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  1. Factors associated with repeated outbreak of anthrax in Bangladesh: qualitative and quantitative study

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    Jayedul Hassan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Anthrax, caused by Bacillus anthracis is an acute, febrile disease of warm blooded animals including humans. Social norms and poverty in addition to climatic factors such as soil conditions, seasons of year, ambient temperature and rainfall influence the persistence of the B. anthracis and anthrax outbreaks. The present study was designed to reveal the factors influencing the repeated outbreak of anthrax in Bangladesh. Considering the previous outbreaks of anthrax, Sirajganj, Bogra, Kushtia, Tangail and Mymensingh districts of Bangladesh were selected for this study. To elucidate the factors, qualitative data relating to the animal management, knowledge and behavior of the people; and quantitative data relating to soil conditions, ambient temperature and rainfall were acquired, and analyzed critically. Based on the outbreak histories, a year was divided into two seasons, anthrax prone season (May-November and anthrax dry season (December-April. Anthrax spores could be isolated from 11.67% (n=14/120 of the soil samples collected from the study areas. The present study revealed that poor knowledge, lack of awareness, improper carcass disposal, inadequate vaccination, high Ca content and moisture in the soil along with high ambient temperature and rainfall during the anthrax prone season were the possible influencing factors of repeated outbreaks of anthrax in the study areas. Intensive propaganda to create public awareness of anthrax together with proper vaccination may reduce anthrax outbreaks in Bangladesh.

  2. Social-ecological dynamics of the small scale fisheries in Sundarban Mangrove Forest, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Mojibul Hoque Mozumder; Md. Mostafa Shamsuzzaman; Md. Rashed-Un-Nabi; Ehsanul Karim

    2018-01-01

    The Sundarban Mangrove Forest (SMF) is an intricate ecosystem containing the most varied and profuse natural resources of Bangladesh. This study presents empirical research, based on primary and secondary data, regarding the social-ecological system (SES), social-ecological dynamics, different stakeholders and relevant management policies of small-scale or artisanal fisheries such as the SMF; showing how, despite extensive diversification, the livelihood activities of the artisanal fishers in...

  3. Intriguing Success in 3D Seismic Acquisition in Ecologically Critical Lawachara National Park of Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakht, Delawar; Siddique, Mohammad; Masud, Mohammad

    2010-09-15

    In-depth environmental studies were conducted in 2008 by a multi-disciplinary team of international and national specialists of SMEC International for Chevron Bangladesh for obtaining Environmental Clearance for 3D seismic acquisition in Moulvibazar Gas Field. This included Lawachara National Park which was declared as an ecologically critical area in 1996. Exclusive monitoring of potential impact mitigation mechanism identified through EIA studies resulted in to completing the project with intriguing success. This has displayed a glaring example of sharing expertise leading to successful initiative in technology transfer in the developing country like Bangladesh currently in dire quest of harnessing natural gas.

  4. Ecological Determinants of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H5N1) Outbreaks in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Syed S. U.; Ersbøll, Annette K.; Biswas, Paritosh K.; Christensen, Jens P.; Hannan, Abu S. M. A.; Toft, Nils

    2012-01-01

    Background The agro-ecology and poultry husbandry of the south Asian and south-east Asian countries share common features, however, with noticeable differences. Hence, the ecological determinants associated with risk of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI-H5N1) outbreaks are expected to differ between Bangladesh and e.g., Thailand and Vietnam. The primary aim of the current study was to establish ecological determinants associated with the risk of HPAI-H5N1 outbreaks at subdistrict level in Bangladesh. The secondary aim was to explore the performance of two different statistical modeling approaches for unmeasured spatially correlated variation. Methodology/Principal Findings An ecological study at subdistrict level in Bangladesh was performed with 138 subdistricts with HPAI-H5N1 outbreaks during 2007–2008, and 326 subdistricts with no outbreaks. The association between ecological determinants and HPAI-H5N1 outbreaks was examined using a generalized linear mixed model. Spatial clustering of the ecological data was modeled using 1) an intrinsic conditional autoregressive (ICAR) model at subdistrict level considering their first order neighbors, and 2) a multilevel (ML) model with subdistricts nested within districts. Ecological determinants significantly associated with risk of HPAI-H5N1 outbreaks at subdistrict level were migratory birds' staging areas, river network, household density, literacy rate, poultry density, live bird markets, and highway network. Predictive risk maps were derived based on the resulting models. The resulting models indicate that the ML model absorbed some of the covariate effect of the ICAR model because of the neighbor structure implied in the two different models. Conclusions/Significance The study identified a new set of ecological determinants related to river networks, migratory birds' staging areas and literacy rate in addition to already known risk factors, and clarified that the generalized concept of free grazing duck and

  5. The Forms and Ecologies of Islamist militancy and terrorism in Bangladesh

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    Mohammad Azizur Rahman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Islamist militancy and terrorism, a major sociopolitical issue of Bangladesh today, has largely remained under-researched. This paper mainly explores the forms and ecologies of Islamist militancy and terrorism based on the content analysis of media reports and interviews with some experts in Bangladesh. Ecologies, in this paper, refer to the multiple interrelated and interdependent environments: social, political, and religious, that foster, germinate and nurture the growth of militancy and terrorism. Despite Bangladesh being globally identified as a moderate Muslim country located in South Asia, Islamist radicalization, extremism and militancy have become a major concern since the incidence of nationwide serial bomb blasts in 2005. Although an estimation of the group operatives may not be possible because these groups change names or members change groups from time to time, the presence of seventy Islamist militant outfits with thousands of militant members was identified during 1999-2010. Islamist militants carried out over 203 attacks killing 164 innocent people and injuring more than 2,658 people in this period. Using bomb explosions, these attacks targeted political parties, cultural groups, intellectuals, diplomats, movie theatres, NGO offices, and minority religious institutions. In response to these attacks, the government has adopted mostly a law-enforcement centric approach, but this study suggests a comprehensive strategy balancing enforcement, intervention and prevention urgently needed for de-radicalization and counterterrorism in Bangladesh --- the 8th most populous country and the 3rd largest Muslim country of the world. Although foreign journalistic and intelligence-based reports have argued that Islamist militants have links with madrassas (Islamic seminary institutions, this system has actually been in vogue for many years in the country. Research suggests that unemployment problems, poverty, illiteracy, and ignorance about

  6. Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    Bangladesh is a country of 143,998 sq.km with 116 million inhabitants, of whom 47-22% for males and females, respectively, are literate. Independence was gained on 1971. The terrain consists of mainly flat, alluvial plain, with hills in the Southeast, with a climate which is semi-tropical with monsoons. Bangla and English are spoken by Bengali, nonBengali Muslims, and other ethnic groups who are of mainly Muslim and Hindu faiths. Life expectancy ranges over 52-54 years. GDP is $23 billion, growing at a rate of 3.6%. Per capita income is $198. The country's natural resources include natural gas and water. Rice, jute, tea, sugar, wheat, jute goods, garments, frozen shrimp, textiles, fertilizer, leather, metal reprocessing, pharmaceutical, and newspring are areas of economic production. Capital goods, foodgrains, petroleum, consumer goods, fertilizer, chemicals, vegetable oils, and textiles are imported, and ready-made garments, jute goods, leather, frozen fish, shrimp, raw jute, and tea are exported. In-depth information is also given on the people and history, government and principal officials, political conditions, the economy, defense, foreign relations with the U.S., and names of principal U.S. officials in the country.

  7. Potential ecological risk of hazardous elements in different land-use urban soils of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Saiful; Ahmed, Kawser; Habibullah-Al-Mamun; Masunaga, Shigeki

    2015-04-15

    Soil pollution, influenced by both the natural and anthropogenic factors, significantly reduces environmental quality. In this study, six hazardous elements (Cr, Ni, Cu, As, Cd and Pb) in 12 different land-use urban soils from Bangladesh were assessed. The ranges of Cr, Ni, Cu, As, Cd and Pb in studied soils were 2.4-1258, 8.3-1044, 9.7-823, 8.7-277, 1.8-80 and 13-842 mg/kg, respectively. More than 70% of soil samples exceeded the Dutch target value for Ni, Cu, As, Cd and Pb concentration in soil, indicating a potential risk to the environment. Certain indices, including the enrichment factor (EF), pollution load index (PLI) and contamination factor (Cf(i)), were used to assess the ecological risk posed by hazardous elements in soils. The mean range of PLI was 1.5-10, indicating progressive deterioration of soil due to metal contamination. However, the Cf(i) values of Cd ranged from 3.7 to 35 revealed that the examined soils were strongly impacted by Cd. Considering the severity of potential ecological risk for single metal (Er(i)), the descending order of contaminants was Cd>As>Cu>Pb>Ni>Cr. In view of the potential ecological risk (PER), soils from all land uses showed considerable to very high potential ecological risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Food security and ecological footprint of chittagong hill tracts in bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bala, B.K.; Hossain, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents food security and ecological footprint of the Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT) in Bangladesh. To estimate food security and ecological footprint, primary and secondary data were collected and a multistage sampling was designed for selecting the farm households from the three districts of the Hill Tracts of Chittagong. A quantitative method for computation of food security was used. To estimate the environmental sustainability sustainability as upazila (sub-district) levels, a method of computation of ecological footprint developed by Wackernagel was used. Multiple logistic regression models were fitted to data on food security of the farmers in CHT to identify the factors affecting food security at household levels in CHT. Overall status of food security at upazila levels was found to be good for all the upazilas except Rangamati sadar and the best was found Alikadam. Environmental status in the Hill Tracts of Chittagong was poor for all the upazilas. Household food security was found to be significantly (p<0.05) affected by farm size, education, professions, crops cultivated (jhum and tobacco), distance from market and transition from jhum to horticulture. This study supports transition from jhum to horticulture crops for increased food security and banning tobacco cultivation to avoid deforestation in CHT. (author)

  9. Social-ecological dynamics of the small scale fisheries in Sundarban Mangrove Forest, Bangladesh

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    Mohammad Mojibul Hoque Mozumder

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Sundarban Mangrove Forest (SMF is an intricate ecosystem containing the most varied and profuse natural resources of Bangladesh. This study presents empirical research, based on primary and secondary data, regarding the social-ecological system (SES, social-ecological dynamics, different stakeholders and relevant management policies of small-scale or artisanal fisheries such as the SMF; showing how, despite extensive diversification, the livelihood activities of the artisanal fishers in the SMF all depend on the forest itself. Regardless of this critical importance of mangroves, however, deforestation continues due to immature death of mangroves, illegal logging, increased salinity, natural disasters and significant household consumption of mangrove wood by local people. As the mangroves are destroyed fish stocks, and other fishery resources are reduced, leading to moves of desperation among those whose livelihood has traditionally been fishing. The present study also considers several risks and shock factors in the fishers' livelihood: attacks by wild animals (especially tigers and local bandits, illness, natural disasters, river bank erosion, and the cost of paying off corrupt officials. The artisanal fishers of the SMF have adopted different strategies for coping with these problems: developing partnerships, violating the fisheries management laws and regulations, migrating, placing greater responsibility on women, and bartering fishing knowledge and information. This study shows how the social component (human, the ecological component (mangrove resources and the interphase aspects (local ecological knowledge, stakeholder's interest, and money lenders or middle man roles of the SMF as an SES are linked in mutual interaction. It furthermore considers how the social-ecological dynamics of the SMF have negative impacts on artisanal fishermen's livelihoods. Hence there is an urgency to update existing policies and management issues for the

  10. Environmental factors associated with the distribution of visceral leishmaniasis in endemic areas of Bangladesh: modeling the ecological niche.

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    Abdullah, Abu Yousuf Md; Dewan, Ashraf; Shogib, Md Rakibul Islam; Rahman, Md Masudur; Hossain, Md Faruk

    2017-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a parasitic infection (also called kala-azar in South Asia) caused by Leishmania donovani that is a considerable threat to public health in the Indian subcontinent, including densely populated Bangladesh. The disease seriously affects the poorest subset of the population in the subcontinent. Despite the fact that the incidence of VL results in significant morbidity and mortality, its environmental determinants are relatively poorly understood, especially in Bangladesh. In this study, we have extracted a number of environmental variables obtained from a range of sources, along with human VL cases collected through several field visits, to model the distribution of disease which may then be used as a surrogate for determining the distribution of Phlebotomus argentipes vector, in hyperendemic and endemic areas of Mymensingh and Gazipur districts in Bangladesh. The analysis was carried out within an ecological niche model (ENM) framework using a maxent to explore the ecological requirements of the disease. The results suggest that VL in the study area can be predicted by precipitation during the warmest quarter of the year, land surface temperature (LST), and normalized difference water index (NDWI). As P. argentipes is the single proven vector of L. donovani in the study area, its distribution could reasonably be determined by the same environmental variables. The analysis further showed that the majority of VL cases were located in mauzas where the estimated probability of the disease occurrence was high. This may reflect the potential distribution of the disease and consequently P. argentipes in the study area. The results of this study are expected to have important implications, particularly in vector control strategies and management of risk associated with this disease. Public health officials can use the results to prioritize their visits in specific areas. Further, the findings can be used as a baseline to model how the

  11. Creating multithemed ecological regions for macroscale ecology: Testing a flexible, repeatable, and accessible clustering method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheruvelil, Kendra Spence; Yuan, Shuai; Webster, Katherine E.; Tan, Pang-Ning; Lapierre, Jean-Francois; Collins, Sarah M.; Fergus, C. Emi; Scott, Caren E.; Norton Henry, Emily; Soranno, Patricia A.; Filstrup, Christopher T.; Wagner, Tyler

    2017-01-01

    Understanding broad-scale ecological patterns and processes often involves accounting for regional-scale heterogeneity. A common way to do so is to include ecological regions in sampling schemes and empirical models. However, most existing ecological regions were developed for specific purposes, using a limited set of geospatial features and irreproducible methods. Our study purpose was to: (1) describe a method that takes advantage of recent computational advances and increased availability of regional and global data sets to create customizable and reproducible ecological regions, (2) make this algorithm available for use and modification by others studying different ecosystems, variables of interest, study extents, and macroscale ecology research questions, and (3) demonstrate the power of this approach for the research question—How well do these regions capture regional-scale variation in lake water quality? To achieve our purpose we: (1) used a spatially constrained spectral clustering algorithm that balances geospatial homogeneity and region contiguity to create ecological regions using multiple terrestrial, climatic, and freshwater geospatial data for 17 northeastern U.S. states (~1,800,000 km2); (2) identified which of the 52 geospatial features were most influential in creating the resulting 100 regions; and (3) tested the ability of these ecological regions to capture regional variation in water nutrients and clarity for ~6,000 lakes. We found that: (1) a combination of terrestrial, climatic, and freshwater geospatial features influenced region creation, suggesting that the oft-ignored freshwater landscape provides novel information on landscape variability not captured by traditionally used climate and terrestrial metrics; and (2) the delineated regions captured macroscale heterogeneity in ecosystem properties not included in region delineation—approximately 40% of the variation in total phosphorus and water clarity among lakes was at the regional

  12. Poor methodological detail precludes experimental repeatability and hampers synthesis in ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddaway, Neal R; Verhoeven, Jos T A

    2015-10-01

    Despite the scientific method's central tenets of reproducibility (the ability to obtain similar results when repeated) and repeatability (the ability to replicate an experiment based on methods described), published ecological research continues to fail to provide sufficient methodological detail to allow either repeatability of verification. Recent systematic reviews highlight the problem, with one example demonstrating that an average of 13% of studies per year (±8.0 [SD]) failed to report sample sizes. The problem affects the ability to verify the accuracy of any analysis, to repeat methods used, and to assimilate the study findings into powerful and useful meta-analyses. The problem is common in a variety of ecological topics examined to date, and despite previous calls for improved reporting and metadata archiving, which could indirectly alleviate the problem, there is no indication of an improvement in reporting standards over time. Here, we call on authors, editors, and peer reviewers to consider repeatability as a top priority when evaluating research manuscripts, bearing in mind that legacy and integration into the evidence base can drastically improve the impact of individual research reports.

  13. Ecological Determinants of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H5N1) Outbreaks in Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, S. S. U.; Ersboll, A. K.; Biswas, P. K.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The agro-ecology and poultry husbandry of the south Asian and south-east Asian countries share common features, however, with noticeable differences. Hence, the ecological determinants associated with risk of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI-H5N1) outbreaks are expected to diff...

  14. Repeatable group differences in the collective behaviour of stickleback shoals across ecological contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Establishing how collective behaviour emerges is central to our understanding of animal societies. Previous research has highlighted how universal interaction rules shape collective behaviour, and that individual differences can drive group functioning. Groups themselves may also differ considerably in their collective behaviour, but little is known about the consistency of such group variation, especially across different ecological contexts that may alter individuals' behavioural responses. Here, we test if randomly composed groups of sticklebacks differ consistently from one another in both their structure and movement dynamics across an open environment, an environment with food, and an environment with food and shelter. Based on high-resolution tracking data of the free-swimming shoals, we found large context-associated changes in the average behaviour of the groups. But despite these changes and limited social familiarity among group members, substantial and predictable behavioural differences between the groups persisted both within and across the different contexts (group-level repeatability): some groups moved consistently faster, more cohesively, showed stronger alignment and/or clearer leadership than other groups. These results suggest that among-group heterogeneity could be a widespread feature in animal societies. Future work that considers group-level variation in collective behaviour may help understand the selective pressures that shape how animal collectives form and function. PMID:29436496

  15. The Ecological Genomics of Fungi: Repeated Elements in Filamentous Fungi with a Focus on Wood-Decay Fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murat, Claude [INRA, Nancy, France; Payen, Thibaut [INRA, Nancy, France; Petitpierre, Denis [INRA, Nancy, France; Labbe, Jessy L [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, the genome of several dozen filamentous fungi have been sequenced. Interestingly, vast diversity in genome size was observed (Fig. 2.1) with 14-fold differences between the 9 Mb of the human pathogenic dandruff fungus (Malassezia globosa; Xu, Saunders, et al., 2007) and the 125 Mb of the ectomycorrhizal black truffle of P rigord (Tuber melanosporum; Martin, Kohler, et al., 2010). Recently, Raffaele and Kamoun (2012) highlighted that the genomes of several lineages of filamentous plant pathogens have been shaped by repeat-driven expansion. Indeed, repeated elements are ubiquitous in all prokaryote and eukaryote genomes; however, their frequencies can vary from just a minor percentage of the genome to more that 60 percent of the genome. Repeated elements can be classified in two major types: satellites DNA and transposable elements. In this chapter, the different types of repeated elements and how these elements can impact genome and gene repertoire will be described. Also, an intriguing link between the transposable elements richness and diversity and the ecological niche will be highlighted.

  16. Digital Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Masudul Alam Choudhury

    2013-01-01

    The present fever to launch an extensive digitalization program is sweeping the Bangladesh political, business, and elitist minds. In the face of an overarching outlook of sustainable development the Bangladesh digitalization program runs into some grave questions. The paper points out that ethics as a strongly endogenous force in development is indispensable to keep in view the simultaneity of attaining growth and social justice. These targets are variously manifested in different sectors an...

  17. Evaluating dryland ecological and river restoration using repeat LiDAR and hydrological monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, W. M.; DeLong, S.

    2012-12-01

    Recent improvements in the collection of multitemporal, high-resolution topographic data such as Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) have done a great deal to increase our ability to quantify the details of landscape change. Both Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) and Airborne Laser Swath Mapping (ALSM) can be used to easily assess how Earth surface processes affect landscape form to a level of precision that was previously more difficult to attain. A comprehensive approach using ALSM, TLS-TLS comparison, and hydrological monitoring is being used to assess the effectiveness of a large scale ecological and river restoration effort by the Cuenca los Ojos Foundation at San Bernardino Ranch near Agua Prieta, Sonora, Mexico. In the study area, historical arroyo cutting and changes in land use led to the abandonment of a ciénega wetland and resulted in widespread ecological destruction. The current land managers have employed engineering methods in order to restore stream and ciénega ecology, including the installation of large rock gabions, earthen berms, and concrete spillways along channels. Our goal is to test the hypothesis that the use of dam and gabion structures leads to stream aggradation, flash flood dampening, and ultimately, increased available water and reestablishment of historic wetland plant and animal communities. We present results from LiDAR change detection that includes 2007-2011 ALSM to TLS change, and several 2011-2012 TLS-TLS comparisons. We also present results from streamflow monitoring, field observation, and monitoring of shallow groundwater and soil moisture conditions. Preliminary results show that channel aggradation occurs rapidly upstream of engineered structures. However, the apparent dampening of sediment transport by the structures leads to less aggradation and even incision immediately downstream of structures. Peak flood flows are decreased by the reservoirs formed behind large earthen berms. After several years of water retention

  18. Studies on geo-morphology, ecology and fish production of the 92 rivers of Rajshahi Division, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, M.K.; Akhter, J.N.; Nima, A.; Ahmed, S.U.; Mazid, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Geo-morphology, ecology and fish production of the 92 rivers of Rajshahi division have been presented in this paper. Fifteen rivers are dead and 11 rivers have severe erosion problem. Siltation has increased in 66 rivers and depth has decreased in 11 rivers. Sixty nine rivers are suffering from low flow conditions. Fish diversity has decreased in 20 rivers while fish production has declined in 75 rivers. A total of 31 fish species have extinct, 25 species are under threat of extinction and 43...

  19. Soil properties and microbial ecology of a paddy field after repeated applications of domestic and industrial sewage sludges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Liu, Wuxing; Wang, Qingling; Wu, Longhua; Luo, Yongming; Christie, Peter

    2017-03-01

    The effects of repeated application of two types of sewage sludge, domestic and industrial (petrochemical, PSS) sludges, into paddy fields over a 5-year period on the soil properties and microbial ecology were studied and compared with conventional NPK fertilizer application. Soil organic matter and total nitrogen contents were significantly higher in the two sludge treatments than that in fertilized plots after 5 years. Soil concentrations of potentially toxic metals were low after 5 years of both sludge treatments, but the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) showed differences between the two sludge types. Concentrations of high-molecular-weight PAHs were significantly higher (p soil dimethyl sulfoxide extracts from the petrochemical sludge treatment was also significantly higher (p soil microbial activity, but only the petrochemical sludge led to enrichment with specific PAH degraders such as Mycobacterium, Nocardioides, and Sphingomonas.

  20. Targeted Killings in Bangladesh: Diversity at Stake

    OpenAIRE

    Syed, Jawad

    2016-01-01

    Since 2013, Bangladesh has repeatedly been in headline news across the world due to systematic and incessant targeted killings. In the mainstream media, both in South Asia and the West, the focus has been generally on high profile murders of secular and progressive bloggers. This includes the recent worldwide broad coverage on the tragic murder of Xulhaz Mannan, editor of Bangladesh's first LGBT rights magazine. However, not many know that these killings are only one part of the story. Secula...

  1. in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juwel Rana

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background . About 8,900 people are living with HIV/AIDS, and 1,000 AIDS-related deaths had been reported in Bangladesh by the end of 2014. Objectives . The study investigates the social determinants of awareness and behavior regarding STDs and HIV/AIDS among ever married women in Bangladesh. Material and methods. This cross-sectional research extracted data concerning 17,828 ever married women from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS in 2014. The chi-square (χ2 and multinomial logistic regression model were used to identify the factors associated with knowledge, awareness and behavior concerning STDs and HIV/AIDS. Results . Overall, 28.6% of examined ever married women have never heard of STDs or HIV/AIDS nor any of their prevention methods. Also, only 15.6% of reported women were the decision makers regarding the use of contraception during sexual intercourse, and 91.3% of women had the capacity to refuse sexual contact with their STD-infected husband/partner. Women who belong to households classified as lower class (OR = 0.525, 95% CI = 0.461–0.598 or middle class (OR = 0.643, 95% CI = 0.564–0.733 had less comprehensive knowledge and awareness of STDs and HIV/AIDS than those categorized as upper class. Women at a level of education below secondary (OR = 0.200, 95% CI = 0.179–0.223 also had less comprehensive knowledge and awareness than highly educated women. Moreover, women living in an urban residence (OR = 1.141, 95% CI = 1.003–1.297 were more likely to make the decision of using contraception and (OR = 1.546, 95% CI = 1.351–1.770 more likely to refuse sexual contact with an STD-infected husband/partner than their rural counterparts. Formally unemployed women (OR = 0.894, 95% CI = 0.793–1.010 were less likely to refuse sexual intercourse with an STD-infected husband than employed women. Conclusions . Social determinants such as education, wealth and media exposure determine the level of knowledge and awareness

  2. Radiation-ecological monitoring in the area of «Ruppur» NPP in the People's Republic of Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panov, A.V.; Sanzharova, N.I.; Tsygvintsev, P.N.; Isamov, N.N.; Kurbakov, D.N.

    2016-01-01

    The program of radiation-ecological monitoring of the region of «Ruppur» NPP is developed, survey points are chosen and examined; the monitoring objects, list of observing parameters, regulation of observation are determined as well as the techniques of observation and regulatory and engineering provisions. On the base of radiation-ecological monitoring of atmospheric air, aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems carried out in 30-km area of the NPP in 2014-2015 it is possible to make a conclusion that ecological situation in the region is good in whole. Formed monitoring network of atmosphere, aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems will allow to record the change of situation in 30-km NPP area and to reveal the effect of the NPP operation on ecology in the region [ru

  3. Consequences of Climate Change and Gender Vulnerability: Bangladesh Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Zayeda Sharmin; Mohammad Samiul Islam

    2013-01-01

    Bangladesh’s geographic location and geo-morphological conditions have made the country one of the most vulnerable to weather and climate induced changes. Bangladesh is a land of wetlands, which occupy around 50 percent of the country. Wetlands play a crucial role in maintaining the ecological balance of ecosystems, but wetland habitats of Bangladesh are under constant threats due to climate induced changes and anthropogenic activities. Climate change is causing a rise in sea levels, which al...

  4. Pangolin distribution and conservation status in Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott J Trageser

    Full Text Available Asian pangolins are a highly-threatened species group, mainly due to the perceived medicinal value of their scales. Increased demand from China has resulted in pangolins being the most trafficked mammal in the world. Three pangolin species are reported to occur in Bangladesh: Manis pentadactyla, M. crassicaudata, and M. javanica. No peer-reviewed studies exist detailing these species' current distribution or status within Bangladesh. A literature review was conducted resulting in the clarification of conflicting reports and misidentified observations and specimen records. In this paper, we also report the current status of pangolins (Manis spp. in Bangladesh based on semi-structured interviews, camera trapping, media queries, and field surveys employing traditional ecological knowledge and non-randomized transect surveys. Ethnozoological knowledge pertaining to the natural history of M. pentadactyla is also reported from experienced Mro tribal hunters. The critically endangered M. pentadactyla was verified to occur in northwest, northeast, and southeast Bangladesh in natural and degraded habitats. Interviews with the Mro tribe in the southeast indicate that pangolin populations there were likely extirpated in 2014 due to skilled commercial collection beginning in 2010. Evidence of extant M. crassicaudata and M. javanica populations remain unverified and questionable, and historical records of M. crassicaudata and M. javanica are likely a result of misidentification.

  5. Cancer control in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Syed Akram; Sullivan, Richard

    2013-12-01

    Cancer is predicted to be an increasingly important cause of morbidity and mortality in Bangladesh in the next few decades. The estimated incidence of 12.7 million new cancer cases will rise to 21.4 million by 2030. More than two-thirds of the total expenditure on health is through out-of-pocket payments. According to the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, cancer is the sixth leading cause of death. International Agency for Research on Cancer has estimated cancer-related death rates in Bangladesh to be 7.5% in 2005 and 13% in 2030. The two leading causes are in males are lung and oral cancer and in females are breast cancer and cervical cancer. Bangladesh is now in severe shortage of radiation therapy machines, hospital bed, trained oncologists, medical radiation physicists and technologists. Bangladesh having different cancers associated with smoking and smokeless tobacco use, Human papilloma virus infection, Hepatitis B and C infection, Helicobacter Pylori infection, arsenic contaminated groundwater, availability of chemical carcinogens mainly formalin treated fruits, fish and vegetables at open market, tannery waste contaminated with chromium (which is used for poultry feed and fish feed preparation). A World Health Organization study revealed the annual cost of illnesses in Bangladesh attributable to tobacco usage is US$ 500 million and the total annual benefit from the tobacco sector is US$ 305 million as tax revenue. Bangladesh has developed a National Cancer Control Strategy and Action Plan with the aim of delivering a universal, quality-based and timely service. Cancer prevention through tobacco control, health promotion and vaccination program, cancer early detection program for oral cavity, breast and cervix has initiated. Cancer detection and diagnostic facilities will be made available at medical colleges and district- hospitals and establish a referral chain. National capacity development, more cancer research will allow Bangladesh to deal effectively

  6. Seamount ecology and dynamics: A multidisciplinary data set from repeated surveys at different seamounts in the Northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean (2003 - 2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohn, C.; Christiansen, B.; Denda, A.; George, K. H.; Kaufmann, M.; Maranhão, M.; Martin, B.; Metzger, T.; Peine, F.; Schuster, A.; Springer, B.; Stefanowitsch, B.; Turnewitsch, R.; Wehrmann, H.

    2016-02-01

    Seamounts are amongst the most common physiographic open ocean systems, but remoteness and geographic complexity have limited the number of integrated and multidisciplinary seamount surveys in the past. As a consequence, important aspects of seamount ecology and dynamics remain poorly studied. Here we present a multi-parameter data set from individual and repeated seamount surveys conducted at different sites in the Northeast Atlantic and Eastern Mediterranean between 2003 and 2013. The main objective of these surveys was to establish a collection of ecosystem relevant descriptors and to develop a better understanding of seamount ecosystem composition and variability in different dynamical and bio-geographic environments. Measurements were conducted at four seamounts in the Northeast Atlantic (Ampère, Sedlo, Seine, Senghor) and two seamounts in the Eastern Mediterranean (Anaximenes, Eratosthenes). The data set comprises records from a total number of 11 cruises including physical oceanography (temperature, salinity, pressure, currents), biology (phytoplankton, zooplankton, fish, benthos) and biogeochemistry (sedimentary particle dynamics, carbon flux). The resulting multi-disciplinary data collection provides a unique opportunity for comparative studies of seamount ecosystem structure and dynamics between different physical, biological and biogeochemical regimes

  7. Bangladesh Jobs Diagnostic

    OpenAIRE

    Farole, Thomas; Cho, Yoonyoung

    2017-01-01

    This Jobs Diagnostic presents the characteristics and constraints of the labor market in Bangladesh, identifies the objectives of the jobs agenda, and proposes a policy framework to progress toward them. This multisectoral diagnostic assesses the relationships between supply- and demand-side factors that interact to determine job creation, quality, and inclusion outcomes. Understanding the...

  8. Country programme review Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamel, R.; Maluszynski, Y.; Maudarbocus, Y.; Cherif, H.S.; Morre, P.

    1993-12-01

    A five-expert mission was organized from 21-26 August 1993 and this document reflects the findings and recommendations of the team. Intensive contacts with heads of institutions, scientists and decision making persons in various sectors in the country were co-ordinated by the Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission. The terms of reference of the mission were: To assess the on-going TC projects; to assist the Bangladesh nationals to finalize the formulation of the new requests for 1995-96 TC programme and to establish priority areas with regard to the introduction of national projects involving accelerated technological transfer in order to catalyze national development plans in specific areas; to examine institutional framework suitable for the introduction of these priority nuclear techniques

  9. Rape in Rural Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowsher Ali

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rape is one of the silent brutal sexual offences in Bangladesh. Despite strong laws against it, the evil of rape continues to rise. Increasing trend of the silent cruel sexual offence (rape represents a major psychopath sexual disorder and public health problem and progress of the country. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the pattern of alleged rape victims in a rural district of Bangladesh with the ultimate aim to create public awareness about the brutal crime. Materials and method: This retrospective study was carried out on 330 sexually assailed alleged rape victims’ report forms, who reported at Faridpur Medical College, Bangladesh from 2007 to 2011 for medical examination. Results: Among the study subjects maximum number (70.0% of alleged rape cases were under the age of 20 years. More than two-thirds (64.60% of the assailants were known to the victims, most of the incidents (64.20% occurred in the victims’ houses and nearby places. The study also revealed that minimum number of victims (14.20% reported within 24 hours for medical examination. Almost one fourth of the alleged rape cases were gang rape and no positive finding in favour of sexual intercourse was found in about three fourth (72.40% of cases. Conclusion: Public awareness about rape would be effective to report in due time with preserving the evidence of crime and modern techniques like DNA diagnosis may be of help to detect the assailant.

  10. [Family planning in Bangladesh].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, S

    1981-03-01

    The author participated in the family planning project in Bangladesh from August 1, 1977 to December 31, 1979. The population of Bangladesh was 81 million in 1977 with annual increase of 3%, and the government was aiming at zero population growth. The government guidelines emphasized family planning as an effort integrated with other community programs. The use of adult education classes, mass media, and agricultural field workers and the training of paramedical personnel were proposed. The project members' activities involved motivating the public to delay marriages, to space births and to limit the family size to two children (average family size 6.5 children) as well as distributing contraceptives, promoting IUD and sterilization. Sterilization campaign for women in DNN district, 30 km south of Dacca, was carried out as follows. The women who had signed up in advance arrived at the elementary school classroom, where 2 medical teams performed operations using the teachers' desks and the equipment rented from a hospital in Dacca. The general procedure involved a physical examination by a female doctor, checking blood pressure, changing into a brand new native gown, premedication by injection, total anesthesia and operation itself. The equipment was sterilized by boiling. The patients were carried on the stretchers to the other classroom where they recuperated, staying overnight on the straw mats on the mud floor. They went home on foot the next day. The shortage of food and resources, high unemployment rate and low standard of living are some of the social problems Bangladesh faces along with overpopulation.

  11. Motivating women. Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-08-01

    The Integrated Family Development Program (IFDP) in Bangladesh is expanding from the original project areas in Panchdona Union and Dhalian Union into four neighboring unions under the initiative of the Family Planning Association of Bangladesh (FPAB). The JOICFP-executed project entered its second cycle this year as part of the UNFPA-supported regional Capacity Building for Sustainable Community-based Reproductive Health/Family Planning (FP) Project Emphasizing Quality of Care. The community-based project has won wide acceptance from people at the grass roots who have helped fuel its expansion into other villages. In particular, villagers have welcomed the comprehensive approach of the project which integrates a range of components such as reproductive health including FP/maternal and child health (MCH), income-generating activities, skills and literacy education for women and children and primary health care including parasite control. The success of the project also convinced the Japanese Embassy in Bangladesh to extend funding under the Japanese government's Grant Assistance for Grass Roots Cooperation Projects. With the funds, FPAB will establish a Women's Multipurpose Training Center in Panchdona Union. The sum of US$68,157 was officially handed over to FPAB on March 29 by Japanese Ambassador Yoshikazu Kaneko. The center, which is to open within this year, will contribute to improving reproductive health and promoting the empowerment of women. Once completed, it will be used for such activities as training in health care, literacy and skills for income generation for women's empowerment. full text

  12. Landslide Inventory Report of Chittagong Metropolitan Area, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, B.; Rahman, M. S.; Rahman, S.; Huq, F. F.; Ara, S.

    2014-01-01

    Landslides are one of the most significant natural damaging disasters in hilly environments. Chittagong Metropolitan Area (CMA), the second largest city of Bangladesh, is vulnerable to landslide hazard with an increasing trend of frequency and damage. Devastating landslides have hit CMA repeatedly in recent years. Landslide events occurred at a much higher rainfall amount compared to the monthly average. Moreover, rapid urbanization, increased population density, improper land-...

  13. Mass media tours Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-07-01

    In May 1998, representatives of Japan's mass media toured Bangladesh to learn about the country's reproductive health and population programs. The goal of the visit was for the journalists to spread information about the projects to their peers, to government officials, and parliamentarians responsible for allocations of foreign aid. The 1st stage of the visit involved meetings with program officials and organizers. In the 2nd stage, the journalists toured: 1) Matlab, where the International Center for Diarrhoeal Disease Research has been implementing an intensive family planning (FP) program; 2) the Panchdona IP area, where the Integrated Family Development Project is being conducted with funding from the Japanese government; 3) an FP office and satellite clinic; and 4) a site where voluntary organizations are providing FP/maternal-child health care. The journalists also learned about how micro-credit loans operate. Participating journalists reported that they were very impressed with the people of Bangladesh, and that they had gained a new understanding of the relationship between reproductive health and human rights.

  14. SWOT ANALYSIS AND STRATEGIES TO DEVELOP SUSTAINABLE TOURISM IN BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaul Haque Mondal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh is a small country with enormous natural beauty and cultural attractions. These gorgeous natural and cultural traits make this country as one of the important tourist destinations in the world but, this potentiality has been overlooked. The tourism industry is facing several challenges, and development efforts of this industry are not sustainable. This paper maps out a way to sustainable growth of the tourism industry in Bangladesh using the SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats model and a derived matrix out of it. The data used for this study were derived from multiple sources, including literature review and interviews with professionals. To analyze strategic factors of the tourism industry in the country, internal strengths and weaknesses as well as external opportunities and threats were determined to be followed by development of strategic planning based on the SWOT matrix. Results showed that existing tourism activities in Bangladesh are unsustainable. To develop a sustainable tourism industry to attract tourists, this study suggests different WT (weaknesses- threats strategies such as ensuring safety and security of tourists, effective planning for sustainable economic benefits, strict implementation of environmental regulations for ecological sustainability, alerting people about the importance of sustainable tourism development, and infrastructure development. Perhaps the findings of this study would be important in the effort to develop and promote a sustainable tourism industry in beautiful Bangladesh.

  15. Bangladesh floods, cyclones and ENSO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudhury, A.M.

    1994-04-01

    It has been found that in general there is a reduction of rainfall in all the regions of Bangladesh in all the seasons - premonsoon, monsoon and post monsoon during El Nino years. It has also been observed that in strong El Nino year Bangladesh is not hit by a catastrophic flood or a catastrophic cyclone. In the past, occurrence of famines in this region of the world coincided with El Nino years. The years of weak El Nino or when the El Nino index is positive seem to be favourable for the occurrence of floods and cyclones in Bangladesh. A theory of the modulation of the monsoon in Bangladesh by the Walker circulation has been described in the paper. (author). 14 refs, 7 figs, 1 tab

  16. Case Study: Bangladesh Bank Heist

    OpenAIRE

    Md Ahsan Habib

    2017-01-01

    Cyber crime is a threat to our E- commerce . A hacker group named "Lazarus" hacked $951 million from Bangladesh Bank's account. This is the short case study of this incident with professional ethical view.

  17. Bangladesh : Growth and Export Competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2005-01-01

    Bangladesh's growth over the past two decades or more, in terms of developing-country standards, has been notable. Such record of progress is one guide to the country's potential to grow, and to score well in world markets. To this end, i.e., to make the most of its export opportunities on a changing international playing field, Bangladesh needs to follow a strategic game plan, invest in infrastructure, technology and skills, streamline policies, and improve quality and safety standards. This...

  18. Dietary Arsenic Exposure in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Kile, Molly L.; Houseman, E. Andres; Breton, Carrie V.; Smith, Thomas; Quamruzzaman, Quazi; Rahman, Mahmuder; Mahiuddin, Golam; Christiani, David C.

    2007-01-01

    Background Millions of people in Bangladesh are at risk of chronic arsenic toxicity from drinking contaminated groundwater, but little is known about diet as an additional source of As exposure. Methods We employed a duplicate diet survey to quantify daily As intake in 47 women residing in Pabna, Bangladesh. All samples were analyzed for total As, and a subset of 35 samples were measured for inorganic arsenic (iAs) using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry equipped with a dynamic rea...

  19. Bangladesh becomes "success story".

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The State Minister for Health and Family of Bangladesh, Dr. Mohammed Amanullah, highlighted some of the successes being achieved by his country in lowering fertility and improving the lives of the people since the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. Some of these successes include practical measures to eliminate violence against women; introduction of a quota for women in public sector employment; and launching of the Health and Population Sector Program to provide a one-stop, full range of essential reproductive health, family planning and child health services through an integrated delivery mechanism. Moreover, the Minister informed the Forum participants that their success is attributable to many factors which include support from the government, from non-governmental organizations, civil society, mass media, religious and other community leaders, intersectoral collaboration, microcredit and income-generation activities.

  20. Bangladesh Integrated Household Survey (BIHS) 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — This dataset is the second round of Bangladesh Integrated Household Survey (BIHS). The BIHS is the only nationally representative survey in Bangladesh that collects...

  1. All projects related to bangladesh | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Program: Maternal and Child Health. Total Funding: CA$ 438,600.00. Reducing dietary related risks associated with non-communicable diseases in Bangladesh. Project. Bangladesh is undergoing a rapid demographic and epidemiological transition. Region: Bangladesh, Canada. Program: Food, Environment, and Health.

  2. Bangladesh: currently the worst, but possibly the future's best.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Garrett

    2015-02-01

    Garment workers in Bangladesh producing clothing for international brands have experienced repeated factory fires and building collapses in the last 10 years, resulting in more than 1,600 deaths and hundreds of disabling injuries. After the Tazreen Fashion fire in December 2012 and the Rana Plaza building collapse in April 2013, more than 190 international clothing brands and retailers signed an "Accord on Fire and Building Safety" with two international union federations. Full implementation of the provisions of the Accord would change "business as usual" in Bangladesh's garment industry and set a positive example for other countries and other industries with global supply chains. The components, challenges, and controversies of the Accord are detailed in the article. © 2015 SAGE Publications.

  3. Exploratory analysis of fines for water pollution in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil Haque

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As a consequence of rapid industrialization, the waterbodies of Bangladesh have transformed into seasonal dead zones from the ensuing pollution. Despite having environmental regulations to control industrial pollution, lack of effective enforcement has jeopardized environmental quality. Evaluation of enforcement mechanisms have not gained attention from researchers until recently. This qualitative and descriptive analysis illustrates the current enforcement regime for environmental compliance in Bangladesh focusing on fines levied on polluters. Although there are no official guidelines for fines based on type of violation, this paper identified that there are differences of fines among violation based on historical data. It was also found that textile factories are not penalized heavily compared to non-textile factories. Repeat offenders were found to be penalized at the same rate. This study can be used to design appropriate penalty structure based on violation types, and reform the enforcement system so that polluters pay principle is actually implemented.

  4. Molecular detection and genetic diversity of Babesia gibsoni in dogs in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terao, Masashi; Akter, Shirin; Yasin, Md Golam; Nakao, Ryo; Kato, Hirotomo; Alam, Mohammad Zahangir; Katakura, Ken

    2015-04-01

    Babesia gibsoni is a tick-borne hemoprotozoan parasite of dogs that often causes fever and hemolytic illness. Detection of B. gibsoni has been predominantly reported in Asian countries, including Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Malaysia, Bangladesh and India. The present study shows the first molecular characterization of B. gibsoni detected from dogs in Bangladesh. Blood samples were collected on FTA® Elute cards from 50 stray dogs in Mymensingh District in Bangladesh. DNA eluted from the cards was subjected to nested PCR for the 18S rRNA gene of Babesia species. Approximately 800bp PCR products were detected in 15 of 50 dogs (30%). Based on restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and direct sequencing of the PCR products, all parasite isolates were identified as B. gibsoni. Furthermore, the BgTRAP (B. gibsoni thrombospondin-related adhesive protein) gene fragments were detected in 13 of 15 18S rRNA gene PCR positive blood samples. Phylogenetic analysis of the BgTRAP gene revealed that B. gibsoni parasites in Bangladesh formed a cluster, which was genetically different from other Asian B. gibsoni isolates. In addition, tandem repeat analysis of the BgTRAP gene clearly showed considerable genetic variation among Bangladeshi isolates. These results suggested that B. gibsoni parasites in a different genetic clade are endemic in dogs in Bangladesh. Further studies are required to elucidate the origin, distribution, vector and pathogenesis of B. gibsoni parasites circulating in dogs in Bangladesh. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Repeated Miscarriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treated? • What treatment is available if I have antiphospholipid syndrome? • What are my chances of having a successful ... may have an increased risk of repeated miscarriages. Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune disorder in which a ...

  6. Analysis of Environmental Accounting and Reporting Practices of Listed Banking Companies in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Abdul Kaium Masud

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available “Bangladesh faces many ecological challenges, including air and water contamination, land degradation, and waste management”. Bangladesh faces many ecological challenges, including air and water contamination, land degradation, and waste management. This study was designed to investigate the extent and nature of environmental accounting and reporting of listed banks in Bangladesh in 12 major categories. Information was collected from the annual reports of 20 banks listed on the Dhaka Stock Exchange for the period 2010 to 2014. The results indicate that the banks examined significantly disclosed environmental information for the 12 categories. The study found that banks disclosed the most environmental information for green banking and renewable energy categories, whereas they disclosed the least for environmental recognition and waste management categories. Furthermore, yearly comparison reveals that disclosure of environmental information increased sharply from 16% in 2010 to 83% in 2014. In addition, Bangladesh Bank’s recent fruitful initiatives on environmental disclosures were reviewed, and the findings of the 12 categories have managerial implications for policy makers in corporations as well as the government. It is recommended that professional accounting bodies of Bangladesh, along with international and government policy makers develop a separate conceptual framework for environmental accounting and reporting for the financial and non-financial sectors of the country.

  7. Child abuse in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Islam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Bangladesh, a large number of children are deprived of their basic human rights due to unacceptable health, nutrition, education as well as social conditions. In addition, children are exposed to severe forms of sexual, physical and mental abuses at home, in the work place, in institutions and other public places. The nature and extent of violence against children irrespective of age, sex and class has been increasing day by day. These include physical torture, rape, homicide and sometimes heinous attacks with acid. Children are also victims of child labor and trafficking, both of which are treated as the most severe form of child exploitation and child abuse in the world today. This review article is aimed to focus on the present situation of various forms of child abuses in our country. Data collection is based on secondary sources of information from Dhaka Medical College Hospital, One Stop Crisis Center (OCC,UNICEF, Ministry of Home Affairs, Ministry of Women and Children Affairs, several Dhaka based organizations and news paper clipping. Ibrahim Med. Coll. J. 2015; 9(1: 18-21

  8. Biofertilizer for food legumes: Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    In Bangladesh grain legumes are the protein meat substitute of the poor, and an integral part of the daily diet. Yet present yields cannot meet demand and every year about 25% of the country's grain legumes' requirements have to be imported at a cost of about US $23 million in hard-earned foreign exchange. This money could easily be saved by increasing production in the country. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme, with technical support from the Joint FAO/IAEA Division, in Bangladesh to find ways of increasing yields of grain legumes using efficient strains of biofertilizers. (IAEA)

  9. Spatial and temporal dynamics of multidimensional well-being, livelihoods and ecosystem services in coastal Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Helen; Adger, W Neil; Ahmad, Sate; Ahmed, Ali; Begum, Dilruba; Lázár, Attila N; Matthews, Zoe; Rahman, Mohammed Mofizur; Streatfield, Peter Kim

    2016-11-08

    Populations in resource dependent economies gain well-being from the natural environment, in highly spatially and temporally variable patterns. To collect information on this, we designed and implemented a 1586-household quantitative survey in the southwest coastal zone of Bangladesh. Data were collected on material, subjective and health dimensions of well-being in the context of natural resource use, particularly agriculture, aquaculture, mangroves and fisheries. The questionnaire included questions on factors that mediate poverty outcomes: mobility and remittances; loans and micro-credit; environmental perceptions; shocks; and women's empowerment. The data are stratified by social-ecological system to take into account spatial dynamics and the survey was repeated with the same respondents three times within a year to incorporate seasonal dynamics. The dataset includes blood pressure measurements and height and weight of men, women and children. In addition, the household listing includes basic data on livelihoods and income for approximately 10,000 households. The dataset facilitates interdisciplinary research on spatial and temporal dynamics of well-being in the context of natural resource dependence in low income countries.

  10. All projects related to bangladesh | Page 6 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: Internet, LANGUAGE BARRIER, ASIAN LANGUAGES, COMPUTER PROGRAMS, SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, INFORMATION SOCIETY. Region: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, ... From Tobacco to Food Production: Constraints and Transition Strategies in Bangladesh. Project. Bangladesh is one of the many ...

  11. Genotype Analysis of Bacillus anthracis Strains Circulating in Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Islam Rume

    Full Text Available In Bangladesh, anthrax, caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis, is considered an endemic disease affecting ruminants with sporadic zoonotic occurrences in humans. Due to the lack of knowledge about risks from an incorrect removal of infected carcasses, the disease is not properly monitored, and because of the socio-economic conditions, the situation is under-reported and under-diagnosed. For sensitive species, anthrax represents a fatal outcome with sudden death and sometimes bleeding from natural orifices. The most common source of infection for ruminants is ingestion of spores during grazing in contaminated pastures or through grass and water contaminated with anthrax spores. Domestic cattle, sheep and goats can also become infected through contaminated bone meal (used as feed originating from anthrax-infected carcasses. The present investigation was conducted to isolate B. anthracis organisms from 169 samples (73 soil, 1 tissue, 4 bone and 91 bone meal samples collected from 12 different districts of Bangladesh. The sampling was carried out from 2012 to 2015. Twelve samples resulted positive for B. anthracis. Biomolecular analyses were conducted starting from the Canonical Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (CanSNP to analyze the phylogenetic origin of strains. The analysis of genotype, obtained through the Multiple Locus Variable Number Tandem Repeat Analysis (MLVA with the analysis of 15 Variable Number Tandem Repeats (VNTR, demonstrated four different genotypes: two of them were previously identified in the district of Sirajganj. The sub-genotyping, conducted with Single Nucleotide Repeats analysis, revealed the presence of eight subgenotypes. The data of the present study concluded that there was no observed correlation between imported cattle feed and anthrax occurrence in Bangladesh and that the remarkable genetic variations of B. anthracis were found in the soil of numerous outbreaks in this country.

  12. Modern population trends in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abul-basher, M M

    1985-01-01

    Population growth trends in Bangladesh in the 1871-1981 period were analyzed, with emphasis on fertility and mortality differentials, to provide a basis for population planning. Following proclamation of British Imperial Rule in 1857, mortality rates in Bangladesh began to decline as a result of preventive measures against natural disasters such as draught and famine, but the fertility rate remained unaltered. The demographic pattern was unstable over time, reflecting the impact of the influenza epidemic of 1918-19, war, migration, and economic development. Population growth accelerated greatly during the 1961-74 period, when industrialization emerged and job opportunities were created in the urban centers. Economic hardship, food shortages, and the introduction of family planning curbed urban growth drastically and total growth to some extent in 1974-81. On the average, growth has been higher in the Dhaka and Chittagong Divisions of Bangladesh than in the Khulna and Rajshahi Divisions. Differences in population growth among the regions are attributable largely to internal and external migration. The regression polynomial model best fits past population trends in Bangladesh and can reproduce the observed population by 99.60%. This polynomial is most suitable for graduation and prediction of population trends.

  13. Seismicity and tectonics of Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, K.M.

    1989-05-01

    Northern and eastern Bangladesh and surrounding areas belong to a seismically active zone and are associated with the subduction of the Indian plate. The seismicity and tectonics have been studied in detail and the observations have been correlated to understand the earthquake phenomenon in the region. The morphotectonic behaviour of northern Bangladesh shows that it is deeply related to the movement of the Dauki fault system and relative upliftment of the Shillong plateau. Contemporary seismicity in the Dauki fault system is relatively quiet comparing to that in the Naga-Disang-Haflong thrust belt giving rise to the probability of sudden release of energy being accumulated in the vicinity of the Dauki fault system. This observation corresponds with the predicted average return period of a large earthquake (1897 type) and the possibility of M > 8 earthquake in the vicinity of the Dauki fault within this century should not be ruled out. The seismicity in the folded belt in the east follows the general trend of Arakan-Yoma anticlinorium and represents shallow and low-angled thrust movements in conformity with the field observation. Seismotectonic behaviour in the deep basin part of Bangladesh demonstrates that an intraplate movement in the basement rock has been taking place along the deep-seated faults causing relative upliftment and subsidence in the basin. Bangladesh has been divided into three seismic zones on the basis of morphotectonic and seismic behaviour. Zone-I has been identified as the zone of high seismic risk. (author). 43 refs, 5 figs, 3 tabs

  14. Deployment Repeatability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-31

    Deployment repeatability Olive Stohlman (NASA Langley), Mark Silver (Lincoln Labs), and Dave Waller (Ball Aerospace) Abstract Every time a...of motors or deployment drivers  Loss or redistribution of lubrication Hysteresis errors  Material creep due to time in storage and time in the...controlled or where friction changes unreliably in vacuum or thermal conditions (where these affect the deployment, and not only postdeployment stability

  15. Policies and strategies. Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huq, N

    1992-08-01

    Bangladesh has a population of nearly 108 million on a landmass of 143,998 sq km. The rate of population growth peaked at around 35 in the 1960s. The population increased from about 43 million in 1951 to 68 million in 1970 and to about 90 million in 1981. In 1976 a national policy for population control and family planning (FP) was announced which employed thousands of full-time field workers, and developed information, education, and motivation activities. The implementation strategy entailed the integration of health and FP, maternal child health (FP/MCH) service delivery systems at subdistrict (upazila) levels with a wide choice of contraceptive methods and expanded good quality services. Greater emphasis on MCH services included immunization, oral rehydration, and training of traditional birth attendants. Even if the goal of net reproductive rate of 1 is achieved by 2005, the population will rise to about 137 million by 2000. The Fourth 5 year Plan (1990-95) seeks to lower the growth rate from 2.15 in 1990 to 1.8% by 1995; to cut the crude birth rate of 34.5 live births/1000 people in 1990 to 30.1/1000 by 1995; and to reduce the crude death rate of 13.6/1000 population in 1990 to 11.9/1000 by 1995. The reduction of the total fertility rate from 4.30 in 1990 to 3.40 by 1995 would require increasing the contraceptive prevalence rate of 40% in 1991 to 50% in 1995. It is also planned to raise the number of the continuous users of contraceptives from 8.8 million in 1991 to 12.3 million acceptors by 1995. The government has been providing continuous institutional support to a network of FP clinics in rural areas which the Family Planning Board started to operate in 1965. The present field structure is composed of the division level (4 divisions in the country), district level (64 districts), upazila level (460 upazilas), and union level (4500 rural unions).

  16. FRAGILE ENVIRONMENT, SEASONALITY AND MATERNAL AND CHILDHOOD UNDERNUTRITION IN BANGLADESH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsena, Masuda; Hossain, Mahabub; Chakraborty, Barnali; Bayes, Abdul; Rahman, A N Mahfuzur

    2017-09-18

    This study assessed whether agricultural and household incomes were the same across different agro-ecological environments in Bangladesh. An in-depth analysis of the effect of unfavourable ecologies on maternal and child malnutrition was carried out. Data were from a longitudinal data set comprising a nationally representative data sample collected in 2014 and the Food Security Nutrition Surveillance Project (FSNSP) conducted in 2011 and 2012. Anthropometric indices were used to assess the nutritional status of mothers and under-five children. The key variables of interest were food seasonality and geographical location. Data were analysed using the General Linear Model and multinomial and binary logistic regression analysis. Panel data analysis showed that household income was not equal across agro-ecological zones, indicating that the fragility of the environment affects a household's ability to access food, and thus the nutritional status of mothers and children. Coastal areas of Bangladesh were found to be less dependent on agriculture, particularly cultivation, which had diminished during last few decades. Per capita income has been increasing in coastal areas of Bangladesh, led by remittance (money sent home by migrant workers) growing at 8% per year against 6% in other areas. Regression analysis showed that a household in a coastal zone earned 19% less than one in more favourable zones. Although the income from farm practices was found to be lower in unfavourable areas, the deficiency was compensated by increased non-farm incomes. The results from the FSNSP data showed that overall the rates of stunting and wasting among under-five children were 37% and 11.7%, respectively, and nearly 28% of mothers suffered from undernutrition. A highly significant regional heterogeneity in undernutrition was found, with alarmingly high levels in the Haor Basin and coastal belt areas. There were significantly higher rates of underweight and wasting in the monsoon season

  17. Cancer care scenario in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. M. Kamal Uddin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh is a developing country that is facing many challenges, especially in the health sector. Cancer management is a priority due to the current trend of increased incidence in this region. In this article, the current scenario of cancer in Bangladesh and its management with brief history is outlined. The combined effort of government and private sector is highlighted with the gradual progress in cancer management. Recent introduction of the state-of-the-art facilities and the training facilities for human resource development are also outlined. The existing challenges and cooperation from local NGOs and other overseas sources are also highlighted to provide an insight regarding possible ways to tackle these challenges to ensure a better future.

  18. Cancer care scenario in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, A F M Kamal; Khan, Zohora Jameela; Islam, Johirul; Mahmud, Am

    2013-04-01

    Bangladesh is a developing country that is facing many challenges, especially in the health sector. Cancer management is a priority due to the current trend of increased incidence in this region. In this article, the current scenario of cancer in Bangladesh and its management with brief history is outlined. The combined effort of government and private sector is highlighted with the gradual progress in cancer management. Recent introduction of the state-of-the-art facilities and the training facilities for human resource development are also outlined. The existing challenges and cooperation from local NGOs and other overseas sources are also highlighted to provide an insight regarding possible ways to tackle these challenges to ensure a better future.

  19. Application of radiation in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naiyyum Choudhury; Najmul Alam Chowdhury; Feroza Akhtar [Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    2001-03-01

    Radiation technology offers a very wide scope for utilisation and commercial exploitation in various field. All over the world, this technology is being favourably considered for different applications like radiation sterilisation of medical products, preservation of food by controlling the physiological processes for extending shelf-life and eradication of microbial and insect pests, radiation processing of polymeric materials and treatment of sewage sludge. Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission has taken radiation processing programmes in a big way right from its inception. This paper describes the studies carried out by various research groups in Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission mainly using Cobalt-60 gamma radiation. The investigation covers medical sterilisation, food preservation and development and modification of polymeric materials by gamma radiation. Both food preservation and radiation sterilisation of medical products are now being commercially carried out in the Gammatech facility as a joint venture company of BAEC and a private entrepreneur. Bangladesh is soon going to establish a full-fledged Tissue Bank to cater the needs of various tissue allografts for surgical replacement. Recently Government of Bangladesh has allocated US$ 1.00 million for strengthening of the Tissue Banking Laboratory. BAEC has made quite a good research contribution on vulcanization of natural rubber latex, wood plastic composites, surface coating curing, polymer modification etc. As a result of successful achievement of R and D activities in all these projects, a pilot plant project involving about US$ 4.00 million is under implementation at the Atomic energy Research Establishment campus of BAEC. In addition a project on 'National Polymer Centre' at a cost of US$ 2.00 million has already been approved. It is expected that work on radiation processing including commercialization will be accelerated with the implementation of these projects. The impact of radiation

  20. Cucumber Mosaic Virus in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Akanda, Abdul Mannan; Tsuno, Kazunori; Maeda, Takanori; Wakimoto, Satoshi; 津野, 和宣; 前田, 孚憲; 脇本, 哲

    1991-01-01

    As many as 92 different samples belonging to 15 botanical families, showing virus disease-like symptom were collected from various locations of Bangladesh in 1986-87. Plant samples were lyophilized or dried lvith calcium chloride and preserved at 4℃. Since inactivation of most of the samples was observed in mechanical inoculation to original or closely related host plants in 1989, the dried samples were subjected to double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA) and do...

  1. Foreign Exchange Reserves: Bangladesh Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Zahangir Alam

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is about foreign exchangereserves of Bangladesh. The mainpurpose of this study is to the influence of exchange rates on foreign exchangereserves to the Bangladesh context.  Both the primary and secondary data has been used inthis study. The primary data has been collected through a structuredquestionnaire from 50 respondents. The secondary data, namely Bangladeshforeign exchange reserves (FER, Bangladesh current account balance (CAB,Bangladesh capital andfinancial account balance (CFAB, and BDT/USD exchange rates (ER.  This study covers yearly data from July 01,1996 to June 30, 2005 and quarterly data from July 01, 2005 to June 30, 2012. Findingsof this study shows that out of the selected 16 factors affecting foreignexchange reserves, exchange rates occupy the first position, weighted averagescore (WAS being 4.56. Foreign exchange reserves (FER and current accountbalance (CAB have increased by 502.9087% and 1451.218%,whereas capital and financial account (CFAB has decreased by -649.024% on June30, 2012 compared to June 30, 1997. The influence of other factors heldconstant, as ER changes by 285.6894 units due to one unit change in FER, onaverage in the same direction which represents that ER has positive effect on theFER and this relationship is statistically significant.  62.1526 percentof the variation in FER is explained by ER. The outcomes of Breusch-Godfrey test (LM test, ARCHtest, and the Normality test are that there is a serial correlation among residuals, the variance of residuals is notconstant, and the residuals are not normally distributed.

  2. Application of radiation in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naiyyum Choudhury; Najmul Alam Chowdhury; Feroza Akhtar

    2001-01-01

    Radiation technology offers a very wide scope for utilisation and commercial exploitation in various field. All over the world, this technology is being favourably considered for different applications like radiation sterilisation of medical products, preservation of food by controlling the physiological processes for extending shelf-life and eradication of microbial and insect pests, radiation processing of polymeric materials and treatment of sewage sludge. Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission has taken radiation processing programmes in a big way right from its inception. This paper describes the studies carried out by various research groups in Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission mainly using Cobalt-60 gamma radiation. The investigation covers medical sterilisation, food preservation and development and modification of polymeric materials by gamma radiation. Both food preservation and radiation sterilisation of medical products are now being commercially carried out in the Gammatech facility as a joint venture company of BAEC and a private entrepreneur. Bangladesh is soon going to establish a full-fledged Tissue Bank to cater the needs of various tissue allografts for surgical replacement. Recently Government of Bangladesh has allocated US$ 1.00 million for strengthening of the Tissue Banking Laboratory. BAEC has made quite a good research contribution on vulcanization of natural rubber latex, wood plastic composites, surface coating curing, polymer modification etc. As a result of successful achievement of R and D activities in all these projects, a pilot plant project involving about US$ 4.00 million is under implementation at the Atomic energy Research Establishment campus of BAEC. In addition a project on 'National Polymer Centre' at a cost of US$ 2.00 million has already been approved. It is expected that work on radiation processing including commercialization will be accelerated with the implementation of these projects. The impact of radiation processing

  3. Hypertension in Bangladesh: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K.M. Monwarul Islam

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension (HTN is an increasingly important medical and public health problem. In Bangladesh, approximately 20% of adult and 40–65% of elderly people suffer from HTN. High incidence of metabolic syndrome, and lifestyle-related factors like obesity, high salt intake, and less physical activity may play important role in the pathophysiology of HTN. The association of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE gene polymorphism and low birth weight with blood pressure has been studied inadequately. Studies have found relationship between mass arsenic poisoning and HTN. Hypovitaminosis D presumably plays role in the aetiopathogenesis of HTN in Bangladeshi population. South Asians appear to respond to antihypertensive therapy in a similar manner to the Whites. The latest National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence guideline advocates a calcium-channel blocker as step 1 antihypertensive treatment to people aged > 55 years and an ACE inhibitor or a low-cost angiotensin-II receptor blocker for the younger people. Calcium-channel blockers and beta-blockers have been found to be the most commonly prescribed antihypertensive drugs in Bangladesh. Non-adherence to the standard guidelines and irrational drug prescribing are likely to be important. On the other hand, non-adherence to antihypertensive treatment is quite high. At the advent of the new millennium, we are really unaware of our real situation. Large-scale, preferably, nation-wide survey and clinical research are needed to explore the different aspects of HTN in Bangladesh.

  4. Inequality in disability in Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Ismail Tareque

    Full Text Available To investigate inequality in disability in Bangladesh.The study used both household level and individual level data from a large nationally representative data set, Bangladesh's Household Income and Expenditure Survey-2010. Principal component analysis was used to construct a wealth index based on household assets from household level data. Then, using data from 49,809 individuals aged 5 years and over, chi-square tests and logistic regression were performed to test the association between wealth level and disability.Women and older people are significantly more likely to report having disabilities than men and younger people. For middle and rich families, respectively, there is a 14 percent lower likelihood of reporting disabilities than for poor families. Changes in the probability of having disabilities are linear with increasing wealth. In addition, the study identifies some significant factors affecting disability, namely, age, sex, education, marital status, and place of residence including divisional differences.In Bangladesh, worse health among the poor argues for policies prioritizing this group while at the same time giving special attention to women and the elderly.

  5. Bangladesh mission sees great benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-10-01

    A JOICFP 2-member mission visited Bangladesh during August 9-22 to monitor the progress of cooperative projects in Narsingdhi and Feni districts, implemented by the Family Planning Association of Bangladesh (FPAB), and to discuss the implementation of Postal Savings for International Voluntary Aid (POSIVA) funds. POSIVA is in its 4th year of providing funds to Bangladesh. The Population Reference Bureau's (PRB) Japan Representative joined the mission on a study tour during August 9-17 to directly observe reproductive health and family planning, women's empowerment, and micro-credit at the grassroots level. The representative hopes to raise the Japanese public's awareness of international nongovernmental organization (NGO) partnerships in order to encourage them to help rural populations in developing countries. The offices of the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, the International Secretariat of Partners in Population and Development, UNFPA, Population Council, OECF, the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), and the Grammin Bank were visited, as well as the project areas of Panchdona and Dhalia Unions of the Integrated Family Development Project. ODA assistance should be strengthened to improve grassroots activities, with a focus upon women's empowerment, maternal and child health, and alleviating poverty through NGOs working together with communities. A project to build capacity in reproductive health in Jessore District is described.

  6. Energy poverty in rural Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, Douglas F.; Khandker, Shahidur R.; Samad, Hussain A.

    2011-01-01

    Energy poverty is a well-established concept among energy and development specialists. International development organizations frequently cite energy-poverty alleviation as a necessary condition to reduce income poverty. Several approaches used to measure energy poverty over the past 20 years have defined the energy poverty line as the minimum quantity of physical energy needed to perform such basic tasks as cooking and lighting. This paper uses a demand-based approach to define the energy poverty line as the threshold point at which energy consumption begins to rise with increases in household income. At or below this threshold point, households consume a bare minimum level of energy and should be considered energy poor. This approach was applied using cross-sectional data from a comprehensive 2004 household survey representative of rural Bangladesh. The findings suggest that some 58 percent of rural households in Bangladesh are energy poor, versus 45 percent that are income poor. The findings also suggest that policies to support rural electrification and greater use of improved biomass stoves might play a significant role in reducing energy poverty. - Research Highlights: →We estimate energy poverty for rural Bangladesh adopting a demand-based approach. →Findings suggest that energy poverty does not necessarily follow the same pattern as income poverty. →Access to modern energy and efficient use of traditional energy help alleviate energy poverty. →Energy poverty indicator can help track the effectiveness of a wide range of energy policies.

  7. Challenges of Women in Science: Bangladesh Perspectives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ranjeetha

    Challenges of Women in Science: Bangladesh Perspectives. Professor Shamima K Choudhury. Department of Physics, University of Dhaka, Dhaka-1000, Bangladesh. And. Director, Bose Centre for Advanced Study and Research in Natural Sciences shamima@univdhaka.edu; skc.phy@gmail.com ...

  8. All projects related to Bangladesh | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Total Funding: CA$ 1,245,177.00. Preventing early marriage in urban poor settlements in Bangladesh. Project. Child marriage among girls is most common in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, with Bangladesh having the highest rate of marriage involving girls under age 15. Topic: MARRIAGE, GIRLS, POLICY MAKING, ...

  9. Recognizing child maltreatment in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, N Z; Lynch, M A

    1997-08-01

    Concern is increasing in Bangladesh over child abuse, neglect, and exploitation. Children from all walks of life are being treated at the Child Development Center (CDC) Dhaka Shishu Hospital for neurodevelopmental problems resulting from abuse and neglect. Efforts to protect children from sexual harassment result in girls being isolated at home or married at an early age. Some young brides are eventually abandoned and forced into prostitution. Early marriage reflects the lack of acknowledgement of a period of adolescence and the belief that puberty is a marker of adulthood. Many girls aged 8-16 are employed as live-in domestic servants, and many suffer sexual as well as emotional abuse. Garment factories, on the other hand, offer girls an escape from extreme poverty, domestic service, and early marriage but are threatened by forces that condemn child labor. Rather than ending such opportunities, employers should be encouraged to provide employees with educational and welfare facilities. The CDC seeks to explore the extent and depth of the problem of child abuse while recognizing the special circumstances at work in Bangladesh. It is also necessary to raise awareness of these issues and of the discrepancies between the law and cultural practices. For example, the legal marriage age of 18 years for a woman and 21 years for a man is often ignored. Additional forms of abuse receiving the attention of women's organizations and human rights groups include the trafficking of children. A network of concerned organizations should be created to work against the child abuse, neglect, and exploitation that Bangladesh has pledged to overcome by signing the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child.

  10. Climatic Alterations of Wetlands: Conservation and Adaptation Practices in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiquee, S. A.

    2016-02-01

    Unique geographic location and geo-morphological conditions of Bangladesh have made the wetlands of this country one of the most vulnerable to climate change. Wetland plays a crucial role in maintaining the ecological balance of ecosystems and cultural figures and which occupy around 50% of the area. Drought, excessive temperature, mountain snowfields and glaciers melting, riverbank erosion, salinity intrusion, flashflood, storm surges, higher water temperatures, precipitation anomalies, coastal cyclones, seasonal anomalies and extremes are main threats to the wetland ecosystem. Enhanced UV-B radiation and increased summer precipitation will significantly increase dissolved organic carbon concentrations altering major biogeochemical cycles and also will result into the expansion of range for many invasive aquatic weeds. Generally, rising temperature will lower water quality through a fall in oxygen concentrations, release of phosphorus from sediments, increased thermal stability, and altered mixing patterns. As a result biodiversity is getting degraded, many species of flora and fauna are getting threatened, and wetland-based ecosystem is getting degenerated. At the same time, the living conditions of local people are deteriorating as livelihoods, socioeconomic institutions, and extensive cultural values as well. For conserving and managing wetlands technology, legislation, educational knowledge, action plan strategy and restoration practices are required. In order to address the human needs in the changing climate community-based adaptation approaches and wetland restoration, practices had been taken in almost every type of wetlands in Bangladesh. Therefore, Bangladesh now needs a comprehensive strategy and integrated system combining political, economic, social, technological approaches and institutional supports to address sustainable wetland restoration, conservation and the newly added crisis, climate change.

  11. Evaluating the genetic impact of South and Southeast Asia on the peopling of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Gazi Nurun Nahar; Sharif, Mohd Istiaq; Asaduzzaman, Md; Chaubey, Gyaneshwer

    2015-11-01

    Despite rapidly growing understandings and dependency on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), highly variable autosomal short tandem repeats (STRs) are still regarded as the most established method to differentiate individuals at forensic level. Here with large number of various ethnic groups we undertook this study to reveal the genetic structure of the most densely populated part of South Asia i.e. the Bangladesh. The purpose of this work was to estimate population parameters based on the allele frequencies obtained for 15 polymorphic autosomal STR loci investigated in caste and tribal populations from Bangladesh (n=706). We compared the results in a broader context by merging 24 different populations of Asia to pertain their affinity. Various statistical analyses suggested a clear cut demarcation of tribal and non-tribal in Bangladesh. Moreover, beside the phylogenetic structure of the studied populations, it is found that the mean heterozygosity value was highest among the populations of Bangladesh, likely because of gene flow from different directions. However, Tonchangya, Adi and Khumi showed sign of genetic isolation and reduced diversity, possibly as a result of genetic drift and/or strong founder effects working on small endogamous populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Ecology and ecologies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valera, Luca

    2011-01-01

    Ecology (from the Greek words οιχοσ, "house" and λογια "study of") is the science of the "house", since it studies the environments where we live. There are three main ways of thinking about Ecology: Ecology as the study of interactions (between humans and the environment, between humans and living beings, between all living beings, etc.), Ecology as the statistical study of interactions, Ecology as a faith, or rather as a science that requires a metaphysical view. The history of Ecology shows us how this view was released by the label of "folk sense" to gain the epistemological status of science, a science that strives to be interdisciplinary. So, the aim of Ecology is to study, through a scientific methodology, the whole natural world, answering to very different questions, that arise from several fields (Economics, Biology, Sociology, Philosophy, etc.). The plurality of issues that Ecology has to face led, during the Twentieth-century, to branch off in several different "ecologies". As a result, each one of these new approaches chose as its own field a more limited and specific portion of reality.

  13. Bangladesh: Background and U.S. Relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vaughn, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    .... Bangladesh has been a largely moderate and democratic country. This status is increasingly under threat from a combination of political violence, weak governance, poverty, corruption, and rising Islamist militancy...

  14. Understanding children’s work in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    UCW

    2011-01-01

    Child labour constitutes an important obstacle to achieving Universal Primary Education and other Millennium Development Goals in Bangladesh. The current report provides an overview of the child labour phenomenon in Bangladesh – its extent and nature, its determinants, and its consequences on education. The report also addresses the national response to child labour and policy option for its elimination. The analysis considers the various causes of child labour and follows a cross-sectoral ap...

  15. Health Consequences of Child Labour in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Salma; Ray, Ranjan

    2012-01-01

    Background: The paper examines the effect of child labour on child health outcomes in Bangladesh, advancing the methodologies and the results of papers published in different journals. Objective: We examine the effect of child labour on child health outcomes. Methods: We used Bangladesh National Child Labour Survey data for 2002-2003 for our analysis. Results: The main finding of the paper suggests that child labour is positively and significantly associated with the probability of b...

  16. Malaria Prevalence in Endemic Districts of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Haque, Ubydul; Ahmed, Syed Masud; Hossain, Shahed; Huda, Mamun; Hossain, Awlad; Alam, Mohammad Shafiul; Mondal, Dinesh; Khan, Wasif Ali; Khalequzzaman, Mohammod; Haque, Rashidul

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Following the 1971 ban of DDT in Bangladesh, malaria cases have increased steadily. Malaria persists as a major health problem in the thirteen south-eastern and north-eastern districts of Bangladesh. At present the national malaria control program, largely supported by the Global Fund for AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM), provides interventions including advocacy at community level, Insecticide Treated Net (ITN) distribution, introduction of Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDT) and ...

  17. Women's housing conditions in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shefali, M K

    1996-01-01

    This news article describes women's housing conditions, housing policy, and pilot programs to house poor women in Bangladesh. Although Bangladesh has a constitution that reinforces the equal status of women, in practice, men dominate and patrilineal customs determine inheritance and property rights. Religious affiliation also determines land tenure and inheritance. Muslim women can inherit 12.5% of their husband's property if there are children. 25% is inherited if wives are without children. Hindu women without sons can inherit their husband's property, but not parental property. Many families refuse to release property to women without a fight. Women, regardless of ownership of land, rarely control or use their land. The custom of requiring men to maintain wives during the marriage, and daughters until marriage, creates obstacles to women's decision making about property. Without collateral and other security women are unable to secure bank loans. Many women are also constrained by the requirement of male consent or guarantees for bank transactions. Banks do not have a gender responsive criteria for selecting loan recipients. The government does not provide sufficient housing to satisfy the growing housing needs due to population growth. Some housing is available from slum landlords. A National Housing Policy was formulated in 1993. Priority would be given to the housing needs of low income women in urban areas and women-headed households with income below the poverty line. The policy does not address the underlying factors that prevent equal access to housing for women. The government prepared a Human Settlement and Urban Development proposal for the Habitat II conference. The plan did not address gender issues. Special efforts are being made by nongovernmental groups to meet the housing needs of professional women and for some disadvantaged women.

  18. bangladesh : tous les projets | Page 3 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    End Date: 28 septembre 2015. Sujet: SMALL ENTERPRISES, TAX EXEMPTIONS, EMPLOYMENT CREATION, WOMEN, POLICY MAKING, INDIA, PAKISTAN, SRI LANKA, NEPAL, BANGLADESH. Région: South Asia, Central Asia, Far East Asia, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Pakistan. Programme: Emploi et croissance.

  19. Burden of serious fungal infections in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugnani, H C; Denning, D W; Rahim, R; Sadat, A; Belal, M; Mahbub, M S

    2017-06-01

    In Bangladesh there are several published papers on superficial mycoses. Deep mycoses are also recognized as an important emerging problem. Here, we estimate the annual incidence and prevalence of serious fungal infections in Bangladesh. Demographic data were obtained from world population reports and the data on TB and HIV extracted from the online publications on tuberculosis in Bangladesh and Asia Pacific research statistical data information resources AIDS Data HUB. All the published papers on fungal infections in Bangladesh were identified through extensive search of literature. We estimated the number of affected people from populations at risk and local epidemiological data. Bangladesh has a population of ∼162.6 million, 31% children and only 6% over the age of 60 years. The pulmonary TB caseload reported in 2014 was 119,520, and we estimate a prevalence of 30,178 people with chronic pulmonary aspergillosis, 80% attributable to TB. An anticipated 90,262 and 119,146 patients have allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis or severe asthma with fungal sensitization. Only 8,000 people are estimated to be HIV-infected, of whom 2900 are not on ART with a CD4 count Bangladesh. Candida bloodstream infection was estimated based on a 5 per 100,000 rate (8100 cases) and invasive aspergillosis based primarily on leukemia and COPD rates, at 5166 cases. Histoplasmosis was documented in 16 cases mostly with disseminated disease and presumed in 21 with HIV infection. This study constitutes the first attempt to estimate the burden of several types of serious fungal infections in Bangladesh.

  20. Genetically Diverse Low Pathogenicity Avian Influenza A Virus Subtypes Co-Circulate among Poultry in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerloff, Nancy A; Khan, Salah Uddin; Zanders, Natosha; Balish, Amanda; Haider, Najmul; Islam, Ausraful; Chowdhury, Sukanta; Rahman, Mahmudur Ziaur; Haque, Ainul; Hosseini, Parviez; Gurley, Emily S; Luby, Stephen P; Wentworth, David E; Donis, Ruben O; Sturm-Ramirez, Katharine; Davis, C Todd

    2016-01-01

    Influenza virus surveillance, poultry outbreak investigations and genomic sequencing were assessed to understand the ecology and evolution of low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) A viruses in Bangladesh from 2007 to 2013. We analyzed 506 avian specimens collected from poultry in live bird markets and backyard flocks to identify influenza A viruses. Virus isolation-positive specimens (n = 50) were subtyped and their coding-complete genomes were sequenced. The most frequently identified subtypes among LPAI isolates were H9N2, H11N3, H4N6, and H1N1. Less frequently detected subtypes included H1N3, H2N4, H3N2, H3N6, H3N8, H4N2, H5N2, H6N1, H6N7, and H7N9. Gene sequences were compared to publicly available sequences using phylogenetic inference approaches. Among the 14 subtypes identified, the majority of viral gene segments were most closely related to poultry or wild bird viruses commonly found in Southeast Asia, Europe, and/or northern Africa. LPAI subtypes were distributed over several geographic locations in Bangladesh, and surface and internal protein gene segments clustered phylogenetically with a diverse number of viral subtypes suggesting extensive reassortment among these LPAI viruses. H9N2 subtype viruses differed from other LPAI subtypes because genes from these viruses consistently clustered together, indicating this subtype is enzootic in Bangladesh. The H9N2 strains identified in Bangladesh were phylogenetically and antigenically related to previous human-derived H9N2 viruses detected in Bangladesh representing a potential source for human infection. In contrast, the circulating LPAI H5N2 and H7N9 viruses were both phylogenetically and antigenically unrelated to H5 viruses identified previously in humans in Bangladesh and H7N9 strains isolated from humans in China. In Bangladesh, domestic poultry sold in live bird markets carried a wide range of LPAI virus subtypes and a high diversity of genotypes. These findings, combined with the seven year

  1. Genetically Diverse Low Pathogenicity Avian Influenza A Virus Subtypes Co-Circulate among Poultry in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerloff, Nancy A.; Khan, Salah Uddin; Zanders, Natosha; Balish, Amanda; Haider, Najmul; Islam, Ausraful; Chowdhury, Sukanta; Rahman, Mahmudur Ziaur; Haque, Ainul; Hosseini, Parviez; Gurley, Emily S.; Luby, Stephen P.; Wentworth, David E.; Donis, Ruben O.; Sturm-Ramirez, Katharine; Davis, C. Todd

    2016-01-01

    Influenza virus surveillance, poultry outbreak investigations and genomic sequencing were assessed to understand the ecology and evolution of low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) A viruses in Bangladesh from 2007 to 2013. We analyzed 506 avian specimens collected from poultry in live bird markets and backyard flocks to identify influenza A viruses. Virus isolation-positive specimens (n = 50) were subtyped and their coding-complete genomes were sequenced. The most frequently identified subtypes among LPAI isolates were H9N2, H11N3, H4N6, and H1N1. Less frequently detected subtypes included H1N3, H2N4, H3N2, H3N6, H3N8, H4N2, H5N2, H6N1, H6N7, and H7N9. Gene sequences were compared to publicly available sequences using phylogenetic inference approaches. Among the 14 subtypes identified, the majority of viral gene segments were most closely related to poultry or wild bird viruses commonly found in Southeast Asia, Europe, and/or northern Africa. LPAI subtypes were distributed over several geographic locations in Bangladesh, and surface and internal protein gene segments clustered phylogenetically with a diverse number of viral subtypes suggesting extensive reassortment among these LPAI viruses. H9N2 subtype viruses differed from other LPAI subtypes because genes from these viruses consistently clustered together, indicating this subtype is enzootic in Bangladesh. The H9N2 strains identified in Bangladesh were phylogenetically and antigenically related to previous human-derived H9N2 viruses detected in Bangladesh representing a potential source for human infection. In contrast, the circulating LPAI H5N2 and H7N9 viruses were both phylogenetically and antigenically unrelated to H5 viruses identified previously in humans in Bangladesh and H7N9 strains isolated from humans in China. In Bangladesh, domestic poultry sold in live bird markets carried a wide range of LPAI virus subtypes and a high diversity of genotypes. These findings, combined with the seven year

  2. Evaluation of Tobacco Control Policies in Bangladesh | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Evaluation of Tobacco Control Policies in Bangladesh. Bangladesh introduced its first comprehensive tobacco control act in 2005, in an attempt to address the country's high prevalence of tobacco use. ... Institution. University of Dhaka. Pays d' institution. Bangladesh. Site internet. http://www.univdhaka.edu ...

  3. Newborn care practices in rural Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam MT

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad Tajul Islam,1 Nazrul Islam,2 Yukie Yoshimura,1 Monjura Khatun Nisha,3 Nawzia Yasmin4 1Safe Motherhood Promotion Project, Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 2School of Population and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 3International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b; 4Department of Public Health, State University of Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh Background: Neonatal mortality is high in Bangladesh. Most of the neonatal deaths are preventable through simple and cost-effective essential newborn care interventions. Studies to document the determinants of unhealthy newborn care practices are scarce. Objective: The objective of this study is to describe the pattern of neonatal care practices and their determinants in rural Bangladesh. Methodology: This study is based on baseline data of a community-based intervention to assess impact of limited postnatal care services on maternal and neonatal health-seeking behavior. Data from 510 women, who had a live birth at home 1 year prior to survey, of six randomly selected unions of an Upazila (subdistrict were analyzed. Results: Majority of the respondents were at an age group of 20–34 years. Only 6% had delivery by skilled providers. Immediate drying and wrapping, and giving colostrums to newborns were almost universal. Unhealthy practices, like unclean cord care (42%, delayed initiation of breastfeeding (60%, use of prelacteals (36%, and early bathing (71% were very common. Muslims were more likely to give early bath (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 2.01; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.13–3.59; P=0.018 and delay in initiating breastfeeding (adjusted OR: 1.45; 95% CI: 1.18–1.78; P<0.001 to newborns. Practice of giving prelacteals was associated with teenage mothers (adjusted OR: 2.26; 95% CI: 1.19–4.28; P=0.013 and women’s lack of education (adjusted OR: 2.64; 95% CI: 1.46–4.77; P=0

  4. CSM a success in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    The Bangladesh Social Marketing Project (SMP), providing contraceptives at an annual rate of 931,000 couple years of protection (CYP) as of June 1983, is a success. This figure has grown markedly since the start of the program in late 1975, when the SMP provided 80,000 CYPs, or 8% of nonclinical protection provided. The SMP has contributed to the steadily increasing national nonclinical contraceptive distribution. Currently, SMP distribution accounts for as much as the government and nongovernment programs combined. When clinical methods (including sterilizations) are added to national distribution, the SMP share represents about 28% of total contraceptive use. The SMP does not provide clinical methods, but the entire increase in nonclinical protection provided by the national program since 1975 has been the result of SMP product sales. The SMP utilizes the available mass media for promotion, including print, radio, television, as well as outdoor media and point of purchase materials. Mobile Film Units (MFUs) are an innovative promotional method employed by the SMP. Approximately 80 night time outdoor showings are organized each month in rural areas by SMP promoters. Typically, several short films, usually a popular story with a family planning theme, are run. Between each film the SMP products are of advertised. Products are often sold during and after the films. Retail outlets for SMP products include general stores, pharmacies, and other small shops. When products were introduced in 1975 retail outlets totaled 7500. By August 1983 the number of country wide retailers carrying SMP products had grown to nearly 100,000. In 1982 a marketing strategy emphasizing the role of doctors and rural medical practitioners (RMPs) was introduced. There are between 70,00-100,000 RMPs in Bangladesh. They are well known and respected "doctors" in their villages and add an extensive family planning outreach to the SMP system. The most important advantage of using the RMPs is their

  5. Bangladesh (country/area statements).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    According to this statement presented to the Committee on Population of the UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, the population of Bangladesh increased from 76.4 million in 1974 to 89.9 million in 1981 and if the annual estimated growth rate of 2.4% continues unchecked, the population will be 111.5 million by 1990. Rapid population growth increases the man-land ratio, while the undesirable age structure entails a high dependency burden and provides a large base for further population growth. The huge investment in food production is neutralized and educational facilities remain unavailable for most of the nation's 15.6 million school-age children. Even under the most optimistic population projection, the total will increase by more than 60% by the year 2015, exacerbating the already serious problems of poverty and unemployment. The urban population is expected to increase from 17.5 million at present to 37.3 million by 2000, including a multitude of squatters with no visible income-earning opportunities. The population policy adopted by the government in June 1976 was directed toward influencing demographic behavior primarily through information, education, and motivation activities and a wide array of family planning services provided at maternal-child health and family planning centers. The government has taken some steps to increase economic productivity and create employment, and has made administrative changes including upgrading the smallest administrative units and creating directorates for primary education and women's affairs. Health and population control strategies will include establishing primary health care and maternal-child health and family planning centers throughout the country, expanding the family planning worker to population ratio, and integrating the family planning programs with all development oriented programs. The National Council for Population Control and several other organizational structures have been created

  6. Health consequences of child labour in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The paper examines the effect of child labour on child health outcomes in Bangladesh, advancing the methodologies and the results of papers published in different journals. Objective: We examine the effect of child labour on child health outcomes. Methods: We used Bangladesh National Child Labour Survey data for 2002-2003 for our analysis. Results: The main finding of the paper suggests that child labour is positively and significantly associated with the probability of being injured or becoming ill. Intensity of injury or illness is significantly higher in construction and manufacturing sectors than in other sectors. Health disadvantages for different age groups are not essentially parallel. Conclusions: The results obtained in this paper strengthen the need for stronger enforcement of laws that regulate child labour, especially given its adverse consequences on health. Although the paper focuses on Bangladesh, much of the evidence presented has implications that are relevant to policymakers in other developing countries.

  7. Future demand scenarios of Bangladesh power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondal, Md. Alam Hossain; Boie, Wulf; Denich, Manfred

    2010-01-01

    Data on the future electricity demand is an essential requirement for planning the expansion of a power system. The purpose of this study is to provide a general overview of electricity consumption in Bangladesh, forecast sector-wise electricity demand up to 2035 considering the base year 2005, and compare the results with official projections. The Long-range Energy Alternative Planning (LEAP) model with three scenarios, namely low gross domestic product (GDP) growth, average GDP growth and high GDP growth, is applied in this study. In the low to high GDP growth scenarios, the extent of industrial restructuring and technical advancement is gradually increased. The findings have significant implications with respect to energy conservation and economic development. The study also compares the projected per capita electricity consumption in Bangladesh with the historical growth in several other developing countries. Such an evaluation can create awareness among the planners of power system expansion in Bangladesh to meet the high future demand.

  8. A Repeat Look at Repeating Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markworth, Kimberly A.

    2016-01-01

    A "repeating pattern" is a cyclical repetition of an identifiable core. Children in the primary grades usually begin pattern work with fairly simple patterns, such as AB, ABC, or ABB patterns. The unique letters represent unique elements, whereas the sequence of letters represents the core that is repeated. Based on color, shape,…

  9. Malaria prevalence in endemic districts of Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubydul Haque

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Following the 1971 ban of DDT in Bangladesh, malaria cases have increased steadily. Malaria persists as a major health problem in the thirteen south-eastern and north-eastern districts of Bangladesh. At present the national malaria control program, largely supported by the Global Fund for AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM, provides interventions including advocacy at community level, Insecticide Treated Net (ITN distribution, introduction of Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDT and combination therapy with Coartem. It is imperative, therefore, that baseline data on malaria prevalence and other malaria indicators are collected to assess the effectiveness of the interventions and rationalize the prevention and control efforts. The objective of this study was to obtain this baseline on the prevalence of malaria and bed net use in the thirteen malaria endemic districts of Bangladesh. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In 2007, BRAC and ICDDR,B carried out a malaria prevalence survey in thirteen malaria endemic districts of Bangladesh. A multi-stage cluster sampling technique was used and 9750 blood samples were collected. Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDT were used for the diagnosis of malaria. The weighted average malaria prevalence in the thirteen endemic districts was 3.97%. In five south-eastern districts weighted average malaria prevalence rate was 6.00% and in the eight north-eastern districts weighted average malaria prevalence rate was (0.40%. The highest malaria prevalence was observed in Khagrachari district. The majority of the cases (90.18% were P. falciparum infections. Malaria morbidity rates in five south-eastern districts was 2.94%. In eight north-eastern districts, morbidity was 0.07%. CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: Bangladesh has hypoendemic malaria with P. falciparum the dominant parasite species. The malaria situation in the five north-eastern districts of Bangladesh in particular warrants urgent attention. Detailed maps of the

  10. REVALUATION OF WOMEN'S WORK IN BANGLADESH

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdhury, Nuimuddin

    1986-01-01

    The paper seeks to revalue women's nonmarket work in the context of parts of rural Bangladesh, v} ich is where most of her women folk live. It raises relevant conceptual and methodological considerations relating to revaluation of women's work, reviews various sets of evidence on the pattern of time use of women in Bangladesh, and then puts up a broad order of magnitude as to the value of women's nonmarket work. For this purpose, it taken the sexual division of labour and sexual differential ...

  11. Ecological Schoolyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danks, Sharon Gamson

    2000-01-01

    Presents design guidelines and organizational and site principles for creating schoolyards where students can learn about ecology. Principles for building schoolyard ecological systems are described. (GR)

  12. Defining the Crime of Enforced Disappearance in Conformity with International Criminal Law: a New Frontier for Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Raisul Islam Sourav

    2015-01-01

    Enforced disappearance is regarded as a state-sponsored heinous international crime and has recently emerged as a wide-spread issue in Bangladesh. The political opposition is currently the main target of forced disappearances, though apolitical citizens have also been targeted. Most of the incidents are unsolved and law enforcement agencies have repeatedly denied their involvement. Internationally, the UN Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance was opened for ...

  13. Cetacean Community Ecology in the Waters of Sri Lanka and the Bay of Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Cetacean Community Ecology in the Waters of Sri Lanka...novaeangliae in the Arabian Sea. Marine Ecology Progress Series 149:13-21. Smith, B. D., B. Ahmed, R. M. Mowgli and S. Strindberg. 2008. Species occurrence...and distributional ecology of nearshore cetaceans in the Bay of Bengal, Bangladesh, with abundance estimates for Irrawaddy dolphins Orcaella

  14. Challenges of Women in Science: Bangladesh Perspectives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ranjeetha

    Women in Bangladesh very often face discrimination in career in every field of Science and Engineering. • A study was undertaken to see the barriers limiting the. A study was undertaken to see the barriers limiting the appointment, retention, and advancement of women faculty in the Universities, Administration and other.

  15. Indigenous Plasmodium ovale malaria in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuehrer, Hans-Peter; Starzengruber, Peter; Swoboda, Paul; Khan, Wasif Ali; Matt, Julia; Ley, Benedikt; Thriemer, Kamala; Haque, Rashidul; Yunus, Emran Bin; Hossain, Shah Monir; Walochnik, Julia; Noedl, Harald

    2010-07-01

    In spite of the high prevalence of malaria in Southeastern Bangladesh, there remains a significant shortage of information regarding the presence of three of five human malaria parasites: Plasmodium ovale, P. malariae, and P. knowlesi. The presence of P. ovale and P. knowlesi has previously never been reported from Bangladesh. We used a genus- and species-specific nested polymerase chain reaction, targeting highly conserved regions of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene, to investigate the presence of malaria parasites in a total number of 379 patient samples in a survey of patients with febrile illnesses in the Chittagong Hill Tracts in Southeastern Bangladesh. We identified the first cases of P. ovale in Bangladesh. They were confirmed by sequence analysis; 189 of 379 samples (49.9%; 95% confidence interval = 44.9-54.9%) were positive for Plasmodium sp. by PCR. P. falciparum monoinfections accounted for 68.3% (61.3-74.5%), followed by P. vivax (15.3%; 10.9-21.2%), P. malariae (1.6%; 0.5-4.6%), P. ovale (1.6%; 0.5-4.6%), and mixed infections (13.2%; 9.1-18.8%). We found no evidence of P. knowlesi in this region.

  16. eyes on bangladesh's disappearing coasts: proposed constitutional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAYAN_

    mph has an eye at the centre of the storm, which is the calmest part of the storm. National ... 1. INTRODUCTION. Although Bangladesh is not a significant emitter of greenhouse gases that contribute to climate change, the coastal country is suffering ..... situation.61 Her mud and bamboo hut was washed away by the cyclone.

  17. First Outbreak of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Mahbubur; Rahman, Khalilur; Siddque, A. K.; Shoma, Shereen; Kamal, A. H. M.; Ali, K. S.; Nisaluk, Ananda; Breiman, Robert F.

    2002-01-01

    During the first countrywide outbreak of dengue hemorrhagic fever in Bangladesh, we conducted surveillance for dengue at a hospital in Dhaka. Of 176 patients, primarily adults, found positive for dengue, 60.2% had dengue fever, 39.2% dengue hemorrhagic fever, and 0.6% dengue shock syndrome. The Dengue virus 3 serotype was detected in eight patients.

  18. REGIONAL VARIATIONS IN CHILD MARRIAGE IN BANGLADESH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Kamrul; Haque, Md Rabiul; Hossain, Mohammad Bellal

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate the regional variations in the prevalence of child marriage in Bangladesh with a view to providing recommendations for division-specific policy interventions. Data from the 2011 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey were analysed using multivariate logistic regression. Substantial regional variations in child marriage were found in Bangladesh. Rangpur and Khulna had more than four times higher odds of child marriage than Sylhet (4.57 and 4.11 times, respectively). Barisal and Rajshahi had more than three times higher odds of child marriage than Sylhet (3.70 and 3.48 times, respectively). Chittagong and Dhaka had about two times odds of child marriage than Sylhet (1.98 and 2.67 times, respectively), even after controlling for selected socio-demographic, economic and cultural characteristics. Respondent's education, employment status, husband's education and wealth index were inversely associated with the prevalence of child marriage. The policy implications of these findings are discussed in the context of Bangladesh.

  19. Teacher Educators' Attitude towards Computer: Perspective Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mohammad Ataur

    2011-01-01

    This study examined how teacher educators perceive the attitude towards use of computer technology in Teachers' Training Colleges in Bangladesh. This study investigated teacher educators' computer attitudes by using the valid and reliable instruments of Loyd and Gressard's (1984) Computer Attitude Scale (CAS). The data was collected through …

  20. Epidemiology of Drowning in Bangladesh: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Aminur; Alonge, Olakunle; Bhuiyan, Al-Amin; Agrawal, Priyanka; Salam, Shumona Sharmin; Talab, Abu; Rahman, Qazi Sadeq-Ur; Hyder, Adnan A

    2017-05-05

    Over one-quarter of deaths among 1-4 year-olds in Bangladesh were due to drowning in 2003, and the proportion increased to 42% in 2011. This study describes the current burden and risk factors for drowning across all demographics in rural Bangladesh. A household survey was carried out in 51 union parishads of rural Bangladesh between June and November 2013, covering 1.17 million individuals. Information on fatal and nonfatal drowning events was collected by face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire. Fatal and non-fatal drowning rates were 15.8/100,000/year and 318.4/100,000/6 months, respectively, for all age groups. The highest rates of fatal (121.5/100,000/year) and non-fatal (3057.7/100,000/6 months) drowning were observed among children 1 to 4 years of age. These children had higher rates of fatal (13 times) and non-fatal drowning (16 times) compared with infants. Males had slightly higher rates of both fatal and non-fatal drowning. Individuals with no education had 3 times higher rates of non-fatal drowning compared with those with high school or higher education. Non-fatal drowning rates increased significantly with decrease in socio-economic status (SES) quintiles, from the highest to the lowest. Drowning is a major public health issue in Bangladesh, and is now a major threat to child survival.

  1. Telecentre Network Startup : Bangladesh - Mission 2011 | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The second generation of telecentres has seen the emergence of national-level networks in various parts of the word including the Ugandan Telecentre Network, Mission 2007 in India and Mission Swaabhimaan in Nepal. Telecentre stakeholders in Bangladesh would like to replicate the methodology used in Mission 2007, ...

  2. Bangladesh | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Since 1974, we have supported researchers' efforts to improve lives in Bangladesh. As local concerns evolve, so does our focus. Information and communication technologies have been at the heart of many of our activities. In the late 1990s, IDRC-supported research provided low-cost Internet connectivity to schools and ...

  3. Survey of Hypertension in Dhaka, Bangladesh: Changing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To assess changes in the prescribing pattern of antihypertensive drugs and lifestyle factors associated with hypertensive patients in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 50 hypertensive patients in various heart disease hospitals and the consulting rooms of 10 cardiologists ...

  4. Defining and Predicting Heat Waves in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nissan, H.; Burkart, K.; Coughlan, E.R.; van Aalst, M.; Mason, S.

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a heat-wave definition for Bangladesh that could be used to trigger preparedness measures in a heat early warning system (HEWS) and explores the climate mechanisms associated with heat waves. A HEWSrequires a definition of heat waves that is both related to human health outcomes

  5. Gender, Parenting, and Adolescent Functioning in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Sunita Mahtani; Bond, Michael Harris; Abdullah, Abu Saleh M.; Ma, Stefan S. L.

    2000-01-01

    Examined associations of self-esteem, relationship harmony, and academic achievement with perceptions of parents' styles and supervisory practices among 212 adolescents in Islamic Bangladesh. Found that parental supervisory practices were associated with a warm parental style for girls and parental dominating control for boys. Girls' (but not…

  6. English, Education, and Globalisation: A Bangladesh Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akteruzzaman, Mohammad; Islam, Rakibul

    2017-01-01

    As a third world country and a former British colony, Bangladesh has seen a dramatic upsurge in the use of the English language. Built on the concept of imperialistic aspects of the English language, this paper draws on responses from anonymous survey results and interviews and attempts to provide deeper insights into the global aspects of English…

  7. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-12

    BANGLADESH OBSER VER 18 Jul] ...................................................................................... 7 Rahman Returns From ECOSOC Session, Meets...French Secretary of State for Humanitarian Affairs Ber- and Social Commission ( ECOSOC ) had endorsed Bang- nard Kouchner, who chaired the one-day...Geneva via London at the Zia international The World Bank and the Asian Development Bank were airport after attending the ECOSOC special session. among

  8. Protozoal enteric infections among expatriates in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speelman, P.; Ljungström, I.

    1986-01-01

    In order to study the prevalence, incidence, and symptoms of infections with Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica, we followed 251 expatriates in Bangladesh over a 1-year period. Microscopic examination of fecal specimens was performed upon enrollment, at 3-month intervals, and during episodes

  9. Making healthcare accessible in Bangladesh | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-01-29

    Jan 29, 2018 ... View infographics. Even so, the country is still far from its goal of universal health coverage. Bangladesh aims to provide all citizens and communities with the health services they need, at a price they can afford, by 2032. Among the challenges in achieving this goal are rapid urbanization, deep poverty, and ...

  10. First case of chromoblastomycosis from Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brun Sophie

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Chromoblastomycosis is a rare and chronic cutaneous and subcutaneous infection caused by black fungi and mostly reported in tropical and subtropical areas. Here we report the first case of chromoblastomycosis from Bangladesh. Molecular biology permitted to identify Fonsecaea nubica, and the patient responded well to antifungal treatment alone.

  11. Comprehensive update on cancer scenario of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Md Akram Hussain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh, at 142 million people, is the ninth most populous country in the world. There are 13 to 15 lakh cancer patients in Bangladesh, with about two lakh patients newly diagnosed with cancer each year. As an overview, lung cancer and mouth-oropharynx cancer rank as the top two prevalent cancers in males. Other types of cancers are esophagus cancer and stomach cancer. In women, cancer cervix uteri and breast cancer are most prevalent. Other cancer types, which affect women, are mouth and oropharynx cancer, lung cancer, and esophagus cancer. There are around 150 qualified clinical oncologists and 16 pediatric oncologists working in the different parts of the country. Regular cancer treatment is available in 19 hospitals and 465 hospital beds are attached as indoor or day care facilities for chemotherapy in the oncology/radiotherapy departments. There are about 15 linear accelerators, 12 Co-60 teletherapy and 12 brachytherapy units currently available. Approximately, 56 cancer chemotherapeutic agents are obtainable in Bangladesh. Research facilities are available at tertiary care centers and a few multi country collaborative research activities are ongoing. Bangladesh has a unique National Cancer Control Strategy and Plan of Action 2009-2015 formulated with the assistance of WHO with an objective to develop and implement continuum of cancer care through a comprehensive cancer control programe. Preventive measures taken to reduce the incidence of cancer include reduced tobacco smoking, change of dietary habit and reduced food adulteration, ensuring reproductive hygiene, increased physical activity, and reduced occupational hazard. Awareness buildup and media campaign are going on by organizing the general people, opinion leaders of the society, and boy and girl scout. Training of general physicians on cancer warning signs and setup of early cancer detection centers at each medical college and district levels are ongoing. Beside these, some

  12. Comprehensive update on cancer scenario of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Syed Md Akram

    2013-10-01

    Bangladesh, at 142 million people, is the ninth most populous country in the world. There are 13 to 15 lakh cancer patients in Bangladesh, with about two lakh patients newly diagnosed with cancer each year. As an overview, lung cancer and mouth-oropharynx cancer rank as the top two prevalent cancers in males. Other types of cancers are esophagus cancer and stomach cancer. In women, cancer cervix uteri and breast cancer are most prevalent. Other cancer types, which affect women, are mouth and oropharynx cancer, lung cancer, and esophagus cancer. There are around 150 qualified clinical oncologists and 16 pediatric oncologists working in the different parts of the country. Regular cancer treatment is available in 19 hospitals and 465 hospital beds are attached as indoor or day care facilities for chemotherapy in the oncology/radiotherapy departments. There are about 15 linear accelerators, 12 Co-60 teletherapy and 12 brachytherapy units currently available. Approximately, 56 cancer chemotherapeutic agents are obtainable in Bangladesh. Research facilities are available at tertiary care centers and a few multi country collaborative research activities are ongoing. Bangladesh has a unique National Cancer Control Strategy and Plan of Action 2009-2015 formulated with the assistance of WHO with an objective to develop and implement continuum of cancer care through a comprehensive cancer control programe. Preventive measures taken to reduce the incidence of cancer include reduced tobacco smoking, change of dietary habit and reduced food adulteration, ensuring reproductive hygiene, increased physical activity, and reduced occupational hazard. Awareness buildup and media campaign are going on by organizing the general people, opinion leaders of the society, and boy and girl scout. Training of general physicians on cancer warning signs and setup of early cancer detection centers at each medical college and district levels are ongoing. Beside these, some other major cancer

  13. Women's participation in rural credit programmes in Bangladesh and their demand for formal health care: is there a positive impact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, P

    1999-08-01

    Within the overall aim of poverty alleviation, development efforts have included credit and self-employment programmes. In Bangladesh, the major beneficiaries of such group-based credit programmes are rural women who use the loans to initiate small informal income-generating activities. This paper explores the benefits of women's participation in credit programmes on their own health seeking. Using data from a sample of 1798 households from rural Bangladesh, conducted in 1991-1992 through repeated random sampling of 87 districts covered by Grameen Bank, Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC) and Bangladesh Rural Development Board (BRDB), this paper addresses the question: does women's participation in credit programmes significantly affect their use of formal health care? A non-unitary household preference model is suggested to test the hypothesis that women's empowerment through participation in these programmes results in greater control of resources for their own demand for formal health care. The analysis controls for endogeneity due to self-selection and other unobserved village level factors through the use of a weighted two stage instrumental variable approach with village level fixed effects. The findings indicate a positive impact of women's participation in credit programmes on their demand for formal health care. The policy simulations on the results of this study highlight the importance of credit programmes as a health intervention in addition to being a mechanism for women's economic empowerment.

  14. MEASURING THE CUSTOMER SATISFACTION OF ISLAMIC BANKING SECTOR IN BANGLADESH

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain Shahid SHOHROWARDHY

    2015-01-01

    The banking sector has been playing a significant role in achieving the economic growth of Bangladesh, where contribution of Islamic Banking Sector is remarkable. Islamic Banking Sector shows a substantial growth position in Bangladesh. Customer satisfaction is the most significant affecting phenomenon in determining the banking growth. Thus, this study attempts to measure the existing level of customer satisfaction of Islamic Banks in Bangladesh, using the Structural Equation Model (SEM). Th...

  15. Trends in international migration and remittance flows: Case of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Farid, K.S; Mozumdar, L.; Kabir, M.S; Hossain, K.B

    2009-01-01

    International migration from Bangladesh has become a defining characteristic of the country. Especially since 1980s, large scale labour migration has become a common phenomenon of Bangladesh. This paper examines the various issues of international migration and remittance flows of Bangladesh on the basis of the secondary data generated from various reports of government and non-government organizations and of various publications of home and abroad. With a few exceptions, manpower export has ...

  16. Bangladesh : tous les projets | Page 5 | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Région: South Asia, Central Asia, Far East Asia, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, India, Nepal, Pakistan. Financement total : CA$ 390,500.00. Évaluation des politiques de lutte contre le tabagisme au Bangladesh. Projet. En 2005, le Bangladesh a adopté sa première loi de vaste portée visant à contrer la prévalence élevée du ...

  17. Global Financial Crisis, Remittances, Exports and Poverty in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Raihan, Selim

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the impacts of reduced inflow of remittances and export earnings in the face of global financial crisis on the economy of Bangladesh. There is no denying the fact that remittances have emerged as a key driver of macroeconomic stability, economic growth and poverty reduction in Bangladesh. Also, Bangladesh experienced robust growth in export earnings, especially through the remarkable growth in readymade garments, over the last two decades. The study suggests that remittanc...

  18. FUTURE OF BANGLADESH-INDIA RELATIONSHIP-A CRITICAL ANALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    the Indian Government imposed a lot of restrictions in terms of tariffs and other barriers on Bangladesh goods entering into its market. “An average...relations have been fluctuating for reasons like changes of governments and the political scenarios in Bangladesh as well as the non -cooperative attitude of... tariffs duty for consumer goods in Bangladesh was 23% while the same was 30-55% in India”.13 Thus, Bangladeshi goods exported to India faced

  19. Khondakar Ashraf Hossain’s On Behula’s Raft: An Exploration into Socio-Cultural, Political and Economic Aspects of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liton Chakraborty Mithun

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In the volume On Behula's Raft published in 2008 by Khondakar Ashraf Hossain, some significant social, cultural, political and historical aspects of Bangladesh figure repeatedly. This paper tries to explain how these aspects are reflected in Hossain's poems through text analysis of the primary material and some other primary and secondary sources. In this volume, Behula myth is found to be re-created and modified to suit Hossain's exploration into and celebration of, and commitment to Bangladesh, his beloved and beautiful motherland. Some important characters have been highlighted in this volume such as Bangabandhu's daughter Sheikh Hasina, a victim of fanaticism named Noorjahan, a legendary Bengali female poet called Kankabati and a Dhaka rickshaw-puller named Abushama to present various socio-politico-economic aspects of Bangladesh. Moreover, Bangladesh's liberation war, political reality, problems and potentials have been depicted in most of the poems in the volume. The paper implies that in On Behula's Raft, Hossain (2008 upholds a Bangladesh consciousness on an epical scale which has rendered great significance to the volume.

  20. Water, climate change and society in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele-Eich, Insa; Aßheuer, Tibor; Simmer, Clemens

    2017-04-01

    Due to its location in the extensive Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna river delta, Bangladesh faces multiple natural hazards, in particular flooding, droughts and sea-level rise. In addition to climate change, transboundary water sharing issues resulting from dam structures such as Farakka Barrage complicate a prognosis on how the rapidly growing population will be affected in the 21st century. This is particularly important as our previous research suggests that the Greater Dhaka population already experiences a significant increase in mortality during droughts (Thiele-Eich et al., 2015). We attempt to explore the complex interactions between the hydrological system under climate change and anthropogenic impacts due to dams as well as a growing population. Our approach consists of a quantitative assessment of climate change using over fourty years of meteorological data (Bangladesh Meteorological Department) and hydrological data (Bangladesh Water Development Board), and CCSM4 climate model output (NCAR, 1950-2100). In addition to an extensive literature review, we also conducted qualitative interviews with slum dwellers in the megacity Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh. Results show that significant changes in flood characteristics are expected for the later part of the 21st century, although they are difficult to quantify down to exact numbers due to large uncertainties. These changes take place over longer stretches of time and thus enable the population of Bangladesh to adapt slowly. Resources such as social capital, which is one of the main tools for slum dwellers to be able to cope with flooding can be altered over time, and as such the system can be considered overall stable and resilient. The presented results will also focus on how the riparian and coastal population is impacted by the interplay of natural changes such as sea-level rise and anthropogenic changes such as Farakka Barrage and the associated reduction in dry season flow. Thiele-Eich, I.; Burkart, K

  1. Ecological Misconceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson, Bruce H.

    1994-01-01

    Presents a summary of the research literature on students' ecological conceptions and the implications of misconceptions. Topics include food webs, ecological adaptation, carrying capacity, ecosystem, and niche. (Contains 35 references.) (MKR)

  2. Men's Report of Domestic Violence Perpetration in Bangladesh: Correlates From a Nationally Representative Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murshid, Nadine Shaanta

    2015-05-14

    This study provides an examination of the antecedents of domestic violence perpetration among a nationally representative sample of men in Bangladesh using an ecological model. Secondary analysis of survey data from nationally representative Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey is used to examine potential antecedents of perpetration of domestic violence in a sample of 3,371 ever-married men between the ages of 15 and 54 years. Outcome measure is perpetration of domestic violence as measured by a modified Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS), and predictor variables include maternal domestic violence, egalitarianism, marital age, number of household members, wealth index, marital duration, and demographic variables. Men who reported maternal domestic violence had 0.13 greater probability of perpetrating domestic violence compared with men who did not report maternal domestic violence, men who were egalitarian had 0.04 greater probability of perpetrating domestic violence compared with men who were not egalitarian, men in larger households were less likely to report domestic violence. At the same time, the probability of domestic violence perpetration was 0.07 smaller for men who were married at age 36 years and older, as compared with men who were married between the ages of 16 and 20 years, as well as men who were married for more than 5 years when compared with men married for 0 to 4 years. Finally, the probability of domestic violence perpetration was 0.17 smaller for men who were married between the ages of 21 and 25 years and 0.10 smaller for men married between the ages of 26 and 35 years, compared with men who married below the legal marital age of 21. This study provides support for the use of an ecological model to explain domestic violence perpetration in the context of Bangladesh to suggest a multipronged holistic effort to address this insidious social problem and prevent its intergenerational transmission. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Farmers’ Education and Farmers’ Wealth in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Zafar Mahmudul Haq

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of farmers’ education is examined with a view to evaluate the actual situation of farmers’ education in Bangladesh. Fifty samples were collected from two sub districts of the Gazipur district in Bangladesh. The selection of the study sites and collection of the samples such as the years of schooling of the farm household head, total income, farm size, number of earners of farm families, family size, years of farming experience of farm household head, number of times extension contacts and rice yield were done purposively. It is cleared from the study that education is necessary for farmers to raise their wealth. Results were derived through regression analysis. The study has also shown that size of family and years of farming experience contributed significantly to the wealth accumulation of farmers.

  4. Development Dynamics of Remittances in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munim K. Barai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Remittance inflows in the economy of Bangladesh are getting larger every passing year, matching with the increasing external demand for its manpower. The ensuing development impacts of remittances, as a means of transfer of wealth, on socioeconomic factors are increasingly viewed with importance. Remittances have helped improve the social and economic indicators like nutrition, living condition and housing, education, health care, poverty reduction, social security, and investment activities of the recipient households. The relative weight of remittances has also increased against most of the macroeconomic variables alongside the contribution to GDP. Moreover, Bangladesh has been able to avoid any serious imbalances in BOP’s current account, although it has persistent merchandize trade deficits. Not only that, the export tradable sector has thus far remained unaffected from the Dutch Disease effects of remittances.

  5. Career choices among medical students in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, SM Moslehuddin; Majumdar, Md Anwarul Azim; Karim, Rezina; Rahman, Sayeeda; Rahman, Nuzhat

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Information regarding career choices of medical students is important to plan human resources for health, design need-based educational programs, and ensure equitable and quality health care services in a country. Aim The aim of the study is to identify career choices, nature of career, intended practice locations, and reasons for career choices of Bangladesh medical students. Method First-, third-, and fifth-year students of Bangladesh Medical College and Uttara Adhunik Medical College completed a self-report questionnaire on career choices, nature of career, intended practice locations, and reasons for career choices. The students were requested to choose three long-term choices from the given specialties. Results A total of 132 students responded (46 males and 86 females) and response rate was 75%. The popular choices (first choice) among males and females were medical specialty, surgical specialty, obstetrics and gynecology, and general practice. For first, second, and third choices altogether, male students chose surgical specialties and female students preferred medical specialties. The leading reasons for selecting a specialty were personal interest and wide job opportunity. More than 67% of respondents wanted to join private services and about 90% chose major cities as practice locations. About 43% of respondents expressed willingness to practice medicine in Bangladesh, whereas 51% of total respondents wanted to practice abroad. Discussion Majority of students intended to specialize in established clinical specialties and subsequently practice in major cities, and more than half wanted to immigrate to other countries. Basic medical subjects and service-oriented (lifestyle-related) and preventive/social medical specialties were found to be less attractive. If this pattern continues, Bangladesh will suffer a chronic shortage of health personnel in certain specialties and in rural areas. Conclusions Reorientation of health care and medical

  6. Comparative advantage in Bangladesh crop production

    OpenAIRE

    Shahabuddin, Quazi; Dorosh, Paul A.

    2002-01-01

    "This study uses data from 1996/97 through 1998/99 to examine the relative efficiency of production of crops in Bangladesh and their comparative advantage in international trade as measured by net economic profitability (the profitability using economic, rather than financial costs and prices), and the domestic resource cost ratio, (the amount of value of non-tradable domestic resources used in production divided by the value of tradable products). The economic profitability analysis demonstr...

  7. OPPORTUNITIES OF DEVELOPING TOURISM INDUSTRY IN BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayub CHOWDHURY

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Tourism appeal includes natural places like beaches, eco-parks, lakes, valleys, rivers, islands etc., archeological sites, historic mosques and monuments, resorts, picnic spots, forest and wildlife. Bangladesh is a riverine country having attractive panoramic beauty. There are hills, valley, canals, lake, eco-park and mangrove forests, rivers, so many islands and the longest beach in the world. In this country, the scope of nature based tourism, resource based tourism, culture based tourism and eco-tourism is quite evident. Bangladesh is trying hard to develop its tourism industry. Therefore the whole situation deserves to be seen from right perspectives. Role of government is positive since the last twenty years both private and public organizations have come forwarded to attract the local and foreign tourists. The cracks of problem could not identify accurately because of the paucity number of researches and investigations in our country. Developed and organized tourism industry could change the economic condition and contribute a big share in the GDP of Bangladesh. This study will impede the opportunities of developing tourism industry in the light of existing resources.

  8. Rainfall variability and seasonality in northern Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, Sheikh Hefzul; Hussain, Md. Manjurul; Husna, Noor-E.-Ashmaul

    2017-08-01

    This paper aimed at the analysis of rainfall seasonality and variability for the northern part of South-Asian country, Bangladesh. The coefficient of variability was used to determine the variability of rainfall. While rainfall seasonality index ( SI ) and mean individual seasonality index ( \\overline{SI_i} ) were used to identify seasonal contrast. We also applied Mann-Kendall trend test and sequential Mann-Kendall test to determine the trend in seasonality. The lowest variability was found for monsoon among the four seasons whereas winter has the highest variability. Observed variability has a decreasing tendency from the northwest region towards the northeast region. The mean individual seasonality index (0.815378 to 0.977228) indicates that rainfall in Bangladesh is "markedly seasonal with a long dry season." It was found that the length of the dry period is lower at the northeastern part of northern Bangladesh. Trend analysis results show no significant change in the seasonality of rainfall in this region. Regression analysis of \\overline{SI_i} and SI, and longitude and mean individual seasonality index show a significant linear correlation for this area.

  9. Trapped in Statelessness: Rohingya Refugees in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, Abul Hasnat; Rahman, Mijanur; Hussain, Sumaira; Jindal, Charulata; Choudhury, Sushmita; Akter, Shahnaz; Ferdousi, Shahana; Mouly, Tafzila Akter; Hall, John; Efird, Jimmy T

    2017-08-21

    The Rohingya people are one of the most ill-treated and persecuted refugee groups in the world, having lived in a realm of statelessness for over six generations, and who are still doing so. In recent years, more than 500,000 Rohingyas fled from Myanmar (Burma) to neighboring countries. This article addresses the Rohingya refugee crisis in Bangladesh, with special emphasis on the living conditions of this vulnerable population. We reviewed several documents on Rohingya refugees, visited a registered refugee camp (Teknaf), collected case reports, and conducted a series of meetings with stakeholders in the Cox's Bazar district of Bangladesh. A total of 33,131 registered Rohingya refugees are living in two registered camps in Cox's Bazar, and up to 80,000 additional refugees are housed in nearby makeshift camps. Overall, the living conditions of Rohingya refugees inside the overcrowded camps remain dismal. Mental health is poor, proper hygiene conditions are lacking, malnutrition is endemic, and physical/sexual abuse is high. A concerted diplomatic effort involving Bangladesh and Myanmar, and international mediators such as the Organization of Islamic Countries and the United Nations, is urgently required to effectively address this complex situation.

  10. English, Education, and Globalisation: A Bangladesh Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Akteruzzaman

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available As a third world country and a former British colony, Bangladesh has seen a dramatic upsurge in the use of the English language. Built on the concept of imperialistic aspects of the English language, this paper draws on responses from anonymous survey results and interviews and attempts to provide deeper insights into the global aspects of English as a language and the credibility of this language in the minds of the populace. This paper assesses the English language as a feature of globalization where English is considered to be of the utmost value. Questionnaires were designed and interviews were arranged to evaluate the commercial and linguistic aspects of English in Bangladesh to reach a conclusion whether the mass perceives this very language as it should be or there are any other economic and cultural aspects. The findings were presented graphically and the study showed that English fails to meet the expectations of the stakeholders and policy makers of Bangladesh. The paper concludes with some recommendations that could help resolve the situation and present English to the people in a better light.

  11. Present status of radiation education in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullah, Sana

    1999-01-01

    Radioisotopes and Radiation are being widely used in the fields of agriculture, medicine, industry for the benefit of people throughout the world. At the same time the use of radiation sources can do harm to man and environment. In order to ensure the satiety against radiation hazards and safe use of radiation, proper education, training, knowledge and awareness are essential. Like other achieve economic development through application f count rues Bangladesh is flying to in agriculture, food, industry, power; health or medi of isotopes and radiation technology cine. Basic education about radiation is incorporated in the school curriculum. Courses on radiation are also given in college and university education. Research organizations, universities carry out research and development works on different disciplines using radiation and radioisotopes. Seminars, workshops, conferences, takings on isotopes and radiation are also being organized. In 1993 Government of Bangladesh passed the Nuclear Satiety and Radiation Control Act 1993 for see use of radiation. The present paper win cover the radiation education, research and development works on radiation, applications of radiation in agriculture, medicine and industry, personal safety and radiation protection against radiation hazard and rules and regulations of the nuclear safety and radiation control act practised in Bangladesh. (author)

  12. [Ecological niches of ectoparasites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balashov, Iu S

    2005-01-01

    On mammals and birds communities of ectoparasites are present, which can include scores of ticks, mites and insects species. The parasitizing of arthropods terrestrial vertebrates appeared as far back a the Cretaceous period, and after 70-100 mil. years of the coevolution ectoparasites have assimilated all food resources and localities of the hosts' bodies. To the present only spatial and (to the less extent) trophic niches of parasitic insects, ticks and mites are studied completely enough. The main results these investigations are discussed in the present paper. A high abundance of the communities is reached because of their partition into the number of ecological niches. Host is complex of ecological niches for many ectoparasites species. These niches reiterate in the populations of a species closely related species of hosts and repeat from generation to generation. The each part of host (niche) being assimilated be certain parasite species is available potentially for other species. The partition of host into ecological niches is clearer than the structure of ecosystems including free-living organisms. A real extent of the ecological niches occupation by different species of ticks, mites and insects is considerably lower than a potential maximum. The degree of ecological niches saturation depends on the history of the coevolution of parasites community components, previous colonization be new ectoparasite species and many other ecological factors affecting host-parasite system. The use of the ecological niche conception in parasitology is proved to be rather promising. Ectoparasites communities because of their species diversity, different types of feeding and a number of habitats on host represent convenient models and study of them can contribute significantly to the developmeht of the general conception of ecological niche.

  13. The association between telomere length and mortality in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Samantha G; Zhang, Chenan; Gao, Jianjun; Roy, Shantanu; Shinkle, Justin; Sabarinathan, Mekala; Argos, Maria; Tong, Lin; Ahmed, Alauddin; Islam, Md Tariqul; Islam, Tariqul; Rakibuz-Zaman, Muhammad; Sarwar, Golam; Shahriar, Hasan; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Yunus, Md; Graziano, Joseph H; Chen, Lin S; Jasmine, Farzana; Kibriya, Muhammad G; Ahsan, Habibul; Pierce, Brandon L

    2017-06-15

    Telomeres are tandem repeat sequences at the end of chromosomes that bind proteins to protect chromosome ends. Telomeres shorten with age, and shorter leukocyte telomere length (TL) has been associated with overall mortality in numerous studies. However, this association has not been tested in populations outside of Europe and the U.S. We assessed the association between TL and subsequent mortality using data on 744 mortality cases and 761 age-/sex-matched controls sampled from >27,000 participants from three longitudinal Bangladeshi cohorts: Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS), HEALS Expansion (HEALS-E), and Bangladesh Vitamin E and Selenium Trial (BEST). We used conditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for the association between a standardized TL variable and overall mortality, as well as mortality from chronic diseases, respiratory diseases, circulatory diseases, and cancer. In HEALS and BEST, we observed an association between shorter TL and increased overall mortality (P=0.03 and P=0.03), mortality from chronic disease (P=0.01 and P=0.03) and mortality from circulatory disease (P=0.03 and P=0.04). Results from pooled analyses of all cohorts were consistent with HEALS and BEST. This is the first study demonstrating an association between short TL and increased mortality in a population of non-European ancestry.

  14. A comprehensive assessment of arsenic in commonly consumed foodstuffs to evaluate the potential health risk in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Md. Kawser [Faculty of Earth & Environmental Sciences, University of Dhaka, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh); Shaheen, Nazma [Institute of Nutrition and Food Science (INFS), University of Dhaka, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh); Islam, Md. Saiful [Department of Risk Management and Environmental Sciences, Graduate School of Environment and Information Sciences, Yokohama National University, Yokohama, Kanagawa 240-8501 (Japan); Habibullah-Al-Mamun, Md., E-mail: habibullah-al-sj@ynu.jp [Department of Risk Management and Environmental Sciences, Graduate School of Environment and Information Sciences, Yokohama National University, Yokohama, Kanagawa 240-8501 (Japan); Department of Fisheries, University of Dhaka, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh); Islam, Saiful [Institute of Nutrition and Food Science (INFS), University of Dhaka, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh); Islam, Md. Monirul [Department of Fisheries, University of Dhaka, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh); School of Earth and Environment, Leeds University, Leeds LS2, 9JT (United Kingdom); Kundu, Goutam Kumar [Department of Fisheries, University of Dhaka, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh); Bhattacharjee, Lalita [National Food Policy Capacity Strengthening Programme, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (Bangladesh)

    2016-02-15

    Arsenic (As), particularly of its inorganic form (iAs) is highly toxic, and its presence in food composites is a matter of concern for the public health safety, specifically in Bangladesh which is regarded as the most arsenic affected country throughout the world. This study was carried out to investigate the levels of As in the composite samples of commonly consumed foodstuffs collected from 30 different agro-ecological zones for the first time in Bangladesh. Most of the individual food composites contain a considerable amount of As which was, as a whole, in the range of 0.077–1.5 mg/kg fw which was lower than those reported from Spain, EU, France, Korea, whereas higher than those of Mexico, Chile, Japan, Cambodia, Hong Kong, Serbia, respectively. Cereals, vegetables, milk, and fish contribute about 90% to the daily intake of inorganic arsenic. Human health risk of dietary iAs was assessed separately for both the rural and urban adults. The estimated daily dietary intakes (EDI) of iAs for the exposed rural (3.5) and urban residents (3.2 μg/kg-BW/day) clearly exceeded the previous provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI) value of 2.1 μg/kg-BW/day, recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). From the health point of view, this study concluded that both the rural and urban residents of Bangladesh are exposed to carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks who consume As-contaminated water and foodstuffs. - Highlights: • A comprehensive health risk assessment from dietary arsenic exposure was evaluated. • Sample collected from 30 agro-ecological zones for the first time in Bangladesh. • Rural and urban adults are consuming more arsenic through food than the safe limit. • Cereals, vegetables, milk, and fish contribute about 90% to EDI of inorganic As. • Inhabitants are exposed chronically to arsenic induced risks.

  15. INFLUENCE OF MICRO-FINANCE ON BANGLADESH RURAL PEOPLE

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Rasel

    2013-01-01

    KYMENLAAKSON AMMATTIKORKEAKOULU University of Applied Sciences International Business Bangladesh is a rising country located in the southern part of Asia. More than half of the population of it lives in rural areas and they are living under the poverty level. In Bangladesh rural people are not capable of getting loan facilities from the regular financial sector due to the guarantee r...

  16. Can Bangladesh produce enough cereals to meet future demand?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timsina, J.; Wolf, J.; Guilpart, N.; Bussel, van L.G.J.; Grassini, P.; Wart, van J.; Hossain, A.; Rashid, H.; Islam, S.; Ittersum, van M.K.

    2018-01-01

    Bangladesh faces huge challenges in achieving food security due to its high population, diet changes, and limited room for expanding cropland and cropping intensity. The objective of this study is to assess the degree to which Bangladesh can be self-sufficient in terms of domestic maize, rice and

  17. Seasonal forecasting of Bangladesh summer monsoon rainfall using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, the development of a statistical forecasting method for summer monsoon rainfall over. Bangladesh is described. Predictors for Bangladesh summer monsoon (June–September) rainfall were identified from the large scale ocean–atmospheric circulation variables (i.e., sea-surface temperature, surface air ...

  18. Young Adults' Linguistic Manipulation of English in Bangla in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Shaila

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly assumed in the print media that bilingual young adults in Bangladesh are subjugated by the colonial legacy of English and they are "polluting" Bangla, the national language of Bangladesh, by their indiscriminate insertion of English in it. However, this ethnographic study on a group of young adults in a university in…

  19. Gender mainstraming in the Bangladesh Rural Electrification Board

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clancy, Joy S.; Ekram, Lailun Nahar; Halim, Sadeka; Mhatab, Nazmunnessa

    2004-01-01

    A Gender Equity Strategy and Action Plan has been integrated into the Bangladesh Rural Electrification Board’s Master Plan. Implementation of this plan will be the first gender mainstreaming exercise in the energy sector in Bangladesh, and possibly in the world.

  20. Seasonal forecasting of Bangladesh summer monsoon rainfall using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, the development of a statistical forecasting method for summer monsoon rainfall over Bangladesh is described. Predictors for Bangladesh summer monsoon (June–September) rainfall were identified from the large scale ocean–atmospheric circulation variables (i.e., sea-surface temperature, surface air ...

  1. Rainfall and temperature scenarios for Bangladesh for the middle of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    mean surface air temperature projection for Bangladesh is experimentally obtained for 2050 and 2060. This work discloses that simulated ... seasonal and annual rainfall, and mean surface air temperature in Bangladesh. The projected change ... already being felt in South Asia and will continue to intensify (Haq et al 1998; ...

  2. Health Impacts of Tobacco Cultivation in Bangladesh | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Health Impacts of Tobacco Cultivation in Bangladesh. Research on the links between tobacco farming and health problems among men, women, and children in Bangladesh will examine the health and socio-economic impact of tobacco cultivation. To date, the health hazards of growing tobacco have not been documented ...

  3. Drinking water salinity associated health crisis in coastal Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahin Al Nahian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Salinity intrusion in coastal Bangladesh has serious population health implications, which are yet to be clearly understood. The study was undertaken through the ‘Assessing Health, Livelihoods, Ecosystem Services and Poverty Alleviation in Populous Deltas’ project in coastal Bangladesh. Drinking water salinity and blood pressure measurements were carried out during the household survey campaign. The study explored association among Socio-Ecological Systems (SESs, drinking water salinity and blood pressure. High blood pressure (prehypertension and hypertension was found significantly associated with drinking water salinity. People exposed to slightly saline (1000–2000 mg/l and moderately saline (≥2000 mg/l concentration drinking water had respectively 17% (p < 0.1 and 42% (p < 0.05 higher chance of being hypertensive than those who consumed fresh water (<1000 mg/l. Women had 31% higher chance of being hypertensive than men. Also, respondents of 35 years and above were about 2.4 times more likely to be hypertensive compared to below 35 years age group. For the 35 years and above age group, both prehypertension and hypertension were found higher than national rural statistics (50.1% for saline water categories (53.8% for slightly and 62.5% for moderate saline. For moderate salinity exposure, hypertension prevalence was found respectively 21%, 60% and 48% higher than national statistics (23.6% in consecutive survey rounds among the respondents. Though there was small seasonal variation in drinking water salinity, however blood pressure showed an increasing trend and maximum during the dry season. Mean salinity and associated hypertension prevalence were found higher for deep aquifer (21.6% compared to shallow aquifer (20.8%. Localized increase in soil and groundwater salinity was predicted over the study area. Shallow aquifer salinity increase was projected based on modelled output of soil salinity. Rather than uniform increase, there were

  4. Reconfigurable multiport EPON repeater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Masayuki; Inohara, Ryo; Agata, Akira; Horiuchi, Yukio

    2009-11-01

    An extended reach EPON repeater is one of the solutions to effectively expand FTTH service areas. In this paper, we propose a reconfigurable multi-port EPON repeater for effective accommodation of multiple ODNs with a single OLT line card. The proposed repeater, which has multi-ports in both OLT and ODN sides, consists of TRs, BTRs with the CDR function and a reconfigurable electrical matrix switch, can accommodate multiple ODNs to a single OLT line card by controlling the connection of the matrix switch. Although conventional EPON repeaters require full OLT line cards to accommodate subscribers from the initial installation stage, the proposed repeater can dramatically reduce the number of required line cards especially when the number of subscribers is less than a half of the maximum registerable users per OLT. Numerical calculation results show that the extended reach EPON system with the proposed EPON repeater can save 17.5% of the initial installation cost compared with a conventional repeater, and can be less expensive than conventional systems up to the maximum subscribers especially when the percentage of ODNs in lightly-populated areas is higher.

  5. Landscape Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Andreas Aagaard; Brandt, Jesper; Svenningsen, Stig Roar

    2017-01-01

    pattern analysis and ecological interaction of land units. The landscape is seen as a holon: an assemblage of interrelated phenomena, both cultural and biophysical, that together form a complex whole. Enduring challenges to landscape ecology include the need to develop a systematic approach able......Landscape ecology is an interdisciplinary field of research and practice that deals with the mutual association between the spatial configuration and ecological functioning of landscapes, exploring and describing processes involved in the differentiation of spaces within landscapes......, and the ecological significance of the patterns which are generated by such processes. In landscape ecology, perspectives drawn from existing academic disciplines are integrated based on a common, spatially explicit mode of analysis developed from classical holistic geography, emphasizing spatial and landscape...

  6. Landscape Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Andreas Aagaard; Brandt, Jesper; Svenningsen, Stig Roar

    2017-01-01

    Landscape ecology is an interdisciplinary field of research and practice that deals with the mutual association between the spatial configuration and ecological functioning of landscapes, exploring and describing processes involved in the differentiation of spaces within landscapes......, and the ecological significance of the patterns which are generated by such processes. In landscape ecology, perspectives drawn from existing academic disciplines are integrated based on a common, spatially explicit mode of analysis developed from classical holistic geography, emphasizing spatial and landscape...... pattern analysis and ecological interaction of land units. The landscape is seen as a holon: an assemblage of interrelated phenomena, both cultural and biophysical, that together form a complex whole. Enduring challenges to landscape ecology include the need to develop a systematic approach able...

  7. Quantum repeated games revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frąckiewicz, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    We present a scheme for playing quantum repeated 2 × 2 games based on Marinatto and Weber’s approach to quantum games. As a potential application, we study the twice repeated Prisoner’s Dilemma game. We show that results not available in the classical game can be obtained when the game is played in the quantum way. Before we present our idea, we comment on the previous scheme of playing quantum repeated games proposed by Iqbal and Toor. We point out the drawbacks that make their results unacceptable. (paper)

  8. Repeat migration and disappointment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, E K; Vanderkamp, J

    1986-01-01

    This article investigates the determinants of repeat migration among the 44 regions of Canada, using information from a large micro-database which spans the period 1968 to 1971. The explanation of repeat migration probabilities is a difficult task, and this attempt is only partly successful. May of the explanatory variables are not significant, and the overall explanatory power of the equations is not high. In the area of personal characteristics, the variables related to age, sex, and marital status are generally significant and with expected signs. The distance variable has a strongly positive effect on onward move probabilities. Variables related to prior migration experience have an important impact that differs between return and onward probabilities. In particular, the occurrence of prior moves has a striking effect on the probability of onward migration. The variable representing disappointment, or relative success of the initial move, plays a significant role in explaining repeat migration probabilities. The disappointment variable represents the ratio of actural versus expected wage income in the year after the initial move, and its effect on both repeat migration probabilities is always negative and almost always highly significant. The repeat probabilities diminish after a year's stay in the destination region, but disappointment in the most recent year still has a bearing on the delayed repeat probabilities. While the quantitative impact of the disappointment variable is not large, it is difficult to draw comparisons since similar estimates are not available elsewhere.

  9. Harnessing pluralism for better health in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Syed Masud; Evans, Timothy G; Standing, Hilary; Mahmud, Simeen

    2013-11-23

    How do we explain the paradox that Bangladesh has made remarkable progress in health and human development, yet its achievements have taken place within a health system that is frequently characterised as weak, in terms of inadequate physical and human infrastructure and logistics, and low performing? We argue that the development of a highly pluralistic health system environment, defined by the participation of a multiplicity of different stakeholders and agents and by ad hoc, diffused forms of management has contributed to these outcomes by creating conditions for rapid change. We use a combination of data from official sources, research studies, case studies of specific innovations, and in-depth knowledge from our own long-term engagement with health sector issues in Bangladesh to lay out a conceptual framework for understanding pluralism and its outcomes. Although we argue that pluralism has had positive effects in terms of stimulating change and innovation, we also note its association with poor health systems governance and regulation, resulting in endemic problems such as overuse and misuse of drugs. Pluralism therefore requires active management that acknowledges and works with its polycentric nature. We identify four key areas where this management is needed: participatory governance, accountability and regulation, information systems, and capacity development. This approach challenges some mainstream frameworks for managing health systems, such as the building blocks approach of the WHO Health Systems Framework. However, as pluralism increasingly defines the nature and the challenge of 21st century health systems, the experience of Bangladesh is relevant to many countries across the world. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A Pilot Astronomy Outreach Project in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Dipen; Mridha, Shahjahan; Afroz, Maqsuda

    2015-08-01

    In its strategic planning for the "Astronomy for Development Project," the International Astronomical Union (IAU) has ecognized, among other important missions, the role of astronomy in understanding the far-reaching possibilities for promoting global tolerance and citizenship. Furthermore, astronomy is deemed inspirational for careers in science and technology. The "Pilot Astronomy Outreach Project in Bangladesh"--the first of its kind in the country--aspires to fulfill these missions. As Bangladesh lacks resources to promote astronomy education in universities and schools, the role of disseminating astronomy education to the greater community falls on citizen science organizations. One such group, Anushandhitshu Chokro (AChokro) Science Organization, has been carrying out a successful public outreach program since 1975. Among its documented public events, AChokro organized a total solar eclipse campaign in Bangladesh in 2009, at which 15,000 people were assembled in a single open venue for the eclipse observation. The organization has actively pursued astronomy outreach to dispel public misconceptions about astronomical phenomena and to promote science. AChokro is currently working to build an observatory and Science Outreach Center around a recently-acquired 14-inch Scmidt-Cassegrain telescope and a soon-to-be-acquired new 16-inch reflector, all funded by private donations. The telescopes will be fitted with photometers, spectrometers, and digital and CCD cameras to pursue observations that would include sun spot and solar magnetic fields, planetary surfaces, asteroid search, variable stars and supernovae. The Center will be integrated with schools, colleges, and community groups for regular observation and small-scale research. Special educational and observing sessions for adults will also be organized. Updates on the development of the Center, which is expected to be functioning by the end of 2015, will be shared and feedback invited on the fostering of

  11. Economic development and population policy in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M R

    1984-09-01

    This paper deals with Bangladesh's growth rate and the policy implications for its economy. Despite its obvious influence on the economy, population has never been integrated as an endogenous variable in any planning model. Development planning is mostly supported by donor agencies, involving little micro-level planning and practically no trickle-down effect. This paper examines the interaction of population and other development variables in the country's planning process. Much of the rural population consists of landless farmers share croppers, so that the land ownership pattern contributes to low productivity. Population increase is making the rural masses even poorer. This process is further compounded by increasing foreign aid dependence, adverse terms of trade in the international market, low savings and investments, and the rural sector's worsening terms of trade. During 1950-1970 real per capita gross domestic product (GDP) increased only at a rate of 1% per annum and during 1950-1970 real growth of GDP fell behind the population growth rate. A cost benefit analysis of fertility reduction is needed. The cost benefit ratio of most countries varies between 1:10 to 1:30; for Bangladesh it is 1:16. Macro-model studies indicate that the higher the fertility reduction and shorter the period of required decline, the higher will be the benefits in terms of gains in per capita income. There is, however, a contradiction between national and household interests. The latter's decision to have more children has a negative spillover effect, which nullifies the gains of the community. The national family planning program suffered a serious setback during and after the liberation of Bangladesh, mainly due to lack of administrative leadership and support. In order for the population growth rate to be checked and to increase the quality of life for the entire population, the family planning program must be revitalized by mobilizing the entire government machinery and

  12. Water, climate change and society in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele-Eich, I.; Simmer, C.

    2017-12-01

    Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh with a population of over 17 million people, is among the top five coastal cities most vulnerable to climate change, with over 30 % of the population living in slums. Effective disaster mitigation and adaptation requires an understanding how hazards such as flooding impact the population. The impacts of climate change on flooding and thus livelihoods in the complex delta of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna rivers can not be treated isolated from other anthropogenic impacts due to e.g. the construction of dams as well as a growing population. We illustrate this by setting up a conceptual socio-hydrological causal network using the enhanced Driving force - Pressure - State - Impact - Response framework. The constructed socio-hydrological framework includes both natural and anthropogenic processes and their two-way feedbacks, allowing policy makers to know where available resources can be used effectively to increase resilience and reduce vulnerability. We conclude that climate change takes place over long stretches of time and thus enable the population of Bangladesh to adapt slowly. Resources such as social capital, which is one of the main tools for slum dwellers to be able to cope with flooding can be altered over time, and as such the system can be considered overall stable and resilient. However, transboundary water sharing issues during the dry season and other implications resulting from dam structures such as Farakka Barrage complicate a prognosis on how the rapidly growing population will be affected in the 21st century. This is particularly important in connection with previous findings, which suggest that the Greater Dhaka population already experience a significant increase in mortality during droughts. Climate change can thus be seen as an anthropogenic amplification of the socio-hydrological challenges already faced by Bangladesh today.

  13. Adolescent motherhood in Bangladesh: Trends and determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammad Mainul; Islam, Md Kamrul; Hasan, Mohammad Sazzad; Hossain, Mohammad Bellal

    2017-01-01

    While studies on fertility and contraceptives issues are available, until recently adolescent motherhood has not received enough attention among policy makers in understanding adolescent motherhood in Bangladesh. We aimed to examine the trends and determinants of adolescent motherhood among women aged 15-49 years. For trend analysis we used all the 7 waves of Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS, 1993-2014) data but for multivariate analysis 4 waves of BDHS (2004-2014). Two separate analyses were carried out on ever married women aged 15-49: (1) teenage girls aged 15-19 and (2) adult women aged 20 and above. The prevalence of adolescent motherhood had declined to a slower pace from 1993 to2014 (from 33.0% to 30.8%). Lower spousal age gap and higher education were found to be associated with lower likelihood of adolescent motherhood both among teenage girls [OR 0.447 (0.374-0.533)] and adult women [OR 0.451 (0.420-0.484)]. Teenage girls in the poorest wealth quintile [OR 1.712 [1.350-2.173] were more likely to experience adolescent motherhood than the richest wealth quintile. Teenage girls who had no education were found to have 2.76 times higher odds of adolescent motherhood than their counterparts who had higher than secondary education. Concerning the time effect, the odds of adolescent motherhood among adult women was found to decline overtime. Despite substantial decrease in total fertility rate in Bangladesh adolescent motherhood is still highly prevalent though declining from 1993 to 2014. Social policies including those addressing poverty, ensuring greater emphasis on education for women; and adolescent mothers in rural areas are needed.

  14. Electrochemical arsenic remediation for rural Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Addy, Susan Amrose [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Arsenic in drinking water is a major public health problem threatening the lives of over 140 million people worldwide. In Bangladesh alone, up to 57 million people drink arsenic-laden water from shallow wells. ElectroChemical Arsenic Remediation(ECAR) overcomes many of the obstacles that plague current technologies and can be used affordably and on a small-scale, allowing for rapid dissemination into Bangladesh to address this arsenic crisis. In this work, ECAR was shown to effectively reduce 550 - 580 μg=L arsenic (including both As[III]and As[V]in a 1:1 ratio) to below the WHO recommended maximum limit of 10 μg=L in synthetic Bangladesh groundwater containing relevant concentrations of competitive ions such as phosphate, silicate, and bicarbonate. Arsenic removal capacity was found to be approximately constant within certain ranges of current density, but was found to change substantially between ranges. In order of decreasing arsenic removal capacity, the pattern was: 0.02 mA=cm2> 0.07 mA=cm2> 0.30 - 1.1 mA=cm2> 5.0 - 100 mA=cm2. Current processing time was found to effect arsenic removal capacity independent of either charge density or current density. Electrode polarization studies showed no passivation of the electrode in the tested range (up to current density 10 mA=cm2) and ruled out oxygen evolution as the cause of decreasing removal capacity with current density. Simple settling and decantation required approximately 3 days to achieve arsenic removal comparable to filtration with a 0.1 mu m membrane. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) showed that (1) there is no significant difference in the arsenic removal mechanism of ECAR during operation at different current densities and (2) the arsenic removal mechanism in ECAR is consistent with arsenate adsorption onto a homogenous Fe(III)oxyhydroxide similar in structure to 2-line ferrihydrite. ECAR effectively reduced high arsenic concentrations (100

  15. Social marketing of contraceptives in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellstede, W P; Ciszewski, R L

    1984-01-01

    Since 1975 there has been a family planning program operating in Bangladesh which advertises and commercially distributes contraceptive products in both rural and urban areas throughout the country. The program, known as the Social Marketing Project (SMP) and managed by Population Services International (PSI), now serves almost 1 million acceptors per month at an annual cost per couple of less than US$6.50, including the cost of donated contraceptives. This paper looks at the evolution of the project and its growth through the years, and addresses some primary concerns of planners of social marketing programs.

  16. Status of radiation curing in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idriss Ali, K.M.

    1999-01-01

    Bangladesh is a small country covering about 148 thousand square kilometer area with a population of 120 million. It has only 15% urban area; most of the people live in the rural area. It is neither industrial nor developed. It is trying hard to stand on its feet combating all damages caused by frequent natural calamities like cyclones and floods. Thus, most of the technological activities are still being carried out on turnkey basis. However, some research and development institutions have already been developed to such an extent that transfer of technology can occur and the local industries can also benefit out of this endeavour

  17. Ladies without lamps: nurses in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Shahaduz

    2009-03-01

    In this article, I explore the experiences and concerns of Bangladeshi nurses. I have based this on a larger ethnographic study that was conducted in a ward of a government teaching hospital in Bangladesh. The study shows how the values and norms of Bangladeshi society have shaped the life of Bangladeshi nurses, that they do scarcely any nursing work, and that they suffer from various negative social images. I argue, through this article, that the role, image, and concerns of Bangladeshi nurses have changed dramatically from the ideal image of nursing, and are dissimilar from the ways nursing is practiced in many other parts of the world.

  18. Landscape Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Andreas Aagaard; Brandt, Jesper; Svenningsen, Stig Roar

    2017-01-01

    pattern analysis and ecological interaction of land units. The landscape is seen as a holon: an assemblage of interrelated phenomena, both cultural and biophysical, that together form a complex whole. Enduring challenges to landscape ecology include the need to develop a systematic approach able...

  19. From Flood Control to Water Management: A Journey of Bangladesh towards Integrated Water Resources Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Animesh K. Gain

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM is considered as a practical approach in solving water-related problems, which are socio-ecologically complex in nature. Bangladesh has also embraced the IWRM approach against its earlier attempt to flood control. In this paper, we evaluate the current status of IWRM in Bangladesh through the lens of policy shifts, institutional transitions and project transformations using seven key dimensions of IWRM. Looking at IWRM from such perspectives is lacking in current literature. A thorough review of policy shifts suggests that all the key dimensions of IWRM are “highly reflected” in the current policy documents. The dimension of “integrated management” is “highly reflected” in both institutional transition and project-level transformation. Most other dimensions are also recognised at both institutional and project levels. However, such reflections gradually weaken as we move from policies to institutions to projects. Despite catchment being considered as a spatial unit of water management at both institutional and project levels, transboundary basin planning is yet to be accomplished. The participation of local people is highly promoted in various recent projects. However, equity and social issues have received less attention at project level, although it has significant potential for supporting some of the key determinants of adaptive capacity. Thus, the IWRM dimensions are in general reflected in recent policies, institutional reforms and project formulation in Bangladesh. However, to solve the complex water-problems, basin scale management through transboundary cooperation and equity and social issues need to be implemented at institutional and project levels.

  20. Digital Divide between Teachers and Students in Urban Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khalid, Md. Saifuddin

    2011-01-01

    Telecom boom since 2000 and ‘Digital Bangladesh’ campaign since late 2008 created significant nationwide hype, resulting rapid increase in the use of digital devices. While studies are being conducted to use the ability of “power users of technology” for reducing digital divide, there is hardly any...... data available on them in Bangladesh context. A study was conducted to study the digital divide and ICT usage pattern among the urban students and teachers of schools and colleges in Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh. About 75 students enrolled in probability and statistics course of Independent...... into digital divide and associated reasons in four different educations systems in Bangladesh....

  1. Defining the Crime of Enforced Disappearance in Conformity with International Criminal Law: a New Frontier for Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Raisul Islam Sourav

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Enforced disappearance is regarded as a state-sponsored heinous international crime and has recently emerged as a wide-spread issue in Bangladesh. The political opposition is currently the main target of forced disappearances, though apolitical citizens have also been targeted. Most of the incidents are unsolved and law enforcement agencies have repeatedly denied their involvement. Internationally, the UN Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance was opened for signature in 2007 and entered into force in 2010. The convention’s purpose is to criminalise enforced disappearances across the world and state parties are under an obligation to take necessary actions to stop their occurrence. Despite the cruel reality of forced disappearances in Bangladesh, no law has of yet been adopted to bring national criminal law in line with the convention. The right to life is nevertheless one of the key fundamental rights guaranteed under the Bangladeshi constitution which may be relevant in this context.  Forced disappearances have a disastrous impact on victim’s family as well as important societal implications. Bangladesh should, in this author’s opinion, ratify the convention and must reform national legislation to bring to an end state-sponsored crime. The scope of the issue may otherwise have tremendous consequences for the whole nation.

  2. The Pentapeptide Repeat Proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetting,M.; Hegde, S.; Fajardo, J.; Fiser, A.; Roderick, S.; Takiff, H.; Blanchard, J.

    2006-01-01

    The Pentapeptide Repeat Protein (PRP) family has over 500 members in the prokaryotic and eukaryotic kingdoms. These proteins are composed of, or contain domains composed of, tandemly repeated amino acid sequences with a consensus sequence of [S, T,A, V][D, N][L, F]-[S, T,R][G]. The biochemical function of the vast majority of PRP family members is unknown. The three-dimensional structure of the first member of the PRP family was determined for the fluoroquinolone resistance protein (MfpA) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The structure revealed that the pentapeptide repeats encode the folding of a novel right-handed quadrilateral {beta}-helix. MfpA binds to DNA gyrase and inhibits its activity. The rod-shaped, dimeric protein exhibits remarkable size, shape and electrostatic similarity to DNA.

  3. Medical Biotechnology: Problems and Prospects in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaikh Mizan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biotechnology is the knowledge and techniques of developing and using biological systems for deriving special products and services. The age-old technology took a new turn with the advent of recombinant DNA techniques, and boosted by the development of other molecular biological techniques, cell culture techniques and bioinformatics. Medical biotechnology is the major thrust area of biotechnology. It has brought revolutions in medicine – quick methods for diagnosing diseases, generation of new drugs and vaccines, completely novel approach of treatment are only a few to mention. The industrial and financial bulk of the industry mushroomed very rapidly in the last three decades, led by the USA and western advanced nations. Asian countries like China, India, South Korea, Taiwan and Singapore joined late, but advancing forward in a big way. In all the Asian countries governments supported the initiatives of the expert and entrepreneur community, and invested heavily in its development. Bangladesh has got great potential in developing biotechnology and reaping its fruits. However, lack of commitment and patriotism, and too much corruption and irresponsibility in political and bureaucratic establishment are the major hindrance to the development of biotechnology in Bangladesh.

  4. Electricity Crisis and Load Management in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajib Kanti Das

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh is a densely populated country. Only a small part of her area is electrified which cover around 18% of total population. The people who are in the electrified area are suffering from severe load shedding. A systematic load management procedure related to demand side may improve the situation is the research problem. The major objectives serve by the research are to analyze contemporary electricity status with a view to drawing inference about demand supply gap and extracting benefits from load management. Data supplied by the Bangladesh Power Development Board, World Bank and outcome of survey are analyzed with some simple statistical tools to test the hypothesis. Analysis discloses that with properly managed uses of electricity with load switch and rotation week-end can improve the concurrent condition of electricity. Moreover, introducing smart distribution system, reducing system loss, shifting load to off-peak, large scale use of prepaid mete, observing energy week and using energy efficient home and office appliance are recommended to improve load through demand side management. Some other recommendations such as introducing alternative energy, public private partnership and using renewable energy development and producing energy locally are made for load management from the supply side.

  5. EXPLORING TOURIST SPOTS FOR PROMOTING INVESTMENTS IN TOURISM INDUSTRY OF BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad SHAMSUDDOHA

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Out of different problems, the researcher has concentrated his focus on the institutional frameworks and different potential tourist spot for profitable tourism sector in Bangladesh. It is due to low literacy rate of general people, they cannot communicate with the domestic and foreign tourists significantly. So, the tourists felt discourage to visit repeatedly to the tourist spots as they always hunt for new place and new test. The researcher feels that institutional backup is necessary for this industry. Governmental and private owner should come up to invest some of their capital for the sake of tourism development. In some International Hotels, Parjatan Corporation and at private level tourist agencies very limited scope on the training job has been developed. Here, the researcher tried to explore the most promising tourist spots that could be commercially profitable for the poor country like Bangladesh.

  6. Geohazards and Poverty: An Ecosystem Services Approach in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, C.; Nicholls, R. J.; Lazar, A.

    2014-12-01

    The Ecosystem Services (ES) of river deltas often support high population densities, estimated at over 500 million people globally, with particular concentrations in South, South-East and East Asia and Africa. Further, a large proportion of delta populations experience extremes of poverty and are highly vulnerable to the environmental and ecological stress and degradation that is occurring. A systems dynamics approach is adopted to provide policy makers with the knowledge and tools to enable them to evaluate the effects of Geohazards and environmental stressors and associated policy decisions on people's livelihoods (Ecosystem Services for Poverty Alleviation - ESPA Deltas). This is done by a multidisciplinary and multi-national team of policy analysts, social and natural scientists and engineers. The work presents a participatory approach to formally evaluating ecosystem services and poverty in the context of the wide range of environmetnal stressors and hazards. These changes include subsidence and sea level rise, land degradation and population pressure in delta regions. The approach will be developed, tested and applied in coastal Bangladesh. Rural livelihoods are inextricably linked with the natural ecosystems and low income farmers are highly vulnerable to changes in ecosystem services as they are impacted by geohazards and environmental stressors. Their health, wellbeing and financial security are under threat from many directions such as unreliable supplies of clean water, increasing salinisation of soils and flood, while in the longer term they are threatened by subsidence and sea-level rise. This study will contribute to the understanding of this present vulnerability and help the people who develop the relevant policy to make more informed choices about how best to reduce this vulnerability.

  7. Community Ecology

    CERN Document Server

    1988-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of a workshop on community ecology organized at Davis, in April, 1986, sponsored by the Sloan Foundation. There have been several recent symposia on community ecology (Strong et. al., 1984, Diamond and Case, 1987) which have covered a wide range of topics. The goal of the workshop at Davis was more narrow: to explore the role of scale in developing a theoretical approach to understanding communities. There are a number of aspects of scale that enter into attempts to understand ecological communities. One of the most basic is organizational scale. Should community ecology proceed by building up from population biology? This question and its ramifications are stressed throughout the book and explored in the first chapter by Simon Levin. Notions of scale have long been important in understanding physical systems. Thus, in understanding the interactions of organisms with their physical environment, questions of scale become paramount. These more physical questions illustrate the...

  8. An export gas pipeline for Bangladesh; Un gazoduc d'exportation pour le Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2002-08-01

    Unocal, one of the few foreign company operating in Bangladesh, has submitted in November 2001 a proposal of gas pipeline for the export of natural gas towards India and which should link the Bibiyana field to the main gas network of India: the Hazira-Bijaipur-Jagdishpur (HBJ) gas pipeline. However, the project of export of natural gas to India is a subject of controversy and the government has postponed several times its decision. (J.S.)

  9. Repeatability of Feather Mite Prevalence and Intensity in Passerine Birds

    OpenAIRE

    Diaz-Real, Javier; Serrano, David; Pérez-Tris, Javier; Fernández-González, Sofía; Bermejo, Ana; Calleja, Juan A.; De la Puente, Javier; De Palacio, Diana; Martínez, José L.; Moreno-Opo, Rubén; Ponce, Carlos; Frías, Óscar; Tella, José L.; Møller, Anders P.; Figuerola, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    Understanding why host species differ so much in symbiont loads and how this depends on ecological host and symbiont traits is a major issue in the ecology of symbiosis. A first step in this inquiry is to know whether observed differences among host species are species-specific traits or more related with host-symbiont environmental conditions. Here we analysed the repeatability (R) of the intensity and the prevalence of feather mites to partition within- and among-host species variance compo...

  10. Towards the effective plastic waste management in Bangladesh: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourshed, Monjur; Masud, Mahadi Hasan; Rashid, Fazlur; Joardder, Mohammad Uzzal Hossain

    2017-12-01

    The plastic-derived product, nowadays, becomes an indispensable commodity for different purposes. A huge amount of used plastic causes environmental hazards that turn in danger for marine life, reduces the fertility of soil, and contamination of ground water. Management of this enormous plastic waste is challenging in particular for developing countries like Bangladesh. Lack of facilities, infrastructure development, and insufficient budget for waste management are some of the prime causes of improper plastic management in Bangladesh. In this study, the route of plastic waste production and current plastic waste management system in Bangladesh have been reviewed extensively. It emerges that no technical and improved methods are adapted in the plastic management system. A set of the sustainable plastic management system has been proposed along with the challenges that would emerge during the implementation these strategies. Successful execution of the proposed systems would enhance the quality of plastic waste management in Bangladesh and offers enormous energy from waste.

  11. All projects related to Bangladesh | Page 6 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2007-04-30

    ... English language and North American culture. Start Date: April 30, 2007. End Date: June 26, 2012. Topic: Internet, LANGUAGE BARRIER, ASIAN LANGUAGES, COMPUTER PROGRAMS, SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, INFORMATION SOCIETY. Region: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, Far East Asia, Cambodia, ...

  12. bangladesh : tous les projets | Page 4 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: INFECTIOUS DISEASES, DISEASE VECTORS, Disease control, SOCIAL ASPECTS, ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS, PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH. Région: Bangladesh, Central ... Sujet: ATTITUDES, GENDER DISCRIMINATION, GENDER RELATIONS, GENDER ANALYSIS, GENDER EQUALITY, Gender. Région: ...

  13. All projects related to Bangladesh | Page 2 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION, MIGRATION, GENDER ANALYSIS, POLICY MAKING, ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT, ADAPTATION, Gender. Region: Bangladesh, Egypt, Ghana, India. Program: Collaborative Adaptation Research Initiative in Africa and Asia. Total Funding: CA$ 12,455,362.00.

  14. All projects related to bangladesh | Page 2 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: Climate change, MIGRATION, GENDER ANALYSIS, POLICY MAKING, ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT, ADAPTATION. Region: Bangladesh, Egypt, Ghana, India. Program: Climate Change. Total Funding: CA$ 12,455,362.00. Himalayan Adaptation, Water, and Resilience. Project. This research project ...

  15. All projects related to Bangladesh | Page 5 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: Bangladesh, Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, India, Malaysia, Nepal, Viet Nam, Thailand. Total Funding: CA$ ... Topic: TELECOMMUNICATIONS NETWORKS, INFORMATION CENTRES, COMMUNITY FACILITIES. Region: Far ... Topic: TOBACCO, TOBACCO INDUSTRY, CROP DIVERSIFICATION. Region: ...

  16. Poverty-led higher population growth in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakibullah, A; Rahman, A

    1996-01-01

    This article discusses the issue whether population growth is exogenous or endogenous in the economic development of Bangladesh. Overpopulation adversely affects food supplies, foreign exchange, and human resources. Moreover, it depresses savings per capita and retards growth of physical capital per labor. Underdeveloped countries, like Bangladesh, are faced with the problem of allocating resources between infrastructure, education, and health service that are essential for human capital development and population control measures. With this, determination whether fertility is exogenous or endogenous is important for policy purposes in the context of Bangladesh. Results showed that there is a correlation between population growth and real gross domestic products per capita. Based on Granger causality test, population growth is endogenous in the development process of Bangladesh and its overpopulation is due to poverty. Thus, there is a need for appropriate policy to take measures to improve human capital and decrease fertility rates.

  17. Diversity and population structure of red rice germplasm in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M Z; Khalequzzaman, M; Prince, M F R K; Siddique, M A; Rashid, E S M H; Ahmed, M S U; Pittendrigh, B R; Ali, M P

    2018-01-01

    While the functionality and healthy food value of red rice have increased its popularity, such that market demand for it is expected to rise, most strains suffer from low grain yield. To perform diversity and population structure analyses of red rice germplasm, therefore, becomes essential for improving yields for commercial production. In this study, fifty red rice germplasm from the Bangladesh Rice Research Institute (BRRI) genebank were characterized both morphologically and genetically using fifty simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Overall, 162 alleles were detected by the markers with the detected allele number varying from two to seven. Additionally, 22 unique alleles were identified for use as a germplasm diagnostic tool. The highest and lowest polymorphic information content (PIC) indices were 0.75 and 0.04 found in markers RM282 and RM304, respectively, and genetic diversity was moderate, varying from 0.05 to 0.78 (average: 0.35). While phylogenetic cluster analysis of the fifteen distance-based agro-morphological traits divided the germplasm into five clusters (I, II, III, IV and V), a similar SSR analysis yielded only three major groups (I, II, and III), and a model-based population structure analysis yielded four (A, B, C and D). Both principal component and neighbors joining tree analysis from the population structure method showed the tested germplasm as highly diverse in structure. Moreover, an analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA), as well as a pairwise FST analysis, both indicated significant differentiation (ranging from 0.108 to 0.207) among all pairs of populations, suggesting that all four population structure groups differed significantly. Populations A and D were the most differentiated from each other by FST. Findings from this study suggest that the diverse germplasm and polymorphic trait-linked SSR markers of red rice are suitable for the detection of economically desirable trait loci/genes for use in future molecular breeding programs.

  18. A computer vision for animal ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Ben G

    2017-11-07

    A central goal of animal ecology is to observe species in the natural world. The cost and challenge of data collection often limit the breadth and scope of ecological study. Ecologists often use image capture to bolster data collection in time and space. However, the ability to process these images remains a bottleneck. Computer vision can greatly increase the efficiency, repeatability and accuracy of image review. Computer vision uses image features, such as colour, shape and texture to infer image content. I provide a brief primer on ecological computer vision to outline its goals, tools and applications to animal ecology. I reviewed 187 existing applications of computer vision and divided articles into ecological description, counting and identity tasks. I discuss recommendations for enhancing the collaboration between ecologists and computer scientists and highlight areas for future growth of automated image analysis. © 2017 The Author. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2017 British Ecological Society.

  19. Understanding arsenic contamination of groundwater in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabir, Babar

    2001-01-01

    The problem of water contamination by naturally occurring arsenic confronts governments, public and private utilities, and the development community with a new challenge for implementing operational mitigation activities under difficult conditions of imperfect knowledge - especially for arsenic mitigation for the benefit of the rural poor. With more than a conservative estimate of 20 million of its 130 million people assumed to be drinking contaminated water and another 70 million potentially at risk, Bangladesh is facing what has been described as perhaps the largest mass poisoning in history. High concentrations of naturally occurring arsenic have already been found in water from tens of thousands of tube wells, the main source of potable water, in 59 out of Bangladesh's 64 districts. Arsenic contamination is highly irregular, so tube wells in neighboring locations or even different depths can be safe. Arsenic is extremely hazardous if ingested in drinking water or used in cooking in excess of the maximum permissible limit of 0.01 mg/liter over an extended period of time. Even in the early 1970s, most of Bangladesh's rural population got its drinking water from surface ponds and nearly a quarter of a million children died each year from water-borne diseases. Groundwater now constitutes the major source of drinking water in Bangladesh with 95% of the drinking water coming from underground sources. The provision of tube well water for 97 percent of the rural population has been credited with bringing down the high incidence of diarrheal diseases and contributing to a halving of the infant mortality rate. Paradoxically, the same wells that saved so many lives now pose a threat due to the unforeseen hazard of arsenic. The provenance of arsenic rich minerals in sediments of the Bengal basin as a component of geological formations is believed to be from the Himalayan mountain range. Arsenic has been found in different uncropped geological hard rock formations

  20. Exploring the communication barriers in private commercial banks of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Sultana, Nahneen; Abdullah, Abu Md.; Tabassum, Ayesha

    2013-01-01

    In Bangladesh, lots of private commercial banks are contributing for economic growth. The performance of the banks depends on a well-structured communication system. So by maintaining an effective communication system, the banks can gain competitive advantage. Thus the study aims to investigate the communication barriers that should be removed for effective communication in the private commercial banks of Bangladesh. A structured questionnaire survey based on 5-point Likert-scale was conducte...

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF BOND MARKET IN BANGLADESH: ISSUES, STATUS AND POLICIES

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Saleh JAHUR; S.M. Nasrul QUADIR

    2010-01-01

    Bond market acts as buffer of equity market. This market in Bangladesh has been found very inefficient with respect to number of issues, volume of trade, number of participant, long-term yield curve, interest rate policy etc. In view of this, the present study has been undertaken aiming at identifying the problems that impedes the growth and development of Bond Market in Bangladesh. Researchers have collected both primary and secondary data and analysed the same by employing descriptive measu...

  2. Taming the Jamuna : Effects of river training in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bryant, S.; Mosselman, E.; Hoitink, A.J.F.; de Ruijsscher, T.V.; Geertsema, T.J.; Makaske, B.; Wallinga, J.; Candel, J.H.J.; Poelman, J.

    2017-01-01

    The 10 km wide Jamuna river in Bangladesh is  one of the most morphologically active rivers in  the world, with bank erosion rates of up to 500  m per year (Mutton and Haque 2004). Such  extreme river migration in the center of  Bangladesh, one of the most densely 

  3. Enhancing Public Service Ethics in Bangladesh: Dilemmas and Deterrents

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Pan-Suk; Monem, Mobasser; Baniamin, Hasan Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    There may be many factors that diminish or destroy trust in governmental institutions. However, none may destroy trust easier or faster than unethical behavior or blatant corruption by public officials. Bangladesh is rated as one of the most corrupt countries in the world by different organizations. One of the most fundamental obstacles to building trust in Bangladesh is the pervasive nature of corruption at many levels. A glance at the newspapers or a glimpse of the news on the television sh...

  4. Parasitoids (Hymenoptera of leafminer flies (Diptera: Agromyzidae from Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Mazumdar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine hymenopteran parasitoids attacking leafminers (Agromyzidae: Diptera in Bangladesh.  Four parasitoid species, viz. Chrysocharis pentheus (Walker, Neochrysocharis formosa (Westwood and Cirrospilus sp. belonging to family Eulophidae and Opius sp. under family Braconidae of the order Hymenoptera are reported as new to the fauna of Bangladesh.  All parasitoids were reared from three agromyzid flies namely Liriomyza sativae Blanchard, Melanagromyza obtusa Mallochand and Ophiomyia phaseoli (Tryon. 

  5. Epidemiology of brucellosis in humans and domestic ruminants in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, AKM Anisur

    2015-01-01

    Background Brucellosis is an ancient and one of the world’s most widespread zoonotic diseases affecting both, public health and animal production. It is endemic in many developing countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America including Bangladesh. Since the first report in 1970, a lot of brucellosis seroprevalence reports are available in cattle, goats, sheep and humans in Bangladesh. Most of the previously reported prevalence studies were based on non-random samples, which may not give a tr...

  6. Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) Trends Over Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salam, A.

    2016-12-01

    An important omission in the Southeast Asian observing network is the border region with the Indian subcontinent. Significant amounts of pollution are generated and transported down the Indo-Gangenic Plain into the Bay of Bengal. High population density in a semi-arid region leads to the development of a complex mixture of absorbing pollution coupled with dust. Transport patterns of this mixture takes pollutants into Bangladesh, where more pollution is added to the atmosphere-leading to what is one of the highest non urban emission loading in the world (AOD500= 0.75 during the premonsoon season). Bangladesh is essentially a riverine country, and atmospheric outflow is over delta regions fed by over 500 rivers, including the Ganges, Bramaputra, Jamuna, and Padma systems forming the massive Meghna river. This combination of atmospheric and riverine components makes for an optically complex littoral region which challenges a host of environmental sensors and modeling systems. Data is needed to understand the sources, transport and optical characteristics of aerosol particles in the region. Dhaka (23.8103° N, 90.4125° E) is the capital of Bangladesh with a population of about 16 million. It has been growing rapidly with all the problem of a mega city. We have installed a sun photometer with NASA Aeronet project at the roof of the Chemistry Department, Dhaka University with other aerosol particles and gas measuring instruments. Bhola is an Island of the Bay of Bengal. It is surrounded by the Meghna River on the north and east, the Tatulia River on the west and the Bay of Bengal on the south. The observatory is located at Charfashion Bazar, Bhola (N 22o10´01″, E 90o45´00″, 3m asl). There is very little influence from traffic and industrial emissions. A Cimel sunphotometer (NASA AERONET) was installed for AOD measurements at this locations since 2013. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) trends between 2012 and 2016 at two different locations (Dhaka and Bhola) will be

  7. Coastal surface water suitability analysis for irrigation in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahtab, Mohammad Hossain; Zahid, Anwar

    2018-03-01

    Water with adequate quality and quantity is very important for irrigation to ensure the crop yields. Salinity is common problem in the coastal waters in Bangladesh. The intensity of salinity in the coastal zone in Bangladesh is not same. It fluctuates over the year. Sodium is another hazard which may hamper permeability and ultimately affects the fertility. It can reduce the crop yields. Although surface water is available in the coastal zone of Bangladesh, but its quality for irrigation needs to be monitored over the year. This paper will investigate the overall quality of coastal surface waters. Thirty-three water samples from different rivers were collected both in wet period (October-December) and in dry period (February-April). Different physical and chemical parameters are considered for investigation of the adequacy of water with respect to international irrigation water quality standards and Bangladesh standards. A comparison between the dry and wet period coastal surface water quality in Bangladesh will also be drawn here. The analysis shows that coastal surface water in Bangladesh is overall suitable for irrigation during wet period, while it needs treatment (which will increase the irrigation cost) for using for irrigation during dry period. Adaptation to this situation can improve the scenario. An integrated plan should be taken to increase the water storing capacity in the coastal area to harvest water during wet period.

  8. MEASURING THE CUSTOMER SATISFACTION OF ISLAMIC BANKING SECTOR IN BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossain Shahid SHOHROWARDHY

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The banking sector has been playing a significant role in achieving the economic growth of Bangladesh, where contribution of Islamic Banking Sector is remarkable. Islamic Banking Sector shows a substantial growth position in Bangladesh. Customer satisfaction is the most significant affecting phenomenon in determining the banking growth. Thus, this study attempts to measure the existing level of customer satisfaction of Islamic Banks in Bangladesh, using the Structural Equation Model (SEM. This study uses the 22 dimensions of customer satisfaction which used in the earlier studies in different countries for measuring the customer satisfaction of Islamic Banking Sector. A total of 385 samples have been taken from six full pledged Islamic Banks in Bangladesh. It reveals form the study that Human Resources and Systemization Service Delivery is the strongest indicator of customer satisfaction of Islamic Banking Sector in Bangladesh followed by Core Product, Service Capability and Social Responsibility. The findings therefore, may be helpful for policy-makers of banking authorities who have been making serious endeavor to sustain the growth of Islamic Banking Sector in Bangladesh.

  9. Good governance and political culture: A case study of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Serajul Islam

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In a democratic system it is essential to have a competitive, and a tolerant party system, but Bangladesh has experienced an intolerant and a confrontational party system that has created a deadlock and brought uncertainty to the whole country. Since 1990, except 2014, Bangladesh has witnessed four systematic peaceful free elections, one each--in 1991, 1996, 2001, and 2008. On January 5, 2014, however, a controversial election took place in which major opposition political parties did not participate except the ruling alliance parties. The two dominant parties—the Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP and the Awami League (AL—each won two previous free and fair elections, with the BNP winning in1991, and a BNP-led 4-party coalition in 2001, and the AL in 1996, and an AL-led 14 party alliance in 2008. However, from 2014 Bangladesh is heading towards an authoritarian system. All these are happening due to the lack of good governance. This article intends to emphasize that the political culture emanating from the party politics is retarding good governance in Bangladesh. This article argues that the cultural traits developed in the last four decades in various dimensions,, particularly in more recent years, have worked as an “earth-worm” in the fabrics of democracy in Bangladesh preventing ‘good governance’.

  10. Determinants of Food Consumption During Pregnancy in Rural Bangladesh: Examination of Evaluative Data from the Bangladesh Integrated Nutrition Project

    OpenAIRE

    Rezaul Karim; Deepa Bhat; Lisa Troy; Sascha Lamstein; F. James Levinson

    2002-01-01

    The common practice of reducing food consumption during pregnancy is recognized as a primary cause of poor pregnancy outcomes and, in turn, malnutrition among young children in many developing countries including Bangladesh. This paper analyzes data from the 1998 Mid-Term Evaluation of the Bangladesh Integrated Nutrition Project (BINP) to identify the determinants of pregnancy food consumption. The analysis found that information available to the mother (through project-based counseling) was ...

  11. Wetland agribusiness aspects and potential in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Aurup Ratan; Islam, Md Monirul; Jannat, Arifa; Ahmed, Jasim Uddin

    2018-02-01

    The study was conducted to document farmers' livelihood aspects and agribusiness potentials in wetland areas of Bangladesh. A total of 120 farmers and 24 service providers were interviewed for data collection. Most of the farmers were small farmers having less than 1.0 ha of cultivable land. The differences in productivity of crop farming and poultry rearing between wetland area and main land were statistically significant. Favorable farm environment and proper utilization of agricultural resources were major strength and opportunity. The data may be helpful for formation of agribusiness clusters involving input suppliers, credit/financial organizations and different support service providers for more income, better nutrition and improved livelihood of the wetland people.

  12. Bangladesh: new directions for achieving national target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Professor A.Q.M. Badruddoza Chowdhury, Minister for Health and Population Control, says there is much work to be done in Bangladesh in the field of family planning. Although 67,000 couples had reportedly been sterilized in the previous 6 months, officials claim that the number of acceptors should be an impetus to accelerate the pace of all measures being taken to arrest the population boom. An action program is being formulated by the government to broaden and effectuate the family planning program to contain population to 10 crore (1 crore is 10 million) by the year 2000. The population explosion negates the developments in health, nutrition, education, clothing, housing, communication, and the environment.

  13. Aflatoxin contamination in food commodities in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Monika; Harris, Julie; Afreen, Sadia; Deak, Eszter; Gade, Lalitha; Balajee, S Arunmozhi; Park, Benjamin; Chiller, Tom; Luby, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    During September 2009, we performed a rapid cross-sectional study to investigate the extent of aflatoxin contamination among common Bangladeshi foods. We collected eight common human food commodities (rice, lentils, wheat flour, dates, betelnut, red chili powder, ginger and groundnuts) and poultry feed samples from two large markets in each of three cities in Bangladesh. We quantified aflatoxin levels from pooled subsamples using fluorescence high-performance liquid chromatography. Aflatoxin levels were highest in dates and groundnuts (maximum 623 and 423 ng/g), respectively. Samples of betelnut (mean 30.6 ng/g), lentils (mean 21.2 ng/g) and red chili powder (>20 ng/g) also had elevated levels. The mean aflatoxin level among poultry feed samples was 73.0 ng/g. Aflatoxin levels were above the US maximum regulatory levels of 20 ng/g in five of eight commonly ingested human food commodities tested.

  14. Gingivitis in primary school children of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masuma Pervin Mishu

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Though early diagnosis and intervention of gingivitis in school children can eliminate progression to frank periodontal diseases, no such measures in Bangladesh are in place to detect gingivitis at an early stage in school children. This survey was conducted in 2007 in the primary schools of rural, suburban and urban areas of Bangladesh to evaluate oral hygiene with special emphasis on gingivitis prevalent among 6-13 years school children. The clinical examination of the gingiva was carried out using a mouth mirror and a periodontal probe. A total of 1,820 primary school students (m/f = 946/873 took part in the investigation. The crude prevalence of gingivitis, AS* and plaque were 17.5%, 9.2% and 56.0% respectively. The prevalence of gingivitis was significantly higher in males than females (20.3 vs. 14.3%, p<0.001, lower than upper social class (21.1 vs. 12.6%, p<0.001 and in rural than urban plus suburban children (22.5 vs. 15.1%, p<0.001. Likewise, the prevalence of AS was higher in females, lower social class and rural children. Significantly lower prevalence of gingivitis, AS and plaque was found among those who used tooth brush and tooth paste than those who did not (15.4% vs 22.4%, p<0.001. The study concludes that the prevalence of oro-dental diseases is high in Bangladeshi children. The male children of low social class of rural communities are the most vulnerable group. Ibrahim Med. Coll. J. 2009; 3(2: 71-74

  15. Duct Leakage Repeatability Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sherman, Max [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Duct leakage often needs to be measured to demonstrate compliance with requirements or to determine energy or Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) impacts. Testing is often done using standards such as ASTM E1554 (ASTM 2013) or California Title 24 (California Energy Commission 2013 & 2013b), but there are several choices of methods available within the accepted standards. Determining which method to use or not use requires an evaluation of those methods in the context of the particular needs. Three factors that are important considerations are the cost of the measurement, the accuracy of the measurement and the repeatability of the measurement. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the repeatability of the three most significant measurement techniques using data from the literature and recently obtained field data. We will also briefly discuss the first two factors. The main question to be answered by this study is to determine if differences in the repeatability of these tests methods is sufficient to indicate that any of these methods is so poor that it should be excluded from consideration as an allowed procedure in codes and standards.

  16. DNA barcoding of the vegetable leafminer Liriomyza sativae Blanchard (Diptera: Agromyzidae) in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    DNA barcoding revealed the presence of the polyphagous leafminer pest Liriomyza sativae Blanchard in Bangladesh. DNA barcode sequences for mitochondrial COI were generated for Agromyzidae larvae, pupae and adults collected from field populations across Bangladesh. BLAST sequence similarity searches ...

  17. Ecological macroeconomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2013-01-01

    by a more theoretical debate and increased interaction between the heterodox schools of ecological economics and post-Keynesian economics. In addition, both the degrowth community and the research community organized around sustainable transitions of socio-technical systems have contributed to discussions...... on how to reconcile environmental and social concerns. Based on this broad variety of pieces in a jigsaw puzzle, a new ecological macroeconomics is emerging, but the contours are still vague. This chapter seeks to outline some of this topography and to add a few pieces of its own by highlighting the need...... to shift resources from consumption to investment and describing the role of consumer-citizens in such a change. The chapter starts by identifying the problems and challenges for an ecological macroeconomics. The next section outlines some of the shortcomings of traditional macroeconomics...

  18. Information Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ellen Tove

    2006-01-01

    The paper describes a pedagogical didactical paradigm for teaching student-designers how to deal with context issues. Form/context-relationships are conceptualized as information ecologies and described as behavioral settings using a key concept developed by social psychologist R.A. Baker...... in the 1960ties, and chosen here because it integrates cultural and psychological trajectories in a theory of living settings. The pedagogical-didactical paradigm comprises three distinct information ecologies, named after their intended outcome: the problem-setting, the exploration-setting, and the fit......-setting. It is specified how context issues can be treated within each of these information ecologies. The paper concludes by discussing the outcome of applying this paradigm with respect to the student-designers’ competence as reflective practitioners....

  19. Coastal Sea Level and Estuary Tide Modeling in Bangladesh Using SAR, Radar and GNSS-R Altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Y.; Shum, C. K.; Sun, J.; Li, D.; Shang, K.; Yi, Y.; Calmant, S.; Ballu, V.; Chu, P.; Johnson, J.; Park, J.; Bao, L.; Kuo, C. Y.; Wickert, J.

    2017-12-01

    Bangladesh, located at the confluence of three large rivers - Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna, is a low-lying country. It is prone to monsoonal flooding, potentially aggravated by more frequent and intensified cyclones resulting from anthropogenic climate change. Its coastal estuaries, the Sundarbans wetlands, have the largest Mangrove forest in the world, and exhibits complex tidal dynamics. In order to study flood hazards, ecological or climate changes over floodplains, it is fundamentally important to know the water level and water storage capacity in wetlands. Inaccurate or inadequate information about wetland water storage will cause significant errors in hydrological simulation and modeling for understanding ecological and economic implications. However, in most areas, the exact knowledge of water level change and the flow patterns is lacking due to insufficient monitoring of water level gauging stations on private and public lands within wetlands or floodplains, due to the difficulty of physical access to the sites and logistics in data gathering. Usage of satellite all-weather remote sensing products provides an alternative approach for monitoring the water level variation over floodplains or wetlands. In this study, we used a combination of observations from satellite radar altimetry (Envisat/Jason-2/Altika/Sentinel-3), L-band synthetic aperture radar (ALOS-1/-2) backscattering coefficients inferred water level, GNSS-R altimetry from two coastal/river GNSS sites, for measuring coastal and estuary sea-level and conducting estuary ocean tide modeling in the Bangladesh delta including the Sundarbans wetlands.

  20. Conservation Benefits of Tropical Multifunctional Land-Uses in and Around a Forest Protected Area of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharif A. Mukul

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Competing interests in land for agriculture and commodity production in tropical human-dominated landscapes make forests and biodiversity conservation particularly challenging. Establishment of protected areas in this regard is not functioning as expected due to exclusive ecological focus and poor recognition of local people’s traditional forest use and dependence. In recent years, multifunctional land-use systems such as agroforestry have widely been promoted as an efficient land-use in such circumstances, although their conservation effectiveness remains poorly investigated. We undertake a rapid biodiversity survey to understand the conservation value of four contrasting forms of local land-use, namely: betel leaf (Piper betle agroforestry; lemon (Citrus limon agroforestry; pineapple (Ananas comosus agroforestry; and, shifting cultivation–fallow managed largely by the indigenous communities in and around a highly diverse forest protected area of Bangladesh. We measure the alpha and beta diversity of plants, birds, and mammals in these multifunctional land-uses, as well as in the old-growth secondary forest in the area. Our study finds local land-use critical in conserving biodiversity in the area, with comparable biodiversity benefits as those of the old-growth secondary forest. In Bangladesh, where population pressure and rural people’s dependence on forests are common, multifunctional land-uses in areas of high conservation priority could potentially be used to bridge the gap between conservation and commodity production, ensuring that the ecological integrity of such landscapes will be altered as little as possible.

  1. Bangladesh apparel industry and its workers in a changing world economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmed, N.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis explores and analyses recent changes and challenges faced by the apparel industry of Bangladesh and the consequences of those for the Bangladesh economy. More specifically, it explores and analyses the importance of the apparel industry in the Bangladesh economy, the challenges faced by

  2. The Effectiveness of Farm Programmes on Bangladesh Betar in Educating Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Md. Mahedi; Mondal, Md. Nazrul Islam; Islam, Md. Nurul; Hoque, Md. Aminul

    2017-01-01

    Farm programmes (FPs) of varied categories have been developed and aired over several decades by Bangladesh Betar, the national radio of Bangladesh for the diffusion of farm technologies. The study aimed to produce an in-depth academic evaluation of their effectiveness in educating farmers in Bangladesh. A sample of 465 respondents from the Khulna…

  3. Bacterial Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenchel, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial ecology is concerned with the interactions between bacteria and their biological and nonbiological environments and with the role of bacteria in biogeochemical element cycling. Many fundamental properties of bacteria are consequences of their small size. Thus, they can efficiently exploit...

  4. Trash Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Georgia J.

    2004-01-01

    A hands on activity involving density, frequency and biomass using transects, quadrats and a local good deed by cleaning up the neighborhood while practicing important techniques in ecology is detailed. The activity is designed for KCC-STEP, whose primary goal is to expand the scientific knowledge and research experiences of their students, who…

  5. Ecological concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This volume contains three critical contributions on the application of modern technology from the ethical point of view. The peaceful use of nuclear power is rejected as a technical error, which is overwhelming humanity. Ethical bases of a preventive technological policy and ecological aims are developed for the 21st century, in economy, technology, politics, and consciousness. (HSCH) [de

  6. Repeatability of Cryogenic Multilayer Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W. L.; Vanderlaan, M.; Wood, J. J.; Rhys, N. O.; Guo, W.; Van Sciver, S.; Chato, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    Due to the variety of requirements across aerospace platforms, and one off projects, the repeatability of cryogenic multilayer insulation (MLI) has never been fully established. The objective of this test program is to provide a more basic understanding of the thermal performance repeatability of MLI systems that are applicable to large scale tanks. There are several different types of repeatability that can be accounted for: these include repeatability between identical blankets, repeatability of installation of the same blanket, and repeatability of a test apparatus. The focus of the work in this report is on the first two types of repeatability. Statistically, repeatability can mean many different things. In simplest form, it refers to the range of performance that a population exhibits and the average of the population. However, as more and more identical components are made (i.e. the population of concern grows), the simple range morphs into a standard deviation from an average performance. Initial repeatability testing on MLI blankets has been completed at Florida State University. Repeatability of five Glenn Research Center (GRC) provided coupons with 25 layers was shown to be +/- 8.4% whereas repeatability of repeatedly installing a single coupon was shown to be +/- 8.0%. A second group of 10 coupons has been fabricated by Yetispace and tested by Florida State University, the repeatability between coupons has been shown to be +/- 15-25%. Based on detailed statistical analysis, the data has been shown to be statistically significant.

  7. Duct Leakage Repeatability Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sherman, Max [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate the repeatability of the three most significant measurement techniques for duct leakage using data from the literature and recently obtained field data. We will also briefly discuss the first two factors. The main question to be answered by this study is to determine if differences in the repeatability of these tests methods is sufficient to indicate that any of these methods is so poor that it should be excluded from consideration as an allowed procedure in codes and standards. The three duct leak measurement methods assessed in this report are the two duct pressurization methods that are commonly used by many practitioners and the DeltaQ technique. These are methods B, C and A, respectively of the ASTM E1554 standard. Although it would be useful to evaluate other duct leak test methods, this study focused on those test methods that are commonly used and are required in various test standards, such as BPI (2010), RESNET (2014), ASHRAE 62.2 (2013), California Title 24 (CEC 2012), DOE Weatherization and many other energy efficiency programs.

  8. The intergenerational transmission of intimate partner violence in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Towfiqua Mahfuza; Tareque, Md Ismail; Tiedt, Andrew D; Hoque, Nazrul

    2014-01-01

    A number of individual risk factors for intimate partner violence (IPV) have been identified in Bangladesh. However, the etiology of IPV, intergenerational transmission, has never been tested in Bangladesh. We examined whether witnessing inter-parental physical violence (IPPV) was associated with IPV to identify whether IPV passes across generations in Bangladesh. We used nationally representative data of currently married women from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey-2007. Variations in experiencing IPV were assessed by Chi-square tests. Logistic regression models were fit to determine the association between witnessing IPPV and different types of IPV against women. One-fourth of women witnessed IPPV and experienced IPV. After adjusting for the covariates, women who witnessed IPPV were 2.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.0-2.8) times more likely to experience any kind of IPV, 2.5 (95% CI: 2.0-3.0) times more likely to experience moderate physical IPV, 2.3 (95% CI: 1.8-3.0) times more likely to experience severe physical IPV, and 1.8 (95% CI: 1.4-2.3) times more likely to experience sexual IPV. Age, age at first marriage, literacy, work status, wealth, justified wife beating, and women's autonomy were also identified as significant correlates of IPV. This study's results indicate that IPV passes from one generation to another. We make recommendations for preventing IPPV so that subsequent generations can enjoy healthy, respectful, nonviolent relationships in married life without exposure to IPV in Bangladesh.

  9. High mortality from Guillain-Barré syndrome in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishaque, Tanveen; Islam, Mohammad B; Ara, Gulshan; Endtz, Hubert P; Mohammad, Quazi D; Jacobs, Bart C; Islam, Zhahirul

    2017-06-01

    Although Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) has higher incidence and poor outcome in Bangladesh, mortality from GBS in Bangladesh has never been explored before. We sought to explore the frequency, timing, and risk factors for deaths from GBS in Bangladesh. We conducted a prospective study on 407 GBS patients who were admitted to Dhaka Medical College Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh from 2010 to 2013. We compared deceased and alive patients to identify risk factors. Cox regression model was used to adjust for confounders. Of the 407 GBS patients, 50 (12%) died, with the median time interval between the onset of weakness and death of 18 days. Among the fatal cases, 24 (48%) were ≥40 years, 36 (72%) had a Medical Research Council sum score ≤20 at entry, 33 (66%) had a progressive phase 8 days) (HR: 2.06; 95% CI: 1.1-3.8), autonomic dysfunction (HR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.05-3.6), and bulbar nerve involvement (HR: 5.4; 95% CI: 1.5-19.2). In Bangladesh, GBS is associated with higher mortality rates, which is related to lack of ventilator support, disease severity, longer progressive phase of the disease, autonomic dysfunction, and involvement of the bulbar nerves. © 2017 Peripheral Nerve Society.

  10. Potentiality of wind power generation along the Bangladesh coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Md. Akramuzzaman; Chowdhury, K. M. Azam; Sen, Sukanta; Islam, Mohammad Masudul

    2017-12-01

    Nowadays Bangladesh is facing the problem with electricity as the production is less comparing to the demand. A significant amount of electricity is consumed in urban areas especially by industries whereas in rural or coastal areas most of the people are not having it. Around 40 millions of people living in the 724 km long coast in Bangladesh. Moreover, it is surprising that throughout the year there is sufficient wind blow in coastal areas by which we can produce a massive amount of electricity. However, day by day the utilization of wind energy is increasing in the world which reduces costs of renewable energy technology, improves efficiency. It would be a good alternative solution instead of dependency on natural gas. Wind energy is mainly potential in coastal and offshore areas with strong wind regimes. Wind energy is vital for ensuring a green energy for the future. The agricultural land of Bangladesh needs the supply of water at right time for better yielding. The installation of windmills will be very much convenient for operating the water supply pumps. This research highlights the possibility of wind energy and describes the necessary steps to implement and develop wind energy sector in Bangladesh by using other's successful ideas. Supportive policies, rules, and decree can be applied to make government, non-government organization, and donor organizations work together to develop wind energy sector in Bangladesh.

  11. Modeling and forecasting natural gas demand in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadud, Zia; Dey, Himadri S.; Kabir, Md. Ashfanoor; Khan, Shahidul I.

    2011-01-01

    Natural gas is the major indigenous source of energy in Bangladesh and accounts for almost one-half of all primary energy used in the country. Per capita and total energy use in Bangladesh is still very small, and it is important to understand how energy, and natural gas demand will evolve in the future. We develop a dynamic econometric model to understand the natural gas demand in Bangladesh, both in the national level, and also for a few sub-sectors. Our demand model shows large long run income elasticity - around 1.5 - for aggregate demand for natural gas. Forecasts into the future also show a larger demand in the future than predicted by various national and multilateral organizations. Even then, it is possible that our forecasts could still be at the lower end of the future energy demand. Price response was statistically not different from zero, indicating that prices are possibly too low and that there is a large suppressed demand for natural gas in the country. - Highlights: → Natural gas demand is modeled using dynamic econometric methods, first of its kind in Bangladesh. → Income elasticity for aggregate natural gas demand in Bangladesh is large-around 1.5. → Demand is price insensitive, indicating too low prices and/or presence of large suppressed demand. → Demand forecasts reveal large divergence from previous estimates, which is important for planning. → Attempts to model demand for end-use sectors were successful only for the industrial sector.

  12. History and Perspectives of Nuclear Medicine in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Raihan

    2016-01-01

    Bangladesh is one of the smaller states in Asia. But it has a long and rich history of nuclear medicine for over sixty years. The progress in science and technology is always challenging in a developing country. In 1958, work for the first Nuclear Medicine facility was commenced in Dhaka in a tin-shed known as ‘Radioisotope Centre’ and was officially inaugurated in 1962. Since the late 50s of the last century nuclear medicine in Bangladesh has significantly progressed through the years in its course of development, but still the facilities are inadequate. At present there are 20 nuclear medicine establishments with 3 PET-CTs, 42 gamma camera/SPECTs with 95 physicians, 20 physicists, 10 radiochemists and 150 technologists. The Society of Nuclear Medicine, Bangladesh (SNMB) was formed in 1993 and publishing its official journal since 1997. Bangladesh also has close relationships with many international organizations like IAEA, ARCCNM, AOFNMB, ASNM, WFNMB and WARMTH. The history and the present scenario of the status of nuclear medicine in Bangladesh are being described here. PMID:27904875

  13. History and Perspectives of Nuclear Medicine in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Raihan

    2016-01-01

    Bangladesh is one of the smaller states in Asia. But it has a long and rich history of nuclear medicine for over sixty years. The progress in science and technology is always challenging in a developing country. In 1958, work for the first Nuclear Medicine facility was commenced in Dhaka in a tin-shed known as 'Radioisotope Centre' and was officially inaugurated in 1962. Since the late 50s of the last century nuclear medicine in Bangladesh has significantly progressed through the years in its course of development, but still the facilities are inadequate. At present there are 20 nuclear medicine establishments with 3 PET-CTs, 42 gamma camera/SPECTs with 95 physicians, 20 physicists, 10 radiochemists and 150 technologists. The Society of Nuclear Medicine, Bangladesh (SNMB) was formed in 1993 and publishing its official journal since 1997. Bangladesh also has close relationships with many international organizations like IAEA, ARCCNM, AOFNMB, ASNM, WFNMB and WARMTH. The history and the present scenario of the status of nuclear medicine in Bangladesh are being described here.

  14. Repeat Customer Success in Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bess, Melissa M.; Traub, Sarah M.

    2013-01-01

    Four multi-session research-based programs were offered by two Extension specialist in one rural Missouri county. Eleven participants who came to multiple Extension programs could be called "repeat customers." Based on the total number of participants for all four programs, 25% could be deemed as repeat customers. Repeat customers had…

  15. Political ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strohm, H.

    1979-01-01

    Using facts and examples, this didactically structures textbook gives an insight into the extent and consequences of the damage to the environment, with the subjects - fundamentals of ecology; - population and food problems; - the energy problem; - economic growth; scarcity of resources, recycling; - ground, water, and air pollution, - city and traffic problems; - work protection and medical care; - political alternatives and 'soft technologies'. The analysis of the political and economic reasons is combined with social and technical alternatives from which demands to be made and measures to be taken can be derived for individuals, citizens' interest groups, political groups and trade unions. Teaching models intend to help teachers to work on specific problems of ecology. (orig.) [de

  16. Political Ecology

    OpenAIRE

    DeFriez, Joshua; Larsen, Justine; Hilton, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Environmental legislation is commonly accepted as an altruistic approach to land management. A closer examination however, reveals that political incentives and flawed arguments consistently shape U.S. environmental policy at high public costs. As student fellows at the Institute of Political Economy at Utah State University, we have had the opportunity to research this subject under the direction of Professor Randy Simmons. Political Ecology is his upcoming book that explores a variety of en...

  17. Graphic Ecologies

    OpenAIRE

    Brook Weld Muller

    2014-01-01

    This essay describes strategic approaches to graphic representation associated with critical environmental engagement and that build from the idea of works of architecture as stitches in the ecological fabric of the city. It focuses on the building up of partial or fragmented graphics in order to describe inclusive, open-ended possibilities for making architecture that marry rich experience and responsive performance. An aphoristic approach to crafting drawings involves complex layering, cons...

  18. ECOLOGICAL EDUCATION

    OpenAIRE

    GABRIELA GYONGY MIHUT

    2011-01-01

    While in most emerging and developing countries, the population has a lower ecological footprint in the developed countries have a larger footprint.There is also an alarming contrast between a person perception of her liability for damages to its environment and its actual size. These misconceptions may have their source in the absence of awareness of risks from climate change, culture or religion.The purpose of this study is to analyze the situation at the international and Romanian level an...

  19. Terrestrial ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The main effort of the Terrestrial Ecology Division has been redirected to a comprehensive study of the Espiritu Santo Drainage Basin located in northeastern Puerto Rico. The general objective are to provide baseline ecological data for future environmental assessment studies at the local and regional levels, and to provide through an ecosystem approach data for the development of management alternatives for the wise utilization of energy, water, and land resources. The interrelationships among climate, vegetation, soils, and man, and their combined influence upon the hydrologic cycle will be described and evaluated. Environmental management involves planning and decision making, and both require an adequate data base. At present, little is known about the interworkings of a complete, integrated system such as a drainage basin. A literature survey of the main research areas confirmed that, although many individual ecologically oriented studies have been carried out in a tropical environment, few if any provide the data base required for environmental management. In view of rapidly changing socio-economic conditions and natural resources limitations, management urgently requires data from these systems: physical (climatological), biological, and cultural. This integrated drainage basin study has been designed to provide such data. The scope of this program covers the hydrologic cycle as it is affected by the interactions of the physical, biological, and cultural systems

  20. An interview with Mahmuder Rahman: Bangladesh's arsenic agony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mahmuder

    2008-01-01

    Professor Mahmuder Rahman obtained his medical degree from Dhaka University in Bangladesh and is a member of the Royal College of Physicians (United Kingdom). He was a full professor and consultant physician at Dhaka National Medical College and Hospital until 2003. Apart from his clinical and academic work, he has contributed extensively to formulating policy for affordable health services, and is actively involved in developing integrated health delivery services such as Dhaka Community Hospital, which is a self-financing hospital dedicated to providing health care for people on low incomes. Rahman was actively involved in developing the "Arsenicosis" National Case Detection and Case Management Protocols. He has published more than 15 papers on Bangladesh's arsenic problem. As a member of Bangladesh's National Expert Committee on Arsenic, he took a leading role in formulating the National Arsenic Mitigation Policy and Action Plan.

  1. Climate change and soil salinity: The case of coastal Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Susmita; Hossain, Md Moqbul; Huq, Mainul; Wheeler, David

    2015-12-01

    This paper estimates location-specific soil salinity in coastal Bangladesh for 2050. The analysis was conducted in two stages: First, changes in soil salinity for the period 2001-2009 were assessed using information recorded at 41 soil monitoring stations by the Soil Research Development Institute. Using these data, a spatial econometric model was estimated linking soil salinity with the salinity of nearby rivers, land elevation, temperature, and rainfall. Second, future soil salinity for 69 coastal sub-districts was projected from climate-induced changes in river salinity and projections of rainfall and temperature based on time trends for 20 Bangladesh Meteorological Department weather stations in the coastal region. The findings indicate that climate change poses a major soil salinization risk in coastal Bangladesh. Across 41 monitoring stations, the annual median projected change in soil salinity is 39 % by 2050. Above the median, 25 % of all stations have projected changes of 51 % or higher.

  2. Challenges in Teaching Pronunciation at Tertiary Level in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanzina Tahereen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Teaching pronunciation is one the most challenging parts of ELT in Bangladesh. Very few research and least attention on pronunciation teaching has instigated those challenges more. Moreover, setting an ambitious target to achieve native like pronunciation and teaching without considering the Bangladeshi context are more specific reasons for creating those problems. Therefore, this paper concentrates on the discussion of the existing condition of teaching pronunciation in Bangladesh. Consequently, it starts with presenting existing circumstances of pronunciation teaching in Bangladesh, and showing what the achievable and realistic goal should be for this situation. Then, it talks about the challenges that the teachers face while teaching pronunciation in ELT classroom. This discussion provides deep insight into those challenges which are only applicable to Bangladeshi students. Finally, the paper suggests some contextual and practical solutions to those specific problems.

  3. Operationalizing safe operating space for regional social-ecological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Sarwar; Dearing, John A; Eigenbrod, Felix; Johnson, Fiifi Amoako

    2017-04-15

    This study makes a first attempt to operationalize the safe operating space concept at a regional scale by considering the complex dynamics (e.g. non-linearity, feedbacks, and interactions) within a systems dynamic model (SD). We employ the model to explore eight 'what if' scenarios based on well-known challenges (e.g. climate change) and current policy debates (e.g. subsidy withdrawal). The findings show that the social-ecological system in the Bangladesh delta may move beyond a safe operating space when a withdrawal of a 50% subsidy for agriculture is combined with the effects of a 2°C temperature increase and sea level rise. Further reductions in upstream river discharge in the Ganges would push the system towards a dangerous zone once a 3.5°C temperature increase was reached. The social-ecological system in Bangladesh delta may be operated within a safe space by: 1) managing feedback (e.g. by reducing production costs) and the slow biophysical variables (e.g. temperature, rainfall) to increase the long-term resilience, 2) negotiating for transboundary water resources, and 3) revising global policies (e.g. withdrawal of subsidy) that negatively impact at regional scales. This study demonstrates how the concepts of tipping points, limits to adaptations, and boundaries for sustainable development may be defined in real world social-ecological systems. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Sustainable agriculture: a challenge in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.A. Faroque

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The sustainability of conventional agriculture in Bangladesh is under threat from the continuous degradation of land and water resources, and from declining yields due to indiscriminate use of agro-chemicals. Government is pursuing efforts to promote sustainable agriculture with emphasis on better use of on-farm resources and the reduction of external inputs. This paper presents four dimensions of agricultural sustainability as productivity, environmental stability, economical profitability, and social and economic equity. Six characters were selected to evaluate sustainability. Significant differences were found between the two systems (conventional and sustainable agriculture in crop diversification, soil fertility management, pests and diseases management, use of agro-chemicals and environmental issues. However, no significant variations were found in other indicators such as land-use pattern, crop yield and stability, risk and uncertainties, and food security. Although crop yield and financial return were found to be slightly higher in the conventional system, the economic return and value addition per unit of land did not show any difference. It can be suggested that sustainable agriculture has a tendency towards becoming environmental, economically and socially more sound than conventional agriculture, as it requires considerably less agro-chemicals, adds more organic matter to the soil, provides balanced food, and requires higher local inputs without markedly compromising output and financial benefits. Broad-policy measures, including the creation of mass awareness of adverse health effects of agrochemical-based products, are outlined for the promotion of sustainable agriculture.

  5. Coalbed Methane prospect of Jamalganj Coalfield Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imam, M. Badrul; Rahman, M.; Akhtar, Syed Humayun

    2002-01-01

    Five major Gondwana coalfields have been discovered in the half-graben type basins in the subsurface in the Precambrian platform area of the Northwest Bangladesh. The Jamalganj coalfields with an estimated reserve of about 1053 millions tons of coal, has seven coal seams in the depth range between 640 to 1158m below the ground surface. Compared to the other coalfields of the area, with coal occurring at 150 to 500m depth, Jamalganj coal is considered to be too deep to be exploited by conventional underground or open pit mining. Instead, developing coal bed methane from Jamalganj coalfield may be considered as a viable option for its exploitation. The positive factors of Jamalganj coal bed methane development include high net thickness of coal with at least one very thick (40m+) and widely developed seam, coal seam burial depth within optimum range, large coal reserves, indication of significant gas content from drilling data, and poor permeability in the rocks above and surrounding the coal layers. The thickest seam III can be primary target for CBM development especially where it combines with seam IV in the eastern part of coalfield. However, there are a number of unknown factors like actual gas content of coal, permeability, and in-seam pressure that need to be evaluated before deciding the viability of the project. An initial attempt to collect these base line data should include drilling test well or wells in the primary target area where seam III is most thick and widely developed. (author)

  6. Status of contamination monitoring in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begum, Aleya [Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Savar, Dacca (Bangladesh)

    1997-06-01

    The applications of radioisotopes and radiation sources to the research and development in medicine, food agriculture, industries and others are rapidly increasing in Bangladesh. The existing major nuclear facilites and allied laboratories of the country include 3 MW TRIGA Mark-2 research reactor for training, research and radioisotope production, 14 MeV neutron generator for nuclear data measurement and elemental analysis via neutron activation, 3 MeV Van de Graaff accelerator for the research and application of nuclear physics, and 50,000 Ci and 5,000 Ci Co-60 irradiators. About 10 Co-60 and Cs-137 teletherapy units are in operation in hospitals. The radioactive contamination of working areas, equipment, protective clothing and skin may result from normal operation and accidents, and contamination monitoring and decontamination are the essential part of radiation protection program. Surface contamination is monitored with Berthold survey meters. Hand and foot monitors have been used. Routine systematic search, continuous air monitoring, the examination of silt movement in Chittagong harbor using Sc-46 tracer and the measurement of tritium contamination for the neutron generator are reported. (K.I.)

  7. Sexual violence towards married women in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naved, Ruchira Tabassum

    2013-05-01

    This article explored the magnitude and nature of within marriage sexual violence against women and factors associated with physically forced sex by husbands in urban and rural Bangladesh using population-based survey data from 2001 (n = 2,702). Results showed high prevalence of lifetime sexual violence: 37 % in urban and 50 % in rural areas. An overwhelming majority of the women reported being sexually abused by husbands more than once. Logistic regression analyses revealed that six out of ten independent variables included in the models were significant. The factors positively associated with physically forced sex by husbands during the last 12 months were: history of physical abuse of husband's mother by his father; level of controlling behavior by husband; and forced or coerced first sex. Women's age (20-24 compared to 15-19) and dowry demand at marriage increased the likelihood of this violence in the rural area. Urban women in the second and third income quartiles were more likely to be exposed to this violence compared to women in the first quartile. Results highlight the need for prevention programs targeting men, which would help at the same time to break the cycle of intergenerational exposure and thereby transmission of violence. Notions of gender equality; women's sexual rights; and women's right to consent and choice need to be widely promoted particularly among men.

  8. NEW TRENDS IN LEGAL EDUCATION AT BANGLADESH OPEN UNIVERSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid FERDOUSI

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In Bangladesh, Formal legal education is provided by either a department of a university or an affiliated college. There are four public universities and above twenty six private universities in our country with law as a regular subject of teaching. Besides, the National University imparts teaching of law through law colleges in the country. All public and private universities providing law graduate degree by conventional system but many people deprived from this opportunities. Thus to increase equitable access to education and to develop the human resources of the country the Bangladesh Open University playing significant role. Large numbers of students of rural areas, particularly women, out of school and adults who must do work to support their families are include with the university. Bangladesh Open University is the only institution in Bangladesh which imparts education in open and distance mode and offers 23 formal programmes, the demand for the introduction of LL.B programme for the benefit of those who have been, for various reasons, deprived of the opportunity of undertaking graduate course in law in conventional mode of education. The decision to offer the programme in distance mode is being taken in response to the earnest desire of the relevant quarters expressed in various dailies and formal applications submitted to the university authority as the learners in the open and distance mode learn at his own place and any time whenever he feels convenient to learn and is not for restricted by time, space or age. Distance learning is, indeed, presently considered as a viable alternative of the conventional system of education to fulfill the growing demand for legal education.This paper presents the new academic trends in Bangladesh Open University by distance learning Bachelor of Laws (LL.B. degree and modern aspects of the legal education at School of Law in Bangladesh Open University.

  9. FORMAL TRADE BETWEEN INDIA AND BANGLADESH: AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K.S. YADAV

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The importance of improving trade flows between India and Bangladesh is not only beneficial to them, but for the whole SAARC region, given that Bhutan and Nepal utilise Bangladesh ports as gateways to trade outside the region. Bangladesh’s overall exports are dominated by labour-intensive manufacturing and its imports to India by primary commodities. The shares of manufactured goods in country’s overall export were about 92 and 91 percent in 2001 and 2011 respectively. However, the composition of bilateral trade between these two countries has been changing over time. Addition and removal in the list of products of trade basket is a usual process. Consistent products in the trade basket of Bangladesh are ready made garments and sea food, whereas those of India are raw cotton, cereals and products and machinery of iron and steel. Expansion of trade of these countries with outside world, but not with each other confirms the prevalence of certain barriers, physical or non-physical in nature, rendering many potential products remain untraded. India and Bangladesh being geographically proximate to each other possess huge scope to trade. Specifically as both the countries are rich in natural resources and are competent in the production of small-scale manufacturing and agrarian supplies, mostly from the eastern parts of India and Bangladesh, both possess huge potential for bilateral trade. Many items having high trade potential are still not able to get market exposure in the neighbouring country because of various non-tariff barriers prevailing in current trade scenario, which have hiked up the cost of doing business to unacceptable proportions and as most of the highly tradable products are still kept under the sensitive lists of Bangladesh. There are numerous bottlenecks in the current trade infrastructure which turns out to be physical barrier to trade. The present paper highlights the import export and Exchange Rate change and prospects of

  10. Issues in developing a mitigation strategy for Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asaduzzaman, M. [Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    1996-12-31

    Bangladesh, it is by now well-known, is at the receiving end, in the literal sense of the term, of the global climate change and its potential impacts. She contributes very little to the current global emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs). The Emission Inventory under the present umbrella project, Bangladesh Climate Change Study (BCCS), has found that her annual emission of carbon has been only 3.99 mn metric tons per year. An earlier study arrived at exactly the same figure. The figures for estimated release of methane is far less firm. The estimated methane emission in 1990 could be anywhere between 1 million and 6 million metric tons. In any case the total emission is unlikely to be more than one-half of one percent of the global total. On the other hand, however, she faces specter of widespread and more frequent floods, more frequent droughts, cyclones and above all sea-level rise (SLR) which may inundate a substantial part of the country all of these bringing in immeasurable misery and destitution and loss of income, employment and growth. One would expect that in such a situation, Bangladesh`s basic concern should be to prepare an appropriate adaptation strategy. This is already a major policy concern of the Government. There is, however, an increasing realization that Bangladesh should as well emphasize an appropriate mitigation strategy (MS). There may be at least three reasons why this should be so. The first is that she is a signatory of the Framework Convention on Climate Change. The second is that in the medium, if not short term she expects major growth due to a developing economy. Third is that Bangladesh depends primarily on fossil fuel imports for energy, and will become a larger source with further development.

  11. Ebola Virus Disease – Global Scenario & Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Rezwanur Rahman

    2015-03-01

    test, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assay, electron microscopy and virus isolation by cell culture.1 Supportive care - rehydration with oral or intravenous fluids - and treatment of specific symptoms, improves survival. There is as yet no proven treatment available for EVD.1 Raising awareness of risk factors for Ebola infection and protective measures that individuals can take is an effective way to reduce human transmission. Risk reduction messaging should focus on several factors like reducing the risks of wildlife-to-human transmission and human-to-human transmission and also on outbreak containment measures.1 Health care workers caring for patients with suspected or confirmed Ebola virus should apply extra infection control measures to prevent contact with the patient’s blood and body fluids and contaminated surfaces or materials such as clothing and bedding, wear face protection besides routine measures. Samples taken from humans and animals for investigation of Ebola infection should be handled by trained staff with utmost care and processed in suitably equipped laboratories.1 The infections of two health care workers in Dallas, USA and a nurse in Madrid, Spain have revealed the truth that even highly developed nations are not immune. Still, Asia has some advantages as it readies itself for Ebola. Flight patterns suggest that the influx of travelers from Ebola-stricken West African countries to the Asian continent is far less than it is to Africa, Europe or North America.10 The recent outbreak affecting several nations also alarmed the public health sector of Bangladesh. But virus and healthcare experts have assured that there is nothing to be anxious about Ebola in Bangladesh as it has been categorized as among the least threatened countries by the World Health Organization (WHO on August 8, 2014 in its first Emergency Committee meeting.11 Bangladesh Government has already taken effective preventive measures suggested by WHO, which

  12. Human Resources Development for Rooppur Nuclear Power Programme in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, Md. Kabir

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: • Bangladesh faces a huge challenge in implementing the Rooppur NPP and its total nuclear power; • A preliminary assessment has been chalked out a plan to find out methods that can be applied to find out our gaps and then fill them up; • Bangladesh seeks cooperation from the Russian Federation in the form assistance package like National training courses, Seminar/Workshop, Expert Mission/Review and other form of bilateral arrangements in establishing infrastructure for “Rooppur NPP” building;

  13. A rainfall simulation model for agricultural development in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sayedur Rahman

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A rainfall simulation model based on a first-order Markov chain has been developed to simulate the annual variation in rainfall amount that is observed in Bangladesh. The model has been tested in the Barind Tract of Bangladesh. Few significant differences were found between the actual and simulated seasonal, annual and average monthly. The distribution of number of success is asymptotic normal distribution. When actual and simulated daily rainfall data were used to drive a crop simulation model, there was no significant difference of rice yield response. The results suggest that the rainfall simulation model perform adequately for many applications.

  14. Determination of Causality between Remittance and Import: Evidence from Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewan Muktadir-Al-Mukit

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the relationship between remittance and import for the economy of Bangladesh. The study used different econometric techniques of measuring the long and short term relationship between variables. The Johansen Cointegration test is used to determine the existence of a long term relationships between study variables. The normalized Cointegrating coefficients are found statistically significant and show a stable and positive relationship between study variables. Our Granger causality analysis suggests the existence of a unidirectional causality running from import to remittance. This confirms that remittances have no significant impact on the demand for imported goods rather import exerts a positive shock on the remittance of Bangladesh.

  15. Variabilité climatique, changements sociaux et dengue au Bangladesh

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Variabilité climatique, changements sociaux et dengue au Bangladesh. Depuis 2000, les grandes villes du Bangladesh connaissent une résurgence de la dengue. Il s'agit là d'un problème de santé publique préoccupant, puisqu'une épidémie risque d'éclater d'une année à l'autre. Or, on connaît mal la dynamique de ...

  16. DATA ENVELOPMENT ANALYSIS OF BANKING SECTOR IN BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rashedul Hoque

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Banking sector of Bangladesh is flourishing and contributing to its economy. In this aspect measuring efficiency is important. Data Envelopment Analysis technique is used for this purpose. The data are collected from the annual reports of twenty four different banks in Bangladesh. Data Envelopment Analysis is mainly of two types - constant returns to scale and variable returns to scale. Since this study attempts to maximize output, so the output oriented Data Envelopment Analysis is used. The most efficient bank is one that obtains the highest efficiency score.

  17. The emerging disease occurrence of pet animals in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umma Habiba

    2016-12-01

    Results: Among the most general pet animals in Bangladesh (dog, cat, rabbit, the mostly occured diseases were scabies (23.07%, feline ascariasis (37.14% and rabbit mange (34.61%, while the less frequent diseases were canine parvovirus enteritis (2.19%, cat scratch disease (5.71% and overgrown teeth (7.69%. Conclusion: The study provides basic information about the current status and the percentage (% of disease occurrence considering the emerging diseases of pet animals in Bangladesh. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(4.000: 413-419

  18. Existing and Expected Service Quality of Grameenphone Users in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmat Ullah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Grameenphone (GP is a market leader in the telecommunication industry in Bangladesh. This study investigates the existing and expected service quality of Grameenphone users in Bangladesh. The Study reveals that there are significant gap between existing and expected perceived service network, 3G, customer care, physical facilities, billing cost, information service, mobile banking and GP offers. The study concludes that customer satisfaction is a dynamic phenomenon. Maintaining desired level of customer satisfaction requires corporate proactive responsiveness in accessing, building & retaining satisfied customers for sustainable competitive advantages in the marketplace.

  19. Role of Mothers’ Education on Children’s Nutritional Status in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasib Chowdhury, Golam Enamul; Hasan, Md. Mehedi

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Background: Malnutrition continues to be a major public health problem in Bangladesh. Roughly half of all children under five years in this country show evidence of chronic malnutrition. Reasons behind this range from household distribution of foods, dietary practices, distribution of land, access to education and health facilities and infrastructure development. So, as a part of building up a regular alert system, a surveillance program named Food Security Nutritional Surveillance Project (FSNSP) was setup in 2009. This study is tasked to determine the effect of mother’s education on child nutritional status. Methodology: FSNSP has been implementing a nationally representative surveillance over three major seasons in Bangladesh: post-aman harvest period (January-April); monsoon (May-August); and post-aus harvest season (September-December). The project is tasked to track key food security, nutrition and health indicators through these three seasons of the year and to build national capacity to sustain the system in the future. FSNSP also aims to provide timely information about the health, agriculture, economic, and social sectors with regard to food security and nutrition. It targets food insecure areas through seven vulnerable agro-ecological zones. The ultimate sampling unit is all households with an adolescent girl/woman from 10 to 49 years of age or a child less than five years of age. In each season, 9024 households are interviewed. Results: Almost 30% of the study children were found stunted whereas 40% were underweight and 11% were wasted of which 10.6% were moderately acute malnourished (MAM). Prevalence of under nutrition in the form of stunting, underweight and wasting varies significantly across maternal educational status. Rates of under nutrition were significantly lower among children of higher educated mothers (stunting: 17.2%, underweight: 26.3% and wasting: 10%) compared to children of illiterate mothers (stunting: 37.5%, underweight

  20. Reduced susceptibility to extended-spectrum β-lactams in V. cholerae isolated in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Ceccarelli

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available β-lactams are antibiotic molecules able to inhibit cell wall biosynthesis. Among other mechanisms, resistance in Gram-negative bacteria is mostly associated with production of β-lactamase enzymes able to bind and hydrolyze the β-lactam ring. Extended-spectrum β-lactamases extend this ability also to 3rd- and 4th generation cephalosporins as well as to carbapenems and monobactams. V. cholerae is the causative agent of epidemic cholera and a public health burden for developing countries like Bangladesh. Although appropriate oral or intravenous rehydration is the therapy of choice for cholera, severe infections and V. cholerae associated septicemia are treated with antimicrobial drugs including doxycycline, erythromycin, azithromycin, ciprofloxacin and/or third-generation cephalosporins. In the years after introduction of antibiotics in clinical practice, V. cholerae developed resistance to commonly used drugs worldwide mostly through gene acquisition via horizontal gene transfer. Reduced susceptibility of V. cholerae to third-generation cephalosporins has been occasionally documented. However, carbapenemase-producing V. cholerae has been reported at higher rates than resistance to extended spectrum β-lactams, mainly associated with blaNDM-1 emergence and successful plasmid dissemination. Recent findings suggest limited β-lactam resistance is present in V. cholerae O1 isolates collected during ecological and epidemiological surveillance in Bangladesh. However a trend to intermediate-susceptibility insurgence was observed. Horizontal gene transfer of β-lactam resistance from enteric pathogens to environmental microorganisms should not be underrated, given the ability of V. cholerae to acquire new genetic information.

  1. Potential Trade-Offs between the Sustainable Development Goals in Coastal Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig W. Hutton

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs are offered as a comprehensive strategy to guide and encourage sustainable development at multiple scales both nationally and internationally. Furthermore, through the development of indicators associated with each goal and sub-goal, the SDGs support the notion of monitoring, evaluation and adaptive management, underpinned by the aspirations of social justice, equity and transparency. As such, the ethical intention of the SDGs is well founded. However, possible conflicts and trade-offs between individual SDGs have received little attention. For example, SDGs relating to poverty (SDG 1, inequality (SDG 10, food security (SDG2, economic development (SDG 8 and life in water and on land (SDGs 14 and 15, are potentially competing in many circumstances. In a social–ecological context, policy support and formulation are increasingly adopting systems approaches, which analyse the complex interactions of system elements. Adopting such an approach in this work, the above SDGs are analysed for coastal Bangladesh. This demonstrates multiple potential trade-offs between the SDGs, including agricultural farming approaches in the light of poverty reduction, and between economic growth and environmental integrity as well as equity. To develop coherent and policy relevant socio-ecological strategies, appropriate decision frameworks need to be co-developed across the range of stakeholders and decision-makers. Integrated models have great potential to support such a process.

  2. REPEAT KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Sushkov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, kidney transplantation is the best approach of renal replacement therapy for the majority of patients with end-stage renal disease that significantly improves the quality and length of life. Advances in the field of organ donation, immunosuppression, transplant surgery and immunology have improved short-term graft and patient survival. But the long-term graft survival remains static over last two decades. The disparity between low graft and high patient long-term survival led to increasing number of transplant recipients with failed grafts. Repeat renal transplant is presumed to be a good option for many patients losing their grafts, but it is associated with higher complication rates. Unfortunately, there are no evidence-based recommendations or guidelines for renal retransplantation procedure. This review is based on 100 scientifi c publications related to various aspects of the kidney retransplantation and provides the recent data on this matter.

  3. Graphic Ecologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brook Weld Muller

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay describes strategic approaches to graphic representation associated with critical environmental engagement and that build from the idea of works of architecture as stitches in the ecological fabric of the city. It focuses on the building up of partial or fragmented graphics in order to describe inclusive, open-ended possibilities for making architecture that marry rich experience and responsive performance. An aphoristic approach to crafting drawings involves complex layering, conscious absence and the embracing of tension. A self-critical attitude toward the generation of imagery characterized by the notion of ‘loose precision’ may lead to more transformative and environmentally responsive architectures.

  4. Industrial ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, C K

    1992-01-01

    Industrial ecology addresses issues that will impact future production, use, and disposal technologies; proper use of the concept should reduce significantly the resources devoted to potential remediation in the future. This cradle-to-reincarnation production philosophy includes industrial processes that are environmentally sound and products that are environmentally safe during use and economically recyclable after use without adverse impact on the environment or on the net cost to society. This will require an industry-university-government round table to set the strategy and agenda for progress. PMID:11607254

  5. Child marriage in Bangladesh: trends and determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, S M Mostafa; Hassan, Che Hashim; Alam, Gazi Mahabubul; Ying, Yang

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the trends and determinants of child marriage among women aged 20-49 in Bangladesh. Data were extracted from the last six nationally representative Demographic and Health Surveys conducted during 1993-2011. Simple cross-tabulation and multivariate binary logistic regression analyses were adopted. According to the survey conducted in 2011, more than 75% of marriages can be categorized as child marriages. This is a decline of 10 percentage points in the prevalence of child marriage compared with the survey conducted in 1993-1994. Despite some improvements in education and other socioeconomic indicators, Bangladeshi society still faces the relentless practice of early marriage. The mean age at first marriage has increased by only 1.4 years over the last one and half decades, from 14.3 years in 1993-1994 to 15.7 years in 2011. Although the situation on risk of child marriage has improved over time, the pace is sluggish. Both the year-of-birth and year-of-marriage cohorts of women suggest that the likelihood of marrying as a child has decreased significantly in recent years. The risk of child marriage was significantly higher when husbands had no formal education or little education, and when the wives were unemployed or unskilled workers. Muslim women living in rural areas have a greater risk of child marriage. Women's education level was the single most significant negative determinant of child marriage. Thus, the variables identified as important determinants of child marriage are: education of women and their husbands, and women's occupation, place of residence and religion. Programmes to help and motivate girls to stay in school will not only reduce early marriage but will also support overall societal development. The rigid enforcement of the legal minimum age at first marriage could be critical in decreasing child marriage.

  6. Expansion of protein domain repeats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asa K Björklund

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Many proteins, especially in eukaryotes, contain tandem repeats of several domains from the same family. These repeats have a variety of binding properties and are involved in protein-protein interactions as well as binding to other ligands such as DNA and RNA. The rapid expansion of protein domain repeats is assumed to have evolved through internal tandem duplications. However, the exact mechanisms behind these tandem duplications are not well-understood. Here, we have studied the evolution, function, protein structure, gene structure, and phylogenetic distribution of domain repeats. For this purpose we have assigned Pfam-A domain families to 24 proteomes with more sensitive domain assignments in the repeat regions. These assignments confirmed previous findings that eukaryotes, and in particular vertebrates, contain a much higher fraction of proteins with repeats compared with prokaryotes. The internal sequence similarity in each protein revealed that the domain repeats are often expanded through duplications of several domains at a time, while the duplication of one domain is less common. Many of the repeats appear to have been duplicated in the middle of the repeat region. This is in strong contrast to the evolution of other proteins that mainly works through additions of single domains at either terminus. Further, we found that some domain families show distinct duplication patterns, e.g., nebulin domains have mainly been expanded with a unit of seven domains at a time, while duplications of other domain families involve varying numbers of domains. Finally, no common mechanism for the expansion of all repeats could be detected. We found that the duplication patterns show no dependence on the size of the domains. Further, repeat expansion in some families can possibly be explained by shuffling of exons. However, exon shuffling could not have created all repeats.

  7. Rainfall and temperature scenarios for Bangladesh for the middle of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    viding the opportunity for research work at ICTP and also to the Director, SAARC Meteorologi- cal Research Centre (SMRC), for allowing him to work as a Regular Associate at the ICTP to con- duct this study. The Bangladesh Meteorological. Department (BMD) is acknowledged for providing observational data. References.

  8. All projects related to Bangladesh | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2007-09-05

    Telecentre Network Startup : Bangladesh - Mission 2011. Project. The second generation of telecentres has seen the emergence of national-level networks in various parts of the word including the Ugandan Telecentre Network, Mission 2007 in India and Mission Swaabhimaan in Nepal. Start Date: September 5, 2007.

  9. bangladesh : tous les projets | Page 6 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Le gouvernement du Bangladesh finance un certain nombre d'initiatives visant à décentraliser la gestion ressources halieutiques et hydriques, majoritairement grâce au soutien de bailleurs de fonds externes. Date de début : 18 janvier 2007. End Date: 29 août 2010. Sujet: RIVER BASINS, FISHERY MANAGEMENT, ...

  10. Changing profile of rotavirus genotypes in Bangladesh, 2006-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afrad, Mokibul Hassan; Hassan, Zahid; Farjana, Saiada; Moni, Sayra; Barua, Subarna; Das, Sumon Kumar; Faruque, Abu Syed Golam; Azim, Tasnim; Rahman, Mustafizur

    2013-07-15

    Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe diarrhea in infants and young children worldwide including Bangladesh. Unlike what was seen in high-income countries, the licensed rotavirus vaccines did not show high efficacy in Bangladeshi trials. We assessed rotavirus prevalence and genotypes in Bangladesh over six-year period to provide baseline information on the rotavirus burden and changing profile in the country. This study was conducted from June 2006 to May 2012 in Matlab, Bangladesh. Group A rotaviruses were detected in stools collected from diarrhea patients by ELISA and genotyped using multiplex reverse transcription PCR followed by nucleotide sequencing. Of the 9678 stool samples, 20.3% were positive for rotavirus. The most predominant genotype was G1P[8] (22.4%), followed by G9P[8] (20.8%), G2P[4] (16.9%) and G12P[8] (10.4%). Mixed infections were detected in 14.2% of the samples. Emergence of an unusual strain, G9P[4] was documented during 2011-12. Several amino acid mismatches in the antigenic epitopes of VP7 and VP4 between Bangladeshi and the vaccine strains were identified. Our study provides important information on rotavirus genotypes that should be considered for the selection and introduction of rotavirus vaccines in Bangladesh.

  11. Climate Variability, Social Change and Dengue in Bangladesh ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Since the year 2000, the major cities of Bangladesh have experienced a resurgence of dengue. Dengue is a major public health concern because of its epidemic potential in any one year, and because of the limited understanding of disease transmission dynamics in the country. This project aims to advance knowledge on ...

  12. Living Sexualities: Negotiating Heteronormativity in Middle Class Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Karim (Shuchi)

    2012-01-01

    textabstract‘Living Sexualities’ is a study of erotic desires, practices and identities, lived within the heteronormative and marriage-normative socio-sexual structures of the urban middle class in contemporary Bangladesh. The study is based on two years fieldwork during which data was

  13. IMPACT OF MARKETING STRATEGIES ON SACHET PRODUCTS IN BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossain Shahid SHOHROWARDHY

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A product is anything that can be accessible to the market for satisfaction. The basic objective of marketing is maximum satisfaction since satisfaction of consumer and business performance is positively related to each other. For satisfaction, product is diversified in different categories i.e. generic product, product type product, substitute product and product line etc. Sachet product is one of the expansions of product line. The term ‘Sachet’ is originated from the French word which means “mini”. In Bangladesh, sachet product has a strong market share. Thus, this study attempts to determine the exiting share of sachet product and measure the impact of marketing strategies on sachet product in Bangladesh. This study uses the selective 22 dimensions to favor the sachet product on the basis of 4Ps (Product, Price, Place and Promotion. To accomplish the study, 125 samples have been taken from selective markets in Cosmopolitan city, Chittagong. The study found that sachet product has strong market position comparative with other categories of products, where promotional effect is the dominant factor who played the vital role to sustain the sachet product in Bangladesh. The results of this study will be constructive for executives and policy-makers of business organization who works with fast moving consumer good (FMCG items effectively in Bangladesh.

  14. Puffer fish tragedy in Bangladesh: an incident of Takifugu oblongus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A food poisoning incident resulting from the ingestion of the marine puffer Takifugu oblongus occurred at Degholia in the Khulna district of Bangladesh on 18 May 2002. A total of 36 victims, including seven deaths, from six families was reported. The victims suffered from dyspnoea, numbness of lips, paralysis, and stomach ...

  15. State of Pharmacy Education in Bangladesh | Alam | Tropical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current state of pharmacy education in Bangladesh and identification of the current gaps in terms of manpower development for the pharmaceutical sector are described in this paper. Information for the preparation of this paper was obtained from documents and interviews of stakeholders drawn from regulatory, ...

  16. All projects related to Bangladesh | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: South Asia, Central Asia, Far East Asia, Bangladesh, India, Pakistan. Total Funding: CA$ 257,800.00. Human Rights and Peace Audit on Partition in South Asia - Phase II. Project. In South Asia, people's social, political and cultural aspirations often get articulated as movements for territorially defined political ...

  17. Neoliberalism, Policy Reforms and Higher Education in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Ariful Haq

    2013-01-01

    Bangladesh has introduced neoliberal policies since the 1970s. Military regimes, since the dramatic political changes in 1975, accelerated the process. A succession of military rulers made rigorous changes in policy-making in various sectors. This article uses a critical approach to document analysis and examines the perceptions of key…

  18. Sexual health of women with spinal cord injury in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubbers, N.P.M; Nuri, R.P; van Brakel, W.H.; Cornielje, H.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To identify factors influencing the sexual health of women with spinal cord injury (SCI) in Bangladesh. Methods: This study used both qualitative and quantitative methods. The quantitative part used a case-control design. Cases were women with SCI and controls were age-matched women without

  19. Rainfall and temperature scenarios for Bangladesh for the middle of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The simulated rainfall and mean surface air temperature were calibrated and validated against ground-based observed data in Bangladesh during the period 1961–1990. The Climate Research Unit (CRU) data is also used for understanding the model performance. Better performance of RegCM3 obtained through ...

  20. International Briefing 24: Training and Development in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Monowar; Akhter, Salma

    2011-01-01

    Training and development activities in Bangladesh have yet to be systematic and able to fulfil the needs of the economy and industry. The national educational and training system failed to provide adequate knowledge and skills to the workforce. However, private sector organizations are undertaking different initiatives to cope with the industry…

  1. Modes of delivery assistance in Bangladesh | Rahman | Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania Journal of Health Research. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 10, No 4 (2008) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Modes of delivery assistance in Bangladesh.

  2. The Dissonance between Schooling and Learning: Evidence from Rural Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadullah, M. Niaz; Chaudhury, Nazmul

    2015-01-01

    Using a basic mathematics competence test based on the primary school curricular standard, we examine the extent to which years spent in school actually increases numeracy achievement in rural Bangladesh. Our sample includes 10-18-year-old children currently enrolled in school as well as those out of school. About half of the children failed to…

  3. Folk Medicinal Uses of Verbenaceae Family Plants in Bangladesh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Folk medicinal practitioners form the first tier of primary health-care providers to most of the rural population of Bangladesh. They are known locally as Kavirajes and rely almost solely on oral or topical administration of whole plants or plant parts for treatment of various ailments. Also about 2% of the total population of ...

  4. Arsenic Contaminated Groundwater and Its Treatment Options in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jia-Qian; Ashekuzzaman, S. M.; Jiang, Anlun; Sharifuzzaman, S. M.; Chowdhury, Sayedur Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic (As) causes health concerns due to its significant toxicity and worldwide presence in drinking water and groundwater. The major sources of As pollution may be natural process such as dissolution of As-containing minerals and anthropogenic activities such as percolation of water from mines, etc. The maximum contaminant level for total As in potable water has been established as 10 µg/L. Among the countries facing As contamination problems, Bangladesh is the most affected. Up to 77 million people in Bangladesh have been exposed to toxic levels of arsenic from drinking water. Therefore, it has become an urgent need to provide As-free drinking water in rural households throughout Bangladesh. This paper provides a comprehensive overview on the recent data on arsenic contamination status, its sources and reasons of mobilization and the exposure pathways in Bangladesh. Very little literature has focused on the removal of As from groundwaters in developing countries and thus this paper aims to review the As removal technologies and be a useful resource for researchers or policy makers to help identify and investigate useful treatment options. While a number of technological developments in arsenic removal have taken place, we must consider variations in sources and quality characteristics of As polluted water and differences in the socio-economic and literacy conditions of people, and then aim at improving effectiveness in arsenic removal, reducing the cost of the system, making the technology user friendly, overcoming maintenance problems and resolving sludge management issues. PMID:23343979

  5. Urban Inequality, Social Exclusion and Schooling in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Stuart James

    2017-01-01

    This paper asks whether education is a viable route to better livelihoods and social inclusion for children living in poor urban areas in Dhaka, Bangladesh. It uses qualitative interviews with 36 students aged 11-16, living in slum and middle-class areas, and also draws on data from a larger, mixed-methods study to provide context. Many children…

  6. Rural electrification in Bangladesh: management, engineering, and financial assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deverick, B.; Gellerson, M.; Stovall, J.; Shelton, R.

    1986-07-01

    This report represents the partial findings of a five-member, multidisciplinary team requested by USAID to assess the progress of the Rural Electrification Program in Bangladesh. Four areas are assessed in this report: the effectiveness of the management system; the system planning and engineering capabilities; RE tariffs and energy sector pricing policies; and the effectiveness of technical assistance.

  7. Participatory forestry in Bangladesh: has it helped to increase the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The government of Bangladesh has placed the utmost priority on participatory forestry (PF) since the 1980s, and this approach was commenced in the degraded Sal forest areas through a donor-funded project in 1989. These forest reforms aim to eliminate the main causes of forest depletion as well as alleviate poverty ...

  8. Preventing early marriage in urban poor settlements in Bangladesh ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Studies indicate lack of education and poverty as drivers for early marriage in urban Bangladesh. Uneducated adolescent girls are at higher risk of ... Kidnapping, land grabbing, extortion, sexual harassment and assault, often committed by local residents, are all common. At the same time, the lack of formal institutions ...

  9. Caesarean Risk Factors in Northern Region of Bangladesh: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/tjpr.v11i5.17. Research Article. Caesarean Risk Factors in Northern Region of. Bangladesh: A Statistical Analysis. Mostafizur Rahman1, Asma Ahmad Shariff1* and Aziz Shafie2. 1Centre for Foundation Studies in Science, 2Department of Geography, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

  10. Bangladesh : tous les projets | Page 4 | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: Internet, LANGUAGE BARRIER, ASIAN LANGUAGES, COMPUTER PROGRAMS, SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, INFORMATION SOCIETY. Région: Afghanistan, Asia, South and Central Asia, Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, Far East Asia, Cambodia, Laos, Sri Lanka, Mongolia, Nepal, Pakistan. Programme: Économies en ...

  11. Research achievements in Bangladesh agriculture using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattar, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    Application of isotope and radiation techniques in Bangladesh agriculture has been initiated in 1961 with the establishment of Atomic Energy Agricultural Research Centre, Dhaka under the then Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission. The activity of the centre was strengthened and upgraded to the level of an institute as a constituent organization of Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission in 1972. It was further reorganized, made an autonomous research organization under the Ministry of Agriculture in 1982 and renamed as Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture. The other organizations involved in nuclear agricultural research are Institute of Food and Radiation Biology and Bangladesh Agricultural University. A number of technologies have been developed using nuclear techniques that imparted on agricultural development. Sixteen new crops were developed using physical (200-700 Gy gamma rays) and chemical mutagen (NaN 3 ). Soil fertility and plant nutrition technologies were developed using both stable and radio isotopes. The improved feeding strategies and utilization of locally available low quality feed material (rice straw) were determined using 51 Cr-EDTA and 125 I in order to have better livestock growth and reproduction ability. Several constraints related to nuclear research were identified. Increased government commitment and international cooperation are of the utmost importance for effective utilization of the benefits of nuclear technology and to face the increasing demand for food for the ever increasing population in years to come

  12. Trends, Patterns and Issues of Child Malnutrition in Bangladesh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... education, knowledge about sound feeding practices and eating habits, growth monitoring and women supportive socio-cultural norms need to be given more emphasis to overcome the present situation. Key words: Child malnutrition, Health, Bangladesh, Child care, Food availability, Poverty, Education, Natural disaster.

  13. Transglossic Language Practices of Young Adults in Bangladesh and Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Shaila; Dovchin, Sender; Pennycook, Alastair

    2015-01-01

    The paper explores the use of varied semiotic resources in the linguistic, social and cultural practices of young adults in the context of Bangladesh and Mongolia. Based on a translinguistic analysis (including pre-textual history, contextual relations, sub-textual meaning, intertextual echoes and post-textual interpretation) of these practices,…

  14. MEDIA CONCERN AND TRENDS OF FERTILITY IN BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Morad

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses how the media interprets Bangladeshian fertility trends by analyzing 11 online available articles from two Bangladeshi leading dailies, The Daily Star and the Prothom Alo. The exploration of the newspaper articles reveals that print media in Bangladesh has shown concern notably on the present scenario of the country’s declining fertility trend. It has been observed from the newspaper clippings that both population growth rate and fertility rate are gradually declining in Bangladesh which they explain as a matter of great satisfaction. Drawing on examples from South Asia, the articles explain that Bangladesh has a remarkable achievement in fertility reduction compared to India and Pakistan. However, almost all of the articles have expressed concern over the population bomb of Bangladesh. The newspapers also report that though fertility is declining at the national level, significant variation exists at the regional level and among different socio economic groups. The fertility rate is reported to be very high in the urban shanties and poverty-stricken rural areas. In this regard, the clippings have often criticized the government activities, especially governmental population control programme.

  15. Islam, Politics and Secularism in Bangladesh: Contesting the Dominant Narratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Nazrul Islam

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Since late 2000s, the political landscape in Bangladesh moved from democracy to an authoritarian kleptocracy, and experienced a new set of political and social narratives. This paper aims to contest some of these dominant/official narratives which have been discursively constructed and promoted by the secularist parties (including the ruling regime and groups in Bangladesh over recent years. Examining the sociopolitical and historical facts and figures of the country, we have identified five major contested narratives related to (a Bengali nationalism in East Pakistan, (b foundational ideology of Bangladesh’s war of liberation, (c state-sponsored Islamization in Bangladesh, (d pro-liberation and anti-liberation dichotomy, and (e war crimes trial. Drawing on a robust content analysis of the credible secondary sources substantiated by qualitative interviews, we have examined these dominant narratives and found that they are not supported by historical evidence and popular mandate, yet have been constructed largely to support and legitimize the current authoritarian regime. The paper offers both counter-narratives and some pragmatic policy recommendations to elude increasing polarization and sociopolitical instability and foster a peaceful democratic society in Bangladesh.

  16. Prospects for fish culture in char areas of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Wahra, N.G.; Noble, F.U.

    1998-01-01

    Fish production is considered in the barren chars or sandy land masses created through siltation along river banks and deltas in Bangladesh. The prospects for fish culture in ponds and cages or pen culture in rivers and canals are examined. The socioeconomic implications of fish culture as a livelihood source for communities living in char areas are also discussed.

  17. Research achievements in Bangladesh agriculture using nuclear techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sattar, M.A. [Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture, Mymensingh, (Bangladesh)

    1997-10-01

    Application of isotope and radiation techniques in Bangladesh agriculture has been initiated in 1961 with the establishment of Atomic Energy Agricultural Research Centre, Dhaka under the then Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission. The activity of the centre was strengthened and upgraded to the level of an institute as a constituent organization of Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission in 1972. It was further reorganized, made an autonomous research organization under the Ministry of Agriculture in 1982 and renamed as Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture. The other organizations involved in nuclear agricultural research are Institute of Food and Radiation Biology and Bangladesh Agricultural University. A number of technologies have been developed using nuclear techniques that imparted on agricultural development. Sixteen new crops were developed using physical (200-700 Gy gamma rays) and chemical mutagen (NaN{sub 3}). Soil fertility and plant nutrition technologies were developed using both stable and radio isotopes. The improved feeding strategies and utilization of locally available low quality feed material (rice straw) were determined using {sup 51}Cr-EDTA and {sup 125}I in order to have better livestock growth and reproduction ability. Several constraints related to nuclear research were identified. Increased government commitment and international cooperation are of the utmost importance for effective utilization of the benefits of nuclear technology and to face the increasing demand for food for the ever increasing population in years to come 32 refs., 1 tab.

  18. Alcoholic Beverages in Bangladesh-How Much We Know?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Islam, N.; Ferdous, N.; Nesha, K.; Rasker, Johannes J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study was aimed to determine the names and alcohol content or strength of different alcoholic beverages used in different parts of Bangladesh and also to determine contamination with heavy metals and bacteria in some samples. Methods: Eight different types of alcoholic beverages

  19. The Impulsive Stock Market of Bangladesh and the Great Recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saif Hossain

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates whether the stock market of Bangladesh can be related with the last world recession. The Pearson’s correlation analysis model was used to find the correlation between the Dhaka Stock Exchange General index and real GDP growth rate of the world. The findings show that no statistically significant correlation exists between the two variables inferring that the stock market of Bangladesh was not significantly affected by ‘the great recession’ (2007-2009. The findings of this study are inconsistent with the results of previous studies which claimed that the Bangladesh stock market shares a common stochastic trend with the capital market of USA. The results of this study may be explained mainly by domestic factors such as low market capitalization, market inefficiency, strict monitoring and control by the Security and Exchange Commission and low international participation in the stock market of Bangladesh. All these factors, along with the inconsistency with past results, instigate further investigation.

  20. Integration through compartmentalization? Pitfalls of 'poldering' in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warner, J.F.

    2010-01-01

    The article sketches the history of the Flood Action Plan 20 (FAP-20), an experiment with polder compartmentalization, seeking to integrate flood management, drainage, and irrigation, and make it more democratic in response to the destructive 1987 and 1988 floods in Bangladesh. As a transferred

  1. Integration through Compartmentalization? Pitfalls of “Poldering” in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warner, J.F.

    2010-01-01

    The article sketches the history of the Flood Action Plan 20 (FAP-20), an experiment with polder compartmentalization, seeking to integrate flood management, drainage, and irrigation, and make it more democratic in response to the destructive 1987 and 1988 floods in Bangladesh. As a transferred

  2. Bangladesh : tous les projets | Page 6 | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: TOBACCO, TOBACCO INDUSTRY, CROP DIVERSIFICATION. Région: Argentina, Bangladesh, Brazil, India, Lebanon, Malawi, Viet Nam ... Mouvements transfrontaliers, migration des femmes et droits de la personne - une évaluation postcoloniale. Projet. Jusqu'à récemment, les femmes ont été exclues des analyses ...

  3. Financial Liberalization, Savings and the Banking Sector in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Murshed (Syed); I.A. Robin (Iftekhar Ahmed)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis article explores the consequences of financial liberalization policy on the banking sector in Bangladesh. Following a motivating portfolio selection theor-etical model on the impact of liberalization, it applies time series techniques with annual banking sector data for the period

  4. Bangladesh : tous les projets | Page 2 | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ce projet de recherche permettra à des femmes, des hommes et des enfants pauvres et vulnérables de faire face et de s'adapter aux changements climatiques dans la région asiatique de l'Hindu Kush-Himalaya. Sujet: ADAPTATION. Région: Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan. Programme: Initiative de recherche ...

  5. Societal impacts and vulnerability to floods in Bangladesh and Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanvir H. Dewan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh and Nepal lie between the Himalayas and low-lying coasts of the Bay of Bengal and are traversed by hundreds of rivers and tributaries. Historical data shows that, since 1970, the scale, intensity and duration of floods have increased in Bangladesh and Nepal, causing grave human suffering; disruptions in normal life and activity, damages of infrastructure, crops and agricultural land with severe impacts on the economy. Bangladesh is affected by torrential rain, glacier melt, upstream water flow and tidal surges. In 1988, Bangladesh experienced one of the most severe floods of the twentieth century which aroused significant concern internationally and triggered the Bangladesh Action Plan for Flood Control. The Government of Bangladesh (GOB has so far constructed a number of flood shelters and carried out 482 water and flood control projects involving flood protection embankments, drainage channels, sluice gates and regulators on different rivers and canals. These also provided safety measures against inundation by tidal waves, storm-surges and flooding. The Terai region of Nepal is highly prone to hydrological risks including torrential rain, floods, glaciers resulting in erosion and landslides. The Government of Nepal (GON has implemented different mitigation measures mainly early warning awareness, rescue measure, relief, and post-flood rehabilitation programs etc. Disaster Management Bureaus of both the countries have already conducted many trainings, workshops and seminars to disseminate scientific knowledge and coping up practices to disaster managers and to create public awareness. Besides the contemporary approaches to mitigating flood effects, people of these countries have coped with floods through generations relying on traditional/indigenous knowledge and other local adaptation practices. It is crucial that along with scientific process, indigenous, traditional and conventional practices are to be integrated for a national

  6. Economics Of Climate Resiliency A Case Of The Small-Scale Industrial Sector In Jamuna River Basin Of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chowdhury Saleh Ahmed

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The climate resilient cluster village with handlooms was established by an NGO named ActionAid Bangladesh with the objective of ensuring secure living and productive service for sustained livelihood in the Jamuna river basin of Bangladesh. The experience was that the poor people had their handloom factories and dwellings devastated by flood almost every year with consequential threat to livelihood and dignity of the women. It was therefore felt essential to facilitate them in building multi-hazard resilient handloom factories so as to make them self-protective from windy storm foggy weather monsoon flooding theft etc. The program started with a threadbare discussion with the vulnerable communities in a participatory manner where the program staffs has sat with the community groups especially the poor to generate the basic analysis of vulnerabilities the community is facing and its link to climate change. The community itself did the analysis and analyzed the vulnerability faced by them. The result is building of climate resilient handloom industry for 10 families whose industrial unit and dwellings were devastated almost annually by flood. A variant of a social and economic analysis is carried out to determine scaling up of these types of adaptations to similar ecological zones of the country and elsewhere.

  7. ANALYSIS OF THE STATISTICAL BEHAVIOUR OF DAILY MAXIMUM AND MONTHLY AVERAGE RAINFALL ALONG WITH RAINY DAYS VARIATION IN SYLHET, BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. J. HASAN

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Climate, one of the major controlling factors for well-being of the inhabitants in the world, has been changing in accordance with the natural forcing and manmade activities. Bangladesh, the most densely populated countries in the world is under threat due to climate change caused by excessive use or abuse of ecology and natural resources. This study checks the rainfall patterns and their associated changes in the north-eastern part of Bangladesh mainly Sylhet city through statistical analysis of daily rainfall data during the period of 1957 - 2006. It has been observed that a good correlation exists between the monthly mean and daily maximum rainfall. A linear regression analysis of the data is found to be significant for all the months. Some key statistical parameters like the mean values of Coefficient of Variability (CV, Relative Variability (RV and Percentage Inter-annual Variability (PIV have been studied and found to be at variance. Monthly, yearly and seasonal variation of rainy days also analysed to check for any significant changes.

  8. Ecological Ethics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oughton, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Deborah Oughton started with a view of the work in progress by the ICRP TG 94 on ethics, from the historical context and the principles-based ethics in RP, to continue with an overview of the ethical theories and with the main area of elaboration which concerns the common values, to conclude with considerations about the implementation in different area such as biomedicine, nuclear safety and workers, ecological aspects, and environmental health and society. By reading again the ICRP and IAEA publications on the ethical aspects in the protection of environment from the effects of ionizing radiation, the presentation covers the various and different cultures within the history of environmental ethics, the perception of Nature and the theories of environmental ethics, in particular by focusing on anthropocentrism, biocentrism and ecocentrism, as philosophical worldwide views, and on conservation, biodiversity, sustainability, environmental justice and human dignity, as primary principles of environmental protection. The influence of western Christianity, with a view of man dominating over every creeping thing on earth, and of the non-western ideas, the human perception of Nature has been analyzed and discussed to conclude that, in reality then, the anthropocentrism, biocentrism and ecocentrism, as reflected in many cultures and religions, they all support the need to protect the environment and to recognise and preserve the diversity. Three challenges were then discussed in the presentation: the ecosystem approach and ecological economics, for example in the case of Fukushima by asking what is the economic cost of marine contamination; the ecosystem changes with attention to what harms, as in the case of the environment in the contaminated areas around Chernobyl; and the environmental consequences of remediation, which can be considered a source of controversy for environmental ethics and policy

  9. Problems faced by Bangladesh in introduction of nuclear power programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurul Islam, A.B.M.; Quaiyum, M.A.; Hasnat, K.A.

    1977-01-01

    Bangladesh has one of the lowest per capita energy resources and consumption of energy. The per capita GDP of Bangladesh is also one of the lowest in the world. In view of this situation, the need and importance of nuclear power in providing cheaper and reliable energy for economic development of the country is discussed. Constraints being faced by the Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC) in the initiation and development of a national nuclear power programme are dealt with. Following liberation of the country in 1971, its financial resources were mainly channelled for rehabilitation and restoration of its economy. As the size of the national grid has remained relatively small, unit sizes in the range of 100-200 MWe only could be considered for commissioning during the next decade. Lack of vendor interest in such small sizes and the difficulty of arranging long-term investment for nuclear station are the main constraints being faced by the BAEC. Other bottlenecks are due to the uncertainty about the nature and extent of future economic development, pricing policy for available indigenous fossil fuel, national energy planning criteria which are mainly influenced by financial resource constraint, drainage of trained man-power, national priority for various essential non-development expenditures which use up most of the country's own earnings and foreign aid, etc. The effect of the growth of opposition to nuclear power in developed countries on the public acceptability of nuclear power in Bangladesh is analysed. The paper also examines the prospective growth of a cartel of nuclear-exporting countries and its possible effect upon Bangladesh

  10. Exploring standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index for drought assessment in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Md Giashuddin; Abdullah, Hasan Muhammad; Jeong, Changyoon

    2017-10-09

    Drought is a critical issue, and it has a pressing, negative impact on agriculture, ecosystems, livelihoods, food security, and sustainability. The problem has been studied globally, but its regional or even local dimension is sometimes overlooked. Local-level drought assessment is necessary for developing adaptation and mitigation strategies for that particular region. Keeping this in understanding, an attempt was made to create a detailed assessment of drought characteristics at the local scale in Bangladesh. Standardized precipitation evapotranspiration (SPEI) is a new drought index that mainly considers the rainfall and evapotranspiration data set. Globally, SPEI has become a useful drought index, but its local scale application is not common. SPEI base (0.5° grid data) for 110 years (1901-2011) was utilized to overcome the lack of long-term climate data in Bangladesh. Available weather data (1955-2011) from Bangladesh Meteorology Department (BMD) were analyzed to calculate SPEI weather station using the SPEI calculator. The drivers for climate change-induced droughts were characterized by residual temperature and residual rainfall data from different BMD stations. Grid data (SPEI base ) of 26 stations of BMD were used for drought mapping. The findings revealed that the frequency and intensity of drought are higher in the northwestern part of the country which makes it vulnerable to both extreme and severe droughts. Based on the results, the SPEI-based drought intensity and frequency analyses were carried out, emphasizing Rangpur (northwest region) as a hot spot, to get an insight of drought assessment in Bangladesh. The findings of this study revealed that SPEI could be a valuable tool to understand the evolution and evaluation of the drought induced by climate change in the country. The study also justified the immediate need for drought risk reduction strategies that should lead to relevant policy formulations and agricultural innovations for developing

  11. Clinical Profile and Comorbidity of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder among Children and Adolescents: A Cross-Sectional Observation in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Hafizur Rahman Chowdhury

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD is a common disorder characterised by persistent and unwanted intrusive thoughts, images, and urges and repetitive behaviours or mental acts and can cause pervasive impairments. In Bangladesh, the prevalence of OCD among children is 2% which is higher than in previous reporting. This study was aimed at looking into the type, frequency, and severity of symptoms of OCD and comorbidity among children and adolescents. A consecutive 60 OCD cases from a child mental health service with age range of 5–18 years were recruited and divided into below and above 12 years of age group. The assessment was carried out using standardized Bangla version of Development and Wellbeing Assessment and Children’s Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale was administered. Of the obsession, contamination was the highest followed by doubt, and of the compulsion, washing/cleaning was the highest followed by checking, repeating, and ordering rituals. More than half of the subjects had severe OCD and comorbidity was present in 58% subjects. Specific phobia, social phobia, major depressive disorder, and tic disorder were more prevalent. These symptoms and comorbidity profile can serve the baseline data for a country like Bangladesh and further large scale study would better generalize the study results.

  12. 78 FR 65594 - Vehicular Repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ... comment on Industrial/ Business licensees' usage of mobile repeaters. Telemetry Channels We seek comment... mobile repeater applications, e.g., by listing active, co-channel incumbent call signs and associated... Rulemaking, including this IRFA, to the Chief Counsel for Advocacy of the Small Business Administration (SBA...

  13. Ecological stability of landscape - ecological infrastructure - ecological management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Field Workshop 'Ecological Stability of Landscape - Ecological Infrastructure - Ecological Management' was held within a State Environmental Programme financed by the Federal Committee for the Environment. The objectives of the workshop were to present Czech and Slovak approaches to the ecological stability of the landscape by means of examples of some case studies in the field, and to exchange ideas, theoretical knowledge and practical experience on implementing the concept of ecological infrastructure in landscape management. Out of 19 papers contained in the proceedings, 3 items were inputted to the INIS system. (Z.S.)

  14. Geographic information system (GIS) representation of coal-bearing areas in India and Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippi, Michael H.; Tewalt, Susan J.

    2011-01-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) information may facilitate energy studies, which in turn provide input for energy policy decisions. Prior to this study, no GIS file representing the occurrence of coal-bearing units in India or Bangladesh was known to exist. This Open-File Report contains downloadable shapefiles representing the coalfields of India and Bangladesh and a limited number of chemical and petrographic analyses of India and Bangladesh coal samples. Also included are maps of India and Bangladesh showing the locations of the coalfields and coal samples in the shapefiles, figures summarizing the stratigraphic units in the coalfields of India and Bangladesh, and a brief report summarizing the stratigraphy and geographic locations of coal-bearing deposits in India and Bangladesh.

  15. Repeatability of visual acuity measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raasch, T W; Bailey, I L; Bullimore, M A

    1998-05-01

    This study investigates features of visual acuity chart design and acuity testing scoring methods which affect the validity and repeatability of visual acuity measurements. Visual acuity was measured using the Sloan and British Standard letter series, and Landolt rings. Identifiability of the different letters as a function of size was estimated, and expressed in the form of frequency-of-seeing curves. These functions were then used to simulate acuity measurements with a variety of chart designs and scoring criteria. Systematic relationships exist between chart design parameters and acuity score, and acuity score repeatability. In particular, an important feature of a chart, that largely determines the repeatability of visual acuity measurement, is the amount of size change attributed to each letter. The methods used to score visual acuity performance also affect repeatability. It is possible to evaluate acuity score validity and repeatability using the statistical principles discussed here.

  16. All-photonic quantum repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Koji; Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2015-01-01

    Quantum communication holds promise for unconditionally secure transmission of secret messages and faithful transfer of unknown quantum states. Photons appear to be the medium of choice for quantum communication. Owing to photon losses, robust quantum communication over long lossy channels requires quantum repeaters. It is widely believed that a necessary and highly demanding requirement for quantum repeaters is the existence of matter quantum memories. Here we show that such a requirement is, in fact, unnecessary by introducing the concept of all-photonic quantum repeaters based on flying qubits. In particular, we present a protocol based on photonic cluster-state machine guns and a loss-tolerant measurement equipped with local high-speed active feedforwards. We show that, with such all-photonic quantum repeaters, the communication efficiency scales polynomially with the channel distance. Our result paves a new route towards quantum repeaters with efficient single-photon sources rather than matter quantum memories. PMID:25873153

  17. Tevatron serial data repeater system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducar, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    A ten megabit per second serial data repeater system has been developed for the 6.28km Tevatron accelerator. The repeaters are positioned at each of the thirty service buildings and accommodate control and abort system communications as well as distribution of the Tevatron time and energy clocks. The repeaters are transparent to the particular protocol of the transmissions. Serial data are encoded locally as unipolar two volt signals employing the self-clocking Manchester Bi-Phase code. The repeaters modulate the local signals to low-power bursts of 50 MHz rf carrier for the 260m transmission between service buildings. The repeaters also demodulate the transmission and restructure the data for local utilization. The employment of frequency discrimination techniques yields high immunity to the characteristic noise spectrum

  18. Household Transmission of Vibrio cholerae in Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan D Sugimoto

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae infections cluster in households. This study's objective was to quantify the relative contribution of direct, within-household exposure (for example, via contamination of household food, water, or surfaces to endemic cholera transmission. Quantifying the relative contribution of direct exposure is important for planning effective prevention and control measures.Symptom histories and multiple blood and fecal specimens were prospectively collected from household members of hospital-ascertained cholera cases in Bangladesh from 2001-2006. We estimated the probabilities of cholera transmission through 1 direct exposure within the household and 2 contact with community-based sources of infection. The natural history of cholera infection and covariate effects on transmission were considered. Significant direct transmission (p-value<0.0001 occurred among 1414 members of 364 households. Fecal shedding of O1 El Tor Ogawa was associated with a 4.9% (95% confidence interval: 0.9%-22.8% risk of infection among household contacts through direct exposure during an 11-day infectious period (mean length. The estimated 11-day risk of O1 El Tor Ogawa infection through exposure to community-based sources was 2.5% (0.8%-8.0%. The corresponding estimated risks for O1 El Tor Inaba and O139 infection were 3.7% (0.7%-16.6% and 8.2% (2.1%-27.1% through direct exposure, and 3.4% (1.7%-6.7% and 2.0% (0.5%-7.3% through community-based exposure. Children under 5 years-old were at elevated risk of infection. Limitations of the study may have led to an underestimation of the true risk of cholera infection. For instance, available covariate data may have incompletely characterized levels of pre-existing immunity to cholera infection. Transmission via direct exposure occurring outside of the household was not considered.Direct exposure contributes substantially to endemic transmission of symptomatic cholera in an urban setting. We provide the first estimate of

  19. Birds in Kurigram district of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.I. Khan

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A study of the birds in the area adjacent to the Dharala and Brahmaputra rivers in Kurigram District, Bangladesh, was conducted between November 2000 and February 2002. A total of 105 species of birds belonging to 12 orders, 35 families and 77 genera were recorded. Out of 105 species, 51 (48.6% were non-passerine and 54 (51.4% passerine, 33 (31.4% migratory and 72 (68.6% resident. Of the non-passerine birds, 15 (29.4% were migratory and 36 (70.6% were resident, while, among the passerines 18 (33.3% were migratory and 36 (66.7% were resident. Of the total (105 species 14 (13.3% were found to be very common, 30 (28.6% common, 25 (23.8% fairly common and 36 (34.3% were rare or few. Out of 105 species, 30 (28.6% were aquatic and semiaquatic birds and 75 (71.4% were terrestrial. Among 105 species, 52 (49.5% were widely distributed in Kurigram, 31 (29.5% restricted only to the northern side, five (4.8% to the central side, eight (7.6% to the southern side, and nine (8.6% species were common in two or three parts of the study area. Among the three canopy categories, 16 (15.2% species were observed in lower canopy, 32 (30.5% species were recorded from both lower and middle canopies, 19 (18.1% species from upper and middle canopies and only one (1% species was recorded from upper canopy. In the study area 37 (35.2% species of birds used all levels of the canopy. Out of 105 species, 48 (45.7% were insectivorous, 11 (10.4% were grainivorous, five (4.8% frugivorous, 10 (9.5% were piscivorous, five (4.8% were predatory, and 19 (18.1% species of birds were omnivorous. Only one (1% was vegetarian and the diet of 6 (5.7% species could not be determined.

  20. BRAND AND QUALITY CONTROL OF GARMENT PRODUCTS IN THE BANGLADESH GARMENT INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Hoshen, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This thesis paper contains information on the garment industry of Bangladesh. The garment business plays a vital part in global market. There are a large numbers of world renowned apparel companies that outsource their products in Bangladesh. The aim of the thesis is to explicate quality management in garment production and the brand protection process during outsourcing in Bangladesh. The theoretical part of the thesis provides basic information about garment products, the glo...

  1. Cost recovery of NGO primary health care facilities: a case study in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Alam, Khurshid; Ahmed, Shakil

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Little is known about the cost recovery of primary health care facilities in Bangladesh. This study estimated the cost recovery of a primary health care facility run by Building Resources Across Community (BRAC), a large NGO in Bangladesh, for the period of July 2004 - June 2005. This health facility is one of the seven upgraded BRAC facilities providing emergency obstetric care and is typical of the government and private primary health care facilities in Bangladesh. Give...

  2. Developing mHealth Messages to Promote Postmenstrual Regulation Contraceptive Use in Bangladesh: Participatory Interview Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckersberger, Elisabeth; Pearson, Erin; Andersen, Kathryn; Hossain, Altaf; Footman, Katharine; Biswas, Kamal Kanti; Nuremowla, Sadid; Reiss, Kate

    2017-12-14

    Abortions are restricted in Bangladesh, but menstrual regulation is an approved alternative, defined as a procedure of regulating the menstrual cycle when menstruation is absent for a short duration. Use of contraception after menstrual regulation can reduce subsequent unintended pregnancy, but in Bangladesh, the contraceptive method mix is dominated by short-term methods, which have higher discontinuation and failure rates. Mobile phones are a channel via which menstrual regulation clients could be offered contraceptive support after leaving the clinic. This study aimed to support the development of a mobile phone intervention to support postmenstrual regulation family planning use in Bangladesh. It explored what family planning information women want to receive after having a menstrual regulation procedure, whether they would like to receive this information via their mobile phone, and if so, what their preferences are for the way in which it is delivered. We conducted participatory interviews with 24 menstrual regulation clients in Dhaka and Sylhet divisions in Bangladesh. Women were recruited from facilities in urban and peri-urban areas, which included public sector clinics supported by Ipas, an international nongovernmental organization (NGO), and NGO clinics run by Marie Stopes. Main themes covered in the interviews were factors affecting the use of contraception, what information and support women want after their menstrual regulation procedure, how respondents would prefer to receive information about contraception, and other key issues for mobile health (mHealth) interventions, such as language and privacy. As part of the in-depth interviews, women were shown and played 6 different messages about contraception on the research assistant's phone, which they were given to operate, and were then asked to give feedback. Women were open to both receiving messages about family planning methods on their mobile phones and talking to a counselor about family

  3. Estimation of Solar Radiation: An Empirical Model for Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Arif Sobhan Bhuiyan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study is carried out to compute empirically global, diffuse and direct solar radiation on a horizontal surface for the ten districts equally distributed all over Bangladesh (20o34΄and 26o34΄north latitude, 88o01΄ and 92o41΄east longitude as well as to predict correlations for them. For this study, meteorological data for 28 years (between 1980 and 2007 is used which is collected from Bangladesh Meteorological Department. The global radiation in Bangladesh is found to be maximum in the month of April/May and minimum in the month of November/December in all the districts. The values of the correlation coefficients a, b, c, d, c', d', e, f, e' and f' for ten stations of Bangladesh are also evaluated. It is evident that, the values of the coefficient “a” vary from 0.2296 to 0.2569, while the coefficient “b” varies from 0.5112 to 0.5560. The over all mean deviations of the ten values of a and b are 0.2432±0.0136 and 0.5336±0.0224, respectively. The maximum and minimum values of other correlation coefficients c, d, c', d', e, f, e' and f' are (1.5695 and 1.4357, (-1.7210 and -1.9986, (0.4011 and 0.376, (-0.2072 and -0.2510, (-0.3811 and -0.5464, (1.946 and 1.6456, (-0.1206 and -0.1684 and (0.7984 and 0.7000 respectively. Their maximum variations due to location are (1.5022±0.0672, (-1.8598±0.1388, (0.3885±0.0125, (-0.2291±0.0219, (-0.4637±0.0826, (1.7958±0.1502, (-0.1445±0.0239 and (0.7492±0.0492 respectively. ABSTRAK: Kajian ini dibuat secara empirikal mengenai kadar penyebaran secara resapan, global dan langsung radiasi solar, keatas permukaan mendatar untuk sepuluh daerah di seluruh Bangladesh (20o34΄ dan 26o34΄ utara latitud, 88o01΄ dan longitud 92o41΄ timor dan meramal korelasi mereka. Kajian ini menggunakan data meteorologi selama 28 tahun (antara 1980 dan 2007 yang dikutip dari Jabatan Meteorologi Bangladesh. Radiasi global maksima di Bangladesh adalah pada bulan April / Mei dan minima pada bulan November

  4. REPEATABILITY OF THE FRENCH HIGHER VEGETATION TYPES ACCORDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. BRISSE

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Higher vegetation types are generally determined by successive approximations and defined by a common consent. Instead, they might be statistically determined and repeated, according to a numerical method called ‘socio-ecology’. This method deals only with floristical data, but gives them an ecological meaning by a previous calibration of the relations between plants, computed as ecological indices. It is applied to a pair of two homologous samples, each having 2.000 relevés and coming from the 60.000 relevés stored in the French data bank ‘Sophy’. Each sample covers the main ecological gradients of the bank, it defines a hierarchy of vegetation types and it explains half the peculiarity of a type with only 10 to 30 discriminant plants, out of the 5.000 plants observed in the relevés. Results : 1 The discriminant plants may characterize the vegetation types, including the higher ones, in a coherent and readable form. 2 In the two independent classifications, having different structures, the same vegetation types are repeated. They are the reciprocal nearest types, in the socio-ecological space. Though the two classifications have no one relevé in common, the repeated types have nearly the same discriminant plants. 3 At the highest level, two clear-cut main types show the difference between light and shadow. The same herbaceous discriminant plants, for a type, and the ligneous or sciaphilous ones, for the other, have similar fidelities and constancies in the two classifications. 4 Such a numerical agreement, instead of common consent, appears again in the sub-types, which remind the classical ones, but which are repeatable.

  5. Sound Ecologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Duffy

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Discussions about what constitutes ‘the rural’ invariably focus on notions of spatial location – of inhabiting spaces apart from that of the metropolitan. Deeply embedded in our images of what it means to be Australian, nonetheless our intellectual framing of ‘the rural’ as something outback and beyond has significant implications for our relations with these spaces. The relatively recent phenomenon of sea- and tree-changes has struck many unawares, and not simply because a good latté is so hard to find. Although a frivolous remark, such an apparent lack does shift our focus to a bodily scale of the rural; how is rural place re/made through our experiences of it? This article originates out of on-going research that explores the practice of listening and sound and the ways in which the body can draw attention to the intuitive, emotional, and psychoanalytical processes of subjectivity and place-making. Drawing on Nigel Thrift’s concept of an ecology of place, I suggest that contemporary heightened concerns with regards to loss and lack in rural Australia has led to a nascent emotional economy – one in which individual and intimate connections to the rural require a rethinking of how we live community and belonging. In such a terrain, what does it mean to be rural?

  6. Sound ecologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duffy, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Discussions about what constitutes ‘the rural’ invariably focus on notions of spatial location – of inhabiting spaces apart from that of the metropolitan. Deeply embedded in our images of what it means to be Australian, nonetheless our intellectual framing of ‘the rural’ as something outback and beyond has significant implications for our relations with these spaces. The relatively recent phenomenon of sea- and tree-changes has struck many unawares, and not simply because a good latté is so hard to find. Although a frivolous remark, such an apparent lack does shift our focus to a bodily scale of the rural; how is rural place re/made through our experiences of it? This article originates out of on-going research that explores the practice of listening and sound and the ways in which the body can draw attention to the intuitive, emotional, and psychoanalytical processes of subjectivity and place-making. Drawing on Nigel Thrift’s concept of an ecology of place, I suggest that contemporary heightened concerns with regards to loss and lack in rural Australia has led to a nascent emotional economy – one in which individual and intimate connections to the rural require a rethinking of how we live community and belonging. In such a terrain, what does it mean to be rural?

  7. Indigenous Ecological Knowledge and Modern Western Ecological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indigenous knowledge is often dismissed as 'traditional and outdated', and hence irrelevant to modern ecological assessment. This theoretical paper critically examines the arguments advanced to elevate modern western ecological knowledge over indigenous ecological knowledge, as well as the sources and uses of ...

  8. Knowledge and awareness about STDs among women in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mosharaf; Mani, Kulanthayan Kc; Sidik, Sherina Mohd; Shahar, Hayati Kadir; Islam, Rafiqul

    2014-07-31

    Knowledge and awareness concerning sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) has become the burning issue of the day. Although STDs pose serious risks to health security, there is very little literature quantifying the knowledge and awareness of these diseases and their principal socioeconomic determinants. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of different socio-economic and demographic factors on knowledge and awareness about STDs among women in Bangladesh. This is a cross-sectional study using data from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) 2011. It involves 10,996 women in six divisions of Bangladesh - Dhaka, Rajshahi, Chittagong, Barisal, Khulna and Sylhet. In this study, the percentage distribution and logistic regression model are used to identify which factors are associated with knowledge and awareness among women in Bangladesh about STDs. There is a significant association between geographic division (Dhaka: OR = 1.669, 95% CI = 0.89-2.10, Khulna: OR = 2.234, 95% CI = 1.2-3.2); places of residence (Rural: OR = 0.363, 95% CI = 0.20-1.08), respondent's age (20-29 years: OR = 1.331; 95% CI = 0.98-2.31); education (Primary: OR = 2.366, 95% CI = 1.98-3.1, secondary: OR = 10.089, 95% CI = 8.98-12.77, higher: OR = 20.241, 95% CI = 18.33-22.65); listening to radio (OR = 1.189, 95% CI = 1.29-3.12) and watching TV (OR = 2.498, 95% CI = 2.22-4.09) with knowledge and awareness among women in Bangladesh about STDs. There is a need to improve the education in Bangladesh about STDs particularly among those in the rural areas and older ages of women (30-49 years). Formal, informal and special educational knowledge and awareness programmes may be implemented to educate people concerning STDs in Rajshahi, Sylhet and Chittangong division. Campaigns and mass media can be used to increase the knowledge and awareness among the community, especially among women. Policies concerning the issue of STDs need to be improved and can be emphasized in collaboration

  9. Coding repeats and evolutionary "agility".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caburet, Sandrine; Cocquet, Julie; Vaiman, Daniel; Veitia, Reiner A

    2005-06-01

    The rapid generation of new shapes observed in the living world is the result of genetic variation, especially in "morphological" developmental genes. Many of these genes contain coding tandem repeats. Fondon and Garner have shown that expansions and contractions of these repeats are associated with the great diversity of morphologies observed in the domestic dog, Canis familiaris. In particular, they found that the repeat variations in two genes were significantly associated with changes in limb and skull morphology. These results open the possibility that such a mechanism contributes to the diversity of life.

  10. Knowledge and attitude of key community members towards tuberculosis: Mixed method study from BRAC TB control areas in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paul, S.; Akter, R.; Aftab, A.; Khan, A.M.; Barua, M.; Islam, S.; Islam, A.; Husain, A.; Sarker, M.

    2015-01-01

    Bangladesh National Tuberculosis (TB) Control Programme adopted a number of strategies to facilitate TB diagnosis and treatment. 'Advocacy, Communication and Social Mobilization' (ACSM) was one of the key strategies implemented by BRAC (Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee, a non-governmental

  11. Repeatability of feather mite prevalence and intensity in passerine birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Diaz-Real

    Full Text Available Understanding why host species differ so much in symbiont loads and how this depends on ecological host and symbiont traits is a major issue in the ecology of symbiosis. A first step in this inquiry is to know whether observed differences among host species are species-specific traits or more related with host-symbiont environmental conditions. Here we analysed the repeatability (R of the intensity and the prevalence of feather mites to partition within- and among-host species variance components. We compiled the largest dataset so far available: 119 Paleartic passerine bird species, 75,944 individual birds, ca. 1.8 million mites, seven countries, 23 study years. Several analyses and approaches were made to estimate R and adjusted repeatability (R(adj after controlling for potential confounding factors (breeding period, weather, habitat, spatial autocorrelation and researcher identity. The prevalence of feather mites was moderately repeatable (R = 0.26-0.53; R(adj = 0.32-0.57; smaller values were found for intensity (R = 0.19-0.30; R(adj = 0.18-0.30. These moderate repeatabilities show that prevalence and intensity of feather mites differ among species, but also that the high variation within species leads to considerable overlap among bird species. Differences in the prevalence and intensity of feather mites within bird species were small among habitats, suggesting that local factors are playing a secondary role. However, effects of local climatic conditions were partially observed for intensity.

  12. Analysis of repeated measures data

    CERN Document Server

    Islam, M Ataharul

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a broad range of statistical techniques to address emerging needs in the field of repeated measures. It also provides a comprehensive overview of extensions of generalized linear models for the bivariate exponential family of distributions, which represent a new development in analysing repeated measures data. The demand for statistical models for correlated outcomes has grown rapidly recently, mainly due to presence of two types of underlying associations: associations between outcomes, and associations between explanatory variables and outcomes. The book systematically addresses key problems arising in the modelling of repeated measures data, bearing in mind those factors that play a major role in estimating the underlying relationships between covariates and outcome variables for correlated outcome data. In addition, it presents new approaches to addressing current challenges in the field of repeated measures and models based on conditional and joint probabilities. Markov models of first...

  13. FDI, Economic Growth, Energy Consumption & Environmental Nexus in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandip SARKER

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to investigate the relationship among economic growth, energy consumption, CO2 emission, FDI and natural gas usage in Bangladesh through co-integration and Vector Error Correction model (VECM over the period 1978 to 2010. Using ADP unit root tests it is found that all the four variables are integrated in first difference. The Johansen co-integration tests indicate that there is existence of long-run relationship among the variables. The VECM long run causality model indicates that there is a long run causality running from energy consumption and natural gas usage by industrial sector to GDP as well as from CO2 emission to FDI. Likewise in the short run a causal relationships have also been found among the variables. Moreover our model is found be error free based on several statistical test. Our results provide important policy suggestions regarding our foreign direct investment, environmental issues and economic growth nexus in Bangladesh.

  14. Peptic Ulcer Disease in Bangladesh: A Multi-centre Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, C K; Khan, M R; Alam, F; Shil, B C; Kabir, M S; Mahmuduzzaman, M; Das, S C; Masud, H; Roy, P K

    2017-01-01

    The incidence of peptic ulcer has steadily declined through out the world. This decreasing trend is also noticeable in this subcontinent. The point prevalence of peptic ulcer (PUD) in Bangladesh was around 15% in eighties. The aim of this study was to see the present prevalence of peptic ulcer at endoscopy and to identify changing trends in the occurrence of peptic ulcer in Bangladesh. This retrospective analysis of the endoscopic records of multiple tertiary referral centres of Dhaka city were done from January 2012 to July 2013. A total of 5608 subjects were the study samples. We included those patients having peptic ulcer in the form of duodenal ulcer, benign gastric ulcer including pre-pyloric ulcer and gastric outlet obstruction due to peptic ulcer. Duodenal ulcer and benign gastric ulcer were found in 415(7.4%) and 184(3.28%) patients respectively and gastric outlet obstruction due to peptic ulcer was found in 23(0.40%) patients.

  15. Investigation of household contamination of Vibrio cholerae in Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hossain, Zenat Zebin; Farhana, Israt; Mohan Tulsiani, Suhella

    The role of in-house transmission on the incidence of Vibrio cholerae, the deadly waterborne pathogen, is still not developed. The aim of the current study was to investigate possible contamination routes in household domain for effective cholera control in Bangladesh. To examine the prevalence....... cholerae El Tor strain N16961, showed hemolysis and proteolysis activity but none of them exhibited any hemagglutinin activity on human erythrocytes. The study findings indicate that V. cholerae contamination is mostly originated in and around kitchen area rather than latrine area. Contaminated food...... and water supply may be the reason behind this relatively high presence of virulence factors in food plates and water pots. Direct exposure routes of disease transmission should be a major consideration in cholera prevention policies. Investigation of household contamination of Vibrio cholerae in Bangladesh...

  16. Climate Change and Bangladesh: Geographical and Socio-economic Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farjana Jahan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate change, the effects of greenhouse effect and global warming, is out to alter the global map with its devouring prospects of sending a number of countries under the waves. Unfortunately yet unavoidably, Bangladesh stands at the forefront of climate forays. Its land, water and weather are being severely affected by undesirable climatic changes. Alarmingly, the dangers are to be intensified unless the trend is reversed. However, local initiative will hardly be enough to offset the grave concerns of unintended climatic changes in Bangladesh. The changes will also impact the socio-economic conditions of the country, putting the future of the nation on the line. Some ominous signs are already there for the concerned to respond with required amount of fervour. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/dsaj.v7i0.10439 Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol. 7, 2013; 113-132

  17. Why does Bangladesh remain so poor? Part II: eight answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, C

    1985-01-01

    Bangladeshis of varying background all over the country were asked why they think poverty persists to such an extent in Bangladesh. Their answers provide a new perspective on the situation. The initial response often blames outside and natural causes -- floods, droughts, lack of resources, low demand for the country's exports, or historic exploitation. It is true that Bangladesh has virtually no mineral resources except gas. Yet, the soil, water, and human labor add up to a huge potential. The Third Five Year Plan emphasizes use of the soil, irrigation, tanks, rivers, and human labor. These provide the only hope for reducing poverty a little during the next 5 years. Bangladeshis as well as foreign observers most commonly cite overpopulation as the cause of poverty. Population growth is a cause of present poverty in Bangladesh but is not the only cause of poverty. The Third Five Year Plan goal to reduce annual growth to 1.8% is ambitious, but even if it is achieved the population will double in a few decades. As it would most likely be impossible for Bangladesh to support such numbers and maintain political and economic stability, such growth will have to be prevented. Poverty in Bangladesh is party a result of the long history of low urbanization, weak institutions, spotty and inadequate physical infrastructure, and insufficient entrapreneurship. Other reasons cited as causes of persisting poverty include illiteracy, idleness, class exploitation, the selfishness of individuals, and a lack of trust among people. All of the efforts of the poor themselves, various agencies, and the government, as examined in the 1st part of this discussion, fail to indicate any reason to hope that poverty in Bangladesh can be dramatically reduced any time soon. The Third Five Year Plan foresees a possible reduction of the number of those in poverty by 10%. According to the Plan itself, those in or near poverty comprise 85% of the people. The conditions under which the people of some

  18. Changing norms about gender inequality in education: Evidence from Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels-Hugo Blunch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: While norms are important for educational attainment, especially in the developing world, there are relatively few studies on this topic. This paper, which explores attitudes toward gender equality in education among Bangladeshis, should therefore be of interest to both academics and policymakers. Objective: In this paper, we seek to identify which factors affect the norms regarding the education of girls and boys, as well as of women and men, across two cohorts of married women in Bangladesh. In particular, we look at the relative importance of an individual woman's own educational background and those of her spouse and other family members in shaping her attitudes toward gender equality in education. Methods: We analyze a rich household dataset for Bangladesh from the World Bank Survey on Gender Norms in Bangladesh, which was conducted in 2006. We use linear probability models to examine the determinants of gender education norms. We also decompose the intergenerational gender norms gap using the Oaxaca-Blinder composition (total and detailed, taking into account several technical issues related to the computation of standard errors and the use of dummy variables in detailed decompositions. Results: Education norms were found to differ substantially across cohorts, with women from the younger cohort expressing far more positive views than older female respondents regarding education for both girls and women. The effect of education on norms could be found among both the respondents and their husbands, as well as among the older women in the household. This suggests that educational norms are shared both within married couples and across generations. Conclusions: Our results indicate that the far-reaching changes in female education in Bangladesh have had equally far-reaching effects on the perceived value of education for girls relative to education for boys.

  19. Bangladesh : Fiscal Costs of Non-Financial Public Corporations

    OpenAIRE

    Kojo, Naoko C.

    2010-01-01

    The overall fiscal position of Bangladesh looks sustainable, but there are concerns that the country may be trapped in a low revenue-low capital spending equilibrium, which is holding back Bangladesh’s growth potential. Eliminating wasteful spending and halting fiscal drains through inefficient non-financial public corporations (NFPCs) are important ways to create fiscal space, particularly in the area of infrastructure. This paper reviews the financial performance of the NFPC ...

  20. Assessing climatic trends of extreme rainfall indices over northeast Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basher, Md. Abul; Stiller-Reeve, Mathew Alexander; Saiful Islam, A. K. M.; Bremer, Scott

    2017-10-01

    This study analyzes the trends of extreme rainfall indices over northeast Bangladesh for the period of 1984 to 2016 for the pre-monsoon and monsoon seasons. The research was framed as part of a project co-producing knowledge of climate variability and impacts through collaboration between scientific and local communities in northeast Bangladesh, which found pre-monsoon and monsoon rainfall to be most important. With access to a greater number of rainfall stations than previous work in northeast Bangladesh, we investigated trends in extreme rainfall events using the Mann-Kendall trend test and Sen's slope estimator. To appraise the quality of the data, we used the Standard Normal Homogeneity and the Pettitt tests to check its homogeneity. Among the seven stations, only Sunamganj was found inhomogeneous, and was not considered for trend analysis. All indices of rainfall extremes showed a decreasing trend in both seasons, with the most significant decrease during the monsoon. Importantly, we saw a decreasing trend in the seasonal total rainfall and consecutive wet days, whereas there was an increasing trend in consecutive dry days. Moreover, we saw a decreasing trend in 1-day maximum rainfall, 5-day maximum rainfall, the intensity of the daily rainfall over 25 mm during the pre-monsoon and 50 mm during monsoon, which together may indicate a future decrease in the magnitude and intensity of flash floods and monsoon floods. If this trend continues, the northeast Bangladesh may suffer from water stress, which could affect the lives and livelihoods of communities living there.

  1. Social networking in Bangladesh: Boon or curse for academic engagement?

    OpenAIRE

    Mouri Dey; Ali Arshad Chowdhury

    2016-01-01

    The number of social networking services (SNSs) users in Bangladesh is increasing at an accelerating rate. There are many who argue that SNS usage is destroying the students’ future by diminishing their academic engagement. The authors aim to investigate whether there is any relationship between students’ academic performance and their SNS usage. The study chose Facebook as a representative of SNSs because this is the most popular platform for online social connectivity and conducted a survey...

  2. Gender and HIV/AIDS in Bangladesh: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joydeb Garai

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The HIV/AIDS epidemic portrays a growing health threat in the world. In Bangladesh, the prevalence rate of HIV/AIDS is not yet high but it is gradually becoming a threat especially for women and young girls due to gender disparity. This systematic review was conducted to explore the gender-specific vulnerability to HIV/AIDS in Bangladesh in order to suggest to policy makers the best way for the prevention of HIV/AIDS in Bangladesh as well as in other low income countries. Methods: Peer review articles were identified using a systematic search of two databases: Pubmed and Goggle Scholar. The search was limited to studies published in English between 1998 and 2016 and included a special focus on articles addressing the gender-specific risk factors to HIV/ AIDS. Discussion and Conclusion: This paper analyzes how women and girls in marginalized position in the society fall victim to HIV/AIDS due to gender disparities and other related issues. The findings of the study indicate that women and young girls are the most vulnerable to HIV/AIDS infection among the general people. Along with biological susceptibility, other major causes of this vulnerability of women and girls are gender inequality, sexual abuse and violence, social stigma, inability to decision making power, economic dependency and men’s sexual power and privilege over women. This paper helps policy makers and invites them to take special care to reduce gender inequality before implementing any policy for the prevention of HIV/AIDS in Bangladesh as well as in low income countries.

  3. Bangladesh : tous les projets | Page 3 | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    À mesure que les pays de l'Asie du Sud s'acheminent vers une plus grande intégration économique, on voit apparaître tout un éventail de difficultés interreliées ayant trait aux garanties constitutionnelles et aux garanties des droits de la personne. End Date: 17 mars 2016. Sujet: PRISONS. Région: Bangladesh, India, Nepal ...

  4. Coal mining in Bangladesh: Options to mitigate environmental impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Angen, Meara Rose

    2008-01-01

    This study examines methods of mitigating the environmental impacts of coal mining in Bangladesh. Coal is expected to aid in providing energy security for the country in the short-term. The coal mining industry is currently in its infancy, and no policy exists. This study examines the government policies of three diverse countries and discovers that there are several instruments commonly used to reduce the environmental impacts of coal mining. These instruments include regulations that set st...

  5. Does Micro-Credit Empower Women : Evidence from Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Pitt, Mark M.; Khandker, Shahidur R.; Cartwright, Jennifer

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of men's and women's participation in group-based micro-credit programs on a large set of qualitative responses to questions that characterize women's autonomy and gender relations within the household. The data come from a special survey carried out in rural Bangladesh in 1998-99. The results are consistent with the view that women's participation in micro-...

  6. Empowering Women with Micro Finance: Evidence from Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Pitt, Mark M; Khandker, Shahidur R; Cartwright, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the effects of men's and women's participation in micro credit programs on various indicators of women's empowerment using data from a special survey carried out in rural Bangladesh. These credit programs are well suited to studying how gender-specific resources alter intrahousehold allocations because they induce differential participation by gender through the requirement that only one adult member per household can participate in any micro credit program. Empowerment ...

  7. Introduction of New Vaccines: Decision-making Process in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Uddin, Jasim; Sarma, Haribondhu; Bari, Tajul I.; Koehlmoos, Tracey P.

    2013-01-01

    The understanding of the decision-making process in the introduction of new vaccines helps establish why vaccines are adopted or not. It also contributes to building a sustainable demand for vaccines in a country. The purpose of the study was to map and analyze the formal decision-making process in relation to the introduction of new vaccines within the context of health policy and health systems and identify the ways of making decisions to introduce new vaccines in Bangladesh. During Februar...

  8. bangladesh : tous les projets | Page 2 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Adaptation, eau et résilience dans l'Himalaya. Projet. Ce projet de recherche permettra à des femmes, des hommes et des enfants pauvres et vulnérables de faire face et de s'adapter aux changements climatiques dans la région asiatique de l'Hindu Kush-Himalaya. Sujet: ADAPTATION, Gender. Région: Bangladesh, India ...

  9. Critical Factors of Women Entrepreneurship Development in Rural Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Faraha Nawaz

    2009-01-01

    The paper aims to analyze the critical factors of women entrepreneurship development in rural Bangladesh. The analysis is based on recent theoretical ideas that have been supported by empirical research findings. The paper depicts an analytical framework based on institutional theory, which focuses on three kinds of factors: regulative, normative, and cognitive. Regulative factors refer to different rules and regulations of the Government that facilitate women entrepreneurship development in ...

  10. A New Species of Euphlyctis (Anura: Dicroglossidae) from Barisal, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Howlader, Mohammad Sajid Ali; Nair, Abhilash; Gopalan, Sujith V.; Meril?, Juha

    2015-01-01

    A new species of the genus Euphlyctis is described from the Barisal district of Bangladesh and compared with its morphologically similar and geographically proximate congeners. The new species is highly divergent in comparison to other congeneric species on basis of sequence divergence in mitochondrial DNA gene sequences (ranging from 5.5% to 17.8% divergence). Euphlyctis kalasgramensis sp. nov. can be readily diagnosed by having the following combination of characters: snout-vent length (SVL...

  11. Economic Effects of Land Infrastructure on Agricultural Production in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Kundu, Tarun Kanti; Kato, Isao

    2001-01-01

    We analyse how and to what extent land infrastructure affects productivity and profitability of High Yielding Variety (HYV) Boro rice production in Bangladesh. In our study, “land infrastructure” refers to some basic physical characteristics and facilities of farmland such as farm size, land fragmentation, and irrigation & drainage systems. Our empirical study reveals that in small, fragmented farmlands, production cost is higher, productivity is lower and profitability is marginal. While wea...

  12. Inflation and Financial Sector Correlation: The Case of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu N.M. Wahid

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of inflation on financial development in case of Bangladesh for the period of 1985-2005. In doing so, ARDL bounds testing approach and Error Correction Method (ECM have been employed. Empirical findings reveal that high trends of inflation impede the performance of financial markets. GDP per capita promotes development of financial sector through its causal channels.

  13. bangladesh : tous les projets | Page 5 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Région: Bangladesh, Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, India, Malaysia, Nepal, Viet Nam, Thailand. Financement total : CA$ 137,926.00 ... L'économie du Malawi repose essentiellement sur la culture du tabac, qui représente plus de 70 % des revenus d'exportation. Date de début : 7 février 2008. End Date: 31 mai ...

  14. Status of fish broodstock management and seed production in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Amin, M.N.

    2005-01-01

    The study was conducted with the broad objectives to assess the existing situation of broodstock management and fish seed production in private fish seed farms in Bangladesh. The data were collected from 100 private hatcheries and 40 nurseries in seven upazilas under four districts. There was no shed in forty hatcheries and the owners faced many problems. Brood fish ponds were found suitable for rearing brood fish. About 66% of the hatchery owners collected brood fish from their own ponds and...

  15. Needs Hierarchy, Motivational Factors and Entrepreneurship in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Mostofa Haque

    2010-01-01

    Every human being is driven by his/her desire to reach his/her needs, whereby the needs evolve to more ambitious needs once the most fundamental needs have been achieved. To reach more ambitious needs, accommodating socio-economic infrastructures and appropriate government support are required. Based on various surveys, this paper examines the needs hierarchy of Bangladeshi people as well as the main hindrances for not reaching higher up needs in Bangladesh. It analyzes the motivational facto...

  16. Impact and cost-effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecenka, Clint; Parashar, Umesh; Tate, Jacqueline E; Khan, Jahangir A M; Groman, Devin; Chacko, Stephen; Shamsuzzaman, Md; Clark, Andrew; Atherly, Deborah

    2017-07-13

    Diarrheal disease is a leading cause of child mortality globally, and rotavirus is responsible for more than a third of those deaths. Despite substantial decreases, the number of rotavirus deaths in children under five was 215,000 per year in 2013. Of these deaths, approximately 41% occurred in Asia and 3% of those in Bangladesh. While Bangladesh has yet to introduce rotavirus vaccination, the country applied for Gavi support and plans to introduce it in 2018. This analysis evaluates the impact and cost-effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination in Bangladesh and provides estimates of the costs of the vaccination program to help inform decision-makers and international partners. This analysis used Pan American Health Organization's TRIVAC model (version 2.0) to examine nationwide introduction of two-dose rotavirus vaccination in 2017, compared to no vaccination. Three mortality scenarios (low, high, and midpoint) were assessed. Benefits and costs were examined from the societal perspective over ten successive birth cohorts with a 3% discount rate. Model inputs were locally acquired and complemented by internationally validated estimates. Over ten years, rotavirus vaccination would prevent 4000 deaths, nearly 500,000 hospitalizations and 3 million outpatient visits in the base scenario. With a Gavi subsidy, cost/disability adjusted life year (DALY) ratios ranged from $58/DALY to $142/DALY averted. Without a Gavi subsidy and a vaccine price of $2.19 per dose, cost/DALY ratios ranged from $615/DALY to $1514/DALY averted. The discounted cost per DALY averted was less than the GDP per capita for nearly all scenarios considered, indicating that a routine rotavirus vaccination program is highly likely to be cost-effective. Even in a low mortality setting with no Gavi subsidy, rotavirus vaccination would be cost-effective. These estimates exclude the herd immunity benefits of vaccination, so represent a conservative estimate of the cost-effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination

  17. INDOOR THERMAL CONDITION OF FACTORY BUILDING IN BANGLADESH

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammed Abdullah Al Sayem Khan; Mohd. Hamdan Ahmad; Tareef Hayat Khan

    2011-01-01

    Bangladesh is a developing country and has a lot of factories for different products for local use and also export to abroad. Garments industries are one of the top most items of exported items. A huge number of populations are working in garments industries. But these factories are not well designed in sense of the thermal environment. Workers experiences sickness related to indoor environment. The productions of these factories are affected due to employees’ health condition. The research i...

  18. Climate-Resilient Low Emission Development in Bangladesh (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, A.; Sandor, D.; Butheau, M.

    2013-11-01

    Bangladesh is widely considered to be one of the nations most threatened by climate change. With two-thirds of the country less than 20 feet above sea level, the intrusion of salt into freshwater wells, frequent flooding, and the displacement of people from their homes is an ongoing threat. At the same time, the country's cities are rapidly growing, and the demand for energy is increasing at a corresponding rate.

  19. Fisheries resources of Bangladesh: Present status and future direction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mostafa Shamsuzzaman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh is considered one of the most suitable regions for fisheries in the world, with the world's largest flooded wetland and the third largest aquatic biodiversity in Asia after China and India. This paper reviews the performance of fisheries in Bangladesh using data collected from the Bangladesh Department of Fisheries, and related un-published grey literatures. The findings within describe recent growth within Bangladeshi inland fisheries, primarily in the inland aquaculture sector (2014–2015. This increase in the aquaculture production has been made possible with the implementation of scientific and technological modernization. From 2000 and 2016, aquaculture production increased from 712,640 and 2,060,408 metric t, a much larger quantity than wild capture production (1.023 million t in 2016. There has also been a recent increase in the value of fishery exports, with more than US $34.08 billion in 2010 rising to more than US $46.60 billion in 2015. However, fisheries production is well below production targets despite the large gains seen in the aquaculture sector.

  20. Satellite-derived methane emissions from inundation in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, C. N.; Bennartz, R.; Hornberger, G. M.

    2017-05-01

    The uncertainty in methane (CH4) source strength of rice fields and wetlands is particularly high in South Asia CH4 budgets. We used satellite observations of CH4 column mixing ratios from Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography (SCIAMACHY), and Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) to estimate the contribution of Bangladesh emissions to atmospheric CH4 concentrations. Using satellite-derived inundation area as a proxy for source area, we developed a simple inverse advection model that estimates average annual CH4 surface fluxes to be 4, 9, and 19 mg CH4 m-2 h-1 in AIRS, SCIAMACHY, and GOSAT, respectively. Despite this variability, our flux estimates varied over a significantly narrower range than reported values for CH4 surface fluxes from a survey of 32 studies reporting ground-based observations between 0 and 260 mg CH4 m-2 h-1. Upscaling our satellite-derived surface flux estimates, we estimated total annual CH4 emissions for Bangladesh to be 1.3 ± 3.2, 1.8 ± 2.0, 3.1 ± 1.6 Tg yr-1, depending on the satellite. Our estimates of total emissions are in line with the median of total emission values for Bangladesh reported in earlier studies.

  1. Key Performance Characteristics of Organic Shrimp Aquaculture in Southwest Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Reinhard Vogl

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In Bangladesh, black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon; Fabricius, 1798 aquaculture has come to be one of the most important sectors in both the rural and national economies. Likewise, organic shrimp aquaculture has emerged as an alternative farming enterprise for farmers especially in the southwestern districts of Bangladesh. The present study aims to show key performance characteristics of organic shrimp farmers and farming in a prototypical shrimp farming area in Bangladesh. Data was collected in 2009 from organic shrimp farmers in the Kaligonj and Shyamnagar sub-districts through questionnaire interviews, transect walks and focus group discussions. The mean productivity of organic shrimp farming in the area is 320 kg ha−1 yr−1 (ranging from 120 to 711 kg ha−1year−1. Organic farmers are more likely to have a higher monthly income and less aquaculture experience. Moreover, suitable landholdings and classified labor distribution have been found to play an important role in the development of organic shrimp aquaculture. The most common assets of organic shrimp aquaculture are high yield, low production cost, available post larvae and high market prices. Small business farmers are likely to earn more income benefits from organic shrimp aquaculture than their larger-scale counterparts. Finally, the paper suggests that more research is needed to stimulate the success of organic shrimp aquaculture.

  2. Epidemiology of Burns in Rural Bangladesh: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Siran; Alonge, Olakunle; Agrawal, Priyanka; Sharmin, Shumona; Islam, Irteja; Mashreky, Saidur Rahman; Arifeen, Shams El

    2017-04-05

    Each year, approximately 265,000 deaths occur due to burns on a global scale. In Bangladesh, around 173,000 children under 18 sustain a burn injury. Since most epidemiological studies on burn injuries in low and middle-income countries are based on small-scale surveys or hospital records, this study aims to derive burn mortality and morbidity measures and risk factors at a population level in Bangladesh. A household survey was conducted in seven rural sub-districts of Bangladesh in 2013 to assess injury outcomes. Burn injuries were one of the external causes of injury. Epidemiological characteristics and risk factors were described using descriptive as well as univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. The overall mortality and morbidity rates were 2 deaths and 528 injuries per 100,000 populations. Females had a higher burn rate. More than 50% of injuries were seen in adults 25 to 64 years of age. Most injuries occurred in the kitchen while preparing food. 88% of all burns occurred due to flame. Children 1 to 4 years of age were four times more likely to sustain burn injuries as compared to infants. Age-targeted interventions, awareness of first aid protocols, and improvement of acute care management would be potential leads to curb death and disability due to burn injuries.

  3. A review of the mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irish, Seth R; Al-Amin, Hasan Mohammad; Alam, Mohammad Shafiul; Harbach, Ralph E

    2016-10-22

    Diseases caused by mosquito-borne pathogens remain an important source of morbidity and mortality in Bangladesh. To better control the vectors that transmit the agents of disease, and hence the diseases they cause, and to appreciate the diversity of the family Culicidae, it is important to have an up-to-date list of the species present in the country. Original records were collected from a literature review to compile a list of the species recorded in Bangladesh. Records for 123 species were collected, although some species had only a single record. This is an increase of ten species over the most recent complete list, compiled nearly 30 years ago. Collection records of three additional species are included here: Anopheles pseudowillmori, Armigeres malayi and Mimomyia luzonensis. While this work constitutes the most complete list of mosquito species collected in Bangladesh, further work is needed to refine this list and understand the distributions of those species within the country. Improved morphological and molecular methods of identification will allow the refinement of this list in years to come.

  4. Screening for gestational diabetes mellitus and its prevalence in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesmin, Subrina; Akter, Shamima; Akashi, Hidechika; Al-Mamun, Abdullah; Rahman, Md Arifur; Islam, Md Majedul; Sohael, Farzana; Okazaki, Osamu; Moroi, Masao; Kawano, Satoru; Mizutani, Taro

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has important health complications for both mother and child and is increasing all over the world. Although prevalence estimates for GDM are not new in developed and many developing countries, data are lacking for many low-income countries like Bangladesh. To evaluate the prevalence of GDM in Bangladesh. This cross-sectional study included 3447 women who consecutively visited the antenatal clinics with an average gestation age of 26 weeks. GDM was defined according to WHO criteria (fasting plasma glucose [FPG] ≥7.0 mmol/L or 2-h ≥7.8 mmol/L) and the new ADA criteria (FPG ≥5.3 mmol/L or 2-h ≥8.6 mmol/L OGTT). We also calculated overt diabetes as FPG ≥7.0 mmol/L. Prevalence of GDM was 9.7% according to the WHO criteria and 12.9% according to the ADA criteria in this study population. Prevalence of overt diabetes was 1.8%. Women with GDM were older, higher educated, had higher household income, higher parity, parental history of diabetes, and more hypertensive, compared with non-GDM women. This study demonstrates a high prevalence of GDM in Bangladesh. These estimates for GDM may help to formulate new policies to prevent and manage diabetes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Population growth and development: the case of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakibullah, A

    1998-04-01

    In a poor, overly populated country such as Bangladesh, some believe that a high rate of population growth is a cause of poverty which impedes economic development. Population growth would therefore be exogenous to economic development. However, others believe that rapid population growth is a consequence rather than a cause of poverty. Population growth is therefore endogenous to economic development. Findings are presented from an investigation of whether population growth has been exogenous or endogenous with respect to Bangladesh's development process during the past 3 decades. The increase in per capita real gross domestic product (GDP) is used as a measure of development. Data on population, real GDP per capita, and real investment share of GDP are drawn from the Penn World Table prepared by Summers and Heston in 1991. The data are annual and cover the period 1959-90. Analysis of the data indicate that population growth is endogenous to Bangladesh's development process. These findings are reflected both in the Granger causality tests and the decompositions of variances of detrended real GDP per capita and population growth.

  6. Electricity consumption and economic growth nexus in Bangladesh: Revisited evidences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahamad, Mazbahul Golam; Islam, A.K.M. Nazrul

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, an attempt is being made to examine the causal relationship between per capita electricity consumption and per capita GDP of Bangladesh using the vector error correction specified Granger causality test to search their short-run, long-run and joint causal relationships for the period of 1971-2008. Empirical findings reveal that there is a short-run unidirectional causal flow running from per capita electricity consumption to per capita GDP without feedback. The presence of a positive short-run causality explains that an increase in electricity consumption directly affects economic activity in Bangladesh. Likewise, results from joint causality exhibit the same as in short-run. By contrast, long-run results show a bi-directional causality running from electricity consumption to economic growth with feedback. These findings can provide essential policy insights to design immediate and long-term growth prospect for Bangladesh keeping in mind its present planned growth strategy and dismal power and energy sector. - Highlights: → Short-run causality running from electricity consumption to economic growth. → Positive SR causality explains electricity generation directly affects economic growth. → For long run, causality runs from electricity consumption to economic growth with feedback. → Joint causality implies the same as in short-run.

  7. Projecting the impact of climate change on dengue transmission in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banu, Shahera; Hu, Wenbiao; Guo, Yuming; Hurst, Cameron; Tong, Shilu

    2014-02-01

    Weather variables, mainly temperature and humidity influence vectors, viruses, human biology, ecology and consequently the intensity and distribution of the vector-borne diseases. There is evidence that warmer temperature due to climate change will influence the dengue transmission. However, long term scenario-based projections are yet to be developed. Here, we assessed the impact of weather variability on dengue transmission in a megacity of Dhaka, Bangladesh and projected the future dengue risk attributable to climate change. Our results show that weather variables particularly temperature and humidity were positively associated with dengue transmission. The effects of weather variables were observed at a lag of four months. We projected that assuming a temperature increase of 3.3°C without any adaptation measure and changes in socio-economic condition, there will be a projected increase of 16,030 dengue cases in Dhaka by the end of this century. This information might be helpful for the public health authorities to prepare for the likely increase of dengue due to climate change. The modelling framework used in this study may be applicable to dengue projection in other cities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Integrated assessment of social and environmental sustainability dynamics in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, R. J.; Hutton, C. W.; Lázár, A. N.; Allan, A.; Adger, W. N.; Adams, H.; Wolf, J.; Rahman, M.; Salehin, M.

    2016-12-01

    Deltas provide diverse ecosystem services and benefits for their populations. At the same time, deltas are also recognised as one of the most vulnerable coastal environments, with a range of drivers operating at multiple scales, from global climate change and sea-level rise to deltaic-scale subsidence and land cover change. These drivers threaten these ecosystem services, which often provide livelihoods for the poorest communities in these regions. The imperative to maintain ecosystem services presents a development challenge: how to develop deltaic areas in ways that are sustainable and benefit all residents including the most vulnerable. Here we present an integrated framework to analyse changing ecosystem services in deltas and the implications for human well-being, focussing in particular on the provisioning ecosystem services of agriculture, inland and offshore capture fisheries, aquaculture and mangroves that directly support livelihoods. The framework is applied to the world's most populated delta, the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna Delta within Bangladesh. The framework adopts a systemic perspective to represent the principal biophysical and socio-ecological components and their interaction. A range of methods are integrated within a quantitative framework, including biophysical and socio-economic modelling and analyses of governance through scenario development. The approach is iterative, with learning both within the project team and with national policy-making stakeholders. The analysis is used to explore physical and social outcomes for the delta under different scenarios and policy choices. We consider how the approach is transferable to other deltas and potentially other coastal areas.

  9. Use of an action-selection framework for human-carnivore conflict in the Bangladesh Sundarbans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Adam C D; Greenwood, Christina J; Ahmad, Ishtiaq U; Smith, James L D

    2010-10-01

    Human-carnivore conflict is manifested in the death of humans, livestock, and carnivores. The resulting negative local attitudes and retribution killings imperil the future of many endangered carnivores. We tailored existing management tools to create a framework to facilitate the selection of actions to alleviate human-carnivore conflict and applied the framework to the human-tiger conflict in the Bangladesh Sundarbans. We identified potential actions that consider previous management efforts, local knowledge, cost-effectiveness, fieldwork experience of authors and project staff, previous research on tiger ecology by the authors, and recommendations from human-carnivore conflict studies in other countries. Our framework includes creation of a profile to improve understanding of the nature of the conflict and its underlying causality. Identified actions include deterrents, education, direct tiger management, and response teams. We ranked actions by their potential to reduce conflict and the monetary cost of their implementation. We ranked tiger-response teams and monitoring problem tigers as the two best actions because both had relatively high impact and cost-effectiveness. We believe this framework could be used under a wide range of human-wildlife conflict situations because it provides a structured approach to selection of mitigating actions. © 2010 Society for Conservation Biology.

  10. Measuring the potential for sustainable intensification of aquaculture in Bangladesh using life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksson, Patrik John Gustav; Belton, Ben; Jahan, Khondker Murshed-E-; Rico, Andreu

    2018-03-20

    Food production is a major driver of global environmental change and the overshoot of planetary sustainability boundaries. Greater affluence in developing nations and human population growth are also increasing demand for all foods, and for animal proteins in particular. Consequently, a growing body of literature calls for the sustainable intensification of food production, broadly defined as "producing more using less". Most assessments of the potential for sustainable intensification rely on only one or two indicators, meaning that ecological trade-offs among impact categories that occur as production intensifies may remain unaccounted for. The present study addresses this limitation using life cycle assessment (LCA) to quantify six local and global environmental consequences of intensifying aquaculture production in Bangladesh. Production data are from a unique survey of 2,678 farms, and results show multidirectional associations between the intensification of aquaculture production and its environmental impacts. Intensification (measured in material and economic output per unit primary area farmed) is positively correlated with acidification, eutrophication, and ecotoxicological impacts in aquatic ecosystems; negatively correlated with freshwater consumption; and indifferent with regard to global warming and land occupation. As production intensifies, the geographical locations of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, acidifying emissions, freshwater consumption, and land occupation shift from the immediate vicinity of the farm to more geographically dispersed telecoupled locations across the globe. Simple changes in fish farming technology and management practices that could help make the global transition to more intensive forms of aquaculture be more sustainable are identified. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  11. Teacher Perceptions of Inquiry and STEM Education in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahidullah, Kazi K.

    This dissertation reports lower secondary science teachers perceptions of current practice in Dhaka, Bangladesh concerning inquiry and STEM Education in order to establish a baseline of data for reform of science education in Bangladesh. Bangladesh has been trying to incorporate inquiry-based science curricula since the 1970s. Over time, the science curricula also aligned with different international science education movements such as Science for All, Scientific Literacy, Science, Technology, and Society. Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) is the most recent science education movement in international science education. This study explored current practices and perceptions of lower secondary science teachers in order to establish a baseline of current practice so that future reform recommendations may be pursued and recommendations made for Bangladesh to overcome the inquiry-based challenges and to incorporate new STEM-based science education trends happening in the US and throughout the world. The study explored science teachers perceptions and readiness to transform their science classrooms based on self-reported survey. The survey utilized Likert-type scale with range 1 (very strongly disagree) to 6 (very strongly agree) among four hundred lower secondary science teachers, teacher training college faculty, and university faculty. The data is presented in four different categories: curriculum, instruction, assessment, and professional development. Results indicated that the participants understand and practice a certain level of inquiry in their science classrooms, though they do not have adequate professional development. Participants also stated that they do not have sufficient instructional materials and the curriculum is not articulated enough to support inquiry. On the other hand, the participants reported that they understand and practice a certain degree of inquiry and STEM-based science education, but they also state that the

  12. Burkholderia pseudomallei: Its Detection in Soil and Seroprevalence in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilani, Md Shariful Alam; Robayet, Jamshedul Alam Mohammad; Mohiuddin, Md; Hasan, Md Rokib; Ahsan, Chowdhury Rafiqul; Haq, Jalaluddin Ashraful

    2016-01-01

    Melioidosis, caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, is an endemic disease in Bangladesh. No systematic study has yet been done to detect the environmental source of the organism and its true extent in Bangladesh. The present study attempted to isolate B. pseudomallei in soil samples and to determine its seroprevalence in several districts in Bangladesh. Soil samples were collected from rural areas of four districts of Bangladesh from where culture confirmed melioidosis cases were detected earlier. Multiple soil samples, collected from 5-7 sampling points of 3-5 sites of each district, were cultured in Ashdown selective media. Suspected colonies of B. pseudomallei were identified by biochemical and serological test, and by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using 16s rRNA specific primers. Blood samples were collected from 940 healthy individuals of four districts to determine anti- B. pseudomallei IgG antibody levels by indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using sonicated crude antigen. Out of 179 soil samples, B. pseudomallei was isolated from two samples of Gazipur district which is located 58 km north of capital Dhaka city. Both the isolates were phenotypically identical, arabinose negative and showed specific 550bp band in PCR. Out of 940 blood samples, anti- B. pseudomallei IgG antibody, higher than the cut-off value (>0.8), was detected in 21.5% individuals. Seropositivity rate was 22.6%-30.8% in three districts from where melioidosis cases were detected earlier, compared to 9.8% in a district where no melioidosis case was either detected or reported (p 50 years respectively. The seropositivity rates were 26.0% and 20.6% in male and female respectively, while it was 20-27% among different occupational groups. No significant association was observed with gender (χ2 = 3.441, p = 0.064) or any occupational group (χ2 = 3.835, p = 0.280). This is the first study demonstrating the presence of B. pseudomallei in the environmental (soil) samples of

  13. Becoming the Garos of Bangladesh: Policies of exclusion and the ethnicisation of a 'Tribal' minority

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bal, E.W.

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on the relation between state policies and ethnicisation in the borderland of Bengal. On the basis of a case study of the lowland Garos of Bangladesh, the paper argues that attempts by the successor states of Bengal, East Pakistan and Bangladesh to 'other', and even 'exclude', the

  14. Embedding scenario analysis and application in delta planning processes in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seijger, Chris; Alam, Saiful; Saikat, Tahmidul Haq; Terwisscha van Scheltinga, C.T.H.M.; Aalst, van Maaike; Navera, Umme Kulsum

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this research was to explore how scenario analysis and application in delta planning could be embedded in institutions in Bangladesh, on a continuous and enduring basis. By reviewing the National Water Management Plan, the 5 Year Plan and the Bangladesh Delta Plan it can be

  15. Exclusion of Indigenous Children from Primary Education in the Rajshahi Division of Northwestern Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarker, Profulla; Davey, Gareth

    2009-01-01

    Although education provision has recently improved in Bangladesh, the exclusion of children in the poorest families remains a pressing issue. Surveys in Bangladesh about school attendance have to date been confined to the dominant ethnic groups. Data are lacking for ethnic minorities such as indigenous children. To address this issue, we surveyed…

  16. Fertility Differentials among Religious Minorities : Cross-national and Regional Evidence from India and Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sahu, Biswamitra; van Wissen, L. J. G.; Hutter, Inge; Bosch, Alinda

    2012-01-01

    The article examines the independent effect of religious minority status on fertility at two levels i.e. cross-country level of India and Bangladesh and intra-country level (district) of India. Demographic and health survey data from India (20052006) and Bangladesh (20062007) are used for the

  17. Fertility differentials among religious minorities: cross-national and regional evidence from India and Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sahu, B.; van Wissen, L.J.G.; Hutter, I.; Bosch, A.

    2012-01-01

    The article examines the independent effect of religious minority status on fertility at two levels i.e. cross-country level of India and Bangladesh and intra-country level (district) of India. Demographic and health survey data from India (2005–2006) and Bangladesh (2006–2007) are used for the

  18. The Role of Pre-School Education on Learning Achievement at Primary Level in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Samir Ranjan

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of pre-school education on learning achievement at primary level in Bangladesh. Evidence from learning achievement test and household and school-related data were obtained from 7093 pupils attending 440 primary schools in Bangladesh. Findings suggest that a small proportion (15.3%) of primary school pupils attended…

  19. The Role of Training in Reducing Poverty: The Case of the Ultra-Poor in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad Aktaruzzaman; Ali, Anees Janee

    2014-01-01

    Although microcredit is considered the main vehicle for increasing the income of the poor and alleviating poverty in Bangladesh, it is now well recognised that more than this is needed to reach the ultra poor in rural areas. Consequently, almost half of the Bangladesh population is in some way linked to non-governmental organizations' development…

  20. Employment of Active Learning at HEIs in Bangladesh to Improve Education Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Faieza

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, education quality and quality assessment have received a great deal of attention at Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) in Bangladesh. Most of the HEIs in Bangladesh face severe resource constraints and find it difficult to improve education quality by improving inputs, such as better infrastructure and modernized classroom…

  1. A matched case-control study to identify risk determinants of tuberculosis in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarker, M.; Homayra, F.; Barua, M.; Paul, S.; Saha, A.; Akter, R.; Latif, A.H.M.

    2017-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major public health problem in Bangladesh. The present study focused on identifying TB risk determinants in Bangladesh. An age-sex matched casecontrol study was conducted with each stratum consisting of one case and two controls. This study covered six divisions of

  2. Nutrient composition of important fish species in Bangladesh and potential contribution to recommended nutrient intakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogard, Jessica R.; Thilsted, Shakuntala H.; Marks, Geoffrey C.

    2015-01-01

    Fish, in Bangladesh where malnutrition remains a significant development challenge, is an irreplaceable animal-source food in the diet of millions. However, existing data on the nutrient composition of fish do not reflect the large diversity available and have focused on only a few select nutrien...... indigenous species, which should guide policy and programmes to improve food and nutrition security in Bangladesh....

  3. Satellite altimetry and GRACE gravimetry for studies of annual water storage variations in Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Berry, P.; Freeman, J.

    2008-01-01

    Four different data sources have been compared with respect to observations of the annual water storage variations in the region of Bangladesh. Data from satellite altimeters and river gauges estimates the variation in surface water storage in the major rivers of Bangladesh. The GRACE satellites ...

  4. IMPACT OF CURRENCY DEVALUATION ON THE EXPORTS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON PAKISTAN, BANGLADESH AND INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Shahzad

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze the impact of currency devaluation on exports of three major economies of South Asian (i.e., Pakistan, Bangladesh and India over the period 1980 to 2012, by implementing the multiple regression models. Results reveales that currency devaluation encourages exports of Pakistan and Bangladesh. Lending interest rate significant negative effect in Pakistan and Bangladesh but insignificant in India. Government expenditure encouraged the export of Pakistan while not significaant in Bangladesh while depress in India. Money supply also enhanced the export of Pakistan, Bangladesh and India. Result suggest that concerned authorities should manage and use the resources properly in such a way which may assist to develop the economies.

  5. Modeling recent climate change induced extreme events in Bangladesh: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rehan Dastagir

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh is a resourceful and densely populated country that has been experiencing frequent disasters viz. cyclones, tidal surges, floods, salinity intrusions, droughts etc. which cause large damage to lives and properties every year. The frequency and intensity of the extreme events have increased significantly in recent decades due to climate change and global warming. This review paper synthesizes extreme climatic events in Bangladesh in the context of the climate modeling data. The modeling results of extreme events showed significant trends in Bangladesh due to climate change. The results of these climate models are significant to show the importance of climate modeling in Bangladesh and it will help to promote research on climate modeling in least developed countries like Bangladesh.

  6. Hysteresis of magnetostructural transitions: Repeatable and non-repeatable processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provenzano, Virgil; Della Torre, Edward; Bennett, Lawrence H.; ElBidweihy, Hatem

    2014-02-01

    The Gd5Ge2Si2 alloy and the off-stoichiometric Ni50Mn35In15 Heusler alloy belong to a special class of metallic materials that exhibit first-order magnetostructural transitions near room temperature. The magnetic properties of this class of materials have been extensively studied due to their interesting magnetic behavior and their potential for a number of technological applications such as refrigerants for near-room-temperature magnetic refrigeration. The thermally driven first-order transitions in these materials can be field-induced in the reverse order by applying a strong enough field. The field-induced transitions are typically accompanied by the presence of large magnetic hysteresis, the characteristics of which are a complicated function of temperature, field, and magneto-thermal history. In this study we show that the virgin curve, the major loop, and sequentially measured MH loops are the results of both repeatable and non-repeatable processes, in which the starting magnetostructural state, prior to the cycling of field, plays a major role. Using the Gd5Ge2Si2 and Ni50Mn35In15 alloys, as model materials, we show that a starting single phase state results in fully repeatable processes and large magnetic hysteresis, whereas a mixed phase starting state results in non-repeatable processes and smaller hysteresis.

  7. Hysteresis of magnetostructural transitions: Repeatable and non-repeatable processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provenzano, Virgil; Della Torre, Edward; Bennett, Lawrence H.; ElBidweihy, Hatem

    2014-01-01

    The Gd 5 Ge 2 Si 2 alloy and the off-stoichiometric Ni 50 Mn 35 In 15 Heusler alloy belong to a special class of metallic materials that exhibit first-order magnetostructural transitions near room temperature. The magnetic properties of this class of materials have been extensively studied due to their interesting magnetic behavior and their potential for a number of technological applications such as refrigerants for near-room-temperature magnetic refrigeration. The thermally driven first-order transitions in these materials can be field-induced in the reverse order by applying a strong enough field. The field-induced transitions are typically accompanied by the presence of large magnetic hysteresis, the characteristics of which are a complicated function of temperature, field, and magneto-thermal history. In this study we show that the virgin curve, the major loop, and sequentially measured MH loops are the results of both repeatable and non-repeatable processes, in which the starting magnetostructural state, prior to the cycling of field, plays a major role. Using the Gd 5 Ge 2 Si 2 and Ni 50 Mn 35 In 15 alloys, as model materials, we show that a starting single phase state results in fully repeatable processes and large magnetic hysteresis, whereas a mixed phase starting state results in non-repeatable processes and smaller hysteresis

  8. Factors Associated with Disability in Rural Bangladesh: Bangladesh Population-Based Diabetes and Eye Study (BPDES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Fakir M Amirul; Bhowmik, Jahar L; Islam, Silvia Z; Renzaho, Andre M N; Hiller, Janet E

    2016-01-01

    To assess factors associated with disability in a rural district of Bangladesh. Using a population-based systematic sampling technique, data were collected from 3104 adults aged ≥ 30 years from the Banshgram union of Narail district. Data collected included an interviewer administered questionnaire to report physical disabilities including impairment that prevents engagement with paid work, visual, hearing, and mobility as well as mental disabilities. Socio-demographic and anthropometric factors including educational attainment and body mass index, as well as clinical factors such as blood pressure, and fasting blood glucose were also collected. Binary and multinomial logistic regression techniques were used to explore the association of various socio-demographic and clinical factors with disability. The mean (SD), minimum and maximum ages of the participants were 51 (12), 30 and 89 years. Of total participants, 65% were female. The prevalence of disability varied from 29.1% for visual impairment (highest) to 16.5% for hearing, 14.7% for movement difficulties and 1.6% (lowest) for any other disability that prevented engagement with paid work. Overall, the prevalence of a single disability was 28.6% and that of two or more disabilities was 14.7%. Older age, gender (female), lower socio-economic status (SES), and hypertension were associated with a higher prevalence of most of the disability components. The prevalence of hearing problems (24.5% vs. 13.3%, pvisual impairment (54.6% vs. 9.2%, pdisability (prevalence risk ratio [PRR] 1.25, 95% CI: 1.09-1.42, pdisability and multiple disabilities was respectively 21% (PRR 1.21, 95% CI: 1.02-1.42, pdisability is high. Public health programs should target those of low SES, older age, and female participants and aim to provide necessary supports in order to bridge disability-related inequities.

  9. 10th national conference of Society of Nuclear Medicine, Bangladesh and International symposium, Dhaka, Bangladesh, 10-11 February 2005: A report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, F.

    2005-01-01

    The Society of Nuclear Medicine, Bangladesh organized its 10th Annual Conference at Dhaka on 10-11 February 2005. The theme of this year's convention was 'Interventional Nuclear Medicine'. Besides the faculty from Bangladesh including consultants from various clinical specialties, four international experts also participated in the two day meeting. The pre-congress CME was held in the premises of Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission on 10 February. Several lectures on the management of Thyroid Disorders using radionuclide techniques were delivered by a distinguished national and international faculty. The lectures were attended by a large audience with a packed auditorium, mostly nuclear medicine specialists, general physicians, surgeons and endocrinologists from Dhaka and other places of Bangladesh. There was good interaction and participants took active part in the discussions. The actual Annual Convention of Society of Nuclear Medicine Bangladesh (SNMB) was held in Dhaka on 11 February 2005. The convention was attended by more than 250 registered participants, including nuclear medicine physicians, clinicians, residents, and technologists, representative of the Atomic Energy Commission and pioneers of nuclear medicine in Bangladesh

  10. Chromosomal rearrangements occurred repeatedly and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Furthermore, molecular and/or chromosomal data indicate that Paroedura is a monophyletic genus, in which chromosome rearrangements occurred repeatedly and independently during the specific diversification. Moreover both P. bastardi and P. gracilis in current definitions are paraphyletic assemblages of several ...

  11. Sequencing Games with Repeated Players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Estevez Fernandez, M.A.; Borm, P.; Calleja, P.; Hamers, H.

    2008-01-01

    Two classes of one machine sequencing situations are considered in which each job corresponds to exactly one player but a player may have more than one job to be processed, so called RP(repeated player) sequencing situations. In max-RP sequencing situations it is assumed that each player's cost

  12. Pentapeptide Repeat Proteins and Cyanobacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchko, Garry W.

    2009-10-16

    Cyanobacteria are unique in many ways and one unusual feature is the presence of a suite of proteins that contain at least one domain with a minimum of eight tandem repeated five-residues (Rfr) of the general consensus sequence A[N/D]LXX. The function of such pentapeptide repeat proteins (PRPs) are still unknown, however, their prevalence in cyanobacteria suggests that they may play some role in the unique biological activities of cyanobacteria. As part of an inter-disciplinary Membrane Biology Grand Challenge at the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory) and Washington University in St. Louis, the genome of Cyanothece 51142 was sequenced and its molecular biology studied with relation to circadian rhythms. The genome of Cyanothece encodes for 35 proteins that contain at least one PRP domain. These proteins range in size from 105 (Cce_3102) to 930 (Cce_2929) kDa with the PRP domains ranging in predicted size from 12 (Cce_1545) to 62 (cce_3979) tandem pentapeptide repeats. Transcriptomic studies with 29 out of the 35 genes showed that at least three of the PRPs in Cyanothece 51142 (cce_0029, cce_3083, and cce_3272) oscillated with repeated periods of light and dark, further supporting a biological function for PRPs. Using X-ray diffraction crystallography, the structure for two pentapeptide repeat proteins from Cyanothece 51142 were determined, cce_1272 (aka Rfr32) and cce_4529 (aka Rfr23). Analysis of their molecular structures suggests that all PRP may share the same structural motif, a novel type of right-handed quadrilateral β-helix, or Rfr-fold, reminiscent of a square tower with four distinct faces. Each pentapeptide repeat occupies one face of the Rfr-fold with four consecutive pentapeptide repeats completing a coil that, in turn, stack upon each other to form “protein skyscrapers”. Details of the structural features of the Rfr-fold are reviewed here together with a discussion for the possible role of end

  13. Ecologies of Learning, Ecologies of Creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyrup, Helene

    in the light of the new Danish school reform. How can different learning institutions contribute to a “joint” ecology of learning? What would the benefits be from this in terms of young people’s literacies? On what theoretical basis can such an ecology and co-creation take place? And what kind of didactics...

  14. Forest Fire Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucca, Carol; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents a model that integrates high school science with the needs of the local scientific community. Describes how a high school ecology class conducted scientific research in fire ecology that benefited the students and a state park forest ecologist. (MKR)

  15. Quality and quantity of infertility care in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, P; Ishrat, S; Rahman, D; Banu, J; Deeba, F; Begum, N; Anwary, S A; Hossain, H B

    2015-01-01

    Infertility is an important health issue which has been neglected in the developing countries. First test-tube babies (triplet) in Bangladesh were born on 30th May, 2001. Although there is no tertiary level infertility center in the public sector, several private centers have come up with the facilities. The objective of the study was to find i) the quality and quantity of infertility care in Bangladesh and ii) the cause of infertility in the attending patients iii) the treatment seeking behaviors iv) and the reasons for not taking treatment among the attending patients. There are now 10 tertiary level Infertility centers in Bangladesh. The information was collected in a preformed datasheet about the facilities and the profile of the patients and the treatment seeking behavior of the attending patients. Out of the ten centers two centers refused to respond and did not disclose their data. Around 16700 new patients are enrolled in a year in the responsive clinics. Five percent (5%) of the patients underwent ART, 7% of the patients gave only one visit, 84% of the patients completed their evaluation, 76% of the patients took treatment. Causes of infertility in the patients taking treatment were male factor in 36.4%, bilateral tubal block in 20.2%, PCOS and anovulation in 31.7%, endometriosis in 19.6%, unexplained in 10.95, combined in 3.5%, ovarian failure in 1.4%, testicular failure in 0.33%, congenital anomaly in 0.3%. The main reason for not taking treatment was financial constrainment. The quality and quantity of infertility care is dependent on the available resources and on the use of the resources by the patients. In developing countries the resources are merging and confined to specified areas which cannot meet the demand of their population. The study gives us the idea of the need and the demand of the services in the country.

  16. Energy productivity and efficiency of wheat farming in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, Sanzidur; Hasan, M. Kamrul

    2014-01-01

    Wheat is the second most important cereal crop in Bangladesh and production is highly sensitive to variations in the environment. We estimate productivity and energy efficiency of wheat farming in Bangladesh by applying a stochastic production frontier approach while accounting for the environmental constraints affecting production. Wheat farming is energy efficient with a net energy balance of 20,596 MJ per ha and energy ratio of 2.34. Environmental constraints such as a combination of unsuitable land, weed and pest attack, bad weather, planting delay and infertile soils significantly reduce wheat production and its energy efficiency. Environmental constraints account for a mean energy efficiency of 3 percentage points. Mean technical efficiency is 88% thereby indicating that elimination of inefficiencies can increase wheat energy output by 12%. Farmers' education, access to agricultural information and training in wheat production significantly improves efficiency, whereas events such as a delay in planting and first fertilization significantly reduce it. Policy recommendations include development of varieties that are resistant to environmental constraints and suitable for marginal areas; improvement of wheat farming practices; and investments in education and training of farmers as well as dissemination of information. - Highlights: • Bangladesh wheat farming is energy efficient at 20,596 MJha −1 ; energy ratio 2.34. • Environmental factors significantly influence productivity and energy efficiency. • Environmental factors must be taken into account when estimating wheat productivity. • Government policies must focus on ways of alleviating environmental factors. • Farmers' education, training and information sources increase technical efficiency

  17. Raising Awareness on Heat Related Mortality in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrighi, J.; Burkart, K.; Nissan, H.

    2017-12-01

    Extreme heat is the leading cause of weather-related deaths in the United States and Europe, and was responsible for four of the ten deadliest natural disasters worldwide in 2015. Near the tropics, where hot weather is considered the norm, perceived heat risk is often low, but recent heat waves in South Asia have caught the attention of the health community, policy-makers and the public. In a recent collaboration between the Red Cross Red Crescent Climate Centre, Columbia University and BBC Media Action the effects of extreme heat in Bangladesh were analyzed and the findings were subsequently used as a basis to raise awareness about the impacts of extreme heat on the most vulnerable, to the general public. Analysis of excess heat in Bangladesh between 2003 and 2007 showed that heatwaves occur between April and June with most extreme heat events occurring in May. Between 2003 and 2007 it is estimated that an average of 1500 people died per year due to heatwaves lasting three days or longer, with an eight-day heatwave in 2005 resulting in a minimum of 3,800 excess deaths. Utilizing these findings BBC Media Action launched an online communications campaign in May 2017 ultimately reaching approximately 3.9 million people with information on reducing the impacts of extreme heat. This presentation will highlight key findings from the study of heat related mortality in Bangladesh as well as highlight the benefit of collaboration between scientists and communicators for increasing awareness about the effects of extreme heat on the most vulnerable.

  18. Implementation of information and communication technologies for health in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Sheik Mohammed Shariful; Tabassum, Reshman

    2015-11-01

    Bangladesh has yet to develop a fully integrated health information system infrastructure that is critical to guiding policy development and planning. Initial pilot telemedicine and eHealth programmes were not coordinated at national level. However, in 2011, a national eHealth policy was implemented. Bangladesh has made substantial improvements to its health system. However, the country still faces public health challenges with limited and inequitable access to health services and lack of adequate resources to meet the demands of the population. In 2008, eHealth services were introduced, including computerization of health facilities at sub-district levels, internet connections, internet servers and an mHealth service for communicating with health-care providers. Health facilities at sub-district levels were provided with internet connections and servers. In 482 upazila health complexes and district hospitals, an mHealth service was set-up where an on-duty doctor is available for patients at all hours to provide consultations by mobile phone. A government operated telemedicine service was initiated and by 2014, 43 fully equipped centres were in service. These centres provide medical consultations by qualified physicians to patients visiting rural and remote community clinics and union health centres. Despite early pilot interventions and successful implementation, progress in adopting eHealth strategies in Bangladesh has been slow. There is a lack of common standards on information technology for health, which causes difficulties in data management and sharing among different databases. Limited internet bandwidth and the high cost of infrastructure and software development are barriers to adoption of these technologies.

  19. ENGLISH LANGUAGE COMPETENCY AND OUTSOURCED CALL CENTERS IN BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizanur Rahman

    2015-12-01

    Abstrak  Tulisan ini mencoba untuk menyelidiki apakah kompetensi bahasa Inggris Perwakilan Layanan Pelanggan (Customer Service Representatives/CSR menghambat pertumbuhan dan perkembangan pusat-pusat panggilan pengalihluaran di Bangladesh. Tulisan ini juga menyelidiki masalah yang dihadapi oleh pusat panggilan dalam mempekerjakan CSR yang berkompeten dalam bahasa Inggris. Sebuah penilaian terbatas dari pelatihan komunikasi bahasa Inggris bagi CSR yang ditawarkan oleh Lembaga Pelatihan Pusat Panggilan akan menjadi pembahasan dalam artikel ini. Untuk mencapai tujuan ini, 33 pengawas dari pusat-pusat panggilan yang berbeda, yang bertugas memantau CSR, telah diwawancarai dengan kuesioner terdiri dari pertanyaan tertutup dan terbuka. Hasilnya menunjukkan ada kelangkaan staf yang terampil dalam bahasa Inggris yang menjadi salah satu hambatan utama dalam pertumbuhan dan perkembangan pusat panggilan. Namun, faktor-faktor seperti pengetahuan produk, kemampuan komunikasi antarbudaya, kepribadian layanan juga berperan penting karena semuanya merupakan bagian integral transaksi yang berhasil dan upaya peningkatan semua faktor tersebut akan membuka jalan bagi kemajuan industri. Hasilnya juga secara implisit menunjukkan bahwa sistem pendidikan utama di Bangladesh masih mampu menghasilkan individu yang berkompeten dalam bahasa Inggris. Temuan penelitian ini juga mengungkapkan bahwa kekurangan tenaga kerja yang terampil dapat menjadi lebih parah ketika industri pusat panggilan tumbuh sejalan dengan harapan pemerintah. Terungkap juga bahwa lembaga pelatihan pusat panggilan tidak mampu menyediakan jenis pelatihan yang dibutuhkan oleh para calon CSR. Penelitian ini menunjukkan perlunya penelitian masa depan di beberapa aspek untuk memastikan keseimbangan antara permintaan dan pasokan individu yang fasih berbahasa Inggris seperti penutur jati untuk Industri pusat panggilan di Bangladesh.  Kata kunci: Kompetensi bahasa Inggris, pusat panggilan pengalihluaran, CSR

  20. A dynamic econometric model of agricultural wage determination in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, J K; Ravallion, M

    1991-11-01

    Economists applied data from 1949-1950 and 1980-1981 to a new dynamic model to examine the dynamics of determinants of agricultural wages in Bangladesh, particularly the effect of changes in relative prices of rice (the staple food) and productivity. Just a 20% rise in the price or rice was passed on in the agricultural wage rate within the current year. About 50% was passed on in the long run, however. Therefore an increase in the price of rice reduced the rice purchasing power of agricultural wages in the short and long term. In fact, the importance given to rice in the long run real wage rate was almost the same as the mean proportion of expenditure that an agricultural laborer in Bangladesh committed to rice and closely related food staples. Thus arise in the price of rice in comparison to other goods had limited effects on the long run real wage in terms of the bundle of goods typically consumed, but very adverse effects in the short run placing a high burden on the rural poor. On the other hand, the long run real wage rate fell considerably between the mid 1960s-early 1980s when overall agricultural productivity increased. The economists pointed out that this increased productivity may not have lowered long run real wage rates, but instead mitigating factors may have contributed to this fall. For example, population growth, rising landlessness, and insufficient economic growth in nonagricultural sectors resulted in a consistent growth in the labor supply. In conclusion, this new dynamic model showed that Bangladesh cannot depend only on agricultural growth to reduce the poverty of farmers.

  1. Greenhouse gas mitigation using poultry litter management techniques in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainali, Brijesh; Emran, Saad Been; Silveira, Semida

    2017-01-01

    Poultry activities have expanded significantly in Bangladesh in recent years. The litter generated from rural poultry farms is often dumped in low ground neighboring areas resulting in greenhouse gas emissions, as well as water and air pollution. This study estimates the GHG emissions of a typical rural layer poultry farm in Bangladesh, and identifies the GHG emissions reduction potential when poultry litter management techniques are used to produce biogas, generating electricity and bio-fertilizer. Life-cycle assessment (LCA) has been used for a systematic evaluation of GHG-emissions considering the local supply chain in a typical rural layer poultry farm. The analysis shows that the GHG-emissions at the poultry farm amount to 1735 KgCO 2eq /10000 eggs produced if the litter is untreated. With the installation of an anaerobic digester, the emission intensity could be reduced by 65% if the gas is used to replace LPG for cooking purposes. If 100% digested slurry is utilized as bio-fertilizer, the emissions intensity could be further reduced by 17 times compared to the case without slurry utilization. These results justify the consideration of national programs to improve conditions in poultry farms in Bangladesh. - Highlights: • This study estimates GHG-emissions reduction potential of utilizing poultry litter for energy production in a rural farm. • Energy/mass flow and GHG balances are evaluated considering the local supply chain. • On-farm activities significantly affect GHG emissions among others across the supply chain. • Biogas production and use of slurry as bio-fertilizer significantly reduces the emission intensity. • Results from LCA and sensitivity analysis have been discussed to identify key influential parameters.

  2. AcidViolence: A burning issue in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulshan Ara Akhter

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acid violence is a barbaric form of violence in Bangladesh. Acid violence also called acid throwing or vitriolage, is defined as the act of throwing of strong corrosives on face and body of a person with the intention of causing permanent disfiguration, intense pain, scarring and sometimes blindness. All of these injuries are considered as ‘grievous hurt’ under section 320 of B.P.C (Bangladesh Penal Code. For the last few years it is on the rise in both urban and rural areas of Bangladesh. The perpetrators are mostly men and adolescent boys. The overwhelming majority of the victims are women and many of them are girls and young females. Recently, however, there have been acid attacks on children, older women and also men. These attacks are often the result of family and land dispute, dowry demands or a desire for revenge due to failure in love affairs or marriage proposals. It is considered as one of the extreme forms of repression and violation of women’s right. This review article is aimed to focus on the present situation of this barbaric act of vengeance against women and young adolescent girls with regard to frequency, causes, long term consequences and creating public awareness on the issue by tightly regulating the sale and transport of acid as well as enacting harsher penalties for perpetrators. Data collection is based on information from Dhaka Medical College hospital, One Stop Crisis Center (OCC, Acid Survivors’ Foundation, Naripokkho Action Aid and several Dhaka based organizations. Ibrahim Med. Coll. J. 2013; 7(1: 18-20

  3. Are 'Village Doctors' in Bangladesh a curse or a blessing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahed Tania

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bangladesh is one of the health workforce crisis countries in the world. In the face of an acute shortage of trained professionals, ensuring healthcare for a population of 150 million remains a major challenge for the nation. To understand the issues related to shortage of health workforce and healthcare provision, this paper investigates the role of various healthcare providers in provision of health services in Chakaria, a remote rural area in Bangladesh. Methods Data were collected through a survey carried out during February 2007 among 1,000 randomly selected households from 8 unions of Chakaria Upazila. Information on health-seeking behaviour was collected from 1 randomly chosen member of a household from those who fell sick during 14 days preceding the survey. Results Around 44% of the villagers suffered from an illness during 14 days preceding the survey and of them 47% sought treatment for their ailment. 65% patients consulted Village Doctors and for 67% patients Village Doctors were the first line of care. Consultation with MBBS doctors was low at 14%. Given the morbidity level observed during the survey it was calculated that 250 physicians would be needed in Chakaria if the patients were to be attended by a qualified physician. Conclusions With the current shortage of physicians and level of production in the country it was asserted that it is very unlikely for Bangladesh to have adequate number of physicians in the near future. Thus, making use of existing healthcare providers, such as Village Doctors, could be considered a realistic option in dealing with the prevailing crisis.

  4. Problems faced by Bangladesh in introducing a nuclear power programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurul Islam, A.B.M.; Quaiyum, M.A.; Hasnat, K.A.

    1977-01-01

    The per capita energy resources and consumption of energy in Bangladesh are among the lowest in the world as in the per capita GDP of the country. The need for and importance of nuclear power in providing cheaper and reliable energy for economic development of the country is discussed in the light of this situation. The constraints faced by the Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC) in the initiation and development of a national nuclear power programme are detailed. Following the liberation of the country in 1971 its financial resources were mainly channelled to the rehabilitation and restoration of the economy. As the size of the national grid has remained relatively small, unit sizes in the range of 50-200MW(e) only could be considered for commissioning. Lack of vendor interest in such small sizes and the difficulty of arranging long-term investment for nuclear stations are the main constraints faced by the BAEC. Other bottlenecks are due to the uncertainty about the nature and extent of future economic development, pricing policy for available indigenous fossil fuel, and national energy planning criteria, which are mainly influenced by the limited financial resources, national priority for various essential non-development expenditures, which use up most of the country's own earnings and foreign aid, etc. Problems that are likely to be faced in future are discussed. These include public acceptability of nuclear power in Bangladesh, the obstacles to the transfer of nuclear technology that may be erected through the prospective growth of a cartel of nuclear-exporting countries, drainage of trained manpower, etc. (author)

  5. Quantification of ecological debt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Alier, Joan

    2005-01-01

    The discussion about ecological debt is important keeping in mind historical foreign trade, where natural resources exploitation and primary production exported didn't assessment the ecological damage or the environmental values of the interchange. This essay shows the debate of ecological debt on greenhouse emission, enterprise environmental debit, unequal international trade, toxic waste export, and b io piracy ; in order to present the necessity of a new ecological and equitable world economy

  6. Measurement of Women’s Empowerment in Rural Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmud, Simeen; Shah, Nirali M.; Becker, Stan

    2012-01-01

    Women’s empowerment is a dynamic process that has been quantified, measured and described in a variety of ways. We measure empowerment in a sample of 3500 rural women in 128 villages of Bangladesh with five indicators. A conceptual framework is presented, together with descriptive data on the indicators. Linear regressions to examine effects of covariates show that a woman’s exposure to television is a significant predictor of three of the five indicators. A woman’s years of schooling is sign...

  7. Exposure to tobacco smoke among adults in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palipudi, Krishna Mohan; Sinha, Dhirendra N; Choudhury, Sohel; Mustafa, Zaman; Andes, Linda; Asma, Samira

    2011-01-01

    To examine exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) at home, in workplace, and in various public places in Bangladesh. Data from 2009 Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) conducted in Bangladesh was analyzed. The data consists of 9,629 respondents from a nationally representative multi-stage probability sample of adults aged 15 years and above. Exposure to second-hand smoke was defined as respondents who reported being exposed to tobacco smoke in the following locations: Indoor workplaces, homes, government building or office, health care facilities, public transportation, schools, universities, restaurants, and cafes, coffee shops or tea houses. Exposure to tobacco smoke in these places was examined by gender across various socioeconomic and demographic sub-groups that include age, residence, education and wealth index using SPSS 17.0 for complex samples. The study shows high prevalence of SHS exposure at home and in workplace and in public places. Exposure to SHS among adults was reported high at home (54.9%) (male-58.2% and female-51.7%), in workplace (63%) (male-67.8% and female-30.4%), and in any public place (57.8%) (male-90.4% and female-25.1%) 30 days preceding the survey. Among the public places examined exposure was low in the educational institutions (schools-4.3%) and health care facilities (5.8%); however, exposure was high in public transportation (26.3%), and restaurants (27.6%). SHS exposure levels at home, in workplace and public places were varied widely across various socioeconomic and demographic sub-groups. Exposure was reported high in settings having partial ban as compared to settings having a complete ban. Following the WHO FCTC and MPOWER measures, strengthening smoke-free legislation may further the efforts in Bangladesh towards creating and enforcing 100% smoke-free areas and educating the public about the dangers of SHS. Combining these efforts can have a complementary effect on protecting the people from hazardous effect of SHS as well as

  8. Analyzing The Factors For Rejection Of Leather In Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md.Farhad Ali

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Leather plays a vital role in earning the foreign currency for Bangladesh. Export of finished leather and leather products have an important impact on the economy of Bangladesh. Mainly cow goat sheep and buffalo leathers are produced in this country. Different defects of leather due to numerous numbers of diseases of animals of poor management of people deteriorate the quality of leather which has negative impact in this sector. This paper analyses the magnitude and category of major defects in case of cow goat and buffalo of Bangladesh. We have studied in sixteen tanneries of Hazaribagh Dhaka where 95 tanneries of the whole country are situated. This study found that in case of cow skin hair slip parasitic skin diseases wound and pox are mainly responsible for the defects in leather in raw condition. Again in case of the wet blue leather of cow flay cut pox mark parasitic diseases growth mark wound sun burn scratch dark mole are responsible for the defects. Further for crust leather of cow flay cut parasitic diseases pox looseness for bating scratch wrinkle grain damage are found as the reason of defects. In case of goat parasitic diseases pox growth mark mole scratch flay cut hair slip were found responsible mostly for the defects in Bangladesh. Moreover parasite pox wound branding growth mark wrinkle jam wrinkle mole scratch flay cut curing have been detected for the defects of buffalo in this country. Again in this study it is found that average leather grade A-D is 15 E-F is 25 G-H is 30 HH is 12.5 and again the rejection is 18.43. It is observed that most of the defects occur during animal life period. The rest of the defects happen during slaughter flaying preservation and processing period of hides and skins into leather. By proper caring of the farm level and at the point of slaughter and flaying desired quality of hides and skins could be obtained.

  9. THE PECULIARITIES OF DESIGNING OF MONOLITHIC FOUNDATION SLABS IN BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Анна Николаевна Малахова

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The climatic and engineering-geological conditions of the construction sites for civil buildings in the People's Republic of Bangladesh are considered. There are described the features of the constructive solution of load-bearing structures of buildings of mass urban development. Monolithic reinforced concrete buildings of medium height of column and wall construction systems are considered, and the average ground pressure is determined. There are shown the slabs foundations of such buildings, the features of their design and reinforcement, including under the conditions of seismic influences.

  10. Emerging equity market and economic development: Bangladesh perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Mohajan, Haradhan; Datta, Rajib; Das, Arjun

    2011-01-01

    Bangladesh capital market is one of the smallest market in Asia but the third largest in the South Asian region. A stock market or equity market is a public entity for the trading of company stock and derivatives at an agreed price. These are securities listed on a stock exchange as well as those only traded privately. Economic development is a term that generally refers to the sustained, concerted effort of policymakers and community to promote the standard of living and economic health in a...

  11. Impact of an aquaculture extension project in Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    2009-01-01

    This paper is an impact study of key short- and long-run effects of the Danida supported Mymensingh Aquaculture Extension Project (MAEP) in Bangladesh, applying different matching and double difference estimators. Results are mixed. First, the paper finds a positive short-run impact on pond...... that these results are closely linked to non-favourable developments in the output price and the fact that agricultural production, including rearing of livestock and service sector employment (self or wage employment), are much larger sources of income than fish pond production....

  12. Long-term socioeconomic impacts of flooding in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jina, A.

    2013-05-01

    Natural disasters lead to myriad negative impacts upon society, causing loss of life, property, and income. Among disasters, floods annually affect the most people, and lead to widespread negative outcomes, particularly in developing countries. While immediate effects of disasters are readily observed, long-term socioeconomic effects have received little attention. Recent work in development economics finds that environmental exposure in early life can have negative impacts upon later outcomes in health, education, and labor markets. Such research is problematic for disasters, however, as objective measurements of hazard exposure are difficult to obtain. This study develops a remote sensing method to detect flooding in Bangladesh, one of the most flood-prone countries, using MODIS 8-day composite data. This approach addresses one of the main problems in the literature on the social impacts of disasters by deriving an objective measure rather than using self-reported damages. Flood data from 2000-2012 is matched to geolocated social surveys conducted by the Bangladesh government to identify impacts of exposure to floods at critical periods of life. While flooding is noted to be a natural and important part of ecosystem functioning in Bangladesh, we aim to understand the impacts of a flood of greater than normal magnitude or abnormal timing to identify the effects on human capital formation. We find that an increase in flooding of one standard deviation (SD) above the mean in the birth month leads to a 3% increase in stunting (2 SD below cohort height). This has implications for physical and cognitive development, shown elsewhere to persist to adulthood. We find that children from households that are exposed to floods while in elementary school are more likely to drop out. Other impacts will be identified in the course of this research. The stated impacts suggest that the long-term health and economic fortunes of the rural poor in Bangladesh are significantly

  13. e-Learning for expanding distance education in tertiary level in Bangladesh: Problems and progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Abdullah Al-Masum

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available E-learning has broadly become an important enabler to promote distance education (DE and lifelong learning in most of the developed countries, but in Bangladesh it is still a new successful progressive system for the learning communities. Distance education is thought to be introduced as an effective way of educating people of all sections in Bangladesh. Bangladesh Open University (BOU, the only distance education provider in Bangladesh, has been trying to adopt the use of various e-learning materials for its distance delivery. This paper has tried to describe the current progress of quality e-learning for expanding distance education, identifying the major problems of e-learning in distance education at tertiary level in Bangladesh, with special reference to BOU, and finally to put forward some valuable recommendations for solving the problems. The study is based on both primary and secondary sources. It is observed from the research that e-learning is going to ensure its bright prospect as an alternative mode of education at the tertiary level in Bangladesh. There are several problems that are identified and can be mitigated and solved through Information and Communication Technology (ICT development, greater acceptance by learners, and much research in this sector in Bangladesh to face globalization.   DOI: 10.18870/hlrc.v3i4.171

  14. Wheat Blast: A New Fungal Inhabitant to Bangladesh Threatening World Wheat Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Abu Sadat

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available World wheat production is now under threat due to the wheat blast outbreak in Bangladesh in early March 2016. This is a new disease in this area, indicating the higher possibility of this pathogen spreading throughout the Asia, the world’s largest wheat producing area. Occurrence of this disease caused ~3.5% reduction of the total wheat fields in Bangladesh. Its economic effect on the Bangladesh wheat market was little because wheat contributes to 3% of total cereal consumption, among which ~70% have been imported from other countries. However, as a long-term perspective, much greater losses will occur once this disease spreads to other major wheat producing areas of Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan due to the existing favorable condition for the blast pathogen. The wheat blast pathogen belongs to the Magnaporthe oryzae species complex causing blast disease on multiple hosts in the Poaceae family. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the Bangladesh outbreak strains and the Brazil outbreak strains were the same phylogenetic lineage, suggesting that they might be migrated from Brazil to Bangladesh during the seed import. To protect wheat production of Bangladesh and its neighbors, several measures including rigorous testing of seed health, use of chemicals, crop rotation, reinforcement of quarantine procedures, and increased field monitoring should be implemented. Development of blast resistant wheat varieties should be a long-term solution and combination of different methods with partial resistant lines may suppress this disease for some time.

  15. Ecological restoration [book review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric J. Gustafson

    2010-01-01

    Ecological restoration has increased in prominence in recent years as environmental policies have slowed the rate of environmental degradation in many parts of the world and practitioners have looked for active ways to reverse the damage. Because of the vast number of types and contexts of degraded ecological systems, the field of ecological restoration is still very...

  16. Impact of maternal depressive symptoms and infant temperament on early infant growth and motor development: results from a population based study in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasreen, Hashima-E; Kabir, Zarina Nahar; Forsell, Yvonne; Edhborg, Maigun

    2013-04-05

    Evidence linking maternal depressive symptoms with infant's growth and development in low-income countries is inadequate and conflicting. This study investigated the independent effect of maternal perinatal depressive symptoms on infant's growth and motor development in rural Bangladesh. A cohort of 720 pregnant women was followed from the third trimester of pregnancy to 6-8 months postpartum. For growth and developmental outcomes, 652 infants at 2-3 months and 6-8 months were assessed. Explanatory variables comprised maternal depressive symptoms, socioeconomic status, and infant's health and temperament. Outcome measures included infant's underweight, stunting and motor development. Multiple linear regression analyses identified predictors of infant growth and development. Maternal postpartum depressive symptoms independently predicted infant's underweight and impaired motor development, and antepartum depressive symptoms predicted infant's stunting. Infant's unadaptable temperament was inversely associated with infant's weight-for-age and motor development, and fussy and unpredictable temperament with height-for-age and motor development. Repeated measures design might threaten the internal validity of the results 8.3% of the participant does not participate in the measurements at different times. As the study was conducted in two sub-districts of rural Bangladesh, it does not represent the urban scenario and cannot be generalized even for other rural areas of the country. This study provides evidence that maternal ante- and postpartum depressive symptoms predict infant's growth and motor development in rural Bangladesh. It is recommended to integrate psychosocial components in maternal and child health interventions in order to counsel mothers with depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Enhancing Motivation through Repeated Listening

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, R. A.

    2007-01-01

    Listening in a foreign language is difficult. Previous research has identified a number of strategies that can result in increased comprehension. One such is repeated listening. The present article describes a study in which 98 Japanese college students of English as a foreign language viewed five videos, rating their comprehension of each video after an initial viewing and again after a second viewing. Self-reported comprehension was found to be significantly better after the second viewing....

  18. Learning in repeated visual search

    OpenAIRE

    Hout, Michael C.; Goldinger, Stephen D.

    2010-01-01

    Visual search (e.g., finding a specific object in an array of other objects) is performed most effectively when people are able to ignore distracting nontargets. In repeated search, however, incidental learning of object identities may facilitate performance. In three experiments, with over 1,100 participants, we examined the extent to which search could be facilitated by object memory and by memory for spatial layouts. Participants searched for new targets (real-world, nameable objects) embe...

  19. Preventing repeat pregnancy in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Dona; Glasier, Anna

    2008-10-01

    Teenage pregnancy is on a decline, but there are wide inequalities in those who are still becoming pregnant at an early age. Teenage pregnancy remains a public health concern. Numbers of repeat pregnancy in adolescence are small but contribute to poor health outcomes for young women and their children. A number of studies have demonstrated the impact that low levels of educational attainment, lack of aspiration, low socioeconomic status, dislike of school, lack of family connectedness and poor parental monitoring can have on early sexual activity and, in some cases, pregnancy among adolescents. Risks for repeat pregnancy in adolescence would appear to be linked to whether the pregnancy was intended or not, and what incentives or motivations, if any, existed to prevent subsequent early pregnancies. There would appear to be two options available to those who wish to reduce the negative health outcomes associated with repeat pregnancy in adolescence. First, to increase the life choices available to young women, which improve their social and economic circumstances. Secondly, to develop a clear understanding of pregnancy intentions within this group to ensure the provision of appropriate services which deliver the best possible outcomes for them and their child.

  20. Barriers to care for women with breast cancer symptoms in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiness, Heather Story; Villegas-Gold, Michelle; Parveen, Homaira; Ferdousy, Tahmina; Ginsburg, Ophira

    2018-05-01

    Breast cancer survival rates in lower-income countries like Bangladesh are approximately 50%, versus over 80% in high income countries. Anecdotal reports suggest that, beyond economic and health system barriers, sociocultural factors may influence a woman's care-seeking behavior and resultant early stage diagnoses. To understand these barriers, we conducted 63 interviews (43 women with breast cancer symptoms and 20 men) in Khulna, Bangladesh. We identified socio-cultural barriers like neglect and indifference toward women, women's lack of power to use resources, and reduced support from family due to stigma. Interventions must address these barriers and improve the status of women in Bangladesh.

  1. LAWS, REGULATIONS, FORMALITIES AND FACILITIES/INCENTIVES ON INVESTMENT: A CASE OF BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmeen\tAHMED

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Investment is a crucial component phenomenon for economic and industrial development of a country. The main objective of this paper is to highlight the present investment related laws and regulations in Bangladesh. An analysis has been made to depict different aspects and their impacts on formulations, promotions, incentives and facilities support provided by BOI, BEPZA, BSCIC, Ministry of Finance, Bangladesh Bank and National Board of Revenue to both local and foreign investors. The results of the study indicate that variables related to investment in Bangladesh are highly positive for economic growth and industrial development of the country.

  2. Philosophy of ecology

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Bryson; Peacock, Kent A

    2011-01-01

    The most pressing problems facing humanity today - over-population, energy shortages, climate change, soil erosion, species extinctions, the risk of epidemic disease, the threat of warfare that could destroy all the hard-won gains of civilization, and even the recent fibrillations of the stock market - are all ecological or have a large ecological component. in this volume philosophers turn their attention to understanding the science of ecology and its huge implications for the human project. To get the application of ecology to policy or other practical concerns right, humanity needs a clear and disinterested philosophical understanding of ecology which can help identify the practical lessons of science. Conversely, the urgent practical demands humanity faces today cannot help but direct scientific and philosophical investigation toward the basis of those ecological challenges that threaten human survival. This book will help to fuel the timely renaissance of interest in philosophy of ecology that is now oc...

  3. Effectiveness of solar disinfection (SODIS) in rural coastal Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Atikul; Azad, Abul Kalam; Akber, Md Ali; Rahman, Masudur; Sadhu, Indrojit

    2015-12-01

    Scarcity of drinking water in the coastal area of Bangladesh compels the inhabitants to be highly dependent on alternative water supply options like rainwater harvesting system (RWHS), pond sand filter (PSF), and rain-feed ponds. Susceptibility of these alternative water supply options to microbial contamination demands a low-cost water treatment technology. This study evaluates the effectiveness of solar disinfection (SODIS) to treat drinking water from available sources in the southwest coastal area of Bangladesh. A total of 50 households from Dacope upazila in Khulna district were selected to investigate the performance of SODIS. Data were collected in two rounds to examine fecal coliform (FC) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) contamination of drinking water at the household water storage containers and SODIS bottles, and thereby determined the effectiveness of SODIS in reducing fecal contamination. All water samples were analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity, turbidity and salinity. SODIS significantly reduced FC and E. coli contamination under household conditions. The median health risk reduction by SODIS was more than 96 and 90% for pond and RWHS, respectively. Besides, turbidity of the treated water was found to be less than 5 NTU, except pond water. Only 34% of the participating households routinely adopted SODIS during the study.

  4. Strategies for refinancing of SMEs in Bangladesh: Problems & constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amitav Saha

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, there has been a significant change in the world trade regime, too. The WTO techniques agreements limit the use of certain trade measures as quantitative restrictions and subsidies. Such development has also implication for a country's strategy in supporting its domestic industry in including SMEs. WTO agreements cover not only the traditional goods sector but also new sectors like services and intellectual property rights. There is a tendency for considering these newly included sectors as constraints to trade prospects of a poor country like Bangladesh. There are certain other areas where improvements pro­vide genuine incentives to SMEs and contribute to their enhanced competitiveness. Improved infrastructure, better law and order situation, and efficient ports and transportation are likely to impact favorably upon the SMEs sector and such things may be no less important than mere policy supported incentives. However, these provisions have now become realities. Bangladesh should continue its efforts to make the world community appreciate the difficult economic situation of the LDCs and to help to attain var­ious trade preferences and conces­sions. Its long-run economic pros­perity critically depends on success or otherwise of its efforts to turn the challenges of globalization opportunities. This will create a strong and potential base for economic development, which will in turn accelerate the process of poverty reduction, and reduction of unemployment, create employment opportunities as well as accelerate the overall economic growth of the country.

  5. Management of the MCH/FP programme in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzur-e-mowla, Q

    1989-12-01

    During the span of 3 5-year plans in Bangladesh, the emphasis of its population program has shifted from a population control program to a population welfare program to a maternal and child health-based family planning program. Certain lessons may be learned from the management situation now in operation in the field in Bangladesh. A way must be found out of the situation in which the personnel are placed under the control of one authority but are responsible, for technical supervision and guidance, to another. If effective functional integration between health and family planning remains elusive, existing management mechanisms should at least promote team work and prepare the ground for future integration. Existing conflicts in the line of supervision and accountability must be done away with by bringing about necessary changes in management. Since non-governmental organizations could perform an increasingly greater and more significant role in the program, an effective coordination mechanism between them and government should be developed. The management of the information, education, and communication program should be organized on a new and more imaginative basis to respond to rapidly changing circumstances.

  6. Risk of eating disorders among university students in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengpid, Supa; Peltzer, Karl; Ahsan, Gias Uddin

    2015-02-01

    As there is a lack of information on eating disorders in Bangladesh, the aim of this study was to explore the eating disorder attitudes and behaviors among undergraduate university students in the country. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey and anthropometric measurement were conducted with undergraduate students who were recruited randomly from classes. The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) was used to determine the prevalence of disordered eating attitudes. The sample included 800 university students (56.6% men and 43.4% women), with a mean age of 21.0 years (SD=32.5). Using the EAT-26, 37.6% of the students were classified as being at risk for an eating disorder. In multivariate analysis, being a late adolescent (17-19 years), high religious involvement, overweight body perception, low body appreciation, having had cosmetic surgery, and current binge drinking were found to be associated with an eating disorder risk. Very high rates of eating disorder risk were found. This result calls for increased awareness and understanding of eating disorders, and related risk factors and interventions in university students in Bangladesh.

  7. Maternal mortality in Matlab, Bangladesh: 1976-85.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, M A; Fauveau, V; Chowdhury, A I; Chakraborty, J; Khan, M A

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports findings from a study of maternal mortality in Matlab, Bangladesh during the 1976-85 period. The study employed a multiple-step procedure to identify maternity-related deaths to all reproductive-aged women within the study area during this period. A total of 387 maternal deaths were identified, resulting in an overall maternal mortality ratio of 5.5 per 1,000 live births. The introduction of a family planning program in half of the Matlab study area led to a moderate but significant reduction in maternal mortality rates, relative to the comparison area. This appears to have been primarily due to a reduction in the overall number of pregnancies in the treatment area, since among women who became pregnant, mortality risks remained high. The results of this study underscore the need for a broad-based service strategy that includes but is not limited solely to family planning, in order to achieve significant reductions in maternal mortality levels in settings such as rural Bangladesh.

  8. Practicing governance: pitfalls and potentials - a study of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Rubayet RAHAMAN

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Governance is a manner of undertaking activities performed for a state’s people by the state’s government to ensure development. Hence, it has scope of having conflicts between state policy and government bodies resulting poor quality of governance: abuse of rule of law, bureaucratic discrimination, corruption, poverty, inequality, low level of human resource development, low level of per capita income, poor utilization of country resources, etc. The reason for conflicts is poor governance vis-à-vis the result from poor governance, i.e., as there has conflict, there exists poor governance and at the same time as there exists poor governance, there has conflict. On the other hand, interrelationships between state policy and government bodies assist ensuring good governance: participatory, consensus oriented, transparent and accountable, equitable and efficient, etc. Developing nations like Bangladesh require having good governance in their countries for promoting development indicators: ‘country resource’ mobilization, increasing GDP growth, increasing per capita income, enhancing quality of socioeconomic indices of people, etc. The major of findings from this paper is ‘good governance for sustainable development’. This paper addresses issues of historical performance of governance exercise, obstacles towards good governance, and reforming agendas come up in past studies. The authors conclude by explaining why and how good governance is essential in Bangladesh for sustainable development.

  9. Rickets among children of a coastal area of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, M L; Rahman, M; Talukder, K; Rahman, A; Hossain, Q; Mostafa, G; Mannan, M A; Kumar, S; Chowdhury, A T

    2004-01-01

    Many children with rachitic deformities have been reported in southern coastal area of Bangladesh but the actual rate of prevalence was not known. A survey was conducted to determine the magnitude of rachitic problem among the children of Chakaria thana of Cox's Bazar district of Bangladesh. Nine hundred children between 1-15 years selected randomly from 30 villages of total 340 villages. Face to face interview of the parents was taken and the children were examined for evidences of rickets. Serum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were estimated and radiology of limbs were done in all clinically suspected cases and in a control of every eighth child. Seventy eight children (8.7%) had physical features suggestive of rickets. Fifty eight (6.4%) children had 'clinical rickekts' (positive physical feature(s) but normal ALP and negative radiology), 12 (1.3%) children had 'biochemical rickets' (positive physical features and raised ALP but negative radiology) and 8 (0.9%) children had 'confirmed rickets' (positive physical features, raised ALP and positive radiology). Out of 78 children with rachitic feature(s), Pectus carinatum was found as the most common clinical feature in 26 (33.3%) children followed by genu valgum in 23 (29.4%) cases. Twenty two normal children (2.2%) had raised level of ALP (>300U/L). The prevalence of rickets is high in children of Chakaria and further study is needed to find out the exact aetiology of rickets in children there.

  10. Nutritional status and childhood wheezing in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawlader, Mohammad Delwer Hossain; Noguchi, Emiko; El Arifeen, Shams; Persson, Lars Åke; Moore, Sophie E; Raqib, Rubhana; Wagatsuma, Yukiko

    2014-07-01

    To investigate the association between current childhood nutritional status and current wheezing among pre-school children in rural Bangladesh. Cross-sectional study. Matlab region, rural Bangladesh. Children (n 912) aged 4·5 years. Anthropometric measurements of the mothers and their children were taken during a 1-year period from December 2007 to November 2008. Current wheezing was identified using the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire. Serum total IgE was measured by human IgE quantitative ELISA. IgE specific antibody to dust mites (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus) was measured by the CAP-FEIA system (Phadia AB, Uppsala, Sweden). Wheezing at 4·5 years old was significantly associated with stunting (OR = 1·58; 95 % CI 1·13, 2·22) and underweight (OR = 1·39; 95 % CI 1·00, 1·94). The association with stunting remained significant after adjustment for sex, birth weight, birth length, gestational age at birth, mother's parity, maternal BMI, family history of asthma, socio-economic status, season of birth and intervention trial arm (OR = 1·74; 95 % CI 1·19, 2·56). Stunting was a significant risk factor for wheezing among rural Bangladeshi children. Further studies will be required to confirm the relationship between nutritional status and allergic illnesses in developing countries.

  11. Assessment of Hydrocarbon Generation Potential of Permian Gondwana Coals, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Zakir Hossain

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents the geochemical characteristics of Gondwana coals from the Barapukuria coal mine, Bangladesh in order to investigate the potential for hydrocarbon generation. A total number of twenty three coal samples were analyzed Rock-Eval pyrolysis, CHNS elemental analyses, maceral analysis and vitrinite reflectance. The samples were collected from drill hole GDH-40 of the Barapukuria coal mine encountered within Gondwana succession of Permian age. The TOC contents of the coal samples range between ~50 and 76 wt.% and the organic matter consists predominantly of type III and type IV kerogen with respect to hydrocarbon generation. The GP, HI, PI and Tmax values range between 7 and 35 mg HC/g rock, 20 and 62 mg HC/g TOC, 0.02 and 0.04, and 430 and 437oC, respectively. The organic matter is mainly gas prone and thermally immature to early mature level. The potential coal bed methane (CBM generation of the Barapukuria basin is estimated to be 11 Gm3. Thus, underground coal gasification (UCG is helpful for better development of subsurface coals at the Barapukuria basin, Bangladesh.

  12. Identification of the influencing factors on groundwater drought in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touhidul Mustafa, Syed Md.; Huysmans, Marijke

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater drought is a specific type of drought that concerns groundwater bodies. It may have a significant adverse effect on the socio-economic, agricultural, and environmental conditions. Investigating the effect of response different climatic and manmade factors on groundwater drought provides essential information for sustainable planning and management of water resources. The aim of this study is to identify the influencing factors on groundwater drought in a drought prone region in Bangladesh to understand the forcing mechanisms. The Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI) and Reconnaissance Drought Index (RDI) have been used to quantify the aggregated deficit between precipitation and the evaporative demand of the atmosphere. The influence of land use patterns on the groundwater drought has been identified by calculating spatially distributed groundwater recharge as a function of land use. The result shows that drought intensity is more severe during the dry season (November to April) compared to the rainy season (May to October). The evapotranspiration and rainfall deficit has a significant effect on meteorological drought which has a direct relation with groundwater drought. Urbanization results in a decrease of groundwater recharge which increases groundwater drought severity. Overexploitation of groundwater for irrigation and recurrent meteorological droughts are the main causes of groundwater drought in the study area. Efficient irrigation management is essential to reduce the growing pressure on groundwater resources and ensure sustainable water management. More detailed studies on climate change and land use change effects on groundwater drought are recommended. Keywords: Groundwater drought, SPI & RDI, Spatially distributed groundwater recharge, Irrigation, Bangladesh

  13. Private demand for cholera vaccines in rural Matlab, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Ziaul; Maskery, Brian; Nyamete, Andrew; Horowitz, Mark S; Yunus, Mohammad; Whittington, Dale

    2008-02-01

    To estimate household willingness to pay (WTP) for cholera vaccines in a rural area of Bangladesh, which had participated in a 1985 oral cholera vaccine trial. A contingent valuation study was undertaken in Matlab, Bangladesh in summer 2005. All respondents (N=591) received a description of a cholera vaccine that was 50% effective for 3 years and had negligible side effects. Respondents were asked how many vaccines they would purchase for their household at randomly pre-assigned prices. Negative binomial regression models were used to estimate the number of vaccines demanded and to calculate average WTP. On average, respondents were willing to pay about US$ 9.50 to purchase vaccines for all members of their household (i.e. US$ 1.70 per vaccine). Average WTP per person is US$ 2.40 for young children (1-4 years), US$ 1.20 for school-age children, and US$ 1.05 for adults. Median WTP estimates are significantly smaller: US$ 1.00 for young children, US$ 0.05 for schoolchildren, and US$ 0 for adults. There is significant demand for cholera vaccines in Matlab at low prices. Recent herd protection research suggests that unvaccinated persons would also experience reduced incidence via indirect effects at low coverage rates associated with moderate vaccine prices.

  14. Bacterial contaminants in carbonated soft drinks sold in Bangladesh markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akond, Muhammad Ali; Alam, Saidul; Hasan, S M R; Mubassara, Sanzida; Uddin, Sarder Nasir; Shirin, Momena

    2009-03-31

    A total of 225 carbonated soft drink (CSD) samples from nine brands, from various locations in five metropolitan cities of Bangladesh were examined to determine their bacteriological quality. Most samples were not in compliance with microbiological standards set by organizations like the World Health Organization (WHO). Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the predominant species with an incidence of 95%. Streptococcus spp. and Bacillus stearothermophilus were the next most prevalent with numbers ranging from 6 to 122 and 9 to 105 cfu/100 ml, respectively. Fifty four percent of the samples yielded Salmonella spp. at numbers ranging from 2 to 90 cfu/100 ml. Total coliform (TC) and faecal coliform (FC) counts were found in 68-100% and 76-100% of samples of individual brands, at numbers ranging from 5 to 213 and 3 to 276 cfu/100 ml, respectively. According to WHO standards 60-88% of samples from six brands and 32% and 40% of samples from two other brands belonged to the intermediate risk group with FC counts of 100-1000 cfu/100 ml. Heterotrophic plate counts, however, were under the permissible limit in all 225 samples. These findings suggest that carbonated soft drinks commercially available in Bangladesh pose substantial risks to public health.

  15. Corruption in cyclone preparedness and relief efforts in coastal Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmud, Tanvir; Prowse, Martin

    2012-01-01

    This article seeks to draw possible lessons for adaptation programmes in Bangladesh by examining whether cyclone preparedness and relief interventions are subject to corrupt practices. Based on a random sample survey of 278 households, three focus-group discussions and seven key-informant intervi......This article seeks to draw possible lessons for adaptation programmes in Bangladesh by examining whether cyclone preparedness and relief interventions are subject to corrupt practices. Based on a random sample survey of 278 households, three focus-group discussions and seven key......-informant interviews, the article investigates the nature and extent of corruption in pre- and post-disaster interventions in Khulna before and after Cyclone Aila in May 2009. Ninety nine percent of households reported losses from corrupt practices. Post-disaster interventions (such as food aid and public works...... schemes) suffered from greater levels, and worse types, of corruption than pre-disaster interventions (such as cyclone warning systems and disaster-preparedness training). Using an asset index created using principal component analysis, the article assesses how corruption affected wealth quartiles. Ultra...

  16. Factors Affecting Customer Satisfaction in Mobile Telecommunication Industry in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rahman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Identification of factors responsible for customer satisfaction is a key concern of marketing scholars and marketers in now a days and it will remain in the future. There is considerable evidence that quality factors affecting customer satisfaction in numerous ways. However, this empirical study is initiated to find out what particular factors responsible for customer satisfaction in the mobile tel- ecommunication industry in Bangladesh. 282 samples have been collected through structured questionnaire; study reveals that service innovativeness, service reli- ability, service competitiveness and service consistency have significant influence on making customer satisfied and the operator’s network/signal coverage, pricing, offering, fulfillment of customer demand, value added service, brand value and op - erators contribution for society have insignificant influences on making customer satisfied at five percent level of significant at multiple regression analysis. On the basis of these findings; study concludes that in promoting customer satisfaction mobile service providers should be concerned for factors responsible for insignifi- cant influence on customer satisfaction and care of those factors have significant influence on promoting customer satisfaction in telecommunication industry in Bangladesh.

  17. Exploring the Future Potential of Jute in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanzidur Rahman

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The study assesses the future potential of the jute sector in Bangladesh by examining its growth performance, international competitiveness, profitability, and production efficiency using national time-series data of over the period 1973–2013 and farm survey data from 289 farmers from two major jute growing areas of Bangladesh. Results revealed that the jute sector has experienced substantial growth in area, production, productivity, prices, and exports. However, productivity has stagnated during the latter 10-year period (2004–2013, while it grew at a rate of 1.3% per annum (p.a. during the first 31-year period (1973–2003. Only traditional jute production is globally competitive, although financial profitability of white jute is relatively higher (benefit cost ratio = 1.24 and 1.17, respectively. Land, labor, and irrigation are the main productivity drivers for jute. The mean production efficiency of jute is estimated at 75% indicating substantial scope to improve yield by eliminating inefficiency. Marginal farmers are relatively inefficient. Policy implications include investments in research and development, irrigation, and tenurial reform and export protection for white jute in order to revive the sector and boost export earnings.

  18. Perspectives on economics and ecology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Neill, R.V.

    1995-02-01

    As we move toward the twenty-first century, the overlap and synergism between economics and ecology demands our scientific attention. But in the intellectual excitement of seeing this new field emerge, we must not lose sight of the underlying global dynamics that are driving the pending merger. Simply stated: the population bomb has not been defused. The media and ecologists have simply fatigued of repeating the obvious. The combination of human population growth and increasing per capita impact is placing irreconcilable demands on the global biotic system. We can reduce per capita demands with technology and recycling. But such strategies simply delay the inevitable unless the human population asymptotes. of course, the population will reach a limit. The choice is between a series of global crises and a reasoned plan for the future. But for Global Sustainability to avoid becoming a cruel and unattainable fantasy, plans must include human population control and economics.

  19. Using ecological production functions to link ecological ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecological production functions (EPFs) link ecosystems, stressors, and management actions to ecosystem services (ES) production. Although EPFs are acknowledged as being essential to improve environmental management, their use in ecological risk assessment has received relatively little attention. Ecological production functions may be defined as usable expressions (i.e., models) of the processes by which ecosystems produce ES, often including external influences on those processes. We identify key attributes of EPFs and discuss both actual and idealized examples of their use to inform decision making. Whenever possible, EPFs should estimate final, rather than intermediate, ES. Although various types of EPFs have been developed, we suggest that EPFs are more useful for decision making if they quantify ES outcomes, respond to ecosystem condition, respond to stressor levels or management scenarios, reflect ecological complexity, rely on data with broad coverage, have performed well previously, are practical to use, and are open and transparent. In an example using pesticides, we illustrate how EPFs with these attributes could enable the inclusion of ES in ecological risk assessment. The biggest challenges to ES inclusion are limited data sets that are easily adapted for use in modeling EPFs and generally poor understanding of linkages among ecological components and the processes that ultimately deliver the ES. We conclude by advocating for the incorporation into E

  20. Improving repeatability by improving quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronen, Shuki; Ackers, Mark; Schlumberger, Geco-Prakla; Brink, Mundy

    1998-12-31

    Time lapse (4-D) seismic is a promising tool for reservoir characterization and monitoring. The method is apparently simple: to acquire data repeatedly over the same reservoir, process and interpret the data sets, then changes between the data sets indicate changes in the reservoir. A problem with time lapse seismic data is that reservoirs are a relatively small part of the earth and important reservoir changes may cause very small differences to the time lapse data. The challenge is to acquire and process economical time lapse data such that reservoir changes can be detected above the noise of varying acquisition and environment. 7 refs., 9 figs.

  1. Coordinated hybrid automatic repeat request

    KAUST Repository

    Makki, Behrooz

    2014-11-01

    We develop a coordinated hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) approach. With the proposed scheme, if a user message is correctly decoded in the first HARQ rounds, its spectrum is allocated to other users, to improve the network outage probability and the users\\' fairness. The results, which are obtained for single- and multiple-antenna setups, demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approach in different conditions. For instance, with a maximum of M retransmissions and single transmit/receive antennas, the diversity gain of a user increases from M to (J+1)(M-1)+1 where J is the number of users helping that user.

  2. Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative coded modulation scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation' (ARA coded modulation). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes that are combined with high level modulation. Thus at the decoder belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA coded modulation on a graph, provided a demapper transforms the received in-phase and quadrature samples to reliability of the bits.

  3. Housefly population density correlates with shigellosis among children in Mirzapur, Bangladesh: a time series analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Tamer H; Faruque, Abu S; Wu, Yukun; Das, Sumon K; Hossain, Anowar; Ahmed, Shahnawaz; Ahmed, Dilruba; Nasrin, Dilruba; Kotloff, Karen L; Panchilangam, Sandra; Nataro, James P; Cohen, Dani; Blackwelder, William C; Levine, Myron M

    2013-01-01

    Shigella infections are a public health problem in developing and transitional countries because of high transmissibility, severity of clinical disease, widespread antibiotic resistance and lack of a licensed vaccine. Whereas Shigellae are known to be transmitted primarily by direct fecal-oral contact and less commonly by contaminated food and water, the role of the housefly Musca domestica as a mechanical vector of transmission is less appreciated. We sought to assess the contribution of houseflies to Shigella-associated moderate-to-severe diarrhea (MSD) among children less than five years old in Mirzapur, Bangladesh, a site where shigellosis is hyperendemic, and to model the potential impact of a housefly control intervention. Stool samples from 843 children presenting to Kumudini Hospital during 2009-2010 with new episodes of MSD (diarrhea accompanied by dehydration, dysentery or hospitalization) were analyzed. Housefly density was measured twice weekly in six randomly selected sentinel households. Poisson time series regression was performed and autoregression-adjusted attributable fractions (AFs) were calculated using the Bruzzi method, with standard errors via jackknife procedure. Dramatic springtime peaks in housefly density in 2009 and 2010 were followed one to two months later by peaks of Shigella-associated MSD among toddlers and pre-school children. Poisson time series regression showed that housefly density was associated with Shigella cases at three lags (six weeks) (Incidence Rate Ratio = 1.39 [95% CI: 1.23 to 1.58] for each log increase in fly count), an association that was not confounded by ambient air temperature. Autocorrelation-adjusted AF calculations showed that a housefly control intervention could have prevented approximately 37% of the Shigella cases over the study period. Houseflies may play an important role in the seasonal transmission of Shigella in some developing country ecologies. Interventions to control houseflies should be

  4. Biomass energy use at the household level in two villages of Bangladesh: assessment of field methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bari, M.N.; Bangladesh Agricultural University; Hall, D.O.; Lucas, N.J.D.; Hossain, S.M.A.

    1998-01-01

    A study was conducted to assess biomass energy supply and use in two villages in different agro-ecological regions of Bangladesh using three different techniques: broad questionnaire survey, sample questionnaire survey, and physical monitoring in order to see which methodology was more appropriate for the accurate assessment of biomass cooking energy supply and demand. The study included four broad socio-economic groups, i.e. large, medium, small and landless households. It was found that, per capita cooking energy demand varied significantly between the villages, socio-economic groups, and the first two methods of survey. Energy used was found to be strongly correlated with family size and energy use decreased according to landholding size. The broad questionnaire survey showed an average cooking energy use of 11.8 and 10.1 GJ per capita/year, for Kazirshimla and Noagaon village, respectively, while the sample questionnaire survey estimated energy use at 9.2 an 8.5 GJ per capita/year. With physical monitoring, however, the respective figures were found as 9.0 and 8.2 GJ per capita/year. It was also found that energy use was at the subsistence level in both villages. In Kazirishimla village biomass supply was found to be marginally surplus to use, while Noagaon had a supply deficit. The study showed that a broad questionnaire survey gives a fairly general picture of both biomass supply and use, but to assess cooking energy use more accurately successive sample questionnaire surveys followed by physical monitoring are more effective. (author)

  5. Rural development scheme of Islami Bank Bangladesh Limited - A study on its growth, effectiveness and prospect in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saleh JAHUR

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Most of the people of Bangladesh are living under poverty line. To alleviate poverty, thousands of NGOs and GOs have been working since the inception of the Bangladesh. But the success rate of these programs appears to be insignificant. Rural Development Scheme (RDS being a shariah and teaching of Islam based technique has been introduced in order to graduate the rural poor from poverty trap by bringing them in the main stream of economy by providing micro-credit and teaching for value creation. The present study has been undertaken aiming at evaluating the effectiveness of the program and its prospect. It has collected both primary and secondary data, and analyzed these with the help of both financial and statistical techniques. The findings of the study are: the growth performance of RDS in important parameters are robust across study period, and RDS influence the income and income generating activities of borrowing members significantly. Finally the study has put forward some logical suggestions for enhancing the sustainability as well as robustness of the program.

  6. Repeatability and consistency of individual behaviour in juvenile and adult Eurasian harvest mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Andrea C.; Carl, Teresa; Foerster, Katharina

    2017-04-01

    Knowledge on animal personality has provided new insights into evolutionary biology and animal ecology, as behavioural types have been shown to affect fitness. Animal personality is characterized by repeatable and consistent between-individual behavioural differences throughout time and across different situations. Behavioural repeatability within life history stages and consistency between life history stages should be checked for the independence of sex and age, as recent data have shown that males and females in some species may differ in the repeatability of behavioural traits, as well as in their consistency. We measured the repeatability and consistency of three behavioural and one cognitive traits in juvenile and adult Eurasian harvest mice ( Micromys minutus). We found that exploration, activity and boldness were repeatable in juveniles and adults. Spatial recognition measured in a Y Maze was only repeatable in adult mice. Exploration, activity and boldness were consistent before and after maturation, as well as before and after first sexual contact. Data on spatial recognition provided little evidence for consistency. Further, we found some evidence for a litter effect on behaviours by comparing different linear mixed models. We concluded that harvest mice express animal personality traits as behaviours were repeatable across sexes and consistent across life history stages. The tested cognitive trait showed low repeatability and was less consistent across life history stages. Given the rising interest in individual variation in cognitive performance, and in its relationship to animal personality, we suggest that it is important to gather more data on the repeatability and consistency of cognitive traits.

  7. Respiratory Viruses Associated Hospitalization among Children Aged <5 Years in Bangladesh: 2010-2014

    OpenAIRE

    Homaira, Nusrat; Luby, Stephen P.; Hossain, Kamal; Islam, Kariul; Ahmed, Makhdum; Rahman, Mustafizur; Rahman, Ziaur; Paul, Repon C.; Bhuiyan, Mejbah Uddin; Brooks, W. Abdullah; Sohel, Badrul Munir; Banik, Kajal Chandra; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Willby, Melisa; Rahman, Mahmudur

    2016-01-01

    Background We combined hospital-based surveillance and health utilization survey data to estimate the incidence of respiratory viral infections associated hospitalization among children aged < 5 years in Bangladesh. Methods Surveillance physicians collected respiratory specimens from children aged

  8. Herd-level Risk Factors Associated with Bovine Brucellosis Seropositivity and Abortion in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, Md. Atiqul

    2011-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence and to identify the herd level risk factors associated with bovine brucellosis seropositivity and abortion in the Mymensingh and Sherpur districts of Bangladesh.

  9. Taxonomic confirmation of mud crab species (genus Scylla) in Bangladesh by nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarower, Mohammed Golam; Shahriar, Sheik Istiak Md; Nakamura, Hiromasa; Rouf, Muhammad Abdur; Okada, Shigeru

    2017-11-01

    Taxonomy of mud crabs genus Scylla has been misidentified for several years due to their high morphological plasticity. Several reports concerning mud crab have been published with misleading identification in Bangladesh. In this study, partial fragments of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA of Scylla species obtained from four locations along the Bangladesh coast were used to resolve taxonomical ambiguity of mud crab species. A single PCR product from the nuclear first internal transcribed spacer (ITS-1) marker and phylogenetic trees constructed based on 16S rDNA sequences indicated that all Scylla species obtained in this study were S. olivacea. Both molecular data and morphological characters revealed that S. olivacea is the only major species in Bangladesh coastal waters. Further, the 16S rDNA haplotypes significantly differed with known S. serrata by 33%. From this study it is clear that 'S. serrata' commonly reported from Bangladesh should be S. olivacea.

  10. Workplace safety in Bangladesh ready-made garment sector: 3 years after the Rana Plaza collapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barua, Uttama; Ansary, Mehedi Ahmed

    2017-12-01

    Workplace safety is one of the most important issues in industries worldwide, and is endangered by industrial accidents. Different industrial disasters have resulted in several initiatives worldwide to protect human life and reduce material damage, both nationally and internationally. In Bangladesh, the ready-made garment (RMG) industry is one of the most important export-oriented business sectors, which is facing challenges to ensure workplace safety. The Rana Plaza collapse in Bangladesh is the consequence of such non-compliance. The accident resulted in different local and global initiatives to address the challenges. This article reviews progress and achievement of the initiatives to reduce vulnerability in the Bangladesh RMG industry within 3 years after the deadly accident. In the long run, the challenge is to maintain momentum already created for achieving sustainability in the RMG sector in Bangladesh and maintaining compliance even after the end of support from external partners.

  11. Design Strategies and Preliminary Prototype for a Low-Cost Arsenic Removal System for Rural Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathieu, Johanna L.; Gadgil, Ashok J.; Kowolik, Kristin; Qazi, Shefah; Agogino, Alice M.

    2009-09-14

    Researchers have invented a material called ARUBA -- Arsenic Removal Using Bottom Ash -- that effectively and affordably removes arsenic from Bangladesh groundwater. Through analysis of studies across a range of disciplines, observations, and informal interviews conducted over three trips to Bangladesh, we have applied mechanical engineering design methodology to develop eight key design strategies, which were used in the development of a low-cost, community-scale water treatment system that uses ARUBA to removearsenic from drinking water. We have constructed, tested, and analysed a scale version of the system. Experiments have shown that the system is capable of reducing high levels of arsenic (nearly 600 ppb) to below the Bangladesh standard of 50 ppb, while remaining affordable to people living on less than US$2/day. The system could be sustainably implemented as a public-private partnership in rural Bangladesh.

  12. Introduction of Bayesian network in risk analysis of maritime accidents in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Sohanur

    2017-12-01

    Due to the unique geographic location, complex navigation environment and intense vessel traffic, a considerable number of maritime accidents occurred in Bangladesh which caused serious loss of life, property and environmental contamination. Based on the historical data of maritime accidents from 1981 to 2015, which has been collected from Department of Shipping (DOS) and Bangladesh Inland Water Transport Authority (BIWTA), this paper conducted a risk analysis of maritime accidents by applying Bayesian network. In order to conduct this study, a Bayesian network model has been developed to find out the relation among parameters and the probability of them which affect accidents based on the accident investigation report of Bangladesh. Furthermore, number of accidents in different categories has also been investigated in this paper. Finally, some viable recommendations have been proposed in order to ensure greater safety of inland vessels in Bangladesh.

  13. Library and Information Science Education in South Asia: India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangla, P. B.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews formal postgraduate-level library and information science programs offered by universities, documentation centers, and research institutions in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka. Highlights include historical background; admission requirements; length of program; curricula; faculty; course content; research; administrative…

  14. Analysis of Recent Situation of Pesticide Poisoning in Bangladesh: Is There a Proper Estimate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gourab Dewan

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Pesticide poisoning is responsible for great number of admissions and deaths in Bangladesh. Creating a register of commercially available pesticides in each region for rapid identification of nature of the pesticide is recommended.

  15. Subsurface iron and arsenic removal for drinking water treatment in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Halem, D.

    2011-01-01

    Arsenic contamination of shallow tube well drinking water is an urgent health problem in Bangladesh. Current arsenic mitigation solutions, including (household) arsenic removal options, do not always provide a sustainable alternative for safe drinking water. A novel technology, Subsurface Arsenic

  16. Risk practices for animal and human anthrax in Bangladesh: an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Saiful Islam

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: From August 2009 to October 2010, International Centre for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh and the Institute of Epidemiology, Disease Control and Research together investigated 14 outbreaks of anthrax which included 140 animal and 273 human cases in 14 anthrax-affected villages. Our investigation objectives were to explore the context in which these outbreaks occurred, including livestock rearing practices, human handling of sick and dead animals, and the anthrax vaccination program. Methods: Field anthropologists used qualitative data-collection tools, including 15 hours of unstructured observations, 11 key informant interviews, 32 open-ended interviews, and 6 group discussions in 5 anthrax-affected villages. Results: Each cattle owner in the affected communities raised a median of six ruminants on their household premises. The ruminants were often grazed in pastures and fed supplementary rice straw, green grass, water hyacinth, rice husk, wheat bran, and oil cake; lactating cows were given dicalcium phosphate. Cattle represented a major financial investment. Since Islamic law forbids eating animals that die from natural causes, when anthrax-infected cattle were moribund, farmers often slaughtered them on the household premises while they were still alive so that the meat could be eaten. Farmers ate the meat and sold it to neighbors. Skinners removed and sold the hides from discarded carcasses. Farmers discarded the carcasses and slaughtering waste into ditches, bodies of water, or open fields. Cattle in the affected communities did not receive routine anthrax vaccine due to low production, poor distribution, and limited staffing for vaccination. Conclusion: Slaughtering anthrax-infected animals and disposing of butchering waste and carcasses in environments where ruminants live and graze, combined with limited vaccination, provided a context that permitted repeated anthrax outbreaks in animals and humans. Because of strong

  17. Lightning Injury is a disaster in Bangladesh? - Exploring its magnitude and public health needs

    OpenAIRE

    Biswas, Animesh; Dalal, Koustuv; Hossain, Jahangir; Ul Baset, Kamran; Rahman, Fazlur; Rahman Mashreky, Saidur

    2016-01-01

    Background: Lightning injury is a global public health issue. Low and middle-income countries in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world are most affected by lightning. Bangladesh is one of the countries at particular risk, with a high number of devastating lightning injuries in the past years, causing high mortality and morbidity. The exact magnitude of the problem is still unknown and therefore this study investigates the epidemiology of lightning injuries in Bangladesh, using a n...

  18. Human ResourceManagement Practices and Employee Performance in Banking Sector of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Abdus Salam Sarker

    2017-01-01

    In the first growing banking sector like Bangladesh, there are 56 banks offered financial services with different stratagem and always looking for faster growth through employee performance by all means. Performance assessment is highly important while achieving the goals of the organization and determining the individual contributions to the organization. The purpose is to measure the effect of human resource (HR) practices on the employee performance in banking sector of Bangladesh. The res...

  19. Corruption and Network in Education: Evidence from the Household Survey Data in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Chongwoo Choe; Ratbek Dzhumashev; Asadul Islam; Zakir H. Khan

    2011-01-01

    We examine the causes and consequences of corruption in the provision of education service in Bangladesh. Our empirical analysis is based on the 2007 household survey data collected by Transparency International Bangladesh (TIB), which measure actual corruption. Our main findings are (i) both the incidence of corruption and the amount of bribe increase in the level of red tape, (ii) poorer households, households with less educated household head, and households with girls studying in school a...

  20. Évolution des marchés du travail au Bangladesh - interaction entre ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Évolution des marchés du travail au Bangladesh - interaction entre croissance et inclusion dans un pays à faible revenu. Le Bangladesh, dont l'économie et la population sont en croissance, a surtout réussi à créer des emplois dans les industries du textile et du vêtement. Ce projet de recherche se penchera sur les ...

  1. Maternal morbidity and mortality among indigenous people in Bangladesh : a study of the Mru community

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, Md. Rakibul

    2010-01-01

    Maternal health of indigenous people is poorer than the non-indigenous people across the world which is also true in the Bangladesh context. However, little research has been done among indigenous people in Bangladesh. As a result, the present study was conducted among the Mru indigenous people to comprehend their maternal health status and the factors associated with it. The study was carried out in three upazilas (administrative sub-districts) namely Alikadam, Lama and Thanchi of the Bandar...

  2. An analysis of pesticide use for rice pest management in Bangladesh 【Article】

    OpenAIRE

    Parveen, Sultana; Nakagoshi, Nobukazu

    2001-01-01

    The so-called Green Revolution package was introduced into Bangladesh agriculture system in mid1960s. It promised to increase production of cereal crops, particularly rice by the introduction of HYVseeds, application of chemical fertilizer and pesticide, and irrigation. HYVs rice has contributed signifi-cantly to the progress towards the food self sufficiency in Bangladesh on the contrary increased to theenvironmental degradation due to the intensive use of agrochemical and other modern techn...

  3. Educational influences on student academic attainment: a multi-level analysis in the context of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Jahan, Monira

    2012-01-01

    Bangladesh has made significant progress in terms of improving student access and gender disparity at primary and secondary levels of education. Currently, the major concern is the quality of education. In the national interest, the government of Bangladesh has undertaken a number of intervention programmes to increase the quality of primary and secondary education. Recently, researchers and practitioners are more engaged in investigating the quality of education, particularly at primary and ...

  4. ASSESSMENT OF INFLUENCING FACTORS ON PRESCRIPTION PRACTICES OF PHYSICIANS IN BANGLADESH

    OpenAIRE

    Mir Monir Hossain; Sumaiya Kawsar; Tasmuna Tamrin Tanmy; Abu Yousuf

    2013-01-01

    In Bangladesh same drug molecules are sold under different brand names by different pharmaceutical companies. To persuade the physicians to prescribe their brands pharmaceuticals engage in marketing techniques like giving samples, gifts, sponsoring travel etc. Many countries are striving to reduce the impact of incentives on prescription behavior. This study explores the influence of factors on the prescription practices of doctors in Bangladesh. Data collection was done by a self administere...

  5. Collateral and SME financing in Bangladesh: An analysis across bank size and bank ownership types

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Ashiqur; Rahman, Mosiqure Twyeafur; Ključnikov, Aleksandr

    2016-01-01

    We examine the issue of pledging collateral and its effect on access to credit, interest rates and credit risk of SMEs financing in Bangladesh with respect to bank size. We also examine the collateral classification (fixed assets collateral, personal guarantee and third-party guarantee) by bank ownership types to find what types of collateral are preferred by public, private and foreign banks in Bangladesh for lending to firms. In addition to that, we examine whether collateral requirements a...

  6. India’s strategic interests in South Asia and its aid to Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiya Alexandrovna Nemova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Providing foreign aid to developing countries is one of the most important aspects of contemporary foreign politics. The article studies relations between India and Bangladesh from the perspective of foreign aid flows and discovers conditions, forms, mechanisms, and trends of India’s aid to Bangladesh from 1971 until today. The research uses the approach of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD towards foreign aid and understands it as financial assistance, technical assistance, as well as aid in goods in the form of grants and soft loans with the aim to provide economic development and well-being. The author analyzes factors of the geopolitical significance of Bangladesh for India and studies India’s aid to Bangladesh in the context of the history of bilateral relations between the two countries. As a result, a certain correlation is discovered between aid flows and the state of bilateral relations. China’s growing interest is seen as one of additional factors, which cause India to increase volumes of its aid to the neighboring countries, including Bangladesh. China and India are understood as emerging donors who are competing to increase their influence in the world. The two Asian giants have recently taken considerable aid commitments to Bangladesh which indicates that Bangladesh starts to play a more important role in the regional geopolitics. In this context, the article predicts a further growth in the volumes of Indian aid to Bangladesh in the future and concludes that India uses its foreign aid programs as a tool to promote its own economic, political, and strategic interests. Foreign aid, including official development assistance (ODA, is becoming a means of India’s economic diplomacy although some researchers point to the fact that the country’s policymakers still lack coordination to make aid efficient in terms of political gains.

  7. The ecological economics: An ecological economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castiblanco R, Carmenza

    2007-01-01

    Ecological Economics arise as a scientific discipline aimed to integrate concepts of economics, ecology, thermodynamics, ethic and other natural and social sciences in order to incorporate a biophysical and integrated perspective of the inter dependences between economies and environment, from a plural conception and a methodology beyond disciplines. Ecological Economics studies the black box of economic processes usually excluded of the traditional economics: thermodynamics and ecology. Although it is relatively a new field of study, it has been strengthening its theoretical framework with scientific basis and analytic principles that lead to its identification as a new discipline that show a whole new paradigm. The scope of this article is to show the conceptual and methodological bases, the main founders, approaches and central debates of this new discipline. This brief introduction is a preamble to the papers of the meeting Ecological Economics: a perspective for Colombia included in this number, that took place on September 22 - 27 of 2007, at the National University of Colombia at Bogota. During tree days national and international experts, professors, researchers, workers of environmental sector and people interested on environmental issues joined together to know the conceptual and methodological achievements reached of this discipline; as well as to analyse and evaluate the environmental problems of the country, from the systemic, interdisciplinary and general perspective that it promotes

  8. Development of Ecological Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrius Keizikas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents research on ecological buildings and their influence on the constructional sphere. The aim of the paper is to reveal the essence of ecological architecture showing substantial progress and its potential to stimulate architectural and technological growth. The article also describes relations between the ideas of ecological buildings and the ‘passive house’ concepts and aspects of development as well as describes the possibilities of improving building sustainability and energy efficiency. Article in Lithuanian

  9. Molecular Characterization of a New Ribotype of Vibrio cholerae O139 Bengal Associated with an Outbreak of Cholera in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Faruque, Shah M.; Siddique, A. K.; Saha, Manujendra N.; Asadulghani; Rahman, M. Mostafizur; Zaman, K.; Albert, M. John; Sack, David A.; Sack, R. Bradley

    1999-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae O139 Bengal initially appeared in the southern coastal region of Bangladesh and spread northward, causing explosive epidemics during 1992 and 1993. The resurgence of V. cholerae O139 during 1995 after its transient displacement by a new clone of El Tor vibrios demonstrated rapid changes in the epidemiology of cholera in Bangladesh. A recent outbreak of cholera in two north-central districts of Bangladesh caused by V. cholerae O139 led us to analyze strains collected from the o...

  10. Cause-specific mortality and socioeconomic status in Chakaria, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed M. A. Hanifi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bangladesh has achieved remarkable gains in health indicators during the last four decades despite low levels of economic development. However, the persistence of inequities remains disturbing. This success was also accompanied by health and demographic transitions, which in turn brings new challenges for a nation that has yet to come to terms with pre-transition health challenges. It is therefore important to understand the causes of death and their relationship with socioeconomic status (SES. Objective: The paper aims to assess the causes of death by SES based on surveillance data from a rural area of Bangladesh, in order to understand the situation and inform policy makers and programme leaders. Design: We analysed population-based mortality data collected from the Chakaria Health and Demographic Surveillance System in Bangladesh. The causes of death were determined by using a Bayesian-based programme for interpreting verbal autopsy findings (InterVA-4. The data included 1,391 deaths in 217,167 person-years of observation between 2010 and 2012. The wealth index constructed using household assets was used to assess the SES, and disease burdens were compared among the wealth quintiles. Results: Analysing cause of death (CoD revealed that non-communicable diseases (NCDs were the leading causes of deaths (37%, followed by communicable diseases (CDs (22%, perinatal and neonatal conditions (11%, and injury and accidents (6%; the cause of remaining 24% of deaths could not be determined. Age-specific mortality showed premature birth, respiratory infections, and drowning were the dominant causes of death for childhood mortality (0–14 years, which was inversely associated with SES (p<0.04. For adult and the elderly (15 years and older, NCDs were the leading cause of death (51%, followed by CDs (23%. For adult and the elderly, NCDs concentrated among the population from higher SES groups (p<0.005, and CDs among the lower SES groups (p<0

  11. Introduction of new vaccines: decision-making process in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Jasim; Sarma, Haribondhu; Bari, Tajul I; Koehlmoos, Tracey P

    2013-06-01

    The understanding of the decision-making process in the introduction of new vaccines helps establish why vaccines are adopted or not. It also contributes to building a sustainable demand for vaccines in a country. The purpose of the study was to map and analyze the formal decision-making process in relation to the introduction of new vaccines within the context of health policy and health systems and identify the ways of making decisions to introduce new vaccines in Bangladesh. During February-April 2011, a qualitative assessment was made at the national level to evaluate the decision-making process around the adoption of new vaccines in Bangladesh. The study population included: policy-level people, programme heads or associates, and key decision-makers of the Government, private sector, non-governmental organizations, and international agencies at the national level. In total, 13 key informants were purposively selected. Data were collected by interviewing key informants and reviewing documents. Data were analyzed thematically. The findings revealed that the actors from different sectors at the policy level were involved in the decision-making process in the introduction of new vaccines. They included policy-makers from the ministries of health and family welfare, finance, and local government and rural development; academicians; researchers; representatives from professional associations; development partners; and members of different committees on EPI. They contributed to the introduction of new vaccines in their own capacity. The burden of disease, research findings on vaccine-preventable diseases, political issues relating to outbreaks of certain diseases, initiatives of international and local stakeholders, pressure of development partners, the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI) support, and financial matters were the key factors in the introduction of new vaccines in Bangladesh. The slow introduction and uptake of new vaccines is a concern

  12. Impact of Macro Environmental Factors on Garments Industry That Drives Export in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam Mohammad

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available It goes without saying that Garments industry of Bangladesh has drawn a special attention to the mass people in the world because of being both cost leader and quality leader at the same time. The purpose of this research paper is to analyze the garments industry in Bangladesh which is going to be an emerging tiger in the world economy. It also aims to assess the impact of macro-environmental factors affecting the industry by PESTEL analysis. Again, five forces model has been analyzed to assess the impacts of competitive external factors on the Garments industry in Bangladesh. Furthermore, Garments sector competitive responses to the primary issues affecting the industry have been evaluated here. It also outlines the primary external influences to which this industry is subject. In this case, SWOT analysis has been conducted to assess the competitive position of this industry in comparison with the global perspective. The study suggests that total export is highly correlated with the exports of garments. It also finds that there is severe lacking in the safety and security compliance, wages and compensations and code of conduct of the current organizations. Moreover, GSP facility withdrawn can impact severely on the ready made garments of Bangladesh to compete with price in the international market with China, India and Vietnam etc. The ready made garments sector of Bangladesh is enjoying cost leadership as a source of completive advantage because of cheap labor. Finally, the study would like to recommend for further improvement of garment sector in Bangladesh.

  13. Theory and practice – a case study of coordination and ownership in the Bangladesh health SWAp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomson Göran

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past decade the sector-wide approach (SWAp model has been promoted by donors and adopted by governments in several countries. The purpose of this study is to look at how partners involved in the health SWAp in Bangladesh define ownership and coordination, in their daily work and to analyse the possible implications of these definitions. Methodology The study object was a process of decision-making in the Government of Bangladesh in 2003. Information was collected through participant observations, interviews and document review. Results During the study period the Government of Bangladesh decided to reverse a decision to unify the two wings of the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. The decision led to disagreements with development partners, which had serious implications for cooperation between key actors in the Bangladesh health sector leading to deteriorated relationships and suspension of donor funds. The donor community in itself was also in disagreement which led to inconsistencies in the dialogue between the development partners and the Government of Bangladesh. Conclusion The case shows that main actors in the Bangladesh health SWAp interpret ownership and coordination, fundamental aspects of SWAp, differently. As long as work ran smoothly, the different definitions did not create any problems, but when disagreements arose they became an obstacle. It is concluded that partners in development should devote more effort to their working relationships and that responsibilities within a SWAp need to be more clearly delineated.

  14. IMPACTS OF REMITTANCE ON THE SOCIOECONOMIC CONDITION OF BANGLADESH: AN ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqbal Ahmed Chowdhury

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Remittance is considered to be one of the influential sectors of the socioeconomic development of the Third World countries, particularly countries like Bangladesh. In Bangladesh, remittance contributes to the socioeconomic development, maintain foreign exchange reserves, and manage balance of payment, etc. This paper particularly explains the impacts of remittance on the socioeconomic condition of Bangladesh. The paper is written based on secondary sources, published documents on the impacts of remittance. The paper reveals that remittance has both positive and negative impacts on the socioeconomic condition of Bangladesh. However, the positive impacts are more influential than negative one. In Bangladesh, remittance helps people generate income, provide children advanced education, increase social status, create employment opportunities for poor, and above all empower women. People can avail material and non-material culture and can enjoy civic amenities of the modern era. Although, it creates inequality in the society and cultural lag among people, its influential aspect to the socioeconomic development of Bangladesh is more prevailing. As a result, this paper recommends for necessary initiatives from Government Organizations and Non Government Organizations to maintain both remittance and migration flow normal and congenial.

  15. The global climate change and its effect on power generation in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Iftekhar; Alam, Firoz; Alam, Quamrul

    2013-01-01

    Frequent and intense natural calamities, sea level rises and salinity have been causing adverse impacts on economic, environmental and social aspects of hundreds of millions people across the world. Although a series of studies was undertaken on social and environment impacts, very little information is available on power generation affected by climate change. The power generation in developing countries, especially Bangladesh, whose existence is severely threatened by the rise of sea levels, salinity, the ambient temperature, drought and flood, is not well studied and reported. Therefore, the primary objective of this study was to identify the risks imposed by global climate change on existing and projected power generation in Bangladesh. The climate effect parameters and their impacts on power generation capacity are studied and analysed. The findings indicate that all existing and future power plants and their generation across the country will be affected by global climate change. - Highlights: • Analysed the future climate change impact on power generation in Bangladesh. • Projected future power generation in Bangladesh up to 2100. • Power plant in coastal areas will experience threat of inundation and salinity. • Northwest region power generation in Bangladesh will face more drought threat. • Power generation in middle region of Bangladesh will be in high risk of flood

  16. CDC Vital Signs: Preventing Repeat Teen Births

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Preventing Repeat Teen Births Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... live birth before age 20. Problem Too many teens, ages 15–19, have repeat births. Nearly 1 ...

  17. Ecological risk assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Suter, Glenn W; Barnthouse, L. W. (Lawrence W)

    2007-01-01

    Ecological risk assessment is commonly applied to the regulation of chemicals, the remediation of contaminated sites, the monitoring of importation of exotic organisms, the management of watersheds...

  18. The Impact of Nuclear Family and Individual Migration on the Elderly in Rural Bangladesh: A Qualitative Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kuhn, Randall

    2001-01-01

    This paper addresses selectivity, substitution and complementarity of elderly support options in Bangladesh, a nation undergoing simultaneous mobility and aging transitions in an environment of limited economic change...

  19. Topological characteristics of helical repeat proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groves, M R; Barford, D

    The recent elucidation of protein structures based upon repeating amino acid motifs, including the armadillo motif, the HEAT motif and tetratricopeptide repeats, reveals that they belong to the class of helical repeat proteins. These proteins share the common property of being assembled from tandem

  20. Simple sequence repeats in mycobacterial genomes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    J. Biosci. 32(1), January 2007. The list of microsatellite rich as well as poor regions in the five mycobacterial genomes. Local GC%. Repeat rich(+)/. Repeat poor(-). Total ORFs. Number of ... Simple sequence repeats in mycobacterial genomes. VATTIPALLY .... heat shock protein (grpE) (15839737), heat shock protein (dnaJ) ...

  1. Repeated Reading. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2014

    2014-01-01

    "Repeated reading" is an academic practice that aims to increase oral reading fluency. "Repeated reading" can be used with students who have developed initial word reading skills but demonstrate inadequate reading fluency for their grade level. During "repeated reading," a student sits in a quiet location with a…

  2. Digital storage of repeated signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prozorov, S.P.

    1984-01-01

    An independent digital storage system designed for repeated signal discrimination from background noises is described. The signal averaging is performed off-line in the real time mode by means of multiple selection of the investigated signal and integration in each point. Digital values are added in a simple summator and the result is recorded the storage device with the volume of 1024X20 bit from where it can be output on an oscillograph, a plotter or transmitted to a compUter for subsequent processing. The described storage is reliable and simple device on one base of which the systems for the nuclear magnetic resonapce signal acquisition in different experiments are developed

  3. Wind energy assessment for the coastal part of Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khadem, S.K.; Ghosh, H.R.; Kaiser, S.; Aditya, S.K.; Hussain, M.

    2005-01-01

    Earlier measurement and study of wind speed for the coastal part of Bangladesh showed that some of the areas of this part would be useful for wind power generation. But till now no measurement at the hub height of wind machine has yet done. Data has been collected from different sources and analysis has been done using logarithmic law and micro scale modeling software, WAsP for wind energy assessment over the coastal part. It has been found that the speed varies from 4m/s to 5.7 m/s at a height of 50m above ground level depending on the land type. Wind power density varies from 100 to 250 w/m/sub 2/ indicate the wind power can play an important role in the energy sector. (author)

  4. Can photovoltaic technologies help attain sustainable rural development in Bangladesh?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, W.K.; Diesendorf, Mark; Bryce, Paul

    2004-01-01

    The paper explores a model of sustainable rural development and poverty alleviation in Bangladesh, based on the creation of village businesses that sell solar electricity generated from the photovoltaic (PV) technologies. The model shows that the solar electricity business model is in principle economically viable up to the maximum investment available from a micro-credit organisation. Furthermore, the transfer of the existing subsidy from the centralised power system to these businesses would create significant additional income for one-third of the total landless and marginal farmers (LMFs) to meet their income deficits for basic needs. It would also electrify all rural wealthier households. From this additional income, the LMF households employed by the scheme would be able to conserve their environmental resources of animals, land and trees that otherwise are being lost. Appropriate government policies are proposed to disseminate PV technologies

  5. Overpopulation as crisis: redirecting health care services in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, S

    1987-01-01

    This article examines the consequences of a "population-as-crisis" theme on the institutional configuration and resource endowments of health care services in an integrated Ministry of Health and Population Control in Bangladesh. The Ministry's focus on women as child bearers and its emphasis on sterilization supported by incentives has contradictory consequences as women become vulnerable to a limited health service and incentives encourage a focus on meeting sterilization targets. Both undermine people's access to and use of primary health care services. Findings from three studies, undertaken between 1978 and 1983, support the argument that despite international concern with preventive and promotive primary health care, simultaneous support for and emphasis on population control inhibits meeting the goals of a broad-based rural primary health care service.

  6. An insight into the maritime accident characteristics in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Md. Imran; Awa, Zobair Ibn

    2017-12-01

    The inland waterway plays a very important role in the transportation system of Bangladesh. But, due to severe deficiencies of the safety practices, a lot of accidentll take place almost every year in the inland waterways that cause considerable loss of human lives and assets. The inland waterway accidentll in Bangladasb during 2005 to 2015 were analysed statistically in the present study. It has been found that the leading mode of accidents is collision among vessels and fatal injury comprises considerably a higher proportion of total casnalties. The study also revealed that cargo vessels and passenger vessels encounter more accidents in comparison to other types of vessels. It was also observed that during fair weather and good visibility condition significant proportion of accidents have taken place. Based on this study several recommendstions bsve been put forward for improving ssfety in the inlsnd waterways ofBanglsdesh.

  7. An insight into the maritime accident characteristics in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Md. Imran; Awal, Zobair Ibn

    2018-03-01

    The inland waterway plays a very important role in the transportation system of Bangladesh. But, due to severe deficiencies of the safety practices, a lot of accidentll take place almost every year in the inland waterways that cause considerable loss of human lives and assets. The inland waterway accidentll in Bangladasb during 2005 to 2015 were analysed statistically in the present study. It has been found that the leading mode of accidents is collision among vessels and fatal injury comprises considerably a higher proportion of total casnalties. The study also revealed that cargo vessels and passenger vessels encounter more accidents in comparison to other types of vessels. It was also observed that during fair weather and good visibility condition significant proportion of accidents have taken place. Based on this study several recommendstions bsve been put forward for improving ssfety in the inlsnd waterways ofBanglsdesh.

  8. Radiation education in Bangladesh: status need and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakht, Delawar

    1999-01-01

    Since the emergence of Bangladesh as an independent state, the provisions of radiation education and training have expanded greatly. Still then, since it is a developing country with high population growth rate, low literacy level and located thousands of miles away from the developed ones, it is difficult to transfer and disseminate knowledge, particularly about the subject of radiation at a speed and spread as required to meet the challenge of future. So, not only professional training but also institutional and formal academic knowledge and skill development is essential in the process of acquisition and transfer of such knowledge. Accordingly the courses on radiation and radioactivity including risk perception in general have to be vigorously pursued for the sake of safety and attaining basic concepts about health effects of different levels of radiation. (author)

  9. Population explosion and population control programmes in Bangladesh: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, A S; Nazneen, D R

    1992-01-01

    "The authors discuss in detail efforts made by [the] Bangladesh Government to control its population through planned efforts since 1953. Covering persistent setbacks and reasons thereof in governmental efforts, the authors highlight shifts in policies and strategy.... The [government family planning] programme provides a wide range of contraceptive choice to eligible couples in a manner as acceptable and convenient as possible to the client. The programme is totally voluntary and the government is firmly opposed to coercion or pressure on couples to accept contraception. As a strategy, the programme has integrated health and [family planning] while various ministries have attempted to encourage the acceptance of low-fertility behaviour through socio-economic incentives and educational motivation programmes." excerpt

  10. The changing emphasis of disasters in Bangladesh NGOs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matin, N; Taher, M

    2001-09-01

    Bangladesh is one of the most disaster-prone countries in the world, affected by cyclones and floods, as well as chronic hazards such as arsenic poisoning. NGOs have played a major role in bringing concerns related to risk management on to the national agenda and promoting a shift of focus from mere relief response to disaster mitigation and preparedness. The government has, after earlier scepticism, now accepted NGOs as major partners in these tasks. Innovative approaches, such as the use of microfinance, have been applied; many of which are related to preserving the gains of development efforts as part of rehabilitation. NGOs have pressured for better coordination with government. Improved structures are now approved, but it is still too early to judge their impact. Despite progress, neither NGOs nor governmental agencies have clearly defined roles in the effort to link disaster management priorities. This will ensure that longer-term development efforts build on local capacities and reduce vulnerabilities.

  11. Status of tick distribution in Bangladesh, India and Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Srikant; Bansal, Gyan Chand; Gupta, Suresh Chandra; Ray, Debdatta; Khan, Muhammad Qasim; Irshad, Hamid; Shahiduzzaman, Md; Seitzer, Ulrike; Ahmed, Jabbar S

    2007-09-01

    On a global basis, ticks transmit a greater variety of pathogenic microorganisms, protozoa, rickettsiae, spirochaets, and viruses than any other arthropods and are among the most important vectors of diseases affecting livestock, humans, and companion animals. Ticks and tick-borne diseases (TTBDs) affect 80% of the world cattle population and are widely distributed throughout the world, particularly in tropical and subtropical countries including India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. Ticks and tick-transmitted infections have coevolved with various wild animal hosts, which constitute the reservoir hosts for ticks and tick-borne pathogens of livestock, pets, and humans. In this region, the livestock sector is suffering from a number of disease problems caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. Among the parasitological problems, the damage caused by TTBDs is considered very high, and the control of TTBDs has been given priority.

  12. Credit programs, women's empowerment, and contraceptive use in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, S R; Hashemi, S M

    1994-01-01

    This article presents findings of research addressing the question of how women's status affects fertility. The effects on contraceptive use of women's participation in rural credit programs and on their status or level of empowerment were examined. A woman's level of empowerment is defined here as a function of her relative physical mobility, economic security, ability to make various purchases on her own, freedom from domination and violence within her family, political and legal awareness, and participation in public protests and political campaigning. The main finding is that participation in both of the credit programs studied, those of Grameen Bank and Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC), is positively associated with women's level of empowerment. A positive effect on contraceptive use is discernible among both participants and nonparticipants in Grameen Bank villages. Participation in BRAC does not appear to affect contraceptive use.

  13. Secondary Educational Institution Centered Diffusion of ICT in Rural Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khalid, Md. Saifuddin

    for development (ICT4D) and educational technology in the scope and findings as follows. The current literature lacks a holistic understanding of the complexities of the barriers that are rooted and entangled across individual, social, and organizational policies and power structures. Moreover......This dissertation presents a holistic approach for exploring, analyzing, solving, and circumventing the barriers to the integration and adoption of ICT in relation to the learning environments of secondary educational institutions in rural Bangladesh. It contributes to the fields of ICT......, there is an absence of empirical studies for the diffusion of ICT using mixed methods, methodological appropriation, and practical diffusion strategy identification. Therefore, I have taken my motivation from the “Vision 2021: Digital Bangladesh” initiatives and consider that ICT is a relatively new field...

  14. Determinants of Customer Satisfaction of Banking Industry in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Belal Uddin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate, through the development and operationalized constructs of service quality, service charge, perceived value, and customer satisfaction; customersatisfaction and its determinants of the banking industry in Bangladesh. An exploratory factor analysis and structural equation modeling was used to analyze data. Measurement model and structural model indicate that service quality and fair service charge both havepositive direct impact on customer satisfaction in a mass service industry (i.e., banking industry. It was further observed that they also have indirect influence on customer satisfaction through perceive value, i.e. perceived value has mediating role betweenquality, charge fairness and satisfaction. Bank managers are recommended to formulate operations and marketing strategies that focus on desires of customers to enhance level of satisfaction.

  15. Plant taxonomy and biodiversity researches in Bangladesh: trends and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Atiqur Rahman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The progress, problems and prospects of biodiversity and plant taxonomic researches conducted in Bangladesh during the last two decades have been analyzed. The inventory of the flora, threatened taxa and family wise itemization in all groups of plants are progressing at a very slow rate. Only 11.6% of the estimated species (c.5000 were inventoried and only 6.2% of the threatened taxa were listed for conservation management. National Conservation Strategies could not be framed and implemented duly for environmental management. Results of the survey of floristic diversity, inventory of threatened taxa for Red Data Book and discovery of new taxa are discussed and up to date data are presented. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i2.10645 International Journal of the Environment Vol.3(2 2014: 324-344

  16. Health impact assessment of climate change in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, Deborah Imel

    2003-01-01

    Global climate change (GCC) may have serious and irreversible impacts. Improved methods are needed to predict and quantify health impacts, so that appropriate risk management strategies can be focused on vulnerable areas. The disability-adjusted life year (DALY) is proposed as an effective tool in environmental health impact assessment (HIA). The DALY accounts for years of life lost to premature death and/or morbidity. Both the DALY and the determinants-of-health approach are applied to HIA of GCC in Bangladesh. Based on historical data, a major storm event may result in approximately 290 DALY per 1000 population, including both deaths and injuries, compared to a current all-cause rate of about 280 per 1000 in the region. A more precise result would require a large input of data; however, this level of analysis may be sufficient to rank risks, and to motivate and target risk management efforts

  17. The impact of female education on fertility desires in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matin, K A

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine whether in Bangladesh a wife's educational level significantly affects her desire for more children, or whether Bangladesh has not yet reached the threshold of socioeconomic development where education has any effect on the number of additional children desired. The analysis was carried out in a rural-urban context and also at different stages in the woman's life cycle, as defined by parity at time of interview. 2-3 live births were considered early stage, and 4 or more were defined as later stage. The analysis was carried out on 2791 women selected from the Bangladesh Fertility Survey of 1975-76 who at the time of interview met the criteria of being married, fecund, parity of 2 or more, and having a husband present in the household. The method used to perform the analysis was the Maximum Likelihood estimation method for the truncated dependent variable developed by J. Tobin. The method is a hybrid of probit analysis and classical regression and was chosen because the dependent variable, number of additional children desired, had a clustering of values at the lower limit of O. Separate regressions were run by life cycle stage (parity) and rural-urban background. The effect of variables such as the education of the husband, age, age at first marriage, work status of wife, number of living male children, and infant mortality were held constant in order to find the impact of education on desired fertility. The study found that the number of additional children desired by rural wives was greater than that desired by urban wives at all stages of the life cycle. The mean number of additional children desired by a rural wife at the early stage of the life cycle was .57 and in the later stage .15. For urban women the corresponding values were .29 and .12. The study found that the educational level of both the wife and the husband and the age of the wife at first marriage were not significant. The age of the woman was not

  18. A new species of Euphlyctis (Anura: Dicroglossidae from Barisal, Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sajid Ali Howlader

    Full Text Available A new species of the genus Euphlyctis is described from the Barisal district of Bangladesh and compared with its morphologically similar and geographically proximate congeners. The new species is highly divergent in comparison to other congeneric species on basis of sequence divergence in mitochondrial DNA gene sequences (ranging from 5.5% to 17.8% divergence. Euphlyctis kalasgramensis sp. nov. can be readily diagnosed by having the following combination of characters: snout-vent length (SVL 30.44 - 37.88 mm, absence of mid-dorsal line, nostril-snout length 3% of SVL, nostril much closer to snout tip than eye, nostril-snout length 48% of distance from front of eyes to nostril, relative length of fingers (shortest to longest: 1 = 2 < 4 < 3, tibia length 59% of SVL, foot length 55% of SVL.

  19. A new species of Euphlyctis (Anura: Dicroglossidae) from Barisal, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlader, Mohammad Sajid Ali; Nair, Abhilash; Gopalan, Sujith V; Merilä, Juha

    2015-01-01

    A new species of the genus Euphlyctis is described from the Barisal district of Bangladesh and compared with its morphologically similar and geographically proximate congeners. The new species is highly divergent in comparison to other congeneric species on basis of sequence divergence in mitochondrial DNA gene sequences (ranging from 5.5% to 17.8% divergence). Euphlyctis kalasgramensis sp. nov. can be readily diagnosed by having the following combination of characters: snout-vent length (SVL) 30.44 - 37.88 mm, absence of mid-dorsal line, nostril-snout length 3% of SVL, nostril much closer to snout tip than eye, nostril-snout length 48% of distance from front of eyes to nostril, relative length of fingers (shortest to longest: 1 = 2 < 4 < 3), tibia length 59% of SVL, foot length 55% of SVL.

  20. Research and utilization of renewable energy resources in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, M.S.; Aditya, S.K.; Mazumder, R.K.

    2005-01-01

    Bangladesh is an energy deficit and low-economy country with high population density. Per-capita energy consumption is one of the lowest in the world. The only dependable indigenous gas, which is the major primary energy source in the country, is used mainly for the production of electricity and fertilizer. If it is burnt at an annual 10% growth rate of consumption, may not last more than 15-20 years. Around 30% of the people of the country have connections to the national grid line. In the villages, where 80% of the population live, the situation is worse. Even if it is possible to take the electric grid line to all villages of the country, which will be an extremely difficult and expensive work to do, the majority of the village houses will not be able to have electric connections due to poverty. No nuclear power station exists in the country and the possibility of setting up any in the near future is limited due to non-availability of funds. Hydroelectric resources are also low because of the flat terrain of the country. The fuel import bill also occupies a significant portion of the total amount of export earnings. Conventional resources in Bangladesh are utterly inadequate for supplying the energy needs to bring in a significant improvement in our economy. On the other hand when our gas reserves will be exhausted it will be difficult for us even to maintain the energy supply for the development of our country unless we find alternate sources of energy. Solar energy availability in Bangladesh is high around 5KWH/day per meter square or 2.6 10/sup 11/ MWH/year on the total surface area of the country. This is equivalent to the output of about 30GW capacity utility plant for 100 years assuming 10% efficiency of the solar devices. Large-scale production of electricity from new, renewable energy sources is a great challenge. Wind power is difficult to exploit economically in regions with wind speeds bellow 5 m/s yearly average. Solar thermal power plants come

  1. Compliance with diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis immunisation in Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeitlyn, S; Rahman, A K; Nielsen, B H

    1992-01-01

    of the vaccine and followed up six weeks later to ascertain compliance with having second dose. Factors associated with non-compliance were evaluated. SETTING: Dhaka treatment centre of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh. SUBJECTS: 136 unimmunised children aged 6 weeks to 23...... months who lived within reach of the treatment centre. At time of the six week follow up 16 of the children could not be traced and seven had died. INTERVENTIONS: All children received their first dose of the vaccine. In each case health education workers had informed the mother about the value...... of immunisation, and she was given clear instructions to bring the child back after four weeks for the second dose. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Rate of non-compliance with advice to return child for second vaccination. RESULTS: 46 of 113 children (41%) received the second dose of the vaccine. Factors most closely...

  2. "Living cadavers" in Bangladesh: bioviolence in the human organ bazaar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moniruzzaman, Monir

    2012-03-01

    The technology-driven demand for the extraction of human organs--mainly kidneys, but also liver lobes and single corneas--has created an illegal market in body parts. Based on ethnographic fieldwork, in this article I examine the body bazaar in Bangladesh: in particular, the process of selling organs and the experiences of 33 kidney sellers who are victims of this trade. The sellers' narratives reveal how wealthy buyers (both recipients and brokers) tricked Bangladeshi poor into selling their kidneys; in the end, these sellers were brutally deceived and their suffering was extreme. I therefore argue that the current practice of organ commodification is both exploitative and unethical, as organs are removed from the bodies of the poor by inflicting a novel form of bioviolence against them. This bioviolence is deliberately silenced by vested interest groups for their personal gain.

  3. Learning in repeated visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hout, Michael C; Goldinger, Stephen D

    2010-07-01

    Visual search (e.g., finding a specific object in an array of other objects) is performed most effectively when people are able to ignore distracting nontargets. In repeated search, however, incidental learning of object identities may facilitate performance. In three experiments, with over 1,100 participants, we examined the extent to which search could be facilitated by object memory and by memory for spatial layouts. Participants searched for new targets (real-world, nameable objects) embedded among repeated distractors. To make the task more challenging, some participants performed search for multiple targets, increasing demands on visual working memory (WM). Following search, memory for search distractors was assessed using a surprise two-alternative forced choice recognition memory test with semantically matched foils. Search performance was facilitated by distractor object learning and by spatial memory; it was most robust when object identity was consistently tied to spatial locations and weakest (or absent) when object identities were inconsistent across trials. Incidental memory for distractors was better among participants who searched under high WM load, relative to low WM load. These results were observed when visual search included exhaustive-search trials (Experiment 1) or when all trials were self-terminating (Experiment 2). In Experiment 3, stimulus exposure was equated across WM load groups by presenting objects in a single-object stream; recognition accuracy was similar to that in Experiments 1 and 2. Together, the results suggest that people incidentally generate memory for nontarget objects encountered during search and that such memory can facilitate search performance.

  4. Quality control during repeated fryings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuesta, C.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Most of the debate ¡s about how the slow or frequent turnover of fresh fat affects the deterioration, of fat used in frying. Then, the modification of different oils used in repeated fryings of potatoes without or with turnover of fresh oil, under similar frying conditions, was evaluated by two criteria: by measuring the total polar component isolated by column chromatography and by the evaluation of the specific compounds related to thermoxidative and hydrolytic alteration by High Performance Size Exclusion Chromatography (HPSEC. The results indicate that with frequent turnover of fresh oil, the critical level of 25% of polar material is rarely reached, and there are fewer problems with fat deterioration because the frying tended to increase the level of polar material and thermoxidative compounds (polymers and dimers of triglycerides and oxidized triglycerides in the fryer oil during the first fryings, followed by minor changes and a tendency to reach a near-steady state in successive fryings. However, in repeated frying of potatoes using a null turnover the alteration rate was higher being linear the relationship found between polar material or the different thermoxidative compounds and the number of fryings. On the other hand chemical reactions produced during deep-fat frying can be minimized by using proper oils. In addition the increased level of consumers awareness toward fat composition and its impact on human health could had an impact on the selection of fats for snacks and for industry. In this way monoenic fats are the most adequate from a nutritional point of view and for its oxidative stability during frying.

  5. Controlling scabies in madrasahs (Islamic religious schools) in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukder, K; Talukder, M Q K; Farooque, M G; Khairul, M; Sharmin, F; Jerin, I; Rahman, M A

    2013-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness of a scabies control programme in reducing the prevalence of scabies in urban Bangladesh madrasahs, where the condition is extremely common. A controlled trial involving four intervention madrasahs (total students 2359) and four control madrasahs (total students 2465) in Dhaka Metropolitan Area. A baseline scabies sample survey was carried out on 40 and 44 students of four intervention and four control madrasahs, respectively. Another 40 students of the intervention madrasahs were administered a pre-intervention test on scabies knowledge. This was followed by mass treatment of all students, teachers and staff of the eight madrasahs with topical 5% permethrin cream. The subsequent intervention involved daily monitoring of students for five key personal hygiene practices, weekly 10-min scabies health education classes, supply of simple and inexpensive products to students to prevent cross-infestation to/from peers (e.g. plastic bags, clothes hangers), and chemotherapy of new students detected with scabies. After 4 months of the intervention, the prevalence of scabies, personal hygiene practices and scabies knowledge were assessed in students of the intervention madrasahs. Before the intervention, the prevalence of scabies was 61% and 62% in intervention and control madrasahs, respectively (P = 1.00). After mass scabies treatment in all eight madrasahs and 4 months of intervention, the prevalence of scabies was reduced to 5% and 50% in intervention and control madrasahs, respectively (P scabies knowledge were 40% before the intervention and 99% after the intervention in the four intervention madrasahs. The cost of this programme was US$1.60 per student, and primarily included products such as plastic bags and clothes hangers, and health education material. This programme demonstrates a pragmatic and cost-effective way to control scabies in a residential institutional setting. It is recommended that this programme should be scaled up to

  6. An analysis of heat effects in different subpopulations of Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkart, Katrin; Breitner, Susanne; Schneider, Alexandra; Khan, Md. Mobarak Hossain; Krämer, Alexander; Endlicher, Wilfried

    2014-03-01

    A substantial number of epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between atmospheric conditions and human all-cause as well as cause-specific mortality. However, most research has been performed in industrialised countries, whereas little is known about the atmosphere-mortality relationship in developing countries. Especially with regard to modifications from non-atmospheric conditions and intra-population differences, there is a substantial research deficit. Within the scope of this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of heat in a multi-stratified manner, distinguishing by the cause of death, age, gender, location and socio-economic status. We examined 22,840 death counts using semi-parametric Poisson regression models, adjusting for a multitude of potential confounders. Although Bangladesh is dominated by an increase of mortality with decreasing (equivalent) temperatures over a wide range of values, the findings demonstrated the existence of partly strong heat effects at the upper end of the temperature distribution. Moreover, the study demonstrated that the strength of these heat effects varied considerably over the investigated subgroups. The adverse effects of heat were particularly pronounced for males and the elderly above 65 years. Moreover, we found increased adverse effects of heat for urban areas and for areas with a high socio-economic status. The increase in, and acceleration of, urbanisation in Bangladesh, as well as the rapid aging of the population and the increase in non-communicable diseases, suggest that the relevance of heat-related mortality might increase further. Considering rising global temperatures, the adverse effects of heat might be further aggravated.

  7. Household solid waste characteristics and management in Chittagong, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujauddin, Mohammad; Huda, S M S; Hoque, A T M Rafiqul

    2008-01-01

    Solid waste management (SWM) is a multidimensional challenge faced by urban authorities, especially in developing countries like Bangladesh. We investigated per capita waste generation by residents, its composition, and the households' attitudes towards waste management at Rahman Nagar Residential Area, Chittagong, Bangladesh. The study involved a structured questionnaire and encompassed 75 households from five different socioeconomic groups (SEGs): low (LSEG), lower middle (LMSEG), middle (MSEG), upper middle (UMSEG) and high (HSEG). Wastes, collected from all of the groups of households, were segregated and weighed. Waste generation was 1.3 kg/household/day and 0.25 kg/person/day. Household solid waste (HSW) was comprised of nine categories of wastes with vegetable/food waste being the largest component (62%). Vegetable/food waste generation increased from the HSEG (47%) to the LSEG (88%). By weight, 66% of the waste was compostable in nature. The generation of HSW was positively correlated with family size (r xy=0.236, phouseholds. Municipal authorities are usually the responsible agencies for solid waste collection and disposal, but the magnitude of the problem is well beyond the ability of any municipal government to tackle. Hence dwellers were found to take the service from the local waste management initiative. Of the respondents, an impressive 44% were willing to pay US dollars 0.3 to US dollars 0.4 per month to waste collectors and it is recommended that service charge be based on the volume of waste generated by households. Almost a quarter (22.7%) of the respondents preferred 12-1 pm as the time period for their waste to be collected. This study adequately shows that household solid waste can be converted from burden to resource through segregation at the source, since people are aware of their role in this direction provided a mechanism to assist them in this pursuit exists and the burden is distributed according to the amount of waste generated.

  8. Increase in diarrheal disease associated with arsenic mitigation in Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianyong Wu

    Full Text Available Millions of households throughout Bangladesh have been exposed to high levels of arsenic (As causing various deadly diseases by drinking groundwater from shallow tubewells for the past 30 years. Well testing has been the most effective form of mitigation because it has induced massive switching from tubewells that are high (>50 µg/L in As to neighboring wells that are low in As. A recent study has shown, however, that shallow low-As wells are more likely to be contaminated with the fecal indicator E. coli than shallow high-As wells, suggesting that well switching might lead to an increase in diarrheal disease.Approximately 60,000 episodes of childhood diarrhea were collected monthly by community health workers between 2000 and 2006 in 142 villages of Matlab, Bangladesh. In this cross-sectional study, associations between childhood diarrhea and As levels in tubewell water were evaluated using logistic regression models.Adjusting for wealth, population density, and flood control by multivariate logistic regression, the model indicates an 11% (95% confidence intervals (CIs of 4-19% increase in the likelihood of diarrhea in children drinking from shallow wells with 10-50 µg/L As compared to shallow wells with >50 µg/L As. The same model indicates a 26% (95%CI: 9-42% increase in diarrhea for children drinking from shallow wells with ≤10 µg/L As compared to shallow wells with >50 µg/L As.Children drinking water from shallow low As wells had a higher prevalence of diarrhea than children drinking water from high As wells. This suggests that the health benefits of reducing As exposure may to some extent be countered by an increase in childhood diarrhea.

  9. Women's dietary diversity in rural Bangladesh: Pathways through women's empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinharoy, Sheela S; Waid, Jillian L; Haardörfer, Regine; Wendt, Amanda; Gabrysch, Sabine; Yount, Kathryn M

    2018-01-01

    The relationship between women's empowerment and women's nutrition is understudied. We aimed to elucidate this relationship by quantifying possible pathways between empowerment and dietary diversity among women in rural Bangladesh. In 2015, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of 2,599 married women ages 15-40 (median: 25) living in 96 settlements of Habiganj District, Bangladesh, as a baseline for the Food and Agricultural Approaches to Reducing Malnutrition trial. We collected data on women's empowerment (highest completed grade of schooling and agency), dietary diversity, and demographic factors, including household wealth. We used exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis on random split-half samples, followed by structural equation modelling, to test pathways from schooling, through domains of women's agency, to dietary diversity. Factor analysis revealed 3 latent domains of women's agency: social solidarity, decision-making, and voice with husband. In the adjusted mediation model, having any postprimary schooling was positively associated with voice with husband (β 41  = .051, p = .010), which was positively associated with dietary diversity (β 54  = .39, p = .002). Schooling also had a direct positive association with women's dietary diversity (β 51  = .22, p diversity. The link between schooling and dietary diversity was direct and indirect, through women's voice with husband but not through women's social solidarity or decision-making. In this population, women with postprimary schooling seem to be better able to negotiate improved diets for themselves. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Psychosocial consequences of leprosy and the related deformity in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qazi Azad-uz-zaman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the psychosocial condition and consequences of the people affected by leprosy and the related deformity in some selected areas of Bangladesh. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from July to December 2015 among 92 leprosy-affected people. A pretested semi-structure questionnaire was used for collecting data by face to face interview from both the low prevalent areas of Khulna and the high prevalent area of Rangpur Division in Bangladesh. Results: Nearly two-fifth of respondents were observed having deformity. Among them, around four-fifth was from Khulna region, about half were above 50 years of age and more than half had monthly family income lower than 5 000 BDT. The development of deformity is found having highly significant association with region (P < 0.001, residence (P < 0.004, and family income (P < 0.004. Differences in consequences between ‘with deformity’ and ‘without deformity’ were found very high. About 65% of the respondents with deformity ‘think less’ of himself, and nearly 60% felt ashamed or embarrassed, 53% had to change job, and 47% was used to think having less respect in the society where the percentage was much lower in all cases to ‘without deformity’ group. Conclusions: Early diagnosis and start multidrug therapy at the earliest stages have chanced to reduce the leprosy-resulted deformity, disfigurement and disability. For those who already have had some nerve damages, health education is highly important to prevent further injury and hence psychosocial consequences.

  11. Seroprevalence of brucellosis in patients with prolonged fever in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Akm Anisur; Berkvens, Dirk; Saegerman, Claude; Fretin, David; Muhammad, Noor; Hossain, Akram; Abatih, Emmanuel

    2016-09-30

    This study describes the seroprevalence of human brucellosis among pyretic patients and detection of Brucella abortus DNA from seropositive pyretic patients using real-time polymerase chain reaction (rtPCR) for the first time in Bangladesh. Blood samples were collected from 300 pyretic patients from October 2007 to May 2008 and subjected to three serological tests: Rose-Bengal plate test (RBT), standard tube agglutination test (STAT), and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA). Risk factors were identified by multivariate Firth's logistic regression analysis. Brucella genus (BCSP31) and species-specific (IS711) rtPCR were applied to six human sera samples. The seroprevalence of brucellosis among pyretic patients was estimated to be 2.0% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.74-4.30). The odds of brucellosis seropositivity were 8.9 (95% CI: 1.26-63.0) times higher in pyretic patients who handled goats than those who handled only cattle, whereas the odds of brucellosis seropositivity were 9.7 (95% CI: 1.28-73.68) times higher in pyretic patients who had backache compared to those without backache. B. abortus DNA was amplified from all six human sera that tested positive by RBT, STAT, and iELISA. As the agreement between the tests was very strong, RBT is recommended as a screening test for the diagnosis of human brucellosis in Bangladesh because it is easier to use, cheaper, and faster. Brucellosis among pyretic patients is common, and B. abortus is responsible for brucellosis in such patients. Pyretic patients who handle goats and those with backaches should be screened for brucellosis.

  12. CAREERS IN ECOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many non-scientists treat "ecology" and "environmentalism" as roughly interchangeable words, thus the word "ecologist" commonly has come to signify a particular part of the political spectrum. As used in the scientific community and in this presentation, however, ecology is loos...

  13. Children's Ecology Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lussenhop, Martha

    Selected for this listing of children's books are fiction and non-fiction books which add to an understanding of ecology, broadly considered here as the study of the interrelationships of organisms to each other and their environment. General ecology, natural resources, man and his environment, evolution and adaptation, appreciation, survival,…

  14. Dynamics in artifact ecologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Klokmose, Clemens Nylandsted

    2012-01-01

    artifacts influence the use of others. Understanding this interplay becomes more and more essential for interaction design as our artifact ecologies grow. This paper continues a recent discourse on artifact ecologies. Through interviews with iPhone users, we demonstrate that relationships between artifacts...

  15. Complex adaptive systems ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommerlund, Julie

    2003-01-01

    In the following, I will analyze two articles called Complex Adaptive Systems EcologyI & II (Molin & Molin, 1997 & 2000). The CASE-articles are some of the more quirkyarticles that have come out of the Molecular Microbial Ecology Group - a groupwhere I am currently making observational studies...

  16. Terrestrial Ecology Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, James W., Ed.; Hall, James A., Ed.

    This collection of study units focuses on the study of the ecology of land habitats. Considered are such topics as map reading, field techniques, forest ecosystem, birds, insects, small mammals, soils, plant ecology, preparation of terrariums, air pollution, photography, and essentials of an environmental studies program. Each unit contains…

  17. Ecology and economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menard, M.; Bischoff, J.

    1980-01-01

    The green movement challenges workers' unions and socialists. Who are the 'Greens', and what do they want. Where do their theoretical fundamentals come from. Will an ecological economy be able to function. Are the 'Greens' leftists or dreamers fighting against progress. Arguments for trade unionists and socialists in the ecological controversy. (orig.) [de

  18. Ecological Soil Screening Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Eco-SSL derivation process is used to derive a set of risk-based ecological soil screening levels (Eco-SSLs) for many of the soil contaminants that are frequently of ecological concern for plants and animals at hazardous waste sites.

  19. Spatial ecology across scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Alan; Petrovskii, Sergei; Morozov, Andrew

    2011-04-23

    The international conference 'Models in population dynamics and ecology 2010: animal movement, dispersal and spatial ecology' took place at the University of Leicester, UK, on 1-3 September 2010, focusing on mathematical approaches to spatial population dynamics and emphasizing cross-scale issues. Exciting new developments in scaling up from individual level movement to descriptions of this movement at the macroscopic level highlighted the importance of mechanistic approaches, with different descriptions at the microscopic level leading to different ecological outcomes. At higher levels of organization, different macroscopic descriptions of movement also led to different properties at the ecosystem and larger scales. New developments from Levy flight descriptions to the incorporation of new methods from physics and elsewhere are revitalizing research in spatial ecology, which will both increase understanding of fundamental ecological processes and lead to tools for better management.

  20. Predictive systems ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Matthew R; Bithell, Mike; Cornell, Stephen J; Dall, Sasha R X; Díaz, Sandra; Emmott, Stephen; Ernande, Bruno; Grimm, Volker; Hodgson, David J; Lewis, Simon L; Mace, Georgina M; Morecroft, Michael; Moustakas, Aristides; Murphy, Eugene; Newbold, Tim; Norris, K J; Petchey, Owen; Smith, Matthew; Travis, Justin M J; Benton, Tim G

    2013-11-22

    Human societies, and their well-being, depend to a significant extent on the state of the ecosystems that surround them. These ecosystems are changing rapidly usually in response to anthropogenic changes in the environment. To determine the likely impact of environmental change on ecosystems and the best ways to manage them, it would be desirable to be able to predict their future states. We present a proposal to develop the paradigm of predictive systems ecology, explicitly to understand and predict the properties and behaviour of ecological systems. We discuss the necessary and desirable features of predictive systems ecology models. There are places where predictive systems ecology is already being practised and we summarize a range of terrestrial and marine examples. Significant challenges remain but we suggest that ecology would benefit both as a scientific discipline and increase its impact in society if it were to embrace the need to become more predictive.