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  1. FUTURE OF BANGLADESH-INDIA RELATIONSHIP-A CRITICAL ANALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    February 1996), p.5 12 Ibid, p.71 and p.5 13 Ibid, p.13 14 Habib . “India-Bangladesh relations” and http://www.livemint.com/Politics/Tnvt...problems-in-india-bangladesh-direct-sea- trade/ (Accessed July 27, 2011) 17 Ibid 18 Habib , Haroon. “India-Bangladesh relations”. Frontline-Indian...P 20-21. Ghulam, Murshed. “Dynamics of South Asian Security.” The Daily Independent, Dhaka, April 10, 2006. Habib , Harun. “India-Bangladesh

  2. FORMAL TRADE BETWEEN INDIA AND BANGLADESH: AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K.S. YADAV

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The importance of improving trade flows between India and Bangladesh is not only beneficial to them, but for the whole SAARC region, given that Bhutan and Nepal utilise Bangladesh ports as gateways to trade outside the region. Bangladesh’s overall exports are dominated by labour-intensive manufacturing and its imports to India by primary commodities. The shares of manufactured goods in country’s overall export were about 92 and 91 percent in 2001 and 2011 respectively. However, the composition of bilateral trade between these two countries has been changing over time. Addition and removal in the list of products of trade basket is a usual process. Consistent products in the trade basket of Bangladesh are ready made garments and sea food, whereas those of India are raw cotton, cereals and products and machinery of iron and steel. Expansion of trade of these countries with outside world, but not with each other confirms the prevalence of certain barriers, physical or non-physical in nature, rendering many potential products remain untraded. India and Bangladesh being geographically proximate to each other possess huge scope to trade. Specifically as both the countries are rich in natural resources and are competent in the production of small-scale manufacturing and agrarian supplies, mostly from the eastern parts of India and Bangladesh, both possess huge potential for bilateral trade. Many items having high trade potential are still not able to get market exposure in the neighbouring country because of various non-tariff barriers prevailing in current trade scenario, which have hiked up the cost of doing business to unacceptable proportions and as most of the highly tradable products are still kept under the sensitive lists of Bangladesh. There are numerous bottlenecks in the current trade infrastructure which turns out to be physical barrier to trade. The present paper highlights the import export and Exchange Rate change and prospects of

  3. Aerosol pollution over Northern India and Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The skies over Northern India are filled with a thick soup of aerosol particles all along the southern edge of the Himalayan Mountains, and streaming southward over Bangladesh and the Bay of Bengal. Notice that the air over the Tibetan Plateau to the north of the Himalayas is very clear, whereas the view of the land surface south of the mountains is obstructed by the brownish haze. Most of this air pollution comes from human activities. The aerosol over this region is notoriously rich in sulfates, nitrates, organic and black carbon, and fly ash. These particles not only represent a health hazard to those people living in the region, but scientists have also recently found that they can have a significant impact on the region's hydrological cycle and climate (click to read the relevant NASA press release). This true-color image was acquired on December 4, 2001, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. It is interesting to compare the image above with this earlier MODIS image over the region, acquired on October 23, 2001. Notice the difference in the clarity of the air over the region in the earlier image. Under the thick plume of aerosol, the Brahmaputra (upper right) and Ganges Rivers are still visible. The many mouths of the Ganges have turned the northern waters of the Bay of Bengal a murky brown as they empty their sediment-laden waters into the bay. Toward the upper lefthand corner of the image, there appears to be a fresh swath of snow on the ground just south of the Himalayas.

  4. Fertility differentials among religious minorities: cross-national and regional evidence from India and Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sahu, B.; van Wissen, L.J.G.; Hutter, I.; Bosch, A.

    2012-01-01

    The article examines the independent effect of religious minority status on fertility at two levels i.e. cross-country level of India and Bangladesh and intra-country level (district) of India. Demographic and health survey data from India (2005–2006) and Bangladesh (2006–2007) are used for the

  5. Fertility Differentials among Religious Minorities : Cross-national and Regional Evidence from India and Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sahu, Biswamitra; van Wissen, L. J. G.; Hutter, Inge; Bosch, Alinda

    2012-01-01

    The article examines the independent effect of religious minority status on fertility at two levels i.e. cross-country level of India and Bangladesh and intra-country level (district) of India. Demographic and health survey data from India (20052006) and Bangladesh (20062007) are used for the

  6. Geographic information system (GIS) representation of coal-bearing areas in India and Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippi, Michael H.; Tewalt, Susan J.

    2011-01-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) information may facilitate energy studies, which in turn provide input for energy policy decisions. Prior to this study, no GIS file representing the occurrence of coal-bearing units in India or Bangladesh was known to exist. This Open-File Report contains downloadable shapefiles representing the coalfields of India and Bangladesh and a limited number of chemical and petrographic analyses of India and Bangladesh coal samples. Also included are maps of India and Bangladesh showing the locations of the coalfields and coal samples in the shapefiles, figures summarizing the stratigraphic units in the coalfields of India and Bangladesh, and a brief report summarizing the stratigraphy and geographic locations of coal-bearing deposits in India and Bangladesh.

  7. IMPACT OF CURRENCY DEVALUATION ON THE EXPORTS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON PAKISTAN, BANGLADESH AND INDIA

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    Imran Shahzad

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze the impact of currency devaluation on exports of three major economies of South Asian (i.e., Pakistan, Bangladesh and India over the period 1980 to 2012, by implementing the multiple regression models. Results reveales that currency devaluation encourages exports of Pakistan and Bangladesh. Lending interest rate significant negative effect in Pakistan and Bangladesh but insignificant in India. Government expenditure encouraged the export of Pakistan while not significaant in Bangladesh while depress in India. Money supply also enhanced the export of Pakistan, Bangladesh and India. Result suggest that concerned authorities should manage and use the resources properly in such a way which may assist to develop the economies.

  8. Natural Gas Exploration and Supply in India and the Prospects of a Bangladesh-to-India Pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashid, Mamunur [Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan)

    2009-07-01

    Energy consumption in India is growing very rapidly. India.s own existing as well as any new discoveries of natural gas revenues may meet only a fraction of its growing demand for energy. Hence, it will become more dependent on the global market for the supply of gas. But it is always difficult for different nations to reach a bilateral agreement on joint projects such as gas pipelines. India has been importing natural gas mostly in the form of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG). But for the last two decades, it has shown an increasing interest in importing gas from international market by a pipeline. For example, it has planned to import natural gas from Iran, Myanmar, Bangladesh, and Turkmenistan via a pipeline. But India.s best option is to purchase gas from its neighbor Bangladesh via a pipeline. Union Oil of California (Unocal), a large investor in Bangladeshi gas, has proposed to build a pipeline, to sell the gas from its Bibiyana field. A Bangladesh-India pipeline potentially offers several socio-economic benefits. But the project, however, so far has made a little progress. Political issues attached to the project. If the Bangladeshi pipeline plan fails, India will turn other alternative options to meet its gas demand. India already has entered into agreement with International consortiums for LNG purchase. Furthermore, the country is also keen on increasing its effort to develop non-conventional sources in the near future. If these alternatives become viable, India.s demand for and dependence on foreign natural gas will decrease and natural gas (of Bangladesh, for example) might lose some of its value. Keywords: Natural gas exploration and supply in India and Bangladesh, Bangladesh-to-India pipeline, Unocal, natural gas import, market, politics, LNG, non-conventional hydrocarbon sources.

  9. Consensus recommendation for India and Bangladesh for the use of pneumococcal vaccine in mass gatherings with special reference to Hajj pilgrims

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    Dilip Mathai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory tract infections are prevalent among Hajj pilgrims with pneumonia being a leading cause of hospitalization. Streptococcus pneumoniae is a common pathogen isolated from patients with pneumonia and respiratory tract infections during Hajj. There is a significant burden of pneumococcal disease in India, which can be prevented. Guidelines for preventive measures and adult immunization have been published in India, but the implementation of the guidelines is low. Data from Bangladesh are available about significant mortality due to respiratory infections; however, literature regarding guidelines for adult immunization is limited. There is a need for extensive awareness programs across India and Bangladesh. Hence, there was a general consensus about the necessity for a rapid and urgent implementation of measures to prevent respiratory infections in pilgrims traveling to Hajj. About ten countries have developed recommendations for pneumococcal vaccination in Hajj pilgrims: France, the USA, Kuwait, Qatar, Bahrain, the UAE (Dubai Health Authority, Singapore, Malaysia, Egypt, and Indonesia. At any given point whether it is Hajj or Umrah, more than a million people are present in the holy places of Mecca and Madina. Therefore, the preventive measures taken for Hajj apply for Umrah as well. This document puts forward the consensus recommendations by a group of twenty doctors following a closed-door discussion based on the scientific evidence available for India and Bangladesh regarding the prevention of respiratory tract infections in Hajj pilgrims.

  10. ROLE OF PLANTS FOUND IN NORTH EAST INDIA AND BANGLADESH IN CONTROLLING POPULATION GROWTH

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    Jhimly Das

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Being part of the Indian subcontinent both the North Eastern region of India and the Bangladesh share a long common cultural, economic and political history. One of the most critical problems of developing countries like India as well as Bangladesh is their enormous increase in human population. Contraceptive Prevalence Rate (CPR of India is 48.3 and that of Bangladesh is 53.8. As the large majority of population of both the countries belong to rural area, the family planning programmes have largely remained unsuccessful because of many factors including lack of availability of contraceptive drugs in rural markets, lack of accessibility of rural people to medical personnel as well as the lack of acceptability of synthetic drugs due to various socio-cultural and religious perceptions prevailing among many ethnic communities. These contributed to a growing interest among researchers in developing contraceptives of natural origin and at present natural herbal contraception have become one of the major focuses of modern contraceptive research. Since time immemorial herbal drugs are being practiced by various rural communities and ethnic tribes in North East India as well as in Bangladesh, and hence the acceptability of herbal contraceptives is expected to be much higher among rural folk. In different parts of North East India and Bangladesh, ethnic communities are using plant based medicinal products till today. This study aims at highlighting the contraceptive property of some plants found in North-Eastern India as well as in Bangladesh.

  11. Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    Attention in this discussion of Egypt is directed to the following: geography; the people; history; government and political conditions; the economy; defense; foreign relations; and relations between Egypt and the US. The population totaled 50.5 million in 1986 with an annual growth rate of 2.8%. The infant mortality rate is 102/1000 (1986), and life expectancy is 58.3 years. Located in the northeastern corner of Africa, Egypt has a land area of about 1 million square kilometers and is bounded by the Mediterranean Sea, Libya, Sudan, the Red Sea, the Gulf of Aqaba, and Israel. Egypt is the most populous country in the Arab world. Egyptians are a fairly homogenous people of Hamitic origin. Mediterranean and Arab influences appear in the north, and there is some mixing in the south with the Nubians of northern Sudan. Egypt has been a unified state for over 5000 years, and archeological evidence indicates that a developed Egyptian society has existed for considerably longer. The constitution of Egypt provides for a strong executive with authority vested in an elected president who can appoint 1 or more vice presidents, a prime minister, and a cabinet. Egypt's legislative body has 458 members -- 448 popularly elected and 10 appointed by the president. Power is concentrated in the hands of the president and the National Democratic Party's majority in the People's Assembly, but opposition parties organize, publish their views, and represent their followers at various levels in the political system. The process of gradual political liberalization begun by Sadat has continued under Mubarak. In fiscal year 1987 the gross domestic product (GDP) reached about US$30 billion. Agriculture and services each contribute about 1/3 of GDP; the remainder comes from industry, petroleum, mining, electricity, and construction. At this time, the Egyptian economy faces several challenges. In 1986 the government of Egypt initiated a major review of economic policy and initiated an economic

  12. Rural poverty in Bangladesh, India and Pakistan: profiles and policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M H

    1987-01-01

    The problem of rural poverty in Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan remains intractable mainly because it has not been confronted by policies with the biggest impact on the target groups, and because they have relied on "soft" policy options. The agricultural sectors in these countries have not been dynamic enough to sustain the growth process. What is even more disturbing is that agricultural growth has not provided new jobs and incomes to the landless poor. This sorry state of affairs is partly a reflection of the institutional impediments and partly a result of policies that have been contradictory. Industrial growth has not touched many of the rural communities, and the relative abundance of labor in these countries has not been used to advantage in selecting the industries which have the greatest impact on growth in both rural and urban areas. A direct attack on poverty requires that income earning opportunities are provided to the rural poor, by making available assets like land and human capital and through providing productive employment in and out of agriculture. The efforts made so far in the 3 countries do not represent an effective strategy to alleviate rural poverty.

  13. Last Five Years Pakistan Economic Growth Rate GDP And Its Comparison With China India And Bangladesh

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    Abdul Rehman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper formulates and reviews Pakistans last five years economic growth rate and its comparison with the growth rate of China India and Bangladesh. As growth rate the amount of increment of a specific variable has gained within a specific period of time and context. In fact economic growth rate provides general direction and magnitude of growth for overall economy.

  14. Local expert experiences and perceptions of environmentally induced migration from Bangladesh to India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stojanov, Robert; Boas, Ingrid; Kelman, Ilan; Duží, Barbora

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates local expert perceptions of the role of environmental factors, especially in terms of contemporary climate change, in population movements from Bangladesh to India. The aim is to delve into locally held understandings of the phenomenon and to gain a better understanding of

  15. Literacy Programs and Non-Formal Education of Bangladesh and India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mohammad Saidur; Yasmin, Farzana; Begum, Monzil Ara; Ara, Jesmin; Nath, Tapan Kumar

    2010-01-01

    In both Bangladesh and India expand non-formal education (NFE) programs for unenrolled and drop-out children and adults (8-45 year cohort) for ensure comparable standard with the primary curriculum, establish equivalency of NFE with primary education and overall competency, raise qualification and training level of teachers for effective delivery…

  16. Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The book covers Egyptian history from the Predynastic to the late Roman Period. It also introduces early contemporary literary references to ancient Egypt and uses a number of theoretical approaches to interrogate the archaeological and textual data. Egyptology and Egyptian archaeology are often...... to demonstrate the emerging interdisciplinary nature in Ancient Egyptian studies and the first to suggest new avenues of approach whilst seeking to open a discussion about how the Egyptian past can be known and understood. The book engages with wider trends from the humanities, which have found currency...

  17. 'Lived Islam' in India and Bangladesh: negotiating religion to realise reproductive aspirations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Biswamitra; Hutter, Inge

    2012-01-01

    This paper seeks to answer the question of how Muslim women interpret and negotiate religion in order to realise their reproductive aspirations. A close reading of lived experiences of 32 Muslim women from a varied educational background yields a wider perspective of the different interpretations of reproductive norms employed by adherents of the same religion (Islam), situated in two countries (India/Bangladesh) and group (majority/minority) contexts. Further, this comparative study yields a deeper understanding of agency that is employed by Muslim participants in each country. Muslim women - both in India and Bangladesh - are not passive followers of religious norms, but have agency to bring change in their own life and take an active role in planning their family, thereby transgressing religious norms in reproductive matters. Muslim women in India exercise their agency by adopting sterilisation - a method proscribed by Islam - without the knowledge of their significant others. Muslim women in Bangladesh use their agency by making a flexible interpretation of Islam in reproductive matters. A lesson learned from this comparative study is the need to remove barriers that prevent the adoption of contraceptives by Muslim minorities in India and to design family planning programmes that takes into account their religious needs.

  18. Growth and pattern of intra-industry trade between India and Bangladesh: 1975–2010

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    Kumar Sushil

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the intra-industry trade between India and Bangladesh over the period of 1975 to 2010. GL index is used to calculate intraindustry trade at the three-digit level of SITC. The study also calculated the trade complementarity index, and revealed comparative index. The extent of intra-industry trade is high in sectors like crude materials, inedible, except fuels, food and live animals. The study also reveals mismatch between Indian imports and Bangladesh exports. The present study indicates positive effect on consumer surplus and trade using SMART model. Finally, the paper suggests that Bangladesh should diversify his export structure to reduce the bilateral trade deficit on the basis of comparative advantage

  19. Credit Risk Determinants in Banking Sector: A Comparative Analysis of the PIB (Pakistan, India and Bangladesh

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    Muhammad Waqas

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the empirical study is to investigate credit risk determinants in banking sectors across three kinds of South Asian economies. An accumulated sample of 105 unbalanced panel data of financial firms over the period of 2000-2015, by applying General Method of Moment (GMM estimation techniques one-step at the difference in order to identify factors influencing credit risk. This study is inspired by two broad categories of explanatory variables which are bank-specific and macroeconomic. Bank-specific factors influencing unsystematic risk, while macroeconomic factors promoting systematic risk. The study uses a proxy of non-performing loans for credit risk in banking sectors of Pakistan, India, and Bangladesh. The empirical results have been found aligned with theoretical arguments and literature as expected. In comparison, NPLs in Pakistan is greater than India and Bangladesh, while India has the lowest ratio of non-performing loans. The study documents that bank-specific factors (inefficiency, profitability, capital ratio and leverage have a significant contribution towards credit risk. Further, the study also finds a significant impact of macroeconomic variables on non-performing loans. While, the result in the case of Bangladesh predict contradictions, that have no significant effect on non-performing loans at various level. The overall results indicate that credit risk is not influenced by only external factors but also affect by internal factors like bad management and skimping etc.

  20. An integrated approach to improving rural livelihoods: examples from India and Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Croke

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of work in West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh and SW Bangladesh through a series of projects from 2005 to the present, considering the impact of farming systems, water shed development and/or agricultural intensification on livelihoods in selected rural areas of India and Bangladesh. The projects spanned a range of scales spanning from the village scale (∼  1 km2 to the meso-scale (∼  100 km2, and considered social as well as biophysical aspects. They focused mainly on the food and water part of the food-water-energy nexus. These projects were in collaboration with a range of organisations in India and Bangladesh, including NGOs, universities, and government research organisations and departments. The projects were part funded by the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, and built on other projects that have been undertaken within the region. An element of each of these projects was to understand how the hydrological cycle could be managed sustainably to improve agricultural systems and livelihoods of marginal groups. As such, they evaluated appropriate technology that is generally not dependent on high-energy inputs (mechanisation. This includes assessing the availability of water, and identifying potential water resources that have not been developed; understanding current agricultural systems and investigating ways of improving water use efficiency; and understanding social dynamics of the affected communities including the potential opportunities and negative impacts of watershed development and agricultural development.

  1. An integrated approach to improving rural livelihoods: examples from India and Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croke, Barry; Merritt, Wendy; Cornish, Peter; Syme, Geoffrey J.; Roth, Christian H.

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents an overview of work in West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh and SW Bangladesh through a series of projects from 2005 to the present, considering the impact of farming systems, water shed development and/or agricultural intensification on livelihoods in selected rural areas of India and Bangladesh. The projects spanned a range of scales spanning from the village scale (˜ 1 km2) to the meso-scale (˜ 100 km2), and considered social as well as biophysical aspects. They focused mainly on the food and water part of the food-water-energy nexus. These projects were in collaboration with a range of organisations in India and Bangladesh, including NGOs, universities, and government research organisations and departments. The projects were part funded by the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, and built on other projects that have been undertaken within the region. An element of each of these projects was to understand how the hydrological cycle could be managed sustainably to improve agricultural systems and livelihoods of marginal groups. As such, they evaluated appropriate technology that is generally not dependent on high-energy inputs (mechanisation). This includes assessing the availability of water, and identifying potential water resources that have not been developed; understanding current agricultural systems and investigating ways of improving water use efficiency; and understanding social dynamics of the affected communities including the potential opportunities and negative impacts of watershed development and agricultural development.

  2. A Comparative Analysis on Food Security in Bangladesh, India and Myanmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Chen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In 2013, China proposed the Bangladesh–China–India–Myanmar Economic Corridor initiatives to enhance the economic cooperation between Bangladesh, India, and Myanmar. To serve the priority setting of agricultural cooperation in the initiatives, an analysis is necessary to understand the food security situation and its key influencing factors in the three countries. For this purpose, this study applied a food security index (FSI to measure the food security level at state scale and analyze its changes in the three countries during 1990–2013. Further, a factor decomposition method was used to quantify the contribution of major factors to the FSI changes. The results showed that the food demand was generally secured in Myanmar and India during 1990–2013 but in shortage by around 10% in most years before 2008 in Bangladesh. The annual FSI values showed a rather obvious periodic variation and a slightly increasing trend during the whole period. Although the grain production in the three countries increased significantly, the FSI was not accordingly improved, as a result of the simultaneous increase of grain consumption. In Bangladesh and India, the grain production increase was mainly driven by the improvement of crop yield, while the grain consumption increase was mainly caused by the population growth. In Myanmar, the production increase was largely caused by the expansion of cropping area, and the consumption growth was mainly due to the increased grain requirement per capita. To meet the increasing food demand in the future, it is essential to improve the irrigation and drainage systems and crop management to increase the land use efficiency and crop yield. In addition, the adaptation of appropriate policy for family planning could be important to slow down the quick population growth and thus the food demand.

  3. Environmental impact of energy use in Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, J.W.; Kuntsi, E. [Turku School of Economics (Finland). Finland Futures Research Center

    2004-07-01

    The environmental impact of energy use in this study is evaluated from two aspects: the level of the utilization of natural sources as measured by energy intensity; the level of environmental stress as measured by CO{sub 2} emission intensity. This study analyzes the environmental impact of energy use in Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and Thailand from 1973 to 2000 based on the International Energy Agency's 2002 database. The findings differ from some previous conclusions, because they conclude that the above four countries are in a process of dematerialization with regard to energy use and are thus heading toward decreasing environmental stress. (author)

  4. Patterns of Use and Perceptions of Harm of Smokeless Tobacco in Navi Mumbai, India and Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutti, Seema; Reid, Jessica L; Gupta, Prakash C; Pednekar, Mangesh S; Dhumal, Gauri; Nargis, Nigar; Hussain, Akm Ghulam; Hammond, David

    2016-01-01

    Globally, smokeless tobacco use is disproportionately concentrated in low-income and middle-income countries like India and Bangladesh. The current study examined comparative patterns of use and perceptions of harm for different smokeless tobacco products among adults and youth in Navi Mumbai, India, and Dhaka, Bangladesh. Face-to-face interviews were conducted on tablets with adult (19 years and older) smokeless tobacco users and youth (16-18 years) users and non-users in Navi Mumbai ( n = 1002), and Dhaka ( n = 1081). A majority (88.9%) of smokeless tobacco users reported daily use. Approximately one-fifth (20.4%) of the sample were mixed-users (used both smoked and smokeless tobacco), of which about half (54.4%) reported that they primarily used smokeless over smoked forms like cigarettes or bidis. The proportion of users planning to quit was higher in India than in Bangladesh (75.7% vs. 49.8%, p < 0.001). Gutkha was the most commonly used smokeless product in India, and pan masala in Bangladesh. Among users in Bangladesh, the most commonly reported reason for using their usual product was the belief that it was "less harmful" than other types. Perceptions of harm also differed with respect to a respondent's usual product. Bangladeshi respondents reported more negative attitudes toward smokeless tobacco compared to Indian respondents. The findings highlight the high daily use of smokeless tobacco, and the high prevalence of false beliefs about its harms. This set of findings reinforces the need to implement effective tobacco control strategies in low and middle-income countries like India and Bangladesh.

  5. The borders that divide, the borders that unite: (Re)interpreting Garo Processes of identification in India and Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bal, E.W.; Claquin-Chambugong, T.

    2014-01-01

    The people known as Garos, from the Garo Hills and adjacent (lowland) areas in India and Bangladesh, have never constituted one unified and self-defined in-group, although British colonial rule indeed produced a feeble notion of an imagined Garo community. Hence, the international border of 1947

  6. Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    The population of Bangladesh was 104 million in 1986, with an annual growth rate of 2.6%. The country's infant mortality rate is 12.1%, and life expectancy stands at 54 years. The literacy rate is 29%. The work force of 34.1 million is distributed among agriculture (74%), industry (11%), and services (15%). The gross domestic product (GDP) is US$15.3 billion, with a real annual growth rate of 3.6% and a per capita GDP of $151. As one of the world's poorest and most densely populated countries, Bangladesh must struggle to produce domestically and import enough food to feed its rapidly increasing population. The country's transportation, communications, and power infrastructure is relatively poorly developed. Since 1971, an emphasis has been placed on developing new industrial capacity and rehabilitating the economy. The statist economic model, including nationalization of the key jute industry, had resulted in inefficiency and economic stagnation. At present, rapid population growth, inefficiency in the public sector, and restricted natural resources and capital continue to impede economic development. On the other hand, economic policies aimed at encouraging private enterprise and investment, denationalizing public industries, reinstating budgetary discipline, and mobilizing domestic resources are beginning to have an impact. Underemployment remains a serious problem, and there are growing concerns regarding the ability of the agricultural sector to absorb additional manpower. To reach the goal of 10% annual industrial growth for the 1986-89 period, the government is aggressively seeking foreign investment.

  7. Chronic arsenic toxicity in Bangladesh and West Bengal, India--a review and commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M M; Chowdhury, U K; Mukherjee, S C; Mondal, B K; Paul, K; Lodh, D; Biswas, B K; Chanda, C R; Basu, G K; Saha, K C; Roy, S; Das, R; Palit, S K; Quamruzzaman, Q; Chakraborti, D

    2001-01-01

    Fifty districts of Bangladesh and 9 districts in West Bengal, India have arsenic levels in groundwater above the World Health Organization's maximum permissible limit of 50 microg/L. The area and population of 50 districts of Bangladesh and 9 districts in West Bengal are 118,849 km2 and 104.9 million and 38,865 km2 and 42.7 million, respectively. Our current data show arsenic levels above 50 microg/ L in 2000 villages, 178 police stations of 50 affected districts in Bangladesh and 2600 villages, 74 police stations/blocks of 9 affected districts in West Bengal. We have so far analyzed 34,000 and 101,934 hand tube-well water samples from Bangladesh and West Bengal respectively by FI-HG-AAS of which 56% and 52%, respectively, contained arsenic above 10 microg/L and 37% and 25% arsenic above 50 microg/L. In our preliminary study 18,000 persons in Bangladesh and 86,000 persons in West Bengal were clinically examined in arsenic-affected districts. Of them, 3695 (20.6% including 6.11% children) in Bangladesh and 8500 (9.8% including 1.7% children) in West Bengal had arsenical dermatological features. Symptoms of chronic arsenic toxicity developed insidiously after 6 months to 2 years or more of exposure. The time of onset depends on the concentration of arsenic in the drinking water, volume of intake, and the health and nutritional status of individuals. Major dermatological signs are diffuse or spotted melanosis, leucomelanosis, and keratosis. Chronic arsenicosis is a multisystem disorder. Apart from generalized weakness, appetite and weight loss, and anemia, our patients had symptoms relating to involvement of the lungs, gastrointestinal system, liver, spleen, genitourinary system, hemopoietic system, eyes, nervous system, and cardiovascular system. We found evidence of arsenic neuropathy in 37.3% (154 of 413 cases) in one group and 86.8% (33 of 38 cases) in another. Most of these cases had mild and predominantly sensory neuropathy. Central nervous system involvement

  8. Support Networks among micro entrepreneurial women: comparison between Bangladesh, India and the Southern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Sato

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Microcredit has been seen as a way of helping low-income people, primarily women, to survive, by giving them independence and the resources to create their own businesses. Low-income people have the support of social networks that allow their members to assist each other morally, economically and by sharing information. They also share experiences that make it easier to obtain the income needed for survival. Through their social networks and social capital the poor can use the tools provided by microcredits to improve their living conditions. This document compares the ways in which women in three countries associate, and use microcredits. The countries involved are India, Bangladesh and the South of Mexico.

  9. Human waste: An underestimated source of nutrient pollution in coastal seas of Bangladesh, India and Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Md Nurul; Kroeze, Carolien; Strokal, Maryna

    2017-05-15

    Many people practice open defecation in south Asia. As a result, lot of human waste containing nutrients such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) enter rivers. Rivers transport these nutrients to coastal waters, resulting in marine pollution. This source of nutrient pollution is, however, ignored in many nutrient models. We quantify nutrient export by large rivers to coastal seas of Bangladesh, India and Pakistan, and the associated eutrophication potential in 2000 and 2050. Our new estimates for N and P inputs from human waste are one to two orders of magnitude higher than earlier model calculations. This leads to higher river export of nutrients to coastal seas, increasing the risk of coastal eutrophication potential (ICEP). The newly calculated future ICEP, for instance, Godavori river is 3 times higher than according to earlier studies. Our modeling approach is simple and transparent and can easily be applied to other data-poor basins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Sentiments that Affect Sociopolitical Legitimation of TNCs in Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakhtiar Rana, Mohammad; Sørensen, Olav Jull

    2014-01-01

    Our study investigates the transnational enterprises' (TNCs’) socio-political legitimization in Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan with a view to ensuring sustainability in the institutional context. We took institutional perspective as a theoretical lens, used a grounded theory method, and employed...... and patriotism,’ and ‘ecological balance’, and suggest that tensions stemming from these three sentiments can be managed and often turned into opportunities if appropriate strategies are applied. Eight types of strategies derived from the nine case studies are presented in order to mitigate, manage, and cash...... in on the REN-sentiments in South Asian markets. These strategies include collaboration strategy, local development strategy, strategy of alignment with socio-political actors, local name and staffing strategy, hibernation strategy, sentiment-focused strategy, isomorphism strategy, and openness strategy....

  11. Comparison of GPS and GRACE hydrological loading signatures in Myanmar, India, Bangladesh, and Bhutan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Materna, K.; Feng, L.; Lindsey, E. O.; Hill, E.; Burgmann, R.

    2017-12-01

    The elastic response of the lithosphere to surface mass redistributions produces significant deformation that can be observed in geodetic time series. This deformation is especially pronounced in Southeast Asia, where the annual monsoon produces large-amplitude hydrological loads. The MIBB network of 20 continuous GPS stations in Myanmar, India, Bangladesh, and Bhutan, operational since 2012, provides an opportunity to study the earth's response to these loads. In this study, we use GRACE gravity products as an estimate of surface water distribution, and input these estimates into an elastic loading calculation. We compare the predicted deformation with that observed with GPS. We find that elastic loading from the GRACE gravity field is able to explain the phase and the peak-to-peak amplitude (typically 2-3 cm) of the vertical GPS oscillations in northeast India and central Myanmar. GRACE-based corrections reduce the RMS scatter of the GPS data by 30%-45% in these regions. However, this approach does not capture all of the variation in central Bangladesh and southern Myanmar. Local hydrological effects, non-tidal ocean loads, poroelastic deformation, or differences in elastic properties may explain discrepancies between the GPS and GRACE signals in these places. The results of our calculations have practical implications for campaign GPS measurements in Myanmar, which make up the majority of geodetic measurements at this point. We may be able to reduce errors in campaign measurements and increase the accuracy of velocity estimates by correcting for hydrologic signals with GRACE data. The results also have potential implications for crustal rheology in Southeast Asia.

  12. Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    Bangladesh is a country of 143,998 sq.km with 116 million inhabitants, of whom 47-22% for males and females, respectively, are literate. Independence was gained on 1971. The terrain consists of mainly flat, alluvial plain, with hills in the Southeast, with a climate which is semi-tropical with monsoons. Bangla and English are spoken by Bengali, nonBengali Muslims, and other ethnic groups who are of mainly Muslim and Hindu faiths. Life expectancy ranges over 52-54 years. GDP is $23 billion, growing at a rate of 3.6%. Per capita income is $198. The country's natural resources include natural gas and water. Rice, jute, tea, sugar, wheat, jute goods, garments, frozen shrimp, textiles, fertilizer, leather, metal reprocessing, pharmaceutical, and newspring are areas of economic production. Capital goods, foodgrains, petroleum, consumer goods, fertilizer, chemicals, vegetable oils, and textiles are imported, and ready-made garments, jute goods, leather, frozen fish, shrimp, raw jute, and tea are exported. In-depth information is also given on the people and history, government and principal officials, political conditions, the economy, defense, foreign relations with the U.S., and names of principal U.S. officials in the country.

  13. Association between gap in spousal education and domestic violence in India and Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Daniel; Zoch, Beate; Khan, M Mobarak H; Pollmann, Thorsten; Krämer, Alexander

    2012-06-21

    Domestic violence (DV) against women is a serious human rights abuse and well recognised global public health concern. The occurrence of DV is negatively associated with the educational level of spouses but studies dealing with educational discrepancies of spouses show contradicting results: Wives with higher education than their husbands were more likely to ever experience DV as compared to equally educated couples. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between spousal education gap (SEG) and the prevalence and severity of DV in India and Bangladesh. Nationally representative data collected through the 2005/2006 Indian National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3) and 2007 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) were used. In total, we analysed data of 69,805 women aged 15-49 years (Bangladesh: 4,195 women, India: 65,610 women). In addition to univariate and bivariable analyses, a multinomial logistic regression model was used to quantify the association between education gap and less severe as well as severe domestic violence. Adjustment was made for age, religion, and family structure. Wives with higher education than their husbands were less likely to experience less severe (OR = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.77-0.89) and severe (OR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.72-0.87) DV as compared to equally low-educated spouses (reference group). Equally high-educated couples revealed the lowest likelihood of experiencing DV (severe violence: OR 0.43, CI 0.39-0.48; less severe violence: OR 0.59, CI 0.55-0.63). The model's goodness of fit was low (Nagelkerke's R2 = 0.152). Our analysis revealed no increased DV among wives with a higher educational level than their husbands. Moreover, the results point towards a decrease of severe violence with an increase in education levels among spouses. However, the model did not explain a satisfying amount of DV. Therefore, further research should be done to reveal unknown determinants so that suitable interventions to reduce DV can be

  14. Associations between active travel and adiposity in rural India and Bangladesh: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Ailsa J; Laverty, Anthony A; Shridhar, Krithiga; Alam, Dewan; Dias, Amit; Williams, Joseph; Millett, Christopher; Ebrahim, Shah; Dhillon, Preet K

    2015-10-24

    Data on use and health benefits of active travel in rural low- and middle- income country settings are sparse. We aimed to examine correlates of active travel, and its association with adiposity, in rural India and Bangladesh. Cross sectional study of 2,122 adults (≥18 years) sampled in 2011-13 from two rural sites in India (Goa and Chennai) and one in Bangladesh (Matlab). Logistic regression was used to examine whether ≥150 min/week of active travel was associated with socio-demographic indices, smoking, oil/butter consumption, and additional physical activity. Adjusting for these same factors, associations between active travel and BMI, waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio were examined using linear and logistic regression. Forty-six percent of the sample achieved recommended levels of physical activity (≥150 min/week) through active travel alone (range: 33.1 % in Matlab to 54.8 % in Goa). This was more frequent among smokers (adjusted odds ratio 1.36, 95 % confidence interval 1.07-1.72; p = 0.011) and those that spent ≥150 min/week in work-based physical activity (OR 1.71, 1.35-2.16; p travel was associated with lower BMI (adjusted coefficient -0.39 kg/m(2), -0.77 to -0.02; p = 0.037) and a lower likelihood of high waist circumference (OR 0.77, 0.63-0.96; p = 0.018) and high waist-to-hip ratio (OR 0.72, 0.58-0.89; p = 0.002). Use of active travel for ≥150 min/week was associated with being male, smoking, and higher levels of work-based physical activity. It was associated with lower BMI, and lower risk of a high waist circumference or high waist-to-hip ratio. Promotion of active travel is an important component of strategies to address the growing prevalence of overweight in rural low- and middle- income country settings.

  15. Modelling the impact of sanitation, population growth and urbanization on human emissions of Cryptosporidium to surface waters—a case study for Bangladesh and India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Lucie C.; de Kraker, Jelske; Hofstra, Nynke; Kroeze, Carolien; Medema, Gertjan

    2015-09-01

    Cryptosporidium is a protozoan parasite that can cause diarrhoea. Human faeces are an important source of Cryptosporidium in surface waters. We present a model to study the impact of sanitation, urbanization and population growth on human emissions of Cryptosporidium to surface waters. We build on a global model by Hofstra et al (2013 Sci. Total Environ. 442 10-9) and zoom into Bangladesh and India as illustrative case studies. The model is most sensitive to changes in oocyst excretion and infection rate, and to assumptions on the share of faeces reaching the surface water for different sanitation types. We find urban centres to be hotspots of human Cryptosporidium emissions. We estimate that 53% (Bangladesh) and 91% (India) of total emissions come from urban areas. 50% of oocysts come from only 8% (Bangladesh) and 3% (India) of the country area. In the future, population growth and urbanization may further deteriorate water quality in Bangladesh and India, despite improved sanitation. Under our ‘business as usual’ (‘sanitation improvements’) scenario, oocyst emissions will increase by a factor 2.0 (1.2) for India and 2.9 (1.1) for Bangladesh between 2010 and 2050. Population growth, urbanization and sanitation development are important processes to consider for large scale water quality modelling.

  16. Controls on groundwater flow in the Bengal Basin of India and Bangladesh: regional modeling analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Holly A.; Voss, Clifford I.

    2009-11-01

    Groundwater for domestic and irrigation purposes is produced primarily from shallow parts of the Bengal Basin aquifer system (India and Bangladesh), which contains high concentrations of dissolved arsenic (exceeding worldwide drinking water standards), though deeper groundwater is generally low in arsenic. An essential first step for determining sustainable management of the deep groundwater resource is identification of hydrogeologic controls on flow and quantification of basin-scale groundwater flow patterns. Results from groundwater modeling, in which the Bengal Basin aquifer system is represented as a single aquifer with higher horizontal than vertical hydraulic conductivity, indicate that this anisotropy is the primary hydrogeologic control on the natural flowpath lengths. Despite extremely low hydraulic gradients due to minimal topographic relief, anisotropy implies large-scale (tens to hundreds of kilometers) flow at depth. Other hydrogeologic factors, including lateral and vertical changes in hydraulic conductivity, have minor effects on overall flow patterns. However, because natural hydraulic gradients are low, the impact of pumping on groundwater flow is overwhelming; modeling indicates that pumping has substantially changed the shallow groundwater budget and flowpaths from predevelopment conditions.

  17. Estimation of regional-scale groundwater flow properties in the Bengal Basin of India and Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, H.A.; Voss, C.I.

    2009-01-01

    Quantitative evaluation of management strategies for long-term supply of safe groundwater for drinking from the Bengal Basin aquifer (India and Bangladesh) requires estimation of the large-scale hydrogeologic properties that control flow. The Basin consists of a stratified, heterogeneous sequence of sediments with aquitards that may separate aquifers locally, but evidence does not support existence of regional confining units. Considered at a large scale, the Basin may be aptly described as a single aquifer with higher horizontal than vertical hydraulic conductivity. Though data are sparse, estimation of regional-scale aquifer properties is possible from three existing data types: hydraulic heads, 14C concentrations, and driller logs. Estimation is carried out with inverse groundwater modeling using measured heads, by model calibration using estimated water ages based on 14C, and by statistical analysis of driller logs. Similar estimates of hydraulic conductivities result from all three data types; a resulting typical value of vertical anisotropy (ratio of horizontal to vertical conductivity) is 104. The vertical anisotropy estimate is supported by simulation of flow through geostatistical fields consistent with driller log data. The high estimated value of vertical anisotropy in hydraulic conductivity indicates that even disconnected aquitards, if numerous, can strongly control the equivalent hydraulic parameters of an aquifer system. ?? US Government 2009.

  18. Epidemiological and clinical perspectives on irritable bowel syndrome in India, Bangladesh and Malaysia: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M Masudur; Mahadeva, Sanjiv; Ghoshal, Uday C

    2017-10-07

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic gastrointestinal disorder, common in clinic and in the community. It has a significant impact on both society and patients' quality of life. The epidemiology, clinical presentation, and management of IBS may vary in different geographical regions due to differences in diet, gastrointestinal infection, socio-cultural and psycho-social factors, religious and illness beliefs, symptom perception and reporting. Although previous reviews and consensus reports on IBS in Asia have been published, Asia is quite diverse socio-demographically. In this context, India, Bangladesh and Malaysia share some similarities, including: (1) large proportion of the population living in rural areas; (2) rapid development and associated lifestyle changes in urban areas; and (3) dietary, cultural and religious practices. The present review explores the clinical and epidemiological data on IBS from these three major nations in South and South-East Asia. In-depth review of the literature revealed important differences between IBS in the East, as revealed by studies from these three countries, and the West; these include a predominantly rural profile, differences in bowel habit and symptom profile, raising concern with regards to diagnostic criteria and subtyping of IBS, higher dietary fiber consumption, frequent lactose malabsorption, parasitosis, and possible overlap between post-infectious IBS and tropical sprue. Moreover, the current perception on difference in prevalence of the disorder in these countries, as compared to the West, might be related to variation in survey methods.

  19. Controls on groundwater flow in the Bengal Basin of India and Bangladesh: Regional modeling analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, H.A.; Voss, C.I.

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater for domestic and irrigation purposes is produced primarily from shallow parts of the Bengal Basin aquifer system (India and Bangladesh), which contains high concentrations of dissolved arsenic (exceeding worldwide drinking water standards), though deeper groundwater is generally low in arsenic. An essential first step for determining sustainable management of the deep groundwater resource is identification of hydrogeologic controls on flow and quantification of basin-scale groundwater flow patterns. Results from groundwater modeling, in which the Bengal Basin aquifer system is represented as a single aquifer with higher horizontal than vertical hydraulic conductivity, indicate that this anisotropy is the primary hydrogeologic control on the natural flowpath lengths. Despite extremely low hydraulic gradients due to minimal topographic relief, anisotropy implies large-scale (tens to hundreds of kilometers) flow at depth. Other hydrogeologic factors, including lateral and vertical changes in hydraulic conductivity, have minor effects on overall flow patterns. However, because natural hydraulic gradients are low, the impact of pumping on groundwater flow is overwhelming; modeling indicates that pumping has substantially changed the shallow groundwater budget and flowpaths from predevelopment conditions. ?? Springer-Verlag 2009.

  20. Comparison of dissolved and particulate arsenic distributions in shallow aquifers of Chakdaha, India, and Araihazar, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Kazi M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The origin of the spatial variability of dissolved As concentrations in shallow aquifers of the Bengal Basin remains poorly understood. To address this, we compare here transects of simultaneously-collected groundwater and aquifer solids perpendicular to the banks of the Hooghly River in Chakdaha, India, and the Old Brahmaputra River in Araihazar, Bangladesh. Results Variations in surface geomorphology mapped by electromagnetic conductivity indicate that permeable sandy soils are associated with underlying aquifers that are moderately reducing to a depth of 10–30 m, as indicated by acid-leachable Fe(II/Fe ratios 5 mg L-1. More reducing aquifers are typically capped with finer-grained soils. The patterns suggest that vertical recharge through permeable soils is associated with a flux of oxidants on the banks of the Hooghly River and, further inland, in both Chakdaha and Araihazar. Moderately reducing conditions maintained by local recharge are generally associated with low As concentrations in Araihazar, but not systematically so in Chakdaha. Unlike Araihazar, there is also little correspondence in Chakdaha between dissolved As concentrations in groundwater and the P-extractable As content of aquifer particles, averaging 191 ± 122 ug As/L, 1.1 ± 1.5 mg As kg-1 (n = 43 and 108 ± 31 ug As/L, 3.1 ± 6.5 mg As kg-1 (n = 60, respectively. We tentatively attribute these differences to a combination of younger floodplain sediments, and therefore possibly more than one mechanism of As release, as well as less reducing conditions in Chakdaha compared to Araihazar. Conclusion Systematic dating of groundwater and sediment, combined with detailed mapping of the composition of aquifer solids and groundwater, will be needed to identify the various mechanisms underlying the complex distribution of As in aquifers of the Bengal Basin.

  1. Hygiene on maternity units: lessons from a needs assessment in Bangladesh and India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Cross

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: As the proportion of deliveries in health institutions increases in low- and middle-income countries, so do the challenges of maintaining standards of hygiene and preventing healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs in mothers and babies. Adequate water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH and infection prevention and control (IPC in these settings should be seen as integral parts of the broader domain of quality care. Assessment approaches are needed which capture standards for both WASH and IPC, and so inform quality improvement processes. Design: A needs assessment was conducted in seven maternity units in Gujarat, India, and eight in Dhaka Division, Bangladesh in 2014. The WASH & CLEAN study developed and applied a suite of tools – a ‘walkthrough checklist’ which included the collection of swab samples, a facility needs assessment tool and document review, and qualitative interviews with staff and recently delivered women – to establish the state of hygiene as measured by visual cleanliness and the presence of potential pathogens, and individual and contextual determinants or drivers. Results: No clear relationship was found between visually assessed cleanliness and the presence of pathogens; findings from qualitative interviews and the facility questionnaire found inadequacies in IPC training for healthcare providers and no formal training at all for ward cleaners. Lack of written policies and protocols, and poor monitoring and supervision also contributed to suboptimal IPC standards. Conclusions: Visual assessment of cleanliness and hygiene is an inadequate marker for ‘safety’ in terms of the presence of potential pathogens and associated risk of infection. Routine environmental screening of high-risk touch sites using simple microbiology could improve detection and control of pathogens. IPC training for both healthcare providers and ward cleaners represents an important opportunity for quality improvement. This should

  2. Hygiene on maternity units: lessons from a needs assessment in Bangladesh and India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Suzanne; Afsana, Kaosar; Banu, Morsheda; Mavalankar, Dileep; Morrison, Emma; Rahman, Atiya; Roy, Tapash; Saxena, Deepak; Vora, Kranti; Graham, Wendy J

    2016-01-01

    Background As the proportion of deliveries in health institutions increases in low- and middle-income countries, so do the challenges of maintaining standards of hygiene and preventing healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs) in mothers and babies. Adequate water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) and infection prevention and control (IPC) in these settings should be seen as integral parts of the broader domain of quality care. Assessment approaches are needed which capture standards for both WASH and IPC, and so inform quality improvement processes. Design A needs assessment was conducted in seven maternity units in Gujarat, India, and eight in Dhaka Division, Bangladesh in 2014. The WASH & CLEAN study developed and applied a suite of tools – a ‘walkthrough checklist’ which included the collection of swab samples, a facility needs assessment tool and document review, and qualitative interviews with staff and recently delivered women – to establish the state of hygiene as measured by visual cleanliness and the presence of potential pathogens, and individual and contextual determinants or drivers. Results No clear relationship was found between visually assessed cleanliness and the presence of pathogens; findings from qualitative interviews and the facility questionnaire found inadequacies in IPC training for healthcare providers and no formal training at all for ward cleaners. Lack of written policies and protocols, and poor monitoring and supervision also contributed to suboptimal IPC standards. Conclusions Visual assessment of cleanliness and hygiene is an inadequate marker for ‘safety’ in terms of the presence of potential pathogens and associated risk of infection. Routine environmental screening of high-risk touch sites using simple microbiology could improve detection and control of pathogens. IPC training for both healthcare providers and ward cleaners represents an important opportunity for quality improvement. This should occur in conjunction with

  3. Neither Here nor There : An Overview of South-South Migration from both ends of the Bangladesh-India Migration Corridor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Joseph (Jolin); V. Narendran (Vishnu)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis review essay draws on a survey of available literature to explore key themes, dimensions and opportunities for future research on South-South Migration flows. Through an analysis of the Bangladesh-India migration corridor, the paper attempts to explore nuances in South-South

  4. Prevalence and determinants of caesarean section in private and public health facilities in underserved South Asian communities: Cross-sectional analysis of data from Bangladesh, India and Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Neuman (Melissa); G. Alcock (Glyn); K. Azad (Kishwar); A. Kuddus (Abdul); D. Osrin (David); N. Shah More (Neena); N. Nair (Nirmala); P. Tripathy (Prasanta); C. Sikorski (Catherine); N. Saville (Naomi); A. Sen (Aman); T. Colbourn (Tim); A.J. Houweling (Tanja); N. Seward (Nadine); A. Manandhar; B. Shrestha (Bhim); A. Costello (Anthony); A. Prost (Audrey)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: To describe the prevalence and determinants of births by caesarean section in private and public health facilities in underserved communities in South Asia. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: 81 community-based geographical clusters in four locations in Bangladesh, India

  5. Consolidated progress report for 1975 on nuclear data activities in the NDS service area: Argentina, Bangladesh, Brazil, Bulgaria, Hungary, India, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Pakistan, Poland, Romania, South Africa, Yugoslavia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    A consolidated progress report for 1975 on nuclear data activities in the NDS service area is presented for the following countries: Argentina, Bangladesh, Brazil, Bulgaria, Hungary, India, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Pakistan, Poland, Romania, South Africa, Yugoslavia

  6. Analysis of stakeholders networks of infant and young child nutrition programmes in Sri Lanka, India, Nepal, Bangladesh and Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Shahadat; Mahmood, Hana; Senarath, Upul; Zahiruddin, Quazi; Karn, Sumit; Rasheed, Sabrina; Dibley, Michael

    2017-06-13

    Effective public policies are needed to support appropriate infant and young child feeding (IYCF) to ensure adequate child growth and development, especially in low and middle income countries. The aim of this study was to: (i) capture stakeholder networks in relation to funding and technical support for IYCF policy across five countries in South Asia (i.e. Sri Lanka, India, Nepal, Bangladesh and Pakistan); and (ii) understand how stakeholder networks differed between countries, and identify common actors and their patterns in network engagement across the region. The Net-Map method, which is an interview-based mapping technique to visualise and capture connections among different stakeholders that collaborate towards achieving a focused goal, has been used to map funding and technical support networks in all study sites. Our study was conducted at the national level in Bangladesh, India, Nepal, and Sri Lanka, as well as in selected states or provinces in India and Pakistan during 2013-2014. We analysed the network data using a social network analysis software (NodeXL). The number of stakeholders identified as providing technical support was higher than the number of stakeholders providing funding support, across all study sites. India (New Delhi site - national level) site had the highest number of influential stakeholders for both funding (43) and technical support (86) activities. Among all nine study sites, India (New Delhi - national level) and Sri Lanka had the highest number of participating government stakeholders (22) in their respective funding networks. Sri Lanka also had the highest number of participating government stakeholders for technical support (34) among all the study sites. Government stakeholders are more engaged in technical support activities compared with their involvement in funding activities. The United Nations Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) and the World Health Organization (WHO) were highly engaged stakeholders for both funding and

  7. Chemical and environmental vector control as a contribution to the elimination of visceral leishmaniasis on the Indian subcontinent: cluster randomized controlled trials in Bangladesh, India and Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Pradeep

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bangladesh, India and Nepal are working towards the elimination of visceral leishmaniasis (VL by 2015. In 2005 the World Health Organization/Training in Tropical Diseases launched an implementation research programme to support integrated vector management for the elimination of VL from Bangladesh, India and Nepal. The programme is conducted in different phases, from proof-of-concept to scaling up intervention. This study was designed in order to evaluate the efficacy of the three different interventions for VL vector management: indoor residual spraying (IRS; long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLIN; and environmental modification (EVM through plastering of walls with lime or mud. Methods Using a cluster randomized controlled trial we compared three vector control interventions with a control arm in 96 clusters (hamlets or neighbourhoods in each of the 4 study sites: Bangladesh (one, India (one and Nepal (two. In each site four villages with high reported VL incidences were included. In each village six clusters and in each cluster five households were randomly selected for sand fly collection on two consecutive nights. Control and intervention clusters were matched with average pre-intervention vector densities. In each site six clusters were randomly assigned to each of the following interventions: indoor residual spraying (IRS; long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLIN; environmental management (EVM or control. All the houses (50-100 in each intervention cluster underwent the intervention measures. A reduction of intra-domestic sand fly densities measured in the study households by overnight US Centres for Disease Prevention and Control light trap captures (that is the number of sand flies per trap per night was the main outcome measure. Results IRS, and to a lesser extent EVM and LLINs, significantly reduced sand fly densities for at least 5 months in the study households irrespective of type of walls or whether or

  8. Is There an Enabling Environment for Nutrition-Sensitive Agriculture in South Asia? Stakeholder Perspectives from India, Bangladesh, and Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bold, Mara; Kohli, Neha; Gillespie, Stuart; Zuberi, Samar; Rajeesh, Sangeetha; Chakraborty, Barnali

    2015-06-01

    Almost half of all children in South Asia are stunted. Although agriculture has the potential to be a strong driver of undernutrition reduction and serves as the main source of livelihood for over half of South Asia's population, its potential to reduce undernutrition is currently not being realized. The Leveraging Agriculture for Nutrition in South Asia (LANSA) research consortium seeks to understand how agriculture and agrifood systems can be better designed to improve nutrition in South Asia. In 2013 and 2014, LANSA carried out interviews with stakeholders influential in, and/or knowledgeable of, agriculture-nutrition policy in India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh, to gain a better understanding of the institutional and political factors surrounding the nutrition sensitivity of agriculture in the region. Semistructured interviews were carried out in India, Bangladesh, and Pakistan with a total of 56 stakeholders representing international organizations, research, government, civil society, donors, and the private sector. The findings point to mixed perspectives on countries' policy sensitivity toward nutrition. There was consensus among stakeholders on the importance of political commitment to nutrition, improving nutrition literacy, strengthening capacities, and improving the use of financial resources. Although there are different ways in which South Asian agriculture can improve its impact on nutrition, sensitizing key influencers to the importance of nutrition for the health of a country's population appears as a critical issue. This should in turn serve as the premise for political commitment, intersectoral coordination to implement nutrition-relevant policies, adequately resourced nutrition-specific and nutrition-sensitive programs, and sufficient capacities at all levels. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Generating Insights from Trends in Newborn Care Practices from Prospective Population-Based Studies: Examples from India, Bangladesh and Nepal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonya Crowe

    Full Text Available Delivery of essential newborn care is key to reducing neonatal mortality rates, yet coverage of protective birth practices remains incomplete and variable, with or without skilled attendance. Evidence of changes over time in newborn care provision, disaggregated by care practice and delivery type, can be used by policymakers to review efforts to reduce mortality. We examine such trends in four areas using control arm trial data.We analysed data from the control arms of cluster randomised controlled trials in Bangladesh (27 553 births, eastern India (8 939, Dhanusha, Nepal (15 344 and Makwanpur, Nepal (6 765 over the period 2001-2011. For each trial, we calculated the observed proportion of attended births and the coverage of WHO essential newborn care practices by year, adjusted for clustering and stratification. To explore factors contributing to the observed trends, we then analysed expected trends due only to observed shifts in birth attendance, accounted for stratification, delivery type and statistically significant interaction terms, and examined disaggregated trends in care practice coverage by delivery type. Attended births increased over the study periods in all areas from very low rates, reaching a maximum of only 30% of deliveries. Newborn care practice trends showed marked heterogeneity within and between areas. Adjustment for stratification, birth attendance and interaction revealed that care practices could change in opposite directions over time and/or between delivery types - e.g. in Bangladesh hygienic cord-cutting and skin-to-skin contact fell in attended deliveries but not home deliveries, whereas in India birth attendant hand-washing rose for institutional deliveries but fell for home deliveries.Coverage of many essential newborn care practices is improving, albeit slowly and unevenly across sites and delivery type. Time trend analyses of birth patterns and essential newborn care practices can inform policy-makers about

  10. Generating Insights from Trends in Newborn Care Practices from Prospective Population-Based Studies: Examples from India, Bangladesh and Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Sonya; Prost, Audrey; Hossen, Munir; Azad, Kishwar; Kuddus, Abdul; Roy, Swati; Nair, Nirmala; Tripathy, Prasanta; Saville, Naomi; Sen, Aman; Sikorski, Catherine; Manandhar, Dharma; Costello, Anthony; Pagel, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Delivery of essential newborn care is key to reducing neonatal mortality rates, yet coverage of protective birth practices remains incomplete and variable, with or without skilled attendance. Evidence of changes over time in newborn care provision, disaggregated by care practice and delivery type, can be used by policymakers to review efforts to reduce mortality. We examine such trends in four areas using control arm trial data. We analysed data from the control arms of cluster randomised controlled trials in Bangladesh (27 553 births), eastern India (8 939), Dhanusha, Nepal (15 344) and Makwanpur, Nepal (6 765) over the period 2001-2011. For each trial, we calculated the observed proportion of attended births and the coverage of WHO essential newborn care practices by year, adjusted for clustering and stratification. To explore factors contributing to the observed trends, we then analysed expected trends due only to observed shifts in birth attendance, accounted for stratification, delivery type and statistically significant interaction terms, and examined disaggregated trends in care practice coverage by delivery type. Attended births increased over the study periods in all areas from very low rates, reaching a maximum of only 30% of deliveries. Newborn care practice trends showed marked heterogeneity within and between areas. Adjustment for stratification, birth attendance and interaction revealed that care practices could change in opposite directions over time and/or between delivery types - e.g. in Bangladesh hygienic cord-cutting and skin-to-skin contact fell in attended deliveries but not home deliveries, whereas in India birth attendant hand-washing rose for institutional deliveries but fell for home deliveries. Coverage of many essential newborn care practices is improving, albeit slowly and unevenly across sites and delivery type. Time trend analyses of birth patterns and essential newborn care practices can inform policy-makers about effective

  11. Generating Insights from Trends in Newborn Care Practices from Prospective Population-Based Studies: Examples from India, Bangladesh and Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Sonya; Prost, Audrey; Hossen, Munir; Azad, Kishwar; Kuddus, Abdul; Roy, Swati; Nair, Nirmala; Tripathy, Prasanta; Saville, Naomi; Sen, Aman; Sikorski, Catherine; Manandhar, Dharma; Costello, Anthony; Pagel, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Background Delivery of essential newborn care is key to reducing neonatal mortality rates, yet coverage of protective birth practices remains incomplete and variable, with or without skilled attendance. Evidence of changes over time in newborn care provision, disaggregated by care practice and delivery type, can be used by policymakers to review efforts to reduce mortality. We examine such trends in four areas using control arm trial data. Methods and Findings We analysed data from the control arms of cluster randomised controlled trials in Bangladesh (27 553 births), eastern India (8 939), Dhanusha, Nepal (15 344) and Makwanpur, Nepal (6 765) over the period 2001–2011. For each trial, we calculated the observed proportion of attended births and the coverage of WHO essential newborn care practices by year, adjusted for clustering and stratification. To explore factors contributing to the observed trends, we then analysed expected trends due only to observed shifts in birth attendance, accounted for stratification, delivery type and statistically significant interaction terms, and examined disaggregated trends in care practice coverage by delivery type. Attended births increased over the study periods in all areas from very low rates, reaching a maximum of only 30% of deliveries. Newborn care practice trends showed marked heterogeneity within and between areas. Adjustment for stratification, birth attendance and interaction revealed that care practices could change in opposite directions over time and/or between delivery types – e.g. in Bangladesh hygienic cord-cutting and skin-to-skin contact fell in attended deliveries but not home deliveries, whereas in India birth attendant hand-washing rose for institutional deliveries but fell for home deliveries. Conclusions Coverage of many essential newborn care practices is improving, albeit slowly and unevenly across sites and delivery type. Time trend analyses of birth patterns and essential newborn care practices

  12. From Handpumps to Health: The Evolution of Water and Sanitation Programmes in Bangladesh, India and Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Maggie

    The case histories of water and sanitation schemes described in this volume can best be understood by identifying the moments at which critical hurdles were encountered and surmounted. The first case study, which concerns Bangladesh, discusses promising prospects that existed amid the pollution and the technical and managerial expansion of the…

  13. Climate Variability over India and Bangladesh from the Perturbed UK Met Office Hadley Model: Impacts on Flow and Nutrient Fluxes in the Ganges Delta System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, P. G.; Caesar, J.; Crossman, J.; Barbour, E.; Ledesma, J.; Futter, M. N.

    2015-12-01

    A semi-distributed flow and water quality model (INCA- Integrated Catchments Model) has been set up for the whole of the Ganges- Brahmaputra- Meghna (GBM) River system in India and Bangladesh. These massive rivers transport large fluxes of water and nutrients into the Bay of Bengal via the GBM Delta system in Bangladesh. Future climate change will impact these fluxes with changing rainfall, temperature, evapotranspiration and soil moisture deficits being altered in the catchment systems. In this study the INCA model has been used to assess potential impacts of climate change using the UK Met Office Hadley Centre GCM model linked to a regionally coupled model of South East Asia, covering India and Bangladesh. The Hadley Centre model has been pururbed by varying the parameters in the model to generate 17 realisations of future climates. Some of these reflect expected change but others capture the more extreme potential behaviour of future climate conditions. The 17 realisations have been used to drive the INCA Flow and Nitrogen model inorder to generate downstream times series of hydrology and nitrate- nitrogen. The variability of the climates on these fluxes are investigated and and their likley impact on the Bay of Begal Delta considered. Results indicate a slight shift in the monsoon season with increased wet season flows and increased temperatures which alter nutrient fluxes. Societal Importance to Stakeholders The GBM Delta supports one of the most densely populated regions of people living in poverty, who rely on ecosystem services provided by the Delta for survival. These ecosystem services are dependent upon fluxes of water and nutrients. Freshwater for urban, agriculture, and aquaculture requirements are essential to livelihoods. Nutrient loads stimulate estuarine ecosystems, supporting fishing stocks, which contribute significantly the economy of Bangladesh. Thus the societal importance of upstream climate driven change change in Bangladesh are very

  14. Bangladesh : tous les projets | Page 3 | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN, POLITICAL PARTICIPATION, MARGINALISM, INDIA, PAKISTAN, BANGLADESH, SRI LANKA, LEGISLATIVE POWER. Région: Bangladesh, India, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia. Programme: Gouvernance et justice. Financement total : CA$ 315,800.00.

  15. On the examination of out-of-pocket health expenditures in India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Maldives, Bhutan, Bangladesh and Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imlak Shaikh

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze the healthcare expenditures in seven South Asian countries namely, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Maldives, Bhutan, Bangladesh and Nepal. The longitudinal data has been taken for 19 years from 1995 to 2013. We specifically examine the out-of-pocket healthcare expenditure in these countries. The per-capita health expenditure differences have been compared. We also develop panel data pooled OLS model for out-of-pocket expenditure with the factors affecting it, i.e. per capita health expenditure, household final consumption expenditure and public health expenditure. The work is in line with the earlier studies of determinants of out-of-pocket health expenditures. The results suggest that Maldives has the highest per capita health expenditure while out-of-pocket health expenditure as a percentage of total expenditure on health is highest for the India. The fixed and random effect is evidenced on health expenses across the years and cross section based on various determinants. The novel aspect of the work is that, this is an attempt to explain healthcare financing in the developing economies. The key determinant of out-of-pocket expenditure is the final household expenditures as the percentage of gross domestic product.

  16. The cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) of India, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Myanmar, Nepal and Sri Lanka: an annotated provisional catalogue, regional checklist and bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Benjamin Wills; Allan, Elizabeth Louise; Marathe, Kiran; Sarkar, Vivek; Simon, Chris; Kunte, Krushnamegh

    2016-01-01

    The cicadas of the Indian subcontinent, like many other insects in the region, have remained understudied since the early part of the 20th Century, and await modern taxonomic, systematic and phylogenetic treatment. This paper presents an updated systematic catalogue of cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) from India, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Myanmar, Nepal and Sri Lanka, the first in over a century. This paper treats 281 species, including: India and Bangladesh (189 species), Bhutan (19 species), Myanmar (81 species), Nepal (46 species) and Sri Lanka (22 species). For each species all recognized junior synonyms are included with information on the type material and additional specimens where relevant. The global distributional range and notes on the taxonomy of each species are included where appropriate. Two lists are provided: (1) species known to occur in India and Bangladesh (treated as a geographic unit), Bhutan, Myanmar, Nepal and Sri Lanka; and (2) species previously listed from these countries in error. A bibliography of species descriptions is provided, with the papers containing the original descriptions provided where copyright allows.

  17. India Emerging

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Traditionally, India has had an extremely poor collection of direct taxes, not least due to ...... Economic Impact of Mobile in Bangladesh, Malaysia, Pakistan, Serbia, ...... in India owes its origin to Gandhian principles, philosophy and practices.

  18. India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-01

    In this discussion of India attention is directed to the following: the people; geography; history; government; political conditions; the economy; foreign relations (Pakistan and Bangladesh, China, and the Soviet Union); defense; and the relations between the US and India. In 1983 India's population was estimated at 746 million with an annual growth rate of 2.24%. The infant mortality rate was estimated at 116/1000 in 1984 with a life expectancy of 54.9 years. Although India occupies only 2.4% of the world's land area, it supports nearly 15% of the world's population. 2 major ethnic strains predominate in India: the Aryan in the north and the Dravidian in the south, although the lines between them are blurred. India dominates the South Asian subcontinent geographically. The people of India have had a continuous civilization since about 2500 B.C., when the inhabitants of the Indus River Valley developed an urban culture based on commerce, trade, and, to a lesser degree, agriculture. This civilization declined about 1500 B.C. and Aryan tribes originating in central Asia absorbed parts of its culture as they spread out over the South Asian subcontinent. During the next few centuries, India flourished under several successive empires. The 1st British outpost in South Asia was established in 1619 at Surat on the northwestern coast of India. The British gradually expanded their influence until, by the 1850s, they controlled almost the entire area of present-day India. Independence was attained on August 15, 1947, and India became a dominion within the Commonwealth of Nations with Jawaharlal Nehru as prime minister. According to its constitution, India is a "sovereign socialist secular democratic republic." Like the US, India has a federal form of government, but the central government in India has greater power in relation to its states, and government is patterned after the British parliamentary system. The Congress Party has ruled India since independence with the

  19. Biophysical and Socioeconomic State and Links of Deltaic Areas Vulnerable to Climate Change: Volta (Ghana, Mahanadi (India and Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (India and Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Cazcarro

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We examine the similarities and differences of specific deltaic areas in parallel, under the project DEltas, vulnerability and Climate Change: Migration and Adaptation (DECCMA. The main reason for studying Deltas is their potential vulnerability to climate change and sea level rise, which generates important challenges for livelihoods. We provide insights into the current socioeconomic and biophysical states of the Volta Delta (Ghana, Mahanadi Delta (India and Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (India and Bangladesh. Hybrid methods of input-output (IO construction are used to develop environmentally extended IO models for comparing the economic characteristics of these delta regions with the rest of the country. The main sources of data for regionalization were country level census data, statistics and economic surveys and data on consumption, trade, agricultural production and fishing harvests. The Leontief demand-driven model is used to analyze land use in the agricultural sector of the Delta and to track the links with final demand. In addition, the Hypothetical Extraction Method is used to evaluate the importance of the hypothetical disappearance of a sector (e.g., agriculture. The results show that, in the case of the Indian deltas, more than 60% of the cropland and pasture land is devoted to satisfying demands from regions outside the delta. While in the case of the Bangladeshi and Ghanaian deltas, close to 70% of the area harvested is linked to internal demand. The results also indicate that the services, trade and transportation sectors represent 50% of the GDP in the deltas. Still, agriculture, an activity directly exposed to climate change, plays a relevant role in the deltas’ economies—we have estimated that the complete disappearance of this activity would entail GDP losses ranging from 18 to 32%.

  20. Concentrations of arsenic and other elements in groundwater of Bangladesh and West Bengal, India: potential cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Dong, Zhaomin; Naidu, Ravi

    2015-11-01

    We investigated the concentrations of 23 elements in groundwater from arsenic (As) contaminated areas of Bangladesh and West Bengal, India to determine the potential human exposure to metals and metalloids. Elevated concentrations of As was found in all five study areas that exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline value of 10μg/L. The mean As concentrations in groundwater of Noakhali, Jalangi and Domkal, Dasdia Nonaghata, Deganga and Baruipur were 297μg/L, 262μg/L, 115μg/L, 161μg/L and 349μg/L, respectively. Elevated concentrations of Mn were also detected in all areas with mean concentrations were 139μg/L, 807μg/L, 341μg/L, 579μg/L and 584μg/L for Noakhali, Jalangi and Domkal, Dasdia Nonaghata, Deganga and Baruipur, respectively. Daily As intakes from drinking water for adults and the potential cancer risk for all areas was also estimated. Results suggest that mitigation activities such as water treatment should not only be focused on As but must also consider other elements including Mn, B and Ba. The groundwater used for public drinking purposes needs to be tested periodically for As and other elements to ensure the quality of drinking water is within the prescribed national guidelines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Construction of avulsion potential zone model for Kulik River of Barind Tract, India and Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Debabrata; Pal, Swades

    2018-04-21

    Avulsion is a natural fluvial process but considered it as a hazard in the populated region due to the chance of immense failure of lives and properties. So, early warning indicates that the zone of avulsion can facilitate the people living there. About 317 numbers of local and regional historical imprints of channel cutoff along river Kulik claim the need of this work. The present study tried to identify avulsion potential zone (APZ) of Kulik river of Indo-Bangladesh using multi-parametric weighted combination approach. Analytic hierarchy approach (AHP) is applied for weighting the used parameters. Avulsion potential model clearly exhibits that 9.51-km stream segment of middle and lower catchment is highly susceptible for avulsion especially during sudden high discharge and earthquake incidents. There is also high chance of channel avulsion following the existing Paleo-avulsion courses and left channels. Hard points can also be erected alongside the main channel for resisting channel avulsion propensity.

  2. El cambio climático y las migraciones por causas ambientales: dos factores desestabilizadores de las relaciones bilaterales entre India y Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime Garzó, Mateo Andrés

    2016-01-01

    La presente investigación tiene como objetivo principal evaluar de qué manera el cambio climático y las migraciones por causas ambientales generan efectos en las relaciones bilaterales entre Estados, en particular en el caso de India y Bangladesh. En este sentido, el presente estudio de caso analiza las relaciones bilaterales entre estos dos Estados desde diferentes perspectivas, haciendo énfasis en el componente de las migraciones medioambientales y los fenómenos naturales asociados al camb...

  3. Peeling skin syndrome in eight cases of four different families from India and Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilendu Sarma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Peeling skin syndrome (PSS is a rare recessively inherited ichthyosiform genodermatoses characterized by superficial skin peeling. This has 2 subtypes, acral (APSS; OMIM 609796 and generalized form (OMIM 270300. The later has been subdivided into type A (non-inflammatory and type B (inflammatory. Eight cases of peeling skin syndrome in 4 families were recorded over a period of 5 years. They were diagnosed clinically and confirmed histopathologically. Disease onset ranged from birth to childhood age (mean 5.25 ± 4.528 years and age at presentation ranged from 7-35 years (mean 23.25 ± 10.471 years. Males outnumbered females (M:F - 5:3. All had non-inflammatory generalized disease of type-A PSS variety, except one who had type-B PSS. Two Muslim families (1 st and 2 nd family, total 5 patients came from nearby country Bangladesh, and the 2 Hindu families were Indian. Higher severity over acral areas in generalized type, possible autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance and improvement with age as found in this series were new manifestations and possibly unreported previously. The disease was found to be poorly responsive to oral retinoids. Prevalence of the disease may be higher than expected. Importance of mutational analysis was also highlighted.

  4. Peeling skin syndrome in eight cases of four different families from India and Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Nilendu; Boler, Anup Kumar; Bhanja, Dulal Chandra

    2012-01-01

    Peeling skin syndrome (PSS) is a rare recessively inherited ichthyosiform genodermatoses characterized by superficial skin peeling. This has 2 subtypes, acral (APSS; OMIM 609796) and generalized form (OMIM 270300). The later has been subdivided into type A (non-inflammatory) and type B (inflammatory). Eight cases of peeling skin syndrome in 4 families were recorded over a period of 5 years. They were diagnosed clinically and confirmed histopathologically. Disease onset ranged from birth to childhood age (mean 5.25 ± 4.528 years) and age at presentation ranged from 7-35 years (mean 23.25 ± 10.471 years). Males outnumbered females (M:F - 5:3). All had non-inflammatory generalized disease of type-A PSS variety, except one who had type-B PSS. Two Muslim families (1 st and 2 nd family, total 5 patients) came from nearby country Bangladesh, and the 2 Hindu families were Indian. Higher severity over acral areas in generalized type, possible autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance and improvement with age as found in this series were new manifestations and possibly unreported previously. The disease was found to be poorly responsive to oral retinoids. Prevalence of the disease may be higher than expected. Importance of mutational analysis was also highlighted.

  5. NIGERIA, INDIA AND EGYPT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    Financial emergency is not critical to this article, so it will be disposed of ... From the above provisions, if the President is fully satisfied on the basis of the report of the Governor .... similar question of law and were consolidated and heard jointly.

  6. The ‘Agency of Mapping’ in South Asia: Galle-Matara (Sri Lanka, Mumbai (India and Khulna (Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Shannon

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The territories – cities and landscapes – of South Asia are under incredible transformation due to man-made and natural conditions. Globalisation is spatially leaving its imprint as cities and landscapes are progressively being built by an ever-more fragmented, piecemeal and ad-hoc project modus – funded by established and new-found fortunes of national and international developers and lenders, development aid projects and (often corrupt governments. At the same time, ‘natural’ disasters are increasing in severity and frequency – due to climate change and the flagrant disregard of the environment in the relentless dive to impose imported terms of reference for modernisation and urbanisation. The challenges and strategic importance of realising urban design in South Asia’s contemporary context of borrowed visions, abstract land-use planning and a diminishing political will are, obviously, innumerable. How to qualitatively intervene as an urbanist in such a context? This paper will argue that an understanding of contexts, based on fieldwork, is necessary in order to project feasible urban visions and strategic urban design projects that can make more evident particular sites’ inherent qualities and creatively marry ecological, infrastructural, and urbanisation issues by solutions that cut across multiple scales and sectoral divisions. Interpretative mapping is a first step to transform a territory. An understanding of the context and the reading of sites are necessary in order to create modifications that have logic and relate to the particularities of places and situations. Three scales of mapping (territorial, urban, and tissue will be presented. The territories/cities investigated are the southwest (Galle-Matara coast of Sri Lanka, Mumbai, the economic engine of India, and Khulna, the third largest city in Bangladesh.

  7. The hydrocarbon potential of the West Bengal basin of Eastern India and Western Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, L.V.; Lenengerger, T.L.

    1994-01-01

    Within the Bengal Basin is an extensively developed Eocene shelf system with fair to good potential for stratigraphic oil accumulations. The best quality data available to evaluate this play are from the Bogra Shelf area of Bangladesh. Within this general area Stanvac participated in the drilling of 13 wells in the late 1950's, including critical wells on the Bogra Shelf. This well data, combined with modern excellent quality seismic data, has allowed definition of a geological and geophysical constrained hydrocarbon system model. Potential source, reservoir and seal units can be identified or postulated from both well and seismic data within the Eocene depositional systems tracts. The most promising potential source rock unit identified on the Bogra Shelf to date are Upper Jalangi (Early Ecocene) shales containing oil-prone kerogens that average 4.7% TOC. Four wells, structurally up-dip of the defined play area, have good oil shows in thermally immature Jalangi sands indicating possible up dip migration. Reservoir strata have not been penetrated on the Bogra Shelf. Based basin modelling and seismic data, however, a foraminiferal grain stone facies within the Middle Eocene Sylthet Limestone carbonate buildups could provide a suitable reservoir. The tight micritic facies within the Sylhet Limestone and the overlying late Eocene Kopilli Shale form the updip, lateral and top seals for these stratigraphic traps. Exploration risks associated with this play include the following: (1) Limited drainage areas for the identified leads; (2) Carbonate build-ups may be perched on impermeable strata, precluding vertical charging; (3) presence, and up-dip limit of reservoir is speculative. (author)

  8. Access to water and sanitation among people with disabilities: results from cross-sectional surveys in Bangladesh, Cameroon, India and Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mactaggart, Islay; Schmidt, Wolf-Peter; Bostoen, Kristof; Chunga, Joseph; Danquah, Lisa; Halder, Amal Krishna; Parveen Jolly, Saira; Polack, Sarah; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Snel, Marielle; Kuper, Hannah; Biran, Adam

    2018-01-01

    Objectives To assess access to adequate water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) among people with disabilities at the household and individual level. Design Cross-sectional surveys. Setting Data were included from five district-level or regional-level surveys: two in Bangladesh (Bangladesh-1, Bangladesh-2), and one each in Cameroon, Malawi and India. Participants 99 252 participants were sampled across the datasets (range: 3567–75 767), including 2494 with disabilities (93–1374). Outcome Prevalence of access to WASH at household and individual level. Data analysis Age/sex disaggregated disability prevalence estimates were calculated accounting for survey design. The Unicef/WHO Joint Monitoring Programme definitions were used to classify facilities as improved/unimproved. Multivariable logistic regression was undertaken to compare between households with/without a person with a disability, and to identify predictors of access among people with disabilities. Results There were no differences in access to improved sanitation or water sources between households with/without members with disabilities across the datasets. In Bangladesh-2, households including a person with a disability were more likely to share facilities with other households (OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.1 to 1.5). Households with people with disabilities were more likely to spend >30 min (round-trip) collecting drinking water than households without in both Cameroon (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.0 to 3.4) and India (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.2 to 4.7). Within households, people with disabilities reported difficulties collecting water themselves (23%–80% unable to) and accessing the same sanitation facilities as other household members, particularly without coming into contact with faeces (up to 47% in Bangladesh-2). These difficulties were most marked for people with more severe impairments. Conclusions People with disabilities may not have poorer access to WASH at the household level, but may have poorer quality of access

  9. Initial Teacher Training: South Asian Approaches. Quality in Basic Education: Professional Development of Teachers. Papers Prepared for a South Asian Colloquium on Teacher Training in Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka (Colombo, Sri Lanka, April 1992).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commonwealth Secretariat, London (England).

    This publication is one of two prepared for a South Asian Colloquium on issues related to teacher training in Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. The papers in this volume focus on innovations and alternative strategies designed to improve quality in teacher education at preservice phase. The publication is in five sections. The first four…

  10. Institutional and Regulatory Economics of Electricity Market Reforms: the Evidence from India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, and Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bipulendu

    Five South Asian countries-- India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal and Sri Lanka -- embarked on electricity market reforms in the 1990's. The dissertation uses the framework of New Institutional Economics to assess the effects on electricity sector performance of both observables elements of reform (i.e. privatization, unbundling, establishment of independent regulatory agencies etc.) as well as the unobservable elements (informal beliefs, habit, norms and culture of the actors involved in reforms). The first part of the dissertation -- econometric analysis of the relationship between observable electricity market reform measures and performance indicators -- finds that for the most part electricity market reforms in South Asia are having a positive impact on the performance of the sector. This is particularly the case for reforms that have increased private sector participation in generation and distribution and have vertically unbundled utilities into generation, transmission and distribution entities. Many of the reforms are positively correlated with higher tariffs, indicating a cost to the consumers from the reforms. The relationship between independent regulation and performance indicators , however, is not established. The second part of the dissertation - analytical narrative of the reform experiences of Gujarat and Nepal -- examines the informal elements (such as beliefs, norms, culture) that motivate behavior and explains how and why reform outcomes differed in these two places. The dissertation finds that the strength of formal institutions rules and the nature of social norms and customs have a significant influence on the outcome of reforms. Aided by the strength of its formal institutional framework and more evolved social norms and customs that encouraged people to follow formal rules, reforms in the Indian state of Gujarat were a success. The weakness of the formal institutional framework and the predominance of relation-based norms and customs in

  11. What is the role of community capabilities for maternal health? An exploration of community capabilities as determinants to institutional deliveries in Bangladesh, India, and Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Paina

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While community capabilities are recognized as important factors in developing resilient health systems and communities, appropriate metrics for these have not yet been developed. Furthermore, the role of community capabilities on access to maternal health services has been underexplored. In this paper, we summarize the development of a community capability score based on the Future Health System (FHS project’s experience in Bangladesh, India, and Uganda, and, examine the role of community capabilities as determinants of institutional delivery in these three contexts. Methods We developed a community capability score using a pooled dataset containing cross-sectional household survey data from Bangladesh, India, and Uganda. Our main outcome of interest was whether the woman delivered in an institution. Our predictor variables included the community capability score, as well as a series of previously identified determinants of maternal health. We calculate both population-averaged effects (using GEE logistic regression, as well as sub-national level effects (using a mixed effects model. Results Our final sample for analysis included 2775 women, of which 1238 were from Bangladesh, 1199 from India, and 338 from Uganda. We found that individual-level determinants of institutional deliveries, such as maternal education, parity, and ante-natal care access were significant in our analysis and had a strong impact on a woman’s odds of delivering in an institution. We also found that, in addition to individual-level determinants, greater community capability was significantly associated with higher odds of institutional delivery. For every additional capability, the odds of institutional delivery would increase by up to almost 6 %. Conclusion Individual-level characteristics are strong determinants of whether a woman delivered in an institution. However, we found that community capability also plays an important role, and should be

  12. India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-01

    This discussion of India focuses on the following: the history of the country's demographic situation; the government's overall approach to population problems; population data systems and development planning; institutional arrangements for the integration of population with development planning; the government's view of the importance of population policy in achieving development objectives; population size, growth and natural increase; morbidity and mortality; fertility; international migration; and spatial distribution. India's government views the population problem in the country as extremely serious particularly in relation to the alleviation of poverty. It was the 1st country to introduce a family planning program at the national level. Development plans have consistently treated the population situation as a priority issue. A relatively comprehensive system of data collection for demographic purposes has existed in India for a long time. The 1st census was conducted in 1872. The government has continually worked to maintain the integration of population concerns within overall development planning. The government regards population growth as an impediment to development and views the slow growth in per capita income as being due largely to the rapid population increase which continues to outpace the increases in the gross national product. The government perceives the current rate of population growth as unsatisfactory because it is too high. Mortality levels have dropped considerably, but the government still considers the situation with regard to mortality as unacceptable. In 1980 the UN estimated the infant mortality rate was 128.9 infant deaths/1000 live births for the 1975-80 period. The total fertility rate, as estimated by the UN, is reported to have dropped from 6.3 births per woman in 1960 to 6.0 in 1970 and 5.0 in 1980. The government has continuously indicated concern with fertility levels, perceiving the situation as unsatisfactory because its

  13. Cross-sectional time series analysis of associations between education and girl child marriage in Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Pakistan, 1991-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Anita; McDougal, Lotus; Silverman, Jay G; Rusch, Melanie L A

    2014-01-01

    Girl education is believed to be the best means of reducing girl child marriage (marriage girl child marriages occur, substantial improvements in girl education have not corresponded to equivalent reductions in child marriage. This study examines the levels of education associated with female age at marriage over the previous 20 years across four South Asian nations with high rates (>20%) of girl child marriage- Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Pakistan. Cross-sectional time series analyses were conducted on Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) from 1991 to 2011 in the four focal nations. Analyses were restricted to ever-married women aged 20-24 years. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to assess the effect of highest level of education received (none, primary, secondary or higher) on age at marriage (girl child marriage; in Nepal, it was protective against marriage at girl child marriage in South Asia, outside of India. Secondary education may be a better protective strategy against this practice for the region, but may be less effective for prevention of marriage among older relative to younger adolescents.

  14. Regression Analysis to Identify Factors Associated with Household Salt Iodine Content at the Sub-National Level in Bangladesh, India, Ghana and Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Jacky; Kupka, Roland; Dumble, Sam; Garrett, Greg S.; Pandav, Chandrakant S.; Yadav, Kapil; Nahar, Baitun; Touré, Ndeye Khady; Amoaful, Esi Foriwa; Gorstein, Jonathan

    2018-01-01

    Regression analyses of data from stratified, cluster sample, household iodine surveys in Bangladesh, India, Ghana and Senegal were conducted to identify factors associated with household access to adequately iodised salt. For all countries, in single variable analyses, household salt iodine was significantly different (p < 0.05) between strata (geographic areas with representative data, defined by survey design), and significantly higher (p < 0.05) among households: with better living standard scores, where the respondent knew about iodised salt and/or looked for iodised salt at purchase, using salt bought in a sealed package, or using refined grain salt. Other country-level associations were also found. Multiple variable analyses showed a significant association between salt iodine and strata (p < 0.001) in India, Ghana and Senegal and that salt grain type was significantly associated with estimated iodine content in all countries (p < 0.001). Salt iodine relative to the reference (coarse salt) ranged from 1.3 (95% CI 1.2, 1.5) times higher for fine salt in Senegal to 3.6 (95% CI 2.6, 4.9) times higher for washed and 6.5 (95% CI 4.9, 8.8) times higher for refined salt in India. Sub-national data are required to monitor equity of access to adequately iodised salt. Improving household access to refined iodised salt in sealed packaging, would improve iodine intake from household salt in all four countries in this analysis, particularly in areas where there is significant small-scale salt production. PMID:29671774

  15. Regression Analysis to Identify Factors Associated with Household Salt Iodine Content at the Sub-National Level in Bangladesh, India, Ghana and Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacky Knowles

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Regression analyses of data from stratified, cluster sample, household iodine surveys in Bangladesh, India, Ghana and Senegal were conducted to identify factors associated with household access to adequately iodised salt. For all countries, in single variable analyses, household salt iodine was significantly different (p < 0.05 between strata (geographic areas with representative data, defined by survey design, and significantly higher (p < 0.05 among households: with better living standard scores, where the respondent knew about iodised salt and/or looked for iodised salt at purchase, using salt bought in a sealed package, or using refined grain salt. Other country-level associations were also found. Multiple variable analyses showed a significant association between salt iodine and strata (p < 0.001 in India, Ghana and Senegal and that salt grain type was significantly associated with estimated iodine content in all countries (p < 0.001. Salt iodine relative to the reference (coarse salt ranged from 1.3 (95% CI 1.2, 1.5 times higher for fine salt in Senegal to 3.6 (95% CI 2.6, 4.9 times higher for washed and 6.5 (95% CI 4.9, 8.8 times higher for refined salt in India. Sub-national data are required to monitor equity of access to adequately iodised salt. Improving household access to refined iodised salt in sealed packaging, would improve iodine intake from household salt in all four countries in this analysis, particularly in areas where there is significant small-scale salt production.

  16. Breaking Ships in the World-System: An Analysis of Two Ship Breaking Capitals, Alang-Sosiya, India and Chittagong, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Scott Frey

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Centrality in the world-system allows countries to externalize their hazards or environmental harms on others. Core countries, for instance, dump heavy metals and greenhouse gases into the global sinks, and some of the core's hazardous products, production processes and wastes are displaced to the (semi peripheral zones of the world-system. Since few (semi peripheral countries have the ability to assess and manage the risks associated with such hazards, the transfer of core hazards to the (semi periphery has adverse environmental and socio-economic consequences for many of these countries and it has spawned conflict and resistance, as well as a variety of other responses. Most discussions of this risk globalization problem have failed to situate it firmly in the world-system frame emphasizing the process of ecological unequal exchange. Using secondary sources, I begin such a discussion by examining the specific problem of ship breaking (recycling core-based ocean going vessels for steel and other materials at the yards in Alang-Sosiya, India and Chittagong, Bangladesh. Attention centers on the nature and scope of ship breaking in these two locations, major drivers operating in the world-system, adverse consequences, the unequal mix of costs and benefits, and the failure of existing political responses at the domestic and international levels to reduce adequately the adverse consequences of ship breaking.

  17. Lentil: the Bangladesh breakthrough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erskine, W.; Manners, G.

    1996-01-01

    Bangladesh has made great strides in food production. Recently it has achieved a worthwhile improvement in productivity of lentil—one of its most important crops. And ICARDA had a part to play. Lentil is the most important pulse in Bangladesh. It is the most popular pulse in both urban and rural areas, and rice with lentil soup (known as dhal) is often eaten in the villages; most people try to include it in their daily diet. So it is not surprising that Bangladesh is the world’s fourth largest lentil producer, exceeded only by India, Turkey and Canada—all of which have a far greater land area. The sown area of lentil in Bangladesh is about 210,000 ha, giving a production of 160,000 tonnes at an average yield of 769 t/ha. Even so, this is not enough. In 1994, according to FAO, Bangladesh imported 75,000 tonnes of pulses with a value of around US $19.8 million. This was high; the figure fluctuates, but there is an obvious need to improve production. This can not be done by increasing the sown area. In an intensive cropping pattern, lentil faces tough competition from cereals and oilseeds and from other winter pulses. Indeed, lentil is grown as a sole crop in Bangladesh but also as a mix or intercropped with cereals, oilseeds and sugarcane. Intercropping and mix-cropping are age-old practices, particularly in the north and north-western parts of the country. In this situation, an increase in production can come only from better yield

  18. Cost-effectiveness analysis of telephone-based support for the management of pressure ulcers in people with spinal cord injury in India and Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, M; Harvey, L A; Glinsky, J V; Chhabra, H S; Hossain, M S; Arumugam, N; Bedi, P K; Cameron, I D; Hayes, A J

    2017-08-15

    To determine from a societal perspective the cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of telephone-based support for management of pressure ulcers. Cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analysis of a randomised clinical trial. Tertiary centre in India and Bangladesh. An economic evaluation was conducted alongside a randomised clinical trial comparing 12 weeks of telephone-based support (intervention group) with usual care (control group). The analyses evaluated costs and health outcomes in terms of cm 2 reduction of pressure ulcers size and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained. All costs were in Indian Rupees (INR) and then converted to US dollars (USD). The mean (95% confidence interval) between-group difference for the reduction in size of pressure ulcers was 0.53 (-3.12 to 4.32) cm 2 , favouring the intervention group. The corresponding QALYs were 0.027 (0.004-0.051), favouring the intervention group. The mean total cost per participant in the intervention group was INR 43 781 (USD 2460) compared to INR 42 561 (USD 2391) for the control group. The per participant cost of delivering the intervention was INR 2110 (USD 119). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was INR 2306 (USD 130) per additional cm 2 reduction in the size of the pressure ulcer and INR 44 915 (USD 2523) per QALY gained. In terms of QALYs, telephone-based support to help people manage pressure ulcers at home provides good value for money and has an 87% probability of being cost-effective, based on 3 times gross domestic product. Sensitivity analyses were performed using the overall cost data with and without productivity costs, and did not alter this conclusion.Spinal Cord advance online publication, 15 August 2017; doi:10.1038/sc.2017.87.

  19. Gendered effects of siblings on child malnutrition in South Asia: cross-sectional analysis of demographic and health surveys from Bangladesh, India, and Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Anita; McDougal, Lotus P; Silverman, Jay G

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effects of number and sex of siblings on malnutrition of boys and girls under-5 in South Asia. Cross-sectional analyses were conducted on Demographic and Health Surveys data on children under-5 in Bangladesh (N = 7,861), India (N = 46,655) and Nepal (N = 2,475). Data were pooled across countries, and multinomial logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between number and sex of siblings and malnutrition outcomes (wasting, stunting, underweight; based on anthropometric data), adjusting for country and key social and maternal-child health indicators in sex stratified analyses. Number of brothers increased the odds for severe wasting [1 vs. 0 brothers adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.31, 95 % CI = 1.11, 1.55; 2 vs. 0 brothers AOR = 1.36, 95 % CI = 1.07, 1.73] for girls but not boys. Having more male siblings and more female siblings increased the odds of stunting for boys and girls, but effect of 3+ sisters on severe stunting was significantly stronger for girls than boys (girls- 3+ vs. 0 sisters AOR = 2.25, 95 % CI = 1.88, 2.70; boys- 3+ vs. 0 sisters AOR = 1.37, 95 % CI = 1.13, 1.67). For underweight, three or more sisters increased the odds for severe underweight for girls (AOR = 1.27, 95 % CI = 1.04, 1.57) but not boys. Having brothers heightens girl risk for acute malnutrition (wasting), where having multiple sisters increases girl risk for chronic malnutrition (stunting/underweight). Boy malnutrition is less affected by siblings. Findings suggest that issues of son preference/daughter aversion may affect child malnutrition in South Asia.

  20. Using Theories of Change to inform implementation of health systems research and innovation: experiences of Future Health Systems consortium partners in Bangladesh, India and Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paina, Ligia; Wilkinson, Annie; Tetui, Moses; Ekirapa-Kiracho, Elizabeth; Barman, Debjani; Ahmed, Tanvir; Mahmood, Shehrin Shaila; Bloom, Gerry; Knezovich, Jeff; George, Asha; Bennett, Sara

    2017-12-28

    The Theory of Change (ToC) is a management and evaluation tool supporting critical thinking in the design, implementation and evaluation of development programmes. We document the experience of Future Health Systems (FHS) Consortium research teams in Bangladesh, India and Uganda with using ToC. We seek to understand how and why ToCs were applied and to clarify how they facilitate the implementation of iterative intervention designs and stakeholder engagement in health systems research and strengthening. This paper combines literature on ToC, with a summary of reflections by FHS research members on the motivation, development, revision and use of the ToC, as well as on the benefits and challenges of the process. We describe three FHS teams' experiences along four potential uses of ToCs, namely planning, communication, learning and accountability. The three teams developed ToCs for planning and evaluation purposes as required for their initial plans for FHS in 2011 and revised them half-way through the project, based on assumptions informed by and adjusted through the teams' experiences during the previous 2 years of implementation. All teams found that the revised ToCs and their accompanying narratives recognised greater feedback among intervention components and among key stakeholders. The ToC development and revision fostered channels for both internal and external communication, among research team members and with key stakeholders, respectively. The process of revising the ToCs challenged the teams' initial assumptions based on new evidence and experience. In contrast, the ToCs were only minimally used for accountability purposes. The ToC development and revision process helped FHS research teams, and occasionally key local stakeholders, to reflect on and make their assumptions and mental models about their respective interventions explicit. Other projects using the ToC should allow time for revising and reflecting upon the ToCs, to recognise and document the

  1. Relative importance of 13 correlates of child stunting in South Asia: Insights from nationally representative data from Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, Nepal, and Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Rockli; Mejía-Guevara, Iván; Corsi, Daniel J; Aguayo, Víctor M; Subramanian, S V

    2017-08-01

    Optimal growth and development in early childhood is determined by a complex interplay of child, maternal, household, environmental, and socioeconomic factors that influence nutritional intake, but interventions to reduce child undernutrition sometimes target specific risk factors in isolation. In this analysis, we assess the relative importance of 13 correlates of child stunting selected based on a collective review of existing multi-factorial frameworks: complementary feeding, breastfeeding, feeding frequency, dietary diversity, maternal height, body mass index (BMI), education, age at marriage, child vaccination, access to improved drinking source and sanitation facilities, household indoor air quality, and household wealth. The analytic sample consisted of nationally representative cross-sectional surveys from the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys for Bangladesh (2014), India (2005), Nepal (2011), and Pakistan (2013), and from the National Nutrition Survey for Afghanistan (2013). In the mutually adjusted logistic regression model for 3,159 infants aged 6-8 months, short maternal stature (OR: 2.93; 95% CI: 1.93-4.46) and lack of complementary foods (OR: 1.47; 95% CI: 1.12-1.93) were associated with significantly higher risk of stunting. For 18,586 children aged 6-23 months, the strongest correlates of child stunting were: maternal height (OR: 3.37, 95% CI: 2.82-4.03), household wealth (OR: 2.25, 95% CI: 1.72-2.94), maternal BMI (OR: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.27-2.00), minimum dietary diversity (OR: 1.48, 95% CI: 1.27-1.72), maternal education (OR: 1.36, 95% CI: 1.18-1.56), and age at marriage (OR: 1.17, 95% CI: 1.05-1.30). Full vaccination and minimum dietary frequency were also found to be important for severe stunting for children of this age group. Some differences were found in the relative ordering and statistical significance of the correlates in country-specific analyses. Our findings indicate that comprehensive strategies incorporating a broader progress

  2. Biomphalaria alexandrina in Egypt

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-06-04

    Jun 4, 2013 ... species within Egypt. The National Schistosoma Control Program has made great strides with respect to the .... barley and flax (Caminos 1997). Egyptian ..... Duke L 2008 Schistosomiasis in Ancient Egypt: The 'AAA' De- bate.

  3. Ancient Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, Ashwin Balegar

    This thesis involves development of an interactive GIS (Geographic Information System) based application, which gives information about the ancient history of Egypt. The astonishing architecture, the strange burial rituals and their civilization were some of the intriguing questions that motivated me towards developing this application. The application is a historical timeline starting from 3100 BC, leading up to 664 BC, focusing on the evolution of the Egyptian dynasties. The tool holds information regarding some of the famous monuments which were constructed during that era and also about the civilizations that co-existed. It also provides details about the religions followed by their kings. It also includes the languages spoken during those periods. The tool is developed using JAVA, a programing language and MOJO (Map Objects Java Objects) a product of ESRI (Environmental Science Research Institute) to create map objects, to provide geographic information. JAVA Swing is used for designing the user interface. HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language) pages are created to provide the user with more information related to the historic period. CSS (Cascade Style Sheets) and JAVA Scripts are used with HTML5 to achieve creative display of content. The tool is kept simple and easy for the user to interact with. The tool also includes pictures and videos for the user to get a feel of the historic period. The application is built to motivate people to know more about one of the prominent and ancient civilization of the Mediterranean world.

  4. India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    Interest has grown recently in the issues of third tier or emerging nuclear suppliers. These are states that could export nuclear equipment, services, or technology but are outside the export control framework of the London Nuclear Supplier Group (NSG). The concern is that they may conduct nuclear trade without adequate safeguards, thus weakening the nonproliferation regime or even contributing to nuclear proliferation. The volume of nuclear sales by emerging suppliers is still minuscule, and it is unclear how far their export practices will diverge from the NSG framework. This case study of Indian nuclear supplier capability and practice is an effort to discern the type of path India is likely to adopt. This paper examines four aspects of India's nuclear activity for clues to India's potential role as an emerging nuclear supplier: foreign transactions; nuclear decision making; policy norms; and nuclear industrial capabilities

  5. Telecentre Network Startup : Bangladesh - Mission 2011 | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The second generation of telecentres has seen the emergence of national-level networks in various parts of the word including the Ugandan Telecentre Network, Mission 2007 in India and Mission Swaabhimaan in Nepal. Telecentre stakeholders in Bangladesh would like to replicate the methodology used in Mission 2007, ...

  6. Wind Atlas for Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The results of a comprehensive, 8-year wind resource assessment programme in Egypt are presented. The objective has been to provide reliable and accurate wind atlas data sets for evaluating the potential wind power output from large electricityproducing wind turbine installations. The regional wind...... climates of Egypt have been determined by two independent methods: a traditional wind atlas based on observations from more than 30 stations all over Egypt, and a numerical wind atlas based on long-term reanalysis data and a mesoscale model (KAMM). The mean absolute error comparing the two methods is about...... 10% for two large-scale KAMM domains covering all of Egypt, and typically about 5% for several smaller-scale regional domains. The numerical wind atlas covers all of Egypt, whereas the meteorological stations are concentrated in six regions. The Wind Atlas for Egypt represents a significant step...

  7. Wind Atlas for Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Said Said, Usama; Badger, Jake

    2006-01-01

    The results of a comprehensive, 8-year wind resource assessment programme in Egypt are presented. The objective has been to provide reliable and accurate wind atlas data sets for evaluating the potential wind power output from large electricityproducing wind turbine installations. The regional wind...... climates of Egypt have been determined by two independent methods: a traditional wind atlas based on observations from more than 30 stations all over Egypt, and a numerical wind atlas based on long-term reanalysis data and a mesoscale model (KAMM). The mean absolute error comparing the two methods is about...... 10% for two large-scale KAMM domains covering all of Egypt, and typically about 5% for several smaller-scale regional domains. The numerical wind atlas covers all of Egypt, whereas the meteorological stations are concentrated in six regions. The Wind Atlas for Egypt represents a significant step...

  8. What can dissaving tell us about catastrophic costs? Linear and logistic regression analysis of the relationship between patient costs and financial coping strategies adopted by tuberculosis patients in Bangladesh, Tanzania and Bangalore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Jason; Lönnroth, Knut; Laokri, Samia; Squire, Stephen Bertel

    2015-10-22

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a major global public health problem which affects poorest individuals the worst. A high proportion of patients incur 'catastrophic costs' which have been shown to result in severe financial hardship and adverse health outcomes. Data on catastrophic cost incidence is not routinely collected, and current definitions of this indicator involve several practical and conceptual barriers to doing so. We analysed data from TB programmes in India (Bangalore), Bangladesh and Tanzania to determine whether dissaving (the sale of assets or uptake of loans) is a useful indicator of financial hardship. Data were obtained from prior studies of TB patient costs in Bangladesh (N = 96), Tanzania (N = 94) and Bangalore (N = 891). These data were analysed using logistic and linear multivariate regression to determine the association between costs (absolute and relative to income) and both the presence of dissaving and the amounts dissaved. After adjusting for covariates such as age, sex and rural/urban location, we found a significant positive association between the occurrence of dissaving and total costs incurred in Tanzania and Bangalore. We further found that, for patients in Bangalore an increase in dissaving of $10 USD was associated with an increase in the cost-income ratio of 0.10 (p costs of $7 USD (p costs that does not require usage of complex patient cost questionnaires. It also offers an informative indicator of financial hardship in its own right, and could therefore play an important role as an indicator to monitor and evaluate the impact of financial protection and service delivery interventions in reducing hardship and facilitating universal health coverage. Further research is required to understand the patterns and types of dissaving that have the strongest relationship with financial hardship and clinical outcomes in order to move toward evidence-based policy making.

  9. IDRC in Egypt

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC began to support research in. Egypt. Five years ... Cutting red tape for business. In Egypt ... 85% of jobs in the private sector, and. 40% of all ... sector to drive economic growth over the next ... and reducing poverty in the Middle East and.

  10. Napoleon in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Brian

    1989-01-01

    Recounts the 1798 Egyptian campaign of Napoleon Bonaparte, whose Scientific and Artistic Commission documented and described the glories of ancient Egypt. The expedition was a disaster by military standards, but the cultural legacies included the Rosetta Stone, and a chronicle entitled "Description de L'Egypte," which did much to…

  11. Spotlight: Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, L

    1998-01-01

    This brief article highlights the progress made in Bangladesh in reducing fertility and improving women's status. The mid-1997 population was an estimated 122.2 million persons. The land area is 50,260 square miles. Population density was 2432 people per square mile. Births were 31 per 1000 persons. Deaths were 11 per 1000 persons. Infant deaths were 77 per 1000 live births. Natural increase was 2% per year. The total fertility rate was 3.3 births per woman. Life expectancy was 58 years for males and females. Bangladesh is one of the most densely populated countries in the world and has about 50% of US population situated on land the size of Wisconsin. Average annual income is about $240. Livelihoods from agriculture are affected by monsoons and natural disasters. Bangladesh has reduced its fertility by half since the mid-1970s. Almost 50% of married women relied on contraception during 1996-97, compared to only 8% of married women in 1975. Increases in contraceptive prevalence are attributed to the family planning program and parents' desire for smaller families. The government has made slowing population growth a priority since the 1970s. The 35,000 field workers provide door-to-door contraception and counseling. Mass media has promoted messages about the economic and health advantages of limiting or spacing births. Women continue to play a subordinate role to men, despite their improved control over fertility. Under 30% of women are literate compared to 50% of men. Islamic practices still confine women to the home. Programs are directed to improving women's financial status through credit programs. Women now hold many jobs in the new garment industry, which is the largest nonagricultural employer.

  12. in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juwel Rana

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background . About 8,900 people are living with HIV/AIDS, and 1,000 AIDS-related deaths had been reported in Bangladesh by the end of 2014. Objectives . The study investigates the social determinants of awareness and behavior regarding STDs and HIV/AIDS among ever married women in Bangladesh. Material and methods. This cross-sectional research extracted data concerning 17,828 ever married women from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS in 2014. The chi-square (χ2 and multinomial logistic regression model were used to identify the factors associated with knowledge, awareness and behavior concerning STDs and HIV/AIDS. Results . Overall, 28.6% of examined ever married women have never heard of STDs or HIV/AIDS nor any of their prevention methods. Also, only 15.6% of reported women were the decision makers regarding the use of contraception during sexual intercourse, and 91.3% of women had the capacity to refuse sexual contact with their STD-infected husband/partner. Women who belong to households classified as lower class (OR = 0.525, 95% CI = 0.461–0.598 or middle class (OR = 0.643, 95% CI = 0.564–0.733 had less comprehensive knowledge and awareness of STDs and HIV/AIDS than those categorized as upper class. Women at a level of education below secondary (OR = 0.200, 95% CI = 0.179–0.223 also had less comprehensive knowledge and awareness than highly educated women. Moreover, women living in an urban residence (OR = 1.141, 95% CI = 1.003–1.297 were more likely to make the decision of using contraception and (OR = 1.546, 95% CI = 1.351–1.770 more likely to refuse sexual contact with an STD-infected husband/partner than their rural counterparts. Formally unemployed women (OR = 0.894, 95% CI = 0.793–1.010 were less likely to refuse sexual intercourse with an STD-infected husband than employed women. Conclusions . Social determinants such as education, wealth and media exposure determine the level of knowledge and awareness

  13. Bangladeshi gas misses India's energy drive?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumaraswamy, P.R.

    2006-01-01

    By allowing gas exports to be hijacked by partisan politics, Bangladesh not only failed to adopt a professional approach to a sensitive issue but also enabled India to look for attractive alternative markets. (author)

  14. Groundwater arsenic contamination in Bangladesh-21 Years of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborti, Dipankar; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Mukherjee, Amitava; Alauddin, Mohammad; Hassan, Manzurul; Dutta, Rathindra Nath; Pati, Shymapada; Mukherjee, Subhash Chandra; Roy, Shibtosh; Quamruzzman, Quazi; Rahman, Mahmuder; Morshed, Salim; Islam, Tanzima; Sorif, Shaharir; Selim, Md; Islam, Md Razaul; Hossain, Md Monower

    2015-01-01

    Department of Public Health Engineering (DPHE), Bangladesh first identified their groundwater arsenic contamination in 1993. But before the international arsenic conference in Dhaka in February 1998, the problem was not widely accepted. Even in the international arsenic conference in West-Bengal, India in February, 1995, representatives of international agencies in Bangladesh and Bangladesh government attended the conference but they denied the groundwater arsenic contamination in Bangladesh. School of Environmental Studies (SOES), Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India first identified arsenic patient in Bangladesh in 1992 and informed WHO, UNICEF of Bangladesh and Govt. of Bangladesh from April 1994 to August 1995. British Geological Survey (BGS) dug hand tube-wells in Bangladesh in 1980s and early 1990s but they did not test the water for arsenic. Again BGS came back to Bangladesh in 1992 to assess the quality of the water of the tube-wells they installed but they still did not test for arsenic when groundwater arsenic contamination and its health effects in West Bengal in Bengal delta was already published in WHO Bulletin in 1988. From December 1996, SOES in collaboration with Dhaka Community Hospital (DCH), Bangladesh started analyzing hand tube-wells for arsenic from all 64 districts in four geomorphologic regions of Bangladesh. So far over 54,000 tube-well water samples had been analyzed by flow injection hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (FI-HG-AAS). From SOES water analysis data at present we could assess status of arsenic groundwater contamination in four geo-morphological regions of Bangladesh and location of possible arsenic safe groundwater. SOES and DCH also made some preliminary work with their medical team to identify patients suffering from arsenic related diseases. SOES further analyzed few thousands biological samples (hair, nail, urine and skin scales) and foodstuffs for arsenic to know arsenic body burden and people sub

  15. The role of negative affect and message credibility in perceived effectiveness of smokeless tobacco health warning labels in Navi Mumbai, India and Dhaka, Bangladesh: A moderated-mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutti-Packer, Seema; Reid, Jessica L; Thrasher, James F; Romer, Daniel; Fong, Geoffrey T; Gupta, Prakash C; Pednekar, Mangesh S; Nargis, Nigar; Hammond, David

    2017-10-01

    There is strong evidence showing that pictorial health warnings are more effective than text-only warnings. However, much of this evidence comes from high-income countries and is limited to cigarette packaging. Moreover, few studies have identified mechanisms that might explain the impact of warnings. The current study examined the potential mediating role of negative affect and the moderating influence of message credibility in perceived effectiveness of smokeless tobacco warnings in two low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Field interviews were conducted in India and Bangladesh, with adult (19+ years) smokeless tobacco users (n=1053), and youth (16-18years) users (n=304) and non-users (n=687). Respondents were randomly assigned to view warnings in one of four conditions: (1) Text-only, (2) pictorial with symbolic imagery, (3) pictorial with graphic images of health effects, or (4) pictorial with personalized graphic images plus a personal testimonial. The findings provide support for the mediating influence of negative affect in perceived effectiveness, for adult and youth smokeless tobacco users who viewed pictorial warnings (vs. text-only), and graphic health warnings (vs. personal testimonials). Among adults, message credibility moderated the indirect effect; the association was stronger when credibility was high and weaker when it was low. Among youth users and non-users, message credibility did not moderate the indirect effect. Consistent with research from high-income countries, these findings highlight the importance of selecting imagery that will elicit negative emotional reactions and be perceived as credible. Differential effects among adults and youth highlight the importance of pre-testing images. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Using Observational Data to Estimate the Effect of Hand Washing and Clean Delivery Kit Use by Birth Attendants on Maternal Deaths after Home Deliveries in Rural Bangladesh, India and Nepal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Seward

    Full Text Available Globally, puerperal sepsis accounts for an estimated 8-12% of maternal deaths, but evidence is lacking on the extent to which clean delivery practices could improve maternal survival. We used data from the control arms of four cluster-randomised controlled trials conducted in rural India, Bangladesh and Nepal, to examine associations between clean delivery kit use and hand washing by the birth attendant with maternal mortality among home deliveries.We tested associations between clean delivery practices and maternal deaths, using a pooled dataset for 40,602 home births across sites in the three countries. Cross-sectional data were analysed by fitting logistic regression models with and without multiple imputation, and confounders were selected a priori using causal directed acyclic graphs. The robustness of estimates was investigated through sensitivity analyses.Hand washing was associated with a 49% reduction in the odds of maternal mortality after adjusting for confounding factors (adjusted odds ratio (AOR 0.51, 95% CI 0.28-0.93. The sensitivity analysis testing the missing at random assumption for the multiple imputation, as well as the sensitivity analysis accounting for possible misclassification bias in the use of clean delivery practices, indicated that the association between hand washing and maternal death had been over estimated. Clean delivery kit use was not associated with a maternal death (AOR 1.26, 95% CI 0.62-2.56.Our evidence suggests that hand washing in delivery is critical for maternal survival among home deliveries in rural South Asia, although the exact magnitude of this effect is uncertain due to inherent biases associated with observational data from low resource settings. Our findings indicating kit use does not improve maternal survival, suggests that the soap is not being used in all instances that kit use is being reported.

  17. Dwarfs in ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozma, Chahira

    2006-02-15

    Ancient Egypt was one of the most advanced and productive civilizations in antiquity, spanning 3000 years before the "Christian" era. Ancient Egyptians built colossal temples and magnificent tombs to honor their gods and religious leaders. Their hieroglyphic language, system of organization, and recording of events give contemporary researchers insights into their daily activities. Based on the record left by their art, the ancient Egyptians documented the presence of dwarfs in almost every facet of life. Due to the hot dry climate and natural and artificial mummification, Egypt is a major source of information on achondroplasia in the old world. The remains of dwarfs are abundant and include complete and partial skeletons. Dwarfs were employed as personal attendants, animal tenders, jewelers, and entertainers. Several high-ranking dwarfs especially from the Old Kingdom (2700-2190 BCE) achieved important status and had lavish burial places close to the pyramids. Their costly tombs in the royal cemeteries and the inscriptions on their statutes indicate their high-ranking position in Egyptian society and their close relation to the king. Some of them were Seneb, Pereniankh, Khnumhotpe, and Djeder. There were at least two dwarf gods, Ptah and Bes. The god Ptah was associated with regeneration and rejuvenation. The god Bes was a protector of sexuality, childbirth, women, and children. He was a favored deity particularly during the Greco-Roman period. His temple was recently excavated in the Baharia oasis in the middle of Egypt. The burial sites and artistic sources provide glimpses of the positions of dwarfs in daily life in ancient Egypt. Dwarfs were accepted in ancient Egypt; their recorded daily activities suggest assimilation into daily life, and their disorder was not shown as a physical handicap. Wisdom writings and moral teachings in ancient Egypt commanded respect for dwarfs and other individuals with disabilities. Copyright (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. LDC nuclear power: Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selim, M.E.S.

    1982-01-01

    This chapter reviews the evolution of Egypt's nuclear program, the major factors that influenced the successive series of nuclear decisions, and the public debate over the far-reaching program attempted by the late President Anwar El-Sadat. Egypt's program is important, not only because it was the first Arab country to enter the nuclear age, but because it is an ambitious program that includes the installation of eight reactors at a time when many countries are reducing their commitment to nuclear power. Major obstacles remain in terms of human, organizational, and natural resource constraints. 68 references, 1 table

  19. Bangladesh : tous les projets | Page 6 | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: TOBACCO, TOBACCO INDUSTRY, CROP DIVERSIFICATION. Région: Argentina, Bangladesh, Brazil, India, Lebanon, Malawi, Viet Nam ... Mouvements transfrontaliers, migration des femmes et droits de la personne - une évaluation postcoloniale. Projet. Jusqu'à récemment, les femmes ont été exclues des analyses ...

  20. Youth employment in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Eekelen, Willem van; De Luca, Loretta; Ismail, Magwa

    2001-01-01

    Examines economic and social factors affecting youth employment in Egypt and describes three national programmes for the promotion of youth employment based on human resources development, direct job creation and support in self-employment and enterprise creation. Describes one public-private project in each case.

  1. IDRC in Egypt

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Some current activities. In Egypt, IDRC-supported research focuses on job creation, shaping climate change adaptation, enhancing women's safety and political participation, and testing the power of social media to address sexual harassment. □ Job creation after the Arab Spring. Funding: $112,400. Duration: 2012–2013.

  2. Linen in Ancient Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    dr.Rehab Mahmoud Ahmed Elsharnouby

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Egypt was famous through the Ancient Near East for both weaving linen cloth and the produced quantities. Cloth was sent as expensive gifts from one king to another and given to a laborer as wages in return for his work. Cloth was regarded as an essential element in everyday life as it could be used for everything: clothing, bedding, trappings for animals, or sails of a ship. It was in fact one of the most widely used item throughout Ancient Egypt. Although other textile fibers were used in Pharaonic Egypt, namely, sheep's wool, goat hair and a form of coir, the majority of textiles were made from the plant Linum usitatissimum, flax. Cloth made from this fiber is defined as linen. The research starts with a brief definition of the flax, and then reviews the scenes representing the sowing and the harvesting of its seeds. It also focuses on the way of removing the seeds heads, the preparing of the flax for spinning: retting, beating and scutching. After that, it deals with transforming flax into orderly lengths, and rolling it into balls or coils. The researcher as well studies the Ancient Egyptian spinning techniques: grasped spindle, support spindle and drop spinning; the different types of weaving: tabby weaves, basket weaves, tapestry weaves and warps-patterned weave and the types of looms that were in use in Egypt, namely, the horizontal and vertical looms.

  3. Ancient Egypt: Personal Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolinski, Arelene

    This teacher resource book provides information on ancient Egypt via short essays, photographs, maps, charts, and drawings. Egyptian social and religious life, including writing, art, architecture, and even the practice of mummification, is conveniently summarized for the teacher or other practitioner in a series of one to three page articles with…

  4. Online Radicalization: Bangladesh Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    radicalization through cyberspace, Bangladesh mostly implements hard powers such as removing contents and restricting access to the internet. However, freedom...cyberspace, Bangladesh mostly implements hard powers such as removing contents and restricting access to the internet. However, freedom of speech...67 An Organizational Approach to Implement the Measures........................................ 69 Formation of

  5. Public Libraries in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M. H.

    1984-01-01

    Overview of library movement in Bangladesh highlights British (1851-1947) and Pakistan periods (1947-1971), separation of Bangladesh from Pakistan, libraries in development plans (1951-1970), three important public libraries, development of national library, book resources, a library network plan, legislation, finance, leadership, library…

  6. Self-reported tobacco smoking practices among medical students and their perceptions towards training about tobacco smoking in medical curricula: A cross-sectional, questionnaire survey in Malaysia, India, Pakistan, Nepal, and Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Mohsin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco smoking issues in developing countries are usually taught non-systematically as and when the topic arose. The World Health Organisation and Global Health Professional Student Survey (GHPSS have suggested introducing a separate integrated tobacco module into medical school curricula. Our aim was to assess medical students' tobacco smoking habits, their practices towards patients' smoking habits and attitude towards teaching about smoking in medical schools. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was carried out among final year undergraduate medical students in Malaysia, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. An anonymous, self-administered questionnaire included items on demographic information, students' current practices about patients' tobacco smoking habits, their perception towards tobacco education in medical schools on a five point Likert scale. Questions about tobacco smoking habits were adapted from GHPSS questionnaire. An 'ever smoker' was defined as one who had smoked during lifetime, even if had tried a few puffs once or twice. 'Current smoker' was defined as those who had smoked tobacco product on one or more days in the preceding month of the survey. Descriptive statistics were calculated. Results Overall response rate was 81.6% (922/1130. Median age was 22 years while 50.7% were males and 48.2% were females. The overall prevalence of 'ever smokers' and 'current smokers' was 31.7% and 13.1% respectively. A majority (> 80% of students asked the patients about their smoking habits during clinical postings/clerkships. Only a third of them did counselling, and assessed the patients' willingness to quit. Majority of the students agreed about doctors' role in tobacco control as being role models, competence in smoking cessation methods, counseling, and the need for training about tobacco cessation in medical schools. About 50% agreed that current curriculum teaches about tobacco smoking but not

  7. Self-reported tobacco smoking practices among medical students and their perceptions towards training about tobacco smoking in medical curricula: A cross-sectional, questionnaire survey in Malaysia, India, Pakistan, Nepal, and Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T; Suri, Sushil; Menezes, Ritesh G; Kumar, H N Harsha; Rahman, Mahbubur; Islam, Md R; Pereira, Xavier V; Shah, Mohsin; Sathian, Brijesh; Shetty, Ullasa; Vaswani, Vina R

    2010-11-16

    Tobacco smoking issues in developing countries are usually taught non-systematically as and when the topic arose. The World Health Organisation and Global Health Professional Student Survey (GHPSS) have suggested introducing a separate integrated tobacco module into medical school curricula. Our aim was to assess medical students' tobacco smoking habits, their practices towards patients' smoking habits and attitude towards teaching about smoking in medical schools. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was carried out among final year undergraduate medical students in Malaysia, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. An anonymous, self-administered questionnaire included items on demographic information, students' current practices about patients' tobacco smoking habits, their perception towards tobacco education in medical schools on a five point Likert scale. Questions about tobacco smoking habits were adapted from GHPSS questionnaire. An 'ever smoker' was defined as one who had smoked during lifetime, even if had tried a few puffs once or twice. 'Current smoker' was defined as those who had smoked tobacco product on one or more days in the preceding month of the survey. Descriptive statistics were calculated. Overall response rate was 81.6% (922/1130). Median age was 22 years while 50.7% were males and 48.2% were females. The overall prevalence of 'ever smokers' and 'current smokers' was 31.7% and 13.1% respectively. A majority (> 80%) of students asked the patients about their smoking habits during clinical postings/clerkships. Only a third of them did counselling, and assessed the patients' willingness to quit. Majority of the students agreed about doctors' role in tobacco control as being role models, competence in smoking cessation methods, counseling, and the need for training about tobacco cessation in medical schools. About 50% agreed that current curriculum teaches about tobacco smoking but not systematically and should be included as a separate module

  8. India’s strategic interests in South Asia and its aid to Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiya Alexandrovna Nemova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Providing foreign aid to developing countries is one of the most important aspects of contemporary foreign politics. The article studies relations between India and Bangladesh from the perspective of foreign aid flows and discovers conditions, forms, mechanisms, and trends of India’s aid to Bangladesh from 1971 until today. The research uses the approach of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD towards foreign aid and understands it as financial assistance, technical assistance, as well as aid in goods in the form of grants and soft loans with the aim to provide economic development and well-being. The author analyzes factors of the geopolitical significance of Bangladesh for India and studies India’s aid to Bangladesh in the context of the history of bilateral relations between the two countries. As a result, a certain correlation is discovered between aid flows and the state of bilateral relations. China’s growing interest is seen as one of additional factors, which cause India to increase volumes of its aid to the neighboring countries, including Bangladesh. China and India are understood as emerging donors who are competing to increase their influence in the world. The two Asian giants have recently taken considerable aid commitments to Bangladesh which indicates that Bangladesh starts to play a more important role in the regional geopolitics. In this context, the article predicts a further growth in the volumes of Indian aid to Bangladesh in the future and concludes that India uses its foreign aid programs as a tool to promote its own economic, political, and strategic interests. Foreign aid, including official development assistance (ODA, is becoming a means of India’s economic diplomacy although some researchers point to the fact that the country’s policymakers still lack coordination to make aid efficient in terms of political gains.

  9. Political history of modern Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA. Islam Islami

    2016-07-01

    Gamal Abdel Nasser was the one who established the Republic of Egypt and ended the monarchy rule in Egypt following the Egyptian revolution in 1952. Egypt was ruled autocratically by three presidents over the following six decades, by Nasser from 1954 until his death in 1970, by Anwar Sadat from 1971 until his assassination 1981, and by Hosni Mubarak from 1981 until his resignation in the face of the 2011 Egyptian revolution.

  10. All projects related to india | Page 8 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: South Asia, Central Asia, Far East Asia, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, India, Nepal, ... small and off-farm enterprises, especially those operated by women, in South Asia. ... Asymmetric Demography and Global Financial Governance. Project.

  11. All projects related to India | Page 14 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Central Asia, Far East Asia, South ... currently attempting to balance rapid economic growth, technological growth and ... Globalization of Innovation : Manifestation, Determinants and Implications for ...

  12. A suture delta: the co-evolution of tectonics and sedimentology as a remnant ocean basin closes; the Indo Burman ranges, northeast India and Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sincavage, R.; Betka, P. M.; Seeber, L.; Steckler, M. S.; Zoramthara, C.

    2017-12-01

    The closure of an ocean basin involves the interplay of tectonics and sedimentology, whereby thick successions of fluvio-deltaic and shallow marine sediment accumulate in the closing gap between the subduction zone and passive margin. The transition from subduction to collision involves processes that are inherently time-transgressive and co-evolve to influence the nature of the developing tectonic wedge. The Indo-Burman Ranges (IBR) of eastern India present a unique opportunity to examine this scenario on a variety of spatial (10-2­­­-105 m2) and temporal (1 a-10 Ma) scales. Recent field mapping campaigns in the IBR have illuminated analogous depositional environments expressed in the Neogene outcrops of the IBR and the Holocene sediment archive of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta (GBMD). Six distinct lithofacies are present in shallow-marine to fluvial strata of the IBR, containing sedimentary structures that reflect depositional environments correlative with the modern delta. Cyclical alternations of fine sands and silts in packages on the order of 15-20 cm thick define part of the shallow-marine section (M2 facies) that we interpret to represent the foreset beds of the ancient subaqueous delta. The overall scale and sedimentary structures of M2 compare favorably with modern foreset deposits in the Bay of Bengal. Tan-orange medium-grained, well sorted fluvial sandstone that contain large scale (1-10 m) tabular and trough cross bedding represent large-river channel deposits (F2 facies) that overlie the shallow marine strata. F2 deposits bear a striking resemblance in scale and character to bar deposits along the modern Jamuna River. Preliminary grain size analyses on the F2 facies yield grain size distributions that are remarkably consistent with Brahmaputra-sourced mid-Holocene sediments from Sylhet basin within the GBMD. Current research on the GBMD has revealed quantifiable trends in bed thicknesses, downstream fining, and grain size within fluvial

  13. Allegiance: Egypt Security Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Sadat began a policy of economically opening Egypt to the West which led to mandatory subsidy reductions on cooking fuel, rice , bread and other...by a distance from one another. The Emergency Law was not violated, but protestors could look around and see others wearing a black or white shirt...expected after the uprising of 2011 never truly materialized; the Interior Ministry instituted various cosmetic changes, but its basic construct and

  14. Bangladesh Bank Heist

    OpenAIRE

    Md Ahsan Habib

    2017-01-01

    Cyber crime is a threat to our E- commerce . A hacker group named "Lazarus" hacked $951 million from Bangladesh Bank's account. This is the short case study of this incident with professional ethical view.

  15. Cancer Control in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Syed Akram; Sullivan, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is predicted to be an increasingly important cause of morbidity and mortality in Bangladesh in the next few decades. The estimated incidence of 12.7 million new cancer cases will rise to 21.4 million by 2030. More than two-thirds of the total expenditure on health is through out-of-pocket payments. According to the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, cancer is the sixth leading cause of death. International Agency for Research on Cancer has estimated cancer-related death rates in Bangladesh to be 7.5% in 2005 and 13% in 2030. The two leading causes are in males are lung and oral cancer and in females are breast cancer and cervical cancer. Bangladesh is now in severe shortage of radiation therapy machines, hospital bed, trained oncologists, medical radiation physicists and technologists. Bangladesh having different cancers associated with smoking and smokeless tobacco use, Human papilloma virus infection, Hepatitis B and C infection, Helicobacter Pylori infection, arsenic contaminated groundwater, availability of chemical carcinogens mainly formalin treated fruits, fish and vegetables at open market, tannery waste contaminated with chromium (which is used for poultry feed and fish feed preparation). A World Health Organization study revealed the annual cost of illnesses in Bangladesh attributable to tobacco usage is US$ 500 million and the total annual benefit from the tobacco sector is US$ 305 million as tax revenue. Bangladesh has developed a National Cancer Control Strategy and Action Plan with the aim of delivering a universal, quality-based and timely service. Cancer prevention through tobacco control, health promotion and vaccination program, cancer early detection program for oral cavity, breast and cervix has initiated. Cancer detection and diagnostic facilities will be made available at medical colleges and district- hospitals and establish a referral chain. National capacity development, more cancer research will allow Bangladesh to deal effectively

  16. Cancer control in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Syed Akram; Sullivan, Richard

    2013-12-01

    Cancer is predicted to be an increasingly important cause of morbidity and mortality in Bangladesh in the next few decades. The estimated incidence of 12.7 million new cancer cases will rise to 21.4 million by 2030. More than two-thirds of the total expenditure on health is through out-of-pocket payments. According to the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, cancer is the sixth leading cause of death. International Agency for Research on Cancer has estimated cancer-related death rates in Bangladesh to be 7.5% in 2005 and 13% in 2030. The two leading causes are in males are lung and oral cancer and in females are breast cancer and cervical cancer. Bangladesh is now in severe shortage of radiation therapy machines, hospital bed, trained oncologists, medical radiation physicists and technologists. Bangladesh having different cancers associated with smoking and smokeless tobacco use, Human papilloma virus infection, Hepatitis B and C infection, Helicobacter Pylori infection, arsenic contaminated groundwater, availability of chemical carcinogens mainly formalin treated fruits, fish and vegetables at open market, tannery waste contaminated with chromium (which is used for poultry feed and fish feed preparation). A World Health Organization study revealed the annual cost of illnesses in Bangladesh attributable to tobacco usage is US$ 500 million and the total annual benefit from the tobacco sector is US$ 305 million as tax revenue. Bangladesh has developed a National Cancer Control Strategy and Action Plan with the aim of delivering a universal, quality-based and timely service. Cancer prevention through tobacco control, health promotion and vaccination program, cancer early detection program for oral cavity, breast and cervix has initiated. Cancer detection and diagnostic facilities will be made available at medical colleges and district- hospitals and establish a referral chain. National capacity development, more cancer research will allow Bangladesh to deal effectively

  17. The Issue of Prisoners of War (POWS, 1971 and Recognition of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Mustafa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available After the surrender of Pakistan army, near about 93,000 Pakistani military personnel and civilians were taken to India as Prisoners of war (POWs. The UNO Security Council passed a resolution on December 21, 1971 calling upon the parties to observe the Geneva Convention and not to attach any conditions to the repatriation of the POWs. Article 118 of the Geneva Convention (1949 puts it as a condition that Prisoners of War must be repatriated immediately after the cessation of active hostilities. It also stipulates that detaining power is obliged to work out a plan for their repatriation. India declared as an afterthought that Pakistan Army had surrendered to joint command of India and Bangladesh and therefore it was not within the jurisdiction of India to repatriate the prisoners of war at her own. Sheikh Mujib-ur-Rahman, on the other hand, had declared that he would not take part in any meeting, bi-lateral or tri-lateral, unless Bangladesh was recognized by Pakistan. On August 28, 1973 India and Pakistan signed an agreement in Delhi to repatriate 93000 civil and military prisoners of war to Pakistan. Bengalis in Pakistan were to be returned to Bangladesh. Mujib Ur Rahman clung to his demand of trial of 195 war criminals. Bhutto insisted that Pakistan would not recognize Bangladesh until all prisoners of war were released. Recognition of Bangladesh by Pakistan in February 1974 led to rapprochement between the two countries. A tripartite agreement between India-Pakistan-Bangladesh signed in April 1974 resolved all contentious issues related to 1971 war and paved the way for return of 195 war criminals as well. The last batch of prisoners of war reached Lahore in April 1974.

  18. Diversity and molecular phylogeny of mitochondrial DNA of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, M Kamrul; Feeroz, M Mostafa; Jones-Engel, Lisa; Engel, Gregory A; Kanthaswamy, Sree; Smith, David Glenn

    2014-11-01

    While studies of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) in the eastern (e.g., China) and western (e.g., India) parts of their geographic range have revealed major genetic differences that warrant the recognition of two different subspecies, little is known about genetic characteristics of rhesus macaques in the transitional zone extending from eastern India and Bangladesh through the northern part of Indo-China, the probable original homeland of the species. We analyzed genetic variation of 762 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA from 86 fecal swab samples and 19 blood samples from 25 local populations of rhesus macaque in Bangladesh collected from January 2010 to August 2012. These sequences were compared with those of rhesus macaques from India, China, and Myanmar. Forty-six haplotypes defined by 200 (26%) polymorphic nucleotide sites were detected. Estimates of gene diversity, expected heterozygosity, and nucleotide diversity for the total population were 0.9599 ± 0.0097, 0.0193 ± 0.0582, and 0.0196 ± 0.0098, respectively. A mismatch distribution of paired nucleotide differences yielded a statistically significantly negative value of Tajima's D, reflecting a population that rapidly expanded after the terminal Pleistocene. Most haplotypes throughout regions of Bangladesh, including an isolated region in the southwestern area (Sundarbans), clustered with haplotypes assigned to the minor haplogroup Ind-2 from India reflecting an east to west dispersal of rhesus macaques to India. Haplotypes from the southeast region of Bangladesh formed a cluster with those from Myanmar, and represent the oldest rhesus macaque haplotypes of Bangladesh. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that rhesus macaques first entered Bangladesh from the southeast, probably from Indo-China, then dispersed westward throughout eastern and central India. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. The eye and its diseases in Ancient Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S. Ry

    1997-01-01

    Ophthalmology, History of ophthalmology, eyes in the Ancient Egypt, eye disease in Ancient Egypt, porotic hyperostosis, mummification......Ophthalmology, History of ophthalmology, eyes in the Ancient Egypt, eye disease in Ancient Egypt, porotic hyperostosis, mummification...

  20. Egypt-United States Relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mark, Clyde R

    2003-01-01

    .... Experience gained from Egyptian-U.S. joint military exercises proved valuable in easing coordination during the February 1991 Desert Storm operation to reverse Iraqi aggression against Kuwait. Egypt is seen by U.S...

  1. Egypt-United States Relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mark, Clyde R

    2005-01-01

    .... Experience gained from Egyptian-U.S. joint military exercises proved valuable in easing coordination during the February 1991 Desert Storm operation to reverse Iraqi aggression against Kuwait. Egypt is seen by U.S...

  2. bangladesh : tous les projets | Page 2 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Adaptation, eau et résilience dans l'Himalaya. Projet. Ce projet de recherche permettra à des femmes, des hommes et des enfants pauvres et vulnérables de faire face et de s'adapter aux changements climatiques dans la région asiatique de l'Hindu Kush-Himalaya. Sujet: ADAPTATION, Gender. Région: Bangladesh, India ...

  3. bangladesh : tous les projets | Page 5 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Région: Bangladesh, Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, India, Malaysia, Nepal, Viet Nam, Thailand. Financement total : CA$ 137,926.00 ... L'économie du Malawi repose essentiellement sur la culture du tabac, qui représente plus de 70 % des revenus d'exportation. Date de début : 7 février 2008. End Date: 31 mai ...

  4. Formal and Informal Employment Growth in Manufacturing (India ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Agent(e) responsable du CRDI. Rodriguez, Mr. Edgard. Financement total. CAD$ 257,300. Pays. Asie du sud, Asie centrale, Extrême-Orient, Bangladesh, Inde. Chargé(e) de projet. Dr. Sandip Sarkar. Institution. Institute for Human Development. Pays d' institution. India. Extrants. Documents. Employment problem in India ...

  5. Emigration dynamics in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, R A

    1995-01-01

    This study of emigration dynamics opens by noting that emigration is one of the most dynamic economic and social elements in Bangladesh. The history of emigration from Bangladesh is sketched, and the level and trend of emigration is described for various destinations (especially the UK, the Middle East and North Africa, and Japan) and in terms of the socioeconomic background of migrants, channels of migration, occupations, the potential level of emigration, and applications for US Visas. The next section of the report presents the economic and demographic setting in terms of the gross national and domestic products, quality of life, the size and distribution of the population, the labor force, literacy, unemployment and underemployment, urbanization, internal migration, poverty, and income distribution. The discussion then centers on the sociopolitical setting and such factors as unmet basic human needs, the demand for expatriate workers, and emigration policy. It is concluded that the desperate economic situation in Bangladesh has combined with the demand for expatriate workers and the development of institutions to facilitate emigration. The result is increasing interest in emigration, which is fueled by mass communication highlighting the differences between the quality of life in Bangladesh and abroad.

  6. Solar Energy Perspectives In Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comsan, M.N.H.

    2010-01-01

    Egypt belongs to the global sun-belt. The country is in advantageous position with solar energy. In 1991 solar atlas for Egypt was issued indicating that the country enjoys 2900-3200 hours of sunshine annually with annual direct normal energy density 1970-3200 kWh/m2 and technical solar-thermal electricity generating potential of 73.6 Peta watt hour (PWh). Egypt was among the first countries to utilize solar energy. In 1910, a practical industrial scale solar system engine was built at Maadi south to Cairo using solar thermal parabolic collectors. The engine was used to produce steam which drove a series of large water pumps for irrigation. Nowadays utilization of solar energy includes use of photovoltaic cells, solar water heating and solar thermal power. Use of solar thermal technology may include both electricity generation and water desalination, which is advantageous for Egypt taking in consideration its shortage in water supply. The article discusses perspectives of solar energy in Egypt and developmental trends till 2050

  7. First record of Ratanaworabhans’s Fruit Bat Megaerops niphanae Yenbutra & Felten, 1983 (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae from Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Nurul Islam

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This note provides a morphological confirmation of the occurrence of Ratanaworabhans’s Fruit Bat Megaerops niphanae in Bangladesh. Although previously recorded in neighbouring territories in India, this constitutes the first country record for the taxon and highlights the current incompleteness of faunal knowledge and potential for future discoveries in the country. Greater survey effort and sustained investments into developing taxonomic capacity and museum collections in Bangladesh are required to realize this potential however. 

  8. Identifying landscape factors affecting tiger decline in the Bangladesh Sundarbans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Naser Mohsin Hossain

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Sundarbans Forest (∼10,000 km2 represents the only mangrove ecosystem inhabited by tigers Panthera tigris. However, in the Bangladesh portion of the Sundarbans (∼6,000 km2 tigers appear to have declined. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of a range of environmental and landscape variables in possible changes in the relative abundance of tigers in the Bangladesh Sundarbans over a five-year period (2007–2011. In 2007, 2011 tiger relative abundance was assessed using sign surveys. Using regression models we investigated changes in relative abundance versus multiple landscape variables (human disturbance associated with villages and commercial shipping lanes, distance to the international border with India where there is enhanced patrolling, presence of forest guard stations, number of criminal prosecutions and forest protection status. Tiger relative abundance was higher in 2007 and declined by 2011 with changes best explained by the proximity to international boundaries. This result might have been affected by the high levels of security patrols at the India-Bangladesh border along with cross border tiger movement between India and Bangladesh. Neighboring tiger range countries could strengthen cross-border law enforcement, increasing protection of dispersing animals. Particularly alarming was the absence of a positive effect of protected areas relative to those outside the protected area system or forest guard stations, implying a lack of management effectiveness suggesting an urgent need for an improved strategy for managing tigers and their habitats. Keywords: Wildlife poaching, Population declines, Transboundary protection, Joint patrolling, Protected area effectiveness

  9. Electric Energy Access in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Taheruzzaman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents the overall electrical energy profile and access in Bangladesh. In the recent past Bangladesh has been experiencing shortage of electricity, and about 42 % of population no access to the electricity. The electricity consumption has rapidly increased over last decade. The demand and consumption will intensify in the remote future as overall development and future growth. To set “vision 2021” of Bangladesh; government of Bangladesh has devoted to ensuring access of affordable and reliable electricity for all by 2021. In the modern time, energy is the vital ingredient for socioeconomic growth in the developing country i.e., alleviating poverty. Along with electricity access in Bangladesh strived to become middle income country by 2021. Bangladesh has experienced that energy consumption inclines to increase rapidly when per capita income researches between US$ 1,000 and US$ 10,000, and a country’s

  10. Solar Energy for Rural Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelsalam, Tarek I.; Darwish, Ziad; Hatem, Tarek M.

    Egypt is currently experiencing the symptoms of an energy crisis, such as electricity outage and high deficit, due to increasing rates of fossil fuels consumption. Conversely, Egypt has a high solar availability of more than 18.5 MJ daily. Additionally, Egypt has large uninhabited deserts on both sides of the Nile valley and Sinai Peninsula, which both represent more than 96.5 % of the nation's total land area. Therefore, solar energy is one of the promising solutions for the energy shortage in Egypt. Furthermore, these vast lands are advantageous for commissioning large-scaled solar power projects, not only in terms of space availability, but also of availability of high quality silicon (sand) required for manufacturing silicon wafers used in photovoltaic (PV) modules. Also, rural Egypt is considered market a gap for investors, due to low local competition, and numerous remote areas that are not connected to the national electricity grid. Nevertheless, there are some obstacles that hinder the progress of solar energy in Egypt; for instance, the lack of local manufacturing capabilities, security, and turbulent market in addition to other challenges. This paper exhibits an experience of the authors designing and installing decentralized PV solar systems, with a total rated power of about 11 kW, installed at two rural villages in at the suburbs of Fayoum city, in addition to a conceptual design of a utility scale, 2 MW, PV power plant to be installed in Kuraymat. The outcomes of this experience asserted that solar PV systems can be a more technically and economically feasible solution for the energy problem in rural villages.

  11. Medical Biotechnology: Problems and Prospects in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaikh Mizan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biotechnology is the knowledge and techniques of developing and using biological systems for deriving special products and services. The age-old technology took a new turn with the advent of recombinant DNA techniques, and boosted by the development of other molecular biological techniques, cell culture techniques and bioinformatics. Medical biotechnology is the major thrust area of biotechnology. It has brought revolutions in medicine – quick methods for diagnosing diseases, generation of new drugs and vaccines, completely novel approach of treatment are only a few to mention. The industrial and financial bulk of the industry mushroomed very rapidly in the last three decades, led by the USA and western advanced nations. Asian countries like China, India, South Korea, Taiwan and Singapore joined late, but advancing forward in a big way. In all the Asian countries governments supported the initiatives of the expert and entrepreneur community, and invested heavily in its development. Bangladesh has got great potential in developing biotechnology and reaping its fruits. However, lack of commitment and patriotism, and too much corruption and irresponsibility in political and bureaucratic establishment are the major hindrance to the development of biotechnology in Bangladesh.

  12. Country programme review Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamel, R.; Maluszynski, Y.; Maudarbocus, Y.; Cherif, H.S.; Morre, P.

    1993-12-01

    A five-expert mission was organized from 21-26 August 1993 and this document reflects the findings and recommendations of the team. Intensive contacts with heads of institutions, scientists and decision making persons in various sectors in the country were co-ordinated by the Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission. The terms of reference of the mission were: To assess the on-going TC projects; to assist the Bangladesh nationals to finalize the formulation of the new requests for 1995-96 TC programme and to establish priority areas with regard to the introduction of national projects involving accelerated technological transfer in order to catalyze national development plans in specific areas; to examine institutional framework suitable for the introduction of these priority nuclear techniques

  13. Russia and Egypt: Reproachment Trend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Mohamed Abdou Hassan Ahmed

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the analysis of Egypt’s foreign policy after Muhammed Morsi’s dismissal as a result of the political crisis in July 2013. The author considers the shift in the regional balance of power and draws a special attention to political, military and economic aspects of the collaboration between Egypt and Russia.

  14. Rape in Rural Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowsher Ali

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rape is one of the silent brutal sexual offences in Bangladesh. Despite strong laws against it, the evil of rape continues to rise. Increasing trend of the silent cruel sexual offence (rape represents a major psychopath sexual disorder and public health problem and progress of the country. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the pattern of alleged rape victims in a rural district of Bangladesh with the ultimate aim to create public awareness about the brutal crime. Materials and method: This retrospective study was carried out on 330 sexually assailed alleged rape victims’ report forms, who reported at Faridpur Medical College, Bangladesh from 2007 to 2011 for medical examination. Results: Among the study subjects maximum number (70.0% of alleged rape cases were under the age of 20 years. More than two-thirds (64.60% of the assailants were known to the victims, most of the incidents (64.20% occurred in the victims’ houses and nearby places. The study also revealed that minimum number of victims (14.20% reported within 24 hours for medical examination. Almost one fourth of the alleged rape cases were gang rape and no positive finding in favour of sexual intercourse was found in about three fourth (72.40% of cases. Conclusion: Public awareness about rape would be effective to report in due time with preserving the evidence of crime and modern techniques like DNA diagnosis may be of help to detect the assailant.

  15. Egypt's fundamentalists say condoms immoral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, S

    1995-06-01

    The first AIDS case in Egypt was reported almost 10 years ago, yet Egypt still does not have reliable statistics on the HIV/AIDS epidemic (officially, 513 HIV infections and 88 AIDS cases; more likely, 3000 and 10,000, respectively). HIV/AIDS bears a stigma. The government claims that every HIV-infected Egyptian acquired the infection through a blood transfusion while in the Gulf or through sexual intercourse in Europe. Cultural, social, and religious norms that discourage promiscuity may explain the low HIV/AIDS rate but these same taboos put women at risk by making it difficult for them to protect themselves. Islamic fundamentalist women reinforce the Islamic principle of forbidding sex education. They consider AIDS a plague of immoral Western society. They refuse to accept the fact that many men do not practice safer sex. These women consider condoms immoral. They think God will curse women who refuse to have sexual intercourse at their husbands' bidding. Many nongovernmental organizations consider an intensive education program as the only means to avert disaster. Egypt has yet to implement its model AIDS program. All hospitals in Cairo and some hospitals in rural areas have equipment to test for HIV. Surveillance systems have been limited to high risk groups. In Egypt, it is mandatory to test foreigners for HIV. Prisoners, prostitutes, homosexuals, and blood donors are tested randomly without their consent. Positive results are often reported to authorities before the persons learn their HIV status. A campaign for widespread sex education is the only action recommended so far. It includes a mass media component and community meetings and conferences. An Egyptian physician has found an anti-viral drug that stimulates the immune system, but his work does not receive much coverage outside Egypt. Egyptians need to tackle their cultural taboos about discussion of sex to curb the HIV/AIDS epidemic.

  16. Seismic hazard studies in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abuo El-Ela A. Mohamed

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of earthquake activity and seismic hazard assessment of Egypt is very important due to the great and rapid spreading of large investments in national projects, especially the nuclear power plant that will be held in the northern part of Egypt. Although Egypt is characterized by low seismicity, it has experienced occurring of damaging earthquake effect through its history. The seismotectonic sitting of Egypt suggests that large earthquakes are possible particularly along the Gulf of Aqaba–Dead Sea transform, the Subduction zone along the Hellenic and Cyprean Arcs, and the Northern Red Sea triple junction point. In addition some inland significant sources at Aswan, Dahshour, and Cairo-Suez District should be considered. The seismic hazard for Egypt is calculated utilizing a probabilistic approach (for a grid of 0.5° × 0.5° within a logic-tree framework. Alternative seismogenic models and ground motion scaling relationships are selected to account for the epistemic uncertainty. Seismic hazard values on rock were calculated to create contour maps for four ground motion spectral periods and for different return periods. In addition, the uniform hazard spectra for rock sites for different 25 periods, and the probabilistic hazard curves for Cairo, and Alexandria cities are graphed. The peak ground acceleration (PGA values were found close to the Gulf of Aqaba and it was about 220 gal for 475 year return period. While the lowest (PGA values were detected in the western part of the western desert and it is less than 25 gal.

  17. Burden of stroke in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Nazmul; Moniruzzaman, Mohammed; Khalil, Md Ibrahim; Basri, Rehana; Alam, Mohammad Khursheed; Loo, Keat Wei; Gan, Siew Hua

    2013-04-01

    Stroke is the third leading cause of death in Bangladesh. The World Health Organization ranks Bangladesh's mortality rate due to stroke as number 84 in the world. The reported prevalence of stroke in Bangladesh is 0.3%, although no data on stroke incidence have been recorded. Hospital-based studies conducted in past decades have indicated that hypertension is the main cause of ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke in Bangladesh. The high number of disability-adjusted life-years lost due to stroke (485 per 10,000 people) show that stroke severely impacts Bangladesh's economy. Although two non-governmental organizations, BRAC and the Centre for the Rehabilitation of the Paralysed, are actively involved in primary stroke prevention strategies, the Bangladeshi government needs to emphasize healthcare development to cope with the increasing population density and to reduce stroke occurrence. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Stroke © 2012 World Stroke Organization.

  18. Nutritional Problems and Intervention Strategies in India

    OpenAIRE

    Asumadu-Sarkodie, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    India, officially the Republic of India is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area. it is bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the south-west, and the Bay of Bengal on the south-east, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west; China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the north-east; and Burma and Bangladesh to the east. The major religions are Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism. India has a total population of 1,198,003,000, a gr...

  19. Molecular characterization of foot-and-mouth disease virus: implications for disease control in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loth, L; Osmani, M G; Kalam, M A; Chakraborty, R K; Wadsworth, J; Knowles, N J; Hammond, J M; Benigno, C

    2011-06-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in Bangladesh, and to implement an effective FMD control programme, it is essential to understand the complex epidemiology of the disease. Here, we report on the characterization of FMD virus (FMDV) recovered from FMD outbreaks in Bangladesh in late 2009. All isolated viruses belonged to the FMDV serotype O. The phylogenetic reconstruction showed that all isolates belonged to the Middle East-South Asia (ME-SA) topotype, but fell into two distinct sublineages, one named Ind-2001 (the other has not been named). Within both sublineages, the 2009 Bangladesh isolates were most closely related to viruses from Nepal collected during 2008 and 2009. Additionally, both sublineages contained older viruses from India collected in 2000 and 2001. In South Asia, there is extensive cross-border cattle movement from Nepal and India to Bangladesh. Both these findings have implications for the control of FMD in Bangladesh. Because of the porous borders, a regional FMD control strategy should be developed. Further, animal identification and monitoring animal movements are necessary to identify the cross-border movements and market chain interactions of ruminants, leading to improved border and movement controls. Additionally, a vaccination strategy should be developed with the initial objective of protecting small-scale dairy herds from disease. For any successful FMD control programme, long-term Government commitment and adequate resources are necessary. A sustainable programme will also need farmer education, commitment and financial contributions. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Gas industry development in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roze, J.; Longueville, P.

    2000-01-01

    Egypt is a country with major gas potential and its gas industry has grown rapidly over the last ten years. Proven natural gas reserves total an estimated 1,050 billion m 3 . According to the re-evaluation of reserves made in January 2000, probable reserves stand at 3,400 billion m 3 , placing Egypt in ninth position as a potential world producer. These reserves are contained in 120 fields located mainly in the Nile Delta and Mediterranean regions and, to a lesser extent, in the Western Desert and the Gulf of Suez. Over the last two years, 54 new gas field have been discovered and registered. Consumption of oil, Egypt's main primary energy source, has declined steadily since the early 1980's in favour of natural gas, which has enjoyed steady growth. The penetration of natural gas is due to the growth of industries consuming large quantities of gas (chemical, fertilizers, etc), the development of new gas fields and the use of gas as a substitute for oil and coal, especially in the power industry which accounts for a major share of energy consumption, i.e., two-thirds of production in 1997. However, as Egypt is currently neither an importer or exporter of natural gas, the growth in consumption has naturally followed that of production, and the lack of infrastructure explains the limited penetration of gas in the residential sector (less than 2 % in 1997). According to the gas development plan drawn up by the Egyptian authorities, internal consumption should increase from 13.5 billion m 3 per year in 1998 to around 45.5 billion m 3 per year in 2017. This consumption increase will be accelerated to respond to domestic needs and, in particular, to favour the implementation of the national redevelopment plan (distribution of the population over 25% of the country by 2020, compared to 4% day). The energy vector of this urban policy is gas. Moreover, this policy should offset the drop in income resulting from declining oil production. The Egyptian authorities, via a range

  1. A survey of arsenic in foodstuffs on sale in the United Kingdom and imported from Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Rmalli, S.W.; Haris, P.I.; Harrington, C.F.; Ayub, M.

    2005-01-01

    Arsenic is a highly toxic element and its presence in food composites is a matter of concern to the well being of both humans and animals. Arsenic-contaminated groundwater is often used in Bangladesh and West Bengal (India) to irrigate crops used for food and animal consumption, which could potentially lead to arsenic entering the human food chain. In this study, we used graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy to determine the total arsenic concentrations in a range of foodstuffs, including vegetables, rice and fish, imported into the United Kingdom from Bangladesh. The mean and range of the total arsenic concentration in all the vegetables imported from Bangladesh were 54.5 and 5-540 μg/kg, respectively. The highest arsenic values found were for the skin of Arum tuber, 540 μg/kg, followed by Arum Stem, 168 μg/kg, and Amaranthus, 160 μg/kg. Among the other samples, freshwater fish contained total arsenic levels between 97 and 1318 μg/kg. The arsenic content of the vegetables from the UK was approximately 2- to 3-fold lower than those observed for the vegetables imported from Bangladesh. The levels of arsenic found in vegetables imported from Bangladesh in this study, in some cases, are similar to those previously recorded for vegetables grown in arsenic-affected areas of West Bengal, India, although lower than the levels reported in studies from Bangladesh. While the total arsenic content detected in our study in vegetables, imported from Bangladesh, is far less than the recommended maximum permitted level of arsenic, it does provide an additional source of arsenic in the diet. This raises the possibility that the level of arsenic intake by certain sectors of the UK population may be significantly higher then the general population and requires further investigations

  2. Chronological trends in maximum and minimum water flows of the Teesta River, Bangladesh, and its implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Sanaul H. Mondal

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh shares a common border with India in the west, north and east and with Myanmar in the southeast. These borders cut across 57 rivers that discharge through Bangladesh into the Bay of Bengal in the south. The upstream courses of these rivers traverse India, China, Nepal and Bhutan. Transboundary flows are the important sources of water resources in Bangladesh. Among the 57 transboundary rivers, the Teesta is the fourth major river in Bangladesh after the Ganges, the Brahmaputra and the Meghna and Bangladesh occupies about 2071 km2 . The Teesta River floodplain in Bangladesh accounts for 14% of the total cropped area and 9.15 million people of the country. The objective of this study was to investigate trends in both maximum and minimum water flow at Kaunia and Dalia stations for the Teesta River and the coping strategies developed by the communities to adjust with uncertain flood situations. The flow characteristics of the Teesta were analysed by calculating monthly maximum and minimum water levels and discharges from 1985 to 2006. Discharge of the Teesta over the last 22 years has been decreasing. Extreme low-flow conditions were likely to occur more frequently after the implementation of the Gozoldoba Barrage by India. However, a very sharp decrease in peak flows was also observed albeit unexpected high discharge in 1988, 1989, 1991, 1997, 1999 and 2004 with some in between April and October. Onrush of water causes frequent flash floods, whereas decreasing flow leaves the areas dependent on the Teesta vulnerable to droughts. Both these extreme situations had a negative impact on the lives and livelihoods of people dependent on the Teesta. Over the years, people have developed several risk mitigation strategies to adjust with both natural and anthropogenic flood situations. This article proposed the concept of ‘MAXIN (maximum and minimum flows’ for river water justice for riparian land.

  3. Molecular detection and genetic diversity of Babesia gibsoni in dogs in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terao, Masashi; Akter, Shirin; Yasin, Md Golam; Nakao, Ryo; Kato, Hirotomo; Alam, Mohammad Zahangir; Katakura, Ken

    2015-04-01

    Babesia gibsoni is a tick-borne hemoprotozoan parasite of dogs that often causes fever and hemolytic illness. Detection of B. gibsoni has been predominantly reported in Asian countries, including Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Malaysia, Bangladesh and India. The present study shows the first molecular characterization of B. gibsoni detected from dogs in Bangladesh. Blood samples were collected on FTA® Elute cards from 50 stray dogs in Mymensingh District in Bangladesh. DNA eluted from the cards was subjected to nested PCR for the 18S rRNA gene of Babesia species. Approximately 800bp PCR products were detected in 15 of 50 dogs (30%). Based on restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and direct sequencing of the PCR products, all parasite isolates were identified as B. gibsoni. Furthermore, the BgTRAP (B. gibsoni thrombospondin-related adhesive protein) gene fragments were detected in 13 of 15 18S rRNA gene PCR positive blood samples. Phylogenetic analysis of the BgTRAP gene revealed that B. gibsoni parasites in Bangladesh formed a cluster, which was genetically different from other Asian B. gibsoni isolates. In addition, tandem repeat analysis of the BgTRAP gene clearly showed considerable genetic variation among Bangladeshi isolates. These results suggested that B. gibsoni parasites in a different genetic clade are endemic in dogs in Bangladesh. Further studies are required to elucidate the origin, distribution, vector and pathogenesis of B. gibsoni parasites circulating in dogs in Bangladesh. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Impact of Macro Environmental Factors on Garments Industry That Drives Export in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam Mohammad

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available It goes without saying that Garments industry of Bangladesh has drawn a special attention to the mass people in the world because of being both cost leader and quality leader at the same time. The purpose of this research paper is to analyze the garments industry in Bangladesh which is going to be an emerging tiger in the world economy. It also aims to assess the impact of macro-environmental factors affecting the industry by PESTEL analysis. Again, five forces model has been analyzed to assess the impacts of competitive external factors on the Garments industry in Bangladesh. Furthermore, Garments sector competitive responses to the primary issues affecting the industry have been evaluated here. It also outlines the primary external influences to which this industry is subject. In this case, SWOT analysis has been conducted to assess the competitive position of this industry in comparison with the global perspective. The study suggests that total export is highly correlated with the exports of garments. It also finds that there is severe lacking in the safety and security compliance, wages and compensations and code of conduct of the current organizations. Moreover, GSP facility withdrawn can impact severely on the ready made garments of Bangladesh to compete with price in the international market with China, India and Vietnam etc. The ready made garments sector of Bangladesh is enjoying cost leadership as a source of completive advantage because of cheap labor. Finally, the study would like to recommend for further improvement of garment sector in Bangladesh.

  5. Mutations in Plasmodium falciparum K13 propeller gene from Bangladesh (2009–2013)

    OpenAIRE

    Mohon, Abu Naser; Alam, Mohammad Shafiul; Bayih, Abebe Genetu; Folefoc, Asongna; Shahinas, Dea; Haque, Rashidul; Pillai, Dylan R

    2014-01-01

    Background Bangladesh is a malaria hypo-endemic country sharing borders with India and Myanmar. Artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) remains successful in Bangladesh. An increase of artemisinin-resistant malaria parasites on the Thai-Cambodia and Thai-Myanmar borders is worrisome. K13 propeller gene (PF3D7_1343700 or PF13_0238) mutations have been linked to both in vitro artemisinin resistance and in vivo slow parasite clearance rates. This group undertook to evaluate if mutations seen in Ca...

  6. Uranium exploration in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faruquee, A.R.

    1988-01-01

    The sedimentary succession of Bangladesh has continental sandstones with lignite and organic matter which are favourable host rocks for sedimentary uranium. The shield areas around Bangladesh are considered good source areas for uranium. Encouraged by this idea, the Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC) started an exploration programme in 1976 with the assistance of the IAEA and the United Nations Development Programme. Preliminary reconnaissance radiometric surveys carried out in 1976-1977 in the Chittagong, Chittagong hill tract and Sylhet districts identified some anomalies with 3 to 5 times the background (XBG). This was followed by regional reconnaissance radiometric surveys which were carried out between 1977 and 1985 in some of the anticlines of the Chittagong and Sylhet districts, including an airborne (helicopter) survey over the Jaldi area. These surveys resulted in the discovery of more than 300 radiometric anomalies of 3 to 60 XBG. They occur in the medium to fine grained ferruginous sandstones of the Dupitila and Tipam Formations of Mio-Pliocene age. These anomalous beds show variation in slime and heavy mineral contents. Some samples collected from the anomalous beds contain uranium and thorium ranging from 20 to 100 ppm and 100 to 1000 ppm, respectively. Exploratory drilling to a depth of about 400 ft was carried out on a very limited scale in the northeastern part of the Sylhet district. Gamma logging of these holes indicated many subsurface anomalies (3 to 21 XBG) in the Dupitila Formation. These anomalies are linked to thin layers with restricted lateral extensions. Geochemical orientation studies and radon surveys were done in some selected areas of Sylhet to test their suitability for further surveys. 9 refs, 13 figs, 4 tabs

  7. Inequality of Opportunity in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Hassine, Nadia Belhaj

    2012-01-01

    The article evaluates the contribution of inequality of opportunity to earnings inequality in Egypt and analyzes its evolution across three time periods and different population groups. It provides parametric and nonparametric estimates of a lower bound for the degree of inequality of opportunity for wage and salary workers. On average, the contribution of opportunity-shaping circumstances to earnings inequality declined from 22 percent in 1988 to 15 percent in 2006. Levels of inequality of o...

  8. Mass media tours Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-07-01

    In May 1998, representatives of Japan's mass media toured Bangladesh to learn about the country's reproductive health and population programs. The goal of the visit was for the journalists to spread information about the projects to their peers, to government officials, and parliamentarians responsible for allocations of foreign aid. The 1st stage of the visit involved meetings with program officials and organizers. In the 2nd stage, the journalists toured: 1) Matlab, where the International Center for Diarrhoeal Disease Research has been implementing an intensive family planning (FP) program; 2) the Panchdona IP area, where the Integrated Family Development Project is being conducted with funding from the Japanese government; 3) an FP office and satellite clinic; and 4) a site where voluntary organizations are providing FP/maternal-child health care. The journalists also learned about how micro-credit loans operate. Participating journalists reported that they were very impressed with the people of Bangladesh, and that they had gained a new understanding of the relationship between reproductive health and human rights.

  9. India : tous les projets | Page 15 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Région: Bangladesh, Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, India, Malaysia, Nepal, Viet Nam, Thailand. Financement total : CA$ ... Sujet: INDIGENOUS POPULATION, BIODIVERSITY, FOREST PRODUCTS, FOREST UTILIZATION, FOREST MANAGEMENT, FOREST CONSERVATION. Région: India, Central Asia, Far East ...

  10. Bangladesh floods, cyclones and ENSO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudhury, A.M.

    1994-04-01

    It has been found that in general there is a reduction of rainfall in all the regions of Bangladesh in all the seasons - premonsoon, monsoon and post monsoon during El Nino years. It has also been observed that in strong El Nino year Bangladesh is not hit by a catastrophic flood or a catastrophic cyclone. In the past, occurrence of famines in this region of the world coincided with El Nino years. The years of weak El Nino or when the El Nino index is positive seem to be favourable for the occurrence of floods and cyclones in Bangladesh. A theory of the modulation of the monsoon in Bangladesh by the Walker circulation has been described in the paper. (author). 14 refs, 7 figs, 1 tab

  11. Early Intervention Programs in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Armin

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the incidence of hearing impairment in Bangladesh, the struggle to achieve appropriate services for this population, the establishment of the National Centre for Hearing and Speech of Children, and future plans. (JDD)

  12. Dietary Arsenic Exposure in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Kile, Molly L.; Houseman, E. Andres; Breton, Carrie V.; Smith, Thomas; Quamruzzaman, Quazi; Rahman, Mahmuder; Mahiuddin, Golam; Christiani, David C.

    2007-01-01

    Background Millions of people in Bangladesh are at risk of chronic arsenic toxicity from drinking contaminated groundwater, but little is known about diet as an additional source of As exposure. Methods We employed a duplicate diet survey to quantify daily As intake in 47 women residing in Pabna, Bangladesh. All samples were analyzed for total As, and a subset of 35 samples were measured for inorganic arsenic (iAs) using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry equipped with a dynamic rea...

  13. Mapping sexual harassment in Egypt | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-03-28

    Mar 28, 2017 ... More than 95 per cent of women in Egypt have experienced sexual harassment at ... HarassMap's map of Cairo shows the location and type of incidents that ... HarassMap: Mapping Sexual Harassment and Violence in Egypt.

  14. Gender, Sibship Composition, and Education in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tfaily, Rania

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between gender, sibship, and education over time in Egypt, focusing on how the number, sex, and birth order configuration of siblings affected boys' and girls' education during 1991-2008, a period characterized by significant social and economic changes in Egypt. This study disaggregates schooling into…

  15. The satellite archaeological survey of Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2011-01-01

    A recent announcement of some pyramids, buried under the sand of Egypt and discovered by means of infrared remote sensing, renewed the interest on the archaeological surveys aided by satellites. Here we propose the use of images, obtained from those of Google Maps after some processing to enhance their details, to locate archaeological remains in Egypt.

  16. Salafis in Political Life of Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Сабери Фахиме

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In today's world Salafism, which has evolved from insignificant and apolitical to the very influential movement is the subject of active discussion. This article discusses and analyzes the historical background, the conditions of formation and propagation of Salafi movement in Egypt. In addition, the author disclosed the role and the place of this movement in modern political life of Egypt.

  17. Single Finds. The case of Roman Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Erik

    2006-01-01

    Survery of single or stray finds from Roman Egypt and discussion of them as evidence for the circulation and use of coins......Survery of single or stray finds from Roman Egypt and discussion of them as evidence for the circulation and use of coins...

  18. Cryptic Rhinolophus pusillus Temminck, 1834 (Chiroptera, Rhinolophidae): a new distribution record from the Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Saha, Anik; Feeroz, Mohammed Mostafa; Hasan, Md Kamrul

    2017-01-01

    Rhinolophus pusillus is a common species of India and Nepal in South Asia. Here, we report a new record of this bat captured in the mixed evergreen forest in Rangamati, southeastern part of Bangladesh. The identification was based on external morphology along with cranio-dental measurements. Roost counts was conducted through direct observation. 

  19. Population planning broadcasts in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, S A

    1982-06-01

    Bangladesh's growth rate of 2.36%/year is one of the highest in the world and, if present population trends continue, Bangladesh will have 153 million people by the year 2000. The Government adopted a comprehensive population policy in 1976 and seeks to reduce the population growth rate to 0 by 1992. Bangladesh's population control program further aims to raise the contraceptive acceptance rate from the current level of 14% of eligible couples to 38% by 1985, to raise the number of current contraceptive users from 2.4 to 7.3 million couples, and to achieve a sterilization level of 3.4 million people. Radio Bangladesh, which has been broadcasting programs on family planning since 1965, is playing an important motivational role in this effort. A Population Planning Cell was established within Radio Bangladesh in 1975 and 5 subcells located throughout the country broadcast independent programs on family planning 6 days/week. Evaluative surveys have confirmed the belief that radio is the most popular form of mass communication in rural areas. 47% of respondents in 1 survey identified radio as their main source of information about family planning, although only 12% reported contraceptive usage. An important task for radio in Bangladesh is to convince listeners that family planning practice is not incompatible with Islamic ideals and to overcome other superstitions and misconceptions about contraception.

  20. Bangladesh Integrated Household Survey (BIHS) 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — This dataset is the second round of Bangladesh Integrated Household Survey (BIHS). The BIHS is the only nationally representative survey in Bangladesh that collects...

  1. Bangladesh becomes "success story".

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The State Minister for Health and Family of Bangladesh, Dr. Mohammed Amanullah, highlighted some of the successes being achieved by his country in lowering fertility and improving the lives of the people since the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. Some of these successes include practical measures to eliminate violence against women; introduction of a quota for women in public sector employment; and launching of the Health and Population Sector Program to provide a one-stop, full range of essential reproductive health, family planning and child health services through an integrated delivery mechanism. Moreover, the Minister informed the Forum participants that their success is attributable to many factors which include support from the government, from non-governmental organizations, civil society, mass media, religious and other community leaders, intersectoral collaboration, microcredit and income-generation activities.

  2. Uranium exploration status in Bangladesh: Conceptual feasibility studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumder, R.; Khalil, M.; Rashid, M.

    2014-01-01

    Bangladesh has a nuclear power program of its own and has been trying to setup a nuclear power reactor. For this reason the Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC) is very much interested to get uranium from indigenous sources. Considering the basic need of nuclear minerals and favourable geological setup for nuclear mineral exploration in Bangladesh, BAEC has been operating nuclear mineral exploration program by its limited resource. As Bangladesh is geologically made of solely sedimentary rocks, it is only possibility to mineralize sedimentary types of uranium deposits under favourable reducing environment, which tends to be deposited as commercial uranium ore. Considering the favourable criteria for uranium formation Bangladesh has been divided into 4 zones as the (1) Eastern Mobile Belt (EMB), (2) Stable Platform (SP), (3) Dauki Fault Belt (DFB) and (4) Dinajpur Slope (DS). The occurrence of uranium in Harargaj anticline is the most suitable indication of uranium potentiality in the EMB. The SP is characterized by the occurrences of Gondwana basins in the subsurface. These basins are quite similar to those exist in uranium bearing Gondwana basins of India, South Africa, Brazil, Argentina, Niger, Australia and Madagascar. The DFB is situated close to the Mahadek uranium belt in the southern fringe of Shillong plateau. Recent investigations has shown that number of anomalous radioactive sites have been detected in Jaintiapur, Sreepur and Jadukata river valley of DFB. These results indicate that uranium bearing solution is still flowing in this zone. So, it can be assumed that the solution has been flowing for very long geologic time and ore might have been formed in and around the DFB. The Dinajpur Slope is characterized by Siwalik sediments, which is capable of hosting uranium as found in India and Pakistan. Besides, the gravels beds of alluvial fans have originated from Darjeeling and Sikkim belts, that are two reportedly uranium potential zones of uranium

  3. Development policy and the projects for fertility decline in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, M; Lieberman, S S

    1983-09-01

    This paper reviews Bangladesh's government policy and suggests which development measures other than family planning services would increase contraceptive usage. It develops a framework for policy analysis by reviewing the fertility determinants literature in general, and that on Bangladesh. Conventional approaches, based on demographic transition theory (which presupposes economic development in the Third World will follow the historical path of the West, with attendant rates of urbanization and industrialization) and the microeconomic theory of consumer choice (whereby costs of children are measured only in the context of the internal workings of the household without regard to outside influences) are rejected in favor of an institutional framework, which emphasizes the productive value of children in the context of the institutional underpinnings of the costs and benefits of children. The analysis identifies the extremely harsh environment of risk, and the absence of effective forms of risk insurance, as crucial to understanding the persistence of Bangladesh's high fertility. It concludes that to ensure the country's fertility transition, the positive reproductive incentive associated with children as insurance against risk must be eliminated or reduced. Therefore policies with the greatest impact on reproductive behavior would either alter the environment of risk or introduce other effective means of adjusting to risk. Among the components of the development program in the Second Five Year Plan, rural public employment measures hold the greatest promise for reducing fertility. Such current initiatives have had program limitations, such as relief rather than long-term orientation and bottlenecks in communication and transportation. However, these efforts form a basis for developing a policy of guaranteed public works employment. This policy's potential flexibility, broad base, and success in other parts of South Asia (particularly Maharashtra State, India) make

  4. Spatial and temporal analysis of a 17-year lightning climatology over Bangladesh with LIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewan, Ashraf; Ongee, Emmanuel T.; Rahman, Md. Masudur; Mahmood, Rezaul; Yamane, Yusuke

    2017-10-01

    Using NASA's TRMM Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) data from 1998 to 2014, this paper presents a 17-year lightning climatology of Bangladesh, at 0.5° × 0.5° spatial resolution. Diurnal, seasonal, monthly and annual variations in the occurrence of lightning flashes were explored. The diurnal regime of lightning is dominated by afternoon/evening events. Overall, peak lightning activity occurs in the early morning (0200 LST) and evening (1900 LST). The distribution of lightning flash counts by season over Bangladesh landmass is as follows: pre-monsoon (69.2%), monsoon (24.1%), post-monsoon (4.6%) and winter (2.1%). Flash rate density (FRD) hotspots were primarily located in the north and north-eastern parts of Bangladesh, with a maximum of 72 fl km-2 year-1. Spatially, the distribution of FRD increases from the Bay of Bengal in the south to relatively higher elevations (of the Himalayan foothills) in the north. A spatial shift in FRD hotspots occurs with change in season. For example, in monsoon season, hotspots of lightning activity move in a south-westerly direction from their pre-monsoon location (i.e. north-eastern Bangladesh) towards West Bengal in India. South and south-eastern parts of Bangladesh experience high lightning activity during post-monsoon season due to regional orographic lifting and low-pressure systems (i.e. cyclone) in the Bay of Bengal. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study focused on LIS-based lightning climatology over Bangladesh. This baseline study, therefore, is an essential first step towards effective management of lightning-related hazards in Bangladesh.

  5. Devario in Bangladesh: Species diversity, sibling species, and introgression within danionin cyprinids (Teleostei: Cyprinidae: Danioninae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md. Mizanur; Norén, Michael; Mollah, Abdur Rob

    2017-01-01

    Four species of Devario are recorded from Bangladesh: D. aequipinnatus, D. anomalus, D. coxi, new species, and D. devario. Devario aequipinnatus has a wide distribution in northern India and Bangladesh. Devario coxi, from southeastern Bangladesh near Cox’s Bazar, differs from D. aequipinnatus in mtDNA (COI, p-distance 1.8%), colouration, proportional measurements, and meristics. The minor morphological differences and low frequency of overlapping meristics suggest relatively recent separation of D. coxi from other D. aequipinnatus. Devario anomalus occurs only in southeastern Bangladesh and is here reported from localities in addition to the type locality. It differs from the similar D. xyrops in adjacent Myanmar by slender body shape and by 2.3% p-distance in the COI gene. Specimens of D. anomalus from the Sangu River were found to have the mitochondrial genome of D. aequipinnatus from Bangladesh, but agree with other D. anomalus in the nuclear RAG1 gene. Devario devario has a wide distribution on the Indian Peninsula and border regions; in Bangladesh it is restricted in distribution to the Ganga, Brahmaputra, and Meghna drainages. Reports of D. assamensis and D. malabaricus from Bangladesh are misidentifications. Perilampus ostreographus M’Clelland, 1839, is tentatively synonymized with D. aequipinnatus. Phylogenetic analysis of 14 species of striped devarios based on the COI gene results in a polytomy with four unresolved clades. Devario deruptotalea from the Chindwin basin is the sister group of D. aequipinnatus+D. coxi. Devario devario is the sistergroup of D. xyrops+D. anomalus. PMID:29166410

  6. AHP 45: REVIEW: FOUNDING AN EMPIRE ON INDIA'S NORTH-EASTERN FRONTIERS 1790-1840

    OpenAIRE

    Hilary Howes

    2017-01-01

    This thoroughly researched and carefully constructed monograph focuses on what is now north-eastern India, an irregularly-shaped region joined only by a narrow neck of land to the remainder of the Indian subcontinent and jostled (or nestled, depending on one's point of view) between Bangladesh, Bhutan, Myanmar, Nepal, and Tibet. Crucially, author Gunnel Cederlöf argues, this representation of northeast India on modern maps - an island in constant danger of drifting away from mainland India, h...

  7. Geospatial Technology: A Tool to Aid in the Elimination of Malaria in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen E. Kirk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh is a malaria endemic country. There are 13 districts in the country bordering India and Myanmar that are at risk of malaria. The majority of malaria morbidity and mortality cases are in the Chittagong Hill Tracts, the mountainous southeastern region of Bangladesh. In recent years, malaria burden has declined in the country. In this study, we reviewed and summarized published data (through 2014 on the use of geospatial technologies on malaria epidemiology in Bangladesh and outlined potential contributions of geospatial technologies for eliminating malaria in the country. We completed a literature review using “malaria, Bangladesh” search terms and found 218 articles published in peer-reviewed journals listed in PubMed. After a detailed review, 201 articles were excluded because they did not meet our inclusion criteria, 17 articles were selected for final evaluation. Published studies indicated geospatial technologies tools (Geographic Information System, Global Positioning System, and Remote Sensing were used to determine vector-breeding sites, land cover classification, accessibility to health facility, treatment seeking behaviors, and risk mapping at the household, regional, and national levels in Bangladesh. To achieve the goal of malaria elimination in Bangladesh, we concluded that further research using geospatial technologies should be integrated into the country’s ongoing surveillance system to identify and better assess progress towards malaria elimination.

  8. Impact of Geoethics in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbdelMakosud, kholoud Mohamed; Ezzat, Nada

    2016-04-01

    Geoethics, is a new term that could be unknown in the Arab world,where its translation in Arabic language make some kind of problems,with special emphasis on Egypt; spreading this term and the importance of it to professionals and un professionals is not an easy task.Culture and awareness problems face us on dealing with it. In this working paper the researchers study two levels of educational samples, the first one is of young geo-scientists and the other one is of young people of different disciplines to make over view survey (monitoring the base level) about knowing geoethics and another survey after applying some lectures and workshops to the same samples to monitor the second level. The aim of the research is to find out how people will accept this term and its application and how we can spread it through community with different effective ways. In Egypt there are some kind of culture problems could affect on spreading of any new concept, these problems could be overcome by some scientific, social and culture recommendations, these recommendations could be applied in both Arab countries and African Countries with few modifications.

  9. Bangladesh pharmaceutical policy and politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, M R

    1994-06-01

    An analysis of the politics of Bangladesh pharmaceutical policy in the 1980s shows how significant health policy reforms in developing countries depend on political conditions both inside and outside the country. Bangladesh's drug policy of 1982 illustrates that governments can sometimes change public policy in ways unfavourable to multinational corporations, while the failed health policy reform of 1990 shows that reforms unfavourable to powerful domestic interest groups can be more difficult to achieve, even contributing to a government's downfall. The case provides evidence of basic changes in how the international agenda for health policy is set, especially the growing role of non-governmental organizations in international agencies and national policy debates. Understanding the political patterns of policy reform in Bangladesh has important implications for strategies to affect health policy in developing countries.

  10. A Human Rights and History Education Model for Teaching about Historical Events of Mass Violence: The 1947 British India Partition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, Meenakshi

    2017-01-01

    This article examines singular historical narratives of the 1947 British India Partition in four history textbooks from India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Britain, respectively. Drawing on analysis and work in the field, this study proposes a seven-module "integrated snail model" with a human rights orientation that can be applied to…

  11. Child abuse in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Islam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Bangladesh, a large number of children are deprived of their basic human rights due to unacceptable health, nutrition, education as well as social conditions. In addition, children are exposed to severe forms of sexual, physical and mental abuses at home, in the work place, in institutions and other public places. The nature and extent of violence against children irrespective of age, sex and class has been increasing day by day. These include physical torture, rape, homicide and sometimes heinous attacks with acid. Children are also victims of child labor and trafficking, both of which are treated as the most severe form of child exploitation and child abuse in the world today. This review article is aimed to focus on the present situation of various forms of child abuses in our country. Data collection is based on secondary sources of information from Dhaka Medical College Hospital, One Stop Crisis Center (OCC,UNICEF, Ministry of Home Affairs, Ministry of Women and Children Affairs, several Dhaka based organizations and news paper clipping. Ibrahim Med. Coll. J. 2015; 9(1: 18-21

  12. Wang Haili, The History of Egypt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Jianwei[1

    2015-01-01

    The History of Egypt is the first monograph on Egyptian history written by a single Chinese author. As a comprehensive study both in Egyptology and in Egyptian history, it represents a new level of Egyptian historical research in Chinese academia.

  13. Egypt: Security, Political, and Islamist Challenges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zuhur, Sherifa

    2007-01-01

    .... Egyptian failures of governance have taken place through three eras: monarchy and the liberal experiment, the period of Arab socialism, and Egypt's reopening to the West under Presidents Sadat and Mubarak...

  14. Biofertilizer for food legumes: Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    In Bangladesh grain legumes are the protein meat substitute of the poor, and an integral part of the daily diet. Yet present yields cannot meet demand and every year about 25% of the country's grain legumes' requirements have to be imported at a cost of about US $23 million in hard-earned foreign exchange. This money could easily be saved by increasing production in the country. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme, with technical support from the Joint FAO/IAEA Division, in Bangladesh to find ways of increasing yields of grain legumes using efficient strains of biofertilizers. (IAEA)

  15. Egypt receives computers from CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2013-01-01

    On Tuesday 22 October, CERN officially celebrated sending IT equipment to Egypt, the fifth country to benefit from such donations after Morocco, Ghana, Bulgaria and Serbia. Although no longer adequate for CERN's cutting-edge research, these machines are still suitable for less demanding applications.   Rolf Heuer and Amr Radi, during the official ceremony. In a ceremony to mark the occasion, Rolf Heuer, CERN Director-General, and Egyptian physicist Amr Radi, team leader of ASRT (Egypt’s Academy of Scientific Research and Technology) within the CMS collaboration, who has played a major part in the operation, expressed their enthusiasm for the project. A total of 196 servers and 10 routers will be installed on the ASRT premises in Cairo, where they will be used to analyse data from the ALICE and CMS experiments. For more information about CERN’s donations of IT equipment, see this Bulletin article.

  16. India's population in transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visaria, L; Visaria, P

    1995-10-01

    This demographic profile of India addresses fertility, family planning, and economic issues. India is described as a country shifting from economic policies of self-reliance to active involvement in international trade. Wealth has increased, particularly at higher educational levels, yet 25% still live below the official poverty line and almost 66% of Indian women are illiterate. The government program in family planning, which was instituted during the early 1950s, did not change the rate of natural increase, which remained stable at 2.2% over the past 30 years. 1993 marked the first time the growth rate decline to under 2%. The growth rate in 1995 was 1.9%. The total population is expected double in 36 years. Only Nigeria, Pakistan, and Bangladesh had a higher growth rate and higher fertility in 1995. India is geographically diverse (with the northern Himalayan mountain zone, the central alluvial plains, the western desert region, and the southern peninsula with forest, mountains, and plains). There are regional differences in the fertility rates, which range from replacement level in Kerala and Goa to 5.5 children in Uttar Pradesh. Fertility is expected to decline throughout India due to the slower pace of childbearing among women over the age of 35 years, the increase in contraceptive use, and increases in marriage age. Increased educational levels in India and its state variations are related to lower fertility. Literacy campaigns are considered to be effective means of increasing the educational levels of women. Urbanization is not expected to markedly affect fertility levels. Urban population, which is concentrated in a few large cities, remains a small proportion of total population. Greater shifts are evident in the transition from agriculture to other wage labor. Fertility is expected to decline as women's share of labor force activity increases. The major determinant of fertility decline in India is use of family planning, which has improved in access

  17. Entamoeba bangladeshi nov. sp., Bangladesh.

    OpenAIRE

    Royer, TL; Gilchrist, C; Kabir, M; Arju, T; Ralston, KS; Haque, R; Clark, CG; Petri, WAJr

    2012-01-01

    : TO THE EDITOR: Diarrheal diseases have a major effect on global health, particularly the health of malnourished children (1). The enteric parasites Entamoeba histolytica and E. moshkovskii are potential causes of diarrheal disease in children (2). For the past 20 years, we have been studying Entamoeba infections in children from the urban slum of Mirpur in Dhaka, Bangladesh (3).

  18. Seismicity and tectonics of Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, K.M.

    1989-05-01

    Northern and eastern Bangladesh and surrounding areas belong to a seismically active zone and are associated with the subduction of the Indian plate. The seismicity and tectonics have been studied in detail and the observations have been correlated to understand the earthquake phenomenon in the region. The morphotectonic behaviour of northern Bangladesh shows that it is deeply related to the movement of the Dauki fault system and relative upliftment of the Shillong plateau. Contemporary seismicity in the Dauki fault system is relatively quiet comparing to that in the Naga-Disang-Haflong thrust belt giving rise to the probability of sudden release of energy being accumulated in the vicinity of the Dauki fault system. This observation corresponds with the predicted average return period of a large earthquake (1897 type) and the possibility of M > 8 earthquake in the vicinity of the Dauki fault within this century should not be ruled out. The seismicity in the folded belt in the east follows the general trend of Arakan-Yoma anticlinorium and represents shallow and low-angled thrust movements in conformity with the field observation. Seismotectonic behaviour in the deep basin part of Bangladesh demonstrates that an intraplate movement in the basement rock has been taking place along the deep-seated faults causing relative upliftment and subsidence in the basin. Bangladesh has been divided into three seismic zones on the basis of morphotectonic and seismic behaviour. Zone-I has been identified as the zone of high seismic risk. (author). 43 refs, 5 figs, 3 tabs

  19. Women in physics in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Shamima K.

    2013-03-01

    Bangladesh has had a glorious physics tradition since the beginning of the last century, when the physicist S.N. Bose published a groundbreaking paper with Albert Einstein on Bose-Einstein statistics. However, women in Bangladesh traditionally have not been able to make their way in the realm of science in general and physics in particular. Since Bangladesh achieved independence in 1971, the situation has gradually changed and more and more women choose physics as an academic discipline. The percentage of women students in physics rose from 10% in 1970 to almost 30% in 2010. In recent years, women physicists have actively participated in many activities promoting science and technology, creating awareness among the public about the importance of physics education. The present status of women physicists in academic, research, and administrative programs in the government and private sectors in Bangladesh is reported. The greater inclusion of women scientists, particularly physicists, in policy-making roles on important issues of global and national interest is suggested.

  20. Modern population trends in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abul-basher, M M

    1985-01-01

    Population growth trends in Bangladesh in the 1871-1981 period were analyzed, with emphasis on fertility and mortality differentials, to provide a basis for population planning. Following proclamation of British Imperial Rule in 1857, mortality rates in Bangladesh began to decline as a result of preventive measures against natural disasters such as draught and famine, but the fertility rate remained unaltered. The demographic pattern was unstable over time, reflecting the impact of the influenza epidemic of 1918-19, war, migration, and economic development. Population growth accelerated greatly during the 1961-74 period, when industrialization emerged and job opportunities were created in the urban centers. Economic hardship, food shortages, and the introduction of family planning curbed urban growth drastically and total growth to some extent in 1974-81. On the average, growth has been higher in the Dhaka and Chittagong Divisions of Bangladesh than in the Khulna and Rajshahi Divisions. Differences in population growth among the regions are attributable largely to internal and external migration. The regression polynomial model best fits past population trends in Bangladesh and can reproduce the observed population by 99.60%. This polynomial is most suitable for graduation and prediction of population trends.

  1. Differences in self-reported physical limitation among older women and men in Ismailia, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadr, Zeinab; Yount, Kathryn

    2012-09-01

    This study explores the reasons for gender differences in self-reported physical limitation among older adults in Ismailia, Egypt. 435 women and 448 men, 50 years and older in Ismailia, Egypt, participated in a social survey and tests of physical performance. Ordered logit models were estimated to compare unadjusted gender differences in reported disability with these differences adjusted sequentially for (a) age and objective measures of physical performance, (b) self-reported morbidities and health care use, and (c) social and economic attributes. Compared with men, women more often reported higher levels of limitation in activities of daily living (ADLs), upper-extremity range of motion (ROM), and lower-extremity gross mobility (GM). Adjusting for age and objective measures of physical performance, women and men had similar odds of self-reporting difficulty with ADLs. With sequential adjustments for the remaining variables, women maintained significantly higher odds of self-reported difficulty with upper-extremity ROM and lower-extremity GM. Cross-culturally, gender differences in self-reported disability may arise from objective and subjective perceptions of disability. Collectively, these results and those from prior studies in Bangladesh and the United States suggest that gender gaps in self-reported physical limitation may be associated with the degree of gender equality in society.

  2. Predicate Offences of Money Laundering and Anti Money Laundering Practices in Bangladesh Among South Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam Mohammad Saiful

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to identify the main reasons of money laundering in Bangladesh among the twenty seven predicate offences of money laundering prescribed by Bangladesh Bank and position of Bangladesh among South Asian Countries regarding anti-money laundering practices. Besides, an anti-money laundering model has been developed to combat against money laundering as 14 percent bankers think that only existing know your customer form and transaction profile of banking sector are not enough to detect money laundering. To conduct the study, 91 bankers have been surveyed to take response through structured questionnaire regarding their opinion about the predicate offences of money laundering and sufficiency of existing KYC form of banking sector to detect money laundering. From the responses, factor analysis, test of hypothesis, correlation and regression analysis have been conducted using SPSS software. The study identifies that predicate offences of money laundering can be minimized mainly through scrutinizing the activities of local criminals with foreign network and strict anti-corruption measures through automation in National Board of Revenue, strict policy adoption of criminal detection and support from foreign experts. Besides, regression model shows that only six predicate offences of money laundering explains 87.2 percent of money laundering that should get more emphasize to combat against money laundering. From the comparative analysis, it has been found that Bangladesh in holding better position just after India among six South Asian Countries according to Basel AML Index score. This study provides a complete understanding of the position of Bangladesh in case of money laundering and anti-money laundering practices. The integration of four domains, i.e. AML model development, factor analysis, econometric analysis and comparative analysis of AML index will provide insights to managers and policy makers about the money laundering

  3. Ancient Egypt in our Cultural Heritage?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Vasiljević

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Inspiration derived from ancient Egypt is usually expressed through the Egyptian motifs in arts and popular culture of the 19th and 20th centuries, as well as through the non-scientific interpretations of the culture, very much based upon the Renaissance ones. The number and variety of material and non-material traces of this fascination are most expressed in the countries where, along with the early support for the institutional development of Egyptology, there existed economically potent educated middle classes (Western and Central Europe, USA, but may also be traced elsewhere. The public fascination by ancient Egypt has not ceased by the times of foundation of Egyptology, marked by the decipherment of the hieroglyphic script in 1822. Until the end of the 20th century Egyptologists have rarely dealt with the prelude to their discipline, limiting their interest to the critical approach to ancient sources and to noting the attempts to interpret the hieroglyphic script and the function of pyramids. However, the rising importance of the reception studies in other disciplines raised the interest of Egyptologists for the "fascination of Egypt", thus changing the status of various modes of expressing "Egyptomania" – they have thus become a part of the cultural heritage, registered, documented, preserved and studied. The research of this kind is only beginning in Serbia. The line of inquiry enhances the knowledge of the scope, manifestations and roles of the interest in Egypt, not limited by the national or political borders. On the other hand, the existence of the cultural heritage similar to the wider European view of ancient Egypt – short remarks by Jerotej Račanin, Kandor by Atanasije Stojković, the usage of architectural motifs derived from Egypt, the emergence of small private collections, to mention several early examples – all show that the research into the reception of ancient Egypt may contribute to the knowledge about the history

  4. A global vision for small business in Egypt | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Egypt's Ministry of Finance in Enhancing Competitiveness of SMEs in Egypt: General ... SMEPol then supported the policy formulation process, in part by providing urgently needed ... Research also focused on strategies for increasing exports.

  5. All projects related to | Page 125 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: Climate change, MIGRATION, GENDER ANALYSIS, POLICY MAKING, ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT, ADAPTATION. Region: Bangladesh, Egypt, Ghana, India, United Kingdom. Program: Climate Change. Total Funding: CA$ 12,455,362.00. Deltas, Vulnerability, and Climate Change: Migration as an ...

  6. CULTURAL TOURISM: BANGLADESH TRIBAL AREAS PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasnuba NASIR

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is the world's largest industry which is linked with thousands of associated business. Though Bangladesh is a small country in terms of its size it contains huge prospect in its tourism including culture. Bangladesh culture is very rich which initiated long ago with different dimensions. Chittagong hill tracts of Bangladesh are a place of tribal. Tribal are having their own rich culture which is very attractive and nice looking. This study focused on tribal culture and its tourists. This paper also seeks about problems of cultural tourism in Bangladesh.

  7. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN ECOTOURISM: Perspective of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Saha, Joyanta

    2014-01-01

    Bangladesh is known as a developing country in the South Asia region and is easily accessible to visit from any other county in the world. Tourism in Bangladesh has been considered as an emerging sector. This sector is still not widely exposed but the tourism industry is known as the most growing sector. Bangladesh contains more than sixteen popular tourist spots and for many facts and reasons Bangladesh has a strong position in tourism for its natural beauty, flora and fauna, rivers and lake...

  8. Rainwater in Egypt: quantity, distribution and harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.I. ABDEL-SHAFY

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Egypt has limited water resources, and it will be under water stress within the year 2030. Therefore, Egypt should consider the natural and non-conventional water resources to overcome such problem. Rain harvesting is one solution; but not all; particularly on the north coast by the Mediterranean Sea and the Red sea. In this paper, the rainwater issue is reviewed and discussed in terms of the quantities and distribution at different selected areas in Egypt. The amount of rain falls at different location in Egypt was collected for a period of 16 months. The data indicated that rainfall in Egypt is very scarce, with an annual average of 12 mm and ranges from 0 mm/year in the desert to 200 mm/year in the north coastal region. The maximum total amount of rain does not exceed 1.8 billion m3per year. However, the average annual amount of rainfall water that is effectively utilized for agriculture purposes is estimated to be 1 billion m3. Harvesting pilot plant was constructed and implemented in Alexandria directly on the Mediterranean Sea. The harvested rain was used for irrigation and treated for drinking. It was, therefore, recommended to develop sustainable catchments at appropriate locations in the rain-fed areas at the north coast as well as cost effective grafting of the indigenous technologies with the innovative techniques.

  9. Flash flood characterisation of the Haor area of Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, B.; Suman, A.

    2012-04-01

    Haors are large bowl-shaped flood plain depressions located mostly in north-eastern part of Bangladesh covering about 25% of the entire region. During dry season haors are used for agriculture and during rainy season it is used as fisheries. Haors have profound ecological importance. About 8000 migratory wild birds visit the area annually. Some of the haors are declared at Ramsar sites. Haors are frequently affected by the flash floods due to hilly topography and steep slope of the rivers draining the area. These flash floods spill onto low-lying flood plain lands in the region, inundating crops, damaging infrastructure by erosion and often causing loss of lives and properties. Climate change is exacerbating the situation. For appropriate risk mitigation mechanism it is necessary to explore flood characteristics of that region. The area is not at all studied well. Under a current project a numerical 1D2D model based on MIKE Flood is developed to study the flooding characteristics and estimate the climate change impacts on the haor region. Under this study the progression of flood levels at some key haors in relation to the water level data at specified gauges in the region is analysed. As the region is at the border with India so comparing with the gauges at the border with India is carried out. The flooding in the Haor area is associated with the rainfall in the upstream catchment in India (Meghalaya, Barak and Tripura basins in India). The flood propagation in some of the identified haors in relation to meteorological forcing in the three basins in India is analysed as well. Subsequently, a ranking of haors is done based on individual risks. Based on the IPCC recommendation the precipitation scenario in the upstream catchments under climate change is considered. The study provides the fundamental inputs for preparing a flood risk management plan of the region.

  10. Radiopharmaceuticals production activities in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raieh, M.

    1998-01-01

    Applications of radiopharmaceuticals and labelled compounds in the field of nuclear medicine in Egypt have increased so rapidly in the last few years. At present, a large number of hospitals are utilizing these radioisotopic techniques for both diagnosis and treatment. The following production activities are taking place in the Egyptian Radioisotope Production laboratories. By utilizing the research reactor a large number of radioisotopes which find wide applications in nuclear medicine were produced, such as iodine-131, phosphorus-32, sodium-24, potassium-42 and molybdenum-99 / technetium-99m generators. Gallium-67, indium-111 and iodine-123 will be produced locally after installation of the cyclotron at the end of 1998. A large number of Tc-99m based kits for diagnostic medical applications have been produced. Also, many radiopharmaceuticals labelled with iodine-131 were produced. The radioisotope production laboratory is able to supply many hospitals with the radioimmunoassay kits of the thyroid related hormones (T4, T3 and TSH). Research and development activities are taking place in the field of monoclonal antibodies and tumor markers with special consideration of AFP, CEA, PSA and βhCG. (author)

  11. Market or government: lessons from a comparative analysis of the experience of Pakistan and India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanek, G F

    1991-01-01

    A comparison of India and Pakistan (and Bangladesh) in the last 40 years is made in view of the consensus emerging in the 1980s about the supremacy of market-oriented strategy to overcome and alleviate poverty even in less developed countries (LDC). For 4 decades India consistently intervened in the economy, while Pakistan had periods of deregulation and more reliance on market forces. The period from 1947 to 1969-1970, the 1970's, and the 1980s were examined. Dirigiste strategy produced similar or lower production in Pakistan and Bangladesh as in India (1% growth), however, market strategy production in the former countries (3%). Foreign aid (over 10% of gross domestic product in Pakistan and less than one-half of that in India) also stimulated growth. In the late 1970s and late 1980s the import surplus of Pakistan and Bangladesh was 11% vs. 25% of that in India. In the 1950s Pakistan's exports grew rapidly, and in the 1960s the rate of growth in manufactured goods was double that of India due to the Export Bonus Voucher System. The reverse was true during 1969-70 and 1976-77 when India's total manufactured exports grew at twice the rate of Pakistan as the abolition of the voucher scheme occurred, inflation climbed and export duties were imposed. In the late 1970s to mid 1980s military governments in Pakistan and Bangladesh relied heavily on the market devaluing by 100%, deregulating imported inputs, and introducing incentives for exports. Dirigism produced a 50% higher grown in India vs. 200% in the other countries by market efforts. Government intervention tended to aggravate market distortions, although it produced positive results in nontraditional exports in Pakistan and in agricultural infrastructure building, primary school attendance and health services, electrification, and road building in India. Market-induced rapid growth used more unskilled labor and alleviated poverty.

  12. Enhancing preparation for large Nipah outbreaks beyond Bangladesh: Preventing a tragedy like Ebola in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halsie Donaldson

    2018-07-01

    Full Text Available The Nipah virus has been transmitted from person-to-person via close contact in non-urban parts of India (including Kerala May 2018, Bangladesh, and the Philippines. It can cause encephalitis and pneumonia, and has a high case fatality rate. Nipah is a One Health zoonotic infectious disease linked to fruit bats, and sometimes pigs or horses. We advocate anticipating and preparing for urban and larger rural outbreaks of Nipah. Immediate enhanced preparations would include standardized guidance on infection prevention and control, and personal protective equipment, from the World Health Organization (WHO on their OpenWHO website and 2018 “Managing Epidemics” handbook, along with adding best clinical practices by experts in countries with multiple outbreaks such as Bangladesh and India. Longer-term enhanced preparations include accelerating development of field diagnostics, antiviral drugs, immune-based therapies, and vaccines. WHO-coordinated multi-partner protocols to test investigational treatments, diagnostics, and vaccines are needed, by analogy to such protocols for Ebola during the unanticipated pan-epidemic in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. Anticipating and preparing now for urban and rural Nipah outbreaks in nations with no experience with Nipah will help avoid the potential for what the United Nations 2016 report on Ebola in West Africa called a “preventable tragedy”. Keywords: Nipah epidemics beyond Bangladesh, Nipah countermeasures, Nipah, One Health

  13. Status of fertility control in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefnawi, F I

    1982-01-01

    The concern for fertility control is not alien to the cultural and religious heritage of Egypt. Historically, Egyptian interest in fertility dates to the Pharoahs. Contraceptive recipes written at least 15-18 centuries B.C. have been found. Romans may have borrowed some of the more effective methods from Egypt when it became part of the Roman Empire as evidenced by the decline in size of aristocratic Roman families at the beginning of the Christian era. Muslim conquerors of Egypt encouraged fertility control. In the 9th century differences of opinion about the legality of contraception appeared among the interpreters of Islamic law. Some methods found in the writings of Muslim doctors as al-Razi and Avicenna still survive in the folk medicine of Egypt. In modern times use of barrier methods of contraception were encouraged by family planning organizations in Egypt. The medical profession was not deeply involved since these methods did not require much medical assistance. In 1936 a religiouss verdict declared contraception to be a lawful act of Islam. National programs in family planning in the 1960's encouraged the use of the Lippes Loop IUD. The medical problem of blood loss associated with the IUD caused anxiety because of the high incidence of anemia in the female Egyptian population. There was also a cultural limitation on the wide use of the IUD. "Spotting" due to the IUD resulted in females being ritually unclean and therefore unfit to pray or observe the Islamic fast. The Pill, initially favored caused complications due to its effect on breast milk which is the universal source of nutrition for infants in Egypt. Replacement of the Pill by depo-provera injections during the post partum period of lactation is a practical solution. Permanent sterilization is limited to females and only performed when medically indicated. Abortion is illegal and permitted only as a therapeutic measure.

  14. Application of radiation in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naiyyum Choudhury; Najmul Alam Chowdhury; Feroza Akhtar [Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    2001-03-01

    Radiation technology offers a very wide scope for utilisation and commercial exploitation in various field. All over the world, this technology is being favourably considered for different applications like radiation sterilisation of medical products, preservation of food by controlling the physiological processes for extending shelf-life and eradication of microbial and insect pests, radiation processing of polymeric materials and treatment of sewage sludge. Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission has taken radiation processing programmes in a big way right from its inception. This paper describes the studies carried out by various research groups in Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission mainly using Cobalt-60 gamma radiation. The investigation covers medical sterilisation, food preservation and development and modification of polymeric materials by gamma radiation. Both food preservation and radiation sterilisation of medical products are now being commercially carried out in the Gammatech facility as a joint venture company of BAEC and a private entrepreneur. Bangladesh is soon going to establish a full-fledged Tissue Bank to cater the needs of various tissue allografts for surgical replacement. Recently Government of Bangladesh has allocated US$ 1.00 million for strengthening of the Tissue Banking Laboratory. BAEC has made quite a good research contribution on vulcanization of natural rubber latex, wood plastic composites, surface coating curing, polymer modification etc. As a result of successful achievement of R and D activities in all these projects, a pilot plant project involving about US$ 4.00 million is under implementation at the Atomic energy Research Establishment campus of BAEC. In addition a project on 'National Polymer Centre' at a cost of US$ 2.00 million has already been approved. It is expected that work on radiation processing including commercialization will be accelerated with the implementation of these projects. The impact of radiation

  15. Foreign Exchange Reserves: Bangladesh Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Zahangir Alam

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is about foreign exchangereserves of Bangladesh. The mainpurpose of this study is to the influence of exchange rates on foreign exchangereserves to the Bangladesh context.  Both the primary and secondary data has been used inthis study. The primary data has been collected through a structuredquestionnaire from 50 respondents. The secondary data, namely Bangladeshforeign exchange reserves (FER, Bangladesh current account balance (CAB,Bangladesh capital andfinancial account balance (CFAB, and BDT/USD exchange rates (ER.  This study covers yearly data from July 01,1996 to June 30, 2005 and quarterly data from July 01, 2005 to June 30, 2012. Findingsof this study shows that out of the selected 16 factors affecting foreignexchange reserves, exchange rates occupy the first position, weighted averagescore (WAS being 4.56. Foreign exchange reserves (FER and current accountbalance (CAB have increased by 502.9087% and 1451.218%,whereas capital and financial account (CFAB has decreased by -649.024% on June30, 2012 compared to June 30, 1997. The influence of other factors heldconstant, as ER changes by 285.6894 units due to one unit change in FER, onaverage in the same direction which represents that ER has positive effect on theFER and this relationship is statistically significant.  62.1526 percentof the variation in FER is explained by ER. The outcomes of Breusch-Godfrey test (LM test, ARCHtest, and the Normality test are that there is a serial correlation among residuals, the variance of residuals is notconstant, and the residuals are not normally distributed.

  16. Application of radiation in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naiyyum Choudhury; Najmul Alam Chowdhury; Feroza Akhtar

    2001-01-01

    Radiation technology offers a very wide scope for utilisation and commercial exploitation in various field. All over the world, this technology is being favourably considered for different applications like radiation sterilisation of medical products, preservation of food by controlling the physiological processes for extending shelf-life and eradication of microbial and insect pests, radiation processing of polymeric materials and treatment of sewage sludge. Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission has taken radiation processing programmes in a big way right from its inception. This paper describes the studies carried out by various research groups in Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission mainly using Cobalt-60 gamma radiation. The investigation covers medical sterilisation, food preservation and development and modification of polymeric materials by gamma radiation. Both food preservation and radiation sterilisation of medical products are now being commercially carried out in the Gammatech facility as a joint venture company of BAEC and a private entrepreneur. Bangladesh is soon going to establish a full-fledged Tissue Bank to cater the needs of various tissue allografts for surgical replacement. Recently Government of Bangladesh has allocated US$ 1.00 million for strengthening of the Tissue Banking Laboratory. BAEC has made quite a good research contribution on vulcanization of natural rubber latex, wood plastic composites, surface coating curing, polymer modification etc. As a result of successful achievement of R and D activities in all these projects, a pilot plant project involving about US$ 4.00 million is under implementation at the Atomic energy Research Establishment campus of BAEC. In addition a project on 'National Polymer Centre' at a cost of US$ 2.00 million has already been approved. It is expected that work on radiation processing including commercialization will be accelerated with the implementation of these projects. The impact of radiation processing

  17. Progress in food irradiation: Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, M

    1982-11-01

    The Bangladesh contribution deals with fish preservation by irradiation and, in this context, with the radiosensitivity of mesophilic and psychophilic microorganisms. Sprouting inhibition is studied with potatoes and onions. A further part deals with irradiation of spices. Mutagenicity tests were carried on rats and mice fed with irradiated fish. The tests were performed at the Institute for Food and Radiation Biology, near Dacca in December 1981.

  18. Application of radiation in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhury, Naiyyum; Chowdhury, Najmul Alam; Akhtar, Feroza [Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    2001-03-01

    Radiation technology offers a very wide scope for utilisation and commercial exploitation in various field. All over the world, this technology is being favourably considered for different applications like radiation sterilisation of medical products, preservation of food by controlling the physiological processes for extending shelf-life and eradication of microbial and insect pests, radiation processing of polymeric materials and treatment of sewage sludge. Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission has taken radiation processing programmes in a big way right from its inception. This paper describes the studies carried out by various research groups in Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission mainly using Cobalt-60 gamma radiation. The investigation covers medical sterilisation, food preservation and development and modification of polymeric materials by gamma radiation. Both food preservation and radiation sterilisation of medical products are now being commercially carried out in the Gammatech facility as a joint venture company of BAEC and a private entrepreneur. Bangladesh is soon going to establish a full-fledged Tissue Bank to cater the needs of various tissue allografts for surgical replacement. Recently Government of Bangladesh has allocated US$ 1.00 million for strengthening of the Tissue Banking Laboratory. BAEC has made quite a good research contribution on vulcanization of natural rubber latex, wood plastic composites, surface coating curing, polymer modification etc. As a result of successful achievement of R and D activities in all these projects, a pilot plant project involving about US$ 4.00 million is under implementation at the Atomic energy Research Establishment campus of BAEC. In addition a project on 'National Polymer Centre' at a cost of US$ 2.00 million has already been approved. It is expected that work on radiation processing including commercialization will be accelerated with the implementation of these projects. The impact of radiation processing

  19. Bangladesh Development Update, October 2013

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    Economic performance has remained resilient to global headwinds and disruptive politics in Bangladesh in FY13. Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth decelerated for the second year in a row to 6 percent. Disruptions caused by political strife, deepening political tensions relating to the impending political transition and the inadequacies of improvements in the provision of power, gas and infrastructure were the key factors in the growth slowdown. These contributed to weakening investor confide...

  20. Renewable-energy applications in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammad, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    The paper illustrates the main activities carried out concerning development and application of renewable-energy technologies in Egypt. Main attention is devoted to biogas technology, solar and wind energy technologies. The main constraints for implementation of renewable-energy technologies in Egypt and the activities carried out for its release are highlighted. The coordination between the Islamic and other developing countries is highly needed, to achieve marked progress in implementation of renewable energy and sustainable development. Establishment of a network for renewable energy among the Islamic countries can play an active role in these aspects. (author)

  1. Reaching women in Egypt: a success story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mousa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Women in Egypt are more likely than men to suffer from low vision or blindness from avoidable causes.1–3 This is, in large part, because women are not using eye care services as frequently as men, especially in rural areas.4–5 A 2002 community-based survey of 4,500 people in Al Minya Governorate, Upper Egypt showed that the prevalence of cataract in women was double that in men and that trachomatous trichiasis was four times as prevalent in women as in men

  2. The EU and Constitutionalism in Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Peter

    2013-01-01

    of the unrest in Egypt followed by an analysis of the European-Egyptian relationship over the last two years divided in three parts: Egypt and the ENP-UfM complex, the Muslim Brotherhood and the Egyptian political transformation process seen in a European perspective and finally the migration issue...... in the context of Egyptian-European relations. The article argues that the EU policies, which earlier have been dominated by a pragmatic approach towards the Mubarak regime, now have to be rethought considering an Egyptian polity, where the contours of a new constitutionalism are developing....

  3. Updating radiation protection regulations in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomaa, M.A.; El-Naggar, A.M.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this treatise is to present -the rational steps taken in the process of updating the Radiation Protection Regulations in Egypt. The contents of the review will include a historical synopsis, and the current state of art regarding competent authorities. Furthermore, the various committees formed with responsibilities for specific issues are indicated, including the role of the Ministry of Health (MOH), and that of the Atomic Energy Authority (AEA). Finally, the efforts made towards updating the radiation Protection Regulations in Egypt are highlighted. (author)

  4. TREATMENT OF FRACTURES IN ANCIENT EGYPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. K. Bashurov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The most complete information about the medicine in Ancient Egypt two papyrus provided: a large medical papyrus of G. Ebers and papyrus about the surgery of E. Smith. Smith’s papyrus is of particular interest as it contains the information on the status of surgery in Ancient Egypt. Papyrus consists of descriptions of the clinical cases. To the present time, 48 cases have survived; it is arranged in order of location - from the head down to the feet. Orthopedic deformities were reflected in the figures on the walls of the pyramids and temples as well as the description of the mummies and archaeological finds.

  5. Women in Post-Revolutionary Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Toft; Hervik, Peter

    and in drawings. Based on the analysis of this material the reader gets insights into personal experiences, believes and opinions of a diverse group of women in terms of age, economic class, education, geography, culture, religion, ethnicity, marital status, and political orientation. The detail-rich empirical......This book addresses how identity, structures, and agency affect women’s everyday lives in post-revolutionary Egypt. The authors analyse the topic both on a macro- as well as on a micro-level. Through interviews and workshops, women around Egypt express their own experiences in dialogue, in groups...

  6. Hypertension in Bangladesh: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K.M. Monwarul Islam

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension (HTN is an increasingly important medical and public health problem. In Bangladesh, approximately 20% of adult and 40–65% of elderly people suffer from HTN. High incidence of metabolic syndrome, and lifestyle-related factors like obesity, high salt intake, and less physical activity may play important role in the pathophysiology of HTN. The association of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE gene polymorphism and low birth weight with blood pressure has been studied inadequately. Studies have found relationship between mass arsenic poisoning and HTN. Hypovitaminosis D presumably plays role in the aetiopathogenesis of HTN in Bangladeshi population. South Asians appear to respond to antihypertensive therapy in a similar manner to the Whites. The latest National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence guideline advocates a calcium-channel blocker as step 1 antihypertensive treatment to people aged > 55 years and an ACE inhibitor or a low-cost angiotensin-II receptor blocker for the younger people. Calcium-channel blockers and beta-blockers have been found to be the most commonly prescribed antihypertensive drugs in Bangladesh. Non-adherence to the standard guidelines and irrational drug prescribing are likely to be important. On the other hand, non-adherence to antihypertensive treatment is quite high. At the advent of the new millennium, we are really unaware of our real situation. Large-scale, preferably, nation-wide survey and clinical research are needed to explore the different aspects of HTN in Bangladesh.

  7. Energy poverty in rural Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, Douglas F.; Khandker, Shahidur R.; Samad, Hussain A.

    2011-01-01

    Energy poverty is a well-established concept among energy and development specialists. International development organizations frequently cite energy-poverty alleviation as a necessary condition to reduce income poverty. Several approaches used to measure energy poverty over the past 20 years have defined the energy poverty line as the minimum quantity of physical energy needed to perform such basic tasks as cooking and lighting. This paper uses a demand-based approach to define the energy poverty line as the threshold point at which energy consumption begins to rise with increases in household income. At or below this threshold point, households consume a bare minimum level of energy and should be considered energy poor. This approach was applied using cross-sectional data from a comprehensive 2004 household survey representative of rural Bangladesh. The findings suggest that some 58 percent of rural households in Bangladesh are energy poor, versus 45 percent that are income poor. The findings also suggest that policies to support rural electrification and greater use of improved biomass stoves might play a significant role in reducing energy poverty. - Research Highlights: →We estimate energy poverty for rural Bangladesh adopting a demand-based approach. →Findings suggest that energy poverty does not necessarily follow the same pattern as income poverty. →Access to modern energy and efficient use of traditional energy help alleviate energy poverty. →Energy poverty indicator can help track the effectiveness of a wide range of energy policies.

  8. IAEA Perspectives on Future of Nuclear Energy, 11 March 2013, Mumbai, India, Indian Nuclear Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Y.

    2013-01-01

    It is a great pleasure for me to address the Indian Nuclear Society once again. When I last spoke to you, in January 2011, the nuclear world looked somewhat different from today. There was still talk of a global nuclear renaissance. Dozens of countries were thinking about introducing nuclear power. Many of the 30 or so existing users planned to build additional plants. Then came the Fukushima Daiichi accident, two years ago today. It caused profound public anxiety and damaged confidence in nuclear power. Some people predicted that nuclear power would go into decline. However, the evidence suggests that this will not be the case. Some European countries announced plans to move away from nuclear power. But, globally, nuclear power looks set to continue to grow steadily, although more slowly than we expected before the Fukushima Daiichi accident. There are 437 operating nuclear power reactors in the world today. The latest IAEA projections, which are based on what Member States tell us, suggest that number could increase by 80 or 90 in the next 20 years. It could even double. At the moment, there are 66 new reactors under construction. Seven of them are in India. I understand your country plans continued expansion in the coming decades. Other major users of nuclear power such as China and Russia also have significant expansion plans. A number of countries have taken the decision to introduce nuclear power, including Bangladesh, Egypt, Jordan, Nigeria, Poland, Turkey and Vietnam. The United Arab Emirates has started building a nuclear power plant, the first new country to do so for 27 years. I visited the site in January and was impressed by the progress being made. Ladies and Gentlemen, This audience understands better than most the many benefits which nuclear power offers. Nuclear power can help to improve energy security. It can reduce the impact of volatile fossil fuel prices and mitigate the effects of climate change. For a rapidly developing economy such as India

  9. Cooperation project: medical physics in cancer diagnosis and therapy in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quast, Ulrich; Zakaria, Golam Abu; Hoever, Karl-Heinz; Ahmad, Gias uddin; Akhter, Shaheen

    1999-01-01

    Bangladesh requires 200 radiotherapy facilities, 4 are in use; 400 medical physicists are needed, 3 are employed. On a private basis, a DGMP working group started in 1996, annual workshops on medical physics in cancer diagnosis and treatment, joined by many working physicists interested to become medical physicists. Basic topics were the principles, applications, acceptance, dosimetry and planning of 60 Co radiotherapy. In 1998, the Bangladesh association of physicists in medicine (BMPA) was founded, a young scientific society requiring international co-operation. The long experience in Medical Physics in India, its neighbouring country, could be very helpful in providing excellent medical physics courses. To absorb new technology and science, it is necessary to change the education policy; creativity and innovativeness must be valued more than the old knowledge, being replaced quickly by new knowledge and new technologies. (author)

  10. A taxonomic review of the genus Antepipona de Saussure, 1855 (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae) from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Girish P; Carpenter, James M; Sureshan, Pavittu M

    2016-08-16

    A review of 20 Indian species of the genus Antepipona de Saussure with a key to species and subspecies is provided. A new synonymy is proposed for Antepipona biguttata (Fabricius, 1787) =A. excelsa keralensis Lambert, 2004, syn. nov. The parasitic association of Strepsiptera is reported for the first time in the genus Antepipona. Antepipona rufescens (Smith, 1857) is newly recorded from India and A. ovalis (de Saussure, 1853) from Bangladesh. The reported distributions of ten species within India are enlarged.

  11. Multi scenario seismic hazard assessment for Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Shaimaa Ismail; Abd el-aal, Abd el-aziz Khairy; El-Eraki, Mohamed Ahmed

    2018-05-01

    Egypt is located in the northeastern corner of Africa within a sensitive seismotectonic location. Earthquakes are concentrated along the active tectonic boundaries of African, Eurasian, and Arabian plates. The study area is characterized by northward increasing sediment thickness leading to more damage to structures in the north due to multiple reflections of seismic waves. Unfortunately, man-made constructions in Egypt were not designed to resist earthquake ground motions. So, it is important to evaluate the seismic hazard to reduce social and economic losses and preserve lives. The probabilistic seismic hazard assessment is used to evaluate the hazard using alternative seismotectonic models within a logic tree framework. Alternate seismotectonic models, magnitude-frequency relations, and various indigenous attenuation relationships were amended within a logic tree formulation to compute and develop the regional exposure on a set of hazard maps. Hazard contour maps are constructed for peak ground acceleration as well as 0.1-, 0.2-, 0.5-, 1-, and 2-s spectral periods for 100 and 475 years return periods for ground motion on rock. The results illustrate that Egypt is characterized by very low to high seismic activity grading from the west to the eastern part of the country. The uniform hazard spectra are estimated at some important cities distributed allover Egypt. The deaggregation of seismic hazard is estimated at some cities to identify the scenario events that contribute to a selected seismic hazard level. The results of this study can be used in seismic microzonation, risk mitigation, and earthquake engineering purposes.

  12. Occidentalisms. Images of 'the West' in Egypt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woltering, Robbert Antonius Fransiscus Leonardus

    2009-01-01

    This thesis researches images of ‘the West’ in contemporary Egyptian non-fiction. These images – or: Occidentalisms - are found to have a history going back to the early nineteenth century, and are clearly related to political and social developments in Egypt and the wider Arab world, in which

  13. Egypt: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-27

    right to govern; the more the Brotherhood charges ahead, the more it confirms the others’ belief of its monopolistic designs over power. Even if...appropriate market -reform and economic growth activities.” Egypt: Background and U.S. Relations Congressional Research Service 18 according to the State

  14. Egypt | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Our research support in Egypt has shifted focus with the country's changing needs. ... With support from IDRC and other partners, the university established the Alexandria Research Centre for ... stimulate technology start ups; prepare youth for in high-demand jobs in retail, hospitality, ... Careers · Contact Us · Site map.

  15. Microsatellite analysis of Fasciola spp. in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Yasser; Amer, Said; Courtioux, Bertrand; Dreyfuss, Gilles

    2011-12-01

    Recently, the topic of diversity in Fasciola population in Egypt is controversial. The present study was performed to study the genetic diversity of isolated flukes based on microsatellites markers. Fasciola worms were collected from different hosts and geographical locations in Egypt. Control samples of Fasciola hepatica from France as well as Fasciola gigantica from Cameroon were included in the study. Collected flukes were identified morphologically and subjected for analysis using four microsatellite markers. Results of microsatellite profile (FM1 and FM2) proved that both species of Fasciola are distributed in Egypt irrespective of geographical location and host. Nevertheless, the microsatellite profile of some analyzed loci (FM2 and FM3) proved that Egyptian flukes showed more alleles compared to the reference ones. Differences of microsatellite profile in Egyptian isolates than that of corresponding reference samples indicate the remarkable diversity of these isolates. The present results highlighted the utility of microsatellite profile to discriminate between Fasciola species and to elucidate the diversity within the species. To our knowledge, this is the first time to study microsatellite polymorphism in Fasciola populations in Egypt.

  16. Experience with the INES scale in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashad, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    Thirty years experience with Egypt first Research Reactor (ET-RR-1) operation, was introduced focusing on the famous events that were initiated and the procedures that were taken for their recovery or mitigation is given. Four out of seven events can be attributed to human errors, the events if classified using the INES

  17. Egypt: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-25

    exhortations to report critics of the government to the authorities; and censorship , prosecution, and attacks on journalists.” 19  Reporters Without...upon between the above-mentioned representatives.” See Agreement between the United States of America and Egypt, signed at Cairo, August 16, 1978

  18. Unprotected Palestinians in Egypt since 1948

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    £E: Egyptian pound. FMRS: Forced Migration Refugee Studies Program. GAP: ...... Generally, our research team located Palestinians by word of mouth. After finding the ...... I then applied for a tourist visa to Egypt and I got one for two weeks.

  19. Adolescent tramadol use and abuse in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassiony, Medhat M; Salah El-Deen, Ghada M; Yousef, Usama; Raya, Yasser; Abdel-Ghani, Mohamed M; El-Gohari, Hayam; Atwa, Samar A

    2015-05-01

    Tramadol abuse liability is underestimated and the evidence of abuse and dependence is emerging. It has many health and social consequences especially in adolescents. Tramadol abuse has not been well studied in Egypt. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and associated correlates of tramadol use and abuse among school students in Egypt. A total of 204 students, aged 13-18 years, from six schools in Zagazig, Egypt, were screened for tramadol use using The Drug Use Disorders Identification Test and a urine screen for tramadol. The prevalence of tramadol use was 8.8% among school students and the average age at onset of tramadol use was 16.5 ± 1.1. Some 83% of the users were using tramadol alone while the rest (17%) were using a combination of tramadol, alcohol, and cannabis. Two-thirds of these students started with tramadol as the first drug after the onset of tobacco smoking. Over one third of tramadol users had drug-related problems and 6% had dependence. There was a significant association between tramadol use and older age, male gender, and smoking. Drug-related problems were negatively correlated with age at onset of tramadol use. Tramadol use was common among adolescents and over one third of tramadol users had drug-related problems. Population-based longitudinal studies are needed to investigate tramadol use and the possible role of tramadol as a gateway drug in the development of substance abuse in Egypt.

  20. Tourism in Egypt | Raslan | Africa Insight

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Algeria (5); Benin (2); Botswana (3); Burkina Faso (3); Cameroon (8); Congo, Republic (1); Côte d'Ivoire (4); Egypt, Arab Rep. (14); Eritrea (1); Ethiopia (30); Ghana (27); Kenya (29); Lesotho (1); Libya (2); Madagascar (1); Malawi (4); Mauritius (3); Mozambique (1); Nigeria (221); Rwanda (3); Senegal (6); Sierra Leone (1) ...

  1. Optimization of the cropping pattern in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Osama

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Continuous increase of population in Egypt, limited fresh water, poor maintenance and low efficiency of irrigation systems lead to a real burden on the Egyptian natural water resources. Accordingly, for Egypt, land and water resources management is considered an absolutely strategic priority. In this study, a linear optimization model is developed to maximize the net annual return from the three old regions of Egypt. Data for 28 crops in five years from 2008 to 2012 are being analyzed. The spatial variations of crops, irrigation water needs, crop yields and food requirements are incorporated in the model. The results show that there is a significant reduction in the allocated areas for onion, garlic, barley, flax, fenugreek, chickpeas, lentil and lupine since they are considered as non-strategic crops. On the other side, the allocated areas for strategic crops such as wheat, maize, clover, rice, sugar products and cotton remained almost the same to satisfy their actual food requirements. However, crops with high net returns such as tomatoes have increased substantially. The trend for the gross net benefit is decreasing and is expected to reach a lower value in year 2017. Different approaches and scenarios are analyzed. The developed model proposes a change in the cropping pattern in the old lands of Egypt to increase the gross net return without adding further any other expenses. Keywords: Cropping pattern, Linear programming, Net return, Optimization

  2. Mediterranean Energy Perspectives, Egypt - Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Egypt is a significant oil producer and a rapidly growing natural gas producer. Its strategic location makes it an important transit corridor for world energy markets. Mediterranean Energy Perspectives - Egypt provides insights into the country's energy situation today and over the next two decades. It presents detailed data and analysis of interest to those who have a stake in both the supply and demand side of the energy equation. It is the first in-depth country review in OME's Mediterranean Energy Perspectives (MEP) series. The publication draws upon the extensive expertise of the Observatoire Mediterraneen de l'Energie (OME) and its members. MEP-Egypt is a unique and comprehensive analysis of the energy sector in Egypt. It contains data from the early days of its energy industry up to today as well as a view on its evolution to 2030 based on the supply and demand model developed by OME (Mediterranean Energy Model). Current efforts related to renewable energy sources are carefully considered as they are key issues for the Egyptian energy sector and for the whole economic and environment future of the country. MEP-Egypt presents: - Historical and forecast data on the supply and demand balance for each segment of the Egyptian energy sector. - Past, present and future of oil and gas exploration and discoveries. - Oil and gas fields: production and development. - Oil and gas production profiles and prospects to 2030. - Detailed information on refineries, pipelines, LNG terminals and storage facilities. - Evolution of electricity generation and installed capacity. - Developments of innovative and renewable energy sources. - Prospects for CO 2 emissions and sustainable development. - Fiscal regime of the energy industry. - Alternative energy scenarios: a Conservative scenario, a Proactive scenario and two High Economic Growth variants. MEP-Egypt has been prepared by a joint-team of Egyptian industry experts and OME staff, supported by related companies, institutions

  3. Mutations in Plasmodium falciparum K13 propeller gene from Bangladesh (2009-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohon, Abu Naser; Alam, Mohammad Shafiul; Bayih, Abebe Genetu; Folefoc, Asongna; Shahinas, Dea; Haque, Rashidul; Pillai, Dylan R

    2014-11-18

    Bangladesh is a malaria hypo-endemic country sharing borders with India and Myanmar. Artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) remains successful in Bangladesh. An increase of artemisinin-resistant malaria parasites on the Thai-Cambodia and Thai-Myanmar borders is worrisome. K13 propeller gene (PF3D7_1343700 or PF13_0238) mutations have been linked to both in vitro artemisinin resistance and in vivo slow parasite clearance rates. This group undertook to evaluate if mutations seen in Cambodia have emerged in Bangladesh where ACT use is now standard for a decade. Samples were obtained from Plasmodium falciparum-infected malaria patients from Upazila health complexes (UHC) between 2009 and 2013 in seven endemic districts of Bangladesh. These districts included Khagrachari (Matiranga UHC), Rangamati (Rajasthali UHC), Cox's Bazar (Ramu and Ukhia UHC), Bandarban (Lama UHC), Mymensingh (Haluaghat UHC), Netrokona (Durgapur and Kalmakanda UHC), and Moulvibazar (Sreemangal and Kamalganj UHC). Out of 296 microscopically positive P. falciparum samples, 271 (91.6%) were confirmed as mono-infections by both real-time PCR and nested PCR. The K13 propeller gene from 253 (93.4%) samples was sequenced bi-directionally. One non-synonymous mutation (A578S) was found in Bangladeshi clinical isolates. The A578S mutation was confirmed and lies adjacent to the C580Y mutation, the major mutation causing delayed parasite clearance in Cambodia. Based on computational modeling A578S should have a significant effect on tertiary structure of the protein. The data suggest that P. falciparum in Bangladesh remains free of the C580Y mutation linked to delayed parasite clearance. However, the mutation A578S is present and based on structural analysis could affect K13 gene function. Further in vivo clinical studies are required to validate the effect of this mutation.

  4. Another approaching storm on the desert. Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, D

    1991-01-01

    Examining Egypt's health care crisis, this article discusses the political factors that have led to such a state. Although Egypt possesses considerable resources and receives vast amounts of US foreign aid, the health status of its people is poor. Infant mortality rate stands at 67/1000 live births; the poor nutritional status of children has not improved over the past 10 years; 1/3 of all children are moderately to severely stunted in growth. The author attributes these woeful conditions to the country's political and economic policies. At one time or another, Egypt has allied itself with USSR or the US, and has generally retained only the worst features of socialism and the free market. While operating as a police state, Egypt has moved towards a free market that has led to the concentration of wealth. The author points out how medical care and medical school reflect the political and economic system. The government guarantees free health care for all and a job to all medical school graduates. But doctors now have to wait 7 years to obtain a post. Many have begun practicing private medicine, and many have become corrupt. The author also singles out the country's diarrhea control program as an indication of the impending health care disaster. Though hailed as high successful, the cost has been exceptionally high, and USAID funding will soon cease. Furthermore, mothers have not been taught self-reliance, but have been made to depend on commercially produced oral rehydration packets. Despite the severity of the social problems, Egypt's security forces have so far succeeded in suppressing popular opposition. But the author does detect hopeful signs in the many active progressive groups, and in particular, in the great social accomplishments of the governor of the providence of Ismailia.

  5. India : tous les projets | Page 17 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: SOCIAL PARTICIPATION, CIVIL SOCIETY, DEFENCE POLICY, MILITARY EXPENDITURE, WEAPON PROCUREMENT. Région: South Asia, Central Asia, Far East Asia, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Afghanistan. Programme: Gouvernance et justice. Financement total : CA$ 76,500.00. Synthèse de ...

  6. Fertility differentials in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, H T; Islam, S M; Khan, H M; Bari, R

    1993-01-01

    "Data from two sources in rural Bangladesh have been used in this study to examine the differentials in fertility by selected socio-economic and demographic factors. Results [indicate] that age at first marriage, education of spouses and availability of electricity in the household...have [an] inverse relationship with fertility. Higher fertility is observed for Muslim women than for non-Muslims. It has been found that fertility is the lowest to those women whose husbands are service holders and the highest for agriculture." excerpt

  7. Global Warming: Threat to Sundarbans and the Silence of Indo-Bangladesh Mass Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moumita Basu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The Sundarbans or the ‘beautiful forest’ is a cluster of low-lying islands in the Bay of Bengal, considered as one of the natural wonders of the world, which is facing the problem of global warming since the past few decades. Global warming, climate change, increasing water level and salinity of the river as well as inlet areas are some recognized threats to the Sundarbans. This is threatening species survival, the health of natural systems and causing extinction of biodiversity. This study is a modest attempt to examine the factors because of which the burning issues of Sundarbans are almost excluded from the attention of the media in India as well as Bangladesh. This is despite the fact that various initiatives have been taken by the governments and at the private level in these two countries to conserve the Sundarbans ecosystem. The research paper summarizes findings of newspaper reports on Sundarbans, from Earth Day to World Environment Day 2017 (22 April to 5 June of two reputed broadsheets dailies i.e. The Daily Prothom Alo (Dhaka, Bangladesh and The Ei Samay Sangbadpatra (Kolkata, India. The youngest member of the mass communication family, the film has also been included in this paper. This is because the joint production of the two Bengali film industries has already made a lot of cinema. There is going to be more in the near future, where many issues of India and Bangladesh are getting priority, but the destruction of Sundarbans has never been the subject of any such media intervention.

  8. Opportunities for woody crop production using treated wastewater in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.S. Zalesny; S.R.  Evett; N.F. Kandil; C.  Soriano; John Stanturf

    2011-01-01

    The Nile River provides nearly 97% of Egypt’s freshwater supply. Egypt’s share of Nile waters is fixed at 55.5 billion cubic meters annually. As a result, Egypt will not be able to meet increasing water demand using freshwater from the Nile and has been developing non-conventional wastewater reuse strategies to meet future demands. The USAID Mission in Cairo began...

  9. Franchising in the Middle East: The Example of Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Elsaman, Radwa S.

    2017-01-01

    With the largest population in the Arab Middle East and a central location between Europe and East Asia, Egypt offers one of the biggest sources of franchising markets in the world for new business opportunities. Egypt, however, does not have specialized laws regulating franchising, which results in real challenges for investors who are seeking to franchise their businesses in Egypt, along with their legal advisors. It also creates problems for the courts who must rule on disputes arising fro...

  10. Bangladesh's SMP earns top marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    A recent evaluation funded by the US Agency for International Development (AID) confirms that Bangladesh's contraceptive social marketing program has exceeded its planner's goals and demonstrated the ability of such a system to widely distribute contraceptive products at a low cost. The project, which began contraceptive sales in 1975, distributes condoms, oral contraceptives, and foaming vaginal tablets. Almost 25% of contraceptive users in Bangladesh are serviced by the social marketing program. By the end of 1983, the program was providing 1,022,000 couple years of protection; this included 84 million condoms, 1.7 million pill cycles, and 5.1 million spermicidal tablets each year. The program's cost for 1 couple year of protection is US$1.66. Social marketing sales have accounted for all increases in couple years of protection experienced by the country's national population program since 1975. Sales have been boosted by recent efforts to draw rural medical practitioners into family planning activities. Mobile film units have further increased sales. The USAID report identifies 3 elements that have spearheaded the social marketing program's achievements: 1) the existence of a committed core management team, 2) the granting of autonomy to make daily decisions to this management team, and 3) central control fo the product distribution system by management rather than by subcontractors. Overall, the social marketing program is credited with legitimizing discussion of contraception in a country formerly considered too conservative to tolerate open product promotion.

  11. Understanding the transmission dynamics of Leishmania donovani to provide robust evidence for interventions to eliminate visceral leishmaniasis in Bihar, India the LCNTDR Collection : Advances in scientific research for NTD control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. Cameron (Mary M.); A. Acosta-Serrano (Alvaro); C. Bern (Caryn); M. Boelaert (Marleen); M. Den Boer (Margriet); S. Burza (Sakib); L.A.C. Chapman (Lloyd A. C.); A. Chaskopoulou (Alexandra); M. Coleman (Michael); O. Courtenay (Orin); S. Croft (Simon); P.K. Das (P.); E. Dilger (Erin); G. Foster (Geraldine); R. Garlapati (Rajesh); L. Haines (Lee); A. Harris (Angela); J. Hemingway (Janet); T.D. Hollingsworth (T. Déirdre); S. Jervis (Sarah); G.F. Medley (Graham F.); M. Miles (Michael); M. Paine (Mark); A. Picado (Albert); R. Poché (Richard); P. Ready (Paul); M. Rogers (Matthew); M. Rowland (Mark); S. Sundar (Shyam); S.J. de Vlas (Sake); D. Weetman (David)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractVisceral Leishmaniasis (VL) is a neglected vector-borne disease. In India, it is transmitted to humans by Leishmania donovani-infected Phlebotomus argentipes sand flies. In 2005, VL was targeted for elimination by the governments of India, Nepal and Bangladesh by 2015. The elimination

  12. All projects related to Egypt | Page 2 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... POLITICAL REFORM, ECONOMIC REFORM, WOMEN, EMPOWERMENT, Gender ... IDRC's Women's Rights and Citizenship (WRC) program initiative is ... Asia, Algeria, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Egypt, Yemen, Bahrain, Kuwait.

  13. Management of Disused Radioactive Sealed Sources in Egypt - 13512

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, Y.T.; Hasan, M.A.; Lasheen, Y.F.

    2013-01-01

    The future safe development of nuclear energy and progressive increasing use of sealed sources in medicine, research, industry and other fields in Egypt depends on the safe and secure management of disused radioactive sealed sources. In the past years have determined the necessity to formulate and apply the integrated management program for radioactive sealed sources to assure harmless and ecological rational management of disused sealed sources in Egypt. The waste management system in Egypt comprises operational and regulatory capabilities. Both of these activities are performed under legislations. The Hot Laboratories and Waste Management Center HLWMC, is considered as a centralized radioactive waste management facility in Egypt by law 7/2010. (authors)

  14. Rural childhoods in Egypt's desert lands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine

    Based on fieldwork in Egypt’s desert lands, this paper discusses rural childhoods in an area experiencing rapid social and cultural change. Since 1987, the Egyptian Government has made new villages in the desert as a means to increase agricultural production and solving problems of unemployment....... Many settlers move to the Mubarak villages in order to give their children a good start in life. The desert villages are associated with a type of ‘rural idyll’. The process of settling in the desert impacts upon the children’s possible pathways to adulthood and their identities and social......’s new roles impact upon the children’s lives. The social contexts shaping the desert childhoods are in some ways more similar to contexts in ‘developed’ countries than in other parts of rural Egypt. The paper ends up by contrasting ideas of rural childhoods in Egypt with those found in ‘developed...

  15. Review of environmental physics activities in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comsan, M.N.H.

    2005-01-01

    Efforts and activities in Egypt serving the environment went back to 1962. At that time simultaneously were established the Atomic Fallout Laboratory at the premises of Atomic Energy Establishment in Inshas, and the A ir Pollution Unit w ithin the premises of the National Research Centre in Dokki. Recent activities include: radiation monitoring, atmospheric physics, renewable energy pollution control, environmental impact, etc.The article aims at reviewing environmental physics activities in Egypt ; both on governmental and non-governmental scales.The environment is one of the most vital axes of development, so the deterioration of the environment represents a major danger threatening social and economic development, the sustainability of natural resources, and human health.Recognizing this major importance and necessity of the protection of environment and its vital role in our lives, governments all over the globe began to take larger steps towards a better and healthier environment

  16. Benchmarking performance: Environmental impact statements in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badr, El-Sayed A.; Zahran, Ashraf A.; Cashmore, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Environmental impact assessment (EIA) was formally introduced in Egypt in 1994. This short paper evaluates 'how well' the EIA process is working in practice in Egypt, by reviewing the quality of 45 environmental impact statements (EISs) produced between 2000 and 2007 for a variety of project types. The Lee and Colley review package was used to assess the quality of the selected EISs. About 69% of the EISs sampled were found to be of a satisfactory quality. An assessment of the performance of different elements of the EIA process indicates that descriptive tasks tend to be performed better than scientific tasks. The quality of core elements of EIA (e.g., impact prediction, significance evaluation, scoping and consideration of alternatives) appears to be particularly problematic. Variables that influence the quality of EISs are identified and a number of broad recommendations are made for improving the effectiveness of the EIA system.

  17. Rohingyas and refugee status in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia Prytz Phiri

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The Rohingya refugees from northern Rakhine Statein Myanmar are living in a precarious situation in theircountry of asylum, Bangladesh, but have seen significantimprovements in recent times.

  18. The demand for military spending in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Abu-Qarn, A. S.; Dunne, J. P.; Abdelfattah, Y.; Zaher, S.

    2013-01-01

    Egypt plays a pivotal role in the security of the Middle East as the doorway to Europe and its military expenditure reflects its involvement in the machinations of such an unstable region, showing considerable variation over the last forty years. These characteristics make it a particularly interesting case study of the determinants of military spending. This paper specifies and estimates an econometric model of the Egyptian demand for military spending, taking into account important strategi...

  19. Turkish and Malaysian experiences: Lessons for Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Rezeg, Ali Abo

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The Egyptian uprising was triggered on January 25, 2011 after thirty years of political and economic corruption through Mubarak‟s administration. The thirst for development, political freedom, and social equality were the most significant factors behind thisuprising. There are widespread discussions on which developmental experience Egypt might adopt in the post-Mubarak era. Turkey and Malaysia are the two cases that are mostly referred to aspossible models for the Egyptian case. Th...

  20. Egypt: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-12

    contributions from Germany , Japan, and Switzerland. For more information on the MFO, see http://www.mfo.org/Default.asp?bhcp=1. Egypt: Background and...2008 Report, Egypt’s pace of business reforms and deregulation between 2006 and 2007 ranked first worldwide. In recent years, the state has...reinvigorated its privatization program by divesting shares in the state-dominated banking and insurance sectors. Additionally, the government removed import

  1. Egypt: Security, Political, and Islamist Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    Islamist militance has been developing in a wide variety of social and economic settings, including England, France , 6 Germany, and elsewhere. We might...political wedge between the United States and Egypt led to Nasir’s nationalization of the Suez Canal. Britain then plotted with France and Israel...than the membership, which, at the time, came from the petit bourgeoisie , or were migrants to urban areas. Shukri Mustafa, leader of TWH, was

  2. Consumer Demand for Major Foods in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Basem Fayaad; Stanley R. Johnson; Mohamed El-Khishin

    1995-01-01

    This study provides information on the structure of the consumer demand for major foods in Egypt. The information is in the form of key parameters for consumer demand systems. The modern theory of consumer behavior is the basis for estimating systems of demand equations. These systems yield estimates of own- and cross-price elasticities. The Linear Almost Ideal Demand System (LAIDS) model is applied in estimating a system of demand equations for food commodities. A full demand matrix results ...

  3. Introduction to the Mymaridae (Hymenoptera of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John T. Huber

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available An identification key to the 15 genera of Mymaridae found so far in Bangladesh is given, based on about 520 specimens collected using yellow pan traps placed in agricultural habitats and at the edge of ponds, mainly at Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University, Gazipur. Species already reported from Bangladesh are listed and three more are added: Acmopolynema orientale (Narayanan, Subba Rao & Kaur, Himopolynema hishimonus Taguchi, and Mymar pulchellum Curtis.

  4. Targeted Killings in Bangladesh: Diversity at Stake

    OpenAIRE

    Syed, Jawad

    2016-01-01

    Since 2013, Bangladesh has repeatedly been in headline news across the world due to systematic and incessant targeted killings. In the mainstream media, both in South Asia and the West, the focus has been generally on high profile murders of secular and progressive bloggers. This includes the recent worldwide broad coverage on the tragic murder of Xulhaz Mannan, editor of Bangladesh's first LGBT rights magazine. However, not many know that these killings are only one part of the story. Secula...

  5. Bangladesh: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-07

    rise in Bangladesh . Awami League Finance Minister A.M.S. Kibria and four others were killed in a bomb attack that also injured 70 at a political rally...Labor Force: Agriculture 63%, Industry 11%, and Services 26% Key Exports: Garments , jute, leather, frozen fish, seafood Key Export Partners: U.S. 24... Bangladesh . Ready made garments and jute carpet backing are two of Bangladesh’s key exports to the U.S. The United States has generally had a negative

  6. Arsenic contamination of groundwater in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Shallow groundwater with high arsenic concentrations from naturally occurring sources is the primary source of drinking water for millions of people in Bangladesh. It has resulted in a major public health crisis with as many as 70 million people possibly at risk. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is supporting international efforts and the Government of Bangladesh to find alternative, safe and sustainable sources of drinking water. (IAEA)

  7. Understanding children’s work in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    UCW

    2011-01-01

    Child labour constitutes an important obstacle to achieving Universal Primary Education and other Millennium Development Goals in Bangladesh. The current report provides an overview of the child labour phenomenon in Bangladesh – its extent and nature, its determinants, and its consequences on education. The report also addresses the national response to child labour and policy option for its elimination. The analysis considers the various causes of child labour and follows a cross-sectoral ap...

  8. Lyme borreliosis: A neglected zoonosis in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhelw, Rehab A; El-Enbaawy, Mona I; Samir, Ahmed

    2014-12-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, the causal organism of Lyme borreliosis. In Egypt, available data about the occurrence of Lyme disease are scarce and no structured studies documented the presence of Lyme borreliosis in Egyptian animals and tick reservoirs verifying its zoonotic evidence. Besides, no successful trials to isolate B. burgdorferi from clinical samples have occurred. This study was conducted to investigate B. burgdorferi infection as an emerging zoonosis neglected in Egypt. A total number of 92 animals, tick and human companion specimens were collected and subjected for culture, PCR and/or serodetection. B. burgdorferi has been detected and isolated from Egyptian animal breeds. We also detected the presence of outer surface protein A gene of B. burgdorferi by PCR as well as anti-B. burgdorferi IgM by ELISA in human contacts who were suffering from fever of unknown origin. This report represents the first systematic study on animals associated with patients suffering from febrile illness to confirm the emerging of such neglected zoonosis in Egypt. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Integrated Human Futures Modeling in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passell, Howard D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Aamir, Munaf Syed [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bernard, Michael Lewis [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Beyeler, Walter E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fellner, Karen Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hayden, Nancy Kay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jeffers, Robert Fredric [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Keller, Elizabeth James Kistin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Malczynski, Leonard A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mitchell, Michael David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Silver, Emily [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tidwell, Vincent C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Villa, Daniel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vugrin, Eric D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Engelke, Peter [Atlantic Council, Washington, D.C. (United States); Burrow, Mat [Atlantic Council, Washington, D.C. (United States); Keith, Bruce [United States Military Academy, West Point, NY (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The Integrated Human Futures Project provides a set of analytical and quantitative modeling and simulation tools that help explore the links among human social, economic, and ecological conditions, human resilience, conflict, and peace, and allows users to simulate tradeoffs and consequences associated with different future development and mitigation scenarios. In the current study, we integrate five distinct modeling platforms to simulate the potential risk of social unrest in Egypt resulting from the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) on the Blue Nile in Ethiopia. The five platforms simulate hydrology, agriculture, economy, human ecology, and human psychology/behavior, and show how impacts derived from development initiatives in one sector (e.g., hydrology) might ripple through to affect other sectors and how development and security concerns may be triggered across the region. This approach evaluates potential consequences, intended and unintended, associated with strategic policy actions that span the development-security nexus at the national, regional, and international levels. Model results are not intended to provide explicit predictions, but rather to provide system-level insight for policy makers into the dynamics among these interacting sectors, and to demonstrate an approach to evaluating short- and long-term policy trade-offs across different policy domains and stakeholders. The GERD project is critical to government-planned development efforts in Ethiopia but is expected to reduce downstream freshwater availability in the Nile Basin, fueling fears of negative social and economic impacts that could threaten stability and security in Egypt. We tested these hypotheses and came to the following preliminary conclusions. First, the GERD will have an important short-term impact on water availability, food production, and hydropower production in Egypt, depending on the short- term reservoir fill rate. Second, the GERD will have a very small impact on

  10. Climate change -- Its impacts on Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobhan, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    Predictions regarding the possible effects of global warming on Bangladesh's climate are uncertain. However, the predictions for 2030 made by four General Circulation Models all suggest that there might be increased precipitation, with estimates ranging between 5 and 100% increases in rainfall. Increases of these magnitudes, if they were to occur, would have significant implications for agriculture, flooding, river sediment loads, and flood protection works. Increased flooding of the coastal areas of countries like Bangladesh is a possibility, and enormous health and economic distress and human suffering may follow. With the change in temperature, there may be unpredictable change in bacterial and viral morphology with health hazards of unpredictable limits. It has been estimated that a 100 cm rise in sea level in the Bay of Bengal would result in 12--18% of land areas of Bangladesh being lost to the sea, including most of the Sundarbans. Although it is difficult to predict the timing and magnitude of all the global changes including sea-level rise, climate change, etc., it is anticipated that one of the most serious consequence for Bangladesh would be the reduction of already minimal land: person ratio and consequently exacerbating pressure on the remaining natural resources. Bangladesh is in favor of an international agreement for assistance to vulnerable countries like Bangladesh to take necessary preparations and adopt measures to survive a sea-level rise, climate change, increased flooding, and more frequent storm surges

  11. Communication of 25 June 1998 received from the Permanent Mission of India to the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of a communication dated 25 June 1998 received by the Director General of the IAEA from the Permanent Mission of India to the IAEA regarding the Joint Ministerial Declaration released by the Ministers of Foreign Affairs of Brazil, Egypt, Ireland, Mexico, New Zealand, Slovenia, South Africa and Sweden (INFCIRC/565). The Press Statement issued by the Government of India on 23 June 1998 is attached

  12. Communication of 25 June 1998 received from the Permanent Mission of India to the International Atomic Energy Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-30

    The document reproduces the text of a communication dated 25 June 1998 received by the Director General of the IAEA from the Permanent Mission of India to the IAEA regarding the Joint Ministerial Declaration released by the Ministers of Foreign Affairs of Brazil, Egypt, Ireland, Mexico, New Zealand, Slovenia, South Africa and Sweden (INFCIRC/565). The Press Statement issued by the Government of India on 23 June 1998 is attached

  13. [Children and bankers in Bangladesh].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, B

    1991-06-01

    This critique of the World Bank's role in developing country population programs begins with a description of a 1987 case in which an 80-year- old Bangladeshi man was persuaded to undergo vasectomy and then robbed of his incentive payment by the health agent. For over 20 years, the World Bank has pressured 3rd World governments to implement population control programs. Although there are divergent opinions within the World Bank, the most dominant is the neomalthusian view that the poor through their high fertility help perpetuate their own poverty. This view hides the real source of poverty in the Third World: the unequal distribution of resources within these countries and between the developed and developing countries. The World Bank has always been blind to the inequalities, and has associated with the elites of developing countries who monopolize the resources of their countries and thereby impede authentic development. Furthermore, the emphasis on population control distorts social policy and hinders the implementation of safe and voluntary family planning services. In many countries the World Bank has required governments to give greater priority to population control than to basic health services. It has pressured them to relax contraceptive prescription norms and has promoted the more effective methods without regard to proper use or side effects. In Bangladesh the World Bank has sponsored sterilization programs that rely on coercion and incentives. In that country of enormous inequities, 10% of landowners control over 50% of lands, while nearly half the population is landless and chronically underemployed. Political power is concentrated in the military government, which annually receives over 1.5 billion dollars in external aid. External aid primarily benefits the wealthy. 3/4 of the population are undernourished and less than 1/3 are literate or have access to basic health care. The poor of Bangladesh, as in many other countries, feel that their only

  14. Mutation Spectrum of β-Thalassemia and Other Hemoglobinopathies in Chittagong, Southeast Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Tridip; Chakravarty, Amit; Chakravarty, Sudipa; Chowdhury, Mahmood Ahmed; Sultana, Razia

    2015-01-01

    Thalassemia is one of the most common autosomal recessive blood disorders in the world. It shows a variety of clinical expression, starting from asymptomatic to severe blood transfusion dependence. More than 500 alleles have been characterized in or around the β-globin region. Moreover, most geographical regions have their own characteristics, frequency and availability of these alleles, predominantly circulating within the communities present in that particular region. In this study, we explored the spectrum of β-thalassemia (β-thal) alleles present in Chittagong, Southeast Bangladesh. This study comprises β-thal and Hb E (HBB: c.79 G > A) patients from in and around the area of Chittagong. Not only exploring the complete β-globin mutation spectrum of the area, but we also tried to look at the origin of the mutated alleles. The β-thal mutations of Bangladesh show a relatively wide spectrum of alleles, which further demonstrates the heterogeneity of the disease in this country. Although our study showed that the majority of the mutations have their origin in neighboring countries such as India, countries of Southeast Asia, Pakistan, etc., some unusual alleles do not originate in neighboring countries and put a little more diversity in the overall spectrum of β-thal-specific alleles. Overall, this study demonstrates the mutation spectrum related to β-thal in Chittagong, Southeast Bangladesh.

  15. Water Quality, Mitigation Measures of Arsenic Contamination and Sustainable Rural Water Supply Options in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HOSSAIN M. ANAWAR

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic contamination of groundwater has created a serious public health issue in Bangladesh and West Bengal (India, because groundwater is widely used for drinking, household and agriculture purposes. Given the magnitude of the problem of groundwater contamination facing Bangladesh, effective, acceptable and sustainable solutions are urgently required. Different NGOs (Non-government organizations and research organizations are using their extensive rural networks to raise awareness and conduct pilot projects. The implication of the results from the previous studies is robust, but coastly arsenic reduction technologies such as activated alumina technology, and As and Fe removal filters may find little social acceptance, unless heavily subsidized. This review paper analysed the quality of surface water and ground water, all mitigation measures and the most acceptable options to provide sustainable access to safe- water supply in the rural ares of Bangladesh. Although there are abundant and different sources of surface water, they can not be used for drinking and hosehold purposes due to lack of sanitation, high faecal coliform concentration, turibidity and deterioration of quality of surface water sources. There are a few safe surface water options; and also there are several methods available for removal of arsenic and iron from groundwater in large conventional treatments plants. This review paper presented a short description of the currently available and most sustainable technologies for arsenic and iron removal, and alternative water supply options in the rural areas.

  16. Possibility of regional fuel cycle centres in the context of Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Innas, A.M.; Ahsan, M.; Husain, S.R.; Chowdhury, R.K.; Rahman, A.

    1977-01-01

    The region consisting of Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Ceylon, Bangladesh, Burma, Malaysia, Thailand, Singapore and Indonesia is considered for a model study on the possibility of establishing regional fuel cycle centres. Nuclear power generation capacity for this region is estimated and projected through 2000 A.D. and accordingly the demands for various nuclear fuel cycle services are determined. Preliminary calculations show that for the region conversion and fuel fabrication plants may be economically feasible before 1990 whereas reprocessing plants may become feasible only after 1990. The possibility of enrichment plant is even more uncertain. Ore, enrichment and fabrication in future may constitute more than 95-98% of the total fuel cycle cost. For fuel cycle economy, therefore, regional cooperation should be emphasized for these services. Reprocessing has to be considered because of the valuable fissile materials present in the spent fuel. Assuming that regional fuel cycle centre/centres may be established in Bangladesh, the study considered the local advantages and disadvantages of such an effort. Though no major problem could be identified in the case of conversion and fabrication plants, considerable difficulty is anticipated from a large reprocessing plant because of waste management and disposal problems. Bangladesh does not appear to have any suitable waste disposal site in view of the present technology. However, if the long term leaching problemns of solidified wastes are resolved then wastes may be dumped in the sea-canyon in the Bay of Bengal (called the ''Swatch of no ground'') or in the deep underground caverns

  17. Assessment of Arsenic Contamination of Groundwater and Health Problems in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal K. Mitra

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Excessive amounts of arsenic (As in the groundwater in Bangladesh and neighboring states in India are a major public health problem. About 30% of the private wells in Bangladesh exhibit high concentrations of arsenic. Over half the country, 269 out of 464 administrative units, is affected. Similar problems exist in many other parts of the world, including the Unites States. This paper presents an assessment of the health hazards caused by arsenic contamination in the drinking water in Bangladesh. Four competing hypotheses, each addressing the sources, reaction mechanisms, pathways, and sinks of arsenic in groundwater, were analyzed in the context of the geologic history and land-use practices in the Bengal Basin. None of the hypotheses alone can explain the observed variability in arsenic concentration in time and space; each appears to have some validity on a local scale. Thus, it is likely that several bio-geochemical processes are active among the region’s various geologic environments, and that each contributes to the mobilization and release of arsenic. Additional research efforts will be needed to understand the relationships between underlying biogeochemical factors and the mechanisms for arsenic release in various geologic settings.

  18. Language as a Symbol of Identity and a Tool of Politics and Power in Pakistan and Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rácová Anna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to demonstrate the roles that domestic and foreign languages have played and play as signs of national or religious identity and social prestige and as tools of political and economic power in multilingual Pakistan and Bangladesh. Before the countries gained independence from the British Empire in 1947 and before the formation of the Indian Union and Pakistan (which was divided into Pakistan and Bangladesh in 1971, the role of an official language, remote to the majority of population in Indian subcontinent, had been gradually played by Sanskrit, Persian, and English. After gaining independence, the new countries decided to replace English as the official language with domestic languages. Their efforts encountered many problems and resulted in various solutions. Urdu became the state language in Pakistan, which caused resistance in local ethnolinguistic groups because the language had been imported by refugees from India. This resistance was the strongest in East Pakistan, where a strong national and language awareness eventually contributed to the formation of an independent Bangladesh with Bengali as the state language. Despite struggle for the dominance of domestic languages, English has preserved its prestigious position both in Pakistan and Bangladesh, as a symbol of higher social position, a language of education and science, and a tool of economic and political power.

  19. Women's housing conditions in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shefali, M K

    1996-01-01

    This news article describes women's housing conditions, housing policy, and pilot programs to house poor women in Bangladesh. Although Bangladesh has a constitution that reinforces the equal status of women, in practice, men dominate and patrilineal customs determine inheritance and property rights. Religious affiliation also determines land tenure and inheritance. Muslim women can inherit 12.5% of their husband's property if there are children. 25% is inherited if wives are without children. Hindu women without sons can inherit their husband's property, but not parental property. Many families refuse to release property to women without a fight. Women, regardless of ownership of land, rarely control or use their land. The custom of requiring men to maintain wives during the marriage, and daughters until marriage, creates obstacles to women's decision making about property. Without collateral and other security women are unable to secure bank loans. Many women are also constrained by the requirement of male consent or guarantees for bank transactions. Banks do not have a gender responsive criteria for selecting loan recipients. The government does not provide sufficient housing to satisfy the growing housing needs due to population growth. Some housing is available from slum landlords. A National Housing Policy was formulated in 1993. Priority would be given to the housing needs of low income women in urban areas and women-headed households with income below the poverty line. The policy does not address the underlying factors that prevent equal access to housing for women. The government prepared a Human Settlement and Urban Development proposal for the Habitat II conference. The plan did not address gender issues. Special efforts are being made by nongovernmental groups to meet the housing needs of professional women and for some disadvantaged women.

  20. Translating India

    CERN Document Server

    Kothari, Rita

    2014-01-01

    The cultural universe of urban, English-speaking middle class in India shows signs of growing inclusiveness as far as English is concerned. This phenomenon manifests itself in increasing forms of bilingualism (combination of English and one Indian language) in everyday forms of speech - advertisement jingles, bilingual movies, signboards, and of course conversations. It is also evident in the startling prominence of Indian Writing in English and somewhat less visibly, but steadily rising, activity of English translation from Indian languages. Since the eighties this has led to a frenetic activity around English translation in India's academic and literary circles. Kothari makes this very current phenomenon her chief concern in Translating India.   The study covers aspects such as the production, reception and marketability of English translation. Through an unusually multi-disciplinary approach, this study situates English translation in India amidst local and global debates on translation, representation an...

  1. Bioconversion of Egypt's agricultural wastes into biogas and compost

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Elfeki, M.; Elbestawy, E.; Tkadlec, Emil

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 6 (2017), s. 2445-2453 ISSN 1230-1485 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : agricultural wastes * biogas in Egypt * bioconversion * compost in Egypt * organic wastes Subject RIV: DM - Solid Waste and Recycling OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 0.793, year: 2016

  2. Egypt and the Augustan Cultural Revolution : an interpretative archaeological overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aerde, (Marike) van M.E.J.J.

    2015-01-01

    As part of the VIDI 'Cultural innovation in a globalising society: Egypt in the Roman world', this research explores manifestations of Egypt in the material culture of Augustan Rome. This period was a crucial turning point for the urban landscape of Rome, which was characterised by cultural

  3. The Antiquities Trade in Egypt 1880-1930

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Frederik Norland; Ryholt, Kim

    these objects came to be here. The book presents the first in-depth analysis of this market during its “golden age” in Egypt in the late 19th and early 20th Century. It is primarily based on the archival material of the Danish Egyptologist H. O. Lange (1863-1943) who, during two prolonged stays in Egypt (1899...

  4. Tech Talk for Social Studies Teachers: Ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahl, Ronald H.

    1998-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of 10 Web sites concerning ancient Egypt that have materials appropriate for social studies classes. Includes virtual tours of Egypt and specific temples, explorations of the pyramids, archaeological and geographic information, and information on the Egyptian "Book of the Dead." (MJP)

  5. The Zoril, Ictonyx striatus erythreae De Winton, 1898 in Egypt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Zoril Ictonyx striatus is one of the rarest mammals of Egypt, known from only two specimens collected more than 50 years ago. The collection of two new specimens and the observation of others in the Gabal Elba area provide new data on this little-known animal in Egypt. In this paper we provide information on the ...

  6. Three New Records of Pottiaceae (Musci) from Egypt | Shabbara ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three taxa of Pottiacea; Barbula sardoa (Schimp.) J.P. Frahm, Didymodon ceratodentus (Müll.Hal.) Dixon and Syntrichia fragilis (Taylor) Ochyra collected from Nile Delta are new records to Egypt. This increases the number of taxa known from Egypt to 187. D. ceratodentus and S. fragilis are new records to North Africa.

  7. Cultural Diversity or Cultural Imperialism: Liberal Education in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanks, David R.

    1998-01-01

    A faculty member's experience at the American University in Cairo (Egypt) reveals that pluralism and tolerance are western concepts, even within the college curriculum. National identity affords cultural stability: where the American melting-pot experience is reinforced by the notion of cultural diversity, the national identity of Egypt is…

  8. Evaluation of Tobacco Control Policies in Bangladesh | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Evaluation of Tobacco Control Policies in Bangladesh. Bangladesh introduced its first comprehensive tobacco control act in 2005, in an attempt to address the country's high prevalence of tobacco use. ... Institution. University of Dhaka. Pays d' institution. Bangladesh. Site internet. http://www.univdhaka.edu ...

  9. First Ladies' Symposium on Early Childhood in Egypt (Cairo, Egypt, May 21, 2001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Gara, Chloe

    This document is comprised of the papers presented at the First Ladies' Symposium on Early Childhood in Egypt in May 2001. Participating in the symposium were representatives from the World Bank, the Amsterdam Institute for International Development, the Children's Project, and the Academy for Educational Development. The symposium opened with an…

  10. Framing Egypt : Roman literary perceptions of Egypt from Cicero to Juvenal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leemreize, M.E.C.

    2016-01-01

    This is a comprehensive study of Roman literary references to Egypt without preference for one particular period, author or subject, in contrast to most previous scholarship. In doing so, it shows that these references vary greatly, are context-dependent, and cannot be rightly understood when

  11. Burden of serious fungal infections in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugnani, H C; Denning, D W; Rahim, R; Sadat, A; Belal, M; Mahbub, M S

    2017-06-01

    In Bangladesh there are several published papers on superficial mycoses. Deep mycoses are also recognized as an important emerging problem. Here, we estimate the annual incidence and prevalence of serious fungal infections in Bangladesh. Demographic data were obtained from world population reports and the data on TB and HIV extracted from the online publications on tuberculosis in Bangladesh and Asia Pacific research statistical data information resources AIDS Data HUB. All the published papers on fungal infections in Bangladesh were identified through extensive search of literature. We estimated the number of affected people from populations at risk and local epidemiological data. Bangladesh has a population of ∼162.6 million, 31% children and only 6% over the age of 60 years. The pulmonary TB caseload reported in 2014 was 119,520, and we estimate a prevalence of 30,178 people with chronic pulmonary aspergillosis, 80% attributable to TB. An anticipated 90,262 and 119,146 patients have allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis or severe asthma with fungal sensitization. Only 8,000 people are estimated to be HIV-infected, of whom 2900 are not on ART with a CD4 count Bangladesh. Candida bloodstream infection was estimated based on a 5 per 100,000 rate (8100 cases) and invasive aspergillosis based primarily on leukemia and COPD rates, at 5166 cases. Histoplasmosis was documented in 16 cases mostly with disseminated disease and presumed in 21 with HIV infection. This study constitutes the first attempt to estimate the burden of several types of serious fungal infections in Bangladesh.

  12. Bangladesh Sundarbans: Present status of the environment and Biota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Aziz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Sundarbans is a deltaic mangrove forest, formed about 7000 years ago by the deposition of sediments from the foothills of the Himalayas through the Ganges river system, and is situated southwest of Bangladesh and south of West Bengal, India. However, for the last 40 years, the discharge of sediment-laden freshwater into the Bay of Bengal through the Bangladesh part of the Sundarbans Mangrove Forests (BSMF has been reduced due to a withdrawal of water during the dry period from the Farakka Barrage in India. The result is two extremes of freshwater discharge at Gorai, the feeding River of the BSMF: a mean minimum monthly discharge varies from 0.00 to 170 m3·s−1 during the dry period with a mean maximum of about 4000 to 8880 m3·s−1 during the wet period. In the BSMF, about 180 km downstream, an additional low discharge results in the creation of a polyhaline environment (a minimum of 194.4 m3·s−1 freshwater discharge is needed to maintain an oligohaline condition during the dry period. The Ganges water carries 262 million ton sediments/year and only 7% is diverted in to southern distributaries. The low discharge retards sediment deposition in the forestlands’ base as well as the formation of forestlands. The increase in water flow during monsoon on some occasions results in erosion of the fragile forestlands. Landsat Satellite data from the 1970s to 2000s revealed a non-significant decrease in the forestlands of total Sundarbans by 1.1% which for the 6017 km2 BSMF is equivalent to 66 km2. In another report from around the same time, the estimated total forestland loss was approximately 127 km2. The Sundarbans has had great influence on local freshwater environments, facilitating profuse growth of Heritiera fomes (sundri, the tallest (at over 15 m and most commercially important plant, but now has more polyhaline areas threatening the sundri, affecting growth and distribution of other mangroves and biota. Landsat images and GIS data

  13. The Northern Rupture of the 1762 Arakan Meghathrust Earthquake and other Potential Earthquake Sources in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter, S. H.; Seeber, L.; Steckler, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    Bangladesh is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. It occupies a major part of the Bengal Basin, which contains the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta (GBD), the largest and one of the most active of world deltas, and is located along the Alpine-Himalayan seismic belt. As such it is vulnerable to many natural hazards, especially earthquakes. The country sits at the junction of three tectonic plates - Indian, Eurasian, and the Burma 'sliver' of the Sunda plate. These form two boundaries where plates converge- the India-Eurasia plate boundary to the north forming the Himalaya Arc and the India-Burma plate boundary to the east forming the Indo-Burma Arc. The India-Burma plate boundary is exceptionally wide because collision with the GBD feeds an exception amount of sediment into the subduction zone. Thus the Himalayan continent collision orogeny along with its syntaxes to the N and NE of Bangladesh and the Burma Arc subduction boundary surround Bangladesh on two sides with active faults of regional scale, raising the potential for high-magnitude earthquakes. In recent years Bangladesh has experienced minor to moderate earthquakes. Historical records show that major and great earthquakes have ravaged the country and the neighboring region several times over the last 450 years. Field observations of Tertiary structures along the Chittagong-Teknaf coast reveal that the rupture of 1762 Arakan megathrust earthquake extended as far north as the Sitakund anticline to the north of the city of Chittagong. This earthquake brought changes to the landscape, uplifting the Teknaf peninsula and St. Martin's Island by about 2-2.5 m, and activated two mud volcanos along the axis of the Sitakund anticline, where large tabular blocks of exotic crystalline limestone, were tectonically transported from a deep-seated formation along with the eruptive mud. Vast area of the coast including inland areas east of the lower Meghna River were inundated. More than 500 peoples died near

  14. Causes of Acute Water Scarcity in the Barind Tract, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Bazlar Rashid

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Barind tract is an elevated landmass (about 11-48 m amsl comprised with Pleistocene terraces and is situated in the northwestern part of Bangladesh. At present, this area faces scarcity of water. The present study is an attempt to unveil the causes of water scarcity of the area. Several aspects like change in climatic condition, irrigation practice and drainage characteristics of major rivers are the prime factors for water scarcity. Interpretation of recent satellite imagery and historical records reveal that the major rivers of the area like Ganges (Padma, Tista and Kosi have remarkably migrated from Barind tract during last few hundred years. Shifting of these rivers causes great change in hydrodynamics of the Barind tract. As a result, flow of other related rivers of the area like the Mahananda, Kulic, Tangon, Punarbhaba, Atrai, Little Jamuna, Karatoya and Nagar reduces remarkably in the dry season. As a result aquifers in the area are not recharged sufficiently by river water in the dry season. India constructed Farakka barrage on the Ganges (Padma river in 1975 to divert the flow of water from Bangladesh to the other parts of India. This diversion of water also leads to the decreasing of water in the area. Climatic data interpretation of the last 50 years also reveals that annual rainfall in the area is decreasing while overall temperature is increasing. To boost up the cropping intensity (117% to 200% compared to national average of 174% and to meet present demand 74% of cultivable lands are being irrigated with 96% share of groundwater owing to unavailability or scarcity of rainfall and hence surface water. Irrigation by groundwater has dramatically been increased (250 times in the last 30 years. Due to over exploitation, water table progressively declined (av. rate 0.10 m/year which ultimately leads the area to water scarcity zone. The aquifers are confined or semi-confined and do not get appreciable vertical recharge through clay

  15. Regulatory Body of Egypt: Practices and Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Messiry, A.

    2016-01-01

    In past, Egypt issued the law No. 59 of year 1969 for regulating the use of ionizing radiations inside the country, this law assigns the responsibilities of Egypt Atomic Energy Authority EAEA to control reactors, open sources, and all nuclear and radiation facilities inside its premises, while the ministry of health was responsible for controlling x-ray machine, sealed sources and accelerators. In 1982 EAEA established within its structure a new regulatory body called national centre for Nuclear Safety and radiation Control NC-NSRC as a dependent regulatory body, science EAEA is the operator of reactors and many nuclear and radiation facilities. On 30 March 2010 Egypt issued a nuclear law No 7 of year 2010, followed by its executive regulation in October 2011, the new law replaced the old law 59 of year 1969, in addition, the prime minster issued a decree on march 5td 2012 of establishing an independent regulatory body reported directly to him, it has the name of Egypt Nuclear and Radiological Regulatory Authority ENRRA, it is responsible for regulating all nuclear and radiation facilities and activities inside the country, except X-ray machines and linear accelerators for the medical uses, that still remains under the control of ministry of health. The new nuclear law defines the responsibility of the government to establish, support and determine the authorization and the responsibilities of the independent regulatory body. ENRRA is managed by a board of directors comprises from chairman, vice chairman, head of national security, interior, exterior, customs, export & import, standards, environment, justice organizations, besides two scientific experts from ENRRA. The board of council is the supreme authority of the dominant, and the conduct of ENRRA affairs, and take decisions within the framework of the national plan of Egypt, to achieve the objectives for which the ENRRA was established. ENRRA was organized from the old NC-NSRC staff into three regulatory

  16. A Comparative Study on Seismic Analysis of Bangladesh National Building Code (BNBC) with Other Building Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, Md. S.; Das, T.

    2013-09-01

    Tectonic framework of Bangladesh and adjoining areas indicate that Bangladesh lies well within an active seismic zone. The after effect of earthquake is more severe in an underdeveloped and a densely populated country like ours than any other developed countries. Bangladesh National Building Code (BNBC) was first established in 1993 to provide guidelines for design and construction of new structure subject to earthquake ground motions in order to minimize the risk to life for all structures. A revision of BNBC 1993 is undergoing to make this up to date with other international building codes. This paper aims at the comparison of various provisions of seismic analysis as given in building codes of different countries. This comparison will give an idea regarding where our country stands when it comes to safety against earth quake. Primarily, various seismic parameters in BNBC 2010 (draft) have been studied and compared with that of BNBC 1993. Later, both 1993 and 2010 edition of BNBC codes have been compared graphically with building codes of other countries such as National Building Code of India 2005 (NBC-India 2005), American Society of Civil Engineering 7-05 (ASCE 7-05). The base shear/weight ratios have been plotted against the height of the building. The investigation in this paper reveals that BNBC 1993 has the least base shear among all the codes. Factored Base shear values of BNBC 2010 are found to have increased significantly than that of BNBC 1993 for low rise buildings (≤20 m) around the country than its predecessor. Despite revision of the code, BNBC 2010 (draft) still suggests less base shear values when compared to the Indian and American code. Therefore, this increase in factor of safety against the earthquake imposed by the proposed BNBC 2010 code by suggesting higher values of base shear is appreciable.

  17. Newborn care practices in rural Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam MT

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad Tajul Islam,1 Nazrul Islam,2 Yukie Yoshimura,1 Monjura Khatun Nisha,3 Nawzia Yasmin4 1Safe Motherhood Promotion Project, Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 2School of Population and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 3International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b; 4Department of Public Health, State University of Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh Background: Neonatal mortality is high in Bangladesh. Most of the neonatal deaths are preventable through simple and cost-effective essential newborn care interventions. Studies to document the determinants of unhealthy newborn care practices are scarce. Objective: The objective of this study is to describe the pattern of neonatal care practices and their determinants in rural Bangladesh. Methodology: This study is based on baseline data of a community-based intervention to assess impact of limited postnatal care services on maternal and neonatal health-seeking behavior. Data from 510 women, who had a live birth at home 1 year prior to survey, of six randomly selected unions of an Upazila (subdistrict were analyzed. Results: Majority of the respondents were at an age group of 20–34 years. Only 6% had delivery by skilled providers. Immediate drying and wrapping, and giving colostrums to newborns were almost universal. Unhealthy practices, like unclean cord care (42%, delayed initiation of breastfeeding (60%, use of prelacteals (36%, and early bathing (71% were very common. Muslims were more likely to give early bath (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 2.01; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.13–3.59; P=0.018 and delay in initiating breastfeeding (adjusted OR: 1.45; 95% CI: 1.18–1.78; P<0.001 to newborns. Practice of giving prelacteals was associated with teenage mothers (adjusted OR: 2.26; 95% CI: 1.19–4.28; P=0.013 and women’s lack of education (adjusted OR: 2.64; 95% CI: 1.46–4.77; P=0

  18. Area Handbook Series: Egypt: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    iI~torical Settinlg Sphinx and pyramids at Giza (Al jizah) THE ROOTS OF EGYPTIAN civilization go back more than 6,000 years to the beginning of...built by Snoferu, the first king of the Fourth Dynasty. His son and successor, Kheops, built the Great Pyramid at Giza (AlJizah); this, with its two... Pyramid and Sphinx at Giza , Fourth Dynasty, ca. 2540 B. C. Courtesy Boris Boguslavsky 19 Egypt: A Country Study In June 640, reinforcements for the Arab

  19. Egypt site of first CSM marketing audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    The 1st application of the marketing audit concept to a CSM project was implemented in Egypt's Family of the Future (FOF) contraceptive social marketing program in 1982. The audit defined the basic mission of the FOF as one of assisting the government in achieving its long range family planning goals. The stated FOF objectives are as follows: to create an awareness or an increase in demand for family planning services, particularly among the lower socioeconomic strata in urban Egypt; to establish and maintain a reliable supply mechanism to make FOF products more readily acceptable and available from pharmacies; and to consolidate the CSM operations and services first in the greater Cairo area and then expand to other urban areas in Egypt. The core strategy of the FOF incorporates several elements, including intensive media based advertising and personal promotion to promote the concept of family planning and to educate the general public about contraceptive alternatives. FOF product prices are considerably lower than commercial prices. Dr. Alan R. Andreasen, who conducted the audit on behalf of the FOF technical assistance contractor, noted that the FOF is growing rapidly and stated that the audit recommendations were intended to help FOF management. Dr. Andreasen conducted interviews with all the senior personnel at FOF and met with various specialized staff members such as the Public Relations Manager. Dr. Andreasen noted that at the time of the audit the FOF could claim major accomplishments in creating an awareness of the need for family planning and in product sales. From the time products were launched in 1979 through 1981 condom sales increased 260%. Foaming tablet sales increased more than 320% and IUD sales increased nearly 330%. The introduction of the Copper 7 IUD accounted for 35% of the growth of IUD sales in 1981. Couple years of protection (CYP) provided by all products increased from 45,533 in 1979 to 190,831 in 1981, an increase over 300%. The

  20. Egypt satellite images for land surface characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay

    images used for mapping the vegetation cover types and other land cover types in Egypt. The mapping ranges from 1 km resolution to 30 m resolution. The aim is to provide satellite image mapping with land surface characteristics relevant for roughness mapping.......Satellite images provide information on the land surface properties. From optical remote sensing images in the blue, green, red and near-infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum it is possible to identify a large number of surface features. The report briefly describes different satellite...

  1. Bangladesh (country/area statements).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    According to this statement presented to the Committee on Population of the UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, the population of Bangladesh increased from 76.4 million in 1974 to 89.9 million in 1981 and if the annual estimated growth rate of 2.4% continues unchecked, the population will be 111.5 million by 1990. Rapid population growth increases the man-land ratio, while the undesirable age structure entails a high dependency burden and provides a large base for further population growth. The huge investment in food production is neutralized and educational facilities remain unavailable for most of the nation's 15.6 million school-age children. Even under the most optimistic population projection, the total will increase by more than 60% by the year 2015, exacerbating the already serious problems of poverty and unemployment. The urban population is expected to increase from 17.5 million at present to 37.3 million by 2000, including a multitude of squatters with no visible income-earning opportunities. The population policy adopted by the government in June 1976 was directed toward influencing demographic behavior primarily through information, education, and motivation activities and a wide array of family planning services provided at maternal-child health and family planning centers. The government has taken some steps to increase economic productivity and create employment, and has made administrative changes including upgrading the smallest administrative units and creating directorates for primary education and women's affairs. Health and population control strategies will include establishing primary health care and maternal-child health and family planning centers throughout the country, expanding the family planning worker to population ratio, and integrating the family planning programs with all development oriented programs. The National Council for Population Control and several other organizational structures have been created

  2. CSM a success in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    The Bangladesh Social Marketing Project (SMP), providing contraceptives at an annual rate of 931,000 couple years of protection (CYP) as of June 1983, is a success. This figure has grown markedly since the start of the program in late 1975, when the SMP provided 80,000 CYPs, or 8% of nonclinical protection provided. The SMP has contributed to the steadily increasing national nonclinical contraceptive distribution. Currently, SMP distribution accounts for as much as the government and nongovernment programs combined. When clinical methods (including sterilizations) are added to national distribution, the SMP share represents about 28% of total contraceptive use. The SMP does not provide clinical methods, but the entire increase in nonclinical protection provided by the national program since 1975 has been the result of SMP product sales. The SMP utilizes the available mass media for promotion, including print, radio, television, as well as outdoor media and point of purchase materials. Mobile Film Units (MFUs) are an innovative promotional method employed by the SMP. Approximately 80 night time outdoor showings are organized each month in rural areas by SMP promoters. Typically, several short films, usually a popular story with a family planning theme, are run. Between each film the SMP products are of advertised. Products are often sold during and after the films. Retail outlets for SMP products include general stores, pharmacies, and other small shops. When products were introduced in 1975 retail outlets totaled 7500. By August 1983 the number of country wide retailers carrying SMP products had grown to nearly 100,000. In 1982 a marketing strategy emphasizing the role of doctors and rural medical practitioners (RMPs) was introduced. There are between 70,00-100,000 RMPs in Bangladesh. They are well known and respected "doctors" in their villages and add an extensive family planning outreach to the SMP system. The most important advantage of using the RMPs is their

  3. Future demand scenarios of Bangladesh power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondal, Md. Alam Hossain; Boie, Wulf; Denich, Manfred

    2010-01-01

    Data on the future electricity demand is an essential requirement for planning the expansion of a power system. The purpose of this study is to provide a general overview of electricity consumption in Bangladesh, forecast sector-wise electricity demand up to 2035 considering the base year 2005, and compare the results with official projections. The Long-range Energy Alternative Planning (LEAP) model with three scenarios, namely low gross domestic product (GDP) growth, average GDP growth and high GDP growth, is applied in this study. In the low to high GDP growth scenarios, the extent of industrial restructuring and technical advancement is gradually increased. The findings have significant implications with respect to energy conservation and economic development. The study also compares the projected per capita electricity consumption in Bangladesh with the historical growth in several other developing countries. Such an evaluation can create awareness among the planners of power system expansion in Bangladesh to meet the high future demand.

  4. Health consequences of child labour in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The paper examines the effect of child labour on child health outcomes in Bangladesh, advancing the methodologies and the results of papers published in different journals. Objective: We examine the effect of child labour on child health outcomes. Methods: We used Bangladesh National Child Labour Survey data for 2002-2003 for our analysis. Results: The main finding of the paper suggests that child labour is positively and significantly associated with the probability of being injured or becoming ill. Intensity of injury or illness is significantly higher in construction and manufacturing sectors than in other sectors. Health disadvantages for different age groups are not essentially parallel. Conclusions: The results obtained in this paper strengthen the need for stronger enforcement of laws that regulate child labour, especially given its adverse consequences on health. Although the paper focuses on Bangladesh, much of the evidence presented has implications that are relevant to policymakers in other developing countries.

  5. Mercury Removal from Natural Gas in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korkor, H.; AI-Alf, A.; EI-Behairy, S.

    2004-01-01

    Worldwide natural gas is forecasted to be the fastest growing primary energy source. In Egypt, natural gas is recently playing a key role as one of the major energy sources. This is supported by adequate gas reserves, booming gas industry, and unique geographical location. Egypt's current proven gas reserves accounted for about 62 TCF, in addition to about 100 TCF as probable gas reserves. As a result, it was decided to enter the gas exporting market, where gas is transported through pipelines as in the Arab Gas pipelines project and as a liquid through the liquefied natural gas (LNG) projects in Damietta, and ld ku. With the start up of these currently implemented LNG projects that are dealing with the very low temperatures (down to -162 degree c), the gas has to be subjected to a regular analysis in order to check the compliance with the required specifications. Mercury is a trace component of all fossil fuels including natural gas, condensates, crude oil, coal, tar sands, and other bitumens. The use of fossil hydrocarbons as fuels provides the main opportunity for emissions of mercury they contain to the atmospheric environment: while other traces exist in production, transportation and processing systems

  6. Mercury Removal from Natural Gas in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korkor, H; AI-Alf, A; EI-Behairy, S [EGAS, Cairo (Egypt)

    2004-07-01

    Worldwide natural gas is forecasted to be the fastest growing primary energy source. In Egypt, natural gas is recently playing a key role as one of the major energy sources. This is supported by adequate gas reserves, booming gas industry, and unique geographical location. Egypt's current proven gas reserves accounted for about 62 TCF, in addition to about 100 TCF as probable gas reserves. As a result, it was decided to enter the gas exporting market, where gas is transported through pipelines as in the Arab Gas pipelines project and as a liquid through the liquefied natural gas (LNG) projects in Damietta, and ld ku. With the start up of these currently implemented LNG projects that are dealing with the very low temperatures (down to -162 degree c), the gas has to be subjected to a regular analysis in order to check the compliance with the required specifications. Mercury is a trace component of all fossil fuels including natural gas, condensates, crude oil, coal, tar sands, and other bitumens. The use of fossil hydrocarbons as fuels provides the main opportunity for emissions of mercury they contain to the atmospheric environment: while other traces exist in production, transportation and processing systems.

  7. Aid for family planning in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-02-01

    A $5 million credit has been approved by the International Development Association, an affilate of the World Bank, to help finance a population project in Egypt. The project provides for the construction, equipping and furnishing of 22 general health centers, 12 polyclinics, 3 centers for training nursing teachers and 3 centers for in service training. 100 and 50 multipurpose vehicles will be provided to improve mobility of family planning services. Also included are a study on the maintenance of health facilities, 3 evaluation studies of family planning acceptors, an experimental home visiting program to inform and motivate people on family planning, and assistance in the production of health education material useful for family planning information and motivation. Simple demographic facts illustrate the seriousness of the population problem in Egypt. The current population of 35 million will be double by the year 2000 if the present 2.5% annual increase continues. This will put strains on a country whose population density quadrupled during the last century, and which stands to day at 950 persons per square kilometer of habitable land, a density rivalled by only 2 or 3 other countries in the world. The IDA credit will cover about 1/2 of the project's expense. The Egyptian government will finance the local costs. full text

  8. Family, society, economy and fertility in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannan, M A

    1989-09-01

    "This paper examines the socio-economic and cultural conditions under which the large family represents a rational economic goal for parents [in Bangladesh]." The author notes that rural children provide valuable labor services to parents during childhood, grown sons continue to support their parents financially and in other ways, and sons are the most reliable source of security in old age. Daughters, however, remain at home and cost a significant amount for dowries at marriage. It is concluded that prevailing socioeconomic conditions in Bangladesh still provide substantial support for high fertility and son preference. excerpt

  9. Natural-resource management in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, S.; Mulamoottil, G.

    1994-01-01

    The paper discusses the major natural resource management issues in relation to land, forests, and water in Bangladesh. It shows how government policies and programs in one sector may affect other sectors. A lack of land use, and forest policies can be responsible for degradation of agricultural land and deforestation. The paper argues that better management of the natural resources can only be achieved by an integrated approach covering all the sectors of development. In Bangladesh, with a freely elected government in power, there is a unique opportunity to formulate an integrated natural resource management strategy. 44 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  10. Girl prostitution in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, K K

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the nature, magnitude, causes, and consequences of female child prostitution in India and offers measures for control and prevention of girl prostitution. Data are obtained from the 6-city study of prostitution and the author's own research. An estimated 85% of all prostitutes in Calcutta and Delhi entered the work at an early age. The numbers are rising. The promotion of tourism is linked with prostitution. Girl prostitutes are primarily located in low-middle income areas and business districts and are known by officials. Brothel keepers regularly recruit young girls. An estimated 33% of prostitutes are young girls. In Bangalore, Calcutta, Delhi, and Hyderabad, there are an estimated 10,000 girl prostitutes. UNICEF estimates about 300,000 child prostitutes. Girl prostitutes are grouped as common prostitutes, singers and dancers, call girls, religious prostitutes or devdasi, and caged brothel prostitutes. Religious prostitutes are mainly found in the South. Caged ones are found in Bombay. A little over 50% of prostitutes come from other countries, such as Nepal and Bangladesh. The girls tend to come from urban slums and poor rural areas. High prostitute supply regions include Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and West Bengel states. About 85% are Hindus, and about 66% are from scheduled castes and tribes. Bangalore and Bombay have a higher proportion of girl prostitutes. The causes of prostitution include ill treatment by parents, bad company, family prostitutes, social customs, inability to arrange marriage, lack of sex education, media, prior incest and rape, early marriage and desertion, lack of recreational facilities, ignorance, and acceptance of prostitution. Economic causes include poverty and economic distress. Psychological causes include desire for physical pleasure, greed, and dejection. Most enter involuntarily. A brief profile is given of the life of a prostitute.

  11. Spatial and Temporal Changes of Sundarbans Reserve Forest in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaul Haque Mondal

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Sundarbans, the largest mangrove chunk of the world is shared between Bangladesh (62% and India (38%. The objective of this paper was to examine the spatial and temporal changes in land cover (forest cover area of Sundarbans from 1973 to 2010 using remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS tool. Normal¬ized difference vegetation index (NDVI was applied to calculate the density of vegetation of Sundarbans reserved forest (SRF. This study found that there were no major changes in total areas of SRF in the last 37 years (from 1973 to 2010 albeit changes were detected within the four land cover categories-water body, mudflat, barren land and vegetated land. During 1973 to 2010, water bodies, mudflats and barren lands increased by 0.45%, 19.69% and 14.81%, respectively, while vegetated land decreased by 4.01% during the same period. This indicated that the density of evergreen vegetation and its canopy closure decreased in Sundarbans. It was thus recommended that GIS and remote sensing based real time monitoring system be developed to identify spatial and temporal changes of land cover classes of SRF.

  12. India Emerging

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-12-13

    Dec 13, 2017 ... It is telling that in a famous paper authored by the Nobel Prize winner, Robert ..... Examples are the steam engine, railroad, electricity, electronics, the ...... According to Gartner's Senior Research Analyst 'India's domestic IT services .... in new areas such as engineering services and product development.

  13. India Emerging

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Here Veena Jha surveys the history of philanthropic giving in India going back to the ...... claim that ICTs produced benefits go beyond those pertaining to investors and owners. ...... Anti-migration policies include restricted access to public services by below poverty ...... Which medicines and vaccinations are not available?

  14. Mitigation options for the industrial sector in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelil, I.A.; El-Touny, S.; Korkor, H. [Organization for Energy Conservation and Planning (OECP), Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-12-31

    Though its contribution to the global Greenhouse gases emission is relatively small, Egypt has signed and ratified the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UN FCCC) and has been playing an active role in the international efforts to deal with such environmental challenges. Energy efficiency has been one of the main strategies that Egypt has adopted to improve environmental quality and enhance economic competitiveness. This paper highlights three initiatives currently underway to improve energy efficiency of the Egyptian industry. The first is a project that has been recently completed by OECP to assess potential GHG mitigation options available in Egypt`s oil refineries. The second initiative is an assessment of GHG mitigation potential in the Small and Medium size Enterprises (SME) in the Mediterranean city of Alexandria. The third one focuses on identifying demand side management options in some industrial electricity consumers in the same city.

  15. Unprotected: Palestinians in Egypt since 1948 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2009-01-01

    Jan 1, 2009 ... With limited basic human rights and in the context of very poor living ... HarassMap and Uber Egypt partner to raise awareness about sexual harassment ... Syrian refugees: Shifting from crisis response to opportunity.

  16. All projects related to egypt | Page 3 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Refugees and migrants in transit countries such as Egypt have links to wider diaspora ... In its 2006-2011 Strategic Plan, IDRC's Acacia program identified small-scale agriculture, including environment and natural ... Program: Climate Change.

  17. All projects related to Egypt | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: Middle East, Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Syria, Tunisia, Egypt, Yemen, Bahrain, ... state-controlled religious institutions, and state-owned media - to assess the ... POLICY MAKING, MIDDLE EAST, Civil society, SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT.

  18. All projects related to egypt | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Arab Families and Youth : a Century of War, Migration and Displacement ... North of Sahara, South of Sahara, North and Central America, Central Asia, South Asia, Egypt ... ISLAM, HUMAN RIGHTS, CIVIL RIGHTS, WOMEN'S RIGHTS, Gender.

  19. An epidemiological overview of malaria in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Nazrul; Bonovas, Stefanos; Nikolopoulos, Georgios K

    2013-01-01

    Bangladesh is one of the four major malaria-endemic countries in South-East Asia having approximately 34% of its population at risk of malaria. This paper aims at providing an overview of the malaria situation in this country. Relevant information was retrieved from published articles and reports in PubMed and Google Scholar. Malaria in Bangladesh is concentrated in 13 districts with a prevalence ranging between 3.1% and 36%, and is mostly caused by Plasmodium falciparum. Geographical conditions pose a potential risk for Plasmodium knowlesi malaria. Resistance to a number of drugs previously recommended for treatment has been reported. Low socio-economic status, poor schooling and close proximity to water bodies and forest areas comprise important risk factors. Despite the significant steps in Long Lasting Insecticide Net (LLIN)/Insecticide Treated Net (ITN) coverage in Bangladesh, there are still many challenges including the extension of malaria support to the remote areas of Bangladesh, where malaria prevalence is higher, and further improvements in the field of referral system and treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Area Handbook Series: Bangladesh, A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    Bangladesh entrepreneurship in its infancy. The enforced use of the Bangla language as a replacement for English at all levels of government and...referen- dum on his continuance in office. The results of what Zia called his "exercise of the democratic franchise ," showed that 88.5 per- cent of the

  1. Teacher Educators' Attitude towards Computer: Perspective Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mohammad Ataur

    2011-01-01

    This study examined how teacher educators perceive the attitude towards use of computer technology in Teachers' Training Colleges in Bangladesh. This study investigated teacher educators' computer attitudes by using the valid and reliable instruments of Loyd and Gressard's (1984) Computer Attitude Scale (CAS). The data was collected through …

  2. Defining and Predicting Heat Waves in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nissan, H.; Burkart, K.; Coughlan, E.R.; van Aalst, M.; Mason, S.

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a heat-wave definition for Bangladesh that could be used to trigger preparedness measures in a heat early warning system (HEWS) and explores the climate mechanisms associated with heat waves. A HEWSrequires a definition of heat waves that is both related to human health outcomes

  3. English, Education, and Globalisation: A Bangladesh Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akteruzzaman, Mohammad; Islam, Rakibul

    2017-01-01

    As a third world country and a former British colony, Bangladesh has seen a dramatic upsurge in the use of the English language. Built on the concept of imperialistic aspects of the English language, this paper draws on responses from anonymous survey results and interviews and attempts to provide deeper insights into the global aspects of English…

  4. Social responsibility disclosure practices : evidence from Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, Muhammad Azizul; Deegan, Craig

    2010-01-01

    This discussion paper reviews the results of an investigation of the social and environmental disclosure practices of the Bangladesh Garment Manufacturers and Exporters Association (BGMEA), two major multinational buying companies - Nike and H&M, and an exploration of possible drivers for the media agenda in reporting the activities of multinationals and NGOs. Publisher PDF

  5. Gender, Parenting, and Adolescent Functioning in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Sunita Mahtani; Bond, Michael Harris; Abdullah, Abu Saleh M.; Ma, Stefan S. L.

    2000-01-01

    Examined associations of self-esteem, relationship harmony, and academic achievement with perceptions of parents' styles and supervisory practices among 212 adolescents in Islamic Bangladesh. Found that parental supervisory practices were associated with a warm parental style for girls and parental dominating control for boys. Girls' (but not…

  6. First case of chromoblastomycosis from Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brun Sophie

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Chromoblastomycosis is a rare and chronic cutaneous and subcutaneous infection caused by black fungi and mostly reported in tropical and subtropical areas. Here we report the first case of chromoblastomycosis from Bangladesh. Molecular biology permitted to identify Fonsecaea nubica, and the patient responded well to antifungal treatment alone.

  7. Pangolin distribution and conservation status in Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott J Trageser

    Full Text Available Asian pangolins are a highly-threatened species group, mainly due to the perceived medicinal value of their scales. Increased demand from China has resulted in pangolins being the most trafficked mammal in the world. Three pangolin species are reported to occur in Bangladesh: Manis pentadactyla, M. crassicaudata, and M. javanica. No peer-reviewed studies exist detailing these species' current distribution or status within Bangladesh. A literature review was conducted resulting in the clarification of conflicting reports and misidentified observations and specimen records. In this paper, we also report the current status of pangolins (Manis spp. in Bangladesh based on semi-structured interviews, camera trapping, media queries, and field surveys employing traditional ecological knowledge and non-randomized transect surveys. Ethnozoological knowledge pertaining to the natural history of M. pentadactyla is also reported from experienced Mro tribal hunters. The critically endangered M. pentadactyla was verified to occur in northwest, northeast, and southeast Bangladesh in natural and degraded habitats. Interviews with the Mro tribe in the southeast indicate that pangolin populations there were likely extirpated in 2014 due to skilled commercial collection beginning in 2010. Evidence of extant M. crassicaudata and M. javanica populations remain unverified and questionable, and historical records of M. crassicaudata and M. javanica are likely a result of misidentification.

  8. Protozoal enteric infections among expatriates in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speelman, P.; Ljungström, I.

    1986-01-01

    In order to study the prevalence, incidence, and symptoms of infections with Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica, we followed 251 expatriates in Bangladesh over a 1-year period. Microscopic examination of fecal specimens was performed upon enrollment, at 3-month intervals, and during episodes

  9. Information Network on Rural Development (INRD), Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanasundra, Leelangi

    1994-01-01

    Discusses information networking in Bangladesh and describes the formation of the Information Network on Rural Development (INRD) which was initiated by the Center on Integrated Rural Development for Asia and the Pacific (CIRDAP). Organization, membership, activities, participation, and finance are examined. (four references) (LRW)

  10. Cutaneous gnathostomiasis in a woman from Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grobusch, M. P.; Bergmann, F.; Teichmann, D.; Klein, E.

    2000-01-01

    A woman from Bangladesh who had lived in Germany for more than 2 years presented with migratory, painful swellings on her left hand and arm of 5 months duration. Laboratory examinations yielded a marked eosinophilia and a grossly elevated IgE level in combination with an inflammatory reaction

  11. Comprehensive update on cancer scenario of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Md Akram Hussain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh, at 142 million people, is the ninth most populous country in the world. There are 13 to 15 lakh cancer patients in Bangladesh, with about two lakh patients newly diagnosed with cancer each year. As an overview, lung cancer and mouth-oropharynx cancer rank as the top two prevalent cancers in males. Other types of cancers are esophagus cancer and stomach cancer. In women, cancer cervix uteri and breast cancer are most prevalent. Other cancer types, which affect women, are mouth and oropharynx cancer, lung cancer, and esophagus cancer. There are around 150 qualified clinical oncologists and 16 pediatric oncologists working in the different parts of the country. Regular cancer treatment is available in 19 hospitals and 465 hospital beds are attached as indoor or day care facilities for chemotherapy in the oncology/radiotherapy departments. There are about 15 linear accelerators, 12 Co-60 teletherapy and 12 brachytherapy units currently available. Approximately, 56 cancer chemotherapeutic agents are obtainable in Bangladesh. Research facilities are available at tertiary care centers and a few multi country collaborative research activities are ongoing. Bangladesh has a unique National Cancer Control Strategy and Plan of Action 2009-2015 formulated with the assistance of WHO with an objective to develop and implement continuum of cancer care through a comprehensive cancer control programe. Preventive measures taken to reduce the incidence of cancer include reduced tobacco smoking, change of dietary habit and reduced food adulteration, ensuring reproductive hygiene, increased physical activity, and reduced occupational hazard. Awareness buildup and media campaign are going on by organizing the general people, opinion leaders of the society, and boy and girl scout. Training of general physicians on cancer warning signs and setup of early cancer detection centers at each medical college and district levels are ongoing. Beside these, some

  12. Political Participation and Power Relations in Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shehata, Mostafa

    2017-01-01

    The political use of media in Egypt post-2011 revolution brought about drastic transformations in political activism and power structures. In the context of communication power theory, this article investigates the effects of newspapers and social network sites on political participation...... and political power relations. The research employed a mixed methodology, comprised of a survey of 527 Egyptian youth and semi-structured interviews of 12 political activists and journalists. The results showed a significant relationship between reading newspapers and youth’s political participation......, but not between using social network sites and political participation. In addition, newspapers and social network sites were platforms for a series of conflicts and coalitions that emerged between pro- and anti-revolution actors. Despite the importance of social network sites as key tools for informing...

  13. Status of marine protected areas in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samy, M.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Egypt has sought to protect its natural resources and marine biodiversity by establishing a network of six MPAs that are generally located in the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea; most of them include interconnected marine and terrestrial sectors based on conserving coral reefs and accompanying systems. We assessed the present status of MPA networks that showed a set of important results manifested in some strengths (i.e. proper selection according to specific criteria, management plans, etc., and also some weaknesses (i.e. a relatively small protected proportion of the Egyptian marine territorial waters, significant pressures mainly by tourism activities, etc.. Finally, some recommendations are proposed from this work (i.e. incorporate more habitats that are not well represented in the network, especially on the Mediterranean Sea; establishing a touristic carrying capacity of each area; etc. to improve the current situation.

  14. Economic study of rice irradiation in egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkhateeb, M.A.; Elgmeel, E.A.

    2004-01-01

    The paper discusses the economics of rice irradiation and the effect of various parameters on unit processing costs. It provides a model for calculating specific unit processing costs by correlating known capital costs with annual operation cost and annual throughputs. It is intended to provide the investors with a general knowledge of how unit processing costs are derived. The investment criteria utilized for commercial evaluation were internal rate of return (I.I.R), pay back period (P.B.P), and average rate of return (A.R.R). The irradiation cost and the additional income are also discussed. The result of the analysis showed that the installation of an irradiation unit in Egypt would be economically feasible

  15. The global and UV-B radiation over Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    BASSET, H. A.; KORANY, M. H.

    2007-01-01

    This work studies the relation between UV-B radiation and global radiation over Egypt. The relationships between the global solar radiation and UV-B radiation at four stations in Egypt have been studied, and linear empirical formulas for estimating UV-B from global radiation at these stations has been deduced. The deduced equations were applied to calculate the UV-B radiation for other stations where measurements were unavailable, using records of global radiation at these stations. Because o...

  16. Determinants of Transitions across Formal/Informal sectors in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Tansel, Aysit; Ozdemir, Zeynel / A.

    2014-01-01

    Informality is a salient feature of labor market in Egypt as it is the case with many developing countries. This is the first study of the determinants of worker transitions between various labor market states using panel data from Egypt. We first provide a diagnosis of dynamic worker flows across different labor market states. We develop transition probabilities by gender across different labor market states utilizing Markov transition processes. Next we identify the effects of individual, h...

  17. Development of the Qattara Project, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The River Nile, as a huge source of cheap hydroelectric energy, was fully exploited in Egypt upstream of Aswan in 1968 by the construction of the famous Aswan and High Dam Hydroelectric Complex. The growth of demand for electrical power is such that an additional large source of energy is required. The Qattara Project would offer not only an ideal source of low cost power production, but a vital boost for Egypt's national economy. The fundamental idea of the scheme is to channel Mediterranean Sea water into the Qattara Depression, using the difference in levels to produce hydroelectric power. The rate of discharge of sea water into the depression should be equivalent to the rate of evaporation from the lake surface. This situation will arise ten years after starting to fill the lake, when the water has reached a level of 60 m below sea level. The possibility of using PNE to excavate a Mediterranean Sea - Qattara Depression canal was first postulated by the Egyptian Atomic Energy Establishment in 1971. In 1973 a pre-feasibility study was prepared, based on preliminary site investigations performed during the period 1964-1965, namely geological and cartographic surveys, as well as on comparative economic evaluation of various solutions. The study showed clearly that the project including both base-load and peak-load hydroelectric power stations and using nuclear excavation of a canal between the sea and the depression offers a competitive solution for cheap power production. A subsequent feasibility study, which was started in 1975, investigates alternative ways of constructing the canal/tunnel system, using conventional tunnelling and PNE. For the nuclear solution, two cases are considered, one using unlimited yields and another with 150 kt maximum yield. A preliminary assessment of the effects of the explosion and costs of the nuclear component of the project are given. (author)

  18. Geotechniques of landfill design in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elleboudy, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    The remarkable pollution and the deteriorating environmental conditions in the capital city and other major cities in Egypt have created serious health problems and had great impact on social and economical development. This situation has urged the government to establish a new ministry for environment. The ministry put a national action plan to overcome all the local environmental problems. Among them, the tremendous amounts of solid wastes that are produced daily by the overpopulated cities used to be dumped in open areas causing a terrible unbearable pollution. The ministry has recently initiated several projects for solid and hazardous waste management and disposal to be executed according to the international standards. The Ministry of Environment has appointed a team of multidisciplinary experts to carry out the environmental impact assessment of site selection and the engineering design of landfills. I was fortunate enough to join the team as a geotechnical consulting engineer to review the design of the proposed landfills from the geotechnical point of view. The criteria for landfill design included the physical size, its proximity and access, topography, geotechnical and geological aspects, surface water, ground water hydrology, and future site development and land use. Several sites have been selected to start the project; in Nasr City, 15th of May City, and Assalam City, which are districts of Cairo, Abu-Zaabal in Kalubia Governrate, Shabramont in Giza, Shawa in Dakahlia, Borg El-Arab near Alexandria, two sites in Monofia, and another one in El-Katamia. The paper presents the studies carried out for site selection, geotechnical design, and the possible impact on the environment of the surrounding areas. The studies also included the hydro-geological conditions and the assessment of the ground water conditions in each site and the potential contamination. Socioeconomic measures and public participation in decision making were also taken into consideration

  19. Maternal education and child healthcare in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huq, Mohammed Nazmul; Tasnim, Tarana

    2008-01-01

    Child health is one of the important indicators for describing mortality conditions, health progress and the overall social and economic well being of a country. During the last 15 years, although Bangladesh has achieved a significant reduction in the child mortality rate, the levels still remain very high. The utilization of qualified providers does not lead to the desired level; only a third relies on qualified providers. This study is mainly aimed at investigating the influence of maternal education on health status and the utilization of child healthcare services in Bangladesh. This study is based on the data of the Household Income Expenditure Survey (HIES) conducted by the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (BBS) during 2000. The analysis of the findings reveals that 19.4% of the children under five reported sickness during 30 days prior to the survey date. Moreover, approximately one out of every thirteen children suffers from diarrhoea in the country. It is striking to note that a significant portion of the parents relied on unqualified or traditional providers for the children's healthcare because of low cost, easy accessibility and familiarity of the services. The study suggests that maternal education is a powerful and significant determinant of child health status in Bangladesh. Maternal education also positively affects the number of children receiving vaccination. In order to improve the health condition of children in Bangladesh maternal education should be given top priority. The public policies should not just focus on education alone, but also consider other factors, such as access to health facilities and quality of services. Health awareness campaign should be strengthened as part of the public health promotion efforts. More emphasis should also be given to government-NGO (Non Government Organization) partnerships that make vaccination programs successful and, thereby, reduce the incidence of preventable diseases.

  20. Urology and the scientific method in ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordetsky, Jennifer; O'Brien, Jeanne

    2009-03-01

    To examine the practice of urology in ancient Egypt using various sources, including the Edwin Smith and Ebers Papyri. The sources of knowledge of ancient Egyptian medicine include medical papyri, paleopathology, art, and hieroglyphic carvings. A brief overview of the medical system in ancient Egypt was completed, in addition to an examination of the training and specialization of the physician in the ancient world. Urologic diseases treated in ancient Egypt and some of the first documented urologic surgeries are presented. Finally, we studied the role of the physician-priest and the intertwined use of religion and magic in ancient Egyptian medicine. The same medical conditions urologists treat in the office today were methodically documented thousands of years ago. Medical papyri show evidence that the ancient Egyptians practiced medicine using a scientific method based on the clinical observation of disease. This has been exemplified by the Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus, a collection of surgical cases that gives a diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis for each ailment, and the discovery of medical specialization in ancient Egypt, giving us perhaps the world's first urologists. Intertwined with the scientific method was also the rich mysticism and religion of ancient Egypt, which were integral components of the healing process. We present an overview of the practice of urology in ancient Egypt, in terms of both pharmacologic and surgical intervention, as well as with a look into the religion of medicine practiced at that time.

  1. Factors Affecting Accidents Risks among Truck Drivers In Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elshamly Ahmed Fathalla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Egypt is ranked among the countries with the highest rates of road accidents. According to the American Chamber of Commerce more than 96% of Egypt's goods are transported by trucks and due to their large volume and excessive weight, the severity and number of truck accident fatalities are much higher than other vehicles in Egypt. The present study aims at identifying truck driver's behavior and its influence on crash involvement. Due to the shortage in recording accident data and the inaccurate road accident audit, data was collected from several governorates in Egypt through questionnaire. Questionnaire forms were filled out through personal interviews with truck drivers. The total number of respondents was 643. The final analysis was made on the 615 questionnaires with complete answers. The data was analyzed and logistic regression was applied to accident related data to examine the contributing factors affecting accident occurrence of truck drivers. Results showed that fatigue in terms of driving hours (continuous and total and lack of sleep, drug use during driving, and driver obesity are the most influencing factors on the occurrence of truck accidents in Egypt. The findings of this research highlight the important role human factors have on the risk of crash involvement amongst Egypt's truck drivers and the need to improve their work conditions.

  2. An ongoing earthquake sequence near Dhaka, Bangladesh, from regional recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, M.; Mondal, D. R.; Akhter, S. H.; Kim, W.; Seeber, L.; Steckler, M. S.

    2013-12-01

    Earthquakes in and around the syntaxial region between the continent-continent collision of the Himalayan arc and oceanic subduction of the Sunda arc result primarily from the convergence of India and Eurasia-Sunda plates along two fronts. The northern front, the convergence of the Indian and Eurasian plates, has produced the Himalayas. The eastern front, the convergence of the Indian and Sunda plates, ranges from ocean-continent subduction at the Andaman Arc and Burma Arc, and transitions to continent-continent collision to the north at the Assam Syntaxis in northeast India. The India-Sunda convergence at the Burma Arc is extremely oblique. The boundary-normal convergence rate is ~17 mm/yr while the boundary-parallel rate is ~45 mm/yr including the well-known Sagaing strike-slip fault, which accommodates about half the shear component. This heterogeneous tectonic setting produces multiple earthquake sources that need to be considered when assessing seismic hazard and risk in this region. The largest earthquakes, just as in other subduction systems, are expected to be interplate events that occur on the low-angle megathrusts, such as the Mw 9.2 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake and the 1762 earthquake along the Arakan margin. These earthquakes are known to produce large damage over vast areas, but since they account for large fault motions they are relatively rare. The majority of current seismicity in the study area is intraplate. Most of the seismicity associated with the Burma Arc subduction system is in the down-going slab, including the shallow-dipping part below the megathrust flooring the accretionary wedge. The strike of the wedge is ~N-S and Dhaka lies at its outer limit. One particular source relevant to seismic risk in Dhaka is illuminated by a multi-year sequence of earthquakes in Bangladesh less than 100 km southeast of Dhaka. The population in Dhaka (now at least 15 million) has been increasing dramatically due to rapid urbanization. The vulnerability

  3. Societal impacts and vulnerability to floods in Bangladesh and Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Tanvir H. Dewan

    2015-01-01

    Bangladesh and Nepal lie between the Himalayas and low-lying coasts of the Bay of Bengal and are traversed by hundreds of rivers and tributaries. Historical data shows that, since 1970, the scale, intensity and duration of floods have increased in Bangladesh and Nepal, causing grave human suffering; disruptions in normal life and activity, damages of infrastructure, crops and agricultural land with severe impacts on the economy. Bangladesh is affected by torrential rain, glacier melt, upstrea...

  4. Impact of Social Networking Sites in Bangladesh: Few Possible Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Omar Faruq; Alim-Al-Reza; Md. Mahbubur Rahman; Mohammad Raisul Alam

    2017-01-01

    Bangladesh is a developing country. But in few recent years this country is going to be turned as digitalized. The first condition of being digitalization is the whole communication system of the country have to be developed tremendously. If we notice about the communication system, then Social Networking Sites can be a platform of revolution. This study is based on the perspective of Bangladesh on Social Networking Sites(SNS). In Bangladesh, Social Networking Sites ar...

  5. About "Save the Children Committee (India)".

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This article describes the activity among charitable committees to provide education and shelter to orphans and homeless children in India. "Save The Children Committee" of the All India Women's Conference began operations during the Bengal famine of 1943 by providing shelter to children who were homeless or did not know where their parents were. The Bengal Relief Committee also provided shelters, which later became Children's Homes, which were operated by the Save The Children Committee. Funding support for the homes came from individual donors and organizations. The Bengal government provided Rs.25/month/child for 450 children. Children's homes were set up in Phola, Mymensingh, and Brahmanberia, in the present day Bangladesh, and in Bankura. The Committee took over homes in Mahishadal, Khagda, and Belbeni. After 1948, the Children's Homes in East Pakistan were transferred to India. In 1952, several Children's Committees merged. Funds were supplied by international organizations. Government support levels varied over time. Schools for orphans changed from an emphasis on self-reliance and work to ordinary schooling. Brief descriptions are provided for homes at Pifa, Mangalgunge in Bongaon Subdivision, Thakurpukur in 24-Parganas, and Khagda in Midnapore district. For example, the home at Khagda was begun by the Bengal Relief Committee at the time of the famine of 1944. Save The Children Committee took over its operations in 1946. It is now a home for 21 boys. The boys have access to a good high school, have achieved academically, and received respect from the community.

  6. Emerging Scenario of Trade Potentialities of North-East India: Challenges and Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Ram Krishna Mandal

    2009-01-01

    The North-East Region (NER) of India which comprises of eight states, namely Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim and Tripura shares most of its boundary with China, Bangladesh, Bhutan and Myanmar. The NER accounts for about eight per cent of the country's geographical area and about four per cent of population. Tribals account for more than 30 per cent of the total population of NER. Inadequate and poor infrastructure, inhospitable terrain and a com¬parativ...

  7. HarassMap and Uber Egypt partner to raise awareness about ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-12-11

    Dec 11, 2017 ... HarassMap has also led to another profound impact in Egypt: Cairo ... of sexual harassment in Egypt is empowering women and changing men's attitudes. ... IDRC congratulates first cohort of Women in Climate Change ...

  8. Egypt v literatuře před polovinou 19. století

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baďurová, Anežka

    -, č. 4 (2013) E-ISSN 1805-2800 Keywords : egypt ian literature * literature * Week of science and technology 2013 http://www.lib.cas.cz/casopis-informace/ egypt -v-literature-pred-polovinou-19-stoleti/

  9. New Media and Political Dissent in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirschkind, Charles

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores some of the ways that the Internet, and particularly the practice of blogging, has opened up new political possibilities in Egypt. As I examine, political bloggers in this country (Islamist as well as secularist have pioneered new language forms and video styles in order to articulate an arena of political life they refer to as “the street.” Egyptian bloggers render visible and publicly speakable practices of state violence that other media outlets cannot easily disclose. In discussing the sensory epistemology informing these blogging practices, I give particular attention to the way traditions concerning the sonority of the Arabic language and the relation of written to spoken forms are exploited and reworked by some of Egypt’s most prominent political bloggers. I also examine how these language practices find a visual and aural analogy in the grainy cellphone video recordings found on many of Egypt’s political blogs. This paper analyzes such practices in relation to emergent forms of political agency and contestation in contemporary Egypt.

    El autor explora algunos de los modos como Internet, en particular el escribir y publicar en un blog, ha abierto nuevas posibilidades políticas en Egipto. El estudio revela que los blogueros políticos en este país (que incluye tanto a islamistas como a laicistas han creado nuevas formas de lenguaje y nuevos estilos de vídeo con los que vertebrar un espacio de vida política al que se refieren como “la calle”. Los blogueros egipcios hacen visibles y motivo de debate público acciones violentas del Estado que otros medios informativos no pueden divulgar con la misma facilidad. El autor se detiene especialmente en el modo como los blogueros políticos más sobresalientes del país recurren y adaptan las tradiciones relativas a la sonoridad de la lengua árabe y a la conexión que existe en ella entre las formas habladas y las escritas. Asimismo, examina el modo como

  10. Flood characteristics of the Haor area in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suman, Asadusjjaman; Bhattacharya, Biswa

    2013-04-01

    In recent years the world has experienced deaths, large-scale displacement of people, billions of Euros of economic damage, mental stress and ecosystem impacts due to flooding. Global changes (climate change, population and economic growth, and urbanisation) are exacerbating the severity of flooding. The 2010 floods in Pakistan and the 2011 floods in Australia and Thailand demonstrate the need for concerted action in the face of global societal and environmental changes to strengthen resilience against flooding. Bangladesh is a country, which is frequently suffering from flooding. The current research is conducted in the framework of a project, which focuses on the flooding issues in the Haor region in the north-east of Bangladesh. A haor is a saucer-shaped depression, which is used during the dry period (December to mid-May) for agriculture and as a fishery during the wet period (June-November), and thereby presents a very interesting socio-economic perspective of flood risk management. Pre-monsoon flooding till mid-May causes agricultural loss and lot of distress whereas monsoon flooding brings benefits. The area is bordering India, thereby presenting trans-boundary issues as well, and is fed by some flashy Indian catchments. The area is drained mainly through the Surma-Kushiyara river system. The terrain generally is flat and the flashy characteristics die out within a short distance from the border. Limited studies on the region, particularly with the help of numerical models, have been carried out in the past. Therefore, an objective of the current research was to set up numerical models capable of reasonably emulating the physical system. Such models could, for example, associate different gauges to the spatio-temporal variation of hydrodynamic variables and help in carrying out a systemic study on the impact of climate changes. A 1D2D model, with one-dimensional model for the rivers (based on MIKE 11 modelling tool from Danish Hydraulic Institute) and a two

  11. Morbidity, Mortality, and Seasonality of Influenza Hospitalizations in Egypt, November 2007-November 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Kandeel, Amr; Dawson, Patrick; Labib, Manal; Said, Mayar; El-Refai, Samir; El-Gohari, Amani; Talaat, Maha

    2016-01-01

    Background Influenza typically comprises a substantial portion of acute respiratory infections, a leading cause of mortality worldwide. However, influenza epidemiology data are lacking in Egypt. We describe seven years of Egypt?s influenza hospitalizations from a multi-site influenza surveillance system. Methods Syndromic case definitions identified individuals with severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) admitted to eight hospitals in Egypt. Standardized demographic and clinical data were ...

  12. Transport of toxic metals through the major river systems of Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, A.M.S.; Islam, M.A.; Rahman, M.A.; Ahmed, E.; Islam, S.; Sultana, K.S.; Siddique, M.N.A.

    2002-01-01

    Bangladesh having an area of about 144,000 sq. km with a population of more than 120 millions is situated in the north eastern part of the south Asia subcontinent and a vast area to the south in the Bay of Bengal. The largest delta in the world has a largest catchment area of about 1554,000 sq. km spread over five countries namely Bhutan, Nepal, China, India and Bangladesh. Environmental pollution usually refers to biological, chemical and physical materials introduced largely as a result of human activities. Water is one of the main source of the environmental pollution and the contamination of water by the metal ions at the trace level is generally occurred through natural process or anthropogenic sources. Buriganga, Sitalaksma, Karnafully, Bramhaputra and Jamuna were selected for the present study. The toxic metal ions concentration in water samples of various regions of different rivers were determined by ASS and GFAAS. Higher concentration of different toxic metal ions have been observed at different location of various rivers. This observation demand the need of regular monitoring of toxic metals ion concentration in different rivers especially Buriganga, Sitalaksma and Karnafully. The results of further study will reveal some important information that will certainly be useful for the GOB to instruct DOE and DPHE for the remedial measures. (author)

  13. Development Dynamics of Remittances in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munim K. Barai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Remittance inflows in the economy of Bangladesh are getting larger every passing year, matching with the increasing external demand for its manpower. The ensuing development impacts of remittances, as a means of transfer of wealth, on socioeconomic factors are increasingly viewed with importance. Remittances have helped improve the social and economic indicators like nutrition, living condition and housing, education, health care, poverty reduction, social security, and investment activities of the recipient households. The relative weight of remittances has also increased against most of the macroeconomic variables alongside the contribution to GDP. Moreover, Bangladesh has been able to avoid any serious imbalances in BOP’s current account, although it has persistent merchandize trade deficits. Not only that, the export tradable sector has thus far remained unaffected from the Dutch Disease effects of remittances.

  14. Energy and output dynamics in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, Biru Paksha; Uddin, Gazi Salah

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between energy consumption and output is still ambiguous in the existing literature. The economy of Bangladesh, having spectacular output growth and rising energy demand as well as energy efficiency in recent decades, can be an ideal case for examining energy-output dynamics. We find that while fluctuations in energy consumption do not affect output fluctuations, movements in output inversely affect movements in energy use. The results of Granger causality tests in this respect are consistent with those of innovative accounting that includes variance decompositions and impulse responses. Autoregressive distributed lag models also suggest a role of output in Bangladesh's energy use. Hence, the findings of this study have policy implications for other developing nations where measures for energy conservation and efficiency can be relevant in policymaking.

  15. Physiotherapy in Bangladesh: Inequality Begets Inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamin, Firoz Ahmed; Hayes, Rieke

    2018-01-01

    The demand for health services in developing countries often outweighs provision. This article describes the present condition of physiotherapy in Bangladesh. Physiotherapy is not recognized as a profession by the government. There is no single registration and regulation body. The health-related and economic benefits of physiotherapy are not felt by the majority of Bangladeshi citizens. The burden of disease is changing, and Bangladesh needs a profession that specializes in physical rehabilitation to face these challenges. This article outlines the benefits to patients and the wider economy from a broad physiotherapy regime for all Bangladeshi citizens. It describes the many barriers the profession faces. Physiotherapy is efficacious in many post-trauma situations and long-term conditions. Economic evidence supports the provision physiotherapy as a cost-effective treatment which should be considered as part of the provision of a universal health-care service. Official recognition of the protected "physiotherapist" title and a single registration and regulation agency are recommended.

  16. Bangladesh: recognizing adolescents as a great resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-12-01

    This article presents the initiatives undertaken by the government and other organizations to improve adolescent reproductive health in Bangladesh. The Health and Population Sector Programme under the 5-year Health and Population Sector Strategy (HPSS) of Bangladesh targeted married youth and soon-to-be-married adolescents. It has provided training of field workers so they can provide health services in an adolescent-friendly atmosphere. The Government has also collaborated with nongovernmental organizations and agencies that could help in the formulation of well-planned policy for adolescent health. These agencies include the UN International Children's Emergency Fund, UN Population Fund and WHO. In addition, on-going multisectoral coordination of various sectors, such as education, labor law and justice, youth and social affairs, has been developed and has contributed to the success of the Programme.

  17. Farmers’ Education and Farmers’ Wealth in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Zafar Mahmudul Haq

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of farmers’ education is examined with a view to evaluate the actual situation of farmers’ education in Bangladesh. Fifty samples were collected from two sub districts of the Gazipur district in Bangladesh. The selection of the study sites and collection of the samples such as the years of schooling of the farm household head, total income, farm size, number of earners of farm families, family size, years of farming experience of farm household head, number of times extension contacts and rice yield were done purposively. It is cleared from the study that education is necessary for farmers to raise their wealth. Results were derived through regression analysis. The study has also shown that size of family and years of farming experience contributed significantly to the wealth accumulation of farmers.

  18. Coronary artery disease in Bangladesh: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K.M. Monwarul Islam

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery disease (CAD is an increasingly important medical and public health problem, and is the leading cause of mortality in Bangladesh. Like other South Asians, Bangladeshis are unduly prone to develop CAD, which is often premature in onset, follows a rapidly progressive course and angiographically more severe. The underlying pathophysiology is poorly understood. Genetic predisposition, high prevalence of metabolic syndrome and conventional risk factors play important role. Lifestyle related factors, including poor dietary habits, excess saturated and trans fat, high salt intake, and low-level physical activity may be important as well. Some novel risk factors, including hypovitaminosis D, arsenic contamination in water and food-stuff, particulate matter air pollution may play unique role. At the advent of the new millennium, we know little about our real situation. Largescale epidemiological, genetic and clinical researches are needed to explore the different aspects of CAD in Bangladesh.

  19. Modelling of IPO Underpricing in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faysal Ahmad Khan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study shows the degree of underpricing in initial public offering in Bangladesh and the relationship of underpricing with some company specific and issue specific variables. To measure the degree of underpricing both initial return (IR and market adjusted initial returns (MAIR have been used. The study reveals 284% average initial return and 266% average market adjusted return for the first listing day of the IPOs for the period 2007 to 2016. Regression analysis is used to find the relationship between various predictor variables and underpricing. The regression analysis depicts that issue price, oversubscription, market return and size of the firm have significant effect on initial return. Similarly, market adjusted initial return is also influenced by issue price, oversubscription and size of the firm have significant effect over. The study found that issue size, age of the firm, floating percentage of share has very little relationship with underpricing in Bangladesh.

  20. Community-based wetland comanagement in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Sherwood, D.B.

    2009-01-01

    Metadata only record This chapter explains new solutions to problems resulting from top-down approaches to resource conservation and sustainability. The management of natural resources - in this case, wetlands - is complicated and risky. To address the risks involved with resource management, a case study was done in Bangladesh to evaluate the effectiveness of community-based comanagement. Using multidisciplinary approaches and adaptive management strategies, the Management of Aquatic Ecos...

  1. Trapped in Statelessness: Rohingya Refugees in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Milton, Abul Hasnat; Rahman, Mijanur; Hussain, Sumaira; Jindal, Charulata; Choudhury, Sushmita; Akter, Shahnaz; Ferdousi, Shahana; Mouly, Tafzila Akter; Hall, John; Efird, Jimmy T.

    2017-01-01

    The Rohingya people are one of the most ill-treated and persecuted refugee groups in the world, having lived in a realm of statelessness for over six generations, and who are still doing so. In recent years, more than 500,000 Rohingyas fled from Myanmar (Burma) to neighboring countries. This article addresses the Rohingya refugee crisis in Bangladesh, with special emphasis on the living conditions of this vulnerable population. We reviewed several documents on Rohingya refugees, visited a reg...

  2. Economics of biogas digesters in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bala, B.K.; Hossain, M.M.

    1992-01-01

    We present the economics of biogas digesters in Bangladesh in terms of fuel wood and fertilizer values. The incremental net present benefit was computed from the digester cost, kinetics of biogas production and nutrient contents in the treated slurry. The model was analysed to test the sensitivity to changes in retention time, annual operation period, subsidy, price of fuel wood, construction cost, interest, and inflation rate. (Author)

  3. Opportunities for woody crop production using treated wastewater in Egypt. I. Afforestation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald S. Zalesny Jr.; John A. Stanturf; Steven R. Evett; Nabil F. Kandil; Christopher Soriano

    2011-01-01

    The Nile River provides nearly 97% of Egypt's freshwater supply. Egypt's share of Nile waters is fixed at 55.5 billion cubic meters annually. As a result, Egypt will not be able to meet increasing water demand using freshwater from the Nile and has been developing non-conventional wastewater reuse strategies to meet future demands. The USAID Mission in Cairo...

  4. Views of Ancient Egypt. Teacher's Guide. School Arts: Looking/Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Linda; Brenner, Carla

    This teaching guide discusses ancient Egyptian culture, the lithographs made by Napoleon's scientists in 1798-99 to study and record every aspect of Egypt, the world's subsequent fascination with Egypt, ancient Egyptian architecture, Egyptian writing, and archeologists' illustrations of Egypt. The guide suggests activities for elementary school,…

  5. Up-to-date Probabilistic Earthquake Hazard Maps for Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaber, Hanan; El-Hadidy, Mahmoud; Badawy, Ahmed

    2018-04-01

    An up-to-date earthquake hazard analysis has been performed in Egypt using a probabilistic seismic hazard approach. Through the current study, we use a complete and homogenous earthquake catalog covering the time period between 2200 BC and 2015 AD. Three seismotectonic models representing the seismic activity in and around Egypt are used. A logic-tree framework is applied to allow for the epistemic uncertainty in the declustering parameters, minimum magnitude, seismotectonic setting and ground-motion prediction equations. The hazard analysis is performed for a grid of 0.5° × 0.5° in terms of types of rock site for the peak ground acceleration (PGA) and spectral acceleration at 0.2-, 0.5-, 1.0- and 2.0-s periods. The hazard is estimated for three return periods (72, 475 and 2475 years) corresponding to 50, 10 and 2% probability of exceedance in 50 years. The uniform hazard spectra for the cities of Cairo, Alexandria, Aswan and Nuwbia are constructed. The hazard maps show that the highest ground acceleration values are expected in the northeastern part of Egypt around the Gulf of Aqaba (PGA up to 0.4 g for return period 475 years) and in south Egypt around the city of Aswan (PGA up to 0.2 g for return period 475 years). The Western Desert of Egypt is characterized by the lowest level of hazard (PGA lower than 0.1 g for return period 475 years).

  6. Renewable energy potential from biomass residues in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Said, N.; Zamorano, M. [Civil Engineering Dept., Univ. of Granada, Campus de Fuentenueva, Granada (Spain); El-Shatoury, S.A. [Botany Dept., Faculty of Sciences, Suez Canal Univ., Ismailia (Egypt)

    2012-11-01

    Egypt has been one of the developing countries following successful programs for the development of renewable energy resources, with special emphasis on solar, wind and biomass. Utilization of biomass as a source of energy is important from energetic as well as environmental viewpoint. Furthermore, Egypt produces millions of biomass waste every year causing pollution and health problems. So, the incorporation of biomass with other renewable energy will increase the impact of solving energy and environmental problem. There is a good potential for the utilization of biomass energy resources in Egypt. Four main types of biomass energy sources are included in this study: agricultural residues, municipal solid wastes, animal wastes and sewage sludge. Analysis of the potential biomass resource quantity and its theoretical energy content has been computed according to literature review. The agriculture crop residue represents the main source of biomass waste with a high considerable amount of the theoretical potential energy in Egypt. Rice straw is considered one of the most important of such residue due to its high amount and its produced energy through different conversion techniques represent a suitable candidate for crop energy production in Egypt.

  7. Future studies and research in Egypt. Overview, examples, perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goell, Edgar

    2012-02-15

    During the last decade there have been several distinct activities and efforts with regards to future research in Egypt. Several institutions and capacities have been created. Although these capacities do not always meet high scientific standards, their results and studies offer important and well-grounded elements for future-oriented discussions and political decisions. Not least because of the Egypt revolt which started in January 2011 and the ongoing complex and conflicting societal struggles in Egypt the objective needs as well as the demand for systematic future thinking and future studies will very likely increase further. For that reason this report presents an overview about the context conditions, experiences and forms of future research in Egypt. The major challenges as well as the major issues are described. The main part is the description of the most important institutions, which are conducting future research, their projects and in addition two concrete projects, which try to practice Sustainable Development in different ways. Finally, several (self-)critical assessments and perspectives from selected experts of the future research community in Egypt will be presented.

  8. Hepatitis C in Egypt – past, present, and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elgharably A

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed Elgharably,1,2 Asmaa I Gomaa,2 Mary ME Crossey,1,2 Peter J Norsworthy,1 Imam Waked,2 Simon D Taylor-Robinson1 1Division of Digestive Health, Department of Surgery and Cancer, St Mary’s Hospital, Imperial College London, London, UK; 2National Liver Institute, Menoufiya University, Shebeen El Kom, Egypt Abstract: Hepatitis C viral infection is endemic in Egypt with the highest prevalence rate in the world. It is widely accepted that the implementation of mass population antischistosomal treatment involving administration of tartar emetic injections (from 1950s to 1980s led to widespread infection. What is less well known, however, is that these schemes were implemented by the Egyptian Ministry of Health on the advice of the World Health Organization. There has been a spectrum of treatments to target the public health disaster represented by the hepatitis C problem in Egypt: from the use of PEGylated interferon to the recent use of direct acting antiviral drugs. Some new treatments have shown >90% efficacy. However, cost is a key barrier to access these new medicines. This is coupled with a growing population, limited resources, and a lack of infection control practices which means Egypt still faces significant disease control issues today. Keywords: hepatitis C, Egypt, schistosomiasis

  9. Egypt's policy concerning food irradiation research and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roushdy, H.M.

    1978-01-01

    The paper reviews current research in Egypt in the field of radiation preservation of food to accumulate the necessary data for drafting Egypts' policy towards prospects for application. Research activities in Egypt have been oriented to solving problems of local economic importance, e.g. inhibition of sprouting in potatoes, onions and garlic, extension of shelf-life of vegetables and fruits, disinfestation of stored grains and grain products, preservation of meat, meat products, fish, fats and oils, and elimination of parasites and microorganisms from animal feed. Extensive studies have been performed to determine the lowest radiation level required for short-term storage, changes in organoleptic, physical, chemical and microbiological values of irradiated food and wholesomeness studies to give evidence of the safety of irradiated food for human consumption. The paper summarizes Egypt's national planning for the transfer of such new technology, the establishment of the National Centre for Radiation Research and Technology to build up the national infrastructure for food irradiation research and application, and the formation of a Supreme Committee for Radiation Preservation of Food. Finally, the paper also surveys the locally available irradiators and correlates the design, capacity and capital cost against the actual needs of Egypt and the experience acquired. (author)

  10. Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Diversity in Cephalosporium maydis from Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Amgad A; Zeller, Kurt A; Ismael, Abou-Serie M; Fahmy, Zeinab M; El-Assiuty, Elhamy M; Leslie, John F

    2003-07-01

    ABSTRACT Cephalosporium maydis, the causal agent of late wilt of maize, was first described in Egypt in the 1960s, where it can cause yield losses of up to 40% in susceptible plantings. We characterized 866 isolates of C. maydis collected from 14 governates in Egypt, 7 in the Nile River Delta and 7 in southern (Middle and Upper) Egypt, with amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. The four AFLP primer-pair combinations generated 68 bands, 25 of which were polymorphic, resulting in 52 clonal haplotypes that clustered the 866 isolates into four phylogenetic lineages. Three lineages were found in both the Nile River Delta and southern Egypt. Lineage IV, the most diverse group (20 haplotypes), was recovered only from governates in the Nile River Delta. In some locations, one lineage dominated (up to 98% of the isolates recovered) and, from some fields, only a single haplotype was recovered. Under field conditions in Egypt, there is no evidence that C. maydis reproduces sexually. The nonuniform geographic distribution of the pathogen lineages within the country could be due to differences in climate or in the farming system, because host material differs in susceptibility and C. maydis lineages differ in pathogenicity.

  11. Smoking, health, and survival: prospects in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, N

    1981-05-16

    Smoking is an increasingly prevalent habit in Bangladesh, particularly among men. In the past 10-15 years cigarette consumption has more than doubled. Over 100000 acres (405 Km2) of land that could produce food are planted with tobacco, and cereal imports making up for these production losses generally do not reach the below-subsistence cultivator and landless. Cancer of the lung is already the third commonest cancer among males, and annual deaths from this cause can be expected to increase by 12000 within 15 years. At present respiratory disease is the best-recognised direct health consequence of smoking. However, a more important health risk may be the reduction in nutritional status of young children which results from expenditure on smoking in households whose income for food purchase is already marginal. Smoking of only 5 cigarettes a day in poor household in Bangladesh might lead to a monthly dietary deficit of 8000 calories (33.5 MJ). The existence of young children in Bangladesh is already precarious owing to poor nutrition. If, as seems likely, expenditure on smoking means that they get even less food, then the survival of a large number of children is being seriously endangered.

  12. OPPORTUNITIES OF DEVELOPING TOURISM INDUSTRY IN BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayub CHOWDHURY

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Tourism appeal includes natural places like beaches, eco-parks, lakes, valleys, rivers, islands etc., archeological sites, historic mosques and monuments, resorts, picnic spots, forest and wildlife. Bangladesh is a riverine country having attractive panoramic beauty. There are hills, valley, canals, lake, eco-park and mangrove forests, rivers, so many islands and the longest beach in the world. In this country, the scope of nature based tourism, resource based tourism, culture based tourism and eco-tourism is quite evident. Bangladesh is trying hard to develop its tourism industry. Therefore the whole situation deserves to be seen from right perspectives. Role of government is positive since the last twenty years both private and public organizations have come forwarded to attract the local and foreign tourists. The cracks of problem could not identify accurately because of the paucity number of researches and investigations in our country. Developed and organized tourism industry could change the economic condition and contribute a big share in the GDP of Bangladesh. This study will impede the opportunities of developing tourism industry in the light of existing resources.

  13. Type 1 diabetes: The Bangladesh perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishwar Azad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is a common endocrine disorder among children and adolescents in Bangladesh. The latest International Diabetes Federation atlas estimated the incidence of type 1 DM (T1DM in Bangladesh as 4.2 new cases of T1DM/100,000 children (0-14 years/year, in 2013. Diabetes, being a lifelong disease, places a huge burden on the economy of the most densely populated, and resource-poor country of the world. The Diabetic Association of Bangladesh (BADAS, the largest of its kind in the world, provides comprehensive care to the biggest number of diabetics at any one centre and is engaged in advocacy. Although sounding grandiose, it′s aims that ′no diabetic shall die untreated, unfed or unemployed, even if poor′ is pursued with a passion. Recently BADAS has been supported in its endeavor for children and adolescents by two programmes; viz the Changing Diabetes in Children program (a joint initiative of BADAS, the World Diabetes Foundation and Novo Nordisk, and the Life for a Child Programme (LFAC supported by the IDF. Numerous studies from the prosperous countries have demonstrated the incidence of T1DM is increasing. Data from the CDiC clinic at BIRDEM shows a rising trend in patients presenting with classical T1DM. In addition, the pattern of DM is changing.

  14. Present status of radiation education in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullah, Sana

    1999-01-01

    Radioisotopes and Radiation are being widely used in the fields of agriculture, medicine, industry for the benefit of people throughout the world. At the same time the use of radiation sources can do harm to man and environment. In order to ensure the satiety against radiation hazards and safe use of radiation, proper education, training, knowledge and awareness are essential. Like other achieve economic development through application f count rues Bangladesh is flying to in agriculture, food, industry, power; health or medi of isotopes and radiation technology cine. Basic education about radiation is incorporated in the school curriculum. Courses on radiation are also given in college and university education. Research organizations, universities carry out research and development works on different disciplines using radiation and radioisotopes. Seminars, workshops, conferences, takings on isotopes and radiation are also being organized. In 1993 Government of Bangladesh passed the Nuclear Satiety and Radiation Control Act 1993 for see use of radiation. The present paper win cover the radiation education, research and development works on radiation, applications of radiation in agriculture, medicine and industry, personal safety and radiation protection against radiation hazard and rules and regulations of the nuclear safety and radiation control act practised in Bangladesh. (author)

  15. Present status of radiation education in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullah, Sana [Atomic Energy Centre, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    1999-09-01

    Radioisotopes and Radiation are being widely used in the fields of agriculture, medicine, industry for the benefit of people throughout the world. At the same time the use of radiation sources can do harm to man and environment. In order to ensure the satiety against radiation hazards and safe use of radiation, proper education, training, knowledge and awareness are essential. Like other achieve economic development through application f count rues Bangladesh is flying to in agriculture, food, industry, power; health or medi of isotopes and radiation technology cine. Basic education about radiation is incorporated in the school curriculum. Courses on radiation are also given in college and university education. Research organizations, universities carry out research and development works on different disciplines using radiation and radioisotopes. Seminars, workshops, conferences, takings on isotopes and radiation are also being organized. In 1993 Government of Bangladesh passed the Nuclear Satiety and Radiation Control Act 1993 for see use of radiation. The present paper win cover the radiation education, research and development works on radiation, applications of radiation in agriculture, medicine and industry, personal safety and radiation protection against radiation hazard and rules and regulations of the nuclear safety and radiation control act practised in Bangladesh. (author)

  16. Trapped in Statelessness: Rohingya Refugees in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, Abul Hasnat; Rahman, Mijanur; Hussain, Sumaira; Jindal, Charulata; Choudhury, Sushmita; Akter, Shahnaz; Ferdousi, Shahana; Mouly, Tafzila Akter; Hall, John; Efird, Jimmy T

    2017-08-21

    The Rohingya people are one of the most ill-treated and persecuted refugee groups in the world, having lived in a realm of statelessness for over six generations, and who are still doing so. In recent years, more than 500,000 Rohingyas fled from Myanmar (Burma) to neighboring countries. This article addresses the Rohingya refugee crisis in Bangladesh, with special emphasis on the living conditions of this vulnerable population. We reviewed several documents on Rohingya refugees, visited a registered refugee camp (Teknaf), collected case reports, and conducted a series of meetings with stakeholders in the Cox's Bazar district of Bangladesh. A total of 33,131 registered Rohingya refugees are living in two registered camps in Cox's Bazar, and up to 80,000 additional refugees are housed in nearby makeshift camps. Overall, the living conditions of Rohingya refugees inside the overcrowded camps remain dismal. Mental health is poor, proper hygiene conditions are lacking, malnutrition is endemic, and physical/sexual abuse is high. A concerted diplomatic effort involving Bangladesh and Myanmar, and international mediators such as the Organization of Islamic Countries and the United Nations, is urgently required to effectively address this complex situation.

  17. Congenital hand anomalies in Upper Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek Abulezz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Congenital hand anomalies are numerous and markedly variant. Their significance is attributed to the frequent occurrence and their serious social, psychological and functional impacts on patient's life. Patients and Methods: This is a follow-up study of 64 patients with hand anomalies of variable severity. All patients were presented to Plastic Surgery Department of Sohag University Hospital in a period of 24 months. Results: This study revealed that failure of differentiation and duplication deformities were the most frequent, with polydactyly was the most common anomaly encountered. The mean age of presentation was 6 years and female to male ratio was 1.46:1. Hand anomalies were either isolated, associated with other anomalies or part of a syndrome. Conclusion: Incidence of congenital hand anomalies in Upper Egypt is difficult to be estimated due to social and cultural concepts, lack of education, poor registration and deficient medical survey. Management of hand anomalies should be individualised, carefully planned and started as early as possible to achieve the best outcome.

  18. Dermatoses among automobile mechanics in Mansoura, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-ElWafa, Hala Samir; Albadry, Ahmed A; El-Gilany, Abdel-Hady; Ismael, Ahmed Fawzi

    2018-01-02

    This cross-sectional study was carried out in Mansoura, Egypt to assess the prevalence of occupational dermatoses and their possible risk factors on a convenience sample of car mechanics. Sociodemographic and occupational data were collected, and clinical examination was done. Prevalence of skin diseases was 45.4% and that of exclusively occupational skin diseases was 9.2%. Irritant contact dermatitis, eczema, and tar/oil acne were the most common types (4.6%, 3.1%, 3.1%, respectively). The logistic regression analysis revealed that the risk of occupational dermatoses increased significantly with lack of use of personal protective equipment, longer duration of work, and presence of workplace chemicals (adjusted odds ratio [95% CI] were 7.2 [2.7, 19.0], 4.3 [1.7, 10.9], and 3.7 [1.3, 10.5], respectively). Health education and safety measures are essential for prevention and control of hazardous workplace practices and exposure.

  19. Safe transport of radioactive materials in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shinawy, R.M.K.

    1994-01-01

    In Egypt the national regulations for safe transport of radioactive materials (RAM) are based on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) regulations. In addition, regulations for the safe transport of these materials through the Suez Canal (SC) were laid down by the Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority (EAEA) and the Suez Canal Authority (SCA). They are continuously updated to meet the increased knowledge and the gained experience. The technical and protective measures taken during transport of RAM through SC are mentioned. Assessment of the impact of transporting radioactive materials through the Suez Canal using the INTERTRAN computer code was carried out in cooperation with IAEA. The transported activities and empty containers, the number of vessels carrying RAM through the canal from 1963 and 1991 and their nationalities are also discussed. The protective measures are mentioned. A review of the present situation of the radioactive wastes storage facilities at the Atomic Energy site at Inshas is given along with the regulation for safe transportation and disposal of radioactive wastes. (Author)

  20. Probabilistic earthquake hazard analysis for Cairo, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawy, Ahmed; Korrat, Ibrahim; El-Hadidy, Mahmoud; Gaber, Hanan

    2016-04-01

    Cairo is the capital of Egypt and the largest city in the Arab world and Africa, and the sixteenth largest metropolitan area in the world. It was founded in the tenth century (969 ad) and is 1046 years old. It has long been a center of the region's political and cultural life. Therefore, the earthquake risk assessment for Cairo has a great importance. The present work aims to analysis the earthquake hazard of Cairo as a key input's element for the risk assessment. The regional seismotectonics setting shows that Cairo could be affected by both far- and near-field seismic sources. The seismic hazard of Cairo has been estimated using the probabilistic seismic hazard approach. The logic tree frame work was used during the calculations. Epistemic uncertainties were considered into account by using alternative seismotectonics models and alternative ground motion prediction equations. Seismic hazard values have been estimated within a grid of 0.1° × 0.1 ° spacing for all of Cairo's districts at different spectral periods and four return periods (224, 615, 1230, and 4745 years). Moreover, the uniform hazard spectra have been calculated at the same return periods. The pattern of the contour maps show that the highest values of the peak ground acceleration is concentrated in the eastern zone's districts (e.g., El Nozha) and the lowest values at the northern and western zone's districts (e.g., El Sharabiya and El Khalifa).

  1. Assessment of whole-body occupational radiation exposure in industrial radiography practices in Bangladesh during 2010-2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, M.S.; Hoque, A.; Khan, R.K.; Siraz, M.M.M.; Begum, A.

    2016-01-01

    Presently, ten industrial radiography facilities are operating in Bangladesh using X-ray or gamma-ray sources. During the last 5-year, 14 industrial radiography facilities were received individual monitoring service using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) from the Health Physics Division (HPD), Atomic Energy Centre, Dhaka under Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission. HPD is the only individual monitoring service provider in Bangladesh due to external sources of ionizing radiation. The number of monitored industrial radiography facilities ranged from 7 to 14 while the number of worker ranged from 72 to 133 during the study period. The annual average effective doses received from external radiation in industrial radiography workers and the distributions of the annual effective doses by dose intervals are presented. The distribution of the occupational doses shows that the majority (about 75 %) of workers received doses below 1 mSv for the last 5-years. Even though, very few workers (about 1%) received doses higher than average annual dose limit (20 mSv), but no workers received doses higher than 100 mSv in 5 consecutive years. The average annual effective dose of industrial radiography workers in Bangladesh is higher than the corresponding values in Tanzania, Greece, Poland, Australia, UK and lower than in Bosnia and Herzegovina, USA and Canada. However, the average annual effective dose is comparable to the corresponding values in China, Brazil, Germany and India. The status and trends in occupational doses show that radiation protection situation at the majority of the workplace were satisfactory. In spite of that, additional measures are required due to big differences observed in the maximum individual doses over the last 5-year. (author)

  2. Operational feasibility of using whole blood in the rapid HIV testing algorithm of a resource-limited settings like Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munshi, Saif U; Oyewale, Tajudeen O; Begum, Shahnaz; Uddin, Ziya; Tabassum, Shahina

    2016-03-01

    Serum-based rapid HIV testing algorithm in Bangladesh constitutes operational challenge to scaleup HIV testing and counselling (HTC) in the country. This study explored the operational feasibility of using whole blood as alternative to serum for rapid HIV testing in Bangladesh. Whole blood specimens were collected from two study groups. The groups included HIV-positive patients (n = 200) and HIV-negative individuals (n = 200) presenting at the reference laboratory in Dhaka, Bangladesh. The specimens were subjected to rapid HIV tests using the national algorithm with A1 = Alere Determine (United States), A2 = Uni-Gold (Ireland), and A3 = First Response (India). The sensitivity and specificity of the test results, and the operational cost were compared with current serum-based testing. The sensitivities [95% of confidence interval (CI)] for A1, A2, and A3 tests using whole blood were 100% (CI: 99.1-100%), 100% (CI: 99.1-100%), and 97% (CI: 96.4-98.2%), respectively, and specificities of all test kits were 100% (CI: 99.1-100%). Significant (P < 0.05) reduction in the cost of establishing HTC centre and consumables by 94 and 61%, respectively, were observed. The cost of administration and external quality assurance reduced by 39 and 43%, respectively. Overall, there was a 36% cost reduction in total operational cost of rapid HIV testing with blood when compared with serum. Considering the similar sensitivity and specificity of the two specimens, and significant cost reduction, rapid HIV testing with whole blood is feasible. A review of the national HIV rapid testing algorithm with whole blood will contribute toward improving HTC coverage in Bangladesh.

  3. Assessment of whole-body occupational radiation exposure in industrial radiography practices in Bangladesh during 2010-2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, M.S.; Hoque, A.; Khan, R.K.; Siraz, M.M.M., E-mail: msrahman74@hotmail.com [Health Physics Division, Atomic Energy Centre, Shahbag, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Begum, A. [Physical Science Division, Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    2016-07-01

    Presently, ten industrial radiography facilities are operating in Bangladesh using X-ray or gamma-ray sources. During the last 5-year, 14 industrial radiography facilities were received individual monitoring service using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) from the Health Physics Division (HPD), Atomic Energy Centre, Dhaka under Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission. HPD is the only individual monitoring service provider in Bangladesh due to external sources of ionizing radiation. The number of monitored industrial radiography facilities ranged from 7 to 14 while the number of worker ranged from 72 to 133 during the study period. The annual average effective doses received from external radiation in industrial radiography workers and the distributions of the annual effective doses by dose intervals are presented. The distribution of the occupational doses shows that the majority (about 75 %) of workers received doses below 1 mSv for the last 5-years. Even though, very few workers (about 1%) received doses higher than average annual dose limit (20 mSv), but no workers received doses higher than 100 mSv in 5 consecutive years. The average annual effective dose of industrial radiography workers in Bangladesh is higher than the corresponding values in Tanzania, Greece, Poland, Australia, UK and lower than in Bosnia and Herzegovina, USA and Canada. However, the average annual effective dose is comparable to the corresponding values in China, Brazil, Germany and India. The status and trends in occupational doses show that radiation protection situation at the majority of the workplace were satisfactory. In spite of that, additional measures are required due to big differences observed in the maximum individual doses over the last 5-year. (author)

  4. The export potential of traditional varieties of rice from Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Stringfellow, Rachel; Swetman, Tony

    1996-01-01

    This research is funded by the Overseas Development Administration's Crops Post Harvest Programme. The objective of the research is to bring together information on prevailing quality/price relationships for traditional varieties of rice in Bangladesh and for competing products on the world market in order to make a judgement about Bangladesh's ability to enter the export trade for speciality rices.

  5. Young Adults' Linguistic Manipulation of English in Bangla in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Shaila

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly assumed in the print media that bilingual young adults in Bangladesh are subjugated by the colonial legacy of English and they are "polluting" Bangla, the national language of Bangladesh, by their indiscriminate insertion of English in it. However, this ethnographic study on a group of young adults in a university in…

  6. Gender mainstraming in the Bangladesh Rural Electrification Board

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clancy, Joy S.; Ekram, Lailun Nahar; Halim, Sadeka; Mhatab, Nazmunnessa

    2004-01-01

    A Gender Equity Strategy and Action Plan has been integrated into the Bangladesh Rural Electrification Board’s Master Plan. Implementation of this plan will be the first gender mainstreaming exercise in the energy sector in Bangladesh, and possibly in the world.

  7. Enhancing Sustainable Development of Diverse Agriculture in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Alam, Jahangir

    2005-01-01

    The report presents the current status of some selected CGPRT Crops (secondary crops) and examines their potentials in enhancing the sustainable development of diverse agriculture in Bangladesh. Agriculture in Bangladesh is composed of crop, livestock, fisheries and forestry subsectors. This study deals primarily with crop agriculture and the scope of diversification is limited to crop rather than agricultural diversification.

  8. Engineering Education in Bangladesh--An Indicator of Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Harun; Alam, Firoz

    2012-01-01

    Developing nations including Bangladesh are significantly lagging behind the millennium development target due to the lack of science, technology and engineering education. Bangladesh as a least developing country has only 44 engineers per million people. Its technological education and gross domestic product growth are not collinear. Although…

  9. Can Bangladesh produce enough cereals to meet future demand?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timsina, J.; Wolf, J.; Guilpart, N.; Bussel, van L.G.J.; Grassini, P.; Wart, van J.; Hossain, A.; Rashid, H.; Islam, S.; Ittersum, van M.K.

    2018-01-01

    Bangladesh faces huge challenges in achieving food security due to its high population, diet changes, and limited room for expanding cropland and cropping intensity. The objective of this study is to assess the degree to which Bangladesh can be self-sufficient in terms of domestic maize, rice and

  10. INFLUENCE OF MICRO-FINANCE ON BANGLADESH RURAL PEOPLE

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Rasel

    2013-01-01

    KYMENLAAKSON AMMATTIKORKEAKOULU University of Applied Sciences International Business Bangladesh is a rising country located in the southern part of Asia. More than half of the population of it lives in rural areas and they are living under the poverty level. In Bangladesh rural people are not capable of getting loan facilities from the regular financial sector due to the guarantee r...

  11. Rainfall and temperature scenarios for Bangladesh for the middle of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    mean surface air temperature projection for Bangladesh is experimentally obtained for 2050 and 2060. This work discloses that simulated ... seasonal and annual rainfall, and mean surface air temperature in Bangladesh. The projected change ... already being felt in South Asia and will continue to intensify (Haq et al 1998; ...

  12. Puffer fish tragedy in Bangladesh: an incident of Takifugu oblongus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Puffer fish poisoning that occurs occasionally among the rural poor in Bangladesh is mainly caused by freshwater species. A food poisoning incident resulting from the ingestion of the marine puffer Takifugu oblongus occurred at Degholia in the Khulna district of Bangladesh on 18 May 2002. A total of 36 victims, including ...

  13. FDI Climate in India

    OpenAIRE

    Khandelwal, Varun

    2007-01-01

    ABSTRACT Since 1991, after the external payment crisis in India, there has been liberalization of various policies by the Government of India. Due to this there has been rapid surge of FDI inflows in India. The current investment climate has attracted many foreign investors to India in various sectors. India is considered as one of the favorable destination of FDI. However the country also suffers from few weaknesses and constraints in terms of policy and regulatory framework, which rest...

  14. Needs versus bottlenecks in utilization of wind energy in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Semery, M.M.

    1991-01-01

    The company AOI Engine Factory in Cairo, Egypt, is involved in the production of renewable energy systems. It is shown, that with respect to wind, Egypt has a good potential. However, along the river Nile wind speed is moderate (<4,4 m/s). The three main wind energy developments in Egypt are discussed. Four 100 kW machines for grid connection have been imported from Denmark. These machines have been adapted for local production and operation circumstances. After a testing period the first batch of 100 turbines is now being manufactured. For water pumping in isolated areas, a 15 kW wind generator with two submergible electric pumps have been tested. For small wind generators a considerable market exists, but a design, suitable for local production and adapted to the local wind regime, is not available yet

  15. Green buildings for Egypt: a call for an integrated policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bampou, P.

    2017-11-01

    As global warming is on the threshold of each country worldwide, Middle East and North African (MENA) region has already adopted energy efficiency (EE) policies on several consuming sectors. The present paper valuates the impact of temperature increase in the residential building sector of Egypt that is the most integrated example of the 7 out of the 20 MENA countries that have started their green efforts upon building environment. Furthermore, as it is based on a literature research upon socio-economic characteristics, existing building stock, existing legal and institutional framework, it elaborates a quantitative evaluation of Egypt's energy-saving potential, outlining basic constraints upon energy conservation, in order for Egypt to be able to handle the high energy needs due to its warm climate. Last but not least, the paper proposes a policy pathway for the implementation of green building codes and concludes with the best available technologies to promote EE in the Egyptian building sector.

  16. Marketing and economic analysis of mango irradiation processing in egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkhateeb, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this work is to examine the marketing and economic feasibility of a project for mango irradiation in Egypt. The Egyptian market was analyzed considering the production size and cultivated area distributed over several years,the percentage of the total loss of mango that can be avoided by irradiation, the market tests in Egypt and other countries was presented and the normal distribution channels of mango when using radiation technology. The financial and economic analysis of the establishment of pallet carrier unite for the irradiation of mango was also carried out. The following investment criteria were utilized for the commercial evaluation: benefit-cost ratio, pay back period, average rate of return and net present value. The results of this analysis showed that the installation of a unit for the irradiation of mango in Egypt would be economically viable. The unit cost of irradiation would decline if the irradiator is be used as a multipurpose facility

  17. A Retrospective Study on the Epidemiology of Anthrax, Foot and Mouth Disease, Haemorrhagic Septicaemia, Peste des Petits Ruminants and Rabies in Bangladesh, 2010-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Shankar P.; Yamage, Mat

    2014-01-01

    Anthrax, foot and mouth disease (FMD), haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS), peste des petits ruminants (PPR) and rabies are considered to be endemic in Bangladesh. This retrospective study was conducted to understand the geographic and seasonal distribution of these major infectious diseases in livestock based on data collected through passive surveillance from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2012. Data analysis for this period revealed 5,937 cases of anthrax, 300,333 of FMD, 13,436 of HS, 247,783 of PPR and 14,085 cases of dog bite/rabies. While diseases were reported in almost every district of the country, the highest frequency of occurrence corresponded to the susceptible livestock population in the respective districts. There was no significant difference in the disease occurrences between districts bordering India/Myanmar and non-border districts (p>0.05). Significantly higher (pBangladesh. PMID:25101836

  18. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance pattern of bacterial meningitis in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaban Lamyaa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Infectious diseases are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the developing world. In Egypt bacterial diseases constitute a great burden, with several particular bacteria sustaining the leading role of multiple serious infections. This article addresses profound bacterial agents causing a wide array of infections including but not limited to pneumonia and meningitis. The epidemiology of such infectious diseases and the prevalence of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis and Haemophilus influenzae are reviewed in the context of bacterial meningitis. We address prevalent serotypes in Egypt, antimicrobial resistance patterns and efficacy of vaccines to emphasize the importance of periodic surveillance for appropriate preventive and treatment strategies.

  19. Liver transplantation in Egypt from West to East

    OpenAIRE

    Galal H El-Gazzaz; Azza H El-Elemi

    2010-01-01

    Galal H El-Gazzaz1, Azza H El-Elemi21Department of General Surgery, 2Department of Forensic Medicine and Ethics, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, EgyptBackground: Egyptian patients with end-stage liver disease need to seek whole cadaveric liver transplantation (CLT) abroad. We studied the outcome of Egyptian patients who underwent CLT in China.Methods: Between 2004–2006, 22 patients who underwent CLT in China and attended two liver surgery outpatient clinics in Egypt for follow-up w...

  20. Bangladesh: Summary Report. Financing Primary and Secondary Education in Bangladesh. Asia-South Pacific Education Watch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Qazi Kholiquzzaman

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of the study is to gain an understanding on educational expenditure at primary and secondary levels in Bangladesh. In estimating educational expenditure by source, it has been sought to determine: (1) sources of financing of primary and secondary education; (2) rural-urban variation; (3) variation between boys and girls; (4)…

  1. [Light and blindness in ancient Egypt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria Rosso, Ana

    2010-01-01

    In Ancient Egypt, light and fire, which were closely related to the Sun God Ra, were the sources of life and well-being, while the dark meant danger and death. Similar to death, darkness drops on human beings in deep sleep and they enter a space inhabited by shadows. Dreams were believed to reveal an unknown world, to give the sleeper a glimpse into the future. Vision attracts distant objects and their light, on the other hand, can hurt the eyes like a burning flame. Eyes were the most important organ in Egyptian thought, as they allowed perception of the real world. Their importance has been immortalised in the myth of the Eye of Horus that explains the role of either eye. One represents the moonlight, which disperses the darkness of the night, and the other represents the sunshine, which creates life, and both could also represents the power of human intellect. Blindness, in turn, congenital or disease-related, was considered a divine punishment. A man, thus handicapped, would sink in a state of uncertainty and darkness. To protect the eyes from blindness, people used drops and ointments, which were believed to chase away all kinds of insects and demons that threatened with a variety of eye infections. Egyptian eye doctors or physicians, carried a special kit that contained green chrysocolla and a black kohl makeup, highly appreciated as prophylaxis because they personified Osiris' humours or body fluids. These products were offered to Gods to restore the brightness of divine glance and incite sun and moon to spread their beneficial light.

  2. Economic development and population policy in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M R

    1984-09-01

    This paper deals with Bangladesh's growth rate and the policy implications for its economy. Despite its obvious influence on the economy, population has never been integrated as an endogenous variable in any planning model. Development planning is mostly supported by donor agencies, involving little micro-level planning and practically no trickle-down effect. This paper examines the interaction of population and other development variables in the country's planning process. Much of the rural population consists of landless farmers share croppers, so that the land ownership pattern contributes to low productivity. Population increase is making the rural masses even poorer. This process is further compounded by increasing foreign aid dependence, adverse terms of trade in the international market, low savings and investments, and the rural sector's worsening terms of trade. During 1950-1970 real per capita gross domestic product (GDP) increased only at a rate of 1% per annum and during 1950-1970 real growth of GDP fell behind the population growth rate. A cost benefit analysis of fertility reduction is needed. The cost benefit ratio of most countries varies between 1:10 to 1:30; for Bangladesh it is 1:16. Macro-model studies indicate that the higher the fertility reduction and shorter the period of required decline, the higher will be the benefits in terms of gains in per capita income. There is, however, a contradiction between national and household interests. The latter's decision to have more children has a negative spillover effect, which nullifies the gains of the community. The national family planning program suffered a serious setback during and after the liberation of Bangladesh, mainly due to lack of administrative leadership and support. In order for the population growth rate to be checked and to increase the quality of life for the entire population, the family planning program must be revitalized by mobilizing the entire government machinery and

  3. The Institute of Nuclear Agriculture in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaul, A.K.

    1978-01-01

    Since as early as 1964, a small group of agricultural scientists of the Bangladesh Atomic Research Establishment have been using radioisotopes and radiation tools in their research. Realizing the potential use of nuclear tools in agriculture, this agricultural section was reorganized and expanded into a full-fledge institute. For this work the need for outside support was foreseen and in July 1973 the Government submitted a request for support from the Swedish International Development Agency (SIDA). As a result, a technical assistance SIDA project was approved, with the IAEA being the executing agency. This US $1 million, 5 year-project provides for some 100 man-months of international expertise, some 200 man-months of fellowships, as well as for various equipment and supplies. The Institute of Nuclear Agriculture was formally inaugurated on 12 December 1977, by the Vice-President of the People's Republic of Bangladesh, Justice Abdus Sattar. Helio F.S. Bittencourt, the IAEA Deputy Director General for Technical Assistance and Publications, represented the Agency at this ceremony. The objectives of INA are: 1. To identify and solve basic agricultural problems of the country through inter-disciplinary approach, employing both nuclear and conventional research techniques. 2. To train scientists in appropriate fields of research at home and abroad, there by filling the gap of skilled manpower. 3. To conduct experiments in areas of agricultural research, such as breeding of cereals, fibre crops, legumes and oil-seed plants, irrigation and water management, soil-plant relationship studies and other related areas. 4. To perfect and apply a number of analytical techniques, which are rapid and accurate, for use in different fields of research. The physical facilities are made available to users from throughout the country. 5. To make use of international expertise in specific fields to provide on-the-spot analysis of problems, and to render advice and training to

  4. A Pilot Astronomy Outreach Project in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Dipen; Mridha, Shahjahan; Afroz, Maqsuda

    2015-08-01

    In its strategic planning for the "Astronomy for Development Project," the International Astronomical Union (IAU) has ecognized, among other important missions, the role of astronomy in understanding the far-reaching possibilities for promoting global tolerance and citizenship. Furthermore, astronomy is deemed inspirational for careers in science and technology. The "Pilot Astronomy Outreach Project in Bangladesh"--the first of its kind in the country--aspires to fulfill these missions. As Bangladesh lacks resources to promote astronomy education in universities and schools, the role of disseminating astronomy education to the greater community falls on citizen science organizations. One such group, Anushandhitshu Chokro (AChokro) Science Organization, has been carrying out a successful public outreach program since 1975. Among its documented public events, AChokro organized a total solar eclipse campaign in Bangladesh in 2009, at which 15,000 people were assembled in a single open venue for the eclipse observation. The organization has actively pursued astronomy outreach to dispel public misconceptions about astronomical phenomena and to promote science. AChokro is currently working to build an observatory and Science Outreach Center around a recently-acquired 14-inch Scmidt-Cassegrain telescope and a soon-to-be-acquired new 16-inch reflector, all funded by private donations. The telescopes will be fitted with photometers, spectrometers, and digital and CCD cameras to pursue observations that would include sun spot and solar magnetic fields, planetary surfaces, asteroid search, variable stars and supernovae. The Center will be integrated with schools, colleges, and community groups for regular observation and small-scale research. Special educational and observing sessions for adults will also be organized. Updates on the development of the Center, which is expected to be functioning by the end of 2015, will be shared and feedback invited on the fostering of

  5. Water, climate change and society in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele-Eich, I.; Simmer, C.

    2017-12-01

    Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh with a population of over 17 million people, is among the top five coastal cities most vulnerable to climate change, with over 30 % of the population living in slums. Effective disaster mitigation and adaptation requires an understanding how hazards such as flooding impact the population. The impacts of climate change on flooding and thus livelihoods in the complex delta of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna rivers can not be treated isolated from other anthropogenic impacts due to e.g. the construction of dams as well as a growing population. We illustrate this by setting up a conceptual socio-hydrological causal network using the enhanced Driving force - Pressure - State - Impact - Response framework. The constructed socio-hydrological framework includes both natural and anthropogenic processes and their two-way feedbacks, allowing policy makers to know where available resources can be used effectively to increase resilience and reduce vulnerability. We conclude that climate change takes place over long stretches of time and thus enable the population of Bangladesh to adapt slowly. Resources such as social capital, which is one of the main tools for slum dwellers to be able to cope with flooding can be altered over time, and as such the system can be considered overall stable and resilient. However, transboundary water sharing issues during the dry season and other implications resulting from dam structures such as Farakka Barrage complicate a prognosis on how the rapidly growing population will be affected in the 21st century. This is particularly important in connection with previous findings, which suggest that the Greater Dhaka population already experience a significant increase in mortality during droughts. Climate change can thus be seen as an anthropogenic amplification of the socio-hydrological challenges already faced by Bangladesh today.

  6. The Institute of Nuclear Agriculture in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaul, A K [Institute of Nuclear Agriculture, Mymensingh (Bangladesh)

    1978-06-15

    Since as early as 1964, a small group of agricultural scientists of the Bangladesh Atomic Research Establishment have been using radioisotopes and radiation tools in their research. Realizing the potential use of nuclear tools in agriculture, this agricultural section was reorganized and expanded into a full-fledge institute. For this work the need for outside support was foreseen and in July 1973 the Government submitted a request for support from the Swedish International Development Agency (SIDA). As a result, a technical assistance SIDA project was approved, with the IAEA being the executing agency. This US $1 million, 5 year-project provides for some 100 man-months of international expertise, some 200 man-months of fellowships, as well as for various equipment and supplies. The Institute of Nuclear Agriculture was formally inaugurated on 12 December 1977, by the Vice-President of the People's Republic of Bangladesh, Justice Abdus Sattar. Helio F.S. Bittencourt, the IAEA Deputy Director General for Technical Assistance and Publications, represented the Agency at this ceremony. The objectives of INA are: 1. To identify and solve basic agricultural problems of the country through inter-disciplinary approach, employing both nuclear and conventional research techniques. 2. To train scientists in appropriate fields of research at home and abroad, there by filling the gap of skilled manpower. 3. To conduct experiments in areas of agricultural research, such as breeding of cereals, fibre crops, legumes and oil-seed plants, irrigation and water management, soil-plant relationship studies and other related areas. 4. To perfect and apply a number of analytical techniques, which are rapid and accurate, for use in different fields of research. The physical facilities are made available to users from throughout the country. 5. To make use of international expertise in specific fields to provide on-the-spot analysis of problems, and to render advice and training to

  7. Adolescent motherhood in Bangladesh: Trends and determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammad Mainul; Islam, Md Kamrul; Hasan, Mohammad Sazzad; Hossain, Mohammad Bellal

    2017-01-01

    While studies on fertility and contraceptives issues are available, until recently adolescent motherhood has not received enough attention among policy makers in understanding adolescent motherhood in Bangladesh. We aimed to examine the trends and determinants of adolescent motherhood among women aged 15-49 years. For trend analysis we used all the 7 waves of Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS, 1993-2014) data but for multivariate analysis 4 waves of BDHS (2004-2014). Two separate analyses were carried out on ever married women aged 15-49: (1) teenage girls aged 15-19 and (2) adult women aged 20 and above. The prevalence of adolescent motherhood had declined to a slower pace from 1993 to2014 (from 33.0% to 30.8%). Lower spousal age gap and higher education were found to be associated with lower likelihood of adolescent motherhood both among teenage girls [OR 0.447 (0.374-0.533)] and adult women [OR 0.451 (0.420-0.484)]. Teenage girls in the poorest wealth quintile [OR 1.712 [1.350-2.173] were more likely to experience adolescent motherhood than the richest wealth quintile. Teenage girls who had no education were found to have 2.76 times higher odds of adolescent motherhood than their counterparts who had higher than secondary education. Concerning the time effect, the odds of adolescent motherhood among adult women was found to decline overtime. Despite substantial decrease in total fertility rate in Bangladesh adolescent motherhood is still highly prevalent though declining from 1993 to 2014. Social policies including those addressing poverty, ensuring greater emphasis on education for women; and adolescent mothers in rural areas are needed.

  8. A review on child and maternal health status of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. M. Mahmudur Rahman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Child and maternal nutritional and health status is a very much concerning issue of Bangladesh. To summarize the specific conditions of Bangladeshi child and maternal health and related issues. This is a descriptive review and overall analysis and description of the literature was done regarding child and maternal health of the general population living in Bangladesh. The evidence reflected that infant, child, and maternal mortality in Bangladesh have declined gradually at least over the past years. It is found that infant mortality 2 times, child mortality 6 times, and under five mortality rates 3 times declined comparatively than the last two decades but it is noted that maternal assassination circumstance has not declined. Knowledge on child and maternal health carries an important role in education. Health knowledge index significantly improve child and maternal health although differentially. It is obvious that poverty is one of the root causes that have led to a high child and maternal mortalities and morbidities faced by the people of Bangladesh. The requirement for socio economic relief for those living in rural Bangladesh remains one of the core issues. Recently, Bangladesh is successfully declining the total number of childhood and nutrition related mortalities despites various complexities, but maternal health status is not improving at the same pace. Nongovernment and government funded organizations and policymakers should come forward for running some effective programs to conquer the situation completely in Bangladesh.

  9. Population pressure and agricultural productivity in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhury, R H

    1983-01-01

    The relationship between population pressure or density and agricultural productivity is examined by analyzing the changes in the land-man ratio and the changes in the level of land yield in the 17 districts of Bangladesh from 1961-64 and 1974-77. The earlier years were pre-Green Revolution, whereas in the later years new technology had been introduced in some parts of the country. Net sown area, value of total agricultural output, and number of male agricultural workers were the main variables. For the country as a whole, agricultural output grew by 1.2%/year during 1961-64 to 1974-77, while the number of male agricultural workers grew at 1.5%/year. The major source of agricultural growth during the 1960s was found to be increased land-yield associated with a higher ratio of labor to land. The findings imply that a more intensified pattern of land use, resulting in both higher yield and higher labor input/unit of land, is the main source of growth of output and employment in agriculture. There is very little scope for extending the arable area in Bangladesh; increased production must come from multiple cropping, especially through expansion of irrigation and drainage, and from increases in per acre yields, principly through adoption of high yield variants, which explained 87% of the variation in output per acre during the 1970s. Regional variation in output was also associated with variation in cropping intensity and proportion of land given to high yield variants. There is considerable room for modernizing agricultural technology in Bangladesh: in 1975-76 less than 9% of total crop land was irrigated and only 12% of total acreage was under high yield variants. The adoption of new food-grain technology and increased use of high yield variants in Bangladesh's predominantly subsistence-based agriculture would require far-reaching institutional and organizational changes and more capital. Without effective population control, expansion of area under high yield

  10. Marriage and its transition in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, A U

    1986-01-01

    The author examines developments in marriage patterns in Bangladesh in light of social, cultural, and economic conditions. Previous literature on the subject is used to discuss Muslim marriage, Hindu marriage, child marriage, mate selection and social mobility, and the question of a marriage squeeze. "The analysis presents evidence that the society is experiencing a change in its family formation, mating process and family type. This transition is to some extent towards the characteristics of [the] Western World, but in a poor economy. Part of this transition is due to the effect of modernization and part due to increasing poverty." excerpt

  11. Melioidosis in a patient from Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibbler, C C; Roberts, C M; Ridgway, G L; Spiro, S G

    1991-08-01

    A 54 year old Bangladeshi man presented with a history and chest X-ray appearances suggestive of pulmonary tuberculosis. Following deterioration 4 weeks later, he required ventilation. Although a blood culture isolate was subsequently found to be Pseudomonas pseudomallei, it was initially misidentified and dismissed as a contaminant. Further cultures demonstrated the organism, but the patient died, despite treatment with ceftazidime. The case illustrates the importance of taking a detailed travel history and having a high index of suspicion in patients from South East Asia and the Indian sub-continent, including Bangladesh, where the disease has not previously been considered endemic.

  12. Electrochemical arsenic remediation for rural Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Addy, Susan Amrose [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Arsenic in drinking water is a major public health problem threatening the lives of over 140 million people worldwide. In Bangladesh alone, up to 57 million people drink arsenic-laden water from shallow wells. ElectroChemical Arsenic Remediation(ECAR) overcomes many of the obstacles that plague current technologies and can be used affordably and on a small-scale, allowing for rapid dissemination into Bangladesh to address this arsenic crisis. In this work, ECAR was shown to effectively reduce 550 - 580 μg=L arsenic (including both As[III]and As[V]in a 1:1 ratio) to below the WHO recommended maximum limit of 10 μg=L in synthetic Bangladesh groundwater containing relevant concentrations of competitive ions such as phosphate, silicate, and bicarbonate. Arsenic removal capacity was found to be approximately constant within certain ranges of current density, but was found to change substantially between ranges. In order of decreasing arsenic removal capacity, the pattern was: 0.02 mA=cm2> 0.07 mA=cm2> 0.30 - 1.1 mA=cm2> 5.0 - 100 mA=cm2. Current processing time was found to effect arsenic removal capacity independent of either charge density or current density. Electrode polarization studies showed no passivation of the electrode in the tested range (up to current density 10 mA=cm2) and ruled out oxygen evolution as the cause of decreasing removal capacity with current density. Simple settling and decantation required approximately 3 days to achieve arsenic removal comparable to filtration with a 0.1 mu m membrane. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) showed that (1) there is no significant difference in the arsenic removal mechanism of ECAR during operation at different current densities and (2) the arsenic removal mechanism in ECAR is consistent with arsenate adsorption onto a homogenous Fe(III)oxyhydroxide similar in structure to 2-line ferrihydrite. ECAR effectively reduced high arsenic concentrations (100

  13. Status of radiation curing in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idriss Ali, K.M.

    1999-01-01

    Bangladesh is a small country covering about 148 thousand square kilometer area with a population of 120 million. It has only 15% urban area; most of the people live in the rural area. It is neither industrial nor developed. It is trying hard to stand on its feet combating all damages caused by frequent natural calamities like cyclones and floods. Thus, most of the technological activities are still being carried out on turnkey basis. However, some research and development institutions have already been developed to such an extent that transfer of technology can occur and the local industries can also benefit out of this endeavour

  14. Ladies without lamps: nurses in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Shahaduz

    2009-03-01

    In this article, I explore the experiences and concerns of Bangladeshi nurses. I have based this on a larger ethnographic study that was conducted in a ward of a government teaching hospital in Bangladesh. The study shows how the values and norms of Bangladeshi society have shaped the life of Bangladeshi nurses, that they do scarcely any nursing work, and that they suffer from various negative social images. I argue, through this article, that the role, image, and concerns of Bangladeshi nurses have changed dramatically from the ideal image of nursing, and are dissimilar from the ways nursing is practiced in many other parts of the world.

  15. Radon measurements in some areas in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamid Khan, M.A.; Chowdhury, M.S.

    2008-01-01

    A survey of radon level measurements using CR-39 has been carried out in some of urban and rural residential areas and one gas explosion area in Bangladesh. The lowest level of radon concentration was found to be 49Bqm -3 inside a hospital in Cox's Bazar district and the highest level was found to be 835Bqm -3 inside a mud-made old residential house in Sylhet city. It was observed that old residential houses were found to have higher levels of radon concentrations compared to newly built houses. The radon level at the gas explosion area at Magurchara in Moulvibazar district was found to be 408±98Bqm -3

  16. Metropolitan food supply in Egypt : hydroponics production of leafy vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waldhauer, N.; Broek, van den W.H.A.M.; Soethoudt, J.M.; Boerrigter, H.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study incorporates the follow up activities of the two earlier missions of Wageningen UR/Food & Biobased Research (FBR) to Egypt, the exploration mission of 2013 (Broek and Boerrigter, 2014a) and the commitment mission of 2014 (Broek, Boerrigter and Waldhauer, 2014b), targeting the

  17. Unmet need for postpartum family planning in Alexandria, Egypt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amenorrhea, breast feeding, fear of side effects, discontinuation due to health concerns and pressure from the surroundings were the most common cited reasons for non-use. Conclusion: Integration of family planning education during antenatal, natal and postnatal care services in Egypt should be actively initiated. Women ...

  18. Wind atlas for Egypt: Measurements, micro- and mesoscale modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, N.G.; Hansen, J.C.; Badger, J.

    2006-01-01

    – close to consumers and the electrical grid. The KAMM simulations seem to capture the main features of the wind climate of Egypt, but in regions where the horizontal wind gradients are large, the uncertainties are large as well and additional measurements are required. The results are now published...

  19. Mapping sexual harassment in Egypt | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    28 mars 2017 ... More than 95 per cent of women in Egypt have experienced sexual harassment at least once, but many citizens there turn a blind eye when it happens. The HarassMap project is aiming to change that attitude at home and abroad, empowering women and changing the attitudes of men in the process.

  20. Egypt beyond representation : materials and materiality of Aegyptiaca Romana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müskens, S.W.G.

    2017-01-01

    This study develops and applies a new approach to study Aegyptiaca Romana from a bottom-up, Roman perspective. Current approaches to these objects are often still plagued by top-down projections of modern definitions and understandings of Egypt and Egyptian material culture onto the Roman world.

  1. Surge flow irrigation under short field conditions in Egypt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ismail, S.M.; Depeweg, H.; Schultz, E.

    2004-01-01

    Several studies carried out in long furrows have shown that surge flow irrigation offers the potential of increasing the efficiency of irrigation. The effects of surge flow in short fields, such as in Egypt, are still not well known, however. To investigate the effect of surge flow irrigation in

  2. Mitochondrial DNA genetic variations among four horse populations in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othman E. Othman

    2017-12-01

    It is concluded that sequence analysis of mtDNA control region is still the most informative tool for the identification of genetic biodiversity and phylogeny of different horse breeds and populations. The horse populations reared in Egypt possess low genetic diversity and all of them are belonged to Equus caballus breed.

  3. Cytochrome b conservation between six camel breeds reared in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othman E. Othman

    2017-06-01

    It is concluded that cyto b sequence is highly conserved among all camel breeds reared in Egypt which belong to Camelus dromedaries in addition to the advantage of cyto b in differentiation between different livestock sources which enables it to widely use for the adulteration detection in mixed meat.

  4. Air Quality Monitoring and Information System for Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivertsen, B.

    1996-06-01

    The publication relates to the main objectives and design of a modern monitoring and information system developed in Norway. The system is to be installed in Egypt. Themes being discussed cover technical features of the system, meteorological data, environmental indicators, data transfer and quality assurance, the data bases, data presentation - graphics and GIS, and environmental information to the public. 11 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Avian fossils from the Early Miocene Moghra Formation of Egypt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Avian remains from the Early Miocene (~17 Ma) Moghra Formation of Egypt include new records of 'waterbirds' (storks, herons, pelicans and allies) and a ratite. Only a single avian fossil has been previously reported from Wadi Moghra and, thus, additional knowledge of the avifauna complements previously documented ...

  6. Cladistic analysis of the antlions (Myrmeleontidae) of Egypt | El ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cladistic analysis of the antlions (Myrmeleontidae) of Egypt. Hiam El-Hamoley, Samy Zalat, Sohair Gad Allah. Abstract. Egyptian Journal of Biology Vol.2 2000: 85-96. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO ...

  7. Site selection and evaluation of nuclear power units in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnefille, R.

    1980-01-01

    The selection of sites for nuclear power units in Egypt by SOFRATOME for Nuclear Plants Authority is carried on using a method based on interaction between different criteria. The method and the main results on criterion 'radio-ecological impact' are sketched briefly [fr

  8. Numerical taxonomic studies of some tribes of Brassicaceae from Egypt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdel Khalik, K.; Maesen, van der L.J.G.; Koopman, W.J.M.; Berg, van den R.G.

    2002-01-01

    A systematic study of 45 taxa belonging to 23 genera of tribes Arabideae, Euclidieae, Hesperideae, Lunarieae, Matthioleae and Sisymbrieae of Brassicaceae from Egypt was conducted by means of numerical analysis based on sixty two morphological characters, including vegetative parts, pollen grains and

  9. African Refugees in Egypt: Trauma, Loss, and Cultural Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Hani M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the influence of pre-immigration trauma on the acculturation process of refugees, as reflected in the manifestations of their continuing bonds with native cultures. Six African refugees who sought refuge in Egypt because of wars and political persecution were interviewed about the circumstances of their departure from their…

  10. Uruguay Round of GATT: Potential Opportunities for Egypt, The

    OpenAIRE

    Karen Oerter; William H. Meyers

    1995-01-01

    What agricultural opportunities may be opened to countries such as Egypt due to the liberalization of world trade? This paper discusses the effects of changes in market access, domestic support, and export competition outlined in the recent General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), and explains how these changes will affect world agricultural trade in rice, cotton, potatoes, tomatoes, onions, oranges, and dates.

  11. The cyst nematodes Heterodera and Globodera species in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information concerning the occurrence and distribution of the cyst nematodes (Heterodera spp. and Globodera spp.) in Egypt is important to assess their potential to cause economic damage to many crop plants. A nematode survey was conducted in Alexandria, El Behera and Sohag governorates during 2012-...

  12. Obesity Risk Prediction among Women of Upper Egypt: The impact ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Obesity Risk Prediction among Women of Upper Egypt: The impact of FTO ... with increased obesity risk but there is a lack of association with diabetes. ... (as certain foods or gene therapy) will prevent the percentage of women who is affected ...

  13. Constitutional Reform and Emergency Powers in Egypt and Tunisia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwitter, Andrej

    Legal mechanisms governing the state of emergency can play an important role in authoritarian rule and post-revolutionary transition periods. Egypt has experienced the terror of a regime empowered by emergency law. In Tunisia, emergency law was not so much an issue before but rather after the

  14. Egypt : tous les projets | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... l'érosion du tissu social et sapent son développement économique potentiel. ... Région: Middle East, Libya, Morocco, Syria, Tunisia, Egypt, Yemen, Bahrain ... le pouvoir judiciaire, les institutions religieuses étatiques et les médias publics, ...

  15. Adaptations of International Standards on Educational Leadership Preparation in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purinton, Ted; Khalil, Dalia

    2016-01-01

    This paper is a case study of one leadership preparation program, utilizing US school leadership standards and practices, offered in Egypt. This case study illuminates how cultural and policy distinctions impact differing necessities of educational leadership, and how those necessities conflict or concur with the international standards and…

  16. Perfectionism and Self Concept among Primary School Children in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofaha, Gamal Al Sayed; Ramon, Patricia Robledo

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The main purpose of this study is to explore the correlation between dimensions of perfectionism and self-concepts among school aged students in Egypt. Method: Two hundred-eighty four children (fifth and sixth graders) participated in this study. The mean age of the participants was 144.37 months, SD 6.36. Pearson correlation…

  17. Communicative English Language Teaching in Egypt: Classroom Practice and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mona Kamal; Ibrahim, Yehia A.

    2017-01-01

    Following a "mixed methods" approach, this research is designed to examine whether teaching English as a foreign language (EFL) in Egypt's public schools matches the communicative English language teaching (CELT) approach. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected from 50 classroom observations, 100 questionnaire responses from…

  18. Women's Family Power and Gender Preference in Minya, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yount, Kathryn M.

    2005-01-01

    Structural and ideational theories are adapted to explore the influence of women's resources and ideational exposures on their family power and gender preferences in Minya, Egypt. Data from a household survey of 2,226 married women aged 15-54 years show that residence with marital kin decreases women's family power. Women in endogamous marriages…

  19. A new species of Antonia Loew (Bombyliidae, Diptera) from Egypt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Francis

    Department of Entomology, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt. Abstract. A new species of Bombyliidae belonging to the genus Antonia Loew is described. This species was proposed by Efflatoun Bey in an unpublished manuscript, and his proposed name (Antonia gabalensis sp. nov.) is maintained. I present ...

  20. Using Social Studies Themes to Investigate Modern Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Janie

    2010-01-01

    Many elementary teachers explore the marvels of ancient Egypt with their students, as evidenced by the numerous available websites on this topic for teaching elementary history. The drama and mystery of ancient civilizations with treasures such as mummies, King Tut, and the Giza Pyramids are intriguing to children, yet there is another layer of…

  1. Angles of Elevation of the Pyramids of Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Arthur F.

    1982-01-01

    The nature and history of the construction of pyramids in Egypt is detailed. It is noted that one can only theorize about why the Egyptians used particular angles of elevation. It is thought, perhaps, that new clues will provide a clear solution to this mystery as additional artifacts and hieroglyphics are discovered. (MP)

  2. [Egypt: Selected Readings, Egyptian Mummies, and the Egyptian Pyramid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC.

    This resource packet presents information and resources on ancient Egypt. The bibliography includes readings divided into five sections: (1) "General Information" (46 items); (2) "Religion" (8 items); (3) "Art" (8 items); (4) "Hieroglyphics" (6 items); and (5) selections "For Young Readers" (11…

  3. The Great Pyramid Builders: An Integrated Theme on Ancient Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Brian

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a themed classroom project designed to teach about the culture and civilization of ancient Egypt. In preparing the project, it is noted that teachers should remember that different learning styles, including activities that provide meaningful experiences, are appropriate in accommodating the various ways children learn.…

  4. from Egypt Hanaa M Shabbara*, Mahmoud S Refai and Manal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Francis

    INTRODUCTION. Pottiaceae is one of the largest families of the acrocarpous mosses. Its species represent more than 10% of the moss species known, up till now, from the whole world (Buck & Goffinet. 2000), and they are widespread in all phytogeographical regions of the world. In Egypt Pottiaceae, as in some other ...

  5. A new species of Antonia Loew (Bombyliidae, Diptera) from Egypt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This species was proposed by Efflatoun Bey in an unpublished manuscript, and his proposed name (Antonia gabalensis sp. nov.) is maintained. I present a key to differentiate the new species from Antonia suavissima Loew, the other Antonia species represented in Egypt, together with illustrations of the genitalia and wings ...

  6. Aeromycobiota of Western Desert of Egypt | Ismail | African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of airborne mycobiota at six different regions of Western desert (5 regions) and Eastern desert (1) of Egypt was determined using the exposed-plate method. A total of 44 genera, 102 species and one variety in addition to some unidentified yeasts and dark sterile mycelia were collected. Of the above, only 5 ...

  7. Sacrococcygeal teratoma: 10-year experience in upper Egypt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose To evaluate our experience with 45 patients with sacrococcygeal teratoma (SCT) in our community (upper Egypt) over a period of 10 years between 2001 and 2011 and determine the outcome of the management and recommendations for treatment strategies. Patients and methods A retrospective study was ...

  8. Arab Spring Impact on Executive Education in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wafa, Dina

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to study the impact of the Arab Spring on public administration programs in Egypt, with a special focus on executive education programs. Design/Methodology/Approach: The study draws on stakeholder analysis, and uses both primary and secondary data. Findings: The author describes the impact of the Arab Spring…

  9. The northern lakes of Egypt: Encounters with a wetland environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parmenter, B.M.

    1991-01-01

    Five lakes fringe the northern coast of Egypt. Together they represent 25% of the remaining wetland habitat in the Mediterranean basin. Residents of these lakes traditionally exploited a wide variety of resources. Today these lakes face a number of threats to their existence, including large-scale reclamation and water pollution. Agricultural authorities, engineers, fishery managers, and conservationists in Egypt and abroad debate about how best to manage and develop the lake region's resources, but few of these groups understand or communicate with one another, or with residents of lake communities. This study explores how these various groups encounter the coastal lakes of Egypt, focusing particularly on Lakes Manzala and Burullus. Its purpose is to explore the ways in which the lakes, their resources and their inhabitants have been evaluated, and to analyze how underlying preconceptions, goals and structures of professional discourse influence such evaluations. The thesis is that environmental management is in reality not a rational plan but a process. Egypt is currently attempting to develop a coherent strategy to remedy its environmental problems without adversely affecting economic growth

  10. Abrasive supply for ancient Egypt revealed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peltz, C.; Bichler, M.

    2008-01-01

    In the framework of the major research scheme 'Synchronization of Civilizations in the Eastern Mediterranean Region in the 2nd Millennium B.C' instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used to determine 30 elements in pumice from archaeological excavations to reveal their specific volcanic origin. In ancient time, the widespread pumiceous products of several eruptions in the Aegean region have been used as abrasive tools and were therefore popular trade objects. The correlation of such archaeological findings to a specific eruption of known age would therefore allow to certify a maximum age of the respective stratum ('dating by first appearance'). Pumices from the Aegean region can easily be distinguished by their trace element distribution patterns. This has been shown by previous studies of the group. The elements Al, Ba, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Dy, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, Ti, U, V, Yb, Zr and Zn were determined in 16 samples of pumice lumps from excavations in Tell-el-Dab'a and Tell-el-Herr (Egypt). Two irradiation cycles and five measurement runs were applied. To show the accuracy of the results obtained, typical samples of the most important pumice sources in the Aegean region, particularly from Milos, Nisyros, Kos and Thera were analyzed together with the Egyptian samples of unknown origin. A reliable identification of the samples is achieved by comparing these results to the database compiled in previous studies. The geographical positions of these islands are shown. Within the error range, most of the elements determined in typical representatives of Milos, Nisyros, Kos and Santorini were in perfect agreement with values from the literature. On the basis of the Cluster graphics presented, it is possible to relate unknown pumice to its primary source, just by comparing the relation of a few elements, like Ta-Eu and Th-Hf. One concludes that all samples except one can be related to the Minoan eruption of Thera

  11. Adolescent motherhood in Bangladesh: Evidence from 2007 BDHS data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Mostafa Kamal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the factors affecting adolescent motherhood in Bangladesh using the 2007 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey data. Overall, 69.3 per cent of the married adolescents began childbearing. Among them 56.4 per cent were already mothers and 12.9per cent were pregnant for the first time. Of the adult married women age 20–49, 62.1 per cent initiated childbearing before age 19. The multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that women’s education, husband’s education, place of residence, ever use of contraceptive method, religion, wealth and region are important determinants of adolescent motherhood in Bangladesh.

  12. Gender and HIV/AIDS in Bangladesh: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Joydeb Garai

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The HIV/AIDS epidemic portrays a growing health threat in the world. In Bangladesh, the prevalence rate of HIV/AIDS is not yet high but it is gradually becoming a threat especially for women and young girls due to gender disparity. This systematic review was conducted to explore the gender-specific vulnerability to HIV/AIDS in Bangladesh in order to suggest to policy makers the best way for the prevention of HIV/AIDS in Bangladesh as well as in other low income countries. ...

  13. Unmet need for postpartum family planning in Alexandria, Egypt

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heba Mahmoud Taha Elweshahi

    2017-05-08

    May 8, 2017 ... country.2 Such indicator provides information on the size of an extremely ... Peer review under responsibility of Alexandria University Faculty of Medicine. * Corresponding author ... Alexandria Journal of Medicine 54 (2018) 143–147. Contents lists ..... unwanted pregnancy in Rural Bangladesh. Int Perspect ...

  14. Prevalence of neurological disorders in Al Quseir, Egypt: methodological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Tallawy H

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Hamdy El-Tallawy,1 Wafa Farghaly,1 Nabil Metwally,2 Tarek Rageh,1 Ghaydaa A Shehata,1 Reda Badry,1 Esam El Moselhy,2 Mahmoud Hassan,2 Mohamed M Sayed,3 Ahmed A Abdelwarith,1 Y Hamed,2 I Shaaban,2 Talal Mohamed,4 Mohamed Abd El Hamed,1 MR Kandil1 1Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt; 2Department of Neurology and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University (Assiut branch, Assiut, Egypt; 3Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Sohag University, Sohag, Egypt; 4Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Qena University, Qena, Egypt Abstract: Methodology and strategy play a very important role in epidemiological studies. Determination of the study area, geographical features, facilities, difficulties, and key personnel from the same area are important factors for successful methodology. Over 31 months (July 1, 2009 to January 31, 2012, a screening and an examination survey were carried out to ascertain the prevalence of epilepsy, stroke, dementia, cerebellar ataxia, migraine, cerebral palsy, Parkinsonism, chorea, athetosis, dystonia, trigeminal neuralgia, Bell's palsy, multiple sclerosis, spinal cord disorders, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders in Al Quseir, Red Sea Governorate, Egypt. A total of 33,285 people were screened by three neurologists in a door-to-door manner, including every door, using a standardized Arabic questionnaire to detect any subject with a neurological disorder. The methodological aspects of this project were carried out through eight phases: (1 data collection; (2 preparation; (3 screening; (4 case ascertainment; (5 investigations; (6 classifications; (7 data entry; and (8 statistics and tabulations. The results of this study reveal that the total prevalence of neurological disorders in Al Quseir was 4.6% and higher among females (5.2% than males (3.9%. The highest prevalence was recorded in the elderly population (60+ years [8.0%] and among the age

  15. Integrated Management Program for Radioactive Sealed Sources in Egypt IMPRSS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, A.; El-Adham, K.

    2004-01-01

    Sealed sources are usually in capsules made of stainless steel. They are the size of a pen or a finger and contain one of hundreds of radioactive elements (e.g., Iridium, Radium) or their isotopes. They are air-tight and very durable, contain the radioactive material but not radiation. They are used in the health sector, industry, military, and universities. Incidents occurred in Met Halfa, Egypt, 2000 (Iridium-192); Goiania, Brazil, 1987 (Cesium-137); Mexico and Southwest U.S., 1977 -1984 (Cobalt-60); Peru, 1999 (Iridium-1992); Poland 2001 (Cobalt-60). The IMPRSS Mission is based on a joined partnership between the Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority, the Egyptian Ministry of Health, the Sandia National Laboratories, the International Atomic Energy Agency and others. The IMPRSS Mission protects human health and the environment in Egypt from mismanaged sealed sources, is developed jointly with MOH and EAEA, provides capabilities for managing radioactive sealed sources in Egypt, increases public awareness, provides education and training, improves emergency response capabilities, develops a permanent disposal facility, ensures the program is self-sustaining and ensures close coordination with the IAEA. Infrastructure how to manage sealed sources is discussed. It includes awareness, tracking and inventory control, security, recovery, conditioning and storage, recycling and disposal. Emergency response, regulatory reform, education and training and its targets are provided. The government of Egypt can protect the people of Egypt and is ready for emergencies. Prevention is the first line of defence and detection is the second line of defence. Adequate Emergency Response saves lives and adequate control reduces risk of mismanaged uses or deliberate misuses of sources. A Cradle-to-Grave approach is built on existing capabilities at EAEA and MOH

  16. Bangladesh Agro-Climatic Environmental Monitoring Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermillion, C.; Maurer, H.; Williams, M.; Kamowski, J.; Moore, T.; Maksimovich, W.; Obler, H.; Gilbert, E.

    1988-01-01

    The Agro-Climatic Environmental Monitoring Project (ACEMP) is based on a Participating Agency Service Agreement (PASA) between the Agency for International Development (AID) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). In FY80, the Asia Bureau and Office of Federal Disaster Assistance (OFDA), worked closely to develop a funding mechanism which would meet Bangladesh's needs both for flood and cyclone warning capability and for application of remote sensing data to development problems. In FY90, OFDA provided for a High Resolution Picture Transmission (HRPT) receiving capability to improve their forecasting accuracy for cyclones, flooding and storm surges. That equipment is primarily intended as a disaster prediction and preparedness measure. The ACEM Project was designed to focus on the development applications of remote sensing technology. Through this Project, AID provided to the Bangladesh Government (BDG) the equipment, technical assistance, and training necessary to collect and employ remote sensing data made available by satellites as well as hydrological data obtained from data collection platforms placed in major rivers. The data collected will enable the BDG to improve the management of its natural resources.

  17. Physiotherapy in Bangladesh: Inequality Begets Inequality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firoz Ahmed Mamin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe demand for health services in developing countries often outweighs provision. This article describes the present condition of physiotherapy in Bangladesh. Physiotherapy is not recognized as a profession by the government. There is no single registration and regulation body. The health-related and economic benefits of physiotherapy are not felt by the majority of Bangladeshi citizens.Areas coveredThe burden of disease is changing, and Bangladesh needs a profession that specializes in physical rehabilitation to face these challenges. This article outlines the benefits to patients and the wider economy from a broad physiotherapy regime for all Bangladeshi citizens. It describes the many barriers the profession faces.ConclusionPhysiotherapy is efficacious in many post-trauma situations and long-term conditions. Economic evidence supports the provision physiotherapy as a cost-effective treatment which should be considered as part of the provision of a universal health-care service. Official recognition of the protected “physiotherapist” title and a single registration and regulation agency are recommended.

  18. Handwashing practices and challenges in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, B A

    2003-06-01

    Handwashing is universally promoted in health interventions. Studies in Bangladesh and elsewhere have shown a 14 - 40% reduction of diarrhoeal diseases with handwashing. The perceptions and methods related to washing of hands vary widely in Bangladesh. Socio-economic factors are also associated with methods practised. In general, the effectiveness of handwashing practices is poor. Faecal coliform bacteriological counts were reported to be high for both left and right hands. About 85% of women studied who lived in slums and 41% of rural women washed their hands using only water. However, most women rubbed their hands on the ground, or used soil, and rinsed them with water during post-defecation handwashing. Most women claimed that they could not afford to buy soap. Experimental trials showed that use of soap, ash or soil gave similar results when women washed their hands under the same conditions. The washing of both hands, rubbing of hands, and the amount and quality of rinsing water used were found to be important determinants in the reduction of bacterial counts on hands. Although handwashing messages have been revised by most of the main programmes after these studies, there is scope for further improvement, as well as evaluation of their impact.

  19. Bangladesh women report postpartum health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodburn, L

    1994-02-01

    The Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee conducted operational research in Bangladesh to examine postpartum health problems. Researchers conducted focus groups, indepth interviews, and observation. More than 40% of the postpartum women had a delivery-related health problem by 2 weeks after delivery. 52% had signs or symptoms of anemia. Body needs after pregnancy, lactation, and blood loss during delivery exacerbate the nutritional anemia common to Bangladeshi women. 17% of the postpartum women had signs of infections. More than 50% had severe malnutrition, worsened by food taboos during the postpartum period. 60% of infant deaths occur in the neonatal period. The mortality risk is elevated in low birth weight (LBW) infants. In this study, more than 50% of the newborns were LBW infants. Many Bangladeshi mothers discard the colostrum and begin breast feeding several days after delivery. 11% of the postpartum women had breast problem (e.g., cracked nipples). Women believed that susceptibility to evil spirits accounted for their being more vulnerable to health problems during the postpartum. They feared leaving the household. These findings show a need for home visits to provide valuable postpartum care.

  20. Electricity Crisis and Load Management in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajib Kanti Das

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh is a densely populated country. Only a small part of her area is electrified which cover around 18% of total population. The people who are in the electrified area are suffering from severe load shedding. A systematic load management procedure related to demand side may improve the situation is the research problem. The major objectives serve by the research are to analyze contemporary electricity status with a view to drawing inference about demand supply gap and extracting benefits from load management. Data supplied by the Bangladesh Power Development Board, World Bank and outcome of survey are analyzed with some simple statistical tools to test the hypothesis. Analysis discloses that with properly managed uses of electricity with load switch and rotation week-end can improve the concurrent condition of electricity. Moreover, introducing smart distribution system, reducing system loss, shifting load to off-peak, large scale use of prepaid mete, observing energy week and using energy efficient home and office appliance are recommended to improve load through demand side management. Some other recommendations such as introducing alternative energy, public private partnership and using renewable energy development and producing energy locally are made for load management from the supply side.

  1. Contraceptive awareness among men in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammad Amirul; Padmadas, Sabu S; Smith, Peter W F

    2006-04-01

    A considerable gap exists between contraceptive awareness and use. Traditional approaches to measuring awareness are inadequate to properly understand the linkages between awareness and use. The objective of this study was to examine the degree of men's modern contraceptive awareness in Bangladesh and the associated determinants and further testing of a hypothesis that current contraceptive use confers a high degree of method awareness. This study used the couple data set from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (1999-2000). A two-level, multinomial logistic regression was used with the degree of contraceptive awareness as the dependent variable. The degree of awareness was measured by the reported number of modern contraceptive methods known among men aged 15-59 years. Men's responses on method awareness were classified according to those reported spontaneously and probed. Nearly 100% of the study participants reported having heard of at least one method and about half reported awareness of at least eight different methods of contraception. Multinomial logistic regression analyses showed that older and educated men were more likely to have reported a high degree of awareness. The findings confirmed our hypothesis that current contraceptive use is likely to confer a high degree of modern method awareness among men (pknowledge of contraceptive methods to improve the uptake of especially male-based modern methods.

  2. Bangladesh making remarkable progress in population field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This article describes the progress made in reducing fertility in Bangladesh, and government goals for meeting future challenges. Fertility declined from 7.0 to 3.3 children/woman during 1975-96. Contraceptive prevalence increased from 3% to about 50% during 1971-96. Population in 1997, was about 123 million. Population is expected to increase to about 210 million by the year 2020. Bangladesh is one of the most densely populated countries. About 50% of the female population are unmarried and aged under 20 years. Adolescent fertility is very high at 171 births/1000 girls aged 15-19 years. About 30% of adolescents are mothers, and another 6% are pregnant with their first child. Female age at marriage increased to 18 years. The contraceptive prevalence rate among adolescents is only 25%. 20% of total population live in urban areas. Infant, child, and maternal mortality rates are still high. The long-term goal of the government is to reduce fertility to a 2-child family norm by 2002. The plan of action focuses on improved quality of care, intensifying program efforts in low performing areas, focusing on critical underserved groups, implementing family planning services in the Health Directorate, improving performance reporting and follow-up, strengthening IEC and community mobilization, carrying out critical training, enhancing collaboration between governmental and nongovernmental groups, and improving maternal, child, and reproductive health. A National Committee for the Implementation of the aforementioned Program of Action of the ICPD was set up in October 1994.

  3. Equity Gains in Bangladesh Primary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, A. Mushtaque R.; Nath, Samir R.; Choudhury, Rasheda K.

    2003-11-01

    Although equity is a desirable objective of any form of development intervention, including education, not many studies dwell upon this important area. Information on related trends is even more rare. This essay uses field-level data from Bangladesh to examine equity levels and trends in primary education, including enrolment and quality of learning, focusing on equity for different gender, urban or rural, economic and ethnic groups. The study shows that while some disparity between girls and boys has been eliminated, girls are still far behind boys in terms of learning achievement. Children belonging to poorer families and ethnic minority groups lag behind the respective dominant groups in terms of both enrolment and learning achievement. At the same time, there have been some improvements for hitherto excluded groups such as rural girls and children of the poor. These changes are attributed mainly to 'positive discriminatory' steps taken by the government and non-governmental organizations in favour of such groups. If this trend continues, Bangladesh can look forward to establishing itself as a more equitable society than it is now.

  4. India's Unfinished Telecom Tasks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    India's Telecom Story is now well known · Indian Operators become an enviable force · At the same time · India Amongst the Leaders · Unfinished Tasks as Operators · LightGSM ON: Innovation for Rural Area from Midas · Broadband Access Options for India · Broadband driven by DSL: still too slow · Is Wireless the answer?

  5. Communication dated 1 February 2005 from the Permanent Mission of the Arab Republic of Egypt concerning implementation of the NPT Safeguards Agreement of Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The Director General has received a Note Verbale dated 1 February 2005 from the Permanent Mission of the Arab Republic of Egypt, concerning implementation of the NPT Safeguards Agreement of Egypt, attaching the text of a Press Statement dated 25 January 2005. The Note Verbale and, as requested therein, the Press Statement, are reproduced herewith for the information of Member States

  6. Poverty-led higher population growth in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakibullah, A; Rahman, A

    1996-01-01

    This article discusses the issue whether population growth is exogenous or endogenous in the economic development of Bangladesh. Overpopulation adversely affects food supplies, foreign exchange, and human resources. Moreover, it depresses savings per capita and retards growth of physical capital per labor. Underdeveloped countries, like Bangladesh, are faced with the problem of allocating resources between infrastructure, education, and health service that are essential for human capital development and population control measures. With this, determination whether fertility is exogenous or endogenous is important for policy purposes in the context of Bangladesh. Results showed that there is a correlation between population growth and real gross domestic products per capita. Based on Granger causality test, population growth is endogenous in the development process of Bangladesh and its overpopulation is due to poverty. Thus, there is a need for appropriate policy to take measures to improve human capital and decrease fertility rates.

  7. Towards the effective plastic waste management in Bangladesh: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourshed, Monjur; Masud, Mahadi Hasan; Rashid, Fazlur; Joardder, Mohammad Uzzal Hossain

    2017-12-01

    The plastic-derived product, nowadays, becomes an indispensable commodity for different purposes. A huge amount of used plastic causes environmental hazards that turn in danger for marine life, reduces the fertility of soil, and contamination of ground water. Management of this enormous plastic waste is challenging in particular for developing countries like Bangladesh. Lack of facilities, infrastructure development, and insufficient budget for waste management are some of the prime causes of improper plastic management in Bangladesh. In this study, the route of plastic waste production and current plastic waste management system in Bangladesh have been reviewed extensively. It emerges that no technical and improved methods are adapted in the plastic management system. A set of the sustainable plastic management system has been proposed along with the challenges that would emerge during the implementation these strategies. Successful execution of the proposed systems would enhance the quality of plastic waste management in Bangladesh and offers enormous energy from waste.

  8. bangladesh : tous les projets | Page 4 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: INFECTIOUS DISEASES, DISEASE VECTORS, Disease control, SOCIAL ASPECTS, ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS, PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH. Région: Bangladesh, Central ... Sujet: ATTITUDES, GENDER DISCRIMINATION, GENDER RELATIONS, GENDER ANALYSIS, GENDER EQUALITY, Gender. Région: ...

  9. Changing Labour Markets in Bangladesh: The Dynamics Between ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    With its growing economy and population, Bangladesh's job creation success has ... the challenges ahead to improve the quality and productivity of these jobs. ... numbers of paid jobs and opportunities for rural migrants, especially women.

  10. All projects related to Bangladesh | Page 2 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: POLICY MAKING, RESEARCH, SOUTH ASIA, SOCIAL INEQUALITY, Poverty alleviation. Region: ... Courts, Networks, and Start-Ups: Institutions Matter for South Asian Small Enterprises. Project ... Region: Bangladesh, Japan. Program: ...

  11. All projects related to Bangladesh | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Climate Variability, Social Change and Dengue in Bangladesh ... essential to designing effective approaches to development and development research. ... of data storage capability coupled with the rise of social media and Internet business ...

  12. History, problems, and prospects of Islamic insurance (Takaful) in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Issa; Rahman, Noor Naemah Binti Abdul; Yusoff, Mohd Yakub Zulkifli Bin Mohd; Nor, Mohd Roslan Bin Mohd

    2016-01-01

    This study explains the history, current problems, and future possibilities of Islamic insurance (takaful) in Bangladesh. To articulate these issues, the researcher has adopted the qualitative method, and data has been collected through secondary sources i.e. articles, books, and online resources. The study reveals that Islamic insurance in Bangladesh is regulated by the Insurance Act 2010 which is contradictory with Islamic insurance causing numerous problems for Islamic insurance. This study also points out that Islamic insurance is a fast growing industry with huge prospects in Bangladesh. The government should introduce separate regulations for both Islamic and conventional insurance. The research concludes with suggestions for the further development of Islamic insurance in Bangladesh.

  13. Transport of radioactive material in Bangladesh: a regulatory perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mollah, A.S.

    2004-01-01

    Radioactive material is transported in Bangladesh in various types of packages and by different modes of transport. The transport of radioactive materials involves a risk both for the workers and members of the public. The safe transport of radioactive material is ensured in Bangladesh by compliance with Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control (NSRC) Act-93 and NSRC Rules-97. The Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC) is the competent authority for the enforcement of the NSRC act and rules. The competent authority has established regulatory control at each stage to ensure radiation safety to transport workers, members of general public and the environment. An overview is presented of the activities related to the transport of radioactive material in Bangladesh. In particular, the applicable legislation, the scope of authority and the regulatory functions of the competent authority are discussed. The categories of radioactive materials transported and the packaging requirements for the safe transport of these radioactive materials are also described. (author)

  14. Search for bioactive natural products from medicinal plants of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Firoj; Sadhu, Samir Kumar; Ishibashi, Masami

    2010-10-01

    In our continuous search for bioactive natural products from natural resources, we explored medicinal plants of Bangladesh, targeting cancer-related tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand-signaling pathway, along with some other biological activities such as prostaglandin inhibitory activity, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free-radical-scavenging activity, and cell growth inhibitory activity. Along with this, we describe a short field study on Sundarbans mangrove forests, Bangladesh, in the review.

  15. Causality relationship between electricity consumption and GDP in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozumder, Pallab; Marathe, Achla

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the causal relationship between the per capita electricity consumption and the per capita GDP for Bangladesh using cointegration and vector error correction model. Our results show that there is unidirectional causality from per capita GDP to per capita electricity consumption. However, the per capita electricity consumption does not cause per capita GDP in case of Bangladesh. The finding has significant implications from the point of view of energy conservation, emission reduction and economic development

  16. Progress report: Bangladesh [CSC Project on Management of Water Hyacinth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haider, S.Z.

    1981-01-01

    The CSC Project on Management of Water Hyacinth in Bangladesh was started in only April 1981. The present report from Bangladesh is based on the interim progress reports, submitted by the project coordinators of the organizations concerned, for the work during the short intervening period to 4th June 1981. It is obvious that the report deals mainly with the preliminary preparations and observations on the various aspects of the investigations. The research components assigned to various organisations in Bangladesh are: Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology; - Growth rate and biogas production; Housing and Building Research Institute; - Paper and board, and biogas; Bangladesh Council of Scientific and Industrial Research - Protein, enzymes and ammoacids; Dacca University - Pollution removal and studies of biomass production. Bangladesh is a flat deltaic plain formed from old and new alluvium. The areas of old alluvium are located above the general level, while the vast areas of new alluvium are situated m the flood plain of the modern rivers. The whole country is intersected by a network of rivers; the areas comprising the alluvial plains are very large. The river bank levees are high and the land gradually slopes inland away from the levees. The tract of land between two rivers are shaped like a furrow and in most cases form elongated 'beels' or swamps which are ideal place for the growth and propagation of aquatic plants particularly water hyacinth along with other aquatic organisms, both of plant and animal origin due to eutrophication. It is in the shallow swamps and derelict ponds that luxuriant growth and proliferation of water hyacinth is generally observed in Bangladesh. However, there is a feeling that much of the water hyacinth population in the open countryside was depleted during the severe drought which prevailed during the summer of 1979. But Bangladesh has the ideal water and climatic environment for conditions of rapid growth and spread

  17. Multi-Stakeholder Partnership in Nutrition: An Experience from Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basanta Kumar Kar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Context and legitimacy: Bangladesh, a country with 160 million people, is among the 20 countries which have had major accomplishments in reducing child mortality and improving maternal health (Millennium Development Goal 4 and 5 respectively. The government of Bangladesh aims to transition into a middle income country by 2021, and is committed to reduce social discrimination, environmental degradation, physical insecurity, socio-economic-cultural vulnerability and to secure and sustain an annual rate of GDP growth of 10% from 2017.

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF BOND MARKET IN BANGLADESH: ISSUES, STATUS AND POLICIES

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Saleh JAHUR; S.M. Nasrul QUADIR

    2010-01-01

    Bond market acts as buffer of equity market. This market in Bangladesh has been found very inefficient with respect to number of issues, volume of trade, number of participant, long-term yield curve, interest rate policy etc. In view of this, the present study has been undertaken aiming at identifying the problems that impedes the growth and development of Bond Market in Bangladesh. Researchers have collected both primary and secondary data and analysed the same by employing descriptive measu...

  19. IAEA/ WHO TLD postal dose intercomparison results in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mollah, A.S.; Bhuiyan, N.U.; Rahman, S.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: For the accurate delivery of prescribed dose to the patients, high precision and accuracy in radiation dosimetry is required. The hospital/medical physicist is responsible for the accurate delivery of whole planned radiation doses to the patients prescribed by the radio therapist. The proper delivery of radiation doses depends upon the accurate output measurements of doses from the therapy machines. In Bangladesh, only six 60 Co units and five deep therapy machines are in use. Some more are expected to be installed soon. Still in 2001, none of the Government radiotherapy centers in Bangladesh was properly equipped with medical physicists as well as radiotherapy dosimetry equipment. Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC) is responsible for radiation safety in Bangladesh and BAEC has assigned Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL) of Bangladesh for providing dosimetry calibration to all radiotherapy centers in Bangladesh. The output measurements of therapy machines are performed once in a year by SSDL and the results are compared by participating in the annual TLD postal dose intercomparison program organized by IAEA/WHO SSDL Network. The absorbed dose to water is determined using IAEA dosimetry protocol (TRS 277 and 381) and water phantom of size 30 x 30 x 30 cm 3 , The measurements of SSDL are traceable to NPL of UK. The accuracy achieved in SSDL, Bangladesh has been found better than ± 3.5%, which is within the prescribed limit of dosimetry standard of IAEA. The methodology of output dose measurements in different radiotherapy centers in Bangladesh is described along with the IAEA/WHO intercomparison results

  20. Exploring the communication barriers in private commercial banks of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Sultana, Nahneen; Abdullah, Abu Md.; Tabassum, Ayesha

    2013-01-01

    In Bangladesh, lots of private commercial banks are contributing for economic growth. The performance of the banks depends on a well-structured communication system. So by maintaining an effective communication system, the banks can gain competitive advantage. Thus the study aims to investigate the communication barriers that should be removed for effective communication in the private commercial banks of Bangladesh. A structured questionnaire survey based on 5-point Likert-scale was conducte...

  1. Health Insurance for Government Employees in Bangladesh: A Concept Paper

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid, Syed Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Introducing compulsory health insurance for government employees bears immense importance for stepping towards universal healthcare coverage in Bangladesh. Lack of scientific study on designing such scheme, in the Bangladesh context, motivates this paper. The study aims at designing a comprehensive insurance package simultaneously covering health, life and accident related disability risks of the public employees, where the health component would extend to all dependent family members. ...

  2. Violence originated from Facebook: A case study in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Minar, Matiur Rahman; Naher, Jibon

    2018-01-01

    Facebook as in social network is a great innovation of modern times. Among all social networking sites, Facebook is the most popular social network all over the world. Bangladesh is no exception. People use Facebook for various reasons e.g. social networking and communication, online shopping and business, knowledge and experience sharing etc. However, some recent incidents in Bangladesh, originated from or based on Facebook activities, led to arson and violence. Social network i.e. Facebook ...

  3. Indoor air quality for poor families: new evidence from Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Dasgupta, Susmita; Huq, Mainul; Khaliquzzaman, M.; Pandey, Kiran; Wheeler, David

    2004-01-01

    Indoor air pollution (IAP) from cooking and heating is estimated to kill a million children annually in developing countries. To promote a better understanding of IAP, the authors investigate the determinants of IAP in Bangladesh using the latest air monitoring technology and a national household survey. The study concludes that IAP is dangerously high for many poor families in Bangladesh. Concentrations of respirable airborne particulates(PM10) 300 ug/m3 or greater are common in the sample, ...

  4. Understanding arsenic contamination of groundwater in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabir, Babar

    2001-01-01

    The problem of water contamination by naturally occurring arsenic confronts governments, public and private utilities, and the development community with a new challenge for implementing operational mitigation activities under difficult conditions of imperfect knowledge - especially for arsenic mitigation for the benefit of the rural poor. With more than a conservative estimate of 20 million of its 130 million people assumed to be drinking contaminated water and another 70 million potentially at risk, Bangladesh is facing what has been described as perhaps the largest mass poisoning in history. High concentrations of naturally occurring arsenic have already been found in water from tens of thousands of tube wells, the main source of potable water, in 59 out of Bangladesh's 64 districts. Arsenic contamination is highly irregular, so tube wells in neighboring locations or even different depths can be safe. Arsenic is extremely hazardous if ingested in drinking water or used in cooking in excess of the maximum permissible limit of 0.01 mg/liter over an extended period of time. Even in the early 1970s, most of Bangladesh's rural population got its drinking water from surface ponds and nearly a quarter of a million children died each year from water-borne diseases. Groundwater now constitutes the major source of drinking water in Bangladesh with 95% of the drinking water coming from underground sources. The provision of tube well water for 97 percent of the rural population has been credited with bringing down the high incidence of diarrheal diseases and contributing to a halving of the infant mortality rate. Paradoxically, the same wells that saved so many lives now pose a threat due to the unforeseen hazard of arsenic. The provenance of arsenic rich minerals in sediments of the Bengal basin as a component of geological formations is believed to be from the Himalayan mountain range. Arsenic has been found in different uncropped geological hard rock formations

  5. Good governance and political culture: A case study of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Serajul Islam

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In a democratic system it is essential to have a competitive, and a tolerant party system, but Bangladesh has experienced an intolerant and a confrontational party system that has created a deadlock and brought uncertainty to the whole country. Since 1990, except 2014, Bangladesh has witnessed four systematic peaceful free elections, one each--in 1991, 1996, 2001, and 2008. On January 5, 2014, however, a controversial election took place in which major opposition political parties did not participate except the ruling alliance parties. The two dominant parties—the Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP and the Awami League (AL—each won two previous free and fair elections, with the BNP winning in1991, and a BNP-led 4-party coalition in 2001, and the AL in 1996, and an AL-led 14 party alliance in 2008. However, from 2014 Bangladesh is heading towards an authoritarian system. All these are happening due to the lack of good governance. This article intends to emphasize that the political culture emanating from the party politics is retarding good governance in Bangladesh. This article argues that the cultural traits developed in the last four decades in various dimensions,, particularly in more recent years, have worked as an “earth-worm” in the fabrics of democracy in Bangladesh preventing ‘good governance’.

  6. Coastal surface water suitability analysis for irrigation in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahtab, Mohammad Hossain; Zahid, Anwar

    2018-03-01

    Water with adequate quality and quantity is very important for irrigation to ensure the crop yields. Salinity is common problem in the coastal waters in Bangladesh. The intensity of salinity in the coastal zone in Bangladesh is not same. It fluctuates over the year. Sodium is another hazard which may hamper permeability and ultimately affects the fertility. It can reduce the crop yields. Although surface water is available in the coastal zone of Bangladesh, but its quality for irrigation needs to be monitored over the year. This paper will investigate the overall quality of coastal surface waters. Thirty-three water samples from different rivers were collected both in wet period (October-December) and in dry period (February-April). Different physical and chemical parameters are considered for investigation of the adequacy of water with respect to international irrigation water quality standards and Bangladesh standards. A comparison between the dry and wet period coastal surface water quality in Bangladesh will also be drawn here. The analysis shows that coastal surface water in Bangladesh is overall suitable for irrigation during wet period, while it needs treatment (which will increase the irrigation cost) for using for irrigation during dry period. Adaptation to this situation can improve the scenario. An integrated plan should be taken to increase the water storing capacity in the coastal area to harvest water during wet period.

  7. MEASURING THE CUSTOMER SATISFACTION OF ISLAMIC BANKING SECTOR IN BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossain Shahid SHOHROWARDHY

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The banking sector has been playing a significant role in achieving the economic growth of Bangladesh, where contribution of Islamic Banking Sector is remarkable. Islamic Banking Sector shows a substantial growth position in Bangladesh. Customer satisfaction is the most significant affecting phenomenon in determining the banking growth. Thus, this study attempts to measure the existing level of customer satisfaction of Islamic Banks in Bangladesh, using the Structural Equation Model (SEM. This study uses the 22 dimensions of customer satisfaction which used in the earlier studies in different countries for measuring the customer satisfaction of Islamic Banking Sector. A total of 385 samples have been taken from six full pledged Islamic Banks in Bangladesh. It reveals form the study that Human Resources and Systemization Service Delivery is the strongest indicator of customer satisfaction of Islamic Banking Sector in Bangladesh followed by Core Product, Service Capability and Social Responsibility. The findings therefore, may be helpful for policy-makers of banking authorities who have been making serious endeavor to sustain the growth of Islamic Banking Sector in Bangladesh.

  8. Niños y nuevos medios: estudios de caso en Egipto y en Finlandia Children and New Media: Youth Media Participation. A Case Study of Egypt and Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Hirsjärvi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available El artículo recoge un estudio de caso único sobre los primeros resultados del análisis cualitativo del proyecto PJM (Youth Media Participation, desarrollado en Argentina, Egipto, Finlandia e India. PJM es apoyado por la Academia de Finlandia (2009-11. Se analizan tres tipos de información provenientes de niños y jóvenes: entrevistas focalizadas en Egipto, India y Finlandia (24 en cada país; cuestionarios para recolección de datos estadísticos de Argentina, Egipto, India y Finlandia (1.200 por país, 4.800 totales; y diarios de medios para una publicación adicional sobre «Un día de medios» (500 totales, 100 obtenidos en Argentina, Egipto, India, Finlandia y Kenia respectivamente. Se indagaba, mediante el estudio exploratorio, nuevos enfoques a preguntas de investigación sobre la participación de niños de distintos países en medios. El proyecto PJM se inició con entrevistas focalizadas en Finlandia y Egipto. Este artículo se centra en la parte cualitativa y exploratoria del proyecto: entrevistas focalizadas para ratificar las preguntas originales de investigación, explorar múltiples formas de participación mediática y crear el cuestionario necesario para investigaciones posteriores. El proyecto busca mejorar nuestra comprensión de la alfabetización mediática y sus vínculos con la participación en los medios y actividad cívica.This article focuses on a single case study; the first findings of a qualitative part of the Youth Media Participation (YMP project in Argentina, Egypt, Finland and India (2009-11 on 10-18 year-old children’s participation through media. Youth Media Participation is funded by the Academy of Finland (2009-11. It collects and analyses three kinds of data from children and young adults; 1 focused interviews collected in Egypt, India and Finland (24 in each country, 2 a questionnaire for statistical data collected from Argentina, Egypt, India and Finland (1,200 in each country, N: 4,800 and 3 media

  9. Team player styles, team design variables and team work effectiveness in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    El-Kot, Ghada Awed Hassan

    2001-01-01

    The literature has revealed few studies of management in Arab countries in general and particularly in Egypt. Many Egyptian organisations implemented the team concept a number of years ago, however, there do not appear to be any studies investicitaýt inc",D team work effectiveness in Egypt. The literature review and the findings of a pilot study emphasised the need for empirical research in team work in Egypt. Team effectiveness models are examined in order to identify the fact...

  10. Determinants of Food Consumption During Pregnancy in Rural Bangladesh: Examination of Evaluative Data from the Bangladesh Integrated Nutrition Project

    OpenAIRE

    Rezaul Karim; Deepa Bhat; Lisa Troy; Sascha Lamstein; F. James Levinson

    2002-01-01

    The common practice of reducing food consumption during pregnancy is recognized as a primary cause of poor pregnancy outcomes and, in turn, malnutrition among young children in many developing countries including Bangladesh. This paper analyzes data from the 1998 Mid-Term Evaluation of the Bangladesh Integrated Nutrition Project (BINP) to identify the determinants of pregnancy food consumption. The analysis found that information available to the mother (through project-based counseling) was ...

  11. DNA barcoding of the vegetable leafminer Liriomyza sativae Blanchard (Diptera: Agromyzidae) in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    DNA barcoding revealed the presence of the polyphagous leafminer pest Liriomyza sativae Blanchard in Bangladesh. DNA barcode sequences for mitochondrial COI were generated for Agromyzidae larvae, pupae and adults collected from field populations across Bangladesh. BLAST sequence similarity searches ...

  12. Comparison of the pathogenicity of Nipah virus isolates from Bangladesh and Malaysia in the Syrian hamster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blair L DeBuysscher

    Full Text Available Nipah virus is a zoonotic pathogen that causes severe disease in humans. The mechanisms of pathogenesis are not well described. The first Nipah virus outbreak occurred in Malaysia, where human disease had a strong neurological component. Subsequent outbreaks have occurred in Bangladesh and India and transmission and disease processes in these outbreaks appear to be different from those of the Malaysian outbreak. Until this point, virtually all Nipah virus studies in vitro and in vivo, including vaccine and pathogenesis studies, have utilized a virus isolate from the original Malaysian outbreak (NiV-M. To investigate potential differences between NiV-M and a Nipah virus isolate from Bangladesh (NiV-B, we compared NiV-M and NiV-B infection in vitro and in vivo. In hamster kidney cells, NiV-M-infection resulted in extensive syncytia formation and cytopathic effects, whereas NiV-B-infection resulted in little to no morphological changes. In vivo, NiV-M-infected Syrian hamsters had accelerated virus replication, pathology and death when compared to NiV-B-infected animals. NiV-M infection also resulted in the activation of host immune response genes at an earlier time point. Pathogenicity was not only a result of direct effects of virus replication, but likely also had an immunopathogenic component. The differences observed between NiV-M and NiV-B pathogeneis in hamsters may relate to differences observed in human cases. Characterization of the hamster model for NiV-B infection allows for further research of the strain of Nipah virus responsible for the more recent outbreaks in humans. This model can be used to study NiV-B pathogenesis, transmission, and countermeasures that could be used to control outbreaks.

  13. Trace element accumulation and trophic relationships in aquatic organisms of the Sundarbans mangrove ecosystem (Bangladesh)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borrell, Asunción; Tornero, Victoria; Bhattacharjee, Dola; Aguilar, Alex

    2016-01-01

    The Sundarbans forest is the largest and one of the most diverse and productive mangrove ecosystems in the world. Located at the northern shoreline of the Bay of Bengal in the Indian Ocean and straddling India and Bangladesh, the mangrove forest is the result of three primary river systems that originate further north and northwest. During recent decades, the Sundarbans have been subject to increasing pollution by trace elements caused by the progressive industrialization and urbanization of the basins of these three rivers. As a consequence, animals and plants dwelling downstream in the mangroves are exposed to these pollutants in varying degrees, and may potentially affect human health when consumed. The aim of the present study was to analyse the concentrations of seven trace elements (Zn, Cu, Cr, Hg, Pb, Cd and As) in 14 different animal and plant species collected in the Sundarbans in Bangladesh to study their transfer through the food web and to determine whether their levels in edible species are acceptable for human consumption. δ"1"5N values were used as a proxy of the trophic level. A decrease in Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd levels was observed with increasing trophic position. Trace element concentrations measured in all organisms were, in general, lower than the concentrations obtained in other field studies conducted in the same region. When examined with respect to accepted international standards, the concentrations observed in fish and crustaceans were generally found to be safe for human consumption. However, the levels of Zn in Scylla serrata and Cr and Cd in Harpadon nehereus exceeded the proposed health advisory levels and may be of concern for human health. - Highlights: • Trace elements were determined in organisms from the Sundarbans mangrove. • The levels found were similar to those determined in wildlife from other mangroves. • Levels in three edible species were close to threshold limits for human consumption. • Except for Cr, As and Hg

  14. Trace element accumulation and trophic relationships in aquatic organisms of the Sundarbans mangrove ecosystem (Bangladesh)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borrell, Asunción, E-mail: xonborrell@ub.edu [Department of Animal Biology, Institute of Biodiversity (IRBIO), University of Barcelona, Av. Diagonal, 643, Barcelona (Spain); Tornero, Victoria [Department of Animal Biology, Institute of Biodiversity (IRBIO), University of Barcelona, Av. Diagonal, 643, Barcelona (Spain); Bhattacharjee, Dola [Indian Institute of Science Education & Research — Kolkata, Department of Biological Sciences, Mohanpur Campus, Nadia, West Bengal (India); Aguilar, Alex [Department of Animal Biology, Institute of Biodiversity (IRBIO), University of Barcelona, Av. Diagonal, 643, Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-03-01

    The Sundarbans forest is the largest and one of the most diverse and productive mangrove ecosystems in the world. Located at the northern shoreline of the Bay of Bengal in the Indian Ocean and straddling India and Bangladesh, the mangrove forest is the result of three primary river systems that originate further north and northwest. During recent decades, the Sundarbans have been subject to increasing pollution by trace elements caused by the progressive industrialization and urbanization of the basins of these three rivers. As a consequence, animals and plants dwelling downstream in the mangroves are exposed to these pollutants in varying degrees, and may potentially affect human health when consumed. The aim of the present study was to analyse the concentrations of seven trace elements (Zn, Cu, Cr, Hg, Pb, Cd and As) in 14 different animal and plant species collected in the Sundarbans in Bangladesh to study their transfer through the food web and to determine whether their levels in edible species are acceptable for human consumption. δ{sup 15}N values were used as a proxy of the trophic level. A decrease in Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd levels was observed with increasing trophic position. Trace element concentrations measured in all organisms were, in general, lower than the concentrations obtained in other field studies conducted in the same region. When examined with respect to accepted international standards, the concentrations observed in fish and crustaceans were generally found to be safe for human consumption. However, the levels of Zn in Scylla serrata and Cr and Cd in Harpadon nehereus exceeded the proposed health advisory levels and may be of concern for human health. - Highlights: • Trace elements were determined in organisms from the Sundarbans mangrove. • The levels found were similar to those determined in wildlife from other mangroves. • Levels in three edible species were close to threshold limits for human consumption. • Except for Cr, As and Hg

  15. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Eating Disorders in Weight Management Centers in Tanta, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noha Eladawi

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: EDs are prevalent among individuals attending the weight management centers in a northern city in Egypt. Specific management strategies are warranted to address this commonly prevalent disease.

  16. Regional and national radiation protection activities in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomaa, M.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Radiation protection activities in Egypt go back to 1957 where the Egyptian Atomic Energy Commission (EAEC) Law was issued. Radiation protection and civil defense department was one of EAEC eighth departments. Ionizing radiation law was issued in 1960 and its executive regulation in 1962. The main aim of the present work is to through some light on the current radiation protection activities in Egypt. This includes not only the role of governmental organizations but also to the non governmental organizations. Currently a new Nuclear Safety law is understudy. Regional activities such as holding the second all African IRPA regional radiation protection congress which was held in April 2007 and national training and workshops are held regularly through EAEA, AAEA and MERRCAC. (author)

  17. Categorization of In-use Radioactive Sealed Sources in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, M.A.; Mohamed, Y.T.; El Haleim, K.A.

    2006-01-01

    Radioactive sealed sources have widespread applications in industry, medicine, research and education. While most sources are of relatively low activity, there are many of medium or very high activity. The mismanagement of high activity sources is responsible for most of the radiological accidents that result in loss of life or disabling injuries. Because of the variety of applications and activities of radioactive sources, a categorization system is necessary so that the controls that are applied to the sources are adequate with its radiological risk. The aim of this work is to use the international Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) categorization system to provide a simple, logical system for grading radioactive sealed sources in Egypt. The categorizations of radioactive sealed sources are based on their potential to cause harm to human health. This study revealed that total of 1916 sources have been used in Egypt in the different applications with a total activity of 89400 Ci according to available data in October 2005. (authors)

  18. Entropy of Egypt's virtual water trade gravity field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakatsanis, Georgios; Bierbach, Sandra

    2016-04-01

    The study investigates the entropy of Egypt's virtual water trade gravity distribution, in order to provide a chart of Egypt's embodied water balance in agricultural trade, in relation to distances with its major counterparties. Moreover, our calculations on the amount of the embodied water traded between Egypt and each of its partners take place according to a combination of available data on the blue, green and grey water footprints as well as the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) database of traded amounts per crop type. A study on the virtual water trade gravity, enables us to enrich former related studies (Fracasso 2014; Fracasso, Sartori and Schiavo 2014) via examining Egypt's water supply dependence on the Nile River and if comparative advantages -purely from the side of water quantities- can be identified via recognizing which water footprint categories are particularly high. Additionally, this methodology can comprise -from a fundamental level- a guide for revealing the importance of water footprint types for Egypt's agricultural sector; hence, Egypt's potential comparative advantages, as far as quantitative water endowments are exclusively concerned (without consideration of water or crop prices). Although it is pointed out very correctly by various authors (Antonelli and Sartori 2014) that the virtual water trade concept does not incorporate many important aspects of water supply -such as heavy water price subsidizing- to be used accurately for the identification of comparative advantages, we consider that the purely quantitative examination can provide strong fundamental indications -especially for green and grey water footprints, which are hypothesized to be less sensitive to subsidizing. In overall, this effect can very well provide a primary indication on the organization of the global alimentation trade network (Yang et al. 2006). The gravity equation used contains water footprint data for the 15 top traded crops and the distances for Egypt

  19. Marketing and Economic Analysis of Potatoes Irradiation in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Khateeb, M.A.; El-Hayawan, H.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this work is to examine the marketing, economic and financial feasibility of a project for potatoes irradiation in Egypt. The Egyptian market of potatoes was described and analyzed considering the production size distributed over several years, methods of preservation and storage, percentage of loss and cost for each method, distribution channels and packing materials. The financial and economic analysis of the establishment of a pallet conveyor unit for the irradiation of potatoes was also carried out . The following investment criteria were utilized for the commercial evaluation : benefit - cost radio , payback period, average rate of return and net present value . The results of this analysis showed that the installation of a unit for the irradiation of potatoes in Egypt would be economically viable. The unit of irradiation would decline if the irradiator is used as a multipurpose facility

  20. Epidemiological review of human and animal fascioliasis in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Maha F M

    2008-06-01

    One of the neglected food-borne-diseases in the international public health arena is fascioliasis. It is a serious infectious parasitic disease infecting humans and animals worldwide and tops all the zoonotic helminthes. Human cases are being increasingly reported from Europe, the Americas, Oceania, Africa and Asia. Hence, human fascioliasis is considered now as a zoonosis of major global and regional importance. In Egypt, animal and human fascioliasis is an endemic clinical and epidemiological health problem. Doubtless, understanding the epidemiology of the parasitic diseases and factors affecting their incidence provides the foundation upon which effective prevention and control programs should be established. This article reviews the history, life cycles, transmission, incidence, geographical distribution, and environmental and human determinants that contribute to the epidemiological picture of fascioliasis with special reference to Egypt.

  1. Hopes for a New Energy Independency in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auge, Benjamin

    2016-02-01

    The recent discovery of the giant Zohr's gas field will drastically change the energy future of Egypt, which is today increasingly dependent on imports to meet its growing domestic demand. The country can foresee a possible gas independency around 2019 and could even expect to export Liquefied Natural Gas again within the next decade. The field development will probably be very rapid as Egyptian authorities gave all the necessary guarantees, providing the operator Eni with a long term visibility. The state will be the sole customer and the gas price was negotiated for the whole contract period. The very long oil and gas history in Egypt can facilitate the development of a huge project such as Zohr thanks to the high skilled civil servants working in the different bodies in charge of the sector, especially when the Egyptian president Abdel Fattah al-Sissi considers energy security as a state priority

  2. Marketing and Economic Analysis of Garlic Irradiation in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Khateeb, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this work is to examine the marketing , economic and financial feasibility of a project for garlic irradiation in Egypt. The Egyptian market of garlic was described and analyzed considering the production size distributed over several years, methods of preservation and storage, percentage of loss and cost for each method and distribution channels. The financial and economic analysis of the establishment of A tote Box unit for the irradiation of garlic was also carried out. The following investment criteria were utilized for the commercial evaluation : benefit-cost ratio, payback period, average rate of return and net present value. The results of this analysis showed that the installation of a unit for the irradiation of garlic in Egypt would be economically viable. The unit cost of irradiation would decline if the irradiator is used as a multipurpose facility

  3. Nuclear power planning study for Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The country's interest in and plans for nuclear power, as well as the organizational setup and involvement of the Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission in the planning, construction and operation of nuclear power plants, are described. The report contains some data on population, general economics, gross national product, mineral resources and energy consumption. The electricity supply system, its development, generating and transmission facilities, costs of existing plants and plants under construction, various systems operation criteria, economic criteria and technical data on existing generating units are given. A number of appendixes have been included to provide additional and background information on the computer programs, methods of forecasting load, methodology and parameters used, fossil and nuclear fuel costs, general technical and economic data on thermal and nuclear plants, and other appropriate data

  4. Radon measurements in some areas in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamid Khan, M.A. [Physics Division, Atomic Energy Centre, Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box 164, Dhaka-1000 (Bangladesh)], E-mail: hamidkhan1950@yahoo.com; Chowdhury, M.S. [Physics Department, Dhaka University, Dhaka-1000 (Bangladesh)

    2008-08-15

    A survey of radon level measurements using CR-39 has been carried out in some of urban and rural residential areas and one gas explosion area in Bangladesh. The lowest level of radon concentration was found to be 49Bqm{sup -3} inside a hospital in Cox's Bazar district and the highest level was found to be 835Bqm{sup -3} inside a mud-made old residential house in Sylhet city. It was observed that old residential houses were found to have higher levels of radon concentrations compared to newly built houses. The radon level at the gas explosion area at Magurchara in Moulvibazar district was found to be 408{+-}98Bqm{sup -3}.

  5. Political Culture and the Nature of Political Participation in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    political socialization . Political-cultural values are gradually internalized within the society and political behavior is largely reflective of...the extent to which the regime used education as a means of political socialization : Socialism is articulated as a Muslim theory of socialism. The head... political socialization except for a brief period during the mobilization program of Ali Sabri. Egypt’s party system has been more relevant for

  6. Inflation and Inflation Uncertainty Revisited: Evidence from Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesbah Fathy Sharaf

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The welfare costs of inflation and inflation uncertainty are well documented in the literature and empirical evidence on the link between the two is sparse in the case of Egypt. This paper investigates the causal relationship between inflation and inflation uncertainty in Egypt using monthly time series data during the period January 1974–April 2015. To endogenously control for any potential structural breaks in the inflation time series, Zivot and Andrews (2002 and Clemente–Montanes–Reyes (1998 unit root tests are used. The inflation–inflation uncertainty relation is modeled by the standard two-step approach as well as simultaneously using various versions of the GARCH-M model to control for any potential feedback effects. The analyses explicitly control for the effect of the Economic Reform and Structural Adjustment Program (ERSAP undertaken by the Egyptian government in the early 1990s, which affected inflation rate and its associated volatility. Results show a high degree of inflation–volatility persistence in the response to inflationary shocks. Granger-causality test along with symmetric and asymmetric GARCH-M models indicate a statistically significant bi-directional positive relationship between inflation and inflation uncertainty, supporting both the Friedman–Ball and the Cukierman–Meltzer hypotheses. The findings are robust to the various estimation methods and model specifications. The findings of this paper support the view of adopting inflation-targeting policy in Egypt, after fulfilling its preconditions, to reduce the welfare cost of inflation and its related uncertainties. Monetary authorities in Egypt should enhance the credibility of monetary policy and attempt to reduce inflation uncertainty, which will help lower inflation rates.

  7. Microbiological testing of pharmaceuticals and cosmetics in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Zeitoun, Hend; Kassem, Mervat; Raafat, Dina; AbouShlieb, Hamida; Fanaki, Nourhan

    2015-01-01

    Background Microbial contamination of pharmaceuticals poses a great problem to the pharmaceutical manufacturing process, especially from a medical as well as an economic point of view. Depending upon the product and its intended use, the identification of isolates should not merely be limited to the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) indicator organisms. Results Eighty-five pre-used non-sterile pharmaceuticals collected from random consumers in Egypt were examined for the eventual presence of b...

  8. A comparison of higher education reforms in Egypt and Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Kohstall, Florian

    2012-01-01

    This doctoral thesis examines the impact of international aid agencies on the reform agenda of North African countries. It analyses and compares the paths of higher education reform (1997-2007) in Egypt and Morocco, using analytical instruments pertaining to new approaches in public policy theory. For a long time, both countries appeared relatively immune against reform pressure from outside. Still, the analysis of their reform processes shows that the internationalization of higher educa...

  9. Sharia-compliant hotels in Egypt: Concept and chanllenges

    OpenAIRE

    Saad, Hesham Ezzat; Ali, Badran Nabil; ABDEL-ATI, Abdel- aleem Magdy

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to provide greater clearness for the meaning of the ShariaCompliant Hotel (SCH) and identify the challenges facing the development of this type of hotels in Egypt. To fulfill these objectives, Delphi technique, as a method of refining group opinions, was used. The study used two rounds e-mailed questionnaires. Findings indicated that the most important defining features of SCH were; no alcohol or pork allowed, gender segregation was significant and halal food product...

  10. Safety philosophy for nuclear power plants in egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mervat, S.A.; Hammad, F.H.

    1988-01-01

    This work establishes the basic principles of a safety philosophy for nuclear power plants in egypt. A number of deterministic requirements stemming the multiple barriers and the defense-in-depth concept are emphasised. other requirements in the areas of siting, operational safety, safety analysis, special issues, and experience feedback are also identified. The role of international cooperation in nuclear safety technology-transfer and nuclear emergencies is highlighted. In addition probabilistic ally based guidelines are set for acceptable risk and dose limits

  11. Nutritional Correlates of Perceived Stress among University Students in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Ansari, Walid El; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Food intake choice and amount might change with stress. However, this has not been examined among Egyptian students. We examined students' stress levels, its correlation with their consumption of a range of food groups, and adherence to dietary guidelines. A cross sectional survey (N = 2810 undergraduates at 11 faculties at Assiut University, Egypt) assessed two composite food intake pattern scores (one unhealthy: sweets, cakes, snacks; and a healthy one: fruits and vegetables), and two indic...

  12. Status of plasma physics research activities in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masoud, M.M.

    1997-01-01

    The status of plasma physics research activities in Egypt is reviewed. There are nine institutes with plasma research activities. The largest is the Atomic energy Authority (AEA), which has activities in fundamental plasma studies, fusion technology, plasma and laser applications, and plasma simulation. The experiments include Theta Pinches, a Z Pinch, a coaxial discharge, a glow discharge, a CO 2 laser, and the EGYPTOR tokamak. (author)

  13. MPR multi-purpose reactor to be built in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Competing with two enterprises from the US and Canada and with a French-German consortium, INVAP won a bid for the supply of a research reactor to Egypt. This is the most important contract ever made by Argentina involving the supply, on a turnkey operation, of a complex facility that incorporates advanced technologies developed in our country and for a sum of approximately 80 million US dollars

  14. Educating girls in Bangladesh: exploding the myth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, M

    1993-01-01

    Poor landless families in Bangladesh typically see no need to educate their girls. Even where school fees are waived, exercise books, pencils, and school clothes cost money, and girls are especially needed to care for siblings and do other household chores. The Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC), however, has found it possible to get girls to school by adapting education to the circumstances of poverty instead of requiring families and students to adjust to the conventional rules of primary school. The BRAC non-formal primary education (NFPE) program in five years has expanded to 12,000 centers serving 360,000 children in two programs of three-year duration each for 8-10 year olds and 11-14 year olds. Reflecting the policy of giving priority to girls, more than 70% of enrolled children are female. Almost all teachers are also female and typically young, married, from the neighborhood, and with 9-10 years of schooling. Each center is a thatch or tin-roofed hut accommodating thirty children managed by a village committee and a parent-teacher committee at a cost of US$18 per child per year. All learning materials are provided at the center for the three hours of courses six days per week set according to students' availability and convenience. The course for the younger children offers the equivalent of three years of primary education, while the course for the older children offers basic literacy and life skills. The success of the BRAC centers demonstrates how parents and children may respond when education is socially and culturally acceptable, affordable, and strives to meet parents' and child's expectations.

  15. Bangladesh apparel industry and its workers in a changing world economy

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, N.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis explores and analyses recent changes and challenges faced by the apparel industry of Bangladesh and the consequences of those for the Bangladesh economy. More specifically, it explores and analyses the importance of the apparel industry in the Bangladesh economy, the challenges faced by this industry, impacts of implementation of various international trade rules on the apparel industry, consequences of Bangladesh's attempts to enter in bilateral and regional free trade agreements...

  16. Future of Energy in Egypt and the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hani Nokraschy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available If the whole world, which Egypt is a part of, continues business as usual in the field of electricitygeneration, namely, using the same regimes adopts today, burning fossil fuels and Uranium fission,both fuels will run out within sixty years at most and the world will definitely return to the Stone Age.Shall this be the end of the Egyptian people … the history makers?Generating energy is the next necessity to human life after water and food, since it is the majorstimulus of development. However, what is the aim of development if it is only momentary; thenfollowed by an endless abyss?Shall we wait till fossil and nuclear fuels run out? Jostling over the remaining fuel will certainly befierce and we will pay a high price for it, a matter that will subsequently lead to demolishing theingredients of development.Considering that oil is now dominating our way of life, it shall be wise to start immediately planning forthe post-oil age, provided that it is a sustainable plan set up to continue its validity as long as humanslive on this planet; this cannot be achieved except if we shift to renewable energies.Looking at Egypt and its available renewable energy sources, it becomes evident that the solarenergy, particularly in Upper Egypt, can give more than the present and future needs of the Egyptiansociety and even cover the demand of the whole world for electricity.

  17. Dimensions of quality of antenatal care service at Suez, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan Abbas Abdo Abdel Rahman El Gammal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The 5 th millennium development goal aims at reducing maternal mortality by 75% by the year 2015. According to the World Health Organization, there was an estimated 358,000 maternal deaths globally in 2008. Developing countries accounted for 99% of these deaths of which three-fifths occurred in Sub-Saharan Africa. In primary health care (PHC, quality of antenatal care is fundamental and critically affects service continuity. Nevertheless, medical research ignores the issue and it is lacking scientific inquiry, particularly in Egypt. Aim of the Study: The aim of the following study is to assess the quality of antenatal care in urban Suez Governorate, Egypt. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional primary health care center (PHCC based study conducted at five PHCC in urban Suez, Egypt. The total sample size collected from clients, physicians and medical records. Parameters assessed auditing of medical records, assessing provider and pregnant women satisfaction. Results: Nearly 97% of respondents were satisfied about the quality of antenatal care, while provider′s satisfaction was 61% and for file, auditing was 76.5 ° 5.6. Conclusion: The present study shows that client satisfaction, physicians′ satisfaction and auditing of medical record represent an idea about opportunities for improvement.

  18. Nuclear electricity for sustainable development: Egypt a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comsan, M.N.H. [Projects and Consultation Unit, Afaq Scientific, 12 Qurash St., 6th Zone, Nasr City, Cairo 11371 (Egypt)

    2010-09-15

    Egypt is a fast growing country with 78.9 million population and annual per capita installed power 0.286 MW as of July 2008. Moderate to mature population and economic growth trends forecast population and annual per capita installed power to reach 111 millions and 0.63 MW, respectively by 2032; and 128 millions at per capita power of 1.02 MW by 2052. With these trends in consideration installed electricity generation capacity are forecasted at 70 GW by 2032 and 132 GW by 2052 as compared to the 2008 installed power of 22.6 GW. Meeting these demands is almost impossible using known limited national fossil fuel reserves. Current electricity generation policy exhausts about 65% of country's total fossil production. Crude oil reserves are expected to deplete by 2012, while gas reserves will be overstrained starting from 2030. A major policy shift towards the use of non-fossil resources is to be adopted. In the article Egypt's major primary energy resources are evaluated. Electricity generation plans till 2022 are presented and an electricity generation strategy based on gradual introduction of nuclear power starting from 2018 is outlined. A balanced generation mix based on 72.7% fossil, 13% nuclear and 14.3% renewables is targeted by 2052. The mix is supposed to meet Egypt's electricity needs by 2052 and to improve country's energy sustainability. (author)

  19. Women's Agency and Fertility: Recent Evidence from Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samari, Goleen

    2017-08-01

    Fertility reached a two decade high of 3.5 births per woman in Egypt in 2014. Lower status of women is associated with higher fertility. Majority of the studies on women's agency and fertility rely on individual level cross-sectional data from South Asia, which limits the understanding of variation among communities and the direction of the relationship between women's agency and fertility in other global contexts. This study examines the relationship between women's agency and fertility longitudinally and among communities in the most populous country in the Middle East - Egypt. For 3,795 ever married women 15 to 49 years old in the 2006 and 2012 Egyptian Labor Market Panel Survey, multilevel models are estimated for having given birth and number of births between 2006 and 2012. Contrary to expectation, women with more agency with greater participation in household decision-making and mobility are, in fact, more likely to have had a birth and have a greater total number of births. Only women with more egalitarian attitudes are associated with fewer births. Community membership explains 5% of the variation in fertility. Since social norms in Egypt favor a higher number of births and labor market participation among women is low, women with agency could be fulfilling social expectations of having children and choosing to have more children.

  20. Prospects of effective microorganisms technology in wastes treatment in Egypt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emad A Shalaby

    2011-01-01

    Sludge dewatering and treatment may cost as much as the wastewater treatment. Usually large proportion of the pollutants in wastewater is organic. They are attacked by saprophytic microorganisms, i.e. organisms that feed upon dead organic matter. Activity of organisms causes decomposition of organic matter and destroys them, where the bacteria convert the organic matter or other constituents in the wastewater to new cells, water, gases and other products. Demolition activities, including renovation/remodeling works and complete or selective removal/demolishing of existing structures either by man-made processes or by natural disasters, create an extensive amount of wastes. These demolition wastes are characterized as heterogeneous mixtures of building materials that are usually contaminated with chemicals and dirt. In developing countries, it is estimated that demolition wastes comprise 20% to 30% of the total annual solid wastes. In Egypt, the daily quantity of construction and demolition (C&D) waste has been estimated as 10 000 tones. That is equivalent to one third of the total daily municipal solid wastes generated per day in Egypt. The zabbaliin have since expanded their activities and now take the waste they collect back to their garbage villages where it is sorted into recyclable components: paper, plastics, rags, glass, metal and food. The food waste is fed to pigs and the other items are sold to recycling centers. This paper summarizes the wastewater and solid wastes management in Egypt now and future.