. Monte Carlo simulation results that combine grade and tonnage models with estimates of undiscovered deposits indicate that the mean estimate of undiscovered copper in the study area is 168 million metric tons, which is slightly greater than the known resources at 152 million metric tons. Furthermore, significant value can be expected from associated metals, particularly cobalt. Tracts in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) have potential to contain near-surface, undiscovered deposits. Monte Carlo simulation results indicate a mean value of 37 million metric tons of undiscovered copper may be present in significant prospects.

  20. Harnessing the Power of Globalization for African Development

    OpenAIRE

    Kwabena Gyimah-Brempong

    2010-01-01

    This address highlights how Africa can take advantage of the current wave of globalization to accelerate its development efforts. The central theme is that African countries should not be afraid to open up their economies to globalization because openness confers several benefits, including technology transfers, expanding markets for African exports, and employment creation. However, to be able to take advantage of the benefits of globalization, African countries need to improve their domesti...

  1. The Freshwater Oyster Etheria elliptica as a Tool to Reconstruct Climate Variability across the African Continent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhove, D.; Gillikin, D. P.; Kelemen, Z.; Bouillon, S.

    2015-12-01

    The bivalve Etheria elliptica occurs abundantly in (sub)tropical African river basins. We investigate its potential use for the reconstruction of ambient water chemistry and climate by means of stable oxygen isotope ratios in specimens from the Congo river (Kisangani), the Oubangui river (Bangui) and the Victoria Nile (Jinja). Unlike other common African bivalve species, E. elliptica contains distinct organic-rich growth increments, previously suggested to correlate with lunar periodicity. However, cavities in the shell complicate age reading and little is known about the exact timing and continuity of these growth increments. We set up a comparative study between different techniques to visualize and enhance growth features, and find that staining with Mutvei's solution and confocal fluorescence microscopy perform equally well. Despite the presence of cavities, growth lines can generally be followed from umbo to shell margin. Moreover, preliminary δ18O results of two micro-sampled specimens from the Oubangui river show that 12-13 growth lines occur within one year of growth. This corroborates that these increments can be used as temporal anchor points, providing a moon-monthly time frame for sequential microchemistry. In two Congo river specimens, δ18Oshell values vary between -1.9 and -3.8 ‰ (VPDB), in line with a predicted range of -2.1 to -4.1 ‰ based on fortnightly δ18Owater and T monitoring. Reconstructed intra-annual δ18Owater variability from δ18Oshell values and observed T correlates with discharge, reflecting rainfall and runoff variability in the upstream catchment area. In two Victoria Nile specimens, collected 20 km downstream from Lake Victoria, δ18Oshell values are high and relatively constant, varying between +1.8 and +3.2 ‰. Enrichment of 18Oshell is consistent with isotopically heavy rainfall signatures and elevated surface evaporation in Lake Victoria. These first results suggest that E. elliptica is well-suited for the reconstruction

  2. Heart Disease and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Heart Disease Heart Disease and African Americans Although African American adults are ... were 30 percent more likely to die from heart disease than non-Hispanic whites. African American women are ...

  3. What is Ubuntu? Different Interpretations among South Africans of African Descent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Christian B.N.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I describe and systematize the different answers to the question 'What is Ubuntu?' that I have been able to identify among South Africans of African descent (SAADs). I show that it is possible to distinguish between two clusters of answers. The answers of the first cluster all...... define ubuntu as a moral quality of a person, while the answers of the second cluster all define ubuntu as a phenomenon (for instance a philosophy, an ethic, African humanism, or, a wordview) according to which persons are interconnected. The concept of a person is of central importance to all the...

  4. Long-term monitoring of microsporidia, Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections in western Lowland Gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla at different stages of habituation in Dzanga Sangha Protected Areas, Central African Republic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohumil Sak

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infectious diseases pose one of the greatest threats to endangered species, and a risk of gastrointestinal parasite transmission from humans to wildlife has always been considered as a major concern of tourism. Increased anthropogenic impact on primate populations may result in general changes in communities of their parasites, and also in a direct exchange of parasites between humans and primates. AIMS: To evaluate the impact of close contact with humans on the occurrence of potentially zoonotic protists in great apes, we conducted a long-term monitoring of microsporidia, Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections in western lowland gorillas at different stages of the habituation process, humans, and other wildlife in Dzanga-Sangha Protected Areas in the Central African Republic. RESULTS: We detected Encephalitozoon cuniculi genotypes I and II (7.5%, Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotype D and three novel genotypes (gorilla 1-3 (4.0%, Giardia intestinalis subgroup A II (2.0% and Cryptosporidium bovis (0.5% in gorillas, whereas in humans we found only G. intestinalis subgroup A II (2.1%. In other wild and domestic animals we recorded E. cuniculi genotypes I and II (2.1%, G. intestinalis assemblage E (0.5% and C. muris TS03 (0.5%. CONCLUSION: Due to the non-specificity of E. cuniculi genotypes we conclude that detection of the exact source of E. cuniculi infection is problematic. As Giardia intestinalis was recorded primarily in gorilla groups with closer human contact, we suggest that human-gorilla transmission has occurred. We call attention to a potentially negative impact of habituation on selected pathogens which might occur as a result of the more frequent presence of humans in the vicinity of both gorillas under habituation and habituated gorillas, rather than as a consequence of the close contact with humans, which might be a more traditional assumption. We encourage to observe the sections concerning hygiene from the IUCN best

  5. African Americans and Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Involved News About Us Donate In This Section African Americans and Glaucoma email Send this article to ... glaucoma is the leading cause of blindness in African Americans. Half of those with glaucoma don't ...

  6. AFRICAN LITERATURE REFLECTS TWO MAJOR INFLUENCES; TRADITIONAL CULTURE AND COLONIAL EXPERIENCE.

    OpenAIRE

    T. S. Deokule

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to study that African literature reflects two major influences: traditional culture and colonial experience. It also focuses on how the African literature epitomizes the encounter between Africa and Europe, the racial relations between whites and the blacks but Negritude Movement writers contribute significantly to the process of the emergence of ‘Africa for the Africans’. The central concern of African literature is the conflict between the African communal val...

  7. African American Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    African American Suicide Fact Sheet Based on 2012 Data (2014) Overview • In 2012, 2,357 African Americans completed suicide in the U.S. Of these, ... 46 per 100,000. • The suicide rate for African Americans ages 10-19 was 2.98 per ...

  8. Linguistic Imperialism: African Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillipson, Robert

    1996-01-01

    Responds to an article on aspects of African language policy and discusses the following issues: multilingualism and monolingualism, proposed changes in language policy from the Organization for African Unity and South African initiatives, the language of literature, bilingual education, and whose interests English-language teaching is serving.…

  9. Cross-Reactivity of Filariais ICT Cards in Areas of Contrasting Endemicity of Loa loa and Mansonella perstans in Cameroon: Implications for Shrinking of the Lymphatic Filariasis Map in the Central African Region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Wanji

    2015-11-01

    ICT results was found only in areas with an L. loa Mf prevalence above 15%. In contrast, there was no association between ICT positivity and M. perstans prevalence (Spearman's rho = - 0.200; p = 0.747 and Mf density (Odds ratio = 1.8; 95%CI: 0.8-4.2; p = 0.192.This study has confirmed the strong association between the ICT positivity and L. loa intensity (Mf/ml of blood at the individual level. Furthermore, the study has demonstrated that ICT positivity is strongly associated with high L. loa prevalence. These results suggest that the main confounding factor for positive ICT test card results are high levels of L. loa. The findings may indicate that W. bancrofti is much less prevalent in the Central African region where L. loa is highly endemic than previously assumed and accurate re-mapping of the region would be very useful for shrinking of the map of LF distribution.

  10. Geochronological, geochemical and mineralogical constraints of emplacement depth of TTG suite from the Sinassi Batholith in the Central African Fold Belt (CAFB) of northern Cameroon: Implications for tectonomagmatic evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houketchang Bouyo, M.; Penaye, J.; Njel, U. O.; Moussango, A. P. I.; Sep, J. P. N.; Nyama, B. A.; Wassouo, W. J.; Abaté, J. M. E.; Yaya, F.; Mahamat, A.; Ye, Hao; Wu, Fei

    2016-04-01

    The Sinassi Batholith in the Central African Fold Belt (CAFB) of northern Cameroon represents the largest volume of plutonic rocks or granitoids massif of the Western Cameroonian Domain. It is made up dominantly of tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) suite and lesser granite which are locally more or less deformed, and composed of varying proportions of quartz, plagioclase, K-feldspar, biotite, hornblende, sphene, magnetite, apatite and zircon. Major and trace element compositions of fifteen rock samples of granitoids (Djourdé granodiorite, Sinassi quartz diorite and orthogneisses groups) indicate that investigated rocks from the Sinassi Batholith are characterized by medium- to high-K calc-alkaline affinity and metaluminous I-type signature. In addition, their chondrite- and primitive mantle-normalized trace element patterns are strongly fractionated ((La/Yb)N = 2.96-61.40) and show respectively enrichment in LREE relative to HREE and enrichment in LILE compared to HFSE with moderate to slight negative Nb-Ta, Ti and Eu anomalies consistent with a continental magmatic arc setting related to a subduction zone. Geothermobarometric calculations using hornblende-plagioclase thermometry and aluminum-in-hornblende barometry on eleven rock samples indicate that plutons from Sinassi Batholith were emplaced at average temperatures and pressures ranging between 698 and 720 °C and 4.06-5.82 kbar (Djourdé granitoids), 698-728 °C and 4.04-5.34 kbar (Sinassi granitoids) and 667-670 and 4.23-4.76 kbar (orthogneisses group) respectively. The average emplacement depths estimates for the investigated granitoids is constrained at ca 16-18 km, indicating that at least 16 km of crustal rocks of the Sinassi Batholith must have been eroded or uplifted at approximately exhumation rates of 0.08-0.10 mm/year. Regardless of their Th/U ratios, geochronological results highlight three main events characterizing the Neoproterozoic tectonomagmatic evolution within the Sinassi Batholith

  11. Inventory of African desert dust events in the north-central Iberian Peninsula in 2003-2014 based on sun-photometer-AERONET and particulate-mass-EMEP data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cachorro, Victoria E.; Burgos, Maria A.; Mateos, David; Toledano, Carlos; Bennouna, Yasmine; Torres, Benjamín; de Frutos, Ángel M.; Herguedas, Álvaro

    2016-07-01

    A reliable identification of desert dust (DD) episodes over north-central Spain is carried out based on the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) columnar aerosol sun photometer (aerosol optical depth, AOD, and Ångström exponent, α) and European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) surface particulate-mass concentration (PMx, x = 10, 2.5, and 2.5-10 µm) as the main core data. The impact of DD on background aerosol conditions is detectable by means of aerosol load thresholds and complementary information provided by HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model) air mass back trajectories, MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) images, forecast aerosol models, and synoptic maps, which have been carefully reviewed by a human observer for each day included in the DD inventory. This identification method allows the detection of low and moderate DD intrusions and also of mixtures of mineral dust with other aerosol types by means of the analysis of α. During the period studied (2003-2014), a total of 152 DD episodes composed of 418 days are identified. Overall, this means ˜ 13 episodes and ˜ 35 days per year with DD intrusion, representing 9.5 % days year-1. During the identified DD intrusions, 19 daily exceedances over 50 µg m-3 are reported at the surface. The occurrence of DD event days during the year peaks in March and June, with a marked minimum in April and lowest occurrence in winter. A large interannual variability is observed showing a statistically significant temporal decreasing trend of ˜ 3 days year-1. The DD impact on the aerosol climatology is addressed by evaluating the DD contribution in magnitude and percent (in brackets) for AOD, PM10, PM2.5, and PM2.5 - 10, obtaining mean values of 0.015 (11.5 %), 1.3 µg m-3 (11.8 %), 0.55 µg m-3 (8.5 %) and 0.79 µg m-3 (16.1 %), respectively. Annual cycles of the DD contribution for AOD and PM10 present two maxima - one in summer (0.03 and 2.4 µg m-3 for AOD in

  12. Keeping African Masks Real

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddington, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Art is a good place to learn about our multicultural planet, and African masks are prized throughout the world as powerfully expressive artistic images. Unfortunately, multicultural education, especially for young children, can perpetuate stereotypes. Masks taken out of context lose their meaning and the term "African masks" suggests that there is…

  13. African agricultural trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Sandrey, Ron

    2015-01-01

    This article starts with a profile of African agricultural trade. Using the pre-release version 9.2 of the GTAP database, we then show that the results for tariff elimination on intra-African trade are promising, but these tariff barriers are not as significant as the various trade-related barriers...

  14. African Literature as Celebration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achebe, Chinua

    1989-01-01

    Describes the Igbo tradition of "Mbari," a communal creative enterprise that celebrates the world and the life lived in it through art. Contrasts the cooperative, social dimension of pre-colonial African culture with the exclusion and denial of European colonialism, and sees new African literature again celebrating human presence and dignity. (AF)

  15. Empowering African States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China helps bring lasting peace and stability to Africa African think tanks expressed a high opinion of China’s role in helping build African peace and security at the first meeting of the China-Africa Think Tanks Forum. The

  16. African American Diaspora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Brown

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united.  The population of blacks past downs a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape from poverty of enslavement and to establish a way of life through tradition. A way of personal freedoms was through getting a good education that lead to a better foundation and a better way of life. With regard to all historic migrations (forced and voluntary, the African Union defined the African diaspora as "[consisting] of people of African origin living outside the continent, irrespective of their citizenship and nationality and who are willing to contribute to the development of the continent and the building of the African Union." Its constitutive act declares that it shall "invite and encourage the full participation of the African diaspora as an important part of our continent, in the building of the African Union." Keywords: literature concepts, African American abstracts

  17. Taking up the cudgels against gay rights? Trends and trajectories in African Christian theologies on homosexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Klinken, Adriaan S; Gunda, Masiiwa Ragies

    2012-01-01

    Against the background of the HIV epidemic and the intense public controversy on homosexuality in African societies, this article investigates the discourses of academic African Christian theologians on homosexuality. Distinguishing some major strands in African theology, that is, inculturation, liberation, women's and reconstruction theology, the article examines how the central concepts of culture, liberation, justice, and human rights function in these discourses. On the basis of a qualitative analysis of a large number of publications, the article shows that stances of African theologians are varying from silence and rejection to acceptance. Although many African theologians have taken up the cudgels against gay rights, some "dissident voices" break the taboo and develop more inclusive concepts of African identity and African Christianity. PMID:22269050

  18. African Peacekeepers in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmanuel, Nikolas G.

    2015-01-01

    peacekeeping operations in the region. It is important to add that the international community has frequently tried to facilitate the deployment of African armed forces with aid and training. From this reality, the following study goes beyond the current literature by focusing on the international factors...... behind African participation in United Nations (UN) peacekeeping operations in Africa. In doing so, this research focuses on US military aid and foreign troop training from 2002 to 2012, and its impact on African deployments into UN peacekeeping missions in Africa. As can be expected, such third...

  19. Reading the African context

    OpenAIRE

    Musonda Bwalya

    2012-01-01

    There is so much alienation, pain and suffering in our today�s world. In this vein, African Christianity, a voice amongst many voices, should seek to be a transformational religion for the whole of life, affecting all facets of human life towards a fuller life of all in Africa. This article sought to highlight and point to some of the major societal challenges in the African context which African Christianity, as a life-affirming religion, should continue to embrace, re-embrace and engag...

  20. Taking up the cudgels against gay rights? Trends and trajectories in African Christian theologies on homosexuality

    OpenAIRE

    Klinken, A.S. van; Gunda, M.R.

    2012-01-01

    Against the background of the HIV epidemic and the intense public controversy on homosexuality in African societies, this article investigates the discourses of academic African Christian theologians on homosexuality. Distinguishing some major strands in African theology, that is, inculturation, liberation, women’s and reconstruction theology, the article examines how the central concepts of culture, liberation, justice, and human rights function in these discourses. On the basis of a qualita...

  1. Capitalism and African business cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Scott D.

    2014-01-01

    Scholars and practitioners once commonly linked 'African culture' to a distinctive 'African capitalism', at odds with genuine capitalism and the demands of modern business. Yet contemporary African business cultures reveal that a capitalist ethos has taken hold within both state and society. The success and visibility of an emergent, and celebrated, class of African big business reveals that business and profit are culturally acceptable. Existing theories of African capitalism are ill-equippe...

  2. Tribe and Village in African Organizations and Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Simon Ulrik

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to show that organizational behaviour and business relations in African countries reflect preindustrial social norms typical of kinship based, rural communities such as in-group/out-group differentiation, reliance on kinship and the use of gift-exchange to c...... of social distance and reciprocity showing how this theory explains behaviours in and between African organizations.......-exchange to create and strengthen social bonds. Design/methodology/approach – Two books on African management are interpreted using anthropological and sociological theory as the analytical perspective. Findings – The analysis of the two works suggests that the preindustrial patterns described in the anthropological...... literature play a central role in African management and business. Practical implications – The paper concludes that manager should recognize the negative effects that may follow from a rejection of these socio-cultural patterns of behaviour. Originality/value – It introduces Marshall Sahlins’ theory...

  3. Noteworthy extensions of known ranges of three African Fruit Bat species (Mammalia, Megachiroptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmans, Wim

    1982-01-01

    True Nanonycteris veldkampii (Jentink, 1888) is recorded from the Central African Republic for the first time. The disputed occurrence of Epomops buettikoferi (Matschie, 1899) in Nigeria is confirmed. Rousettus lanosus Thomas, 1906, is added to the faunal list of Sudan.

  4. African-Americans and Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share Plus on Google Plus African-Americans and Alzheimer's alz.org | IHaveAlz Introduction 10 Warning Signs Brain ... African-Americans are at a higher risk for Alzheimer's disease. Many Americans dismiss the warning signs of ...

  5. African Cultural Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Holbrook, Jarita C; Medupe, R. Thebe; Current Archaeoastronomy and Ethnoastronomy research in Africa

    2008-01-01

    Astronomy is the science of studying the sky using telescopes and light collectors such as photographic plates or CCD detectors. However, people have always studied the sky and continue to study the sky without the aid of instruments this is the realm of cultural astronomy. This is the first scholarly collection of articles focused on the cultural astronomy of Africans. It weaves together astronomy, anthropology, and Africa. The volume includes African myths and legends about the sky, alignments to celestial bodies found at archaeological sites and at places of worship, rock art with celestial imagery, and scientific thinking revealed in local astronomy traditions including ethnomathematics and the creation of calendars. Authors include astronomers Kim Malville, Johnson Urama, and Thebe Medupe; archaeologist Felix Chami, and geographer Michael Bonine, and many new authors. As an emerging subfield of cultural astronomy, African cultural astronomy researchers are focused on training students specifically for do...

  6. African names for American plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andel, van T.R.

    2015-01-01

    African slaves brought plant knowledge to the New World, sometimes applying it to related plants they found there and sometimes bringing Old World plants with them. By tracing the linguistic parallels between names for plants in African languages and in communities descended from African slaves, pie

  7. The Struggles over African Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maseko, Pam; Vale, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In this interview, African Language expert Pam Maseko speaks of her own background and her first encounter with culture outside of her mother tongue, isiXhosa. A statistical breakdown of South African languages is provided as background. She discusses Western (originally missionary) codification of African languages and suggests that this approach…

  8. African American Women Leaders in Academic Research Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epps, Sharon K.

    2008-01-01

    Effective leadership and increasing diversity are central concerns in the library profession. Using qualitative interviewing and research methods, this study identifies the attributes, knowledge, and skills that African American women need in order to be successful leaders in today's Association of Research Libraries (ARL). These findings indicate…

  9. African Women Writing Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jennifer Browdy de Hernandez; Pauline Dongala; Omotayo; Jolaosho; Anne Serafin

    2011-01-01

    AFRICAN Women Writing Resistance is the first transnational anthology to focus on women's strategies of resistance to the challenges they face in Africa today.The anthology brings together personal narratives,testimony,interviews,short stories,poetry,performance scripts,folktales and lyrics.

  10. African Women Writing Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jennifer; Browdy; de; Hernandez; Pauline; Dongala; Omotayo; Jolaosho; Anne; Serafin

    2011-01-01

    An Anthology of Contemporary Voices AFRICAN Women Writing Resistance is the first transnational anthology to focus on women’s strategies of resistance to the challenges they face in Africa today.The anthology brings together personal narratives,testimony,interviews, short stories,po-

  11. Deepening African Ties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Chinese President Hu Jintao has just embarked on his state visits to eight African countries that will take him to both the northern and southern tips of the continent. This is his first trip abroad this year, and also his third visit to Africa

  12. East African institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordby, Johannes Riber; Jacobsen, Katja

    For the past decade security in East Africa has gained focus internationally. However there is a growing ambition among African states to handle such issues by themselves, sometimes through regional institutions. This has been supported by many Western states but potential risks are often forgotten....

  13. African tick bite fever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jakob Aaquist; Thybo, Søren

    2011-01-01

    The incident of spotted fever imported to Denmark is unknown. We present a classic case of African Tick Bite Fever (ATBF) to highlight a disease, which frequently infects wildlife enthusiasts and hunters on vacation in South Africa. ATBF has a good prognosis and is easily treated with doxycyclin...

  14. West African Antislavery Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahonou, Eric Komlavi; Pelckmans, Lotte

    2011-01-01

    In the context of liberalization of West African political regimes, the upsurge of audacious political entrepreneurs who want to end chattel slavery in their nation-state, resulted in the legal criminalisation of slavery in both Mauritania (2007) and Niger (2003) and in a proposal to revise the...... cultures (or ‘mentalities’) go hand in hand....

  15. Immunizations and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Program Grants Other Grants Planning and Evaluation Grantee Best Practices Black/African American Asthma Cancer Chronic Liver Disease ... 13 to 17 years who ever received the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination, 2014 - Males # doses ... 240-453-2882 Office of Minority Health Resource Center Toll Free: 1-800-444-6472 / Fax: ...

  16. Aspects of size and geography of an African cyberspace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Nwagwu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, data on web links collected from 15 African countries, three with the highest Internet penetration in each of North, West, Central, East, and South regions were used to study the number and origins of links to Africa. The sample has a ratio of one Internet user per 12 persons. Altogether, all African countries generated a total of 124,047,702 Web pages and 30,546,967 inlinks to the pages, an average of about 0.25 links per page. But the sample constituted which 28% of all the countries in the region generated 98,629,700 pages and 21,272,500 inlinks, an average of about 0.21 inlinks per page. South Africa ranked highest in web pages and web links per population and also received the highest number of inlinks from other African countries and the G8. However, Kenya linked other African countries more than the others did. Population size does not relate to number of web pages, self-inlinks, and inlinks or penetration, but relates positively with number of Internet users. Among others, a major step in boosting use of Internet resources in Africa will be in developing policies that will encourage African countries to use information developed by other African countries.

  17. Female genital mutilation in African and African American women's literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja Marinšek

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The article builds on the existing dispute between African and African American women writers on the competence of writing about female genital mutilation (FGM, and tries to determine the existence and nature of the differences between the writings of these two groups. The author uses comparative analysis of two popular African and African American novels, comparing their ways of describing FGM, its causes and consequences, the level ob objectivity and the style of the narrations.This is followed by a discussion on the reasons for such differences, incorporating a larger circle of both African and African American women authors, at the same time analysing the deviance within the two groups. While the differences between African American writers are not that great, as they mostly fail to present the issue from different points of view, which is often the result of their lack of direct knowledge of the topic, African authors' writing is in itself discovered to be ambivalent and not at all invariable. The reasons for such ambivalence are then discussed in greater context, focusing on the effect of the authors' personal contact with circumcision as well as their knowledge and acceptance of Western values. The author concludes by establishing the African ambivalent attitude towards FGM, which includes different aspects of the issue, as the most significant difference between their and African American writers' description of this practice.

  18. The “Ticas” of “Matema” of an African People: An exercise for the Brazilian Classroom.

    OpenAIRE

    Eliane Costa Santos

    2008-01-01

    This article has as its central focus the examination of one of the ways that African culture can be introduced into the mathematics classroom, contributing to the transformation of this formal space of the classroom into an area in which culture is intertwined with scholarly knowledge through the transdisciplinarity of ethnomathematics. The thesis that permeates [this work] can be delineated as how African culture, through the representation of African Kente cloth looms, can contribute to th...

  19. Intracranial aneurysms in an African country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogeng'o Julius

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background : Characteristics of intracranial aneurysms display ethnic variations. Data on this disease from the African continent is scarce and often conflicting. Aim : To describe site, age and gender distribution of intracranial aneurysms among Kenyans. Study Design and Setting : Retrospective study at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya. Materials and Methods: All records of black African patients with a diagnosis of intracranial aneurysms seen at Kenyatta National Hospital, the largest referral hospital in the Eastern and Central African region, over the period from January 1998 to December 2007 were examined for site, age and gender distribution. The data gathered were coded, analyzed with SPSS 11.50. Results : Fifty-six cases of intracranial aneurysms were analyzed. The posterior communicating artery was the most affected (35.7%, followed by the anterior communicating artery (26.8%, while the posterior cerebral artery was the least affected (2%. Multiple aneurysms were present in 2%. The mean age at presentation was 50.9 years (range 21-80 years and the gender distribution was equal. Conclusions : Intracranial aneurysms among Kenyans occur most commonly on the posterior communicating artery, in young individuals, and without gender bias. The distribution differs from that described in the literature and this requires search for risk factors.

  20. Leadership in the African context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Masango

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available The Western world has always viewed the African continent as plagued by corruption; dictatorship; military coups; rebellious leaders; greediness; misuse of power; and incompetent, politically unstable leaders - in effect, suspicious leaders who undermine their own democracies. This paper analyzes African leadership and its impact by concentrating on three historical eras, namely; the African Religious era; the Christian era, and the era of Globalization. These affected African leadership. In addition, many brilliant minds left the continent in search of greener pastures. A review of these three eras will help us understand how leadership shifted from African values into Western concepts. The role of missionaries lead African people to live with both an African and a Western concept of life. In spite of the above problems, our past leaders did their best in addressing the difficulties they faced during the three eras. African concepts of leadership were often regarded as barbaric and uncultured. Structures were evaluated by Western standards. Due to globalisation, African leaders, through programmes like NEPAD, are going back to basics, drawing on African concepts of unity among its leadership. Effectiveness or life-giving leadership is emerging and empowering villagers/communities in the continent. This type of leadership is innovative and has brought new hope for the continent.

  1. Steps to African Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The development of Africa is vital to the world’s sustainable development.However,African countries still face key challenges in achieving the meaningful expansion of their economies.At the High-Level Symposium on China-Africa Investment Cooperation in Xiamen,southeast China’s Fujian Province,held from September 8 to 10,Chen Deming,Minister of Commerce of China,elaborates on these challenges and sees

  2. Diversity among African pygmies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez Rozzi, Fernando V; Sardi, Marina L

    2010-01-01

    Although dissimilarities in cranial and post-cranial morphology among African pygmies groups have been recognized, comparative studies on skull morphology usually pull all pygmies together assuming that morphological characters are similar among them and different with respect to other populations. The main aim of this study is to compare cranial morphology between African pygmies and non-pygmies populations from Equatorial Africa derived from both the Eastern and the Western regions in order to test if the greatest morphological difference is obtained in the comparison between pygmies and non-pygmies. Thirty three-dimensional (3D) landmarks registered with Microscribe in four cranial samples (Western and Eastern pygmies and non-pygmies) were obtained. Multivariate analysis (generalized Procrustes analysis, Mahalanobis distances, multivariate regression) and complementary dimensions of size were evaluated with ANOVA and post hoc LSD. Results suggest that important cranial shape differentiation does occur between pygmies and non-pygmies but also between Eastern and Western populations and that size changes and allometries do not affect similarly Eastern and Western pygmies. Therefore, our findings raise serious doubt about the fact to consider African pygmies as a homogenous group in studies on skull morphology. Differences in cranial morphology among pygmies would suggest differentiation after divergence. Although not directly related to skull differentiation, the diversity among pygmies would probably suggest that the process responsible for reduced stature occurred after the split of the ancestors of modern Eastern and Western pygmies.

  3. Diversity among African pygmies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando V Ramírez Rozzi

    Full Text Available Although dissimilarities in cranial and post-cranial morphology among African pygmies groups have been recognized, comparative studies on skull morphology usually pull all pygmies together assuming that morphological characters are similar among them and different with respect to other populations. The main aim of this study is to compare cranial morphology between African pygmies and non-pygmies populations from Equatorial Africa derived from both the Eastern and the Western regions in order to test if the greatest morphological difference is obtained in the comparison between pygmies and non-pygmies. Thirty three-dimensional (3D landmarks registered with Microscribe in four cranial samples (Western and Eastern pygmies and non-pygmies were obtained. Multivariate analysis (generalized Procrustes analysis, Mahalanobis distances, multivariate regression and complementary dimensions of size were evaluated with ANOVA and post hoc LSD. Results suggest that important cranial shape differentiation does occur between pygmies and non-pygmies but also between Eastern and Western populations and that size changes and allometries do not affect similarly Eastern and Western pygmies. Therefore, our findings raise serious doubt about the fact to consider African pygmies as a homogenous group in studies on skull morphology. Differences in cranial morphology among pygmies would suggest differentiation after divergence. Although not directly related to skull differentiation, the diversity among pygmies would probably suggest that the process responsible for reduced stature occurred after the split of the ancestors of modern Eastern and Western pygmies.

  4. Biofuels: The African experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrillo, L.A.; Nkolo, M. [German Agency for Technical Cooperation GTZ, Delegation Regionale des Eaux et Forets, Bertoua (Cameroon)

    2009-07-01

    In July 2006, the African Non-Petroleum Producers Association was formed in Senegal, Africa to develop alternative energy sources. It involved 13 of Africa's poorest nations, who joined forces to become global suppliers of biofuels, and some have set mandatory mixing of ethanol into gasoline. Although several biofuel production projects have been launched in western Africa, many of the new projects and plantations have not yet reached maturity due to the time lag between plantation and full-scale production, which is about 6 years. Major projects that could be producing significant quantities of biofuels in the next few years are not yet reflected in production statistics. Although ethanol is not yet being produced in large quantities in Africa, short-term opportunities exist. Countries in the South African Development Community are using molasses from the sugar can industry to produce ethanol. Biodiesel is also not currently produced on a significant scale in western Africa, but several other countries are gaining experience with cotton and palm oil resources, and Jatropha. Biomass residue also represents a large potential for all African countries involved in timber production. Unlike biodiesel production, land use conflicts are not an issue with biomass residue production.

  5. Institution Building for African Regionalism

    OpenAIRE

    Khadiagala, Gilbert M.

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1960s, African states have embraced regional integration as a vital mechanism for political cooperation and for pooling resources to overcome problems of small and fragmented economies. In building meaningful institutions for regionalism, however, Africans have faced the challenges of reconciling the diversities of culture, geography, and politics. As a result, African regional institutions are characterized by multiple and competing mandates and weak institutionalization. This stud...

  6. African-Americans and Heart Disease, Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More African-Americans and Heart Disease, Stroke Updated:Apr 18, ... of getting those diseases are even higher for African-Americans. The good news is, African-Americans can ...

  7. The African Diaspora, Civil Society and African Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Opoku-Mensah, Paul Yaw

    This paper, a work-in-progress, makes a contribution to the discussions on the appropriate modalities for incorporating the African diaspora in the African integration project.  It argues that the most appropriate entry points for incorporating the African diaspora into the integration project...... might not, necessarily, be in the formal political structures, although this is important. To the contrary, the most effective and sustainable might be within civil society---that is the links between the peoples and organizations of Africa and the diaspora. Using the case of the African academy-- as an...... institution of civil society--- the paper outlines a conceptual framework for incorporating the diaspora into the African integration project....

  8. The Diabetic Health of African American Grandmothers Raising their Grandchildren

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carthron, Dana L.; Busam, Maria Rivera

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study is to compare the health of primary caregiving African American grandmothers with diabetes with African American women with diabetes who were not primary caregivers. DESIGN Using a comparative, descriptive, cross-sectional design, 34 African American primary caregiving grandmothers were compared with 34 non-caregiving women with diabetes mellitus; women aged 55–75 years were recruited for this study throughout the central Arkansas. METHODS To measure the overall health, data on blood pressure, body mass index measurements, HbA1c levels, total cholesterol, and urine protein and creatinine levels were collected from all the participants. RESULTS Statistically significant differences between the caregivers and non-caregivers groups in systolic pressure (t = −3.42, P = 0.001) and diastolic pressure (t = −3.790, P = 0.000) and urine protein (W = 294.00, P = 0.000) were noted. Additionally, a clinically significant difference in HbA1c was noted between groups. CONCLUSION Differences in systolic and diastolic pressures, urine protein, and clinically significant differences in HbA1c suggest that African American primary caregiving grandmothers with diabetes mellitus may have more difficulty in maintaining their diabetic health than non-caregiving African American women. PMID:27398044

  9. African Conservation Tillage Network Website

    OpenAIRE

    African Conservation Tillage Network (ACT)

    2009-01-01

    Metadata only record Maintained by the African Conservation Tillage Network (ACT), this website provides information on Conservation Agriculture in an African context and gathered by stakeholders (NGOs) native to the continent. Resources on projects, practices, reports, and training courses are provided.

  10. African Diaspora Associations in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vammen, Ida Marie; Trans, Lars Ove

    2011-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, an increasing number of African migrants have come to Denmark, where they have formed a large number of migrant associations. This chapter presents selected findings from a comprehensive survey of African diaspora associations in Denmark and focuses specifically on their...

  11. Booster for African Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China’s investment is fueling African growth SINCE 2000,driven by the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation,China’s foreign direct investment(FDI) in Africa has been growing rapidly.In the face of the global financial crisis,which led to global FDI flows falling,China’s investment in Africa has been on a steady, upbeat rise without any interruption.In 2009,China’s direct investment in Africa reached $1.44 billion,of which nonfinancial direct investment soared by 55.4 percent from the previous year.Africa

  12. Understanding the Rise of African Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorem, Kaja Tvedten; Jeppesen, Søren; Hansen, Michael W.

    In light of recent enthusiasm over the African private sector, this paper reviews the existing empirical literature on successful African enterprises and proposes an analytical framework for understanding African firm success. Overall, it is argued that we need to develop an understanding...... of African firm strategy and performance that takes into account the specificities of the African business environment and African firm capabilities. The paper starts by juxtaposing the widespread pessimistic view of African business with more recent, optimistic studies on African firms’ performance....... The latter suggests that profound improvements in African business performance are indeed under way: with the private sector playing a more important role as an engine of growth, with the rise of a capable African entrepreneurial class, and with the emergence of dynamic and competitive African enterprises...

  13. The Genetics of POAG in Black South Africans: A Candidate Gene Association Study

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Susan E. I.; Carmichael, Trevor R.; Allingham, R. Rand; Hauser, Michael; Ramsay, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Multiple loci have been associated with either primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) or heritable ocular quantitative traits associated with this condition. This study examined the association of these loci with POAG, with central corneal thickness (CCT), vertical cup-to-disc ratio (VCDR) and with diabetes mellitus in a group of black South Africans (215 POAG cases and 214 controls). The population was homogeneous and distinct from other African and European populations. Single SNPs in the MYOC,...

  14. Barack Obama’s Dreams from My Father and African American Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Stein

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a series of close readings of Barack Obama’s autobiography Dreams from My Father. It places the narrative within the history of African American literature and rhetoric and argues that Obama uses the text to create a life story that resonates with central concepts of African American selfhood and black male identity, including double consciousness, invisibility, and black nationalism. The article reads Dreams from My Father as an attempt to arrive at a state of “function...

  15. Archaean Crustal Growth, Proterozoic Terrane Amalgamation and the Pan-African Orogeny, as Recorded in the NE African Sedimentary Record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najman, Y.; Fielding, L.; Millar, I.; Butterworth, P.; Andò, S.; Padoan, M.; Barfod, D. N.; Kneller, B. C.

    2015-12-01

    The cratons of Central Africa are formed of various blocks of Archaean and Palaeoproterozoic crust, flanked or truncated by Palaeoproterozoic to Mesoproterozoic orogenic belts. The geology of east Africa has largely been shaped by the events of the Pan-African Orogeny when east and west Gondwana collided to form 'Greater Gondwana' at the end of the Neoproterozoic. The Pan-African orogeny in NE Africa involved the collision of Archaean cratons and the Saharan Metacraton with the Arabian Nubian Shield, a terrane comprising Neoproterozoic juvenile oceanic island arcs. Phanerozoic cover sedimentary rocks, eroded from the Pan-African orogenies, blanket much of NE Africa. Detrital data from these Phanerozoic cover sedimentary rocks, and modern rivers draining both the cover the basement, provide a wealth of information on basement evolution, of particular relevance for regions where the basement itself is poorly exposed due to ancient or modern sedimentary cover. From samples collected in Uganda, Ethiopia, Sudan and Egypt, we provide combined U-Pb and Hf-isotope zircon, U-Pb rutile and Ar-Ar mica datasets, heavy mineral analyses, and bulk trace element data, from Archaean basement, Phanerozoic cover and modern river sediment from the Nile and its tributaries to document the evolution of the North African crust. The data document early crust-forming events in the Congo Craton and Sahara Metacraton, phased development of the Arabian Nubian Shield culminating in the Neoproterozoic assembly of Gondwana during the Pan African Orogeny, and the orogen's subsequent erosion, with deposition of voluminous Phanerozoic cover.

  16. African American Perceptions about Crime in Cincinnati, Ohio since the 2001 Riots: Over a Decade Later

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derrick J. Jenkins, Sr. Ph.D.

    2013-06-01

    Conclusion: The results indicate that there was little difference in African American perceptions of violence in Cincinnati in 2001 and 11 years later in 2012. Most people felt that violence in Cincinnati is a very serious problem, with more than half of the respondents indicating that in the past 3 years violence in Cincinnati stayed the same. More importantly, these findings emphasize that the riots in Cincinnati is not a central event in the African American community, instead for some, it represents another example of why violence always seem to exist and there is a low morale among the African American community and police officers.

  17. HLA class I variation in the West African Pygmies and their genetic relationship with other African populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruges Armas, J; Destro-Bisol, G; López-Vazquez, A; Couto, A R; Spedini, G; Gonzalez, S; Battaggia, C; Peixoto, M J; Martinez-Borra, J; López-Larrea, C

    2003-09-01

    We have studied the polymorphism of HLA class I in two West African Pygmy populations, namely, the Bakola from Cameroon and the Mbenzele from the Central African Republic. A unique number of HLA alleles and haplotypes showed specific patterns of these populations. In this study, we identify two alleles (B*37, B*41) and three haplotypes (A*30-B*37, A*66-B*41 and A*68-B*58) that appear to be 'private' or typical of Western Pygmies. These data reflect similarities with the AKA Pygmies from the Central African Republic. On the other hand, we failed to identify alleles that are found at high frequencies among other sub-Saharan populations (B*42, B*51). Allelic and haplotypic frequency distributions show differences between the two Pygmy groups, e.g. B*35 was very common in the Mbenzele but has been found to be absent in the Bakola. In contrast, B*53, which is found in the Bakola, has been found to be rare in the Mbenzele Pygmies. In order to analyse the genetic relationships of the Bakola and Mbenzele Pygmies with other sub-Saharan populations, HLA gene frequencies were subjected to the Neighbour-Joining tree analysis. The Mbenzele, Bakola and AKA were found to be relatively close to each other and isolated from other sub-African populations. However, both the genetic distances and the within-group variation suggests that the Bakola are more admixed with Bantu farmers than Mbenzele.

  18. Bioenergy and African transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynd, Lee R; Sow, Mariam; Chimphango, Annie Fa; Cortez, Luis Ab; Brito Cruz, Carlos H; Elmissiry, Mosad; Laser, Mark; Mayaki, Ibrahim A; Moraes, Marcia Afd; Nogueira, Luiz Ah; Wolfaardt, Gideon M; Woods, Jeremy; van Zyl, Willem H

    2015-01-01

    Among the world's continents, Africa has the highest incidence of food insecurity and poverty and the highest rates of population growth. Yet Africa also has the most arable land, the lowest crop yields, and by far the most plentiful land resources relative to energy demand. It is thus of interest to examine the potential of expanded modern bioenergy production in Africa. Here we consider bioenergy as an enabler for development, and provide an overview of modern bioenergy technologies with a comment on application in an Africa context. Experience with bioenergy in Africa offers evidence of social benefits and also some important lessons. In Brazil, social development, agricultural development and food security, and bioenergy development have been synergistic rather than antagonistic. Realizing similar success in African countries will require clear vision, good governance, and adaptation of technologies, knowledge, and business models to myriad local circumstances. Strategies for integrated production of food crops, livestock, and bioenergy are potentially attractive and offer an alternative to an agricultural model featuring specialized land use. If done thoughtfully, there is considerable evidence that food security and economic development in Africa can be addressed more effectively with modern bioenergy than without it. Modern bioenergy can be an agent of African transformation, with potential social benefits accruing to multiple sectors and extending well beyond energy supply per se. Potential negative impacts also cut across sectors. Thus, institutionally inclusive multi-sector legislative structures will be more effective at maximizing the social benefits of bioenergy compared to institutionally exclusive, single-sector structures.

  19. The African Health Profession Regulatory Collaborative for Nurses and Midwives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCarthy Carey F

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background More than thirty-five sub-Saharan African countries have severe health workforce shortages. Many also struggle with a mismatch between the knowledge and competencies of health professionals and the needs of the populations they serve. Addressing these workforce challenges requires collaboration among health and education stakeholders and reform of health worker regulations. Health professional regulatory bodies, such as nursing and midwifery councils, have the mandate to reform regulations yet often do not have the resources or expertise to do so. In 2011, the United States of America Centers for Disease Control and Prevention began a four-year initiative to increase the collaboration among national stakeholders and help strengthen the capacity of health professional regulatory bodies to reform national regulatory frameworks. The initiative is called the African Health Regulatory Collaborative for Nurses and Midwives. This article describes the African Health Regulatory Collaborative for Nurses and Midwives and discusses its importance in implementing and sustaining national, regional, and global workforce initiatives. Discussion The African Health Profession Regulatory Collaborative for Nurses and Midwives convenes leaders responsible for regulation from 14 countries in East, Central and Southern Africa. It provides a high profile, south-to-south collaboration to assist countries in implementing joint approaches to problems affecting the health workforce. Implemented in partnership with Emory University, the Commonwealth Secretariat, and the East, Central and Southern African College of Nursing, this initiative also supports four to five countries per year in implementing locally-designed regulation improvement projects. Over time, the African Health Regulatory Collaborative for Nurses and Midwives will help to increase the regulatory capacity of health professional organizations and ultimately improve regulation and

  20. Plasma preparation and storage for African elephants (Loxodonta africana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knauf, Sascha; Blad-Stahl, Julia; Lawrenz, Arne; Schuerer, Ulrich; Wehrend, Axel

    2009-03-01

    The use of plasma as a life-saving tool for neonatal African elephants (Loxodonta africana) that failed passive transfer of immunoglobulins is proposed. The methodology of blood sampling, plasma extraction, and plasma storage is described. Values for cellular component sedimentation and biochemical parameters of extracted plasma that was collected from 2 female elephants is presented. The proposal for a central plasma bank for elephants in European zoos is suggested. PMID:19368242

  1. Court stories in selected African short narratives

    OpenAIRE

    E. Yewah

    1994-01-01

    This article attempts to cross-examine African Literature and African costumary, Islamic and inherited colonial laws. It opens a new topic in the study of African literature by showing how legal discourses are inscribed in certain African narratives and how these discourses link the narratives to the overall context of their production.

  2. 2002 Sino-African SHP Training Workshop

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The 2002 Sino-African SHP Training Workshop was held from 10 May to 18 June 2002 at Hangzhou Regional Center for Small Hydro Power(HRC). Attended altogether 9 participants from 5 African countries, i.e. Burundi, Nigeria, South African, Tanzania and Tunisia. This is the second training workshop on SHP that HRC conducted for African countries.

  3. Assimilation Differences among Africans in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodoo, F. Nii-Amoo

    1997-01-01

    Census data (1990) indicate that male African immigrants earn more than their Caribbean-born counterparts or native-born African Americans, but controlling for relevant earnings-related endowments erases the African advantage and elevates Caribbean earnings above those of the other groups. Also, African (but not Caribbean) university degree…

  4. Multinationals, CSR and partnerships in Central African conflict countries

    OpenAIRE

    Kolk, A.; Lenfant, F

    2013-01-01

    textabstractAttention has increased for the potential role of Multinational Enterprises (MNEs) in helping address conflict issues and/or furthering peace and reconciliation as part of their corporate social responsibility policies. However, while existing literature emphasises the importance for MNEs to collaborate with various stakeholders, including non-governmental organisations (NGOs), research on the scope, peculiarities and impact of such cooperation has been limited, particularly in th...

  5. Multinationals, CSR and Partnerships in Central African Conflict Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Kolk (Ans); F. Lenfant (François)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAttention has increased for the potential role of Multinational Enterprises (MNEs) in helping address conflict issues and/or furthering peace and reconciliation as part of their corporate social responsibility policies. However, while existing literature emphasises the importance for MNE

  6. Multinationals, CSR and partnerships in Central African conflict countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Kolk; F. Lenfant

    2013-01-01

    Attention has increased for the potential role of multinational enterprises (MNEs) in helping address conflict issues and/or furthering peace and reconciliation as part of their corporate social responsibility (CSR) policies. However, while existing literature emphasises the importance for MNEs to c

  7. A Call to African Unity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muchie, Mammo

    This month's paper, written by Professor Mammo Muchie, examines the necessity for a pan-African monetary union.  Professor Muchie argues for the "the creation of a unified African strategy and unified approach to dealing with the outside donor world by neutralising the poison of money as honey...... that donor aid has come to be in Africa." He provides a historic and contemporary context for the unification of monetary and customs systems across Africa and argues for a dual currency system for the self-financing of African development and for sustained self-determination....

  8. How student teachers understand African philosophy

    OpenAIRE

    Matsephe M. Letseka; Elza Venter

    2012-01-01

    The question ‘What constitutes African philosophy?’ was first raised with the publication of Placide Tempels’s seminal work Bantu philosophy in 1959. Tempels’s book inevitably elicited considerable critical response from African philosophers, which culminated in a wide range of publications such as Wiredu’s (1980) Philosophy and an African culture, Hountondji’s (1983) African philosophy: Myth and reality, Oruka’s (1990) Sage philosophy: Indigenous thinkers and modern debate on African philoso...

  9. Surfaces on African sculpture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Mack

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Leonard Kahan, Donna Page, and Pascal James Imperato (eds in collaboration with Charles Bordogna and Bolaji Campbell with an introduction by Patrick McNaughton, Surfaces: Color, Substances, and Ritual Applications on African Sculpture, Indiana University Press, 2009.The book reviewed here has potential interest to a wide range of readers, whether researchers and academics, museum, curators, conservators or connoisseurs. It examines the perception of surface as an aspect of the indigenous understanding of sculpted objects in sub-Saharan Africa, treating of questions of materials, patination, colouration and use. It includes both survey essays and case studies (on the Bamana of Mali and the Yoriuba of Nigeria in a compendium which has suggestive implications beyond the immediate field of the Africanists to whom it is principally addressed.

  10. West African Antislavery Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahonou, Eric Komlavi; Pelckmans, Lotte

    2011-01-01

    to unite, mobilize and struggle. Members of anti-slavery movements with slave origins accessed power positions through peaceful electoral processes in Benin, mali, Niger and Mauritania. People of slave origins gained ground in local politics of a number of municipalities. In localities where anti-slavery......In the context of liberalization of West African political regimes, the upsurge of audacious political entrepreneurs who want to end chattel slavery in their nation-state, resulted in the legal criminalisation of slavery in both Mauritania (2007) and Niger (2003) and in a proposal to revise...... the penal code of Mali. Anti-slavery activists not only address their claims to their national governments but also intend to initiate change at local level. In that respect the democratic decentralization reforms were significant because they allowed educated anti-slavery activists to appeal their brethren...

  11. African Ethnobotany in the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egleé L. Zent

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Review of African Ethnobotany in the Americas. Edited by Robert Voeks and John Rashford. 2013. Springer. Pp. 429, 105 illustrations, 69 color illustrations. $49.95 (paperback. ISBN 978‐1461408352.

  12. African Ethnobotany in the Americas

    OpenAIRE

    Zent, Egleé L

    2013-01-01

    Review of African Ethnobotany in the Americas. Edited by Robert Voeks and John Rashford. 2013. Springer. Pp. 429, 105 illustrations, 69 color illustrations. $49.95 (paperback). ISBN 978‐1461408352.

  13. The Good African Society Index

    OpenAIRE

    Ferdi Botha

    2014-01-01

    This paper constructs a Good Society Index for 45 African countries, termed the Good African Society Index (GASI). The GASI consists of nine main indexes: (i) economic sustainability, (ii) democracy and freedom, (iii) child well-being, (iv) environment and infrastructure, (v) safety and security, (vi) health and health systems, (vii) integrity and justice, (viii) education, and (xi) social sustainability and social cohesion. Each component is split into four sub-components for a total of 36 i...

  14. Twin Sessions Through African Eyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ni Yanshuo

    2012-01-01

    Every year journalists from around China and the world flock to Beijing in March to cover the sessions of the National People's Congress (NPC) and the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC), known as the lianghui, or twin sessions. With the deepening of Sino-African relations in the past decades, an increasing number of African journalists are involved in reporting China's lianghui to their audiences in Africa.

  15. Training in African aquaculture development

    OpenAIRE

    Brummett, R. E.

    1994-01-01

    The article focuses on the types of training needed in African aquaculture development. The author suggested that rather than needing less training, extension agents and others who operate in the idiosyncratic world of the poor African farmer, need a far deeper understanding of fish culture (particularly the basics of pond dynamics and ecology) than do those who can take advantage of industrialized-country infrastructure.

  16. Associating with Occupational Depictions: How African American College Women Are Influenced by the Portrayals of Women in Professional Careers on Television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderlinden, Mary E.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined ways portrayals of professional Black women on television influence the higher education and occupational choices of African American college women. The central research question of this study was: How do college age African American women make meaning of the portrayals of the people they see on television? Two analytic…

  17. Phanerozoic geological evolution of Northern and Central Africa: An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiraud, R.; Bosworth, W.; Thierry, J.; Delplanque, A.

    2005-10-01

    The principal paleogeographic characteristics of North and Central Africa during the Paleozoic were the permanency of large exposed lands over central Africa, surrounded by northerly and northwesterly dipping pediplanes episodically flooded by epicontinental seas related to the Paleotethys Ocean. The intra-continental Congo-Zaire Basin was also a long-lived feature, as well as the Somali Basin from Late Carboniferous times, in conjunction with the development of the Karoo basins of southern Africa. This configuration, in combination with eustatic sea-level fluctuations, had a strong influence on facies distributions. Significant transgressions occurred during the Early Cambrian, Tremadocian, Llandovery, Middle to Late Devonian, Early Carboniferous, and Moscovian. The Paleozoic tectonic history shows an alternation of long periods of predominantly gentle basin subsidence and short periods of gentle folding and occasionally basin inversion. Some local rift basins developed episodically, located mainly along the northern African-Arabian plate margin and near the West African Craton/Pan-African Belt suture. Several arches or spurs, mainly N-S to NE-SW trending and inherited from late Pan-African fault swarms, played an important role. The Nubia Province was the site of numerous alkaline anorogenic intrusions, starting in Ordovician times, and subsequently formed a large swell. Paleozoic compressional events occurred in the latest Early Cambrian ("Iskelian"), Medial Ordovician to earliest Silurian ("pre-Caradoc" and "Taconian"), the end Silurian ("Early Acadian" or "Ardennian"), mid-Devonian ("Mid-Acadian"), the end Devonian ("Late Acadian" or "Bretonnian"), the earliest Serpukhovian ("Sudetic"), and the latest Carboniferous-earliest Permian ("Alleghanian" or "Asturian"). The strongest deformations, including folding, thrusting, and active strike-slip faulting, were registered in Northwestern Africa during the last stage of the Pan-African Belt development around the

  18. The making of the African mtDNA landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Antonio; Richards, Martin; De la Fe, Tomás; Lareu, María-Victoria; Sobrino, Beatriz; Sánchez-Diz, Paula; Macaulay, Vincent; Carracedo, Angel

    2002-11-01

    Africa presents the most complex genetic picture of any continent, with a time depth for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lineages >100,000 years. The most recent widespread demographic shift within the continent was most probably the Bantu dispersals, which archaeological and linguistic evidence suggest originated in West Africa 3,000-4,000 years ago, spreading both east and south. Here, we have carried out a thorough phylogeographic analysis of mtDNA variation in a total of 2,847 samples from throughout the continent, including 307 new sequences from southeast African Bantu speakers. The results suggest that the southeast Bantu speakers have a composite origin on the maternal line of descent, with approximately 44% of lineages deriving from West Africa, approximately 21% from either West or Central Africa, approximately 30% from East Africa, and approximately 5% from southern African Khoisan-speaking groups. The ages of the major founder types of both West and East African origin are consistent with the likely timing of Bantu dispersals, with those from the west somewhat predating those from the east. Despite this composite picture, the southeastern African Bantu groups are indistinguishable from each other with respect to their mtDNA, suggesting that they either had a common origin at the point of entry into southeastern Africa or have undergone very extensive gene flow since.

  19. The state of international management research in South African management journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolf J. Vögel

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: It is considered important to take stock periodically of the present channels available for communication of scholarly discourse and research, something that has not been done in international management in South Africa.Research purpose: This study aimed to not only identify the gaps in South African international management research, but also to serve as a source of international management research with a South African focus in order to aid future South African international management research.Motivation for the study: As South African business become more global and international management plays a more central role in business practice, the importance and relevance of international management increases, thus necessitating a greater research focus on international management.Research design, approach and method: A content analysis was conducted on the 1313 articles published in the seven South African management journals between 2004 and 2013.Main findings: Not only is a mere 2.7% of all articles published in the seven South African management journals between 2004 and 2013 focused on international management, but there was also a decline in the number of international management articles published.Contributions/value-add: This study will not only help to identify the gaps in international management research in South Africa, but will also serve as a source of South African international management research for future researchers and academics.

  20. East African Rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Places where the earth's crust has formed deep fissures and the plates have begun to move apart develop rift structures in which elongate blocks have subsided relative to the blocks on either side. The East African Rift is a world-famous example of such rifting. It is characterized by 1) topographic deep valleys in the rift zone, 2) sheer escarpments along the faulted walls of the rift zone, 3) a chain of lakes within the rift, most of the lakes highly saline due to evaporation in the hot temperatures characteristic of climates near the equator, 4) voluminous amounts of volcanic rocks that have flowed from faults along the sides of the rift, and 5) volcanic cones where magma flow was most intense. This example in Kenya displays most of these features near Lake Begoria. The image was acquired December 18, 2002, covers an area of 40.5 x 32 km, and is located at 0.1 degrees north latitude, 36.1 degrees east longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  1. Disarmament: the African perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disarmament is now generally accepted as the process of reduction in the size of, and expenditures on, armed forces, the destruction or dismantling of weapons, whether deployed or stockpiled, the progressive elimination of the capacity to produce new weapons and the release and integration into civilian life of military personnel. To realize this objective, the nations of the world have been advocating such measures as the establishment of nuclear weapon-free zones, non-proliferation, limitation of the arms trade, reduction of military budgets, and confidence-building measures. To ensure general and complete elimination of arms, there has been widespread recognition of the need to link the disarmament process with other political as well as socio-economic problems of the world such as the need for security, good relations between states and development of a system of peaceful settlement of disputes. Other measures that have been considered to be relevant in boosting the disarmament process include the role of the general public in putting pressure on their respective governments with a view to accelerating and realizing disarmament objectives. Africans have presented to the world a strong case for global disarmament

  2. An African ethic for nursing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haegert, S

    2000-11-01

    This article derives from a doctoral thesis in which a particular discourse was used as a 'paradigm case'. From this discourse an ethic set within a South African culture arose. Using many cultural 'voices' to aid the understanding of this narrative, the ethic shows that one can build on both a 'justice' and a 'care' ethic. With further development based on African culture one can take the ethic of care deeper and reveal 'layers of understanding'. Care, together with compassion, forms the foundation of morality. Nursing ethics has followed particular western moral philosophers. Often nursing ethics has been taught along the lines of Kohlberg's theory of morality, with its emphasis on rules, rights, duties and general obligations. These principles were universalistic, masculine and noncontextual. However, there is a new ethical movement among Thomist philosophers along the lines to be expounded in this article. Nurses such as Benner, Bevis, Dunlop, Fry and Gadow--to name but a few--have welcomed the concept of an 'ethic of care'. Gilligan's work gave a feminist view and situated ethics in the everyday aspects of responsiveness, responsibility, context and concern. Shutte's search for a 'philosophy for Africa' has resulted in finding similarities in Setiloane and in Senghor with those of Thomist philosophers. Using this African philosophy and a research participant's narrative, an African ethic evolves out of the African proverb: 'A person is a person through other persons', or its alternative rendering: 'I am because we are: we are because I am.' This hermeneutic narrative reveals 'the way affect imbues activity with ethical meaning' within the context of a black nursing sister in a rural South African hospital. It expands upon the above proverb and incorporates the South African constitutional idea of 'Ubuntu' (compassion and justice or humanness).

  3. Nonblack patients with sickle cell disease have African. beta. sup s gene cluster haplotypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, Z.R.; Powars, D.R.; Williams, W.D. (Univ. of Southern California School of Medicine, Los Angeles (USA)); Kinney, T.R. (Duke Univ., Durham, NC (USA)); Schroeder, W.A. (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena (USA))

    1989-05-26

    Of 18 nonblack patients with sickle cell disease, 14 had sickle cell anemia, 2 had hemoglobin SC disease, and 2 had hemoglobin S-{beta}{sup o}-thalassemia. The {beta}{sup s} gene cluster haplotypes that were determined in 7 patients were of African origin and were identified as Central African Republic, Central African Republic minor II, Benin, and Senegal. The haplotype Central African Republic minor II was present on the {beta}{sup o}-thalassemia chromosome in 2 patients. None of 10 patients whose {alpha}-gene status was determined had {alpha}-thalassemia-2. These data strongly support the concept that the {beta}{sup s} gene on chromosome 11 of these individuals is of African origin and that the {alpha}-gene locus on chromosome 16 is of white or native American origin. The clinical severity of the disease in these nonblack patients is appropriate to their haplotype without {alpha}-thalassemia-2 and is comparable with that of black patients. All persons with congenital hemolytic anemia should be examined for the presence of sickle cell disease regardless of physical appearance or ethnic background.

  4. African N Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekunda, M.; Galford, G. L.; Hickman, J. E.; Palm, C.

    2011-12-01

    Africa's smallholder agricultural systems face unique challenges in planning for reducing poverty, concurrent with adaptation and mitigation to climate change. At continental level, policy seeks to promote a uniquely African Green Revolution to increase crop yields and food production, and improve local livelihoods. However, the consequences on the environment and climate are not clear; these pro-economic development measures should be linked to climate change adaptation and mitigation measures, and research is required to help achieve these policy proposals by identifying options, and testing impacts. In particular, increased nitrogen (N) inputs are essential for increasing food production in Africa, but are accompanied by inevitable increases in losses to the environment. These losses appear to be low at input levels promoted in agricultural development programs, while the increased N inputs both increase current food production and appear to reduce the vulnerability of food production to changes in climate. We present field and remote sensing evidence from Malawi that subsidizing improved seed and fertilizers increases resilience to drought without adding excess N to the environment. In Kenya, field research identified thresholds in N2O losses, where emissions are very low at fertilization rates of less than 200 kg ha-1. Village-scale models have identified potential inefficiencies in the food production process where the largest losses of reactive N occur, and which could be targeted to reduce the amount of N released to the environment. We further review some on-going research activities and progress in Africa that compare different methods of managing resources that target resilience in food production and adaptation to climate change, using nutrient N as an indicator, while evaluating the effects of these resource management practices on ecosystems and the environment.

  5. African horse sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, Philip Scott; Hamblin, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    African horse sickness virus (AHSV) causes a non-contagious, infectious insect-borne disease of equids and is endemic in many areas of sub-Saharan Africa and possibly Yemen in the Arabian Peninsula. However, periodically the virus makes excursions beyond its endemic areas and has at times extended as far as India and Pakistan in the east and Spain and Portugal in the west. The vectors are certain species of Culicoides biting midge the most important of which is the Afro-Asiatic species C. imicola. This paper describes the effects that AHSV has on its equid hosts, aspects of its epidemiology, and present and future prospects for control. The distribution of AHSV seems to be governed by a number of factors including the efficiency of control measures, the presence or absence of a long term vertebrate reservoir and, most importantly, the prevalence and seasonal incidence of the major vector which is controlled by climate. However, with the advent of climate-change the major vector, C. imicola, has now significantly extended its range northwards to include much of Portugal, Spain, Italy and Greece and has even been recorded from southern Switzerland. Furthermore, in many of these new locations the insect is present and active throughout the entire year. With the related bluetongue virus, which utilises the same vector species of Culicoides this has, since 1998, precipitated the worst outbreaks of bluetongue disease ever recorded with the virus extending further north in Europe than ever before and apparently becoming endemic in that continent. The prospects for similar changes in the epidemiology and distribution of AHSV are discussed.

  6. Chemical characterisation of african dust transported to Canary Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelado, M. D.; López, P.; Prieto, S.; Collado, C.; Hernández, J. J.

    2009-04-01

    African dust pulses have important effects on the climate conditions and the marine biogeochemistry in the Canary Region. Aerosol samples have been collected at three stations on Gran Canaria Island (Taliarte at sea level, Tafira 269 m a.s.l. and Pico de la Gorra 1930 m a.s.l.) during 2000-2008. Elemental characterisation of the collected mineral aerosol and back trajectories of the air masses are used to distinguish regional African sources of dust. Dust aerosol samples from North Sahara (Morocco, North Algeria and Tunisia), West and Central Sahara (20°-30°N, 18°W-50°E) and Sahel (0°-20°N, 18°W-50°E) have shown different Ca/Ti, Al/Ti and Fe/Al ratios. Ti appears as a better tracer element of specific source of dust than Fe, probably due to a less mineral alteration during the atmospheric transport.

  7. China Offers Import Tax Exemption to Some African Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>According to information from China’s Ministry of Commerce, China will offer some import tax exemption from January 1st this year to 25 African countries for a total of 190 commodities in the Customs taxable list. These commodities include 14 items of metals commodities such as ferro-silicon, steel structures and fabricated steel products, screw nails and their accessories, blister copper, unwrought copper cathode, fabricated copper, copper scrap and other copper products, unwrought nickel alloys, unwrought aluminium, aluminium scrap, intermediate cobalt products and fabricated cobalt products. These African countries include Benin, Burundi, Cape Verde, Central Africa, Congo, Ethiopia, Guinea, Liberia, Mozambique, Niger, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia etc. More details on these will be provided by the Customs.

  8. Systematics and biology of the African genus Ferraria (Iridaceae: Irideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Goldblatt

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Following field and herbarium investigation of the subequatorial African and mainly western southern African Ferraria Burm. ex Mill. (Iridaceae: Iridoideae, a genus of cormous geophytes, we recognize 18 species, eight more than were included in the 1979 account of the genus by M.P. de Vos. One of these, F. ovata, based on Moraea ovata Thunb. (1800, was only discovered to be a species of Ferraria in 2001, and three more are the result of our different view of De Vos’s taxonomy. In tropical Africa, F. glutinosa is recircumscribed to include only mid- to late summer-flowering plants, usually with a single basal leaf and with purple to brown flowers often marked with yellow. A second summer-flowering species, F. candelabrum, includes taller plants with several basal leaves. Spring and early summer-flowering plants lacking foliage leaves and with yellow flowers from central Africa are referred to F. spithamea or F. welwitschii respectively.

  9. The transmission of African culture to children

    OpenAIRE

    Michele Tanon Lora

    2014-01-01

    African ancient traditions suffered a major historical change as a result of colonization. Several decades after decolonization and access to independence, what is the situation and place of the African culture in Africa and outside Africa? Does African culture perpetuate effectively today? What are the obstacles to the transmission of African culture to our children? What are the beliefs or elements that have influenced the transmission of our culture after the period of independence? Roughl...

  10. Translating Culture: Contemporary African American Poetry

    OpenAIRE

    Kristina Kočan Šalamon

    2015-01-01

    The paper interrogates cultural specifics of contemporary African American poetry and exhibits translation problems when translating this poetic work. African American writers have always included much of their cultural heritage in their writing and this is immediately noticed by a translator. The cultural elements, such as African American cuisine, attire and style in general, as well as spiritual and religious practices, often play a significant role for African American poets who are procl...

  11. central t

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel R. Piña Monarrez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Dado que la Regresión Ridge (RR, es una estimación sesgada que parte de la solución de la regresión de Mínimos Cuadrados (MC, es vital establecer las condiciones para las que la distribución central t de Student que se utiliza en la prueba de hipótesis en MC, sea también aplicable a la regresión RR. La prueba de este importante resultado se presenta en este artículo.

  12. Understanding African American Men’s Perceptions of Racism, Male Gender Socialization, and Social Capital Through Photovoice

    OpenAIRE

    Ornelas, India J.; Amell, Jim; Tran, Anh N.; Royster, Michael; Armstrong-Brown, Janelle; Eng, Eugenia

    2009-01-01

    In this study we used a participatory qualitative research approach—photovoice—to collect information about African American men’s perceptions of the factors that influenced their own health and the health of their communities. Photovoice was conducted as part of the “Men as Navigators (MAN) for Health” project, an evaluation of a male lay health advisor (LHA) intervention in central North Carolina. Twelve African American men living in both urban and rural communities took photographs and di...

  13. African American Teaching and the Matriarchal Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, Rhonda Baynes

    This paper discusses the role of matriarchs in African-American culture, explaining that traditionally, African-American matriarchs arise from a combination of African norms and American social positions that naturally forces them to assume leadership conditions. The roles these women assume are a response to the desire to survive in a society…

  14. African pastoralist systems: An integrated approach

    OpenAIRE

    Fratkin, E.; Galvin, K.A.; Roth, E.A.

    1994-01-01

    Metadata only record The chapters in this book cover the following topics: Archaeological Perspectives on East African Pastoralism; Pastoralism in Historic Perspective; Mobility and Land Use Among African Pastoralists: Old Conceptual Problems and New Interpretations; Labor, Livestock, and Land: The Organization of Pastoral Production; Diet, Nutrition, and Pastoral Strategy; Demographic Systems: Two East African Examples; Child Fostering Among Nomadic Turkana Pastoralists: Demographic and H...

  15. The African American Image in American Cinema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, St. Clair

    1990-01-01

    Political conditions have influenced the screen images of U.S. cinema, and the images of African Americans have reflected prevailing social stereotypes. The history of African-American representation in films is traced, and it is noted that the tendency to portray African Americans stereotypically has not changed. (SLD)

  16. MORE CHINESE CARS ON AFRICAN ROADS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    China drives into the African vehicle market and meets the challenges head on with some advantages of its own High-quality but inexpensive Chinese automobiles have gradually won the confidence of the African market and are becoming a bright new link in Sino-African economic ties. On September 4, a total of 400 Polarsun minibuses, made in Shenyang, capital of northeast

  17. African Centered Knowledge: A British Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Mark

    2001-01-01

    Considers the impact of African centered knowledge within the United Kingdom. Recent development of African Diaspora studies has forged links between various black Atlantic communities. The United Kingdom has experienced positive grassroots community response to the work of noted African centered scholars, yet within the British academy,…

  18. Molecular phylogenetics reveal multiple tertiary vicariance origins of the African rain forest trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sosef Marc SM

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tropical rain forests are the most diverse terrestrial ecosystems on the planet. How this diversity evolved remains largely unexplained. In Africa, rain forests are situated in two geographically isolated regions: the West-Central Guineo-Congolian region and the coastal and montane regions of East Africa. These regions have strong floristic affinities with each other, suggesting a former connection via an Eocene pan-African rain forest. High levels of endemism observed in both regions have been hypothesized to be the result of either 1 a single break-up followed by a long isolation or 2 multiple fragmentation and reconnection since the Oligocene. To test these hypotheses the evolutionary history of endemic taxa within a rain forest restricted African lineage of the plant family Annonaceae was studied. Molecular phylogenies and divergence dates were estimated using a Bayesian relaxed uncorrelated molecular clock assumption accounting for both calibration and phylogenetic uncertainties. Results Our results provide strong evidence that East African endemic lineages of Annonaceae have multiple origins dated to significantly different times spanning the Oligocene and Miocene epochs. Moreover, these successive origins (c. 33, 16 and 8 million years – Myr coincide with known periods of aridification and geological activity in Africa that would have recurrently isolated the Guineo-Congolian rain forest from the East African one. All East African taxa were found to have diversified prior to Pleistocene times. Conclusion Molecular phylogenetic dating analyses of this large pan-African clade of Annonaceae unravels an interesting pattern of diversification for rain forest restricted trees co-occurring in West/Central and East African rain forests. Our results suggest that repeated reconnections between the West/Central and East African rain forest blocks allowed for biotic exchange while the break-ups induced speciation via vicariance

  19. Unpacking Racial Socialization: Considering Female African American Primary Caregivers' Racial Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scottham, Krista Maywalt; Smalls, Ciara P.

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between female African American primary caregivers' racial identity and their racial socialization emphases was examined. Three components of racial identity were evaluated: (1) the importance of race to the self-concept (centrality), (2) affective feelings toward group membership (private regard), and (3) perceptions of how group…

  20. Changes in Racial Identity among African American College Students Following the Election of Barack Obama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E.; Burrow, Anthony L.; Ong, Anthony D.

    2011-01-01

    The current study considered the influence of the 2008 presidential election on the racial identity of African American college students (M[subscript age] = 19.3 years; 26.3% male). The design of the study consisted of 2 components: longitudinal and daily. The longitudinal component assessed 3 dimensions of racial identity (centrality, private…

  1. Genome-wide ancestry of 17th-century enslaved Africans from the Caribbean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, Hannes; Avila Arcos, Maria del Carmen; Malaspinas, Anna Sapfo;

    2015-01-01

    Between 1500 and 1850, more than 12 million enslaved Africans were transported to the New World. The vast majority were shipped from West and West-Central Africa, but their precise origins are largely unknown. We used genome-wide ancient DNA analyses to investigate the genetic origins of three...

  2. Reproductive biology of varroa mites in colonies of Africanized honey bees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calderon Fallas, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the reproductive biology of V. destructor in Africanized honeybees (AHB) in Central American conditions, specifically in Costa Rica. Attention was paid to mite fertility and production of viable female mites in worker and drone brood cells. Other reproduction parameters, like fecundi

  3. Recovery of African wild dogs suppresses prey but does not trigger a trophic cascade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Large carnivores can powerfully shape ecosystems by directly suppressing herbivores, thereby indirectly benefitting plants in a process known as a trophic cascade. In 2002, after a 20-year absence, African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) recolonized the Laikipia Plateau in central Kenya. We hypothesized t...

  4. How student teachers understand African philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsephe M. Letseka

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The question ‘What constitutes African philosophy?’ was first raised with the publication of Placide Tempels’s seminal work Bantu philosophy in 1959. Tempels’s book inevitably elicited considerable critical response from African philosophers, which culminated in a wide range of publications such as Wiredu’s (1980 Philosophy and an African culture, Hountondji’s (1983 African philosophy: Myth and reality, Oruka’s (1990 Sage philosophy: Indigenous thinkers and modern debate on African philosophy, Shutte’s (1993 Philosophy for Africa, Masolo’s (1994 African philosophy in search of identity and Gyekye’s (1995 An essay of African philosophical thought: The Akan conceptual scheme. It has been over 60 years since the publication of Temples’s book and there continues to be serious debate about African philosophy. This article sought to contribute to the debate on the various conceptions of African philosophy, but with a focus on the challenges of teaching African philosophy to Philosophy of Education students at an open distance learning institution in South Africa. This article discussed the tendency amongst undergraduate Philosophy of Education students to conflate and reduce African philosophy to African cultures and traditions, and to the notion of ubuntu, and sought to understand the reasons for students’ inclination to treat African philosophy in this way. It examined students’ background knowledge of African philosophy, their critical thinking skills and whether their official study materials are selected and packaged in a manner that, in fact, adds to the challenges they face. Finally, the article explored the ways in which Philosophy of Education lecturers can adapt their pedagogy to provide students with a better understanding of African philosophy.

  5. African women, literature, language and culture

    OpenAIRE

    Rosamond S. King

    2014-01-01

    This essay will link African women’s writing to culture, including literary culture and the politics of literature. It describes how African women’s literature can act as a mirror, reflecting African cultures to Africans, and how it can serve as a window and a door, revealing African cultures to those outside of them in whole or in part. It ends with a description of “communal agency,” an example of how scholarly writing can act as a door for both those who are and are not a part of a literat...

  6. Origins, consolidation and challenges of African Hispanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vital Tama Bena

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The African continent today takes into consideration a cultural movement which can be called African Hispanism. Born with the beginning of the post-colonial era, this African Hispanism has witnessed a progressive setting up in African countries thanks to the impetus of teachers of the Spanish language. Today that action benefits from a notorious cultural life as observed trough Spanish users of that language on the one hand; on the other hand the birth of a very promising African Spanish literature. Yet some future challenges are to come for a real fruitful future of that cultural movement. Key words: Spanish language; Africa intercultural exchanges.

  7. Vitamin D and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin D insufficiency is more prevalent among African Americans than other Americans and, in North America, most young, healthy blacks do not achieve optimal 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations at any time of the year. This is primarily due to the fact that pigmentation reduces vitamin D...

  8. Classic African American Children's Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNair, Jonda C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to assert that there are classic African American children's books and to identify a sampling of them. The author presents multiple definitions of the term classic based on the responses of children's literature experts and relevant scholarship. Next, the manner in which data were collected and analyzed in regard to…

  9. Quo vadis South African universities?

    OpenAIRE

    Johann RE lutjeharms

    2007-01-01

    The Economist has recently identified some specific factors that explain why European universities are not competing adequately with their American counterparts. These factors are used here to evaluate South African government policy for universities. It is demonstrated that this current policy is directly contrary to what is now internationally considered best for universities in a knowledge economy.

  10. Pan-African Paleostresses and Reactivation of the Eburnean Basement Complex in Southeast Ghana (West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahaman Sani Tairou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This faulting tectonics analysis concerns the southernmost segment of the Dahomeyide Orogen and the West-African craton eastern margin in southeast Ghana. The analysis of strike-slip faults in the frontal units of the Dahomeyide Belt indicates that four distinct compressive events (NE-SW, ENE-WSW to E-W, ESE-WNW to SE-NW and SE-NW to SSE-NNW originated the juxtaposition of the Pan-African Mobile Zone and the West-African craton. These paleostress systems define a clockwise rotation of the compressional axis during the structuring of the Dahomeyide Orogen (650–550 Ma. The SE-NW and SSE-NNW to N-S compressional axes in the cratonic domain and its cover (Volta Basin suggest that the reactivation of the eastern edge of the West African craton is coeval with the last stages of the Pan-African tectogenesis in southeast Ghana. An extensional episode expressed as late normal faulting is also recorded in this study. This E-W to SE-NW extension, which is particular to the southernmost part of the Dahomeyide Belt, appears to be post-Pan-African. This extension probably contributed to the formation of a major Jurassic rifting zone that originated the Central Atlantic and the Benue Trough.

  11. Estimation of African apes' body size from postcranial dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niskanen, Markku; Junno, Juho-Antti

    2009-07-01

    We examine how African apes' postcranial skeletal dimensions and their combinations are related to body size, as represented by trunk volume, within sex-specific samples of a total of 39 central chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) and 34 western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). We examine this relationship by determining the strength of the correlation between selected skeletal dimensions and trunk volume. The findings indicate that sex should be taken into account when possible. Most two-predictor models perform better than most single-predictor models. Interspecific regressions based on log-transformed variables and sex/species-specific regression based on raw variables perform about equally well. PMID:19221857

  12. The UCAR Africa Initiative: Enabling African Solutions to African Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, R.; Bruintjes, R.; Foote, B.; Heck, S.; Hermann, S.; Hoswell, L.; Konate, M.; Kucera, P.; Laing, A.; Lamptey, B.; Moncrieff, M.; Ramamurthy, M.; Roberts, R.; Spangler, T.; Traoré, A.; Yoksas, T.; Warner, T.

    2007-12-01

    The University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) Africa Initiative (AI) is a coordinated effort aimed at building sustainable partnerships between UCAR and African institutions in order to pursue research and applications for the benefit of the African people. The initiative is based on four fundamental operating principles, concisely summarized by the overall philosophy of enabling African solutions to African needs. The four principles are: • Collaborate with African institutions • Focus on institutional capacity building and research support • Explore science research themes critical to Africa and important for the world • Leverage the research infrastructure in UCAR to add value These principles are realized in a set of pilot activities, chosen for their high probability of short-term results and ability to set the stage for longer-term collaboration. The three pilot activities are listed below. 1. A modest radar network and data-distribution system in Mali and Burkina Faso, including a data-sharing MOU between the Mail and Burkina Faso Weather Services. 2. A partnership among UCAR, the Ghana Meteorological Agency, and the Ghana university community to develop an operational Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model for West Africa. The output is used by researchers and operational forecasters in Africa. Model output is also part of a demonstration project that aims to allow humanitarian agencies to share geo-referenced information in Africa via a web portal. 3. A workshop in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso from April 2-6, 2007, with the theme Improving Lives by Understanding Weather. The workshop, co-organized with Programme SAAGA and the Commité Permanent Inter-Etats de Lutte Contre la Sécheresse dans le Sahel (CILSS), included over 80 participants from 18 countries, and produced a set of recommendations for continued collaboration. Our presentation will provide an update of these pilot activities and point to future directions. Recognizing

  13. Schistosomes in South African penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldhoun, Jitka A; Horne, Elizabeth C

    2015-01-01

    During the years 2009-2012, faeces of African penguins (Spheniscus demersus L.) from South African rehabilitation centres were examined for helminths. In total, 46 out 555 samples (8.29 %), mostly belonging to adult birds, were found to contain oval schistosome eggs with a spine on one pole. Their dimensions were 153.21 ± 9.07 × 87.14 ± 8.67 μm. Selected DNA fragments (18S, 28S and ITS rDNA) were sequenced and compared to other schistosome isolates deposited in GenBank. The shape of the eggs suggests that they belong to the genus Gigantobilharzia; however, due to the insufficient stage of knowledge of the genus and limited number of species available for comparison, we were not able to assign the isolate unambiguously to this genus based on either the egg morphology or the results of molecular analysis.

  14. African palm ethno-medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gruca, Marta; Blach-Overgaard, Anne; Balslev, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance This study is the first to demonstrate the breadth and patterns of the medicinal applications of African palms. It sheds light on species with the potential to provide new therapeutic agents for use in biomedicine; and links the gap between traditional use of palms...... and pharmacological evaluation for the beneficial effects of palm products on human health. Last but not least, the study provides recommendations for the areas that should be targeted in future ethno-botanical surveys. Aim of the study The primary objective of this survey was to assemble all available ethno-medicinal...... data on African palms, and investigate patterns of palm uses in traditional medicine; and highlight possible under-investigated areas. Materials and methods References were found through bibliographic searches using several sources including PubMed, Embase, and Google Scholar and search engines...

  15. Palaearctic-African Bird Migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwajomo, Soladoye Babatola

    Bird migration has attracted a lot of interests over past centuries and the methods used for studying this phenomenon has greatly improved in terms of availability, dimension, scale and precision. In spite of the advancements, relatively more is known about the spring migration of trans......-Saharan migrants than autumn migration. Information about the behavior and interactions of migrants during the nonbreeding season in sub-Saharan Africa is also scarce for many species. Furthermore, very little is known about intra-African migration. This thesis summarizes my research on the autumn migration...... of birds from Europe to Africa and opens up the possibility of studying intra-African migration. I have used long-term, standardized autumn ringing data from southeast Sweden to investigate patterns in biometrics, phenology and population trends as inferred from annual trapping totals. In addition, I...

  16. Financial Liberalization: The African Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Reinhart, Carmen; Tokatlidis, Ioannis

    2000-01-01

    Almost a decade after their initiation, financial reforms appear to have had little effect on the economies of Sub-Sahara Africa. Whether the blame is to fall on their initial design itself, or on the partial nature of their implementation, liberalization policies have not mobilized savings, deepened intermediation or raised investment. Yet, Africa needs properly functioning financial markets for a more efficient allocation of resources for growth and risk diversification. How can African go...

  17. The African Financial Development Gap

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Franklin; Carletti, Elena; Cull, Robert; Qian, Jun; Senbet, Lemma

    2010-01-01

    Economic growth in Africa has long been disappointing. We document that the financial sectors of most sub-Saharan African countries remain significantly underdeveloped by the standards of other developing countries. We examine the factors that are associated with financial development in Africa and compare them with those in other developing countries. Population density appears to be considerably more important for banking sector development in Africa than elsewhere. Given the high costs of ...

  18. Recent growth in African cassava

    OpenAIRE

    Nweke, Felix; Haggblade, Steven; Zulu, Ballard

    2004-01-01

    According to the authors, "Cassava serves as a staple food for 200 million Africans, second only to maize in its calorie contribution. In response to a series of devastating attacks by cassava diseases and pests over the past several decades, the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) and several national agricultural research services have launched successful cassava research programs... " This brief describes some of the programs, their impact and the drivers of change. It c...

  19. Exploration and mating range in African Pygmies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalli-Sforza, L L; Hewlett, B

    1982-07-01

    The distributions of exploration range and of mating range were studied among Aka Pygmies of the Central African Republic. Exploration range is defined and methods of estimation for single individuals suggested. A simple exponential distribution is found for individual Aka Pygmies, with variation of exploration range (the parameter defining mobility) with sex, age and ethnic affiliation. Distribution of distances from birthplace and place of residence are compared and show modest differences. The frequency of visits to a given place has also been studied. The average distance between birthplaces of mates is very similar to the mean exploration range. Correlations between individual exploration and mating ranges suggest that it is the male who may be choosing a marriage partner among Pygmies. A theory by Boyce, Küchemann & Harrison (1967) on the relations between "neighbourhood knowledge" and mating distance is inapplicable because of its reliance on the Pareto distribution, which does not apply in the present case, and of other unnecessary assumptions, but the general principle of a close relationship between exploratory activity and mating distance seems valid, at least in the present case. Suggestions are made for causes for the difference between the present distributions and those with other shapes observed in less primitive economies.

  20. Ideology and the possibility of African political theory: African socialism and “ubuntu” compared

    OpenAIRE

    Gil, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the lack of investigation into African political theory in the postcolonial period. After discussing the epistemological problems in the study of African political thought, the paper then adopts Michael Freeden’s methodology for the analysis of political ideologies. Through this approach a comparison is made between African Socialism and ubuntu. African Socialism – as developed by Cabral, Nkrumah, Nyerere and Senghor – is defined by its core commitment to freedom from co...

  1. 21st Century South African Science Fiction

    OpenAIRE

    CARAIVAN LUIZA

    2014-01-01

    The paper analyses some aspects of South African science fiction, starting with its beginnings in the 1920s and focusing on some 21st century writings. Thus Lauren Beukes’ novels Moxyland (2008) and Zoo City (2010) are taken into consideration in order to present new trends in South African literature and the way science fiction has been marked by Apartheid. The second South African science fiction writer whose writings are examined is Henrietta Rose-Innes (with her novel Nineveh, published i...

  2. Ectomycorrhizal symbiosis of tropical African trees

    OpenAIRE

    Bâ, Amadou; Duponnois, Robin; Moyersoen, B.; Diédhiou, A.G.

    2012-01-01

    The diversity, ecology and function of ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi and ectomycorrhizas (ECMs) on tropical African tree species are reviewed here. While ECMs are the most frequent mycorrhizal type in temperate and boreal forests, they concern an economically and ecologically important minority of plants in African tropical forests. In these African tropical forests, ECMs are found mainly on caesalpionioid legumes, Sarcolaenaceae, Dipterocarpaceae, Asterpeiaceae, Phyllantaceae, Sapotaceae, Papil...

  3. African Music: Source of the Blues

    OpenAIRE

    Bayer, Konrad Sidney

    2010-01-01

    [Abstract] African music is the primary source for the blues. Scholars have supplied ample evidence to support this assertion. However, the African retentions still present in the blues are not immediately apparent. African music and the blues share many similarities, including the predominance of rhythm, the uses of music as social commentary and critique, types of instruments, and musical structure. Slaves brought their culture with them to the New World when they were forcibly taken from t...

  4. Representation of African Heritage in Trinidad Carnival

    OpenAIRE

    三吉, 美加

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the cultural representation of African Trinidadian or African creole in Trinidad Carnival. The Republic of Trinidad and Tobago is the most ethnically and culturally diverse society in the East Caribbean. This diversity comprises of 40 percent of East Indians, 40 percent of Africans, and 20 percent of mixed race such as Chinese, Syrians, Lebanese, and Europeans. In the course of making tourism a national agenda, Carnival has gained commercial values, diversifying particip...

  5. Not of African Descent: Dental Modification among Indigenous Caribbean People from Canímar Abajo, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roksandic, Mirjana; Alarie, Kaitlynn; Rodríguez Suárez, Roberto; Huebner, Erwin; Roksandic, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Dental modifications in the Caribbean are considered to be an African practice introduced to the Caribbean archipelago by the influx of enslaved Africans during colonial times. Skeletal remains which exhibited dental modifications are by default considered to be Africans, African descendants, or post-contact indigenous people influenced by an African practice. Individual E-105 from the site of Canímar Abajo (Cuba), with a direct 14C AMS date of 990-800 cal BC, provides the first unequivocal evidence of dental modifications in the Antilles prior to contact with Europeans in AD 1492. Central incisors showing evidence of significant crown reduction (loss of crown volume regardless of its etiology) were examined macroscopically and with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to determine if the observed alterations were due to deliberate modification or other (unintentional) factors considered: postmortem breakage, violent accidental breakage, non-dietary use of teeth, and wear caused by habitual or repeated actions. The pattern of crown reduction is consistent with deliberate dental modification of the type commonly encountered among African and African descendent communities in post-contact Caribbean archaeological assemblages. Six additional individuals show similar pattern of crown reduction of maxillary incisors with no analogous wear in corresponding mandibular dentition.

  6. 75 FR 45600 - African Development Foundation, Board of Directors Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ...; ] AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION African Development Foundation, Board of Directors Meeting Time: Tuesday, August 17, 2010, 8:30 a.m. to 1 p.m. Place: African Development Foundation, Conference Room, 1400...

  7. 75 FR 2844 - African Development Foundation, Board of Directors Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    ...; ] AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION African Development Foundation, Board of Directors Meeting Time: Tuesday, January 26, 2010, 8:30 a.m. to 1 p.m. Place: African Development Foundation, Conference Room, 1400...

  8. 75 FR 14418 - African Development Foundation, Board of Directors Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ...; ] AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION African Development Foundation, Board of Directors Meeting Time: Tuesday, April 13, 2010, 9:30 a.m. to 1 p.m. Place: African Development Foundation, Conference Room, 1400...

  9. Gentle Africanized bees on an oceanic island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Marchand, Bert; Oskay, Devrim; Giray, Tugrul

    2012-11-01

    Oceanic islands have reduced resources and natural enemies and potentially affect life history traits of arriving organisms. Among the most spectacular invasions in the Western hemisphere is that of the Africanized honeybee. We hypothesized that in the oceanic island Puerto Rico, Africanized bees will exhibit differences from the mainland population such as for defensiveness and other linked traits. We evaluated the extent of Africanization through three typical Africanized traits: wing size, defensive behavior, and resistance to Varroa destructor mites. All sampled colonies were Africanized by maternal descent, with over 65% presence of European alleles at the S-3 nuclear locus. In two assays evaluating defense, Puerto Rican bees showed low defensiveness similar to European bees. In morphology and resistance to mites, Africanized bees from Puerto Rico are similar to other Africanized bees. In behavioral assays on mechanisms of resistance to Varroa, we directly observed that Puerto Rican Africanized bees groomed-off and bit the mites as been observed in other studies. In no other location, Africanized bees have reduced defensiveness while retaining typical traits such as wing size and mite resistance. This mosaic of traits that has resulted during the invasion of an oceanic island has implications for behavior, evolution, and agriculture.

  10. Barack Obama’s Dreams from My Father and African American Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Stein

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a series of close readings of Barack Obama’s autobiography Dreams from My Father. It places the narrative within the history of African American literature and rhetoric and argues that Obama uses the text to create a life story that resonates with central concepts of African American selfhood and black male identity, including double consciousness, invisibility, and black nationalism. The article reads Dreams from My Father as an attempt to arrive at a state of “functional Blackness,” which moves away from questions of racial authenticity and identity politics but recognizes the narrative powers of African American literature to shape a convincing and appealing black self.

  11. Transpressional granite-emplacement model: Structural and magnetic study of the Pan-African Bandja granitic pluton (West Cameroon)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandjo, A. F. Yakeu; Njanko, T.; Njonfang, E.; Errami, E.; Rochette, P.; Fozing, E.

    2016-02-01

    The Pan-African NE-SW elongated Bandja granitic pluton, located at the western part of the Pan-African belt in Cameroon, is a K-feldspar megacryst granite. It is emplaced in banded gneiss and its NW border underwent mylonitization. The magmatic foliation shows NE-SW and NNE-SSW strike directions with moderate to strong dip respectively in its northern and central parts. This mostly, ferromagnetic granite displays magnetic fabrics carried by magnetite and characterized by (i) magnetic foliation with best poles at 295/34, 283/33 and 35/59 respectively in its northern, central and southern parts and (ii) a subhorizontal magnetic lineation with best line at 37/8, 191/9 and 267/22 respectively in the northern, central and southern parts. Magnetic lineation shows an `S' shape trend that allows to (1) consider the complete emplacement and deformation of the pluton during the Pan-African D 2 and D 3 events which occurred in the Pan-African belt in Cameroon and (2) reorganize Pan-African ages from Nguiessi Tchakam et al. (1997) compared with those of the other granitic plutons in the belt as: 686 ±17 Ma (Rb/Sr) for D 1 age of metamorphism recorded in gneiss; and the period between 604-557 Ma for D 2-D 3 emplacement and deformation age of the granitic pluton in a dextral ENE-WSW shear movement.

  12. The influence of African air pollution on regional and global tropospheric ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Aghedo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the influence of African biomass burning, biogenic, lightning and anthropogenic emissions on the tropospheric ozone over Africa and globally using a coupled global chemistry climate model. Our model studies indicate that surface ozone concentration may rise by up to 50 ppbv in the burning region during the biomass burning seasons. Biogenic emissions yield between 5–30 ppbv increase in the near surface ozone concentration over tropical Africa. The impact of lightning on surface ozone is negligible, while anthropogenic emissions yield a maximum of 7 ppbv increase in the annual-mean surface ozone concentration over Nigeria, South Africa and Egypt. Our results show that biogenic emissions are the most important African emission source affecting total tropospheric ozone. The influence of each of the African emissions on the global tropospheric ozone burden (TOB of 384 Tg yields about 9.5 Tg, 19.6 Tg, 9.0 Tg and 4.7 Tg for biomass burning, biogenic, lightning and anthropogenic emissions emitted in Africa respectively. The impact of each of these emission categories on African TOB of 33 Tg is 2.5 Tg, 4.1 Tg, 1.75 Tg and 0.89 Tg respectively, which together represents about 28% of the total TOB calculated over Africa. Our model calculations also suggest that more than 70% of the tropospheric ozone produced by each of the African emissions is found outside the continent, thus exerting a noticeable influence on a large part of the tropical troposphere. Apart from the Atlantic and Indian Ocean, Latin America experiences the largest impact of African emissions, followed by Oceania, the Middle East, Southeast and south-central Asia, northern North America (i.e. the United States and Canada, Europe and north-central Asia, for all the emission categories.

  13. Mapping the groundwater vulnerability for pollution at the pan African scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouedraogo, Issoufou; Defourny, Pierre; Vanclooster, Marnik

    2016-02-15

    We estimated vulnerability and pollution risk of groundwater at the pan-African scale. We therefore compiled the most recent continental scale information on soil, land use, geology, hydrogeology and climate in a Geographical Information System (GIS) at a resolution of 15 km × 15 km and at the scale of 1:60,000,000. The groundwater vulnerability map was constructed by means of the DRASTIC method. The map reveals that groundwater is highly vulnerable in Central and West Africa, where the watertable is very low. In addition, very low vulnerability is found in the large sedimentary basins of the African deserts where groundwater is situated in very deep aquifers. The groundwater pollution risk map is obtained by overlaying the DRASTIC vulnerability map with land use. The northern, central and western part of the African continent is dominated by high pollution risk classes and this is very strongly related to shallow groundwater systems and the development of agricultural activities. Subsequently, we performed a sensitivity analysis to evaluate the relative importance of each parameter on groundwater vulnerability and pollution risk. The sensitivity analysis indicated that the removal of the impact of vadose zone, the depth of the groundwater, the hydraulic conductivity and the net recharge causes a large variation in the mapped vulnerability and pollution risk. The mapping model was validated using nitrate concentration data of groundwater as a proxy of pollution risk. Pan-African concentration data were inferred from a meta-analysis of literature data. Results shows a good match between nitrate concentration and the groundwater pollution risk classes. The pan African assessment of groundwater vulnerability and pollution risk is expected to be of particular value for water policy and for designing groundwater resources management programs. We expect, however, that this assessment can be strongly improved when better pan African monitoring data related to groundwater

  14. Mapping the groundwater vulnerability for pollution at the pan African scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouedraogo, Issoufou; Defourny, Pierre; Vanclooster, Marnik

    2016-02-15

    We estimated vulnerability and pollution risk of groundwater at the pan-African scale. We therefore compiled the most recent continental scale information on soil, land use, geology, hydrogeology and climate in a Geographical Information System (GIS) at a resolution of 15 km × 15 km and at the scale of 1:60,000,000. The groundwater vulnerability map was constructed by means of the DRASTIC method. The map reveals that groundwater is highly vulnerable in Central and West Africa, where the watertable is very low. In addition, very low vulnerability is found in the large sedimentary basins of the African deserts where groundwater is situated in very deep aquifers. The groundwater pollution risk map is obtained by overlaying the DRASTIC vulnerability map with land use. The northern, central and western part of the African continent is dominated by high pollution risk classes and this is very strongly related to shallow groundwater systems and the development of agricultural activities. Subsequently, we performed a sensitivity analysis to evaluate the relative importance of each parameter on groundwater vulnerability and pollution risk. The sensitivity analysis indicated that the removal of the impact of vadose zone, the depth of the groundwater, the hydraulic conductivity and the net recharge causes a large variation in the mapped vulnerability and pollution risk. The mapping model was validated using nitrate concentration data of groundwater as a proxy of pollution risk. Pan-African concentration data were inferred from a meta-analysis of literature data. Results shows a good match between nitrate concentration and the groundwater pollution risk classes. The pan African assessment of groundwater vulnerability and pollution risk is expected to be of particular value for water policy and for designing groundwater resources management programs. We expect, however, that this assessment can be strongly improved when better pan African monitoring data related to groundwater

  15. Fragile states and protection under the 1969 African Refugee Convention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Wood

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Current practice in African states highlights both the potential andthe limitations of the 1969 African Refugee Convention in providingprotection to persons displaced from fragile states.

  16. The African agent discovered: The recognition and involvement of the African biblical interpreter in Bible translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S V Coertze

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the extent to which the role of the African biblical interpreter is acknowledged in the process of Bible translation, as the Bible and Bible translation form an important part of the establishment of the African church on the continent of Africa. It points out that even though foreign discovery of African agency in Bible translation is evident, indigenous discovery of the same is largely absent. Part of the relevance of this article is for the African church to own and be actively involved in the translation of the Bible into the remaining African languages that are in need of a translation of the Bible.

  17. Central Pain Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Central Pain Syndrome Information Page Table of Contents (click to ... being done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Central Pain Syndrome? Central pain syndrome is a neurological condition ...

  18. Central venous line - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    CVL - infants; Central catheter - infants - surgically placed ... plastic tube that is put into a large vein in the chest. WHY IS A ... central catheter (PICC) or midline central catheter (MCC). A CVL ...

  19. Light shines through the spindrift--phylogeny of African torrent frogs (Amphibia, Anura, Petropedetidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barej, Michael F; Rödel, Mark-Oliver; Loader, Simon P; Menegon, Michele; Gonwouo, Nono L; Penner, Johannes; Gvoždík, Václav; Günther, Rainer; Bell, Rayna C; Nagel, Peter; Schmitz, Andreas

    2014-02-01

    Torrent frogs of the genus Petropedetes Reichenow, 1874 as currently understood have a disjunct distribution with species endemic to West, Central or East Africa. We herein present a phylogenetic analysis including all but one of the currently described 12 species of the genus. Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian analyses of combined nuclear (rag1, SIA, BDNF) and mitochondrial (16S, 12S, cytb) genes of more than 3500 base pairs, revealed clades corresponding to the three sub-Saharan regions. Molecular results are confirmed by morphological differences. Surprisingly, the three geographic clades do not form a monophyletic group with respect to closely related families Pyxicephalidae and Conrauidae and therefore require taxonomic changes. We resurrect Arthroleptides Nieden, 1911 for the East African taxa. The Central African taxa remain in the genus Petropedetes. The West African members are placed in the new genus Odontobatrachus gen. nov. The taxonomic position of the new genus remains incertae sedis as it was not assigned to any of the four families included in our analyses. Potential new species have been detected within all three major clades, pointing to a still not fully clarified diversity within African torrent frogs.

  20. Depression, Sociocultural Factors, and African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunn, Vanessa Lynn; Craig, Carlton David

    2009-01-01

    The authors discuss depression in African American women from a sociocultural perspective, including aspects of oppression and racism that affect symptom manifestation. The authors highlight John Henryism as a coping mechanism, the history and continuing role of the African American church as a safe haven, and strategies for culturally competent…

  1. British African Caribbean Women and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkison-Bradley, Carla; Maynard, Donna; Johnson, Phillip; Carter, Stephaney

    2009-01-01

    Depression is a common condition among women in the United Kingdom. However, little is known about the context of depression among British African Caribbean women. This article offers a preliminary discussion regarding issues and information pertaining to depression among British African Caribbean women. Characteristics and symptoms of depression…

  2. Prostate cancer in men of African origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinley, Kathleen F; Tay, Kae Jack; Moul, Judd W

    2016-02-01

    Men of African origin are disproportionately affected by prostate cancer: prostate cancer incidence is highest among men of African origin in the USA, prostate cancer mortality is highest among men of African origin in the Caribbean, and tumour stage and grade at diagnosis are highest among men in sub-Saharan Africa. Socioeconomic, educational, cultural, and genetic factors, as well as variations in care delivery and treatment selection, contribute to this cancer disparity. Emerging data on single-nucleotide-polymorphism patterns, epigenetic changes, and variations in fusion-gene products among men of African origin add to the understanding of genetic differences underlying this disease. On the diagnosis of prostate cancer, when all treatment options are available, men of African origin are more likely to choose radiation therapy or to receive no definitive treatment than white men. Among men of African origin undergoing surgery, increased rates of biochemical recurrence have been identified. Understanding differences in the cancer-survivorship experience and quality-of-life outcomes among men of African origin are critical to appropriately counsel patients and improve cultural sensitivity. Efforts to curtail prostate cancer screening will likely affect men of African origin disproportionately and widen the racial disparity of disease.

  3. Understanding the Rise of African Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorem, Kaja Tvedten; Hansen, Michael Wendelboe; Jeppesen, Søren

    2014-01-01

    in the literature are identified and an integrative framework for analysing African enterprise development is developed. The framework is used to provide an overview of the received literature on African enterprise development, to identify voids and lacunas and to identify new research agendas. Findings: While...

  4. African-American Student Achievement Research Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagstaff, Mark; Melton, Jerry; Lawless, Brenda; Combs, Linda

    Data from the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills (TAAS) reveal that gains in performance for the African American student population of Region VII of the state's educational system were not keeping pace with the performance of African Americans in the rest of Texas. This study investigated practices in school districts in the region in which…

  5. The South African National Defence Force

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    This research paper is an evaluation of The Souch African National Defence Force´s (SANDF) involvement in Peace Support Operations.......This research paper is an evaluation of The Souch African National Defence Force´s (SANDF) involvement in Peace Support Operations....

  6. Cancer and the African American Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    The first plenary of the EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study: Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans explores the many factors that lead to inequalities in cancer care outcomes for African Americans.

  7. African American Teachers and Culturally Relevant Pedagogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Michele

    An overview is presented of research on African American teachers, addressing the large body of literature written by policy analysts, first-person narratives, and the sociological and anthropological literature. Policy research has identified the small number of African American teachers and has studied some reasons for this shortage and some of…

  8. New data on African health professionals abroad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemens Michael A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The migration of doctors and nurses from Africa to developed countries has raised fears of an African medical brain drain. But empirical research on the causes and effects of the phenomenon has been hampered by a lack of systematic data on the extent of African health workers' international movements. Methods We use destination-country census data to estimate the number of African-born doctors and professional nurses working abroad in a developed country circa 2000, and compare this to the stocks of these workers in each country of origin. Results Approximately 65,000 African-born physicians and 70,000 African-born professional nurses were working overseas in a developed country in the year 2000. This represents about one fifth of African-born physicians in the world, and about one tenth of African-born professional nurses. The fraction of health professionals abroad varies enormously across African countries, from 1% to over 70% according to the occupation and country. Conclusion These numbers are the first standardized, systematic, occupation-specific measure of skilled professionals working in developed countries and born in a large number of developing countries.

  9. Population genetics of African ungulates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Eline

    Molecular genetic techniques were used to gain insights into the evolutionary forces that have shaped the present day diversity of African savannah ungu-lates, which constitute the most species-rich mega faunal assemblage on earth. The studies included in this thesis represent individual species......-specific data sets, which are used to elucidate evolutionary processes of importance to the savannah ungulate community. Patterns of DNA variation were analyzed to assess the genetic signatures of Pleistocene refugia and investigate aspects of speciation, intraspecific structuring, hybridization, and historic...

  10. Environmental sensing by African trypanosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roditi, Isabel; Schumann, Gabriela; Naguleswaran, Arunasalam

    2016-08-01

    African trypanosomes, which divide their life cycle between mammals and tsetse flies, are confronted with environments that differ widely in temperature, nutrient availability and host responses to infection. In particular, since trypanosomes cannot predict when they will be transmitted between hosts, it is vital for them to be able to sense and adapt to their milieu. Thanks to technical advances, significant progress has been made in understanding how the parasites perceive external stimuli and react to them. There is also a growing awareness that trypanosomes use a variety of mechanisms to exchange information with each other, thereby enhancing their chances of survival. PMID:27131101

  11. African anthropogenic combustion emission inventory: specificities and uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekou, K.; Liousse, C.; Eric-michel, A.; Veronique, Y.; Thierno, D.; Roblou, L.; Toure, E. N.; Julien, B.

    2015-12-01

    Fossil fuel and biofuel emissions of gases and particles in Africa are expected to significantly increase in the near future, particularly due to the growth of African cities. In addition, African large savannah fires occur each year during the dry season, mainly for socio-economical purposes. In this study, we will present the most recent developments of African anthropogenic combustion emission inventories, stressing African specificities. (1)A regional fossil fuel and biofuel inventory for gases and particulates will be presented for Africa at a resolution of 0.25° x 0.25° from 1990 to 2012. For this purpose, the original database of Liousse et al. (2014) has been used after modification for emission factors and for updated regional fuel consumption including new emitter categories (waste burning, flaring) and new activity sectors (i.e. disaggregation of transport into sub-sectors including two wheel ). In terms of emission factors, new measured values will be presented and compared to litterature with a focus on aerosols. They result from measurement campaigns organized in the frame of DACCIWA European program for each kind of African specific anthropogenic sources in 2015, in Abidjan (Ivory Coast), Cotonou (Benin) and in Laboratoire d'Aérologie combustion chamber. Finally, a more detailed spatial distribution of emissions will be proposed at a country level to better take into account road distributions and population densities. (2) Large uncertainties still remain in biomass burning emission inventories estimates, especially over Africa between different datasets such as GFED and AMMABB. Sensitivity tests will be presented to investigate uncertainties in the emission inventories, applying methodologies used for AMMABB and GFED inventories respectively. Then, the relative importance of each sources (fossil fuel, biofuel and biomass burning inventories) on the budgets of carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, black and organic carbon, and volatile

  12. An African VLBI network of radio telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Gaylard, M J; Combrinck, L; Booth, R S; Buchner, S J; Fanaroff, B L; MacLeod, G C; Nicolson, G D; Quick, J F H; Stronkhorst, P; Venkatasubramani, T L

    2014-01-01

    The advent of international wideband communication by optical fibre has produced a revolution in communications and the use of the internet. Many African countries are now connected to undersea fibre linking them to other African countries and to other continents. Previously international communication was by microwave links through geostationary satellites. These are becoming redundant in some countries as optical fibre takes over, as this provides 1000 times the bandwidth of the satellite links. In the 1970's and 1980's some two dozen large (30 m diameter class) antennas were built in various African countries to provide the satellite links. Twenty six are currently known in 19 countries. As these antennas become redundant, the possibility exists to convert them for radio astronomy at a cost of roughly one tenth that of a new antenna of similar size. HartRAO, SKA Africa and the South African Department of Science and Technology (DST) have started exploring this possibility with some of the African countries...

  13. Studies on African pygmies. V. Red cell acid phosphatase polymorphism in Babinga pygmies: high frequency of ACPR allele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santachiara-Benerecetti, A S; Ranzani, G N; Antonini, G

    1977-11-01

    A group of Babinga Pygmies from the Central African Republic have been analyzed for the acid phosphatase polymorphism with special reference to the ACPR allele. The frequency of this allele (17%) is one of the highest observed in Africa and is comparable only with those reported for the Khoikhoi and the San.

  14. Breast cancer burden in central Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elgaili M Elgaili

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Elgaili M Elgaili1, Dafalla O Abuidris2, Munazzah Rahman3, Arthur M Michalek4, Sulma I Mohammed3,51Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pathology, University of Gezira, Sudan; 2Radiation Oncology Department, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Oncology, University of Gezira, Sudan; 3Department of Comparative Pathobiology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN USA; 4Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY, USA; 5Purdue Cancer Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USAAbstract: Breast cancer is a worldwide disease resulting in many deaths. Although breast cancer incidence is lower in Sub-Saharan African countries than in developed countries, African women are more likely than women in the developed world to be diagnosed at later stages of the disease and, thus, are more likely to die from it. This is due to the lack of awareness by women, accessibility to screening methods, and availability of African-based research findings that would influence decision making at the governmental level. This descriptive study was undertaken to shed light on the type, stage and age distribution of breast cancer at diagnosis in women living in central Sudan encompassing al-Gezira, Blue Nile, White Nile, and Sennar States. Cases comprised 1255 women from central Sudan diagnosed with breast cancer and referred to and treated at Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Molecular Biology, and Oncology, from January 1999 to December 2006. Data revealed that 74% of the women were <50 years old or premenopausal. Invasive ductal carcinoma was the most common pathology (82% and women presenting with stage III or higher tumors that had already metastasized, while ductal carcinoma in situ was the least prevalent (0.5% finding. Estrogen and progesterone receptors expression were performed on a limited number of samples and the overwhelming majority of cases were observed to be negative for estrogen and progesterone receptors expression.Keywords: female breast cancer, estrogen

  15. Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia: challenges and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herskovitz I

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Ingrid Herskovitz, Mariya Miteva Department of Dermatology and Cutaneous Surgery, University of Miami L Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA Abstract: Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia (CCCA is the most common scarring alopecia among African American women. Data about epidemiology, etiology, genetic inheritance, and management are scarce and come from individual reports or small series. CCCA has been associated with hot combing and traumatic hair styling for years; however, studies fail to confirm it as the sole etiologic factor. It has been shown in a small series that CCCA can be inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion, with a partial penetrance and a strong modifying effect of hairstyling and sex. CCCA presents clinically as a central area of progressive irreversible hair loss that expands to the periphery. A patchy form has also been described. Dermoscopy is helpful to identify the optimal site for the biopsy, which establishes the diagnosis. Well-designed randomized controlled trials are needed to discover the optimal management. At this point, patients are advised to avoid traction and chemical treatments; topical and intralesional steroids, calcineurin inhibitors, and minoxidil can be helpful in halting the progression. Keywords: hair loss, alopecia, dermatoscopy, dermoscopy, trichoscopy, black scalp, African American, scarring alopecia

  16. South African AIDS plan criticised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidley, P

    1998-10-17

    In a television broadcast, Deputy President Mbeki of South Africa announced a campaign against HIV/AIDS that would involve coordination between various government departments and nongovernmental organizations. Mbeki, who is associated with Virodene (a drug treatment for AIDS that is considered a scam), replaced President Mandela at the last minute in the broadcast. Two days after the broadcast, the government refused to support treatment of pregnant women infected with HIV with zidovudine to prevent transmission of the virus to the baby. The treatment is considered cost-effective by AIDS workers and public health officials. According to Mark Heywood of the AIDS law project at Witwatersrand University, 16% of pregnant women attending antenatal clinics were HIV-positive in 1997; this means that about 3 million South Africans (8% of the population) were living with HIV. Heywood said that the government believes there are 1500 new cases daily. By the end of 1998, 3.5 million South Africans will be living with HIV. Although the government is asking other sectors to join in the campaign, what the government is doing is unclear. Mother-to-child transmission of HIV is second only to transmission of the virus through heterosexual sex in South Africa. PMID:9841037

  17. Prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in African buffalo at Kruger National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodwell, T C; Kriek, N P; Bengis, R G; Whyte, I J; Viljoen, P C; de Vos, V; Boyce, W M

    2001-04-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) was first detected in Kruger National Park (KNP) in a single African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in 1990. In 1991/1992, 2,071 African buffalo were examined for BTB as part of a culling program that removed animals from all known herds in KNP. The prevalence of BTB in 1991/1992 was estimated to be 0%, 4.4% (+/-0.6%), and 27.1% (+/-1.4%), in the north, central, and south zones of KNP, respectively. In 1998, a stratified, two-stage cluster sampling method was used to estimate that the prevalence of BTB was 1.5% (+/-2.5%), 16% (+/-5.3%), and 38.2% (+/-6.3%), in the north, central, and south zones, respectively. This represented a significant increase in prevalence (P management strategies. The methodology and sample sizes used in 1998 are appropriate for future BTB monitoring in KNP.

  18. Pre-Colonial political centralization and contemporary development in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Bandyopadhyay, Sanghamitra; Elliott D. Green

    2012-01-01

    The importance of pre-colonial history on contemporary African development has become an important .eld of study within development economics in recent years. In particular Gennaioli and Rainer (2007) suggest that pre-colonial political centralization has had an impact on con- temporary levels of development within Africa at the country level. We test the Gennaioli and Rainer (2007) hypothesis at the sub-national level with evidence from Uganda. Using a variety of datasets we obtain results w...

  19. Genetic and morphological characterisation of the Ankole Longhorn cattle in the African Great Lakes region

    OpenAIRE

    Okeyo Mwai A; Wurzinger Maria; Hanotte Olivier; Baumung Roswitha; Ndumu Deo B; Jianlin Han; Kibogo Harrison; Sölkner Johann

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The study investigated the population structure, diversity and differentiation of almost all of the ecotypes representing the African Ankole Longhorn cattle breed on the basis of morphometric (shape and size), genotypic and spatial distance data. Twentyone morphometric measurements were used to describe the morphology of 439 individuals from 11 sub-populations located in five countries around the Great Lakes region of central and eastern Africa. Additionally, 472 individuals were gen...

  20. Bat distribution size or shape as determinant of viral richness in African bats

    OpenAIRE

    Maganga, Gaël D.; Mathieu Bourgarel; Peter Vallo; Dallo, Thierno D.; Carine Ngoagouni; Jan Felix Drexler; Christian Drosten; Nakouné, Emmanuel R.; Leroy, Eric M; Serge Morand

    2014-01-01

    The rising incidence of emerging infectious diseases (EID) is mostly linked to biodiversity loss, changes in habitat use and increasing habitat fragmentation. Bats are linked to a growing number of EID but few studies have explored the factors of viral richness in bats. These may have implications for role of bats as potential reservoirs. We investigated the determinants of viral richness in 15 species of African bats (8 Pteropodidae and 7 microchiroptera) in Central and West Africa for which...

  1. A Longitudinal Examination of Racial Identity and Racial Discrimination Among African American Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Seaton, Eleanor K.; Yip, Tiffany; Sellers, Robert M.

    2009-01-01

    This study tested the longitudinal association between perceptions of racial discrimination and racial identity among a sample of 219 African American adolescents, aged 14 to 18. Structural equation modeling was used to test relations between perceptions of racial discrimination and racial identity dimensions, namely racial centrality, private regard, and public regard at three time points. The results indicated that perceived racial discrimination at Time 1 was negatively linked to public re...

  2. Researching South African Youth, Gender and Sexuality Within the Context of HIV/AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Deevia Bhana; Rob Pattman

    2009-01-01

    In the context of HIV/AIDS, youth have become central to contemporary South African social thought and educational policy concerns regarding changing behaviour, addressing gender inequalities, safe sex and preventing the spread of the disease. Yet we know very little about how youth in specific social contexts give meaning to gender and sexuality. Greater understanding of these processes would appear vital to successful educational strategies in the protection against HIV/AIDS in South Africa...

  3. Genome-Wide Association of Body Fat Distribution in African Ancestry Populations Suggests New Loci

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Ching-Ti; Keri L Monda; Taylor, Kira C.; Lange, Leslie; Demerath, Ellen W; Palmas, Walter; Wojczynski, Mary K.; Jaclyn C Ellis; Mara Z Vitolins; Liu, Simin; Papanicolaou, George J.; Irvin, Marguerite R.; Xue, Luting; Griffin, Paula J.; Michael A Nalls

    2013-01-01

    Central obesity, measured by waist circumference (WC) or waist-hip ratio (WHR), is a marker of body fat distribution. Although obesity disproportionately affects minority populations, few studies have conducted genome-wide association study (GWAS) of fat distribution among those of predominantly African ancestry (AA). We performed GWAS of WC and WHR, adjusted and unadjusted for BMI, in up to 33,591 and 27,350 AA individuals, respectively. We identified loci associated with fat distribution in...

  4. Educational Adaptation and Pan-Africanism: Trends in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marah, John Karefah

    1987-01-01

    European colonialists believed that Africans should be educated in African traditional values, and that Africans should be made into dedicated workers, not holders of power. The African nationalists of the 1960s, in contrast, rejected most of the arduous aspects of European education as instruments of domination, and lay the foundation for the…

  5. Transvalued species in an African forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remis, Melissa J; Hardin, Rebecca

    2009-12-01

    We combined ethnographic investigations with repeated ecological transect surveys in the Dzanga-Sangha Dense Forest Reserve (RDS), Central African Republic, to elucidate consequences of intensifying mixed use of forests. We devised a framework for transvaluation of wildlife species, which means the valuing of species on the basis of their ecological, economic, and symbolic roles in human lives. We measured responses to hunting, tourism, and conservation of two transvalued species in RDS: elephants (Loxodonta cyclotis) and gorillas (Gorilla gorilla). Our methods included collecting data on encounter rates and habitat use on line transects. We recorded cross-cultural variation in ideas about and interactions with these species during participant observation of hunting and tourism encounters and ethnographic interviews with hunters, conservation staff, researchers, and tourists. Ecologically, gorillas used human-modified landscapes successfully, and elephants were more vulnerable than gorillas to hunting. Economically, tourism and encounters with elephants and gorillas generated revenues and other benefits for local participants. Symbolically, transvaluation of species seemed to undergird competing institutions of forest management that could prove unsustainable. Nevertheless, transvaluation may also offer alternatives to existing social hierarchies, thereby integrating local and transnational support for conservation measures. The study of transvaluation requires attention to transnational flows of ideas and resources because they influence transspecies interactions. Cross-disciplinary in nature, transvalution of species addresses the political and economic challenges to conservation because it recognizes the varied human communities that shape the survival of wildlife in a given site. Transvaluation of species could foster more socially inclusive management and monitoring approaches attuned to competing economic demands, specific species behaviors, and human

  6. To centralize or not to centralize?

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, Andrew; Kunisch, Sven; Müller-Stewens, Günter

    2011-01-01

    The CEO's dilemma-were the gains of centralization worth the pain it could cause?-is a perennial one. Business leaders dating back at least to Alfred Sloan, who laid out GM's influential philosophy of decentralization in a series of memos during the 1920s, have recognized that badly judged centralization can stifle initiative, constrain the ability to tailor products and services locally, and burden business divisions with high costs and poor service.1 Insufficient centralization can deny bus...

  7. Southern African Power Pool: Planning and Prospects for Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miketa, Asami [IRENA, Bonn (Germany); Merven, Bruno [Energy Research Centre, Univ. of Cape Town (South Africa)

    2013-06-25

    With the energy systems of many African countries dominated by fossil-fuel sources that are vulnerable to global price volatility, regional and intra-continental power systems with high shares of renewable energy can provide least-cost option to support continued economic growth and address the continent’s acute energy access problem. Unlocking Africa’s huge renewable energy potential could help to take many people out of poverty, while ensuring the uptake of sustainable technologies for the continent’s long-term development. The report examines the ''renewable scenario'' based on a modelling tool developed by IRENA and tested in cooperation with the South African National Energy Development Institute (SANEDI) and the Southern African Development Community (SADC). Initial results from the System Planning and Test (SPLAT) model show that the share of renewable technologies in Southern Africa could increase from the current 10% to as much as 46% in 2030, with 20% of decentralised capacity coming from renewable sources and nearly 80% of the envisaged capacity additions between 2010 and 2030 being provided by renewable energy technologies. Deployment and export of hydropower from the Democratic Republic of Congo’s Inga hydropower project to the SADC region would significantly reduce average electricity generation costs. Analysis using SPLAT – along with a similar model developed for West Africa – can provide valuable input for regional dialogue and energy projects such as the East and Southern Africa Clean Energy Corridor and the Programme for Infrastructure and Development in Africa (PIDA). IRENA, together with partner organisations, has started plans to set up capacity building and development support for energy system modelling and planning for greater integration of renewables in Africa. IRENA is also completing a similar model and study for East Africa and intends to extend this work to Central and North Africa.

  8. 21st Century South African Science Fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARAIVAN LUIZA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses some aspects of South African science fiction, starting with its beginnings in the 1920s and focusing on some 21st century writings. Thus Lauren Beukes’ novels Moxyland (2008 and Zoo City (2010 are taken into consideration in order to present new trends in South African literature and the way science fiction has been marked by Apartheid. The second South African science fiction writer whose writings are examined is Henrietta Rose-Innes (with her novel Nineveh, published in 2011 as this consolidates women's presence in the SF world.

  9. Mandela’s Favourite African Folktales

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Concilio

    2014-01-01

    In this essay I would like to examine the selection of African tales that Nelson Mandela took care to leave as heritage to the future generations, not only to children, and not only to African children. The fact that a political leader, ex freedom fighter and political prisoner dedicated his time to the collection and editing of stories from all over the African continent to be addressed to new readers as simple entertainment or as educational tools clearly testifies to the great humanity, cu...

  10. The African concept of caring for life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maake Masango

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the village concept of caring among African people. The old pattern of caring was based on the concept of ubuntu (humanity which respects people, because they are created in the imago Dei. Then the article compares the western concept of caring, which is based on individualism and people's privacy. Finally, economy, globalisation and this western concept are analysed. The impact of the above concepts affects Africans in urban areas, who are caught up in the two worlds, namely the African and western worlds.

  11. MISCONCEPTIONS OF DEPRESSION IN AFRICAN AMERICANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohaib eSohail

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Major depression is a very common disabling disorder. Although the relationship between race and depression is complex, depression affects all races, all ethnic and geographic locations as well as all age groups. The prevalence of depression in African Americans is controversial, due to the paucity of research. The deficit in the knowledge and skills in treating depression in African Americans have not been adequately addressed so far. Inadequate and insufficient data on African Americans contributes to the problems of under diagnoses, misdiagnosis and under treatment of depression. This article will highlight the existing problem of depression in Afro American with a focus on diagnostic and treatment issues.

  12. Research needs for lion conservation in West and Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Hans; De Iongh, Hans H; Princée, Frank P; Ngantou, Daniel

    2003-08-01

    The lion has historically probably been widespread at low densities in West and Central Africa, nowadays they are largely restricted to small isolated populations inside protected areas. The total number is probably between 1200 and 2700, the best possible guesstimate would be 1700. Mankind is the main cause for the suspected decline of lion populations, both inside and outside protected areas. Very little research has been done on West and Central African lions a few examples are summarized here. The international community is slowly becoming aware of threats to lions in the region and some initiatives for lion conservation have started.

  13. Molecular epidemiology of human polyomavirus JC in the Biaka Pygmies and Bantu of Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chima, S C; Ryschkewitsch, C F; Stoner, G L

    1998-01-01

    Polyomavirus JC (JCV) is ubiquitous in humans and causes a chronic demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy which is common in AIDS. JCV is excreted in urine of 30-70% of adults worldwide. Based on sequence analysis of JCV complete genomes or fragments thereof, JCV can be classified into geographically derived genotypes. Types 1 and 2 are of European and Asian origin respectively while Types 3 and 6 are African in origin. Type 4, a possible recombinant of European and African genotypes (1 and 3) is common in the USA. To delineate the JCV genotypes in an aboriginal African population, random urine samples were collected from the Biaka Pygmies and Bantu from the Central African Republic. There were 43 males and 25 females aged 4-55 years, with an average age of 26 years. After PCR amplification of JCV in urine, products were directly cycle sequenced. Five of 23 Pygmy adults (22%) and four of 20 Bantu adults (20%) were positive for JC viruria. DNA sequence analysis revealed JCV Type 3 (two), Type 6 (two) and one Type 1 variant in Biaka Pygmies. All the Bantu strains were Type 6. Type 3 and 6 strains of JCV are the predominant strains in central Africa. The presence of multiple subtypes of JCV in Biaka Pygmies may be a result of extensive interactions of Pygmies with their African tribal neighbors during their itinerant movements in the equatorial forest.

  14. Molecular Epidemiology of Human Polyomavirus JC in the Biaka Pygmies and Bantu of Central Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvester C Chima

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Polyomavirus JC (JCV is ubiquitous in humans and causes a chronic demyelinating disease of the central nervous system , progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy which is common in AIDS. JCV is excreted in urine of 30-70% of adults worldwide. Based on sequence analysis of JCV complete genomes or fragments thereof, JCV can be classified into geographically derived genotypes. Types 1 and 2 are of European and Asian origin respectively while Types 3 and 6 are African in origin. Type 4, a possible recombinant of European and African genotypes (1 and 3 is common in the USA. To delineate the JCV genotypes in an aboriginal African population, random urine samples were collected from the Biaka Pygmies and Bantu from the Central African Republic. There were 43 males and 25 females aged 4-55 years, with an average age of 26 years. After PCR amplification of JCV in urine, products were directly cycle sequenced. Five of 23 Pygmy adults (22% and four of 20 Bantu adults (20% were positive for JC viruria. DNA sequence analysis revealed JCV Type 3 (two, Type 6 (two and one Type 1 variant in Biaka Pygmies. All the Bantu strains were Type 6. Type 3 and 6 strains of JCV are the predominant strains in central Africa. The presence of multiple subtypes of JCV in Biaka Pygmies may be a result of extensive interactions of Pygmies with their African tribal neighbors during their itinerant movements in the equatorial forest.

  15. The African American Wellness Village in Portland, Ore

    OpenAIRE

    McKeever, Corliss; Koroloff, Nancy; Faddis, Collaine

    2006-01-01

    More than 80% of African Americans in Oregon reside in the Portland metropolitan area; African Americans comprise 1.7% of the state's population. Although relatively small, the African American population in the state experiences substantial health disparities. The African American Health Coalition, Inc was developed to implement initiatives that would reduce these disparities and to promote increased communication and trust between the African American community and local institutions and or...

  16. African diatom palaeoecology and biostratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasse, F.; Fourtanier, E.

    This paper illustrates the different types of information which can be deduced from African diatoms studies. The first section is devoted to the reconstruction of palaeoenvironments. The accuracy of ecological data (estimates of ecological variables e.g. types of habitats, water chemistry…) depends on the times scale and on the spatial scale considered: short-term environments in a given waterbody, environmental evolution during individual humid episodes considered locally or regionally, long-term changes in diatom flora induced by major climatic tendencies at a regional or continental scale. One then summarizes our present state of knowledge in diatom biostratigraphy in Africa. Several centric taxa, belonging to the genera Aulacoseira, Mesodictyon, Cyclotella, Stephanodiscus and Cyclostephanos appear to have limited stratigraphical ranges and to be good chronological markers.

  17. African Biochemists Plan More Collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter N. Campbell

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The Federation of European Biochemical Societies (FEBS was the first regional organisation of biochemists, holding its first congress in London in 1964. There followed the creation of the Pan American Association of Biochemical Societies (PAABS and then the Federation of Asian and Oceanian Biochemists (FAOB. An obvious development was the formation of a similar organisation to take care of Africa, but this proved impossible so long as apartheid survived in South Africa. With the removal of the latter, the way was clear for the foundation of the Federation of African Societies of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (FASBMB. The first congress of the new federation was held in Nairobi in September 1996 under the Presidency of Prof. Dominic Makawiti of Nairobi University. Among the 300 participants were representatives from 19 countries in Africa. The second congress was held at Potchefstroom in South Africa in 1998 and the third was just held in Cairo.

  18. Africa Pentecostalized? Understanding the African appropriation of Pentecostalism in light of African perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Østhassel, Ole Aleksander

    2013-01-01

    I want to prepare an understanding of why Pentecostalism seems to be so attractive in Africa. I will outline Ogbu Kalu's understanding of a resonance between African traditional culture and Pentecostalism, and then add perspectives from other African scholars. And the research problem follows: How can we understand the appropriation of Pentecostalism in Africa in light of Ogbu Kalu? Research questions will be: In what way do Pentecostalism and African traditional cult...

  19. Enhancing the African bioethics initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogundiran Temidayo O

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical ethics has existed since the time of Hippocrates. However, formal training in bioethics did not become established until a few decades ago. Bioethics has gained a strong foothold in health sciences in the developed world, especially in Europe and North America. The situation is quite different in many developing countries. In most African countries, bioethics – as established and practiced today in the west- is either non-existent or is rudimentary. Discussion Though bioethics has come of age in the developed and some developing countries, it is still largely "foreign" to most African countries. In some parts of Africa, some bioethics conferences have been held in the past decade to create research ethics awareness and ensure conformity to international guidelines for research with human participants. This idea has arisen in recognition of the genuine need to develop capacity for reviewing the ethics of research in Africa. It is also a condition required by external sponsors of collaborative research in Africa. The awareness and interest that these conferences have aroused need to be further strengthened and extended beyond research ethics to clinical practice. By and large, bioethics education in schools that train doctors and other health care providers is the hook that anchors both research ethics and clinical ethics. Summary This communication reviews the current situation of bioethics in Africa as it applies to research ethics workshops and proposes that in spite of the present efforts to integrate ethics into biomedical research in Africa, much still needs to be done to accomplish this. A more comprehensive approach to bioethics with an all-inclusive benefit is to incorporate formal ethics education into health training institutions in Africa.

  20. African American Men and Prostate Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the African-American that we treat this as what it is -- an epidemic. Winston Dyer: My introduction ... being ignorant to prostate cancer -- and not knowing what it was -- that was my first, first, first- ...

  1. Cardiac assessment of African hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Peter A; Marshall, Cecilia; Seyfried, Alice W; Bartin, Anne M

    2011-03-01

    Cardiomyopathy is a common finding in captive African hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris) at postmortem exam. To date, treatment attempts have been mostly empirical and unrewarding. The objective of this study was to determine reference cardiac values for captive African hedgehogs based on echocardiogram, electrocardiogram (ECG), and radiographs. Adult African hedgehogs with no clinical signs of cardiac disease (n = 13) were selected. Each animal was anesthetized with isoflurane via facemask and an echocardiogram, ECG, and radiographs were performed. Standard measurements were taken and the descriptive statistics performed. Values were comparable to limited data available in other hedgehog species and other similar-sized exotic species. Two animals were removed from consideration of reference values due to valvular defects that were considered significant. These data are the first establishing cardiac parameters in normal African hedgehogs using radiographic cardiac measurement, echocardiogram, and ECG. Evaluating animals with possible cardiomyopathy may allow for earlier diagnosis and more successful treatment. PMID:22946370

  2. African American Men and Prostate Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... runs higher. We really don't know. But I would strongly suggest to the African-American that ... then my dad four months later. And then I was told by doctors that I should be ...

  3. Development of 'Serunding' from African catfish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhari, Nurul Hanisah Binti; MK, Zainol; MM, Masduki

    This research was conducted to develop serunding from African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Proximate analysis, physical analysis, ascorbic acid analysis, mineral analysis and sensory evaluation were carried out to determine the nutrient compositions and consumer acceptance towards the products. ...

  4. Growth and Institutions in African Development

    OpenAIRE

    Asongu, Simplice A.

    2015-01-01

    Edited by Augustin K. Fosu Routledge Studies in Development Economics, 2015, pp. 393 (Hardcover). Reviewed by Simplice A. Asongu African Governance and Development Institute P.O. Box 8413, Yaoundé, Cameroon.

  5. AN ALTERNATIVE VIEW OF SOUTH AFRICAN ARTILLERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Lillie

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available It has been said that 'Necessity is the mother of invention' and there can be few countries, if any, where this is more true than in South Africa.In the late 1930's, prior to World War II, the South African Artillery was severely restricted due to its lack of mobility. The inventiveness shown in tackling this probelm is surely not a thing of the past and the possiblity of adapting South African artillery to current South african needs in warfare should not be overlooked. The South African Defence Force is not able to purchase armament in a free and open market place and the costs of developing new artillery are prohibitive in a country of South Africa's size. it will be argued that it is necessary and possible, in the short term, to take what is currently available and adapt this to South Africa's needs.

  6. African American Men and Prostate Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Walker: The researchers don't know exactly why. It is suggested that maybe our diet, maybe our ... African-American that we treat this as what it is -- an epidemic. Winston Dyer: My introduction to ...

  7. The innovative African kilowatt-hour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a worldwide resurgence of interest in pricing electricity. Whether motivated by deregulation and the treat of competition (as in England and New Zealand) or by restructuring of regulatory goals to encourage competition or conservation (as in the United States), electricity suppliers and distributors are seeing pricing as a means of safeguarding, maintaining, increasing sales. South Africa is no exception in this regard. Past and proposed new developments in electricity pricing in the South African electricity supply industry are discussed, in response to pressures across several fronts: pressures from customers to reduce electricity prices to facilitate growth and survival in the South African economy; the national electrification program; the appointment of the National Electricity Regulator; moves by Southern African electricity utilities to establish a Southern African grid. The current status of electricity pricing, metering, demand profile research and demand management in South Africa are overviewed. (author)

  8. The innovative African kilowatt-hour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calitz, A.C. [ESKOM, Johannesburg (South Africa)

    1996-12-31

    There is a worldwide resurgence of interest in pricing electricity. Whether motivated by deregulation and the treat of competition (as in England and New Zealand) or by restructuring of regulatory goals to encourage competition or conservation (as in the United States), electricity suppliers and distributors are seeing pricing as a means of safeguarding, maintaining, increasing sales. South Africa is no exception in this regard. Past and proposed new developments in electricity pricing in the South African electricity supply industry are discussed, in response to pressures across several fronts: pressures from customers to reduce electricity prices to facilitate growth and survival in the South African economy; the national electrification program; the appointment of the National Electricity Regulator; moves by Southern African electricity utilities to establish a Southern African grid. The current status of electricity pricing, metering, demand profile research and demand management in South Africa are overviewed. (author).

  9. African independent churches in Mozambique: healing the afflictions of inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, James

    2002-06-01

    The recent explosive proliferation of African Independent Churches (AICs) in central Mozambique coincided with rapid growth of economic disparity in the 1990s produced by privatization, cuts in government services, and arrival of foreign aid promoted by Mozambique's World Bank/International Monetary Fund Structural Adjustment Program. Drawing on ethnographic research in the city of Chimoio, this article argues that growing inequality has led to declining social cohesion, heightened individual competition, fear of interpersonal violence, and intensified conflict between spouses in poor families. This perilous social environment finds expression in heightened fears of witchcraft, sorcery, and avenging spirits, which are often blamed in Shona ideology for reproductive health problems. Many women with sick children or suffering from infertility turn to AICs for treatment because traditional healers are increasingly viewed as dangerous and too expensive. The AICs invoke the "Holy Spirit" to exercise malevolent agents and then provide a community of mutual aid and ongoing protection against spirit threats.

  10. Images may show start of European-African plate collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascle, J.; Huguen, C.; Benkhelil, J.; Chamot-Rooke, N.; Chaumillon, E.; Foucher, J. P.; Griboulard, R.; Kopf, A.; Lamarche, G.; Volkonskaia, A.; Woodside, J.; Zitter, T.

    Aspects of the initial stages of a collision between European and African plates may have been documented in a geophysical survey of the central Mediterranean Ridge (MR) conducted last year. The idea of an incipient collision was first suggested by Finetti [1976],and details of the seafloor and tectonic deformation along the MR, revealed for the first time in the survey, seem to point in that direction.A unique opportunity may therefore exist for studying the beginnings of such a collision—between the passive margin of a major plate (Africa) acting as a continental indenter against the active margin of another plate (Europe). More wide angle data, deep penetrating multichannel seismic data, and drilling data are crucial to better assess the nature and the architecture of the underlying lithosphere, the styles of sedimentary deformation, and the consequences on fluid releases. Such data will make it possible to establish, or reject, a geodynamic collision model.

  11. Contemporary Literature in the African Diaspora

    OpenAIRE

    Barrios Herrero, Olga; Bell, Bernard W.

    1997-01-01

    [ES] El libro es una colección de ensayos divididos entre las tres grandes secciones del libro: Literatura afroamericana, Literatura Afro-caribeña y Afro-latinoamericana y Literatura africana en inglés. [EN] The book is a collection of essays included in the three sections of the book: on African American Literature, Afro-Caribbean and Afro-Latin American Literature and African Literature in English.

  12. Development of 'Serunding' from African catfish

    OpenAIRE

    Juhari, Nurul Hanisah Binti; MK, Zainol; MM, Masduki

    2009-01-01

    This research was conducted to develop serunding from African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Proximate analysis, physical analysis, ascorbic acid analysis, mineral analysis and sensory evaluation were carried out to determine the nutrient compositions and consumer acceptance towards the products. samples of serunding were prepared with 3 different sizes (30-40cm, 40-50cm, 50-60cm) of African catfish and control was prepared using round scad fish ('ikan selayang') with same amount of fish flesh...

  13. Corynebacterial pneumonia in an African hedgehog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, J T; Williams, C; Wu, C C

    1998-04-01

    A 3-mo-old, male African hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris) was anorectic and lethargic for a period of 3 days prior to death. Necropys revealed lungs that were diffusely firm, dark red, and dorsally adhered by fibrinous tags to the pericardial sac. Histopathology revealed necrosuppurative bronchopneumonia with pulmonary abscesses and suppurative pericarditis and myocarditis. A Corynebacterium sp. was isolated from the lungs. We believe this is the first reported case of corynebacterial pneumonia in an African hedgehog. PMID:9577794

  14. Intestinal lymphosarcoma in captive African hedgehogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, J T; Clarke, K A; Schafer, K A

    1998-10-01

    Two captive adult female African hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris) had inappetance and bloody diarrhea for several days prior to death. Both hedgehogs had ulceration of the small intestine and hepatic lipidosis. Histopathology revealed small intestinal lymphosarcoma with metastasis to the liver. Extracellular particles that had characteristics of retroviruses were observed associated with the surface of some neoplastic lymphoid cells by transmission electron microscopy. These are the first reported cases of intestinal lymphosarcoma in African hedgehogs. PMID:9813852

  15. The african protoproverbial in a multipolar world

    OpenAIRE

    Taiwo, Ọlọruntọba-Oju

    2014-01-01

    The proverb is a rhetorical universal and as such shares features across linguistic, ethnic and culture boundaries, thus making typological distinctions along ethnic or regional lines a daunting task. Further complicating this scenario within the African context is the relentless hybridization and subversion of the African proverb consequent on colonial contact and sundry postcolonial interventions. This twin trajectory, the conceptual universalism of the proverb and the relent...

  16. African American Culture and Hypertension Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, Rosalind M.; Aroian, Karen J.; Flack, John M.

    2006-01-01

    A qualitative study was done to explore attitudes and beliefs of African Americans regarding hypertension-preventive self-care behaviors. Five focus groups, with 34 participants, were held using interview questions loosely based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Analysis revealed themes broadly consistent with the TPB, and also identified an overarching theme labeled “circle of culture.” The circle is a metaphor for ties that bind individuals within the larger African American communit...

  17. Language and Culture in African Postcolonial Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Asante-Darko, Kwaku

    2000-01-01

    In his article, "Language and Culture in African Postcolonial Literature," Kwaku Asante-Darko offers both conceptual basis and empirical evidence in support of the fact that critical issues concerning protest, authenticity, and hybridity in African post-colonial literature have often been heavily laden with nationalist and leftist ideological encumbrances, which tended to advocate the rejection of Western standards of aesthetics. One of the literary ramifications of nationalist/anti-colonial ...

  18. Economic Key to Sino-African Ties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Following Chinese President Hu Jintao's visit to Africa's Morocco, Nigeria and Kenya in April, Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao is currently visiting seven African countries-Egypt, Ghana, Republic of Congo, Angola, South Africa, Tanzania and Uganda. Haile-Kiros Gessesse, Ethiopia's Ambassador to China, discussed with Beijing Review reporter Ni Yanshuo the future of the Sino-African relationship. As special envoy for the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation, he also expressed his expectations of the forum summit t...

  19. Maternal food provisioning in a substrate-brooding African cichlid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazutaka Ota

    Full Text Available Fish demonstrate the greatest variety of parental care strategies within the animal kingdom. Fish parents seldom provision food for offspring, with some exceptions predominantly found in substrate-brooding Central American cichlids and mouth-brooding African cichlids. Here, we provide the first evidence of food provisioning in a substrate-brooding African cichlid Neolamprologus mondabu. This fish is a maternal substrate-brooding cichlid endemic to Lake Tanganyika, and feeds on benthic animals using unique techniques-individuals typically feed on the surface of sandy substrates, but also expose prey by digging up substrates with vigorous wriggling of their body and fins. Young also feed on benthos on the substrate surface, but only using the first technique. We observed that feeding induced by digging accounted for 30% of total feeding bouts in adult females, demonstrating that digging is an important foraging tactic. However, parental females fed less frequently after digging than non-parental females, although both females stayed in pits created by digging for approximately 30 s. Instead, young gathered in the pit and fed intensively, suggesting that parental females provision food for young by means of digging. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the feeding frequency of young before and after digging that was simulated by hand, and observed that young doubled their feeding frequency after the simulated digging. This suggests that parental females engage in digging to uncover food items that are otherwise unavailable to young, and provision food for them at the expense of their own foraging. This behavior was similar to what has been observed in Central American cichlids.

  20. Indirect evidence for the genetic determination of short stature in African Pygmies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Noémie S A; Verdu, Paul; Froment, Alain; Le Bomin, Sylvie; Pagezy, Hélène; Bahuchet, Serge; Heyer, Evelyne

    2011-07-01

    Central African Pygmy populations are known to be the shortest human populations worldwide. Many evolutionary hypotheses have been proposed to explain this short stature: adaptation to food limitations, climate, forest density, or high mortality rates. However, such hypotheses are difficult to test given the lack of long-term surveys and demographic data. Whether the short stature observed nowadays in African Pygmy populations as compared to their Non-Pygmy neighbors is determined by genetic factors remains widely unknown. Here, we study a uniquely large new anthropometrical dataset comprising more than 1,000 individuals from 10 Central African Pygmy and neighboring Non-Pygmy populations, categorized as such based on cultural criteria rather than height. We show that climate, or forest density may not play a major role in the difference in adult stature between existing Pygmies and Non-Pygmies, without ruling out the hypothesis that such factors played an important evolutionary role in the past. Furthermore, we analyzed the relationship between stature and neutral genetic variation in a subset of 213 individuals and found that the Pygmy individuals' stature was significantly positively correlated with levels of genetic similarity with the Non-Pygmy gene-pool for both men and women. Overall, we show that a Pygmy individual exhibiting a high level of genetic admixture with the neighboring Non-Pygmies is likely to be taller. These results show for the first time that the major morphological difference in stature found between Central African Pygmy and Non-Pygmy populations is likely determined by genetic factors.

  1. African dust outbreaks over the Mediterranean Basin during 2001-2011: concentrations, phenomenology and trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pey, Jorge; Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andres; Forastiere, Franceso; Stafoggia, Massimo

    2013-04-01

    Concentrations, phenomenology and trends of African dust outbreaks over the whole Mediterranean Basin werestudied on an 11-year period (2001-2011). This work has been performed in the context of the MED-PARTICLES (LIFE programme, EU) project, devoted to quantify short-term health effects of particulate matter over the Mediterranean region by distinguishing different particle sizes, chemical components and sources, with emphasis in the effects of African dust. In order to evaluate conduct this investigation, PM10 data from 19 regional and suburban background sites West to East in the Mediterranean area were compiled. After identifying the daily occurrence of African dust outbreaks, a methodology for estimating natural dust contributions on daily PM10 concentrations was applied. Our findings point out that African dust outbreaks are sensibly more frequent in southern sitesacross the Mediterranean, from 30 to 37 % of the annual days, whereas they occur less than 20% of the annual days in northern sites. The central Mediterranean emerges as a transitional area, with slightly higher frequency of dust episodes in its lower extreme when compared to similar latitudinal positions in western and eastern sides of the Basin. A decreasing south to north gradient of African dust contribution to PM10, driven by the latitudinal position of the monitoring sites at least 25°E westwards across the Basin,is patent across the Mediterranean. From 25°E eastwards, higher annual dust contributions are encountered due to the elevated annual occurrence of severe episodesof dust but also because of inputs from Middle Eastern deserts. Concerning seasonality patterns and intensity characteristics, a clear summer prevalence is observed in the western part, with low occurrence of severe episodes (daily dust averages over 100 µg m-3 in PM10); no seasonal trend is detected in the central region, with moderate-intensity episodes; and significantly higher contributions are common in autumn

  2. NIDDK Central Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The NIDDK Central Repository stores biosamples, genetic and other data collected in designated NIDDK-funded clinical studies. The purpose of the NIDDK Central...

  3. The taxonomic status of two West African Leptopelis species: L. macrotis Schiøtz, 1967 and L. spiritusnoctis Rödel, 2007 (Amphibia: Anura: Arthroleptidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark-Oliver Roedel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We herein examine the taxonomic status of two West African forest-dwelling Leptopelis species. The small L. spiritusnoctis, described from the Upper Guinean forests of West Africa, was recently synonymized with L. aubryi, described from Gabon. The large L. macrotis, known from Ghana to Sierra Leone, was downgraded to a subspecies of L. millsoni, ranging from the Niger Delta to eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. These taxonomic decisions are in contrast to the general biogeographic pattern of African forest anurans and we consequently tested if the morphologically similar taxon pairs are indeed conspecifics by applying acoustic and molecular techniques. Both techniques confirmed that populations from West Africa differ significantly from their Central African morphological equivalents. Consequently, we herein resurrect L. spiritusnoctis as a valid species. The acoustic data indicate that L. aubryi may comprise a complex of cryptic species. We further advocate using the name L. macrotis for West African and L. millsoni for Central African populations of these larger arboreal frogs. However, we had neither genetic nor acoustic data from the type locality of L. millsoni available and could not clarify if these frogs belong to the more western or eastern taxon or even represent a Nigerian endemic. Thus, it is possible that West African populations need to be termed L. millsoni in the future. For populations east of the Cross River, Nigeria, the name L. guineensis would be available.

  4. 22 CFR 1501.3 - Description of central organization and location of offices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... other funding or research organizations; and for identifying and providing assistance to indigenous... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Description of central organization and location of offices. 1501.3 Section 1501.3 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION...

  5. An Exploration of Supply Chain Management Practices in the Central District Municipality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambe, I. M.

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of the paper is to explore supply chain management practices in the Central District Municipality, North West province of South Africa, using the grounded theory methodology. Supply chain management was introduced in the South African public sector to alleviate deficiencies related to governance, interpretation and…

  6. Supplier–customer relationships: Weaknesses in south african automotive supply chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Naude

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The South African automotive industry, which is an important sector in the South African economy, needs to function efficiently if it is to compete internationally. However, South African automotive components manufacturers (ACMs are not internationally competitive and automotive assemblers, also known as original equipment manufacturers (OEMs, often import cheaper components from abroad. All parties in the South African automotive supply chains need each other to ensure optimal efficiency and competitiveness. Furthermore, it is vital that good relationships exist between customers and suppliers in the automotive supply chains in South Africa. ACMs are central to automotive supply chains. A survey was conducted among ACMs to determine the nature of relationships that exist between buyers and suppliers in South Africa’s automotive supply chains. The results showed that collaborative relationships do indeed exist between members of the supply chain but that communication, understanding of the parties’ situations and cooperation can improve this relationship and so create total alliance between OEMs and ACMs.

  7. The history of introduction of the African baobab (Adansonia digitata, Malvaceae: Bombacoideae) in the Indian subcontinent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Karen L; Rangan, Haripriya; Kull, Christian A; Murphy, Daniel J

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the pathways of introduction of the African baobab, Adansonia digitata, to the Indian subcontinent, we examined 10 microsatellite loci in individuals from Africa, India, the Mascarenes and Malaysia, and matched this with historical evidence of human interactions between source and destination regions. Genetic analysis showed broad congruence of African clusters with biogeographic regions except along the Zambezi (Mozambique) and Kilwa (Tanzania), where populations included a mixture of individuals assigned to at least two different clusters. Individuals from West Africa, the Mascarenes, southeast India and Malaysia shared a cluster. Baobabs from western and central India clustered separately from Africa. Genetic diversity was lower in populations from the Indian subcontinent than in African populations, but the former contained private alleles. Phylogenetic analysis showed Indian populations were closest to those from the Mombasa-Dar es Salaam coast. The genetic results provide evidence of multiple introductions of African baobabs to the Indian subcontinent over a longer time period than previously assumed. Individuals belonging to different genetic clusters in Zambezi and Kilwa may reflect the history of trafficking captives from inland areas to supply the slave trade between the fifteenth and nineteenth centuries. Baobabs in the Mascarenes, southeast India and Malaysia indicate introduction from West Africa through eighteenth and nineteenth century European colonial networks. PMID:26473060

  8. Mitochondrial phylogeny and phylogeography of East African squeaker catfishes (Siluriformes: Synodontis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer Axel

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Squeaker catfishes (Pisces, Mochokidae, Synodontis are widely distributed throughout Africa and inhabit a biogeographic range similar to that of the exceptionally diverse cichlid fishes, including the three East African Great Lakes and their surrounding rivers. Since squeaker catfishes also prefer the same types of habitats as many of the cichlid species, we hypothesized that the East African Synodontis species provide an excellent model group for comparative evolutionary and phylogeographic analyses. Results Our analyses reveal the existence of six major lineages of Synodontis in East Africa that diversified about 20 MYA from a Central and/or West African ancestor. The six lineages show a clear geographic patterning. Two lineages are endemic to Lake Tanganyika (plus one non-endemic representative, and these are the only two Synodontis lineages that diversified further into a small array of species. One of these species is the cuckoo catfish (S. multipunctatus, a unique brood parasite of mouthbrooding haplochromine cichlids, which seems to have evolved in parallel with the radiation of its cichlid host lineage, the Tropheini. We also detect an accelerated rate of molecular evolution in S. multipunctatus, which might be the consequence of co-evolutionary dynamics. Conclusion We conclude that the ancestral lineage of today's East African squeaker catfish fauna has colonized the area before the Great Lakes have formed. This ancestor diversified rapidly into at least six lineages that inhabit lakes and rivers in East Africa. Lake Tanganyika is the only lake harboring a small species flock of squeaker catfishes.

  9. Central and peripheral demyelination

    OpenAIRE

    Man Mohan Mehndiratta; Natasha Singh Gulati

    2014-01-01

    Several conditions cause damage to the inherently normal myelin of central nervous system, perepheral nervous system or both central and perepheral nervous system and hence termed as central demyelinating diseases, perepheral demyelinating diseases and combined central and perepheral demyelinating diseases respectively. Here we analysed and foccused on the etiology, prevalance, incidence and age of these demyelinating disorders. Clinical attention and various diagnostic tests are needed to ad...

  10. Perceptions of African American and European American Teachers on the Education of African American Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Ellen; Banks, Joy; Young, Kathryn; Jackson, Francesina R.

    2007-01-01

    The authors interviewed 27 teachers (16 African American and 11 European American) on instructional factors contributing to overidentification of behavior problems in African American boys. Interviews focused on teachers' perspectives of effective teachers, teacher-student relationships, and communication styles. Analysis of the interviews showed…

  11. African American Pastors' Beliefs and Actions Regarding Childhood Incest in the African American Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Tesia Denis

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative study sought to explore African American pastors' beliefs and actions regarding childhood incest in the African American community and their decisions to inform the proper authorities. This exploratory study was developed in order to draw both public and academic attention to the understudied phenomenon of childhood incest…

  12. Research with African Americans: Lessons Learned about Recruiting African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Angela D.; Huang, Hsin-Hsin; Kashubeck-West, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The authors briefly explore literature related to recruiting African American research participants, reflect on their experiences conducting body image research with a sample of African American college women in an earlier study (S. Kashubeck-West et al., 2008), and discuss some methodological and cultural challenges that they encountered during…

  13. A SNP test to identify Africanized honeybees via proportion of 'African' ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Nadine C; Harpur, Brock A; Lim, Julianne; Rinderer, Thomas E; Allsopp, Michael H; Zayed, Amro; Oldroyd, Benjamin P

    2015-11-01

    The honeybee, Apis mellifera, is the world's most important pollinator and is ubiquitous in most agricultural ecosystems. Four major evolutionary lineages and at least 24 subspecies are recognized. Commercial populations are mainly derived from subspecies originating in Europe (75-95%). The Africanized honeybee is a New World hybrid of A. m. scutellata from Africa and European subspecies, with the African component making up 50-90% of the genome. Africanized honeybees are considered undesirable for bee-keeping in most countries, due to their extreme defensiveness and poor honey production. The international trade in honeybees is restricted, due in part to bans on the importation of queens (and semen) from countries where Africanized honeybees are extant. Some desirable strains from the United States of America that have been bred for traits such as resistance to the mite Varroa destructor are unfortunately excluded from export to countries such as Australia due to the presence of Africanized honeybees in the USA. This study shows that a panel of 95 single nucleotide polymorphisms, chosen to differentiate between the African, Eastern European and Western European lineages, can detect Africanized honeybees with a high degree of confidence via ancestry assignment. Our panel therefore offers a valuable tool to mitigate the risks of spreading Africanized honeybees across the globe and may enable the resumption of queen and bee semen imports from the Americas. PMID:25846634

  14. Fat, fibre and cancer risk in African Americans and rural Africans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Keefe, S.J.; Li, J.V.; Lahti, Leo; Ou, J.; Carbonero, F.; Khaled, M.; Postma, J.M.; Kinross, J.; Wahl, E.; Ruder, E.; Vipperla, K.; Naidoo, V.; Mtshali, L.; Tims, S.; Puylaert, P.G.B.; DeLany, J.; Krasinskas, A.; Benefiel, A.C.; Kaseb, H.O.; Newton, K.; Nicholson, J.K.; Vos, De W.M.; Gaskins, H.R.; Zoetendal, E.G.

    2015-01-01

    Rates of colon cancer are much higher in African Americans (65:100,000) than in rural South Africans (<5:100,000). The higher rates are associated with higher animal protein and fat, and lower fibre consumption, higher colonic secondary bile acids, lower colonic short-chain fatty acid quantities and

  15. Changing Fatherhood: An Exploratory Qualitative Study with African and African Caribbean Men in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert; Hewison, Alistair; Wildman, Stuart; Roskell, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a qualitative study undertaken with 46 African and African Caribbean men exploring their experiences of fatherhood. Data analysis was informed by Connell's theoretical work on changing gender relations. Findings indicate that fathers' lives were mediated by masculinities, racism, gender, migration and…

  16. Crossing Cultures in Marriage: Implications for Counseling African American/African Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durodoye, Beth A.; Coker, Angela D.

    2008-01-01

    A wealth of literature exists regarding intermarriage between White and ethnic minority couples. Noticeably lacking, however, is information considering within-group diversity amongst Black couples. This paper will focus on cultural dynamics that may operate with African American and African couples residing in the United States. Through an…

  17. Trade in Educational Services: Reflections on the African and South African Higher Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehoole, Chika Trevor

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses and analyses the emergence of globalisation and its impact on developments within the African continent. Africa's response at a regional level through the New Partnership for Africa's Development and at a subregional level through the Southern African Development Community's "Protocol on Education" come under scrutiny. These…

  18. "Women ... Mourn and Men Carry on": African Women Storying Mourning Practices--A South African Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotze, Elmarie; Els, Lishje; Rajuili-Masilo, Ntsiki

    2012-01-01

    African mourning of loss of lives in South Africa has been shaped by discursive practices of both traditional African cultures and the sociopolitical developments under apartheid and in post-apartheid South Africa. This article reports on changes in mourning practices on the basis of a literature review and uses a collection of examples to…

  19. 77 FR 37886 - Notice of Intent To Obtain Information Regarding Organizations Who Are Assisting African...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ... African Governments To Increase Healthcare Institution Capacity To Maintain Complex Medical Equipment..., which are currently helping African government hospitals, clinics, laboratories, and other African... involved in enhancing the long term ability of African government health institutions to maintain...

  20. Henipavirus RNA in African bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Felix Drexler

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Henipaviruses (Hendra and Nipah virus are highly pathogenic members of the family Paramyxoviridae. Fruit-eating bats of the Pteropus genus have been suggested as their natural reservoir. Human Henipavirus infections have been reported in a region extending from Australia via Malaysia into Bangladesh, compatible with the geographic range of Pteropus. These bats do not occur in continental Africa, but a whole range of other fruit bats is encountered. One of the most abundant is Eidolon helvum, the African Straw-coloured fruit bat. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Feces from E. helvum roosting in an urban setting in Kumasi/Ghana were tested for Henipavirus RNA. Sequences of three novel viruses in phylogenetic relationship to known Henipaviruses were detected. Virus RNA concentrations in feces were low. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The finding of novel putative Henipaviruses outside Australia and Asia contributes a significant extension of the region of potential endemicity of one of the most pathogenic virus genera known in humans.

  1. Africans and Black Americans in the United States: Social Distance and Differential Acculturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emoungu, Paul-Albert

    1992-01-01

    Presents an exploratory examination of the causes of social distance characterizing the association between Africans and African Americans. African American's perceptions about Africa and Africans are assessed through anecdotes and impressions, and thoughts and criticisms of Africans about African Americans are considered. A social science…

  2. Central Africa: prospects for a cultural emergency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Arsène Yao

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, biennials and festivals have multiplied across Africa, proof of the growing dynamism of the cultural sector, to which private actors and governments take a special interest, for several reasons. Cultural reasons related to the preservation of diversity with the threat of globalization seen as potential factor of standardization. But also economics reasons on having turned the African creators into conquerors of markets. Based on the case of the countries of Central Africa –considered to be the Cradle of Humankind, as the oldest hominid fossil was found in 2001 in Chad–, the aim of this article is to determine cultural policies in this region. Also it highlights the challenges and the opportunities to carry out development mechanisms of the cultural industry from policies that generate wealth, jobs and, above all, to return dignity to peoples.

  3. Afro-Americans and Early Pan-Africanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contee, Clarence G.

    1970-01-01

    History of the Pan-African movement, the roles of W.E.B.Du Bois and Marcus Garvey in the movement activities, and the shift to African based leadership of the movement in the 1940's are discussed. (KG)

  4. What about African Americans and High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ANSWERS by heart Lifestyle + Risk Reduction High Blood Pressure What About African Americans and High Blood Pressure? The prevalence of high blood pressure in African Americans is among the highest in ...

  5. Men of African Descent and Carcinoma of the Prostate Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Men of African Descent and Carcinoma of the Prostate Consortium collaborates on epidemiologic studies to address the high burden of prostate cancer and to understand the causes of etiology and outcomes among men of African ancestry.

  6. Sculpture of decorative candlestick based on African totem masks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofronova Nadezhda

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the decorative small sculptures and African totem masks, their artistic and stylistic fea-tures, analysis of the works of sculptors and steps for creating a decorative candlestick based on African totem masks.

  7. HLA class II polymorphism in Aka Pygmies and Bantu Congolese and a reassessment of HLA-DRB1 African diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renquin, J; Sanchez-Mazas, A; Halle, L; Rivalland, S; Jaeger, G; Mbayo, K; Bianchi, F; Kaplan, C

    2001-10-01

    HLA-DRB1, -DQB1 and -DPB1 polymorphisms were investigated in two African populations, the Basse Lobaye Aka Pygmies of the Central African Republic, and a Bantu-speaking group from the Democratic Republic of Congo Kinshasa. Allelic and haplotypic frequency distributions reveal marked differences between the two populations in spite of their geographical proximity: the Aka exhibit high frequencies for several alleles, especially at the DPB1 locus (0.695 for DPB1*0402), probably due to rapid genetic drift, while the Bantu distributions are more even. Genetic distances computed from DRB1 allelic frequencies among 21 populations from North and sub-Saharan Africa were applied to a multidimensional scaling analysis. African populations genetic structure is significantly shaped by linguistic differentiation, as confirmed by an analysis of molecular variance. However, selective neutrality tests indicate that many African populations exhibit an excess of heterozygotes for DRB1, which is likely to explain the genetic similarity observed between some North African and Bantu populations. Overall, this study shows that natural selection must be taken into account when interpreting the patterns of HLA diversity, but that this effect is probably minor in relation to the stochastic events of human population differentiations.

  8. First report of acariasis by Caparinia tripilis in African hedgehogs, (Atelerix albiventris), in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Andrés; Troyo, Adriana; Calderón-Arguedas, Olger

    2013-01-01

    The African hedgehog is one of the newly imported exotic pets which have been observed with increasing regularity in veterinary clinics in Costa Rica. Despite their popularity, information about their diseases is scarce. Within skin diseases of hedgehogs, mange caused by Caparinia spp. is a common diagnosis in other countries. Two adult African hedgehogs, one male and one female, were brought to a private clinic in Heredia, Costa Rica, with chronic pruritic dermatitis, scabs, nearly complete loss of spines, lethargy, dehydration, and weight loss. During physical exam, deposits of dry seborrhea were taken and processed for diagnosis. Microscopic examination revealed psoroptid mites identified as Caparinia tripilis. This is the first report of the presence of Caparinia tripilis in Costa Rica and, to the authors' knowledge, the rest of Central America. PMID:24252963

  9. Introduction: Agents of Change? Staging and Governing Diasporas and the African State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turner, Simon; Kleist, Nauja

    2013-01-01

    and knowledge transfer. This Introduction seeks to scrutinise critically these processes, examining issues of governance and categorisation in relation to African states and diasporas. We explore the theoretical and political implications of the emergence of diasporas in relation to questions of hybridity......During the last decade, African diasporas have emerged as agents of change in international development thinking. Diasporas are being courted by donors, sending states, and NGOs for their contributions to development in their countries of origin; praised for their remittances, investments......, state responses, neoliberalism, depoliticisation, and mistrust. We thereby aim to establish an analytical framework that focuses on how various actors stage, govern, and seek to instrumentalise so-called diaspora involvement. Two central questions arise: Are we witnessing an anti-politics machine...

  10. Sub-Saharan centralized biorepository for genetic and genomic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasmelseed, Nagla; Elsir, Afrah Awad; Deblasio, Pasquale; Biunno, Ida

    2012-04-15

    Quality-assessed biomedical samples are essential for academia- and industry driven research on human diseases. The etiologies and the molecular genetic factors relevant in African diseases, including both infections and complex degenerative diseases as well as cancer, need to be studied using well annotated and well-preserved biosamples acquired from native African ethnic groups and compare the results with non-African populations and/or with Afro-Americans. However, a number of difficulties negatively impact on the possibility to obtain clinically annotated biological samples in most Sub-Saharan African countries. This is mainly due to major organizational problems, lack of clinical centres that can dedicate resources to research, as well as lack of facilities in which biomaterials can be properly processed and safely stored. Harmonization of biosample acquisition, storage phenotyping schemes and biocomputer infrastructures are the principal objectives of biological resource centers (BRCs). BRCs comprise biobanks of different formats (collection of blood, DNA, tissues, etc., annotated with medical, environmental, life-style and follow up data) a fundamental tool for molecular epidemiological studies aiming to increase excellence and efficacy of biomedical results, drug development and public health. BRCs provide large and highly controlled biomolecular resources necessary to meet the "omics" scientific platforms. Sudan may be a candidate nation to host such infrastructure, in view of its strategic geographical position and the already existing simple biobanking experiences connected with research groups in Central Sudan. Here, we describe the potential role of biobanks in African genetic studies aiming to dissect the eziopathogenesis of complex diseases in relation to environmental and life-style factors. PMID:21303714

  11. Attempts at a web presence inventory of African minority languages

    OpenAIRE

    Gee, Quintin

    2006-01-01

    Making an inventory of minority languages that have web sites is difficult. We show that, even if we define “minority” as African languages, then this is of little use since the appearance of web sites in any African languages are few. Many African web sites are hosted outside the continent, and few have totally indigenous languages displayed; rather, it contains a mixture of ex-colonial language illustrating documents in the African language concerned. In addition, many countries have more t...

  12. Lift every voice: voices of African-American lesbian elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, Imani

    2015-01-01

    Old lesbians of African descent have experienced racism, heterosexism, homophobia, and ageism. This article explores the topics of aging, ageism, heterosexism, and minority stress among older African-American lesbians. The narratives and subsequent analysis offer significant contributions to the dialogue regarding Black aging lesbians in the aging and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) communities generally and in the African-American and African-American lesbian communities specifically.

  13. On Cultural and Academic Exchanges Between China and African Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Charles Kabwete Mulinda

    2015-01-01

    Cooperation between China and African countries has often been portrayed as an economic one. Despite multiple exchanges in the area of culture and knowledge production, not much is written about chinese culture in Africa or knowledge production interaction between both China and African countries. Just to give an example, each African major town has chinese restaurants and Africans like chinese food. But food is seen as an economic asset, not a cultural one. Chinese cuisine is not enough take...

  14. Psychology and Ubuntu : therapeutic meetings in a South African context

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore therapeutic meetings in a South African context. Utilising a qualitative research method, I have examined how South African therapists work in a multicultural context, asking questions regarding challenges the therapists met, what elements existed in the African context that influence healing. I proposed that the concept of Ubuntu could provide an African perspective to balance the western notion of psychotherapy. I also explored what adjustments thera...

  15. Population Genomics of sub-saharan Drosophila melanogaster: African diversity and non-African admixture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E Pool

    Full Text Available Drosophila melanogaster has played a pivotal role in the development of modern population genetics. However, many basic questions regarding the demographic and adaptive history of this species remain unresolved. We report the genome sequencing of 139 wild-derived strains of D. melanogaster, representing 22 population samples from the sub-Saharan ancestral range of this species, along with one European population. Most genomes were sequenced above 25X depth from haploid embryos. Results indicated a pervasive influence of non-African admixture in many African populations, motivating the development and application of a novel admixture detection method. Admixture proportions varied among populations, with greater admixture in urban locations. Admixture levels also varied across the genome, with localized peaks and valleys suggestive of a non-neutral introgression process. Genomes from the same location differed starkly in ancestry, suggesting that isolation mechanisms may exist within African populations. After removing putatively admixed genomic segments, the greatest genetic diversity was observed in southern Africa (e.g. Zambia, while diversity in other populations was largely consistent with a geographic expansion from this potentially ancestral region. The European population showed different levels of diversity reduction on each chromosome arm, and some African populations displayed chromosome arm-specific diversity reductions. Inversions in the European sample were associated with strong elevations in diversity across chromosome arms. Genomic scans were conducted to identify loci that may represent targets of positive selection within an African population, between African populations, and between European and African populations. A disproportionate number of candidate selective sweep regions were located near genes with varied roles in gene regulation. Outliers for Europe-Africa F(ST were found to be enriched in genomic regions of locally

  16. South African Artillery in the Eighties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Lillie

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Emerging from the Second World War armed with the then completely adequate 25 pounder and BL 5.5" guns, the South African Field Artillery continued to use the same guns operationally over thirty years later.When the armed forces of South Africa were thrown into a conventional conflict during the Angolan Civil War in 1975, the gunners found their equipment to be woefully inadequate. Soviet made artillery systems in the hands of the Russian-backed forces possessed ranges far in excess of the Second World War vintage South African systems and brought home in a very real way the need for drastic modernisation of the artillery branch of the South African Army.

  17. Mapping the groundwater vulnerability for pollution at the pan African scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouedraogo, Issoufou; Defourny, Pierre; Vanclooster, Marnik

    2015-04-01

    We mapped the pan-African intrinsic and specific vulnerability of groundwater systems towards pollution. We compiled the most recent continental scale information on soil, land use, geology, hydrogeology and climate in a Geographical Information System (GIS) at the resolution of 15kmx15km and the 1:60,000,000 scale and implemented an indicator vulnerability model based on the DRASTIC method. The intrinsic vulnerability map reveals that groundwater is highly vulnerable in Central, West and some areas of North Africa, where the watertable is very low. The intrinsic vulnerability is very low in the large sedimentary basins of the African deserts where groundwater situates in very deep aquifers. The specific vulnerability is obtained by overlaying the intrinsic vulnerability with current land use. The specific vulnerability is high in North, Central, and West Africa and strongly related to water table depths and development of agricultural activities. Subsequently, we performed a sensitivity analysis to evaluate the relative importance of each indicator parameter on groundwater vulnerability for pollution. The sensitivity analysis indicated that the removal of the vadose zone impact, the depth of the groundwater, the hydraulic conductivity and the net recharge causes a large variation in the vulnerability index. The pan African assessment of groundwater vulnerability presented in this paper is expected to be of particular value for water policy and for designing water resources management programmes. We expect, however, that this assessment can be strongly improved when pan African monitoring data on groundwater pollution will be integrated in the assessment methodology. Keywords: groundwater vulnerability, pan-Africa, DRASTIC method, Sensitivity analysis, GIS

  18. Paternal lineages signal distinct genetic contributions from British Loyalists and continental Africans among different Bahamian islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simms, Tanya M; Martinez, Emanuel; Herrera, Kristian J; Wright, Marisil R; Perez, Omar A; Hernandez, Michelle; Ramirez, Evelyn C; McCartney, Quinn; Herrera, Rene J

    2011-12-01

    Over the past 500 years, the Bahamas has been influenced by a wide array of settlers, some of whom have left marked genetic imprints throughout the archipelago. To assess the extent of each group's genetic contributions, high-resolution Y-chromosome analyses were performed, for the first time, to delineate the patriarchal ancestry of six islands in the Northwest (Abaco and Grand Bahama) and Central (Eleuthera, Exuma, Long Island, and New Providence) Bahamas and their genetic relationships with previously published reference populations. Our results reveal genetic signals emanating primarily from African and European sources, with the predominantly sub-Saharan African and Western European haplogroups E1b1a-M2 and R1b1b1-M269, respectively, accounting for greater than 75% of all Bahamian patrilineages. Surprisingly, we observe notable discrepancies among the six Bahamian populations in their distribution of these lineages, with E1b1a-M2 predominating Y-chromosomes in the collections from Abaco, Exuma, Eleuthera, Grand Bahama, and New Providence, whereas R1b1b1-M269 is found at elevated levels in the Long Island population. Substantial Y-STR haplotype variation within sub-haplogroups E1b1a7a-U174 and E1b1ba8-U175 (greater than any continental African collection) is also noted, possibly indicating genetic influences from a variety of West and Central African groups. Furthermore, differential European genetic contributions in each island (with the exception of Exuma) reflect settlement patterns of the British Loyalists subsequent to the American Revolution.

  19. Student-Centered Designs of Pan-African Literature Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    M'Baye, Babacar

    2010-01-01

    A student-centered teaching methodology is an essential ingredient of a successful Pan-African literary course. In this article, the author defines Pan-Africanism and how to go about designing a Pan-African literature course. The author combines reading assignments with journals, film presentations, and lectures in a productive learning…

  20. Some Growth Points in African Child Development Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpell, Robert; Marfo, Kofi

    2014-01-01

    We reflect on ways in which research presented in earlier chapters responds to challenges of generating an African child development field and identify additional issues calling for the field's attention. The chapters collectively display a variety of African contexts and reflexive evidence of the authors' African cultural roots.…

  1. African American Educational Leadership in the School Superintendency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Eva C.

    2013-01-01

    African American educational leadership has long been part of American education and African American activism to resist oppression. However, the field of educational leadership has rarely included the contributions of African American leaders, particularly women leaders, into mainstream leadership theory and practices. This omission is difficult…

  2. North African populations carry the signature of admixture with Neandertals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sánchez-Quinto, Federico; Botigué, Laura R; Civit, Sergi;

    2012-01-01

    One of the main findings derived from the analysis of the Neandertal genome was the evidence for admixture between Neandertals and non-African modern humans. An alternative scenario is that the ancestral population of non-Africans was closer to Neandertals than to Africans because of ancient popu...

  3. Perceived Attractiveness, Facial Features, and African Self-Consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, John W., Jr.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Investigated relationships between perceived attractiveness, facial features, and African self-consciousness (ASC) among 149 African American college students. As predicted, high ASC subjects used more positive adjectives in descriptions of strong African facial features than did medium or low ASC subjects. Results are discussed in the context of…

  4. Registers in the Academic Writing of African American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrquin, Anna F.

    2006-01-01

    The study examines the development of the registers of academic writing by African American college-level students through style and grammar: indirection inherent in the oral culture of the African American community and the paratactic functions of "because." Discourse analysis of 74 samples of academic writing by 20 African American undergraduate…

  5. Exposure of African-American Youth to Alcohol Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003

    The marketing of alcohol products in African-American communities has, on occasion, stirred national controversy and met with fierce resistance from African Americans and others. Despite occasional media and community spotlights on the marketing of alcohol products in the African-American community, there has been no systematic review of the…

  6. Contrastive Studies - African Languages and English. Specialised Bibliography C9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Council, London (England). English-Teaching Information Centre.

    This selective bibliography lists 8 books and 19 journal articles dealing with contrastive studies of African languages and English. The entries range in date from 1953 to 1972 with the majority published since 1965. The books cited are African and British publications and the articles appeared in well-known African, European or American…

  7. Oral Cancer in African Americans: Addressing Health Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Virginia J.; Watson, Jennifer M.; Choi, Youjin; Tomar, Scott L.; Logan, Henrietta L.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To explore factors underlying African Americans' perceptions of oral cancer and the oral cancer exam. Study findings were used to guide development of oral cancer messages designed to increase oral cancer exams among African Americans. Methods: Focus groups were conducted to understand African Americans' attitudes and expectations…

  8. Engaging Youth through African-Derived Dance and Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Kikora

    2013-01-01

    This article provides a brief history of African and African-derived dance and culture and highlights the physical health, dance education, historical, and cultural benefits of a school-based program that incorporates African dance as its core component. The article also includes the phases of the programming and brings attention to potential…

  9. African American Single Mothers Raising Sons: Implications for Family Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantt, Ann L.; Greif, Geoffrey L.

    2009-01-01

    Being raised by a single mother is one factor that has been suggested as contributing to the plight of African American males. Yet few studies have focused specifically on African American single mothers' experiences with raising sons. This qualitative study explored the following questions: (1) What are the experiences of African American single…

  10. Central Laboratories Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The TVA Central Laboratories Services is a comprehensive technical support center, offering you a complete range of scientific, engineering, and technical services....

  11. Mammary gland tumors in captive African hedgehogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, J T; Gerner, M

    2000-04-01

    From December 1995 to July 1999, eight mammary gland tumors were diagnosed in eight adult captive female African hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris). The tumors presented as single or multiple subcutaneous masses along the cranial or caudal abdomen that varied in size for each hedgehog. Histologically, seven of eight (88%) mammary gland tumors were malignant. Tumors were classified as solid (4 cases), tubular (2 cases), and papillary (2 cases). Seven tumors had infiltrated into the surrounding stroma and three tumors had histologic evidence of neoplastic vascular invasion. Three hedgehogs had concurrent neoplasms. These are believed to be the first reported cases of mammary gland tumors in African hedgehogs. PMID:10813628

  12. 'Great power' intervention in African armed conflicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Gorm Rye

    2015-01-01

    to contribute to understanding the changing geopolitical environment and the current conditions for conflict management in Africa. The focus is not on trade and aid. The paper launches the hypothesis that the explanations why the US, China and the EU have intervened are basically identical. In spite......This paper asks why the United States (US), China and the European Union (EU) have intervened in a number of armed conflicts in Africa in the twenty-first century. Scrutiny and comparison of the motivations and interests of the three non-African actors in intervening in African crises are assumed...

  13. Cryptosporidium and cryptosporidiosis: the African perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldeyarbi, Hebatalla M; Abu El-Ezz, Nadia M T; Karanis, Panagiotis

    2016-07-01

    The present overview discusses the findings of cryptosporidiosis research conducted in Africa and highlights the currently available information on Cryptosporidium epidemiology, genetic diversity, and distribution on the African continent, particularly among vulnerable populations, including children. It also emphasizes the burden of cryptosporidiosis, which is underestimated due to the presence of many silent asymptomatic carriers.Cryptosporidiosis is recognized as one of the leading causes of childhood diarrhea in African countries. It has dramatic adverse effects on child growth and development and causes increased mortality on a continent where HIV, poverty, and lack of sanitation and infrastructure increase the risk of cryptosporidial waterborne infection. PMID:27126869

  14. The landscape of recombination in African Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Anjali G Hinch; Tandon, Arti; Patterson, Nick; Song, Yunli; Rohland, Nadin; Palmer, Cameron D; Chen, Gary K.; Wang, Kai; Buxbaum, Sarah G.; Akylbekova, Meggie; Aldrich, Melinda C.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Amos, Christopher; Bandera, Elisa V.; Berndt, Sonja I.

    2011-01-01

    Recombination, together with mutation, is the ultimate source of genetic variation in populations. We leverage the recent mixture of people of African and European ancestry in the Americas to build a genetic map measuring the probability of crossing-over at each position in the genome, based on about 2.1 million crossovers in 30,000 unrelated African Americans. At intervals of more than three megabases it is nearly identical to a map built in Europeans. At finer scales it differs significantl...

  15. Emotional confidence levels and success of tourism development for poverty reduction: The South African Kwam eMakana home-stay project.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwaramba, H.M.; Lovett, J.C.; Louw, L.; Chipumuro, J.

    2012-01-01

    Poverty reduction is a central component of South African government local economic development (LED) programmes. The Grahamstown Kwame Makana pilot project for promotion of tourism homestays aims to assist disadvantaged women to become self-reliant entrepreneurs. However the project has only met wi

  16. Characterization of African Bush Mango trees with emphasis on the differences between sweet and bitter trees in the Dahomey Gap (West Africa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vihotogbe, R.

    2012-01-01

     African bush mango trees (ABMTs) are economically the most important species within the family of Irvingiaceae. They are priority trees producing non-timber forest products (NTFPs) and widely distributed in the humid lowland forests of West and Central Africa. To boost their production and dev

  17. Predicting Non-African American Lesbian and Heterosexual Preadoptive Couples' Openness to Adopting an African American Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Abbie E.; Smith, JuliAnna Z.

    2009-01-01

    Despite increases in transracial adoption, African American children remain the least likely to be adopted. No research has examined the factors that predict prospective adopters' willingness to adopt an African American child. This study used multilevel modeling to examine predictors of willingness to adopt an African American child in a sample…

  18. West African Power Pool: Planning and Prospects for Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miketa, Asami [IRENA, Bonn (Germany); Merven, Bruno [Energy Research Centre, Univ. of Cape Town (South Africa)

    2013-06-25

    With the energy systems of many African countries dominated by fossil-fuel sources that are vulnerable to global price volatility, regional and intra-continental power systems with high shares of renewable energy can provide least-cost option to support continued economic growth and address the continent’s acute energy access problem. Unlocking Africa’s huge renewable energy potential could help to take many people out of poverty, while ensuring the uptake of sustainable technologies for the continent’s long-term development. The report examines a ''renewable scenario'' based on a modelling tool developed by IRENA and tested with assistance from the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS). Initial results from the ECOWAS Renewable Energy Planning (EREP) model for continental ECOWAS countries show that the share of renewable technologies in the region could increase from the current 22% of electricity generation to as much as 52% in 2030, provided that the cost of these technologies continues to fall and fossil fuel prices continue to rise. In this scenario, nearly half of the envisaged capacity additions between 2010 and 2030 would be with renewable technologies. Analysis using EREP – along with a similar model developed for Southern Africa – can provide valuable input for regional dialogue and energy projects such as the East and Southern Africa Clean Energy Corridor and the Programme for Infrastructure and Development in Africa (PIDA). IRENA, together with partner organisations, has started plans to set up capacity building and development support for energy system modelling and planning for greater integration of renewables in Africa. IRENA is also completing a similar model and study for East Africa and intends to extend this work to Central and North Africa.

  19. Pest management strategies in traditional agriculture: an African perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abate, T; van Huis, A; Ampofo, J K

    2000-01-01

    African agriculture is largely traditional--characterized by a large number of smallholdings of no more than one ha per household. Crop production takes place under extremely variable agro-ecological conditions, with annual rainfall ranging from 250 to 750 mm in the Sahel in the northwest and in the semi-arid east and south, to 1500 to 4000 mm in the forest zones in the central west. Farmers often select well-adapted, stable crop varieties, and cropping systems are such that two or more crops are grown in the same field at the same time. These diverse traditional systems enhance natural enemy abundance and generally keep pest numbers at low levels. Pest management practice in traditional agriculture is a built-in process in the overall crop production system rather than a separate well-defined activity. Increased population pressure and the resulting demand for increased crop production in Africa have necessitated agricultural expansion with the concomitant decline in the overall biodiversity. Increases in plant material movement in turn facilitated the accidental introduction of foreign pests. At present about two dozen arthropod pests, both introduced and native, are recognized as one of the major constraints to agricultural production and productivity in Africa. Although yield losses of 0% to 100% have been observed on-station, the economic significance of the majority of pests under farmers' production conditions is not adequately understood. Economic and social constraints have kept pesticide use in Africa the lowest among all the world regions. The bulk of pesticides are applied mostly against pests of commercial crops such as cotton, vegetables, coffee, and cocoa, and to some extent for combating outbreaks of migratory pests such as the locusts. The majority of African farmers still rely on indigenous pest management approaches to manage pest problems, although many government extension programs encourage the use of pesticides. The current pest management

  20. The African Renaissance and its relation to the geosciences: a South African perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mtimkulu, M. N.; Motloung, M.; Graham, I. T.; Eriksson, P. G.; Bumby, A. J.

    2001-08-01

    Implicit in the African Renaissance is the synergy between government, the private sector, the educated minority and the disadvantaged majority. For this concept to work, belief and commitment must arise first from the African individual, whatever his or her potential contribution may be. The geosciences in South Africa provide a currently vibrant example of such cooperation, which has the potential to contribute significantly to the upliftment of the country and its neighbouring states. Based largely on personal interviews with various role players, from the Presidency of South Africa, through ministerial levels, the corporate sector and down to the individual, we present a spectrum of viewpoints and initiatives which are starting to result in practical implementation of the African revival. An end to conflict and xenophobia, the entrenchment of democratic government and corporate expression of the entrepreneurial spirit are essential to provide the framework within which the individual African can become a "Renaissance Man or Woman".

  1. Optimal Central Bank Transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Cruijsen, C.A.B.; Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Hoogduin, L.H.

    2008-01-01

    Should central banks increase their degree of transparency any further? We show that there is likely to be an optimal intermediate degree of central bank transparency. Up to this optimum more transparency is desirable: it improves the quality of private sector inflation forecasts. But beyond the opt

  2. Optimal central bank transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A.B. van der Cruijsen; S.C.W. Eijffinger; L. Hoogduin

    2008-01-01

    Should central banks increase their degree of transparency any further? We show that there is likely to be an optimal intermediate degree of central bank transparency. Up to this optimum more transparency is desirable: it improves the quality of private sector inflation forecasts. But beyond the opt

  3. Optimal central bank transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A.B. van der Cruijsen; S.C.W. Eijffinger; L.H. Hoogduin

    2010-01-01

    Should central banks increase their degree of transparency any further? We show that there is likely to be an optimal intermediate degree of central bank transparency. Up to this optimum more transparency is desirable: it improves the quality of private sector inflation forecasts. But beyond the opt

  4. Central pontine myelinolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from one nerve to another. The most common cause of central pontine myelinolysis is a quick change in the body's sodium ... The nerve damage caused by central pontine myelinolysis is usually ... The disorder can cause serious long-term (chronic) disability.

  5. Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia: what has been achieved, current clues for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunleye, Temitayo A; McMichael, Amy; Olsen, Elise A

    2014-04-01

    Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia is an inflammatory type of central scalp hair loss seen primarily in women of African descent. The prevalence is unknown, but may vary from 2.7% to 5.7% and increases with age. This review outlines the history and current beliefs and identifies clues for future research for this enigmatic condition. Despite that the cause of central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia is unknown, research is ongoing. The role of cytokeratins, androgens, genetics, and various possible sources of chronic inflammation in disease pathogenesis remain to be elucidated.

  6. Central Diffraction at ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Lämsä, Jerry W

    2011-01-01

    The ALICE experiment is shown to be well suited for studies of exclusive final states from central diffractive reactions. The gluon-rich environment of the central system allows detailed QCD studies and searches for exotic meson states, such as glueballs, hybrids and new charmonium-like states. It would also provide a good testing ground for detailed studies of heavy quarkonia. Due to its central barrel performance, ALICE can accurately measure the low-mass central systems with good purity. The efficiency of the Forward Multiplicity Detector (FMD) and the Forward Shower Counter (FSC) system for detecting rapidity gaps is shown to be adequate for the proposed studies. With this detector arrangement, valuable new data can be obtained by tagging central diffractive processes.

  7. Central diffraction at ALICE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laemsae, J W; Orava, R, E-mail: risto.orava@helsinki.fi [Helsinki Insitute of Physics, and Division of Elementary Particle Physics, Department of Physics, PL 64 (Gustaf Haellstroeminkatu 2a), FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2011-02-01

    The ALICE experiment is shown to be well suited for studies of exclusive final states from central diffractive reactions. The gluon-rich environment of the central system allows detailed QCD studies and searches for exotic meson states, such as glueballs, hybrids and new charmonium-like states. It would also provide a good testing ground for detailed studies of heavy quarkonia. Due to its central barrel performance, ALICE can accurately measure the low-mass central systems with good purity. The efficiency of the Forward Multiplicity Detector (FMD) and the Forward Shower Counter (FSC) system for detecting rapidity gaps is shown to be adequate for the proposed studies. With this detector arrangement, valuable new data can be obtained by tagging central diffractive processes.

  8. Organizational centralization in radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aas, I H Monrad

    2006-01-01

    Traditionally, hospitals have a radiology department, where images are taken and interpretation occurs. Teleradiology makes it possible to capture images in one location and transmit them elsewhere for interpretation. Organizational centralization of radiology interpretations is therefore of interest. Empirical data have been collected in qualitative interviews of 26 resource persons with substantial experience with picture archiving and communication systems and teleradiology, from 12 departments of radiology in Norway. The response rate was 90%. A total of 21 theoretically possible types of centralization of image interpretation were identified, representing combinations of three categories of geographical centralization, and seven categories of centralization according to function. Various advantages and disadvantages of centralization were identified. Organizational changes may be decisive for the future of teleradiology, but it may be wise to plan for change in small steps, since we know little about how broad future organizational changes based on teleradiology will be, or what will decide how far particular organizations will go. PMID:16438776

  9. The activities of hospital nursing unit managers and quality of patient care in South African hospitals: a paradox?

    OpenAIRE

    Armstrong, Susan J; Laetitia C. Rispel; Loveday Penn-Kekana

    2015-01-01

    Background: Improving the quality of health care is central to the proposed health care reforms in South Africa. Nursing unit managers play a key role in coordinating patient care activities and in ensuring quality care in hospitals. Objective: This paper examines whether the activities of nursing unit managers facilitate the provision of quality patient care in South African hospitals. Methods: During 2011, a cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted in nine randomly selected hospital...

  10. The activities of hospital nursing unit managers and quality of patient care in South African hospitals: a paradox?

    OpenAIRE

    Armstrong, Susan J; Laetitia C. Rispel; Penn-Kekana, Loveday

    2015-01-01

    Background: Improving the quality of health care is central to the proposed health care reforms in South Africa. Nursing unit managers play a key role in coordinating patient care activities and in ensuring quality care in hospitals.Objective: This paper examines whether the activities of nursing unit managers facilitate the provision of quality patient care in South African hospitals.Methods: During 2011, a cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted in nine randomly selected hospitals ...

  11. Fine scale patterns of genetic partitioning in the rediscovered African crocodile, Crocodylus suchus (Saint-Hilaire 1807)

    OpenAIRE

    Cunningham, Seth W.; Shirley, Matthew H.; Hekkala, Evon R.

    2016-01-01

    Landscape heterogeneity, phylogenetic history, and stochasticity all influence patterns of geneflow and connectivity in wild vertebrates. Fine-scale patterns of genetic partitioning may be particularly important for the sustainable management of widespread species in trade, such as crocodiles. We examined genetic variation within the rediscovered African crocodile, Crocodylus suchus, across its distribution in West and Central Africa. We genotyped 109 individuals at nine microsatellite loci f...

  12. Co-evolution between the South African venture capital industry and the South [African] government

    OpenAIRE

    Aluko, Olumide Mayowa

    2011-01-01

    This thesis contributes to the current discourse around co-evolution, this study investigates co-evolution between the South African venture capital industry and the South African government. Using a qualitative method which involved gathering data from archival sources and contemporary interviews, this study extends the growing literature on the co-evolution of organizations and their institutional environment in three ways. First, the study shows that the co-evolution that occurs between or...

  13. Caring School Leadership: A South African Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Vyver, Cornelius P.; van der Westhuizen, Philip C.; Meyer, L. W.

    2014-01-01

    The research pivoted on the question whether South African school principals fulfilled their caring role towards teachers. The aims of the study were threefold. First, to determine how principals rated their care-giving, secondly to determine whether significant discrepancies existed between principals' rating of their care-giving and…

  14. Researching Africa : Explorations of everyday African encounters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn, de M.E.; Merolla, D.

    2010-01-01

    The studies in this volume are the result of research carried out by students of the Research Masters in African Studies (RMAS) at Leiden University who graduated in 2008. The studies cover such areas as conflict, democracy, migration, urban and rural studies, language, communication and youth. An i

  15. Improving the productivity of indigenous African livestock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document summarizes the results of two Co-ordinated Research Programs to improve the productivity of indigenous African livestock. After an introduction and a summary the reports of the participating countries are presented. The individual contributions have been indexed separately. Refs, figs and tabs

  16. An Exploration of African Students in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Irene Tan Ai

    2011-01-01

    The exploratory study is an attempt to understand the reasons that prompted African students to study in Malaysia, the challenges encountered and the coping strategies used. The research on such topics among international students is well documented, but studies on international students in Malaysia are scarce. The sample included 155 African…

  17. Violent Behaviors among African-American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Darhyl

    1995-01-01

    Explores the development of behaviors by using Erik Erikson's psychosocial developmental theory, with emphasis on adolescents. Examines factors, such as identity versus identity diffusion, that may be contributing to increasing acts of violence by African American adolescents. Other factors are examined that may contribute to increased violence.…

  18. Educational Resilience in African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Michael; Swanson, Dena Phillips

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to examine factors within the school context that facilitates educational resilience among African American high school students. The authors expected academic self-esteem to be positively associated with future expectations (academic and general). They expected perceptions of school-based social support to have…

  19. Dictionaries of African Sign Languages: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmaling, Constanze H.

    2012-01-01

    This article gives an overview of dictionaries of African sign languages that have been published to date most of which have not been widely distributed. After an introduction into the field of sign language lexicography and a discussion of some of the obstacles that authors of sign language dictionaries face in general, I will show problems…

  20. Legacy of a Pioneer African American Educator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazers, Gunars; Curtner-Smith, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose was to reconstruct the historical and legendary contribution of one exemplary African American physical education teacher educator who lived and worked in the Deep South prior to and immediately following the 1954 Brown v. Board of Education court case. The following questions guided data collection and analysis: To what…

  1. Seismic imaging of Southern African cratons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soliman, Mohammad Youssof Ahmad

    the southern African regions. Some of the main research problems that have been dealt with during this research are about (1) the heterogeneity scale of crustal structure and composition, (2) the depth extent of the cratonic keels and their layering, and (3) the strength of crustal anisotropy. The...

  2. Tuberculosis Detection by Giant African Pouched Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poling, Alan; Weetjens, Bart; Cox, Christophe; Beyene, Negussie; Durgin, Amy; Mahoney, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, operant discrimination training procedures have been used to teach giant African pouched rats to detect tuberculosis (TB) in human sputum samples. This article summarizes how the rats are trained and used operationally, as well as their performance in studies published to date. Available data suggest that pouched rats, which can…

  3. Cataloging the Pan-African Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Of all the honors and accolades bibliophile and noted authority on the Underground Railroad Charles Blockson has received, being bequeathed recently with some of Harriet Tubman's personal items by her great-niece is one of the most significant experiences of his life. A longtime collector of books and rare items by and about African-Americans,…

  4. The landscape of recombination in African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinch, Anjali G; Tandon, Arti; Patterson, Nick; Song, Yunli; Rohland, Nadin; Palmer, Cameron D; Chen, Gary K; Wang, Kai; Buxbaum, Sarah G; Akylbekova, Ermeg L; Aldrich, Melinda C; Ambrosone, Christine B; Amos, Christopher; Bandera, Elisa V; Berndt, Sonja I; Bernstein, Leslie; Blot, William J; Bock, Cathryn H; Boerwinkle, Eric; Cai, Qiuyin; Caporaso, Neil; Casey, Graham; Cupples, L Adrienne; Deming, Sandra L; Diver, W Ryan; Divers, Jasmin; Fornage, Myriam; Gillanders, Elizabeth M; Glessner, Joseph; Harris, Curtis C; Hu, Jennifer J; Ingles, Sue A; Isaacs, William; John, Esther M; Kao, W H Linda; Keating, Brendan; Kittles, Rick A; Kolonel, Laurence N; Larkin, Emma; Le Marchand, Loic; McNeill, Lorna H; Millikan, Robert C; Murphy, Adam; Musani, Solomon; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Nyante, Sarah; Papanicolaou, George J; Press, Michael F; Psaty, Bruce M; Reiner, Alex P; Rich, Stephen S; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L; Rotter, Jerome I; Rybicki, Benjamin A; Schwartz, Ann G; Signorello, Lisa B; Spitz, Margaret; Strom, Sara S; Thun, Michael J; Tucker, Margaret A; Wang, Zhaoming; Wiencke, John K; Witte, John S; Wrensch, Margaret; Wu, Xifeng; Yamamura, Yuko; Zanetti, Krista A; Zheng, Wei; Ziegler, Regina G; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Redline, Susan; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Henderson, Brian E; Taylor, Herman A; Price, Alkes L; Hakonarson, Hakon; Chanock, Stephen J; Haiman, Christopher A; Wilson, James G; Reich, David; Myers, Simon R

    2011-07-20

    Recombination, together with mutation, gives rise to genetic variation in populations. Here we leverage the recent mixture of people of African and European ancestry in the Americas to build a genetic map measuring the probability of crossing over at each position in the genome, based on about 2.1 million crossovers in 30,000 unrelated African Americans. At intervals of more than three megabases it is nearly identical to a map built in Europeans. At finer scales it differs significantly, and we identify about 2,500 recombination hotspots that are active in people of West African ancestry but nearly inactive in Europeans. The probability of a crossover at these hotspots is almost fully controlled by the alleles an individual carries at PRDM9 (P value < 10(-245)). We identify a 17-base-pair DNA sequence motif that is enriched in these hotspots, and is an excellent match to the predicted binding target of PRDM9 alleles common in West Africans and rare in Europeans. Sites of this motif are predicted to be risk loci for disease-causing genomic rearrangements in individuals carrying these alleles. More generally, this map provides a resource for research in human genetic variation and evolution.

  5. African American Students' Attitudes toward Entrepreneurship Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ede, Fred O.; Panigrahi, Bhagaban; Calcich, Stephen E.

    1998-01-01

    A survey of 171 African-American students found that 72% came from nonentrepreneurial family backgrounds; only 24.5% intended to start their own businesses, there were no gender differences in entrepreneurship attitudes, and seniors and those from entrepreneurial backgrounds were more favorable toward entrepreneurship. (SK)

  6. AFRICAN ADULT EDUCATION--A BIBLIOGRAPHY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BOWN, LALAGE

    THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY, A TENTATIVE LISTING OF MATERIALS ON AFRICAN ADULT EDUCATION PREPARED WITHOUT FULL BIBLIOGRAPHIC DETAIL IS LIMITED TO SOURCES IN ENGLISH AND FRENCH. THE ENGLISH SOURCES DO NOT INCLUDE MANY FROM AMERICA. IT IS AN EXTENSION AND REVISION OF THE PRELIMINARY BIBLIOGRAPHY DRAWN UP AT THE UNIVERSITY OF IBADAN IN 1965. THE FIRST SECTION…

  7. Myths in African Concept of Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaja, Jones M.

    2014-01-01

    Myths are accounts of the origin of societies and institutions not subject to rationalization but often used by historians and philosophers in their quest to study African history; for it is only thus that we can comprehend the various aspects of the continent's history and culture. This paper examines the critical understanding of African…

  8. Assessing sanitary mixtures in East African cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Letema, S.C.

    2012-01-01

    The urbanisation of poverty and informality in East African cities poses a threat to environmental
    health, perpetuates social exclusion and inequalities, and creates service gaps (UN-Habitat, 2008).
    This makes conventional sanitation provision untenable citywide, giving rise to the emerg

  9. African American Homeschooling Practices: Empirical Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazama, Ama

    2016-01-01

    Despite a significant increase in scholarly interest for homeschooling, some of its most critical aspects, such as instructional daily practices, remain grossly understudied. This essay thus seeks to fill that void by presenting empirical evidence regarding the homeschooling practices of a specific group, African Americans. Most specifically, the…

  10. African American College Women's Suicide Buffers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, Michelle S.; Range, Lillian M.

    2003-01-01

    To examine the relationships buffers may have with suicide ideation, 300 African American female college students completed measures of suicide ideation and buffers. Three variables accounted for a significant and unique portion of the variance in suicide ideation: family support, a view that suicide is unacceptable, and a collaborative religious…

  11. Colorectal Cancer in African Americans: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Renee; White, Pascale; Nieto, Jose; Vieira, Dorice; Francois, Fritz; Hamilton, Frank

    2016-01-01

    This review is an update to the American College of Gastroenterology (ACG) Committee on Minority Affairs and Cultural Diversity's paper on colorectal cancer (CRC) in African Americans published in 2005. Over the past 10 years, the incidence and mortality rates of CRC in the United States has steadily declined. However, reductions have been strikingly much slower among African Americans who continue to have the highest rate of mortality and lowest survival when compared with all other racial groups. The reasons for the health disparities are multifactorial and encompass physician and patient barriers. Patient factors that contribute to disparities include poor knowledge of benefits of CRC screening, limited access to health care, insurance status along with fear and anxiety. Physician factors include lack of knowledge of screening guidelines along with disparate recommendations for screening. Earlier screening has been recommended as an effective strategy to decrease observed disparities; currently the ACG and American Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopists recommend CRC screening in African Americans to begin at age 45. Despite the decline in CRC deaths in all racial and ethnic groups, there still exists a significant burden of CRC in African Americans, thus other strategies including educational outreach for health care providers and patients and the utilization of patient navigation systems emphasizing the importance of screening are necessary. These strategies have been piloted in both local communities and Statewide resulting in notable significant decreases in observed disparities. PMID:27467183

  12. Changing governance structures in South African agribusiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doyer, O.T.; Haese, D' M.F.C.; Rooyen, van C.J.; Kirsten, J.F.; Haese, D' L.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the changing governance structures in the South African agri-food sector. Changing legislative and market conditions forced agribusiness managers to rethink their governance structures to ensure the competitiveness of the agri-food sector. They had to adapt to the new structure

  13. Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study: Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans is a free comprehensive multimedia curricula for health professionals caring for persons with cancer and their families.

  14. The South African species of Teucrium (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Codd

    1977-12-01

    Full Text Available While writing up the three South African species of  Teucrium for the Flora o f Southern Africa it became necessary to replace two well-known names as follows:  T. trifidum Retz. (1779 ( = T.  capense Thunb., 1800 and  T. kraussii Codd  {=T. riparium Hochst., 1845, non Rafin., 1838.

  15. Beijing Summit Promotes Sino-African Relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Weizhong

    2007-01-01

    @@ Since the establishment of the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation in 2000, China-Africa relations have entered a new period of cooperation. 2006 not only consolidated friendship between China and Africa, but also laid a sound foundation for more prosperous Sino-African relations.

  16. African Literature and the American University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priebe, Richard

    While African literature appears to be firmly established in American colleges and universities, its expansion, and in some cases its continuance, is threatened by two factors: racialism and departmental conservatism. As demands for courses in black literature can be met by an increased supply of scholars in Afro-American literature, fewer schools…

  17. Contemporary Sexism in the South African Navy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wijk, Charles H.

    2011-01-01

    The military traditionally embraces highly sexist attitudes. Over the past decade, the South African Navy (SAN) has been exposed to an increasingly progressive political environment. This study investigated contemporary expressions of sexism in the SAN. A representative sample of 476 sailors completed the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory, Modern Sexism…

  18. African American Vernacular English and Rap Music

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡波

    2015-01-01

    African American Vernacular English (AAVE) is the language spoken by almost 20 milion speakers al over the world. It is also used frequently in rap lyrics. Studying the origin and grammar rules of AAVE is a very important topic in today's English Language and English Teaching Studies.

  19. Some remarks on the African wild ass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemmel, van A.C.V.

    1972-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Without any doubt the African Wild Ass should be considered a species threatened with extinction. Therefore, it seems worth-while to collect as many data on this species as possible and to do this quickly. Data and material, however, are scarce. Many sportsmen and zoologists observed th

  20. Wages and Labor Management in African Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fafchamps, Marcel; Soderbom, Mans

    2006-01-01

    Using matched employer-employee data from ten African countries, we examine the relationship between wages, worker supervision, and labor productivity in manufacturing. Wages increase with firm size for both production workers and supervisors. We develop a two-tier model of supervision that can account for this stylized fact and we fit the…

  1. Logic in African Philosophy: Examples from two Niger Delta Societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones M. Jaja

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available There have been questions as to whether African Philosophy exists or not. European scholars and some African scholars are at the opposite end of this scholarly debate. The result is the production of various works by Odera Oruka, Omoregbe, Bordunrin, Wright, Maurier and others espousing their views for or against the existence of African Philosophy. This paper attempts to show the existence of a unique Philosophy that deserves to be recognized and rightly known as African Philosophy. It shows the existence of African Logic using examples from two Niger-Delta societies. The paper begins with the concept of Logic in African thought system, the natural nature of it and it’s applicability to these communities especially as it permeates every aspect of the African way of life. The Ibani and Ogoni societies in the Niger-Delta were used as case studies.

  2. An African-American family with dystonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puschmann, Andreas; Xiao, Jianfeng; Bastian, Robert W; Searcy, Jill A; LeDoux, Mark S; Wszolek, Zbigniew K

    2011-08-01

    The genetic cause of late-onset focal and segmental dystonia remains unknown in most individuals. Recently, mutations in Thanatos-associated protein domain containing, apoptosis associated protein 1 (THAP1) have been described in DYT6 dystonia and associated with some cases of familial and sporadic late-onset dystonia in Caucasians. We are not aware of any previous descriptions of familial dystonia in African-Americans or reports of THAP1 mutations in African-Americans. Herein, we characterize an African-American (AA) kindred with late-onset primary dystonia, clinically and genetically. The clinical phenotype included cervical, laryngeal and hand-forearm dystonia. Symptoms were severe and disabling for several family members, whereas others only displayed mild signs. There were no accompanying motor or cognitive signs. In this kindred, age of onset ranged from 45 to 50 years and onset was frequently sudden, with symptoms developing within weeks or months. DYT1 was excluded as the cause of dystonia in this kindred. The entire genomic region of THAP1, including non-coding regions, was sequenced. We identified 13 sequence variants in THAP1, although none co-segregated with dystonia. A novel THAP1 variant (c.-237-3G>T/A) was found in 3/84 AA dystonia patient alleles and 3/212 AA control alleles, but not in 5870 Caucasian alleles. In summary, although previously unreported, familial primary dystonia does occur in African-Americans. Genetic analysis of the entire genomic region of THAP1 revealed a novel variant that was specific for African-Americans. Therefore, genetic testing for dystonia and future studies of candidate genes must take genetic background into consideration. PMID:21601506

  3. The evolution of African plant diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Peter Linder

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Sub-Saharan Africa includes some 45,000 plant species. The spatial patterns of this diversity have been well explored. We can group the species into a set of biogeographical regions (largely co-incident with regions defined for terrestrial vertebrate groups. Furthermore, we know that the diversity is unevenly distributed, with southern Africa (especially the south-western tip disproportionally species rich, while the West African interior is disproportionally species poor. However, the origins of this diversity have only been explored for two anomalous African Floras (the Tropic-alpine Flora and the Cape Flora, whereas the origins of the diversity of the other floras are still unknown. Here I argue that six floras, with distinct geographical centres, different extra-African affinities, ages of radiation and radiation rates, can be delimited: the Austro-temperate, Tropic-alpine, Lowland forest, Tropic-montane, Savanna and Arid Floras. The oldest flora may be the Lowland forest Flora, and the most recent is the Tropic-alpine, which probably evolved during the Plio-Pleistocene on the summits of the East Africa volcanoes. My results suggest that the most rapidly radiating flora is the Austro-temperate Flora, while the other floras are all diversifying at more or less the same rate, this is also consistent with the current massive species richness in this flora (about half of the African species richness. The Austro-temperate Flora appears to be related to the floras of the other southern continents, the Tropic-alpine Flora to that of the Northern Hemisphere, and the four tropical floras to the tropical regions of the other continents, consistent with the theory of phylogenetic niche conservatism. Current African diversity may be the result of the sequential adding of new floras to the continent. Possibly the species poverty especially of the Lowland forest Flora may be the result of the spread of C4 grasslands and associated regular fires.

  4. Astrocytoma in an African hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris) suspected wobbly hedgehog syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Makoto; Miwa, Yasutsugu; Itou, Takuya; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Nakayama, Hiroyuki; Sakai, Takeo

    2011-10-01

    A 28-month-old African hedgehog was referred to our hospital with progressive tetraparesis. On the first presentation, the hedgehog was suspected as having wobbly hedgehog syndrome (WHS) and the animal was treated with medication and rehabilitation. The animal died 22 days after onset. Pathological examination revealed that the animal was involved in astrocytoma between the medulla oblongata and the spinal cord (C1). This report indicates that a primary central nervous system tumor should be considered as one of the differential diagnoses for hedgehogs presenting with progressive paresis, together with WHS. PMID:21628867

  5. Imaging central pain syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhuijzen, Dieuwke S; Greenspan, Joel D; Kim, Jong H; Coghill, Robert C; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Ohara, Shinji; Lenz, Frederick A

    2007-06-01

    Anatomic, functional, and neurochemical imaging studies have provided new investigative tools in the study of central pain. High-resolution imaging studies allow for precise determination of lesion location, whereas functional neuroimaging studies measure pathophysiologic consequences of injury to the central nervous system. Additionally, magnetic resonance spectroscopy evaluates lesion-induced neurochemical changes in specific brain regions that may be related to central pain. The small number of studies to date precludes definitive conclusions, but the recent findings provide information that either supports or refutes current hypotheses and can serve to generate new ideas.

  6. Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia: challenges and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herskovitz, Ingrid; Miteva, Mariya

    2016-01-01

    Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia (CCCA) is the most common scarring alopecia among African American women. Data about epidemiology, etiology, genetic inheritance, and management are scarce and come from individual reports or small series. CCCA has been associated with hot combing and traumatic hair styling for years; however, studies fail to confirm it as the sole etiologic factor. It has been shown in a small series that CCCA can be inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion, with a partial penetrance and a strong modifying effect of hairstyling and sex. CCCA presents clinically as a central area of progressive irreversible hair loss that expands to the periphery. A patchy form has also been described. Dermoscopy is helpful to identify the optimal site for the biopsy, which establishes the diagnosis. Well-designed randomized controlled trials are needed to discover the optimal management. At this point, patients are advised to avoid traction and chemical treatments; topical and intralesional steroids, calcineurin inhibitors, and minoxidil can be helpful in halting the progression. PMID:27574457

  7. Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia: challenges and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herskovitz, Ingrid; Miteva, Mariya

    2016-01-01

    Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia (CCCA) is the most common scarring alopecia among African American women. Data about epidemiology, etiology, genetic inheritance, and management are scarce and come from individual reports or small series. CCCA has been associated with hot combing and traumatic hair styling for years; however, studies fail to confirm it as the sole etiologic factor. It has been shown in a small series that CCCA can be inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion, with a partial penetrance and a strong modifying effect of hairstyling and sex. CCCA presents clinically as a central area of progressive irreversible hair loss that expands to the periphery. A patchy form has also been described. Dermoscopy is helpful to identify the optimal site for the biopsy, which establishes the diagnosis. Well-designed randomized controlled trials are needed to discover the optimal management. At this point, patients are advised to avoid traction and chemical treatments; topical and intralesional steroids, calcineurin inhibitors, and minoxidil can be helpful in halting the progression.

  8. Central nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    The central nervous system is composed of the brain and spinal cord. Your brain and spinal cord serve as the main "processing center" for your entire nervous system. They control all the workings of your body.

  9. Central Station Design Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of EDISON Work Package 4.1 is the evaluation of possible Central (charging) Stations design options for making possible the public charging of Electric Vehicles (EVs). A number of scenarios for EVs are assessed, with special emphasis on the options of Fast Charging and Battery Swapping....... The work identifies the architecture, sizing and siting of prospective Central Stations in Denmark, which can be located at shopping centers, large car parking lots or gas stations. Central Stations are planned to be integrated in the Danish distribution grid. The Danish island of Bornholm, where a high.......g. due to vandalism, the charge supply circuit is disconnected. More electrical vehicles on the market are capable today of quick charging up to 50 kW power level. The feasibility of Central Stations with fast charging/swapping option, their capacity, design, costs and grid impact, as well as battery...

  10. Central Data Exchange

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Central Data Exchange (CDX) enables fast, efficient and more accurate environmental data submissions from state and local governments, industry and tribes to...

  11. "Central Station" Londonis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Londoni galeriis Milch seitsme läti, leedu ja eesti kunstniku projekt "Central Station". Kuraatorid Lisa Panting, Sally Tallant. Eestist osalevad Hanno Soans (Catarina Campinoga koostöös valminud video), Kiwa, Kai Kaljo

  12. Central Asian Republic Info

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — CAR Info is designed and managed by the Central Asian Republic Mission to fill in the knowledge and reporting gaps in existing agency systems for that Mission. It...

  13. Central nervous system resuscitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIntosh, T K; Garde, E; Saatman, K E;

    1997-01-01

    Traumatic injury to the central nervous system induces delayed neuronal death, which may be mediated by acute and chronic neurochemical changes. Experimental identification of these injury mechanisms and elucidation of the neurochemical cascade following trauma may provide enhanced opportunities...

  14. The genetics of POAG in black South Africans: a candidate gene association study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Susan E I; Carmichael, Trevor R; Allingham, R Rand; Hauser, Michael; Ramsay, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Multiple loci have been associated with either primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) or heritable ocular quantitative traits associated with this condition. This study examined the association of these loci with POAG, with central corneal thickness (CCT), vertical cup-to-disc ratio (VCDR) and with diabetes mellitus in a group of black South Africans (215 POAG cases and 214 controls). The population was homogeneous and distinct from other African and European populations. Single SNPs in the MYOC, COL8A2, COL1A1 and ZNF469 gene regions showed marginal associations with POAG. No association with POAG was identified with tagging SNPs in TMCO1, CAV1/CAV2, CYP1B1, COL1A2, COL5A1, CDKN2B/CDKN2BAS-1, SIX1/SIX6 or the chromosome 2p16 regions and there were no associations with CCT or VCDR. However, SNP rs12522383 in WDR36 was associated with diabetes mellitus (p = 0.00008). This first POAG genetic association study in black South Africans has therefore identified associations that require additional investigation in this and other populations to determine their significance. This highlights the need for larger studies in this population if we are to achieve the goal of facilitating early POAG detection and ultimately preventing irreversible blindness from this condition. PMID:25669751

  15. Disease constraints for utilization of the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) on game ranches in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munang'andu, Hetron M; Munag'andu, Hetron M; Siamudaala, Victor M; Nambota, Andrew; Bwalya, John M; Munyeme, Musso; Mweene, Aaron S; Takada, Ayato; Kida, Hiroshi

    2006-05-01

    Eco-tourism depending on wildlife is becoming increasingly profitable and landowners are beginning to favor game farming and ecotourism. In these areas, large-scale translocation of wildlife involves a diversity of species and large populations. The African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is one of the major tourist attractions in Zambia. It accounts for 8.7% and 12.4% of the total animal species hunted in the Game Management Areas and the total hunting revenue earned in Zambia, respectively. It is ecologically an important animal species essential for the purpose of habitat control and facilitating the provision of suitable grazing pastures. However, the rearing of the African buffalo on game ranches has been hampered by its carrier state of the Southern Africa Terroritory (SAT) serotypes of foot and mouth disease virus (FMD). The African buffalo is also known to be a carrier of Theileria parva lawrencei, the causative agent of corridor disease (CD) that continues to have devastating effects on the livestock industry in Zambia. In addition, the importation of buffaloes from countries with populations endemic to bovine tuberculosis is highly restricted. Veterinary regulations in Zambia, strongly advocate against the translocation of buffaloes from protected areas to private ranches for disease control purposes thereby mounting a considerable constraint on the economic and ecological viability of the industry. It is hoped that this review will motivate the relevant government authorities in exploiting ways in which this animal species play a central role in eco-tourism.

  16. West African pholcid spiders: an overview, with descriptions of five new species (Araneae, Pholcidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard A. Huber

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes current knowledge about West African pholcids. West Africa is here defined as the area south of 17°N and west of 5°E, including mainly the Upper Guinean subregion of the Guineo-Congolian center of endemism. This includes all of Senegal, The Gambia, Guinea Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo and Benin. An annotated list of the 14 genera and 38 species recorded from this area is given, together with distribution maps and an identification key to genera. Five species are newly described: Anansus atewa sp. nov., Artema bunkpurugu sp. nov., Leptopholcus kintampo sp. nov., Spermophora akwamu sp. nov., and S. ziama sp. nov. The female of Quamtana kitahurira is newly described. Additional new records are given for 16 previously described species, including 33 new country records. Distribution patterns of West African pholcids are discussed, as well as possible explanations for relatively low West African pholcid species diversity as compared to Central and East Africa.

  17. Centralization and political accountability

    OpenAIRE

    Hindriks, Jean; Lockwood, Ben

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we abstract from the usual gains and costs of decentralization (e.g. preference matching, spillovers and economies of scale). Instead we compare the political accountability of decentralized governments relative to centralized ones when there is a risk of "bad" governance. We study both the selection and incentive effects of accountability. A key aspect of centralization is to make the politician answerable to multiple constituencies subject to a common budget constraint. Our ma...

  18. Central Bank independence

    OpenAIRE

    Vasile DEDU; Tiberiu STOICA

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present the key aspects regarding central bank’s independence. Most economists consider that the factor which positively influences the efficiency of monetary policy measures is the high independence of the central bank. We determined that the National Bank of Romania (NBR) has a high degree of independence. NBR has both goal and instrument independence. We also consider that the hike of NBR’s independence played an important role in the significant disin...

  19. Outsourcing central banking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoury, Sarkis Joseph; Wihlborg, Clas

    2005-01-01

    The literature on Currency Boards (CB) stops at the water edge in terms of dealing with the totality of the functions of a central bank. Monetary policy, and banking supervisioncan be "outsourced" in an open economy with substantial foreign direct investment (FDI)in the banking sector if political...... the feasibility of, and constraints on, outsourcing of central bank functions. A brief discussion of the Argentinian experience is used for contrast.Key words: Currency Board, Foreign Banks, Supervision, Regional Integration,outsourcing....

  20. Y chromosome STR allelic and haplotype diversity in a Rwanda population from East Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balamurugan, Kuppareddi; Duncan, George

    2012-03-01

    We have analyzed 17 Y-chromosomal STR loci in a population sample of 69 unrelated male individuals of the Rwanda-Hutu population from East Central Africa using an AmpFlSTR® Yfiler™ PCR amplification kit. A total of 62 unique haplotypes were identified among the 69 individuals studied. The haplotype diversity was found to be 0.9970 for this population. The gene diversity ranged from 0.1130 (DYS392) to 0.7722 (DYS385). Comparison of populations in this study with twenty-five other national and global populations using Principal Co-ordinate Analysis (PCA) and phylogenetic molecular analysis using a genetic distance matrix indicates a delineation of all the African populations from other unrelated populations. The results of population pair-wise Fst p values indicate statistically significant differentiation of the Rwandan population when compared with 25 other global populations including four African populations (p=0.0000). Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA) of the Rwanda population with four other African populations indicated a 93% variance within populations and 7% variance among the five populations. A data base search of the 62 haplotypes yielded only one non-African haplotype match, suggesting these haplotypes are unique to the African continent. PMID:22285642

  1. The African Surface (85-45 Ma): a Record of Mantle Deformations Since 35 Ma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillocheau, Francois; Simon, Brendan; Baby, Guillaume; Robin, Cécile

    2016-04-01

    Africa is characterized by a bimodal topography with long (x100 km) to very long (x1000 km) wavelength plateaus and domes. The 300-400 m topographic mode corresponds to the Sahara on which is superimposed swells (Hoggar, Tibesti..) and the Congo Interior Basin. The 900-1100 m mode corresponds to the Southern African (Kalahari) Plateau and the East African and Ethiopian Domes. The landforms responsible of the African topography are of three types (1) etchplains (mantled or stripped), (2) pediments and pediplains and (3) incised valleys. Those different landforms are stepped with mantled etchplains at higher elevation and pediments/stripped etchplains are lower elevation. Some of those landforms can be dated using either direct geochronological evidences on lateritic weathering profiles or geological evidences such as the relationship between landforms and dated magmatism or sediments. We used the stepping of successive pediments as a proxy of deformation, making sure that they record successive base level fall. We mapped at Africa-scale, a major widespread etchplain known as the African Surface (King, 1949; Burke & Gunnel, 2008). This surface was dated both by geochronology (e.g. Beauvais et al., 2008 in Burkina, Deller, 2012 in North Ethiopia) and on geological evidences (interfingering or reworking of laterites in sedimentary basins such as Iullemmeden Basin or the Tanzanian Margin). The paroxysm of weathering was during Early Eocene times (EOCM) but started earlier in Late Cretaceous with more or less younger ages according to its location in Africa. Geometrical restorations of pediments indicate that this surface was (1) at sea level in northern and central Africa with unknown upstream gradients and (2) superimposed on a Late Cretaceous plateau in southern Africa. The main period of very long wavelenghth deformation occurred around the Oligocene-Eocene boundary with the uplift of northern Africa or the beginning of the growth the East African dome. Some other

  2. African American Perceptions about Crime in Cincinnati, Ohio since the 2001 Riots: Over a Decade Later

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derrick J. Jenkins, Sr. Ph.D.

    2013-06-01

    Cincinnati is a very serious problem, with more than half of the respondents indicating that in the past 3 years violence in Cincinnati stayed the same. More importantly, these findings emphasize that the riots in Cincinnati is not a central event in the African American community, instead for some, it represents another example of why violence always seem to exist and there is a low morale among the African American community and police officers.

  3. In Search of Greater Unity: African States and the Quest for an African Union Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharkdam Wapmuk

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the notion of an African union government.It argues that the proposal for a ‘union government’ has often divided African leaders into different ideological groups. That not withstanding, Africa leaders have had to bury their differences and embrace African unity in the fight against colonialism and racist rule. Under the OAU, these constituted the rallying point for African leaders until the last vestiges of colonialism and racist rule were crushed in South Africa in 1994. More than 40 years after the idea of unification of Africa was first suggested by Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana; the Libyan leader, President Muammar Ghaddafi re-tabled the proposal. However, the machinations being employed by the Libyan leader to actualise his vision of a union government in Africa under a single president necessitate a deeper exploration of the idea. The paper observed that the challenges to achieving a union government are numerous at this time. In addition toproblem of lack of integration at national levels and poor funding of the AU; Africa is presently faced with several problems bordering on violent conflicts, poverty and underdevelopment, economic development, diseases such as HIV-AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis, and bad governance amongst others. The paper concludes that these challenges should serve as the rallying point for African leaders at this time and not the political machinations of some leaders on the continent.

  4. Glucose intolerance in the West African Diaspora

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannie; Christensen, Dirk Lund

    2011-01-01

    muscle fibre type I. Skeletal muscle fibre type II is less oxidative and more glycolytic than skeletal muscle fibre type I. Lower oxidative capacity is associated with lower fat oxidation and a higher disposal of lipids, which are stored as muscular adipose tissue in higher amounts in Black compared......In the United States, Black Americans are largely descendants of West African slaves; they have a higher relative proportion of obesity and experience a higher prevalence of diabetes than White Americans. However, obesity rates alone cannot explain the higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Type 2...... diabetes is characterized by insulin resistance and beta-cell dysfunction. We hypothesize that the higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes in African Americans (as compared to White Americans) is facilitated by an inherited higher percentage of skeletal muscle fibre type II and a lower percentage of skeletal...

  5. Towards a Classification of the African Acacias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Ross

    1973-09-01

    Full Text Available Some of the first attempts to subdivide the genus Acacia Mill, as a whole are discussed briefly. Bentham’s work, in which the subdivisions of the genus were for the first time given names, is considered and his two series into which the African species fall are reproduced. The characters employed by various workers to divide the African species into two main groups are mentioned and the advantages of using each of these characters for the first dichotomy in a key are discussed. Recent work on pollen morphology and seedling morphology is correlated with general morphology. A proposal put forward by Guinet to divide Acacia into three large genera on the basis of pollen morphology is briefly discussed. Certain modifications to Bentham's series Vulgares and Gummiferae are suggested.

  6. The Offshore East African Rift System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, D.; Klimke, J.; Jokat, W.; Stollhofen, H.; Mahanjane, S.

    2014-12-01

    Numerous studies have addressed various aspects of the East African Rift system but surprisingly few on the offshore continuation of the south-eastern branch of the rift into the Mozambique Channel. The most prominent article has been published almost 30 years ago by Mougenot et al. (1986) and is based on vintage seismic data. Several studies investigating earthquakes and plate motions from GPS measurements reveal recent deformation along the offshore branch of the East African Rift system. Slip vectors from earthquakes data in Mozambique's offshore basins show a consistent NE direction. Fault plane solutions reveal ~ E-W extensional failure with focal depth clustering around 19 km and 40 km, respectively. Here, we present new evidence for neotectonic deformation derived from modern seismic reflection data and supported by additional geophysical data. The modern rift system obviously reactivates structures from the disintegration of eastern Gondwana. During the Jurassic/Cretaceous opening of the Somali and Mozambique Basins, Madagascar moved southwards along a major shear zone, to its present position. Since the Miocene, parts of the shear zone became reactivated and structurally overprinted by the East African rift system. The Kerimbas Graben offshore northern Mozambique is the most prominent manifestation of recent extensional deformation. Bathymetry data shows that it deepens northwards, with approximately 700 m downthrown on the eastern shoulder. The graben can be subdivided into four subbasins by crosscutting structural lineaments with a NW-SE trend. Together with the N-S striking graben-bounding faults, this resembles a conjugate fault system. In seismic reflection data normal faulting is distinct not only at the earthquake epicenters. The faults cut through the sedimentary successions and typically reach the seafloor, indicating ongoing recent deformation. Reference: Mougenot, D., Recq, M., Virlogeux, P., and Lepvrier, C., 1986, Seaward extension of the East

  7. African return migration: past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, J W; Piche, V

    1983-01-01

    The various forms of return migration in Africa in the twentieth century are first examined, and the factors affecting them are discussed. The authors then consider the value of the household, rather than the individual, as the unit of analysis. Return migration is also analyzed in terms of the linking role it plays between Africa's capitalist and non-capitalist countries. Finally, alternative future trends in the circulatory flow of African labor are considered.

  8. Obesity and Pulmonary Function in African Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Mehari, Alem; Afreen, Samina; Ngwa, Julius; Setse, Rosanna; Thomas, Alicia N.; Poddar, Vishal; Davis, Wayne; Polk, Octavius D.; Hassan, Sheik; Thomas, Alvin V.

    2015-01-01

    Background Obesity prevalence in United States (US) adults exceeds 30% with highest prevalence being among blacks. Obesity is known to have significant effects on respiratory function and obese patients commonly report respiratory complaints requiring pulmonary function tests (PFTs). However, there is no large study showing the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and PFTs in healthy African Americans (AA). Objective To determine the effect of BMI on PFTs in AA patients who did not have...

  9. Social mobility in five African countries

    OpenAIRE

    Bossuroy, T.; Cogneau, Denis

    2013-01-01

    This paper conceptualizes intergenerational occupational mobility between the farm and non-farm sectors in five African countries, measures it using nationally representative household survey data, and analyzes its determinants through a comparative method based on pooled logit regressions. We first analyze intergenerational gross mobility. Until the end of the 1980s, intergenerational flows toward the non-farm sector are high in Cote d'Ivoire and Guinea, flows toward the farm sector are more...

  10. Intestinal plasmacytoma in an African hedgehog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Vara, J A; Miller, M A; Craft, D

    1998-04-01

    A 3-yr-old male African hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris) had anorexia and weight loss for 1 wk before its death. The colon and mesocolon were diffusely infiltrated by a neoplastic proliferation of round cells with plasmacytoid features. A diagnosis of intestinal plasmacytoma was made and confirmed by electron microscopy. No other organs appeared to be affected. This is the first description of intestinal plasmacytoma in a hedgehog. PMID:9577789

  11. South African History Online's Education Programme.

    OpenAIRE

    Jardine, Varushka

    2011-01-01

    This paper outlines South African History Online as a NGO that focuses on the enhancement of history especially at school level. The advent of digital and social media platforms has changed the way scholars learn and the way they perceive their world. The book, paper and journals should no longer provide the exclusive model for historical knowledge to be passed on. With this in mind, SAHO has developed a comprehensive online programme that focuses on the current curriculum a...

  12. Caring school leadership: a South African study

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Vyver, C.P.; Van der Westhuizen, P C; Meyer, L.W.

    2014-01-01

    The research pivoted on the question whether South African school principals fulfilled their caring role towards teachers. The aims of the study were threefold. First, to determine how principals rated their care-giving, secondly to determine whether significant discrepancies existed between principals’ rating of their care-giving and teachers’ experiences thereof and thirdly to identify the determinants of care that contributed the most and the least towards principals’ care-givi...

  13. Africans in the American Labor Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elo, Irma T; Frankenberg, Elizabeth; Gansey, Romeo; Thomas, Duncan

    2015-10-01

    The number of migrants to the United States from Africa has grown exponentially since the 1930s. For the first time in America's history, migrants born in Africa are growing at a faster rate than migrants from any other continent. The composition of African-origin migrants has also changed dramatically: in the mid-twentieth century, the majority were white and came from only three countries; but today, about one-fifth are white, and African-origin migrants hail from across the entire continent. Little is known about the implications of these changes for their labor market outcomes in the United States. Using the 2000-2011 waves of the American Community Survey, we present a picture of enormous heterogeneity in labor market participation, sectoral choice, and hourly earnings of male and female migrants by country of birth, race, age at arrival in the United States, and human capital. For example, controlling a rich set of human capital and demographic characteristics, some migrants-such as those from South Africa/Zimbabwe and Cape Verde, who typically enter on employment visas-earn substantial premiums relative to other African-origin migrants. These premiums are especially large among males who arrived after age 18. In contrast, other migrants-such as those from Sudan/Somalia, who arrived more recently, mostly as refugees-earn substantially less than migrants from other African countries. Understanding the mechanisms generating the heterogeneity in these outcomes-including levels of socioeconomic development, language, culture, and quality of education in countries of origin, as well as selectivity of those who migrate-figures prominently among important unresolved research questions. PMID:26304845

  14. African Woman Gets No.2 UN Post

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    With a pledge to work for an inte-grated UN, former Tanzanian Foreign Minister Asha-Rose Migiro was sworn in as UN deputy secretary gen-eral on February 5, making her the first woman from the African conti-nent to hold such a powerful posi-tion in the world body.Migiro’s appointment early last month was widely seen as a signal of new UN Secretary General Ban Ki Moon’s reform initia-

  15. Assessing sanitary mixtures in East African cities

    OpenAIRE

    Letema, S.C.

    2012-01-01

    The urbanisation of poverty and informality in East African cities poses a threat to environmental health, perpetuates social exclusion and inequalities, and creates service gaps (UN-Habitat, 2008). This makes conventional sanitation provision untenable citywide, giving rise to the emergence of sanitation mixtures. Sanitation mixtures have different scales, institutional arrangements, user groups, and rationalities for their establishment, location, and management. For assessing the performan...

  16. Digital Empowerment: African Women and Creative Media

    OpenAIRE

    Neff, Ali Colleen

    2016-01-01

    Drawing from seven years' research with women singers, dancers, emcees, and ritual practitioners in Senegal and beyond, Dr. Neff examines the ways in which ethnic traditions intersect with the possibility of digital futures. Although their work is often overlooked in conventional conversations about digital invention, African women engage digital technologies--from the hip-hop recording studio, to religious media, to pop videos, and, perhaps most importantly, social media, in ways that contri...

  17. African perspectives on the clean development mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-01

    The papers, which are all written from an African perspective, are an important contribution to the debate surrounding the relevance and applicability of the Clean Development Mechanism in Africa. In addition to sector-specific discussions on the prospects for CDM in the energy, transport, industry and forestry sectors, various authors have attempted to tackle complex issues related to the instituional design of CDM, its mode of operation, participatory implementation and methodological questions such as baselines and additionality. (au)

  18. African Primary Care Research: Participatory action research

    OpenAIRE

    Bob Mash

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This article is part of the series on African primary care research and focuses on participatory action research. The article gives an overview of the emancipatory-critical research paradigm, the key characteristics and different types of participatory action research. Following this it describes in detail the methodological issues involved in professional participatory action research and running a cooperative inquiry group. The article is intended to help students with writing thei...

  19. African Independent Churches in Zambia (Lusaka)

    OpenAIRE

    Mildnerová Kateřina

    2014-01-01

    The African Independent churches (AICs) in Zambia, as elsewhere in Africa, from their very beginning formed a protest movement against the cultural imperialism undertaken by the missionary representatives of the historic mission churches and also played an important role in the anti-colonial political struggles. In Zambia, the early AICs were closely related to witchcraft eradication movements such as the Mchape, or socially and politically oriented prophet-healing churches such as The Lumpa ...

  20. The Politics of African Industrial Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Lindsay; Therkildsen, Ole; Buur, Lars;

    2015-01-01

    This book engages in the debate on growth versus economic transformation and the importance of industrial policy, presenting a comprehensive framework for explaining the politics of industrial policy. Using comparative research to theorize about the politics of industrial policy in countries in the...... early stages of capitalist transformation that also experience the pressures of elections due to democratization, this book provides four in-depth African country studies that illustrate the challenges to economic transformation and the politics of implementing industrial policies....