WorldWideScience

Sample records for bangombe u-deposit observed

  1. Clays at the natural nuclear reactor at Bangombe, Gabon: migration of actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberly, P.O.; Ewing, R.C.; Janeczek, J.; Furlano, A.

    1996-01-01

    Clay minerals were examined from the natural nuclear reactor at Bangombe. The clay mineralogy of the reactor facies is: illite, kaolinite and minor chlorite (FB formation); illite with chlorite and kaolinite in hydrothermal veins (argile de pile); illite and chlorite (reactor core); and (i) chlorite and kaolinite ± illite ± smectite or (ii) illite in the underlying FA formation. Illite crystallinity values are in general highest in rocks that experienced the highest temperatures during reactor operation. Chlorite chemistry varies with respect to position around the reactor: both di-tri and trioctahedral chlorites are present in hydrothermal veins within the argile de pile, dioctahedral chlorites are present in the FA formation within cm of the reactor core, trioctahedral chlorites are present within a meter of the reactor. Chemical data for the argile de pile and the FB formation suggest that formation of the former unit occurred as a result of thermal metamorphism of the FB pelites, as opposed to large-scale dissolution of the sandstones of the FA formation. Autoradiography is used to study the sorptive characteristics of the clays for actinides. The results show that actinide sorption varies in the order: chlorite > illite ≅ kaolinite. (orig.)

  2. Bacteria, colloids and organic carbon in groundwater at the Bangombe site in the Oklo area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, K.

    1996-02-01

    This report describes how microorganisms, colloids and organic matter were sampled from groundwater from six boreholes at the Bangombe site in the Oklo region and subsequently analyzed. For analysis of microorganisms, DNA was extracted from groundwater, amplified and cloned and information available in the ribosomal 16S rRNA gene was used for mapping diversity and distribution of bacteria. Each borehole was dominated by species that did not dominate in any of the other boreholes, a result that probably reflects documented differences in the geochemical environment. Analyses of sampled colloids included SEM and ICP-MS analysis of colloids on membrane and single particle analysis of samples in bottles. The colloid concentration was rather low in these Na-Mg-Ca-HCO 3 type waters. Trace element results show that transition metals and some heavy metals are associated with the colloid phase. Distribution coefficients of trace elements between the water and colloid phases were estimated. For example for uranium, an average of 200 pg/ml was detected in the water, and 40 pg/ml was detected in the colloid phase. A K p value of 2* 10 6 ml/g was calculated, considering (colloid) = 100 ng/ml. Groundwater samples were collected for analysis of the concentration of organic carbon (TOC), humic substances and metals associated with the humic substances. TOC varied in the range 4-14 mg/l in three boreholes, one borehole had a TOC<1.5 mg/l. The metal speciation study indicated that a large fraction, 8-67% of uranium was bound to the humic matter compared to the fractions of Ca and Fe (<0.4% and 0.02-10%, resp.). 60 refs, 8 figs, 16 tabs

  3. Bacteria, colloids and organic carbon in groundwater at the Bangombe site in the Oklo area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, K. [ed.

    1996-02-01

    This report describes how microorganisms, colloids and organic matter were sampled from groundwater from six boreholes at the Bangombe site in the Oklo region and subsequently analyzed. For analysis of microorganisms, DNA was extracted from groundwater, amplified and cloned and information available in the ribosomal 16S rRNA gene was used for mapping diversity and distribution of bacteria. Each borehole was dominated by species that did not dominate in any of the other boreholes, a result that probably reflects documented differences in the geochemical environment. Analyses of sampled colloids included SEM and ICP-MS analysis of colloids on membrane and single particle analysis of samples in bottles. The colloid concentration was rather low in these Na-Mg-Ca-HCO{sub 3} type waters. Trace element results show that transition metals and some heavy metals are associated with the colloid phase. Distribution coefficients of trace elements between the water and colloid phases were estimated. For example for uranium, an average of 200 pg/ml was detected in the water, and 40 pg/ml was detected in the colloid phase. A K{sub p} value of 2* 10{sup 6} ml/g was calculated, considering (colloid) = 100 ng/ml. Groundwater samples were collected for analysis of the concentration of organic carbon (TOC), humic substances and metals associated with the humic substances. TOC varied in the range 4-14 mg/l in three boreholes, one borehole had a TOC<1.5 mg/l. The metal speciation study indicated that a large fraction, 8-67% of uranium was bound to the humic matter compared to the fractions of Ca and Fe (<0.4% and 0.02-10%, resp.). 60 refs, 8 figs, 16 tabs.

  4. Precipitation of uraninite in chlorite-bearing veins of the hydrothermal alteration zone (argile de pile) of the natural nuclear reactor at Bangombe, Republic of Gabon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberly, P.; Ewing, R.; Janeczek, J.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the mineralogy of a phyllosilicate/uraninite/galena-bearing vein located within the hydrothermal alteration halo associated with the Bangombe reactor. Phyllosilicates within the vein include a trioctahedral Al-Mg-Fe chlorite (ripidolite), Al-rich clay (kaolinite and/or donbassite) and illite. Textural relations obtained by backscattered-electron imaging suggest that ripidolite crystallized first among the sheet silicates. Uraninite is spatially associated with ripidolite and probably precipitated at a later time. While energy-dispersive X-ray analyses suggest that the uranium phase is predominantly uraninite, coffinite or other phases may also be present

  5. Metal-rich fluid inclusions provide new insights into unconformity-related U deposits (Athabasca Basin and Basement, Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Antonin; Cathelineau, Michel; Boiron, Marie-Christine; Mercadier, Julien; Banks, David A.; Cuney, Michel

    2016-02-01

    -rich alteration. Finally, the metal concentrations in the NaCl-rich and CaCl2-rich brines are among the highest recorded compared to present-day sedimentary formation waters and fluid inclusions from basin-hosted base metal deposits (up to 600 ppm U, 3000 ppm Mn, 4000 ppm Zn, 6000 ppm Cu, 8000 ppm Pb, and 10,000 ppm Fe). The CaCl2-rich brine carries up to one order of magnitude more metal than the NaCl-rich brine. Though the exact origin of major cations and metals of the two brines remains uncertain, their contrasting compositions indicate that the two brines had distinct flow paths and fluid-rock interactions. Large-scale circulation of the brines in the Athabasca Basin and Basement was therefore a key parameter for metal mobility (including U) and formation of unconformity-related U deposits.

  6. Geochemical modelling of the weathering zone of the 'Mina Fe' U deposit (Spain): A natural analogue for nuclear spent fuel alteration and stability processes in radwaste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arcos, D.; Perez del Villar, L.; Bruno, J.; Domenech, C.

    2008-01-01

    The 'Mina Fe' U deposit (Salamanca, Spain) has been studied in the context of Enresa's programme for U-mine sites restoration and also as a natural analogue for processes in high-level nuclear waste (HLNW) geological disposal. The investigations encompassed an array of geoscience disciplines, such as structural geology, mineralogy, hydrogeology and elemental and isotopic geochemistry and hydrogeochemistry of the site. Based on the obtained results, a conceptual mineralogical and geochemical model was performed integrating the main geochemical processes occurring at the site: the interaction between oxidised and slightly acidic water with pyrite, pitchblende, calcite and dolomite, as essential minerals of the U fracture-filling mineralisation, and hydroxyapatite from the host rock, as the main source of P. This conceptual model has been tested in a systematic numerical model, which includes the main kinetic (pyrite and pitchblende dissolution) and equilibrium processes (carbonate mineral dissolution, and goethite, schoepite and autunite secondary precipitation). The results obtained from the reactive-transport model satisfactorily agree with the conceptual model previously established. The assumption of the precipitation of coffinite as a secondary mineral in the system cannot be correctly evaluated due to the lack of hydrochemical data from the reducing zone of the site and valid thermodynamic and kinetic data for this hydrated U(IV)-silicate. This precipitation can also be hampered by the probable existence of dissolved U(IV)-organic matter and/or uranyl carbonate complexes, which are thermodynamically stable under the alkaline and reducing conditions that prevail in the reducing zone of the system. Finally, the intense downwards oxic and acidic alteration in the upper part of the system is of no relevance for the performance assessment of a HLNW disposal. However, the acidic and oxidised conditions are quickly buffered to neutral-alkaline and reducing at very

  7. C-O-H-N fluids circulations and graphite precipitation in reactivated Hudsonian shear zones during basement uplift of the Wollaston-Mudjatik Transition Zone: Example of the Cigar Lake U deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martz, Pierre; Cathelineau, Michel; Mercadier, Julien; Boiron, Marie-Christine; Jaguin, Justine; Tarantola, Alexandre; Demacon, Mickael; Gerbeaud, Olivier; Quirt, David; Doney, Amber; Ledru, Patrick

    2017-12-01

    Graphitic shear zones are spatially associated with unconformity-related uranium deposits that are located around the unconformity between the strata of the Paleo- to Mesoproterozoic Athabasca Basin (Saskatchewan, Canada) and its underlying Archean to Paleoproterozoic basement. The present study focuses on basement-hosted ductile-brittle graphitic shear zones near the Cigar Lake U deposit, one of the largest unconformity-related U deposits. The goal of the study is to decipher the pre-Athabasca Basin fluid migration history recorded within such structures and its potential role on the formation of such exceptional deposit. Dominantly C-O-H(-N) metamorphic fluids have been trapped in Fluid Inclusion Planes (FIPs) in magmatic quartz within ductile-brittle graphitic shear zones active during retrograde metamorphism associated with the formation of the Wollaston-Mudjatik Transition Zone (WMTZ) between ca. 1805 and 1720 Ma. Such fluids show a compositional evolution along the retrograde path, from a dense and pure CO2 fluid during the earliest stages, through a lower density CO2 ± CH4-N2 (± H2O) fluid and, finally, to a very low density CH4-N2 fluid. Statistical study of the orientation, distribution, proportion, and chemical characterization of the FIPs shows that: i) CO2 (δ13CCO2 around - 9‰ PDB) from decarbonation reactions and/or partial water-metamorphic graphite equilibrium initially migrated regionally and pervasively under lithostatic conditions at about 500 to 800 °C and 150 to 300 MPa. Such P-T conditions attest to a high geothermal gradient of around 60 to 90 °C/km, probably related to rapid exhumation of the basement or a large-scale heat source. ii) Later brittle reactivation of the shear zone at around 450 °C and 25-50 MPa favored circulation of CO2-CH4-N2(± H2O) fluids in equilibrium with metamorphic graphite (δ13CCO2 around - 14‰) under hydrostatic conditions and only within the shear zones. Cooling of these fluids and the water uptake linked

  8. Observing participating observation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    2010-01-01

    Current methodology concerning participating observation in general leaves the act of observation unobserved. Approaching participating observation from systems theory offers fundamental new insights into the topic. Observation is always participation. There is no way to escape becoming a partici......Current methodology concerning participating observation in general leaves the act of observation unobserved. Approaching participating observation from systems theory offers fundamental new insights into the topic. Observation is always participation. There is no way to escape becoming...... as the idea of the naïve observer becomes a void. Not recognizing and observing oneself as observer and co-producer of empirical data simply leaves the process of observation as the major unobserved absorber of contingency in data production based on participating observation....

  9. Observing participating observation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    2011-01-01

    Current methodology concerning participating observation in general leaves the act of observation unobserved. Approaching participating observation from systems theory offers fundamental new insights into the topic. Observation is always participation. There is no way to escape becoming a partici......Current methodology concerning participating observation in general leaves the act of observation unobserved. Approaching participating observation from systems theory offers fundamental new insights into the topic. Observation is always participation. There is no way to escape becoming...... as the idea of the naïve observer becomes a void. Not recognizing and observing oneself as observer and co-producer of empirical data simply leaves the process of observation as the major unobserved absorber of contingency in data production based on participating observation....

  10. Observations Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    of different sexes or racial /ethnic groups interact and in a respectful manner? Are groups inclusive or exclusive? Be particularly observant of...translating your observations consider the emotions, prejudices , values, and physical condition of those exhibiting the behaviors and the

  11. Observing nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Griffiths, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This book enables anyone with suitable instruments to undertake an examination of nebulae and see or photograph them in detail. Nebulae, ethereal clouds of gas and dust, are among the most beautiful objects to view in the night sky. These star-forming regions are a common target for observers and photographers. Griffiths describes many of the brightest and best nebulae and includes some challenges for the more experienced observer. Readers learn the many interesting astrophysical properties of these clouds, which are an important subject of study in astronomy and astrobiology. Non-mathematical in approach, the text is easily accessible to anyone with an interest in the subject. A special feature is the inclusion of an observational guide to 70 objects personally observed or imaged by the author. The guide also includes photographs of each object for ease of identification along with their celestial coordinates, magnitudes and other pertinent information. Observing Nebulae provides a ready resource to allow an...

  12. Observational astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Léna, Pierre; Lebrun, François; Mignard, François; Pelat, Didier

    2012-01-01

    This is the updated, widely revised, restructured and expanded third edition of Léna et al.'s successful work Observational Astrophysics. It presents a synthesis on tools and methods of observational astrophysics of the early 21st century. Written specifically for astrophysicists and graduate students, this textbook focuses on fundamental and sometimes practical limitations on the ultimate performance that an astronomical system may reach, rather than presenting particular systems in detail. In little more than a decade there has been extraordinary progress in imaging and detection technologies, in the fields of adaptive optics, optical interferometry, in the sub-millimetre waveband, observation of neutrinos, discovery of exoplanets, to name but a few examples. The work deals with ground-based and space-based astronomy and their respective fields. And it also presents the ambitious concepts behind space missions aimed for the next decades. Avoiding particulars, it covers the whole of the electromagnetic spec...

  13. Observable supertranslations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousso, Raphael; Porrati, Massimo

    2017-10-01

    We show that large gauge transformations in asymptotically flat spacetime can be implemented by sandwiching a shell containing the ingoing hard particles between two finite-width shells of soft gauge excitations. Integration of the graviton Dirac bracket implies that our observable soft degrees of freedom obey the algebra imposed by Strominger et al. on unobservable boundary degrees of freedom. Thus, we provide both a derivation and an observable realization of this algebra. We recently showed that soft charges fail to constrain the hard scattering problem, and so cannot be relevant to the black hole information paradox. By expressing the Bondi-van der Burg-Metzner-Sachs (BMS) algebra in terms of observable quantities, the present work shows that this conclusion was not an artifact of working with strictly zero frequency soft modes. The conservation laws associated with asymptotic symmetries are seen to arise physically from free propagation of infrared modes.

  14. Observational cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partridge, R.B.

    1977-01-01

    Some sixty years after the development of relativistic cosmology by Einstein and his colleagues, observations are finally beginning to have an important impact on our views of the Universe. The available evidence seems to support one of the simplest cosmological models, the hot Big Bang model. The aim of this paper is to assess the observational support for certain assumptions underlying the hot Big Bang model. These are that the Universe is isobaric and homogeneous on a large scale; that it is expanding from an initial state of high density and temperature; and that the proper theory to describe the dynamics of the Universe is unmodified General Relativity. The properties of the cosmic microwave background radiation and recent observations of the abundance of light elements, in particular, support these assumptions. Also examined here are the data bearing on the related questions of the geometry and the future of the Universe (is it ever-expanding, or fated to recollapse). Finally, some difficulties and faults of the standard model are discussed, particularly various aspects of the 'initial condition' problem. It appears that the simplest Big Bang cosmological model calls for a highly specific set of initial conditions to produce the presently observed properties of the Universe. (Auth.)

  15. Flare Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benz Arnold O.

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Solar flares are observed at all wavelengths from decameter radio waves to gamma-rays at 100 MeV. This review focuses on recent observations in EUV, soft and hard X-rays, white light, and radio waves. Space missions such as RHESSI, Yohkoh, TRACE, and SOHO have enlarged widely the observational base. They have revealed a number of surprises: Coronal sources appear before the hard X-ray emission in chromospheric footpoints, major flare acceleration sites appear to be independent of coronal mass ejections (CMEs, electrons, and ions may be accelerated at different sites, there are at least 3 different magnetic topologies, and basic characteristics vary from small to large flares. Recent progress also includes improved insights into the flare energy partition, on the location(s of energy release, tests of energy release scenarios and particle acceleration. The interplay of observations with theory is important to deduce the geometry and to disentangle the various processes involved. There is increasing evidence supporting reconnection of magnetic field lines as the basic cause. While this process has become generally accepted as the trigger, it is still controversial how it converts a considerable fraction of the energy into non-thermal particles. Flare-like processes may be responsible for large-scale restructuring of the magnetic field in the corona as well as for its heating. Large flares influence interplanetary space and substantially affect the Earth’s lower ionosphere. While flare scenarios have slowly converged over the past decades, every new observation still reveals major unexpected results, demonstrating that solar flares, after 150 years since their discovery, remain a complex problem of astrophysics including major unsolved questions.

  16. Les observables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergounioux Gabriel

    2014-07-01

    jacents ? Au cours de cette table ronde, la question des observables sera interrogée en partant d’une réflexion concernant les études qui se fondent sur l’inventaire empirique des données pour construire leurs analyses (statistique lexicale, Labphon, corpus-guided linguistics, sociolinguistique variationniste, linguistique cognitive… et en allant jusqu’aux théories qui postulent l’existence de formalismes préalables dont les discours et les textes ratifieraient, par l’actualisation et la distribution de leurs occurrences, la pertinence épistémologique.

  17. Tectonophysics of hydrothermal ore formation: an example of the Antei Mo-U deposit, Transbaikalia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, V. A.; Rebetsky, Yu. L.; Poluektov, V. V.; Burmistrov, A. A.

    2015-07-01

    The Antei deposit of the southeastern Transbaikalian region is one of the largest uranium mines in Russia. It is hosted by the Late Paleozoic granitic basement of the Streltsovskaya caldera and was formed as a result of Late Mesozoic tectonothermal activity. Vein and stockwork-disseminated molybdenum-uranium mineralization at this deposit is controlled by zones of intense hydrothermal alteration, cataclasis, brecciation, and intense fracturing along steeply dipping faults, which acted as conduits for mineralizing fluids and hosts to the ore bodies. The upper edge of the ore-bearing zone is located at a depth of 400 m, and its lower edge was intersected at a depth of 1300 m from the day surface. The conditions of ore localization were determined using structural-geological and petrophysical studies coupled with numerical modeling of the effects of gravitational body forces at purely elastic and postcritical elastoplastic deformational stages. The dynamics of the tectonic stress field in the rock massif was reconstructed using the results of mapping of morphogenetic and kinematic characteristics of fault and fracture systems, as well as data on petrography and mineralogy of rocks and vein-filling material. It was shown that the fault framework of the deposit was formed in four tectonic stages, three of which took place in the geologic past and one of which reflects recent geologic history. Each tectonic stage was characterized by different parameters of the tectonic stress-strain field, fault kinematics, and conditions of mineral formation. The following types of metasomatic rocks are recognized within the deposit: high-temperature K-feldspar rocks and albitites (formed during the Late Paleozoic as the primary structural elements of a granitic massif) and Late Mesozoic low-temperature preore (hydromicatized rocks), synore (hematite, albite, chlorite, and quartz) and postore (kaolinite-smectite) rocks. The following petrophysical parameters were determined for all rock types: density, effective porosity, wetand dry-rock shear (S-wave), and compressional (P-wave) velocity. Ultrasonic measurements were made to obtain the dynamic Young's modulus, shear modulus, bulk modulus, and Poisson's ratio. The results confirm that all studied lithologies (host granites, K-feldspathized rock with albitites and hydromicatized rocks) have drastically different petrophysical parameters. These values were used as the basis for tectonophysical modeling of Late Mesozoic synore deformation induced by gravitational forces. It was shown that the domains of most intense deformation are confined to the intersections of submeridional fluid-conducting faults with sublatitudinal K-feldspathized and albitized zones, which acted as concentrators of external induced stresses. The formation of enriched ore shoots at these structural nodes can be explained by the suction-pumping of oreforming fluids by pipe-like (tubular) conduits under oriented stress. The deformation of K-feldsparthic rocks and albitites under stresses exceeding the elastic limit raised their fracture permeability due to cataclasis and brecciation and created favorable conditions for circulation of mineralizing fluids and precipitation of minerals. The use of tectonophysical modeling for the reconstruction of paleotectonic and fluid flow conditions during formation of hydrothermal mineralization allows a more precise evaluation of ore potential in deep levels and flanks of ore deposits.

  18. 2009 Observer Survey Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crimmins, Theresa M.; Rosemartin, Alyssa H.; Lincicome, Alexis; Weltzin, Jake F.

    2010-01-01

    The USA‐National Phenology Network (USA‐NPN) seeks to engage volunteer observers in collecting phenological observations of plants and animals using consistent standards and to contribute their observations to a national data repository. In March 2009, the National Coordinating Office staff implemented an online monitoring program for 213 plant species. In this pilot year of the program, 547 observers reported phenology observations on one or more plants via the online interface.

  19. Lightship Daily Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Observations taken on board lightships along the United States coasts from 1936 - 1983. Generally 4-6 observations daily. Also includes deck logs, which give...

  20. Uruguay - Surface Weather Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surface weather observation forms for 26 stations in Uruguay. Period of record 1896-2005, with two to eight observations per day. Files created through a...

  1. Bottomfish Observer Database - Legacy

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains data collected by at sea observers in the Bottomfish Observer Program in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands from October 2003 - April 2006.

  2. Radar Weather Observation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Radar Weather Observation is a set of archived historical manuscripts stored on microfiche. The primary source of these radar weather observations manuscript records...

  3. OBSCAN Observer Scanning System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Paper logs are the primary data collection tool used by observers of the Northeast Fisheries Observer Program deployed on commercial fishing vessels. After the data...

  4. Surface Weather Observations Hourly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard hourly observations taken at Weather Bureau/National Weather Service offices and airports throughout the United States. Hourly observations began during the...

  5. Regional National Cooperative Observer

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA publication dedicated to issues, news and recognition of observers in the National Weather Service Cooperative Observer program. Issues published regionally...

  6. JAPANSE LONGLINE OBSERVER JPLL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains data that were collected by trained observers aboard Japanese pelagic longline vessels operating in the US EEZ. Observers collected...

  7. Cloning of observables

    OpenAIRE

    Ferraro, Alessandro; Galbiati, Matteo; Paris, Matteo G. A.

    2005-01-01

    We introduce the concept of cloning for classes of observables and classify cloning machines for qubit systems according to the number of parameters needed to describe the class under investigation. A no-cloning theorem for observables is derived and the connections between cloning of observables and joint measurements of noncommuting observables are elucidated. Relationships with cloning of states and non-demolition measurements are also analyzed.

  8. Cloning of observables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraro, Alessandro; Galbiati, Matteo; Paris, Matteo G A

    2006-01-01

    We introduce the concept of cloning for classes of observables and classify cloning machines for qubit systems according to the number of parameters needed to describe the class under investigation. A no-cloning theorem for observables is derived and the connections between cloning of observables and joint measurements of noncommuting observables are elucidated. Relationships with cloning of states and non-demolition measurements are also analysed. (letter to the editor)

  9. Polyhedral Observation Cupola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelstein, Karen S.; Valle, Gerald D.

    1990-01-01

    Strong, lightweight structure includes facets with windows. Report describes concept for observation cupola for Space Station Freedom. Cupola used by crewmembers to observe docking of Space Shuttle, servicing of payloads, extravehicular activity, and other operations in which they could help by observing. Includes computer-generated pictures realistically depicting crewmembers' positions, workstation positions, and views through various windows.

  10. Observation of online communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Sladjana V.; Rask, Morten

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the application of observation to online settings with a special focus on observer roles. It draws on a study of online observation of a virtual community, i.e. an open source software (OSS) community. The paper examines general and specific advantages and disadvantages...... of the observer roles in online settings by relating these roles to the same roles assumed in offline settings. The study suggests that under the right circumstances online and offline observation may benefit from being combined as they complement each other well. Quality issues and factors important to elicit...... trustworthy observational data from online study settings, such as OSS communities, are discussed. A proposition is made concerning how threats to credibility and transferability in relation to online observation (i.e. lack of richness and detail, risk of misunderstandings) can be diminished, while...

  11. BOOK REVIEW: Observational Cosmology Observational Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Dale Andrew

    2013-04-01

    Observational Cosmology by Stephen Serjeant fills a niche that was underserved in the textbook market: an up-to-date, thorough cosmology textbook focused on observations, aimed at advanced undergraduates. Not everything about the book is perfect - some subjects get short shrift, in some cases jargon dominates, and there are too few exercises. Still, on the whole, the book is a welcome addition. For decades, the classic textbooks of cosmology have focused on theory. But for every Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect there is a Butcher-Oemler effect; there are as many cosmological phenomena established by observations, and only explained later by theory, as there were predicted by theory and confirmed by observations. In fact, in the last decade, there has been an explosion of new cosmological findings driven by observations. Some are so new that you won't find them mentioned in books just a few years old. So it is not just refreshing to see a book that reflects the new realities of cosmology, it is vital, if students are to truly stay up on a field that has widened in scope considerably. Observational Cosmology is filled with full-color images, and graphs from the latest experiments. How exciting it is that we live in an era where satellites and large experiments have gathered so much data to reveal astounding details about the origin of the universe and its evolution. To have all the latest data gathered together and explained in one book will be a revelation to students. In fact, at times it was to me. I've picked up modern cosmological knowledge through a patchwork of reading papers, going to colloquia, and serving on grant and telescope allocation panels. To go back and see them explained from square one, and summarized succinctly, filled in quite a few gaps in my own knowledge and corrected a few misconceptions I'd acquired along the way. To make room for all these graphs and observational details, a few things had to be left out. For one, there are few derivations

  12. Negotiated interactive observation:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wind, Gitte

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I discuss the possibilities and limitations of the ethnographer participating in the different on-going activities and events in highly specialised healthcare systems. The concept of participant observation is based on a number of assumptions, particularly that the ethnographer will...... observation and I propose negotiated interactive observation as a more appropriate way to describe ethnographic fieldwork in a setting such as the hospital or the clinic....

  13. Participation beyond observation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chimirri, Niklas Alexander

    , however, the researchers typically uphold the notion that all they methodically engage in is participant observation. The paper argues that important aspects of children’s living and understanding may be lost when considering them mere objects of one’s visual and verbal research practices. First I delve...... on investigating children’s perspectives through participant observation, but also ontological and political ones....

  14. Maximally incompatible quantum observables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinosaari, Teiko, E-mail: teiko.heinosaari@utu.fi [Turku Centre for Quantum Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku (Finland); Schultz, Jussi, E-mail: jussi.schultz@gmail.com [Dipartimento di Matematica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Toigo, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.toigo@polimi.it [Dipartimento di Matematica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Ziman, Mario, E-mail: ziman@savba.sk [RCQI, Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 84511 Bratislava (Slovakia); Faculty of Informatics, Masaryk University, Botanická 68a, 60200 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2014-05-01

    The existence of maximally incompatible quantum observables in the sense of a minimal joint measurability region is investigated. Employing the universal quantum cloning device it is argued that only infinite dimensional quantum systems can accommodate maximal incompatibility. It is then shown that two of the most common pairs of complementary observables (position and momentum; number and phase) are maximally incompatible.

  15. Working Group 1: Observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trenberth, K.; Angell, J.; Barry, R.; Bradley, R.; Diaz, H.; Elliott, W.; Etkins, R.; Folland, C.; Jenne, R.; Jones, P.; Karl, T.; Levitus, S.; Oort, A.; Parker, D.; Ropelewski, C.; Vinnikov, K.; Wigley, T.

    1990-01-01

    Topics of discussion include the following: the need for observations; issues in establishing global climate trends; climate variables such as surface air temperature over land, marine temperature, precipitation, circulation, upper air measurements, historical observations, subsurface ocean data, sea level, cryosphere, clouds, solar radiation, and aerosols; future considerations and recommendations which focuses on the establishment of a global benchmark climate monitoring network and data management

  16. Working Group 1: Observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trenberth, K.; Angell, J.; Barry, R.; Bradley, R.; Diaz, H.; Elliott, W.; Etkins, R.; Folland, C.; Jenne, R.; Jones, P.; Karl, T.; Levitus, S.; Oort, A.; Parker, D.; Ropelewski, C.; Vinnikov, K.; Wigley, T.

    1991-01-01

    Topics of discussion include the following: the need for observations; issues in establishing global climate trends; climate variables such as surface air temperature over land, marine temperature, precipitation, circulation, upper air measurements, historical observations, subsurface ocean data, sea level, cryosphere, clouds, solar radiation, and aerosols; future considerations and recommendations which focuses on the establishment of a global benchmark climate monitoring network and data management

  17. Uniqueness of bounded observables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navara, M. [Czech Technical Univ., Praha (Czech Republic). Dept. of Math.

    1995-09-01

    By an application of a new construction technique we construct a {sigma}-orthomodular lattice with a strongly order-determining set of states and two bounded observables whose expectations are equal at each state. This answers negatively the uniqueness problem for bounded observables, formulated by S. Gudder. (orig.).

  18. Observations in public settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert G. Lee

    1977-01-01

    Straightforward observation of children in their everyday environments is a more appropriate method of discovering the meaning of their relationships to nature than complex methodologies or reductionist commonsense thinking. Observational study requires an explicit conceptual framework and adherence to procedures that allow scientific inference. Error may come from...

  19. The observer's sky atlas

    CERN Document Server

    Karkoschka, E

    2007-01-01

    This title includes a short introduction to observing, a thorough description of the star charts and tables, a glossary and much more. It is perfect for both the beginner and seasoned observer. It is fully revised edition of a best-selling and highly-praised sky atlas.

  20. Observing Convective Aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Christopher E.; Wing, Allison A.; Bony, Sandrine; Muller, Caroline; Masunaga, Hirohiko; L'Ecuyer, Tristan S.; Turner, David D.; Zuidema, Paquita

    2017-11-01

    Convective self-aggregation, the spontaneous organization of initially scattered convection into isolated convective clusters despite spatially homogeneous boundary conditions and forcing, was first recognized and studied in idealized numerical simulations. While there is a rich history of observational work on convective clustering and organization, there have been only a few studies that have analyzed observations to look specifically for processes related to self-aggregation in models. Here we review observational work in both of these categories and motivate the need for more of this work. We acknowledge that self-aggregation may appear to be far-removed from observed convective organization in terms of time scales, initial conditions, initiation processes, and mean state extremes, but we argue that these differences vary greatly across the diverse range of model simulations in the literature and that these comparisons are already offering important insights into real tropical phenomena. Some preliminary new findings are presented, including results showing that a self-aggregation simulation with square geometry has too broad distribution of humidity and is too dry in the driest regions when compared with radiosonde records from Nauru, while an elongated channel simulation has realistic representations of atmospheric humidity and its variability. We discuss recent work increasing our understanding of how organized convection and climate change may interact, and how model discrepancies related to this question are prompting interest in observational comparisons. We also propose possible future directions for observational work related to convective aggregation, including novel satellite approaches and a ground-based observational network.

  1. Mars Observer's costly solitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, John

    1993-09-01

    An evaluation is presented of the ramifications of the loss of contact with the Mars Observer spacecraft in August, 1993; the Observer constituted the first NASA mission to Mars in 17 years. It is noted that most, if not all of the scientists involved with the mission will have to find alternative employment within 6 months. The loss of the Observer will leave major questions concerning the geologic history of Mars, and its turbulent atmospheric circulation, unanswered. A detailed account of the discovery of the loss of communications, the unsuccessful steps taken to rectify the problem, and the financial losses incurred through the failure of the mission, are also given.

  2. XMM observations of Pluto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisse, C.; McNutt, R.; Dennerl, K.

    2017-10-01

    We have used XMM to observe the Pluto system in late March 2017. Following up on the reported detection of 7 photons representing X-ray emission by Chandra (Lisse et al., Icarus 287, 103), XMM searched for emission from the system, expecting approximately 10 times as many photons in 1/3 the observing time. If the results of the XMM measurements are as expected, then detections of other large KBOs with lossy atmospheres should be possible, ushering in the era of XMM KBO X-ray astronomy. In this talk we describe the preliminary results of our March 2017 XMM Pluto observations.

  3. Oil Rig Weather Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weather observations taken at offshore platforms along the United States coastlines. The majority are located in oil-rich areas of the Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of...

  4. Mexico - Surface Weather Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Mexican Surface Daily Observations taken at 94 observatories located throughout Mexico, beginning in 1872 and going up through 1981. The data resided on paper...

  5. Observations of central stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    Difficulties occurring in the observation of central stars of planetary nebulae are reviewed with emphasis on spectral classifications and population types, and temperature determination. Binary and peculiar central stars are discussed. (U.M.G.)

  6. Longline Observer Data System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — LODS, the Hawaii Longline Observer Data System, is a complete suite of tools designed to collect, process, and manage quality fisheries data and information. Guided...

  7. Cooperative Weather Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly logs include a daily account of temperature extremes and precipitation, along with snow data at some locations. U.S. Cooperative Observer Program (COOP)...

  8. Observer's Report - Okinawa Operation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Todd, W. N., Jr

    1945-01-01

    ... for temporary duty in connection with the Okinawa Operation. By verbal agreement between observers, it was decided that each officer would cover certain activities and thus have a complete coverage without duplication...

  9. Surface Weather Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Surface Weather Observation Collection consists primarily of hourly, synoptic, daily, and monthly forms submitted to the archive by the National Weather Service...

  10. Simultaneous Marine Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Observations from Naval vessels, primarily American, taken once daily at Greenwich Noon time. Forms are monthly and were captured from records held at the National...

  11. Land Surface Weather Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — METAR is the international standard code format for hourly surface weather observations. The acronym roughly translates from French as Aviation Routine Weather...

  12. Surface Weather Observing Manuals

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Manuals and instructions for taking weather observations. Includes the annual Weather Bureau 'Instructions for Preparing Meteorological Forms...' and early airways...

  13. Surface Weather Observations Monthly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surface Weather Observation 1001 Forms is a set of historical manuscript records for the period 1893-1948. The collection includes two very similar form types: Form...

  14. NWS Corrections to Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Form B-14 is the National Weather Service form entitled 'Notice of Corrections to Weather Records.' The forms are used to make corrections to observations on forms...

  15. The REM Observing Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Stefanon

    2010-01-01

    Together they grant the system safety, automatically schedule and perform observations with two simultaneous cameras of user-defined targets, and drive fast reaction to satellite alerts. Subsequent data reduction is left to pipelines managed by each camera.

  16. Connecting Participant Observation Positions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCurdy, Patrick; Uldam, Julie

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we argue for the importance of considering participant observation roles in relation to both insider/outsider and overt/covert roles. Through combining key academic debates on participant observation, which have separately considered insider/outsider and overt/covert participant ...... the course of fieldwork and considering the implications of this. To illustrate these dynamics, we draw on two examples from our own ethnographic research experiences in direct action anticapitalist movements....

  17. Visual observing reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Paul

    2016-02-01

    In this overview we summarize reports published by visual observers shortly after the field work has been done and first impressions and memories of the real meteor observing experiences are fresh in mind. Past two months, since end of May the weather deteriorated, June was for about all actively reporting meteor workers the worst month since long. Apparently the Earth atmosphere got perturbed over most of Europe and America; hence rather few reports were submitted for June and July.

  18. Personalized numerical observer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brankov, Jovan G.; Pretorius, P. Hendrik

    2010-02-01

    It is widely accepted that medical image quality should be assessed using task-based criteria, such as humanobserver (HO) performance in a lesion-detection (scoring) task. HO studies are time consuming and cost prohibitive to be used for image quality assessment during development of either reconstruction methods or imaging systems. Therefore, a numerical observer (NO), a HO surrogate, is highly desirable. In the past, we have proposed and successfully tested a NO based on a supervised-learning approach (namely a support vector machine) for cardiac gated SPECT image quality assessment. In the supervised-learning approach, the goal is to identify the relationship between measured image features and HO myocardium defect likelihood scores. Thus far we have treated multiple HO readers by simply averaging or pooling their respective scores. Due to observer variability, this may be suboptimal and less accurate. Therefore, in this work, we are setting our goal to predict individual observer scores independently in the hope to better capture some relevant lesion-detection mechanism of the human observers. This is even more important as there are many ways to get equivalent observer performance (measured by area under receiver operating curve), and simply predicting some joint (average or pooled) score alone is not likely to succeed.

  19. Visually observing comets

    CERN Document Server

    Seargent, David A J

    2017-01-01

    In these days of computers and CCD cameras, visual comet observers can still contribute scientifically useful data with the help of this handy reference for use in the field. Comets are one of the principal areas for productive pro-amateur collaboration in astronomy, but finding comets requires a different approach than the observing of more predictable targets. Principally directed toward amateur astronomers who prefer visual observing or who are interested in discovering a new comet or visually monitoring the behavior of known comets, it includes all the advice needed to thrive as a comet observer. After presenting a brief overview of the nature of comets and how we came to the modern understanding of comets, this book details the various types of observations that can usefully be carried out at the eyepiece of a telescope. Subjects range from how to search for new comets to visually estimating the brightness of comets and the length and orientation of tails, in addition to what to look for in comet heads a...

  20. Observations to information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, S. J.

    2013-12-01

    Observations provide the fundamental constraint on natural science interpretations. Earth science observations originate in many contexts, including in-situ field observations and monitoring, various modes of remote sensing and geophysics, sampling for ex-situ (laboratory) analysis, as well as numerical modelling and simulation which also provide estimates of parameter values. Most investigations require a combination of these, often sourced from multiple initiatives and archives, so data discovery and re-organization can be a significant project burden. The Observations and Measurements (O&M) information model was developed to provide a common vocabulary that can be applied to all these cases, and thus provide a basis for cross-initiative and cross-domain interoperability. O&M was designed in the context of the standards for geographic information from OGC and ISO. It provides a complementary viewpoint to the well-known feature (object oriented) and coverage (property field) views, but prioritizes the property determination process. Nevertheless, use of O&M implies the existence of well defined feature types. In disciplines such as geology and ecosystem sciences the primary complexity is in their model of the world, for which the description of each item requires access to diverse observation sets. On the other hand, geophysics and earth observations work with simpler underlying information items, but in larger quantities over multiple spatio-temporal dimensions, acquired using complex sensor systems. Multiple transformations between the three viewpoints are involved in the data flows in most investigations, from collection through analysis to information and story. The O&M model classifies observations: - from a provider viewpoint: in terms of the sensor or procedure involved; - from a consumer viewpoint: in terms of the property being reported, and the feature with which it is associated. These concerns carry different weights in different applications

  1. Observed climate change hotspots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turco, M.; Palazzi, E.; Hardenberg, J.; Provenzale, A.

    2015-05-01

    We quantify climate change hotspots from observations, taking into account the differences in precipitation and temperature statistics (mean, variability, and extremes) between 1981-2010 and 1951-1980. Areas in the Amazon, the Sahel, tropical West Africa, Indonesia, and central eastern Asia emerge as primary observed hotspots. The main contributing factors are the global increase in mean temperatures, the intensification of extreme hot-season occurrence in low-latitude regions and the decrease of precipitation over central Africa. Temperature and precipitation variability have been substantially stable over the past decades, with only a few areas showing significant changes against the background climate variability. The regions identified from the observations are remarkably similar to those defined from projections of global climate models under a "business-as-usual" scenario, indicating that climate change hotspots are robust and persistent over time. These results provide a useful background to develop global policy decisions on adaptation and mitigation priorities over near-time horizons.

  2. Observed Barium Emission Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; Wescott, E. M.; Hallinan, T. J.

    1993-01-01

    The barium releases from the CRRES satellite have provided an opportunity for verifying theoretically calculated barium ion and neutral emission rates. Spectra of the five Caribbean releases in the summer of 1991 were taken with a spectrograph on board a U.S. Air Force jet aircraft. Because the line of sight release densities are not known, only relative rates could be obtained. The observed relative rates agree well with the theoretically calculated rates and, together with other observations, confirm the earlier detailed theoretical emission rates. The calculated emission rates can thus with good accuracy be used with photometric observations. It has been postulated that charge exchange between neutral barium and oxygen ions represents a significant source for ionization. If so. it should be associated with emissions at 4957.15 A and 5013.00 A, but these emissions were not detected.

  3. Surface Observation Climatic Summaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    FROK SOURLY OBSERVATIONS smsTICO N•IMER: 747880 S13MTIOR NAME: MACDILL AFB/ TAIPA FL PERIOD OF RECORD: AUG 80 - JUL 90 LST TO UPTC: + 5 MOMI*: SEP...AFB/ TAIPA FL PERIOD OF RECORD: AUG 80 - JUL 90 LST To UTC: + 5 MONTH: NOV HOURS: 15-17 °... o........° ..... ............ ........ .. o...OCCURRENCE OF CEILING VERSUS VISIBILITY UsAFrTAC, ASHEVILLE NC FROM BOURLY OBSERVATIONS STATION NUMBER: 747880 STATION mk4: MAcDILL AFB/ TAiPA FL PERIOD OF

  4. Observations from Sarmizegetusa Sanctuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosu, M.

    2000 years ago, Sarmizegetusa Regia was the capital of ancient Dacia (today: Romania). It is known that the Dacian high priests used the Sanctuary of Sarmizegetusa not only for religious ceremonies, but also for astronomical observations. After having completed geodesic measurements, we analyzed the architecture of the sanctuary with its main points, directions and circles. We discuss here what kind of astronomical observations could have been made with the scientific knowledge of that time. The final section of this work is dedicated to the remarkable resemblance between Sarmizegztusa and Stonehenge.

  5. Confronting theory with observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergström... [], Lars; Bjerrum-Bohr, N. Emil J.; Butt, Sharaz

    2011-01-01

    This workshop exposed theoretical cosmologists to some of the important observations that are being made of our universe. The goal was to encourage theorists to think concretely about the questions being raised by these new discoveries and also to acquire a sense of the realistic constaints on th...... on theoretical ideas and models that will be possible from the coming generation of cosmological observations. The atmosphere was kept lively and informal, with relatively few talks each day, which provided plenty of time for discussion and callaboration among the participants...

  6. Noise storm coordinated observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elgaroey, Oe.; Tlamicha, A.

    1983-01-01

    The usually accepted bipolar model of noise storm centers is irrelevant for the present observations. An alternative model has been proposed in which the different sources of a noise storm center are located in different flux tubes connecting active regions with their surroundings. Radio emission is observed from the wide, descending branch of the flux tubes, opposite to the flaring site. The relation between the sense of circular polarization of the radio emission and the magnetic polarity, has been more precisely defined. The radiation is in the ordinary mode with respect to the underlying large scale photospheric magnetic polarity. Thus the ''irregular'' polarity of noice storm center ''B'' is explained. As regards center ''C'', one should note that although the observed radio emission is polarized in the ordinary mode with respect to the leading spot of region HR 17653, center ''C'' is not situated in flux tubes originating from the leading part of this region according to the proposed model. Rather, the radio sources are located in the wide and descending part of flux tubes connecting a large, quiet area of south magnetic polarity with the following part of the region HR 17653 (of north magnetic polarity). Thus it is the polarity of the extended area which determines the polarization of the radio emission. The observed polarization should result rather from the emission process than from complicated conditions of propagation for the radio waves

  7. A Simple Spectral Observer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizeth Torres

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The principal aim of a spectral observer is twofold: the reconstruction of a signal of time via state estimation and the decomposition of such a signal into the frequencies that make it up. A spectral observer can be catalogued as an online algorithm for time-frequency analysis because is a method that can compute on the fly the Fourier transform (FT of a signal, without having the entire signal available from the start. In this regard, this paper presents a novel spectral observer with an adjustable constant gain for reconstructing a given signal by means of the recursive identification of the coefficients of a Fourier series. The reconstruction or estimation of a signal in the context of this work means to find the coefficients of a linear combination of sines a cosines that fits a signal such that it can be reproduced. The design procedure of the spectral observer is presented along with the following applications: (1 the reconstruction of a simple periodical signal, (2 the approximation of both a square and a triangular signal, (3 the edge detection in signals by using the Fourier coefficients, (4 the fitting of the historical Bitcoin market data from 1 December 2014 to 8 January 2018 and (5 the estimation of a input force acting upon a Duffing oscillator. To round out this paper, we present a detailed discussion about the results of the applications as well as a comparative analysis of the proposed spectral observer vis-à-vis the Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT, which is a well-known method for time-frequency analysis.

  8. Observing With NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Simon J.; Dussault, M. E.; Sienkiewicz, F. F.; Deutsch, F. S.; Reinfeld, E. L.; Gould, R. R.

    2009-01-01

    Observing With NASA (OWN) is a new NASA-funded e-learning project developed by the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) in partnership with the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI). The project will allow users to make their OWN astronomical observations and compare their images and data with that of NASA's orbiting telescopes and space probes. OWN will provide NASA's education and public outreach audiences with universal access to the CfA's MicroObservatory online network of robotic educational telescopes. Project staff are developing a customized online interface, curricular support materials, and professional development tutorials for both classroom and informal educators. OWN has the capacity to serve hundreds of thousands of student and public users during the 2009 International Year of Astronomy and beyond.

  9. Factorization of Observables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliaš, Peter; Frič, Roman

    2017-12-01

    Categorical approach to probability leads to better understanding of basic notions and constructions in generalized (fuzzy, operational, quantum) probability, where observables—dual notions to generalized random variables (statistical maps)—play a major role. First, to avoid inconsistencies, we introduce three categories L, S, and P, the objects and morphisms of which correspond to basic notions of fuzzy probability theory and operational probability theory, and describe their relationships. To illustrate the advantages of categorical approach, we show that two categorical constructions involving observables (related to the representation of generalized random variables via products, or smearing of sharp observables, respectively) can be described as factorizing a morphism into composition of two morphisms having desired properties. We close with a remark concerning products.

  10. GRBs: Recent Observational Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrels, Neil

    2009-01-01

    We are in an exciting period of discovery for gamma-ray bursts. The Swift observatory is detecting 100 bursts per year, providing arcsecond localizations and sensitive observations of the prompt and afterglow emission. The Fermi observatory is observing 250 bursts per year with its medium-energy ORB instrument and about 10 bursts per year with its high-energy LAT instrument. In addition, rapid-response telescopes on the ground are providing new capabilities to study optical emission during the prompt phase and spectral signatures of the host galaxies. The combined data set is enabling great advances in our understanding of GRBs including afterglow physics, short burst origin, and high energy emission. This talk will highlight recent findings.

  11. Awareness as observational heterarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei eSonoda

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Libet et al. (1983 revealed that brain activity precedes conscious intention. For convenience in this study, we divide brain activity into two parts: a conscious field (CF and an unconscious field (UF. Most studies have assumed a comparator mechanism or an illusion of CF and discuss the difference of prediction and postdiction. We propose that problems to be discussed here are a twisted sense of agency between CF and UF, and another definitions of prediction and postdiction in a mediation process for the twist. This study specifically examines the definitions throughout an observational heterarchy model based on internal measurement. The nature of agency must be emergence that involves observational heterarchy. Consequently, awareness involves processes having duality in the sense that it is always open to the world (postdiction and that it also maintains self robustly (prediction.

  12. Observational evidence for mergers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweizer, F.

    1983-01-01

    Theory has long suggested that dynamical friction between colliding galaxies must lead to mergers. The problem for observers has been to find which galaxies are mergers. The author first reviews the available evidence for mergers in various kinds of galaxies, then proposes a tentative classification scheme for mergers, and finally discusses mergers in giant ellipticals and their relation to the evolution and perhaps even the formation of ellipticals. (Auth.)

  13. Interaction and observation, categorically

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Ciancia

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes to use dialgebras to specify the semantics of interactive systems in a natural way. Dialgebras are a conservative extension of coalgebras. In this categorical model, from the point of view that we provide, the notions of observation and interaction are separate features. This is useful, for example, in the specification of process equivalences, which are obtained as kernels of the homomorphisms of dialgebras. As an example we present the asynchronous semantics of the CCS.

  14. Multicolour Observations, Inhomogeneity & Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Hellaby, Charles

    2000-01-01

    We propose a method of testing source evolution theories that is independent of the effects of inhomogeneity, and thus complementary to other studies of evolution. It is suitable for large scale sky surveys, and the new generation of large telescopes. In an earlier paper it was shown that basic cosmological observations - luminosity versus redshift, area distance versus redshift and number counts versus redshift - cannot separate the effects of cosmic inhomogeneity, cosmic evolution and sourc...

  15. NICER observation of magnetars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enoto, Teruaki; Kaspi, Victoria M.; Arzoumanian, Zaven

    2016-04-01

    The Neutron Star Interior Composition ExploreR (NICER) is a NASA Explorer Misson of Opportunity as an attached payload aboard the International Space Station (ISS), launch in August 2016. The NICER is planned to study the interior composition and structure within neutron stars via high precise measurement of their stellar mass and radius, also to investigate dynamic and energetic behaviors of their activities. This mission will enable pulsar rotation-resolved spectroscopy in the 0.2--12 keV energy band with large collection area (about twice of the XMM-Newton observatory for soft X-ray timing), precise time-tagging resolution (~200 nsec, 25 times better than RXTE), and high sensitivity (about 2e-14 erg/s/cm2 in the 0.5--10 keV, 5-sigma for 10 ksec exposure). As one of prime goals of the mission, we will describe the science planning of the NICER magnetar observations. The NICER is expected to provide monitoring of fainter magnetar sources which cannot be performed by Swift due to its little collective area. Deep observations of quiescent magnetars and high-B radio pulsars can be also performed with the NICER to study their spectral similarity as a key to investigate the connection between these two sub-classes. Finally, ToO programs are suitable to follow-up the magnate outburst relaxation down to much fainter flux level. We will introduce the NICER strategy of the magnetar observation.

  16. R Aqr observing campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waagen, Elizabeth O.

    2016-01-01

    Dr. George Wallerstein (University of Washington) has requested AAVSO coverage of the long period/symbiotic variable R Aquarii beginning immediately in support of high resolution spectroscopic observations planned for 2016 January 19 and 21. Several other astronomers, including Drs. Lee Anne Willson (Iowa State University), Ulisse Munari (INAF, Astronomical Observatory of Padua, Italy), and Fred Walter (Stony Brook University) are studying R Aqr closely and additional spectroscopic and other observations are planned for the near future. R Aqr is both a Mira (M) and a symbiotic (ZAND) - it is a close binary system consisting of a hot star and a late-type star (the Mira), both enveloped in nebulosity. As a result, the very interesting light curve shows not only the Mira pulsation but also complex eclipse behavior as the two stars interact. The period of Mira variation is 387.0 days; the eclipse period is 43.6-44 years. The cause of the eclipse is unknown; several theories h! ave been proposed, including a focused accretion stream, a disk or cloud around the secondary, and a triggered mass loss that produces an opaque cloud. Careful investigation of this upcoming event should help to resolve this question. The last eclipse of R Aqr was in 1978. The next eclipse is predicted for 2022, but may be early. The current behavior of R Aqr suggests that the eclipse, which lasts for several years, may either be beginning or its beginning may be imminent. R Aqr was at minimum in early December 2015 at magnitude V=11.4, and is currently at visual magnitude 11.0. During this phase of the approximately 44-year eclipse cycle, at maximum it may be as bright as V 6.0-6.5 but is not expected to become brighter. Beginning immediately, nightly BVRI CCD and DSLR photometry and visual observations are requested. As R Aqr brightens towards maximum and is in range, PEP observations are also requested. Ongoing spectroscopy over the next several years will be interesting to see as the system

  17. Ionospheric scintillation observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakane, V.C.K.

    1982-12-01

    Ionospheric scintillation observations made at Legon, Ghana (5.63 deg. N, 0.19 deg. E, dip angle 8.50) during the year 1979 are reported for two geostationary satellites, Marisat and Sirio, transmitting at 257 MHz and 136 MHz, respectively. The night-time scintillation showed a single peak around 2200-3000 hours local time (GMT). Seasonally, Marisat showed a fast decay of scintillation for the months April-June and June-September from around midnight whilst it persisted for the other months January-March and October-December. (author)

  18. Geomagnetic Observations and Models

    CERN Document Server

    Mandea, Mioara

    2011-01-01

    This volume provides comprehensive and authoritative coverage of all the main areas linked to geomagnetic field observation, from instrumentation to methodology, on ground or near-Earth. Efforts are also focused on a 21st century e-Science approach to open access to all geomagnetic data, but also to the data preservation, data discovery, data rescue, and capacity building. Finally, modeling magnetic fields with different internal origins, with their variation in space and time, is an attempt to draw together into one place the traditional work in producing models as IGRF or describing the magn

  19. Meteoroid Orbits from Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell-Brown, Margaret

    2018-04-01

    Millions of orbits of meteoroids have been measured over the last few decades, and they comprise the largest sample of orbits of solar system bodies which exists. The orbits of these objects can shed light on the distribution and evolution of comets and asteroids in near-Earth space (e.g. Neslusan et al. 2016). If orbits can be measured at sufficiently high resolution, individual meteoroids can be traced back to their parent bodies and, in principle, even to their ejection time (Rudawska et al. 2012). Orbits can be measured with multi-station optical observations or with radar observations.The most fundamental measured quantities are the speed of the meteor and the two angles of the radiant, or point in the sky from which the meteor appears to come. There are many methods used to determine these from observations, but not all produce the most accurate results (Egal et al. 2017). These three measured quantities, along with the time and location of the observation, are sufficient to obtain an orbit (see, e.g., Clark & Wiegert 2011), but the measurements must be corrected for the deceleration of the meteoroid in the atmosphere before it was detected, the rotation of the Earth, and the gravitational attraction of the Earth (including higher order moments if great precision is necessary).Once meteor orbits have been determined, studies of the age and origin of meteor showers (Bruzzone et al., 2015), the parent bodies of sporadic sources (Pokorny et al. 2014), and the dynamics of the meteoroid complex as a whole can be constrained.Bruzzone, J. S., Brown, P., Weryk, R., Campbell-Brown, M., 2015. MNRAS 446, 1625.Clark, D., Wiegert, P., 2011. M&PS 46, 1217.Egal, A., Gural, P., Vaubaillon, J., Colas, F., Thuillot, W., 2017. Icarus 294, 43.Neslusan, L., Vaubaillon, J., Hajdukova, M., 2016. A&A 589, id.A100.Pokorny, P., Vokrouhlicky, D., Nesvorny, D., Campbell-Brown, M., Brown, P., 2014. ApJ 789, id.25.Rudawska, R., Vaubaillon, J., Atreya, P., 2012. A&A 541, id.A2

  20. Special Observance Planning Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Guide DEFENSE EQUAL OPPORTUNITY MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE DIRECTORATE OF RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT AND STRATEGIC INITIATIVES Dr. Richard...ii Observance Overview…..…………………………………………..…….…………….. 1 Budgetary Requirements...………………………………………………………….…... 4 Event ...the Air Force. (2012, August 16). Financial Management : Budget Guidance and Procedures (AF Instruction 65-601). Washington, DC: Department of the

  1. Superposition and macroscopic observation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartwright, N.D.

    1976-01-01

    The principle of superposition has long plagued the quantum mechanics of macroscopic bodies. In at least one well-known situation - that of measurement - quantum mechanics predicts a superposition. It is customary to try to reconcile macroscopic reality and quantum mechanics by reducing the superposition to a mixture. To establish consistency with quantum mechanics, values for the apparatus after a measurement are to be distributed in the way predicted by the superposition. The distributions observed, however, are those of the mixture. The statistical predictions of quantum mechanics, it appears, are not borne out by observation in macroscopic situations. It has been shown that, insofar as specific ergodic hypotheses apply to the apparatus after the interaction, the superposition which evolves is experimentally indistinguishable from the corresponding mixture. In this paper an idealized model of the measuring situation is presented in which this consistency can be demonstrated. It includes a simplified version of the measurement solution proposed by Daneri, Loinger, and Prosperi (1962). The model should make clear the kind of statistical evidence required to carry of this approach, and the role of the ergodic hypotheses assumed. (Auth.)

  2. Observing inflationary reheating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jérôme; Ringeval, Christophe; Vennin, Vincent

    2015-02-27

    Reheating is the epoch which connects inflation to the subsequent hot big-bang phase. Conceptually very important, this era is, however, observationally poorly known. We show that the current Planck satellite measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies constrain the kinematic properties of the reheating era for most of the inflationary models. This result is obtained by deriving the marginalized posterior distributions of the reheating parameter for about 200 models of slow-roll inflation. Weighted by the statistical evidence of each model to explain the data, we show that the Planck 2013 measurements induce an average reduction of the posterior-to-prior volume by 40%. Making some additional assumptions on reheating, such as specifying a mean equation of state parameter, or focusing the analysis on peculiar scenarios, can enhance or reduce this constraint. Our study also indicates that the Bayesian evidence of a model can substantially be affected by the reheating properties. The precision of the current CMB data is therefore such that estimating the observational performance of a model now requires incorporating information about its reheating history.

  3. Copernicus Earth observation programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žlebir, Silvo

    European Earth observation program Copernicus is an EU-wide programme that integrates satellite data, in-situ data and modeling to provide user-focused information services to support policymakers, researchers, businesses and citizens. Land monitoring service and Emergency service are fully operational already, Atmosphere monitoring service and Marine environment monitoring service are preoperational and will become fully operational in the following year, while Climate change service and Security service are in an earlier development phase. New series of a number of dedicated satellite missions will be launched in the following years, operated by the European Space Agency and EUMETSAT, starting with Sentinel 1A satellite early this year. Ground based, air-borne and sea-borne in-situ data are provided by different international networks and organizations, EU member states networks etc. European Union is devoting a particular attention to secure a sustainable long-term operational provision of the services. Copernicus is also stated as a European Union’s most important contribution to Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). The status and the recent development of the Copernicus programme will be presented, together with its future perspective. As Copernicus services have already demonstrated their usability and effectiveness, some interesting cases of their deployment will be presented. Copernicus free and open data policy, supported by a recently adopted EU legislative act, will also be presented.

  4. Coronal Mass Ejections: Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David F. Webb

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Solar eruptive phenomena embrace a variety of eruptions, including flares, solar energetic particles, and radio bursts. Since the vast majority of these are associated with the eruption, development, and evolution of coronal mass ejections (CMEs, we focus on CME observations in this review. CMEs are a key aspect of coronal and interplanetary dynamics. They inject large quantities of mass and magnetic flux into the heliosphere, causing major transient disturbances. CMEs can drive interplanetary shocks, a key source of solar energetic particles and are known to be the major contributor to severe space weather at the Earth. Studies over the past decade using the data sets from (among others the SOHO, TRACE, Wind, ACE, STEREO, and SDO spacecraft, along with ground-based instruments, have improved our knowledge of the origins and development of CMEs at the Sun and how they contribute to space weather at Earth. SOHO, launched in 1995, has provided us with almost continuous coverage of the solar corona over more than a complete solar cycle, and the heliospheric imagers SMEI (2003 – 2011 and the HIs (operating since early 2007 have provided us with the capability to image and track CMEs continually across the inner heliosphere. We review some key coronal properties of CMEs, their source regions and their propagation through the solar wind. The LASCO coronagraphs routinely observe CMEs launched along the Sun-Earth line as halo-like brightenings. STEREO also permits observing Earth-directed CMEs from three different viewpoints of increasing azimuthal separation, thereby enabling the estimation of their three-dimensional properties. These are important not only for space weather prediction purposes, but also for understanding the development and internal structure of CMEs since we view their source regions on the solar disk and can measure their in-situ characteristics along their axes. Included in our discussion of the recent developments in CME

  5. Video processing of remote sensor data applied to uranium exploration in Wyoming. [Roll-front U deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levinson, R.A.; Marrs, R.W.; Crockell, F.

    1979-06-30

    LANDSAT satellite imagery and aerial photography can be used to map areas of altered sandstone associated with roll-front uranium deposits. Image data must be enhanced so that alteration spectral contrasts can be seen, and video image processing is a fast, low-cost, and efficient tool. For LANDSAT data, the 7/4 ratio produces the best enhancement of altered sandstone. The 6/4 ratio is most effective for color infrared aerial photography. Geochemical and mineralogical associations occur in unaltered, altered, and ore roll-front zones. Samples from Pumpkin Buttes show that iron is the primary coloring agent which makes alteration visually detectable. Eh and pH changes associated with passage of a roll front cause oxidation of magnetite and pyrite to hematite, goethite, and limonite in the host sandstone, thereby producing the alteration. Statistical analysis show that the detectability of geochemical and color zonation in host sands is weakened by soil-forming processes. Alteration can only be mapped in areas of thin soil cover and moderate to sparse vegetative cover.

  6. New Au-U deposit type in the weathering crust in tectonicmetasomatite zones of Pre-Cambrian shields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarkhanov, A.

    2014-01-01

    Au-U mineralization is widely distributed in the tectonic-metasomatite zones of Pre-Cambrian shields (Aldan Shield, Ukraine Shield and others). The industrial ores are located only in several areas at depths of more than 150-300 m. Uranium mineralization is represented by uranotitnates and the gold mineralization by auriferous pyrite. The zone of weathering is present to the depth of 100-150 m. The feldspars are replaced by the clay minerals, carbonates are dissovled, sulfides are oxidized and the secondary minerals of uranium replace uranotitanates.The golden mineralization in the envelope of weathering is represented by the fine-grained native gold. The particle size is 40-50 nm. Uranium mineralization is in the form of relict brannerite, tuyamunite, torbernite, carnotite. The gold content is 1-2 g/t, and uranium content 0.01- 0.05% U. Ore bodies of gold and uranium are located inside the tectonic-metasomatite zones. The zones of maximum concentration of these metals may not coincide. The gold ore bodies have the length of hundreds meters and a thickness of 1-5 m. The vertical extent of the secondary Au-U mineralization is 100-150 m. 20 laboratory samples of ore from the weathered zone were tested by the method of heap leaching. The first stage is the uranium leach by diluted sulfuric acid. The second stage is the cyanation of gold and silver. The experimental data indicates leach rate of uranium 75%, gold 80-97%, silver 50-60%. Gold resources in the continous zone is estimated to be 80 t. Gold resources of the several other zones inside the area of 100 km 2 are estimated as 220 t. The heap leach process can be used for profitable development of the low-grade deposits. This method helps to increase the resources of gold and uranium. (author)

  7. Observation, innovation and triangulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hetmar, Vibeke

    2007-01-01

    In the article the focus is on classroom research which aims at offering some evidence-based description of the interplay between the logic of practice in school and schooling on the one hand and the teachers' efforts to realize notions of innovation and change on the other hand. Based on experie......In the article the focus is on classroom research which aims at offering some evidence-based description of the interplay between the logic of practice in school and schooling on the one hand and the teachers' efforts to realize notions of innovation and change on the other hand. Based...... on experiences from a pilot project in three different classrooms methodological possibilities and problems are presented and discussed: 1) educational criticism, including the concepts of positions, perspectives and connoisseurship, 2) classroom observations and 3) triangulation as a methodological tool....

  8. Observing farming systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noe, Egon; Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted

    2012-01-01

    of analysis from individual farmers to communication and social relations. This is where Luhmann’s social systems theory can offer new insights. Firstly, it can help observe and understand the operational closure and system logic of a farming system and how this closure is produced and reproduced. Secondly......, it provides a theory of functional differentiation and structural couplings that opens up for a new approach to look at sustainability by way of decoupling, recoupling and new forms of coupling.......In Denmark, agriculture is becoming increasingly specialised, and more and more actors are becoming involved in farm decision making. These trends are more or less pronounced in other European countries as well. We therefore find that to understand modern farming systems, we have to shift the focus...

  9. Semantic Observation Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Kuhn

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Although the integration of sensor-based information into analysis and decision making has been a research topic for many years, semantic interoperability has not yet been reached. The advent of user-generated content for the geospatial domain, Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI, makes it even more difficult to establish semantic integration. This paper proposes a novel approach to integrating conventional sensor information and VGI, which is exploited in the context of detecting forest fires. In contrast to common logic-based semantic descriptions, we present a formal system using algebraic specifications to unambiguously describe the processing steps from natural phenomena to value-added information. A generic ontology of observations is extended and profiled for forest fire detection in order to illustrate how the sensing process, and transformations between heterogeneous sensing systems, can be represented as mathematical functions and grouped into abstract data types. We discuss the required ontological commitments and a possible generalization.

  10. Rheoencephalographic observations in migraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. G. L. Von Almay

    1971-12-01

    Full Text Available The pathophysiological concept of migraine presently held attributes the major changes to vascular factors. Therefore, it seemed appropriate to use rheoencephalography to test cerebral hemodynamics in cases of migraine. This very harmless and well suited method revealed: (1 on routine tracings during the painless intervall only 1/7 of the cases showed significant changes, while more than 2/3 could be classified with the help of an orthostatic stress test under REG-observation; (2 REG is more often correct for diagnosis than EEG and this does not surprise since REG monitors cerebral hemodynamics directly while EEG records activity for parenchyma and thus only secondarily depends on circulation; (3 similar conditions were previously seen in Meniere's disease where EEG also is less efficient than REG. According to the results of this study, it should be interesting to include REG in the work-up of migrainous patients. In these and under similar conditions, REG will be of diagnostic value.

  11. Observability of wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonot, J.P.; Fraisse, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    The total installed capacity of wind power grows from a few hundred MW at the beginning of 2005 to 3400 MW at the end of 2008. With such a trend, a total capacity of 7000 MW could be reached by 2010. The natural variability of wind power and the difficulty of its predictability require a change in the traditional way of managing supply/demand balance, day-ahead margins and the control of electrical flows. As a consequence, RTE operators should be informed quickly and reliably of the real time output power of wind farms and of its evolvement some hours or days ahead to ensure the reliability of the French electrical power system. French specificities are that wind farms are largely spread over the territory, that 95 % of wind farms have an output power below 10 MW and that they are connected to the distribution network. In this context, new tools were necessary to acquire as soon as possible data concerning wind power. In two years long, RTE set up an observatory of wind production 'IPES system' enable to get an access to the technical characteristics of the whole wind farms, to observe in real time 75 % of the wind generation and to implement a forecast model related to wind generation. (authors)

  12. The constellation observing Atlas

    CERN Document Server

    Privett, Grant

    2013-01-01

    Designed for anyone who wishes to learn the constellations or observe the best and brightest deep sky objects and double stars, this book contains an alphabetical list of constellations complete with star maps, historical background, and highlights of deep sky objects. Each entry contains position and physical information on enough stars to support astronomers in star-hopping, swinging the telescope from star to star to star to arrive at a faint target. It provides a carefully selected list of accessible and rewarding deep sky objects. Full-color maps show the constellations, with star types (spectral and physical) indicated by the colors used on the map. Extended objects such as galaxies and nebulae are shown with the approximate apparent size in the sky. With unmatched thoroughness and accessibility, this is a constellation atlas that makes the ideal companion to a night's telescope viewing, for novices and expert amateur astronomers alike. Easy to navigate and refer to, it is the key that unlocks the do...

  13. Destiny's Earth Observation Window

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Astronaut Michael J. Bloomfield, STS-110 mission commander, looks through the Earth observation window in the Destiny laboratory aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The STS-110 mission prepared the ISS for future spacewalks by installing and outfitting the S0 (S-zero) truss and the Mobile Transporter. The 43-foot-long S0 Truss, weighing in at 27,000 pounds, was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first 'space railroad,' which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. Milestones of the STS-110 mission included the first time the ISS robotic arm was used to maneuver spacewalkers around the Station and marked the first time all spacewalks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

  14. Mars Observer camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, M. C.; Danielson, G. E.; Ingersoll, A. P.; Masursky, H.; Veverka, J.; Ravine, M. A.; Soulanille, T. A.

    1992-01-01

    The Mars Observer camera (MOC) is a three-component system (one narrow-angle and two wide-angle cameras) designed to take high spatial resolution pictures of the surface of Mars and to obtain lower spatial resolution, synoptic coverage of the planet's surface and atmosphere. The cameras are based on the 'push broom' technique; that is, they do not take 'frames' but rather build pictures, one line at a time, as the spacecraft moves around the planet in its orbit. MOC is primarily a telescope for taking extremely high resolution pictures of selected locations on Mars. Using the narrow-angle camera, areas ranging from 2.8 km x 2.8 km to 2.8 km x 25.2 km (depending on available internal digital buffer memory) can be photographed at about 1.4 m/pixel. Additionally, lower-resolution pictures (to a lowest resolution of about 11 m/pixel) can be acquired by pixel averaging; these images can be much longer, ranging up to 2.8 x 500 km at 11 m/pixel. High-resolution data will be used to study sediments and sedimentary processes, polar processes and deposits, volcanism, and other geologic/geomorphic processes.

  15. CMS tracker observes muons

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    A computer image of a cosmic ray traversing the many layers of the TEC+ silicon sensors. The first cosmic muon tracks have been observed in one of the CMS tracker endcaps. On 14 March, a sector on one of the two large tracker endcaps underwent a cosmic muon run. Since then, thousands of tracks have been recorded. These data will be used not only to study the tracking, but also to exercise various track alignment algorithms The endcap tested, called the TEC+, is under construction at RWTH Aachen in Germany. The endcaps have a modular design, with silicon strip modules mounted onto wedge-shaped carbon fibre support plates, so-called petals. Up to 28 modules are arranged in radial rings on both sides of these plates. One eighth of an endcap is populated with 18 petals and called a sector. The next major step is a test of the first sector at CMS operating conditions, with the silicon modules at a temperature below -10°C. Afterwards, the remaining seven sectors have to be integrated. In autumn 2006, TEC+ wil...

  16. Spectropolarimetric Imaging Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Christine Lavella

    The capability to map anthropogenic aerosol quantities and properties over land can provide significant insights for climate and environmental studies on global and regional scales. One of the primary challenges in aerosol information monitoring is separating two signals measured by downward-viewing airborne or spaceborne instruments: the light scattered from the aerosols and light reflected from the Earth's surface. In order to study the aerosols independently, the surface signal needs to be subtracted out from the measurements. Some observational modalities, such as multispectral and multiangle, do not provide enough information to uniquely define the Earth's directional reflectance properties for this task due to the high magnitude and inhomogeneity of albedo for land surface types. Polarization, however, can provide additional information to define surface reflection. To improve upon current measurement capabilities of aerosols over urban areas, Jet Propulsion Laboratory developed the Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (MSPI) that can accurately measure the Degree of Linear Polarization to 0.5%. In particular, data acquired by the ground-based prototype, GroundMSPI, is used for directional reflectance studies of outdoor surfaces in this dissertation. This work expands upon an existing model, the microfacet model, to characterize the polarized bidirectional reflectance distribution function (pBRDF) of surfaces and validate an assumption, the Spectral Invariance Hypothesis, on the surface pBRDF that is used in aerosol retrieval algorithms. The microfacet model is commonly used to represent the pBRDF of Earth's surface types, such as ocean and land. It represents a roughened surface comprised of randomly oriented facets that specularly reflect incoming light into the upward hemisphere. The analytic form of the pBRDF for this model assumes only a single reflection of light from the microfaceted surface. If the incoming illumination is unpolarized, as it is with

  17. Observable currents and a covariant Poisson algebra of physical observables

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz-Marín, Homero G.; Zapata, José A.

    2017-01-01

    Observable currents are conserved gauge invariant currents; physical observables may be calculated integrating them on appropriate hypersurfaces. Due to the conservation law the hypersurfaces become irrelevant up to homology, and the main objects of interest become the observable currents them selves. Gauge inequivalent solutions can be distinguished by means of observable currents. With the aim of modelling spacetime local physics, we work on spacetime domains $U\\subset M$ which may have bou...

  18. Observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossiter, John R.; Percy, Larry

    2013-01-01

    product or service or to achieve a higher price that consumers are willing to pay than would obtain in the absence of advertising. What has changed in recent years is the notable worsening of the academic-practitioner divide, which has seen academic advertising researchers pursuing increasingly...... as requiring a new model of how advertising communicates and persuades, which, as the authors' textbooks explain, is sheer nonsense and contrary to the goal of integrated marketing. We provide in this article a translation of practitioners' jargon into more scientifically acceptable terminology as well...

  19. Differential cortical activation during observation and observation-and-imagination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berends, H I; Wolkorte, R; Ijzerman, M J; van Putten, M J A M

    2013-09-01

    The activity of the brain during observation or imagination of movements might facilitate the relearning of motor functions after stroke. The present study examines whether there is an additional effect of imagination over observation-only. Eight healthy subjects observed and observed-and-imagined a movement of a hand; 64-channel EEG was used to measure brain activity. The synchronization of the theta (4-8 Hz), alpha (8-13 Hz) and beta (13-25 Hz) frequency bands was calculated and plotted in topoplots. The temporal changes of the sensorimotor area (C3, C4) and the centro-parietal cortex (Pz) were analyzed in the two experimental conditions. During observation-and-imagination, a significant larger desynchronization (p = 0.004) in the sensorimotor area was found compared to observation-only in all electrodes and frequency bands. In addition, temporal differences were found between observation and observation-and-imagination in the alpha frequency bands. During observation-and-imagination, modulations of EEG rhythms were stronger than during observation-only in the theta, alpha and beta frequency bands and during almost the whole activity fragment. These findings suggest an additive effect of imagination to observation in the rehabilitation after stroke.

  20. US Naval Observatory Hourly Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hourly observations journal from the National Observatory in Washington DC. The observatory is the first station in the United States to produce hourly observations...

  1. US Daily Pilot Balloon Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Pilot Balloon observational forms for the United States. Taken by Weather Bureau and U.S. Army observers. Period of record 1918-1960. Records scanned from the NCDC...

  2. A Primer on Observational Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Jeffrey M; Cohn, Jeffrey F

    2016-08-01

    Observational measurement plays an integral role in a variety of scientific endeavors within biology, psychology, sociology, education, medicine, and marketing. The current article provides an interdisciplinary primer on observational measurement; in particular, it highlights recent advances in observational methodology and the challenges that accompany such growth. First, we detail the various types of instrument that can be used to standardize measurements across observers. Second, we argue for the importance of validity in observational measurement and provide several approaches to validation based on contemporary validity theory. Third, we outline the challenges currently faced by observational researchers pertaining to measurement drift, observer reactivity, reliability analysis, and time/expense. Fourth, we describe recent advances in computer-assisted measurement, fully automated measurement, and statistical data analysis. Finally, we identify several key directions for future observational research to explore.

  3. OBPRELIM Observer Preliminary Data System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Paper logs are the primary data collection tool used by observers of the Northeast Fisheries Observer Program and Industry Funded Scallop Program deployed on...

  4. Ship Observations - VOS and Navy

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Combination of Voluntary Observing Ship (VOS) and US Navy Ship weather observations. Obs generally taken 2-4 times daily at 00, 06, 12, and 18z.

  5. Central American and Caribbean Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weather and soil temperature observations from foreign countries, taken by foreign and American observers. Includes NOAA forms collected and archived at NCDC, and...

  6. US Air Force Base Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hourly observations taken by U.S. Air Force personnel at bases in the United States and around the world. Foreign observations concentrated in the Middle East and...

  7. Field observations and lessons learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Joh B [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    This presentation outlines observations and lessons learned from the Megaports program. It provides: (1) details of field and technical observations collected during LANL field activities at ports around the world and details of observations collected during radiation detections system testing at Los Alamos National Laboratory; (2) provides suggestions for improvement and efficiency; and (3) discusses possible program execution changes for more effective operations.

  8. Quantum Observables and Effect Algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvurečenskij, Anatolij

    2017-11-01

    We study observables on monotone σ-complete effect algebras. We find conditions when a spectral resolution implies existence of the corresponding observable. We characterize sharp observables of a monotone σ-complete homogeneous effect algebra using its orthoalgebraic skeleton. In addition, we study compatibility in orthoalgebras and we show that every orthoalgebra satisfying RIP is an orthomodular poset.

  9. astroplan: Observation Planning for Astronomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Brett

    2016-03-01

    Astroplan is an observation planning package for astronomers. It is an astropy-affiliated package which began as a Google Summer of Code project. Astroplan facilitates convenient calculation of common observational quantities, like target altitudes and azimuths, airmasses, and rise/set times. Astroplan also computes when targets are observable given various extensible observing constraints, for example: within a range of airmasses or altitudes, or at a given separation from the Moon. Astroplan is taught in the undergraduate programming for astronomy class, and enables observational Pre- MAP projects at the University of Washington. In the near future, we plan to implement scheduling capabilities in astroplan on top of the constraints framework.

  10. NOAA's Ocean Climate Observation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanitski, D.; Legler, D. M.

    2016-02-01

    Over the past 20+ years there has been remarkable progress in developing a global ocean observing system. Global in-situ observations of essential climate variables in the ice-free ocean from the surface down to 2000m depth are now routinely available to address the long-term observational requirements of forecast and modeling centers, international research programs, major scientific assessments, and decision-makers. NOAA contributes nearly half of the world's in-situ ocean observations. This presentation will review NOAA's Ocean Climate Observation contributions supporting more than a dozen arrays that make up the global ocean observing system (e.g., Argo, deep-ocean hydrography, surface drifters, tropical moored buoys, OceanSITES, GLOSS); data systems; and a suite of ocean products. The poster will describe the program's scope of activities and offer a chance for the community to review and discuss NOAA's international collaborations, technology evolution for observing, and implementation of OceanObs'09 plans.

  11. Solar Public Observations in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaji, K.

    2002-01-01

    Now in Japan, there are more than fifty astronomical educational facilities which have solar telescopes, for example, public observatories and science museums. Because many of the solar telescopes have H-alpha filters, such active chromospheric phenomena as solar flares and prominences are easily presented to the public. Though the objects of these solar telescopes must be mainly education and public outreach, they have enough good performance to contribute to solar research. But, the staff in the most of facilities don't know well how to observe the sun and how to understand the solar phenomena. So, we started two attempts in order to support their solar observations. One is the administration of the "Solar Telescope Mailing List (solnet ML)". The purpose is exchanges of information on solar daily phenomena, instruments of solar telescopes, and solar articles. Almost one hundred solar observers use actively this mailing list. The other is the arrangement of the "Solar Telescope Workshop", which were held in 2000 and 2001. These workshops provide a chance for staff in public observational facilities to study observational methods, to learn educational techniques using solar observations, and to show their observational results on solar active phenomena. These two attempts also play a role to link public observers with professional solar researchers. In this presentation, we review the current situation of public solar observations in Japan and introduce solar images observed with the public educational facilities. In addition, we would like to mention what we hope for professional solar researchers.

  12. Dependency Ordering of Atomic Observables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cīrulis, Jānis

    2015-12-01

    The notion of atomic observable was introduced by S.Gudder for effect test spaces in 1997. In this paper an observable is a σ-homomorphism from the Borel algebra on a line to some logic. Roughly, an observable on a logic is atomic, if it is completely determined by its restriction to one-element subsets of its point spectrum. In particular, every discrete observable is atomic. We study some elementary properties of such observables, and discuss a possible notion of functional dependency between them. Algebraically, a dependency is a certain preorder relation on the set of all atomic observables, which induces an order relation on the set of all maximal orthogonal subsets of the logic. Several properties, as well as characteristics in terms of the underlying logic, of these relations are stated.

  13. NS&T Management Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gianotto, David [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The INL Management Observation Program (MOP) is designed to improve managers and supervisors understanding of work being performed by employees and the barriers impacting their success. The MOP also increases workers understanding of managements’ expectations as they relate to safety, security, quality, and work performance. Management observations (observations) are designed to improve the relationship and trust between employees and managers through increased engagement and interactions between managers and researchers in the field. As part of continuous improvement, NS&T management took initiative to focus on the participation and quality of observations in FY 14. This quarterly report is intended to (a) summarize the participation and quality of management’s observations, (b) assess observations for commonalities or trends related to facility or process barriers impacting research, and (c) provide feedback and make recommendations for improvements NS&T’s MOP.

  14. Sequential measurements of conjugate observables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmeli, Claudio [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); Heinosaari, Teiko [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Turku Centre for Quantum Physics, University of Turku, 20014 Turku (Finland); Toigo, Alessandro, E-mail: claudio.carmeli@gmail.com, E-mail: teiko.heinosaari@utu.fi, E-mail: alessandro.toigo@polimi.it [Dipartimento di Matematica ' Francesco Brioschi' , Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2011-07-15

    We present a unified treatment of sequential measurements of two conjugate observables. Our approach is to derive a mathematical structure theorem for all the relevant covariant instruments. As a consequence of this result, we show that every Weyl-Heisenberg covariant observable can be implemented as a sequential measurement of two conjugate observables. This method is applicable both in finite- and infinite-dimensional Hilbert spaces, therefore covering sequential spin component measurements as well as position-momentum sequential measurements.

  15. Early pulsar observations with LOFAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hessels, J.; Stappers, B.; Hassall, T.; Weltevrede, P.; Alexov, A.; Coenen, T.; van Leeuwen, J.; Kondratiev, V.; Mol, J.D.; Kramer, M.; Noutsos, A.; Karastergiou, A.

    2010-01-01

    This contribution to the proceedings of "A New Golden Age for Radio Astronomy" is simply intended to give some of the highlights from pulsar observations with LOFAR at the time of its official opening: June 12th, 2010. These observations illustrate that, though LOFAR is still under construction and

  16. Timed Testing under Partial Observability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Alexandre; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Li, Shuhao

    2009-01-01

    observability of SUT using a set of predicates over the TGA state space, and specify the test purposes in Computation Tree Logic (CTL) formulas. A recently developed partially observable timed game solver is used to generate winning strategies, which are used as test cases. We propose a conformance testing...

  17. Fault detection using (PI) observers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Stoustrup, J.; Shafai, B.

    The fault detection and isolation (FDI) problem in connection with Proportional Integral (PI) Observers is considered in this paper. A compact formulation of the FDI design problem using PI observers is given. An analysis of the FDI design problem is derived with respectt to the time domain...

  18. Observational constraints on cluster evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, S.S.

    2008-01-01

    Current observational constraints on the dynamical evolution of star clusters are reviewed. Theory and observations now agree nicely on the mass dependency and time scales for disruption of young star clusters in galactic disks, but many problems still await resolution. The origin of the mass

  19. Fault detection using (PI) observers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Stoustrup, J.; Shafai, B.

    1997-01-01

    The fault detection and isolation (FDI) problem in connection with Proportional Integral (PI) Observers is considered in this paper. A compact formulation of the FDI design problem using PI observers is given. An analysis of the FDI design problem is derived with respectt to the time domain...

  20. Global Mercury Observation System (GMOS) surface observation data.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — GMOS global surface elemental mercury (Hg0) observations from 2013 & 2014. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Sprovieri, F., N. Pirrone,...

  1. Observability and observer design for hybrid multicell choppers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejarano, F. J.; Ghanes, M.; Barbot, J.-P.

    2010-03-01

    Multicell choppers are part of a class of hybrid systems in which the continuous state vector is always unobservable, in the sense that the observability matrix never has full rank. Due to their hybrid behaviour, the recent concept of Z(T N )-observability can be applied and analysed in the context of multicell choppers, which allows to give conditions, in terms of the switching sequence, under which the voltage across each capacitor can be reconstructed, not instantly, but after some number of switchings. The case when a DC-motor is coupled to the multicell chopper is also considered. It is shown that, under certain admissible assumptions, the voltages across the capacitors and the motor speed can be acceptably estimated. Two observers, one based on the super-twisting algorithm and the other one based on an adaptive approach, are designed. Additionally, we design an observer for the partial state observation. Simulations are given where the proposed observers are compared and the effectiveness of both is shown.

  2. Observability of global rivers with future SWOT observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Colby; Pan, Ming; Wood, Eric

    2017-04-01

    The Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission is designed to provide global observations of water surface elevation and slope from which river discharge can be estimated using a data assimilation system. This mission will provide increased spatial and temporal coverage compared to current altimeters, with an expected accuracy for water level elevations of 10 cm on rivers greater than 100 m wide. Within the 21-day repeat cycle, a river reach will be observed 2-4 times on average. Due to the relationship between the basin orientation and the orbit, these observations are not evenly distributed in time, which will impact the derived discharge values. There is, then, a need for a better understanding of how the mission will observe global river basins. In this study, we investigate how SWOT will observe global river basins and how the temporal and spatial sampling impacts the discharge estimated from assimilation. SWOT observations can be assimilated using the Inverse Streamflow Routing (ISR) model of Pan and Wood [2013] with a fixed interval Kalman smoother. Previous work has shown that the ISR assimilation method can be used to reproduce the spatial and temporal dynamics of discharge within many global basins: however, this performance was strongly impacted by the spatial and temporal availability of discharge observations. In this study, we apply the ISR method to 32 global basins with different geometries and crossing patterns for the future orbit, assimilating theoretical SWOT-retrieved "gauges". Results show that the model performance varies significantly across basins and is driven by the orientation, flow distance, and travel time in each. Based on these properties, we quantify the "observability" of each basin and relate this to the performance of the assimilation. Applying this metric globally to a large variety of basins we can gain a better understanding of the impact that SWOT observations may have across basin scales. By determining the

  3. Parachute satellites for earth observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massonnet, Didier

    2008-07-01

    The "parachute" concept presented here is a generic definition for earth observation systems essentially made of a reflector under which a detector associated with a telemetry antenna is suspended [D. Massonnet, (Applicant), Satellite, method and a fleet of satellites for observing a celestial body, Patent 0509-1112, 2006. [1]; D. Massonnet, (Déposant), Satellite, procédé et flotte de satellites d'observation d'un corps céleste, Priorité 04-04327, 2004. [2

  4. Observer variation in skeletal radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cockshott, W.P.; Park, W.M.

    1983-08-01

    The factors that affect observer variation in bone radiology are analysed from data in the literature and on the basis of studies carried out at McMaster University on the hands and sacroiliac joints. A plea is made for presenting results in terms of Kappa statistics so that agreement due purely to chance is eliminated. In the conclusions the main variables that affect concordance are listed so that strategies can be developed to reduce observer variation. This is important in serial studies to ensure that the observer variations are smaller than the effect one wishes to measure.

  5. Analytic observables in nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borbely, I.

    1980-05-01

    The analytical dependence of quantum mechanical observables on their variables is discussed by using the assumption that the corresponding probability amplitudes are analytic functions. The properties of the cross section in the energy plane for spinless particles as well as the properties of the most general polarization observables in the cosdelta plane are considered in detail. In particular, the strength of the transfer pole for polarization observables is given. The practical possibilities to extract the different orbital momentum components of nuclei by extrapolation techniques are briefly outlined. (author)

  6. PHOTOELECTRIC OBSERVATIONS OF HD 8358

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo-Baik Lee

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available UBV photoelectric observations of RS CVn type variable star HD 8358 were made using the 61cm reflector at Sobaeksan Astronomical Observatory. The data were obtained on 15 nights from October 1987 to December 1988. Double peaks of maximum light is seen from the light curve and continuous change of phase in notified from the times of maximum lights. The colors of October, 1987 - January, 1988 observations are bluer in ∆(b-u, but redder in ∆(u-b, than those of November -December, 1988 observations.

  7. Observational methodology in sport sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Teresa Anguera

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the conceptual framework, the key literature and the methods (observation tools, such as category systems and field formats, and coding software, etc. that should be followed when conducting research from the perspective of observational methodology. The observational designs used by the authors’ research group over the last twenty years are discussed, and the procedures for analysing data and assessing their quality are described. Mention is also made of the latest methodological trends in this field, such as the use of mixed methods.

  8. Window observers for linear systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utkin Vadim

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Given a linear system x ˙ = A x + B u with output y = C x and a window function ω ( t , i.e., ∀ t , ω ( t ∈ {0,1 }, and assuming that the window function is Lebesgue measurable, we refer to the following observer, x ˆ = A x + B u + ω ( t L C ( x − x ˆ as a window observer. The stability issue is treated in this paper. It is proven that for linear time-invariant systems, the window observer can be stabilized by an appropriate design under a very mild condition on the window functions, albeit for linear time-varying system, some regularity of the window functions is required to achieve observer designs with the asymptotic stability. The corresponding design methods are developed. An example is included to illustrate the possible applications

  9. An introduction to observational astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Gallaway, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Observational Astrophysics follows the general outline of an astrophysics undergraduate curriculum targeting practical observing information to what will be covered at the university level. This includes the basics of optics and coordinate systems to the technical details of CCD imaging, photometry, spectography and radio astronomy.  General enough to be used by students at a variety of institutions and advanced enough to be far more useful than observing guides targeted at amateurs, the author provides a comprehensive and up-to-date treatment of observational astrophysics at undergraduate level to be used with a university’s teaching telescope.  The practical approach takes the reader from basic first year techniques to those required for a final year project. Using this textbook as a resource, students can easily become conversant in the practical aspects of astrophysics in the field as opposed to the classroom.

  10. VLBI Observing System for VSOP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulvestad, J. S.; Murphy, D. W.

    1996-01-01

    The very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) Space Observatory Program (VSOP) satellite is scheduled for launch in September 1996. This paper describes the VLBI observing system for VSOP and its differences from ground radio telescope VLBI systems.

  11. Sliding mode control and observation

    CERN Document Server

    Shtessel, Yuri; Fridman, Leonid; Levant, Arie

    2014-01-01

    The sliding mode control methodology has proven effective in dealing with complex dynamical systems affected by disturbances, uncertainties and unmodeled dynamics. Robust control technology based on this methodology has been applied to many real-world problems, especially in the areas of aerospace control, electric power systems, electromechanical systems, and robotics. Sliding Mode Control and Observation represents the first textbook that starts with classical sliding mode control techniques and progresses toward newly developed higher-order sliding mode control and observation algorithms and their applications. The present volume addresses a range of sliding mode control issues, including: *Conventional sliding mode controller and observer design *Second-order sliding mode controllers and differentiators *Frequency domain analysis of conventional and second-order sliding mode controllers *Higher-order sliding mode controllers and differentiators *Higher-order sliding mode observers *Sliding mode disturbanc...

  12. Mobile Source Observation Database (MSOD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Mobile Source Observation Database (MSOD) is a relational database developed by the Assessment and Standards Division (ASD) of the U.S. EPA Office of Transportation and Air Quality (formerly the Office of Mobile Sources).

  13. Bulletin of International Simultaneous Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The publication of the Bulletin of International Simultaneous Observations, began July 1, 1875, with daily maps added in 1877. It was published for distribution...

  14. COOP Wind and Radiation Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind and radiation data from stations in the National Weather Service Cooperative Observers Network. Some precipitation and pressure forms are mistakenly placed in...

  15. Mobile Source Observation Database (MSOD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Mobile Source Observation Database (MSOD) is a relational database being developed by the Assessment and Standards Division (ASD) of the US Environmental...

  16. CalNex Observational Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Observations made during the 2010 CalNex measurement campaign. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Woody , M., K. Baker , P. Hayes, J....

  17. US Monthly Pilot Balloon Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly winds aloft summary forms summarizing Pilot Balloon observational data for the United States. Generally labeled as Form 1114, and then transitioning to Form...

  18. Lightship Monthly Observations - NARA Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Observations taken on board lightships along the United States coasts from 1891 - 1918. Each form covers multiple days, usually one week. Also includes deck logs,...

  19. Pre-1947 Marine Monthly Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Observations taken on board U.S. Navy and merchant marine vessels and submitted to the U.S. Weather Bureau. Merchant ships are of many nationalities, and mainly...

  20. Towards a 'correctionless' observational cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, G.F.R.; Perry, J.J.

    1978-09-01

    We review the basic theory for the observational determination of the geometrical structure and evolution of the universe and outline the theoretical basis of the established observational methods and their numerous corrections. We then propose a new method, based on detailed photometry of galaxies, which has the advantages of containing internal consistency checks on the assumptions of the theory and which is correctionless. (orig.) [de

  1. Observations at large zenith angles

    CERN Document Server

    Schroeder, F

    2000-01-01

    Cherenkov telescope observations at zenith angles >70 deg. are capable of providing large collection areas for high energy gamma-induced air showers. In order to provide a full Monte Carlo simulation of the large zenith angle observations the air shower simulation code CORSIKA was modified to treat particles in a curved geometry. First results of studies with the stand alone telescope HEGRA CT1 are presented.

  2. Observing Projects in Introductory Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M. Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Introductory astronomy classes without laboratory components face a unique challenge of how to expose students to the process of science in the framework of a lecture course. As a solution to this problem small group observing projects are incorporated into a 40 student introductory astronomy class composed primarily of non-science majors. Students may choose from 8 observing projects such as graphing the motion of the moon or a planet, measuring daily and seasonal motions of stars, and determining the rotation rate of the Sun from sunspots. Each group completes two projects, requiring the students to spend several hours outside of class making astronomical observations. Clear instructions and a check-list style observing log help students with minimal observing experience to take accurate data without direct instructor assistance. Students report their findings in a lab report-style paper, as well as in a formal oral or poster presentation. The projects serve a double purpose of allowing students to directly experience concepts covered in class as well as providing students with experience collecting, analyzing, and presenting astronomical data.

  3. The AUSTRAL VLBI observing program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plank, L.; Lovell, J. E. J.; McCallum, J. N.; Mayer, D.; Reynolds, C.; Quick, J.; Weston, S.; Titov, O.; Shabala, S. S.; Böhm, J.; Natusch, T.; Nickola, M.; Gulyaev, S.

    2017-07-01

    The AUSTRAL observing program was started in 2011, performing geodetic and astrometric very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) sessions using the new Australian AuScope VLBI antennas at Hobart, Katherine, and Yarragadee, with contribution from the Warkworth (New Zealand) 12 m and Hartebeesthoek (South Africa) 15 m antennas to make a southern hemisphere array of telescopes with similar design and capability. Designed in the style of the next-generation VLBI system, these small and fast antennas allow for a new way of observing, comprising higher data rates and more observations than the standard observing sessions coordinated by the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS). In this contribution, the continuous development of the AUSTRAL sessions is described, leading to an improvement of the results in terms of baseline length repeatabilities by a factor of two since the start of this program. The focus is on the scheduling strategy and increased number of observations, aspects of automated operation, and data logistics, as well as results of the 151 AUSTRAL sessions performed so far. The high number of the AUSTRAL sessions makes them an important contributor to VLBI end-products, such as the terrestrial and celestial reference frames and Earth orientation parameters. We compare AUSTRAL results with other IVS sessions and discuss their suitability for the determination of baselines, station coordinates, source coordinates, and Earth orientation parameters.

  4. Is Observation Mathematically-Laden?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Michael Muller

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we will defend the epistemological claim that observation is mathematically- laden. A well-known thesis in the philosophy of science is that observation is theory-laden. The claim that observation is mathematically laden can be similarly justified. The first part of the paper focuses on the definition of mathematically-ladeness and its relations to the best-known problem of theory-ladeness. The second part of the paper presents some explicit examples and outlines the consequences and the difficulties of this epistemological limit. Finally, a specific context for this problem is discussed in detail: we will analyze the question of deterministic chaos as a paradigmatic example of mathematically-ladeness and show that the deterministic or indeterministic nature of chaos is strongly linked to the choice of a particular mathematical description.

  5. Incremental Observer Relative Data Extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukauskas, Linas; Bøhlen, Michael Hanspeter

    2004-01-01

    The visual exploration of large databases calls for a tight coupling of database and visualization systems. Current visualization systems typically fetch all the data and organize it in a scene tree that is then used to render the visible data. For immersive data explorations in a Cave...... or a Panorama, where an observer is data space this approach is far from optimal. A more scalable approach is to make the observer-aware database system and to restrict the communication between the database and visualization systems to the relevant data. In this paper VR-tree, an extension of the R......-tree, is used to index visibility ranges of objects. We introduce a new operator for incremental Observer Relative data Extraction (iORDE). We propose the Volatile Access STructure (VAST), a lightweight main memory structure that is created on the fly and is maintained during visual data explorations. VAST...

  6. Observing and Simulating Galaxy Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Karen Pardos

    It remains a quest for modern astronomy to answer what main mechanisms set the star formation rate (SFR) of galaxies. Massive galaxies present a good starting point for such a quest due to their relatively easy detection at every redshift. Since stars form out of cold and dense gas, a comprehensive...... model for galaxy evolution should explain any observed connection between SFR and the amount and properties of the molecular gas of the interstellar medium (ISM). In proposed models of that kind, an active galactic nucleus (AGN) phase is often invoked as the cause for the decrease or cease of star...... formation. This thesis consists of models and observations of gas and AGNs in massive galaxies at z _ 2, and how they may affect the overall SFR and the subsequent evolutionary trajectory of massive galaxies to z = 0. For an improved understanding of how observed gas emission lines link to the underlying...

  7. Solar Observations in Public Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaji, K.

    In Japan, solar telescopes are now operated in more than fifty astronomical educational facilities, such as public observatories and science museums. Since most of these have the capability of observing the Sun in Hα, active chromospheric phenomena such as solar flares and prominence eruptions are often presented to the public there. Though these telescopes must be mainly used for education and public outreach, they have a good enough performance to contribute to professional solar research. The staff in most of the facilities do not have so much knowledge on how best to observe the Sun or how to understand solar phenomena. We started two efforts in order to support their solar observations. One is the administration of the "Solar Telescope Mailing List" (solnet ML). The other is the arrangement of the "Solar Telescope Workshops".

  8. Observing and Simulating Galaxy Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Karen Pardos

    model for galaxy evolution should explain any observed connection between SFR and the amount and properties of the molecular gas of the interstellar medium (ISM). In proposed models of that kind, an active galactic nucleus (AGN) phase is often invoked as the cause for the decrease or cease of star...... formation. This thesis consists of models and observations of gas and AGNs in massive galaxies at z _ 2, and how they may affect the overall SFR and the subsequent evolutionary trajectory of massive galaxies to z = 0. For an improved understanding of how observed gas emission lines link to the underlying......, and sheds light on the AGN-host co-evolution by connecting the fraction and luminosity of AGNs with galaxy properties. By analyzing a large survey in X-ray, AGNs of high and low X-ray luminosity are extracted among massive galaxies at z _ 2 via AGN classification methods, and stacking techniques of non...

  9. Observational tests of modified gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Bhuvnesh; Zhang Pengjie

    2008-01-01

    Modifications of general relativity provide an alternative explanation to dark energy for the observed acceleration of the Universe. Modified gravity theories have richer observational consequences for large-scale structures than conventional dark energy models, in that different observables are not described by a single growth factor even in the linear regime. We examine the relationships between perturbations in the metric potentials, density and velocity fields, and discuss strategies for measuring them using gravitational lensing, galaxy cluster abundances, galaxy clustering/dynamics, and the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect. We show how a broad class of gravity theories can be tested by combining these probes. A robust way to interpret observations is by constraining two key functions: the ratio of the two metric potentials, and the ratio of the gravitational 'constant' in the Poisson equation to Newton's constant. We also discuss quasilinear effects that carry signatures of gravity, such as through induced three-point correlations. Clustering of dark energy can mimic features of modified gravity theories and thus confuse the search for distinct signatures of such theories. It can produce pressure perturbations and anisotropic stresses, which break the equality between the two metric potentials even in general relativity. With these two extra degrees of freedom, can a clustered dark energy model mimic modified gravity models in all observational tests? We show with specific examples that observational constraints on both the metric potentials and density perturbations can in principle distinguish modifications of gravity from dark energy models. We compare our result with other recent studies that have slightly different assumptions (and apparently contradictory conclusions).

  10. Identifying Causality from Alarm Observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchhübel, Denis; Zhang, Xinxin; Lind, Morten

    on an abstracted model of the mass and energy flows in the system. The application of MFM for root cause analysis based alarm grouping has been demonstrated and can be extended to reason about the direction of causality considering the entirety of the alarms present in the system for more comprehensive decision...... support. This contribution presents the foundation for combining the cause and consequence propagation of multiple observations from the system based on an MFM model. The proposed logical reasoning matches actually observed alarms to the propagation analysis in MFM to distinguish plausible causes...

  11. Moving Observer Support for Databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukauskas, Linas

    . The thesis discusses the VR-tree, an extension of the R-tree that enables observer relative data extraction. To support incremental observer position relative data extraction the thesis proposes the Volatile Access Structure (VAST). VAST is a main memory structure that caches nodes of the VR-tree. VAST......Interactive visual data explorations impose rigid requirements on database and visualization systems. Systems that visualize huge amounts of data tend to request large amounts of memory resources and heavily use the CPU to process and visualize data. Current systems employ a loosely coupled...

  12. Power laws for nuclear observables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, R. J.

    2018-01-01

    Often mass-dependent nuclear observables are summarized by fits to a power law in the nuclear mass A , as proportional to Aα. In this work a simple justification of this usage is presented, also providing a simple expression for the exponent α , with one known parameter being the beam-nucleon total cross section and another parameter being a nuclear size r0A1 /3 . Measured power-law exponents α for total and reaction cross sections are near this simple formulation using r0=1.6 fm , whereas quasifree observables are near the simple expression using r0=1.2 fm .

  13. The INTEGRAL Core Observing Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, C.; Gehrels, N.; Lund, Niels

    1999-01-01

    The Core Programme of the INTEGRAL mission is defined as the portion of the scientific programme covering the guaranteed time observations for the INTEGRAL Science Working Team. This paper describes the current status of the Core Programme preparations and summarizes the key elements of the obser......The Core Programme of the INTEGRAL mission is defined as the portion of the scientific programme covering the guaranteed time observations for the INTEGRAL Science Working Team. This paper describes the current status of the Core Programme preparations and summarizes the key elements...

  14. $0^{++}$ Resonances Observed at BES

    OpenAIRE

    Zou, B. S.; Collaboration, for BES

    2008-01-01

    In last 10 years, $0^{++}$ resonances have been observed and studied at BES in many processes, such as $J/\\psi\\to\\gamma\\pi^+\\pi^-\\pi^+\\pi^-$, $\\gamma\\pi^+\\pi^-$, $\\gamma\\pi^0\\pi^0$, $\\gamma K^+K^-$, $\\gamma K_SK_S$, $\\gamma\\omega\\phi$, $\\omega\\pi^+\\pi^-$, $\\omega K^+K^-$, $\\phi\\pi^+\\pi^-$, $\\phi K^+K^-$, $\\psi(2S)\\to J/\\psi\\pi^+\\pi^-$, $\\chi_{c0}\\to\\pi^+\\pi^-K^+K^-$, $\\pi^+\\pi^-\\pi^+\\pi^-$ etc.. The results on $0^{++}$ resonances observed at BES are reviewed.

  15. Ground level cosmic ray observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, S.A. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Bombay (International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements); Grimani, C.; Brunetti, M.T.; Codino, A. [Perugia Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Perugia (Italy); Papini, P.; Massimo Brancaccio, F.; Piccardi, S. [Florence Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Florence (Italy); Basini, G.; Bongiorno, F. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy); Golden, R.L. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Particle Astrophysics Lab.; Hof, M. [Siegen Univ. (Germany). Fachbereich Physik

    1995-09-01

    Cosmic rays at ground level have been collected using the NMSU/Wizard - MASS2 instrument. The 17-hr observation run was made on September 9. 1991 in Fort Sumner, New Mexico, Usa. Fort Sumner is located at 1270 meters a.s.l., corresponding to an atmospheric depth of about 887 g/cm{sup 2}. The geomagnetic cutoff is 4.5 GV/c. The charge ratio of positive and negative muons and the proton to muon ratio have been determined. These observations will also be compared with data collected at a higher latitude using the same basic apparatus.

  16. Optical electronics for meteor observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafiev, R.I.; Mukhamednazarov, S.; Atamas, I.A.

    1987-01-01

    Spectral observations of meteors have been carried out for several years using an optical electronics facility. Interest has centered on faint meteors and their trails in the period of intensive meteor showers. Over 800 meteors were registered during the observation period, with spectrograms obtained for 170 of these. A total of 86 meteors were photographed from two sites and for 25 of these spectrograms of the meteors as well as their trails were obtained. All meteors have undergone routine processing in order to determine atmospheric characteristics. Results are discussed

  17. Turbulence Heating ObserveR – satellite mission proposal

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaivads, A.; Retinò, A.; Souček, Jan; Khotyaintsev, Y. V.; Valentini, F.; Escoubet, C. P.; Alexandrova, O.; André, M.; Bale, S. D.; Balikhin, M.; Burgess, D.; Camporeale, E.; Caprioli, D.; Chen, C. H. K.; Clacey, E.; Cully, C. M.; Keyser de, J.; Eastwood, J. P.; Fazakerley, A. N.; Eriksson, S.; Goldstein, M. L.; Graham, D. B.; Haaland, S.; Hoshino, M.; Ji, H.; Karimabadi, H.; Kucharek, H.; Lavraud, B.; Marcucci, F.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Moore, T. E.; Nakamura, R.; Narita, Y.; Němeček, Z.; Norgren, C.; Opgenoorth, H.; Palmroth, M.; Perrone, D.; Pinçon, J.-L.; Rathsman, P.; Rothkaehl, H.; Sahraoui, F.; Servidio, S.; Sorriso-Valvo, L.; Vainio, L.; Vörös, Z.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 5 (2016), 905820501/1-905820501/16 ISSN 0022-3778 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : plasma heating * plasma properties * space plasma physics Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.160, year: 2016 https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/journal-of-plasma-physics/article/div-classtitleturbulence-heating-observer-satellite-mission-proposaldiv/01BB69B09206CE04C48BEDA8F24ED33C/core-reader

  18. Observation of Kinetic Plasma Jets

    OpenAIRE

    Tripathi, S. K. P.; Bellan, P. M.; Yun, G. S.

    2007-01-01

    Under certain conditions an intense kinetic plasma jet is observed to emerge from the apex of laboratory simulations of coronal plasma loops. Analytic and numerical models show that these jets result from a particle orbit instability in a helical magnetic field whereby magnetic forces radially eject rather than confine ions with sufficiently large counter-current axial velocity.

  19. The observation of everyday life

    OpenAIRE

    Rubio, Brus

    2014-01-01

    After attempting to paint the multiple beings inhabiting the oral history of his Bora and Uitoto ancestors, Brus Rubio found in the daily gestures of the men and women of his community, a technique of observation and reproduction of moving figures of his own, suited to express his perception of the history of the peoples of the Ampiyacu River.

  20. Observability of Low Voltage grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin-Loeches, Ruben Sánchez; Iov, Florin; Kemal, Mohammed Seifu

    2017-01-01

    observability in the control centers. In some countries like Denmark, the rollout of Advanced Metering Infrastructures (AMI) has reached 100%. However, the vast amount of data sent from the smart meters to the control centers stresses the communication network, and complicates the data processing tasks...

  1. Observations on sea water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyosawa, Hitoshi; Kodama, Koki

    1976-01-01

    The water quality was observed periodically by measuring dissolved oxygen (DO), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) in the inshore environment of Fukushima Nuclear Power Station during three years since 1971. Besides, some procedures for the measurement of COD and BOD were briefly examined. 1. Remarkable tendency was not observed between DO content and water temperature, but the seasonable change of DO content was shown at zero meter layer. 2. At the outlet, the DO content was less than the other study sites where oversaturated oxygen content was observed. Besides, oversaturated oxygen content was obtained at the outlet when unsaturated oxygen content was shown in surroundings. 3. The DO content had no definite relation among such study sites, which were situated radially about 25 km distant from the outlet. 4. Remarkable tendency was not observed between the quantities of water soluble organic substances and water temperature or DO content at zero meter layer. 5. The reproducibility of COD measurement was increased by retaining temperature exactly in heating procedure. 6. The method of BOD measurement was established by the pure culture of F-11-9 strain, which was isolated as the dominant species of bacteria in the sea area. 7. The quantity of organic substances soluble in sea water was reduced by the filtration of the sample before measurement. (J.P.N.)

  2. Participant observation in risk problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andriessen, H.; Kluin, M.H.A.; Van Gulijk, C.; Ale, B.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Participant observation is a method to collect information through active participation in the social world that is under study, in this case two different risk-related working areas where confidentiality and secrecy are paramount. In reality there is a difference between what people do and say they

  3. Observational modeling of topological spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molaei, M.R.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a model for a multi-dimensional observer by using of the fuzzy theory is presented. Relative form of Tychonoff theorem is proved. The notion of topological entropy is extended. The persistence of relative topological entropy under relative conjugate relation is proved.

  4. Observation of an antimatter hypernucleus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abelev, B.I.; Braidot, E|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304840874; Mischke, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/325781435; Peitzmann, T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304833959; van Leeuwen, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/250599171

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear collisions recreate conditions in the universe microseconds after the Big Bang. Only a very small fraction of the emitted fragments are light nuclei, but these states are of fundamental interest. We report the observation of antihypertritons—comprising an antiproton, an antineutron, and an

  5. Observational Effects of Strange Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, T.

    1998-01-01

    In this talk, after briefly reviewing some historical remarks concerning strange stars, the achievements in physics and dynamical behavior of strange stars are discussed. Especially, various observational effects in distinguishing strange stars from neutron stars such as mechanical effects, cooling effects, phase transition and related interesting phenomena are stressed.

  6. Observing Galaxy Mergers in Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Gregory

    2018-01-01

    I will describe results on mergers and morphology of distant galaxies. By mock-observing 3D cosmological simulations, we aim to contrast theory with data, design better diagnostics of physical processes, and examine unexpected signatures of galaxy formation. Recently, we conducted mock surveys of the Illustris Simulations to learn how mergers would appear in deep HST and JWST surveys. With this approach, we reconciled merger rates estimated using observed close galaxy pairs with intrinsic merger rates predicted by theory. This implies that the merger-pair observability time is probably shorter in the early universe, and therefore that major mergers are more common than implied by the simplest arguments. Further, we show that disturbance-based diagnostics of late-stage mergers can be improved significantly by combining multi-dimensional image information with simulated merger identifications to train automated classifiers. We then apply these classifiers to real measurements from the CANDELS fields, recovering a merger fraction increasing with redshift in broad agreement with pair fractions and simulations, and with statistical errors smaller by a factor of two than classical morphology estimators. This emphasizes the importance of using robust training sets, including cosmological simulations and multidimensional data, for interpreting observed processes in galaxy evolution.

  7. Earth observation for rangeland monitoring

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ramoelo, Abel

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available of rangeland quality, showed together with the study area map (top). Nutrient maps extracted from a published paper: Ramoelo et al. 2012, International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, 19, pp. 151-162 Photo courtesy of Mr Mafuza Maya... Photo courtesy of Mr Mafuza Maya ...

  8. Spaceborne observation of columnar water vapor - SSMI observations and algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjemkes, Stephen A.; Stephens, Graeme L.; Jackson, Darren L.

    1991-01-01

    An analysis of the transfer of radiation with a frequency between 10 and 40 GHz through a cloud-free atmosphere is given, and the limitations of employing observations at 22.235 GHz for sensing the columnar water vapor (CWV) in the moist atmosphere (CWV above 40 kg/sq m) are shown. It is because of this limitation that a new method for the retrieval of columnar water vapor is described. This method uses both the horizontally and vertically polarized brightness temperatures measured at 19.35 GHz by the special sensor microwave imager (SSMI) which was launched as part of the Defense Military Satellite Program. The water vapor derived from the SSMI observations is validated against radiosonde observations that are near coincident in time and space with an rms error of 6 kg/sq m. This large rms is in part due to sensitivity of the retrieval method to the surface emission. Distributions of CWV over the oceans were obtained for a 3-month period starting September, 1987. These results are compared to other water vapor retrievals for the same period using the same microwave radiance data; they show close agreement except over the warmest water in the equatorial tropics.

  9. Observing the Next Galactic Supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Scott M.; Kochanek, C. S.; Beacom, John F.; Vagins, Mark R.; Stanek, K. Z.

    2013-12-01

    No supernova (SN) in the Milky Way has been observed since the invention of the optical telescope, instruments for other wavelengths, neutrino detectors, or gravitational wave observatories. It would be a tragedy to miss the opportunity to fully characterize the next one. To aid preparations for its observations, we model the distance, extinction, and magnitude probability distributions of a successful Galactic core-collapse supernova (ccSN), its shock breakout radiation, and its massive star progenitor. We find, at very high probability (sime 100%), that the next Galactic SN will easily be detectable in the near-IR and that near-IR photometry of the progenitor star very likely (sime 92%) already exists in the Two Micron All Sky Survey. Most ccSNe (98%) will be easily observed in the optical, but a significant fraction (43%) will lack observations of the progenitor due to a combination of survey sensitivity and confusion. If neutrino detection experiments can quickly disseminate a likely position (~3°), we show that a modestly priced IR camera system can probably detect the shock breakout radiation pulse even in daytime (64% for the cheapest design). Neutrino experiments should seriously consider adding such systems, both for their scientific return and as an added and internal layer of protection against false triggers. We find that shock breakouts from failed ccSNe of red supergiants may be more observable than those of successful SNe due to their lower radiation temperatures. We review the process by which neutrinos from a Galactic ccSN would be detected and announced. We provide new information on the EGADS system and its potential for providing instant neutrino alerts. We also discuss the distance, extinction, and magnitude probability distributions for the next Galactic Type Ia supernova (SN Ia). Based on our modeled observability, we find a Galactic ccSN rate of 3.2^{+7.3}_{-2.6} per century and a Galactic SN Ia rate of 1.4^{+1.4}_{-0.8} per century for a

  10. Mesopause Jumps: Observations and Explanation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luebken, F. J.; Becker, E.; Höffner, J.; Viehl, T. P.; Latteck, R.

    2017-12-01

    Recent high resolution temperature measurements by resonance lidar at Davis (69°S) occasionally showed a sudden mesopause altitude increase by 5km and an associated mesopause temperature decrease by 10K. We present further observations which are closely related to this `mesopause jump', namely the increase of mean height of polar mesospheric summer echoes (PMSE) observed by a VHF radar, very strong westward winds in the upper mesosphere measured by an MF radar, and relatively large eastward winds in the stratosphere taken from reanalysis. We compare to similar observations in the Northern Hemisphere, namely at ALOMAR (69°N) where such mesopause jumps have never been observed. We present a detailed explanation of mesopause jumps. They occur only when stratospheric winds are moderately eastward and mesospheric winds are very large (westward). Under these conditions, gravity waves with comparatively large eastward phase speeds can pass the stratosphere and propagate to the lower thermosphere because their vertical wavelengths in the mesosphere are rather large which implies reduced dynamical stability. When finally breaking in the lower thermosphere, these waves drive an enhanced residual circulation that causes a cold and high-altitude mesopause. The conditions for a mesopause jump occur only in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) and are associated with the late breakdown of the polar vortex.Mesopause jumps are primarily, but not only, observed prior and close to solstice. We also show that during the onset of PMSE in the SH, stratospheric zonal winds are still eastward (up to 30m/s), and that the onset is not closely related to the transition of the stratospheric circulation.

  11. Solar System Observations with JWST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norwood, James; Hammel, Heidi; Milam, Stefanie; Stansberry, John; Lunine, Jonathan; Chanover, Nancy; Hines, Dean; Sonneborn, George; Tiscareno, Matthew; Brown, Michael; hide

    2014-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope will enable a wealth of new scientific investigations in the near- and mid- infrared, with sensitivity and spatial-spectral resolution greatly surpassing its predecessors. In this paper, we focus upon Solar System science facilitated by JWST, discussing the most current information available concerning JWST instrument properties and observing techniques relevant to planetary science. We also present numerous example observing scenarios for a wide variety of Solar System targets to illustrate the potential of JWST science to the Solar System community. This paper updates and supersedes the Solar System white paper published by the JWST Project in 2010 (Lunine et al., 2010). It is based both on that paper and on a workshop held at the annual meeting of the Division for Planetary Sciences in Reno, NV in 2012.

  12. Kepler observations of Am stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balona, L. A.; Ripepi, V.; Cantanzaro, G.

    2011-01-01

    We present an analysis of high-resolution spectra for two pulsating Am stars in the Kepler field. The stellar parameters derived in this way are important because parameters derived from narrow-band photometry may be affected by the strong metal lines in these stars. We analyse the Kepler time...... series of ten known Am stars and find that six of them clearly show δ Scuti pulsations. The other four appear to be non-pulsating. We derive fundamental parameters for all known pulsating Am stars from ground-based observations and also for the Kepler Am stars to investigate the location...... of the instability strip for pulsating Am stars. We find that there is not much difference between the Am-star instability strip and the δ Scuti instability strip. We find that the observed location of pulsating Am stars in the HR diagram does not agree with the location predicted from diffusion calculations. Based...

  13. IUE observations of V Sagittae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, R. H.; Corcoran, M. F.; Holenstein, B. D.; Mccluskey, G. E., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Observations of the nova-like variable V Sge are discussed, and the ground-based light curve is analyzed, compensating for the component interaction effect. Low-dispersion IUE spectra indicate that interstellar reddening is smaller than suggested from visible-band observations. The UV and visible continuum are modeled by a He-rich model and by a simple accretion disk, and the UV spectrum emission lines are used to determine ionization temperatures and a lower N(e) limit. The present data are consistent with the picture of the companion to the He star being embedded in an accretion disk, with the disk being large (of dimension comparable to that of the embedding Roche lobe as a result of vigorous mass transfer) at the time of the ground-based data, and with the disk having been diminished to a radius of the order of 200 times of the neutron star, at the time of the IUE spectra.

  14. Observational homogeneity of the Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnor, W.B.; Ellis, G.F.R.

    1986-01-01

    A new approach to observational homogeneity is presented. The observation that stars and galaxies in distant regions appear similar to those nearby may be taken to imply that matter has had a similar thermodynamic history in widely separated parts of the Universe (the Postulate of Uniform Thermal Histories, or PUTH). The supposition is now made that similar thermodynamic histories imply similar dynamical histories. Then the distant apparent similarity is evidence for spatial homogeneity of the Universe. General Relativity is used to test this idea, taking a perfect fluid model and implementing PUTH by the condition that the density and entropy per baryon shall be the same function of the proper time along all galaxy world-lines. (author)

  15. Observation of an antimatter hypernucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelev, B I; Aggarwal, M M; Ahammed, Z; Alakhverdyants, A V; Alekseev, I; Anderson, B D; Arkhipkin, D; Averichev, G S; Balewski, J; Barnby, L S; Baumgart, S; Beavis, D R; Bellwied, R; Betancourt, M J; Betts, R R; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bichsel, H; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Biritz, B; Bland, L C; Bonner, B E; Bouchet, J; Braidot, E; Brandin, A V; Bridgeman, A; Bruna, E; Bueltmann, S; Bunzarov, I; Burton, T P; Cai, X Z; Caines, H; Calderon, M; Catu, O; Cebra, D; Cendejas, R; Cervantes, M C; Chajecki, Z; Chaloupka, P; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, H F; Chen, J H; Chen, J Y; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Choi, K E; Christie, W; Chung, P; Clarke, R F; Codrington, M J M; Corliss, R; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Das, D; Dash, S; Davila Leyva, A; De Silva, L C; Debbe, R R; Dedovich, T G; DePhillips, M; Derevschikov, A A; Derradi de Souza, R; Didenko, L; Djawotho, P; Dogra, S M; Dong, X; Drachenberg, J L; Draper, J E; Dunlop, J C; Dutta Mazumdar, M R; Efimov, L G; Elhalhuli, E; Elnimr, M; Engelage, J; Eppley, G; Erazmus, B; Estienne, M; Eun, L; Evdokimov, O; Fachini, P; Fatemi, R; Fedorisin, J; Fersch, R G; Filip, P; Finch, E; Fine, V; Fisyak, Y; Gagliardi, C A; Gangadharan, D R; Ganti, M S; Garcia-Solis, E J; Geromitsos, A; Geurts, F; Ghazikhanian, V; Ghosh, P; Gorbunov, Y N; Gordon, A; Grebenyuk, O; Grosnick, D; Grube, B; Guertin, S M; Gupta, A; Gupta, N; Guryn, W; Haag, B; Hamed, A; Han, L-X; Harris, J W; Hays-Wehle, J P; Heinz, M; Heppelmann, S; Hirsch, A; Hjort, E; Hoffman, A M; Hoffmann, G W; Hofman, D J; Hollis, R S; Huang, B; Huang, H Z; Humanic, T J; Huo, L; Igo, G; Iordanova, A; Jacobs, P; Jacobs, W W; Jakl, P; Jena, C; Jin, F; Jones, C L; Jones, P G; Joseph, J; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kajimoto, K; Kang, K; Kapitan, J; Kauder, K; Keane, D; Kechechyan, A; Kettler, D; Kikola, D P; Kiryluk, J; Kisiel, A; Klein, S R; Knospe, A G; Kocoloski, A; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Konzer, J; Kopytine, M; Koralt, I; Koroleva, L; Korsch, W; Kotchenda, L; Kouchpil, V; Kravtsov, P; Krueger, K; Krus, M; Kumar, L; Kurnadi, P; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; LaPointe, S; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Lee, C-H; Lee, J H; Leight, W; Levine, M J; Li, C; Li, L; Li, N; Li, W; Li, X; Li, Y; Li, Z; Lin, G; Lindenbaum, S J; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Liu, H; Liu, J; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Longacre, R S; Love, W A; Lu, Y; Luo, X; Ma, G L; Ma, Y G; Mahapatra, D P; Majka, R; Mal, O I; Mangotra, L K; Manweiler, R; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Masui, H; Matis, H S; Matulenko, Yu A; McDonald, D; McShane, T S; Meschanin, A; Milner, R; Minaev, N G; Mioduszewski, S; Mischke, A; Mitrovski, M K; Mohanty, B; Mondal, M M; Morozov, B; Morozov, D A; Munhoz, M G; Nandi, B K; Nattrass, C; Nayak, T K; Nelson, J M; Netrakanti, P K; Ng, M J; Nogach, L V; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, G; Ogawa, A; Okada, H; Okorokov, V; Olson, D; Pachr, M; Page, B S; Pal, S K; Pandit, Y; Panebratsev, Y; Pawlak, T; Peitzmann, T; Perevoztchikov, V; Perkins, C; Peryt, W; Phatak, S C; Pile, P; Planinic, M; Ploskon, M A; Pluta, J; Plyku, D; Poljak, N; Poskanzer, A M; Potukuchi, B V K S; Powell, C B; Prindle, D; Pruneau, C; Pruthi, N K; Pujahari, P R; Putschke, J; Qiu, H; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ray, R L; Redwine, R; Reed, R; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevskiy, O V; Romero, J L; Rose, A; Roy, C; Ruan, L; Sahoo, R; Sakai, S; Sakrejda, I; Sakuma, T; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Sangaline, E; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmitz, N; Schuster, T R; Seele, J; Seger, J; Selyuzhenkov, I; Seyboth, P; Shahaliev, E; Shao, M; Sharma, M; Shi, S S; Sichtermann, E P; Simon, F; Singaraju, R N; Skoby, M J; Smirnov, N; Sorensen, P; Sowinski, J; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stanislaus, T D S; Staszak, D; Stevens, J R; Stock, R; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Suaide, A A P; Suarez, M C; Subba, N L; Sumbera, M; Sun, X M; Sun, Y; Sun, Z; Surrow, B; Svirida, D N; Symons, T J M; Szanto de Toledo, A; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Tang, Z; Tarini, L H; Tarnowsky, T; Thein, D; Thomas, J H; Tian, J; Timmins, A R; Timoshenko, S; Tlusty, D; Tokarev, M; Trainor, T A; Tram, V N; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Tsai, O D; Ulery, J; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Van Buren, G; van Leeuwen, M; van Nieuwenhuizen, G; Vanfossen, J A; Varma, R; Vasconcelos, G M S; Vasiliev, A N; Videbaek, F; Viyogi, Y P; Vokal, S; Voloshin, S A; Wada, M; Walker, M; Wang, F; Wang, G; Wang, H; Wang, J S; Wang, Q; Wang, X L; Wang, Y; Webb, G; Webb, J C; Westfall, G D; Whitten, C; Wieman, H; Wingfield, E; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wu, Y; Xie, W; Xu, H; Xu, N; Xu, Q H; Xu, W; Xu, Y; Xu, Z; Xue, L; Yang, Y; Yepes, P; Yip, K; Yoo, I-K; Yue, Q; Zawisza, M; Zbroszczyk, H; Zhan, W; Zhang, J; Zhang, S; Zhang, W M; Zhang, X P; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, J; Zhong, C; Zhou, J; Zhou, W; Zhu, X; Zhu, Y H; Zoulkarneev, R; Zoulkarneeva, Y

    2010-04-02

    Nuclear collisions recreate conditions in the universe microseconds after the Big Bang. Only a very small fraction of the emitted fragments are light nuclei, but these states are of fundamental interest. We report the observation of antihypertritons--comprising an antiproton, an antineutron, and an antilambda hyperon--produced by colliding gold nuclei at high energy. Our analysis yields 70 +/- 17 antihypertritons ((Lambda)(3)-H) and 157 +/- 30 hypertritons (Lambda3H). The measured yields of Lambda3H ((Lambda)(3)-H) and 3He (3He) are similar, suggesting an equilibrium in coordinate and momentum space populations of up, down, and strange quarks and antiquarks, unlike the pattern observed at lower collision energies. The production and properties of antinuclei, and of nuclei containing strange quarks, have implications spanning nuclear and particle physics, astrophysics, and cosmology.

  16. Observing urban forests in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.G. McPherson

    2009-01-01

    From February 13 to 28, 2009 I had the good fortune of visiting Australia, and touring urban forests in Sydney, Canberra, Brisbane, and Melbourne. My visits were only a day or two in each city, so in no case did I get an in-depth view of the urban forest resource or its management. The following observations are based on rather superficial field assessments and brief...

  17. Complexity of infimal observable superlanguages

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Masopust, Tomáš

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 1 (2018), s. 249-254 ISSN 0018-9286 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : discrete event systems * observable language * complexity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Computer sciences, information science, bioinformathics (hardware development to be 2.2, social aspect to be 5.8) Impact factor: 4.270, year: 2016 http:// ieee xplore. ieee .org/document/7962165/

  18. Observational constraints on undulant cosmologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barenboim, Gabriela; /Valencia U.; Mena Requejo, Olga; Quigg, Chris; /Fermilab

    2005-10-01

    In an undulant universe, cosmic expansion is characterized by alternating periods of acceleration and deceleration. We examine cosmologies in which the dark-energy equation of state varies periodically with the number of e-foldings of the scale factor of the universe, and use observations to constrain the frequency of oscillation. We find a tension between a forceful response to the cosmic coincidence problem and the standard treatment of structure formation.

  19. Observational cinema and embodied vision

    OpenAIRE

    Uslu, Ayşe

    2011-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of Communication and Design, İhsan Doğramacı Bilkent University, 2011. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 2011. Includes bibliographical references leaves 87-89. The aim of this study is to discuss the notion of embodiment in respect of Merleau Ponty's philosophy of phenomenology and its relation to observational cinema. For this aim, this thesis dwells on the embodied nature of perception of seeing and its relation to epistemological approaches...

  20. Complexity of infimal observable superlanguages

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Masopust, Tomáš

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 1 (2018), s. 249-254 ISSN 0018-9286 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : discrete event systems * observable language * complexity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Computer sciences, information science, bioinformathics (hardware development to be 2.2, social aspect to be 5.8) Impact factor: 4.270, year: 2016 http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/7962165/

  1. Cytogenetic observations following thallium poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hantson, P; Desoir, R; Léonard, E D; Crutzen-Fayt, M C; Léonard, A; Mahieu, P

    1997-02-07

    Observations have been performed on peripheral blood lymphocytes from a patient having ingested 200 mg thallium sulfate, in order to evaluate the ability of the compound to produce cytogenetic damage in vivo in humans. Our results demonstrate that neither the yield of structural chromosome aberrations nor sister chromatid exchanges were significantly modified. The drastic increase of binucleated cells with micronuclei indicates that thallium sulfate has in common with many metallic compounds the ability to interfere with chromosome distribution.

  2. Observations of Local Seychelles Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    for numerical modeling. A nominal observational array is illustrated in Figure 2. Available components will include: • ADCP + thermistor chain...star, 2 locations): bottom-mounted 600 kHz ADCP with a nearby thermistor chain (8-10 SBE 56s with 1 SBE37 CT) to enable resolution of currents...locations with bottom moored ADCPs to resolve currents, stratification and internal wave energy fluxes. • PUV array (triangles, 2 location): bottom

  3. Observation Predicates in Flow Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Sun, Hongyan

    2003-01-01

    in such a way that the hard constraints are satisfi ed exactly when the observation predicates report no violations. The development is carried out in a large fragment of a first order logic with negation and also takes care of the transformations necessary in order to adhere to the stratification restrictions...... inherent in Alternation-free Least Fixed Point Logic and similar formalisms such as Datalog....

  4. Astrometric Observation of Delta Cepheus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Naomi; Wilson, Betsie; Estrada, Chris; Crisafi, Kim; King, Jackie; Jones, Stephany; Salam, Akash; Warren, Glenn; Collins, S. Jananne; Genet, Russell

    2012-04-01

    Members of a Cuesta College astronomy research seminar used a manually-controlled 10-inch Newtonian Reflector telescope to determine the separation and position angle of the binary star Delta Cepheus. It was observed on the night of Saturday, October 29, 2011, at Star Hill in Santa Margarita, California. Their values of 40.2 arc seconds and 192.4 degrees were similar to those reported in the WDS (1910).

  5. Observer perspective imagery with stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Robyn; Menzies, Ross; Packman, Ann; O'Brian, Sue; Onslow, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Adults who stutter are at risk of developing a range of psychological conditions. Social anxiety disorder is the most common anxiety disorder associated with stuttering. Observer perspective imagery is one cognitive process involved in the maintenance of some anxiety disorders. This involves viewing images as if looking at the self from the perspective of another. In contrast, the field perspective involves looking out from the self at the surrounding environment. The purpose of this study was to assess the presence of observer perspective imagery with stuttering. The authors administered the Hackmann, Surawy and Clark (1998) semi-structured interview to 30 adults who stutter and 30 controls. Group images and impressions were compared for frequency, perspective recalled and emotional valence. The stuttering group was significantly more likely than controls to recall images and impressions from an observer rather than a field perspective for anxious situations. It is possible the present results could reflect the same attentional processing bias that occurs with anxiety disorders in the non-stuttering population. These preliminary results provide an explanation for the persistence of conditions such as social anxiety disorder with stuttering. Clinical implications are discussed.

  6. THE EARTH OBSERVATION TECHNOLOGY CLUSTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Aplin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The Earth Observation Technology Cluster is a knowledge exchange initiative, promoting development, understanding and communication about innovative technology used in remote sensing of the terrestrial or land surface. This initiative provides an opportunity for presentation of novel developments from, and cross-fertilisation of ideas between, the many and diverse members of the terrestrial remote sensing community. The Earth Observation Technology Cluster involves a range of knowledge exchange activities, including organisation of technical events, delivery of educational materials, publication of scientific findings and development of a coherent terrestrial EO community. The initiative as a whole covers the full range of remote sensing operation, from new platform and sensor development, through image retrieval and analysis, to data applications and environmental modelling. However, certain topical and strategic themes have been selected for detailed investigation: (1 Unpiloted Aerial Vehicles, (2 Terrestrial Laser Scanning, (3 Field-Based Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy, (4 Hypertemporal Image Analysis, and (5 Circumpolar and Cryospheric Application. This paper presents general activities and achievements of the Earth Observation Technology Cluster, and reviews state-of-the-art developments in the five specific thematic areas.

  7. Hue discrimination in Iberoamerican Observers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, Jazmín; Medina, Juana

    2008-04-01

    In this work we analyze the Farnsworth Munsell 100 Hue Test results, this test offers a simple method for testing color discrimination and was applied to a sample of 129 observers, with natural daylight in the same conditions (the observers were men and women), all of these were participants in colorimetric training courses, and aged 20 to 76, with two to twenty five years experience in the color control manufacturer laboratories (of plastics, rugs, dyes, textiles, and paints). Their job titles included mixers, inspectors, shaders, matchers, passers, and dyers. The test was applied twice and the results here presented are the comparison between both tests, taking into account errors by mistakes incidence in each hue position, as well as the redeeming of each participant in both test. The comparison shows us that most of the mistakes are in the green hue in both tests, but in the second test, approximately 20 percent of the observers reduced those. Also we can to separate persons with normal color vision of those which have zones of color confusion. In this work it is show some ones results of the comparison between men and women.

  8. Observation of Nonlinear Compton Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotseroglou, T.

    2003-12-19

    This experiment tests Quantum Electrodynamics in the strong field regime. Nonlinear Compton scattering has been observed during the interaction of a 46.6 GeV electron beam with a 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2} laser beam. The strength of the field achieved was measured by the parameter {eta} = e{var_epsilon}{sub rms}/{omega}mc = 0.6. Data were collected with infrared and green laser photons and circularly polarized laser light. The timing stabilization achieved between the picosecond laser and electron pulses has {sigma}{sub rms} = 2 ps. A strong signal of electrons that absorbed up to 4 infrared photons (or up to 3 green photons) at the same point in space and time, while emitting a single gamma ray, was observed. The energy spectra of the scattered electrons and the nonlinear dependence of the electron yield on the field strength agreed with the simulation over 3 orders of magnitude. The detector could not resolve the nonlinear Compton scattering from the multiple single Compton scattering which produced rates of scattered electrons of the same order of magnitude. Nevertheless, a simulation has studied this difference and concluded that the scattered electron rates observed could not be accounted for only by multiple ordinary Compton scattering; nonlinear Compton scattering processes are dominant for n {ge} 3.

  9. Developing a Carbon Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, B., III

    2015-12-01

    There is a clear need to better understand and predict future climate change, so that science can more confidently inform climate policy, including adaptation planning and future mitigation strategies. Understanding carbon cycle feedbacks, and the relationship between emissions (fossil and land use) and the resulting atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) concentrations in a changing climate has been recognized as an important goal by the IPCC. The existing surface greenhouse gas observing networks provide accurate and precise measurements of background values, but they are not configured to target the extended, complex and dynamic regions of the carbon budget. Space Agencies around the globe are committed to CO2 and CH4 observations: GOSAT-1/2, OCO-2/3, MERLin, TanSat, and CarbonSat. In addition to these Low Earth Orbit (LEO) missions, a new mission in Geostationary Orbit (GEO), geoCARB, which would provide mapping-like measurements of carbon dioxide, methane, and carbon monoxide concentrations over major land areas, has been recently proposed to the NASA Venture Program. These pioneering missions do not provide the spatial/temporal coverage to answer the key carbon-climate questions at process relevant scales nor do they address the distribution and quantification of anthropogenic sources at urban scales. They do demonstrate, however, that a well-planned future system of system integrating space-based LEO and GEO missions with extensive in situ observations could provide the accuracy, spatial resolution, and coverage needed to address critical open issues in the carbon-climate system. Dr. Diana Wickland devoted enormous energy in developing a comprehensive apprioach to understand the global carbon cycle; she understood well that an integrated, coordinated, international approach is needed. This shines through in her recent contribution in co-chairing the team that produced the "CEOS Strategy for Carbon Observations from Space." A NASA-funded community

  10. Biologic relativity: Who is the observer and what is observed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torday, John S; Miller, William B

    2016-05-01

    When quantum physics and biological phenomena are analogously explored, it emerges that biologic causation must also be understood independently of its overt appearance. This is similar to the manner in which Bohm characterized the explicate versus the implicate order as overlapping frames of ambiguity. Placed in this context, the variables affecting epigenetic inheritance can be properly assessed as a key mechanistic principle of evolution that significantly alters our understanding of homeostasis, pleiotropy, and heterochrony, and the purposes of sexual reproduction. Each of these become differing manifestations of a new biological relativity in which biologic space-time becomes its own frame. In such relativistic cellular contexts, it is proper to question exactly who has observer status, and who and what are being observed. Consideration within this frame reduces biology to cellular information sharing through cell-cell communication to resolve ambiguities at every scope and scale. In consequence, it becomes implicit that eukaryotic evolution derives from the unicellular state, remaining consistently adherent to it in a continuous evolutionary arc based upon elemental, non-stochastic physiologic first principles. Furthermore, the entire cell including its cytoskeletal apparatus and membranes that participate in the resolution of biological uncertainties must be considered as having equivalent primacy with genomes in evolutionary terms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Observations of a Windy Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-06-01

    Hubble view of the Homunculus Nebula surrounding Eta Carinae [NASA Hubble Space Telescope/Jon Morse (University of Colorado)]The incredibly luminous massive star Eta Carinae has long posed a challenge for astronomers to model. New observations are now in so were our models correct?Dramatic TargetThe massive evolved star Eta Carinae, located 7,500 light-years away in the constellation Carina, is the most luminous star in the Milky Way. Eta Carinae has a quite a reputation for drama: it has been very unstable in the past, exhibiting repeated eruptions that have created the spectacular Homunculus Nebula surrounding it. Its present-day wind has the highest mass-loss rate of any hot star weve observed.Picture of Stellar WindTop panel: February 2017 observations of Eta Carinae in continuum (left) and H-alpha. Middle panel: the normalized radial profile for H-alpha and continuum emission. Bottom panel: the full width at half maximum for H-alpha and continuum emission of Eta Carinae. The H-alpha is about 2.5 to 3 milliarcseconds wider than the continuum. [Adapted from Wu et al. 2017]In our goal to understand the late evolutionary phases of very massive stars, weve developed radiative-transfer models to explain the behavior of Eta Carinae. One of the most well-known models, developed by John Hillier and collaborators in 2001, describes Eta Carinaes mass loss via stellar winds. With the right observations, this model is testable, since it predicts observable locations for different types of emission. In particular, one prediction of the Hillier et al. model is that the dense, ionized winds surrounding the star should emit in H-alpha at distances between 6 and 60 AU, with a peak around 20 AU.This nicely testable hypothesis is rendered less convenient by the fact that its hard to get resolved images of Eta Carinaes H-alpha emission. Its distance from us and the fact that its shrouded in the complex nebula it created have thus far prevented us from resolving the H

  12. APR-2 Tropical Cyclone Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durden, S. L.; Tanelli, S.

    2011-01-01

    The Second Generation Airborne Precipitation Radar (APR-2) participated in the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) experiment in August and September of 2010, collecting a large volume of data in several tropical systems, including Hurricanes Earl and Karl. Additional measurements of tropical cyclone have been made by APR-2 in experiments prior to GRIP (namely, CAMEX-4, NAMMA, TC4); Table 1 lists all the APR-2 tropical cyclone observations. The APR-2 observations consist of the vertical structure of rain reflectivity at 13.4 and 35.6 GHz, and at both co-polarization and crosspolarization, as well as vertical Doppler measurements and crosswind measurements. APR-2 normally flies on the NASA DC-8 aircraft, as in GRIP, collecting data with a downward looking, cross-track scanning geometry. The scan limits are 25 degrees on either side of the aircraft, resulting in a roughly 10-km swath, depending on the aircraft altitude. Details of the APR-2 observation geometry and performance can be found in Sadowy et al. (2003).The multiparameter nature of the APR-2 measurements makes the collection of tropical cyclone measurements valuable for detailed studies of the processes, microphysics and dynamics of tropical cyclones, as well as weaker systems that are associated with tropical cyclone formation. In this paper, we give a brief overview of how the APR-2 data are processed. We also discuss use of the APR-2 cross-track winds to estimate various quantities of interest in in studies of storm intensification. Finally, we show examples of the standard products and derived information.

  13. INTEGRAL Observations of GW170104

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savchenko, V.; Ferrigno, C.; Bozzo, E.; Bazzano, A.; Brandt, S.; Chenevez, J.; Courvoisier, T. J.-L.; Diehl, R.; Hanlon, L.; von Kienlin, A.; Kuulkers, E.; Laurent, P.; Lebrun, F.; Lutovinov, A.; Martin-Carillo, A.; Mereghetti, S.; Roques, J. P.; Sunyaev, R.; Ubertini, P.

    2017-09-01

    We used data from the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) to set upper limits on the γ-ray and hard X-ray prompt emission associated with the gravitational-wave event GW170104, discovered by the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO)/Virgo collaboration. The unique omnidirectional viewing capability of the instruments on board INTEGRAL allowed us to examine the full 90% confidence level localization region of the LIGO trigger. Depending on the particular spectral model assumed and the specific position within this region, the upper limits inferred from the INTEGRAL observations range from F γ = 1.9 × 10-7 erg cm-2 to F γ = 10-6 erg cm-2 (75 keV-2 MeV energy range). This translates into a ratio between the prompt energy released in γ-rays along the direction to the observer and the gravitational-wave energy of E γ /E GW < 2.6 × 10-5. Using the INTEGRAL results, we cannot confirm the γ-ray proposed counterpart to GW170104 by the Astro—Rivelatore Gamma a Immagini Leggero (AGILE) team with the mini-Calorimeter (MCAL) instrument. The reported flux of the AGILE/MCAL event, E2, is not compatible with the INTEGRAL upper limits within most of the 90% LIGO localization region. There is only a relatively limited portion of the sky where the sensitivity of the INTEGRAL instruments was not optimal and the lowest-allowed fluence estimated for E2 would still be compatible with the INTEGRAL results. This region was also observed independently by Fermi/Gamma-ray Burst Monitor and AstroSAT, from which, as far as we are aware, there are no reports of any significant detection of a prompt high-energy event.

  14. Remote Observational Techniques in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieman, J.; Mayo, L.

    2002-09-01

    The ability to observe celestial objects remotely is making a major impact into classroom access to astronomical instrumentation previously impossible to encorporate into curriculum. Two programs, Radio Jove and Telescopes In Education have made important contributions in this field. Radio JOVE is an interactive, hands-on, educational activity for learning the scientific method through the medium of radio observations of Jupiter, the Sun, and the galactic radio background. Students build radio receivers from relatively inexpensive non-profit kits (about \\$125 plus shipping) and use them to record data, analyze the data, and share the results with others. Alternatively, for no cost, the students can record and analyze data from remote radio receivers connected to the web. The projects are useful adjuncts to activities in optical observing since students should recognize that we learn about the universe through more than just the optical spectrum. The projects are mini-electronics courses and also teach about charged particles and magnetic fields. The Radio JOVE web site (http://radiojove.gsfc.nasa.gov) should be consulted for further information. The NASA-sponsored Telescopes In Education (TIE) network (http://tie.jpl.nasa.gov) has been wildly successful in engaging the K-12 education community in real-time, hands-on, interactive astronomy activities. Hundreds of schools in the US, Australia, Canada, England, and Japan have participated in the TIE program, remotely controlling the 24-inch telescope at the Mount Wilson Observatory from their classrooms. In recent years, several (approximately 20 to date) other telescopes have been, or are in the process of being, outfitted for remote use as TIE affiliates. These telescopesare integrated seamlessly into one virtual observatory providing the services required to operate this facility, including a scheduling service, tools for data manipulation, an online proposal review environment, an online "Virtual TIE Student Ap J

  15. INTEGRAL Observations of GW170104

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savchenko, V.; Ferrigno, C.; Bozzo, E.; Courvoisier, T. J.-L. [ISDC, Department of Astronomy, University of Geneva, chemin d’Écogia, 16 CH-1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Bazzano, A. [INAF-Institute for Space Astrophysics and Planetology, Via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133-Rome (Italy); Brandt, S.; Chenevez, J.; Ubertini, P. [DTU Space—National Space Institute Elektrovej, Building 327, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Diehl, R.; Von Kienlin, A. [Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, Garching (Germany); Hanlon, L.; Martin-Carillo, A. [Space Science Group, School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Kuulkers, E. [European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESA/ESTEC), Keplerlaan 1, 2201 AZ Noordwijk (Netherlands); Laurent, P. [APC, AstroParticule et Cosmologie, Université Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Observatoire de Paris Sorbonne Paris Cité, 10 rue Alice Domont et Léonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); Lebrun, F. [DSM/Irfu/Service d’Astrophysique, Bat. 709 Orme des Merisiers CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Lutovinov, A.; Sunyaev, R. [Space Research Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, Profsoyuznaya 84/32, 117997 Moscow (Russian Federation); Mereghetti, S. [INAF, IASF-Milano, via E.Bassini 15, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Roques, J. P. [Université Toulouse, UPS-OMP, CNRS, IRAP, 9 Av. Roche, BP 44346, F-31028 Toulouse (France)

    2017-09-10

    We used data from the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory ( INTEGRAL ) to set upper limits on the γ -ray and hard X-ray prompt emission associated with the gravitational-wave event GW170104, discovered by the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO)/Virgo collaboration. The unique omnidirectional viewing capability of the instruments on board INTEGRAL allowed us to examine the full 90% confidence level localization region of the LIGO trigger. Depending on the particular spectral model assumed and the specific position within this region, the upper limits inferred from the INTEGRAL observations range from F {sub γ} = 1.9 × 10{sup −7} erg cm{sup −2} to F {sub γ} = 10{sup −6} erg cm{sup −2} (75 keV–2 MeV energy range). This translates into a ratio between the prompt energy released in γ -rays along the direction to the observer and the gravitational-wave energy of E {sub γ} / E {sub GW} < 2.6 × 10{sup −5}. Using the INTEGRAL results, we cannot confirm the γ -ray proposed counterpart to GW170104 by the Astro—Rivelatore Gamma a Immagini Leggero (AGILE) team with the mini-Calorimeter (MCAL) instrument. The reported flux of the AGILE/MCAL event, E2, is not compatible with the INTEGRAL upper limits within most of the 90% LIGO localization region. There is only a relatively limited portion of the sky where the sensitivity of the INTEGRAL instruments was not optimal and the lowest-allowed fluence estimated for E2 would still be compatible with the INTEGRAL results. This region was also observed independently by Fermi /Gamma-ray Burst Monitor and AstroSAT, from which, as far as we are aware, there are no reports of any significant detection of a prompt high-energy event.

  16. Observations involving broadband impedance modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, J.S.

    1995-08-01

    Results for single- and multi-bunch instabilities can be significantly affected by the precise model that is used for the broadband impendance. This paper discusses three aspects of broadband impendance modeling. The first is an observation of the effect that a seemingly minor change in an impedance model has on the single-bunch mode coupling threshold. The second is a successful attempt to construct a model for the high-frequency tails of an r.f cavity. The last is a discussion of requirements for the mathematical form of an impendance which follow from the general properties of impendances

  17. Observable Electron EDM and Leptogenesis

    CERN Document Server

    Joaquim, F R; Riotto, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    In the context of the minimal supersymmetric seesaw model, the CP-violating neutrino Yukawa couplings might induce an electron EDM. The same interactions may also be responsible for the generation of the observed baryon asymmetry of the Universe via leptogenesis. We identify in a model-independent way those patterns within the seesaw models which predict an electron EDM at a level probed by planned laboratory experiments and show that negative searches on \\tau-> e \\gamma decay may provide the strongest upper bound on the electron EDM. We also conclude that a possible future detection of the electron EDM is incompatible with thermal leptogenesis, even when flavour effects are accounted for.

  18. Astronomical Observations by Speckle Interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-12

    most notably for Betelgeuse , that have errors in the range of 10 to 20%. A version of the Michelson interferometer was a’’ developed by Currie and...applied by Lynds et al. (125) to a reconstructed image of Betelgeuse , as has been done by McDonnell & Bates (158), Wilkerson & Worden (229), Worden (233...8217 ~ % ~ ’ ’ 9 r~.** ~ .* a a’ -’ * % hr 78 McALISTER obtained observations of Betelgeuse using their rotation-shearing inter- ferometer. Indeed, Betelgeuse

  19. Observations involving broadband impedance modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, J.S. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Results for single- and multi-bunch instabilities can be significantly affected by the precise model that is used for the broadband impedance. This paper discusses three aspects of broadband impedance modelling. The first is an observation of the effect that a seemingly minor change in an impedance model has on the single-bunch mode coupling threshold. The second is a successful attempt to construct a model for the high-frequency tails of an r.f. cavity. The last is a discussion of requirements for the mathematical form of an impedance which follow from the general properties of impedances. (author)

  20. First observation of 15Be

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, J.; Baumann, T.; Christian, G.; Haring-Kaye, R. A.; DeYoung, P. A.; Kohley, Z.; Luther, B.; Mosby, M.; Mosby, S.; Simon, A.; Smith, J. K.; Spyrou, A.; Stephenson, S.; Thoennessen, M.

    2013-09-01

    The neutron-unbound nucleus 15Be was observed for the first time. It was populated using neutron transfer from a deuterated polyethylene target with a 59 MeV/u 14Be beam. Neutrons were measured in coincidence with outgoing 14Be particles and the reconstructed decay energy spectrum exhibits a resonance at 1.8(1) MeV. This corresponds to 15Be being unbound by 0.45 MeV more then 16Be thus significantly hindering the sequential two-neutron decay of 16Be to 14Be through this state.

  1. Infrared techniques for comet observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanner, Martha S.; Tokunaga, Alan T.

    1991-01-01

    The infrared spectral region (1-1000 microns) is important for studies of both molecules and solid grains in comets. Infrared astronomy is in the midst of a technological revolution, with the development of sensitive 2D arrays leading to IR cameras and spectrometers with vastly improved sensitivity and resolution. The Halley campaign gave us tantalizing first glimpses of the comet science possible with this new technology, evidenced, for example, by the many new spectral features detected in the infrared. The techniques of photometry, imaging, and spectroscopy are reviewed in this chapter and their status at the time of the Halley observations is described.

  2. Chronic rhinosinusitis: observation or treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokopakis, Emmanuel; Vlastos, Ioannis; Pant, Harshita; Ferguson, Berrylin J

    2013-02-01

    Several treatment options have been proposed for chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Our purpose is to present a protocol/tool to treat patient symptoms, which is initially independent of assessment for presence of CRS. This protocol is called the Rational Patient Experiment (RPE), and its concept is largely based on the fact that CRS is overrepresented in incidence based on surveys, because symptoms of CRS are nonspecific and overlap multiple other disorders. Patients whose symptoms persist, despite the RPE, require further objective assessment of CRS with endoscopy and computed tomography. This review outlines the RPE and the evidence base for observation versus treatment with saline washes, steroids, or antibiotics.

  3. Solar Observations at Submillimeter Wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, P.

    We review earlier to recent observational evidences and theoretical motivations leading to a renewed interest to observe flares in the submillimeter (submm) - infrared (IR) range of wavelengths. We describe the new solar dedicated submillimeter wave telescope which began operations at El Leoncito in the Argentina Andes: the SST project. It consists of focal plane arrays of two 405 GHz and four 212 GHz radiometers placed in a 1.5-m radome-enclosed Cassegrain antenna, operating simultaneously with one millisecond time resolution. The first solar events analyzed exhibited the onset of rapid submm-wave spikes (100-300 ms), well associated to other flare manifestations, especially at X-rays. The spikes positions were found scattered over the flaring source by tens of arcseconds. For one event an excellent association was found between the gamma-ray emission time profile and the rate of occurrence of submm-wave rapid spikes. The preliminary results favour the idea that bulk burst emissions are a response to numerous fast energetic injections, discrete in time, produced at different spatial positions over the flaring region. Coronal mass ejections were associated to the events studied. Their trajectories extrapolated to the solar surface appear to correspond to the onset time of the submm-wave spikes, which might represent an early signature of the CME's initial acceleration process.

  4. Observations of substorm fine structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. L. Lazutin

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Particle and magnetic field measurements on the CRRES satellite were used, together with geosynchronous satellites and ground-based observations, to investigate the fine structure of a magnetospheric substorm on February 9, 1991. Using the variations in the electron fluxes, the substorm activity was divided into several intensifications lasting about 3–15 minutes each. The two main features of the data were: (1 the intensifications showed internal fine structure in the time scale of about 2 minutes or less. We call these shorter periods activations. Energetic electrons and protons at the closest geosynchronous spacecraft (1990 095 were found to have comparable activation structure. (2 The energetic (>69 keV proton injections were delayed with respect to electron injections, and actually coincided in time with the end of the intensifications and partial returns to locally more stretched field line configuration. We propose that the energetic protons could be able to control the dynamics of the system locally be quenching the ongoing intensification and possibly preparing the final large-scale poleward movement of the activity. It was also shown that these protons originated from the same intensification as the preceeding electrons. Therefore, the substorm instability responsible for the intensifications could introduce a negative feedback loop into the system, creating the observed fine structure with the intensification time scales.Key words. Magnetospheric Physics (Storms and substorms.

  5. IUE observations of cataclysmic variable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szkody, Paula

    1993-06-01

    Twenty two approved International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) programs were studied over a 14 year period. These programs are listed. The observations and subsequent analysis centered on cataclysmic variables (close binaries with a late main sequence star transferring material to a primary white dwarf via an accretion disk). The early studies highlighted the flux distribution of the accretion disk at outburst and quiescence, while later studies accomplished time-resolved observations throughout the orbital cycles, the study of the outflowing winds present at outburst, the study of the white dwarf in those systems with low accretion rate. There are 39 publications resulting from this work which are listed. These results include those for individual systems (Stepanian's star, Lanning 10, AM Her, MV Lyr, TV Col, VW Hyi, T Leo, IR Gem, TT Ari, Z Cam, BV Pup, IP Peg, PG1030+590, V1315 Aql, SW UMa, V426 Oph, WZ Sge, BY Cam, and U Gem) as well as review articles in journals and publications from reviews at meetings that summarize the impact of IUE on the study of accretion disks, white dwarfs, and hot spots resulting from stream impact as well as magnetic accretion columns.

  6. Spanish Earth Observation Satellite System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, A.; Cerezo, F.; Fernandez, M.; Lomba, J.; Lopez, M.; Moreno, J.; Neira, A.; Quintana, C.; Torres, J.; Trigo, R.; Urena, J.; Vega, E.; Vez, E.

    2010-12-01

    The Spanish Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Trade (MITyC) and the Ministry of Defense (MoD) signed an agreement in 2007 for the development of a "Spanish Earth Observation Satellite System" based, in first instance, on two satellites: a high resolution optical satellite, called SEOSAT/Ingenio, and a radar satellite based on SAR technology, called SEOSAR/Paz. SEOSAT/Ingenio is managed by MITyC through the Centre for the Development of Industrial Technology (CDTI), with technical and contractual support from the European Space Agency (ESA). HISDESA T together with the Spanish Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial (INTA, National Institute for Aerospace Technology) will be responsible for the in-orbit operation and the commercial operation of both satellites, and for the technical management of SEOSAR/Paz on behalf of the MoD. In both cases EADS CASA Espacio (ECE) is the prime contractor leading the industrial consortia. The ground segment development will be assigned to a Spanish consortium. This system is the most important contribution of Spain to the European Programme Global Monitoring for Environment and Security, GMES. This paper presents the Spanish Earth Observation Satellite System focusing on SEOSA T/Ingenio Programme and with special emphasis in the potential contribution to the ESA Third Party Missions Programme and to the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security initiative (GMES) Data Access.

  7. Jet observables without jet algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertolini, Daniele; Chan, Tucker; Thaler, Jesse [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2014-04-02

    We introduce a new class of event shapes to characterize the jet-like structure of an event. Like traditional event shapes, our observables are infrared/collinear safe and involve a sum over all hadrons in an event, but like a jet clustering algorithm, they incorporate a jet radius parameter and a transverse momentum cut. Three of the ubiquitous jet-based observables — jet multiplicity, summed scalar transverse momentum, and missing transverse momentum — have event shape counterparts that are closely correlated with their jet-based cousins. Due to their “local” computational structure, these jet-like event shapes could potentially be used for trigger-level event selection at the LHC. Intriguingly, the jet multiplicity event shape typically takes on non-integer values, highlighting the inherent ambiguity in defining jets. By inverting jet multiplicity, we show how to characterize the transverse momentum of the n-th hardest jet without actually finding the constituents of that jet. Since many physics applications do require knowledge about the jet constituents, we also build a hybrid event shape that incorporates (local) jet clustering information. As a straightforward application of our general technique, we derive an event-shape version of jet trimming, allowing event-wide jet grooming without explicit jet identification. Finally, we briefly mention possible applications of our method for jet substructure studies.

  8. Observation of the Top Quark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S. B.

    1995-08-01

    Top quark production is observed in{bar p}p collisions at{radical}s= 1.8 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron. The Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) and D{O} observe signals consistent with t{bar t} to WWb{bar b}, but inconsistent with the background prediction by 4.8{sigma} (CDF), 4.6a (D{O}). Additional evidence for the top quark Is provided by a peak in the reconstructed mass distribution. The kinematic properties of the excess events are consistent with the top quark decay. They measure the top quark mass to be 176{plus_minus}8(stat.){plus_minus}10(sys.) GeV/c{sup 2} (CDF), 199{sub -21}{sup+19}(stat.){plus_minus}22(sys.) GeV/c{sup 2} (D{O}), and the t{bar t} production cross section to be 6.8{sub -2.4}{sup+3.6}pb (CDF), 6.4{plus_minus}2.2 pb (D{O}).

  9. VLBI observations of M87

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, M.J.; Schmitt, J.H.M.M.; Booth, R.S.; Wilkinson, P.N.; Shaffer, D.B.; Hardee, P.E.

    1982-01-01

    On 1980 February 20 the authors conducted an 8-station intercontinental VLBI experiment in order to study the nucleus and jet of M87 at 1666.6 MHz in right circular polarization. The array was sensitive to structures from 0.001 to 0.1 arcsec. They made a hybrid map of the nucleus of M87, and also searched for compact structures within the knots of the jet. The map shows that the nucleus of M87 contains a one-sided jet. This morphology is similar to that observed in many compact extragalactic sources. The position angle of the nuclear jet is 290.5(+-1) degrees, which precisely matches that of the 20 arcsec jet. No bending of the jet through an angle greater than about 2 degrees is observed. The nucleus also contains a large component (>0.1 arcsec) which is elongated along the same position angle as the jet and has a flux density of roughly 1 Jy. This component is fully resolved by the vast majority of the (u,v) points and could not be mapped with standard techniques. (Auth.)

  10. Observation of Pollution from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, J. P.; Richter, A.; Bovensmann, H.; Buchwitz, M.; Andrés Hernández, M. D.; Hilboll, A.; Schoenhardt, A.; Blechschmidt, A.; Alvarado, L.; Wittrock, F.

    2016-12-01

    The rapid growth of population since the industrial revolution has led to large changes in surface emissions and land use change. It is now over 30 years since the SCIAMACHY project was initiated. This project has led to the GOME (ESA ERS-2 1995-2011), SCIAMACHY (ESA Envisat 2002 to 2011) GOME-2 (EUMETSAT/ESA Metop A, 2006 to present, Metop B 2012 to present, Metop C planned launch 2018) and the spin offs OMI (NASA AURA 2004-present) . This presentation addresses observations of tropospheric trace gas pollutants retrieved these instruments with a focus on recent studies of the ozone precursors NO2, HCHO and CHO.CHO, the halogen oxides BrO, IO and CH4 and CO2. It will discuss the objectives of the DLR HALO EMeRGe mission. The latter is research mission combining satelltie and aircraft observations, whihc aims to study pollution from major pollution centers in Europe and Asia, and is planned to take palce in 2017 and 2018.

  11. Observational Bounds on Cosmic Doomsday

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shmakova, Marina

    2003-07-11

    Recently it was found, in a broad class of models, that the dark energy density may change its sign during the evolution of the universe. This may lead to a global collapse of the universe within the time t{sub c} {approx} 10{sup 10}-10{sup 11} years. Our goal is to find what bounds on the future lifetime of the universe can be placed by the next generation of cosmological observations. As an example, we investigate the simplest model of dark energy with a linear potential V({phi}) = V{sub 0}(1 + {alpha}{phi}). This model can describe the present stage of acceleration of the universe if {alpha} is small enough. However, eventually the field {phi} rolls down, V({phi}) becomes negative, and the universe collapses. The existing observational data indicate that the universe described by this model will collapse not earlier than t{sub c} {approx_equal} 10 billion years from the present moment. We show that the data from SNAP and Planck satellites may extend the bound on the ''doomsday'' time to tc 40 billion years at the 95% confidence level.

  12. Committed warming inferred from observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauritsen, Thorsten; Pincus, Robert

    2017-09-01

    Due to the lifetime of CO2, the thermal inertia of the oceans, and the temporary impacts of short-lived aerosols and reactive greenhouse gases, the Earth’s climate is not equilibrated with anthropogenic forcing. As a result, even if fossil-fuel emissions were to suddenly cease, some level of committed warming is expected due to past emissions as studied previously using climate models. Here, we provide an observational-based quantification of this committed warming using the instrument record of global-mean warming, recently improved estimates of Earth’s energy imbalance, and estimates of radiative forcing from the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Compared with pre-industrial levels, we find a committed warming of 1.5 K (0.9-3.6, 5th-95th percentile) at equilibrium, and of 1.3 K (0.9-2.3) within this century. However, when assuming that ocean carbon uptake cancels remnant greenhouse gas-induced warming on centennial timescales, committed warming is reduced to 1.1 K (0.7-1.8). In the latter case there is a 13% risk that committed warming already exceeds the 1.5 K target set in Paris. Regular updates of these observationally constrained committed warming estimates, although simplistic, can provide transparent guidance as uncertainty regarding transient climate sensitivity inevitably narrows and the understanding of the limitations of the framework is advanced.

  13. Ocean Observations of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Don

    2016-01-01

    The ocean influences climate by storing and transporting large amounts of heat, freshwater, and carbon, and exchanging these properties with the atmosphere. About 93% of the excess heat energy stored by the earth over the last 50 years is found in the ocean. More than three quarters of the total exchange of water between the atmosphere and the earth's surface through evaporation and precipitation takes place over the oceans. The ocean contains 50 times more carbon than the atmosphere and is at present acting to slow the rate of climate change by absorbing one quarter of human emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel burning, cement production, deforestation and other land use change.Here I summarize the observational evidence of change in the ocean, with an emphasis on basin- and global-scale changes relevant to climate. These include: changes in subsurface ocean temperature and heat content, evidence for regional changes in ocean salinity and their link to changes in evaporation and precipitation over the oceans, evidence of variability and change of ocean current patterns relevant to climate, observations of sea level change and predictions over the next century, and biogeochemical changes in the ocean, including ocean acidification.

  14. Advanced Earth Observing Satellite (ADEOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of the ADEOS mission are as follows: to acquire data on worldwide environmental changes such as the green house effect, ozone layer depletion, tropical rain forest deforestation, and abnormal climatic conditions; to contribute to international global environmental monitoring; and to further the development of platform bus technology, interorbital data relay technology, etc., which are necessary for the future earth observation systems. To make continuous, thorough observations of the entire earth's surface and its atmosphere, the spacecraft carries two core sensors: the Advanced Visible and Near Infrared Radiometer (AVNIR) and the Ocean Color and Temperature Sensor (OCTS). The two sensors were developed by NASDA. Additionally, the spacecraft carries six (6) Announcement of Opportunity (AO) sensors: the NASA Scatterometer (NSCAT) and Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS); the Polarization and Directionality of the Earth's Surface (POLDER) system; the Interferometric Monitor for Greenhouse Gases (IMG); the Improved Limb Atmospheric Spectrometer (ILAS); and the Retroreflector in Space (RIS). In early 1996, ADEOS will be launched into a sun synchronous sub-recurrent orbit at an altitude of approximately 797 km by an H-2 launcher.

  15. Binary evolution and observational constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loore, C. de

    1984-01-01

    The evolution of close binaries is discussed in connection with problems concerning mass and angular momentum losses. Theoretical and observational evidence for outflow of matter, leaving the system during evolution is given: statistics on total masses and mass ratios, effects of the accretion of the mass gaining component, the presence of streams, disks, rings, circumstellar envelopes, period changes, abundance changes in the atmosphere. The effects of outflowing matter on the evolution is outlined, and estimates of the fraction of matter expelled by the loser, and leaving the system, are given. The various time scales involved with evolution and observation are compared. Examples of non conservative evolution are discussed. Problems related to contact phases, on mass and energy losses, in connection with entropy changes are briefly analysed. For advanced stages the disruption probabilities for supernova explosions are examined. A global picture is given for the evolution of massive close binaries, from ZAMS, through WR phases, X-ray phases, leading to runaway pulsars or to a binary pulsar and later to a millisecond pulsar. (Auth.)

  16. Stennis observes Women's History Month

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    NASA John C. Stennis Space Center employees observed Women's History Month on March 17 with a panel discussion that featured accomplished women of the facility. The gathering featured (l to r): Pam Covington, manager of the NASA Office of External Affairs at Stennis; Mary Jones, assistant chief of staff with the Navy Meterology & Oceanography Command; and Lauren Underwood, senior research scientist with Science Systems and Applications, Inc. In addition to the panel discussion, the Stennis Diversity Council and Patriot Technologies also hosted a pair of 'lunch-and-learn' sessions focused on women's issues and history. The luncheons featured videos on Sally Hemings, the slave widely recognized as the mistress of President Thomas Jefferson; and several mothers of U.S. presidents.

  17. Radiologic observation of renal tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. W.; Ra, Y. W.; Kim, Y. J.

    1981-01-01

    Radiographic findings of thirty eight cases of renal tuberculosis treated at this hospital during last 4 years were analysed with following results. The cases examined were 24 male and 14 female patients. Age distribution was broad and evenly distributed ranging from 2nd decades to 5th decades. Main symptoms complained were urinary frequency, hematuria, dysuria and flank pain. Findings of physical examination revealed tenderness of costovertebral angle, palpable mass on flank area and epididymal indutration. The simple chest films showed pulmonary tuberculosis in 22 cases including 6 cases of active military type. Thirty one cases showed increased ESR, 8 cases showed AFB positive in urine and 12 cases showed bilateral renal tuberculosis. Through urographic findings nonvisualization, cyceopelviectasis, motheaten appearance of minor calyx, contracted bladder, delayed visualization, ureteral stricture and beading were observed in order of frequency. Five cases with miliary tuberculosis showed advanced renal lesion on urogram

  18. Observations of interstellar silicon monoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickinson, D.F.; Gottlieb, C.A.; Gottlieb, E.W.; Litvak, M.M.

    1976-01-01

    We report observations of rotational transitions of SiO in the ground vibrational state at 86.8 GHz (J=2→1) and 130.3 GHz (J=3→2). At 86.8 GHz, SiO emission in Orion A peaks in the direction of the Kleinmann-Low nebula. A possible secondary maximum occurs about 80'' southward. The 130.3 GHz line was also detected in Orion A. Mapping of the 86.8 GHz line in Sgr B2 shows the presence of two velocity components and a north-south extent of about 4'. Comparison of the data with radiative-transport calculations implies that if the hydrogen density is approximately 10 5 cm -3 then the SiO column density is approximately 10 15 cm -2 for Orion A at 60 K.Upper limits to the total HO 2 column density in Orion A and Sgr B2 are reported

  19. Aerosol Observing System (AOS) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jefferson, A

    2011-01-17

    The Aerosol Observing System (AOS) is a suite of in situ surface measurements of aerosol optical and cloud-forming properties. The instruments measure aerosol properties that influence the earth’s radiative balance. The primary optical measurements are those of the aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients as a function of particle size and radiation wavelength and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) measurements as a function of percent supersaturation. Additional measurements include those of the particle number concentration and scattering hygroscopic growth. Aerosol optical measurements are useful for calculating parameters used in radiative forcing calculations such as the aerosol single-scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, mass scattering efficiency, and hygroscopic growth. CCN measurements are important in cloud microphysical models to predict droplet formation.

  20. Observational Analysis of Coronal Fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talpeanu, D.-C.; Rachmeler, L; Mierla, Marilena

    2017-01-01

    Coronal fans (see Figure 1) are bright observational structures that extend to large distances above the solar surface and can easily be seen in EUV (174 angstrom) above the limb. They have a very long lifetime and can live up to several Carrington rotations (CR), remaining relatively stationary for many months. Note that they are not off-limb manifestation of similarly-named active region fans. The solar conditions required to create coronal fans are not well understood. The goal of this research was to find as many associations as possible of coronal fans with other solar features and to gain a better understanding of these structures. Therefore, we analyzed many fans and created an overview of their properties. We present the results of this statistical analysis and also a case study on the longest living fan.

  1. Multiwavelength Observations of Recent Comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milam, Stefanie N.; Charnley, Steven B.; Gicquel, Adeline; Cordiner, Martin; Kuan, Yi-Jehng; Chuang, Yo-Ling; Villanueva, Geronimo; DiSanti, Michael A.; Bonev, Boncho P.; Remijan, Anthony J.; hide

    2013-01-01

    Comets provide important clues to the physical and chemical processes that occurred during the formation and early evolution of the Solar System, and could also have been important for initiating prebiotic chemistry on the early Earth. Comets are comprised of molecular ices, that may be pristine inter-stellar remnants of Solar System formation, along with high-temperature crystalline silicate dust that is indicative of a more thermally varied history in the protosolar nebula. Comparing abundances of cometary parent volatiles, and isotopic fractionation ratios, to those found in the interstellar medium, in disks around young stars, and between cometary families, is vital to understanding planetary system formation and the processing history experienced by organic matter in the so-called interstellar-comet connection. We will present a comparison of molecular abundances in these comets to those observed in others, supporting a long-term effort of building a comet taxonomy based on composition.

  2. Observability of market daily volatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroni, Filippo; Serva, Maurizio

    2016-02-01

    We study the price dynamics of 65 stocks from the Dow Jones Composite Average from 1973 to 2014. We show that it is possible to define a Daily Market Volatility σ(t) which is directly observable from data. This quantity is usually indirectly defined by r(t) = σ(t) ω(t) where the r(t) are the daily returns of the market index and the ω(t) are i.i.d. random variables with vanishing average and unitary variance. The relation r(t) = σ(t) ω(t) alone is unable to give an operative definition of the index volatility, which remains unobservable. On the contrary, we show that using the whole information available in the market, the index volatility can be operatively defined and detected.

  3. Radar Observation of Insects - Mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, E.; Downing, J.

    1979-01-01

    Tests were conducted at several sites over the coastal lowlands of New Jersey and over a region of high plains and low mountains in Oklahoma. In one area, a salt marsh in New Jersey, extensive ground tests were combined with laboratory data on expected insect backscatter to arrive at an extremely convincing model of the insect origin of most Dot Angels. A great deal of insight was studied from radar on the buildup and dispersal of insect swarms, since radar can follow where other means of trapping and observation cannot. Data on large-scale behavior as a function of wind and topography are presented. Displayed techniques which show individual or small swarm motion within some larger cloud or mass, or which can show the overall motion over great distances were developed. The influence of wind and terrain on insect motion and dispersal is determined from radar data.

  4. Observed properties of extrasolar planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Andrew W

    2013-05-03

    Observational surveys for extrasolar planets probe the diverse outcomes of planet formation and evolution. These surveys measure the frequency of planets with different masses, sizes, orbital characteristics, and host star properties. Small planets between the sizes of Earth and Neptune substantially outnumber Jupiter-sized planets. The survey measurements support the core accretion model, in which planets form by the accumulation of solids and then gas in protoplanetary disks. The diversity of exoplanetary characteristics demonstrates that most of the gross features of the solar system are one outcome in a continuum of possibilities. The most common class of planetary system detectable today consists of one or more planets approximately one to three times Earth's size orbiting within a fraction of the Earth-Sun distance.

  5. Sky cover from MFRSR observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kassianov

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The diffuse all-sky surface irradiances measured at two nearby wavelengths in the visible spectral range and their modeled clear-sky counterparts are the main components of a new method for estimating the fractional sky cover of different cloud types, including cumuli. The performance of this method is illustrated using 1-min resolution data from a ground-based Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR. The MFRSR data are collected at the US Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM Climate Research Facility (ACRF Southern Great Plains (SGP site during the summer of 2007 and represent 13 days with cumuli. Good agreement is obtained between estimated values of the fractional sky cover and those provided by a well-established independent method based on broadband observations.

  6. Whatever Shines Should be Observed

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna-Lawlor, S. M. P.

    2003-08-01

    It is good to mark the new Millennium by looking back as well as forward. Whatever Shines should be Observed looks to the nineteenth century to celebrate the achievements of five distinguished women, four of whom were born in Ireland while the fifth married into an Irish family, who made pioneering contributions to photography, microscopy, astronomy and astrophysics. The women featured came from either aristocratic or professional families. Thus, at first sight, they had many material advantages among their peers. In the ranks of the aristocracy there was often a great passion for learning, and the mansions in which these families lived contained libraries, technical equipment (microscopes and telescopes) and collections from the world of nature. More modest professional households of the time were rich in books, while activities such as observing the stars, collecting plants etc. typically formed an integral part of the children's education. To balance this it was the prevailing philosophy that boys could learn, in addition to basic subjects, mathematics, mechanics, physics, chemistry and classical languages, while girls were channelled into 'polite' subjects like music and needlework. This arrangement allowed boys to progress to University should they so wish, where a range of interesting career choices (including science and engineering) was open to them. Girls, on the other hand, usually received their education at home, often under the tutelage of a governess who would not herself had had any serious contact with scientific or technical subjects. In particular, progress to University was not during most of the nineteenth century an option for women, and access to scientific libraries and institutions was also prohibited. Although those women with aristocratic and professional backgrounds were in a materially privileged position and had an opportunity to 'see' through the activities of their male friends and relatives how professional scientific life was lived

  7. Ice sheet hydrology from observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansson, Peter (Dept. of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology, Stockholm Univ-, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2010-11-15

    The hydrological systems of ice sheets are complex. Our view of the system is split, largely due to the complexity of observing the systems. Our basic knowledge of processes have been obtained from smaller glaciers and although applicable in general to the larger scales of the ice sheets, ice sheets contain features not observable on smaller glaciers due to their size. The generation of water on the ice sheet surface is well understood and can be satisfactorily modeled. The routing of water from the surface down through the ice is not complicated in terms of procat has been problematic is the way in which the couplings between surface and bed has been accomplished through a kilometer of cold ice, but with the studies on crack propagation and lake drainage on Greenland we are beginning to understand also this process and we know water can be routed through thick cold ice. Water generation at the bed is also well understood but the main problem preventing realistic estimates of water generation is lack of detailed information about geothermal heat fluxes and their geographical distribution beneath the ice. Although some average value for geothermal heat flux may suffice, for many purposes it is important that such values are not applied to sub-regions of significantly higher fluxes. Water generated by geothermal heat constitutes a constant supply and will likely maintain a steady system beneath the ice sheet. Such a system may include subglacial lakes as steady features and reconfiguration of the system is tied to time scales on which the ice sheet geometry changes so as to change pressure gradients in the basal system itself. Large scale re-organization of subglacial drainage systems have been observed beneath ice streams. The stability of an entirely subglacially fed drainage system may hence be perturbed by rapid ice flow. In the case of Antarctic ice streams where such behavior has been observed, the ice streams are underlain by deformable sediments. It is

  8. Observable signatures of inflaton decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battefeld, Diana; Battefeld, Thorsten [Institute for Astrophysics, University of Goettingen, Friedrich Hund Platz 1, D-37077 Gottingen (Germany); Giblin, John T. Jr.; Pease, Evan K., E-mail: dbattefe@astro.physik.uni-goettingen.de, E-mail: tbattefe@astro.physik.uni-goettingen.de, E-mail: giblinj@kenyon.edu, E-mail: peasee@kenyon.edu [Department of Physics, Kenyon College, Gambier, OH 43022, U.S.A (United States)

    2011-02-01

    We numerically compute features in the power-spectrum that originate from the decay of fields during inflation. Using a simple, phenomenological, multi-field setup, we increase the number of fields from a few to thousands. Whenever a field decays, its associated potential energy is transferred into radiation, causing a jump in the equation of state parameter and mode mixing at the perturbed level. We observe discrete steps in the power-spectrum if the number of fields is low, in agreement with analytic arguments in the literature. These features become increasingly smeared out once many fields decay within a given Hubble time. In this regime we confirm the validity of the analytic approach to staggered inflation, which is based on a coarse-graining procedure. Our numerical approach bridges the aforementioned analytic treatments, and can be used in more complicated scenarios.

  9. Observations on resistive wall modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerwin, R.A.; Finn, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    Several results on resistive wall modes and their application to tokamaks are presented. First, it is observed that in the presence of collisional parallel dynamics there is an exact cancellation to lowest order of the dissipative and sound wave effects for an ideal Ohm's law. This is easily traced to the fact that the parallel dynamics occurs along the perturbed magnetic field lines for such electromagnetic modes. Such a cancellation does not occur in the resistive layer of a tearing-like mode. The relevance to models for resistive wall modes using an electrostatic Hammett-Perkins type operator to model Landau damping will be discussed. Second, we observe that with an ideal Ohm's law, resistive wall modes can be destabilized by rotation in that part of parameter space in which the ideal MHD modes are stable with the wall at infinity. This effect can easily be explained by interpreting the resistive wall instability in terms of mode coupling between the backward stable MHD mode and a stable mode locked into the wall. Such an effect can occur for very small rotation for tearing-resistive wall modes in which inertia dominates viscosity in the layer, but the mode is stabilized by further rotation. For modes for which viscosity dominates in the layer, rotation is purely stabilizing. For both tearing models, a somewhat higher rotation frequency gives stability essentially whenever the tearing mode is stable with a perfectly conducting wall. These tearing/resistive wall results axe also simply explained in terms of mode coupling. It has been shown that resonant external ideal modes can be stabilized in the presence of resistive wall and resistive plasma with rotation of order the nominal tearing mode growth rate. We show that these modes behave as resistive wall tearing modes in the sense above. This strengthens the suggestion that rotational stabilization of the external kink with a resistive wall is due to the presence of resistive layers, even for ideal modes

  10. Dust in protoplanetary disks: observations*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waters L.B.F.M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid particles, usually referred to as dust, are a crucial component of interstellar matter and of planet forming disks surrounding young stars. Despite the relatively small mass fraction of ≈1% (in the solar neighborhood of our galaxy; this number may differ substantially in other galaxies that interstellar grains represent of the total mass budget of interstellar matter, dust grains play an important role in the physics and chemistry of interstellar matter. This is because of the opacity dust grains at short (optical, UV wavelengths, and the surface they provide for chemical reactions. In addition, dust grains play a pivotal role in the planet formation process: in the core accretion model of planet formation, the growth of dust grains from the microscopic size range to large, cm-sized or larger grains is the first step in planet formation. Not only the grain size distribution is affected by planet formation. Chemical and physical processes alter the structure and chemical composition of dust grains as they enter the protoplanetary disk and move closer to the forming star. Therefore, a lot can be learned about the way stars and planets are formed by observations of dust in protoplanetary disks. Ideally, one would like to measure the dust mass, the grain size distribution, grain structure (porosity, fluffiness, the chemical composition, and all of these as a function of position in the disk. Fortunately, several observational diagnostics are available to derive constrains on these quantities. In combination with rapidly increasing quality of the data (spatial and spectral resolution, a lot of progress has been made in our understanding of dust evolution in protoplanetary disks. An excellent review of dust evolution in protoplanetary disks can be found in Testi et al. (2014.

  11. Optical MEMS for Earth observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liotard, Arnaud; Viard, Thierry; Noell, Wilfried; Zamkotsian, Frédéric; Freire, Marco; Guldimann, Benedikt; Kraft, Stefan

    2017-11-01

    Due to the relatively large number of optical Earth Observation missions at ESA, this area is interesting for new space technology developments. In addition to their compactness, scalability and specific task customization, optical MEMS could generate new functions not available with current technologies and are thus candidates for the design of future space instruments. Most mature components for space applications are the digital mirror arrays, the micro-deformable mirrors, the programmable micro diffraction gratings and tiltable micromirrors. A first selection of market-pull and techno-push concepts is done. In addition, some concepts are coming from outside Earth Observation. Finally two concepts are more deeply analyzed. The first concept is a programmable slit for straylight control for space spectro-imagers. This instrument is a push-broom spectroimager for which some images cannot be exploited because of bright sources in the field-of-view. The proposed concept consists in replacing the current entrance spectrometer slit by an active row of micro-mirrors. The MEMS will permit to dynamically remove the bright sources and then to obtain a field-of-view with an optically enhanced signal-to-noise ratio. The second concept is a push-broom imager for which the acquired spectrum can be tuned by optical MEMS. This system is composed of two diffractive elements and a digital mirror array. The first diffractive element spreads the spectrum. A micromirror array is set at the location of the spectral focal plane. By putting the micro-mirrors ON or OFF, we can select parts of field-of-view or spectrum. The second diffractive element then recombines the light on a push-broom detector. Dichroics filters, strip filter, band-pass filter could be replaced by a unique instrument.

  12. [Cellular subcutaneous tissue. Anatomic observations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquart-Elbaz, C; Varnaison, E; Sick, H; Grosshans, E; Cribier, B

    2001-11-01

    We showed in a companion paper that the definition of the French "subcutaneous cellular tissue" considerably varied from the 18th to the end of the 20th centuries and has not yet reached a consensus. To address the anatomic reality of this "subcutaneous cellular tissue", we investigated the anatomic structures underlying the fat tissue in normal human skin. Sixty specimens were excised from the surface to the deep structures (bone, muscle, cartilage) on different body sites of 3 cadavers from the Institut d'Anatomie Normale de Strasbourg. Samples were paraffin-embedded, stained and analysed with a binocular microscope taking x 1 photographs. Specimens were also excised and fixed after subcutaneous injection of Indian ink, after mechanic tissue splitting and after performing artificial skin folds. The aspects of the deep parts of the skin greatly varied according to their anatomic localisation. Below the adipose tissue, we often found a lamellar fibrous layer which extended from the interlobular septa and contained horizontally distributed fat cells. No specific tissue below the hypodermis was observed. Artificial skin folds concerned either exclusively the dermis, when they were superficial or included the hypodermis, but no specific structure was apparent in the center of the fold. India ink diffused to the adipose tissue, mainly along the septa, but did not localise in a specific subcutaneous compartment. This study shows that the histologic aspects of the deep part of the skin depend mainly on the anatomic localisation. Skin is composed of epidermis, dermis and hypodermis and thus the hypodermis can not be considered as being "subcutaneous". A difficult to individualise, fibrous lamellar structure in continuity with the interlobular septa is often found under the fat lobules. This structure is a cleavage line, as is always the case with loose connective tissues, but belongs to the hypodermis (i.e. fat tissue). No specific tissue nor any virtual space was

  13. Wind accretion: Theory and observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakura, N. I.; Postnov, K. A.; Kochetkova, A. Yu.; Hjalmarsdotter, L.; Sidoli, L.; Paizis, A.

    2015-07-01

    A review of wind accretion in high-mass X-ray binaries is presented. We focus on different regimes of quasi-spherical accretion onto the neutron star (NS): the supersonic (Bondi) accretion, which takes place when the captured matter cools down rapidly and falls supersonically towards the NS magnetosphere, and subsonic (settling) accretion which occurs when plasma remains hot until it meets the magnetospheric boundary. These two regimes of accretion are separated by an X-ray luminosity of about 4 × 1036 erg s-1. In the subsonic case, which sets in at lower luminosities, a hot quasi-spherical shell must form around the magnetosphere, and the actual accretion rate onto NS is determined by the ability of the plasma to enter the magnetosphere due to Rayleigh-Taylor instability. In turn, two regimes of subsonic accretion are possible, depending on plasma cooling mechanism (Compton or radiative) near the magnetopshere. The transition from the high-luminosity with Compton cooling to the lowluminosity (Lx ≲ 3 × 1035 erg s-1) with radiative cooling can be responsible for the onset of the off states repeatedly observed in several low-luminosity slowly accreting pulsars, such as Vela X-1, GX 301-2, and 4U 1907+09. The triggering of the transitionmay be due to a switch in the X-ray beam pattern in response to a change in the optical depth in the accretion column with changing luminosity. We also show that in the settling accretion theory, bright X-ray flares (~1038-1040 erg) observed in supergiant fast X-ray transients (SFXT) can be produced by sporadic capture of magnetized stellar wind plasma. At sufficiently low accretion rates, magnetic reconnection can enhance the magnetospheric plasma entry rate, resulting in copious production of X-ray photons, strong Compton cooling and ultimately in unstable accretion of the entire shell. A bright flare develops on the free-fall time scale in the shell, and the typical energy released in an SFXT bright flare corresponds to the mass

  14. Starshade Observation Scheduling for WFIRST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Gabriel; Garrett, Daniel; Delacroix, Christian; Savransky, Dmitry

    2018-01-01

    An exoplanet direct imaging mission can employ an external starshade for starlight suppression to achieve higher contrasts and potentially higher throughput than with an internal coronagraph. This separately-launched starshade spacecraft is assumed to maintain a single, constant separation distance from the space telescope—for this study, the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST)—based on a designated inner working angle during integration times. The science yield of such a mission can be quantified using the Exoplanet Open-Source Imaging Simulator (EXOSIMS): this simulator determines the distributions of mission outcomes, such as the types and amount of exoplanet detections, based on ensembles of end-to-end simulations of the mission. This study adds a starshade class to the survey simulation module of EXOSIMS and outlines a method for efficiently determining observation schedules. The new starshade class solves boundary value problems using circular restricted three-body dynamics to find fast, high-accuracy estimates of the starshade motion while repositioning between WFIRST observations. Fuel usage dictates the mission lifetime of the starshade given its limited fuel supply and is dominated by the Δv used to reposition the starshade between the LOS of different targets; the repositioning time-of-flight is kept constant in this study. A starshade burns less fuel to reach certain target stars based on their relative projected positions on a skymap; other targets with costly transfers can be filtered out to increase the starshade mission duration. Because the initial target list can consist of nearly 2000 stars, calculating the Δv required to move the starshade to every other star on the target list would be too computationally expensive and renders running ensembles of survey simulations infeasible. Assuming the starshade begins its transfer at the LOS of a certain star, a Δv curve is approximated for the remaining target stars based on their right

  15. Optimisation of solar synoptic observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klvaña, Miroslav; Sobotka, Michal; Švanda, Michal

    2012-09-01

    The development of instrumental and computer technologies is connected with steadily increasing needs for archiving of large data volumes. The current trend to meet this requirement includes the data compression and growth of storage capacities. This approach, however, has technical and practical limits. A further reduction of the archived data volume can be achieved by means of an optimisation of the archiving that consists in data selection without losing the useful information. We describe a method of optimised archiving of solar images, based on the selection of images that contain a new information. The new information content is evaluated by means of the analysis of changes detected in the images. We present characteristics of different kinds of image changes and divide them into fictitious changes with a disturbing effect and real changes that provide a new information. In block diagrams describing the selection and archiving, we demonstrate the influence of clouds, the recording of images during an active event on the Sun, including a period before the event onset, and the archiving of long-term history of solar activity. The described optimisation technique is not suitable for helioseismology, because it does not conserve the uniform time step in the archived sequence and removes the information about solar oscillations. In case of long-term synoptic observations, the optimised archiving can save a large amount of storage capacities. The actual capacity saving will depend on the setting of the change-detection sensitivity and on the capability to exclude the fictitious changes.

  16. Chandra Observations of Starburst Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestwich, Andrea; Lavoie, Anthony R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We present early X-ray results from Chandra for two starburst galaxies, M82 and NGC3256, obtained using AXAF CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS-I) and the HRC. For M82 the arcsecond spatial resolution enables us to separate the point source component from the extended emission for the first time. Astrometry reveals that most of the X-ray sources are not coincident with the family of compact radio sources believed to be Super Nova Remnants (SNRs). In addition, based on three epoch Chandra observations, several of the X-ray sources are clearly variable indicating that they are binaries. When we deconvolve the extended and point source components detected in the hard X-ray band, we find that 50 percent arises from the extended component. This fact, together with its morphology, constrains the various models proposed to explain the hard X-ray emission. For NGC3256 we resolve two closely separated nuclei. These new data support a pure starburst origin for the total X-ray emission rather than a composite AGN/starburst, thereby making NGC3256 one of the most X-ray luminous starburst galaxies known.

  17. Space Debris and Observational Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitzer, Patrick

    2018-01-01

    Since the launch of Sputnik 1 in 1957, astronomers have faced an increasing number of artificial objects contaminating their images of the night sky. Currently almost 17000 objects larger than 10 cm are tracked and have current orbits in the public catalog. Active missions are only a small fraction of these objects. Most are inactive satellites, rocket bodies, and fragments of larger objects: all space debris. Several mega-constellations are planned which will increase this number by 20% or more in low Earth orbit (LEO). In terms of observational astronomy, this population of Earth orbiting objects has three implications: 1) the number of streaks and glints from spacecraft will only increase. There are some practical steps that can be taken to minimize the number of such streaks and glints in astronomical imaging data. 2) The risk to damage to orbiting astronomical telescopes will only increase, particularly those in LEO. 3) If you are working on a plan for an orbiting telescope project, then there are specific steps that must be taken to minimize space debris generation during the mission lifetime, and actions to safely dispose of the spacecraft at end of mission to prevent it from becoming space debris and a risk to other missions. These steps may involve sacrifices to mission performance and lifetime, but are essential in today's orbital environment.

  18. Chandra Observations of Hydra A

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Brian; Lavoie, Anthony R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We present Chandra X-ray Observations of the Hydra A cluster of galaxies, and we report the discovery of structure in the central 80 kpc of the cluster's X-ray-emitting gas. The most remarkable structures are depressions in the X-ray surface brightness, approx. 25 - 35 kpc diameter, that are coincident with Hydra A's radio lobes. The depressions are nearly devoid of X-ray-emitting gas, and there is no evidence for shock-heated gas surrounding the radio lobes. We suggest the gas within the surface brightness depressions was displaced as the radio lobes expanded subsonically, leaving cavities in the hot atmosphere. The gas temperature declines from 4 keV at 70 kpc to 3 keV in the inner 20 kpc of the brightest cluster galaxy (BCG), and the cooling time of the gas is approx. 600 Myr in the inner 10 kpc. These properties are consistent with the presence of a approx. 34 solar mass/yr cooling flow within a 70 kpc radius. Bright X-ray emission is present in the BCG surrounding a recently-accreted disk of nebular emission and young stars. The star formation rate is commensurate with the cooling rate of the hot gas within the volume of the disk, although the sink for the material that may be cooling at larger radii remains elusive.

  19. Geotail observations of FTE velocities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. I. Korotova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the plasma velocity signatures expected in association with flux transfer events (FTEs. Events moving faster than or opposite the ambient media should generate bipolar inward/outward (outward/inward flow perturbations normal to the nominal magnetopause in the magnetosphere (magnetosheath. Flow perturbations directly upstream and downstream from the events should be in the direction of event motion. Flows on the flanks should be in the direction opposite the motion of events moving at subsonic and subAlfvénic speeds relative to the ambient plasma. Events moving with the ambient flow should generate no flow perturbations in the ambient plasma. Alfvén waves propagating parallel (antiparallel to the axial magnetic field of FTEs may generate anticorrelated (correlated magnetic field and flow perturbations within the core region of FTEs. We present case studies illustrating many of these signatures. In the examples considered, Alfvén waves propagate along event axes away from the inferred reconnection site. A statistical study of FTEs observed by Geotail over a 3.5-year period reveals that FTEs within the magnetosphere invariably move faster than the ambient flow, while those in the magnetosheath move both faster and slower than the ambient flow.

  20. AEROSOL VARIABILITY OBSERVED WITH RPAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Altstädter

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available To observe the origin, vertical and horizontal distribution and variability of aerosol particles, and especially ultrafine particles recently formed, we plan to employ the remotely piloted aircraft system (RPAS Carolo-P360 "ALADINA" of TU Braunschweig. The goal of the presented project is to investigate the vertical and horizontal distribution, transport and small-scale variability of aerosol particles in the atmospheric boundary layer using RPAS. Two additional RPAS of type MASC of Tübingen University equipped with turbulence instrumentation add the opportunity to study the interaction of the aerosol concentration with turbulent transport and exchange processes of the surface and the atmosphere. The combination of different flight patterns of the three RPAS allows new insights in atmospheric boundary layer processes. Currently, the different aerosol sensors are miniaturized at the Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research, Leipzig and together with the TU Braunschweig adapted to fit into the RPAS. Moreover, an additional meteorological payload for measuring temperature, humidity and turbulence properties is constructed by Tübingen University. Two condensation particle counters determine the total aerosol number with a different lower detection threshold in order to investigate the horizontal and vertical aerosol variability and new particle formation (aerosol particles of some nm diameter. Further the aerosol size distribution in the range from about 0.300 to ~5 μm is given by an optical particle counter.

  1. Preliminary lightning observations over Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronis, Themis G.

    2012-02-01

    The first Precision Lightning Network, monitoring the Cloud-to-Ground (CG) lightning stroke activity over Greece and surrounding waters is operated and maintained by the Hellenic National Meteorological Service. This paper studies the regional (land/water interface), seasonal and diurnal variability of the CG strokes as a function of density, polarity and peak current. Additional investigation uniquely links the CG stroke current to sea surface salinity and cloud electrical capacitance. In brief, this study's major findings area as follows: (1) The seasonal maps of thunder days agree well with the regional climatic convective characteristics of the study area, (2) the CG diurnal variability is consistent with the global lightning activity observations over land and ocean, (3) the maxima of monthly averaged CG counts are located over land and water during typical summer and fall months respectively for both polarities, (4) CG peak currents show a distinct seasonality with larger currents during relatively colder months and smaller currents during summer months, and (5) strong linear trends between -CGs and sea surface salinity; (6) this trend is absent for +CGs data analysis of the employed database relate to the thunderstorm's RC constant and agrees with previous numerical modeling studies.

  2. Noncommuting observables and local realism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malley, James D.; Fine, Arthur

    2005-01-01

    A standard approach in the foundations of quantum mechanics studies local realism and hidden variables models exclusively in terms of violations of Bell-like inequalities. Thus quantum nonlocality is tied to the celebrated no-go theorems, and these comprise a long list that includes the Kochen-Specker and Bell theorems, as well as elegant refinements by Mermin, Peres, Hardy, GHZ, and many others. Typically entanglement or carefully prepared multipartite systems have been considered essential for violations of local realism and for understanding quantum nonlocality. Here we show, to the contrary, that sharp violations of local realism arise almost everywhere without entanglement. The pivotal fact driving these violations is just the noncommutativity of quantum observables. We demonstrate how violations of local realism occur for arbitrary noncommuting projectors, and for arbitrary quantum pure states. Finally, we point to elementary tests for local realism, using single particles and without reference to entanglement, thus avoiding experimental loopholes and efficiency issues that continue to bedevil the Bell inequality related tests

  3. Cosmic Radiation Detection and Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez Chavez, Juan; Troncoso, Maria

    Cosmic rays consist of high-energy particles accelerated from remote supernova remnant explosions and travel vast distances throughout the universe. Upon arriving at earth, the majority of these particles ionize gases in the upper atmosphere, while others interact with gas molecules in the troposphere and producing secondary cosmic rays, which are the main focus of this research. To observe these secondary cosmic rays, a detector telescope was designed and equipped with two silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs). Each SiPM is coupled to a bundle of 4 wavelength shifting optical fibers that are embedded inside a plastic scintillator sheet. The SiPM signals were amplified using a fast preamplifier with coincidence between detectors established using a binary logic gate. The coincidence events were recorded with two devices; a digital counter and an Arduino micro-controller. For detailed analysis of the SiPM waveforms, a DRS4 sensory digitizer captured the waveforms for offline analysis with the CERN software package Physics Analysis Workstation in a Linux environment. Results from our experiments would be presented. Hartnell College STEM Internship Program.

  4. Observational Study of Travelers' Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuris

    1995-03-01

    Background: European air travelers returning from Algeria, Egypt, Mexico, Morocco, and Tunisia were interviewed about their experience of travelers' diseases upon arrival in Brussels. Diarrhea was mentioned by 37% of the adults and 27% of the children. These subjects were questioned about the types of measures taken, type and duration of drug treatment (if any), and about duration of diarrhea and side effects experienced. Methods: Final analysis was performed based on 2160 interviews. The largest proportion of diarrhea was reported in the age group 15-24 years (46%). Results: The majority of the 2160 subjects had opted for drug treatment (81%): 927 subjects for loperamide alone, 235 for loperamide in combination with nifuroxazide, and 178 for nifuroxazide alone. Other drugs had been used less frequently. The median time to recovery was 2.4 days with loperamide compared to 3.2 days with nifuroxazide and to 3.4 days for the no-treatment group. Conclusions: A stratification of the results by severity of the diarrhea suggests a rank of antidiarrheal potency as follows: loperamide > nifuroxazide > no-drug treatment. The side effect with the highest incidence was constipation (2.4% with loperamide). (J Travel Med 2:11-15, 1995) Travelers' diarrhea is usually defined as the passage of at least three unformed stools per day or any number of such stools when accompanied by fever, abdominal cramping, or vomiting. The definition may be broadened to include more trivial bowel disturbance.1,2 The duration of this self-limited disease generally is 3 to 5 days. Medical intervention aims at shortening the duration of disease, thus allowing the sufferer to resume his or her usual activities at an early stage. A shortened period of recovery to physical well-being has obvious favorable economic implications if the traveler is on business and may help the maintenance of a desired level of quality of life while a traveler is on holiday. An observational study of various medical

  5. New observations on meniscal cysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Jada Jean; Connor, Gregory F.; Helms, Clyde A. [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2010-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of meniscal cysts, assess the frequency of various magnetic resonance (MR) imaging characteristics, and emphasize radiographic observations not commonly reported. A total of 2,095 consecutive knee MR imaging reports from a 22 month period were retrospectively reviewed for the presence of meniscal cysts. Two musculoskeletal radiologists reviewed the cases where cysts were reported. A meniscal cyst was considered present if abnormally increased signal was identified within an enlarged meniscus (i.e., intrameniscal cyst) or if a loculated fluid-intensity lesion with a clear connection to the adjacent meniscus was identified (i.e., parameniscal cyst). Presence or absence of a meniscal tear, intrameniscal and parameniscal signal intensity, patient age, sex, location of meniscal cyst, presence of discoid meniscus, and size of the parameniscal cyst component were recorded. All knee imaging examinations were performed on a 1.5T MR unit. Imaging findings were correlated with arthroscopic reports when available. A total of 167 cases (8.0%) of meniscal cysts were diagnosed in 161 patients. Of the 167 cysts, 69 (41.3%) were located in the lateral meniscus and 98 (58.7%) in the medial meniscus. In 6 patients (3.7%), meniscal cysts were present in both menisci of the same knee. Twelve (7.2%) meniscal cysts were associated with discoid menisci. Ninety-seven (57.8%) meniscal cysts were associated with meniscal tears. Of the total number of meniscal cysts, 104 (62.3%) had a parameniscal cyst. An isolated intrameniscal cyst was present in 63 (37.7%) cases. One hundred (96%) of the parameniscal cyst components were isointense to fluid on T2-weighted FSE images. All cysts exhibited abnormal intrameniscal signal. Only 14 (8.4%) of the intrameniscal components were isointense to fluid on T2-weighted FSE images. The arthroscopic reports of 88 of the 161 (54.7%) patients were available for review and correlation. A tear extending to

  6. New observations on meniscal cysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Jada Jean; Connor, Gregory F.; Helms, Clyde A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of meniscal cysts, assess the frequency of various magnetic resonance (MR) imaging characteristics, and emphasize radiographic observations not commonly reported. A total of 2,095 consecutive knee MR imaging reports from a 22 month period were retrospectively reviewed for the presence of meniscal cysts. Two musculoskeletal radiologists reviewed the cases where cysts were reported. A meniscal cyst was considered present if abnormally increased signal was identified within an enlarged meniscus (i.e., intrameniscal cyst) or if a loculated fluid-intensity lesion with a clear connection to the adjacent meniscus was identified (i.e., parameniscal cyst). Presence or absence of a meniscal tear, intrameniscal and parameniscal signal intensity, patient age, sex, location of meniscal cyst, presence of discoid meniscus, and size of the parameniscal cyst component were recorded. All knee imaging examinations were performed on a 1.5T MR unit. Imaging findings were correlated with arthroscopic reports when available. A total of 167 cases (8.0%) of meniscal cysts were diagnosed in 161 patients. Of the 167 cysts, 69 (41.3%) were located in the lateral meniscus and 98 (58.7%) in the medial meniscus. In 6 patients (3.7%), meniscal cysts were present in both menisci of the same knee. Twelve (7.2%) meniscal cysts were associated with discoid menisci. Ninety-seven (57.8%) meniscal cysts were associated with meniscal tears. Of the total number of meniscal cysts, 104 (62.3%) had a parameniscal cyst. An isolated intrameniscal cyst was present in 63 (37.7%) cases. One hundred (96%) of the parameniscal cyst components were isointense to fluid on T2-weighted FSE images. All cysts exhibited abnormal intrameniscal signal. Only 14 (8.4%) of the intrameniscal components were isointense to fluid on T2-weighted FSE images. The arthroscopic reports of 88 of the 161 (54.7%) patients were available for review and correlation. A tear extending to

  7. New observations on meniscal cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jada Jean; Connor, Gregory F; Helms, Clyde A

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of meniscal cysts, assess the frequency of various magnetic resonance (MR) imaging characteristics, and emphasize radiographic observations not commonly reported. A total of 2,095 consecutive knee MR imaging reports from a 22 month period were retrospectively reviewed for the presence of meniscal cysts. Two musculoskeletal radiologists reviewed the cases where cysts were reported. A meniscal cyst was considered present if abnormally increased signal was identified within an enlarged meniscus (i.e., intrameniscal cyst) or if a loculated fluid-intensity lesion with a clear connection to the adjacent meniscus was identified (i.e., parameniscal cyst). Presence or absence of a meniscal tear, intrameniscal and parameniscal signal intensity, patient age, sex, location of meniscal cyst, presence of discoid meniscus, and size of the parameniscal cyst component were recorded. All knee imaging examinations were performed on a 1.5T MR unit. Imaging findings were correlated with arthroscopic reports when available. A total of 167 cases (8.0%) of meniscal cysts were diagnosed in 161 patients. Of the 167 cysts, 69 (41.3%) were located in the lateral meniscus and 98 (58.7%) in the medial meniscus. In 6 patients (3.7%), meniscal cysts were present in both menisci of the same knee. Twelve (7.2%) meniscal cysts were associated with discoid menisci. Ninety-seven (57.8%) meniscal cysts were associated with meniscal tears. Of the total number of meniscal cysts, 104 (62.3%) had a parameniscal cyst. An isolated intrameniscal cyst was present in 63 (37.7%) cases. One hundred (96%) of the parameniscal cyst components were isointense to fluid on T2-weighted FSE images. All cysts exhibited abnormal intrameniscal signal. Only 14 (8.4%) of the intrameniscal components were isointense to fluid on T2-weighted FSE images. The arthroscopic reports of 88 of the 161 (54.7%) patients were available for review and correlation. A tear extending to

  8. Clinical Observation on Thyroid Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seon Yang; Shin, Yong Tae; Cho, Bo Yun; Kim, Byung Kuk; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Mun Ho

    1978-01-01

    Clinical features of 147 patients with biopsy-proven thyroid carcinomas were investigated from January, 1972 to April, 1978 at the Seoul National University Hospital with the following results. 1) The incidence of thyroid carcinomas according to their histopathological classification revealed 76.2% of papillary carcinoma, 19.0% of follicular carcinoma, and 3 cases of occult sclerozing carcinoma, 1 case of giant cell carcinoma and 1 case of metastatic melanoma. 2) The ratio of male to female patients was 1:8.3 and showed no difference between papillary and follicular carcinomas. 3) The age distribution showed the peak incidence in the fourth decade (29.3%) followed by the fifth and sixth decades. 4) The average duration of illness from the onset of symptoms was about 5 years while it was 4.4 years and 7.6 years in the papillary and follicular carcinomas respectively. 5) The diameter of the thyroid masses was smaller than 5 cm in 53.6% of the patients, from 5 cm to 10 cm in 40.0% and larger than 10 cm in 6.4%. 6) In 36.4% of the patients with thyroid carcinomas the thyroid masses were fixed to adjacent tissues. 7) Metastasis to the regional lymph nodes was noted in 40.0% of the total cases, and in 45.2% and 17.6% of the papillary and follicular carcinomas respectively, while the lung and bone metastases were found in 10.0% and 4.4% in each type respectively. 8) 88.9% of the patients showed cold areas in the thyroid scans using 131 I. 9) Typical psammoma bodies were observed in 21.3% of the cases in the microscopic examination of the pathological specimens. 10) The initial diagnosis of thyroid malignancy could be made before histological confirmation in 64.5% of the patients. 11) The clinical staging slightly modified from Schulz method revealed 43.6% of the patients in stage I, 26.4% in stage II, 20.9% in stage III and 9.1% in stage IV. 12) The association with Hashimoto's thyroiditis was noted in 4 cases, with nodular goiter in 3 cases, and with follicular adenoma

  9. Clinical Observation on Thyroid Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Seon Yang; Shin, Yong Tae; Cho, Bo Yun; Kim, Byung Kuk; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Mun Ho [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1978-09-15

    Clinical features of 147 patients with biopsy-proven thyroid carcinomas were investigated from January, 1972 to April, 1978 at the Seoul National University Hospital with the following results. 1) The incidence of thyroid carcinomas according to their histopathological classification revealed 76.2% of papillary carcinoma, 19.0% of follicular carcinoma, and 3 cases of occult sclerozing carcinoma, 1 case of giant cell carcinoma and 1 case of metastatic melanoma. 2) The ratio of male to female patients was 1:8.3 and showed no difference between papillary and follicular carcinomas. 3) The age distribution showed the peak incidence in the fourth decade (29.3%) followed by the fifth and sixth decades. 4) The average duration of illness from the onset of symptoms was about 5 years while it was 4.4 years and 7.6 years in the papillary and follicular carcinomas respectively. 5) The diameter of the thyroid masses was smaller than 5 cm in 53.6% of the patients, from 5 cm to 10 cm in 40.0% and larger than 10 cm in 6.4%. 6) In 36.4% of the patients with thyroid carcinomas the thyroid masses were fixed to adjacent tissues. 7) Metastasis to the regional lymph nodes was noted in 40.0% of the total cases, and in 45.2% and 17.6% of the papillary and follicular carcinomas respectively, while the lung and bone metastases were found in 10.0% and 4.4% in each type respectively. 8) 88.9% of the patients showed cold areas in the thyroid scans using {sup 131}I. 9) Typical psammoma bodies were observed in 21.3% of the cases in the microscopic examination of the pathological specimens. 10) The initial diagnosis of thyroid malignancy could be made before histological confirmation in 64.5% of the patients. 11) The clinical staging slightly modified from Schulz method revealed 43.6% of the patients in stage I, 26.4% in stage II, 20.9% in stage III and 9.1% in stage IV. 12) The association with Hashimoto's thyroiditis was noted in 4 cases, with nodular goiter in 3 cases, and with follicular

  10. Observer Manual and Current Data Collection Forms

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Observer Program web page that lists the observer field manual and all current data collection forms that observers are required to take out to sea.

  11. Electro-Optics/Low Observables Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electro-Optics/Low Observables Laboratory supports graduate instruction for students enrolled in the Low Observables program. Its purpose is to introduce these...

  12. Uranium-lead dating of hydrothermal zircon and monazite from the Sin Quyen Fe-Cu-REE-Au-(U) deposit, northwestern Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Chun; Zhou, Mei-Fu; Chen, Wei Terry; Zhao, Xin-Fu; Tran, MyDung

    2018-03-01

    The Sin Quyen deposit in northwestern Vietnam contains economic concentrations of Cu, Au and LREE, and sub-economic concentration of U. In this deposit, massive and banded replacement ores are hosted in Neoproterozoic metapelite. The paragenetic sequence includes sodic alteration (stage I), calcic-potassic alteration and associated Fe-REE-(U) mineralization (stage II), Cu-Au mineralization (stage III), and sulfide-(quartz-carbonate) veins (stage IV). The Sin Quyen deposit experienced an extensive post-ore metamorphic overprint, which makes it difficult to precisely determine the mineralization age. In this study, zircon and monazite U-Pb geochronometers and the Rb-Sr isochron method are used to constrain the timing of mineralization. Zircon grains in the ore are closely intergrown or texturally associated with hydrothermal minerals of stage II (e.g., garnet, allanite, and hedenbergite). They may contain primary fluid inclusions and display irregular zoning in cathodoluminescence (CL) images. Zircon grains are rich in U (688 to 2902 ppm) and poor in Th (0.2 to 2.9 ppm). Their δ18OV-SMOW values range from 11.9 to 14.0‰, higher than those of typical magmatic zircon. These textural and compositional features imply that zircon precipitated from 18O- and U-rich hydrothermal fluids, coeval with the minerals of stage II. Monazite occurs in close association with stage II magnetite and allanite and has low contents of Th (falls within the overall age range (740 to 860 Ma) of the regional Neoproterozoic igneous rocks. This temporal linkage, in combination with the magmatic-like sulfur isotopes of sulfide minerals (δ34SV-CDT = -0.8 to 3.1), indicates that the mineralization may have a close genetic association with the Neoproterozoic igneous activity.

  13. Teacher Observation: Evaluation Report and Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worth, Jack; Sizmur, Juliet; Walker, Matthew; Bradshaw, Sally; Styles, Ben

    2017-01-01

    The Teacher Observation intervention aimed to improve teacher effectiveness through structured peer observation. Teachers observe and are observed by their peers a number of times over the course of two years. It was delivered by the Centre for Market and Public Organisation (CMPO) at the University of Bristol. CMPO researchers trained lead…

  14. 10 CFR 26.33 - Behavioral observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Behavioral observation. 26.33 Section 26.33 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Program Elements § 26.33 Behavioral observation. Licensees... behavioral observation. Behavioral observation must be performed by individuals who are trained under § 26.29...

  15. Guidance for Technology Decisions from Classroom Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielefeldt, Talbot

    2012-01-01

    Correlational analysis of two years of classroom observation indicates relationships between technology use and various classroom characteristics, including teacher roles and instructional strategies. Three observers used the ISTE Classroom Observation Tool (ICOT) to record 144 observations of classrooms participating in a variety of educational…

  16. The Epistemological Foundations of Scientific Observation | Israel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the philosophy of science, it is a rather undisputed idea that our concepts, conceptions and theories are strongly constrained by what we observe. But the epistemic authority of observation is threatened by its widely acknowledged lack of autonomy: to have observation yield knowledge through observation reports, one ...

  17. Primer: challenges in randomized and observational studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landewé, Robert; van der Heijde, Désirée

    2007-01-01

    Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are considered superior to observational studies, and both clinicians and researchers believe that conclusions that stem from observational research are flawed. RCTs, however, have important methodological and interpretational limitations, and particular clinical

  18. Summary of the Day Observations - Misawa Japan

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Summary of the Day Observations - Misawa Japan is a collection of data summarizing daily weather observations taken at Misawa Naval Air Station, near the north end...

  19. Meteors and how to observe them

    CERN Document Server

    Lunsford, Robert

    2009-01-01

    No two meteor showers are alike, and their variation depends on current conditions and the observer's location. This introduction to the art of meteor observing explains how best to view meteor activity under all conditions and from all locations.

  20. Observer and At Sea Monitor Database (OBDBS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Northeast Fisheries Observer Database System (OBDBS) contains data collected on commercial fishing vessels by observers from 1989 - present and at-sea monitors...

  1. A Metric Observer for Induction Motors Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Benbouzid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with metric observer application for induction motors. Firstly, assuming that stator currents and speed are measured, a metric observer is designed to estimate the rotor fluxes. Secondly, assuming that only stator currents are measured, another metric observer is derived to estimate rotor fluxes and speed. The proposed observer validity is checked throughout simulations on a 4 kW induction motor drive.

  2. Covariant phase difference observables in quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinonen, Teiko; Lahti, Pekka; Pellonpaeae, Juha-Pekka

    2003-01-01

    Covariant phase difference observables are determined in two different ways, by a direct computation and by a group theoretical method. A characterization of phase difference observables which can be expressed as the difference of two phase observables is given. The classical limits of such phase difference observables are determined and the Pegg-Barnett phase difference distribution is obtained from the phase difference representation. The relation of Ban's theory to the covariant phase theories is exhibited

  3. Participant observation of children’s communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højholt, Charlotte; Kousholt, Dorte

    2014-01-01

    concrete examples, we elucidate an approach where theoretical concepts guide how researchers conduct observations. It is concluded that such situated observations are at odds with a tendency in psychology to focus separately on isolated individual characteristics. Situated observations thus shift awareness...

  4. Resistance to Change and Relapse of Observing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrailkill, Eric A.; Shahan, Timothy A.

    2012-01-01

    Four experiments examined relapse of extinguished observing behavior of pigeons using a two-component multiple schedule of observing-response procedures. In both components, unsignaled periods of variable-interval (VI) food reinforcement alternated with extinction and observing responses produced stimuli associated with the availability of the VI…

  5. Electrophysiological Correlates of Observational Learning in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Buritica, Julia M.; Eppinger, Ben; Schuck, Nicolas W.; Heekeren, Hauke R.; Li, Shu-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Observational learning is an important mechanism for cognitive and social development. However, the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying observational learning in children are not well understood. In this study, we used a probabilistic reward-based observational learning paradigm to compare behavioral and electrophysiological markers of…

  6. Preliminary Clinical Observations Following Blood Transfusion in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Immediately after collection, the blood was transfused to the recipients and observable clinical signs, reactions, and vital parameters changes recorded. Reactions observed in recipients included hyperthermia tachycardia, hyperpnoea and anorexia. A mean increase of 7.83 cycle/min, 6 beats/min and 3.83 was observed for ...

  7. Serpens X-1 observed by INTEGRAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masetti, N.; Foschini, L.; Palazzi, E.

    2004-01-01

    Here we report results of an INTEGRAL-AO1 observation of the X-ray burst and atoll source Ser X-1 performed in May 2003. The object was observed for a total on-source time of 400 ks but nearly 8degrees off-axis due to its amalgamation with an observation of SS 433, the pointing target source. Ser...

  8. Critical Review of NOAA's Observation Requirements Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaJoie, M.; Yapur, M.; Vo, T.; Templeton, A.; Bludis, D.

    2017-12-01

    NOAA's Observing Systems Council (NOSC) maintains a comprehensive database of user observation requirements. The requirements collection process engages NOAA subject matter experts to document and effectively communicate the specific environmental observation measurements (parameters and attributes) needed to produce operational products and pursue research objectives. User observation requirements documented using a structured and standardized manner and framework enables NOAA to assess its needs across organizational lines in an impartial, objective, and transparent manner. This structure provides the foundation for: selecting, designing, developing, acquiring observing technologies, systems and architectures; budget and contract formulation and decision-making; and assessing in a repeatable fashion the productivity, efficiency and optimization of NOAA's observing system enterprise. User observation requirements are captured independently from observing technologies. Therefore, they can be addressed by a variety of current or expected observing capabilities and allow flexibility to be remapped to new and evolving technologies. NOAA's current inventory of user observation requirements were collected over a ten-year period, and there have been many changes in policies, mission priorities, and funding levels during this time. In light of these changes, the NOSC initiated a critical, in-depth review to examine all aspects of user observation requirements and associated processes during 2017. This presentation provides background on the NOAA requirements process, major milestones and outcomes of the critical review, and plans for evolving and connecting observing requirements processes in the next year.

  9. Understanding Observational Learning: An Interbehavioral Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryling, Mitch J.; Johnston, Cristin; Hayes, Linda J.

    2011-01-01

    Observational learning is an important area in the field of psychology and behavior science more generally. Given this, it is essential that behavior analysts articulate a sound theory of how behavior change occurs through observation. This paper begins with an overview of seminal research in the area of observational learning, followed by a…

  10. Observation, observation, observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Pumain

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Voilà que celles dont on a longtemps déploré la rareté, la lenteur de préparation, et les difficultés d’accès, et qui évoquaient plutôt des reliefs montagneux, en un mot les données utiles aux sciences humaines et sociales, voilà qu’elles surgissent de partout, en masses fluides, par grandes vagues déferlantes, et déjà l’expression anglaise qui les désigne devient un nouveau champ de connaissances : les big data sont nées ! Comme la plupart des systèmes qui les enregistrent comportent une géo...

  11. COCOA: Simulating Observations of Star Cluster Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askar, Abbas; Giersz, Mirek; Pych, Wojciech; Dalessandro, Emanuele

    2017-03-01

    COCOA (Cluster simulatiOn Comparison with ObservAtions) creates idealized mock photometric observations using results from numerical simulations of star cluster evolution. COCOA is able to present the output of realistic numerical simulations of star clusters carried out using Monte Carlo or N-body codes in a way that is useful for direct comparison with photometric observations. The code can simulate optical observations from simulation snapshots in which positions and magnitudes of objects are known. The parameters for simulating the observations can be adjusted to mimic telescopes of various sizes. COCOA also has a photometry pipeline that can use standalone versions of DAOPHOT (ascl:1104.011) and ALLSTAR to produce photometric catalogs for all observed stars.

  12. Cosmological ensemble and directional averages of observables

    CERN Document Server

    Bonvin, Camille; Durrer, Ruth; Maartens, Roy; Umeh, Obinna

    2015-01-01

    We show that at second order ensemble averages of observables and directional averages do not commute due to gravitational lensing. In principle this non-commutativity is significant for a variety of quantities we often use as observables. We derive the relation between the ensemble average and the directional average of an observable, at second-order in perturbation theory. We discuss the relevance of these two types of averages for making predictions of cosmological observables, focussing on observables related to distances and magnitudes. In particular, we show that the ensemble average of the distance is increased by gravitational lensing, whereas the directional average of the distance is decreased. We show that for a generic observable, there exists a particular function of the observable that is invariant under second-order lensing perturbations.

  13. A database of worldwide glacier thickness observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gärtner-Roer, I.; Naegeli, K.; Huss, M.

    2014-01-01

    surface observations. However, although thickness has been observed on many glaciers and ice caps around the globe, it has not yet been published in the shape of a readily available database. Here, we present a standardized database of glacier thickness observations compiled by an extensive literature...... review and from airborne data extracted from NASA's Operation IceBridge. This database contains ice thickness observations from roughly 1100 glaciers and ice caps including 550 glacier-wide estimates and 750,000 point observations. A comparison of these observational ice thicknesses with results from...... area- and slope-dependent approaches reveals large deviations both from the observations and between different estimation approaches. For glaciers and ice caps all estimation approaches show a tendency to overestimation. For glaciers the median relative absolute deviation lies around 30% when analyzing...

  14. Characterizing Gaint Exoplanets through Multiwavelength Transit Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, David; Cole, Jackson L.; Gardner, Cristilyn N.; Garver, Bethany R.; Jarka, Kyla L.; Kar, Aman; McGough, Aylin M.; PeQueen, David J.; Rivera, Daniel Ivan; Jang-Condell, Hannah; Kobulnicky, Henry A.; Dale, Daniel A.

    2018-01-01

    Observing the characteristics of giant exoplanets is possible with ground-based telescopes and modern observational methods. We are performing characterizations of multiple giant exoplanets based on 85 allotted nights of transit observations with the 2.3 m Wyoming Infrared Observatory using Sloan filters. In particular, constraints can be made on the atmospheres of our targets from the wavelength (in)dependence in the depth of the transit observations. We present early multiwavelength photometric results on the exoplanet HD 189733 b with comparison to literature sources to exemplify the methodology employed. In total, 15 exoplanets were observed across multiple wavelengths. The majority of the observing allotted to the project was completed as part of the 2017 Summer REU at the University of Wyoming. This work will significantly contribute to the growing number of observed atmospheres and influence interpretation of future WFIRST, JWST, and TESS targets. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation under REU grant AST 1560461.

  15. Importance of observational studies in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligthelm, Robert J; Borzì, Vito; Gumprecht, Janusz; Kawamori, Ryuzo; Wenying, Yang; Valensi, Paul

    2007-06-01

    In this era of evidence-based medicine, clinicians require a comprehensive range of well-designed studies to support prescribing decisions and patient management. In recent years, data from observational studies have become an increasingly important source of evidence because of improvements in observational-study methods and advances in statistical analysis. This article reviews the current literature and reports some of the key studies indicating that observational studies can both complement and build on the evidence base established by randomized controlled trials (RCTs). A literature search using the MEDLINE/PubMed database (years: 1966-present) was carried out using the search terms observational or observational study(ies), historical control, nonrandomized, and postmarketing surveillance. All references comparing observational studies with randomized controlled trials were obtained and reviewed and were also hand-checked for studies not identified in the database searches. Observational studies play an important role in investigating treatment outcomes. Data from large observational studies can clarify the tolerability profile of marketed medicines. In particular, observational studies can be of benefit in the study of large, heterogeneous patient populations with complex, chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus. Observational studies have played a key role in supporting the results of Phase III studies of insulin analogues for the treatment of patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Future observational studies in the field of diabetes such as PREDICTIVE (Predictable Results and Experience in Diabetes through Intensification and Control to Target: an International Variability Evaluation) and IMPROVE will further our understanding of this global pandemic. Well-designed observational studies can play a key role in supporting the evidence base for drugs and therapies. Current evidence suggests that observational studies can be conducted using the same

  16. Observing motor learning produces somatosensory change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Nicolò F; Darainy, Mohammad; Bricolo, Emanuela; Ostry, David J

    2013-10-01

    Observing the actions of others has been shown to affect motor learning, but does it have effects on sensory systems as well? It has been recently shown that motor learning that involves actual physical practice is also associated with plasticity in the somatosensory system. Here, we assessed the idea that observational learning likewise changes somatosensory function. We evaluated changes in somatosensory function after human subjects watched videos depicting motor learning. Subjects first observed video recordings of reaching movements either in a clockwise or counterclockwise force field. They were then trained in an actual force-field task that involved a counterclockwise load. Measures of somatosensory function were obtained before and after visual observation and also following force-field learning. Consistent with previous reports, video observation promoted motor learning. We also found that somatosensory function was altered following observational learning, both in direction and in magnitude, in a manner similar to that which occurs when motor learning is achieved through actual physical practice. Observation of the same sequence of movements in a randomized order did not result in somatosensory perceptual change. Observational learning and real physical practice appear to tap into the same capacity for sensory change in that subjects that showed a greater change following observational learning showed a reliably smaller change following physical motor learning. We conclude that effects of observing motor learning extend beyond the boundaries of traditional motor circuits, to include somatosensory representations.

  17. The Art of Observation: A Pedagogical Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellbery, Caroline; McAteer, Rebecca A

    2015-12-01

    Observational skills, honed through experience with the literary and visual arts, bring together in a timely manner many of the goals of the medical humanities, providing thematic cohesion through the act of seeing while aiming to advance clinical skills through a unified practice. In an arts observation pedagogy, nature writing serves as an apt model for precise, clinically relevant linguistic noticing because meticulous attention to the natural world involves scientific precision; additionally, a number of visual metaphors employed in medicine are derived from close observation of the natural world. Close reading reinforces observational skills as part of integrative, multidisciplinary clinical practice. Literary precision provides an educational bridge to recognizing the importance of detail in the clinical realm. In weighing multiple perspectives, observation applied to practice helps learners understand the nuances of the role of witness, activating reflection consonant with the viewer's professional identity. The realization that seeing is highly filtered through the observer's values allows the act of observation to come under scrutiny, opening the observer's gaze to disturbance and challenging the values and precepts of the prevailing medical culture. Application of observational skills can, for example, help observers recognize and address noxious effects of the built environment. As learners describe what they see, they also develop the communication skills needed to articulate both problems and possible improvements within their expanding sphere of influence. The ability to craft this speech as public narrative can lead to interventions with positive impacts on physicians, their colleagues, and patients.

  18. The Seasonal Ice Zone Observing Network (SIZONet) Local Observations Interface, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Seasonal Ice Zone Observing Network Local Observations Interface allows access to observations of sea ice, weather, and wildlife collected since 2006 by...

  19. Model for behavior observation training programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berghausen, P.E. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Continued behavior observation is mandated by ANSI/ANS 3.3. This paper presents a model for behavior observation training that is in accordance with this standard and the recommendations contained in US NRC publications. The model includes seventeen major topics or activities. Ten of these are discussed: Pretesting of supervisor's knowledge of behavior observation requirements, explanation of the goals of behavior observation programs, why behavior observation training programs are needed (legal and psychological issues), early indicators of emotional instability, use of videotaped interviews to demonstrate significant psychopathology, practice recording behaviors, what to do when unusual behaviors are observed, supervisor rationalizations for noncompliance, when to be especially vigilant, and prevention of emotional instability

  20. Jupiter and How to Observe It

    CERN Document Server

    McAnally, John W

    2008-01-01

    Jupiter is one of the most spectacular observing targets for amateur astronomers. There are various books about observing the planets, and several about Jupiter itself, but this is the only book to deal with the giant planet - its formation, structure, and incredible physics - as well as with the practical aspects of observation of the planet and its moons. The concept of the book - and of the series - is to present an up-to-date detailed physical and astrophysical description (part one); and then (part two) to consider how best to observe and image the giant planet. Jupiter and How to Observe It is a mine of information for all levels of amateur observers, from the beginning to the experienced, and will be fascinating reading for all practical amateur astronomers.

  1. Nebulae and how to observe them

    CERN Document Server

    Coe, Steven

    2007-01-01

    This "Astronomers' Observing Guides" are designed for practical amateur astronomers who not only want to observe, but want to know the details of exactly what they are looking at. Nebulae are the places where the stars are born. For amateur astronomers, the many different kinds of nebulae vary from "easy" targets that can be seen with modest equipment under mediocre skies, to "challenging" objects that require experienced observers, large telescopes and excellent seeing. The concept of the book - and of the series - is to present an up-to-date detailed description and categorisation (part one); and then (part two) to consider how best to successfully observe and record the large range of astronomical objects that fall under the general heading of "nebulae". "Nebulae, and How to Observe Them" is a mine of information for all levels of amateur observers, from the beginner to the experienced.

  2. Improvement of seismic observation systems in JOYO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumino, Kozo; Suto, Masayoshi; Tanaka, Akihiro

    2013-01-01

    In the experimental fast reactor 'Joyo' in order to perform the seismic observation in and around the building block and ground, SMAC type seismographs had continuously been used for about 38 years. However, this equipment aged, and the 2011 off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake on Mach 11, 2011 increased the importance of seismic data of the reactor facilities from the viewpoint of earthquake-proof safety. For these reasons, Joyo updated the system to the seismic observation system reflecting the latest technology/information, while keeping consistency with the observation data of the former seismographs (SMAC type seismograph). This updating improved various problems on the former observation seismographs. In addition, the installation of now observation points in the locations that are important in seismic safety evaluation expanded the data, and further improved the reliability of the seismic observation and evaluation on 'Joyo'. (A.O.)

  3. The importance of the observer in science

    OpenAIRE

    Standish, Russell K.

    2005-01-01

    The concept of {\\em complexity} (as a quantity) has been plagued by numerous contradictory and confusing definitions. By explicitly recognising a role for the observer of a system, an observer that attaches meaning to data about the system, these contradictions can be resolved, and the numerous complexity measures that have been proposed can be seen as cases where different observers are relevant, and/or being proxy measures that loosely scale with complexity, but are easy to compute from the...

  4. Observational research and the STROBE statement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Bravo-Peña

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Observational research is the source of the largest amount of evidence in health care. Their proper use depends on several factors, among them a complete reporting. This article presents the STROBE Statement (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology and its influence on complete research reporting. We recommended the use of the STROBE Statement and their checklist in order to improve the completeness of reporting of observational research and increase its usability.

  5. Minimal covariant observables identifying all pure states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmeli, Claudio, E-mail: claudio.carmeli@gmail.com [D.I.M.E., Università di Genova, Via Cadorna 2, I-17100 Savona (Italy); I.N.F.N., Sezione di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, I-16146 Genova (Italy); Heinosaari, Teiko, E-mail: teiko.heinosaari@utu.fi [Turku Centre for Quantum Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku (Finland); Toigo, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.toigo@polimi.it [Dipartimento di Matematica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); I.N.F.N., Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy)

    2013-09-02

    It has been recently shown by Heinosaari, Mazzarella and Wolf (2013) [1] that an observable that identifies all pure states of a d-dimensional quantum system has minimally 4d−4 outcomes or slightly less (the exact number depending on d). However, no simple construction of this type of minimal observable is known. We investigate covariant observables that identify all pure states and have minimal number of outcomes. It is shown that the existence of this kind of observables depends on the dimension of the Hilbert space.

  6. Observing documentary reading by verbal protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujita Mariangela Spotti Lopes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Verifies the applicability to research on indexers' reading strategies of the process observing technique known as Verbal Protocol or Thinking Aloud. This interpretative-qualitative data collecting technique allows the observation of different kinds of process during the progress of different kinds of tasks. Presents a theoretical investigation into "reading" and into formal methodological procedures to observe reading processes. Describes details of the methodological procedures adopted in five case studies with analysis of samples of data. The project adopted three kinds of parameters for data analysis: theoretical, normative, empirical (derived from observations made in the first case study. The results are compared, and important conclusions regarding documentary reading are drawn.

  7. Observations on Compulsive Behavior in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Jeanne M.

    1974-01-01

    Described are a child therapist's observations and impressions of compulsive behavior in approximately 15 autistic children treated in the Linwood Children's Center (Maryland) for psychotic children. (MC)

  8. astroplan: Observation planning package for astronomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Brett M.; Tollerud, Erik; Sipocz, Brigitta; Deil, Christoph; Douglas, Stephanie T.; Berlanga Medina, Jazmin; Vyhmeister, Karl; Price-Whelan, Adrian M.; Jeschke, Eric

    2018-02-01

    astroplan is a flexible toolbox for observation planning and scheduling. It is powered by Astropy (ascl:1304.002); it works for Python beginners and new observers, and is powerful enough for observatories preparing nightly and long-term schedules as well. It calculates rise/set/meridian transit times, alt/az positions for targets at observatories anywhere on Earth, and offers built-in plotting convenience functions for standard observation planning plots (airmass, parallactic angle, sky maps). It can also determine the observability of sets of targets given an arbitrary set of constraints (i.e., altitude, airmass, moon separation/illumination, etc.).

  9. Should we trust models or observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellsaesser, H.W.

    1982-01-01

    Scientists and laymen alike already trust observational data more than theories-this is made explicit in all formalizations of the scientific method. It was demonstrated again during the Supersonic Transport (SST) controversy by the continued efforts to reconcile the computed effect of the 1961-62 nuclear test series on the ozone layer with the observational record. Scientists, caught in the focus of the political limelight, sometimes, demonstrated their faith in the primacy of observations by studiously ignoring or dismissing as erroneous data at variance with the prevailing theoretical consensus-thereby stalling the theoretical modifications required to accommodate the observations. (author)

  10. Observing a Gravitational Wave Background With Lisa

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tinto, M; Armstrong, J; Estabrook, F

    2000-01-01

    ... formation of several observables. All are independent of lasers and frequency standard phase fluctuations, but have different couplings to gravitational waves and to the various LISA instrumental noises...

  11. A harmonized vocabulary for soil observed properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Bruce; Wilson, Peter; Cox, Simon; Vleeshouer, Jamie

    2014-05-01

    Interoperability of soil data depends on agreements concerning models, schemas and vocabularies. However, observed property terms are often defined during different activities and projects in isolation of one another, resulting in data that has the same scope being represented with different terms, using different formats and formalisms, and published in various access methods. Significantly, many soil property vocabularies conflate multiple concepts in a single term, e.g. quantity kind, units of measure, substance being observed, and procedure. Effectively, this bundles separate information elements into a single slot. We have developed a vocabulary for observed soil properties by adopting and extending a previously defined water quality vocabulary. The observed property model separates the information elements, based on the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Observations & Measurements model and extending the NASA/TopQuadrant 'Quantities, Units, Dimensions and Types' (QUDT) ontology. The imported water quality vocabulary is formalized using the Web Ontology Language (OWL). Key elements are defined as sub-classes or sub-properties of standard Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) elements, allowing use of standard vocabulary interfaces. For the soil observed property vocabulary, terms from QUDT and water quality are used where possible. These are supplemented with additional unit of measure (Unit), observed property (ScaledQuantityKind) and substance being observed (SubstanceOrTaxon) vocabulary entries required for the soil properties. The vocabulary terms have been extracted from the Australian Soil and Land Survey Field Handbook and Australian Soil Information Transfer and Evaluation System (SITES) vocabularies. The vocabulary links any chemical substances to items from the Chemical Entities of Biological Interest (ChEBI) ontology. By formalizing the model for observable properties, and clearly labelling the separate elements, soil property observations may

  12. Observational constraints on extended Chaplygin gas cosmologies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B C Paul

    2017-07-24

    Jul 24, 2017 ... and determine the equation of state parameters using observed data namely, observed Hubble data, baryon acoustic oscillation data and ... came up in the literature, where either the matter sector or gravitational sector of the ... exotic matter and one such candidate is Chaplygin gas. (CG). The equation of ...

  13. The current status of observational cosmology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Observational cosmology has indeed made very rapid progress in recent years. The ability to quantify the universe has largely improved due to observational constraints coming from structure formation. The transition to precision cosmology has been spearheaded by measurements of the anisotropy in the cosmic ...

  14. Confounding in publications of observational intervention studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenwold, Rolf H. H.; Hoes, Arno W.; Hak, Eelko

    We conducted a systematic literature search in Medline to assess the proportion of observational intervention studies appreciating confounding bias in peer-reviewed medical literature from 1985 through 2005. This study shows only 9% of all papers on observational intervention studies published in

  15. Observation of Parametric Instability in Advanced LIGO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Matthew; Gras, Slawek; Fritschel, Peter; Miller, John; Barsotti, Lisa; Martynov, Denis; Brooks, Aidan; Coyne, Dennis; Abbott, Rich; Adhikari, Rana X; Arai, Koji; Bork, Rolf; Kells, Bill; Rollins, Jameson; Smith-Lefebvre, Nicolas; Vajente, Gabriele; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Adams, Carl; Aston, Stuart; Betzweiser, Joseph; Frolov, Valera; Mullavey, Adam; Pele, Arnaud; Romie, Janeen; Thomas, Michael; Thorne, Keith; Dwyer, Sheila; Izumi, Kiwamu; Kawabe, Keita; Sigg, Daniel; Derosa, Ryan; Effler, Anamaria; Kokeyama, Keiko; Ballmer, Stefan; Massinger, Thomas J; Staley, Alexa; Heinze, Matthew; Mueller, Chris; Grote, Hartmut; Ward, Robert; King, Eleanor; Blair, David; Ju, Li; Zhao, Chunnong

    2015-04-24

    Parametric instabilities have long been studied as a potentially limiting effect in high-power interferometric gravitational wave detectors. Until now, however, these instabilities have never been observed in a kilometer-scale interferometer. In this Letter, we describe the first observation of parametric instability in a gravitational wave detector, and the means by which it has been removed as a barrier to progress.

  16. The Alberta smoke plume observation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kerry; Pankratz, Al; Mooney, Curtis; Fleetham, Kelly

    2018-02-01

    A field project was conducted to observe and measure smoke plumes from wildland fires in Alberta. This study used handheld inclinometer measurements and photos taken at lookout towers in the province. Observations of 222 plumes were collected from 21 lookout towers over a 6-year period from 2010 to 2015. Observers reported the equilibrium and maximum plume heights based on the plumes' final levelling heights and the maximum lofting heights, respectively. Observations were tabulated at the end of each year and matched to reported fires. Fire sizes at assessment times and forest fuel types were reported by the province. Fire weather conditions were obtained from the Canadian Wildland Fire Information System (CWFIS). Assessed fire sizes were adjusted to the appropriate size at plume observation time using elliptical fire-growth projections. Though a logical method to collect plume observations in principle, many unanticipated issues were uncovered as the project developed. Instrument limitations and environmental conditions presented challenges to the investigators, whereas human error and the subjectivity of observations affected data quality. Despite these problems, the data set showed that responses to fire behaviour conditions were consistent with the physical processes leading to plume rise. The Alberta smoke plume observation study data can be found on the Canadian Wildland Fire Information System datamart (Natural Resources Canada, 2018) at datamart" target="_blank">http://cwfis.cfs.nrcan.gc.ca/datamart.

  17. The Alberta smoke plume observation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Anderson

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A field project was conducted to observe and measure smoke plumes from wildland fires in Alberta. This study used handheld inclinometer measurements and photos taken at lookout towers in the province. Observations of 222 plumes were collected from 21 lookout towers over a 6-year period from 2010 to 2015. Observers reported the equilibrium and maximum plume heights based on the plumes' final levelling heights and the maximum lofting heights, respectively. Observations were tabulated at the end of each year and matched to reported fires. Fire sizes at assessment times and forest fuel types were reported by the province. Fire weather conditions were obtained from the Canadian Wildland Fire Information System (CWFIS. Assessed fire sizes were adjusted to the appropriate size at plume observation time using elliptical fire-growth projections. Though a logical method to collect plume observations in principle, many unanticipated issues were uncovered as the project developed. Instrument limitations and environmental conditions presented challenges to the investigators, whereas human error and the subjectivity of observations affected data quality. Despite these problems, the data set showed that responses to fire behaviour conditions were consistent with the physical processes leading to plume rise. The Alberta smoke plume observation study data can be found on the Canadian Wildland Fire Information System datamart (Natural Resources Canada, 2018 at http://cwfis.cfs.nrcan.gc.ca/datamart.

  18. Multi-Sensory Intervention Observational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Carla J.

    2011-01-01

    An observational research study based on sensory integration theory was conducted to examine the observed impact of student selected multi-sensory experiences within a multi-sensory intervention center relative to the sustained focus levels of students with special needs. A stratified random sample of 50 students with severe developmental…

  19. High Resolution Observations using Adaptive Optics: Achievements ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Over the last few years, several interesting observations were obtained with the help of solar Adaptive Optics (AO). In this paper, few observations made using the solar AO are enlightened and briefly discussed. A list of disadvantages with the current AO system are presented. With telescopes larger than 1.5m ...

  20. Galaxies and how to observe them

    CERN Document Server

    Steinicke, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    This book is a unique work satisfying the need for a modern, comprehensive review of all major aspects of galaxy observation. It is the only book to specialize on visual observation of galaxies and will appeal to beginners and experienced stargazers alike.

  1. 10 CFR 26.407 - Behavioral observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Behavioral observation. 26.407 Section 26.407 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS FFD Program for Construction § 26.407 Behavioral..., licensees and other entities shall ensure that these individuals are subject to behavioral observation...

  2. 29 CFR 452.107 - Observers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... GENERAL STATEMENT CONCERNING THE ELECTION PROVISIONS OF THE LABOR-MANAGEMENT REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.107 Observers. (a) Under the provisions of section 401(c), each candidate must be permitted to have an observer (1) at the polls and (2) at the...

  3. Low energy observables with the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Foster, Andrew Geoffrey; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Recent results in the soft QCD sector of the Standard Model are presented. Measurements of low energy observables were performed with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. In particular, underlying event, charged particle correlation and diffraction observables are reported and various models of Monte Carlo predictions are compared to the data.

  4. Direct, nondestructive observation of a Bose condensate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andrews, M.R.; Mewes, M.O.; van Druten, N.J.; Durfee, D.S.; Kurn, D.M.; Ketterle, W.

    1996-01-01

    The spatial observation of a Bose condensate is reported. Dispersive light scattering was used to observe the separation between the condensed and normal components of the Bose gas inside a magnetic trap. This technique is nondestructive, and about a hundred images of the same condensate can be

  5. Serpens X-1 observed by INTEGRAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masetti, N.; Foschini, L.; Palazzi, E.

    2004-01-01

    -1 has been clearly detected up to 30 keV with unprecedented positional accuracy for high-energy emission. The 20-30 keV light curve showed substantial variability during the observation. Comparison with previous observations indicates that the source was in its high ("banana") state and displayed...

  6. Observational constraints on extended Chaplygin gas cosmologies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We investigate cosmological models with extended Chaplygin gas (ECG) as a candidate for dark energy and determine the equation of state parameters using observed data namely, observed Hubble data, baryon acousticoscillation data and cosmic microwave background shift data. Cosmological models are investigated ...

  7. Higher Order Continuous SI Engine Observers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterholm, Thomas; Hendricks, Elbert; Houbak, Niels

    1992-01-01

    A nonlinear compensator for the fuel film dynamics and a second order nonlinear observer for a spark ignition engine are presented in this paper. The compensator and observer are realized as continuous differential equations and an especially designed integration algorithm is used to integrate them...

  8. The Ripple Tank: Management and Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auty, Geoff

    2017-01-01

    This overview is intended to help colleagues achieve successful and satisfying observations using a ripple tank. There are many observations to consider that can effectively illustrate reflection, refraction, interference and diffraction, but the most important consideration is to make every effort to enable students to see the effects we want…

  9. Recording Images Observed Using Ripple Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auty, Geoff

    2018-01-01

    Diagrams and photographs (or computer simulations) should not replace effective observations of the wave properties that can be illustrated using a ripple tank, but they can provide support when discussing and revising what has been observed. This article explains and illustrates a route towards successful photography, which is much easier with…

  10. LTR Design of propertional integral observers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Stoustrup, Jakob; Shafai, B.

    1995-01-01

    This paper applies the proportional-integral (PI) observer in connection with loop transfer recovery (LTR) design for continuous-time systems. We show that a PI observer makes it possible to obtain time recovery, i.e., exact recovery for t -+ -, under mild conditions. Based on an extension...

  11. LTR design of proportional-integral observers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Stoustrup, Jakob; Shafai, B.

    1995-01-01

    This paper applies the proportional-integral (PI) observer in connection with loop transfer recovery (LTR) design for continuous-time systems. We show that a PI observer makes it possible to obtain time recovery, i.e., exact recovery for t -+ -, under mild conditions. Based on an extension...

  12. Future control architecture and emerging observability needs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morch, Andrei Z.; Jakobsen, Sigurd Hofsmo; Visscher, Klaas

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the first findings from workpackage "Increased Observability" in EU FP7 project ELECTRA. Accommodation of intermittent generation into the network and its reliable operation require a gradual evolution of the network structure and in particular improvement of its monitoring...... from the existing. Several new observability needs have to be met in order to secure operation of the future networks....

  13. 50 CFR 600.506 - Observers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... (ii) The candidate has education or experience equivalent to the education or experience required of persons used as observers by NMFS as either Federal personnel or contract employees. The education and... in which the supplementary observer is to be deployed. Documentation of U.S. citizenship or...

  14. Power system observability with minimum phasor measurement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    This paper presents optimal phasor measurement units (PMUs) placement algorithms for power system observability. The optimal placement problem (OPP) is formulated such that minimizing the number of PMU installations for full network observability. Three approaches, in this paper, are introduced aiming at reducing ...

  15. Experimental observation of shear thickening oscillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagahiro, Shin-ichiro; Nakanishi, Hiizu; Mitarai, Namiko

    2013-01-01

    We report experimental observations of the shear thickening oscillation, i.e. the spontaneous macroscopic oscillation in the shear flow of severe shear thickening fluid. Using a density-matched starch-water mixture, in the cylindrical shear flow of a few centimeters flow width, we observed...

  16. Observation of pulsed neutron Ramsey resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masuda, Y. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)]. E-mail: yasuhiro.masuda@kek.jp; Skoy, V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Reasearch, 141980 Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Ino, T. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Jeong, S.C. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Watanabe, Y. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)

    2007-07-15

    A Ramsey resonance for pulsed neutrons was observed. The separated oscillatory fields for nuclear magnetic resonance were synchronized with a neutron pulse, and then the Ramsey resonance was observed as a function of the neutron velocity. The phase of one of the oscillatory fields was modulated as a function of the neutron time of flight for a neutron velocity measurement.

  17. 50 CFR 300.113 - Scientific observers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Educational requirements. National observer candidates must: (1) Have a Bachelor's degree or higher from an accredited college or university with a major in one of the natural sciences; or (2) Have successfully...) Allowing observers to determine the sex of fish when this procedure will not decrease the value of a...

  18. EE Cep observations requested for upcoming eclipse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waagen, Elizabeth O.

    2014-07-01

    The AAVSO requests observations for the upcoming eclipse of EE Cephei, a long-period eclipsing variable. EE Cep has a period of 2,050 days, and shows strong variations in the eclipse light curve from one event to the next. Observations are needed to study the morphology of the upcoming eclipse, which will be used to better understand the shape of the eclipsing disk and how it precesses. Mid-eclipse is predicted to be August 23, 2014, but the early stages of the eclipse may begin as much as a month earlier. EE Cep is being observed by a number of amateur and professional astronomers using multiple telescopes at multiple wavelengths. Among these is a collaboration (see https://sites.google.com/site/eecep2014campaign/) headed by Cezary Galan at the Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center in Poland; several individual AAVSO observers are already participating in this effort. The AAVSO is not currently a partner in that campaign, but all data submitted to the AAVSO will be publicly available. The AAVSO strongly encourages observers to begin following this star now, and to continue observations into October 2014 at least. Finder charts with sequence may be created using the AAVSO Variable Star Plotter (http://www.aavso.org/vsp). Observations should be submitted to the AAVSO International Database. See full Alert Notice for more details and observations.

  19. Antarctic observations available for IMS correlative analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rycroft, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    A review is provided of the wide-ranging observational programs of 25 stations operating on and around the continent of Antarctica during the International Magnetospheric Study (IMS). Attention is given to observations of geomagnetism, short period fluctuations of the earth's electromagnetic field, observations of the ionosphere and of whistler mode signals, observational programs in ionospheric and magnetospheric physics, upper atmosphere physics observations, details of magnetospheric programs conducted at Kerguelen, H-component magnetograms, magnetic field line oscillations, dynamic spectra of whistlers, and the variation of plasmapause position derived from recorded whistlers. The considered studies suggest that, in principle, if the level of magnetic activity is known, predictions can be made concerning the time at which the trough occurs, and the shape and the movement of the main trough

  20. SHARC II Observations of the Galactic Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staguhn, J. G.; Benford, D. J.; Dowell, C. D.

    2003-05-01

    We present the first images of the Galactic Center region obtained with the new Caltech Submillimeter Observatory facility camera SHARC II. Most of the observations show the 350μ m dust continuum emission from this region. The observing mode we used is similar to fast scanning. This mode does not require on- and off-source observations, since the emission from the sky and detector noise can be derived from the on source observations alone. This is possible because the fast scanning on the sky provides spatial correlations between bolometer pixels due to atmospheric emission and temporal correlations between pixels due to celestial emission. This difference of correlations permits the separation of the atmosphere from the celestial source. The observations therefore do not suffer from possible contamination from emission in an off position used for sky subtraction.

  1. Chernobyl accidents observed on Ryukyu Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taira, Hatsuo; Uema, Hitoshi

    1987-01-01

    It was all of sudden that the atomic power plant accident occurred at Chernobyl, USSR, on April 26, 1986. Tremendous amount of radionuclides as fission product has been scattered into the atmosphere and caused enormous atmospheric contaminations not only on the European countries but also throughout the world. The radionuclides induced from the accident were also observed on Okinawa Island on May 5, 1986, two days after the observation on Japan mainland. The observed radionuclides are such as Mo-99, Te-132, I-131, 132, Cs-134, 137 and Ru-103 which were also observed on Japan mainland. The atmospheric contaminations were observed for almost a month showing 3 times of the contaminations on May 6, 15 and 24. The several survived nuclides are positively circulating, being accompanied with Jet Stream, throughout the would on the Northern Hemisphere. (author)

  2. Observational therapeutics: Scope, challenges, and organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rama Vaidya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Observational Therapeutics in the progress of medicine has been neglected in the current era of the hierarchal position imparted to Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs for new drug discovery and practice of evidence-based medicine. There is a need to reflect on the reason for many new drugs being withdrawn during post marketing surveillance. There are several examples in literature where drug-discovery has originated initially from keen clinical and / or laboratory observations. The roots of these discoveries have often been from observations made by practitioners of traditional medicine including Ayurveda. The present article draws attention to the scope and challenges for observational therapeutics. There is an urgent need for the meticulous planning for a systematic organization of developing observational therapeutics, with a full understanding of its strengths and limitations.

  3. Using observational methods in nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Jenny

    2015-07-08

    Observation is a research data-collection method used generally to capture the activities of participants as well as when and where things are happening in a given setting. It checks description of the phenomena against what the researcher perceives to be fact in a rich experiential context. The method's main strength is that it provides direct access to the social phenomena under consideration. It can be used quantitatively or qualitatively, depending on the research question. Challenges in using observation relate to adopting the role of participant or non-participant researcher as observer. This article discusses some of the complexities involved when nurse researchers seek to collect observational data on social processes in naturalistic settings using unstructured or structured observational methods in qualitative research methodology. A glossary of research terms is provided.

  4. Hermeneutics and observation--a discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nåden, Dagfinn

    2010-03-01

    This study deals with hermeneutics and observation. The purpose is to discuss some central concerns of hermeneutics in relation to observation as a research method. Attention is centred on the hermeneutic process, preunderstanding, understanding, sensitivity, the fore-conception of completeness and language. Examples from an observation study are presented. The study ends with a discussion of the importance of proceeding without haste and of silence in observational hermeneutic research. The researcher must allow oneself to be influenced by these qualities if the observations are to be undertaken in a hermeneutic spirit. Physical time must be of lesser importance than inner time. The possibility then exists for the researcher to wander the hermeneutic spiral to the greatest depth possible.

  5. Observer Logistics (OBSLOG) - West Coast Groundfish Observer Program and At-Sea Hake Observer Program data collection, analysis and reporting

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Observer programs are the most comprehensive fishery dependent data collection system for total mortality estimation, protected species monitoring and discard data...

  6. Faint Objects and How to Observe Them

    CERN Document Server

    Cudnik, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Astronomers' Observing Guides provide up-to-date information for amateur astronomers who want to know all about what it is they are observing. This is the basis of the first part of the book. The second part details observing techniques for practical astronomers, working with a range of different instruments. Faint Objects and How to Observe Them is for visual observers who want to "go deep" with their observing. It's a guide to some of the most distant, dim, and rarely observed objects in the sky, with background information on surveys and object lists -- some familiar and some not. Typically, amateur astronomers begin by looking at the brighter objects, and work their way "deeper" as their experience and skills improve. Faint Objects is about the faintest objects we can see with an amateur's telescope -- their physical nature, why they appear so dim, and how to track them down. By definition, these objects are hard to see! But moderate equipment (a decent telescope of at least 10-inch aperture) and the righ...

  7. AMBON - the Arctic Marine Biodiversity Observing Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iken, K.; Danielson, S. L.; Grebmeier, J. M.; Cooper, L. W.; Hopcroft, R. R.; Kuletz, K.; Stafford, K.; Mueter, F. J.; Collins, E.; Bluhm, B.; Moore, S. E.; Bochenek, R. J.

    2016-02-01

    The goal of the Arctic Marine Biodiversity Observing Network (AMBON) is to build an operational and sustainable marine biodiversity observing network for the US Arctic Chukchi Sea continental shelf. The AMBON has four main goals: 1. To close current gaps in taxonomic biodiversity observations from microbes to whales, 2. To integrate results of past and ongoing research programs on the US Arctic shelf into a biodiversity observation network, 3. To demonstrate at a regional level how an observing network could be developed, and 4. To link with programs on the pan-Arctic to global scale. The AMBON fills taxonomic (from microbes to mammals), functional (food web structure), spatial and temporal (continuing time series) gaps, and includes new technologies such as state-of-the-art genomic tools, with biodiversity and environmental observations linked through central data management through the Alaska Ocean Observing System. AMBON is a 5-year partnership between university and federal researchers, funded through the National Ocean Partnership Program (NOPP), with partners in the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Bureau of Ocean and Energy Management (BOEM), and Shell industry. AMBON will allow us to better coordinate, sustain, and synthesize biodiversity research efforts, and make data available to a broad audience of users, stakeholders, and resource managers.

  8. BeppoSAX Observations of MKN 110

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicastro, Fabrizio; Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Mkn 110 is a bright, nearby Seyfert 1 galaxy, which underwent a long optical monitoring campaign, during the past 12 years. Optical observations show that Mkn 110 vary, both in flux and spectral shape. The intensity and width of its Broad Emission Lines (BELs) also vary, from typical Seyfert 1, to typical Narrow Line Seyfert 1 (NLSyl) values, so suggesting that this could be the first supermassive black holes where accretion state related transitions, as frequently observed in stellar-size black holes, have finally been observed. To verify these suggestions we asked to monitor Mkn 110 with BeppoSAX with three 50 ksec observations six months apart. The goal of the proposal was to observe spectral variations in X-ray, already suggested by previous, existing ROSAT (Roentgen Satellite) and ASCA (Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics) observations of the same source. The first of these three SAX (Satellite per Astronomia X) observations was taken on May 2000, and lacks the Low-Energy instrument (0.1-2 keV is the band in which NLSy1 and Sy1 X-ray spectra differ most).

  9. Comparisons of GLM and LMA Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, R. J.; Krehbiel, P. R.; Rison, W.; Stanley, M. A.; Attanasio, A.

    2017-12-01

    Observations from 3-dimensional VHF lightning mapping arrays (LMAs) provide a valuable basis for evaluating the spatial accuracy and detection efficiencies of observations from the recently launched, optical-based Geosynchronous Lightning Mapper (GLM). In this presentation, we describe results of comparing the LMA and GLM observations. First, the observations are compared spatially and temporally at the individual event (pixel) level for sets of individual discharges. For LMA networks in Florida, Colorado, and Oklahoma, the GLM observations are well correlated time-wise with LMA observations but are systematically offset by one- to two pixels ( 10 to 15 or 20 km) in a southwesterly direction from the actual lightning activity. The graphical comparisons show a similar location uncertainty depending on the altitude at which the scattered light is emitted from the parent cloud, due to being observed at slant ranges. Detection efficiencies (DEs) can be accurately determined graphically for intervals where individual flashes in a storm are resolved time-wise, and DEs and false alarm rates can be automated using flash sorting algorithms for overall and/or larger storms. This can be done as a function of flash size and duration, and generally shows high detection rates for larger flashes. Preliminary results during the May 1 2017 ER-2 overflight of Colorado storms indicate decreased detection efficiency if the storm is obscured by an overlying cloud layer.

  10. Synthetic observations of protostellar multiple systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomax, O.; Whitworth, A. P.

    2018-04-01

    Observations of protostars are often compared with synthetic observations of models in order to infer the underlying physical properties of the protostars. The majority of these models have a single protostar, attended by a disc and an envelope. However, observational and numerical evidence suggests that a large fraction of protostars form as multiple systems. This means that fitting models of single protostars to observations may be inappropriate. We produce synthetic observations of protostellar multiple systems undergoing realistic, non-continuous accretion. These systems consist of multiple protostars with episodic luminosities, embedded self-consistently in discs and envelopes. We model the gas dynamics of these systems using smoothed particle hydrodynamics and we generate synthetic observations by post-processing the snapshots using the SPAMCART Monte Carlo radiative transfer code. We present simulation results of three model protostellar multiple systems. For each of these, we generate 4 × 104 synthetic spectra at different points in time and from different viewing angles. We propose a Bayesian method, using similar calculations to those presented here, but in greater numbers, to infer the physical properties of protostellar multiple systems from observations.

  11. Sustaining observations of the unsteady ocean circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frajka-Williams, E

    2014-09-28

    Sustained observations of ocean properties reveal a global warming trend and rising sea levels. These changes have been documented by traditional ship-based measurements of ocean properties, whereas more recent Argo profiling floats and satellite records permit estimates of ocean changes on a near real-time basis. Through these and newer methods of observing the oceans, scientists are moving from quantifying the 'state of the ocean' to monitoring its variability, and distinguishing the physical processes bringing signals of change. In this paper, I give a brief overview of the UK contributions to the physical oceanographic observations, and the role they have played in the wider global observing systems. While temperature and salinity are the primary measurements of physical oceanography, new transbasin mooring arrays also resolve changes in ocean circulation on daily timescales. Emerging technologies permit routine observations at higher-than-ever spatial resolutions. Following this, I then give a personal perspective on the future of sustained observations. New measurement techniques promise exciting discoveries concerning the role of smaller scales and boundary processes in setting the large-scale ocean circulation and the ocean's role in climate. The challenges now facing the scientific community include sustaining critical observations in the case of funding system changes or shifts in government priorities. These long records will enable a determination of the role and response of the ocean to climate change. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  12. Observation inflation. Your actions become mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Isabel; Echterhoff, Gerald; Davidson, Patrick S R; Brand, Matthias

    2010-09-01

    Imagining performing an action can induce false memories of having actually performed it-this is referred to as the imagination-inflation effect. Drawing on research suggesting that action observation-like imagination-involves action simulation, and thus creates matching motor representations in observers, we examined whether false memories of self-performance can also result from merely observing another person's actions. In three experiments, participants observed actions, some of which they had not performed earlier, and took a source-memory test. Action observation robustly produced false memories of self-performance relative to control conditions. The demonstration of this effect, which we refer to as observation inflation, reveals a previously unknown source of false memories that is ubiquitous in everyday life. The effect persisted despite warnings or instructions to focus on self-performance cues given immediately before the test, and despite elimination of sensory overlap between performance and observation. The findings are not easily reconciled with a source-monitoring account but appear to fit an account invoking interpersonal motor simulation.

  13. Observing campaign on 17 cataclysmic variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waagen, Elizabeth O.

    2015-07-01

    Roque Ruiz-Carmona (Ph.D. candidate, Institute of Mathematics, Astrophysics and Particle Physics, Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands) has requested AAVSO assistance with his campaign to observe 17 cataclysmic variables (CVs) with the William Herschel Telescope (WHT) next week. In order for WHT to observe each of the targets safely and to maximize the science value of the observations obtained, it is essential to know whether they are in outburst or quiescence. To this end, the PI has requested our observers to obtain an image of each of the targets so he may analyze them. For this campaign, it is not necessary for observers to determine and submit a magnitude estimate of each target, just to obtain an image and place it where the PI can access it. Any filter may be used, and a raw or reduced image of each target may be submitted. Only one image per observer per target should be submitted. Please do not submit multiple images of any target. Timing is very important because the PI has to decide whether to exclude any target(s) 24 hours in advance of the WHT observations. Thus, the images must be taken and posted within a certain window. Links to finder charts as well as reporting instructions and other information may be found in the full Alert Notice.

  14. Novel jet observables from machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Kaustuv; Larkoski, Andrew J.

    2018-03-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the utility and applicability of machine learning techniques to jet physics. In this paper, we construct new observables for the discrimination of jets from different originating particles exclusively from information identified by the machine. The approach we propose is to first organize information in the jet by resolved phase space and determine the effective N -body phase space at which discrimination power saturates. This then allows for the construction of a discrimination observable from the N -body phase space coordinates. A general form of this observable can be expressed with numerous parameters that are chosen so that the observable maximizes the signal vs. background likelihood. Here, we illustrate this technique applied to discrimination of H\\to b\\overline{b} decays from massive g\\to b\\overline{b} splittings. We show that for a simple parametrization, we can construct an observable that has discrimination power comparable to, or better than, widely-used observables motivated from theory considerations. For the case of jets on which modified mass-drop tagger grooming is applied, the observable that the machine learns is essentially the angle of the dominant gluon emission off of the b\\overline{b} pair.

  15. Multipoint observations of a small substorm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, R.E.; Luehr, H.; Anderson, B.J.; Newell, P.T.; McEntire, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper the authors present multipoint observations of a small substorm which occurred just after 0110 UT on April 25, 1985. The observations were made by spacecraft (AMPTE CCE, AMPTE IRM, DMSP F6, and DMSP F7), ground auroral stations (EISCAT magnetometer cross, Syowa, Narssarssuaq, Great Whale River, and Fort Churchill), and mid-latitude stations (Furstenfeldbruck, Toledo, and Argentine Island). These data provide them with a broad range of observations, including the latitudinal extent of the polar cap, visual identification of substorm aurorae and the magnetic perturbations produced directly beneath them, in situ magnetic field and energetic particle observations of the disruption of the cross-tail current sheet, and observations concerning the spatial expansion of the current disruption region from two radially aligned spacecraft. The DMSP data indicate that the event took place during a period when the polar cap was relatively contracted, yet the disruption of the current sheet was observed by CCE at 8.56 R E . They have been able to infer a considerable amount of detail concerning the structure and westward expansion of the auroral features associated with the event, and they show that those auroral surges were located more than 10 degree equatorward of the boundary between open and closed field lines. Moreover, they present evidence that the current sheet disruption observed by CCE in the neutral sheet was located on field lines which mapped to the westward traveling surge observed directly overhead of the ground station at Syowa. Furthermore, the observations strongly imply that disruption of the cross-tail current began in the near-Earth region and that it had a component of expansion which was radially antisunward

  16. Early Observations of Sunspots: Scheiner and Galileo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanovas, J.

    There had been occasional observations of spots on the Sun since antiquity. Kepler observed a sunspot in 1607 but he interpreted it as a Mercury's transit. One year after the introduction of the telescope astronomers identified spots on the Sun. J. Fabricius was the first to print a book on sunspots at the end of 1611, but this book had little diffusion. Fabricius rightly thought that the spots belonged to the Sun. The Jesuit C. Scheiner independently observed sunspots on the Sun and he announced his discovery at the end of 1611 in three letters under the pseudonym Apelles. Scheiner failed to observe the returning of the spots and hence did not recognize the solar rotation. Therefore he preferred to see the spots as caused by little bodies orbiting the Sun. Based on Scheiner's observations, Kepler concluded that the spots were on the solar surface like dross floating on melted metal. When Scheiner's letters reached Italy, Galileo claimed to have observed sunspots much earlier, but if this had been the case, he had not published anything on sunspots. Galileo replied to Apelles' letters affirming that the spots were on the surface of the Sun, like clouds. A bitter and long fight followed between Galileo and Scheiner on the priority of discovery. Techniques for solar observation progressed quickly. The solar image was observed projected on a white paper for measurement of sunspots positions. Scheiner later perfected this method installing the telescope on an equatorial mounting. Scheiner made over 2000 solar observations and determined the orientation of the solar axis of rotation. His methods and results were presented in his monumental work Rosa Ursina.

  17. Astrometrical Observations of the Selected WDS Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodryagin, D.V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of double stars observations, which were carried out at the Research Institute NAO during the 2013-2016 years are presented. Astrometric reduction of the received frames until the equatorial coordinates of binary and multiple systems components at the time of observation was made. The combination of the CCD received data with other Strasbourg base catalogs allowed to determine the new values of the observed stars’ proper motions. Parameters of mutual component configuration (position angle and separation were measured for the 214 double stars. The analysis of the measurement results was carried out. The measurement results were added to the WDS directory database.

  18. Amateur astronomers in support of observing campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanamandra-Fisher, P.

    2014-07-01

    The Pro-Am Collaborative Astronomy (PACA) project evolved from the observational campaign of C/2012 S1 or C/ISON. The success of the paradigm shift in scientific research is now implemented in other comet observing campaigns. While PACA identifies a consistent collaborative approach to pro-am collaborations, given the volume of data generated for each campaign, new ways of rapid data analysis, mining access, and storage are needed. Several interesting results emerged from the synergistic inclusion of both social media and amateur astronomers: - the establishment of a network of astronomers and related professionals that can be galvanized into action on short notice to support observing campaigns; - assist in various science investigations pertinent to the campaign; - provide an alert-sounding mechanism should the need arise; - immediate outreach and dissemination of results via our media/blogger members; - provide a forum for discussions between the imagers and modelers to help strategize the observing campaign for maximum benefit. In 2014, two new comet observing campaigns involving pro-am collaborations have been identified: (1) C/2013 A1 (C/Siding Spring) and (2) 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (CG). The evolving need for individual customized observing campaigns has been incorporated into the evolution of PACA (Pro-Am Collaborative Astronomy) portal that currently is focused on comets: from supporting observing campaigns for current comets, legacy data, historical comets; interconnected with social media and a set of shareable documents addressing observational strategies; consistent standards for data; data access, use, and storage, to align with the needs of professional observers. The integration of science, observations by professional and amateur astronomers, and various social media provides a dynamic and evolving collaborative partnership between professional and amateur astronomers. The recent observation of comet 67P, at a magnitude of 21.2, from Siding

  19. Power filtration of CMB observational data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novikov, D.I.; Naselsky, P.; Jørgensen, H.E.

    2001-01-01

    We propose a power filter Cp for linear reconstruction of the CMB signal from one-dimensional scans of observational maps. This Gp filter preserves the power spectrum of the CMB signal in contrast to the Wiener filter which diminishes the power spectrum of the reconstructed CMB signal. We...... demonstrate how peak statistics and a cluster analysis can be used to estimate the probability of the presence of a CMB signal in observational records. The efficiency of the G, filter is demonstrated on a toy model of an observational record consisting of a CMB signal and noise in the form of foreground...

  20. STROBE initiative: guidelines on reporting observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malta, Monica; Cardoso, Leticia Oliveira; Bastos, Francisco Inacio; Magnanini, Monica Maria Ferreira; Silva, Cosme Marcelo Furtado Passos da

    2010-06-01

    Reporting of observational studies is often inadequate, hampering the assessment of their strengths and weaknesses and, consequently, the generalization of study results. The initiative named Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) developed a checklist of 22 items, the STROBE Statement, with recommendations about what should be included in a more accurate and complete description of observational studies. Between June and December 2008, a group of Brazilian researchers was dedicated to the translation and adaptation of the STROBE Statement into Portuguese. The present study aimed to show the translation into Portuguese, introduce the discussion on the context of use, the potential and limitations of the STROBE initiative.

  1. Observations of emission lines in M supergiants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    Copernicus observations of Mg 2 h and k emission lines from M giants and supergiants are described. Supergiants with extensive circumstellar gas shells show an asymmetric k line. The asymmetry is ascribed to superimposed lines of Fe 1 and Mn 1. The Mg 2 line width fit the Wilson-Bappu relation derived from observations of G and K Stars. Results of correlated ground-based observations include (1) the discovery of K 1 fluorescent emission from the Betelgeuse shell; (2) extimates of the mass-loss rates; and (3) the proposal that silicate dust grains must account for the major fraction of the Si atoms in the Betelgeuse shell.

  2. Workshop on Observations of Recent Comets (1990)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, Walter F. (Editor); Wehinger, Peter A. (Editor); Rahe, Jurgen (Editor); Konno, Ichishiro (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Potential interpretations are presented for observations of four comets: Brorsen-Metcalf (1989o), Okazaki-Levy-Rudenko (1989r), Aarseth-Brewington (1989a1), and Austin (1989o1). The relationship of minor species with each other and possible parents as well as with dust are being pursued in a number of investigations. Of particular interest are the abundance ratios of CH4 to CO and NH3 to N2. The need for closer collaboration betwen observing teams and modelers is examined. The need for dust size distribution as a function of cometocentric distance to be analyzed in closer collaboration between observers and modelers is discussed.

  3. Low energy plasma observations at synchronous orbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reasoner, D.L.; Lennartsson, W.

    1977-08-01

    The University of California at San Diego Auroral Particles Experiment on the ATS-6 Satellite in synchronous orbit has detected a low-energy plasma population which is separate and distinct from both the ring current and plasma sheet populations. These observations suggest that this plasma is the outer zone of the plasmasphere. During magnetically active periods, this low energy plasma is often observed flowing sunward. In the dusk sector, enhanced plasma flow is often observed for 1-2 hours prior to the onset of a substorm-associated particle injection. (author)

  4. Is Seeing Believing?: Observation in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Allan David

    2017-12-01

    In 2016 the LIGO-Virgo collaboration announced "the first direct detection of gravitational waves." This was to distinguish their result from the indirect observation of Russell Hulse, Joel Weisberg, and Joseph Taylor, which used the decrease in the period of a binary pulsar to "establish, with a high degree of confidence the existence of gravitational radiation as predicted by general relativity." This raises several interesting questions. One might ask how one can distinguish between direct and indirect observation and whether that distinction is exemplified in the practice of science. One might also ask whether a direct observation has more epistemic weight than an indirect observation. In this essay, I briefly discuss several episodes from the history of modern physics in an attempt to answer those questions. These episodes include Galileo and falling bodies, the discovery of the neutrino, the Higgs boson, and gravitational radiation.

  5. Ultramicroscopic observation of recombinant adenoassociated virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ultramicroscopic observation of recombinant adenoassociated virus type 2 on the surface of formvarcarbon coated copper grids under different relative humidity and incubation time using negative stain transmission electron microscopy.

  6. High altitude observations of Birkeland currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, C.T.

    1977-01-01

    Birkeland or field-aligned currents are thought to play a fundamental role in many magnetospheric processes. These roles are reviewed together with observations of Birkeland currents in the distant magnetosphere

  7. Gravity observations for hydrocarbon reservoir monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glegola, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis the added value of gravity observations for hydrocarbon reservoir monitoring and characterization is investigated. Reservoir processes and reservoir types most suitable for gravimetric monitoring are identified. Major noise sources affecting time-lapse gravimetry are analyzed. The

  8. Observing Protein & Energy Nutrition (OPEN) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Observing Protein and Energy Nutrition (OPEN) Study was designed to assess dietary measurement error by comparing results from self-reported dietary intake data with four dietary biomarkers: doubly labeled water and urinary nitrogen, sodium, and potassium.

  9. Bird Migration Echoes Observed by Polarimetric Radar

    OpenAIRE

    MINDA, Haruya; FURUZAWA, Fumie A.; SATOH, Shinsuke; NAKAMURA, Kenji

    2008-01-01

    A C-band polarimetric radar on Okinawa Island successfully observed large-scale bird migrations over the western Pacific Ocean. The birds generated interesting polarimetric signatures. This paper describes the signatures and speculates bird behavior.

  10. Electrolytic tiltmeters inside magnetic fields: Some observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberdi, J.; Arce, P.; Barcala, J.M.; Calvo, E.; Ferrando, A.; Josa, M.I.; Luque, J.M.; Molinero, A.; Navarrete, J.; Oller, J.C.; Yuste, C.; Calderon, A.; Garcia-Moral, L.A.; Gomez, G.; Gonzalez-Sanchez, F.J.; Martinez-Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Rodrigo, T.; Ruiz-Arbol, P.; Scodellaro, L.; Sobron, M.; Vila, I.; Virto, A.L.

    2007-01-01

    We present observations of the electrolytic clinometers behaviour inside magnetic field environments introducing phenomenological expressions to account for the measured output voltage variations as functions of field gradients and field strengths

  11. Observed confidence levels theory and application

    CERN Document Server

    Polansky, Alan M

    2007-01-01

    Illustrating a simple, novel method for solving an array of statistical problems, Observed Confidence Levels: Theory and Application describes the basic development of observed confidence levels, a methodology that can be applied to a variety of common multiple testing problems in statistical inference. It focuses on the modern nonparametric framework of bootstrap-based estimates, allowing for substantial theoretical development and for relatively simple solutions to numerous interesting problems. After an introduction, the book develops the theory and application of observed confidence levels for general scalar parameters, vector parameters, and linear models. It then examines nonparametric problems often associated with smoothing methods, including nonparametric density estimation and regression. The author also describes applications in generalized linear models, classical nonparametric statistics, multivariate analysis, and survival analysis as well as compares the method of observed confidence levels to...

  12. Earth Observations for Global Water Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawford, Richard; Strauch, Adrian; Toll, David; Fekete, Balazs; Cripe, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    The combined effects of population growth, increasing demands for water to support agriculture, energy security, and industrial expansion, and the challenges of climate change give rise to an urgent need to carefully monitor and assess trends and variations in water resources. Doing so will ensure that sustainable access to adequate quantities of safe and useable water will serve as a foundation for water security. Both satellite and in situ observations combined with data assimilation and models are needed for effective, integrated monitoring of the water cycle's trends and variability in terms of both quantity and quality. On the basis of a review of existing observational systems, we argue that a new integrated monitoring capability for water security purposes is urgently needed. Furthermore, the components for this capability exist and could be integrated through the cooperation of national observational programmes. The Group on Earth Observations should play a central role in the design, implementation, management and analysis of this system and its products.

  13. Bottom Scour Observed Under Hurricane Ivan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Teague, William J; Jarosz, Eva; Keen, Timothy R; Wang, David W; Hulbert, Mark S

    2006-01-01

    Observations that extensive bottom scour along the outer continental shelf under Hurricane Ivan resulted in the displacement of more than 100 million cubic meters of sediment from a 35x15 km region...

  14. On the consistent use of Constructed Observables

    CERN Document Server

    Trott, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We define "constructed observables" as relating experimental measurements to terms in a Lagrangian while simultaneously making assumptions about possible deviations from the Standard Model (SM), in other Lagrangian terms. Ensuring that the SM effective field theory (EFT) is constrained correctly when using constructed observables requires that their defining conditions are imposed on the EFT in a manner that is consistent with the equations of motion. Failing to do so can result in a "functionally redundant" operator basis and the wrong expectation as to how experimental quantities are related in the EFT. We illustrate the issues involved considering the $\\rm S$ parameter and the off shell triple gauge coupling (TGC) verticies. We show that the relationships between $h \\rightarrow V \\bar{f} \\, f$ decay and the off shell TGC verticies are subject to these subtleties, and how the connections between these observables vanish in the limit of strong bounds due to LEP. The challenge of using constructed observables...

  15. Legacy HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seals Observers

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set documents observers that have collected monk seal data as part of the ongoing monk seal population assessment efforts by PSD personnel and cooperating...

  16. CCD OBSERVATIONS V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Charged Coupled Device (CCD) cameras from ESO were used by groups to observe the outburst of comet Halley using a variety of telescopes and chip sets.

  17. Physicists observe subatomic quick-change artist

    CERN Multimedia

    Halber, Deborah

    2006-01-01

    Physicists have announced the observation of a subatomic particle known as the Bs (pronounced "B sub s") meson switching between matter and antimatter states at a mind-boggling 3 trillion times per second (1 page)

  18. Enhanced Ocean Predictability Through Optimal Observing Strategies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kirwan, A

    1999-01-01

    The long term goal of this research is to develop the requisite technology to design effective observation strategies that will maximize the capacity to predict mesoscale and submesoscale conditions...

  19. Observations and Modeling of Atmospheric Radiance Structure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wintersteiner, Peter

    2001-01-01

    The overall purpose of the work that we have undertaken is to provide new capabilities for observing and modeling structured radiance in the atmosphere, particularly the non-LTE regions of the atmosphere...

  20. CCD BVI c observations of Cepheids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdnikov, L. N.; Kniazev, A. Yu.; Sefako, R.; Kravtsov, V. V.; Zhujko, S. V.

    2014-02-01

    In 2008-2013, we obtained 11333 CCD BVI c frames for 57 Cepheids from the General Catalogue of Variable Stars. We performed our observations with the 76-cm telescope of the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO, South Africa) and the 40-cm telescope of the Cerro Armazones Astronomical Observatory of the Universidad Católica del Norte (OCA, Chile) using the SBIG ST-10XME CCD camera. The tables of observations, the plots of light curves, and the current light elements are presented. Comparison of our light curves with those constructed from photoelectric observations shows that the differences between their mean magnitudes exceed 0ṃ05 in 20% of the cases. This suggests the necessity of performing CCD observations for all Cepheids.

  1. Observation of extragalactic X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bui-Van, Andre.

    1973-01-01

    A narrow angular resolution detection apparatus using a high performance collimator has proved particularly well suited for the programs of observation of X ray sources. The experimental set-up and its performance are described. One chapter deals with the particular problems involved in the observation of X ray sources with the aid of sounding balloons. The absorption of extraterrestrial photons by the earth atmosphere is taken into account in the procesing of the observation data using two methods of calculation: digital and with simulation techniques. The results of three balloon flights are then presented with the interpretation of the observations carried out using both thermal and non thermal emission models. This analysis leads to some possible characteristics of structure of the Perseus galaxy cluster [fr

  2. Surface Weather Observation 1001 Forms (Keyed)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In order to fill in the observation gap prior to the time when commercial aviation began in the U.S., The NCDC Climate Data Modernization Program (CDMP) retrieved...

  3. Index of Meteorological Observations Publication (Before 1890)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Index of meteorological observations in the United States made prior to January 1, 1890, organized by state. Includes station name, coordinates, elevation, period of...

  4. STRengthening analytical thinking for observational studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauerbrei, Willi; Abrahamowicz, Michal; Altman, Douglas G.

    2014-01-01

    The validity and practical utility of observational medical research depends critically on good study design, excellent data quality, appropriate statistical methods and accurate interpretation of results. Statistical methodology has seen substantial development in recent times. Unfortunately, many...

  5. FIMS Wavelength Calibration via Airglow Line Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae-Hee Lee

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Far-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (FIMS is the main payload of the Korea's first scientific micro satellite STSAT-1, which was launched at Sep. 27 2003 successfully. Major objective of FIMS is observing hot gas in the Galaxy in FUV bands to diagnose the energy flow models of the interstellar medium. Supernova remnants, molecular clouds, and Aurora emission in the geomagnetic pole regions are specific targets for pointing observation. Although the whole system was calibrated before launch, it is essential to perform on-orbit calibration for data analysis. For spectral calibration, we observed airglow lines in the atmosphere since they provide good spectral references. We identify and compare the observed airglow lines with model calculations, and correct the spectral distortion appeared in the detector system to improve the spectral resolution of the system.

  6. Surface Observations from Punta Arenas, Chile

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surface Observations from Punta Arenas, in extreme southern Chile. WMO station ID 85934. Period of record 1896-1954. The original forms were scanned at the Museo...

  7. Delivery of information from earth observation satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, J.S.

    1992-01-01

    Satellite-based systems for measuring the surface of the earth and its atmosphere from space have evolved rapidly in the past decade. The amount of data available in the future promises to be truly staggering. This paper addresses the requirements for handling data from earth observation systems. It begins with the premise that our objective is to acquire an understanding of the state and evolution of our planet, and proceeds from there to argue that earth observation satellite systems are, in reality, systems for delivering information. This view has implications on how we approach the design of such systems, and how we handle the data they produce in order to derive maximum benefit from them. The paper examines these issues and puts forth some of the technical requirements for future satellite-based earth observation systems, based on the concept that earth observation is a quantitative measurement discipline that is driven by requirements for information. (Author). 8 refs., 3 figs

  8. The Forward Observer Personal Computer Simulator (FOPCSIM)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brannon, David

    2002-01-01

    This joint thesis addresses the need for a task trainer for the artillery forward observer task, In recent years, declining budgets, limitations on artillery ammunition and encroachment into training...

  9. Fixing Images Observation Dates Thanks to Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derriere, S.

    2015-09-01

    An important piece of metadata for any astronomical image is the date and time at which it was observed (and the exposure time). Unfortunately, the values of the observation epoch found in the FITS headers of digitized photographic plates, for example, are not always accurate. There can be many different sources of error: mistakes in the original observation log, errors when converting between different dates and time format (calendar date, Julian days, decimal years, etc.). We present in this paper an analysis of the different values that can be found for the observation epoch of several image sets in various metadata sources. We show how the presence of known asteroids in the field of view can be used to recover the correct time values with a good accuracy.

  10. Code 672 observational science branch computer networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, D. W.; Shirk, H. G.

    1988-01-01

    In general, networking increases productivity due to the speed of transmission, easy access to remote computers, ability to share files, and increased availability of peripherals. Two different networks within the Observational Science Branch are described in detail.

  11. Atlantic-THORpex Observing System Test

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Atlantic - THORpex Observing System Test (ATOST) is part of an international research program to accelerate improvements in the accuracy of 1 to 14 day weather...

  12. Infrared Observations of Cometary Dust and Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisse, Carey

    2004-01-01

    This bibliography lists citations for publications published under the grant. Subjects of the publications include cometary dust, instellar and interplanetary dust, comet nuclei and comae, Comet Hale-Bopp, infrared observations of comets, mass loss, and comet break-up.

  13. Observations of gamma-ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strong, I.B.; Klebesadel, R.W.; Evans, W.D.

    1975-01-01

    Observational data on gamma-ray bursts are reviewed. Information is grouped into temporal properties, energy fluxes and spectral properties, and directions and distributions of the sources in space. (BJG)

  14. Regional radiological observations of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-11-01

    After having recalled the objective of regional radiological observations (establishment of an updated referential of radioactivity levels in some parts of the environment which are typical of the concerned territory), and indicated the three main steps of these observations (definition of a methodology which may differ from one territory to the other, sampling and analysis, assessment of the radiological status of the studied territory), this report presents a methodology which can be applied to big rivers and predominantly agricultural territories. The radiological observations of different areas are reported (Val de Loire, Rhone valley, areas of persistence like mountains, or mining areas). Maps indicate the sampling location and the analysed products (food, soil, plants) and report of the ground or aquatic environment analysis, or available data and sampling strategy are given. The New Caledonia radiological observation is also reported

  15. Earth Observing System Covariance Realism Updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda Romero, Juan A.; Miguel, Fred

    2017-01-01

    This presentation will be given at the International Earth Science Constellation Mission Operations Working Group meetings June 13-15, 2017 to discuss the Earth Observing System Covariance Realism updates.

  16. GODAE, SFCOBS - Surface Temperature Observations, 1998-present

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — GODAE, SFCOBS - Surface Temperature Observations: Ship, fixed/drifting buoy, and CMAN in-situ surface temperature. Global Telecommunication System (GTS) Data. The...

  17. AFSC/FMA/Observer Logistics System (OLS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Alaska groundfish fisheries observers have been monitoring domestic groundfish fishing activities in the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) off Alaska for over...

  18. Are small hyperbolic universes observationally detectable?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomero, G.I.; Reboucas, M.J.; Tavakol, R.; Queen Mary University of London, London

    2001-06-01

    Using recent observational constraints on cosmological density parameters, together with recent mathematical results concering small volume hyperbolic manifolds, we argue that, by employing pattern repetitions, the topology of nearly flat small hyperbolic universes can be observationally undetectable. This is important in view of the facts quantum cosmology may favour hyperbolic universes with small volumes, and from the expectation, coming from inflationary scenarios, that Ω 0 is likely to be very close to one. (author)

  19. CO and HCN observations of carbon stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, F; deJong, T; Loup, C

    We present CO and HCN observations of carbon stars. They consist of partly new detections in the (CO)-C-12 J = (1-0), (2-1) and HCN(1-0) lines obtained with the SEST and the IRAM telescope, and of (CO)-C-12 and (CO)-C-13 J = (1-0), (2-1) and (3-2) observations with IRAM and the JCMT of some of the

  20. International astronomical remote present observation on IRC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Kaifan; Cao, Wenda; Song, Qian

    On March 6 - 7, 1997, an international astronomical remote present observation (RPO) was made on Internet Relay Chat (IRC) for the first time. Seven groups in four countries, China, United States, Canada and Great Britain, used the 1 meter telescope of Yunnan observatory together by the way of remote present observation. Within minutes, images were "On-line" by FTP, and every one was able to get them by anonymous ftp and discuss them on IRC from different widely separated sites.

  1. Observation of stars produced during cold fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, T.

    1992-01-01

    It has been indicated tht multiple-neutron nuclei such as quad-neutrons can be emitted during cold fusion. These multiple-neutrons might bombard the nuclei of materials outside a cold fusion cell to cause nuclear reactions. In this paper, observations of nuclear emulsions that were irradiated during a cold fusion experiment with heavy water and palladium foil are described. Various traces, like stars, showing nuclear reactions caused by the multiple-neutrons have been clearly observed

  2. Exoplanet Observing: From Art to Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Dennis M.; Gleeson, Jack

    2017-06-01

    This paper will review the now well-established best practices for conducting high precision exoplanet observing with small telescopes. The paper will also review the AAVSO's activities in promoting these best practices among the amateur astronomer community through training material and online courses, as well as through the establishment of an AAVSO Exoplanet Database. This latter development will be an essential element in supporting followup exoplanet observations for upcoming space telescope missions such as TESS and JWST.

  3. Exoplanet Observing: from Art to Science (Abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, D. M.; Gleeson, J.

    2017-12-01

    (Abstract only) This paper will review the now well-established best practices for conducting high precision exoplanet observing with small telescopes. The paper will also review the AAVSO's activities in promoting these best practices among the amateur astronomer community through training material and online courses, as well as through the establishment of an AAVSO Exoplanet Database. This latter development will be an essential element in supporting followup exoplanet observations for upcoming space telescope missions such as TESS and JWST.

  4. Environmental isotope observations on Sishen ground waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhagen, B. Th.

    1982-01-01

    Environmental isotope measurements have been conducted on the outputs of some of the main dewatering points in both north and south mining areas as well as on numerous other observation points in the Sishen compartment. The effect of the dykes bounding the compartment could be observed from the behaviour of the isotopic composition of ground waters in the conduit zone. Measurements were done on radiocarbon, tritium oxygen-18 and carbon-13

  5. Observational hints on the Big Bounce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mielczarek, Jakub; Kurek, Aleksandra; Szydłowski, Marek; Kamionka, Michał

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we study possible observational consequences of the bouncing cosmology. We consider a model where a phase of inflation is preceded by a cosmic bounce. While we consider in this paper only that the bounce is due to loop quantum gravity, most of the results presented here can be applied for different bouncing cosmologies. We concentrate on the scenario where the scalar field, as the result of contraction of the universe, is driven from the bottom of the potential well. The field is amplified, and finally the phase of the standard slow-roll inflation is realized. Such an evolution modifies the standard inflationary spectrum of perturbations by the additional oscillations and damping on the large scales. We extract the parameters of the model from the observations of the cosmic microwave background radiation. In particular, the value of inflaton mass is equal to m = (1.7±0.6)·10 13 GeV. In our considerations we base on the seven years of observations made by the WMAP satellite. We propose the new observational consistency check for the phase of slow-roll inflation. We investigate the conditions which have to be fulfilled to make the observations of the Big Bounce effects possible. We translate them to the requirements on the parameters of the model and then put the observational constraints on the model. Based on assumption usually made in loop quantum cosmology, the Barbero-Immirzi parameter was shown to be constrained by γ < 1100 from the cosmological observations. We have compared the Big Bounce model with the standard Big Bang scenario and showed that the present observational data is not informative enough to distinguish these models

  6. New infrared telescopic observation of Vesta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomba, E.; D'Aversa, E.; Sato, T.; Longobardo, A.; Aoki, S.; Sindoni, G.; Oliva, F.

    2017-09-01

    In this work we present new telescopic observations of the Vesta asteroid made at the Subaru Telescope by using the COMICS IR spectrometer. We were able to obtain 5 different observations in 5 day, at two different epochs. The obtained spectra do not exhibit Reststrahlen bands and show only weak features attributable to the Christiansen peak and to the transparency feature compatible with a fine grain size regolith.

  7. Action observation: Inferring intentions without mirror neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frith, Christopher; Kilner, James M

    2008-01-01

    A recent study has shown, using fMRI, that the mirror neuron system does not mediate action understanding when the observed action is novel or when it is hard to understand.......A recent study has shown, using fMRI, that the mirror neuron system does not mediate action understanding when the observed action is novel or when it is hard to understand....

  8. Aerial Observation; A Bibliography of Periodical Articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-01

    99,90, Jan 1944. ’If not an Air OP why not locatinc7," 2CRA, ?0:115-123, Apr 1953. Jackson , I-ian E. "FDC an- the Artillery Air Observer," FM, 34...194, 1886. Thom.pson, Percy N;. "Organization and ’aneuver of Ficld Artillery Observation," .*IL RVW, 25:53-60, Apr 1945. "To See or not to see," JORA

  9. State-of-the-art meteor observing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell-Brown, M.

    2014-07-01

    Meteors are an excellent way to sample the local population of small asteroidal and cometary material. Various methods are used to calculate the trajectory, energy, mass and orbit of meteoroids which collide with the atmosphere. Optical methods, including photographic and video observations, can provide information on how meteoroids ablate in the atmosphere, and from this their chemical and physical properties can be inferred. New observing systems have higher resolution than ever before, allowing details as small as a few meters to be distinguished in some cases (e.g. Weryk et al. 2013), and some optical systems are equipped with spectral detectors which allow the atomic composition of the meteoroids to be obtained. Computer automation of both the observing and data reduction process has become much more practical recently. Meteor patrol radars are capable of observing thousands of meteor orbits every day, allowing the details of the distribution of meteoroids at 1 au to be found (e.g. Brown et al. 2010). Radars can operate in daylight and through clouds, providing observations when optical methods fail. High power, large aperture radars allow the ionization curves of very small meteors to be used in the same way as optical light curves, and can also produce precise orbits for meteoroids (Kero et al. 2012). Other methods used to observe meteors, including infrasound, can estimate their position in the atmosphere and their energy, and are particularly useful for very bright fireballs (Ens et al., 2012). Recent advances in meteor observing techniques will be reviewed, including the systematic tracking of meteors with computer guided mirrors and a telescope, and multistation patrol radar observations.

  10. Observations of coal cleat in British coalfields

    OpenAIRE

    Ellison, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    This technical report presents the observations made during a study into cleat and joint directions, largely in the Pennine Basin. Field work was carried out under the BGS Research and Development programme in 199 1 - 1992. Interpretation of these observations will be made elsewhere. Cleat is the term widely in use to describe joints in coals. It is generally developed perpendicular to the bedding and there is normally one dominant set, known as the main cleat and a subsidiary, mo...

  11. Are small hyperbolic universes observationally detectable?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomero, G.I. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]|[Universidade Catolica de Petropolis, RJ (Brazil); E-mail: gomero@cbpf.br; Reboucas, M.J. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); E-mail: reboucas@cbpf.br; Tavakol, R. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]|[Queen Mary University of London, London (United Kingdom). School of Mathematical Sciences, Astronomy Unit]. E-mail: r.tavakol@qmw.ac.uk

    2001-06-01

    Using recent observational constraints on cosmological density parameters, together with recent mathematical results concering small volume hyperbolic manifolds, we argue that, by employing pattern repetitions, the topology of nearly flat small hyperbolic universes can be observationally undetectable. This is important in view of the facts quantum cosmology may favour hyperbolic universes with small volumes, and from the expectation, coming from inflationary scenarios, that {omega}{sub 0} is likely to be very close to one. (author)

  12. Directly observed therapy for treating tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Karumbi, Jamlick; Garner, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) requires at least six months of treatment. If treatment is incomplete, patients may not be cured and drug resistance may develop. Directly Observed Therapy (DOT) is a specific strategy, endorsed by the World Health Organization, to improve adherence by requiring health workers, community volunteers or family members to observe and record patients taking each dose. Objectives To evaluate DOT compared to self-administered therapy in people on treatment for active TB...

  13. Observations of Obliquely Propagating Electron Bernstein Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armstrong, R. J.; Juul Rasmussen, Jens; Stenzel, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    Plane electron Bernstein waves propagating obliquely to the magnetic field are investigated. The waves are excited by a plane grid antenna in a large volume magnetoplasma. The observations compare favorably with the predictions of the linear dispersion relation.......Plane electron Bernstein waves propagating obliquely to the magnetic field are investigated. The waves are excited by a plane grid antenna in a large volume magnetoplasma. The observations compare favorably with the predictions of the linear dispersion relation....

  14. Paths to dark energy theory and observation

    CERN Document Server

    Valtonen, Mauri; Chernin, Arthur D; Byrd, Gene

    2012-01-01

    This work provides the current theory and observations behind the cosmological phenomenon of dark energy. The approach is comprehensivewith rigorous mathematical theory and relevant astronomical observations discussed in context.The book treats the background and history starting with the new-found importance of Einstein's cosmological constant (proposed long ago for the opposite purpose) in dark energy formulation, as well as the frontiers of dark energy.

  15. Nebula observations. Catalogues and archive of photoplates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlyapnikov, A. A.; Smirnova, M. A.; Elizarova, N. V.

    2017-12-01

    A process of data systematization based on "Academician G.A. Shajn's Plan" for studying the Galaxy structure related to nebula observations is considered. The creation of digital versions of catalogues of observations and publications is described, as well as their presentation in HTML, VOTable and AJS formats and basic principles of work in the interactive application of International Virtual Observatory the Aladin Sky Atlas.

  16. Comparing P-stars with Observations

    OpenAIRE

    Cea, Paolo

    2007-01-01

    P-stars are compact stars made of up and down quarks in $\\beta$-equilibrium with electrons in a chromomagnetic condensate. P-stars are able to account for compact stars as well as stars with radius comparable with canonical neutron stars. We compare p-stars with different available observations. Our results indicate that p-stars are able to reproduce in a natural manner several observations from isolated and binary pulsars.

  17. A Community Data Model for Hydrologic Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarboton, D. G.; Horsburgh, J. S.; Zaslavsky, I.; Maidment, D. R.; Valentine, D.; Jennings, B.

    2006-12-01

    The CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System project is developing information technology infrastructure to support hydrologic science. Hydrologic information science involves the description of hydrologic environments in a consistent way, using data models for information integration. This includes a hydrologic observations data model for the storage and retrieval of hydrologic observations in a relational database designed to facilitate data retrieval for integrated analysis of information collected by multiple investigators. It is intended to provide a standard format to facilitate the effective sharing of information between investigators and to facilitate analysis of information within a single study area or hydrologic observatory, or across hydrologic observatories and regions. The observations data model is designed to store hydrologic observations and sufficient ancillary information (metadata) about the observations to allow them to be unambiguously interpreted and used and provide traceable heritage from raw measurements to usable information. The design is based on the premise that a relational database at the single observation level is most effective for providing querying capability and cross dimension data retrieval and analysis. This premise is being tested through the implementation of a prototype hydrologic observations database, and the development of web services for the retrieval of data from and ingestion of data into the database. These web services hosted by the San Diego Supercomputer center make data in the database accessible both through a Hydrologic Data Access System portal and directly from applications software such as Excel, Matlab and ArcGIS that have Standard Object Access Protocol (SOAP) capability. This paper will (1) describe the data model; (2) demonstrate the capability for representing diverse data in the same database; (3) demonstrate the use of the database from applications software for the performance of hydrologic analysis

  18. The NRAO Observing for University Classes Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, John M.; Van Moorsel, Gustaaf A.

    2017-01-01

    The NRAO "Observing for University Classes" program is a tremendous resource for instructors of courses in observational astronomy. As a service to the astronomical and educational communities, the NRAO offers small amounts of observing time on the Very Large Array (VLA) and the Very Long Baseline Array to such instructors. The data can be used by students and faculty to demonstrate radio astronomy theory with modern data products. Further, the results may lead to publication; this is a unique opportunity for faculty members to integrate research into the classroom. Previous experience with NRAO facilities is required for instructors; individuals without radio astronomy experience can take advantage of other NRAO educational opportunities (e.g., the Synthesis Imaging Workshop) prior to using the program. No previous experience with radio astronomy data is required for students; this is the primary target audience of the program. To demonstrate concept, this poster describes three different VLA observing programs that have been completed using the "Observing for University Classes" resource at Macalester College; undergraduate students have published the results of all three of these programs. Other recent "Observing for University Classes" programs are also described.

  19. How to Observe the Sun Safely

    CERN Document Server

    Macdonald, Lee

    2012-01-01

    How to Observe the Sun Safely, Second Edition gives all the basic information and advice the amateur astronomer needs to get started in observing our own ever-fascinating star. Unlike many other astronomical objects, you do not need a large telescope or expensive equipment to observe the Sun. And it is possible to take excellent pictures of the Sun with today's low-cost digital cameras! This book surveys what is visible on the Sun and then describes how to record solar features and measure solar activity levels. There is also an account of how to use H-alpha and Calcium-K filters to observe and record prominences and other features of the solar chromosphere, the Sun's inner atmosphere. Because we are just entering a period of high activity on the Sun, following a long, quiet period, this is a great time to get involved with solar observing. Still emphasizing safety first, this Second Edition reflects recent and exciting advances in solar observing equipment. Chapters 6 through 8 have been completely revised ...

  20. Artificial Satellites and How to Observe Them

    CERN Document Server

    Schmude, Jr , Richard

    2012-01-01

    Astronomers' Observing Guides provide up-to-date information for amateur astronomers who want to know all about what it is they are observing. This is the basis for the first part of the book. The second part details observing techniques for practical astronomers, working with a range of different instruments. Every amateur astronomer sees "stars" that aren't natural objects steadily slide across the background of the sky. Artificial satellites can be seen on any night, and some are as bright as the planets. But can you identify which satellite or spent launch vehicle casing you are seeing? Do you know how to image it? Artificial Satellites and How to Observe Them describes all of the different satellites that can be observed, including communication, scientific, spy satellites, and of course, the International Space Station. Richard Schmude describes how to recognize them and even how to predict their orbits. The book tells how to observe artificial satellites with the unaided eye, binoculars and with telesc...

  1. USGEO Common Framework For Earth Observation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, J.; de la Beaujardiere, J.; Bristol, S.

    2015-12-01

    The United States Group on Earth Observations (USGEO) Data Management Working Group (DMWG) is an interagency body established by the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP). The primary purpose of this group is to foster interagency cooperation and collaboration for improving the life cycle data management practices and interoperability of federally held earth observation data consistent with White House documents including the National Strategy for Civil Earth Observations, the National Plan for Civil Earth Observations, and the May 2013 Executive Order on Open Data (M-13-13). The members of the USGEO DMWG are working on developing a Common Framework for Earth Observation Data that consists of recommended standards and approaches for realizing these goals as well as improving the discoverability, accessibility, and usability of federally held earth observation data. These recommendations will also guide work being performed under the Big Earth Data Initiative (BEDI). This talk will summarize the Common Framework, the philosophy behind it, and next steps forward.

  2. Century Scale Evaporation Trend: An Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounoui, Lahouari

    2012-01-01

    Several climate models with different complexity indicate that under increased CO2 forcing, runoff would increase faster than precipitation overland. However, observations over large U.S watersheds indicate otherwise. This inconsistency between models and observations suggests that there may be important feedbacks between climate and land surface unaccounted for in the present generation of models. We have analyzed century-scale observed annual runoff and precipitation time-series over several United States Geological Survey hydrological units covering large forested regions of the Eastern United States not affected by irrigation. Both time-series exhibit a positive long-term trend; however, in contrast to model results, these historic data records show that the rate of precipitation increases at roughly double the rate of runoff increase. We considered several hydrological processes to close the water budget and found that none of these processes acting alone could account for the total water excess generated by the observed difference between precipitation and runoff. We conclude that evaporation has increased over the period of observations and show that the increasing trend in precipitation minus runoff is correlated to observed increase in vegetation density based on the longest available global satellite record. The increase in vegetation density has important implications for climate; it slows but does not alleviate the projected warming associated with greenhouse gases emission.

  3. Sporadic aurorae observed in East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Willis

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available All the accessible auroral observations recorded in Chinese and Japanese histories during the interval AD 1840–1911 are investigated in detail. Most of these auroral records have never been translated into a Western language before. The East Asian auroral reports provide information on the date and approximate location of each auroral observation, together with limited scientific information on the characteristics of the auroral luminosity such as colour, duration, extent, position in the sky and approximate time of occurrence. The full translations of the original Chinese and Japanese auroral records are presented in an appendix, which contains bibliographic details of the various historical sources. (There are no known reliable Korean observations during this interval. A second appendix discusses a few implausible "auroral" records, which have been rejected. The salient scientific properties of all exactly dated and reliable East Asian auroral observations in the interval AD 1840–1911 are summarised succinctly. By comparing the relevant scientific information on exactly dated auroral observations with the lists of great geomagnetic storms compiled by the Royal Greenwich Observatory, and also the tabulated values of the Ak (Helsinki and aa (Greenwich and Melbourne magnetic indices, it is found that 5 of the great geomagnetic storms (aa>150 or Ak>50 during either the second half of the nineteenth century or the first decade of the twentieth century are clearly identified by extensive auroral displays observed in China or Japan. Indeed, two of these great storms produced auroral displays observed in both countries on the same night. Conversely, at least 29 (69% of the 42 Chinese and Japanese auroral observations occurred at times of weak-to-moderate geomagnetic activity (aa or Ak≤50. It is shown that these latter auroral displays are very similar to the more numerous (about 50 examples of sporadic aurorae observed in the United States

  4. Sporadic aurorae observed in East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Willis

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available All the accessible auroral observations recorded in Chinese and Japanese histories during the interval AD 1840–1911 are investigated in detail. Most of these auroral records have never been translated into a Western language before. The East Asian auroral reports provide information on the date and approximate location of each auroral observation, together with limited scientific information on the characteristics of the auroral luminosity such as colour, duration, extent, position in the sky and approximate time of occurrence. The full translations of the original Chinese and Japanese auroral records are presented in an appendix, which contains bibliographic details of the various historical sources. (There are no known reliable Korean observations during this interval. A second appendix discusses a few implausible "auroral" records, which have been rejected. The salient scientific properties of all exactly dated and reliable East Asian auroral observations in the interval AD 1840–1911 are summarised succinctly. By comparing the relevant scientific information on exactly dated auroral observations with the lists of great geomagnetic storms compiled by the Royal Greenwich Observatory, and also the tabulated values of the Ak (Helsinki and aa (Greenwich and Melbourne magnetic indices, it is found that 5 of the great geomagnetic storms (aa>150 or Ak>50 during either the second half of the nineteenth century or the first decade of the twentieth century are clearly identified by extensive auroral displays observed in China or Japan. Indeed, two of these great storms produced auroral displays observed in both countries on the same night. Conversely, at least 29 (69% of the 42 Chinese and Japanese auroral observations occurred at times of weak-to-moderate geomagnetic activity (aa or Ak≤50. It is shown that these latter auroral displays are very similar to the more numerous (about 50 examples of sporadic

  5. Recent PMSE Observations: Their Geographical Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, R. F.

    2001-05-01

    There are a sufficient number of VHF radars, capable of observing PMSE, distributed over a wide range of longitudes and latitudes as to provide an initial and rough empirical model of its characteristics. Of special interest are those in the same frequency range, in the vicinity of 50 MHz. Radars on this frequency have reported observations in a) The Harz and Kuehlungsborn, Germany; Kiruna, Sweeden; Andenes and Svaldbard, Norway, in the European sector; b) Poker Flat, Alaska; and Resolute Bay, Canada, in the North American sector; and c), Machu Picchu, King George Is. and Rothera in the Antarctic, plus some ship-borne observations along the southern Chilean Archipelago and the Drake Pass between South America and Antarctica. The large reported difference in reflectivity (more than 20 dB) and frequency of occurrence of PMSE between the northern and southern hemisphere at comparable latitudes is of special importance because of its implications on a possible difference in the minimum mesospheric temperature between both hemispheres. Furthermore, a very puzzling result is the relative power level of PMSE reported at Resolute Bay as compared with those at Poker Flat for the same season. Unfortunately, the variety of antennas, observing and processing techniques and definitions of terms (e.g., noise level) makes it difficult to compare results in an absolute way. It would have been desirable that the results had been presented in terms of the intrinsic radar reflectivity of the medium, a parameter which is independent of the observing system. It is recommended that effective radar reflectivities at 50 MHZ be derived from the existing data banks, after a careful calibration of antenna efficiency and other system parameters. Furthermore, to facilitate comparisons and be able to progress with an empirical model, an international observational campaign should be designed using a common observational and processing system, previously agreed upon.

  6. Equinox transition in wind and airglow observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Gordon G.; Stegman, Jacek; Singer, Werner; Roble, Raymond G.

    2004-04-01

    The equinox transition marks two significant intervals in the annual variability of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere. A scenario of this phenomenon is emerging in which for atomic oxygen, the winter period is characterized by downward flow, leading to enhanced oxygen concentrations and high levels of oxygen airglow. These high winter airglow levels are punctuated by large fluctuations associated with the highly variable winter dynamics, including stratospheric warmings, superposed on a monotonic downward trend. The summer is a time of less variability and weaker airglow emission associated with atmospheric upwelling, ending with a buildup of atomic oxygen in the fall. Within this general picture the observations depend significantly on latitude. At high latitudes the effects of upwelling and downwelling are clear and these persist to latitudes as low as 40°, but at still lower mid-latitudes a semi-annual variation with equinoctial maxima seems to dominate, as observed by earlier workers. This scenario is supported by the ground-based and satellite observations presented here. The dynamical coupling with the airglow is explored by comparing airglow observations at Stockholm (59.5°N, 18.2°E) with the zonal wind observations at nearby Juliusruh (54.6°N, 13.4°E), while WINDII data are used to connect the two as well as providing mid-latitude data. In fitting these equinox transition observations into the annual variation these observations are compared with predictions from the TIME-GCM model, with good overall agreement.

  7. [The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology [STROBE] statement: guidelines for reporting observational studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elm, E. von; Altman, D.G.; Egger, M.

    2008-01-01

    Much biomedical research is observational. The reporting of such research is often inadequate, which hampers the assessment of its strengths and weaknesses and of a study's generalisability. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) initiative developed rec...

  8. Correlation between human observer performance and model observer performance in differential phase contrast CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ke; Garrett, John; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: With the recently expanding interest and developments in x-ray differential phase contrast CT (DPC-CT), the evaluation of its task-specific detection performance and comparison with the corresponding absorption CT under a given radiation dose constraint become increasingly important. Mathematical model observers are often used to quantify the performance of imaging systems, but their correlations with actual human observers need to be confirmed for each new imaging method. This work is an investigation of the effects of stochastic DPC-CT noise on the correlation of detection performance between model and human observers with signal-known-exactly (SKE) detection tasks.Methods: The detectabilities of different objects (five disks with different diameters and two breast lesion masses) embedded in an experimental DPC-CT noise background were assessed using both model and human observers. The detectability of the disk and lesion signals was then measured using five types of model observers including the prewhitening ideal observer, the nonprewhitening (NPW) observer, the nonprewhitening observer with eye filter and internal noise (NPWEi), the prewhitening observer with eye filter and internal noise (PWEi), and the channelized Hotelling observer (CHO). The same objects were also evaluated by four human observers using the two-alternative forced choice method. The results from the model observer experiment were quantitatively compared to the human observer results to assess the correlation between the two techniques.Results: The contrast-to-detail (CD) curve generated by the human observers for the disk-detection experiments shows that the required contrast to detect a disk is inversely proportional to the square root of the disk size. Based on the CD curves, the ideal and NPW observers tend to systematically overestimate the performance of the human observers. The NPWEi and PWEi observers did not predict human performance well either, as the slopes of their CD

  9. Reconstructing Forty Years of Landsat Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, D. J.; Dwyer, J. L.; Steinwand, D.

    2013-12-01

    In July 1972, NASA launched the Earth Resource Technology Satellite (ERTS), the first of what was to be the series of Earth-observing satellites we now know as the Landsat system. This system, originally conceived in the 1960's within the US Department of the Interior and US Geological Survey (USGS), has continued with little interruption for over 40 years, creating the longest record of satellite-based global land observations. The current USGS archive of Landsat images exceeds 4 million scenes, and the recently launched Landsat 8 platform will extend that archive to nearly 50 years of observations. Clearly, these observations are critical to the study of Earth system processes, and the interaction between these processes and human activities. However, the seven successful Landsat missions represent more of an ad hoc program than a long-term record of consistent observations, due largely to changing Federal policies and challenges finding an operational home for the program. Technologically, these systems evolved from the original Multispectral Scanning System (MSS) through the Thematic Mapper and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) systems, to the current Observational Land Imager (OLI) and Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) systems. Landsat data were collected globally by a network of international cooperators having diverse data management policies. Much of the oldest data were stored on archaic media that could not be retrieved using modern media readers. Collecting these data from various sensors and sources, and reconstructing them into coherent Earth observation records, posed numerous challenges. We present here a brief overview of work done to overcome these challenges and create a consistent, long-term Landsat observation record. Much of the current archive was 'repatriated' from international cooperators and often required the reconstruction of (sometimes absent) metadata for geo-location and radiometric calibration. The older MSS data, some of which had

  10. Deriving Global Discharge Records from SWOT Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, M.; Fisher, C. K.; Wood, E. F.

    2017-12-01

    River flows are poorly monitored in many regions of the world, hindering our ability to accurately estimate water global water usage, and thus estimate global water and energy budgets or the variability in the global water cycle. Recent developments in satellite remote sensing, such as water surface elevations from radar altimetry or surface water extents from visible/infrared imagery, aim to fill this void; however, the streamflow estimates derived from these are inherently intermittent in both space and time. There is then a need for new methods that are able to derive spatially and temporally continuous records of discharge from the many available data sources. One particular application of this will be the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission, which is designed to provide global observations of water surface elevation and slope from which river discharge can be estimated. Within the 21-day repeat cycle, a river reach will be observed 2-4 times on average. Due to the relationship between the basin orientation and the orbit, these observations are not evenly distributed in time or space. In this study, we investigate how SWOT will observe global river basins and how the temporal and spatial sampling impacts our ability to reconstruct discharge records.River flows can be estimated throughout a basin by assimilating SWOT observations using the Inverse Streamflow Routing (ISR) model of Pan and Wood [2013]. This method is applied to 32 global basins with different geometries and crossing patterns for the future orbit, assimilating theoretical SWOT-retrieved "gauges". Results show that the model is able to reconstruct basin-wide discharge from SWOT observations alone; however, the performance varies significantly across basins and is driven by the orientation, flow distance, and travel time in each, as well as the sensitivity of the reconstruction method to errors in the satellite retrieval. These properties are combined to estimate the "observability" of

  11. Hawking radiation as perceived by different observers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbado, L C; Barcelo, C; Garay, L J

    2011-01-01

    We use a method recently introduced in Barcelo et al (2011 Phys. Rev. D 83 41501), to analyse Hawking radiation in a Schwarzschild black hole as perceived by different observers in the system. The method is based on the introduction of an 'effective temperature' function that varies with time. First we introduce a non-stationary vacuum state for a quantum scalar field, which interpolates between the Boulware vacuum state at early times and the Unruh vacuum state at late times. In this way we mimic the process of switching on Hawking radiation in realistic collapse scenarios. Then, we analyse this vacuum state from the perspective of static observers at different radial positions, observers undergoing a free-fall trajectory from infinity and observers standing at rest at a radial distance and then released to fall freely towards the horizon. The physical image that emerges from these analyses is rather rich and compelling. Among many other results, we find that generic freely-falling observers do not perceive vacuum when crossing the horizon, but an effective temperature a few times larger than the one that they perceived when it started to free-fall. We explain this phenomenon as due to a diverging Doppler effect at horizon crossing.

  12. Forest biomass observation: current state and prospective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Schepaschenko

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available With this article, we provide an overview of the methods, instruments and initiatives for forest biomass observation at global scale. We focus on the freely available information, provided by both remote and in-situ observations. The advantages and limitation of various space borne methods, including optical, radar (C, L and P band and LiDAR, as well as respective instruments available on the orbit (MODIS, Proba-V, Landsat, Sentinel-1, Sentinel-2 , ALOS PALSAR, Envisat ASAR or expecting (BIOMASS, GEDI, NISAR, SAOCOM-CS are discussed. We emphasize the role of in-situ methods in the development of a biomass models, providing calibration and validation of remote sensing data. We focus on freely available forest biomass maps, databases and empirical models. We describe the functionality of Biomass.Geo-Wiki.org portal, which provides access to a collection of global and regional biomass maps in full resolution with unified legend and units overplayed with high-resolution imagery. The Forest-Observation-System.net is announced as an international cooperation to establish a global in-situ forest biomass database to support earth observation and to encourage investment in relevant field-based observations and science. Prospects of unmanned aerial vehicles in the forest inventory are briefly discussed. The work was partly supported by ESA IFBN project (contract 4000114425/15/NL/FF/gp.

  13. Interstellar magnetic fields: An observational perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, A.A.

    1989-01-01

    The plausibility of magnetic molecular clouds is established. It is shown that the empirically known relations between spectral line width, density, and cloud size can be derived from a virial equilibrium model where gravity is balanced by the sum of magnetic and pressure support. It is shown that substitution of measured density, cloud size, and line width measurements into the model can predict observed field strength to within a factor of two. The Zeeman effect is discussed and new measurements are presented for magnetic field strength based on OH and HI Zeeman observations at the Arecibo and Green Bank telescopes. The Barnard 1 (B1) region, in the Perseus Molecular Cloud Complex, is discussed in detail. OH spectral line intensity maps are presented for the regions where the OH Zeeman effect was observed, which allow, for the first time, comparison of observed field strength values with predicted field strength values, using emission from a single molecular species. Spatial structure of magnetic fields in molecular clouds are investigated. New optical polarization maps are presented for the dark clouds in Perseus, Taurus, and Ophiuchus. The polarization observed is attributed to preferential extinction of background starlight by magnetically aligned dust grains in the clouds, and we analyze the polarization maps as maps of the projection of the magnetic field onto the plane of the sky

  14. Arctic Observing Experiment (AOX) Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigor, Ignatius [Applied Physics Lab, University of Washington; Johnson, Jim [Applied Physics Lab, University of Washington; Motz, Emily [National Ice Center; Bisic, Aaron [National Ice Center

    2017-06-30

    Our ability to understand and predict weather and climate requires an accurate observing network. One of the pillars of this network is the observation of the fundamental meteorological parameters: temperature, air pressure, and wind. We plan to assess our ability to measure these parameters for the polar regions during the Arctic Observing Experiment (AOX, Figure 1) to support the International Arctic Buoy Programme (IABP), Arctic Observing Network (AON), International Program for Antarctic Buoys (IPAB), and Southern Ocean Observing System (SOOS). Accurate temperature measurements are also necessary to validate and improve satellite measurements of surface temperature across the Arctic. Support for research associated with the campaign is provided by the National Science Foundation, and by other US agencies contributing to the US Interagency Arctic Buoy Program. In addition to the support provided by the U.S Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s North Slope of Alaska (NSA) site at Barrow and the National Science Foundation (NSF), the U.S. IABP is supported by the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Ice Center (NIC), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and the Office of Naval Research (ONR).

  15. Naturalistically observed conflict and youth asthma symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Erin T; Kane, Heidi S; Saleh, Daniel J; Naar-King, Sylvie; Poowuttikul, Pavadee; Secord, Elizabeth; Pierantoni, Wayne; Simon, Valerie A; Slatcher, Richard B

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the links between naturalistically observed conflict, self-reported caregiver-youth conflict, and youth asthma symptoms. Fifty-four youth with asthma (age range: 10-17 years) wore the Electronically Activated Recorder (EAR) for a 4-day period to assess interpersonal conflict and caregiver-youth conflict as they occur in daily life. Conflict also was assessed with baseline self-report questionnaires and daily diaries completed by youth participants and their caregivers. Asthma symptoms were assessed using daily diaries, baseline self-reports, and wheezing, as coded from the EAR. EAR-observed measures of conflict were strongly associated with self-reported asthma symptoms (both baseline and daily diaries) and wheezing coded from the EAR. Further, when entered together in regression analyses, youth daily reports of negative caregiver-youth interactions and EAR-observed conflict uniquely predicted asthma symptoms; only EAR-observed conflict was associated with EAR-observed wheezing. These findings demonstrate the potential impact of daily conflict on youth asthma symptoms and the importance of assessing conflict as it occurs in everyday life. More broadly, they point to the importance of formulating a clear picture of family interactions outside of the lab, which is essential for understanding how family relationships "get under the skin" to affect youth health. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. INTERVAL OBSERVER FOR A BIOLOGICAL REACTOR MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Kharkovskaia

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The method of an interval observer design for nonlinear systems with parametric uncertainties is considered. The interval observer synthesis problem for systems with varying parameters consists in the following. If there is the uncertainty restraint for the state values of the system, limiting the initial conditions of the system and the set of admissible values for the vector of unknown parameters and inputs, the interval existence condition for the estimations of the system state variables, containing the actual state at a given time, needs to be held valid over the whole considered time segment as well. Conditions of the interval observers design for the considered class of systems are shown. They are: limitation of the input and state, the existence of a majorizing function defining the uncertainty vector for the system, Lipschitz continuity or finiteness of this function, the existence of an observer gain with the suitable Lyapunov matrix. The main condition for design of such a device is cooperativity of the interval estimation error dynamics. An individual observer gain matrix selection problem is considered. In order to ensure the property of cooperativity for interval estimation error dynamics, a static transformation of coordinates is proposed. The proposed algorithm is demonstrated by computer modeling of the biological reactor. Possible applications of these interval estimation systems are the spheres of robust control, where the presence of various types of uncertainties in the system dynamics is assumed, biotechnology and environmental systems and processes, mechatronics and robotics, etc.

  17. Water Cycle Extremes: from Observations to Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawford, R. G.; Unninayar, S.; Berod, D.

    2015-12-01

    Extremes in the water cycle (droughts and floods) pose major challenges for water resource managers and emergency services. These challenges arise from observational and prediction systems, advisory services, impact reduction strategies, and cleanup and recovery operations. The Group on Earth Observations (GEO) through its Water Strategy ("GEOSS Water Strategy: from observations to decisions") is seeking to provide systems that will enable its members to more effectively meet their information needs prior to and during an extreme event. This presentation reviews the wide range of impacts that arise from extremes in the water cycle and the types of data and information needed to plan for and respond to these extreme events. It identifies the capabilities and limitations of current observational and analysis systems in defining the scale, timing, intensity and impacts of water cycle extremes and in directing society's response to them. This summary represents an early preliminary assessment of the global and regional information needs of water resource managers and begins to outline a strategy within GEO for using Earth Observations and ancillary information to address these needs.

  18. Sustaining observations in the polar oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamsen, E P

    2014-09-28

    Polar oceans present a unique set of challenges to sustained observations. Sea ice cover restricts navigation for ships and autonomous measurement platforms alike, and icebergs present a hazard to instruments deployed in the upper ocean and in shelf seas. However, the important role of the poles in the global ocean circulation provides ample justification for sustained observations in these regions, both to monitor the rapid changes taking place, and to better understand climate processes in these traditionally poorly sampled areas. In the past, the vast majority of polar measurements took place in the summer. In recent years, novel techniques such as miniature CTD (conductivity-temperature-depth) tags carried by seals have provided an explosion in year-round measurements in areas largely inaccessible to ships, and, as ice avoidance is added to autonomous profiling floats and gliders, these promise to provide further enhancements to observing systems. In addition, remote sensing provides vital information about changes taking place in sea ice cover at both poles. To make these observations sustainable into the future, improved international coordination and collaboration is necessary to gain optimum utilization of observing networks. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  19. Observation of static gestures influences speech production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarick, Michelle; Jones, Jeffery A

    2008-08-01

    Research investigating 'mirror neurons' has demonstrated the presence of an observation-execution matching system in humans. One hypothesized role for this system might be to aid in action understanding by encoding the underlying intentions of the actor. To investigate this hypothesis, we asked participants to observe photographs of an actor making orofacial gestures (implying verbal or non-verbal acts), and to produce syllables that were compatible or incompatible with the gesture they observed. We predicted that if mirror neurons encode the intentions of an actor, then the pictures implying verbal gestures would affect speech production, whereas the non-verbal gestures would not. Our results showed that the observation of compatible verbal gestures facilitated verbal responses, while incompatible verbal gestures caused interference. Although this compatibility effect did not reach statistical significance when the photographs implied a non-verbal act, responses were faster on average when the gesture implied the use of similar articulators as those involved with the production of the target syllable. Altogether, these behavioral findings compliment previous neuroimaging studies indicating that static pictures portraying gestures activate brain regions associated with an observation-execution matching system.

  20. Subcore observations and high psub(t)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazen, W.E.; Hendel, A.Z.; Bull, R.

    1981-01-01

    The observations of subcores with the Leeds 35m 2 spark chamber array have shown a much lower frequency of subcores than observed at Kiel and at Tokyo with detectors also well suited to observe detailed shower structure. However, overlying material was quite different and the resulting transition effects are difficult to correct for. One seems forced to compare results for subcores occuring only under relatively thin roof material. The discrepancy is thereby nearly removed. As a further test, the Leeds array has recently been run with simulated roof beams above the array. A spin-off from this run is the verification of the ability of our detectors to show ''subcores'' of all sizes and the ability of our scanners to find them. When we calculate psub(t) for our subcores in the traditional manner, no values > 5 GeV/c result. Further, in another paper, we present simulation results showing that there is poor correlation between psub(t) calculated in the usual manner on an event by event basis. The conclusion is that a meaningful utilization of the data requires a comparison of frequency of observable subcore parameters derived from simulations that include QCD nuclear physics to the observed frequencies

  1. SAM Chlorine Observations at Gale Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, P. G.; Farley, K. A.; Vasconcelos, P. M.; Malespin, C.; Franz, H.; McAdam, A.; Sutter, B.; Stern, J. C.; Clark, B. C.; Atreya, S. K.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Martín-Torres, J.; Zorzano, M. P.

    2014-12-01

    The Sample Analysis at Mars investigation has detected Cl-bearing phases of various oxidation states in its thermally evolved gas measurements of both a wind drift deposit of fines and three different rock samples delivered as sieved drill powders to the instrument suite. In addition to HCl (Leshin et al, 2013; Ming et al, 2013) and chlorinated hydrocarbon detections (Glavin et al, 2013; Freissinet et al, in review), oxygen releases consistent with the decomposition of perchlorate salts are also observed. We have also measured chlorine isotope ratios of the four different solid samples, which yielded variable and more negative δ37Cl than typically observed in SNC meteorite analyses. We summarize our chlorine observations in the context of other gases observed in the SAM solid sample analyses, including water, sulfur- and nitrogen-bearing compounds, and REMS observations of Relative Humidity and Temperature, and compare with knowledge of martian chlorine obtained from the SNC meteorites. Finally, we examine the implications of surface/atmosphere Cl interactions and isotopic ratios for the rise and decline of habitable surface environments on Mars. This research was supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Mars Science Laboratory mission.

  2. The observational approach in environmental restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smyth, J.D.; Quinn, R.D.

    1991-07-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has committed to completing environmental restoration of its facilities within the next 28 years (DOE 1990b). In order to achieve this, DOE must ensure that its restoration activities are both effective and efficient. A key aspect of fulfilling this commitment is the recognition and management of uncertainty that is inherent in waste-site clean-up actions. The DOE Office of Environmental Restoration (DOE-ER) requested Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to investigate the applicability and implementation of what is known as the ''observational approach'' to better address these needs. PNL's initial investigation resulted in the positive conclusion that the observational approach had potential benefit to DOE during environmental restoration. In a follow-on effort, PNL supported by CH2M HILL, has been providing guidance to DOE field-offices on observational approach fundamentals, implementation, and application to waste-site remediation. This paper outlines the fundamentals of the observational approach and discusses the progress in integrating the observational approach in DOE's environmental restoration efforts. 9 refs., 2 figs

  3. Mercury's Seasonal Sodium Exosphere: MESSENGER Orbital Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Timothy A.; Merkel, Aimee W.; Burger, Matthew H.; Killen, Rosemary M.; McClintock, William E.; Vervack, Ronald J., Jr.; Sarantos, Menelaos

    2014-01-01

    The Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer (MASCS) Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrometer (UVVS) on the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft now orbiting Mercury provides the first close-up look at the planet's sodium exosphere. UVVS has observed the exosphere from orbit almost daily for over 10 Mercury years. In this paper we describe and analyze a subset of these data: altitude profiles taken above the low-latitude dayside and south pole. The observations show spatial and temporal variations, but there are no obvious year-to-year variations in most of the observations. We do not see the episodic variability reported by some ground-based observers. We used these altitude profiles to make estimates of sodium density and temperature. The bulk of the exosphere, at about 1200 K, is much warmer than Mercury's surface. This value is consistent with some ground-based measurements and suggests that photon-stimulated desorption is the primary ejection process. We also observe a tenuous energetic component but do not see evidence of the predicted thermalized (or partially thermalized) sodium near Mercury's surface temperature. Overall we do not see the variable mixture of temperatures predicted by most Monte Carlo models of the exosphere.

  4. X-ray observations of planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apparao, K.M.V.; Tarafdar, S.P.

    1990-01-01

    The Einstein satellite was used to observe 19 planetary nebulae and X-ray emission was detected from four planetary nebulae. The EXOSAT satellite observed 12 planetary nebulae and five new sources were detected. An Einstein HRI observation shows that NGC 246 is a point source, implying that the X-rays are from the central star. Most of the detected planetary nebulae are old and the X-rays are observed during the later stage of planetary nebulae/central star evolution, when the nebula has dispersed sufficiently and/or when the central star gets old and the heavy elements in the atmosphere settle down due to gravitation. However in two cases where the central star is sufficiently luminous X-rays were observed, even though they were young nebulae; the X-radiation ionizes the nebula to a degree, to allow negligible absorption in the nebula. Temperature T x is obtained using X-ray flux and optical magnitude and assuming the spectrum is blackbody. T x agrees with Zanstra temperature obtained from optical Helium lines. (author)

  5. Sensitivity of the Action Observation Network to Physical and Observational Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cross, E.S.; Kraemer, D.J.M.; Hamilton, A.F.D.C.; Kelley, W.M.; Grafton, S.T.

    2009-01-01

    Human motor skills can be acquired by observation without the benefit of immediate physical practice. The current study tested if physical rehearsal and observational learning share common neural substrates within an action observation network (AON) including premotor and inferior parietal regions,

  6. Reduction of observer order by differentiation, almost controllability subspace covers and minimal order PID-observers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TRENTELMAN, HL

    1984-01-01

    This note generalizes the geometric theory around minimal and reduced order observers to the situation in which differentiation of certain components of the observed output is allowed. A geometric theory involving the notion of PID-observer is introduced, using the concept of almost complementary

  7. Observing the sun a pocket field guide

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, Jamey L

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive solar observing guide for use at the telescope by amateur astronomers at all three levels: beginning, intermediate, and advanced. Users will find invaluable information for identifying features through photos, charts, diagrams in a logical, orderly fashion and then interpreting the observations. Because the Sun is a dynamic celestial body in constant flux, astronomers rarely know for certain what awaits them at the eyepiece. All features of the Sun are transient and sometimes rather fleeting. Given the number of features and the complex life cycles of some solar features, it can be a challenging hobby, and this guide provides all of the guidance necessary to inform observers about the sights and events unfolding before their eyes on the most active and powerful member of our Solar System.

  8. Comets and How to Observe Them

    CERN Document Server

    Schmude, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Comets have inspired wonder, excitement and even fear ever since they were first observed. They contain material from early in the life of the Solar System, held in deep-freeze. This makes them key in our understanding of the formation and evolution of many Solar System bodies. Recent ground- and space-based observations have changed much in our understanding of comets. Comets and How to Observe Them gives a summary of our current knowledge and describes how amateur astronomers can contribute to the body of scientific knowledge of comets. This book contains many practical examples of how to construct comet light-curves, measure how fast a comet’s coma expands, and determine the rotation period of the nucleus. All these examples are illustrated with drawings and photographs.

  9. Information-theoretic equilibrium and observable thermalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzà, F; Vedral, V

    2017-03-07

    A crucial point in statistical mechanics is the definition of the notion of thermal equilibrium, which can be given as the state that maximises the von Neumann entropy, under the validity of some constraints. Arguing that such a notion can never be experimentally probed, in this paper we propose a new notion of thermal equilibrium, focused on observables rather than on the full state of the quantum system. We characterise such notion of thermal equilibrium for an arbitrary observable via the maximisation of its Shannon entropy and we bring to light the thermal properties that it heralds. The relation with Gibbs ensembles is studied and understood. We apply such a notion of equilibrium to a closed quantum system and show that there is always a class of observables which exhibits thermal equilibrium properties and we give a recipe to explicitly construct them. Eventually, an intimate connection with the Eigenstate Thermalisation Hypothesis is brought to light.

  10. Cosmic-Ray Observations with HAWC30

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorino, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    The High-Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Observatory is a TeV gamma-ray and cosmic-ray detector currently under construction at an altitude of 4100 meters on the slope of Volc'an Sierra Negra near Puebla, Mexico. HAWC is an extensive air-shower array comprising 300 optically-isolated water Cherenkov detectors. Each detector contains 200,000 liters of filtered water and four upward-facing photomultiplier tubes. Since September 2012, 30 water Cherenkov detectors have been instrumented and operated in data acquisition. With 10 percent of the detector complete and six months of operation, the event statistics are already sufficient to perform detailed studies of cosmic rays observed at the site. We will report on cosmic-ray observations with HAWC30, in particular the detection and study of the shadow of the moon. From these observations, we infer the pointing accuracy of the detector and our angular resolution of the detector reconstruction.

  11. Observation of the spin Nernst effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, S.; Chen, Y.-T.; Wimmer, S.; Althammer, M.; Wimmer, T.; Schlitz, R.; Geprägs, S.; Huebl, H.; Ködderitzsch, D.; Ebert, H.; Bauer, G. E. W.; Gross, R.; Goennenwein, S. T. B.

    2017-10-01

    The observation of the spin Hall effect triggered intense research on pure spin current transport. With the spin Hall effect, the spin Seebeck effect and the spin Peltier effect already observed, our picture of pure spin current transport is almost complete. The only missing piece is the spin Nernst (-Ettingshausen) effect, which so far has been discussed only on theoretical grounds. Here, we report the observation of the spin Nernst effect. By applying a longitudinal temperature gradient, we generate a pure transverse spin current in a Pt thin film. For readout, we exploit the magnetization-orientation-dependent spin transfer to an adjacent yttrium iron garnet layer, converting the spin Nernst current in Pt into a controlled change of the longitudinal and transverse thermopower voltage. Our experiments show that the spin Nernst and the spin Hall effect in Pt are of comparable magnitude, but differ in sign, as corroborated by first-principles calculations.

  12. An Observing System for the Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, L.; Schofield, O.; Wahlin, A.; Constable, A.; Swart, S.

    2016-02-01

    The Southern Ocean is fundamental to the operation of the Earth system, as it plays a central role in global climate and planetary-scale biogeochemical cycles. The Southern Ocean is changing rapidly, and the critical need to observe and understand the Southern Ocean is well established; however, the harsh conditions and remote location have led to it being the most under-sampled region of the world. Sustained observations are required to detect, interpret, and respond to the physical, chemical, and biological changes that are, and will continue to be measured. The Southern Ocean Observing System (SOOS) is an international initiative with the mission to integrate the global assets and efforts of the international community to enhance data collection, provide access to datasets, and guide the development of strategic-sustained-multidisciplinary science in the Southern Ocean. This presentation will provide an update on SOOS implementation activities, key products and tools, and data management efforts.

  13. Observations of the Askaryan Effect in Ice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorham, P.W.

    2007-01-16

    We report on the first observations of the Askaryan effect in ice: coherent impulsive radio Cherenkov radiation from the charge asymmetry in an electromagnetic (EM) shower. Such radiation has been observed in silica sand and rock salt, but this is the first direct observation from an EM shower in ice. These measurements are important since the majority of experiments to date that rely on the effect for ultra-high energy neutrino detection are being performed using ice as the target medium. As part of the complete validation process for the Antarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna (ANITA) experiment, we performed an experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) in June 2006 using a 7.5 metric ton ice target, yielding results fully consistent with theoretical expectations.

  14. Developing Information System on Lunar Crescent Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hidayat

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a progress report on the development of information system of lunar crescent astronomical observations which will be largely accessible for public domain. This consists of calculations of the Moon’s ephemeris as well as systematic real-time lunar crescent observations. A well suited small telescope, equipped with a simple digital detector, is connected to a server to provide information on lunar crescent observations. The system has been used and worked well. The only constraint is poor weather condition. Network of small telescopes, installed at various locations in Indonesia, are currently planned to provide plethora of data. In the long term, this will be used to help to determine the astronomical visibility criteria of lunar crescent for Islamic calendar.

  15. The NANOGrav Observing Program: Automation and Reproducibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazier, Adam; Cordes, James; Demorest, Paul; Dolch, Timothy; Ferdman, Robert; Garver-Daniels, Nathaniel; Hawkins, Steven; Lam, Michael Timothy; Lazio, T. Joseph W.

    2018-01-01

    The NANOGrav Observing Program is a decades-long search for gravitational waves using pulsar timing which relies, for its sensitivity, on large data sets from observations of many pulsars. These are constructed through an intensive, long-term observing campaign. The nature of the program requires automation in the transfer and archiving of the large volume of raw telescope data, the calibration of those data, and making these resulting data products—required for diagnostic and data exploration purposes—available to NANOGrav members. Reproducibility of results is a key goal in this project, and essential to its success; it requires treating the software itself as a data product of the research, while ensuring easy access by, and collaboration between, members of NANOGrav, the International Pulsar Timing Array consortium (of which NANOGrav is a key member), as well as the wider astronomy community and the public.

  16. Longwave infrared observation of urban landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goward, S. N.

    1981-01-01

    An investigation is conducted regarding the feasibility to develop improved methods for the identification and analysis of urban landscapes on the basis of a utilization of longwave infrared observations. Attention is given to landscape thermal behavior, urban thermal properties, modeled thermal behavior of pavements and buildings, and observed urban landscape thermal emissions. The differential thermal behavior of buildings, pavements, and natural areas within urban landscapes is found to suggest that integrated multispectral solar radiant reflectance and terrestrial radiant emissions data will significantly increase potentials for analyzing urban landscapes. In particular, daytime satellite observations of the considered type should permit better identification of urban areas and an analysis of the density of buildings and pavements within urban areas. This capability should enhance the utility of satellite remote sensor data in urban applications.

  17. Environment pollution observation service in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poznyak, Eh.L.

    1997-01-01

    Information about Environment Pollution Observation Service attached to Main Department of Hydro-meteorology of Republic of Kazakhstan is cited. General stages of observation organization for atmospheric pollution, surface waters, soil by substances of origin are described. Analysis of formation of methodical and laboratory base of the service is given. It is noted, that in 1954 the State Observation System for Radioactive Contamination on the base of meteorologic stations of Kazgidromet is created. Assays have been taken on summary beta-activity and isotope content. Taking of water samples for determination of strontium-90 content has conducted. Measuring of exposure dose rate has been implemented on 170 meteorological stations. Isotope content of aerosol samples and falls have being determined by semiconductor detectors and impulse analyzers

  18. Observation of a new Bs π state

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    We report the observation of a narrow structure, X(5568), in the decay sequence X(5568) → Bs π±, Bs → J/ψ ϕ, J/ψ → μ+μ−, ϕ → K+K−. This is the first observation of a hadronic state with valence quarks of four different flavors. The mass and natural width of the new state are measured to be m = 5567.8 ± 2.9 (stat) +0.9−1.9 (syst) MeV and Γ = 21.9 ± 6.4 (stat) +5.0−2.5 (syst) MeV, and the significance including look-elsewhere effect and systematic uncertainties is 5.1σ. The observation is based on10.4 fb−1 of ppbar collision data at 1.96 TeV collected by the D0 experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron collider.

  19. Meteor observation by the Kyoto meteor radar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, S.; Tsuda, T.

    1987-01-01

    The Kyoto Meteor Radar is a monostatic coherent pulsed Doppler radar operating on the frequency of 31.57 MH. The system is computer controlled and uses radio interferometry for echo height determination. The antenna, an improvement, can be directed either to the north or the east. The system has been continuously collecting data on winds at meteor heights by radar observation. The meteor echo rate was also measured, the echo rate distribution with height and the daily variation in height integrated echo rate are discussed. Investigations of atmospheric tides are being pursued by cooperative observations. A novel approach to the study of gravity waves was attempted using the meteor radar which is able to detect the horizontal propagation of the waves by observing the changing phase through the region illuminated by the radar

  20. Workshop on observations of recent comets (1990)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebner, W.F.; Wehinger, P.A.; Rahe, J.; Konno, I.

    1990-01-01

    Potential interpretations are presented for observations of four comets: Brorsen-Metcalf (1989o), Okazaki-Levy-Rudenko (1989r), Aarseth-Brewington (1989a1), and Austin (1989o1). The relationship of minor species with each other and possible parents as well as with dust are being pursued in a number of investigations. Of particular interest are the abundance ratios of CH{sub 4} to CO and NH{sub 3} to N{sub 2}. The need for closer collaboration betwen observing teams and modelers is examined. The need for dust size distribution as a function of cometocentric distance to be analyzed in closer collaboration between observers and modelers is discussed.

  1. Faraday scaling and the Bicep2 observations

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    As repeatedly speculated in the past, the linear polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background can be rotated via the Faraday effect. An economic explanation of the recent Bicep2 observations, not relying on long-wavelength tensor modes of the geometry, would stipulate that the detected B mode comes exclusively from a Faraday rotated E mode polarization. We show hereunder that this interpretation is ruled out by the existing upper limits on the B mode polarization obtained by independent experiments at observational frequencies much lower than the operating frequency of the Bicep2 experiment. We then derive the fraction of the observed B mode polarization ascribable to the Faraday effect and suggest a dedicated experimental strategy for its detection.

  2. The Common Framework for Earth Observation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, J.; Stryker, T. S.; Sherman, R.

    2016-12-01

    Each year, the Federal government records petabytes of data about our home planet. That massive amount of data in turn provides enormous benefits to society through weather reports, agricultural forecasts, air and water quality warnings, and countless other applications. To maximize the ease of transforming the data into useful information for research and for public services, the U.S. Group on Earth Observations released the first Common Framework for Earth Observation Data in March 2016. The Common Framework recommends practices for Federal agencies to adopt in order to improve the ability of all users to discover, access, and use Federal Earth observations data. The U.S. Government is committed to making data from civil Earth observation assets freely available to all users. Building on the Administration's commitment to promoting open data, open science, and open government, the Common Framework goes beyond removing financial barriers to data access, and attempts to minimize the technical impediments that limit data utility. While Earth observation systems typically collect data for a specific purpose, these data are often also useful in applications unforeseen during development of the systems. Managing and preserving these data with a common approach makes it easier for a wide range of users to find, evaluate, understand, and utilize the data, which in turn leads to the development of a wide range of innovative applications. The Common Framework provides Federal agencies with a recommended set of standards and practices to follow in order to achieve this goal. Federal agencies can follow these best practices as they develop new observing systems or modernize their existing collections of data. This presentation will give a brief on the context and content of the Common Framework, along with future directions for implementation and keeping its recommendations up-to-date with developing technology.

  3. PRECISION POINTING OF IBEX-Lo OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hłond, M.; Bzowski, M.; Möbius, E.; Kucharek, H.; Heirtzler, D.; Schwadron, N. A.; Neill, M. E. O'; Clark, G.; Crew, G. B.; Fuselier, S.; McComas, D. J.

    2012-01-01

    Post-launch boresight of the IBEX-Lo instrument on board the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) is determined based on IBEX-Lo Star Sensor observations. Accurate information on the boresight of the neutral gas camera is essential for precise determination of interstellar gas flow parameters. Utilizing spin-phase information from the spacecraft attitude control system (ACS), positions of stars observed by the Star Sensor during two years of IBEX measurements were analyzed and compared with positions obtained from a star catalog. No statistically significant differences were observed beyond those expected from the pre-launch uncertainty in the Star Sensor mounting. Based on the star observations and their positions in the spacecraft reference system, pointing of the IBEX satellite spin axis was determined and compared with the pointing obtained from the ACS. Again, no statistically significant deviations were observed. We conclude that no systematic correction for boresight geometry is needed in the analysis of IBEX-Lo observations to determine neutral interstellar gas flow properties. A stack-up of uncertainties in attitude knowledge shows that the instantaneous IBEX-Lo pointing is determined to within ∼0. 0 1 in both spin angle and elevation using either the Star Sensor or the ACS. Further, the Star Sensor can be used to independently determine the spacecraft spin axis. Thus, Star Sensor data can be used reliably to correct the spin phase when the Star Tracker (used by the ACS) is disabled by bright objects in its field of view. The Star Sensor can also determine the spin axis during most orbits and thus provides redundancy for the Star Tracker.

  4. Can chaos be observed in quantum gravity?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dittrich, Bianca, E-mail: bdittrich@perimeterinstitute.ca [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline Street North, Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Höhn, Philipp A., E-mail: p.hoehn@univie.ac.at [Vienna Center for Quantum Science and Technology, and Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Boltzmanngasse 3, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Koslowski, Tim A., E-mail: koslowski@nucleares.unam.mx [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 70-543, México D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Nelson, Mike I., E-mail: mike@aims.edu.gh [African Institute for Mathematical Sciences, P.O Box LG 197, Legon, Accra (Ghana)

    2017-06-10

    Full general relativity is almost certainly ‘chaotic’. We argue that this entails a notion of non-integrability: a generic general relativistic model, at least when coupled to cosmologically interesting matter, likely possesses neither differentiable Dirac observables nor a reduced phase space. It follows that the standard notion of observable has to be extended to include non-differentiable or even discontinuous generalized observables. These cannot carry Poisson-algebraic structures and do not admit a standard quantization; one thus faces a quantum representation problem of gravitational observables. This has deep consequences for a quantum theory of gravity, which we investigate in a simple model for a system with Hamiltonian constraint that fails to be completely integrable. We show that basing the quantization on standard topology precludes a semiclassical limit and can even prohibit any solutions to the quantum constraints. Our proposed solution to this problem is to refine topology such that a complete set of Dirac observables becomes continuous. In the toy model, it turns out that a refinement to a polymer-type topology, as e.g. used in loop gravity, is sufficient. Basing quantization of the toy model on this finer topology, we find a complete set of quantum Dirac observables and a suitable semiclassical limit. This strategy is applicable to realistic candidate theories of quantum gravity and thereby suggests a solution to a long-standing problem which implies ramifications for the very concept of quantization. Our work reveals a qualitatively novel facet of chaos in physics and opens up a new avenue of research on chaos in gravity which hints at deep insights into the structure of quantum gravity.

  5. Observing the Global Water Cycle from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, P. H.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to measuring all major components of the water cycle from space. Key elements of the global water cycle are discussed in terms of the storage of water-in the ocean, air, cloud and precipitation, in soil, ground water, snow and ice, and in lakes and rivers, and in terms of the global fluxes of water between these reservoirs. Approaches to measuring or otherwise evaluating the global water cycle are presented, and the limitations on known accuracy for many components of the water cycle are discussed, as are the characteristic spatial and temporal scales of the different water cycle components. Using these observational requirements for a global water cycle observing system, an approach to measuring the global water cycle from space is developed. The capabilities of various active and passive microwave instruments are discussed, as is the potential of supporting measurements from other sources. Examples of space observational systems, including TRMM/GPM precipitation measurement, cloud radars, soil moisture, sea surface salinity, temperature and humidity profiling, other measurement approaches and assimilation of the microwave and other data into interpretative computer models are discussed to develop the observational possibilities. The selection of orbits is then addressed, for orbit selection and antenna size/beamwidth considerations determine the sampling characteristics for satellite measurement systems. These considerations dictate a particular set of measurement possibilities, which are then matched to the observational sampling requirements based on the science. The results define a network of satellite instrumentation systems, many in low Earth orbit, a few in geostationary orbit, and all tied together through a sampling network that feeds the observations into a data-assimilative computer model.

  6. Space weather: the importance of observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Sophie A.

    2014-09-01

    Most space weather occurs due to solar eruptions (coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and solar flares), which can affect the environment in near-Earth space. Modern society is ever more dependent upon ground-based and spaceborne technology that can be vulnerable to space weather. It is important to have long-running, continuous observations for space-weather forecasting, nowcasting, and research. A meeting organised jointly by the Royal Meteorological Society and Royal Astronomical Society took place at Imperial College, London on 13 November 2013. This public meeting addressed the current deficiency in observations and how this might be overcome.

  7. Baryon spectroscopy with polarization observables from CLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauch, Steffen [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The spectrum of nucleon excitations is dominated by broad and overlapping resonances. Polarization observables in photoproduction reactions are key in the study of these excitations. They give indispensable constraints to partial-wave analyses and help clarify the spectrum. A series of polarized photoproduction experiments have been performed at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility with the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS). These measurements include data with linearly and circularly polarized tagged-photon beams, longitudinally and transversely polarized proton and deuterium targets, and recoil polarizations through the observation of the weak decay of hyperons. An overview of these studies and recent results will be given.

  8. Programmable wide field spectrograph for earth observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamkotsian, Frédéric; Lanzoni, Patrick; Liotard, Arnaud; Viard, Thierry; Costes, Vincent; Hébert, Philippe-Jean

    2017-11-01

    In Earth Observation, Universe Observation and Planet Exploration, scientific return of the instruments must be optimized in future missions. Micro-Opto-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MOEMS) could be key components in future generation of space instruments. These devices are based on the mature micro-electronics technology and in addition to their compactness, scalability, and specific task customization, they could generate new functions not available with current technologies. French and European space agencies, the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) and the European Space Agency (ESA) have initiated several studies with LAM and TAS for listing the new functions associated with several types of MEMS, and developing new ideas of instruments.

  9. Observational Consequences of an Interacting Multiverse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador J. Robles-Pérez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The observability of the multiverse is at the very root of its physical significance as a scientific proposal. In this conference we present, within the third quantization formalism, an interacting scheme between the wave functions of different universes and analyze the effects of some particular values of the coupling function. One of the main consequences of the interaction between universes can be the appearance of a pre-inflationary stage in the evolution of the universes that might leave observable consequences in the properties of the CMB.

  10. Observer-based monitoring of heat exchangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astorga-Zaragoza, Carlos-Manuel; Alvarado-Martínez, Víctor-Manuel; Zavala-Río, Arturo; Méndez-Ocaña, Rafael-Maxim; Guerrero-Ramírez, Gerardo-Vicente

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this work is to provide a method for monitoring performance degradation in counter-flow double-pipe heat exchangers. The overall heat transfer coefficient is estimated by an adaptive observer and monitored in order to infer when the heat exchanger needs preventive or corrective maintenance. A simplified mathematical model is used to synthesize the adaptive observer and a more complex model is used for simulation. The reliability of the proposed method was demonstrated via numerical simulations and laboratory experiments with a bench-scale pilot plant.

  11. Combining multiple observations of audio signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayram, Ilker

    2013-09-01

    We consider the problem of reconstructing an audio signal from multiple observations, each of which is contaminated with time-varying noise. Assuming that the time-variation is different for each observation, we propose an estimation formulation that can adapt to these changes. Specifically, we postulate a parametric reconstruction and choose the parameters so that the reconstruction minimizes a cost function. The cost function is selected so that audio signals are penalized less compared to arbitrary signals with the same energy. As cost functions, we experiment with a recently proposed prior as well as mixed norms placed on the short time Fourier coefficients.

  12. Observational Investigation of Solar Interior and Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Jeffrey R.

    2003-01-01

    The Imaging Vector Magnetograph (IVM) has been modified to make it easier to observe at more than one spectral line. The cell holding the blocking filter has been replaced by a four-position filter wheel, so that changing to a different line is a matter of a few minutes rather than the several hours it used to take to disassemble the cell and install a new filter. Three new filters have been obtained, for Na 1589.6 nm, Fe 1630.25 nm, and H 1656.3 nm. The new filters have better bandpass profiles than the ones they replaced: somewhat wider, with flatter tops and steeper wings. This results in a reduction of parasitic light coming from adjacent Fabry-Perot orders, from seven percent to about two percent, and flattens the apparent continuum. The Mees CCD Imaging Spectrograph (MCCD) was upgraded under this grant, with a new control computer and data system. The camera was replaced with a faster, larger-format frame-transfer camera. Final integration of the upgrades is not yet complete, but tests indicate that the system cadence will be improved by a factor of five to ten, while increasing the spatial coverage by a factor of two (depending on observation options). Synoptic observations with the IVM and MCCD continue to be conducted daily, to the extent permitted by the fact that we have a single observer responsible for the observations. The older Haleakala Stokes Polarimeter is also used to make a daily vector magnetogram, normally of the region selected by the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) duty scientists. This instrument, however, is showing its age to the extent that its maintenance is becoming something of a challenge. We also run a white light full-disk imager and a video H alpha prominence camera, continuously during times of observations. Of particular interest, we obtained rapid-cadence observations of the 2003 July 15 white light flare with both the IVM and MCCD. The vector magnetograms show no obvious difference between the

  13. Neutrino observations from the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Noble, A J

    2001-01-01

    Neutrino observations from the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory are presented from preliminary analyses. Based on energy, direction and location, the data in the region of interest appear to be dominated by sup 8 B solar neutrinos, detected by the charged current reaction on deuterium and elastic scattering from electrons, with very little background. Measurements of radioactive backgrounds indicate that the measurement of all active neutrino types via the neutral current reaction on deuterium will be possible with small systematic uncertainties. Results for the fluxes observed with these reactions will be provided when further calibrations have been completed.

  14. Observation of $X(3872)$ muoproduction at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Aghasyan, M.; The COMPASS collaboration; Alexeev, M.G.; Alexeev, G.D.; Amoroso, A.; Andrieux, V.; Anfimov, N.V.; Anosov, V.; Antoshkin, A.; Augsten, K.; Augustyniak, W.; Austregesilo, A.; Azevedo, C.D.R.; Badełek, B.; Balestra, F.; Ball, M.; Barth, J.; Beck, R.; Bedfer, Y.; Bernhard, J.; Bicker, K.; Bielert, E.R.; Birsa, R.; Bodlak, M.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Bressan, A.; Büchele, M.; Burtsev, V.E.; Chang, W.-C.; Chatterjee, C.; Chiosso, M.; Choi, I.; Chumakov, A.G.; Chung, S.-U.; Cicuttin, A.; Crespo, M.L.; Dalla Torre, S.; Dasgupta, S.S.; Dasgupta, S.; Denisov, O.Yu.; Dhara, L.; Donskov, S.V.; Doshita, N.; Dreisbach, Ch.; Dünnweber, W.; Dusaev, R.R.; Dziewiecki, M.; Efremov, A.; Eversheim, P.D.; Faessler, M.; Ferrero, A.; Finger, M.; jr.,M.Finger; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; du Fresne von Hohenesche, N.; Friedrich, J.M.; Frolov, V.; Fuchey, E.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O.P.; Gerassimov, S.; Giarra, J.; Giordano, F.; Gnesi, I.; Gorzellik, M.; Grasso, A.; Gridin, A.; Grosse Perdekamp, M.; Grube, B.; Grussenmeyer, T.; Guskov, A.; Hahne, D.; Hamar, G.; von Harrach, D.; Heinsius, F.H.; Heitz, R.; Herrmann, F.; Horikawa, N.; d'Hose, N.; Hsieh, C.-Y.; Huber, S.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, A.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Iwata, T.; Jary, V.; Joosten, R.; Jörg, P.; Kabuß, E.; Kerbizi, A.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G.V.; Khokhlov, Yu.A.; Kisselev, Yu.; Klein, F.; Koivuniemi, J.H.; Kolosov, V.N.; Kondo, K.; Königsmann, K.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V.F.; Kotzinian, A.M.; Kouznetsov, O.M.; Kral, Z.; Krämer, M.; Kremser, P.; Krinner, F.; Kroumchtein, Z.V.; Kulinich, Y.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Kurjata, R.P.; Kuznetsov, I.I.; Kveton, A.; Lednev, A.A.; Levchenko, E.A.; Levillain, M.; Levorato, S.; Lian, Y.-S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Longo, R.; Lyubovitskij, V.E.; Maggiora, A.; Magnon, A.; Makins, N.; Makke, N.; Mallot, G.K.; Mamon, S.A.; Marianski, B.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Matoušek, J.; Matsuda, H.; Matsuda, T.; Meshcheryakov, G.V.; Meyer, M.; Meyer, W.; Mikhailov, Yu.V.; Mikhasenko, M.; Mitrofanov, E.; Mitrofanov, N.; Miyachi, Y.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nerling, F.; Neyret, D.; Nový, J.; Nowak, W.-D.; Nukazuka, G.; Nunes, A.S.; Olshevsky, A.G.; Orlov, I.; Ostrick, M.; Panzieri, D.; Parsamyan, B.; Paul, S.; Peng, J.-C.; Pereira, F.; Pešek, M.; Pešková, M.; Peshekhonov, D.V.; Pierre, N.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polyakov, V.A.; Pretz, J.; Quaresma, M.; Quintans, C.; Ramos, S.; Regali, C.; Reicherz, G.; Riedl, C.; Rogacheva, N.S.; Ryabchikov, D.I.; Rybnikov, A.; Rychter, A.; Salac, R.; Samoylenko, V.D.; Sandacz, A.; Santos, C.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I.A.; Sawada, T.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schmidt, K.; Schmieden, H.; Schönning, K.; Seder, E.; Selyunin, A.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sirtl, S.; Slunecka, M.; Smolik, J.; Srnka, A.; Steffen, D.; Stolarski, M.; Subrt, O.; Sulc, M.; Suzuki, H.; Szabelski, A.; Szameitat, T.; Sznajder, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Thiel, A.; Tomsa, J.; Tosello, F.; Tskhay, V.; Uhl, S.; Vasilishin, B.I.; Vauth, A.; Veloso, J.; Vidon, A.; Virius, M.; Wallner, S.; Weisrock, T.; Wilfert, M.; ter Wolbeek, J.; Zaremba, K.; Zavada, P.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Zhuravlev, N.; Ziembicki, M.

    2017-01-01

    We have observed exclusive production of the exotic $X(3872)$ hadron in the reaction $\\mu^+~N \\rightarrow \\mu^+ (J\\!/\\!\\psi\\pi^+\\pi^-)\\pi^{\\pm}~N'$ using COMPASS data collected with incoming muons of 160~GeV/$c$ and 200~GeV/$c$ momentum. The statistical significance of the $X(3872)$ signal is 6$\\sigma$. The shape of the two-pion mass distribution shows disagreement with previous observations. The product of cross section and branching fraction of the $X(3872)$ decay into $J\\!/\\!\\psi\\pi\\pi$ is determined to be 71$\\pm$28(stat)$\\pm$39(syst)~pb.

  15. Far-infrared spectrophotometer for astronomical observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, H.; Silverberg, R. F.

    1981-01-01

    A liquid-helium-cooled far infrared spectrophotometer was built and used to make low resolution observations of the continua of several kinds of astronomical objects using the Kuiper Airborne Observatory. This instrument fills a gap in both sensitivity to continuum sources and spectral resolution between the broadband photometers with lambda/Delta lambda approximately 1 and spectrometers with lambda/Delta lambda greater than 50. While designed primarily to study planetary nebulae, the instrument permits study of the shape of the continua of many weak sources which cannot easily be observed with high resolution systems.

  16. Digest of NASA earth observation sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, R. R.

    1972-01-01

    A digest of technical characteristics of remote sensors and supporting technological experiments uniquely developed under NASA Applications Programs for Earth Observation Flight Missions is presented. Included are camera systems, sounders, interferometers, communications and experiments. In the text, these are grouped by types, such as television and photographic cameras, lasers and radars, radiometers, spectrometers, technology experiments, and transponder technology experiments. Coverage of the brief history of development extends from the first successful earth observation sensor aboard Explorer 7 in October, 1959, through the latest funded and flight-approved sensors under development as of October 1, 1972. A standard resume format is employed to normalize and mechanize the information presented.

  17. Aircraft Wake Vortex Observations in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hon Kaikwong

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Hong Kong International Airport (HKIA is among the busiest airports in the world, with total aircraft movement exceeding 400,000 in 2016. The Hong Kong Observatory (HKO, provider of aviation meteorological services to HKIA, has recently begun making the first sets of aircraft wake vortex observations at HKIA using short-range LIDARs. This paper briefly describes the preliminary observation results obtained from field measurements between 2014 and 2016, and discusses the way forward on the monitoring and prediction of wake vortex behaviour in Hong Kong.

  18. Meteor wind observation at Kyoto Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, S.; Aso, T.; Tsuda, T.

    1979-01-01

    Meteor wind observation at Kyoto Station has now collected a fairly large amount of data enough to enable to know the basic dynamic state at meteor heights over the station. Tidal and prevailing winds have been detected and their behavior seems now well understood on daily and seasonal basis. A comparison with observations at other stations suggests classical tidal theory to be relevant to explain the average state. Deviations from the mean present problems on the existence of various causes including hydromagnetic effects. Gravity waves would be an interesting subject in future study. (author)

  19. The Kepler follow-up observation program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gautier...[], T.N.; Batalha, N.M.; Borucki, W. J.

    2010-01-01

    The Kepler Mission was launched on March 6, 2009 to perform a photometric survey of more than 100,000 dwarf stars to search for terrestrial-size planets with the transit technique. Follow-up observations of planetary candidates identified by detection of transit-like events are needed both...... for identification of astrophysical phenomena that mimic planetary transits and for characterization of the true planets and planetary systems found by Kepler. We have developed techniques and protocols for detection of false planetary transits and are currently conducting observations on 177 Kepler targets...

  20. Catalogue of ISO LWS observations of asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormuth, F.; Müller, T. G.

    2009-04-01

    Context: The long wavelength spectrometer (LWS) onboard the infrared space observatory (ISO) observed the four large main-belt asteroids (1) Ceres, (2) Pallas, (4) Vesta, and (10) Hygiea multiple times. The photometric and spectroscopic data cover the wavelength range between 43 and 197 μm, and are a unique dataset for future investigations and detailed characterisations of these bodies. Aims: The standard ISO archive products, produced through the last post-mission LWS pipeline, were still affected by instrument artefacts. Our goal was to provide the best possible data products to exploit the full scientific potential of these observations. Methods: For all asteroid observations we analysed in detail the dark current, the calibration reference flashes, the space environment effects (glitches), memory effects, tracking influences, and various other sources of uncertainty. We performed a refined reduction of all measurements, corrected for the various effects, and re-calibrated the data. We outline the data reduction process and give an overview of the available data and the quality of the observations. We apply a thermophysical model to the flux measurements to derive far-IR based diameter and albedo values of the asteroids. The measured thermal rotational lightcurve of (4) Vesta is compared to model predictions. Results: The catalogue of LWS (long wavelength spectrometer) observations of asteroids contains 57 manually reduced datasets, including seven non-standard observations, which as such did not have final pipeline products available before. In total, the archive now contains 11 spectral scans and 46 fixed grating measurements with a simultaneous observation at 10 key wavelengths distributed over the full LWS range. The new data products are now accessible via the ISO data archive as highly processed data products (HPDP). Conclusions: The quality of the data products was checked against state-of-the-art thermophysical model predictions and an excellent

  1. Measurement of parton shower observables with OPAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of QCD coherence is presented based on a sample of about 397,000 e+e- hadronic annihilation events collected at √s = 91 GeV with the OPAL detector at LEP. The study is based on four recently proposed observables that are sensitive to coherence effects in the perturbative regime. The measurement of these observables is presented, along with a comparison with the predictions of different parton shower models. The models include both conventional parton shower models and dipole antenna models. Different ordering variables are used to investigate their influence on the predictions.

  2. PHOBOS at RHIC: Some global observations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Particle production in Au+Au collisions has been measured in the PHOBOS experiment at RHIC for a range of collision energies for a large span of pseudorapidities, || < 5.4. Three empirical observations have emerged from this data set which require theoretical examination. First, there is clear evidence of limiting ...

  3. Statistical challenges in observational cohort studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hof, M.H.P.

    2015-01-01

    For over a century observational cohort studies have been used to study determinants of health and disease. Within a sample from the population, we can determine the relation between health outcomes (e.g. death) and a broad range of factors as genetic markers, environmental exposures, and lifestyle

  4. New analysis tools for observational studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landewé, R. B. M.

    2015-01-01

    Observational studies, which are very common in rheumatology, usually follow a selected group of patients for a predetermined period of time, or infinitely, with regard to a certain outcome. Such an outcome could be a "score" reflecting an important aspect of the disease (e.g., a disease activity

  5. Visualizing Influential Observations in Dependent Data

    KAUST Repository

    Genton, Marc G.

    2010-01-01

    We introduce the hair-plot to visualize influential observations in dependent data. It consists of all trajectories of the value of an estimator when each observation is modified in turn by an additive perturbation. We define two measures of influence: the local influence which describes the rate of departure from the original estimate due to a small perturbation of each observation; and the asymptotic influence which indicates the influence on the original estimate of the most extreme contamination for each observation. The cases of estimators defined as quadratic forms or ratios of quadratic forms are investigated in detail. Sample autocovariances, covariograms, and variograms belong to the first case. Sample autocorrelations, correlograms, and indices of spatial autocorrelation such as Moran\\'s I belong to the second case.We illustrate our approach on various datasets from time series analysis and spatial statistics. This article has supplementary material online. © 2010 American Statistical Association, Institute of Mathematical Statistics, and Interface Foundation of North America.

  6. Field observations of nearshore bar formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Troels; Kroon, Aart; Greenwood, Brian

    2008-01-01

    and sediment fluxes were obtained from electromagnetic current meters and optical backscatter sensors. These process measurements showed that a divergence in sediment transport occurred at the location of the developing trough, and observed gradients in cross-shore net sediment flux were consistent...

  7. Infant observation in Britain: the Tavistock approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Margot

    2006-08-01

    The author draws attention to something distinctive in the psychoanalytic 'air' from the early 1960s onwards: the strong emphasis upon the very early psychological, emotional and cognitive view of infants and young children. She focuses on the work of two analysts in particular, Esther Bick and Wilfred Bion, and the comparable, though differently expressed, centrality of the observational method in their work. Each explored not only the pathological picture but also the nature and integrative function of psychic containment in earliest mental life. Each also shared a preoccupation with what constituted a psychoanalytic attitude and with the process of becoming a psychoanalyst and, in Bick's case, a child analyst or psychotherapist. The author provides an historical background to the idea of observation, followed by an account, with detailed examples, of the nature of infant observation and the observational method as taught and practised at the Tavistock Clinic, London since the late 1940s, and subsequently in many other training institutions. Here the themes of Bick and Bion are constantly interrelated such that the prototype or model for the creation of emotional meaning and thought can be appreciated and learning from experience can take place.

  8. Localization of observables in the Rindler wedge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asorey, M.; Balachandran, A. P.; Marmo, G.; de Queiroz, A. R.

    2017-11-01

    One of the striking features of QED is that charged particles create a coherent cloud of photons. The resultant coherent state vectors of photons generate a nontrivial representation of the localized algebra of observables that do not support a representation of the Lorentz group: Lorentz symmetry is spontaneously broken. We show in particular that Lorentz boost generators diverge in this representation, a result shown also by Balachandran et al. [Eur. Phys. J. C 75, 89 (2015), 10.1140/epjc/s10052-015-3305-0] (see also the work by Balachandran et al. [Mod. Phys. Lett. A 28, 1350028 (2013), 10.1142/S0217732313500284]. Localization of observables, for example in the Rindler wedge, uses Poincaré invariance in an essential way [Int. J. Geom. Methods Mod. Phys. 14, 1740008 (2017)., 10.1142/S0219887817400084]. Hence, in the presence of charged fields, the photon observables cannot be localized in the Rindler wedge. These observations may have a bearing on the black hole information loss paradox, as the physics in the exterior of the black hole has points of resemblance to that in the Rindler wedge.

  9. Natural Hazards Observer. Volume 24 Number 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-03-01

    Spanish, see http://ops-oms.org/ve/ desastres . Natural Hazards Observer March 2000 World Bank Launches ProVention Consortium to Mitigate Disasters...and explain critical incident stress management. The booklet describes the types of emergency assistance provided by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

  10. Short GRB afterglows observed with GROND

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicuesa Guelbenzu, A.; Klose, S.; Rossi, A.

    2013-01-01

    We report on follow-up observations of 20 short-duration gamma-ray bursts (T90 < 2s) performed in g′r′i′z′JHK s with the Gamma-Ray Burst Optical Near-Infrared Detector (GROND) between mid-2007 and the end of 2010. This is the most homogeneous and comprehensive data set on GRB afterglow observatio...

  11. Geomorphic observations from southwestern terminus of Palghat ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    seismic activities also coincide with the zone of these lineaments as well as at the southeastern end of Periyar lineament. These observations ... detection of potential seismic sources in those areas is not an easy task because very few .... enhancement and visual interpretation of Landsat image as well as using toposheets.

  12. Transient characteristics observed in TRACY supercritical experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamane, Yuichi; Nakajima, Ken; Ogawa, Kazuhiko; Aizawa, Eiju; Yanagisawa, Hiroshi; Miyoshi, Yoshinori

    2003-01-01

    A series of supercritical experiments has been performed using the transient experiment criticality facility, TRACY, and some transient characteristics of low-enriched uranyl nitrate solution have been observed. The peak power and the number of fissions have been measured with three types of reactivity insertion method. The data useful for the evaluation of criticality safety for reprocessing plants were obtained. (author)

  13. Practical Observations of the Transit of Venus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 9; Issue 5. Practical Observations of the Transit of Venus. B S Shyalaja. Classroom Volume 9 Issue 5 May 2004 pp 79-83. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/009/05/0079-0083 ...

  14. Chemical Observations of a Polar Vortex Intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeberl, M. R.; Kawa, S. R.; Douglass, A. R.; McGee, T. J.; Browell, E.; Waters, J.; Livesey, N.; Read, W.; Froidevaux, L.

    2006-01-01

    An intrusion of vortex edge air in D the interior of the Arctic polar vortex was observed on the January 31,2005 flight of the NASA DC-8 aircraft. This intrusion was identified as anomalously high values of ozone by the AROTAL and DIAL lidars. Our analysis shows that this intrusion formed when a blocking feature near Iceland collapsed, allowing edge air to sweep into the vortex interior. along the DC-8 flight track also shows the intrusion in both ozone and HNO3. Polar Stratospheric Clouds (PSCs) were observed by the DIAL lidar on the DC-8. The spatial variability of the PSCs can be explained using MLS HNO3 and H2O observations and meteorological analysis temperatures. We also estimate vortex denitrification using the relationship between N2O and HNO3. Reverse domain fill back trajectory calculations are used to focus on the features in the MLS data. The trajectory results improve the agreement between lidar measured ozone and MLS ozone and also improve the agreement between the HNO3 measurements PSC locations. The back trajectory calculations allow us to compute the local denitrification rate and reduction of HCl within the filament. We estimate a denitrification rate of about lO%/day after exposure to below PSC formation temperature. Analysis of Aura MLS observations made

  15. Kappa Cygnids (KCG) by TV observation results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiba, Yasuo

    2017-12-01

    The kappa Cygnids (KCG) and its nearby region were researched by using Japanese automatic TV observation network (SonotaCo network) results for 2007-2016. KCG in 2007 and 2014 were observed with an enhancement of eight times as many meteors than ordinary years at solar longitude 145 degrees. Also the 2013 KCG were enhanced with three times the number of meteors recorded than ordinary years at solar longitude 135 degrees. In years of observed enhanced KCG (2007, 2013, 2014) luminous magnitudes were brighter than in ordinary years. The 2007 and 2014 KCG radiant distributions were similar but shifted 5 degrees to the north in 2013. The 2013 KCG orbital elements were systematically different from 2007 and 2014. If a continuous meteoroid distribution in the solar system causes the enhanced KCG, it is suggested that a distorted `swarm' has been constructed. The annual KCG radiant distribution and distributions of every orbital element have some peaks which indicate a complex meteor shower. Luminous trajectory altitudes in years of observed enhanced KCG were higher than the annual KCG height. August Draconids (AUD) is an annual meteor shower, many meteors of which are decided to also belong to KCG by using the criterion, but each meteor shower is independent because they have different characteristics. AUD radiants on the celestial sphere drift to the west and form an arc lasting till the end of September. I recommend to create a standard to decide for two meteor showers whether they are truly two meteor showers or not.

  16. IceCube-171106A: Swift observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keivani, A.; Fox, D. B.; DeLaunay, J. J.; Kennea, J. A.; Evans, P. A.; Cowen, D. F.; Osborne, J. P.; Marshall, F. E.; Swift-IceCube Collaboration

    2017-11-01

    Swift has observed the field of IceCube-171106A (Rev 0; subsequently updated to Rev 1, GCN #22105), utilizing the on-board 19-point tiling pattern to cover a region centered on RA,Dec (J2000) = (340.0d,+7.4d), with a radius of 0.8 & deg;.

  17. 1 Observations on the ichnospecies Monomorphichnus multilineatus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    24

    32 and taphonomy. 33. 34. Key Words: Monomorphichnus multilineatus, Kodymirus, Nagaur Sandstone, Marwar. 35. Supergroup, India. 36. 37. 38. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6 ...... Material & Methods. 316. 317. Present study is based on the field as well as laboratory observations. Manually. 318 operated Dulmera quarry has yielded M.

  18. INSAR observations of the DPRK event series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellors, R. J.; Ford, S. R.; Walter, W. R.

    2017-12-01

    Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (INSAR) data have revealed signals associated with the recent DPRK events in 2016 and 2017. These signals include decorrelation and indications of subsidence. Both standard phase differences and amplitude offsets are calculated. We show results of INSAR analysis as conducted using C and L band data and investigate the causes of the decorrelation (e.g. subsidence, landslide, or spall) and compare the observed signal with numerical models of deformation and seismic observations. A time series approach is applied to constrain post-event deformation at the weeks to months' timescale. We compare the INSAR observations of the DPRK tests with previous observations of events at other source regions using ERS archive data, which revealed a variety of post-seismic signatures. The signatures are evaluated with respect to the known geology and causes, including long-term surface relaxation and possible groundwater/thermal effects. Particular focus is on the sites on Pahute and Rainier Mesa, which displayed long-term subsidence signals that extended for several years after the explosions. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC

  19. 50 CFR 600.746 - Observers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... South Pacific Tuna Act of 1988 (16 U.S.C. 973 et seq.), or any other U.S. law. (b) Observer safety. An... USCG regulations: (1) Personal flotation devices/ immersion suits; (2) Ring buoys; (3) Distress signals; (4) Fire extinguishing equipment; (5) Emergency position indicating radio beacon (EPIRB), when...

  20. Observational Activities at Manipur University, India (Abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, K. Y.; Meitei, I. A.; Singh, S. A.; Singh, R. B.

    2015-06-01

    (Abstract only) We have innovatively designed and constructed three observatories each costing a few hundred USD for housing three small Schmidt-Cassegrain type telescopes namely, Celestron CGE925, Celestron CGE1400, Meade 12-inch LX200GPS. These observatories are completely different in design and are found to be perfectly usable for doing serious work on astronomical observation and measurements. The observatory with the Celestron CGE1400 telescope has been inducted, since January 2012, as one of the observatories of the international “Orion Project” headquartered at Phoenix, Arizona, which is dedicated for photometric and spectroscopic observations of five bright variable stars of the Orion constellation namely, Betelgeuse (alpha Ori), Rigel (beta Ori), Mintaka (delta Ori), Alnilam (epsilon Ori) and Alnitak (zeta Ori). Using this observatory, we have been producing BVRI photometric data for the five stars of the Orion project. The other observatory with the Meade 12-inch LX200GPS telescope is being inducted into service for CCD photometric study of SU UMa stars in connection with implementation of a project funded by Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO). In the present paper, we would like to describe our self-built observatories, our observational facilities, the BVRI photometric data that we acquired for the Orion project, and our future plan for observation of variable stars of interest.

  1. Value of Earth Observation for Risk Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearlman, F.; Shapiro, C. D.; Grasso, M.; Pearlman, J.; Adkins, J. E.; Pindilli, E.; Geppi, D.

    2017-12-01

    Societal benefits flowing from Earth observation are intuitively obvious as we use the information to assess natural hazards (such as storm tracks), water resources (such as flooding and droughts in coastal and riverine systems), ecosystem vitality and other dynamics that impact the health and economic well being of our population. The most powerful confirmation of these benefits would come from quantifying the impact and showing direct quantitative links in the value chain from data to decisions. However, our ability to identify and quantify those benefits is challenging. The impact of geospatial data on these types of decisions is not well characterized and assigning a true value to the observations on a broad scale across disciplines still remains to be done in a systematic way. This presentation provides the outcomes of a workshop held in October 2017 as a side event of the GEO Plenary that addressed research on economic methodologies for quantification of impacts. To achieve practical outputs during the meeting, the workshop focused on the use and value of Earth observations in risk mitigation including: ecosystem impacts, weather events, and other natural and manmade hazards. Case studies on approaches were discussed and will be part of this presentation. The presentation will also include the exchange of lessons learned and a discussion of gaps in the current understanding of the use and value of earth observation information for risk mitigation.

  2. Observations of exotic inner core waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waszek, Lauren; Deuss, A.F.

    2015-01-01

    The seismic structure of Earth’s inner core is highly complex, displaying strong anisotropy and further regional variations. However, few seismic waves are sensitive to the inner core and fundamental questions regarding the origin of the observed seismic features remain unanswered. Thus, new

  3. Insider-outsider perspectives of participant observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, Ann; Tolhurst, Gerda

    2002-01-01

    Ann Bonner and Gerda Tolhurst provide personal accounts of their experiences in conducting research involving participant observation. Issues discussed include the advantages and disadvantages of nurse researchers as insiders and outsiders. Also considered are strategies used to overcome both researcher effect and participant response to the researcher.

  4. Interactive storage and retrieval of pathologist's observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trauger, G.M.; Dagle, G.E.; Watson, C.R.; McIntyre, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    A system was developed for interactive storage and retrieval of pathologic observations. Data are entered on a CRT terminal using modified SNOP (Systematized Nomenclature of Pathology) codes. They are then stored and processed in a PDP 11/70 computer, and are retrieved on demand, utilizing DATATRIEVE and a variety of reports convenient for statistical analysis

  5. Traversable braneworld wormholes supported by astrophysical observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Deng; Meng, Xin-He

    2018-02-01

    In this study, we investigate the characteristics and properties of a traversable wormhole constrained by the current astrophysical observations in the framework of modified theories of gravity (MOG). As a concrete case, we study traversable wormhole space-time configurations in the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati (DGP) braneworld scenario, which are supported by the effects of the gravity leakage of extra dimensions. We find that the wormhole space-time structure will open in terms of the 2 σ confidence level when we utilize the joint constraints supernovae (SNe) Ia + observational Hubble parameter data (OHD) + Planck + gravitational wave (GW) and z wormholes can be divided into four classes during the evolutionary processes of the universe based on various energy conditions; (ii) we can offer a strict restriction to the local wormhole space-time structure by using the current astrophysical observations; and (iii) we can clearly identify a physical gravitational resource for the wormholes supported by astrophysical observations, namely the dark energy components of the universe or equivalent space-time curvature effects from MOG. Moreover, we find that the strong energy condition is always violated at low redshifts.

  6. Evaluation of observables in statistical multifragmentation theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, A.J.

    1989-01-01

    The canonical formulation of equilibrium statistical multifragmentation is examined. It is shown that the explicit construction of observables (average values) by sampling the partition probabilities is unnecessary insofar as closed expressions in the form of recursion relations can be obtained quite easily. Such expressions may conversely be used to verify the sampling algorithms

  7. Observing Aggression of Teachers in School Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Sasson, Dvora; Somech, Anit

    2015-01-01

    To fill the gap in theoretical and empirical knowledge on workplace aggression by teachers working in teams, this study explored its components, its targets, and its contextual determinants. Data were collected through three observations at different schools and at different times on 29 math, homeroom, language, and science studies teams.…

  8. Workshop III–Cosmology: Observations versus theories

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 55; Issue 4. Workshop III – Cosmology: Observations versus theories. T R Seshadri. Volume 55 Issue 4 ... Author Affiliations. T R Seshadri1. The Mehta Research Institute of Mathematics and Mathematical Physics, Chhatnag Road, Jhusi, Allahabad 211 019, India ...

  9. Observed Consultation: Confidence and Accuracy of Assessors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tweed, Mike; Ingham, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Judgments made by the assessors observing consultations are widely used in the assessment of medical students. The aim of this research was to study judgment accuracy and confidence and the relationship between these. Assessors watched recordings of consultations, scoring the students on: a checklist of items; attributes of consultation; a…

  10. Cooperative Learning and Observed Interactive Behaviour | Darma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cooperative Learning and Observed Interactive Behaviour. ... Journal of Research in National Development ... Teacher's use and evaluation of cooperative group learning were examined in this study, along with students' reactions to working in groups and their verbal interactive behaviours during group activities. Teachers ...

  11. "Keeping SCORE": Reflective Practice through Classroom Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Thomas S. C.

    2011-01-01

    Reflective practice means that teachers must subject their own teaching beliefs and practices to critical examination. One way of facilitating reflective practice in ESL teachers is to encourage them to engage in classroom observations as part of their professional development. This paper reports on a case study of a short series of classroom…

  12. Clinicopathological observations in experimental Peste Des Petit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The clinical signs were severe and the order of manifestation was anorexia, pyrexia, dyspnea, oculo-nasal discharge, recumbency and death. The lesions observed were severe fibrinous bronchointerstitial pneumonia and pleurisy with thickened alveolar septa, edema and neutrophilic infiltrations of the interstitium with giant ...

  13. Evaluating Teacher Preparation Using Graduates' Observational Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronfeldt, Matthew; Campbell, Shanyce L.

    2016-01-01

    Despite growing calls for more accountability of teacher education programs (TEPs), there is little consensus about how to evaluate them. This study investigates the potential for using observational ratings of program completers to evaluate TEPs. Drawing on statewide data on almost 9,500 program completers, representing 44 providers (183…

  14. Deep sky observing an astronomical tour

    CERN Document Server

    Coe, Steven R

    2016-01-01

    This updated second edition has all of the information needed for your successful forays into deep sky observing. Coe uses his years of experience to give detailed practical advice about how to find the best observing site, how to make the most of the time spent there, and what equipment and instruments to take along. There are comprehensive lists of deep sky objects of all kinds, along with Steve's own observations describing how they look through telescopes with apertures ranging from 4 inches to 36 inches (0.1 - 0.9 meters). Binocular observing also gets its due, while the lists of objects have been amended to highlight only the best targets. A new index makes finding targets easier than ever before, while the selection of viewing targets has been revised from the first edition. Most of all, this book is all about how to enjoy astronomy. The author's enthusiasm and sense of wonder shine through every page as he invites you along on a tour of some of the most beautiful and fascinating sites in the deep ...

  15. Solar Radio Observations and Space Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdalenic, Jasmina

    2017-04-01

    Coronal mass ejections and associated shock waves are the most important drivers of disturbed geomagnetic conditions. Therefore, tracking of CMEs and the CME-driven shock waves, and predicting their arrival at the Earth, became one of the frequently addressed topics of the space weather research. Studies of radio emission associated with CME-driven shock waves, so-called type II radio bursts, are of particular interest because radio observations cover a broad frequency domain which enables tracking of the shocks all the way from the low corona to the Earth. Consequently, the shock arrival estimate using the coronal radio emission can be updated once the shock signatures are observed in the interplanetary space. In this presentation I will discuss on how radio observations (both ground based and space based) can be used in the space weather forecasting with focus on the recent results in the radio triangulation studies of type II emission which are bringing the new insight in the causal relationship of the CMEs and associated solar radio emission. I will also present high resolution LOFAR observations of the shock wave signatures which show type II emission in a completely new light and therefore bring new challenges to the shock wave physics.

  16. Observation and superselection in quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landsman, N.P.

    1994-08-01

    We attempt to clarify the main conceptual issues in approaches to 'objectification' or 'measurement' in quantum mechanics which are based on superselection rules. Such approaches venture to derive the emergence of classical 'reality' relative to a class of observers; those believing that the classical world exists intrinsically and absolutely are advised against reading this paper. The prototype approach (Hepp) where superselection sectors are assumed in the state space of the apparatus is shown to be untenable. Instead, one should couple system and apparatus to an environment, and postulate superselection rules for the latter. These are motivated by the locality of any observer or other (actual or virtual) monitoring system. In this way 'environmental' solutions to the measurement problem (Zeh, Zurek) become consistent and acceptable, too. Points of contact with the modal interpretation are briefly discussed. We propose a minimal value attribution to observables in theories with superselection rules, in which only central observables have properties. In particular, the eigenvalue link is dropped. This is mainly motivated by Ockham's razor. (orig.)

  17. Observation of attraction between dark solitons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreischuh, A.; Neshev, D.N.; Petersen, D.E.

    2006-01-01

    We demonstrate a dramatic change in the interaction forces between dark solitons in nonlocal nonlinear media. We present what we believe is the first experimental evidence of attraction of dark solitons. Our results indicate that attraction should be observable in other nonlocal systems...

  18. Neutral hydrogen observations of binary galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moorsel, G.A. van.

    1982-01-01

    The present investigation concerns a detailed neutral hydrogen study of a carefully selected sample of 16 double spiral galaxies with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT). The observational data provide useful material for a number of questions concerning the dynamics of double galaxies, in particular the question of the mass distribution. In Chapter 2 the criteria used to select a sample of double galaxies for observation with the WSRT are discussed. Observing techniques and the reduction of the data using the GIPSY system are described in Chapter 3. Chapters 4 through 7 contain the observational results. In Chapter 8 the method of analysis is described. Masses for the individual galaxies derived from rotation curves are compared with the ''total'' masses estimated from the orbital motion. In this fashion a direct estimate of the amount of dark matter is obtained that avoids the use of mean M/L values. In Chapter 9 a mass estimator for groups is developed in a way analogous to the binary galaxy mass estimator described in Chapter 8. The question of selection effects and the bias of the mass estimator for the point mass model are discussed extensively in Chapter 10. The final results are discussed in Chapter 11. It is shown that the orbital mass exceeds the sum of the individual masses by a large factor for several pairs, indicating either that there is a large amount of dark matter or that something is amiss with the concept of a physical pair. (Auth.)

  19. OBSERVATIONS ON SPRINGBOK POPULATIONS The biology of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cronwright-Schreiner relates many personal observations of springbok and their behaviour, describes a mass eruption or ... the winter months of June and July, the time of the shooting season. Shoots held on ... carcasses brought into the farmyard during the latter half of a day's shooting was generally too large for anything ...

  20. Comprehensive entropy weight observability-controllability risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Decision making for water resource planning is often related to social, economic and environmental factors. There are various methods for making decisions about water resource planning alternatives and measures with various shortcomings. A comprehensive entropy weight observability-controllability risk analysis ...