WorldWideScience

Sample records for bangladesh design select

  1. The 2005 census and mapping of slums in Bangladesh: design, select results and application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeles Gustavo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The concentration of poverty and adverse environmental circumstances within slums, particularly those in the cities of developing countries, are an increasingly important concern for both public health policy initiatives and related programs in other sectors. However, there is a dearth of information on the population-level implications of slum life for human health. This manuscript describes the 2005 Census and Mapping of Slums (CMS, which used geographic information systems (GIS tools and digital satellite imagery combined with more traditional fieldwork methodologies, to obtain detailed, up-to-date and new information about slum life in all slums of six major cities in Bangladesh (including Dhaka. Results The CMS found that Bangladeshi slums are very diverse: there are wide intra- and inter-city variations in population size, density, the percent of urban populations living in slums, and sanitation conditions. Findings also show that common beliefs about slums may be outdated; of note, tenure insecurity was found to be an issue in only a small minority of slums. Conclusion The methodology used in the 2005 Bangladesh CMS provides a useful approach to mapping slums that could be applied to urban areas in other low income societies. This methodology may become an increasingly important analytic tool to inform policy, as cities in developing countries are forecasted to continue increasing their share of total global population in the coming years, with slum populations more than doubling in size during the same period.

  2. A survey of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) farming in selected areas of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Abu Nasar Md. Aminoor Rahman; Md. Nazmul Hoque; Anup Kumar Talukder; Ziban Chandra Das

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the status, problems and prospects of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) farming in selected areas of Bangladesh. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in 14 districts of Bangladesh, viz., Dhaka, Narayanganj, Munshiganj, Mymensingh, Netrakona, Faridpur, Jessore, Khulna, Satkhira, Kushtia, Bogra, Naogaon, Comilla, and Sylhet during the period from July 2011 to June 2012. A total of 52 quail farmers were interviewed for data collection using a structured...

  3. Design Strategies and Preliminary Prototype for a Low-Cost Arsenic Removal System for Rural Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathieu, Johanna L.; Gadgil, Ashok J.; Kowolik, Kristin; Qazi, Shefah; Agogino, Alice M.

    2009-09-14

    Researchers have invented a material called ARUBA -- Arsenic Removal Using Bottom Ash -- that effectively and affordably removes arsenic from Bangladesh groundwater. Through analysis of studies across a range of disciplines, observations, and informal interviews conducted over three trips to Bangladesh, we have applied mechanical engineering design methodology to develop eight key design strategies, which were used in the development of a low-cost, community-scale water treatment system that uses ARUBA to removearsenic from drinking water. We have constructed, tested, and analysed a scale version of the system. Experiments have shown that the system is capable of reducing high levels of arsenic (nearly 600 ppb) to below the Bangladesh standard of 50 ppb, while remaining affordable to people living on less than US$2/day. The system could be sustainably implemented as a public-private partnership in rural Bangladesh.

  4. ARSENIC CONTAMINATION AND HUMAN HEALTH: A SOCIOECONOMIC STUDY IN SOME SELECTED AREAS OF BANGLADESH

    OpenAIRE

    Jaim, W. M. H.; Hossain, Mahabub

    2007-01-01

    Arsenic contamination of groundwater is a case of mass poisoning in Bangladesh. In order to examine the nature and extent of the problem, household survey was conducted in both arsenic contaminated and non-contaminated areas. The selected arsenic `hot spots' were Faridpur and Lakshimpur while the arsenic free area was Gazipur. One village from each of the three locations was purposively selected and the number of households considered as samples was 250. The analysis showed that severity of a...

  5. TECHNOLOGY SELECTION AND TRANSFER:THE CASE OF THE FERTILIZER INDUSTRY IN BANGLADESH

    OpenAIRE

    M. M. HUQ; Islam, K.M. Nabiul

    1992-01-01

    The paper examines the selection mechanism of technology and the extent of technology transfer in the Bangladesh fertilizer industry. The entire supply of production process and machinery and equipment have so far been imported. There are only a few established companies in the world which have acquired the knowledge of the complex production process and machinery in this industry. These companies, mainly from developed countries, control this knowledge in an oligopoly form. The study also ob...

  6. Design of a Braille Learning Application for Visually Impaired Students in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Lutfun; Jaafar, Azizah; Ahamed, Eistiak; Kaish, A B M A

    2015-01-01

    Visually impaired students (VIS) are unable to get visual information, which has made their learning process complicated. This paper discusses the overall situation of VIS in Bangladesh and identifies major challenges that they are facing in getting education. The Braille system is followed to educate blind students in Bangladesh. However, lack of Braille based educational resources and technological solutions have made the learning process lengthy and complicated for VIS. As a developing country, Bangladesh cannot afford for the costly Braille related technological tools for VIS. Therefore, a mobile phone based Braille application, "mBRAILLE", for Android platform is designed to provide an easy Braille learning technology for VIS in Bangladesh. The proposed design is evaluated by experts in assistive technology for students with disabilities, and advanced learners of Braille. The application aims to provide a Bangla and English Braille learning platform for VIS. In this paper, we depict iterative (participatory) design of the application along with a preliminary evaluation with 5 blind subjects, and 1 sighted and 2 blind experts. The results show that the design scored an overall satisfaction level of 4.53 out of 5 by all respondents, indicating that our design is ready for the next step of development.

  7. Design of a rural water provision system to decrease arsenic exposure in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathieu, Johanna

    2009-01-07

    Researchers at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory have invented ARUBA (Arsenic Removal Using Bottom Ash) a material that effectively and affordably removes high concentrations of arsenic from contaminated groundwater. The technology is cost-effective because the substrate?bottom ash from coal fired power plants?is a waste material readily available in South Asia. During fieldwork in four sub-districts ofBangladesh, ARUBA reduced groundwater arsenic concentrations as high as 680 ppb to below the Bangladesh standard of 50 ppb. Key results from three trips in Bangladesh and one trip to Cambodia include (1) ARUBA removes more than half of the arsenic from contaminated water within the first five minutes of contact, andcontinues removing arsenic for 2-3 days; (2) ARUBA?s arsenic removal efficiency can be improved through fractionated dosing (adding a given amount of ARUBA in fractions versus all at once); (3) allowing water to first stand for two to three days followed by treatment with ARUBA produced final arsenic concentrations ten times lower than treating water directly out of the well; and (4) the amount of arsenic removed per gram of ARUBA is linearly related to the initial arsenic concentrationof the water. Through analysis of existing studies, observations, and informal interviews in Bangladesh, eight design strategies have been developed and used in the design of a low-cost, community-scale water treatment system that uses ARUBA to remove arsenic from drinking water. We have constructed, tested, and analyzed a scale version of the system. Experiments have shown that the system is capable of reducing high levels of arsenic (nearly 600 ppb) to below 50 ppb, while remaining affordable to people living on less than $2 per day. The system could be sustainably implemented as a public-private partnership in rural Bangladesh.

  8. Design of a rural water provision system to decrease arsenic exposure in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathieu, Johanna [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2009-01-09

    Researchers at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory have invented ARUBA (Arsenic Removal Using Bottom Ash) a material that effectively and affordably removes high concentrations of arsenic from contaminated groundwater. The technology is cost-effective because the substrate-bottom ash from coal fired power plants-is a waste material readily available in South Asia. During fieldwork in four sub-districts of Bangladesh, ARUBA reduced groundwater arsenic concentrations as high as 680 ppb to below the Bangladesh standard of 50 ppb. Key results from three trips in Bangladesh and one trip to Cambodia include (1) ARUBA removes more than half of the arsenic from contaminated water within the first five minutes of contact, and continues removing arsenic for 2-3 days; (2) ARUBA's arsenic removal efficiency can be improved through fractionated dosing (adding a given amount of ARUBA in fractions versus all at once); (3) allowing water to first stand for two to three days followed by treatment with ARUBA produced final arsenic concentrations ten times lower than treating water directly out of the well; and (4) the amount of arsenic removed per gram of ARUBA is linearly related to the initial arsenic concentration of the water. Through analysis of existing studies, observations, and informal interviews in Bangladesh, eight design strategies have been developed and used in the design of a low-cost, community-scale water treatment system that uses ARUBA to remove arsenic from drinking water. We have constructed, tested, and analyzed a scale version of the system. Experiments have shown that the system is capable of reducing high levels of arsenic (nearly 600 ppb) to below 50 ppb, while remaining affordable to people living on less than $2 per day. The system could be sustainably implemented as a public-private partnership in rural Bangladesh.

  9. A survey of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica farming in selected areas of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Nasar Md. Aminoor Rahman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate the status, problems and prospects of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica farming in selected areas of Bangladesh. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in 14 districts of Bangladesh, viz., Dhaka, Narayanganj, Munshiganj, Mymensingh, Netrakona, Faridpur, Jessore, Khulna, Satkhira, Kushtia, Bogra, Naogaon, Comilla, and Sylhet during the period from July 2011 to June 2012. A total of 52 quail farmers were interviewed for data collection using a structured questionnaire. Focus group discussions were also carried out with unsuccessful farmers and those want to start quail farming. Workers of quail farms, quail feeds and medicine suppliers, quail eggs and meat sellers were also interviewed regarding the issue. Results: Out of 52 farms, 86.5% were operated by male, 67.3% farmers did not receive any training and 92.3% farmers had no earlier experience of quail farming although 58.0% farmers primary occupation was quail farming. Most of the farms (63.4% were mixed in type having ≤5000 birds of two or three varieties. About 80.7% farms were operated separately round the year with no other poultry and 83.0% farmers wanted to expand their farming. The average pullet weight 14.5±0.12, 11.0±0.07, 12.0±0.22, and 12.8±0.17 g; age at the first lay 46.0±0.04, 42.0±0.31, 42.0±0.09, and 45.2±0.05 days; rearing period 15.0±0.01, 12.0±0.14, 15.0±0.32, and 15.2±0.18 months; culling period 15.5±0.14, 13.0±0.06, 15.0±0.03, and 15.4±0.26 months were for layer, parent stock, hatchery, and mixed farms, respectively. Most of the layer farms had an average egg production of ≤5000/day and net profit BDT 0.75/egg. However, an average number of birds, hatchability and net profit per day-old-chick were ≤5000, 76.8% and BDT 2.75, respectively, in the hatchery. Broiler quails were sold at 30 days with mean weight of 110.8 g and net profit BDT 9.02/bird. The major constraints of quail farming were higher feed price

  10. A survey of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) farming in selected areas of Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasar, Abu; Rahman, Aminoor; Hoque, Nazmul; Kumar Talukder, Anup; Das, Ziban Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the status, problems and prospects of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) farming in selected areas of Bangladesh. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in 14 districts of Bangladesh, viz., Dhaka, Narayanganj, Munshiganj, Mymensingh, Netrakona, Faridpur, Jessore, Khulna, Satkhira, Kushtia, Bogra, Naogaon, Comilla, and Sylhet during the period from July 2011 to June 2012. A total of 52 quail farmers were interviewed for data collection using a structured questionnaire. Focus group discussions were also carried out with unsuccessful farmers and those want to start quail farming. Workers of quail farms, quail feeds and medicine suppliers, quail eggs and meat sellers were also interviewed regarding the issue. Results: Out of 52 farms, 86.5% were operated by male, 67.3% farmers did not receive any training and 92.3% farmers had no earlier experience of quail farming although 58.0% farmers primary occupation was quail farming. Most of the farms (63.4%) were mixed in type having ≤5000 birds of two or three varieties. About 80.7% farms were operated separately round the year with no other poultry and 83.0% farmers wanted to expand their farming. The average pullet weight 145.0±0.12, 110.0±0.07, 120.0±0.22, and 128.0±0.17 g; age at the first lay 46.0±0.04, 42.0±0.31, 42.0±0.09, and 45.2±0.05 days; rearing period 15.0±0.01, 12.0±0.14, 15.0±0.32, and 15.2±0.18 months; culling period 15.5±0.14, 13.0±0.06, 15.0±0.03, and 15.4±0.26 months were for layer, parent stock, hatchery, and mixed farms, respectively. Most of the layer farms had an average egg production of ≤5000/day and net profit BDT 0.75/egg. However, an average number of birds, hatchability and net profit per day-old-chick were ≤5000, 76.8% and BDT 2.75, respectively, in the hatchery. Broiler quails were sold at 30 days with mean weight of 110.8 g and net profit BDT 9.02/bird. The major constraints of quail farming were higher feed price, outbreak of endemic

  11. Use of an action-selection framework for human-carnivore conflict in the Bangladesh Sundarbans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Adam C D; Greenwood, Christina J; Ahmad, Ishtiaq U; Smith, James L D

    2010-10-01

    Human-carnivore conflict is manifested in the death of humans, livestock, and carnivores. The resulting negative local attitudes and retribution killings imperil the future of many endangered carnivores. We tailored existing management tools to create a framework to facilitate the selection of actions to alleviate human-carnivore conflict and applied the framework to the human-tiger conflict in the Bangladesh Sundarbans. We identified potential actions that consider previous management efforts, local knowledge, cost-effectiveness, fieldwork experience of authors and project staff, previous research on tiger ecology by the authors, and recommendations from human-carnivore conflict studies in other countries. Our framework includes creation of a profile to improve understanding of the nature of the conflict and its underlying causality. Identified actions include deterrents, education, direct tiger management, and response teams. We ranked actions by their potential to reduce conflict and the monetary cost of their implementation. We ranked tiger-response teams and monitoring problem tigers as the two best actions because both had relatively high impact and cost-effectiveness. We believe this framework could be used under a wide range of human-wildlife conflict situations because it provides a structured approach to selection of mitigating actions. PMID:20345402

  12. Designing and Implementing Telerehabilitation on Hand Skill Development for the Disabled People in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Sami Uddin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A few organizations are working with the hand skill development for the disabled people in Bangladesh. Due to their limited scopes and facilities, they cannot cover the mass population of this country. Telerehabilitation can be introduced in this situation. The interaction between the therapist and the disabled people can take place via Telerehabilitation through video conferencing. So, our work aimed to design and implement such a system through User-Centred Design approach of Interaction design framework and a mock-up has been presented for the users of the system. At last a cognitive walkthrough analysis will be done to get the final functional activities of interaction as the result of the analysis.

  13. Design and fabrication of a cost effective solar air heater for Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wazed, M.A.; Nukman, Y. [Department of Engineering Design and Manufacture, University of Malaya (UM), 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Islam, M.T. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chittagong University of Engineering and Technology (CUET), Chittagong 4349 (Bangladesh)

    2010-10-15

    In this research, a solar air heater is designed, fabricated and its performance is assessed in the perspective of an emerging/developing country with a huge energy demand like Bangladesh. The winter season (mid-November-mid-February) of the country characterizes by low temperatures, cool air blowing from the west or northwest, clear sky and meager rainfall. Minimum temperature in the extreme northwest in late December and early January sometimes reaches 3 C and day length is about 10 h. The shortness of winter days can be compensated by reducing the heat loss during long nights. The solar air heater is constructed to prevent as much heat loss as possible. In other words, the heating of air is accomplished by maximizing light gain and minimizing heat loss. It is observed that the fabricated solar air heater is working efficiently. The maximum room temperature and the temperature difference from ambient are 45.5 C and 12.25 C for forced circulation and 41.75 C and 8.5 C for natural circulation respectively. The experimental outlet temperatures have been compared with that of theoretical values. Due to its low-cost and simple technology, it is affordable in all aspects, viz. of cost, operation and maintenance by the typical people of Bangladesh. (author)

  14. Approaches to Increase Arsenic Awareness in Bangladesh: An Evaluation of an Arsenic Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Christine Marie; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Khan, Khalid; Islam, Tariqul; Singha, Ashit; Moon-Howard, Joyce; van Geen, Alexander; Graziano, Joseph H.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to design and evaluate a household-level arsenic education and well water arsenic testing intervention to increase arsenic awareness in Bangladesh. The authors randomly selected 1,000 study respondents located in 20 villages in Singair, Bangladesh. The main outcome was the change in knowledge of arsenic from…

  15. Status and constraints of jute cultivation in Bangladesh: An experience from selected upazilas under chandpur district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Muzahidul Islam

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at exploring the obstacles of jute cultivation under Chandpur Districts in Bangladesh by the principle component analysis (PCA. The required data were collected through structured interview schedule from 803 jute farmers sampled conveniently. Though jute diversified industry has been seen as potential since the last decade in Bangladesh, raw jute production is not satisfactory due to several obstacles. The study has identified three categories of constraints that hinder sustainable jute production. These are lack of capital and inputs, knowledge and natural resources, and market information. Basically farmers cultivate jute for earning profit but they are not conscious about forward market. Lack of jute diversification knowledge is the unique findings of this study. The findings may help policy makers and stakeholders for taking effective decision in addressing the barriers to jute cultivation in Bangladesh.

  16. Study on rural duck production systems in selected areas of Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khanum, J.; Chwalibog, André; Huque, K.S.

    2005-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate scavenging duck production systems in two regions (Netrokona Sadar Upazila and Sundargonj Upazila) of Bangladesh. Feeding systems and availability of feed for raising ducks, production performance of scaavenging ducks and profitability of raising...

  17. Selection bias in the link between child wantedness and child survival: theory and data from Matlab, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishai, David; Razzaque, Abdur; Christiansen, Susan; Mustafa, A H M Golam; Hindin, Michelle

    2015-02-01

    We examine the potential effects of selection bias on the association between unwanted births and child mortality from 7,942 women from Matlab, Bangladesh who declared birth intentions in 1990 prior to conceiving pregnancies. We explore and test two opposing reasons for bias in the distribution of observed births. First, some women who report not wanting more children could face starvation or frailty; and if these women are infecund, the remaining unwanted births would appear more healthy. Second, some women who report not wanting more children could have social privileges in acquiring medical services, abortion, and contraceptives; and if these women avoid births, the remaining unwanted births would appear less healthy. We find (1) no overall effect of unwantedness on child survival in rural Bangladesh in the 1990s, (2) no evidence that biological processes are spuriously making the birth cohort look more healthy, and (3) some evidence that higher schooling for women who avoid unwanted births is biasing the observed sample to make unwanted births look less healthy. Efforts to understand the effect of unwantedness in data sets that do not control for complex patterns of selective birth may be misleading and require more cautious interpretation.

  18. Selection and design of solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    and design of solvents will be presented together with application examples. The selection problem is defined as finding known chemicals that match the desired functions of a solvent for a specified set of applications. The design problem is defined as finding the molecular structure (or mixture of molecules....... With increasing interest on issues such as waste, sustainability, environmental impact and green chemistry, the selection and design of solvents have become important problems that need to be addressed during chemical product-process design and development. Systematic methods and tools suitable for selection...

  19. Occurrence of reproductive disorders in post parturient cows with special emphasis on vaginal culture in some selected upazilas of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajib Kumar Debnath

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was undertaken to determine the clinical trends of reproductive diseases and disorders of cows at three upazilas in the Mymensingh district with particular emphasis on vaginal culture during the period from April 2011 to March 2012. Records of reproductive cases were collected from official stock book from veterinary hospitals of 3 upazilas namely Fulbaria, Mymensingh sadar and Fulpur of Bangladesh. Microbiological investigation of vaginal swab samples (n = 20 collected from the selective cows which were suffering from various reproductive disorders were also performed. A total of 7679 clinical cases were collected and among them 68 reproductive disorders in post parturient cows were identified. The overall occurrence of reproductive disorders in post parturient cows was 0.87%. The occurrence of reproductive disorders was higher in crossbred cows (1.27% than that of indigenous cows (0.69%. The proportion of individual reproductive disorders in post parturient cows recorded were retained placenta (44.1%, pyometra (16.8%, endometritis (11.8%, metritis (10.3%, uterine prolapse (8.9%, vaginal prolapse (5.9% and vaginitis (2.9%. A total of 20 vaginal swab samples were also collected from the selective cows which were suffering from various reproductive disorders for microbiological investigations. In microbiological investigations, various microorganisms were identified from vaginal culture such as Escherichia coli, Streptococcus spp, Bacillus spp and Staphylococcus spp. Among various bacterial agents Escherichia coli was higher (100% and Staphylococcus spp was lower (10%. However, the frequency percentages of Streptococcus spp and Bacillus spp were 60% and 30% respectively. It was concluded that presence of microorganisms in uterine cavity may cause massive reproductive losses in the farming system in Bangladesh

  20. Conceptual Design of Solar-micro Hydro Power Plant to Increase Conversion Efficiency for Supporting Remote Tribal Community of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anmona Shabnam Pranti

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh is endowed with people along with limited primary energy sources and low electrification rate. Most of the hilly areas are out of the coverage of national grid where tribal people, a significant part of the country, are dwelling. The economic development of the whole country depends upon their advancement which is related to the electrification rate. Available micro hydro potential in hilly region could be a solution for this crisis if modified design is used. This paper deals with a new design of water power potential conversion efficiency increment of a micro hydro power plant to 95% from about 50% by using solar power for heating the water. In this proposed hybrid design, a parabolic reflector is considered to be used after comparative solar intensity analysis on different micro hydro power sites in Bangladesh to increase the velocity as well as the flow rate through penstock by heating the water to increase power production and efficiency. The main purpose of this concept is to supply electricity to more people, especially, remote tribal community by available renewable energy sources for economic development.

  1. Tick and tick borne protozoan diseases of livestock in the selected hilly areas of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U.K. Mohanta

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available To study the tick and tick borne protozoan diseases of livestock in the hilly areas of Bangladesh, an attempt was made to collect tick and blood samples from cattle, goat and gayal (Bos frontalis from different areas of the three hill districts. In this study, two species of ticks namely, Boophilus microplus (92% and Amblyomma testudinarium (21.6% and two species of blood protozoa like Babesia bigemina (16.63% and Anaplasma marginale (14.94% were recorded. Seasonal prevalence of ticks was highest in summer (97% in comparison to rainy (95% and winter (86% season. On the other hand, the seasonal prevalence of blood protozoa was highest in rainy season (45.45% in comparison to summer (27.87% and winter (16.55%. Again, animals aged more than 2 (two years of age (52% found to be more susceptible to blood protozoan diseases than animals aged between 1-2 years of age (33.97%. But none of the animals under one year of age were found to be infected with blood protozoan diseases.

  2. Impacts of Climatic Hazards on the Small Wetland Ecosystems (ponds): Evidence from Some Selected Areas of Coastal Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Lucy Faulkner; Syed Hafizur Rahman; Golam Rabbani

    2013-01-01

    Most climate related hazards in Bangladesh are linked to water. The climate vulnerable poor—the poorest and most marginalized communities living in remote villages along Bangladesh’s coastal zone that are vulnerable to climate change impacts and who possess low adaptive capacity are most affected by lack of access to safe water sources. Many climate vulnerable poor households depend on small isolated wetlands (ponds) for daily drinking water needs and other domestic requirements, includin...

  3. Nutritional Status among the Children of Age Group 5-14 Years in Selected Arsenic Exposed and Non-Exposed Areas of Bangladesh.

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Rezaul Karim; Sk Akhtar Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess and compare the nutritional status of children aged 5-14 years in arsenic exposed and non- exposed areas. Materials and methods: It was a cross sectional study conducted on 600 children of age 5-14 years from arsenic exposed and non-exposed areas in Bangladesh. Designed questionnaire and check list were used for collection of data. To estimate BMI necessary anthropometric measurements of the studied children were done. Dietary intakes of the study children were assessed u...

  4. Microbial quality of selected sandwiches sold at retail outlets of fast food shops in Dhaka city and Mymensingh town of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Nazmul Hoque; S.M. Lutful Kabir; M. Mufizur Rahman; M. Shahidur Rahman Khan

    2012-01-01

    the experiment was designed to undertake a study on the sanitary quality of commercial fast foods sold at retail outlets of fast food shops in Dhaka city and Mymensingh town of Bangladesh. One hundred sandwiches were subjected to bacteriological examinations. The mean values of total viable count (TVC), total coliform count (TCC) and total staphylococcal count (TSC) in wrapped and unwrapped samples of pre-microwave oven and post-microwave oven fast foods were determined. In pre-microwave oven...

  5. Bayesian Spatial Design of Optimal Deep Tubewell Locations in Matlab, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Joshua L; Perez-Heydrich, Carolina; Yunus, Mohammad

    2013-09-01

    We introduce a method for statistically identifying the optimal locations of deep tubewells (dtws) to be installed in Matlab, Bangladesh. Dtw installations serve to mitigate exposure to naturally occurring arsenic found at groundwater depths less than 200 meters, a serious environmental health threat for the population of Bangladesh. We introduce an objective function, which incorporates both arsenic level and nearest town population size, to identify optimal locations for dtw placement. Assuming complete knowledge of the arsenic surface, we then demonstrate how minimizing the objective function over a domain favors dtws placed in areas with high arsenic values and close to largely populated regions. Given only a partial realization of the arsenic surface over a domain, we use a Bayesian spatial statistical model to predict the full arsenic surface and estimate the optimal dtw locations. The uncertainty associated with these estimated locations is correctly characterized as well. The new method is applied to a dataset from a village in Matlab and the estimated optimal locations are analyzed along with their respective 95% credible regions.

  6. A cluster-randomized, placebo-controlled, maternal vitamin a or beta-carotene supplementation trial in bangladesh: design and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schulze Kerry

    2011-04-01

    infectious morbidity, infant infectious morbidity, maternal and infant micronutrient status, fetal and infant growth and prematurity, external birth defects and postnatal infant growth to 3 months of age. Conclusion Aspects of study site selection and its "resonance" with national and rural qualities of Bangladesh, the trial's design, methods and allocation group comparability achieved by randomization, field procedures and innovative approaches to solving challenges in trial conduct are described and discussed. This trial is registered with http://Clinicaltrials.gov as protocol NCT00198822.

  7. Assessment of the Utilization of HIV Interventions by Sex Workers in Selected Brothels in Bangladesh: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huq, Nafisa Lira; Chowdhury, Mahbub Elahi

    2012-01-01

    In this qualitative study of brothel-based Female Sex Workers (FSWs), the authors explored factors that influence safe sex practices of FSWs within an integrated HIV intervention. Qualitative methods, including focus group discussions (FGDs), in-depth interviews and key informant interviews were applied in four brothels in Bangladesh. Young and…

  8. An Approach to Quality Assessment and Detection of Adulterants in Selected Commercial Brands of Jelly in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Sarower, Kazi; Uddin, Burhan; Jubayer, Fahad

    2015-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine the adulteration and assessment the quality of jelly commercially available in local market of Mymensingh, Bangladesh. A comprehensive baseline survey was completed to know consumers attitude towards jelly covering the people of different sections of society. It was found that most of the consumers did not want to consume this product as they believed that all commercial jellies were adulterated. Analytical works were done in laboratories of Bangl...

  9. Effective Recruitment Challenges Faced by the Hospitality Industry in Bangladesh: A Study on Selected Star Rated Residential Hotels

    OpenAIRE

    Kazi HUDA; Ali HAQUE; Rehnuma KHAN

    2014-01-01

    In Human Resource Management (HRM), Recruitment is the first and foremost issue to be considered with full of sincerity, because its role is to create a positive impression about the employer in the job market by ensuring effective stimuli for the job seekers. At the beginning, the study sets a picture that focuses on the importance of effective recruitment in the hospitality sector of Bangladesh and then the study details obligatory determinants of attracting efficient human resource for t...

  10. Spotlight: Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, L

    1998-01-01

    This brief article highlights the progress made in Bangladesh in reducing fertility and improving women's status. The mid-1997 population was an estimated 122.2 million persons. The land area is 50,260 square miles. Population density was 2432 people per square mile. Births were 31 per 1000 persons. Deaths were 11 per 1000 persons. Infant deaths were 77 per 1000 live births. Natural increase was 2% per year. The total fertility rate was 3.3 births per woman. Life expectancy was 58 years for males and females. Bangladesh is one of the most densely populated countries in the world and has about 50% of US population situated on land the size of Wisconsin. Average annual income is about $240. Livelihoods from agriculture are affected by monsoons and natural disasters. Bangladesh has reduced its fertility by half since the mid-1970s. Almost 50% of married women relied on contraception during 1996-97, compared to only 8% of married women in 1975. Increases in contraceptive prevalence are attributed to the family planning program and parents' desire for smaller families. The government has made slowing population growth a priority since the 1970s. The 35,000 field workers provide door-to-door contraception and counseling. Mass media has promoted messages about the economic and health advantages of limiting or spacing births. Women continue to play a subordinate role to men, despite their improved control over fertility. Under 30% of women are literate compared to 50% of men. Islamic practices still confine women to the home. Programs are directed to improving women's financial status through credit programs. Women now hold many jobs in the new garment industry, which is the largest nonagricultural employer.

  11. Impacts of Climatic Hazards on the Small Wetland Ecosystems (ponds: Evidence from Some Selected Areas of Coastal Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Faulkner

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Most climate related hazards in Bangladesh are linked to water. The climate vulnerable poor—the poorest and most marginalized communities living in remote villages along Bangladesh’s coastal zone that are vulnerable to climate change impacts and who possess low adaptive capacity are most affected by lack of access to safe water sources. Many climate vulnerable poor households depend on small isolated wetlands (ponds for daily drinking water needs and other domestic requirements, including cooking, bathing and washing. Similarly, the livelihoods of many of these households also depend on access to ponds due to activities of small-scale irrigation for rice farming, vegetable farming and home gardening. This is particularly true for those poorest and most marginalized communities living in Satkhira, one of the most vulnerable coastal districts in south-west Bangladesh. These households rely on pond water for vegetable farming and home gardening, especially during winter months. However, these pond water sources are highly vulnerable to climate change induced hazards, including flooding, drought, salinity intrusion, cyclone and storm surges, erratic rainfall patterns and variations in temperature. Cyclone Sidr and Cyclone Aila, which hit Bangladesh in 2007 and 2009 respectively, led to a significant number of such ponds being inundated with saline water. This impacted upon and resulted in wide scale implications for climate vulnerable poor households, including reduced availability of safe drinking water, and safe water for health and hygiene practices and livelihood activities. Those households living in remote areas and who are most affected by these climate impacts are dependent on water being supplied through aid, as well as travelling long distances to collect safe water for drinking purposes.

  12. Perceptions of Consumer Impulse Buying Behavior in the Super Store: A Case Study of Some Selected Super Store in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Alauddin; Md. Musharof Hossain; Md. Ibrahim; Md. Ariful Hoque

    2015-01-01

    Super stores are playing a key role in the field of shopping in Bangladesh. The popularity of super stores isincreasing day by day in our country and consumers are becoming more habituated to buying from here. Today’sconsumers are also very much concern about food items. They want fresh, hygienic and healthy foods. So, superstores have become a great source for the consumers to get these items of foods. This paper is an attempt toinvestigate the factors that affect consumer impulse buying beh...

  13. Awareness and control of hypertension in Bangladesh: follow-up of a hypertensive cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Alam, Dewan Shamsul; Chowdhury, Muhammad Ashique Haider; Siddiquee, Ali Tanweer; Ahmed, Shyfuddin; Niessen, Louis Wilhelmus

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assess the effect of awareness and advice to seek care on blood pressure (BP) control among patients with hypertension in Bangladesh. Design Longitudinal study. Setting The study was carried out in icddr,b surveillance sites at rural Matlab in Chandpur district and semi-urban Kamalapur in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Participants Randomly selected men and non-pregnant women aged 20 years or older without any acute illness or history of any vascular events such as stroke or acute myocardia...

  14. Design selection methodology for composite structures

    OpenAIRE

    Monroy, Aceves C.; Skordos, Alexandros A.; Sutcliffe, Michael P.F.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology to help designers select a shortlist or optimum design of composite structure from a large number of alternatives, taking into account conflicting design objectives or constraints (e.g. weight and cost). The methodology is based on creating a database containing results from an exhaustive search of a wide range of possible solutions. These results can be viewed using a commercial software selection package, originally written for materials s...

  15. An assessment of the quality of care for children in eighteen randomly selected district and sub-district hospitals in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoque Dewan ME

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quality hospital care is important in ensuring that the needs of severely ill children are met to avert child mortality. However, the quality of hospital care for children in developing countries has often been found poor. As the first step of a country road map for improving hospital care for children, we assessed the baseline situation with respect to the quality of care provided to children under-five years age in district and sub-district level hospitals in Bangladesh. Methods Using adapted World Health Organization (WHO hospital assessment tools and standards, an assessment of 18 randomly selected district (n=6 and sub-district (n=12 hospitals was undertaken. Teams of trained assessors used direct case observation, record review, interviews, and Management Information System (MIS data to assess the quality of clinical case management and monitoring; infrastructure, processes and hospital administration; essential hospital and laboratory supports, drugs and equipment. Results Findings demonstrate that the overall quality of care provided in these hospitals was poor. No hospital had a functioning triage system to prioritise those children most in need of immediate care. Laboratory supports and essential equipment were deficient. Only one hospital had all of the essential drugs for paediatric care. Less than a third of hospitals had a back-up power supply, and just under half had functioning arrangements for safe-drinking water. Clinical case management was found to be sub-optimal for prevalent illnesses, as was the quality of neonatal care. Conclusion Action is needed to improve the quality of paediatric care in hospital settings in Bangladesh, with a particular need to invest in improving newborn care.

  16. Logic Circuit Design Selected Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Vingron, Shimon P

    2012-01-01

        In three main divisions the  book covers combinational circuits, latches, and asynchronous sequential circuits. Combinational circuits have  no memorising ability, while sequential circuits have such an ability to various degrees. Latches are the simplest sequential circuits, ones with the shortest memory. The presentation is decidedly non-standard.         The design of combinational circuits is discussed in an orthodox manner using normal forms and in an unorthodox manner using set-theoretical evaluation formulas relying heavily on Karnaugh maps. The latter approach allows for a new design technique called composition.          Latches are covered very extensively. Their memory functions are expressed mathematically in a time-independent manner allowing the use of (normal, non-temporal) Boolean logic in their calculation. The theory of latches is then used as the basis for calculating asynchronous circuits.         Asynchronous circuits are specified in a tree-representation, eac...

  17. 孟加拉国凝析油处理厂总图设计分析%General Layout Design Analysis on the Condensate Treatment Plant in Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹禹; 阎伟

    2014-01-01

    通过对孟加拉国凝析油处理厂项目在总图运输设计当中的特点,分析了场地的布局设计、平面竖向分析,叙述了主要工程做法,当地气候对设计产生影响,今后如何提高对外项目设计水平。%Facing the of characteristics of transportation design of Bangladesh condensate treatment plant project in the general layout, the layout design of the site was analyzed as well as flat vertical analysis, the main engineering practice was described as well as influence of the local climate on the design, how to improve the level of foreign project design in the future was discussed.

  18. Microbiological quality of selected street food items vended by school-based street food vendors in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Mamun, Mohammad; Rahman, Shah Mahfuzur; Turin, Tanvir Chowdhury

    2013-09-16

    A cross sectional study was conducted to assess the microbiological quality of local food items vended by the school-based street food vendors in Dhaka City. A total of 80 schools from 19 school-zones of Dhaka City and its outskirts were chosen for the study. A total of 110 food samples, one each from 110 school-based street food vendors, were collected for laboratory analysis. Face to face interviews were conducted with the food vendors using a pre-tested questionnaire. The food samples were analyzed for coliform counts in the Public Health Laboratory, Institute of Public Health, Dhaka, which is a national level central food testing laboratory in Bangladesh. Microbiological criteria recommended by the International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods (ICMSF) were considered to classify food samples as 'satisfactory' (total coliforms ice cream (100%) were found to be satisfactory. Logistic regression models showed that the food samples collected from the vendors belonging to the age group '15-24 years' and the vendors possessing an educational status higher than primary level were less likely to be unsatisfactory, while the food samples collected from the vendors having a daily income of more than 200 Bangladeshi Taka (equivalent to 3.00 USD) were more likely to be unsatisfactory. Our study findings reflected poor microbiological quality for a considerable proportion of the school-based street vended foods indicating a health threat to the school children of Dhaka City. PMID:24029025

  19. Effective Recruitment Challenges Faced by the Hospitality Industry in Bangladesh: A Study on Selected Star Rated Residential Hotels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazi HUDA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In Human Resource Management (HRM, Recruitment is the first and foremost issue to be considered with full of sincerity, because its role is to create a positive impression about the employer in the job market by ensuring effective stimuli for the job seekers. At the beginning, the study sets a picture that focuses on the importance of effective recruitment in the hospitality sector of Bangladesh and then the study details obligatory determinants of attracting efficient human resource for the development of this sector. The main objective of the paper is to study the status and the scopes of recruitment function in hospitality industry with focus towards star rated residential hotels. This study is based on primary data collection through a formal questionnaire. The questionnaire was of mixed mode with most questions in likert-type scale and few were dichotomous in nature. The key finding of the study is that recruitment is a highly challenging task in hospitality and it is quite evident that attractive compensation package is the key factor to attract potential employees. The need and scope to modernize the recruitment practices along with the line of company and employer branding ideas are also recommended in details. There is a long way to go on the way of conceptualizing and actualizing recruitment functions and practices. A paper like this can help to discuss and debate on the necessity of developing better recruitment cultural and conceptual change in these sectors.

  20. Diagnosis of chronic conditions with modifiable lifestyle risk factors in selected urban and rural areas of Bangladesh and sociodemographic variability therein

    OpenAIRE

    Parr John D; Lindeboom Wietze; Khanam Masuma A; Pérez Koehlmoos Tracey L

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Bangladesh suffers from a lack of healthcare providers. The growing chronic disease epidemic's demand for healthcare resources will further strain Bangladesh's limited healthcare workforce. Little is known about how Bangladeshis with chronic disease seek care. This study describes chronic disease patients' care seeking behavior by analyzing which providers diagnose these diseases. Methods During 2 month periods in 2009, a cross-sectional survey collected descriptive data o...

  1. Nutritional Status among the Children of Age Group 5-14 Years in Selected Arsenic Exposed and Non-Exposed Areas of Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rezaul Karim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To assess and compare the nutritional status of children aged 5-14 years in arsenic exposed and non- exposed areas.It was a cross sectional study conducted on 600 children of age 5-14 years from arsenic exposed and non-exposed areas in Bangladesh. Designed questionnaire and check list were used for collection of data. To estimate BMI necessary anthropometric measurements of the studied children were done. Dietary intakes of the study children were assessed using 24-hours recall method.The difference of socio-economic conditions between the children of exposed area and non-exposed area was not significant. On an average the body mass index was found to be significantly (p < 0.01 lower among the children of arsenic exposed area (49% in comparison to that of children in non-exposed area (38%. Stunting (p < 0.01, wasting (p < 0.05 and underweight (p < 0.05 were significantly higher in exposed group in comparison to non-exposed group. No significant difference of nutrition intake was found between exposed and non-exposed children as well as thin and normal children.In this study children exposed to arsenic contaminated water were found to be suffered from lower nutritional status.

  2. Microbial quality of selected sandwiches sold at retail outlets of fast food shops in Dhaka city and Mymensingh town of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazmul Hoque

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available the experiment was designed to undertake a study on the sanitary quality of commercial fast foods sold at retail outlets of fast food shops in Dhaka city and Mymensingh town of Bangladesh. One hundred sandwiches were subjected to bacteriological examinations. The mean values of total viable count (TVC, total coliform count (TCC and total staphylococcal count (TSC in wrapped and unwrapped samples of pre-microwave oven and post-microwave oven fast foods were determined. In pre-microwave oven the TVC, TCC and TSC were log 6.36, log 3.42 and log 4.21 respectively. similarly in post-microwave oven the TVC, TCC and TSC were log 4.89, log 2.60 and log 3.03 respectively. The role of packaging and heat treatment prior to sale on the bacterial changes of the fast foods were demonstrated. It was observed that the values of TVC of all fast food samples except post-microwave oven treated McDonald’s; Pizza and Ruma were higher than the maximum microbial limit. In TCC and TSC all values were higher than the maximum limit. The degree of initial contamination in fast food samples which may pose health hazard to public health has been discussed. It was concluded that the hygienically packaged fast foods and microoven treatment prior to sale would retain the best quality attributes required for consumer’s acceptability and safety.  

  3. Inclusive Education in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahsan, Mohammad Tariq; Burnip, Lindsay

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on inclusive education in Bangladesh for children with special needs. Bangladesh is not behind other developed countries in enacting laws and declarations in favour of inclusive education, but a lack of resources is the main barrier in implementing inclusive education. Special education and integrated education models exist in…

  4. Bangladesh : Accounting and Auditing

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    This report provides an assessment of accounting and auditing practices within the broader context of the Bangladesh institutional framework and capacity needed to ensure the quality of corporate financial reporting. The accounting and auditing practices in Bangladesh suffer from institutional weaknesses in regulation, compliance, and enforcement of standards and rules. The preparation of ...

  5. Landmarks selection in street map design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Taiwan many electrical maps present their landmarks according to the category of the feature, a designer short of knowledge about mental representation of space, can cause the map to lose its communication effects. To resolve this map design problem, in this research through long-term memory recall, navigation and observation, and short-term memory processing 111 participants were asked to select the proper landmark from study area. The results reveal that in Taiwan convenience stores are the most popular local landmark in rural and urban areas. Their commercial signs have a unique design and bright color. Contrasted to their background, this makes the convenience store a salient feature. This study also developed a rule to assess the priority of the landmarks to design them in different scale maps

  6. ANALYSING INTRA-YEAR PRICE VARIATIONS AND PRICE FLEXIBILITY OF SELECTED CROPS FOR LOCAL LEVEL PLANNING IN BANGLADESH

    OpenAIRE

    Salam, Shakila; Alam, Shamsul; Moniruzzaman, M.

    2011-01-01

    Realizing the significance of crop production, this paper has attempted to determine own-price flexibilities and cross- price flexibilities of selected crops viz. Boro paddy, wheat, lentil and potato, and estimate monthly price variations for local level planning. In estimating own-price fluctuation of selected crops, price flexibility coefficients have turned out significant, except lentil. Among these crops, quantity of Boro paddy was highly responded to its price. Cross-price flexibilities...

  7. Foreign Exchange Reserves: Bangladesh Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Zahangir Alam

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is about foreign exchangereserves of Bangladesh. The mainpurpose of this study is to the influence of exchange rates on foreign exchangereserves to the Bangladesh context.  Both the primary and secondary data has been used inthis study. The primary data has been collected through a structuredquestionnaire from 50 respondents. The secondary data, namely Bangladeshforeign exchange reserves (FER, Bangladesh current account balance (CAB,Bangladesh capital andfinancial account balance (CFAB, and BDT/USD exchange rates (ER.  This study covers yearly data from July 01,1996 to June 30, 2005 and quarterly data from July 01, 2005 to June 30, 2012. Findingsof this study shows that out of the selected 16 factors affecting foreignexchange reserves, exchange rates occupy the first position, weighted averagescore (WAS being 4.56. Foreign exchange reserves (FER and current accountbalance (CAB have increased by 502.9087% and 1451.218%,whereas capital and financial account (CFAB has decreased by -649.024% on June30, 2012 compared to June 30, 1997. The influence of other factors heldconstant, as ER changes by 285.6894 units due to one unit change in FER, onaverage in the same direction which represents that ER has positive effect on theFER and this relationship is statistically significant.  62.1526 percentof the variation in FER is explained by ER. The outcomes of Breusch-Godfrey test (LM test, ARCHtest, and the Normality test are that there is a serial correlation among residuals, the variance of residuals is notconstant, and the residuals are not normally distributed.

  8. Application of radiation in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation technology offers a very wide scope for utilisation and commercial exploitation in various field. All over the world, this technology is being favourably considered for different applications like radiation sterilisation of medical products, preservation of food by controlling the physiological processes for extending shelf-life and eradication of microbial and insect pests, radiation processing of polymeric materials and treatment of sewage sludge. Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission has taken radiation processing programmes in a big way right from its inception. This paper describes the studies carried out by various research groups in Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission mainly using Cobalt-60 gamma radiation. The investigation covers medical sterilisation, food preservation and development and modification of polymeric materials by gamma radiation. Both food preservation and radiation sterilisation of medical products are now being commercially carried out in the Gammatech facility as a joint venture company of BAEC and a private entrepreneur. Bangladesh is soon going to establish a full-fledged Tissue Bank to cater the needs of various tissue allografts for surgical replacement. Recently Government of Bangladesh has allocated US$ 1.00 million for strengthening of the Tissue Banking Laboratory. BAEC has made quite a good research contribution on vulcanization of natural rubber latex, wood plastic composites, surface coating curing, polymer modification etc. As a result of successful achievement of R and D activities in all these projects, a pilot plant project involving about US$ 4.00 million is under implementation at the Atomic energy Research Establishment campus of BAEC. In addition a project on 'National Polymer Centre' at a cost of US$ 2.00 million has already been approved. It is expected that work on radiation processing including commercialization will be accelerated with the implementation of these projects. The impact of radiation processing

  9. Application of radiation in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naiyyum Choudhury; Najmul Alam Chowdhury; Feroza Akhtar [Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    2001-03-01

    Radiation technology offers a very wide scope for utilisation and commercial exploitation in various field. All over the world, this technology is being favourably considered for different applications like radiation sterilisation of medical products, preservation of food by controlling the physiological processes for extending shelf-life and eradication of microbial and insect pests, radiation processing of polymeric materials and treatment of sewage sludge. Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission has taken radiation processing programmes in a big way right from its inception. This paper describes the studies carried out by various research groups in Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission mainly using Cobalt-60 gamma radiation. The investigation covers medical sterilisation, food preservation and development and modification of polymeric materials by gamma radiation. Both food preservation and radiation sterilisation of medical products are now being commercially carried out in the Gammatech facility as a joint venture company of BAEC and a private entrepreneur. Bangladesh is soon going to establish a full-fledged Tissue Bank to cater the needs of various tissue allografts for surgical replacement. Recently Government of Bangladesh has allocated US$ 1.00 million for strengthening of the Tissue Banking Laboratory. BAEC has made quite a good research contribution on vulcanization of natural rubber latex, wood plastic composites, surface coating curing, polymer modification etc. As a result of successful achievement of R and D activities in all these projects, a pilot plant project involving about US$ 4.00 million is under implementation at the Atomic energy Research Establishment campus of BAEC. In addition a project on 'National Polymer Centre' at a cost of US$ 2.00 million has already been approved. It is expected that work on radiation processing including commercialization will be accelerated with the implementation of these projects. The impact of radiation

  10. Cost benefit analysis of cassava production in Sherpur district of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Afreen, N.; Haque, M.S.

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to analyze the cost, benefit and profitability of cassava production in selected areas of Sherpur district in Bangladesh. Data were collected by interviewing a representative sample of 100 practicing cassava farmers, taking each 50 sample from traditional farmers of Jhinaigati and commercial cassava farmers of Sreebardi Upazila. Analyses showed that per hectare cost incurred for cassava was BDT 41,417.22 in Jhinaigati whereas BDT 53,642.59 in Sreebardi Upazila. ...

  11. Crop Farmers' Willingness to Pay for Agricultural Extension Services in Bangladesh: Cases of Selected Villages in Two Important Agro-Ecological Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Ektear MD.; Gao, Qijie; Mamun-Ur-Rashid, MD.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Globally, many extension professionals and policy-makers are advocating fee based services, in addressing the fund shortage and sustainable provision of agricultural advisory services. Hence, the article attempts to expose the farmers' willingness to pay (WTP) as agricultural extension in Bangladesh is experiencing chronic fund crisis.…

  12. Economic Development of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Mohajan, Haradhan

    2013-01-01

    Bangladesh is a developing country in the South Asia. Its illiterate and unskilled large population is a burden to the country. Agriculture is the main source of the income of the country. Government of the country is taking various steps to decrease poverty, but yet about one-third of people of Bangladesh are living below the national poverty line. More than half of the children of Bangladesh are underweight. The gross domestic product (GDP) is hovering around 6% for the last decade. Migrate...

  13. Computer Aided Solvent Selection and Design Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitrofanov, Igor; Conte, Elisa; Abildskov, Jens;

    Solvents are widely used as a reaction medium, as a reactant or as carrier at some stages of the manufacturing chain in products from the chemical, fine chemical, pharmaceutical, food, and agrochemical industries. Solvent are either required for processing after which they are removed...... is to develop a systematic framework and implement it as software for selection and design of solvents for many applications including organic synthesis, complex reaction systems and solvent-based separations. The solvent selection framework is based on a combination of knowledge from industrial practice...... for each reaction: 1. Problem identification. Finding an objective for given system, identifying actual functions of the solvent. 2. Search criteria definition. The solvent functions that satisfy the operational needs of the process are defined in terms of a set of search criteria (R-indices), defined...

  14. Cancer control in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Syed Akram; Sullivan, Richard

    2013-12-01

    Cancer is predicted to be an increasingly important cause of morbidity and mortality in Bangladesh in the next few decades. The estimated incidence of 12.7 million new cancer cases will rise to 21.4 million by 2030. More than two-thirds of the total expenditure on health is through out-of-pocket payments. According to the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, cancer is the sixth leading cause of death. International Agency for Research on Cancer has estimated cancer-related death rates in Bangladesh to be 7.5% in 2005 and 13% in 2030. The two leading causes are in males are lung and oral cancer and in females are breast cancer and cervical cancer. Bangladesh is now in severe shortage of radiation therapy machines, hospital bed, trained oncologists, medical radiation physicists and technologists. Bangladesh having different cancers associated with smoking and smokeless tobacco use, Human papilloma virus infection, Hepatitis B and C infection, Helicobacter Pylori infection, arsenic contaminated groundwater, availability of chemical carcinogens mainly formalin treated fruits, fish and vegetables at open market, tannery waste contaminated with chromium (which is used for poultry feed and fish feed preparation). A World Health Organization study revealed the annual cost of illnesses in Bangladesh attributable to tobacco usage is US$ 500 million and the total annual benefit from the tobacco sector is US$ 305 million as tax revenue. Bangladesh has developed a National Cancer Control Strategy and Action Plan with the aim of delivering a universal, quality-based and timely service. Cancer prevention through tobacco control, health promotion and vaccination program, cancer early detection program for oral cavity, breast and cervix has initiated. Cancer detection and diagnostic facilities will be made available at medical colleges and district- hospitals and establish a referral chain. National capacity development, more cancer research will allow Bangladesh to deal effectively

  15. Rape in Rural Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Nowsher Ali; Sanjida Akhter; Nur Hossain; Nashid Tabassum Khan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Rape is one of the silent brutal sexual offences in Bangladesh. Despite strong laws against it, the evil of rape continues to rise. Increasing trend of the silent cruel sexual offence (rape) represents a major psychopath sexual disorder and public health problem and progress of the country. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the pattern of alleged rape victims in a rural district of Bangladesh with the ultimate aim to create public awareness about the brutal crim...

  16. Cancer control in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Syed Akram; Sullivan, Richard

    2013-12-01

    Cancer is predicted to be an increasingly important cause of morbidity and mortality in Bangladesh in the next few decades. The estimated incidence of 12.7 million new cancer cases will rise to 21.4 million by 2030. More than two-thirds of the total expenditure on health is through out-of-pocket payments. According to the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, cancer is the sixth leading cause of death. International Agency for Research on Cancer has estimated cancer-related death rates in Bangladesh to be 7.5% in 2005 and 13% in 2030. The two leading causes are in males are lung and oral cancer and in females are breast cancer and cervical cancer. Bangladesh is now in severe shortage of radiation therapy machines, hospital bed, trained oncologists, medical radiation physicists and technologists. Bangladesh having different cancers associated with smoking and smokeless tobacco use, Human papilloma virus infection, Hepatitis B and C infection, Helicobacter Pylori infection, arsenic contaminated groundwater, availability of chemical carcinogens mainly formalin treated fruits, fish and vegetables at open market, tannery waste contaminated with chromium (which is used for poultry feed and fish feed preparation). A World Health Organization study revealed the annual cost of illnesses in Bangladesh attributable to tobacco usage is US$ 500 million and the total annual benefit from the tobacco sector is US$ 305 million as tax revenue. Bangladesh has developed a National Cancer Control Strategy and Action Plan with the aim of delivering a universal, quality-based and timely service. Cancer prevention through tobacco control, health promotion and vaccination program, cancer early detection program for oral cavity, breast and cervix has initiated. Cancer detection and diagnostic facilities will be made available at medical colleges and district- hospitals and establish a referral chain. National capacity development, more cancer research will allow Bangladesh to deal effectively

  17. Design of compliant mechanisms with selective compliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conventional mechanisms provide a defined mobility, which expresses the number of degrees of freedom of the mechanism. This allows the system to be driven by a low number of control outputs. This property is virtually retained in the case of compliant mechanisms with lumped compliance, which are obtained by replacing the conventional hinges by solid-state ones. Compliant mechanisms with distributed compliance have, in general, an infinite number of degrees of freedom and therefore cannot guarantee defined kinematics. In this paper the concept of compliant mechanisms with selective compliance is introduced. This special class of compliant mechanisms combines the advantages of distributed compliance with the easy controllability of systems with defined kinematics. The task is accomplished by introducing a new design criterion based on a modal formulation. After this design criterion has been implemented in an optimization formulation for a formal optimization procedure, mechanisms are obtained in which a freely chosen deformation pattern is associated with a low deformation energy while other deformation patterns are considerably stiffer. Besides the description of the modal design criterion and the associated objective function, the sensitivity analysis of the objective function is presented and an application example is shown

  18. Cross-Cultural Age Ascription between Muslim and Santal Communities in Rural Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Uddin, Emaj Ph.D.

    2010-01-01

    This study compares ideal age ascription across family life Muslim and Santal cultures in rural Bangladesh. We hypothesized that age ascription for family life situation occurs earlier in the Santal culture than in the Muslim culture in rural Bangladesh. One hundred couples (70 Muslim and 30 Santal) were selected by cluster random sampling from the Kalna village situated in the Tanore Upazila of Rajshahi district, Bangladesh, and were intensively interviewed by author. Results reveal signific...

  19. Tools for Material Design and Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehage, Kristopher

    The present thesis focuses on applications of numerical methods to create tools for material characterization, design and selection. The tools generated in this work incorporate a variety of programming concepts, from digital image analysis, geometry, optimization, and parallel programming to data-mining, databases and web design. The first portion of the thesis focuses on methods for characterizing clustering in bimodal 5083 Aluminum alloys created by cryomilling and powder metallurgy. The bimodal samples analyzed in the present work contain a mixture of a coarse grain phase, with a grain size on the order of several microns, and an ultra-fine grain phase, with a grain size on the order of 200 nm. The mixing of the two phases is not homogeneous and clustering is observed. To investigate clustering in these bimodal materials, various microstructures were created experimentally by conventional cryomilling, Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP), Extrusion, Dual-Mode Dynamic Forging (DMDF) and a new 'Gradient' cryomilling process. Two techniques for quantitative clustering analysis are presented, formulated and implemented. The first technique, the Area Disorder function, provides a metric of the quality of coarse grain dispersion in an ultra-fine grain matrix and the second technique, the Two-Point Correlation function, provides a metric of long and short range spatial arrangements of the two phases, as well as an indication of the mean feature size in any direction. The two techniques are implemented on digital images created by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Electron Backscatter Detection (EBSD) of the microstructures. To investigate structure--property relationships through modeling and simulation, strategies for generating synthetic microstructures are discussed and a computer program that generates randomized microstructures with desired configurations of clustering described by the Area Disorder Function is formulated and presented. In the computer program, two

  20. REGIONAL VARIATIONS IN CHILD MARRIAGE IN BANGLADESH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Kamrul; Haque, Md Rabiul; Hossain, Mohammad Bellal

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate the regional variations in the prevalence of child marriage in Bangladesh with a view to providing recommendations for division-specific policy interventions. Data from the 2011 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey were analysed using multivariate logistic regression. Substantial regional variations in child marriage were found in Bangladesh. Rangpur and Khulna had more than four times higher odds of child marriage than Sylhet (4.57 and 4.11 times, respectively). Barisal and Rajshahi had more than three times higher odds of child marriage than Sylhet (3.70 and 3.48 times, respectively). Chittagong and Dhaka had about two times odds of child marriage than Sylhet (1.98 and 2.67 times, respectively), even after controlling for selected socio-demographic, economic and cultural characteristics. Respondent's education, employment status, husband's education and wealth index were inversely associated with the prevalence of child marriage. The policy implications of these findings are discussed in the context of Bangladesh. PMID:27076200

  1. Passive Design Features for Energy-Efficient Residential Buildings in Tropical Climates : The context of Dhaka, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Ahsan, Tahmina

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying passive design features through extensive literature study that can be incorporated in residential buildings to make them energy efficient. The study also aimed at identifying changes in the design process that can affect energy efficiency in residential buildings. It has analyzed the design features of typical residential buildings representative of upper middle income households in Dhaka through a case study conducted in Dhaka. It also analyzed the present el...

  2. Cancer Control in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, Syed Akram; Sullivan, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is predicted to be an increasingly important cause of morbidity and mortality in Bangladesh in the next few decades. The estimated incidence of 12.7 million new cancer cases will rise to 21.4 million by 2030. More than two-thirds of the total expenditure on health is through out-of-pocket payments. According to the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, cancer is the sixth leading cause of death. International Agency for Research on Cancer has estimated cancer-related death rates in Banglade...

  3. Clutches and brakes design and selection

    CERN Document Server

    Orthwein, William C

    2004-01-01

    FRICTION MATERIALSFriction CodeWearBrake FadeFriction MaterialsNotationReferencesBAND BRAKESDerivation of EquationsApplicationLever-Actuated Band Brake: Backstop DesignExample: Design of a BackstopNotationFormula CollectionReferencesEXTERNALLY AND INTERNALLY PIVOTED SHOE BRAKESPivoted External Drum BrakesPivoted Internal Drum BrakesDesign of Dual-Anchor Twin-Shoe Drum BrakesDual-Anchor Twin-Shoe Drum Brake Design ExamplesDesign of Single-Anchor Twin-Shoe Drum BrakesSingle-Anchor Twin-Shoe Drum Brake Design Exam

  4. Bangladesh; Statistical Appendix

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1995-01-01

    The paper presents statistical data on gross domestic product, agricultural production, manufacturing production, energy statistics, retail prices of petroleum products, consumer price index, central government operations, revenues, and central expenditure in Bangladesh. It also presents the central government food account, consolidated accounts and profits of nonfinancial public enterprises, government domestic securities, monetary survey, balance sheet of the monetary authorities, interest ...

  5. Made In Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUCHEN

    2004-01-01

    It is nothing new for global consumers to find the tag ‘Made in China' on the back of products from famous brands such as Nike or Panasonic.or will it surprise North American or European customers to find clothes from big brands like Esprit or GAP containing the mark ‘Made in Bangladesh'.

  6. Liquid cooled data center design selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chainer, Timothy J.; Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Parida, Pritish R.

    2016-09-13

    Input data, specifying aspects of a thermal design of a liquid cooled data center, is obtained. The input data includes data indicative of ambient outdoor temperature for a location of the data center; and/or data representing workload power dissipation for the data center. The input data is evaluated to obtain performance of the data center thermal design. The performance includes cooling energy usage; and/or one pertinent temperature associated with the data center. The performance of the data center thermal design is output.

  7. Farmers’ Education and Farmers’ Wealth in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Zafar Mahmudul Haq

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of farmers’ education is examined with a view to evaluate the actual situation of farmers’ education in Bangladesh. Fifty samples were collected from two sub districts of the Gazipur district in Bangladesh. The selection of the study sites and collection of the samples such as the years of schooling of the farm household head, total income, farm size, number of earners of farm families, family size, years of farming experience of farm household head, number of times extension contacts and rice yield were done purposively. It is cleared from the study that education is necessary for farmers to raise their wealth. Results were derived through regression analysis. The study has also shown that size of family and years of farming experience contributed significantly to the wealth accumulation of farmers.

  8. Factors associated with repeated outbreak of anthrax in Bangladesh: qualitative and quantitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayedul Hassan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Anthrax, caused by Bacillus anthracis is an acute, febrile disease of warm blooded animals including humans. Social norms and poverty in addition to climatic factors such as soil conditions, seasons of year, ambient temperature and rainfall influence the persistence of the B. anthracis and anthrax outbreaks. The present study was designed to reveal the factors influencing the repeated outbreak of anthrax in Bangladesh. Considering the previous outbreaks of anthrax, Sirajganj, Bogra, Kushtia, Tangail and Mymensingh districts of Bangladesh were selected for this study. To elucidate the factors, qualitative data relating to the animal management, knowledge and behavior of the people; and quantitative data relating to soil conditions, ambient temperature and rainfall were acquired, and analyzed critically. Based on the outbreak histories, a year was divided into two seasons, anthrax prone season (May-November and anthrax dry season (December-April. Anthrax spores could be isolated from 11.67% (n=14/120 of the soil samples collected from the study areas. The present study revealed that poor knowledge, lack of awareness, improper carcass disposal, inadequate vaccination, high Ca content and moisture in the soil along with high ambient temperature and rainfall during the anthrax prone season were the possible influencing factors of repeated outbreaks of anthrax in the study areas. Intensive propaganda to create public awareness of anthrax together with proper vaccination may reduce anthrax outbreaks in Bangladesh.

  9. Country programme review Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A five-expert mission was organized from 21-26 August 1993 and this document reflects the findings and recommendations of the team. Intensive contacts with heads of institutions, scientists and decision making persons in various sectors in the country were co-ordinated by the Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission. The terms of reference of the mission were: To assess the on-going TC projects; to assist the Bangladesh nationals to finalize the formulation of the new requests for 1995-96 TC programme and to establish priority areas with regard to the introduction of national projects involving accelerated technological transfer in order to catalyze national development plans in specific areas; to examine institutional framework suitable for the introduction of these priority nuclear techniques

  10. Rape in Rural Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowsher Ali

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rape is one of the silent brutal sexual offences in Bangladesh. Despite strong laws against it, the evil of rape continues to rise. Increasing trend of the silent cruel sexual offence (rape represents a major psychopath sexual disorder and public health problem and progress of the country. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the pattern of alleged rape victims in a rural district of Bangladesh with the ultimate aim to create public awareness about the brutal crime. Materials and method: This retrospective study was carried out on 330 sexually assailed alleged rape victims’ report forms, who reported at Faridpur Medical College, Bangladesh from 2007 to 2011 for medical examination. Results: Among the study subjects maximum number (70.0% of alleged rape cases were under the age of 20 years. More than two-thirds (64.60% of the assailants were known to the victims, most of the incidents (64.20% occurred in the victims’ houses and nearby places. The study also revealed that minimum number of victims (14.20% reported within 24 hours for medical examination. Almost one fourth of the alleged rape cases were gang rape and no positive finding in favour of sexual intercourse was found in about three fourth (72.40% of cases. Conclusion: Public awareness about rape would be effective to report in due time with preserving the evidence of crime and modern techniques like DNA diagnosis may be of help to detect the assailant.

  11. Women's housing conditions in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shefali, M K

    1996-01-01

    This news article describes women's housing conditions, housing policy, and pilot programs to house poor women in Bangladesh. Although Bangladesh has a constitution that reinforces the equal status of women, in practice, men dominate and patrilineal customs determine inheritance and property rights. Religious affiliation also determines land tenure and inheritance. Muslim women can inherit 12.5% of their husband's property if there are children. 25% is inherited if wives are without children. Hindu women without sons can inherit their husband's property, but not parental property. Many families refuse to release property to women without a fight. Women, regardless of ownership of land, rarely control or use their land. The custom of requiring men to maintain wives during the marriage, and daughters until marriage, creates obstacles to women's decision making about property. Without collateral and other security women are unable to secure bank loans. Many women are also constrained by the requirement of male consent or guarantees for bank transactions. Banks do not have a gender responsive criteria for selecting loan recipients. The government does not provide sufficient housing to satisfy the growing housing needs due to population growth. Some housing is available from slum landlords. A National Housing Policy was formulated in 1993. Priority would be given to the housing needs of low income women in urban areas and women-headed households with income below the poverty line. The policy does not address the underlying factors that prevent equal access to housing for women. The government prepared a Human Settlement and Urban Development proposal for the Habitat II conference. The plan did not address gender issues. Special efforts are being made by nongovernmental groups to meet the housing needs of professional women and for some disadvantaged women.

  12. Financing reproductive health in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khanna, A.; Pradhan, J.; Rashid, H.A.; Beekink, E.; Gupta, M.; Sharma, A.

    2013-01-01

    Bangladesh is the signatory of both, International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) programme of action and Millennium Development goals (MDGs). The Government of Bangladesh has set ambitious agendas for improving Reproductive Health (RH) services, to achieve the targets till 2015. In

  13. Lyssavirus Surveillance in Bats, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzmin, Ivan V.; Niezgoda, Michael; Carroll, Darin S.; Keeler, Natalie; Hossain, Mohammed Jahangir; Breiman, Robert F.; Ksiazek, Thomas G.; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2006-01-01

    Lyssavirus surveillance in bats was performed in Bangladesh during 2003 and 2004. No virus isolates were obtained. Three serum samples (all from Pteropus giganteus, n = 127) of 288 total serum samples, obtained from bats in 9 different taxa, neutralized lyssaviruses Aravan and Khujand. The infection occurs in bats in Bangladesh, but virus prevalence appears low.

  14. Fluid machinery application, selection, and design

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, Terry

    2013-01-01

    Published nearly a decade ago, Fluid Machinery: Performance, Analysis, and Design quickly became popular with students, professors, and professionals because of its comprehensive and comprehensible introduction to the fluid mechanics of turbomachinery. Renamed to reflect its wider scope and reorganized content, this second edition provides a more logical flow of information that will enhance understanding. In particular, it presents a consistent notation within and across chapters, updating material when appropriate. Although the authors do account for the astounding growth in the field of com

  15. Automatic personnel selection for virtual team design

    OpenAIRE

    Kovačič, Matevž

    2009-01-01

    The following Master's thesis examines the concept of virtual teams, the need for virtual teams and how they are designed. An analysis of the functionality for human resource information system has been made and a data model has been projected. For a web portal has been used three-layer architecture. For the portal implementation advanced Microsoft technology has been used: ASP.NET 2.0, SQL Server 2005 database and other third-party software which contribute to a more efficient and standard p...

  16. A decision tool for selecting trench cap designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paige, G.B.; Stone, J.J.; Lane, L.J. [USDA-ARS, Tucson, AZ (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    A computer based prototype decision support system (PDSS) is being developed to assist the risk manager in selecting an appropriate trench cap design for waste disposal sites. The selection of the {open_quote}best{close_quote} design among feasible alternatives requires consideration of multiple and often conflicting objectives. The methodology used in the selection process consists of: selecting and parameterizing decision variables using data, simulation models, or expert opinion; selecting feasible trench cap design alternatives; ordering the decision variables and ranking the design alternatives. The decision model is based on multi-objective decision theory and uses a unique approach to order the decision variables and rank the design alternatives. Trench cap designs are evaluated based on federal regulations, hydrologic performance, cover stability and cost. Four trench cap designs, which were monitored for a four year period at Hill Air Force Base in Utah, are used to demonstrate the application of the PDSS and evaluate the results of the decision model. The results of the PDSS, using both data and simulations, illustrate the relative advantages of each of the cap designs and which cap is the {open_quotes}best{close_quotes} alternative for a given set of criteria and a particular importance order of those decision criteria.

  17. Knowledge and self-care practices regarding diabetes among newly diagnosed type 2 diabetics in Bangladesh: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Saleh Farzana; Mumu Shirin J; Ara Ferdous; Begum Housne A; Ali Liaquat

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Levels of knowledge about diabetes mellitus (DM) among newly diagnosed diabetics in Bangladesh are unknown. This study assessed the relationship between knowledge and practices among newly diagnosed type 2 DM patients. Methods Newly diagnosed adults with type 2 diabetes (N = 508) were selected from 19 healthcare centers. Patients’ knowledge and self-care practices were assessed via interviewer-administered questionnaires using a cross-sectional design. Knowledge questions ...

  18. Designing Intervention Studies: Selected Populations, Range Restrictions, and Statistical Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miciak, Jeremy; Taylor, W. Pat; Stuebing, Karla K.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Vaughn, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    An appropriate estimate of statistical power is critical for the design of intervention studies. Although the inclusion of a pretest covariate in the test of the primary outcome can increase statistical power, samples selected on the basis of pretest performance may demonstrate range restriction on the selection measure and other correlated…

  19. Human rabies in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, M; Ahmed, K; Bulbul, T; Hossain, S; Rahman, A; Biswas, M N U; Nishizono, A

    2012-11-01

    Rabies is a major public health problem in Bangladesh, where most of the population live in rural areas. However, there is little epidemiological information on rabies in rural Bangladesh. This study was conducted in 30 upazilas (subdistricts) covering all six divisions of the country, to determine the levels of rabies and animal bites in Bangladesh. The total population of these upazilas was 6 992 302. A pretested questionnaire was used and data were collected by interviewing the adult members of families. We estimated that in Bangladesh, 166 590 [95% confidence interval (CI) 163 350-170 550] people per year are bitten by an animal. The annual incidence of rabies deaths in Bangladesh was estimated to be 1·40 (95% CI 1·05-1·78)/100 000 population. By extrapolating this, we estimated that 2100 (95% CI 1575-2670) people die annually from rabies in Bangladesh. More than three-quarters of rabies patients died at home. This community-based study provides new information on rabies epidemiology in Bangladesh.

  20. Project Selection in the Design Studio: Absence of Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basa, Inci

    2010-01-01

    Project selection is an essential matter of design teaching. Based on observations of a specific curriculum, the author claims that a wide repertoire of subjects including offices, restaurants, hotels, and other public places are used to prepare design students, but that schools and other "learning environments/ schools" are similarly ignored.…

  1. Rational principles of compound selection for combinatorial library design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropsha, Alexander; Zheng, Weifan

    2002-03-01

    It is practically impossible in a short period of time to synthesize and test all compounds in any large exhaustive chemical library. We discuss rational approaches to selecting representative subsets of virtual libraries that help direct experimental synthetic efforts for both targeted and diverse library design. For targeted library design, we consider principles based on the similarity to lead molecules. In the case of diverse library design, we discuss algorithms aimed at the selection of both diverse and representative subsets of the entire chemical library space. We illustrate methodologies with several practical examples.

  2. A Study on Plant Selection for Green Building Design

    OpenAIRE

    Izudinshah Abd. Wahab; Lokman Hakim Ismail

    2013-01-01

    Previous researches show that incorporating natural elements in design has proven a significant result in balancing building indoor environment. Using plant as part of the design has been widely accepted to contribute good thermal impact as shown in bioclimatic design, green roofing system and living wall elements. As there are so many species of plants for selection, this research was carried out to analyze types of indoor plants that have the potential to contribute thermal comfort to their...

  3. Access to Microfinance: Does it Matter for Profit Efficiency Among Small Scale Rice Farmers in Bangladesh?

    OpenAIRE

    Sumelius, John; Islam, K. M. Zahidul; Sipilainen, Timo

    2011-01-01

    This paper measures profit efficiency and examines the effect of access to microfinance on the performance of rice firms in Bangladesh. An extended Cobb-Douglas stochastic frontier profit function was used to assess profit efficiency and profit loss of rice farmers in Bangladesh in a survey data of 360 farms throughout the 2008-2009 growing seasons. Model diagnostics reveal that serious selection bias exists that justifies the uses of sample selection model in stochastic frontier models. Afte...

  4. Financial Liberalization, Savings and the Banking Sector in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Murshed (Syed); I.A. Robin (Iftekhar Ahmed)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis article explores the consequences of financial liberalization policy on the banking sector in Bangladesh. Following a motivating portfolio selection theor-etical model on the impact of liberalization, it applies time series techniques with annual banking sector data for the period 1

  5. Context and the Gendered Status of Teachers: Women's Empowerment through Leadership of Non-Formal Schooling in Rural Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperandio, Jill

    2011-01-01

    Empowering women to control and change their lives continues to be an important goal for many nations. This article examines the empowering effects of being selected and trained to lead rural schools in Bangladesh, using survey and interview data from 152 village women working with the Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee education programme.…

  6. Marriage and its transition in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, A U

    1986-01-01

    The author examines developments in marriage patterns in Bangladesh in light of social, cultural, and economic conditions. Previous literature on the subject is used to discuss Muslim marriage, Hindu marriage, child marriage, mate selection and social mobility, and the question of a marriage squeeze. "The analysis presents evidence that the society is experiencing a change in its family formation, mating process and family type. This transition is to some extent towards the characteristics of [the] Western World, but in a poor economy. Part of this transition is due to the effect of modernization and part due to increasing poverty."

  7. H&m i Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Refsøe, Anna; Sørensen, Johan; Skytte, Josephine; Skovgaard, Louise

    2014-01-01

    Outsourcing remains an increasingly attractive strategy for many large companies. The enormous distance between the companies and its suppliers, has resulted in a hazy labor policy in the companies suppliers' production factories. Companies find it difficult to maintain ideal working conditions in developing countries due to the geographical distance. This project, focus on H&M's outsourcing to Bangladesh. Bangladesh is interesting because H&M gets 25% of their products produced in the cou...

  8. Computational design and selections for an engineered, thermostable terpene synthase

    OpenAIRE

    Diaz, JE; Lin, CS; Kunishiro, K; Feld, BK; Avrantinis, SK; Bronson, J.; J. Greaves; Saven, JG; Weiss, GA

    2011-01-01

    Terpenoids include structurally diverse antibiotics, flavorings, and fragrances. Engineering terpene synthases for control over the synthesis of such compounds represents a long sought goal. We report computational design, selections, and assays of a thermostable mutant of tobacco 5-epi-aristolochene synthase (TEAS) for the catalysis of carbocation cyclization reactions at elevated temperatures. Selection for thermostability included proteolytic digestion followed by capture of intact protein...

  9. Selection of the design basis leak for LMFBR steam generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, R A; Pfefferlen, H C; Roberts, J M; Sane, J O

    1977-11-01

    Steam generator tube failure mechanisms that have been observed in experiments or that have been postulated are discussed. The DBL for CRBRP and a proposed DBL for future large LMFBR steam generators are described. Safety considerations and philosophy in selection of Design Basis Leaks (DBL) are presented. A discussion of the Large Leak Test Rig (LLTR) Series II program support of the DBL selection for future large LMFBR steam generators is included.

  10. Human Resource Management Practices and Employees’ Satisfaction Towards Private Banking Sector in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Tofael Hossain Majumder

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dramatic advances of Information and Communication Technology (ICT, changing mix and personal values of the workforce, emergence of the knowledge economy and increasing global competition have created enormous challenges on organizations. To cope with the challenges efficiently, human resource has been considered as one of the most important factors in today’s hyper-competitive market place. The focus of this study is to gain an insight into the current HRM practices and its impact on employee’s satisfaction on the private banking sector in Bangladesh. For conducting this research, 100 bank employees are selected from the chosen banks and out of this 88 employees responses properly, the response rate is 88 percent. The questionnaire consists of different questions on nine HRM dimensions such as recruitment and selection systems, compensation package, job security, career growth, training and development, management style, job design and responsibilities, reward and motivation and working environment. The questionnaire was developed by using a five point Likert scale. In this study, some statistical measures such as Z-test, mean and proportion analysis is used to examine employee’s satisfaction. The study reveals that all HRM dimensions exercised in the private banking sector of Bangladesh does not satisfied to the employees equally. Most of the employees are dissatisfied with compensation package followed by reward and motivation, career growth, training and development, management style, and job design and responsibilities. So, these HRM dimensions quality should be improved for the betterment of the bank’s success.

  11. Concurrent materials and process selection in conceptual design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleban, Stephen D.; Knorovsky, Gerald A.

    2000-08-16

    A method for concurrent selection of materials and a joining process based on product requirements using a knowledge-based, constraint satisfaction approach facilitates the product design and manufacturing process. Using a Windows-based computer video display and a data base of materials and their properties, the designer can ascertain the preferred composition of two parts based on various operating/environmental constraints such as load, temperature, lifetime, etc. Optimum joinder of the two parts may simultaneously be determined using a joining process data base based upon the selected composition of the components as well as the operating/environmental constraints.

  12. Distributing and Showing Farmer Learning Videos in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Jeffery W.; Van Mele, Paul; Harun-ar-Rashid, Md.; Krupnik, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the results of showing farmer learning videos through different types of volunteers. Design/Methodology/Approach: Semi-structured interviews with volunteers from different occupational groups in Bangladesh, and a phone survey with 227 respondents. Findings: Each occupational group acted differently. Shop keepers, tillage…

  13. Designer ligands: The search for metal ion selectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perry T. Kaye

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews research conducted at Rhodes University towards the development of metal-selective ligands. The research has focused on the rational design, synthesis and evaluation of novel ligands for use in the formation of copper complexes as biomimetic models of the metalloenzyme, tyrosinase, and for the selective extraction of silver, nickel and platinum group metal ions in the presence of contaminating metal ions. Attention has also been given to the development of efficient, metal-selective molecular imprinted polymers.

  14. Dynamics of Rural Growth in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Gautam, Madhur; Faruqee, Rashid

    2016-01-01

    The rural economy in Bangladesh has powerfully advanced economic growth and substantially reduced poverty, especially since 2000, but the remarkable transformation and unprecedented dynamism in rural Bangladesh remain an underexplored, underappreciated, and largely untold story. Dynamics of Rural Growth in Bangladesh: Sustaining Poverty Reduction tells that story and inquires what specific actions Bangladesh might take—given the residual poverty and persistent malnutrition—to accelerate and c...

  15. Health Status, Occupational Hygiene & Safety Practices among Female Workers in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AbulKashem Obidul HUQ

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the rising of baking industries in Bangladesh, more female workers are surprisingly engaged compared to male workers. The major aim of this study was to observe the working conditions, available safety facilities and hygiene maintained by the female workers.Methods: A cross sectional survey was carried out among the randomly selected 384 female workers from different baking industries located at Dhaka and Tangail regions in Bangladesh by a well-designed semi-structured questionnaire.Results: About 33% of all respondents opined the machine room was congested, 27% narrow packaging and sealing room while 37% unhealthy storage areas. Two industries did not have proper accident prevention facilities. Although all the industries had monitoring personnel hygiene practices, about 40% of the workers were found not strictly maintaining some basic personal hygiene criteria. Socio-demographic result showed that the workers education level and monthly family income were poor. About 59.1% of all workers were suffering from various degrees of Chronic Energy Deficiencies (CED. It was also observed that nutritional status of the workers significantly related to their expenditure of the foods and working loads (χ2 Value < 0.05.Conclusion: The survey revealed that the occupational hygiene and safety practices were not at satisfactory level in some selected food industries in Bangladesh. The currently available food safety tools and system like Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP should be adapted by the industries and concurrently ensure the sufficient wages for workers. Keywords: Industrial female workers, Occupational hygiene, Safety practices, Chronic Energy Deficiencies (CED 

  16. IMPACT OF MARKETING STRATEGIES ON SACHET PRODUCTS IN BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossain Shahid SHOHROWARDHY

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A product is anything that can be accessible to the market for satisfaction. The basic objective of marketing is maximum satisfaction since satisfaction of consumer and business performance is positively related to each other. For satisfaction, product is diversified in different categories i.e. generic product, product type product, substitute product and product line etc. Sachet product is one of the expansions of product line. The term ‘Sachet’ is originated from the French word which means “mini”. In Bangladesh, sachet product has a strong market share. Thus, this study attempts to determine the exiting share of sachet product and measure the impact of marketing strategies on sachet product in Bangladesh. This study uses the selective 22 dimensions to favor the sachet product on the basis of 4Ps (Product, Price, Place and Promotion. To accomplish the study, 125 samples have been taken from selective markets in Cosmopolitan city, Chittagong. The study found that sachet product has strong market position comparative with other categories of products, where promotional effect is the dominant factor who played the vital role to sustain the sachet product in Bangladesh. The results of this study will be constructive for executives and policy-makers of business organization who works with fast moving consumer good (FMCG items effectively in Bangladesh.

  17. Key issues on safety design basis selection and safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In current fast reactor design in Japan, four design accident conditions and four design seismic conditions are adopted as the design base classifications. These are classified by the considerations on both likelihood of occurrence and the severeness of the consequences. There are several major problem areas in safety design consideration such as core accident problems which include fuel sodium interaction, fuel failure propagation and residual decay heat removal, and decay heat removal systems problems which is more or less the problem of selection of appropriate system and of assurance of high reliability of the system. In view of licensing, two kinds of accidents are postulated in evaluating the adequacy of a reactor site. The one is the ''major accident'' which is the accident to give most severe radiation hazard to the public from technical point of view. The other is the ''hypothetical accident'', induced public accident of which is severer than that of major accident. While the concept of the former is rather unique to Japanese licensing, the latter is almost equivalent to design base hypothetical accident of the US practice. In this paper, design bases selections, key safety issues and some of the licensing considerations in Japan are described

  18. Basis for NGNP Reactor Design Down-Selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.E. Demick

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify the extent of technology development, design and licensing maturity anticipated to be required to credibly identify differences that could make a technical choice practical between the prismatic and pebble bed reactor designs. This paper does not address a business decision based on the economics, business model and resulting business case since these will vary based on the reactor application. The selection of the type of reactor, the module ratings, the number of modules, the configuration of the balance of plant and other design selections will be made on the basis of optimizing the Business Case for the application. These are not decisions that can be made on a generic basis.

  19. Basis for NGNP Reactor Design Down-Selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.E. Demick

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify the extent of technology development, design and licensing maturity anticipated to be required to credibly identify differences that could make a technical choice practical between the prismatic and pebble bed reactor designs. This paper does not address a business decision based on the economics, business model and resulting business case since these will vary based on the reactor application. The selection of the type of reactor, the module ratings, the number of modules, the configuration of the balance of plant and other design selections will be made on the basis of optimizing the Business Case for the application. These are not decisions that can be made on a generic basis.

  20. Design of Nonuniform Filter Bank Transceivers for Frequency Selective Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Han-Ting; Phoong, See-May; Lin, Yuan-Pei

    2006-12-01

    In recent years, there has been considerable interest in the theory and design of filter bank transceivers due to their superior frequency response. In many applications, it is desired to have transceivers that can support multiple services with different incoming data rates and different quality-of-service requirements. To meet these requirements, we can either do resource allocation or design transceivers with a nonuniform bandwidth partition. In this paper, we propose a method for the design of nonuniform filter bank transceivers for frequency selective channels. Both frequency response and signal-to-interference ratio (SIR) can be incorporated in the transceiver design. Moreover, the technique can be extended to the case of nonuniform filter bank transceivers with rational sampling factors. Simulation results show that nonuniform filter bank transceivers with good filter responses as well as high SIR can be obtained by the proposed design method.

  1. Socio-economic Conditions of Tribal Female Workers of the Beauty Parlors in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Nargis Akhter; Feroz Ahmed; Sohrab Hossain

    2011-01-01

    The study highlights the socio-economic conditions of tribal female workers of the beauty parlors in Bangladesh. The study consists of 240 sample tribal female workers of the different beauty parlors situated in six divisional towns of Bangladesh and judgment sampling technique was used to select this sample. The study reveals that tribal women working at beauty parlor draw competitively higher salary than other tribal people; they live at a comparatively healthy physical environment provided...

  2. Predicting water consumption habits for seven arsenic-safe water options in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Inauen, Jennifer; Tobias, Robert; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Background: In Bangladesh, 20 million people are at the risk of developing arsenicosis because of excessive arsenic intake. Despite increased awareness, many of the implemented arsenic-safe water options are not being sufficiently used by the population. This study investigated the role of social-cognitive factors in explaining the habitual use of arsenic-safe water options.Methods: Eight hundred seventy-two randomly selected households in six arsenic-affected districts of rural Bangladesh, w...

  3. Feasibility of adopting aquaculture without detriment to existing farming practices: a case of Bangladesh farming systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, M.; Rab, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    Integrating agriculture aquaculture that would draw inputs from on farm sources is viewed as a viable option to improve the productivity, income and resource use efficiency of existing farms in Bangladesh. To assess the existing resource availability, use pattern and efficiency before introducing new aquaculture technology within the existing farm systems, a survey of 330 pond operating farm households was conducted in six selected unions from two thanas (subdistricts) of Bangladesh.

  4. Material Design, Selection, and Manufacturing Methods for System Sustainment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Sowder, Jim Lula, Curtis Marshall

    2010-02-18

    This paper describes a material selection and validation process proven to be successful for manufacturing high-reliability long-life product. The National Secure Manufacturing Center business unit of the Kansas City Plant (herein called KCP) designs and manufactures complex electrical and mechanical components used in extreme environments. The material manufacturing heritage is founded in the systems design to manufacturing practices that support the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA). Material Engineers at KCP work with the systems designers to recommend materials, develop test methods, perform analytical analysis of test data, define cradle to grave needs, present final selection and fielding. The KCP material engineers typically will maintain cost control by utilizing commercial products when possible, but have the resources and to develop and produce unique formulations as necessary. This approach is currently being used to mature technologies to manufacture materials with improved characteristics using nano-composite filler materials that will enhance system design and production. For some products the engineers plan and carry out science-based life-cycle material surveillance processes. Recent examples of the approach include refurbished manufacturing of the high voltage power supplies for cockpit displays in operational aircraft; dry film lubricant application to improve bearing life for guided munitions gyroscope gimbals, ceramic substrate design for electrical circuit manufacturing, and tailored polymeric materials for various systems. The following examples show evidence of KCP concurrent design-to-manufacturing techniques used to achieve system solutions that satisfy or exceed demanding requirements.

  5. Target selection and transfer trajectories design for exploring asteroid mission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Technique of target selection and profiles of transfer trajectory for Chinese asteroid exploring mission are studied systemically.A complete set of approaches to selecting mission targets and designing the transfer trajectory is proposed.First,when selecting a target for mission,some factors regarded as the scientific motivations are discussed.Then,when analyzing the accessibility of targets,instead of the classical strategy,the multiple gravity-assist strategy is provided.The suitable and possible targets,taking into account scientific value and technically feasible,are obtained via selection and estimation.When designing the transfer trajectory for exploring asteroid mission,an approach to selecting gravity-assist celestial body is proposed.Finally,according to the mission constraints,the trajectory profile with 2-years △V-EGA for exploring asteroid is presented.Through analyzing the trajectory profile,unexpected result that the trajectory would pass by two main-belts asteroids is found.So,the original proposal is extended to the multiple flybys mission.It adds the scientific return for asteroid mission.

  6. Prevalence and correlates of physical spousal violence against women in slum and non-slum areas of urban Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Sambisa, William; Angeles, Gustavo; Lance, Peter; Naved, Ruchira T.; Thornton, Juliana

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the prevalence and correlates of past-year physical violence against women in slum and non-slum areas of urban Bangladesh. We used multivariate logistic regression to analyze data from the 2006 Urban Health Survey, a population-based survey of 9122 currently married women aged 15–49 selected using a multi-stage cluster sampling design. The prevalence of reported past-year physical spousal violence was 31%. Prevalence of past-year physical spousal violence was higher in slu...

  7. License Application Design Selection Report, REV 01. August 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hastings, C.R.

    1999-08-30

    In December 1998, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) published the ''Viability Assessment of a Repository at Yucca Mountain'' (DOE 1998b). The Viability Assessment described a preliminary design of a potential repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, and assessed the probable behavior of that repository design in the Yucca Mountain geologic setting. The report concluded that 'Yucca Mountain remains a promising site for a geologic repository and that work should proceed to support a decision in 2001 on whether to recommend the site to the President for development as a repository'. It also concluded that 'uncertainties remain about key natural processes, the preliminary design, and how the site and design would interact'. Recognizing that the design that was evaluated will be refined before a license application could be submitted, the Viability Aassesment notes that 'DOE is evaluating several design options and alternatives that could reduce existing uncertainty and improve the performance of the repository system'. During the preparation of the Viability Assessment, DOE asked the contractor for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program to study alternative design concepts for a potential geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain. The License Application Design Selection (LADS) project was initiated to conduct that study. The goal of the project was to develop and evaluate a diverse range of conceptual repository designs that work well in concert with the Yucca Mountain site and to recommend an initial design concept for the possible Site Recommendation and License Apllication. This report presents the results of the LADS project. The design process consisted of two phases. In Phase I, a series of basic design concepts (design alternatives) and components (design features) were analyzed for their potential value

  8. Designing a fuzzy expert system for selecting knowledge management strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameneh Khadivar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available knowledge management strategy is mentioned as one of the most important success factors for implementing knowledge management. The KM strategy selection is a complex decision that requires consideration of several factors. For evaluation and selection of an appropriate knowledge management strategy in organizations, many factors must be considered. The identified factors and their impact on knowledge management strategy are inherently ambiguous. In this study, an overview of theoretical foundations of research regarding the different knowledge management strategies has been done And factors influencing the knowledge management strategy selection have been extracted from conceptual frameworks and models. How these factors influence the knowledge management strategy selection is extracted through the fuzzy Delphi. Next a fuzzy expert system for the selection of appropriate knowledge management strategy is designed with respect to factors that have an impact on knowledge management strategy. The factors which influence the selection of knowledge management strategy include: general business strategy, organizational structure, cultural factors, IT strategy, strategic human resource management, social level, the types of knowledge creation processes and release it. The factors which influence the knowledge management strategy selection include: business strategy general, organizational structure, cultural factors, IT strategy, human resource management strategies, socialization level, knowledge types and its creation and diffusion processes. According to identified factors which affect the knowledge management strategy, the final strategy is recommended based on the range of human-oriented and system-oriented by keep the balance of explicit and implicit knowledge. The Designed system performance is tested and evaluated by the information related to three Iranian organization.

  9. Selection of low-risk design guidelines for energetic events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper recommends the establishment of specific design guidelines for protection against potential, but low-probability, energetic events. These guidelines recognize the plant protective features incorporated to prevent such events, as well as the inherent capability of the plant to accommodate a certain level of energy release. Further, their application is recommended within the context of necessary standardized and agreed-upon acceptance criteria which are less restrictive than ASME code requirements. The paper provides the background upon which the selection of the design is made, including the characterization of energetic events dependent on various core-design parameters, and including the necessity of a low-risk design balanced between prevention of accidents and the mitigation of consequences

  10. Antimalarial drug resistance in Bangladesh, 1996-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Ubydul; Glass, Gregory E; Haque, Waziul; Islam, Nazrul; Roy, Shyamal; Karim, Jahirul; Noedl, Harald

    2013-12-01

    Malaria remains an important health problem in Bangladesh, with approximately 14 million people at risk. Antimalarial drug resistance is a major obstacle to the control of malaria in endemic countries. In 2012, Bangladesh reported an estimated 29 522 malaria episodes, of which 94% were reported as being caused by Plasmodium falciparum. In this study, we reviewed and summarized antimalarial drug resistance data from Bangladesh published until June 2013. We searched published sources for data referring to any type of P. falciparum drug resistance (in vivo, in vitro, or molecular) and found 169 articles published in peer-reviewed journals. Of these, 143 articles were excluded because they did not meet our inclusion criteria. After detailed review of the remaining 26 articles, 14 were selected for evaluation. Published studies indicate that P. falciparum shows varying levels of resistance to chloroquine, mefloquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine. Combination therapy of chloroquine and primaquine has proven ineffective and combinations of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine with either quinine or chloroquine have also shown poor efficacy. Recent studies indicate that artemisinin derivatives, such as artesunate, remain highly efficacious in treating P. falciparum malaria. Available data suggest that artemisinins, quinine, doxycyline, mefloquine-artesunate and azithromycin-artesunate combination therapy remain efficacious in the treatment of P. falciparum malaria in Bangladesh.

  11. Computational design of nanoparticle drug delivery systems for selective targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Gregg A; Bevan, Michael A

    2015-10-01

    Ligand-functionalized nanoparticles capable of selectively binding to diseased versus healthy cell populations are attractive for improved efficacy of nanoparticle-based drug and gene therapies. However, nanoparticles functionalized with high affinity targeting ligands may lead to undesired off-target binding to healthy cells. In this work, Monte Carlo simulations were used to quantitatively determine net surface interactions, binding valency, and selectivity between targeted nanoparticles and cell surfaces. Dissociation constant, KD, and target membrane protein density, ρR, are explored over a range representative of healthy and cancerous cell surfaces. Our findings show highly selective binding to diseased cell surfaces can be achieved with multiple, weaker affinity targeting ligands that can be further optimized by varying the targeting ligand density, ρL. Using the approach developed in this work, nanomedicines can be optimally designed for exclusively targeting diseased cells and tissues.

  12. IMPACT OF RICE AND WHEAT PRICE CHANGES ON THE POOR IN SOME SELECTED MONGA AFFECTED AREAS OF BANGLADESH: FIELD EVIDENCE FROM GAIBANDHA DISTRICT

    OpenAIRE

    Naha, Ashrafun; MANDAL, M.A.SATTAR; Rahman, M. Saidur

    2010-01-01

    The study evaluated the impact of price hike on food consumption of the poor and the performance of safety net programmes in the targeted monga affected areas (monga means season of very low employment in September/October, which led to famine like situation in the past). Primary data were collected from a sample of 90 poor households from four villages selected purposively from Gobindaganj Upazila of Gaibandha district, considering the traditional incidence of monga in the area. The sample h...

  13. Hand hygiene knowledge and practice among university students: evidence from Private Universities of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultana M

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Marufa Sultana,1 Rashidul Alam Mahumud,1 Abdur Razzaque Sarker,1 Sarder Mahmud Hossain,21Health Economics and Financing Research Group, Centre for Equity and Health System (CEHS, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, 2Department of Public Health, Northern University Bangladesh, Dhaka, BangladeshAbstract: Hand hygiene has achieved the reputation of being a convenient means of preventing communicable diseases. Although causal links between hand hygiene and rates of infectious disease have also been established earlier, studies focusing on hand hygiene among university-going students are not adequate in number. This study evaluated handwashing knowledge, practice, and other related factors among the selected university students in the city of Dhaka, Bangladesh. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 200 undergraduate students from four selected universities. A pretested, semistructured questionnaire, that included a checklist associated with handwashing practice, was applied to capture all relevant data. The mean (± SD age of the participants was 20.4 (±1.8 years. The majority of the students washed their hands with water, but only 22.5% washed their hands effectively by maintaining the correct steps and frequency of handwashing with water, and soap or hand sanitizer. The mean (± SD score of the participants’ hand hygiene practice was 50.81 (±4.79, while the total score with all perfect answers was considered as 66. Regression coefficient demonstrated that age has a negative influence on hand hygiene practice, as older students have lower scores compared to the younger ones (P<0.01. However, the unmarried students were a significant predictor for influencing the incensement of handwashing practice compared to the married ones (P<0.01. Findings of this study designate widespread insufficient hand hygiene practice in the university-going students and indicate a need for an extensive public health education

  14. Optimum Tower Crane Selection and Supporting Design Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo Won Sohn

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available To optimize tower crane selection and supporting design, lifting requirements (as well as stability should be examined, followed by a review of economic feasibility. However, construction engineers establish plans based on data provided by equipment suppliers since there are no tools with which to thoroughly examine a support design’s suitability for various crane types, and such plans lack the necessary supporting data. In such cases it is impossible to optimize a tower crane selection to satisfy lifting requirements in terms of cost, and to perform lateral support and foundation design. Thus, this study is intended to develop an optimum tower crane selection and supporting design management method based on stability. All cases that are capable of generating an optimization of approximately 3,000 ~ 15,000 times are calculated to identify the candidate cranes with minimized cost, which are examined. The optimization method developed in the study is expected to support engineers in determining the optimum lifting equipment management.

  15. Bangladesh Policy Note : Procurement Management Capacity Development in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    Bangladesh has reshaped the landscape of procurement policy reform and capacity development over the last several years, and has taken lead in the South Asia region. Though reasonably good progress has been made in policy reform, yet its application has proven to be relatively inconsistent. Effective implementation of the law requires a public and a private sector that have the skills and ...

  16. Approaches to the rational design of selective melanocortin receptor antagonists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruby, Victor J; Cai, Minying; Nyberg, Joel; Muthu, Dhanasekaran

    2015-01-01

    Introduction When establishing the physiological roles of specific receptors in normal and disease states, it is critical to have selective antagonist ligands for each receptor in a receptor system with several subtypes. The melanocortin receptors have five subtypes referred to as the melanocortin 1 receptor, melanocortin 2 receptor, melanocortin 3 receptor, melanocortin 4 receptor and melanocortin 5 receptor, and they are of critical importance for many aspects of human health and disease. Areas covered This article reviews the current efforts to design selective antagonistic ligands for the five human melanocortin receptors summarizing the currently published orthosteric and allosteric antagonists for each of these receptors. Expert opinion Though there has been progress, there are still few drugs available that address the many significant biological activities and diseases that are associated with these receptors, which is possibly due to the lack of receptor selectivity that these designed ligands are currently showing. The authors believe that further studies into the antagonists’ 3D conformational and topographical properties in addition to future mutagenesis studies will provide greater insight into these ligands which could play a role in the treatment of various diseases in the future. PMID:22646078

  17. Bangladesh Development Update, April 2016

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this report is to update the Government of Bangladesh, think tanks and researchers, the general public as well as the Bank’s senior management on the state of the economy, outlook, risks, progress on structural policy reforms, and key challenges the economy is currently facing. The coverage includes developments in the real sector focusing on growth, inflation, and poverty...

  18. Women in physics in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Shamima K.

    2013-03-01

    Bangladesh has had a glorious physics tradition since the beginning of the last century, when the physicist S.N. Bose published a groundbreaking paper with Albert Einstein on Bose-Einstein statistics. However, women in Bangladesh traditionally have not been able to make their way in the realm of science in general and physics in particular. Since Bangladesh achieved independence in 1971, the situation has gradually changed and more and more women choose physics as an academic discipline. The percentage of women students in physics rose from 10% in 1970 to almost 30% in 2010. In recent years, women physicists have actively participated in many activities promoting science and technology, creating awareness among the public about the importance of physics education. The present status of women physicists in academic, research, and administrative programs in the government and private sectors in Bangladesh is reported. The greater inclusion of women scientists, particularly physicists, in policy-making roles on important issues of global and national interest is suggested.

  19. Wind Energy Potential in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Z.A. Saifullah

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh is encountering difficulties in supplying energy to maintain its economic growth. Government of Bangladesh is looking for renewable energy sources to meet up the total power demand in this country. The present study aims to assess wind energy potential in Bangladesh as a sustainable solution to overcome the energy crisis. Wind speed at six coastal zones Patenga, Cox’s Bazar, Teknaf, Char Fassion, Kuakata and Kutubdia at Bay of Bengal of Bangladesh have been analyzed. A near shore wind farm has been considered at these locations having a coastal line of 574 km. The turbines are spaced 7D apart in the prevailing wind direction, and 3D apart in the perpendicular direction, where D is rotor diameter. This near shore wind farm with an array of 5104 horizontal axis wind turbines with hub height of 100 m and rotor diameter of 75 m with a wind speed of 7 m/sec is capable to generate 1855.25 MW of electrical power. This can mitigate 55.93 per cent of energy shortage in 2016. By developing renewable energy sources it is possible to compensate 11.25 per cent of total power demand by 2020.

  20. Modern population trends in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abul-basher, M M

    1985-01-01

    Population growth trends in Bangladesh in the 1871-1981 period were analyzed, with emphasis on fertility and mortality differentials, to provide a basis for population planning. Following proclamation of British Imperial Rule in 1857, mortality rates in Bangladesh began to decline as a result of preventive measures against natural disasters such as draught and famine, but the fertility rate remained unaltered. The demographic pattern was unstable over time, reflecting the impact of the influenza epidemic of 1918-19, war, migration, and economic development. Population growth accelerated greatly during the 1961-74 period, when industrialization emerged and job opportunities were created in the urban centers. Economic hardship, food shortages, and the introduction of family planning curbed urban growth drastically and total growth to some extent in 1974-81. On the average, growth has been higher in the Dhaka and Chittagong Divisions of Bangladesh than in the Khulna and Rajshahi Divisions. Differences in population growth among the regions are attributable largely to internal and external migration. The regression polynomial model best fits past population trends in Bangladesh and can reproduce the observed population by 99.60%. This polynomial is most suitable for graduation and prediction of population trends. PMID:12280834

  1. Non-power application of nuclear energy: Bangladesh perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation technology offers a very wide scope for utilisation and commercial exploitation in various fields. All over the world, this non-power nuclear energy is being favourably considered for different applications like radiation processing of polymeric materials, non-destructive testing, nuclear and nuclear-related analytical techniques, radiation sterilization of medical products and human tissue allografts, preservation of food by controlling the physiological processes for extending shelf-life and eradication of microbial and insect pests, nuclear technology in agriculture and treatment of sewage sludge. Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission has taken radiation processing programmes in a big way right from its inception. This paper describes the studies carried out by various research groups in Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission in the planning and development of non-power nuclear technology for peaceful uses in the fields of food, agriculture, medicine, industry and environment. Both food preservation and medical sterilization of medical products are now being commercially carried out in the Gammatech facility as a joint venture company of BAEC and a private entrepreneur. Bangladesh is soon going to establish a full-fledged Tissue Bank to cater the needs of various tissue allografts for surgical replacement. Recently Government of Bangladesh has allocated US$ 1.00 million for strengthening of the Tissue Banking Laboratory. Application of nuclear techniques in agriculture is also quite intensive. BAEC has made quite a good research contribution on vulcanization of natural rubber latex, wood plastic composites, surface coating curing, polymer modification etc. Bangladesh has also made a very good progress in the fields of non-destructive testing, tracer technology, nuclear analytical techniques and nucleonic control. The impact of non-power nuclear energy in selected areas will no doubt be significant in coming years. (Author)

  2. Computational design of nanoparticle drug delivery systems for selective targeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Gregg A.; Bevan, Michael A.

    2015-09-01

    Ligand-functionalized nanoparticles capable of selectively binding to diseased versus healthy cell populations are attractive for improved efficacy of nanoparticle-based drug and gene therapies. However, nanoparticles functionalized with high affinity targeting ligands may lead to undesired off-target binding to healthy cells. In this work, Monte Carlo simulations were used to quantitatively determine net surface interactions, binding valency, and selectivity between targeted nanoparticles and cell surfaces. Dissociation constant, KD, and target membrane protein density, ρR, are explored over a range representative of healthy and cancerous cell surfaces. Our findings show highly selective binding to diseased cell surfaces can be achieved with multiple, weaker affinity targeting ligands that can be further optimized by varying the targeting ligand density, ρL. Using the approach developed in this work, nanomedicines can be optimally designed for exclusively targeting diseased cells and tissues.Ligand-functionalized nanoparticles capable of selectively binding to diseased versus healthy cell populations are attractive for improved efficacy of nanoparticle-based drug and gene therapies. However, nanoparticles functionalized with high affinity targeting ligands may lead to undesired off-target binding to healthy cells. In this work, Monte Carlo simulations were used to quantitatively determine net surface interactions, binding valency, and selectivity between targeted nanoparticles and cell surfaces. Dissociation constant, KD, and target membrane protein density, ρR, are explored over a range representative of healthy and cancerous cell surfaces. Our findings show highly selective binding to diseased cell surfaces can be achieved with multiple, weaker affinity targeting ligands that can be further optimized by varying the targeting ligand density, ρL. Using the approach developed in this work, nanomedicines can be optimally designed for exclusively targeting

  3. IMAGE SELECTION FOR 3D MEASUREMENT BASED ON NETWORK DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Fuse

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available 3D models have been widely used by spread of many available free-software. On the other hand, enormous images can be easily acquired, and images are utilized for creating the 3D models recently. However, the creation of 3D models by using huge amount of images takes a lot of time and effort, and then efficiency for 3D measurement are required. In the efficiency strategy, the accuracy of the measurement is also required. This paper develops an image selection method based on network design that means surveying network construction. The proposed method uses image connectivity graph. By this, the image selection problem is regarded as combinatorial optimization problem and the graph cuts technique can be applied. Additionally, in the process of 3D reconstruction, low quality images and similarity images are extracted and removed. Through the experiments, the significance of the proposed method is confirmed. Potential to efficient and accurate 3D measurement is implied.

  4. An integrated approach to route selection in slurry pipeline design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betinol, Roy G.; Altmann, Nara [Brass Chile S.A., Santiago (Chile)

    2009-12-19

    The pressure to get engineering projects done and constructed as fast as possible in order to take advantage of the high prices in metals and petrochemicals has been driving companies to skip the conceptual phase and go straight into basic engineering with cost estimates in the level of 15% accuracy. By-passing early engineering and demanding higher cost estimating accuracy is a contradiction. In most cases, savings made on capital investment is much higher had money been spent in conceptual studies which allow for the optimal solution to be found. This paper reviews one of the key aspects in conceptual engineering of slurry pipeline designs: route selection. This activity is often overlooked, causing capital cost and operating difficulties to rise unnecessarily. This paper describes and gives example on how an integrated client/engineering company's approach to route selection can produce significant savings in pipeline construction and operating costs. (author)

  5. Design of an operations manager selection system in service encounter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanawin Nunthaphanich

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to provide criteria for selecting operations managers at the ‘service encounter’ for mobile telecommunication companies, and develop a system for this multi-criteria decision-making scheme based on the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP. There are three main criteria for evaluating the capability of service-encounter operation managers: (1 the ability to design service process; (2 the ability to operate service process; (3 the ability to conduct improvement. The AHP operation manager selection tool was developed based on the complex problems at the service encounter. It was created as a decision support system which was used to recruit and evaluate operations managers’ capability for the purpose of career advancement.

  6. RURAL MARKETS IN BANGLADESH AND THE RURAL MAINTENANCE PROGRAMME

    OpenAIRE

    Uddin, M. Mosleh; Kabir, M.; Alam, M. Mostafa; Boss, G. K.

    1989-01-01

    This study describes the Impact of rural maintenance programme on rural markets in Bangladesh. Rural Maintenance programme (RMP) is a year-round programme for maintenance ol 16 miles earthen roads In each selected union. The programme is run by crews consisting of 15 destitute women. The findings suggest that better road maintenance by RMP in the programme areas has resulted in more traffic f low through which the markets in the programme areas have been expanded. Better supply of services su...

  7. Improvement of Deep Tubwell Irrigation Project Performance in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Miah, Md. Mirjahan

    1984-01-01

    A computer model for use in predicting the impact of various improvement options on command area expansion of a deep tubewell irrigation system has been developed. A field study was conducted on 11 selected deep tubewells located at two sites, namely Dhamrai and Thakurgaon, in Bangladesh to collect necessary physical data to provide irrigation engineering insight and a basis for testing and application of the model. The results of the investigation revealed that the actual discharge of most o...

  8. Designed amyloid fibers as materials for selective carbon dioxide capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Furukawa, Hiroyasu; Deng, Hexiang; Liu, Cong; Yaghi, Omar M; Eisenberg, David S

    2014-01-01

    New materials capable of binding carbon dioxide are essential for addressing climate change. Here, we demonstrate that amyloids, self-assembling protein fibers, are effective for selective carbon dioxide capture. Solid-state NMR proves that amyloid fibers containing alkylamine groups reversibly bind carbon dioxide via carbamate formation. Thermodynamic and kinetic capture-and-release tests show the carbamate formation rate is fast enough to capture carbon dioxide by dynamic separation, undiminished by the presence of water, in both a natural amyloid and designed amyloids having increased carbon dioxide capacity. Heating to 100 °C regenerates the material. These results demonstrate the potential of amyloid fibers for environmental carbon dioxide capture.

  9. Fuzzy Axiomatic Design approach based green supplier selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kannan, Devika; Govindan, Kannan; Rajendran, Sivakumar

    2015-01-01

    proposes a multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) approach called Fuzzy Axiomatic Design (FAD) to select the best green supplier for Singapore-based plastic manufacturing company. At first, the environmental criteria was developed along with the traditional criteria based on the literature review...... and company requirements. Next, the FAD methodology evaluates the requirements of both the manufacturer (design needs) and the supplier (functional needs), and because multiple criteria must be considered, a multi-objective optimization model of a fuzzy nature must be developed. The application...... responsible in addition to being efficiently managed. A significant way to implement responsible GSCM is to reconsider, in innovative ways, the purchase and supply cycle, and a preliminary step would be to ensure that the supplier of goods successfully incorporates green criteria. Therefore, this paper...

  10. Socio-economic Conditions of Tribal Female Workers of the Beauty Parlors in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nargis Akhter

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The study highlights the socio-economic conditions of tribal female workers of the beauty parlors in Bangladesh. The study consists of 240 sample tribal female workers of the different beauty parlors situated in six divisional towns of Bangladesh and judgment sampling technique was used to select this sample. The study reveals that tribal women working at beauty parlor draw competitively higher salary than other tribal people; they live at a comparatively healthy physical environment provided by their owners. Majority of the respondents mentioned that their earnings have improved their economic condition significantly and more than half of them have past work experience of the same job. The tribal female workers of the beauty parlors in Bangladesh are not only generating income from the beauty parlors they are providing a valuable service to the new consumer society. The main stream society is not yet ready to provide this type of services. So, we should not treat this migrant community as temporary visitors rather we should treat them as indispensable and contributing factor of the social and economic development in Bangladesh. There should be initiative from the government of Bangladesh to inspect health; safety; welfare and other related issues of the beauty parlors in Bangladesh and take necessary actions in this regard. Finally, the future research directions are presented.

  11. Photovoltaic-module encapsulation design and materials selection: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuddihy, E.; Carroll, W.; Coulbert, C.; Gupta, A.; Liang, R.

    1982-06-01

    Encapsulation-material system requirements, material-selection criteria, and the status and properties of encapsulation materials and processes available to the module manufacturer are presented in detail. Technical and economic goals established for photovoltaic modules and encapsulation systems and their status are described for material suppliers to assist them in assessing the suitability of materials in their product lines and the potential of new-material products. A comprehensive discussion of available encapsulation technology and data is presented to facilitate design and material selection for silicon flat-plate photovoltaic modules, using the best materials available and processes optimized for specific power applications and geographic sites. A basis is provided for specifying the operational and environmental loads that encapsulation material systems must resist. Potential deployment sites for which cost effectiveness may be achieved at a module price much greater than $0.70/W/sub p/, are also considered; data on higher-cost encapsulant materials and processes that may be in use and other material candidates that may be justified for special application are discussed. Described are encapsulation-system functional requirements and candidate design concepts and materials that have been identified and analyzed as having the best potential to meet the cost and performance goals for the Flat-Plate Solar Array Project. The available data on encapsulant material properties, fabrication processing, and module life and durability characteristics are presented.

  12. Monsoon definition discrepancies in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, M. A.; Chu, P.-S.

    2012-04-01

    This study applies different definitions of what previous authors have called the monsoon over Bangladesh. The aim is to identify the definitions that most resemble the perceptions of the local rural communities and how they define the monsoon. Considering how the local communities define the monsoon is extremely important since these populations are most vulnerable to future changes in climate and more specifically monsoon rainfall. It has been pointed out previously that the monsoon research community had not reached a consensus on a unified definition of the monsoon rainy season. This problem seems to be profound in Bangladesh where results from the application of different definitions show very large discrepancies. Since these discrepancies exist, confusing terms such as monsoon, summer rainy season, and monsoon rainy season can have large implications for impact studies and interpretations of future climate projections. The results in this paper show that these terms need to be explicitly and carefully defined with regards to Bangladesh. Wind-, rain- and OLR-based definitions are applied to several different datasets to show how large these discrepancies can be over Bangladesh. Differences in onset dates are found to be around 8-9 pentads (40-45 days) in some regions of the country. The largest differences are seen in the north-east region, where rain-based definitions give much earlier onsets than wind- or OLR-based definitions. The results show that mesoscale phenomena could be influencing the climate in the north-east part of Bangladesh and causing much earlier summer rainfall. According to the results from a previous social study, the local communities in fact consider this early rainfall as the monsoon onset. By identifying the definition that best resembles the local community perceptions through out Bangladesh, then future information can be constructed, so that it is more easily understood by and applicable to the millions of people climate change will

  13. A Study on Plant Selection for Green Building Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izudinshah Abd. Wahab

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous researches show that incorporating natural elements in design has proven a significant result in balancing building indoor environment. Using plant as part of the design has been widely accepted to contribute good thermal impact as shown in bioclimatic design, green roofing system and living wall elements. As there are so many species of plants for selection, this research was carried out to analyze types of indoor plants that have the potential to contribute thermal comfort to their surrounding. Based on the fact that plant leaves are the part where transpiration and guttation take place, plants are categorized into seven types based on their leaves architecture. They were then tested on their impact on surrounding temperature and humidity. Result shows that Linear, Lanceolate and Oblong shaped leaves categories are good in lowering the relative humidity while the categories that are good in lowering the temperature are Linear, Lanceolate, Cordate and Oblong shaped leaves categories. The study was carried out through series of relative humidity and air temperature monitoring of several room casings that consist with the plants. Both relative humidity and air temperature of the rooms with plants were recorded lower compared with the one without plant. Different categories of plants do give good result in relative humidity and air temperature. Thus, with a good combination of plant installation inside or onto building, it may contribute towards providing a good thermal comfort to the occupants.

  14. Sexual Health of Women with Spinal Cord Injury in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Huib Cornielje; Reshma Parvin Nuri; Noortje Pauline Maria Lubbers; van Brakel, Wim H.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To identify factors influencing the sexual health of women with spinal cord injury (SCI) in Bangladesh.Methods: This study used both qualitative and quantitative methods. The quantitative part used a case-control design. Cases were women with SCI and controls were age-matched women without SCI.  Questionnaires were used to collect data concerning the sexual health status of women. Multivariate logistic regression was done to determine which factors had an independent effect on sexual...

  15. Chemical and environmental vector control as a contribution to the elimination of visceral leishmaniasis on the Indian subcontinent: cluster randomized controlled trials in Bangladesh, India and Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Pradeep

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bangladesh, India and Nepal are working towards the elimination of visceral leishmaniasis (VL by 2015. In 2005 the World Health Organization/Training in Tropical Diseases launched an implementation research programme to support integrated vector management for the elimination of VL from Bangladesh, India and Nepal. The programme is conducted in different phases, from proof-of-concept to scaling up intervention. This study was designed in order to evaluate the efficacy of the three different interventions for VL vector management: indoor residual spraying (IRS; long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLIN; and environmental modification (EVM through plastering of walls with lime or mud. Methods Using a cluster randomized controlled trial we compared three vector control interventions with a control arm in 96 clusters (hamlets or neighbourhoods in each of the 4 study sites: Bangladesh (one, India (one and Nepal (two. In each site four villages with high reported VL incidences were included. In each village six clusters and in each cluster five households were randomly selected for sand fly collection on two consecutive nights. Control and intervention clusters were matched with average pre-intervention vector densities. In each site six clusters were randomly assigned to each of the following interventions: indoor residual spraying (IRS; long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLIN; environmental management (EVM or control. All the houses (50-100 in each intervention cluster underwent the intervention measures. A reduction of intra-domestic sand fly densities measured in the study households by overnight US Centres for Disease Prevention and Control light trap captures (that is the number of sand flies per trap per night was the main outcome measure. Results IRS, and to a lesser extent EVM and LLINs, significantly reduced sand fly densities for at least 5 months in the study households irrespective of type of walls or whether or

  16. THE ROLE OF NGOs IN THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizul Hassan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Non-governmental organizations are claimed to have impacts on the sustainable development in rural areas of the developing countries and the Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC is identified as an example. This study has considered BRAC as the case and has been aimed to critically outline the roles of this selected non-governmental organization (BRAC in sustainable development process. With this particular aim, this study has also explored the trends of current poverty situations in Bangladesh. In addition, impacts of the BRAC sustainable development initiatives have also been analyzed, to some extent. This study has selected two villages of the Chandpur district of Bangladesh, where BRAC has been operating intense programmes. This study has used both the qualitative and quantitative methods of research. Results suggest that programmes undertaken by NGOs are capable of having positive contributions in the sustainable development process to a certain level. The fact is that the programme implementation, where efficiency of the NGO employees is an indicator of success factor. The research is empirical and is expectedly fill the gap of literature.

  17. Design, synthesis and biological characterization of selective LIMK inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Sandro; Bourin, Arnaud; Alen, Jo; Geraets, Jacques; Schroeders, Pieter; Castermans, Karolien; Kindt, Nele; Boumans, Nicki; Panitti, Laura; Vanormelingen, Jessica; Fransen, Silke; Van de Velde, Sarah; Defert, Olivier

    2015-09-15

    Inhibitors of LIM kinases are considered of interest for several indications, including elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), cancer, or infection by HIV-1. LX-7101 (Lexicon Pharmaceuticals) was advanced to Phase-I clinical trials as an IOP-lowering agent for treatment of glaucoma. We here discuss the design, synthesis and evaluation of LIMK inhibitors based on a pyrrolopyrimidine scaffold, which represent close analogs of LX-7101. Exploration of structure-activity relationships revealed that many of such compounds, including LX-7101, cause potent inhibition of LIMK1 and LIMK2, and also ROCK2 and PKA. Molecular variations around the various structural elements of LX-7101 were attempted. Substitution on position 6 of the pyrrolopyrimidine scaffold led to the identification of LX-7101 analogs displaying good selectivity versus ROCK, PKA and Akt.

  18. Energy Flow in Agriculture: Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Alam, M. S.; Alam, M. R.; K. K. Islam

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a qualitative energy flow analysis in Bangladesh agriculture has been made for a period from 1980-81 to 2000-01 to evaluate the impact of energy input to produce output. Human & animal muscle power and machinery energy for tillage operation, electricity and diesel energy for irrigation, fertilizer and pesticides energy for growth and protection are taken into account. Energy values are calculated by multiplying respective quantity by their respective energy equivalents with...

  19. Bangladesh; Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2005-01-01

    The Sixth Five Year Plan, as outlined in Bangladesh's Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper, targets strategic growth and employment. The medium-term macroeconomic framework plan entails the involvement of both the private and public sectors. Human resources development strategy programs reaching out to the poor and the vulnerable population, as well as environment, climate change, and disaster risk management, have been included in the plan. Managing regional disparities for shared growth and str...

  20. High Selective Performance of Designed Antibacterial and Anticancer Peptide Amphiphiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cuixia; Chen, Yucan; Yang, Cheng; Zeng, Ping; Xu, Hai; Pan, Fang; Lu, Jian Ren

    2015-08-12

    Short designed peptide amphiphiles are attractive at killing bacteria and inhibiting cancer cell growth, and the flexibility in their structural design offers a great potential for improving their potency and biocompatibility to mammalian host cells. Amino acid sequences such as G(IIKK)nI-NH2 (n≥3) have been shown to be membrane lytic, but terminal amino acid modifications could impose a huge influence on their performance. We report in this work how terminal amino acid modifications to G(IIKK)3I-NH2 influence its α-helical structure, membrane penetrating ability, and selective actions against different cell types. Deletion of an N-terminal Gly or a C-terminal Ile did not affect their antibacterial activity much, an observation consistent with their binding behavior to negatively charged membrane lipid monolayers. However, the cytotoxicity against mammalian cells was much worsened by the N-terminal Gly deletion, consistent with an increase in its helical content. Despite little impact on the antibacterial activity of G(IIKK)3I-NH2, deletion of both terminal amino acids greatly reduced its antitumor activity. Cholesterol present in tumor cell membrane-mimic was thought to constrain (IIKK)3-NH2 from penetrating into the cancerous membranes, evident from its lowest surface physical activity at penetrating model lipid membranes. On the other hand, its low toxicity to normal mammalian cells and high antibacterial activity in vitro and in vivo made it an attractive antibacterial agent. Thus, terminal modifications can help rebalance the different interactions involved and are highly effective at manipulating their selective membrane responses.

  1. Impact of 4.0% chlorhexidine cleansing of the umbilical cord on mortality and omphalitis among newborns of Sylhet, Bangladesh: design of a community-based cluster randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Saifuddin

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organization recommends dry cord care for newborns but this recommendation may not be optimal in low resource settings where most births take place in an unclean environment and infections account for up to half of neonatal deaths. A previous trial in Nepal indicated that umbilical cord cleansing with 4.0% chlorhexidine could substantially reduce mortality and omphalitis risk, but policy changes await additional community-based data. Methods The Projahnmo Chlorhexidine study was a three-year, cluster-randomized, community-based trial to assess the impact of three cord care regimens on neonatal mortality and omphalitis. Women were recruited mid-pregnancy, received a basic package of maternal and neonatal health promotion messages, and were followed to pregnancy outcome. Newborns were visited at home by local village-based workers whose areas were randomized to either 1 single- or 2 7-day cord cleansing with 4.0% chlorhexidine, or 3 promotion of dry cord care as recommended by WHO. All mothers received basic messages regarding hand-washing, clean cord cutting, and avoidance of harmful home-base applications to the cord. Death within 28 days and omphalitis were the primary outcomes; these were monitored directly through home visits by community health workers on days 1, 3, 6, 9, 15, and 28 after birth. Discussion Due to report in early 2010, the Projahnmo Chlorhexidine Study examines the impact of multiple or single chlorhexidine cleansing of the cord on neonatal mortality and omphalitis among newborns of rural Sylhet District, Bangladesh. The results of this trial will be interpreted in conjunction with a similarly designed trial previously conducted in Nepal, and will have implications for policy guidelines for optimal cord care of newborns in low resource settings in Asia. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00434408

  2. Energy Flow in Agriculture: Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Alam

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a qualitative energy flow analysis in Bangladesh agriculture has been made for a period from 1980-81 to 2000-01 to evaluate the impact of energy input to produce output. Human & animal muscle power and machinery energy for tillage operation, electricity and diesel energy for irrigation, fertilizer and pesticides energy for growth and protection are taken into account. Energy values are calculated by multiplying respective quantity by their respective energy equivalents with the use of relevant conversion factors. Energy flow studied based on some energy dependent indicators: energy input per ha, energy output per ha, energy output to input ratio, mechanization index, energy input to generate per unit GDP output as well as per unit output in energy term and solar energy conversion efficiency. During the study period, energy input and output to Bangladesh agriculture were increased from 6.4 to 17.32 GJ ha-1 and 72.22 to 130.05 GJ ha-1, respectively. It is found that energetic efficiency (energy output to input ratio was declined from 11.28% to 8.1%, which indicates that the energy input increased faster than energy output. It is expected that sustainable energy flow in Bangladesh agriculture can be ascertained by this study.

  3. Energy poverty in rural Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy poverty is a well-established concept among energy and development specialists. International development organizations frequently cite energy-poverty alleviation as a necessary condition to reduce income poverty. Several approaches used to measure energy poverty over the past 20 years have defined the energy poverty line as the minimum quantity of physical energy needed to perform such basic tasks as cooking and lighting. This paper uses a demand-based approach to define the energy poverty line as the threshold point at which energy consumption begins to rise with increases in household income. At or below this threshold point, households consume a bare minimum level of energy and should be considered energy poor. This approach was applied using cross-sectional data from a comprehensive 2004 household survey representative of rural Bangladesh. The findings suggest that some 58 percent of rural households in Bangladesh are energy poor, versus 45 percent that are income poor. The findings also suggest that policies to support rural electrification and greater use of improved biomass stoves might play a significant role in reducing energy poverty. - Research Highlights: →We estimate energy poverty for rural Bangladesh adopting a demand-based approach. →Findings suggest that energy poverty does not necessarily follow the same pattern as income poverty. →Access to modern energy and efficient use of traditional energy help alleviate energy poverty. →Energy poverty indicator can help track the effectiveness of a wide range of energy policies.

  4. Understanding arsenic contamination of groundwater in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    underneath Bangladesh. Logically, arsenic is likely to be present as compounds within sediments comprising the aquifer systems and may be associated with iron oxides, organic matter, sulfides etc. High arsenic contamination of groundwater in Bangladesh is a serious issue requiring appropriate understanding of the phenomenon relating to the occurrence and release of arsenic in groundwater. The water supply challenge is as much one of quantity as of quality. In many regions of the world, it means bringing water closer to the house. Further, if the water supply is of good quality, it improves public health. Three developments of the past decades have spurred new approaches to water supply and public health. First, the capacity to analyze smaller amounts of constituents in water has advanced substantially. Second, the health status and life expectancy have risen substantially across most countries. Finally, health and epidemiological research have advanced as well, and we are now much better informed of longer-term health effects of prolonged ingestion of contaminants. There are, at present, few (if any) low-cost technology and affordable solutions for the treatment of arsenic in non-piped water systems. Proposed interventions in rural areas must include alternative water sources such as rainwater harvesting, more efficient use of non-contaminated wells in the area, treated surface water, selective well drilling to deeper aquifers, and simple arsenic removal techniques as they are found effective. Arsenic contamination apparently can occur in a wide variety of hydrogeological and socioeconomic conditions. Therefore, any mitigation strategy will have to be tailored to suit the local geological, institutional and financial situation. However, the experience with water supply across the world demonstrates that the offered technical options will be sustainable only when the local community, or the customers, are truly committed to it and are willing to contribute financially to (at

  5. Prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension among the elderly in Bangladesh and India: a multicentre study.

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension among elderly individuals in Bangladesh and India. METHOD: A community-based sample of 1203 elderly individuals (670 women; mean age, 70 years) was selected using a multistage cluster sampling technique from two sites in Bangladesh and three sites in India. FINDINGS: The overall prevalence of hypertension (WHO-International Society for Hypertension criteria) was 65% (95% confidence interval = 62-67%). The ...

  6. Prevalence and characterization of motile Salmonella in commercial layer poultry farms in Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barua, Himel; Biswas, Paritosh K.; Olsen, Katharina E. P.;

    2012-01-01

    at farm/holding level, and the zoonotic serovars circulating in layer poultry in the South and South-East Asian countries including Bangladesh, where small-scale commercial farms are predominant, is limited. To investigate the prevalence of Salmonella at layer farm level, and to identify the prevalent...... serovars we conducted a cross-sectional survey by randomly selecting 500 commercial layer poultry farms in Bangladesh. Faecal samples from the selected farms were collected following standard procedure, and examined for the presence of Salmonella using conventional bacteriological procedures. Thirty...... showed that all of them were clonally related because only one genotype and three subtypes were determined based on the variation in two or three bands. This is also the first report on the presence of any specific serovar of Salmonella enterica in poultry in Bangladesh....

  7. Designing lipids for selective partitioning into liquid ordered membrane domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momin, Noor; Lee, Stacey; Gadok, Avinash K; Busch, David J; Bachand, George D; Hayden, Carl C; Stachowiak, Jeanne C; Sasaki, Darryl Y

    2015-04-28

    Self-organization of lipid molecules into specific membrane phases is key to the development of hierarchical molecular assemblies that mimic cellular structures. While the packing interaction of the lipid tails should provide the major driving force to direct lipid partitioning to ordered or disordered membrane domains, numerous examples show that the headgroup and spacer play important but undefined roles. We report here the development of several new biotinylated lipids that examine the role of spacer chemistry and structure on membrane phase partitioning. The new lipids were prepared with varying lengths of low molecular weight polyethylene glycol (EGn) spacers to examine how spacer hydrophilicity and length influence their partitioning behavior following binding with FITC-labeled streptavidin in liquid ordered (Lo) and liquid disordered (Ld) phase coexisting membranes. Partitioning coefficients (Kp Lo/Ld) of the biotinylated lipids were determined using fluorescence measurements in studies with giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs). Compared against DPPE-biotin, DPPE-cap-biotin, and DSPE-PEG2000-biotin lipids, the new dipalmityl-EGn-biotin lipids exhibited markedly enhanced partitioning into liquid ordered domains, achieving Kp of up to 7.3 with a decaethylene glycol spacer (DP-EG10-biotin). We further demonstrated biological relevance of the lipids with selective partitioning to lipid raft-like domains observed in giant plasma membrane vesicles (GPMVs) derived from mammalian cells. Our results found that the spacer group not only plays a pivotal role for designing lipids with phase selectivity but may also influence the structural order of the domain assemblies.

  8. A Comprehensive Framework for Surfactant Selection and Design for Emulsion Based Chemical Product Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattei, Michele; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Gani, Rafiqul

    2014-01-01

    ingredientsis consequently necessary to tackle this problem with computer-aided methods and tools. A compre-hensive framework for the selection and design of surfactants, the main responsible for the formationand the stability of emulsions, is presented here together with the modeling of the cloud point, a key...... for the developmentof a methodology and relevant tools in order to spare time and resources in the design of emulsion-based chemical products, so that the products can reach the market faster and at a reduced cost. Theunderstanding and modeling of the characteristic behavior of emulsions and their peculiar......-property of nonionic surfactants, with a group-contribution model. The mathematical formulation of astandard product design problem is presented, together with the list of both the pure component prop-erties (related to nonionic surfactants) and the mixture properties (relevant to the overall products asan emulsion...

  9. A demographic study on vitiligo (sheti in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Hafizur Rahman

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Vitiligo is quite prevalent and constitutes a major psychological health problem in Bangladesh. To determine the effects and extent distribution of Vitiligo among the people, we mainly focused on the sociodemographic studies on Vitiligo in Bangladesh. The patients volunteered in this study were randomly selected from the Skin and Venereal disease department of Rajshahi Medical college hospital, Rajshahi, Bangladesh during 2009-2011. In this sociodemographic studies 125 vitiligo patients of different age groups were carried out. Age distribution, Sex incidence, occupation, itching, life living status, food allergy, social problem were studied. In this study, disease incidence was the highest 44% among 11-20 years age group. In case of sex incidence the female patients were 56%, on the other hand, male recorded 44%. The demographic characteristic showed that the students were the highest percentage (48% suffering with Vitiligo by occupation. Family history was the most important survey in this study. 32% patients said they had prior to family history. The maximum patients had living status of middle class (40%. In this study 24% patient complained about Food allergy and the participant patient also complained the social problem of Vitiligo. Eighty percent patients reported that most of the person avoids them because general people know that Vitiligo is an infectious disease. This study will give the social consciousness about Vitiligo i.e. it is not an infectious disease. [Int J Res Med Sci 2013; 1(2.000: 123-128

  10. Demand of eLearning for Professional Education and Learners’ Preparation: Bangladesh Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K.M. Iftekhar Khalid

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper demonstrates the demand of elearning that needs to cope with and possible technology introduction through Bangladesh Open University as a lone government agency of distance education in Bangladesh for its learners who are doing Commonwealth Executive MBA (CEMBA/Commonwealth Executive MPA (CEMPA offered in cooperation with Commonwealth of Learning (COL and MBA program of its own. Web based learning or eLearning is a new genre for providing services in the arena of education. Though in most developed countries such USA, Canada, UK, web based learning becomes popular to learners of their country, that is a very new to a third country like Bangladesh. Students of Bangladesh are also partaking courses through online programmes offered by those developed countries. These courses are expensive too, so it is necessary to establish our own elearning system in Bangladesh. As the demand of training and education is huge in Bangladesh, it is necessary to adapt the mobile and flexible system. Keeping the eye on view, a survey was conducted among the learners of those professional academic programmes. The informants were selected both from the capital city of Bangladesh as well as divisional cities and district town. The survey demonstrates that this technology can be appropriately used to meet the demands of the professional programmes. However, this survey also shows that the professional programmes require careful planning and sound technological infrastructures. The study will clarify how far prospective learners have the appreciation of the technology and how the learners have comparatively more preparation to participate in an eLearning programme rather than the organizations. The survey also focuses the primary and secondary education through collected data from websites of Bangladeshi government and private organization.

  11. Salt Intake and Health Risk in Climate Change Vulnerable Coastal Bangladesh: What Role Do Beliefs and Practices Play?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Rasheed

    Full Text Available High salt consumption is an important risk factor of elevated blood pressure. In Bangladesh about 20 million people are at high risk of hypertension due to climate change induced saline intrusion in water. The objective of this study is to assess beliefs, perceptions, and practices associated with salt consumption in coastal Bangladesh.The study was conducted in Chakaria, Bangladesh between April-June 2011. It was a cross sectional mixed method study. For the qualitative study 6 focus group discussions, 8 key informant interviews, 60 free listing exercises, 20 ranking exercises and 10 observations were conducted. 400 adults were randomly selected for quantitative survey. For analysis we used SPSS for quantitative data, and Anthropac and Nvivo for qualitative data.Salt was described as an essential component of food with strong cultural and religious roots. People described both health benefits and risks related to salt intake. The overall risk perception regarding excessive salt consumption was low and respondents believed that the cooking process can render the salt harmless. Respondents were aware that salt is added in many foods even if they do not taste salty but did not recognize that salt can occur naturally in both foods and water.In the study community people had low awareness of the risks associated with excess salt consumption and salt reduction strategies were not high in their agenda. The easy access to and low cost of salt as well as unrecognised presence of salt in drinking water has created an environment conducive to excess salt consumption. It is important to design general messages related to salt reduction and test tailored strategies especially for those at high risk of hypertension.

  12. Recognizing child maltreatment in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, N Z; Lynch, M A

    1997-08-01

    Concern is increasing in Bangladesh over child abuse, neglect, and exploitation. Children from all walks of life are being treated at the Child Development Center (CDC) Dhaka Shishu Hospital for neurodevelopmental problems resulting from abuse and neglect. Efforts to protect children from sexual harassment result in girls being isolated at home or married at an early age. Some young brides are eventually abandoned and forced into prostitution. Early marriage reflects the lack of acknowledgement of a period of adolescence and the belief that puberty is a marker of adulthood. Many girls aged 8-16 are employed as live-in domestic servants, and many suffer sexual as well as emotional abuse. Garment factories, on the other hand, offer girls an escape from extreme poverty, domestic service, and early marriage but are threatened by forces that condemn child labor. Rather than ending such opportunities, employers should be encouraged to provide employees with educational and welfare facilities. The CDC seeks to explore the extent and depth of the problem of child abuse while recognizing the special circumstances at work in Bangladesh. It is also necessary to raise awareness of these issues and of the discrepancies between the law and cultural practices. For example, the legal marriage age of 18 years for a woman and 21 years for a man is often ignored. Additional forms of abuse receiving the attention of women's organizations and human rights groups include the trafficking of children. A network of concerned organizations should be created to work against the child abuse, neglect, and exploitation that Bangladesh has pledged to overcome by signing the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. PMID:9280385

  13. Recognizing child maltreatment in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, N Z; Lynch, M A

    1997-08-01

    Concern is increasing in Bangladesh over child abuse, neglect, and exploitation. Children from all walks of life are being treated at the Child Development Center (CDC) Dhaka Shishu Hospital for neurodevelopmental problems resulting from abuse and neglect. Efforts to protect children from sexual harassment result in girls being isolated at home or married at an early age. Some young brides are eventually abandoned and forced into prostitution. Early marriage reflects the lack of acknowledgement of a period of adolescence and the belief that puberty is a marker of adulthood. Many girls aged 8-16 are employed as live-in domestic servants, and many suffer sexual as well as emotional abuse. Garment factories, on the other hand, offer girls an escape from extreme poverty, domestic service, and early marriage but are threatened by forces that condemn child labor. Rather than ending such opportunities, employers should be encouraged to provide employees with educational and welfare facilities. The CDC seeks to explore the extent and depth of the problem of child abuse while recognizing the special circumstances at work in Bangladesh. It is also necessary to raise awareness of these issues and of the discrepancies between the law and cultural practices. For example, the legal marriage age of 18 years for a woman and 21 years for a man is often ignored. Additional forms of abuse receiving the attention of women's organizations and human rights groups include the trafficking of children. A network of concerned organizations should be created to work against the child abuse, neglect, and exploitation that Bangladesh has pledged to overcome by signing the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child.

  14. Arsenic poisoning of Bangladesh groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickson, Ross; McArthur, John; Burgess, William; Ahmed, Kazi Matin; Ravenscroft, Peter; Rahmanñ, Mizanur

    1998-09-01

    In Bangladesh and West Bengal, alluvial Ganges aquifers used for public water supply are polluted with naturally occurring arsenic, which adversely affects the health of millions of people. Here we show that the arsenic derives from the reductive dissolution of arsenic-rich iron oxyhydroxides, which in turn are derived from weathering of base-metal sulphides. This finding means it should now be possible, by sedimentological study of the Ganges alluvial sediments, to guide the placement of new water wells so they will be free of arsenic.

  15. Rice price instability in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Mili, Jobaida Yeasmin

    2012-01-01

    In the 2000s, the global attention was concentrated at the food price stability because of the rapid increase in cereal and other food prices. This rapid increase of food price has become a burden for the developing countries as well as for Bangladesh where households spend a large share of their income on food. Among the cereals rice has a strategic importance because it is the central to food security and economic and political stability of the country. Fluctuation in rice prices is not rar...

  16. Solar Home System (SHS) in rural Bangladesh: Ornamentation or fact of development?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy requirement has been growing every day due to higher population growth, and consequently higher consumption. About one third of rural households of Bangladesh are connected to the grid. To meet the gap, solar energy has been treated as a feasible option for people in rural areas where grid connections are not available. A good number of organizations have been working together to provide Solar Home System (SHS) in rural Bangladesh. There is little evidence that supply of small scale energy supports significant rural development. This paper aims at understanding how increased energy access through SHS in rural Bangladesh contributes towards rural development. Recent published literatures on SHS in Bangladesh have been studied to get insight into the technical, financial, and operational as well as economic and social issues. Later the findings have been critically analyzed with respect to selected indicators of rural development. The study identified that increased access to energy through SHS in rural Bangladesh provides mostly recreational and leisure benefits with the so called ‘social status’; income generation is negligible while support for education is average. - Highlights: • No specific proof is there to conclude that SHS has contributed to development. • SHS's contribution to income generation and employment is not significant. • SHS is mostly used for entertainment and to uplift the so called ‘social status’

  17. Socio-Cultural Factors Affecting Family Size between Muslim and Santal Communities in Rural Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Emaj Uddin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Family size in a particular society depends on marriage, family composition and adoption norms. It also depends upon modes of production, technological and socio-cultural forces. First purpose of this paper was to describe and compare family size (as a dependent variable and socio-cultural factor (as an independent variable between Muslim and Santal communities in rural Bangladesh. Second purpose of the paper was to examine how socio-cultural factors influence family size between the communities in rural Bangladesh. In so doing, 70 couples from Muslim and 30 couples from Santal communities from Kalna village, Tanore Upazila, Rajshahi, Bangladesh were randomly selected. Based on structural questionnaire method, including interview technique our descriptive findings, especially percentages suggested that family size, including usual family size, ideal family size, actual family size, expected family size, adoption practice was different between the two communities in the study area. In addition, results of regression analysis showed that socio-cultural factors, especially family, marriage, socio-economic status, and personal characteristics of the couples were affecting family size between the two communities in rural Bangladesh. The findings may be implied in social policy to change in family size in association with socio-cultural situations of the Muslim and Santal couples in rural Bangladesh.

  18. Bridging Digital Divide: case study of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Shuva, Nafiz Zaman

    2010-01-01

    Bangladesh emerged as an independent and sovereign country in 1971 following a nine month war of liberation. It is one of the largest deltas of the world with a total area of 147,570 sq km. With a unique communal harmony, Bangladesh has a population of about 140 million, making it one of the densely populated countries of the world. The literacy rate of Bangladeshi people is 43.1%. Over 98% of the people speak in Bengali, English however is widely spoken (National Web Portal of Bangladesh, 20...

  19. Cultivated plants in the diversified homegardens of local communities in Ganges Valley, Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahman, Syed Ajijur; Baldauf, Cristina; Mollee, Eefke Maria;

    2013-01-01

    commonly found in the homestead agroforestry systems in the Ganges valley of northern Bangladesh and their contribution to local livelihoods. Three villages i.e., ‘Capasia’, ‘Chak Capasia’ and ‘Baduria’ were selected as the primary study area. Data were collected by (1) rapid rural appraisal, (2) direct....... The comparison of Shannon-Wiener index between agroforestry systems and natural forest showed no statistical difference, reinforcing the role of homegardens in biological conservation in Bangladesh. Therefore, increasing agroforestry practices in homesteads, should be the strategy for enhancing tree cover...

  20. 10 CFR 435.306 - Selecting a life cycle effective proposed building design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Selecting a life cycle effective proposed building design... Residential Buildings § 435.306 Selecting a life cycle effective proposed building design. In selecting... prototype, has the highest Net Savings or lowest total life cycle costs calculated in compliance...

  1. Converting Bangladesh's influential religious leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neaz, A

    1996-01-01

    While the Family Planning Association of Bangladesh (FPAB) introduced family planning to Bangladesh in 1953, very little progress was achieved before the 1980s. It was noticed during the 1980s that despite solid service delivery efforts with interpersonal communication at the community level and expanding choices of contraceptive methods, program success was impeded by religious leader opposition. Religious leader claims that family planning was against Islam reinforce male opposition to contraception. In an effort to win the support of religious leaders, the FPAB established an Islamic Research Cell (IRC) in 1984 and launched targeted advocacy and orientation programs. An expert with religious education and background ran the IRC. The leaders were taught that Islam directly or indirectly promotes family welfare from the viewpoint of the health and economic needs of the family, and that the Qur'an nowhere argues that family planning is forbidden. The Qur'an actually encourages prolonged breastfeeding and the avoidance of unwanted births. Orientation courses, seminars, a national conference, and the distribution of educational printed media eventually convinced the religious leaders to support family planning. Male involvement in family planning is essential in such a male-dominated society.

  2. Italian Textile Machinery Seminar in Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The Association of Italian Textile Machinery Manufacturers (ACIMIT) and the Italian Trade Commission will hold a technological seminar on "Italian textile machinery: the way to improve Bangladesh textile competitiveness"

  3. Surface Geology of Bangladesh (geo8bg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage includes arcs, polygons, and polygon labels that describe the geologic age and type of surface outcrops of bedrock of the Bangladesh. It also includes...

  4. Rohingyas and refugee status in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia Prytz Phiri

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The Rohingya refugees from northern Rakhine Statein Myanmar are living in a precarious situation in theircountry of asylum, Bangladesh, but have seen significantimprovements in recent times.

  5. Diversity, stand characteristics and spatial aggregation of tree species in a Bangladesh forest ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uddin, Mohammad B.; Steinbauer, Manuel; Beierkuhnlein, Carl

    2011-01-01

    Assessing biodiversity and the spatial structures of forest ecosystems are important for forestry and nature conservation. However, tropical forests of Bangladesh are only sparsely investigated. Here we determined biodiversity (alpha, beta and gamma), spatial species turnover and stand characteri......Assessing biodiversity and the spatial structures of forest ecosystems are important for forestry and nature conservation. However, tropical forests of Bangladesh are only sparsely investigated. Here we determined biodiversity (alpha, beta and gamma), spatial species turnover and stand...... characteristics of one of the few remnant tropical forests in Bangladesh. Two differently protected areas of Satchari forest were compared. We recorded tree species composition, in a systematic plot design, measured diameter at breast height for each individual tree (to assess basal area), and calculated decay...

  6. Fertility Status of Bangladesh Soils -A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Moslehuddin, Abu Zofar Md.; Salma, Laizoo; Egashira, Kazuhiko

    1997-01-01

    Fertility status of Bangladesh soils was critically evaluated by reviewing the studies which have been carried out in universities and research institutes of Bangladesh. Almost all upland soils are low in organic matter and deficient in N. Availability of P to the crops is a problem mainly in calcareous soils of Ganges floodplain and acidic soils of terrace and hill areas. Status of K is not a great problem in floodplain areas, but terrace and Piedmont soils are not capable of supplying enoug...

  7. A Study of Bangladesh Telecom Market

    OpenAIRE

    Alamgir, Rana; Anand, Nitin

    2008-01-01

    Target Audience: The management of TeliaSonera is our main target audience. Also students from management, marketing and business administration are our secondary concern. Problem Statement: “How suitable is Bangladesh telecom market for an internationalized telecom company (TeliaSonera), and what could be a preferable entry strategy for such market?” Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate Bangladesh telecom market in order to find out the potentiality of the market which could ...

  8. Modeling the Macro-Economy of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Lord, Montague J.

    2002-01-01

    The study develops a parsimonious representation of the macro economy of Bangladesh. It aims to serve a dual purpose. First, it provides a framework for making rational and consistent predictions about Bangladesh's overall economic activity, the standard components of the balance of payments, the expenditure concepts of the national accounts, and the financial sector balances. Secondly, it offers a means of quantitatively evaluating the impact of alternative policy reforms on the economy, and...

  9. Sustainable Material Selection of Toxic Chemicals in Design and Manufacturing From Human Health Impact Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Chris; Dornfeld, David

    2009-01-01

    Toxic chemicals used in product design and manufacturing are grave concerns due to their significant impact on human health. Sustainable material selections are needed by industry to reduce the overall impact of toxic chemicals in both design and manufacturing. In this paper, we integrate the human health impact assessment into standard material selection process for developing a sustainable material selection metric for decision support in design and manufacturing. A schematic method is pres...

  10. Product Line Selection and Pricing with Modularity in Design

    OpenAIRE

    Wallace J. Hopp; Xiaowei Xu

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses the strategic impact of modular design on the optimal length and price of a differentiated product line. We represent consumer demand with a Bayesian logit model. We also break operations costs into product design and production components. Our analysis shows that reducing product development costs via modular design always makes it attractive to offer greater product variety. However, reducing production costs can sometimes motivate a reduction in variety for a risk-aver...

  11. Climate change -- Its impacts on Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Predictions regarding the possible effects of global warming on Bangladesh's climate are uncertain. However, the predictions for 2030 made by four General Circulation Models all suggest that there might be increased precipitation, with estimates ranging between 5 and 100% increases in rainfall. Increases of these magnitudes, if they were to occur, would have significant implications for agriculture, flooding, river sediment loads, and flood protection works. Increased flooding of the coastal areas of countries like Bangladesh is a possibility, and enormous health and economic distress and human suffering may follow. With the change in temperature, there may be unpredictable change in bacterial and viral morphology with health hazards of unpredictable limits. It has been estimated that a 100 cm rise in sea level in the Bay of Bengal would result in 12--18% of land areas of Bangladesh being lost to the sea, including most of the Sundarbans. Although it is difficult to predict the timing and magnitude of all the global changes including sea-level rise, climate change, etc., it is anticipated that one of the most serious consequence for Bangladesh would be the reduction of already minimal land: person ratio and consequently exacerbating pressure on the remaining natural resources. Bangladesh is in favor of an international agreement for assistance to vulnerable countries like Bangladesh to take necessary preparations and adopt measures to survive a sea-level rise, climate change, increased flooding, and more frequent storm surges

  12. [Children and bankers in Bangladesh].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, B

    1991-06-01

    This critique of the World Bank's role in developing country population programs begins with a description of a 1987 case in which an 80-year- old Bangladeshi man was persuaded to undergo vasectomy and then robbed of his incentive payment by the health agent. For over 20 years, the World Bank has pressured 3rd World governments to implement population control programs. Although there are divergent opinions within the World Bank, the most dominant is the neomalthusian view that the poor through their high fertility help perpetuate their own poverty. This view hides the real source of poverty in the Third World: the unequal distribution of resources within these countries and between the developed and developing countries. The World Bank has always been blind to the inequalities, and has associated with the elites of developing countries who monopolize the resources of their countries and thereby impede authentic development. Furthermore, the emphasis on population control distorts social policy and hinders the implementation of safe and voluntary family planning services. In many countries the World Bank has required governments to give greater priority to population control than to basic health services. It has pressured them to relax contraceptive prescription norms and has promoted the more effective methods without regard to proper use or side effects. In Bangladesh the World Bank has sponsored sterilization programs that rely on coercion and incentives. In that country of enormous inequities, 10% of landowners control over 50% of lands, while nearly half the population is landless and chronically underemployed. Political power is concentrated in the military government, which annually receives over 1.5 billion dollars in external aid. External aid primarily benefits the wealthy. 3/4 of the population are undernourished and less than 1/3 are literate or have access to basic health care. The poor of Bangladesh, as in many other countries, feel that their only

  13. A Guidebook to Selected Projects in Design Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Denise A.; Mirochnik, Elijuh

    Design education includes those projects or activities where children are actively engaged in a process of making and doing with architecture, landscape architecture, urban design, and/or city planning as a context for the learning activity. The goal of such experiences is to sensitize children to their surroundings and better inform them about…

  14. Sustainable agriculture: a challenge in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.A. Faroque

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The sustainability of conventional agriculture in Bangladesh is under threat from the continuous degradation of land and water resources, and from declining yields due to indiscriminate use of agro-chemicals. Government is pursuing efforts to promote sustainable agriculture with emphasis on better use of on-farm resources and the reduction of external inputs. This paper presents four dimensions of agricultural sustainability as productivity, environmental stability, economical profitability, and social and economic equity. Six characters were selected to evaluate sustainability. Significant differences were found between the two systems (conventional and sustainable agriculture in crop diversification, soil fertility management, pests and diseases management, use of agro-chemicals and environmental issues. However, no significant variations were found in other indicators such as land-use pattern, crop yield and stability, risk and uncertainties, and food security. Although crop yield and financial return were found to be slightly higher in the conventional system, the economic return and value addition per unit of land did not show any difference. It can be suggested that sustainable agriculture has a tendency towards becoming environmental, economically and socially more sound than conventional agriculture, as it requires considerably less agro-chemicals, adds more organic matter to the soil, provides balanced food, and requires higher local inputs without markedly compromising output and financial benefits. Broad-policy measures, including the creation of mass awareness of adverse health effects of agrochemical-based products, are outlined for the promotion of sustainable agriculture.

  15. Determinants of Quality Education in Private Universities from Student Perspectives: A Case Study in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Mohammad A.; Osman, Abu Zafar Rashed; Ratan, Sarker Rafij Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present study is to identify the determinants that potentially influence quality education in private universities in Bangladesh. Design/methodology/approach: To attain this objective, 234 data were collected through face-to-face interviews on campus during February-March 2013 from Bachelor of Business Administration…

  16. Selection of Environmental Conditions for Nearshore Structure Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Sheng; GAN Buhong; HAO Xiaoli

    2004-01-01

    Different from the traditional one-dimensional extreme value statistical method, practical design criteria for nearshore structure design are presented based on joint probability theory in this paper. The proposed procedure considers the combined effect of tide level, huge waves and wind affecting coastal structures. The Importance Sampling Procedure (ISP) is utilized to solve the joint distribution of non-Gaussian correlated multivariate distributions. The calculation results show that the ISP is a simulating technique with the advantages of efficiency and high convergency. Finally the environmental conditions are given using this technique for near-shore structure design in the Qingdao area.

  17. Quantitative modeling of selective lysosomal targeting for drug design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trapp, Stefan; Rosania, G.; Horobin, R.W.;

    2008-01-01

    the diffusion of neutral and ionic molecules across biomembranes, protonation to mono- or bivalent ions, adsorption to lipids, and electrical attraction or repulsion. Based on simulation results, high and selective accumulation in lysosomes was found for weak mono- and bivalent bases with intermediate to high...... predicted by the model and three were close. Five of the antimalarial drugs were lipophilic weak dibasic compounds. The predicted optimum properties for a selective accumulation of weak bivalent bases in lysosomes are consistent with experimental values and are more accurate than any prior calculation...

  18. Burkholderia pseudomallei: Its Detection in Soil and Seroprevalence in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Jilani, Md. Shariful Alam; Robayet, Jamshedul Alam Mohammad; Mohiuddin, Md.; Hasan, Md. Rokib; Ahsan, Chowdhury Rafiqul; Haq, Jalaluddin Ashraful

    2016-01-01

    Background Melioidosis, caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, is an endemic disease in Bangladesh. No systematic study has yet been done to detect the environmental source of the organism and its true extent in Bangladesh. The present study attempted to isolate B. pseudomallei in soil samples and to determine its seroprevalence in several districts in Bangladesh. Methodology and Results Soil samples were collected from rural areas of four districts of Bangladesh from where culture confirmed me...

  19. Application of the Fuzzy Comprehensive Assessment Technique to Optimal Selection of Pipeline Design Alternative

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChuFeixue; ChuYanfan; LiuXiumin

    2005-01-01

    Regarding the influencing factors in an optimal selection of pipeline design alternative as fuzzy variables with different weights, a fuzzy comprehensive assessment was applied to an optimal selection of the design alternative. Giving the Lanzhou-Chengdu pipeline as an example to explain the process, the result shows that this method is acceptable.

  20. Designed amyloid fibers as materials for selective carbon dioxide capture

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Dan; Furukawa, Hiroyasu; Deng, Hexiang; Liu, Cong; Yaghi, Omar M.; Eisenberg, David S.

    2013-01-01

    New and improved materials capable of binding carbon dioxide are essential to addressing the global threat of accelerating climate change. The presently used industrial methods for carbon dioxide capture have severe drawbacks, including toxicity and energy inefficiency. Newer porous materials are so far less effective in water, invariably a component of combustion gases. Here, we present a material for carbon dioxide capture. This material, amyloid fibers in powdered form, selectively capture...

  1. Selection of design parameters for a slurry injection tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Y; Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Nyord, Tavs

    2013-01-01

    determined through minimizing the tool draft force with constraints which ensured that the desired amount of slurry can be injected into the soil without slurry being exposed on the soil surface. Four sweeps with different working widths (50, 110, 180, and 250 mm) and a constant rake angle of 15° were......Injection has been recognized as an effective method for land application of liquid slurry. Optimization design is essential for developing higher-performance injection tools and identifying potential improvement of existing tools. In this study, design parameters of an injection tool were...

  2. Operation and design of selected industrial process heat field tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kearney, D. W.

    1981-02-01

    The DOE program of solar industrial process heat field tests has shown solar energy to be compatible with numerous industrial needs. Both the operational projects and the detailed designs of systems that are not yet operational have resulted in valuable insights into design and hardware practice. Typical of these insights are the experiences discussed for the four projects reviewed. Future solar IPH systems should benefit greatly not only from the availability of present information, but also from the wealth of operating experience from projects due to start up in 1981.

  3. Selection of References in Wind Turbine Model Predictive Control Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Hovgaard, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Lowering the cost of energy is one of the major focus areas in the wind turbine industry. Recent research has indicated that wind turbine controllers based on model predictive control methods can be useful in obtaining this objective. A number of design considerations have to be made when designi...

  4. Agile Contracts: Designing an Agile Team Selection Guideline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Lene; Pries-Heje, Jan

    2014-01-01

    with “endless” re-negotiation of the requirements; you need a more flexible way to develop IS. A new way of coping with many changes is to use an agile development approach and a fixed budget and resources contract. This paper presents an example case. We analyse the case and design a guideline for how...

  5. [MCU selection analysis in portable electronic medical instrument design].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mengxing; Ye, Shuming; Xu, Zhi; Chen, Hang

    2014-05-01

    Around the features of low power and high integration of portable electronic medical equipment design, the primary low power MCU series from the current semiconductor manufacturers were compared. The analysis results showed that the 32-bit MCUs based on the low cost and high energy efficient ARM Cortex-M architectures, have comprehensive advantages on power level, operational performance and integrated peripherals obviously.

  6. New detection systems of bacteria using highly selective media designed by SMART: selective medium-design algorithm restricted by two constraints.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Kawanishi

    Full Text Available Culturing is an indispensable technique in microbiological research, and culturing with selective media has played a crucial role in the detection of pathogenic microorganisms and the isolation of commercially useful microorganisms from environmental samples. Although numerous selective media have been developed in empirical studies, unintended microorganisms often grow on such media probably due to the enormous numbers of microorganisms in the environment. Here, we present a novel strategy for designing highly selective media based on two selective agents, a carbon source and antimicrobials. We named our strategy SMART for highly Selective Medium-design Algorithm Restricted by Two constraints. To test whether the SMART method is applicable to a wide range of microorganisms, we developed selective media for Burkholderia glumae, Acidovorax avenae, Pectobacterium carotovorum, Ralstonia solanacearum, and Xanthomonas campestris. The series of media developed by SMART specifically allowed growth of the targeted bacteria. Because these selective media exhibited high specificity for growth of the target bacteria compared to established selective media, we applied three notable detection technologies: paper-based, flow cytometry-based, and color change-based detection systems for target bacteria species. SMART facilitates not only the development of novel techniques for detecting specific bacteria, but also our understanding of the ecology and epidemiology of the targeted bacteria.

  7. Natural fibre selection for composite eco-design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corona, Andrea; Madsen, Bo; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky;

    2016-01-01

    Natural fibre composites (NFC) are gaining interest in manufacturing because they address some of the environmental problems of traditional composites: use of non-renewable resources, and large impacts related to their production and disposal. Since natural fibres are not yet optimized...... for composite production, it is crucial to identify the most appropriate applications, and determine the optimal fibre/matrix ratio. A methodology is proposed for early-stage decisions support on selection of bio-composite materials. Results help identify the application with the largest reduction...

  8. Are 'Village Doctors' in Bangladesh a curse or a blessing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahed Tania

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bangladesh is one of the health workforce crisis countries in the world. In the face of an acute shortage of trained professionals, ensuring healthcare for a population of 150 million remains a major challenge for the nation. To understand the issues related to shortage of health workforce and healthcare provision, this paper investigates the role of various healthcare providers in provision of health services in Chakaria, a remote rural area in Bangladesh. Methods Data were collected through a survey carried out during February 2007 among 1,000 randomly selected households from 8 unions of Chakaria Upazila. Information on health-seeking behaviour was collected from 1 randomly chosen member of a household from those who fell sick during 14 days preceding the survey. Results Around 44% of the villagers suffered from an illness during 14 days preceding the survey and of them 47% sought treatment for their ailment. 65% patients consulted Village Doctors and for 67% patients Village Doctors were the first line of care. Consultation with MBBS doctors was low at 14%. Given the morbidity level observed during the survey it was calculated that 250 physicians would be needed in Chakaria if the patients were to be attended by a qualified physician. Conclusions With the current shortage of physicians and level of production in the country it was asserted that it is very unlikely for Bangladesh to have adequate number of physicians in the near future. Thus, making use of existing healthcare providers, such as Village Doctors, could be considered a realistic option in dealing with the prevailing crisis.

  9. 78 FR 52560 - Hurricane Sandy Rebuilding Task Force-Rebuild-by-Design; Announcement of Selection of Design Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ... problems that are larger or more complex than individual towns have the capacity to solve themselves. The... Design Teams AGENCY: Hurricane Sandy Task Force, HUD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In June 2013, the... resilience for the Sandy-affected region. This notice announces the design teams selected under...

  10. Emerging Burden of Cardiovascular Diseases in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Mamun, Mohammad; Rumana, Nahid; Pervin, Kumkum; Azad, Muhammad Chanchal; Shahana, Nahid; Choudhury, Sohel Reza; Zaman, M Mostafa; Turin, Tanvir Chowdhury

    2016-01-01

    As a result of an epidemiological transition from communicable to non-communicable diseases for last few decades, cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are being considered as an important cause of mortality and morbidity in many developing countries including Bangladesh. Performing an extensive literature search, we compiled, summarized, and categorized the existing information about CVD mortality and morbidity among different clusters of Bangladeshi population. The present review reports that the burden of CVD in terms of mortality and morbidity is on the rise in Bangladesh. Despite a few non-communicable disease prevention and control programs currently running in Bangladesh, there is an urgent need for well-coordinated national intervention strategies and public health actions to minimize the CVD burden in Bangladesh. As the main challenge for CVD control in a developing country is unavailability of adequate epidemiological data related to various CVD events, the present review attempted to accumulate such data in the current context of Bangladesh. This may be of interest to all stakeholder groups working for CVD prevention and control across the country and globe. PMID:26686566

  11. CSM a success in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    The Bangladesh Social Marketing Project (SMP), providing contraceptives at an annual rate of 931,000 couple years of protection (CYP) as of June 1983, is a success. This figure has grown markedly since the start of the program in late 1975, when the SMP provided 80,000 CYPs, or 8% of nonclinical protection provided. The SMP has contributed to the steadily increasing national nonclinical contraceptive distribution. Currently, SMP distribution accounts for as much as the government and nongovernment programs combined. When clinical methods (including sterilizations) are added to national distribution, the SMP share represents about 28% of total contraceptive use. The SMP does not provide clinical methods, but the entire increase in nonclinical protection provided by the national program since 1975 has been the result of SMP product sales. The SMP utilizes the available mass media for promotion, including print, radio, television, as well as outdoor media and point of purchase materials. Mobile Film Units (MFUs) are an innovative promotional method employed by the SMP. Approximately 80 night time outdoor showings are organized each month in rural areas by SMP promoters. Typically, several short films, usually a popular story with a family planning theme, are run. Between each film the SMP products are of advertised. Products are often sold during and after the films. Retail outlets for SMP products include general stores, pharmacies, and other small shops. When products were introduced in 1975 retail outlets totaled 7500. By August 1983 the number of country wide retailers carrying SMP products had grown to nearly 100,000. In 1982 a marketing strategy emphasizing the role of doctors and rural medical practitioners (RMPs) was introduced. There are between 70,00-100,000 RMPs in Bangladesh. They are well known and respected "doctors" in their villages and add an extensive family planning outreach to the SMP system. The most important advantage of using the RMPs is their

  12. Evolutionary design of bone scaffolds with reference to material selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heljak, M K; Swięszkowski, W; Lam, C X F; Hutmacher, D W; Kurzydłowski, K J

    2012-01-01

    The favourable scaffold for bone tissue engineering should have desired characteristic features, such as adequate mechanical strength and three-dimensional open porosity, which guarantee a suitable environment for tissue regeneration. In fact, the design of such complex structures like bone scaffolds is a challenge for investigators. One of the aims is to achieve the best possible mechanical strength-degradation rate ratio. In this paper we attempt to use numerical modelling to evaluate material properties for designing bone tissue engineering scaffold fabricated via the fused deposition modelling technique. For our studies the standard genetic algorithm was used, which is an efficient method of discrete optimization. For the fused deposition modelling scaffold, each individual strut is scrutinized for its role in the architecture and structural support it provides for the scaffold, and its contribution to the overall scaffold was studied. The goal of the study was to create a numerical tool that could help to acquire the desired behaviour of tissue engineered scaffolds and our results showed that this could be achieved efficiently by using different materials for individual struts. To represent a great number of ways in which scaffold mechanical function loss could proceed, the exemplary set of different desirable scaffold stiffness loss function was chosen.

  13. Factors Affecting Fiber Design and Selection for Advanced Ceramic Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiCarlo, James A.

    1998-01-01

    Structural Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMC) have the potential for application in the hot sections of a variety of advanced propulsion and power systems. It is therefore necessary to have a general understanding of the key properties of CMC and Reinforcing Fibers. This need is complicated by the wide variety of application conditions and structural requirements for which CMC's will be used, and the proprietary concerns of the design engineers. CMC's, to be successful, must display properties which are competitive with the currently used high temperature structural materials: (i.e., Iron and Nickel based superalloys, tough monolithic ceramics, and carbon/carbon composites.) Structural CMC offers several areas of competition: (1) performance, (i.e., strength and strength retention, creep resistance, and thermal conductivity), (2) reliability (i.e., environmental durability, and damage tolerance) and (3) processing (i.e., capability for varying sizes and shapes, and cost effective fabrication). The presentation further discusses, and illustrates with fiber and CMC data the key fiber properties and processes which strongly affect each CMC area of competition. The presentation further discusses the current knowledge of the important factors which control the key fiber properties. A design guidelines for the optimum fiber characteristics is developed, and the currently available fibers are compared against those guidelines.

  14. Computational protein design: the Proteus software and selected applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonson, Thomas; Gaillard, Thomas; Mignon, David; Schmidt am Busch, Marcel; Lopes, Anne; Amara, Najette; Polydorides, Savvas; Sedano, Audrey; Druart, Karen; Archontis, Georgios

    2013-10-30

    We describe an automated procedure for protein design, implemented in a flexible software package, called Proteus. System setup and calculation of an energy matrix are done with the XPLOR modeling program and its sophisticated command language, supporting several force fields and solvent models. A second program provides algorithms to search sequence space. It allows a decomposition of the system into groups, which can be combined in different ways in the energy function, for both positive and negative design. The whole procedure can be controlled by editing 2-4 scripts. Two applications consider the tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase enzyme and its successful redesign to bind both O-methyl-tyrosine and D-tyrosine. For the latter, we present Monte Carlo simulations where the D-tyrosine concentration is gradually increased, displacing L-tyrosine from the binding pocket and yielding the binding free energy difference, in good agreement with experiment. Complete redesign of the Crk SH3 domain is presented. The top 10000 sequences are all assigned to the correct fold by the SUPERFAMILY library of Hidden Markov Models. Finally, we report the acid/base behavior of the SNase protein. Sidechain protonation is treated as a form of mutation; it is then straightforward to perform constant-pH Monte Carlo simulations, which yield good agreement with experiment. Overall, the software can be used for a wide range of application, producing not only native-like sequences but also thermodynamic properties with errors that appear comparable to other current software packages. PMID:24037756

  15. Designing Passivating, Carrier-Selective Contacts for Photovoltaic Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boccard, Matthieu [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Koswatta, Priyaranga [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Holman, Zachary [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)

    2015-04-06

    "The first step towards building a high-efficiency solar cell is to develop an absorber with few recombination-active defects. Many photovoltaic technologies have already achieved this (monocrystalline Si, III-V materials grown on lattice-matched substrates, perovskites, polycrystalline CdTe and CIGS); those that have not (a-Si:H, organics) have been limited to low open-circuit voltage. The second step is to develop contacts that both inhibit surface recombination and allow for low-resistance collection of either only electrons or only holes. For most photovoltaic technologies, this step is both more difficult and less explored than the first, and we are unaware of a prescribed methodology for selecting materials for contacts to solar cells. We elucidate a unified, conceptual understanding of contacts within which existing contacting schemes can be interpreted and future contacting schemes can be imagined. Whereas a split of the quasi-Fermi levels of holes and electrons is required in the absorber of any solar cell to generate a voltage, carriers are eventually collected through a metallic wire in which no such quasi-Fermi-level split exists. We define a contact to be all layers between the bulk of the absorber and the recombination-active interface through which carriers are extracted. The quasi-Fermi levels must necessarily collapse at this interface, and thus the transition between maximal quasi-Fermi-level splitting (in the absorber) and no splitting occurs entirely in the contact. Depending on the solar cell architecture, the contact will usually extend from the surface of the absorber to the surface of a metal or transparent conductive oxide layer, and may include deposited or diffused doped layers (e.g., as in crystalline and thin-film Si cells) and heterostructure buffer layers (e.g., the CdS layer in a CdTe device). We further define a passivating contact as one that enables high quasi-Fermi-level splitting in the absorber (large “internal” voltage

  16. Pelamis WEC - main body structural design and materials selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, C.

    2003-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a study evaluating the potential use of rolled steel, glass reinforced plastic, wood-epoxy laminate, and different forms of concrete as primary structural materials for the Pelamis Wave Energy Converter (WEC) as part of a strategy to refine the design by highlighting cost savings for long-term manufacture. Details are given of the drawing up of a load spectrum in order to assess the candidate structures, the choice of glass reinforced plastic, concrete, and steel for further evaluation based on preliminary screening, the assessment of the material requirements for each candidate structure, and cost estimates. The advantages of the use of concrete are discussed and recommendations are presented.

  17. Providing hope: midwifery teaching in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Anna

    2015-10-01

    Bangladesh is recognised as a resource-poor country that has made some very positive steps to reducing maternal mortality over the last decade. However the death rate of women directly caused by pregnancy and childbirth still remains much higher than countries such as the UK, often due to lack of access to good quality and affordable basic health care. In this article, Anna Kent writes of her experiences teaching obstetric emergency clinical skills to Bangladesh's first ever student midwives. The students were recruited from rural villages to complete a three-year fully funded Midwifery Diploma Programme at one of seven education centres across the country. The goal of the programme is for the students to eventually return and practise as midwives in their home communities, enabling greater access for women to good quality basic health care, directly reducing maternal mortality across Bangladesh. PMID:26638653

  18. Design and evaluation of a thorium (IV) selective optode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safavi, Afsaneh [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: Afsaneh_safavi@yahoo.com; Sadeghi, Marzieh [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2006-05-17

    A novel optical sensor has been proposed for sensitive determination of thorium (IV) ion in aqueous solutions. The thorium sensing membrane was prepared by incorporating 4-(p-nitrophenyl azo)-pyrocatechol (NAP) as ionophore in the plasticized PVC membrane containing tributyl phosphate (TBP) as plasticizer. The membrane responds to thorium ion by changing color reversibly from yellow to red-brown in glycine buffer solution at pH 3.5. The proposed sensor displays a linear range of 8.66 x 10{sup -6}-2.00 x 10{sup -4} M with a limit of detection of 6 x 10{sup -6} M. The response time of the optode was about 8.8-12.5 min, depending on the concentration of Th (IV) ions. The selectivity of optode to Th (IV) ions in glycine buffer is good. The sensor can readily be regenerated by exposure to a solution mixture of sodium fluoride and 5-sulfosalicylic acid (dihydrate) (0.01 M each). The optode is fully reversible. The proposed optode was applied to the determination of thorium (IV) in environmental water samples.

  19. Improved performance of selective ablation using a specially designed handpiece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, Thomas; Rechmann, Peter

    1996-01-01

    Selective ablation is fixed to a range of fluences predicted by the ablation thresholds of infected and healthy tooth structures respectively. The aim of the study was to develop a dental handpiece, which guarantees homogeneous fluence at the irradiated tooth surface. Furthermore the point of treatment should be cooled down without energy losses due to the cooling system. We suggest the direct coupling of the laser radiation into a laminar stream of liquid, which may act in turn as a lengthened beam guide. The impacts of the laser radiation and of the cooling medium hit exactly the same point. Hot ablation debris is removed out of the crater by the flush of the water jet. While the surface of a bare fiber working on contact mode is destroyed after a few shots, it was shown that coupling the laser radiation into a stream of liquid prevents this destruction. Putting together the benefits of this special handpiece short overall treatment times seem to be possible. High average power can be applied to the tooth without the threat of thermal damage. Furthermore no time consuming cutting of the fiber prolongs the treatment time.

  20. Identification and epidemiology of a rare HoBi-like pestivirus strain in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, N; Rahman, M S; Khan, S U; Mikolon, A; Gurley, E S; Osmani, M G; Shanta, I S; Paul, S K; Macfarlane-Berry, L; Islam, A; Desmond, J; Epstein, J H; Daszak, P; Azim, T; Luby, S P; Zeidner, N; Rahman, M Z

    2014-06-01

    The genus pestivirus of the family flaviviridae consists of four recognized species: bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (BVDV-1), bovine viral diarrhoea virus 2 (BVDV-2), classical swine fever virus and border disease virus. A new putative pestivirus species tentatively named as either 'HoBi-like pestivirus' or BVDV-3 has recently been identified in Brazil, Italy and Thailand. Despite reports of serological evidence of BVDV in Bangladesh, the types of the virus circulating in cattle have not been identified. We conducted surveillance in cattle from May 2009 to August 2010 in three government veterinary hospitals to characterize BVDV in cattle of Bangladesh. We tested serum for BVDV using an antigen-capture ELISA. Of 638 cattle samples, 3% (16/638) tested positive for BVDV antigen. The ELISA-positive samples were selected for further molecular detection and characterization of BVDV. Molecular analysis of the partial 5' untranslated region (UTR) nucleotide sequences of BVDV-positive samples identified the rare HoBi-like pestivirus or BVDV-3 virus circulating in cattle of Bangladesh. The identification of this rare HoBi-like pestivirus or BVDV-3 strain in Bangladesh warrants further surveillance to evaluate its impact on livestock production.

  1. Seasonal forecasting of Bangladesh summer monsoon rainfall using simple multiple regression model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Md Mizanur Rahman; M Rafiuddin; Md Mahbub Alam

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, the development of a statistical forecasting method for summer monsoon rainfall over Bangladesh is described. Predictors for Bangladesh summer monsoon (June–September) rainfall were identified from the large scale ocean–atmospheric circulation variables (i.e., sea-surface temperature, surface air temperature and sea level pressure). The predictors exhibited a significant relationship with Bangladesh summer monsoon rainfall during the period 1961–2007. After carrying out a detailed analysis of various global climate datasets; three predictors were selected. The model performance was evaluated during the period 1977–2007. The model showed better performance in their hindcast seasonal monsoon rainfall over Bangladesh. The RMSE and Heidke skill score for 31 years was 8.13 and 0.37, respectively, and the correlation between the predicted and observed rainfall was 0.74. The BIAS of the forecasts (% of long period average, LPA) was −0.85 and Hit score was 58%. The experimental forecasts for the year 2008 summer monsoon rainfall based on the model were also found to be in good agreement with the observation.

  2. Impact on arsenic exposure of a growing proportion of untested wells in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Christine

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many areas of Bangladesh, it has been more than six years since a national campaign to test tubewells for arsenic (As was conducted. Many households therefore draw their water for drinking and cooking from untested wells. Methods A household drinking water survey of 6646 households was conducted in Singair upazilla of Bangladesh. A subset of 795 untested wells used by 1000 randomly selected households was tested in the field by trained village workers with the Hach EZ kit, using an extended reaction time of 40 min, and in the laboratory by high-resolution inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (HR ICP-MS. Results The household survey shows that more than 80% of the wells installed since the national testing campaign in this area were untested. Less than 13% of the households with untested wells knew where a low-As well was located near their home. Village workers using the Hach EZ kit underestimated the As content of only 4 out of 795 wells relative to the Bangladesh standard. However, the As content of 168 wells was overestimated relative to the same threshold. Conclusion There is a growing need for testing tubewells in areas of Bangladesh where As concentrations in groundwater are elevated. This could be achieved by village workers trained to use a reliable field kit. Such an effort would result in a considerable drop in As exposure as it increases the opportunities for well switching by households.

  3. Select Generic Dry-Storage Pilot Plant Design for Safeguards and Security by Design (SSBD) per Used Fuel Campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demuth, Scott Francis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sprinkle, James K. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-05-26

    As preparation to the year-end deliverable (Provide SSBD Best Practices for Generic Dry-Storage Pilot Scale Plant) for the Work Package (FT-15LA040501–Safeguards and Security by Design for Extended Dry Storage), the initial step was to select a generic dry-storage pilot plant design for SSBD. To be consistent with other DOE-NE Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCR&D) activities, the Used Fuel Campaign was engaged for the selection of a design for this deliverable. For the work Package FT-15LA040501–“Safeguards and Security by Design for Extended Dry Storage”, SSBD will be initiated for the Generic Dry-Storage Pilot Scale Plant described by the layout of Reference 2. SSBD will consider aspects of the design that are impacted by domestic material control and accounting (MC&A), domestic security, and international safeguards.

  4. Chemical and environmental vector control as a contribution to the elimination of visceral leishmaniasis on the Indian subcontinent: cluster randomized controlled trials in Bangladesh, India and Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Das Pradeep; Kumar Vijay; Mondal Dinesh; Chowdhury Rajib; Akhter Shireen; Das Murari L; Joshi Anand B; Kroeger Axel; Boelaert Marleen; Petzold Max

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Bangladesh, India and Nepal are working towards the elimination of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) by 2015. In 2005 the World Health Organization/Training in Tropical Diseases launched an implementation research programme to support integrated vector management for the elimination of VL from Bangladesh, India and Nepal. The programme is conducted in different phases, from proof-of-concept to scaling up intervention. This study was designed in order to evaluate the efficacy of ...

  5. Arsenic Mobility and Groundwater Extraction in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Charles F.; Swartz, Christopher H.; Badruzzaman, A. B. M.; Keon-Blute, Nicole; Yu, Winston; Ali, M. Ashraf; Jay, Jenny; Beckie, Roger; Niedan, Volker; Brabander, Daniel; Oates, Peter M.; Ashfaque, Khandaker N.; Islam, Shafiqul; Hemond, Harold F.; Ahmed, M. Feroze

    2002-11-01

    High levels of arsenic in well water are causing widespread poisoning in Bangladesh. In a typical aquifer in southern Bangladesh, chemical data imply that arsenic mobilization is associated with recent inflow of carbon. High concentrations of radiocarbon-young methane indicate that young carbon has driven recent biogeochemical processes, and irrigation pumping is sufficient to have drawn water to the depth where dissolved arsenic is at a maximum. The results of field injection of molasses, nitrate, and low-arsenic water show that organic carbon or its degradation products may quickly mobilize arsenic, oxidants may lower arsenic concentrations, and sorption of arsenic is limited by saturation of aquifer materials.

  6. Spatial patterns of mortality in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, A H; Huq, S M; Mesbah-us-Saleheen

    1993-05-01

    This paper depicts the spatial patterns of mortality of the administrative upazilas of Bangladesh. Due to the absence of adequate data on mortality rates from across the country, the mortality rates of the upazilas are calculated from the age sex structure of the population of the respective upazilas employing the standardized mortality rates of divisional headquarters. Crude death rates are used to determine spatial patterns of mortality in Bangladesh. The patterns portray strong regional differences. Such differentiation is accounted for by traditional differences in demographic and socio-economic factors. Also, regression analysis is used to assist in explaining spatial variations.

  7. Spatial patterns of mortality in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, A H; Huq, S M; Mesbah-us-Saleheen

    1993-05-01

    This paper depicts the spatial patterns of mortality of the administrative upazilas of Bangladesh. Due to the absence of adequate data on mortality rates from across the country, the mortality rates of the upazilas are calculated from the age sex structure of the population of the respective upazilas employing the standardized mortality rates of divisional headquarters. Crude death rates are used to determine spatial patterns of mortality in Bangladesh. The patterns portray strong regional differences. Such differentiation is accounted for by traditional differences in demographic and socio-economic factors. Also, regression analysis is used to assist in explaining spatial variations. PMID:8511618

  8. Valve selection handbook engineering fundamentals for selecting the right valve design for every industrial flow application

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Valves are the components in a fluid flow or pressure system that regulate either the flow or the pressure of the fluid. They are used extensively in the process industries, especially petrochemical. Though there are only four basic types of valves, there is an enormous number of different kinds of valves within each category, each one used for a specific purpose. No other book on the market analyzes the use, construction, and selection of valves in such a comprehensive manner.-Covers new environmentally-conscious equipment and practices, the most important hot-button issue in the p

  9. Regulations, Policies and Strategies for LLRW Management in Bangladesh - 12368

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low level radioactive waste (LLW) is generated from various nuclear applications in Bangladesh. The major sources of radioactive waste in the country are at present: (a) the 3 MW TRIGA Mark-II research reactor; (b) the radioisotope production facility; (c) the medical, industrial and research facilities that use radionuclides; and (d) the industrial facility for processing monazite sands. Radioactive waste needs to be safely managed because it is potentially hazardous to human health and the environment. According to Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control Act-93, the Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC) is the governmental body responsible for the receipt and final disposal of radioactive wastes in the whole country. Waste management policy has become an important environmental, social, and economical issue for LLW in Bangladesh. Policy and strategies will serve as a basic guide for radioactive waste management in Bangladesh. The waste generator is responsible for on-site collection, conditioning and temporary storage of the waste arising from his practice. The Central Waste Processing and Storage Unit (CWPSU) of BAEC is the designated national facility with the requisite facility for the treatment, conditioning and storage of radioactive waste until a final disposal facility is established and becomes operational. The Regulatory Authority is responsible for the enforcement of compliance with provisions of the waste management regulation and other relevant requirements by the waste generator and the CWPSU. The objective of this paper is to present, in a concise form, basic information about the radioactive waste management infrastructure, regulations, policies and strategies including the total inventory of low level radioactive waste in the country. For improvement and strengthening in terms of operational capability, safety and security of RW including spent radioactive sources and overall security of the facility (CWPSF), the facility is expected to serve

  10. Teachers’ recruitment process via MCDM methods: A case study in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Karmaker

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of faculty members is very significant for educational organization to prompt reputation of the organization and to provide quality education. Teaching staff, the pillars of the educational institution, can change the whole nation stimulating the magnet of interest, knowledge, and wisdom in the pupils. Selecting a better academic staff among the others is very crucial for Human Resources Management (HRM as the success of any organization solely depends on how well it selects its manpower. Institute managing committee must have a reliable technique to judge a teachers’ ranking through multiple conflicting criteria because different teachers have various capabilities. In Bangladesh, it is a common practice in public engineering universities to select teachers only having good academic records. But teaching staff selection problem is a multi-staged decision-making problem having both quantitative and qualitative criteria. It is evident that it has become challenging as the number of alternatives and conflicting criteria increases. In this paper, a structured framework has been developed using MCDM methods both in fuzzy as well as non-fuzzy environments in the renowned engineering university of Bangladesh, where seven candidates under fifteen different sub-criteria are evaluated and ranked. The study helps the recruitment panel of educational organization in Bangladesh select the most eligible academic staff for required posts.

  11. Design and Evaluation of Buccoadhesive Compacts of Selective Antihypertensive Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shantha Kumar G.S

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to design, develop and evaluate BC’s of enalapeil maleate using Carbopol 934P, HPMC 4KM, HPMC 15KM, and HPMC 100KM in various ratios such as 1:0, 1:1 & 0:1 by direct compression method. Effect of polymer type, proportion and combination was studied on the drug release rate, release mechanism and bioadhesive strength of the prepared formulations. The mixed blend was evaluated for preformulation parameters. The BC’s were evaluated for physical parameters, surface pH, Swelling studies, bioadhesive strength, content uniformity study, in vitro dissolution studies, ex vivo permeation studies and stability studies. The physical parameters and content uniformity of BC’s were found within specified limits. Swelling index studies and surface pH study results were found in the range of 131.19 to 378.33% after 6 hours and 5.73 to 5.95 after 4 hours. FTIR studies showed no evidence on interactions between drug, polymers, and excipients. In vitro drug release & ex vivo permeation for the formulation F2 was found 90.92 % & 85.23% at the end of 8 hr. Drug release and mucoadhesive strength were found to depend upon polymer type, proportion and viscosity. The release mechanism of was found to be of anomalous non-Fickian type. The stability studies revealed that there is no decrease in the drug content of F2 for the period of 3 months. This may be concluded that the stable formulation could be developed by incorporating carbopol and HPMC 4KM in the ratio of 1:1 controlling the release of enalapril maleate from BC’s.

  12. Effectiveness of solar disinfection (SODIS) in rural coastal Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Atikul; Azad, Abul Kalam; Akber, Md Ali; Rahman, Masudur; Sadhu, Indrojit

    2015-12-01

    Scarcity of drinking water in the coastal area of Bangladesh compels the inhabitants to be highly dependent on alternative water supply options like rainwater harvesting system (RWHS), pond sand filter (PSF), and rain-feed ponds. Susceptibility of these alternative water supply options to microbial contamination demands a low-cost water treatment technology. This study evaluates the effectiveness of solar disinfection (SODIS) to treat drinking water from available sources in the southwest coastal area of Bangladesh. A total of 50 households from Dacope upazila in Khulna district were selected to investigate the performance of SODIS. Data were collected in two rounds to examine fecal coliform (FC) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) contamination of drinking water at the household water storage containers and SODIS bottles, and thereby determined the effectiveness of SODIS in reducing fecal contamination. All water samples were analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity, turbidity and salinity. SODIS significantly reduced FC and E. coli contamination under household conditions. The median health risk reduction by SODIS was more than 96 and 90% for pond and RWHS, respectively. Besides, turbidity of the treated water was found to be less than 5 NTU, except pond water. Only 34% of the participating households routinely adopted SODIS during the study.

  13. Feeding Devices Design for Selective Laser Melting Formation of Heterogeneous Powder Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinin, O. I.; Valdaytseva, E. A.; Lasota, I. T.; Pevzner, Ya B.; Somonov, V. V.

    2016-08-01

    The article presents the principles of selective laser melting technology for manufacturing of polymetallic products. The results of theoretical investigations of heat and mass transfer at the border of materials are shown. Types of feeding devices design have been demonstrated.

  14. Determination of Insulin Secretory Defect and Insulin Sensitivity in Type 2 Diabetic Subjects in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdous, J; Ahmed, S; Laila, R; Islam, M T; Rahaman, M F; Snigdha, K R; Sarkar, S; Khan, A S; Sarkar, A K

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is defined as a group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. This study was undertaken to explore the basic defect in type 2 diabetes patients in Bangladesh. This was an observational study with case control design, was conducted in the Biomedical Research Group, Research Division, Bangladesh Institute of Research and Rehabilitation in Diabetes, Endocrine Metabolic Disorders (BIRDEM), Dhaka, Bangladesh, during the period of July 2008 to June 2009. A total of 153 subjects were included in study of which 63 belonged to type 2 diabetes mellitus group and 90 were healthy controls. Fasting and 2 hours postprandial blood glucose, serum insulin, HOMA%B, HOMA%S, QuickI, Glucose /insulin ratio, TG were measured and age, BMI, WHR were recorded. Waist-hip ratio (WHR), was significantly higher in T2DM as compared to control subjects [WHR, mean±SD, 0.94±0.12 vs. 0.88±0.06, pBangladesh.

  15. Near-optimal experimental design for model selection in systems biology

    OpenAIRE

    Busetto, Alberto Giovanni; Hauser, Alain; Krummenacher, Gabriel; Sunnåker, Mikael; Dimopoulos, Sotiris; Ong, Cheng Soon; Stelling, Jörg; Buhmann, Joachim M.

    2013-01-01

    MOTIVATION:  Biological systems are understood through iterations of modeling and experimentation. Not all experiments, however, are equally valuable for predictive modeling. This study introduces an efficient method for experimental design aimed at selecting dynamical models from data. Motivated by biological applications, the method enables the design of crucial experiments: it determines a highly informative selection of measurement readouts and time points. RESULTS:  We demonstrate fo...

  16. A Schematic Method for Sustainable Material Selection of Toxic Chemicals in Design and Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Chris Yingchun; David Dornfeld

    2010-01-01

    Toxic chemicals used in product design and manufacturing are grave concerns due to their toxic impact on human health. Implementing sustainable material selection strategies on toxic chemicals can substantially improve the sustainability of products in both design and manufacturing processes. In this paper, a schematic method is presented for characterizing and benchmarking the human health impact of toxic chemicals, as a visual aid to facilitate decision-making in the material selection proc...

  17. The design of durable Na+-selective CHEMFETs based on polysiloxane membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunink, Jos A.J.; Lugtenberg, Ronny J.W.; Brzozka, Zbigniew; Engbersen, Johan F.J.; Reinhoudt, David N.

    1994-01-01

    The design of durable sodium-selective CHEMFETs based on the covalent attachment of a sodium-selective ionophore and tetraphenylborate anions to a polysiloxane membrane matrix is described. Simulations of the membrane potential of such CHEMFETs using an extended version of the model developed previo

  18. Design, Prototyping and Measurement of a Cascaded 6-GHz Frequency Selective Surface Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Bender Perotoni

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The design, prototyping, and free-space measurement of a 6-GHz Frequency Selective Surface filter is presented. The prototyping resolution of a large (A4 sheet size Frequency Selective Surface with small loops as elements is checked, as well as the correlation with measurements performed with a 3-D full-wave solver. The test also involved the effect of cascading two different Frequency Selective Surfaces with a viewpoint towards a narrower frequency range, which provided good results.

  19. Rain Attenuation Prediction for Terrestrial Microwave Link in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HOSSAIN Sakir

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Rain attenuation is a major shortcoming of microwave transmission. As a subtropical country, Bangladesh is one of the highest rainy areas of the world. Thus, designing a terrestrial microwave link is a serious challenge to the engineers. In this paper, the annual rain rate and monthly variation of rate are predicted for different percentage of time of the year from the measured rainfall data. Using ITU rain model for terrestrial microwave communication, the rain attenuation is predicted for five major cities of Bangladesh, namely Dhaka, Chittagong, Rajshahi, Sylhet, and Khulna. It is found that rain attenuation is the most severe in Sylhet and least in Rajshahi. The attenuation is estimated for different frequency and polarization. A horizontally polarized signal encounters 15% more rain attenuation than that of vertically polarized signal. It is also found that attenuation in Rajshahi is about 20% lesser than that in Sylhet. Thus, the horizontally polarized transmission in Rajshahi experiences about 5% less attenuation than the vertically polarized transmission in Sylhet.

  20. ANALYZING AND ESTIMATING PORTFOLIO PERFORMANCE OF BANGLADESH STOCK MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Zobaer Hasan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM is one of the most important developments in the finance literature. Simply, CAPM is a model that describes the relationship between risk and expected return. The theoretical validity of CAPM is well tested and accepted but the practical validity of CAPM is in questioned. This study is designed to analyze and estimate the portfolio performance of Bangladesh stock market in a CAPM framework. For this study, monthly stock returns from 80 companies for the period of January 2005 to December 2009 are chosen. In order to examine whether the CAPM is satisfied in the portfolio or not, the 80 stocks are arranged in descending order of beta and 10 portfolios are being made of eight stocks in each. The All Share Price Index (DSI is used as a proxy for the market portfolio and Bangladesh government 3-Month T-bill rate is used as the proxy for the risk-free asset. The results of this analysis show that the intercept terms are not significantly different from zero, linearity in the securities market line and insignificant unique risk for the 10 portfolios during the period. But, the results in term of slope contradict the CAPM hypothesis and indicate evidence against the CAPM in the portfolios. This analysis will obviously be used as a basis of reference for future investigates and the researchers and they will get proper instruction from this study.

  1. Women's Struggle against Tradition in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Mainus

    1994-01-01

    In rural Bangladesh, women's participation in a literacy program was opposed by Mullahs for several reasons: content encouraged decision making, monopoly of the Qur'anic schools was threatened, Mullahs' leadership and spiritual roles were potentially subverted, and it conflicted with the practice of polygamy. (SK)

  2. Teacher Educators' Attitude towards Computer: Perspective Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mohammad Ataur

    2011-01-01

    This study examined how teacher educators perceive the attitude towards use of computer technology in Teachers' Training Colleges in Bangladesh. This study investigated teacher educators' computer attitudes by using the valid and reliable instruments of Loyd and Gressard's (1984) Computer Attitude Scale (CAS). The data was collected through …

  3. Gender Disparities in Secondary Education in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huq, Molla; Rahman, Pk Md. Motiur

    2008-01-01

    Enrolment and success rates are very crucial for any educational system in the world but they are more important for the developing countries like Bangladesh. Gender differences in enrolment and success rates are also emerging issues. This study investigated the enrolment and success rate's status in secondary educational system of Bangladesh…

  4. Gender, Parenting, and Adolescent Functioning in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Sunita Mahtani; Bond, Michael Harris; Abdullah, Abu Saleh M.; Ma, Stefan S. L.

    2000-01-01

    Examined associations of self-esteem, relationship harmony, and academic achievement with perceptions of parents' styles and supervisory practices among 212 adolescents in Islamic Bangladesh. Found that parental supervisory practices were associated with a warm parental style for girls and parental dominating control for boys. Girls' (but not…

  5. Avian Influenza Outbreaks in Chickens, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Paritosh K Biswas; Christensen, Jens P.; Ahmed, Syed S.U.; Barua, Himel; Das, Ashutosh; Rahman, Mohammed H.; Giasuddin, Mohammad; Hannan, Abu S. M. A.; Habib, Mohammad A.; Ahad, Abdul; Rahman, Abu S.M.S.; Faruque, Rayhan; Nitish C Debnath

    2008-01-01

    To determine the epidemiology of outbreaks of avian influenza A virus (subtypes H5N1, H9N2) in chickens in Bangladesh, we conducted surveys and examined virus isolates. The outbreak began in backyard chickens. Probable sources of infection included egg trays and vehicles from local live bird markets and larger live bird markets.

  6. Bangladesh : Climate Change and Sustainable Development

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2000-01-01

    The study examines Bangladesh's extreme vulnerability to climate change, whose low-lying topography, and funnel-shaped coast, further exposes the land to cyclones, and tidal surges, resulting in seasonal floods. These factors, and the large population base, widespread poverty, aggravated by the lack of strong institutional development, makes the country particularly vulnerable to climate v...

  7. Ebola Virus Antibodies in Fruit Bats, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin J Olival; Islam, Ariful; Yu, Meng; Anthony, Simon J.; Jonathan H Epstein; Khan, Shahneaz Ali; Khan, Salah Uddin; Crameri, Gary; Wang, Lin-Fa; Lipkin, W. Ian; Luby, Stephen P.; Daszak, Peter

    2013-01-01

    To determine geographic range for Ebola virus, we tested 276 bats in Bangladesh. Five (3.5%) bats were positive for antibodies against Ebola Zaire and Reston viruses; no virus was detected by PCR. These bats might be a reservoir for Ebola or Ebola-like viruses, and extend the range of filoviruses to mainland Asia.

  8. First Outbreak of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Mahbubur; Rahman, Khalilur; Siddque, A. K.; Shoma, Shereen; A. H. M. Kamal; Ali, K.S.; Nisaluk, Ananda; Breiman, Robert F.

    2002-01-01

    During the first countrywide outbreak of dengue hemorrhagic fever in Bangladesh, we conducted surveillance for dengue at a hospital in Dhaka. Of 176 patients, primarily adults, found positive for dengue, 60.2% had dengue fever, 39.2% dengue hemorrhagic fever, and 0.6% dengue shock syndrome. The Dengue virus 3 serotype was detected in eight patients.

  9. First case of chromoblastomycosis from Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brun Sophie

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Chromoblastomycosis is a rare and chronic cutaneous and subcutaneous infection caused by black fungi and mostly reported in tropical and subtropical areas. Here we report the first case of chromoblastomycosis from Bangladesh. Molecular biology permitted to identify Fonsecaea nubica, and the patient responded well to antifungal treatment alone.

  10. Poverty Maps of Bangladesh 2010 : Key Findings

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank; World Food Programme; Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics

    2010-01-01

    Poverty mapping is a statistical exercise to estimate the incidence of poverty at sub-national levels to enable the government, civil society organizations, and development partners to accurately identify locations with a relatively higher concentration of poor people. The current poverty mapping exercise was initiated in September 2012 by the Bangladesh bureau of statistics (BBS), the Wor...

  11. Poverty Maps of Bangladesh 2010 : Technical Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank, (WB); World Food Programme; Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics

    2010-01-01

    Poverty mapping is a statistical exercise to estimate the incidence of poverty at sub-national levels to enable the government, civil society organizations, and development partners to accurately identify locations with a relatively higher concentration of poor people. The current poverty mapping exercise was initiated in September 2012 by the Bangladesh bureau of statistics (BBS), the Wor...

  12. Prevalence and Correlates of Physical Spousal Violence against Women in Slum and Nonslum Areas of Urban Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambisa, William; Angeles, Gustavo; Lance, Peter M.; Naved, Ruchira T.; Thornton, Juliana

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the prevalence and correlates of past-year physical violence against women in slum and nonslum areas of urban Bangladesh. The authors use multivariate logistic regression to analyze data from the 2006 Urban Health Survey, a population-based survey of 9,122 currently married women aged between 15 and 49 who were selected using a…

  13. Species selectivity in different sized topless trawl designs: Does size matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Ludvig Ahm; Herrmann, Bent; Karlsen, Junita Diana;

    2015-01-01

    -specific quotas. The toplesstrawl design was developed to improve species-specific selectivity in such fisheries. In a topless trawl,the foot rope is located more forward than the headline to allow fish to escape upwards, whereas theheadline is located in front in traditional trawl designs. In this study we...... Atlantic, topless trawls have been introducedas legal cod-selective trawl designs. However, this study demonstrates that identical gear modificationsmade to similar trawls of different sizes and used in the same fishery can lead to different results....

  14. Materials Selection in Gas Turbine Engine Design and the Role of Low Thermal Expansion Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagow, Benjamin W.

    2016-08-01

    Materials selection criteria in gas turbine engine design are reviewed, and several design challenges are introduced where selection of low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) materials can help improve engine performance and operability. This is followed by a review of the types of low CTE materials that are suitable for gas turbine engine applications, and discussion of their advantages and disadvantages. The primary limitation of low CTE materials is their maximum use temperature; if higher temperature materials could be developed, this could result in novel turbine system designs for gas turbine engines.

  15. Socioeconomic and Ecological Factors Influencing Aedes aegypti Prevalence, Abundance, and Distribution in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Dhar-Chowdhury, Parnali; Haque, C. Emdad; Lindsay, Robbin; Hossain, Shakhawat

    2016-01-01

    This study examined household risk factors and prevalence, abundance, and distribution of immature Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, and their association with socioeconomic and ecological factors at urban zonal and household levels in the city of Dhaka, Bangladesh. During the 2011 monsoon, 826 households in 12 randomly selected administrative wards were surveyed for vector mosquitoes. Results revealed that the abundance and distribution of immature Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, and pupae...

  16. GROWTH, INSTABILITY AND FORECASTING OF PIGEON PEA, CHICKPEA AND FIELD PEA PULSE PRODUCTION IN BANGLADESH

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Niaz Md. Farhat; Imam, M. F.

    2008-01-01

    The study tried to find out the appropriate models using latest model selection criteria that could describe the best growth pattern of pigeon pea, chickpea and field pea pulse production. The study also tried to measure the instability, growth rates of pigeon pea, chickpea and field pea pulse production and to determine the efficient time series models, to forecast the future pigeon pea, chickpea and field pea pulse production in Bangladesh. Forecasting attempts have been made to achieve the...

  17. Computer aided design in Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) - application in medicine

    OpenAIRE

    L.A. Dobrzański; A. Achtelik-Franczak; M. Król

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Purpose of this paper is presenting a computer technique (AutoFab software) used for modeling and design elements made from selective laser sintering (SLS) of metal powders belonging to the additive manufacturing (AM) technology. Design/methodology/approach: The following article presents the opportunities which are inherent to the software (AutoFab) for three dimentional computer graphics design-assist of the technology coupled with SLS. Findings: With the software...

  18. Heat exchanger selection and design analyses for metal hydride heat pump systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzucco, Andrea; Voskuilen, Tyler G.; Waters, Essene L.;

    2016-01-01

    the most efficient heat exchanger design and provides outcomes generally valid in a pre-design stage. Heat transfer effectiveness is the principal performance parameter guiding the selection analysis, the results of which appear to be mildly (up to 13%) affected by the specific Nusselt correlation used......This study presents a design analysis for the development of highly efficient heat exchangers within stationary metal hydride heat pumps. The design constraints and selected performance criteria are applied to three representative heat exchangers. The proposed thermal model can be applied to select....... The thermo-physical properties of the heat transfer medium and geometrical parameters are varied in the sensitivity analysis, suggesting that the length of independent tubes is the physical parameter that influences the performance of the heat exchangers the most. The practical operative regions for each...

  19. Correlates of Unwanted Births in Bangladesh: A Study through Path Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Brijesh P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Unwanted birth is an important public health concern due to its negative association with adverse outcomes of mothers and children as well as socioeconomic development of a country. Although a number of studies have been investigated the determinants of unwanted births through logistic regression analysis, an extensive assessment using path model is lacking. In the current study, we applied path analysis to know the important covariates for unwanted births in Bangladesh. Methods The study used data extracted from Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) 2011. It considered sub-sample consisted of 7,972 women who had given most recent births five years preceding the date of interview or who were currently pregnant at survey time. Correlation analysis was used to find out the significant association with unwanted births. This study provided the factors affecting unwanted births in Bangladesh. The path model was used to determine the direct, indirect and total effects of socio-demographic factors on unwanted births. Results The result exhibited that more than one-tenth of the recent births were unwanted in Bangladesh. The differentials of unwanted births were women’s age, education, age at marriage, religion, socioeconomic status, exposure of mass-media and use of family planning. In correlation analysis, it showed that unwanted births were positively correlated with women age and place of residence and these relationships were significant. On the contrary, unwanted births were inversely significantly correlated with education and social status. The total effects of endogenous variables such as women age, place of residence and use of family planning methods had favorable effect on unwanted births. Conclusion Policymakers and program planners need to design programs and services carefully to reduce unwanted births in Bangladesh, especially, service should focus on helping those groups of women who were identified in the analysis as being at

  20. Societal impacts and vulnerability to floods in Bangladesh and Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Tanvir H. Dewan

    2015-01-01

    Bangladesh and Nepal lie between the Himalayas and low-lying coasts of the Bay of Bengal and are traversed by hundreds of rivers and tributaries. Historical data shows that, since 1970, the scale, intensity and duration of floods have increased in Bangladesh and Nepal, causing grave human suffering; disruptions in normal life and activity, damages of infrastructure, crops and agricultural land with severe impacts on the economy. Bangladesh is affected by torrential rain, glacier melt, upstrea...

  1. Child Labour in Bangladesh: Trends, Patterns and Policy Options

    OpenAIRE

    Khanam, Rasheda

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the trends, patterns and policy options of child labour in Bangladesh particularly during the 1990s. The striking finding in the trend and incidence of child labour in Bangladesh is that while child labour is on a declining trend in other South Asian countries – India and Pakistan and in the world, it has been increasing in Bangladesh. This increasing trend in the incidence of child labour particularly focuses on the irrelevance or inadequacy of existing child labour laws...

  2. Preference for Institutional Delivery and Caesarean Sections in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Kamal, S M Mostafa

    2013-01-01

    In Bangladesh, preference for place of delivery and socioeconomic factors associated with caesarean section are not well-understood. This paper examines the socioeconomic correlates of preference for institutional delivery and caesarean sections in Bangladesh. The study used data from the nationally-representative 2007 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey. Both bivariate and multivariate binary logistic regression models were constructed to assess the effect of sociodemographic factors on...

  3. The prospects and challenges of plastic industries in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Pintu, MD. Nazmul Hossain

    2016-01-01

    Plastic is one of the most used engineered material in Bangladesh that has come out as im-portant industrial sector during the last few decades. The size of Domestic market is more than thousands of billions euros. The available cheap labor, vast population and fast development of plastics wastes recycling industries have given Bangladesh a huge potential advantages to compete in the global market. Although, plastics sector is one of the most growing markets in Bangladesh, but still it is fac...

  4. Improving Binding Affinity and Selectivity of Computationally Designed Ligand-Binding Proteins Using Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinberg, Christine E; Khare, Sagar D

    2016-01-01

    The ability to de novo design proteins that can bind small molecules has wide implications for synthetic biology and medicine. Combining computational protein design with the high-throughput screening of mutagenic libraries of computationally designed proteins is emerging as a general approach for creating binding proteins with programmable binding modes, affinities, and selectivities. The computational step enables the creation of a binding site in a protein that otherwise does not (measurably) bind the intended ligand, and targeted mutagenic screening allows for validation and refinement of the computational model as well as provides orders-of-magnitude increases in the binding affinity. Deep sequencing of mutagenic libraries can provide insights into the mutagenic binding landscape and enable further affinity improvements. Moreover, in such a combined computational-experimental approach where the binding mode is preprogrammed and iteratively refined, selectivity can be achieved (and modulated) by the placement of specified amino acid side chain groups around the ligand in defined orientations. Here, we describe the experimental aspects of a combined computational-experimental approach for designing-using the software suite Rosetta-proteins that bind a small molecule of choice and engineering, using fluorescence-activated cell sorting and high-throughput yeast surface display, high affinity and ligand selectivity. We illustrated the utility of this approach by performing the design of a selective digoxigenin (DIG)-binding protein that, after affinity maturation, binds DIG with picomolar affinity and high selectivity over structurally related steroids. PMID:27094290

  5. Protection from annual flooding is correlated with increased cholera prevalence in Bangladesh: a zero-inflated regression analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunus Mohammad

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alteration of natural or historical aquatic flows can have unintended consequences for regions where waterborne diseases are endemic and where the epidemiologic implications of such change are poorly understood. The implementation of flood protection measures for a portion of an intensely monitored population in Matlab, Bangladesh, allows us to examine whether cholera outcomes respond positively or negatively to measures designed to control river flooding. Methods Using a zero inflated negative binomial model, we examine how selected covariates can simultaneously account for household clusters reporting no cholera from those with positive counts as well as distinguishing residential areas with low counts from areas with high cholera counts. Our goal is to examine how residence within or outside a flood protected area interacts with the probability of cholera presence and the effect of flood protection on the magnitude of cholera prevalence. Results In Matlab, living in a household that is protected from annual monsoon flooding appears to have no significant effect on whether the household experiences cholera, net of other covariates. However, counter-intuitively, among households where cholera is reported, living within the flood protected region significantly increases the number of cholera cases. Conclusions The construction of dams or other water impoundment strategies for economic or social motives can have profound and unanticipated consequences for waterborne disease. Our results indicate that the construction of a flood control structure in rural Bangladesh is correlated with an increase in cholera cases for residents protected from annual monsoon flooding. Such a finding requires attention from both the health community and from governments and non-governmental organizations involved in ongoing water management schemes.

  6. Adolescent knowledge and awareness about AIDS/HIV and factors affecting them in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adolescents are more vulnerable than adults of unplanned pregnancies, sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS. Among the adolescents, girls are more vulnerable to STDs including HIV/AIDS. Their knowledge about different diseases is very poor. This paper investigated adolescent's knowledge about sexually transmitted diseases including HIV/AIDS, its mode of transmission and ways of its prevention. Methods: Cross sectional study design was adopted for this study. A multistage cluster sampling technique was used to select the sample. Data on 3362 female adolescents irrespective of their marital status was analyzed. Results: The study found that a large proportion of adolescents were not aware about sexually transmitted diseases and AIDS. More than half (54.8%) of the adolescents ever heard about AIDS respectively. On an average, about one tenth of them had better knowledge on AIDS in terms of mode of transmission and prevention. The multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that adolescent age, years of schooling and knowledge on STDs appeared to be important predictors of the awareness about AIDS (p<0.05). Conclusions: Useful and fruitful media campaigns to educate the adolescents regarding the health consequences of STDs including HIV/AIDS and integrated approach is strongly suggested for creating knowledge and awareness to control the spread of HIV and AIDS among young people in Bangladesh. (author)

  7. The Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching and Assessing: Current Practices at Polytechnics in Bangladesh and Its Effects in Developing Students' Competences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haolader, Faruque A.; Ali, Md Ramjan; Foysol, Khan Md

    2015-01-01

    Polytechnics in Bangladesh endeavour to produce quality graduates for national and international job markets. The quality of graduates depends on several factors. This study examines the implementation process of the polytechnic curriculum with the objectives of determining the current level of practices in learning/teaching material design, in…

  8. Sensory evaluation based fuzzy AHP approach for material selection in customized garment design and development process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Y.; Curteza, A.; Zeng, X.; Bruniaux, P.; Chen, Y.

    2016-06-01

    Material selection is the most difficult section in the customized garment product design and development process. This study aims to create a hierarchical framework for material selection. The analytic hierarchy process and fuzzy sets theories have been applied to mindshare the diverse requirements from the customer and inherent interaction/interdependencies among these requirements. Sensory evaluation ensures a quick and effective selection without complex laboratory test such as KES and FAST, using the professional knowledge of the designers. A real empirical application for the physically disabled people is carried out to demonstrate the proposed method. Both the theoretical and practical background of this paper have indicated the fuzzy analytical network process can capture expert's knowledge existing in the form of incomplete, ambiguous and vague information for the mutual influence on attribute and criteria of the material selection.

  9. Cause-specific neonatal mortality: analysis of 3772 neonatal deaths in Nepal, Bangladesh, Malawi and India

    OpenAIRE

    Fottrell, E.; Osrin, D.; Alcock, G; Azad, K.; Bapat, U; Beard, J.; Bondo, A.; Colbourn, T; Das, S; King, C.; Manandhar, D.; S Manandhar; Morrison, J; Mwansambo, C; Nair, N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Understanding the causes of death is key to tackling the burden of three million annual neonatal deaths. Resource-poor settings lack effective vital registration systems for births, deaths and causes of death. We set out to describe cause-specific neonatal mortality in rural areas of Malawi, Bangladesh, Nepal and rural and urban India using verbal autopsy (VA) data. Design We prospectively recorded births, neonatal deaths and stillbirths in seven population surveillance sites. VAs w...

  10. Factors associated with repeated outbreak of anthrax in Bangladesh: qualitative and quantitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Jayedul Hassan; Md. Murshidul Ahsan; Md. Bahanur Rahman; Shah Md. Ziqrul Haq Chowdhury; Md. Shafiullah Parvej; KHM Nazmul Hussain Nazir

    2015-01-01

    Anthrax, caused by Bacillus anthracis is an acute, febrile disease of warm blooded animals including humans. Social norms and poverty in addition to climatic factors such as soil conditions, seasons of year, ambient temperature and rainfall influence the persistence of the B. anthracis and anthrax outbreaks. The present study was designed to reveal the factors influencing the repeated outbreak of anthrax in Bangladesh. Considering the previous outbreaks of anthrax, Sirajganj, Bogra, Kushtia, ...

  11. Health Risk Assessment of Pesticide Residues via Dietary Intake of Market Vegetables from Dhaka, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Shakhaoat Hossain; Md. Alamgir Hossain; Md. Abdur Rahman; Md Mainul Islam; Md Atiqur Rahman; Tanveer Mehedi Adyel

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to assess the health risk of pesticide residues via dietary intake of vegetables collected from four top agro-based markets of Dhaka, Bangladesh. High performance liquid chromatography with a photo diode array detector (HPLC-PDA) was used to determine six organophosphorus (chlorpyrifos, fenitrothion, parathion, ethion, acephate, fenthion), two carbamate (carbaryl and carbofuran) and one pyrethroid (cypermethrin) pesticide residues in twelve samples of three comm...

  12. Prevention and control of tuberculosis in workplaces: how knowledgeable are the workers in Bangladesh?

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, Qazi Shafayetul; Islam, Md Akramul; Islam, Shayla; Ahmed, Syed Masud

    2015-01-01

    Background The National Tuberculosis (TB) Control Programme (NTP) of Bangladesh succeeded in achieving the dual targets of 70 % case detection and 85 % treatment completion as set by the World Health Organization. However, TB prevention and control in work places remained largely an uncharted area for NTP. There is dearth of information regarding manufacturing workers’ current knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) on pulmonary TB which is essential for designing a TB prevention and control...

  13. The Corporate Social Responsibility Disclosure: A Study of Listed Companies in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Abdur Rouf

    2011-01-01

    This is an exploratory study designed to investigate the extant and nature of corporate social responsibility disclosure (CSRD) in corporate annual reports (CAR) of listed companies in Bangladesh. Specifically, the report examines the relationship between corporate attributes and firm-specific factors and corporate social responsibility disclosures. Data are taken from annual reports of 2007 of the listed companies of Dhaka Stock Exchanges. The study uses ordinary least squares regression mod...

  14. Design of highly potent urea-based, exosite-binding inhibitors selective for glutamate carboxypeptidase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tykvart, Jan; Schimer, Jiří; Jančařík, Andrej; Bařinková, Jitka; Navrátil, Václav; Starková, Jana; Šrámková, Karolína; Konvalinka, Jan; Majer, Pavel; Šácha, Pavel

    2015-05-28

    We present here a structure-aided design of inhibitors targeting the active site as well as exosites of glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII), a prostate cancer marker, preparing potent and selective inhibitors that are more than 1000-fold more active toward GCPII than its closest human homologue, glutamate carboxypeptidase III (GCPIII). Additionally, we demonstrate that the prepared inhibitor conjugate can be used for sensitive and selective imaging of GCPII in mammalian cells. PMID:25923815

  15. Hepatitis B Vaccination in Bangladesh: a Suggestion Based on Current Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafquat Mohammed Rafiq

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionThe hepatitis B virus (HBV causes up to a million deaths worldwide and 16 million health care related infections in the tropics each year(1,2, and over 350 million become chronically infected carriers who have no significant liver disease; approximately three quarters of them are in Asia and the western pacific region(3,4. HBV infection is a potentially life threatening condition as many of the affected individuals progress to chronic hepatitis,cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC(3. In infants and children, acute hepatitis B infection is nearly always asymptomatic, whereas in adults it is usually the opposite. But on the other hand, the risk of becoming chronic carriage is much greater in children than in adults; as many as 90% of infants born to Hepatitis B e Antigen (HBeAg positive mothers become carriers themselves and, therefore, in long term are more likely to developchronic liver disease(5. Currently, though several antiviral drugs are used,there is no reliable curative treatment for HBV once it has been acquired and prevention by universal immunization remains the strategy for reducing the number of acute infections, chronic carriage and the long-term burden from diseases such as HCC(4,6. In 1991, in an attempt to reduce the global impact of HBV infection, WHO recommended that hepatitis B vaccination should be integrated into national immunization programs in all countries(7.Some Asian countries, for instance, Thailand, haveadopted the policy of immunizing children universally against the disease as early as 1992, however many others lagged behind(4.The true prevalence of Hepatitis B in Bangladesh is yet to be ascertained by a reliable study. Data available from different studies show that it ranges between 0.8 and 5.4% depending on the study design, samples and laboratory methods used(8-10.These data were based on detection of HBsAg antigen; the rates would have been higher, had they been based on anti-HBc antibody(11

  16. The limitations of microcredit for promoting microenterprises in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alam Mahmudul

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Microcredit is regarded as a tool for poverty alleviation. A stereotyped delivery system is designed and used for promoting and serving survival- and subsistence-level economic activities, particularly for poor female clients. In Bangladesh its success has raised social expectations as to its potential as also a promoter of microenterprises, which are growth-yielding small businesses beyond subsistence-level economic activity. The field survey shows that about 11.7% of the microcredit borrowers are this kind of potential or growing microentrepreneur. It also shows that microcredit’s standardised delivery system, particularly in respect of gender preference, loan size, loan disbursement, and repayment schedules, is a strong limiting factor in effectively serving the microenterprises, which require a more flexible credit package. Therefore a methodological modification is necessary to accommodate flexibility in the microcredit delivery system.

  17. Compliance with diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis immunisation in Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeitlyn, S; Rahman, A K; Nielsen, B H;

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate factors associated with non-compliance with having second vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis in a treatment centre in Dhaka to determine which children were most at risk of not completing immunisation. DESIGN: Cohort study of infants given first dose...... of the vaccine and followed up six weeks later to ascertain compliance with having second dose. Factors associated with non-compliance were evaluated. SETTING: Dhaka treatment centre of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh. SUBJECTS: 136 unimmunised children aged 6 weeks to 23...... months who lived within reach of the treatment centre. At time of the six week follow up 16 of the children could not be traced and seven had died. INTERVENTIONS: All children received their first dose of the vaccine. In each case health education workers had informed the mother about the value...

  18. QUALITY AND PROCESSES OF BANGLADESH OPEN UNIVERSITY COURSE MATERIALS DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Rezanur RAHMAN

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available A new member of the mega-Universities, Bangladesh Open University (BOU introduced a course team approach for developing effective course materials for distance students. BOU teaching media includes printed course books, study guides, radio and television broadcasts, audiocassettes and occasional face-to-face tutorials. Each course team comprises specialist course writer(s, editor, trained style editor, graphic designer,illustrator, audio-visual producer and anonymous referees. An editorial board or preview committee is responsible for the final approval for publishing or broadcasting materials for learners. This approach has been proved to be effective, but appeared to be complicated and time-consuming. This report focuses on the quality and processes of BOU course materials development taking into account the strengths and weaknesses of the current approach.

  19. Design and synthesis of carborane-containing estrogen receptor-beta (ERβ)-selective ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Kiminori; Ogawa, Takumi; Oda, Akifumi; Kaise, Asako; Endo, Yasuyuki

    2015-10-01

    Candidates for highly selective estrogen receptor-beta (ERβ) ligands (6a-c, 7a-c, 8a and 8b) were designed and synthesized based on carborane-containing ER ligands 1 and 2 as lead compounds. Among them, p-carboranylcyclohexanol derivatives 8a and 8b exhibited high ERβ selectivity in competitive binding assay: for example, 8a showed 56-fold selectivity for ERβ over ERα. Docking studies of 8a and 8b with the ERα and ERβ ligand-binding domains (LBDs) suggested that the p-carborane cage of the ligands is located close to key amino acid residues that influence ER-subtype selectivity, that is, Leu384 in the ERα LBD and Met336 in the ERβ LBD. The p-carborane cage in 8a and 8b appears to play a crucial role in the increased ERβ selectivity. PMID:26298498

  20. Selection of Weather Parameters for Air-Conditioning System Design for Buildings with Long Thermal Lag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Lian-feng; LEI Ming; CHEN You-ming

    2009-01-01

    Two building factors-a longer thermal lag of more than one hour for building envelops and a lag of indoor radiation to convert into cooling load-have impact on the instantaneous heat input and instantaneous cooling load.So the two factors should be taken into account when selecting the weather parameters for air-con-ditioning system design.This paper developed a new statistic method for the rational selection of coincident solar irradiance,dry-bulb and wet-bulb temperatures.The method was applied to historic weather records of 25 years in Hong Kong to generate coincident design weather data.And the results show that traditional design solar irra-diance,dry-bulb and wet-bulb temperatures may be significantly overestimated in many conditions,and the de-sign weather data for the three different constructions is not kept constant.

  1. Introduction of new vaccines: decision-making process in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Jasim; Sarma, Haribondhu; Bari, Tajul I; Koehlmoos, Tracey P

    2013-06-01

    The understanding of the decision-making process in the introduction of new vaccines helps establish why vaccines are adopted or not. It also contributes to building a sustainable demand for vaccines in a country. The purpose of the study was to map and analyze the formal decision-making process in relation to the introduction of new vaccines within the context of health policy and health systems and identify the ways of making decisions to introduce new vaccines in Bangladesh. During February-April 2011, a qualitative assessment was made at the national level to evaluate the decision-making process around the adoption of new vaccines in Bangladesh. The study population included: policy-level people, programme heads or associates, and key decision-makers of the Government, private sector, non-governmental organizations, and international agencies at the national level. In total, 13 key informants were purposively selected. Data were collected by interviewing key informants and reviewing documents. Data were analyzed thematically. The findings revealed that the actors from different sectors at the policy level were involved in the decision-making process in the introduction of new vaccines. They included policy-makers from the ministries of health and family welfare, finance, and local government and rural development; academicians; researchers; representatives from professional associations; development partners; and members of different committees on EPI. They contributed to the introduction of new vaccines in their own capacity. The burden of disease, research findings on vaccine-preventable diseases, political issues relating to outbreaks of certain diseases, initiatives of international and local stakeholders, pressure of development partners, the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI) support, and financial matters were the key factors in the introduction of new vaccines in Bangladesh. The slow introduction and uptake of new vaccines is a concern

  2. Agribusiness Potentials for Bangladesh — an Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Mahboob Ali

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh cannot sustain long-run economic progress without having a strong agricultural sector accompanied by a dynamic agribusiness sub-sector. This study has been undertaken as an exploratory study to assess the role and significance of agribusiness in Bangladesh along with the current status and future potentials. Various institutional and other weaknesses and challenges were deemed to exist in the country that prevents full realization of the potentials of this industry. At a general level, the paper recommends various structural, institutional, and market-friendly policy reforms accompanied by infrastructural developments in order to encourage entrepreneurship, innovation, and investments along with better and more effective strategic management of this sector. Such reforms are expected to promote better utilization of scarce resources to promote a strong, dynamic, and sustainable agribusiness sector that would be able to contribute substantially to industrialization and economic development of the country.

  3. Maternal care practices among the ultra poor households in rural Bangladesh: a qualitative exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choudhury Nuzhat

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although many studies have been carried out to learn about maternal care practices in rural areas and urban-slums of Bangladesh, none have focused on ultra poor women. Understanding the context in which women would be willing to accept new practices is essential for developing realistic and relevant behaviour change messages. This study sought to fill in this knowledge gap by exploring maternal care practices among women who participated in a grant-based livelihood programme for the ultra poor. This is expected to assist the designing of the health education messages programme in an effort to improve maternal morbidity and survival towards achieving the UN millennium Development Goal 5. Methods Qualitative method was used to collect data on maternal care practices during pregnancy, delivery, and post-partum period from women in ultra poor households. The sample included both currently pregnant women who have had a previous childbirth, and lactating women, participating in a grant-based livelihood development programme. Rangpur and Kurigram districts in northern Bangladesh were selected for data collection. Results Women usually considered pregnancy as a normal event unless complications arose, and most of them refrained from seeking antenatal care (ANC except for confirmation of pregnancy, and no prior preparation for childbirth was taken. Financial constraints, coupled with traditional beliefs and rituals, delayed care-seeking in cases where complications arose. Delivery usually took place on the floor in the squatting posture and the attendants did not always follow antiseptic measures such as washing hands before conducting delivery. Following the birth of the baby, attention was mainly focused on the expulsion of the placenta and various maneuvres were adapted to hasten the process, which were sometimes harmful. There were multiple food-related taboos and restrictions, which decreased the consumption of protein during

  4. Microfinance, Efficiency and Agricultural Production in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, K. M. Zahidul

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to make a detailed and systematic empirical analysis of microfinance borrowers and non-borrowers in Bangladesh and also examine how efficiency measures are influenced by the access to agricultural microfinance. In the empirical analysis, this study used both parametric and non-parametric frontier approaches to investigate differences in efficiency estimates between microfinance borrowers and non-borrowers. This thesis, based on five articles, applied data obt...

  5. Natural disasters and population mobility in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Gray, Clark L.; Mueller, Valerie

    2012-01-01

    The consequences of environmental change for human migration have gained increasing attention in the context of climate change and recent large-scale natural disasters, but as yet relatively few large-scale and quantitative studies have addressed this issue. We investigate the consequences of climate-related natural disasters for long-term population mobility in rural Bangladesh, a region particularly vulnerable to environmental change, using longitudinal survey data from 1,700 households spa...

  6. ESTIMATION OF POTATO DEMAND ELASTICITIES IN BANGLADESH

    OpenAIRE

    Huq, A. S. M. Anwarul; ALAM, SHAMSUL; Sabur, S. A.

    2004-01-01

    The study estimated potato demand elasticities in Bangladesh by using AIDS model with corrected Stone price index. The income elasticity of demand for potato was 0.632. The compensated and uncompensated own price elasticities indicated that all food items were price inelastic. The estimated own price elasticity indicated that if the potato price fell by 10 per cent, demand for potato would increase by 8.82 percent. The estimates of cross price elasticities indicated that the substitution effe...

  7. Participation of adolescents in household decision-making process in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Mizanur

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The decision-making authority is one of the ways of measuring the female empowerment, although mere participation in any matter does not corroborate full empowerment of women. However, participation in decision-making process in household matters considers that a female is accounted in the family. Objective: The present study investigated to the extent at which the female adolescents participated in decision-making process in household matters and assessed the factors influencing them. Study Setting: Both rural and urban areas of Bangladesh. Study Design: A quantitative and a qualitative study designs were adopted for this study. Sample Size and Sampling: A cluster sampling technique was used to select the sample. A sample of 3362 female adolescents irrespective of their marital status was selected using a cluster sampling technique. To complement the results found in quantitative analysis, a series of focus group discussions were also conducted among the adolescents. Results: The analysis revealed that a large proportion of the study adolescents did not participate in any decision-making process in their household matters. Only about one-third (31.1% of the adolescents participated in any household matter; however, the acceptance of their opinions was minimal. In spite of little participation of adolescents in family matters, multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that older adolescents aged 15-19 years, years of schooling, work status, and the family members with a positive attitude toward female education appeared to be the influencing factors for adolescent participation in household affairs ( P < 0.05 . Conclusions : The study concluded that gainful economic activities of adolescents and female education are the key elements for participation of female adolescents in different household matters.

  8. Floods in Bangladesh and Northeast India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    For the past month heavy monsoon rains have led to massive flooding in eastern India, Nepal, and Bangladesh, which have killed over 500 people and left millions homeless. This false-color image acquired on August 5, 2002, by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft shows the extent of this flooding. In the upper right-hand corner of the image, the swollen Brahmaputra River runs east to west through the Indian state of Assam. Normally, the river and its tributaries would resemble a tangle of thin lines. Moving to the upper left-hand corner, flooding can be seen along the Ganges River in the state of Bihar, India. Both of these rivers flow into Bangladesh along with many others from India and Nepal. Heavy monsoon rains from all across the region have inundated the small country with water this year. Floodwaters have all but covered northeastern Bangladesh, which is usually dry. The Jamuna River, which runs down the center of the country off of the Brahmaputra River, now resembles a narrow lake. Millions of dollars in crops have been destroyed and thousands have been left stranded in their villages or on rafts. Forecasters are warning that flooding could get worse. In the false-color image, land is green, and water is black and dark brown. Clouds appear pink, red and white. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  9. Type 1 diabetes: The Bangladesh perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishwar Azad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is a common endocrine disorder among children and adolescents in Bangladesh. The latest International Diabetes Federation atlas estimated the incidence of type 1 DM (T1DM in Bangladesh as 4.2 new cases of T1DM/100,000 children (0-14 years/year, in 2013. Diabetes, being a lifelong disease, places a huge burden on the economy of the most densely populated, and resource-poor country of the world. The Diabetic Association of Bangladesh (BADAS, the largest of its kind in the world, provides comprehensive care to the biggest number of diabetics at any one centre and is engaged in advocacy. Although sounding grandiose, it′s aims that ′no diabetic shall die untreated, unfed or unemployed, even if poor′ is pursued with a passion. Recently BADAS has been supported in its endeavor for children and adolescents by two programmes; viz the Changing Diabetes in Children program (a joint initiative of BADAS, the World Diabetes Foundation and Novo Nordisk, and the Life for a Child Programme (LFAC supported by the IDF. Numerous studies from the prosperous countries have demonstrated the incidence of T1DM is increasing. Data from the CDiC clinic at BIRDEM shows a rising trend in patients presenting with classical T1DM. In addition, the pattern of DM is changing.

  10. Rainfall variability and seasonality in northern Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, Sheikh Hefzul; Hussain, Md. Manjurul; Husna, Noor-E.-Ashmaul

    2016-05-01

    This paper aimed at the analysis of rainfall seasonality and variability for the northern part of South-Asian country, Bangladesh. The coefficient of variability was used to determine the variability of rainfall. While rainfall seasonality index (SI ) and mean individual seasonality index ( overline{SI_i} ) were used to identify seasonal contrast. We also applied Mann-Kendall trend test and sequential Mann-Kendall test to determine the trend in seasonality. The lowest variability was found for monsoon among the four seasons whereas winter has the highest variability. Observed variability has a decreasing tendency from the northwest region towards the northeast region. The mean individual seasonality index (0.815378 to 0.977228) indicates that rainfall in Bangladesh is "markedly seasonal with a long dry season." It was found that the length of the dry period is lower at the northeastern part of northern Bangladesh. Trend analysis results show no significant change in the seasonality of rainfall in this region. Regression analysis of overline{SI_i} and SI, and longitude and mean individual seasonality index show a significant linear correlation for this area.

  11. Present status of radiation education in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullah, Sana [Atomic Energy Centre, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    1999-09-01

    Radioisotopes and Radiation are being widely used in the fields of agriculture, medicine, industry for the benefit of people throughout the world. At the same time the use of radiation sources can do harm to man and environment. In order to ensure the satiety against radiation hazards and safe use of radiation, proper education, training, knowledge and awareness are essential. Like other achieve economic development through application f count rues Bangladesh is flying to in agriculture, food, industry, power; health or medi of isotopes and radiation technology cine. Basic education about radiation is incorporated in the school curriculum. Courses on radiation are also given in college and university education. Research organizations, universities carry out research and development works on different disciplines using radiation and radioisotopes. Seminars, workshops, conferences, takings on isotopes and radiation are also being organized. In 1993 Government of Bangladesh passed the Nuclear Satiety and Radiation Control Act 1993 for see use of radiation. The present paper win cover the radiation education, research and development works on radiation, applications of radiation in agriculture, medicine and industry, personal safety and radiation protection against radiation hazard and rules and regulations of the nuclear safety and radiation control act practised in Bangladesh. (author)

  12. OPPORTUNITIES OF DEVELOPING TOURISM INDUSTRY IN BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayub CHOWDHURY

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Tourism appeal includes natural places like beaches, eco-parks, lakes, valleys, rivers, islands etc., archeological sites, historic mosques and monuments, resorts, picnic spots, forest and wildlife. Bangladesh is a riverine country having attractive panoramic beauty. There are hills, valley, canals, lake, eco-park and mangrove forests, rivers, so many islands and the longest beach in the world. In this country, the scope of nature based tourism, resource based tourism, culture based tourism and eco-tourism is quite evident. Bangladesh is trying hard to develop its tourism industry. Therefore the whole situation deserves to be seen from right perspectives. Role of government is positive since the last twenty years both private and public organizations have come forwarded to attract the local and foreign tourists. The cracks of problem could not identify accurately because of the paucity number of researches and investigations in our country. Developed and organized tourism industry could change the economic condition and contribute a big share in the GDP of Bangladesh. This study will impede the opportunities of developing tourism industry in the light of existing resources.

  13. A QFD-based decision making model for computer-aided design software selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanika Prasad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available With the progress in technology and innovation in product development, the contribution of computer- aided design (CAD software in the design and manufacture of parts/products is growing on significantly. Selection of an appropriate CAD software is not a trifling task as it involves analyzing the appositeness of the available software packages to the unique requirements of the organization. Existence of a large number of CAD software vendors, presence of discordance among different hardware and software systems, and dearth of technical knowledge and experience of the decision makers further complicate the selection procedure. Moreover, there are very few published research papers related to CAD software selection, and majority of them have either employed criteria weights computed utilizing subjective judgements of the end users or floundered to incorporate the voice of customers in the decision making process. Quality function deployment (QFD is a well-known technique for determining the relative importance of customers’ defined criteria for selection of any product or service. Therefore, this paper deals with design and development of a QFD-based decision making model in Visual BASIC 6.0 for selection of CAD software for manufacturing organizations. In order to demonstrate the applicability and potentiality of the developed model in the form of a software prototype, two illustrative examples are also provided.

  14. Structure-guided design of selective Epac1 and Epac2 agonists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwede, Frank; Bertinetti, Daniela; Langerijs, Carianne N; Hadders, Michael A; Wienk, Hans; Ellenbroek, Johanne H; de Koning, Eelco J P; Bos, Johannes L; Herberg, Friedrich W; Genieser, Hans-Gottfried; Janssen, Richard A J; Rehmann, Holger

    2015-01-01

    The second messenger cAMP is known to augment glucose-induced insulin secretion. However, its downstream targets in pancreatic β-cells have not been unequivocally determined. Therefore, we designed cAMP analogues by a structure-guided approach that act as Epac2-selective agonists both in vitro and i

  15. Efficient Design of a Frequency Selective Surface for a Multi Functional Radar: Theory and Measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monni, S.; Gerini, G.; Neto, A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes an efficient methodology for the design of steep roll-off Frequency Selective Surfaces (FSS’s). The proposed technique is based on the Multimode Equivalent Network (MEN) approach, which was originally developed for the analysis of waveguide junctions. The MEN has been extended t

  16. The hidden cost of 'free' maternity care in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, S; Costello, A

    1998-12-01

    We studied the cost and affordability of 'free' maternity services at government facilities in Dhaka, Bangladesh, to assess whether economic factors may contribute to low utilization. We conducted a questionnaire survey and in-depth interviews among 220 post-partum mothers and their husbands, selected from four government maternity facilities (three referral hospitals and one Mother and Child Health hospital) in Dhaka. Mothers with serious complications were excluded. Information was collected on the costs of maternity care, household income, the sources of finance used to cover the costs, and the family's willingness to pay for maternity services. The mean cost for normal delivery was 1275 taka (US$31.9) and for caesarean section 4703 taka (US$117.5). Average monthly household income was 4933 taka (US$123). Twenty-one per cent of families were spending 51-100% of monthly income, and 27% of families 2-8 times their monthly income for maternity care. Overall, 51% of the families (and 74% of those having a caesarean delivery) did not have enough money to pay; of these, 79% had to borrow from a money lender or relative. Surprisingly, 72% of the families said they were willing to pay a government-levied user charge, though this was less popular among low-income families (61%). 'Free' maternity care in Bangladesh involves considerable hidden costs which may be a major contributor to low utilization of maternity services, especially among low-income groups. To increase utilization of safer motherhood services, policy-makers might consider introducing fixed user charges with clear exemption guidelines, or greater subsidies for existing services, especially caesarean section. PMID:10346033

  17. Gender mainstraming in the Bangladesh Rural Electrification Board

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clancy, Joy; Ekram, Lailun Nahar; Halim, Sadeka; Mhatab, Nazmunnessa

    2004-01-01

    A Gender Equity Strategy and Action Plan has been integrated into the Bangladesh Rural Electrification Board’s Master Plan. Implementation of this plan will be the first gender mainstreaming exercise in the energy sector in Bangladesh, and possibly in the world.

  18. Spacecraft flight control system design selection process for a geostationary communication satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barret, C.

    1992-01-01

    The Earth's first artificial satellite, Sputnik 1, slowly tumbled in orbit. The first U.S. satellite, Explorer 1, also tumbled out of control. Now, as we launch the Mars observer and the Cassini spacecraft, stability and control have become higher priorities. The flight control system design selection process is reviewed using as an example a geostationary communication satellite which is to have a life expectancy of 10 to 14 years. Disturbance torques including aerodynamic, magnetic, gravity gradient, solar, micrometeorite, debris, collision, and internal torques are assessed to quantify the disturbance environment so that the required compensating torque can be determined. Then control torque options, including passive versus active, momentum control, bias momentum, spin stabilization, dual spin, gravity gradient, magnetic, reaction wheels, control moment gyros, nutation dampers, inertia augmentation techniques, three-axis control, reactions control system (RCS), and RCS sizing, are considered. A flight control system design is then selected and preliminary stability criteria are met by the control gains selection.

  19. Simple and Effective Way for Data Preprocessing Selection Based on Design of Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerretzen, Jan; Szymańska, Ewa; Jansen, Jeroen J; Bart, Jacob; van Manen, Henk-Jan; van den Heuvel, Edwin R; Buydens, Lutgarde M C

    2015-12-15

    The selection of optimal preprocessing is among the main bottlenecks in chemometric data analysis. Preprocessing currently is a burden, since a multitude of different preprocessing methods is available for, e.g., baseline correction, smoothing, and alignment, but it is not clear beforehand which method(s) should be used for which data set. The process of preprocessing selection is often limited to trial-and-error and is therefore considered somewhat subjective. In this paper, we present a novel, simple, and effective approach for preprocessing selection. The defining feature of this approach is a design of experiments. On the basis of the design, model performance of a few well-chosen preprocessing methods, and combinations thereof (called strategies) is evaluated. Interpretation of the main effects and interactions subsequently enables the selection of an optimal preprocessing strategy. The presented approach is applied to eight different spectroscopic data sets, covering both calibration and classification challenges. We show that the approach is able to select a preprocessing strategy which improves model performance by at least 50% compared to the raw data; in most cases, it leads to a strategy very close to the true optimum. Our approach makes preprocessing selection fast, insightful, and objective.

  20. Upgradation of nuclear medical equipment in the developing countries and its impact in Bangladesh

    CERN Document Server

    Jahangir, S M; Haque, M A S; Hoq, M; Mawla, Y; Morium, T; Uddin, M R; Xie, Y

    2002-01-01

    Bangladesh has thirteen Nuclear Medical Centres and one Institute of Nuclear Medicine in the country which are being run and maintained by the physicians scientists and engineers of Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission. The peaceful application of atomic energy was initiated through all these Centres with the use of clinical isotopes for thyroid and kidney studies. The equipment used for these purposes were the thyroid uptake system, rectilinear scanner and the multiprobe renogram system. The first gamma camera was installed in the country in 1980 at the Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Dhaka. That was the turning point for the country in the field of nuclear medicine. Presently all the nuclear medical establishments are equipped least with a gamma camera, thyroid uptake system and a renogram system. In the last two decades there has been a tremendous development in the design of nuclear medical equipment. Most of the old equipments were slow and manually operated. In the beginning of nineties of the past centur...

  1. Dyspnea Experience and Dyspnea Management in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahanaz Parveen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate dyspnea experience and dyspnea management intervention used by Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD patients in Bangladesh.Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional design was used. The symptom management model developed by Dodd et al. was used to guide the study. Data were collected from 140 COPD patients by using self-report questionnaire. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze the data.Results: The patients perceived dyspnea difficulty within the past 24 hours and within the past 7 days at moderate level. The most used dyspnea management methods included bronchodilators, leaning forward position, and keeping still. The patients perceived bronchodilators as somewhat effective method and perceived leaning forward position as quite a bit effective method in reducing dyspnea.Conclusion: The study could guide nurses to promote dyspnea management intervention for COPD patients in Bangladesh, in order to enhance higher quality of life.

  2. License application design selection feature report: Additive and fillers design feature 19

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The estimated additional total system life-cycle cost for each of the filler options in 1999 dollars is as follows: $923.4 million for the iron oxide option, $42.4 million to $966.4 million (depending on the extent of surface facility involvement required) for the partial iron shot fill option, $1,012 million for the complete iron shot fill option, and $134.7 million for the integral filler option (Appendix A). All of the filler options evaluated showed improvements in some aspects of pre- and post-closure waste package and repository performance. However, all of the options, except for the integral filler option, negatively impacted other areas of performance, required modification to surface facility design and operations, and invoked additional uncertainty. The iron oxide filler option will require further testing to measure thermal conductivity to ensure that peak cladding temperatures will not exceed the 350 C limit. The complete iron shot fill option may require structural improvements to the waste package design (use of partial shot fill may eliminate this concern). Both the iron shot and iron oxide options will also require further testing to confirm that the conceptual loading strategy will efficiently load a waste package in a timely manner. In addition, both shot and oxide options will require further testing to develop models for their potential to provide resistance to water flow, and, in the case of iron shot, act as an oxygen getter. Finally, uncertainty also exists as to whether the iron shot option will damage the cladding if sufficient corrosion of the shot occurs. Based on the results presented in this evaluation, the integral filler option appears to be the simplest and most cost efficient method for achieving modest improvements in pre- and post-closure performance. Since unqualified inputs were used in the development of this evaluation, they should be considered TBV (to be verified). This document will not directly support any construction

  3. Sub-clinical mastitis prevalent in dairy cows in Chittagong district of Bangladesh: detection by different screening tests

    OpenAIRE

    Mukti Barua; Mohammad Abdul Matin Prodhan; Kamrul Islam; Sharmin Chowdhury; Md. Hasanuzzaman; Mohammed Ashif Imtiaz; Goutam Buddha Das

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Mastitis is recognized as one of the most costly health disorder affecting dairy cows. An epidemiological study was carried out at some selected farms in Chittagong district of Bangladesh to determine the prevalence and risk factors of sub-clinical mastitis (SCM) in dairy cows. Materials and Methods: For conducting the study, some dairy farms of Chittagong were selected from urban and periurban areas by stratified random sampling. A total of 444 quarter samples of 111 (56 from commerc...

  4. Mapping Chemical Selection Pathways for Designing Multicomponent Alloys: an informatics framework for materials design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Srikant; Broderick, Scott R.; Zhang, Ruifeng; Mishra, Amrita; Sinnott, Susan B.; Saxena, Surendra K.; Lebeau, James M.; Rajan, Krishna

    2015-12-01

    A data driven methodology is developed for tracking the collective influence of the multiple attributes of alloying elements on both thermodynamic and mechanical properties of metal alloys. Cobalt-based superalloys are used as a template to demonstrate the approach. By mapping the high dimensional nature of the systematics of elemental data embedded in the periodic table into the form of a network graph, one can guide targeted first principles calculations that identify the influence of specific elements on phase stability, crystal structure and elastic properties. This provides a fundamentally new means to rapidly identify new stable alloy chemistries with enhanced high temperature properties. The resulting visualization scheme exhibits the grouping and proximity of elements based on their impact on the properties of intermetallic alloys. Unlike the periodic table however, the distance between neighboring elements uncovers relationships in a complex high dimensional information space that would not have been easily seen otherwise. The predictions of the methodology are found to be consistent with reported experimental and theoretical studies. The informatics based methodology presented in this study can be generalized to a framework for data analysis and knowledge discovery that can be applied to many material systems and recreated for different design objectives.

  5. Design and operation of the double crystal monochromator for energy selective neutron imaging at ENF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jongyul; Lim, Chang Hwy; Moon, Myung Kook; Kim, TaeJoo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Youngju; Lee, Seung Wook [Pusan National University, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Energy selective neutron imaging is one of advanced neutron imaging techniques. Although conventional neutron imaging can't visualize a complex structure of polycrystalline because polychromatic thermal and cold neutron beams are mainly used, the detailed structure of the welded steel sample can be visualized using energy selective neutron imaging. Neutron imaging experiments have been performed at Ex-core Neutron irradiation Facility (ENF) in HANARO research reactor. To perform energy selective neutron imaging at ENF, a neutron beam with narrow energy band is needed. The double crystal monochromator that is well designed and prepared will be set up for energy selective neutron imaging at the Ex-core Neutron irradiation Facility (ENF) in HANARO.

  6. Design and operation of the double crystal monochromator for energy selective neutron imaging at ENF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy selective neutron imaging is one of advanced neutron imaging techniques. Although conventional neutron imaging can't visualize a complex structure of polycrystalline because polychromatic thermal and cold neutron beams are mainly used, the detailed structure of the welded steel sample can be visualized using energy selective neutron imaging. Neutron imaging experiments have been performed at Ex-core Neutron irradiation Facility (ENF) in HANARO research reactor. To perform energy selective neutron imaging at ENF, a neutron beam with narrow energy band is needed. The double crystal monochromator that is well designed and prepared will be set up for energy selective neutron imaging at the Ex-core Neutron irradiation Facility (ENF) in HANARO

  7. Design and Synthesis of Simplified Largazole Analogues as Isoform-Selective Human Lysine Deacetylase Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Damodara N; Ballante, Flavio; Chuang, Timothy; Pirolli, Adele; Marrocco, Biagina; Marshall, Garland R

    2016-02-25

    Selective inhibition of KDAC isoforms while maintaining potency remains a challenge. Using the largazole macrocyclic depsipeptide structure as a starting point for developing new KDACIs with increased selectivity, a combination of four different simplified largazole analogue (SLA) scaffolds with diverse zinc-binding groups (for a total of 60 compounds) were designed, synthesized, and evaluated against class I KDACs 1, 3, and 8, and class II KDAC6. Experimental evidence as well as molecular docking poses converged to establish the cyclic tetrapeptides (CTPs) as the primary determinant of both potency and selectivity by influencing the correct alignment of the zinc-binding group in the KDAC active site, providing a further basis for developing new KDACIs of higher isoform selectivity and potency. PMID:26681404

  8. In vivo analysis of toxic effect of hydrose used in food preparations in Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tuhin; Reza; Sharmin; Aktar; Hasan; Al; Amin; Mashiur; Rahman; Afroza; Arefin; Nayan; Chandra; Mohanto; Shahnur; Alam; Abdullah; Al; Mamun; Anwar; Habib; Asafudullah; Farjana; Nikkon; Khaled; Hossain; Zahangir; Alam; Saud

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the toxic effect of hydrose used in the molasses preparation in Bangladesh.Methods:Molasses were collected from open markets in different parts of Bangladesh.The presence of hydrose in selected molasses was detected using commercial kit.To evaluate the toxic effect of hydrose.Swiss albino male mice were divided into four groups.Group Ⅰ was used as control,while Groups Ⅱ,Ⅲ and Ⅳ received hydrose mixing food(5.10 and 25 g/kg food),respectively,and these supplementations were continued to the end of the study(16weeks).Blood was collected from thoracic arteries of the mice under ether anesthesia and then organs were taken.To determine the effect of hydrose on host,blood indices related to liver,heart and kidney dysfunctions were measured.Result:Creatinine and urea levels were significantly(P<0.05) increased in a dose dependent manner in hydrose treated mice,whereas calcium level was significantly decreased in hydrose exposed mice compared to control mice.Histological study of kidney showed the glomeruler inflammation,increased diameter of renal glomeruli and enlargement of proximal tubular lumen of kidneys of mice exposed to hydrose compared to that of control animals.Conclusion:The results of this study indicated that use of hydrose in molasses and other food preparations in Bangladesh may cause kidney impairment.

  9. In vivo analysis of toxic effect of hydrose used in food preparations in Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tuhin Reza; Asafudullah; Farjana Nikkon; Khaled Hossain; Zahangir Alam Saud; Sharmin Aktar; Hasan Al Amin; Mashiur Rahman; Afroza Arefin; Nayan Chandra Mohanto; Shahnur Alam; Abdullah Al Mamun; Anwar Habib

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the toxic effect of hydrose used in the molasses preparation in Bangladesh.Methods:Molasses were collected from open markets in different parts of Bangladesh. The presence of hydrose in selected molasses was detected using commercial kit. To evaluate the toxic effect of hydrose, Swiss albino male mice were divided into four groups. Group I was used as control, while Groups II, III and IV received hydrose mixing food (5, 10 and 25 g/kg food), respectively, and these supplementations were continued to the end of the study (16 weeks). Blood was collected from thoracic arteries of the mice under ether anesthesia and then organs were taken. To determine the effect of hydrose on host, blood indices related to liver, heart and kidney dysfunctions were measured.Results:Creatinine and urea levels were significantly (P<0.05) increased in a dose dependent manner in hydrose treated mice, whereas calcium level was significantly decreased in hydrose exposed mice compared to control mice. Histological study of kidney showed the glomeruler inflammation, increased diameter of renal glomeruli and enlargement of proximal tubular lumen of kidneys of mice exposed to hydrose compared to that of control animals. Conclusions: The results of this study indicated that use of hydrose in molasses and other food preparations in Bangladesh may cause kidney impairment.

  10. Assessment of potential indigenous plant species for the phytoremediation of arsenic-contaminated areas of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Rezwanul; Inoue, Naoto; Kasajima, Shin-Ya; Shaheen, Riffat

    2008-01-01

    Soil and water contaminated with arsenic (As) pose a major environmental and human health problem in Bangladesh. Phytoremediation, a plant-based technology, may provide an economically viable solution for remediating the As-polluted sites. The use of indigenous plants with a high tolerance and accumulation capacity for As may be a very convenient approach for phytoremediation. To assess the potential of native plant species for phytoremediation, plant and soil samples were collected from four As-contaminated (groundwater) districts in Bangladesh. The main criteria used for selecting plants for phytoremediation were high bioconcentration factors (BCFs) and translocation factors (TFs) of As. From the results of a screening of 49 plant species belonging to 29 families, only one species of fern (Dryopteris filix-mas), three herbs (Blumea lacera, Mikania cordata, and Ageratum conyzoides), and two shrubs (Clerodendrum trichotomum and Ricinus communis) were found to be suitable for phytoremediation. Arsenic bioconcentration and translocation factors > 1 suggest that these plants are As-tolerant accumulators with potential use in phytoextraction. Three floating plants (Eichhornia crassipes, Spirodela polyrhiza, and Azolla pinnata) and a common wetland weed (Monochoria vaginalis) also showed high BCF and TF values; therefore, these plants may be promising candidates for cleaningup As-contaminated surface water and wetland areas. The BCF of Oryza sativa, obtained from As-contaminated districts was > 1, which highlights possible food-chain transfer issues for As-contaminated areas in Bangladesh. PMID:18709925

  11. High carbon stocks in roadside plantations under participatory management in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mizanur Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plantations are important REDD+strategies for increasing carbon sequestration while enhancing local livelihoods. Reforestation along roads and highways under participatory forest management in southwestern Bangladesh could contribute to REDD+. This study assessed the diversity and structure of roadside plantations in order to develop a basal area based generalized allometric model for estimating above- and below-ground tree biomass carbon in Southwestern Bangladesh. All woody plants with d.b.h. ⩾2cm were identified and their diameters measured in 108 systematically selected zigzag plots of equal size (2×10m. A total of 36 species in 17 families were recorded. Leguminosae accounted for 28% of species and 94% of the total estimated biomass carbon. We estimated a mean stem density of 4528ha−1, basal area of 52.6m2ha−1 and biomass carbon of 192.80 Mg ha−1. Samanea saman, Dalbergia sissoo, Acacia nilotica, and Leucaena leucocephala accounted for most density, basal area, and carbon. We developed and validated three allometric models with equal strength (R2 0.94–0.98 using generalized linear regression. Roadside plantations in Bangladesh can now surely participate in the UNFCCC’s carbon mitigation and adaptation mechanism, but challenges to their long-term sustainability must be addressed.

  12. Harnessing the Big Data Paradigm for ICME: Shifting from Materials Selection to Materials Enabled Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, Scott R.; Santhanam, Ganesh Ram; Rajan, Krishna

    2016-08-01

    As the size of databases has significantly increased, whether through high throughput computation or through informatics-based modeling, the challenge of selecting the optimal material for specific design requirements has also arisen. Given the multiple, and often conflicting, design requirements, this selection process is not as trivial as sorting the database for a given property value. We suggest that the materials selection process should minimize selector bias, as well as take data uncertainty into account. For this reason, we discuss and apply decision theory for identifying chemical additions to Ni-base alloys. We demonstrate and compare results for both a computational array of chemistries and standard commercial superalloys. We demonstrate how we can use decision theory to select the best chemical additions for enhancing both property and processing, which would not otherwise be easily identifiable. This work is one of the first examples of introducing the mathematical framework of set theory and decision analysis into the domain of the materials selection process.

  13. MarkerSet: a marker selection tool based on markers location and informativity in experimental designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demeure Olivier

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The recent sequencing of full genomes has led to the availability of many SNP markers which are very useful for the mapping of complex traits. In livestock production, there are still no commercial arrays and many studies use home-made sets of SNPs. Thus, the current methodologies for SNP genotyping are still expensive and it is a crucial step to select the SNPs to use. Indeed, the main factors affecting the power of the linkage analyses are the density of the genetic map and the heterozygosity of markers in tested animal parents. Findings This is why we have developed a PERL program selecting a defined number of markers based on their locations on the genome and their informativity in specific experimental designs. As an option, different experimental designs can be combined in order to select the best possible common marker set. The program has been tested using different conditions of marker informativity and density with both real and simulated datasets. The results show the efficiency of our program to select the most informative markers even if there is a wide range of informativity for whole genome scan mapping analyses. In case of combination of different experimental crosses, the multidesign mode can optimize the SNP markers selection. Conclusion Written in PERL, it assures a maximum portability to other operating systems (OS and the source code availability for user modifications. Except for the simulation mode which could be time consuming, MarkerSet can compute results in a very short time.

  14. Harnessing the Big Data Paradigm for ICME: Shifting from Materials Selection to Materials Enabled Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, Scott R.; Santhanam, Ganesh Ram; Rajan, Krishna

    2016-07-01

    As the size of databases has significantly increased, whether through high throughput computation or through informatics-based modeling, the challenge of selecting the optimal material for specific design requirements has also arisen. Given the multiple, and often conflicting, design requirements, this selection process is not as trivial as sorting the database for a given property value. We suggest that the materials selection process should minimize selector bias, as well as take data uncertainty into account. For this reason, we discuss and apply decision theory for identifying chemical additions to Ni-base alloys. We demonstrate and compare results for both a computational array of chemistries and standard commercial superalloys. We demonstrate how we can use decision theory to select the best chemical additions for enhancing both property and processing, which would not otherwise be easily identifiable. This work is one of the first examples of introducing the mathematical framework of set theory and decision analysis into the domain of the materials selection process.

  15. Design and synthesis of novel chalcones as potent selective monoamine oxidase-B inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammuda, Arwa; Shalaby, Raed; Rovida, Stefano; Edmondson, Dale E; Binda, Claudia; Khalil, Ashraf

    2016-05-23

    A novel series of substituted chalcones were designed and synthesized to be evaluated as selective human MAO-B inhibitors. A combination of either methylsulfonyl or trifluoromethyl substituents on the aromatic ketone moiety with a benzodioxol ring on the other end of the chalcone scaffold was investigated. The compounds were tested for their inhibitory activities on both human MAO-A and B. All compounds appeared to be selective MAO-B inhibitors with Ki values in the micromolar to submicromolar range. Molecular modeling studies have been performed to get insight into the binding mode of the synthesized compounds to human MAO-B active site. PMID:26974383

  16. Women's participation in rural credit programmes in Bangladesh and their demand for formal health care: is there a positive impact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, P

    1999-08-01

    Within the overall aim of poverty alleviation, development efforts have included credit and self-employment programmes. In Bangladesh, the major beneficiaries of such group-based credit programmes are rural women who use the loans to initiate small informal income-generating activities. This paper explores the benefits of women's participation in credit programmes on their own health seeking. Using data from a sample of 1798 households from rural Bangladesh, conducted in 1991-1992 through repeated random sampling of 87 districts covered by Grameen Bank, Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC) and Bangladesh Rural Development Board (BRDB), this paper addresses the question: does women's participation in credit programmes significantly affect their use of formal health care? A non-unitary household preference model is suggested to test the hypothesis that women's empowerment through participation in these programmes results in greater control of resources for their own demand for formal health care. The analysis controls for endogeneity due to self-selection and other unobserved village level factors through the use of a weighted two stage instrumental variable approach with village level fixed effects. The findings indicate a positive impact of women's participation in credit programmes on their demand for formal health care. The policy simulations on the results of this study highlight the importance of credit programmes as a health intervention in addition to being a mechanism for women's economic empowerment.

  17. Safety of dams, probable maximum flood and the selection of inflow design floods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zielinski, P.A. [Ontario Power Generation Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada). Technology and Dam Safety

    2009-07-01

    This paper discussed flood design criteria for dams in North America. North American classification systems use a probable maximum flood (PMF) method to determine where dam failures may result in fatalities or significant damage. Methods for selecting spillway design flood or inflow design floods are based on an antiquated upscaling method. The PMF method is conducted by deriving the probable maximum precipitation; establishing a set of antecedent conditions in the basin of interest; and modelling the region's hydrology in order to assess the basin's response to the antecedent conditions and precipitation estimations. Methodological and technical shortcomings of the PMF method were reviewed. The study suggested that the PMF is too conservative to accurately design spillways, and does not meet current criteria for professional decision-making. It was concluded there is no scientific justification for using the PMF method as a means of establishing safety targets for spillways. 21 refs., 5 tabs.

  18. SELECTION OF OBJECTIVE FUNCTIONS AND APPLICATION OF GENETIC ALGORITHMS IN DAMPING DESIGN OF PIPE SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChenYanqiu; FanQinsban; ZhuZigen

    2003-01-01

    The vibration failure of pipe system of aeroengine seriously influences the safety of aircraft. Its damping design is determined by the selection of the design target, method and their feasibility. Five objective functions for the vibration design of a pipeline or pipe system are introduced, namely, the frequency, amplitude, transfer ratio, curvature and deformation energy as options for the optimization process. The genetic algorithms (GA) are adopted as the optimization method, in which the selection of the adaptive genetic operators and the method of implementation of the GA process are crucial. The optimization procedure for all the above objective functions is carried out using GA on the basis of finite element software-MSC/NASTRAN.The optimal solutions of these functions and the stress distribution on the structure are calculated and compared through an example, and their characteristics are analyzed. Finally we put forward two new objective functions, curvature and deformation energy for pipe system optimization. The calculations show that using the curvature as the objective function can reflect the case of minimal stress, and the optimization results using the deformation energy represent lesser and more uniform stress distribution. The calculation results and process showed that the genetic algorithms can effectively implement damping design of engine pipelines and satisfy the efficient engineering design requirement.

  19. Design of Low Power and Efficient Carry Select Adder Using 3-T XOR Gate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagandeep Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In digital systems, mostly adder lies in the critical path that affects the overall performance of the system. To perform fast addition operation at low cost, carry select adder (CSLA is the most suitable among conventional adder structures. In this paper, a 3-T XOR gate is used to design an 8-bit CSLA as XOR gates are the essential blocks in designing higher bit adders. The proposed CSLA has reduced transistor count and has lesser power consumption as well as power-delay product (PDP as compared to regular CSLA and modified CSLA.

  20. SELECTED DESIGNING ISSUES OF INNOVATIVE MEANS OF TRANSPORT ADAPTED TO PEOPLE WITH LIMITED PHYSICAL ABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona GRABAREK

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the challenge for transport designers is to ensure more mobility and participation in social life of elderly and disabled people, because of the systematic increase of this group. The selected issues regarding designing of the two new public means of transport construction, completely adjusted to the elderly and disabled people have been presented in this paper. The research work has been carried out within the Eco Mobility Project that is co-financed by the European Regional Development Fund/Operational Programme for Innovative Economy. The innovative solution of eco-car and PRT vehicle have been presented.

  1. Design of a spin-wave majority gate employing mode selection

    OpenAIRE

    Klingler, Stefan; Pirro, Philipp; Brächer, Thomas; Leven, Britta; Hillebrands, Burkard; Chumak, Andrii V.

    2014-01-01

    The design of a microstructured, fully functional spin-wave majority gate is presented and studied using micromagnetic simulations. This all-magnon logic gate consists of three-input waveguides, a spin-wave combiner and an output waveguide. In order to ensure the functionality of the device, the output waveguide is designed to perform spin-wave mode selection. We demonstrate that the gate evaluates the majority of the input signals coded into the spin-wave phase. Moreover, the all-magnon data...

  2. Rural settlements dynamics and the prospects of densification strategy in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, A F M Ashraful; Asad, Rumana; Enamul Kabir, Md

    2016-01-01

    Given the year on year decrease of rural farmland and various forms of land degradation through the intrusion of non-farm land uses, the government of Bangladesh has drafted the agrarian reform strategies, primarily to protect the agricultural land from encroachment, conversion, and indiscriminate use. The draft Agricultural Land Protection and Land Use Bill since its inception in 2011 is facing serious uncertainties of implementation due to its borrowed nature from the developed contexts and inadequacy to recognize the local complexities. With a particular focus on the densification component of the draft bill, a semester-long design studio was conducted in consultation with the existing villagers to explore the practicability of the draft bill in the villages of Tetultala and Chhoygharia in the south-western coastal Bangladesh. The findings from the two villages hint that in Bangladesh, the unique and evolving nature of rural settlements dynamics that are disintegrating the rural society from farming practices and the farmland, thereby, unsettling the traditional village-morphology. The settlements dynamics vary from those of the western context; hence, there is an emerging need to build locally situated knowledge towards a feasible rural land reform. PMID:27026946

  3. Injecting Drug Users and Their Health Seeking Behavior: A Cross-Sectional Study in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheikh Mohammed Shariful Islam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Aim. Injecting drug users (IDUs are amongst the most vulnerable people to acquisition of HIV/AIDS. This study aims to collect information on IDUs and their health seeking behavior in Bangladesh. Design and Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 120 IDUs attending a drug rehabilitation center in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Data were collected on sociodemographics, drug use, health seeking behavior, knowledge of injecting drugs, and sexual behavior. Results. The mean ± SD and median (IQR age of the participants were 32.5±21.3 and 33 (27–38 years, respectively, with only 9.2% females. Injection buprenorphine was the drug of choice for 40% of participants, and 58% of the participants first started drug use with smoking cannabis. 73.3% of participants shared needles sometimes and 57.5% were willing to use the needle exchange programs. 60% of the participants had no knowledge about the diseases spread by injection. Condom use during the last intercourse with regular partners was 11.7% and with any partners 15.8%. Conclusion. IDUs in Bangladesh are a high-risk group for HIV/AIDS due to lack of knowledge and risky behaviors. Education and interventions specifically aimed at IDUs are needed, because traditional education may not reach IDUs or influence their behavior.

  4. Rural settlements dynamics and the prospects of densification strategy in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, A F M Ashraful; Asad, Rumana; Enamul Kabir, Md

    2016-01-01

    Given the year on year decrease of rural farmland and various forms of land degradation through the intrusion of non-farm land uses, the government of Bangladesh has drafted the agrarian reform strategies, primarily to protect the agricultural land from encroachment, conversion, and indiscriminate use. The draft Agricultural Land Protection and Land Use Bill since its inception in 2011 is facing serious uncertainties of implementation due to its borrowed nature from the developed contexts and inadequacy to recognize the local complexities. With a particular focus on the densification component of the draft bill, a semester-long design studio was conducted in consultation with the existing villagers to explore the practicability of the draft bill in the villages of Tetultala and Chhoygharia in the south-western coastal Bangladesh. The findings from the two villages hint that in Bangladesh, the unique and evolving nature of rural settlements dynamics that are disintegrating the rural society from farming practices and the farmland, thereby, unsettling the traditional village-morphology. The settlements dynamics vary from those of the western context; hence, there is an emerging need to build locally situated knowledge towards a feasible rural land reform.

  5. 'Lived Islam' in India and Bangladesh: negotiating religion to realise reproductive aspirations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Biswamitra; Hutter, Inge

    2012-01-01

    This paper seeks to answer the question of how Muslim women interpret and negotiate religion in order to realise their reproductive aspirations. A close reading of lived experiences of 32 Muslim women from a varied educational background yields a wider perspective of the different interpretations of reproductive norms employed by adherents of the same religion (Islam), situated in two countries (India/Bangladesh) and group (majority/minority) contexts. Further, this comparative study yields a deeper understanding of agency that is employed by Muslim participants in each country. Muslim women - both in India and Bangladesh - are not passive followers of religious norms, but have agency to bring change in their own life and take an active role in planning their family, thereby transgressing religious norms in reproductive matters. Muslim women in India exercise their agency by adopting sterilisation - a method proscribed by Islam - without the knowledge of their significant others. Muslim women in Bangladesh use their agency by making a flexible interpretation of Islam in reproductive matters. A lesson learned from this comparative study is the need to remove barriers that prevent the adoption of contraceptives by Muslim minorities in India and to design family planning programmes that takes into account their religious needs.

  6. Design and synthesis of zinc-selective chelators for extracellular applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Eri; Kikuchi, Kazuya; Urano, Yasuteru; Kojima, Hirotatsu; Odani, Akira; Nagano, Tetsuo

    2005-01-26

    Zinc (Zn2+) is found in every cell in human bodies. A few millimolar of free Zn2+ exists in the vesicles of presynaptic neurons in the mammalian brain and is released by synaptic activity or depolarization, modulating the function of certain ion channels and receptors. Although various chemical tools for measuring Zn2+ in biological samples, such as fluorescent probes for Zn2+, have been developed, Zn2+-selective chelators have room to be improved. Research on Zn2+ signals in the brain has traditionally employed several chelators, which have several shortcomings for biological applications. Here we report the design, synthesis, and properties of new membrane-impermeable chelators selective for Zn2+ and describe biological applications in hippocampal slices. As a result, our newly designed chelator revealed the first biological implication that presynaptic Zn2+ can be released in the CA1 region. This confirms the utility of these new chelatotrs as extracellular Zn2+ chelators for biological applications.

  7. Removing Arsenic from Contaminated Drinking Water in Rural Bangladesh: Recent Fieldwork Results and Policy Implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathieu, Johanna L.; Gadgil, Ashok J.; Kowolik, Kristin; Addy, Susan E.A.

    2009-09-17

    ARUBA (Arsenic Removal Using Bottom Ash) has proven effective at removing high concentrations of arsenic from drinking water in Bangladesh. During fieldwork in four sub-districts of the country, ARUBA reduced arsenic levels ranging from 200 to 900 ppb to below the Bangladesh standard of 50 ppb. The technology is cost-effective because the substrate--bottom ash from coal fired power plants--is a waste material readily available in South Asia. In comparison to similar technologies, ARUBA uses less media for arsenic removal due to its high surface area to volume ratio. Hence, less waste is produced. A number of experiments were conducted in Bangladesh to determine the effectiveness of various water treatment protocols. It was found that (1) ARUBA removes more than half of the arsenic from water within five minutes of treatment, (2) ARUBA, that has settled at the bottom of a treatment vessel, continues to remove arsenic for 2-3 days, (3) ARUBA's arsenic removal efficiency can be improved through sequential partial dosing (adding a given amount of ARUBA in fractions versus all at once), and (4) allowing water to first stand for two to three days followed by treatment with ARUBA produced final arsenic levels ten times lower than treating water directly out of the well. Our findings imply a number of tradeoffs between ARUBA's effective arsenic removal capacity, treatment system costs, and waste output. These tradeoffs, some a function of arsenic-related policies in Bangladesh (e.g., waste disposal regulations), must be considered when designing an arsenic removal system. We propose that the most attractive option is to use ARUBA in communityscale water treatment centers, installed as public-private partnerships, in Bangladeshi villages.

  8. Digital Bangladesh: Using Formative Research to Develop Phone Messages for the Prevention and Control of Diabetes in Rural Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Maria Jennings

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: As with many low-income countries, diabetes is an increasing issue in Bangladesh affecting an estimated 20% to 30% of the population either as intermediate hyperglycaemia or fully expressed diabetes mellitus (Bhowmik et al., 2012. The Bangladesh D-MAGIC project is a cluster randomised control trial to test the effectiveness of interventions to improve detection, management and control of diabetes in rural Bangladesh. One of these interventions is an mHealth intervention, which involves sending health promotion voice messages to individuals’ mobile phones to target diabetes prevention and management. In-depth formative research (interviews and focus group discussions has been undertaken in rural Faridpur District in order to gain a greater understanding of people’s beliefs, practices and behaviour regarding diabetes prevention and control and their access to and use of mobile phones. The findings of the research, used within the COM-B framework (Michie et al 2011, are being used to inform and appropriately tailor the voice messages to the needs of the target population. This presentation will highlight key findings of the formative research and discuss how these findings are being used to design the mHealth intervention. Aim: To identify key issues for the content and delivery of voice messages regarding the prevention and control of diabetes in rural Bangladesh through in-depth formative research. Methods: We conducted sixteen semi-structured interviews with purposively sampled diabetics, non-diabetics and health professionals. In addition, nine focus group discussions with diabetics and non-diabetics were conducted in villages in three sub-districts of Faridpur. We explored beliefs and behaviour regarding diet, exercise, smoking, stress and care-seeking. The findings from the interviews and focus group discussions were analysed thematically, and specific enablers and barriers to behaviour change related to diabetes identified

  9. Evaluation of peptide selection approaches for epitope‐based vaccine design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schubert, B.; Lund, Ole; Nielsen, Morten

    2013-01-01

    , no thorough comparison between the current methods has been realized. Using human immunodeficiency virus as test case, different EV selection algorithms were evaluated with respect to their ability to select small peptides sets with broad coverage of allelic and pathogenic diversity. The methods were compared...... in terms of in silico measurements simulating important vaccine properties like the ability of inducing protection against a multivariant pathogen in a population; the predicted immunogenicity; pathogen, allele, and population coverage; as well as the conservation of selected epitopes. Additionally, we...... evaluate the use of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) supertypes with regards to their applicability for population-spanning vaccine design. The results showed that in terms of induced protection methods that simultaneously aim to optimize pathogen and HLA coverage significantly outperform methods focusing...

  10. Harnessing pluralism for better health in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Syed Masud; Evans, Timothy G; Standing, Hilary; Mahmud, Simeen

    2013-11-23

    How do we explain the paradox that Bangladesh has made remarkable progress in health and human development, yet its achievements have taken place within a health system that is frequently characterised as weak, in terms of inadequate physical and human infrastructure and logistics, and low performing? We argue that the development of a highly pluralistic health system environment, defined by the participation of a multiplicity of different stakeholders and agents and by ad hoc, diffused forms of management has contributed to these outcomes by creating conditions for rapid change. We use a combination of data from official sources, research studies, case studies of specific innovations, and in-depth knowledge from our own long-term engagement with health sector issues in Bangladesh to lay out a conceptual framework for understanding pluralism and its outcomes. Although we argue that pluralism has had positive effects in terms of stimulating change and innovation, we also note its association with poor health systems governance and regulation, resulting in endemic problems such as overuse and misuse of drugs. Pluralism therefore requires active management that acknowledges and works with its polycentric nature. We identify four key areas where this management is needed: participatory governance, accountability and regulation, information systems, and capacity development. This approach challenges some mainstream frameworks for managing health systems, such as the building blocks approach of the WHO Health Systems Framework. However, as pluralism increasingly defines the nature and the challenge of 21st century health systems, the experience of Bangladesh is relevant to many countries across the world. PMID:24268003

  11. A Pilot Astronomy Outreach Project in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Dipen; Mridha, Shahjahan; Afroz, Maqsuda

    2015-08-01

    In its strategic planning for the "Astronomy for Development Project," the International Astronomical Union (IAU) has ecognized, among other important missions, the role of astronomy in understanding the far-reaching possibilities for promoting global tolerance and citizenship. Furthermore, astronomy is deemed inspirational for careers in science and technology. The "Pilot Astronomy Outreach Project in Bangladesh"--the first of its kind in the country--aspires to fulfill these missions. As Bangladesh lacks resources to promote astronomy education in universities and schools, the role of disseminating astronomy education to the greater community falls on citizen science organizations. One such group, Anushandhitshu Chokro (AChokro) Science Organization, has been carrying out a successful public outreach program since 1975. Among its documented public events, AChokro organized a total solar eclipse campaign in Bangladesh in 2009, at which 15,000 people were assembled in a single open venue for the eclipse observation. The organization has actively pursued astronomy outreach to dispel public misconceptions about astronomical phenomena and to promote science. AChokro is currently working to build an observatory and Science Outreach Center around a recently-acquired 14-inch Scmidt-Cassegrain telescope and a soon-to-be-acquired new 16-inch reflector, all funded by private donations. The telescopes will be fitted with photometers, spectrometers, and digital and CCD cameras to pursue observations that would include sun spot and solar magnetic fields, planetary surfaces, asteroid search, variable stars and supernovae. The Center will be integrated with schools, colleges, and community groups for regular observation and small-scale research. Special educational and observing sessions for adults will also be organized. Updates on the development of the Center, which is expected to be functioning by the end of 2015, will be shared and feedback invited on the fostering of

  12. Multicriteria analysis for irrigation sustainable development: design and selection of irrigation systems

    OpenAIRE

    Darouich, Hanaa

    2014-01-01

    Doutoramento em Engenharia dos Biossistemas - Instituto Superior de Agronomia This study aimed to select the most sustainable irrigation methods able to obtain high water productivity considering economic aspects and water saving criteria for wheat and cotton in NE Syria. The models used are PROASPER for sprinkler, SADREG for surface and MIRRIG for drip irrigation. Multicriteria analysis (MCA) was used to rank a set of design alternatives considering water saving and economic priorities. F...

  13. Materials design considerations and selection for a large rad waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new incinerator has been built to process self-generated, low level radioactive wastes at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site. Wastes include protective clothing and other solid materials used during the handling of radioactive materials, and liquid chemical wastes resulting from chemical and waste management operations. The basic design and materials of construction selected to solve the anticipated corrosion problems from hot acidic gases are reviewed. Problems surfacing during trial runs prior to radioactive operations are discussed

  14. Materials design considerations and selection for a large rad waste incinerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vormelker, P.R.; Jenkins, C.F.; Burns, H.H.

    1997-01-01

    A new incinerator has been built to process self-generated, low level radioactive wastes at the Department of Energy`s Savannah River Site. Wastes include protective clothing and other solid materials used during the handling of radioactive materials, and liquid chemical wastes resulting from chemical and waste management operations. The basic design and materials of construction selected to solve the anticipated corrosion problems from hot acidic gases are reviewed. Problems surfacing during trial runs prior to radioactive operations are discussed.

  15. Design of an Optical system for the In Situ Process Monitoring of Selective Laser Melting (SLM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, Philipp; Schleifenbaum, Henrich; Meiners, Wilhelm; Wissenbach, Konrad; Hinke, Christian; Bültmann, Jan

    Selective Laser Melting (SLM) is an Additive Manufacturing technology that enables the production of complex shaped individual parts with series identical mechanical properties. Areas of improvement are up to now quality and reproducibility of parts made by SLM due to different kinds of errors. Therefore the integration of a monitoring and control module into a SLM-machine is aspired. The design of such an optical system capable of monitoring high scanning velocities and melt pool dynamics is introduced as a first step.

  16. Ergonomic Design Measures on Work Process and Workplace Layout in the Selected Structural and Fabrication Shops

    OpenAIRE

    Suzette M. Mercado

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to analyze the process and workplace layout in the selected structural and fabrication shops located in Batangas, Philippines thus provide improvements using the results of Ergonomic Design Measures. These shops generally focused on preparation, cutting, welding, grinding and assembly using multi-functioning machines and many aspects of human work. Using different Ergonomic Assessment Checklist, Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA), Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) and Ovako ...

  17. Computer aided design in Selective Laser Sintering (SLS - application in medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Dobrzański

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Purpose of this paper is presenting a computer technique (AutoFab software used for modeling and design elements made from selective laser sintering (SLS of metal powders belonging to the additive manufacturing (AM technology. Design/methodology/approach: The following article presents the opportunities which are inherent to the software (AutoFab for three dimentional computer graphics design-assist of the technology coupled with SLS. Findings: With the software, in which we designed the object of interest to us the shape and porosity by controlling the pore size, wall thickness, shape, internal and external structure, we can produce any item of characterized and the interesting properties. Practical implications: The combination of 3D modeling with additive manufacturing technologies provides ample opportunities in various industries. This permits reduce the time of designing the item until its market. This makes the choice of the path of production becomes more competitive in comparison to traditional methods of manufacture. Originality/value: The wide interests in this technology (3D design with manufacturing offers great possibilities in medicine giving, among other things the ability to design and manufacture of the implant, the size and shape are customized to the needs of the individual patient. So the technology used makes it easier for surgeons and improve patient comfort.

  18. Optimal part and module selection for synthetic gene circuit design automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Linh; Tagkopoulos, Ilias

    2014-08-15

    An integral challenge in synthetic circuit design is the selection of optimal parts to populate a given circuit topology, so that the resulting circuit behavior best approximates the desired one. In some cases, it is also possible to reuse multipart constructs or modules that have been already built and experimentally characterized. Efficient part and module selection algorithms are essential to systematically search the solution space, and their significance will only increase in the following years due to the projected explosion in part libraries and circuit complexity. Here, we address this problem by introducing a structured abstraction methodology and a dynamic programming-based algorithm that guaranties optimal part selection. In addition, we provide three extensions that are based on symmetry check, information look-ahead and branch-and-bound techniques, to reduce the running time and space requirements. We have evaluated the proposed methodology with a benchmark of 11 circuits, a database of 73 parts and 304 experimentally constructed modules with encouraging results. This work represents a fundamental departure from traditional heuristic-based methods for part and module selection and is a step toward maximizing efficiency in synthetic circuit design and construction. PMID:24933033

  19. Experimental design of membrane sensor for selective determination of phenazopyridine hydrochloride based on computational calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, Khalid A M; El-Abasawi, Nasr M; Abdel-Azim, Ahmed H

    2016-04-01

    Computational study has been done electronically and geometrically to select the most suitable ionophore to design a novel sensitive and selective electrochemical sensor for phenazopyridine hydrochloride (PAP). This study has revealed that sodium tetraphenylbarate (NaTPB) fits better with PAP than potassium tetrakis (KTClPB). The sensor design is based on the ion pair of PAP with NaTPB using dioctyl phthalate as a plasticizer. Under optimum conditions, the proposed sensor shows the slope of 59.5 mV per concentration decade in the concentration range of 1.0 × 10(-2)-1.0 × 10(-5) M with detection limit 8.5 × 10(-6) M. The sensor exhibits a very good selectivity for PAP with respect to a large number of interfering species as inorganic cations and sugars. The sensor enables track of determining PAP in the presence of its oxidative degradation product 2, 3, 6-Triaminopyridine, which is also its toxic metabolite. The proposed sensor has been successfully applied for the selective determination of PAP in pharmaceutical formulation. Also, the obtained results have been statistically compared to a reported electrochemical method indicating no significant difference between the investigated method and the reported one with respect to accuracy and precision. PMID:26838908

  20. Electrochemical arsenic remediation for rural Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Addy, Susan Amrose

    2009-01-01

    Arsenic in drinking water is a major public health problem threatening the lives of over 140 million people worldwide. In Bangladesh alone, up to 57 million people drink arsenic-laden water from shallow wells. ElectroChemical Arsenic Remediation(ECAR) overcomes many of the obstacles that plague current technologies and can be used affordably and on a small-scale, allowing for rapid dissemination into Bangladesh to address this arsenic crisis. In this work, ECAR was shown to effectively reduce 550 - 580 mu g=L arsenic (including both As[III]and As[V]in a 1:1 ratio) to below the WHO recommended maximum limit of 10 mu g=L in synthetic Bangladesh groundwater containing relevant concentrations of competitive ions such as phosphate, silicate, and bicarbonate. Arsenic removal capacity was found to be approximately constant within certain ranges of current density, but was found to change substantially between ranges. In order of decreasing arsenic removal capacity, the pattern was: 0.02 mA=cm2> 0.07 mA=cm2> 0.30 - 1.1 mA=cm2> 5.0 - 100 mA=cm2. Current processing time was found to effect arsenic removal capacity independent of either charge density or current density. Electrode polarization studies showed no passivation of the electrode in the tested range (up to current density 10 mA=cm2) and ruled out oxygen evolution as the cause of decreasing removal capacity with current density. Simple settling and decantation required approximately 3 days to achieve arsenic removal comparable to filtration with a 0.1 mu m membrane. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) showed that (1) there is no significant difference in the arsenic removal mechanism of ECAR during operation at different current densities and (2) the arsenic removal mechanism in ECAR is consistent with arsenate adsorption onto a homogenous Fe(III)oxyhydroxide similar in structure to 2-line ferrihydrite. ECAR effectively reduced high arsenic concentrations (100 - 500 mu g=L) in real Bangladesh tube well water

  1. Electrochemical arsenic remediation for rural Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Addy, Susan Amrose [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Arsenic in drinking water is a major public health problem threatening the lives of over 140 million people worldwide. In Bangladesh alone, up to 57 million people drink arsenic-laden water from shallow wells. ElectroChemical Arsenic Remediation(ECAR) overcomes many of the obstacles that plague current technologies and can be used affordably and on a small-scale, allowing for rapid dissemination into Bangladesh to address this arsenic crisis. In this work, ECAR was shown to effectively reduce 550 - 580 μg=L arsenic (including both As[III]and As[V]in a 1:1 ratio) to below the WHO recommended maximum limit of 10 μg=L in synthetic Bangladesh groundwater containing relevant concentrations of competitive ions such as phosphate, silicate, and bicarbonate. Arsenic removal capacity was found to be approximately constant within certain ranges of current density, but was found to change substantially between ranges. In order of decreasing arsenic removal capacity, the pattern was: 0.02 mA=cm2> 0.07 mA=cm2> 0.30 - 1.1 mA=cm2> 5.0 - 100 mA=cm2. Current processing time was found to effect arsenic removal capacity independent of either charge density or current density. Electrode polarization studies showed no passivation of the electrode in the tested range (up to current density 10 mA=cm2) and ruled out oxygen evolution as the cause of decreasing removal capacity with current density. Simple settling and decantation required approximately 3 days to achieve arsenic removal comparable to filtration with a 0.1 mu m membrane. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) showed that (1) there is no significant difference in the arsenic removal mechanism of ECAR during operation at different current densities and (2) the arsenic removal mechanism in ECAR is consistent with arsenate adsorption onto a homogenous Fe(III)oxyhydroxide similar in structure to 2-line ferrihydrite. ECAR effectively reduced high arsenic concentrations (100

  2. Iterative design of a helically folded aromatic oligoamide sequence for the selective encapsulation of fructose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandramouli, Nagula; Ferrand, Yann; Lautrette, Guillaume; Kauffmann, Brice; Mackereth, Cameron David; Laguerre, Michel; Dubreuil, Didier; Huc, Ivan

    2015-04-01

    The ab initio design of synthetic molecular receptors for a specific biomolecular guest remains an elusive objective, particularly for targets such as monosaccharides, which have very close structural analogues. Here we report a powerful approach to produce receptors with very high selectivity for specific monosaccharides and, as a demonstration, we develop a foldamer that selectively encapsulates fructose. The approach uses an iterative design process that exploits the modular structure of folded synthetic oligomer sequences in conjunction with molecular modelling and structural characterization to inform subsequent refinements. Starting from a first-principles design taking size, shape and hydrogen-bonding ability into account and using the high predictability of aromatic oligoamide foldamer conformations and their propensity to crystallize, a sequence that binds to β-D-fructopyranose in organic solvents with atomic-scale complementarity was obtained in just a few iterative modifications. This scheme, which mimics the adaptable construction of biopolymers from a limited number of monomer units, provides a general protocol for the development of selective receptors.

  3. Sample Design and Cohort Selection in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaVange, Lisa M.; Kalsbeek, William; Sorlie, Paul D.; Avilés-Santa, Larissa M.; Kaplan, Robert C.; Barnhart, Janice; Liu, Kiang; Giachello, Aida; Lee, David J.; Ryan, John; Criqui, Michael H.; Elder, John P.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE The Hispanic Community Health Study (HCHS)/Study of Latinos (SOL) is a multi-center, community based cohort study of Hispanic/Latino adults in the United States. A diverse participant sample is required that is both representative of the target population and likely to remain engaged throughout follow-up. The choice of sample design, its rationale, and benefits and challenges of design decisions are described in this paper. METHODS The study design calls for recruitment and follow-up of a cohort of 16,000 Hispanics/Latinos aged 18-74 years, with 62.5% (10,000) over 44 years of age and adequate subgroup sample sizes to support inference by Hispanic/Latino background. Participants are recruited in community areas surrounding four field centers in the Bronx, Chicago, Miami, and San Diego. A two-stage area probability sample of households is selected with stratification and over-sampling incorporated at each stage to provide a broadly diverse sample, offer efficiencies in field operations, and ensure that the target age distribution is obtained. CONCLUSIONS Embedding probability sampling within this traditional, multi-site cohort study design enables competing research objectives to be met. However, the use of probability sampling requires developing solutions to some unique challenges in both sample selection and recruitment, as described here. PMID:20609344

  4. Mechanism-guided library design and dual genetic selection of synthetic OFF riboswitches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muranaka, Norihito; Abe, Koichi; Yokobayashi, Yohei

    2009-09-21

    After the recent discovery of bacterial riboswitches, synthetic riboswitches have been engineered by using natural and artificial RNA aptamers. In contrast to natural riboswitches, the majority of synthetic riboswitches in bacteria reported to date are ON switches that activate gene expression in response to the aptamer ligand. In this study, we adopted a mechanism-guided approach to design libraries predisposed to contain OFF riboswitches that respond to thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP). The first library design exploited a pseudo-Shine-Dalgarno (SD) sequence located near the 3'-end of the TPP aptamer, which would be less accessible to the ribosome when the aptamer is bound to TPP. In the second library, an SD sequence was strategically placed in the aptamer's P1 stem, which is stabilized upon ligand binding. OFF riboswitches were obtained by dual genetic selection of these libraries. The results underscore the importance of effective library design to achieve desired riboswitch functions. PMID:19658147

  5. Closed-form solutions for linear regulator design of mechanical systems including optimal weighting matrix selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanks, Brantley R.; Skelton, Robert E.

    1991-01-01

    Vibration in modern structural and mechanical systems can be reduced in amplitude by increasing stiffness, redistributing stiffness and mass, and/or adding damping if design techniques are available to do so. Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) theory in modern multivariable control design, attacks the general dissipative elastic system design problem in a global formulation. The optimal design, however, allows electronic connections and phase relations which are not physically practical or possible in passive structural-mechanical devices. The restriction of LQR solutions (to the Algebraic Riccati Equation) to design spaces which can be implemented as passive structural members and/or dampers is addressed. A general closed-form solution to the optimal free-decay control problem is presented which is tailored for structural-mechanical system. The solution includes, as subsets, special cases such as the Rayleigh Dissipation Function and total energy. Weighting matrix selection is a constrained choice among several parameters to obtain desired physical relationships. The closed-form solution is also applicable to active control design for systems where perfect, collocated actuator-sensor pairs exist.

  6. Selection of DBEs for ITER EDA 1998 final design by GEMSAFE methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawada, Tetsuo E-mail: tetsuo@nr.titech.ac.jp; Saito, Masaki; Inoue, Toshihide

    2001-04-01

    General Methodology of Safety Analysis and Evaluation for Fusion Energy Systems (GEMFASE) has been applied to the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) design in the final stage of Engineering Design Activities (EDA) by the end of July 1998 to select design basis events (DBEs) and to identify related safety features as well as requirements to ensure its safety. We have classified DBEs into three categories considering their occurrence probabilities and expected scales of their consequences. By the GEMSAFE methodology applied to the ITER final design, we have selected 21 DBEs, eight in category I, eight in category II, and five in Category III. Here, we have focused on the following characteristics of the final design of ITER EDA of 1998. The amount of mobile radioactive materials, or RI sources, in the front-end permeator of the fuel gas purification system was largely increased to 70 g, cf. 15 g in an earlier EDA design. Though it does not change the class of the related DBE, the consequence by the related abnormal event would be more severe. The inventories of tritium in the impurity detritiation system, and that in surge tanks were not decreased, namely, still exceeding the limit of the class-1 RI source (i.e., 10{sup 5} Ci). As for the radioactive dusts, their inventory increased. However, we need not modify the DBEs so long as we categorize the radioactive dust as immobile RI source. The mobility of the dust is a matter of further detailed examination. If we would find the dust is a mobile-RI-source category, it might challenge the baseline to fit the equi-risk curve. Further discussions are necessary for the characteristics of the dusts, and the safety measures to reduce the inventory during operations.

  7. Selection of DBEs for ITER EDA 1998 final design by GEMSAFE methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    General Methodology of Safety Analysis and Evaluation for Fusion Energy Systems (GEMFASE) has been applied to the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) design in the final stage of Engineering Design Activities (EDA) by the end of July 1998 to select design basis events (DBEs) and to identify related safety features as well as requirements to ensure its safety. We have classified DBEs into three categories considering their occurrence probabilities and expected scales of their consequences. By the GEMSAFE methodology applied to the ITER final design, we have selected 21 DBEs, eight in category I, eight in category II, and five in Category III. Here, we have focused on the following characteristics of the final design of ITER EDA of 1998. The amount of mobile radioactive materials, or RI sources, in the front-end permeator of the fuel gas purification system was largely increased to 70 g, cf. 15 g in an earlier EDA design. Though it does not change the class of the related DBE, the consequence by the related abnormal event would be more severe. The inventories of tritium in the impurity detritiation system, and that in surge tanks were not decreased, namely, still exceeding the limit of the class-1 RI source (i.e., 105 Ci). As for the radioactive dusts, their inventory increased. However, we need not modify the DBEs so long as we categorize the radioactive dust as immobile RI source. The mobility of the dust is a matter of further detailed examination. If we would find the dust is a mobile-RI-source category, it might challenge the baseline to fit the equi-risk curve. Further discussions are necessary for the characteristics of the dusts, and the safety measures to reduce the inventory during operations

  8. Social implications of arsenic poisoning in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, M Manzurul; Atkins, Peter J; Dunn, Christine E

    2005-11-01

    Besides its toxicity, groundwater arsenic contamination creates widespread social problems for its victims and their families in Bangladesh. There is, for instance, a tendency to ostracise arsenic-affected people, arsenicosis being thought of as a contagious disease. Within the community, arsenic-affected people are barred from social activities and often face rejection, even by their immediate family members. Women with visible arsenicosis symptoms are unable to get married and some affected housewives are divorced by their husbands. Children with symptoms are not sent to school in an effort to hide the problem. This paper employs mainly qualitative methods to interpret people's understandings about the toxic impact of groundwater arsenic poisoning on their social lives. Arsenic-affected patients in southwest Bangladesh were asked to determine their 'own priorities' in measuring arsenic toxicity on their social activities and to explore their perceptions about their own survival strategies. We found that patients' experiences reveal severe negative social impacts, and a sharp difference of perceptions about arsenic and social issues between arsenicosis patients and unaffected people.

  9. Electricity Crisis and Load Management in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajib Kanti Das

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh is a densely populated country. Only a small part of her area is electrified which cover around 18% of total population. The people who are in the electrified area are suffering from severe load shedding. A systematic load management procedure related to demand side may improve the situation is the research problem. The major objectives serve by the research are to analyze contemporary electricity status with a view to drawing inference about demand supply gap and extracting benefits from load management. Data supplied by the Bangladesh Power Development Board, World Bank and outcome of survey are analyzed with some simple statistical tools to test the hypothesis. Analysis discloses that with properly managed uses of electricity with load switch and rotation week-end can improve the concurrent condition of electricity. Moreover, introducing smart distribution system, reducing system loss, shifting load to off-peak, large scale use of prepaid mete, observing energy week and using energy efficient home and office appliance are recommended to improve load through demand side management. Some other recommendations such as introducing alternative energy, public private partnership and using renewable energy development and producing energy locally are made for load management from the supply side.

  10. Medical Biotechnology: Problems and Prospects in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaikh Mizan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biotechnology is the knowledge and techniques of developing and using biological systems for deriving special products and services. The age-old technology took a new turn with the advent of recombinant DNA techniques, and boosted by the development of other molecular biological techniques, cell culture techniques and bioinformatics. Medical biotechnology is the major thrust area of biotechnology. It has brought revolutions in medicine – quick methods for diagnosing diseases, generation of new drugs and vaccines, completely novel approach of treatment are only a few to mention. The industrial and financial bulk of the industry mushroomed very rapidly in the last three decades, led by the USA and western advanced nations. Asian countries like China, India, South Korea, Taiwan and Singapore joined late, but advancing forward in a big way. In all the Asian countries governments supported the initiatives of the expert and entrepreneur community, and invested heavily in its development. Bangladesh has got great potential in developing biotechnology and reaping its fruits. However, lack of commitment and patriotism, and too much corruption and irresponsibility in political and bureaucratic establishment are the major hindrance to the development of biotechnology in Bangladesh.

  11. Development of Abrasive Selection Model/Chart for Palm Frond Broom Peeling Machine Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nwankwojike

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A model for predicting the friction required by a palm frond broom peeling machine for effective peeling of palm leaf to broom bristle and a chart for selecting the best abrasive material for this machine’s peeling operation were developed in this study using mechanistic modeling method. The model quantified the relationship between the coefficient of friction and other operational parameters of this machine while the abrasives selection chart constitutes a plot of this measured friction parameter against the abrasive materials used in palm frond broom peeling machine fabrication. The values of the coefficient of friction of palm leaf on different abrasive materials used in this plot were determined from experimental study of the effect of moisture content level of naturally withered palm leaves (uninfluenced by external forces on their coefficient of friction with the abrasives. Results revealed the average moisture content of palm leaf this machine can peel effectively as 6.96% and also that the roughest among the abrasives that approximate the coefficient of friction for a specific design of this peeling machine gives maximum peeling efficiency. Thus, the roughest among the abrasive materials that approximate the coefficient of friction for a specific design of this machine should be selected and used for its fabrication and operation.

  12. Construction of a rationally designed antibody platform for sequencing-assisted selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larman, H Benjamin; Xu, George Jing; Pavlova, Natalya N; Elledge, Stephen J

    2012-11-01

    Antibody discovery platforms have become an important source of both therapeutic biomolecules and research reagents. Massively parallel DNA sequencing can be used to assist antibody selection by comprehensively monitoring libraries during selection, thus greatly expanding the power of these systems. We have therefore constructed a rationally designed, fully defined single-chain variable fragment (scFv) library and analysis platform optimized for analysis with short-read deep sequencing. Sequence-defined oligonucleotide libraries encoding three complementarity-determining regions (L3 from the light chain, H2 and H3 from the heavy chain) were synthesized on a programmable microarray and combinatorially cloned into a single scFv framework for molecular display. Our unique complementarity-determining region sequence design optimizes for protein binding by utilizing a hidden Markov model that was trained on all antibody-antigen cocrystal structures in the Protein Data Bank. The resultant ~10(12)-member library was produced in ribosome-display format, and comprehensively analyzed over four rounds of antigen selections by multiplex paired-end Illumina sequencing. The hidden Markov model scFv library generated multiple binders against an emerging cancer antigen and is the basis for a next-generation antibody production platform. PMID:23064642

  13. Principles for selecting earthquake motions in engineering design of large dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krinitzsky, E.L.; Marcuson, William F.

    1983-01-01

    This report gives a synopsis of the various tools and techniques used in selecting earthquake ground motion parameters for large dams. It presents 18 charts giving newly developed relations for acceleration, velocity, and duration versus site earthquake intensity for near- and far-field hard and soft sites and earthquakes having magnitudes above and below 7. The material for this report is based on procedures developed at the Waterways Experiment Station. Although these procedures are suggested primarily for large dams, they may also be applicable for other facilities. Because no standard procedure exists for selecting earthquake motions in engineering design of large dams, a number of precautions are presented to guide users. The selection of earthquake motions is dependent on which one of two types of engineering analyses are performed. A pseudostatic analysis uses a coefficient usually obtained from an appropriate contour map; whereas, a dynamic analysis uses either accelerograms assigned to a site or specified respunse spectra. Each type of analysis requires significantly different input motions. All selections of design motions must allow for the lack of representative strong motion records, especially near-field motions from earthquakes of magnitude 7 and greater, as well as an enormous spread in the available data. Limited data must be projected and its spread bracketed in order to fill in the gaps and to assure that there will be no surprises. Because each site may have differing special characteristics in its geology, seismic history, attenuation, recurrence, interpreted maximum events, etc., as integrated approach gives best results. Each part of the site investigation requires a number of decisions. In some cases, the decision to use a 'least ork' approach may be suitable, simply assuming the worst of several possibilities and testing for it. Because there are no standard procedures to follow, multiple approaches are useful. For example, peak motions at

  14. Agricultural livelihoods in coastal Bangladesh under climate and environmental change--a model framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lázár, Attila N; Clarke, Derek; Adams, Helen; Akanda, Abdur Razzaque; Szabo, Sylvia; Nicholls, Robert J; Matthews, Zoe; Begum, Dilruba; Saleh, Abul Fazal M; Abedin, Md Anwarul; Payo, Andres; Streatfield, Peter Kim; Hutton, Craig; Mondal, M Shahjahan; Moslehuddin, Abu Zofar Md

    2015-06-01

    pricing due to greater susceptibility to climate vagaries. The livelihood and poverty results highlight the importance of the holistic consideration of the human-nature system and the careful selection of poverty indicators. Although the simulation model at this stage contains the minimum elements required to simulate the complexity of farmer livelihood interactions in coastal Bangladesh, the crop and socio-economic findings compare well with expected behaviours. The presented integrated model is the first step to develop a holistic, transferable analytic method and tool for coastal Bangladesh.

  15. Prevalence and characterization of motile Salmonella in commercial layer poultry farms in Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himel Barua

    Full Text Available Salmonella is a globally widespread food-borne pathogen having major impact on public health. All motile serovars of Salmonella enterica of poultry origin are zoonotic, and contaminated meat and raw eggs are an important source to human infections. Information on the prevalence of Salmonella at farm/holding level, and the zoonotic serovars circulating in layer poultry in the South and South-East Asian countries including Bangladesh, where small-scale commercial farms are predominant, is limited. To investigate the prevalence of Salmonella at layer farm level, and to identify the prevalent serovars we conducted a cross-sectional survey by randomly selecting 500 commercial layer poultry farms in Bangladesh. Faecal samples from the selected farms were collected following standard procedure, and examined for the presence of Salmonella using conventional bacteriological procedures. Thirty isolates were randomly selected, from the ninety obtained from the survey, for serotyping and characterized further by plasmid profiling and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. Results of the survey showed that the prevalence of motile Salmonella at layer farm level was 18% (95% confidence interval 15-21%, and Salmonella Kentucky was identified to be the only serovar circulating in the study population. Plasmid analysis of the S. Kentucky and non-serotyped isolates revealed two distinct profiles with a variation of two different sizes (2.7 and 4.8 kb. PFGE of the 30 S. Kentucky and 30 non-serotyped isolates showed that all of them were clonally related because only one genotype and three subtypes were determined based on the variation in two or three bands. This is also the first report on the presence of any specific serovar of Salmonella enterica in poultry in Bangladesh.

  16. Husbands' involvement in delivery care utilization in rural Bangladesh: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Story William T

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A primary cause of high maternal mortality in Bangladesh is lack of access to professional delivery care. Examining the role of the family, particularly the husband, during pregnancy and childbirth is important to understanding women's access to and utilization of professional maternal health services that can prevent maternal mortality. This qualitative study examines husbands' involvement during childbirth and professional delivery care utilization in a rural sub-district of Netrokona district, Bangladesh. Methods Using purposive sampling, ten households utilizing a skilled attendant during the birth of the youngest child were selected and matched with ten households utilizing an untrained traditional birth attendant, or dhatri. Households were selected based on a set of inclusion criteria, such as approximate household income, ethnicity, and distance to the nearest hospital. Twenty semi-structured interviews were conducted in Bangla with husbands in these households in June 2010. Interviews were transcribed, translated into English, and analyzed using NVivo 9.0. Results By purposefully selecting households that differed on the type of provider utilized during delivery, common themes--high costs, poor transportation, and long distances to health facilities--were eliminated as sufficient barriers to the utilization of professional delivery care. Divergent themes, namely husbands' social support and perceived social norms, were identified as underlying factors associated with delivery care utilization. We found that husbands whose wives utilized professional delivery care provided emotional, instrumental and informational support to their wives during delivery and believed that medical intervention was necessary. By contrast, husbands whose wives utilized an untrained dhatri at home were uninvolved during delivery and believed childbirth should take place at home according to local traditions. Conclusions This study provides

  17. Isolation and identification of Avibacterium paragallinarum, the causal agent of infectious coryza (IC) from layer chickens in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Akter, S.; Ali, M.; Das, P.M; Hossain, M. M.

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out for the isolation and identification of Avibacterium paragallinarum, the etiological agent of infectious coryza (IC). Pathological changes were also investigated that occurred in organs in layer chickens obtained from some selected areas of Bangladesh. A nasal swabs (n=30) from dead chickens and four swabs from live chickens were collected aseptically. The organisms from swabs were cultured in different media, stained, and followed by sugar fermentation and biochemi...

  18. Simulating future uncertainty to guide the selection of survey designs for long-term monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garman, Steven L.; Schweiger, E. William; Manier, Daniel J.; Gitzen, Robert A.; Millspaugh, Joshua J.; Cooper, Andrew B.; Licht, Daniel S.

    2012-01-01

    A goal of environmental monitoring is to provide sound information on the status and trends of natural resources (Messer et al. 1991, Theobald et al. 2007, Fancy et al. 2009). When monitoring observations are acquired by measuring a subset of the population of interest, probability sampling as part of a well-constructed survey design provides the most reliable and legally defensible approach to achieve this goal (Cochran 1977, Olsen et al. 1999, Schreuder et al. 2004; see Chapters 2, 5, 6, 7). Previous works have described the fundamentals of sample surveys (e.g. Hansen et al. 1953, Kish 1965). Interest in survey designs and monitoring over the past 15 years has led to extensive evaluations and new developments of sample selection methods (Stevens and Olsen 2004), of strategies for allocating sample units in space and time (Urquhart et al. 1993, Overton and Stehman 1996, Urquhart and Kincaid 1999), and of estimation (Lesser and Overton 1994, Overton and Stehman 1995) and variance properties (Larsen et al. 1995, Stevens and Olsen 2003) of survey designs. Carefully planned, “scientific” (Chapter 5) survey designs have become a standard in contemporary monitoring of natural resources. Based on our experience with the long-term monitoring program of the US National Park Service (NPS; Fancy et al. 2009; Chapters 16, 22), operational survey designs tend to be selected using the following procedures. For a monitoring indicator (i.e. variable or response), a minimum detectable trend requirement is specified, based on the minimum level of change that would result in meaningful change (e.g. degradation). A probability of detecting this trend (statistical power) and an acceptable level of uncertainty (Type I error; see Chapter 2) within a specified time frame (e.g. 10 years) are specified to ensure timely detection. Explicit statements of the minimum detectable trend, the time frame for detecting the minimum trend, power, and acceptable probability of Type I error (

  19. BICM-based cooperative communication systems with relay selection: Constellation and multiplexer design

    KAUST Repository

    Malik, Muhammad Talha

    2014-09-01

    We propose a new bit-interleaved coded modulation (BICM)-based cooperative communication system where different BICM modules can be optimized jointly considering the average signal to noise ratios of the direct and the two-hop Rayleigh fading channels. As such, the full benefit of BICM can be exploited in the context of cooperative communication. Our design considers cooperative communication systems with so called max-min relay selection scheme that has no loss in performance in terms of diversity- multiplexing trade off in orthogonal cooperation. The presented numerical results for rate 1/2 convolutional code with 8-ary pulse amplitude modulation equivalently 64-ary quadrature amplitude modulation show that the proposed design can offer gains up to 1.4 dB over the traditional BICM design for a target bit error rate of 10-6. Moreover the results show that the amount of gain depends on the relays\\' positions and increases with the number of relays available for selection.

  20. A Knowledge-Based Approach for Selection of Material Handling Equipment and Material Handling System Pre-design

    OpenAIRE

    YAMAN, Ramazan

    2001-01-01

    For material handling system design, material handling equipment selection is the first stage. Also the material handling system and facility layout design problems are coupled. Solving these problems needs consideration of these three different problems. Right material handling equipment selection and good design of the material handling system and facility layout can increase productivity and reduce investments and operations' costs. In this study, after describing the mater...

  1. Design and Synthesis of Imidazopyrazolopyridines as Novel Selective COX-2 Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed G. Badrey

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The usefulness of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs is hampered by their gastrointestinal side effects. Non-selective cyclooxygenases inhibitors interfere with both COX-1 and COX-2 isozymes. Since COX-1 mediates cytoprotection of gastric mucosa, its inhibition leads to the undesirable side effects. On the other hand, COX-2 is undetectable in normal tissues and selectively induced by inflammatory stimuli. Therefore, it is strongly believed that the therapeutic benefits derive from inhibition of COX-2 only. The presence of a strong connection between reported COX-2 inhibitors and cardiac toxicity encourages medicinal chemists to explore new scaffolds. In the present study, we introduced imidazopyrazolopyridines as new potent and selective COX-2 inhibitors that lack the standard pharmacophoric binding features to hERG. Starting from our lead compound 5a, structure-based drug-design was conducted and more potent analogues were obtained with high COX-2 selectivity and almost full edema protection, in carrageenan-induced edema assay, in case of compound 5e. Increased bulkiness around imidazopyrazolopyridines by adding a substituted phenyl ring(s afforded less active compounds.

  2. Map Service Showing Geologic and Geophysical Data of Bangladesh

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map service includes geology, major faults, geologic provinces, and political boundaries in Bangladesh. This compilation is part of an interim product of the...

  3. Bouguer Gravity Anomaly Map of Bangladesh (grav8bg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage includes arcs and arc labels that hold the Bouguer Gravity anomaly value for contours and type contours of the original map of Bangladesh with the...

  4. Aeromagnetic Anomaly Map of Bangladesh (mag8bg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage includes arcs and arc labels that hold the Aeromagnetic anomaly value for contours and type contours of the original map of Bangladesh with the same...

  5. Flooding in Bangladesh under global warming and future flood defence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirza, M.M.Q. [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Inst. for Environmental Studies

    2000-07-01

    Bangladesh is very vulnerable to flooding due to its unique location in the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna (GBM) basins and their hydrological characteristics. On average, annually floods inundate 21 percent area of the country and in exceptional cases, this may exceed 60 per cent. Global warming, due to the enhanced greenhouse effect, is likely to have significant effects on the hydrology and water resources of the GBM basins that might ultimately lead to more serious floods in Bangladesh. Use of climate change scenarios from four General Circulation Models in hydrological models demonstrates substantial increases in peak discharges in the GBM rivers. Therefore, Bangladesh may well experience a larger flooded area and a longer flooding period. The simulated results further indicate that more land could be deeply flooded under future climate change. Bangladesh needs a shift in flood management policy paradigm in the context of global warming in order to reduce increased flood hazards. (orig.)

  6. Weather Impact on Nursery Diseases of Mango Saplings in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. H. Khan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out during the period of July 2010 to April 2012 to find out the effect of weather prevalence of seedling diseases ofmango in different areas of Bangladesh. The locations were Mymensingh Dinajpur, Rajshahi and Khagrachari. Altogether 12 nurseries in fourdistricts of Bangladesh were surveyed and mango seedling diseases were recorded. Incidence and severity of important seedling diseases ofhas been studied under different geographical locations (viz. Mymensingh, Dinajpur, Rajshahi and Khagrachari of Bangladesh. The effects oftemperature, rainfall, and relative humidity on the incidence and severity of noted diseases were observed the aforesaid locations of Bangladesh.The studied diseases were anthracnose, leaf spot, red rust, powdery mildew, scab, bacterial leaf blight and malformation of mango seedlings.The graphs of weather parameters and incidence and severity of diseases were performed to determine the relationship between differentcomponents of climatic factor and seedling diseases of mango.

  7. Structure-based design of 2-aminopyridine oxazolidinones as potent and selective tankyrase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hongbing; Guzman-Perez, Angel; Acquaviva, Lisa; Berry, Virginia; Bregman, Howard; Dovey, Jennifer; Gunaydin, Hakan; Huang, Xin; Huang, Liyue; Saffran, Doug; Serafino, Randy; Schneider, Steve; Wilson, Cindy; DiMauro, Erin F

    2013-12-12

    Aberrant activation of the Wnt pathway has been implicated in the development and formation of many cancers. TNKS inhibition has been shown to antagonize Wnt signaling via Axin stabilization in APC mutant colon cancer cell lines. We employed structure-based design to identify a series of 2-aminopyridine oxazolidinones as potent and selective TNKS inhibitors. These compounds exhibited good enzyme and cell potency as well as selectivity over other PARP isoforms. Co-crystal structures of these 2-aminopyridine oxazolidinones complexed to TNKS reveal an induced-pocket binding mode that does not involve interactions with the nicotinamide binding pocket. Oral dosing of lead compounds 3 and 4 resulted in significant effects on several Wnt-pathway biomarkers in a three day DLD-1 mouse tumor PD model. PMID:24900633

  8. PSE For Solvent Applications: A Generic Computer-aided Solvent Selection and Design Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitrofanov, Igor; Sin, Gürkan; Gani, Rafiqul

    industry (API solubility), solvents i! ! n formulations and as cleaning agents. The template is expected to guide the average user through the essential and desirable steps in solvent selection and design. The expert may also use the general interface and create their own template for the types of solvent......Solvents are widely used across a number of industries in many applications such as separation agents, reaction mediums, cleaning agents and product carriers. Selection of optimal solvents in these applications is mostly based on previous experiences and experimental trial and error. A process...... related problems they usually solve. The solvents database currently contains information about more than 1000 organic solvents and their properties -including environmental and transportation - and about 1000 ionic liquids useful for extraction-based separation processes. Property models library include...

  9. Effects of solvent-extraction contactor selection on flowsheet and facility design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The notion is developed that the selection of a solvent extraction contactor is part of a more general development of principles and philosophy guiding the overall plant design. Specifically, the requirements and constraints placed on the plant by the solvent extraction system must be consistent with those imposed by the other operations, which generally are more expensive and more complicated. Were a conservative philosophy employed throughout the plant, the choice of pulsed columns seem correct. Were the plant intended to employ modern techniques and state-of-the-art technology, particularly in remote maintenance and process control, the selection of centrifugal contactors seems appropriate. The process improvements attainable from employing more stages in a more tightly controlled solvent extraction system seem marginal at present when applied to conventional flowsheets, although the cost-benefit may be attractive in a modern plant. The potential for improvement through major flowsheet modification can not presently be assessed quantitatively

  10. Structure-guided design of selective Epac1 and Epac2 agonists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Schwede

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The second messenger cAMP is known to augment glucose-induced insulin secretion. However, its downstream targets in pancreatic β-cells have not been unequivocally determined. Therefore, we designed cAMP analogues by a structure-guided approach that act as Epac2-selective agonists both in vitro and in vivo. These analogues activate Epac2 about two orders of magnitude more potently than cAMP. The high potency arises from increased affinity as well as increased maximal activation. Crystallographic studies demonstrate that this is due to unique interactions. At least one of the Epac2-specific agonists, Sp-8-BnT-cAMPS (S-220, enhances glucose-induced insulin secretion in human pancreatic cells. Selective targeting of Epac2 is thus proven possible and may be an option in diabetes treatment.

  11. Characterization and Design of Zeolite Catalysts Solid Acidity, Shape Selectivity and Loading Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Niwa, Miki; Okumura, Kazu

    2010-01-01

    Zeolites are microporous, aluminosilicate minerals commonly used as commercial adsorbents. Zeolite-based catalysts are used by industrial chemical companies in the interconversion of hydrocarbons and the alkylation of aromatic compounds. The current book deals with the characterization of specific properties of Zeolites and calculations for the design of catalysts. Measurements and utilization of solid acidity, shape selectivity, and loading properties, that are three prominent properties of a Zeolite catalyst, are treated in detail. These features concern chemical vapor deposition of silica, shape selectivity, loading properties, solid activity, Brønsted or Lewis character, ammonia temperature programmed desorption, control of the pore-opening size by chemical vapor deposition of silica and XAFS analysis of metals being highly dispersed inside and outside a framework.

  12. Transfer function design based on user selected samples for intuitive multivariate volume exploration

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Liang

    2013-02-01

    Multivariate volumetric datasets are important to both science and medicine. We propose a transfer function (TF) design approach based on user selected samples in the spatial domain to make multivariate volumetric data visualization more accessible for domain users. Specifically, the user starts the visualization by probing features of interest on slices and the data values are instantly queried by user selection. The queried sample values are then used to automatically and robustly generate high dimensional transfer functions (HDTFs) via kernel density estimation (KDE). Alternatively, 2D Gaussian TFs can be automatically generated in the dimensionality reduced space using these samples. With the extracted features rendered in the volume rendering view, the user can further refine these features using segmentation brushes. Interactivity is achieved in our system and different views are tightly linked. Use cases show that our system has been successfully applied for simulation and complicated seismic data sets. © 2013 IEEE.

  13. Corporate social responsibility initiatives addressing social exclusion in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Wendy J

    2009-08-01

    The private sector is often seen as a driver of exclusionary processes rather than a partner in improving the health and welfare of socially-excluded populations. However, private-sector initiatives and partnerships- collectively labelled corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives-may be able to positively impact social status, earning potential, and access to services and resources for socially-excluded populations. This paper presents case studies of CSR projects in Bangladesh that are designed to reduce social exclusion among marginalized populations and explores whether CSR initiatives can increase economic and social capabilities to reduce exclusion. The examples provide snapshots of projects that (a) increase job-skills and employment opportunities for women, disabled women, and rehabilitated drug-users and (b) provide healthcare services to female workers and their communities. The CSR case studies cover a limited number of people but characteristics and practices replicable and scaleable across different industries, countries, and populations are identified. Common success factors from the case studies form the basis for recommendations to design and implement more CSR initiatives targeting socially-excluded groups. The analysis found that CSR has potential for positive and lasting impact on developing countries, especifically on socially-excluded populations. However, there is a need for additional monitoring and critical evaluation.

  14. Corporate social responsibility initiatives addressing social exclusion in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Wendy J

    2009-08-01

    The private sector is often seen as a driver of exclusionary processes rather than a partner in improving the health and welfare of socially-excluded populations. However, private-sector initiatives and partnerships- collectively labelled corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives-may be able to positively impact social status, earning potential, and access to services and resources for socially-excluded populations. This paper presents case studies of CSR projects in Bangladesh that are designed to reduce social exclusion among marginalized populations and explores whether CSR initiatives can increase economic and social capabilities to reduce exclusion. The examples provide snapshots of projects that (a) increase job-skills and employment opportunities for women, disabled women, and rehabilitated drug-users and (b) provide healthcare services to female workers and their communities. The CSR case studies cover a limited number of people but characteristics and practices replicable and scaleable across different industries, countries, and populations are identified. Common success factors from the case studies form the basis for recommendations to design and implement more CSR initiatives targeting socially-excluded groups. The analysis found that CSR has potential for positive and lasting impact on developing countries, especifically on socially-excluded populations. However, there is a need for additional monitoring and critical evaluation. PMID:19761088

  15. Epidemiology of brucellosis in humans and domestic ruminants in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, AKM Anisur

    2015-01-01

    Background Brucellosis is an ancient and one of the world’s most widespread zoonotic diseases affecting both, public health and animal production. It is endemic in many developing countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America including Bangladesh. Since the first report in 1970, a lot of brucellosis seroprevalence reports are available in cattle, goats, sheep and humans in Bangladesh. Most of the previously reported prevalence studies were based on non-random samples, which may not give a tr...

  16. Analyzing The Factors For Rejection Of Leather In Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Md.Farhad Ali; Umme Habiba Bodrun Naher; Md Mahamudul Hasan; Md.Shakil Nawze; Shahanama Ferdous

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Leather plays a vital role in earning the foreign currency for Bangladesh. Export of finished leather and leather products have an important impact on the economy of Bangladesh. Mainly cow goat sheep and buffalo leathers are produced in this country. Different defects of leather due to numerous numbers of diseases of animals of poor management of people deteriorate the quality of leather which has negative impact in this sector. This paper analyses the magnitude and category of major...

  17. Debating Diversity in Provision of Universal Primary Education in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Sabur, Zia-Us; Ahmed, Manzoor

    2010-01-01

    Multiple providers (including state, quasi-state and non-state ones) have contributed to raising initial enrolment and improving gender balance in Bangladesh. The critical question is how multiplicity and diversity of provision can contribute to achieving truly universal primary education with high completion rates and acceptable levels of learning. In this paper, these questions are addressed in the context of history and circumstances of educational development in Bangladesh, as the Governm...

  18. Aspects of microfinance system of Grameen Bank of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, Jamal; Mohajan, Haradhan; Datta, Rajib

    2012-01-01

    The microfinance system of Grameen Bank is a revolutionary tool to eradicate poverty of the rural people especially the women of Bangladesh. At present GB is the largest microfinance bank in Bangladesh and probably the biggest microcredit organization in the world. It provides loans to assetless and landless poor people whom no commercial bank give loan. Microcredit is the most useful and popular financial system in the world to face financial crisis of the poor people. Grameen Bank loan dist...

  19. State of Governance in Bangladesh: Problems and Prospects.

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Sayed Javed

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the problems and issues on the political failures in Bangladesh as well as identifies some possible solutions. The approach here is analytical mostly reviewing current news, reports and other related materials. A comparative study is also done between the present and proposed system to get a quick glimpse on the overall situation. The idea here is to seek out reasonable and practical solutions that would yield better result for Bangladesh and bring about positive changes ...

  20. Potential of Wind and Solar Electricity Generation in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Swapan Kumar Roy; Himangshu Ranjan Ghosh; Mohammad Nasirul Hoque; Sanjoy Kumar Nandi

    2012-01-01

    Wind and solar energies are the alternative energy sources that can be used to supplement the conventional energy sources particularly in Bangladesh. In this work, the aim is to assess the current wind and solar energy potential in Bangladesh. The wind data for the five stations obtained from Local Government Engineering Department have been assessed, but only two of them seem to be eligible for energy production. Annual average, monthly average, and hourly average wind speeds and wind power ...

  1. JOB SATISFACTION AND RELATED CHARACTERISTICS OF BANGLADESH AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY GRADUATES

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, A. Rashid; Ahmad, Muzaffer

    1992-01-01

    This article is intended to focus on the extent of job satisfaction and its relationship with other characteristics of Bangladesh agricultural University (BAU) graduates in Bangladesh labour market. Further, it aims at exploring important characteristics which have influence on job satisfaction- of BAU graduates. The related characteristics include age, place of birth, year of graduation, highest degree, academic excellence, place of posting, professional training, publications, length of ser...

  2. Tracing the Poverty Impact of Market Reforms in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Alam, Mohammad Jahangir; Bhuiyan, Nazmul; Begum, Ismat Ara; Van Huylenbroeck, Guido

    2012-01-01

    The paper analyse the impact of market reforms on poverty in Bangladesh. To estimate the poverty impact at household level, a binary logit model has been estimated with two latest waves of household income and expenditure data from Bangladesh. The results show that a significant improvement has been made in reducing poverty in the recent decades. As a net importing country, liberalization might has direct impact on household’s real income through the changes of real rice prices. The results a...

  3. Female labour force participation in Bangladesh : trends, drivers and barriers

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Rushidan I; Islam, Rizwanul

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to the stylized implications of the U-shaped hypothesis, there has been an increase in female labour force participation in Bangladesh, alongside the acceleration in economic growth since the 1990s. In this regard, Bangladesh has witnessed a substantial increase in female employment in labour- intensive export-oriented industries in urban areas. The study also finds that the rapid expansion of micro-finance in rural areas has supported women’s employment. However, the economy in g...

  4. Causes of Maternal Mortality Decline in Matlab, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdhury, Mahbub Elahi; Ahmed, Anisuddin; Kalim, Nahid; Koblinsky, Marge

    2009-01-01

    Bangladesh is distinct among developing countries in achieving a low maternal mortality ratio (MMR) of 322 per 100,000 livebirths despite the very low use of skilled care at delivery (13% nationally). This variation has also been observed in Matlab, a rural area in Bangladesh, where longitudinal data on maternal mortality are available since the mid-1970s. The current study investigated the possible causes of the maternal mortality decline in Matlab. The study analyzed 769 maternal deaths and...

  5. Existing and Expected Service Quality of Grameenphone Users in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Azmat Ullah; Md. Hasebur Rahman

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. The Grameenphone (GP) is a market leader in the telecommunication industry in Bangladesh. This study investigates the existing and expected service quality of Grameenphone users in Bangladesh. The Study reveals that there are significant gap between existing and expected perceived service network, 3G, customer care, physical facilities, billing cost, information service, mobile banking and GP offers. The study concludes that customer satisfaction is a dynamic phenomenon. Maintaining...

  6. Tourism in Bangladesh: Present Status and Future Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjay Chandra Roy; Mallika Roy

    2015-01-01

    Bangladesh is full of natural beauty. Rivers, coasts and beaches, archaeological sites, religious places, hills, forests, waterfalls, tea gardens surround it. The Sundarban, Historic Mosque in city of Bagerhat, Ruins of the Buddihist Vihara at Paharpur are the three world heritage sites in Bangladesh among 1007. To observe the beauty of nature, huge amount of domestic and foreign tourists visit the country and its tourist attraction sites. In 2012, around six-lakh (6 hundred thousand) tourist...

  7. From First Principles Design to Realization of Bimetallic Catalysts for Enhanced Selectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobo, Raul F.; Crooks, Richard M.; Mavrikakis, Manos

    2014-04-08

    “Catalysis by design” has been a dream for decades. To specify the composition and structure of matter to effect a desired catalytic transformation with desired and predicted rate and selectivity remains a monumental challenge, especially in heterogeneous catalysis. Our research thrusts have been chosen not only for their practical and scientific relevance, e.g. for more efficient and sustainable chemicals and fuels production, but also because they provide a foundation for developing and exploring broadly applicable principles and strategies for catalyst design.

  8. Down Selection of the Design Options for an Advanced Gen IV SFR Concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Bum; Lee, D. U.; Kim, Y. I.; Won, B. C.; Hahn, Do Hee

    2008-11-15

    Several design concepts for incorporating those concepts into a Generation IV SFR reactor concept were proposed, based on the KALIMER-600 design developed previously by KAERI. Those concepts were suggested to define capacity, conversion ratio, cladding material, number of loops for a heat transport system and turbine type. This report addresses the main results and progress achieved this year in each research and development work for specifying each concept finally next year. The capacity of a breakeven core was defined to be 1200 MWe taking into account a TRU inventory and a discharge burnup from the viewpoint of fuel utilization. For the breakeven core specification, an enrichment split core configuration having the advantage of better neutronic economics and simpler fuel fabrication, has been selected and its core design is being carried out. Total twenty specimens for the first and second candidate alloys were designed and manufactured to develop a new cladding alloy. For those alloy specimens, a mechanical performance was evaluated and a microscopic structure has been observed. A candidate for a new cladding alloy will finally be determined following the evaluation of the third candidate alloy next year. In terms of less component units per loop and a smaller installation space, a two-loop heat transport system was selected and its detailed configuration is being developed. For defining a steam generator concept, a double walled tube type was selected from the viewpoint of reliability, economics and manufacture capability of a steam generator. A steam generator type will finally be determined to be either a straight tube type or a helical tube type, judging advances achieved in future development of the steam generator concepts. A Rankine cycle concept established well was given preference as a reference concept for BOP. A S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle concept newly developed as an advanced concept needs a long-term R and D work and experimental verification to

  9. Evaluation and selection of the ship collaborative design resources based on AHP and genetic and simulated annealing algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The characteristics of the design resources in the ship collaborative design is described and the hierarchical model for the evaluation of the design resources is established. The comprehensive evaluation of the co-designers for the collaborative design resources has been done from different aspects using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP),and according to the evaluation results,the candidates are determined. Meanwhile,based on the principle of minimum cost,and starting from the relations between the design tasks and the corresponding co-designers,the optimizing selection model of the collaborators is established and one novel genetic combined with simulated annealing algorithm is proposed to realize the optimization. It overcomes the defects of the genetic algorithm which may lead to the premature convergence and local optimization if used individually. Through the application of this method in the ship collaborative design system,it proves the feasibility and provides a quantitative method for the optimizing selection of the design resources.

  10. Residue-based Coordinated Selection and Parameter Design of Multiple Power System Stabilizers (PSSs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Chi; Hu, Weihao; Fang, Jiakun;

    2013-01-01

    data from time domain simulations. Then a coordinated approach for multiple PSS selection and parameter design based on residue method is proposed and realized in MATLAB m-files. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is adopted in the coordination process. The IEEE 39-bus New England system model......Residue method is a commonly used approach to design the parameters of a power system stabilizer (PSS). In this paper, a residue identification method is adopted to obtain the system residues for different input-output pairs, using the system identification toolbox in MATLAB with the measurement...... as the test system is built in DIgSIELNT PowerFactory 14.0, in which the proposed coordination method is validated by time domain simulations and modal analysis....

  11. Selection of Design Power of Wave Energy Converters Based on Wave Basin Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinelli, L.; Zanuttigh, B.; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2011-01-01

    Aim of this paper is to develop a method for selecting the optimal power generation capacity for which a wave energy converter (WEC) should be rated. This method is suitable for the earliest stages of development, when several studies are missing, including design of the Power Take Off (PTO) system......, and the first economic considerations become essential for investment opportunities. It relies on the availability of an experimental description of the maximum possible produced power under realistic conditions, typically obtained by dummy PTOs. It consists of three steps: statistical characterisation...... of the measured efficiency; description of the energy production by means of a function of the design capacity; application of a simple formula for cost benefit analysis. The analyses here proposed are based on the experimental results of 3D tests on two floating wave energy devices, named LEANCON and DEXA...

  12. MEASURING THE CUSTOMER SATISFACTION OF ISLAMIC BANKING SECTOR IN BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossain Shahid SHOHROWARDHY

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The banking sector has been playing a significant role in achieving the economic growth of Bangladesh, where contribution of Islamic Banking Sector is remarkable. Islamic Banking Sector shows a substantial growth position in Bangladesh. Customer satisfaction is the most significant affecting phenomenon in determining the banking growth. Thus, this study attempts to measure the existing level of customer satisfaction of Islamic Banks in Bangladesh, using the Structural Equation Model (SEM. This study uses the 22 dimensions of customer satisfaction which used in the earlier studies in different countries for measuring the customer satisfaction of Islamic Banking Sector. A total of 385 samples have been taken from six full pledged Islamic Banks in Bangladesh. It reveals form the study that Human Resources and Systemization Service Delivery is the strongest indicator of customer satisfaction of Islamic Banking Sector in Bangladesh followed by Core Product, Service Capability and Social Responsibility. The findings therefore, may be helpful for policy-makers of banking authorities who have been making serious endeavor to sustain the growth of Islamic Banking Sector in Bangladesh.

  13. Molecular dating of HIV-1 subtype C from Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontell, Irene; Sarker, Md Safiullah; Rahman, Mustafizur; Afrad, Mokibul Hassan; Sönnerborg, Anders; Azim, Tasnim

    2013-01-01

    Bangladesh has an overall low HIV prevalence of Bangladesh and related strains from other countries, and thereby clarify when and from where subtype C was introduced in the country and how it subsequently spread within Bangladesh. The phylogenetic analysis included 118 Bangladeshi gag sequences and 128 sequences from other countries and was performed using the BEAST package. Our analysis revealed that the vast majority of Bangladeshi sequences (97/118, 82%) fall into a large regional cluster of samples from Bangladesh, India, China and Myanmar, which dates back to the early 1960's. Following its establishment in the region, this strain has entered Bangladesh multiple times from around 1975 and onwards, but extensive in-country transmission could only be detected among drug users and not through sexual transmission. In addition, there have been multiple (at least ten) introductions of subtype C to Bangladesh from outside this region, but no extensive spread could be detected for any of these. Since many HIV-infections remain undetected while asymptomatic, the true extent of the transmission of each strain remains unknown, especially among hard to reach groups such as clients of sex workers and returning migrants with families.

  14. Design and characterization of short antimicrobial peptides using leucine zipper templates with selectivity towards microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Aqeel; Azmi, Sarfuddin; Srivastava, Saurabh; Kumar, Amit; Tripathi, Jitendra Kumar; Mishra, Nripendra N; Shukla, Praveen K; Ghosh, Jimut Kanti

    2014-11-01

    Design of antimicrobial peptides with selective activity towards microorganisms is an important step towards the development of new antimicrobial agents. Leucine zipper sequence has been implicated in cytotoxic activity of naturally occurring antimicrobial peptides; moreover, this motif has been utilized for the design of novel antimicrobial peptides with modulated cytotoxicity. To understand further the impact of substitution of amino acids at 'a' and/or 'd' position of a leucine zipper sequence of an antimicrobial peptides on its antimicrobial and cytotoxic properties four short peptides (14-residue) were designed on the basis of a leucine zipper sequence without or with replacement of leucine residues in its 'a' and 'd' positions with D-leucine or alanine or proline residue. The original short leucine zipper peptide (SLZP) and its D-leucine substituted analog, DLSA showed comparable activity against the tested Gram-positive and negative bacteria and the fungal strains. The alanine substituted analog (ASA) though showed appreciable activity against the tested bacteria, it showed to some extent lower activity against the tested fungi. However, the proline substituted analog (PSA) showed lower activity against the tested bacterial or fungal strains. Interestingly, DLSA, ASA and PSA showed significantly lower cytotoxicity than SLZP against both human red blood cells (hRBCs) and murine 3T3 cells. Cytotoxic and bactericidal properties of these peptides matched with peptide-induced damage/permeabilization of mammalian cells and bacteria or their mimetic lipid vesicles suggesting cell membrane could be the target of these peptides. As evidenced by tryptophan fluorescence and acrylamide quenching studies the peptides showed similarities either in interaction or in their localization within the bacterial membrane mimetic negatively charged lipid vesicles. Only SLZP showed localization inside the mammalian membrane mimetic zwitterionic lipid vesicles. The results show

  15. Past and future flooding in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele-Eich, Insa; Hopson, Thomas; Simmer, Clemens; Simon, Thorsten

    2016-04-01

    Currently, an average of about 20 % of the land surface in Bangladesh is flooded each year, affecting one of the most densely populated regions in the world. We aim to understand the processes currently determining flooding in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) basin, in particular the role of precipitation and sea-level rise, as well as to assess how climate change might impact flood characteristics in the future. Water level and discharge data were provided by the Bangladesh Water Development Board on a daily basis for a period of 1909-2009. Monthly maps based on daily sea level anomalies from the Data Unification Altimeter Combination System DUACS are available on a 0.25° by 0.25° grid for the time period 1993-2014. Ensemble model output for upper catchment precipitation and annual mean thermosteric sea-level rise is taken from historical and RCP scenario runs conducted with the CCSM4. We first analyzed daily water levels of the past 100 years in order to detect potential shifts in extremes. The available observations are then used to set up a generalized linear model to detect how precipitation influences flooding in the GBM basin. This model can then be used to give a prognosis on changes in future flooding. Our analysis suggests that water levels have indeed changed over the course of the past century. While the magnitude and duration of average flood events decreased, the frequency of extreme flood events has increased. Low water levels have also changed, with a significant decrease in the annual minimum water level most noticeable when we compare the time periods 1909-1939 and 1979-2009. For the future, first results confirm the decrease in return periods of strong flood events found in previous studies. The impact of climate change on flooding will also be compared to the impact of man-made structures such as Farakka barrage, built across the Ganges on the border between India and Bangladesh and operating since 1975. This is of particular interest as

  16. Accounts of severe acute obstetric complications in Rural Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikder Shegufta S

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As maternal deaths have decreased worldwide, increasing attention has been placed on the study of severe obstetric complications, such as hemorrhage, eclampsia, and obstructed labor, to identify where improvements can be made in maternal health. Though access to medical care is considered to be life-saving during obstetric emergencies, data on the factors associated with health care decision-making during obstetric emergencies are lacking. We aim to describe the health care decision-making process during severe acute obstetric complications among women and their families in rural Bangladesh. Methods Using the pregnancy surveillance infrastructure from a large community trial in northwest rural Bangladesh, we nested a qualitative study to document barriers to timely receipt of medical care for severe obstetric complications. We conducted 40 semi-structured, in-depth interviews with women reporting severe acute obstetric complications and purposively selected for conditions representing the top five most common obstetric complications. The interviews were transcribed and coded to highlight common themes and to develop an overall conceptual model. Results Women attributed their life-threatening experiences to societal and socioeconomic factors that led to delays in seeking timely medical care by decision makers, usually husbands or other male relatives. Despite the dominance of male relatives and husbands in the decision-making process, women who underwent induced abortions made their own decisions about their health care and relied on female relatives for advice. The study shows that non-certified providers such as village doctors and untrained birth attendants were the first-line providers for women in all categories of severe complications. Coordination of transportation and finances was often arranged through mobile phones, and referrals were likely to be provided by village doctors. Conclusions Strategies to increase timely

  17. Sustainable manufacturing: Effect of material selection and design on the environmental impact in the manufacturing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The environmental impact of a manufacturing process is also dependent on the selection of the material and design of a product. This is because the manufacturing of a product is directly connected to the amount of carbon emitted in consuming the electrical energy for that manufacturing process. The difference in the general properties of materials such as strength, hardness and impact will have significant effect on the power consumption of the machine used to complete the product. In addition the environmental impact can also be reduced if the proposed designs use less material. In this study, an LCA tool called Eco-It is used. Evaluate the environmental impact caused by manufacturing simple jig. A simple jig with 4 parts was used as a case study. Two experiments were carried out. The first experiment was to study the environmental effects of different material, and the second experiment was to study the environmental impact of different design. The materials used for the jig are Aluminium and mild steel. The results showed a decrease in the rate of carbon emissions by 60% when Aluminium is use instead from mild steel, and a decrease of 26% when the-design is modified

  18. Design and direct manufacture of non-assembly abacus by Selective Laser Melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Changhui; Yang, Yongqiang; Xiao, Zefeng; Wang, Di; Liu, Yang; Liu, Ruicheng

    2014-12-01

    Selective Laser Melting (SLM), as an additive manufacturing technology, can directly manufacture desired functional metal parts. With the ability to freeform manufacture, SLM has had breakthroughs on design and manufacture compared with traditional methods. SLM apparatus in Dimetal series, DiMetal-100 developed by SCUT research group, has been used to study non-assembly mechanism. Taking copper cash abacus and collapsible abacus as examples, this article had studied the design rules and the key points to manufacture the non-assembly mechanism based on the SLM. An investigation into the capability of SLM technology, such as the geometric features resolution, critical incline angle, provided theoretical basis for designing the clearance of the joint and manufacturing direction of non-assembly mechanism. Then, the experiment of manufacturing copper cash abacus and collapsible abacus were conducted. The results proved that non-assembly mechanism can be well manufactured by SLM. This study provides basis for designing and manufacturing of creative non-assembly mechanism based on SLM technique.

  19. Ergonomic Design Measures on Work Process and Workplace Layout in the Selected Structural and Fabrication Shops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzette M. Mercado

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to analyze the process and workplace layout in the selected structural and fabrication shops located in Batangas, Philippines thus provide improvements using the results of Ergonomic Design Measures. These shops generally focused on preparation, cutting, welding, grinding and assembly using multi-functioning machines and many aspects of human work. Using different Ergonomic Assessment Checklist, Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA, Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA and Ovako Working Posture Assessment System (OWAS, and with direct observations, it was found out that existing design of the work processes and workplace layout does not match the ergonomic requirements. The study exposed the presence of Musculoskeletal Disorder (MSD risks due to awkward posture, forceful exertion and fatigue; position of workers is dangerous to themselves due to inappropriate measurement of facilities which is in need of change. The researcher recommended ergonomically based actions to address the health, comfort, and well-being of employees such as changing the workstation surface height, integration of safeguarding; application of Group Technology to reduce the production lead time and material handling and offered smooth workflow in production line. Furthermore, the researcher developed a proposed workstation and workplace design as part of the ergonomic-based actions. The effectiveness of the proposed design alternatives were measured with the use of Trade-off Analysis technique, such as, Standard Weighted Sum Method, MAXIMIN decision and Analytic Hierarchy Process.

  20. Susceptibility of microorganism to selected medicinal plants in Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S M Masud Rana; Md Mustahsan Billah; Mohammad Salim Hossain; A K M Saifuddin; S K M Azizul Islam; Sujan Banik; Zannatul Naim; Golam Sarwar Raju

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To analyze in-vitro antimicrobial activities of some ethno-pharmacologically significant medicinal plants (methanol extract) against the pathogenic microorganisms (Escherichiacoli, Salmonella spp., Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans).Methods:The disc diffusion method was applied for antibacterial test and the poisoned food technique was applied for antifungal test.Results:The methanol extract of Terminalia chebula (bark), Phyllanthus acidus (fruits), Sarcochlamys pulcherrima (leaves) and Abelmoschus esculentus (fruits) had significant in vitro antibacterial activity angainst the entire test samples in comparison to standard drug ciprofloxacin. Most of the plant extracts showed low activity against Gram negative bacteria while potential activity against Gram positive bacteria. The antifungal activities of methanol extracts of these plants and standard drug griseofulvin were determined against two pathogenic fungi, andPolygonum lapathifolium (leaves) and Cinnamomum tamala (leaves) showed maximum activity, while Erioglossum rubiginosum (leaves) showed no antifungal activity.Conclusions:Further chemical and pharmacological investigations are required to identify and isolate chemical constituents responsible for these potential bioactivities and thus to determine their full spectrum of efficacy.

  1. Susceptibility of microorganism to selected medicinal plants in Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.M.Masud; Rana; Md.Mustahsan; Billah; Mohammad; Salim; Hossain; A.K.M.Saifuddin; S.K.M.Azizul; Islam; Sujan; Banik; Zannatul; Nairn; Golam; Sarwar; Raju

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To analyze in-vitro antimicrobial activities of some ethno-pharmacologically significant medicinal plants(methanol extract) against the pathogenic microorganisms(Escherichia coli,Salmonella spp..Bacillus cereus.Staphylococcus aureus.Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans).Methods:The disc diffusion method was applied for antibacterial test and the poisoned food technique was applied for antifungal test.Results:The methanol extract of Terminalia chebula(bark),Fhyllanthus acidus(fruits).Sarcochlamys pulcherrima(leaves) and Abelmoschus esculcntus(fruits) had significant in vitro antibacterial activity angainst the entire test samples in comparison to standard drug ciprofloxacin.Most of the plant extracts showed low activity against Gram negative bacteria while potential activity against Gram positive bacteria.The antifungal activities of methanol extracts of these plants and standard drug griseofulvin were determined against two pathogenicfungi,and Polygonum Iapathifolium(leaves) and Cinnamomum tamala(leaves) showed maximum activity,while Erioglossum rubiginosum(leaves) showed no antifungal activity.Conclusions:Further chemical and pharmacological investigations are required to identify and isolate chemical constituents responsible for these potential bioactivities and thus to determine their full spectrum of efficacy.

  2. Changing Climate; Bangladesh Facing the Challenge of Severe Flood Problems; A Comparison of Flood Management between Bangladesh and the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    BISWAS, KALLOL KUMAR

    2010-01-01

    Both Bangladesh and the Netherlands are the most flood prone countries in two continents Asia and Europe. Bangladesh is known to be highly vulnerable to floods. Frequent floods have put enormous constraints on its development potential. Unfortunately, the frequency of high intensity floods is increasing every year. So far the country has struggled to put a sizeable infrastructure in place to prevent flooding in many parts of the country with limited success. Where, the Netherlands has develop...

  3. Energy and street foods (Bangladesh and Sri Lanka)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    Energy used by street food vendors is effectively replacing fuel consumption in the household, as studies have shown that street foods are often cheaper to buy than to prepare at home. Rapid urbanisation has led to a proliferation of these very small food outlets, particularly in the Asian subcontinent. Street foods provide employment and income to millions of people around the world, and provide low cost, affordable food to low income people. The project pilot tested improved biomass stoves with a selection of street food vendors. In Sri Lanka, laboratory tests were undertaken with the following three stoves: improved rice-husk burner, biomass gasifier, and double-mouth chimney stoves. From the pilot testing in Sri Lanka the key findings are that the efficient gasifier stove is not suitable for street food vendors, but there were some promising results from larger biomass stoves. In Bangladesh, the project piloted four types of biomass stove: single mouth, double mouth, bucket-type and institutional stove. As these were more established, the pilot focused on a method for reaching a larger number of beneficiaries, people were trained to make stoves in their own and in others' houses. Five workshops were held and over 540 stoves were built. Impact assessment exercises were undertaken in both countries. (author)

  4. Slim by design: serving healthy foods first in buffet lines improves overall meal selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Wansink

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Each day, tens of millions of restaurant goers, conference attendees, college students, military personnel, and school children serve themselves at buffets--many being all-you-can-eat buffets. Knowing how the food order at a buffet triggers what a person selects could be useful in guiding diners to make healthier selections. METHOD: The breakfast food selections of 124 health conference attendees were tallied at two separate seven-item buffet lines (which included cheesy eggs, potatoes, bacon, cinnamon rolls, low-fat granola, low-fat yogurt, and fruit. The food order between the two lines was reversed (least healthy to most healthy, and vise-versa. Participants were randomly assigned to choose their meal from one line or the other, and researchers recorded what participants selected. RESULTS: With buffet foods, the first ones seen are the ones most selected. Over 75% of diners selected the first food they saw, and the first three foods a person encountered in the buffet comprised 66% of all the foods they took. Serving the less healthy foods first led diners to take 31% more total food items (p<0.001. Indeed, diners in this line more frequently chose less healthy foods in combinations, such as cheesy eggs and bacon (r = 0.47; p<0.001 or cheesy eggs and fried potatoes (r= 0.37; p<0.001. This co-selection of healthier foods was less common. CONCLUSIONS: Three words summarize these results: First foods most. What ends up on a buffet diner's plate is dramatically determined by the presentation order of food. Rearranging food order from healthiest to least healthy can nudge unknowing or even resistant diners toward a healthier meal, helping make them slim by design. Health-conscious diners, can proactively start at the healthier end of the line, and this same basic principle of "first foods most" may be relevant in other contexts - such as when serving or passing food at family dinners.

  5. Selecting the optimum plot size for a California design-based stream and wetland mapping program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackey, Leila G; Stein, Eric D

    2014-04-01

    Accurate estimates of the extent and distribution of wetlands and streams are the foundation of wetland monitoring, management, restoration, and regulatory programs. Traditionally, these estimates have relied on comprehensive mapping. However, this approach is prohibitively resource-intensive over large areas, making it both impractical and statistically unreliable. Probabilistic (design-based) approaches to evaluating status and trends provide a more cost-effective alternative because, compared with comprehensive mapping, overall extent is inferred from mapping a statistically representative, randomly selected subset of the target area. In this type of design, the size of sample plots has a significant impact on program costs and on statistical precision and accuracy; however, no consensus exists on the appropriate plot size for remote monitoring of stream and wetland extent. This study utilized simulated sampling to assess the performance of four plot sizes (1, 4, 9, and 16 km(2)) for three geographic regions of California. Simulation results showed smaller plot sizes (1 and 4 km(2)) were most efficient for achieving desired levels of statistical accuracy and precision. However, larger plot sizes were more likely to contain rare and spatially limited wetland subtypes. Balancing these considerations led to selection of 4 km(2) for the California status and trends program.

  6. Seat Capacity Selection for an Advanced Short-Haul Aircraft Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marien, Ty V.

    2016-01-01

    A study was performed to determine the target seat capacity for a proposed advanced short-haul aircraft concept projected to enter the fleet by 2030. This analysis projected the potential demand in the U.S. for a short-haul aircraft using a transportation theory approach, rather than selecting a target seat capacity based on recent industry trends or current market demand. A transportation systems model was used to create a point-to-point network of short-haul trips and then predict the number of annual origin-destination trips on this network. Aircraft of varying seat capacities were used to meet the demand on this network, assuming a single aircraft type for the entire short-haul fleet. For each aircraft size, the ticket revenue and operational costs were used to calculate a total market profitability metric for all feasible flights. The different aircraft sizes were compared, based on this market profitability metric and also the total number of annual round trips and markets served. Sensitivity studies were also performed to determine the effect of changing the aircraft cruise speed and maximum trip length. Using this analysis, the advanced short-haul aircraft design team was able to select a target seat capacity for their design.

  7. Doublet III limiter performance and implications for mechanical design and material selection for future limiters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabado, M.M.; Marcus, F.B.; Trester, P.W.; Wesley, J.C.

    1979-10-01

    The plasma limiter system for Doublet III is described. Initially, high-Z materials, Ta-10W for the primary limiter and Mo for the backup limiters, were selected as the most attractive metallic candidates from the standpoint of thermal and structural properties. For the purpose of evaluating the effect of material Z on plasma performance, the nonmagnetic, Ni-base alloy Inconel X-750 was selected for a medium-Z limiter material. Graphite, a low-Z material, will likely be the next limiter material for evaluation. Design and material selection criteria for the different Z ranges are presented. The performance of the high-Z limiters in Doublet III is reviewed for an operation period that included approximately 5000 plasma shots. Changes in surface appearance and metallurgical changes are characterized. Discussion is presented on how and to what extent the high-Z elements affected the performance of the plasma based on theory and measurements in Doublet III. The fabrication processes for the Inconel X-750 limiters are summarized, and, last, observations on early performance of the Inconel limiters are described. (MOW)

  8. Investigation of protein selectivity in multimodal chromatography using in silico designed Fab fragment variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkov, Hanne Sophie; Krogh, Berit Olsen; Woo, James; Parimal, Siddharth; Ahmadian, Haleh; Cramer, Steven M

    2015-11-01

    In this study, a unique set of antibody Fab fragments was designed in silico and produced to examine the relationship between protein surface properties and selectivity in multimodal chromatographic systems. We hypothesized that multimodal ligands containing both hydrophobic and charged moieties would interact strongly with protein surface regions where charged groups and hydrophobic patches were in close spatial proximity. Protein surface property characterization tools were employed to identify the potential multimodal ligand binding regions on the Fab fragment of a humanized antibody and to evaluate the impact of mutations on surface charge and hydrophobicity. Twenty Fab variants were generated by site-directed mutagenesis, recombinant expression, and affinity purification. Column gradient experiments were carried out with the Fab variants in multimodal, cation-exchange, and hydrophobic interaction chromatographic systems. The results clearly indicated that selectivity in the multimodal system was different from the other chromatographic modes examined. Column retention data for the reduced charge Fab variants identified a binding site comprising light chain CDR1 as the main electrostatic interaction site for the multimodal and cation-exchange ligands. Furthermore, the multimodal ligand binding was enhanced by additional hydrophobic contributions as evident from the results obtained with hydrophobic Fab variants. The use of in silico protein surface property analyses combined with molecular biology techniques, protein expression, and chromatographic evaluations represents a previously undescribed and powerful approach for investigating multimodal selectivity with complex biomolecules.

  9. Bangladesh, a state at permanent flood risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chowdhury, J.U. [Bangladesh Univ. of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka (Bangladesh). Inst. of Flood Control and Drainage Research

    2000-07-01

    Bangladesh is in a setting of large floodplain-delta complex at the junctions of three large rivers the Ganges, the Brahmaputra and the Meghna. Flood is an annual phenomenon here. Flood proofing was the strategy of flood management in ancient times. Major flood control projects started in the country 36 years ago. These projects have prevented normal floods, but not been able to reduce the risk of larger floods, rather caused increased flood risk in many areas. In view of social and environmental consequences of these projects, flood management policy has been changed a number of times. As per recent change, instead of new flood control project, flood proofing would be encouraged in rural areas. (orig.)

  10. Radon measurements in some areas in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamid Khan, M.A. [Physics Division, Atomic Energy Centre, Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box 164, Dhaka-1000 (Bangladesh)], E-mail: hamidkhan1950@yahoo.com; Chowdhury, M.S. [Physics Department, Dhaka University, Dhaka-1000 (Bangladesh)

    2008-08-15

    A survey of radon level measurements using CR-39 has been carried out in some of urban and rural residential areas and one gas explosion area in Bangladesh. The lowest level of radon concentration was found to be 49Bqm{sup -3} inside a hospital in Cox's Bazar district and the highest level was found to be 835Bqm{sup -3} inside a mud-made old residential house in Sylhet city. It was observed that old residential houses were found to have higher levels of radon concentrations compared to newly built houses. The radon level at the gas explosion area at Magurchara in Moulvibazar district was found to be 408{+-}98Bqm{sup -3}.

  11. Evaluation of selectivity in homologous multimodal chromatographic systems using in silico designed antibody fragment libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkov, Hanne Sophie; Woo, James; Krogh, Berit Olsen; Ahmadian, Haleh; Cramer, Steven M

    2015-12-24

    This study describes the in silico design, surface property analyses, production and chromatographic evaluations of a diverse set of antibody Fab fragment variants. Based on previous findings, we hypothesized that the complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) constitute important binding sites for multimodal chromatographic ligands. Given that antibodies are highly diversified molecules and in particular the CDRs, we set out to examine the generality of this result. For this purpose, four different Fab fragments with different CDRs and/or framework regions of the variable domains were identified and related variants were designed in silico. The four Fab variant libraries were subsequently generated by site-directed mutagenesis and produced by recombinant expression and affinity purification to enable examination of their chromatographic retention behavior. The effects of geometric re-arrangement of the functional moieties on the multimodal resin ligands were also investigated with respect to Fab variant retention profiles by comparing two commercially available multimodal cation-exchange ligands, Capto MMC and Nuvia cPrime, and two novel multimodal ligand prototypes. Interestingly, the chromatographic data demonstrated distinct selectivity trends between the four Fab variant libraries. For three of the Fab libraries, the CDR regions appeared as major binding sites for all multimodal ligands. In contrast, the fourth Fab library displayed a distinctly different chromatographic behavior, where Nuvia cPrime and related multimodal ligand prototypes provided markedly improved selectivity over Capto MMC. Clearly, the results illustrate that the discriminating power of multimodal ligands differs between different Fab fragments. The results are promising indications that multimodal chromatography using the appropriate multimodal ligands can be employed in downstream bioprocessing for challenging selective separation of product related variants.

  12. Structure- and function-based design of Plasmodium-selective proteasome inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; O'Donoghue, Anthony J; van der Linden, Wouter A; Xie, Stanley C; Yoo, Euna; Foe, Ian T; Tilley, Leann; Craik, Charles S; da Fonseca, Paula C A; Bogyo, Matthew

    2016-02-11

    The proteasome is a multi-component protease complex responsible for regulating key processes such as the cell cycle and antigen presentation. Compounds that target the proteasome are potentially valuable tools for the treatment of pathogens that depend on proteasome function for survival and replication. In particular, proteasome inhibitors have been shown to be toxic for the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum at all stages of its life cycle. Most compounds that have been tested against the parasite also inhibit the mammalian proteasome, resulting in toxicity that precludes their use as therapeutic agents. Therefore, better definition of the substrate specificity and structural properties of the Plasmodium proteasome could enable the development of compounds with sufficient selectivity to allow their use as anti-malarial agents. To accomplish this goal, here we use a substrate profiling method to uncover differences in the specificities of the human and P. falciparum proteasome. We design inhibitors based on amino-acid preferences specific to the parasite proteasome, and find that they preferentially inhibit the β2-subunit. We determine the structure of the P. falciparum 20S proteasome bound to the inhibitor using cryo-electron microscopy and single-particle analysis, to a resolution of 3.6 Å. These data reveal the unusually open P. falciparum β2 active site and provide valuable information about active-site architecture that can be used to further refine inhibitor design. Furthermore, consistent with the recent finding that the proteasome is important for stress pathways associated with resistance of artemisinin family anti-malarials, we observe growth inhibition synergism with low doses of this β2-selective inhibitor in artemisinin-sensitive and -resistant parasites. Finally, we demonstrate that a parasite-selective inhibitor could be used to attenuate parasite growth in vivo without appreciable toxicity to the host. Thus, the Plasmodium proteasome is a

  13. Target selection and comparison of mission design for space debris removal by DLR's advanced study group

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Pas, Niels; Lousada, Joao; Terhes, Claudia; Bernabeu, Marc; Bauer, Waldemar

    2014-09-01

    Space debris is a growing problem. Models show that the Kessler syndrome, the exponential growth of debris due to collisions, has become unavoidable unless an active debris removal program is initiated. The debris population in LEO with inclination between 60° and 95° is considered as the most critical zone. In order to stabilize the debris population in orbit, especially in LEO, 5 to 10 objects will need to be removed every year. The unique circumstances of such a mission could require that several objects are removed with a single launch. This will require a mission to rendezvous with a multitude of objects orbiting on different altitudes, inclinations and planes. Removal models have assumed that the top priority targets will be removed first. However this will lead to a suboptimal mission design and increase the ΔV-budget. Since there is a multitude of targets to choose from, the targets can be selected for an optimal mission design. In order to select a group of targets for a removal mission the orbital parameters and political constraints should also be taken into account. Within this paper a number of the target selection criteria are presented. The possible mission targets and their order of retrieval is dependent on the mission architecture. A comparison between several global mission architectures is given. Under consideration are 3 global missions of which a number of parameters are varied. The first mission launches multiple separate deorbit kits. The second launches a mother craft with deorbit kits. The third launches an orbital tug which pulls the debris in a lower orbit, after which a deorbit kit performs the final deorbit burn. A RoM mass and cost comparison is presented. The research described in this paper has been conducted as part of an active debris removal study by the Advanced Study Group (ASG). The ASG is an interdisciplinary student group working at the DLR, analyzing existing technologies and developing new ideas into preliminary

  14. Rural Development Policy and Administrative Patterns in Bangladesh : A Critical Review

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Taufiqul Islam; 大森, 賢一; Yoshizuka, Tohru

    2005-01-01

    The study examines the current framework implementation of rural development policy and administrative pattern in Bangladesh. Majority of the people in Bangladesh live in rural areas where problems of unemployment, inequality and poverty are common. Bangladesh has been undertaking rural development programs both at the government and non-government organizational levels. However, within the existing framework, rural development policies and poverty reduction programs in Bangladesh have been u...

  15. Bangladesh apparel industry and its workers in a changing world economy

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, N

    2006-01-01

    This thesis explores and analyses recent changes and challenges faced by the apparel industry of Bangladesh and the consequences of those for the Bangladesh economy. More specifically, it explores and analyses the importance of the apparel industry in the Bangladesh economy, the challenges faced by this industry, impacts of implementation of various international trade rules on the apparel industry, consequences of Bangladesh's attempts to enter in bilateral and regional free trade agreements...

  16. Pond Fish Production Through People's Participation in Rural Bangladesh 【Article】

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdhury, Masudul Hoq; Maharjan, Keshav Lall

    2001-01-01

    Aquaculture is currently responsible for a significant proportion of total fish production in Bangladesh. Fish is the main animal sources of protein for the rural people of Bangladesh. However,given increasing demand for fish, the per capita production of fish is declining. The present studyhighlights the development of fresh water pond fish culture through grassroots level organization inBangladesh. The study was conducted in rural area of Bangladesh. The result of the study reveals that,man...

  17. Deciphering transmissivity and hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer by vertical electrical sounding (VES) experiments in Northwest Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattar, Golam Shabbir; Keramat, Mumnunul; Shahid, Shamsuddin

    2016-03-01

    The vertical electrical soundings (VESs) are carried out in 24 selective locations of Chapai-Nawabganj area of northwest Bangladesh to determine the transmissivity and hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer. Initially, the transmissivity and hydraulic conductivity are determined from the pumping data of nearby available production wells. Afterwards, the T and K are correlated with geoelectrical resistance and the total resistivity of the aquifer. The present study deciphers the functional analogous relations of the geoelectrical resistance with the transmissivity and the total resistivity with the hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer in northwest Bangladesh. It has been shown that the given equations provide reasonable values of transmissivity and hydraulic conductivity where pumping test information is unavailable. It can be expected that the aquifer properties viz. transmissivity and hydraulic conductivity of geologically similar area can be determined with the help of the obtained equations by conducting VES experiments.

  18. Hydrological control of As concentrations in Bangladesh groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stute, M.; Zheng, Y.; Schlosser, P.; Horneman, A.; Dhar, R. K.; Datta, S.; Hoque, M. A.; Seddique, A. A.; Shamsudduha, M.; Ahmed, K. M.; van Geen, A.

    2007-09-01

    The elevated arsenic (As) content of groundwater from wells across Bangladesh and several other South Asian countries is estimated to slowly poison at least 100 million people. The heterogeneous distribution of dissolved arsenic in the subsurface complicates understanding of its release from the sediment matrix into the groundwater, as well as the design of mitigation strategies. Using the tritium-helium (3H/3He) groundwater dating technique, we show that there is a linear correlation between groundwater age at depths <20 m and dissolved As concentration, with an average slope of 19 μg L-1 yr-1 (monitoring wells only). We propose that either the kinetics of As mobilization or the removal of As by groundwater flushing is the mechanism underlying this relationship. In either case, the spatial variability of As concentrations in the top 20 m of the shallow aquifers can to a large extent be attributed to groundwater age controlled by the hydrogeological heterogeneity in the local groundwater flow system.

  19. Application of risk-informed design methods to select the PSACS ultimate heat sink

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the early phases of advanced system design, information is scarce. The technologies, components and processes to be used have not been specified adequately or are not well understood and uncertainties are very large. Yet, it is during these early phases that design teams and other stakeholders are required to make critical decisions to guide the development of the system. To aid in this decision making, a formal process is proposed based on the Analytic-Deliberative Decision-Making Process (ADP) that allows stakeholders to synthesize rationally their knowledge and experience and facilitate learning and sharing of best practices. The ADP identifies and prioritizes attributes relevant to a decision problem and supports the formulation of metrics to measure the performance of different design options. This paper reports on an application of the ADP to the selection of an ultimate heat sink for the Flexible Conversion Ratio (FCR) reactor's Passive Secondary Auxiliary Cooling System (PSACS). Two ultimate heat sink options are identified and evaluated, air and water.

  20. HIGH QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL PRINCIPLES APPLIED TO THE ARCHITECTONIC DESIGN SELECTION PROCEDURE: THE NUTRE LAB CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Barroso Krause

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The need to produce more sustainable buildings has been influencing the design decisions all over the world. That’s why it is imperative, in Brazil, the development of strategies and method to aid the decision making during the design process, focused on high quality environmental. This paper presents a decision support tool based on the principles of sustainable construction developed by the Project, Architecture and Sustainability Research Group (GPAS of Federal University of Rio de Janeiro – Brazil. The methodology has been developed for the selection of a preliminary design of a laboratory to be built at Rio Technology Park at the University campus. The support provided by GPAS occurred in three stages: the elaboration of the Reference Guide for the competitors, the development of a methodology to evaluate the proposed solutions (based on environmental performance criteria and the assistance of the members of jury in the trial phase. The theoretical framework was based upon the concepts of the bioclimatic architecture, the procedures specified by the certification HQE® (Haute Qualité Environnementale and the method suggested by the ADDENDA® architecture office. The success of this experience points out the possibility to future application in similar cases.

  1. Bangladesh apparel industry and its workers in a changing world economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmed, N.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis explores and analyses recent changes and challenges faced by the apparel industry of Bangladesh and the consequences of those for the Bangladesh economy. More specifically, it explores and analyses the importance of the apparel industry in the Bangladesh economy, the challenges faced by

  2. Development of community based curriculum on ophthalmology for under graduate medical course in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, A K; Hussain, A Z M I

    2012-08-01

    The curriculum represents the expression of educational ideas in practice. Ophthalmic education is the corner stone to improve eye care globally. Curriculum needs continuous modification varying in different geographic locations. Though 90% of common conditions are either preventable or curable but emphasis on the common conditions is inadequate. This is a stepwise descriptive study aiming to develop a community based ophthalmology curriculum for undergraduate medical course in Bangladesh conducted during March 2007 to February 2008 at UniSA School of Public Health and Life Sciences, University of South Asia, Banani, Dhaka. Delphi technique, a modified qualitative method was used to accumulate data and reaching a consensus opinion for developing the curriculum. Study approach includes two iterative rounds and finally a workshop. Iteration of round-I was "What are the eye diseases with overall knowledge of their management one MBBS physician should acquire"; followed by a list of eye diseases and topics for expert opinion. The response was collated. Iteration round-II was "How much a MBBS student should have percentage of knowledge, attitude and skills on each topic while being taught". The response was collated and presented to panel of expert ophthalmologists for discussion and validation. In the round-I Delphi, 400 (62%) out to total 641 ophthalmologist were randomly selected dividing in categories (62% in each) of Professor-22, Associate Professor-12, Assistant Professor-26, Consultant-27, ophthalmologists working in NGO-56 and ophthalmologists in private sector-257. Sixty (15%) responded with opinion. In the round-II, 200 (31%) including 60 of round-I, selected randomly but proportionately as before. Forty five (22.5%) responded with opinion. Result collated. The results and opinion of respondents were presented at a workshop attended by 24 (80%), out of 30 invited expert ophthalmic specialists for discussion, criticism, opinion, addition, modification and

  3. Demonstration of risk-based decision analysis in remedial alternative selection and design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, E.K.; Duffield, G.M. (Geraghty and Miller Modeling Group, Reston, VA (United States)); Massmann, J.W. (Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States)); Freeze, R.A. (Freeze (R.A.) Engineering, Inc., White Rock, BC (Canada)); Stephenson, D.E. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States))

    1993-01-01

    This study demonstrates the use of risk-based decision analysis (Massmann and Freeze 1987a, 1987b) in the selection and design of an engineering alternative for groundwater remediation at a waste site at the Savannah River Site, a US Department of Energy facility in South Carolina. The investigation focuses on the remediation and closure of the H-Area Seepage Basins, an inactive disposal site that formerly received effluent water from a nearby production facility. A previous study by Duffield et al. (1992), which used risk-based decision analysis to screen a number of ground-water remediation alternatives under consideration for this site, indicated that the most attractive remedial option is ground-water extraction by wells coupled with surface water discharge of treated effluent. The aim of the present study is to demonstrate the iterative use of risk-based decision analysis throughout the design of a particular remedial alternative. In this study, we consider the interaction between two episodes of aquifer testing over a 6-year period and the refinement of a remedial extraction well system design. Using a three-dimensional ground-water flow model, this study employs (1) geostatistics and Monte Carlo techniques to simulate hydraulic conductivity as a stochastic process and (2) Bayesian updating and conditional simulation to investigate multiple phases of aquifer testing. In our evaluation of a remedial alternative, we compute probabilistic costs associated with the failure of an alternative to completely capture a simulated contaminant plume. The results of this study demonstrate the utility of risk-based decision analysis as a tool for improving the design of a remedial alternative through the course of phased data collection at a remedial site.

  4. Demonstration of risk-based decision analysis in remedial alternative selection and design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, E.K.; Duffield, G.M. [Geraghty and Miller Modeling Group, Reston, VA (United States); Massmann, J.W. [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States); Freeze, R.A. [Freeze (R.A.) Engineering, Inc., White Rock, BC (Canada); Stephenson, D.E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1993-05-01

    This study demonstrates the use of risk-based decision analysis (Massmann and Freeze 1987a, 1987b) in the selection and design of an engineering alternative for groundwater remediation at a waste site at the Savannah River Site, a US Department of Energy facility in South Carolina. The investigation focuses on the remediation and closure of the H-Area Seepage Basins, an inactive disposal site that formerly received effluent water from a nearby production facility. A previous study by Duffield et al. (1992), which used risk-based decision analysis to screen a number of ground-water remediation alternatives under consideration for this site, indicated that the most attractive remedial option is ground-water extraction by wells coupled with surface water discharge of treated effluent. The aim of the present study is to demonstrate the iterative use of risk-based decision analysis throughout the design of a particular remedial alternative. In this study, we consider the interaction between two episodes of aquifer testing over a 6-year period and the refinement of a remedial extraction well system design. Using a three-dimensional ground-water flow model, this study employs (1) geostatistics and Monte Carlo techniques to simulate hydraulic conductivity as a stochastic process and (2) Bayesian updating and conditional simulation to investigate multiple phases of aquifer testing. In our evaluation of a remedial alternative, we compute probabilistic costs associated with the failure of an alternative to completely capture a simulated contaminant plume. The results of this study demonstrate the utility of risk-based decision analysis as a tool for improving the design of a remedial alternative through the course of phased data collection at a remedial site.

  5. Ultra-Wideband Channel Sounder – Design, Construction and Selected Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Zetik

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes construction, design, and application of a real-time ultra-wideband channel sounder. Its specific architecture allows measurements of time-variant radio propagation channels in different frequency bands. The sounder’s stimulation signal is the maximum length binary sequence. Synchronous multi-channel operation is supported by its excellent timing stability and by its low power consumption of miniature sized low temperature co-fired ceramics modules that comprise custom integrated SiGe circuits. This is a prerequisite to build a multiple-input-multiple-output sounder which is suitable for sounding even in distributed scenarios such as sensor networks. Selected application examples demonstrated the performance and possibilities of the sounder.

  6. Design and operation of a filter reactor for continuous production of a selected pharmaceutical intermediate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kim Müller; Pedersen, Michael Jønch; Dam-Johansen, Kim;

    2012-01-01

    flow reactor, where residual reactant is converted by titration. A chemical case study, production of the pharmaceutical intermediate allylcarbinol by a reaction between allylmagnesium chloride and 2-chloro-thioxanthone, in the presence of a side reaction is considered. The synthesis is conducted......A novel filter reactor system for continuous production of selected pharmaceutical intermediates is presented and experimentally verified. The filter reactor system consists of a mixed flow reactor equipped with a bottom filter, to retain solid reactant particles, followed by a conventional plug...... in tetrahydrofuran solvent. The use of the filter reactor design was explored by examining the transferability of a synthesis step in a present full-scale semi-batch pharmaceutical production into continuous processing. The main advantages of the new continuous minireactor system, compared to the conventional semi...

  7. A Comparative Study on Knowledge about Reproductive Health among Urban and Rural Women of Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monoarul Haque

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available To compare the level of knowledge on reproductive health among urban and rural women of selected area of Bangladesh.A descriptive cross-sectional study was undertaken among 200 women selected purposively from different rural and urban areas of Bangladesh. Data were collected using a semi-structured interviewer-administered questionnaire by face to face interview. Knowledge level was analyzed according to poor, moderate and good knowledge by pre-defined knowledge scoring.Mean age of the respondents was 26 years and majority (66% of them was housewives. Most of them (61% had completed their primary level education. Around three-fourth of them belongs to lower-middle income group. Overall level of reproductive health knowledge was more evident among urban reproductive aged women than rural counterparts (p < 0.001. Moreover, significant knowledge gap was found regarding family planning (p = 0.005, care during pregnancy (p < 0.001, safe motherhood (p = 0.002, newborn care (p = 0.009 and birth spacing (p <0.001 between urban and rural women. Family members were the major source of information in both groups.A wide knowledge gap was found between Bangladeshi urban and rural respondents regarding their reproductive behaviors. Government and concerned organizations should promote and strengthen various health education programs to focus on reproductive health, especially among reproductive aged women in rural area.

  8. New Detection Systems of Bacteria Using Highly Selective Media Designed by SMART: Selective Medium-Design Algorithm Restricted by Two Constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Takeshi Kawanishi; Takuya Shiraishi; Yukari Okano; Kyoko Sugawara; Masayoshi Hashimoto; Kensaku Maejima; Ken Komatsu; Shigeyuki Kakizawa; Yasuyuki Yamaji; Hiroshi Hamamoto; Kenro Oshima; Shigetou Namba

    2011-01-01

    Culturing is an indispensable technique in microbiological research, and culturing with selective media has played a crucial role in the detection of pathogenic microorganisms and the isolation of commercially useful microorganisms from environmental samples. Although numerous selective media have been developed in empirical studies, unintended microorganisms often grow on such media probably due to the enormous numbers of microorganisms in the environment. Here, we present a novel strategy f...

  9. Research Notes ~ Selecting Research Areas and Research Design Approaches in Distance Education: Process Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarshan Mishra

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to study the process used for selecting research areas and methodological approaches in distance education in India. Experts from the field of distance education in India were interviewed at length, with the aim of collecting qualitative data on opinions on process-issues for selecting areas for research, research design, and appropriate methodological approaches in distance education. Data collected from these interviews were subjected to content analysis; triangulation and peer consultation techniques were used for cross-checking and data verification. While the findings and recommendations of this study have limited application in that they can only be used in the specific context outlined in this paper, respondents in this study nonetheless revealed the pressing need for more process-oriented research in examining media and technology, learners and learning, and distance learning evaluation processes. Our research, which yielded interesting empirical findings, also determined that a mixed approach – one that involves both quantitative and qualitative methods – is more appropriate for conducting research in distance education in India. Qualitative evidence from our research also indicates that respondents interviewed felt that emphasis should be placed on interdisciplinary and systemic research, over that of traditional disciplinary research. Research methods such as student self-reporting, extensive and highly targeted interviews, conversation and discourse analysis, were determined to as useful for data collection for this study.

  10. Designing Organizational Effectiveness Model of Selected Iraq’s Sporting Federations Based on Competing Values Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Eydi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was designing effectiveness model of selected Iraq sport federations based on competing values framework. Statistical society of present study included 221 subjects ranging from chairmen, expert staffs, national adolescent athletes, and national referees. 180 subjects (81.4 percent answered standard questionnaire of Eydi et al (2011 with five Likert values scale. Content and face validity of this tool was confirmed by 12 academic professors and its reliability was validated by Cronbach's alpha (r = 0.97. Results of Structural Equation Model (SEM based on path analysis method showed that factors of expert human resources(0.88, organizational interaction (0.88, productivity (0.87, employees' cohesion (0.84, planning (0.84, organizational stability (0.81, flexibility (0.78, and organizational resources (0.74 had the most effects on organizational effectiveness.Also, findings of factor analysis showed that patterns of internal procedures and rational goals were main patterns of competing values framework and determinants of organizational effectiveness in Iraq's selected sport federations. Moreover, federations of football, track and field, weightlifting, and basketball had the highest mean of organizational effectiveness, respectively. Hence, Iraq sport federations mainly focused on organizational control, and internal attention as index of OE.

  11. Rational design, synthesis, and DNA binding properties of novel sequence-selective peptidyl congeners of ametantrone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianoncelli, Alessandra; Basili, Serena; Scalabrin, Matteo; Sosic, Alice; Moro, Stefano; Zagotto, Giuseppe; Palumbo, Manlio; Gresh, Nohad; Gatto, Barbara

    2010-07-01

    Natural and synthetic compounds characterized by an anthraquinone nucleus represent an important class of anti-neoplastic agents, the mechanism of action of which is related to intercalation into DNA. Ametantrone (AM) is a synthetic 9,10-anthracenedione bearing two (hydroxyethylamino)ethylamino residues at positions 1 and 4; along with other anthraquinones and anthracyclines, it shares a polycyclic intercalating moiety and charged side chains that stabilize DNA binding. All these drugs elicit adverse side effects, which represent a challenge for antitumor chemotherapy. In the present work the structure of AM was augmented with appropriate groups that target well-defined base pairs in the major groove. These should endow AM with DNA sequence selectivity. We describe the rationale for the synthesis and the evaluation of activity of a new series of compounds in which the planar anthraquinone is conjugated at positions 1 and 4 through the side chains of AM or other bioisosteric linkers to appropriate dipeptides. The designed novel AM derivatives were shown to selectively stabilize two oligonucleotide duplexes that both have a palindromic GC-rich hexanucleotide core, but their stabilizing effects on a random DNA sequence was negligible. In the case of the most effective compound, the 1,4-bis-[Gly-(L-Lys)] derivative of AM, the experimental results confirm the predictions of earlier theoretical computations. In contrast, AM had equal stabilizing effects on all three sequences and showed no preferential binding. This novel peptide derivative can be classified as a strong binder regarding the sequences that it selectively targets, possibly opening the exploitation of less cytotoxic conjugates of AM to the targeted treatment of oncological and viral diseases. PMID:20458714

  12. Integrated socio-environmental modelling: A test case in coastal Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Attila

    2013-04-01

    Delta regions are vulnerable with their populations and ecosystems facing multiple threats in the coming decades through extremes of poverty, environmental and ecological stress and land degradation. External and internal processes initiate these threats/changes and results in for example water quality and health risk issues, declining agricultural productivity and sediment starvation all of which directly affecting the local population. The ESPA funded "Assessing Health, Livelihoods, Ecosystem Services and Poverty Alleviation In Populous Deltas" project (2012-16) aims to provide policy makers with the knowledge and tools to enable them to evaluate the effects of policy decisions on people's livelihoods. It considers coastal Bangladesh in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna Delta: one of the world's most dynamic and significant deltas. This is being done by a multidisciplinary and multinational team of policy analysts, social and natural scientists and engineers using a participatory, holistic approach to formally evaluate ecosystem services and poverty in the context of the wide range of changes that are occurring. An integrated model with relevant feedbacks is being developed to explore options for management strategies and policy formulation for ecosystem services, livelihoods and health in coastal Bangladesh. This requires the continuous engagement with stakeholders through the following steps: (1) system characterisation, (2) research question definition, (3) data and model identification, (4) model validation and (5) model application. This presentation will focus on the first three steps. Field-based social science and governance related research are on the way. The bio-physical models have been selected and some are already set up for the study area. These allow preliminary conceptualisation of the elements and linkages of the deltaic socio-environmental system and thus the preliminary structure of the integrated model. This presentation describes these steps

  13. Impact of an in-built monitoring system on family planning performance in rural Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Ali

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During 1982–1992, the Maternal and Child Health Family Planning (MCH-FP Extension Project (Rural of International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B, in partnership with the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW of the Government of Bangladesh (GoB, implemented a series of interventions in Sirajganj Sadar sub-district of Sirajganj district. These interventions were aimed at improving the planning mechanisms and for reviewing the problem-solving processes to build an effective monitoring system of the interventions at the local level of the overall system of the MOHFW, GoB. Methods The interventions included development and testing of innovative solutions in service-delivery, provision of door-step injectables, and strengthening of the management information system (MIS. The impact of an in-built monitoring system on the overall performance was assessed during the period from June 1995 to December 1996, after the withdrawal of the interventions in 1992. Results The results of the assessment showed that Family Welfare Assistants (FWAs increased household-visits within the last two months, and there was a higher use of service-delivery points even after the withdrawal of the interventions. The results of the cluster surveys, conducted in 1996, showed that the selected indicators of health and family-planning services were higher than those reported by the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS 1996–1997. During June 1995-December, 1996, the contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR increased by 13 percentage points (i.e. from 40% to 53%. Compared to the national CPR (49%, this increase was statistically significant (p Conclusion The in-built monitoring systems, including effective MIS, accompanied by rapid assessments and review of performance by the programme managers, have potentials to improve family planning performance in low-performing areas.

  14. A cluster-based randomized controlled trial promoting community participation in arsenic mitigation efforts in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Christine

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To reduce arsenic (As exposure, we evaluated the effectiveness of training community members to perform water arsenic (WAs testing and provide As education compared to sending representatives from outside communities to conduct these tasks. Methods We conducted a cluster based randomized controlled trial of 20 villages in Singair, Bangladesh. Fifty eligible respondents were randomly selected in each village. In 10 villages, a community member provided As education and WAs testing. In a second set of 10 villages an outside representative performed these tasks. Results Overall, 53% of respondents using As contaminated wells, relative to the Bangladesh As standard of 50 μg/L, at baseline switched after receiving the intervention. Further, when there was less than 60% arsenic contaminated wells in a village, the classification used by the Bangladeshi and UNICEF, 74% of study households in the community tester villages, and 72% of households in the outside tester villages reported switching to an As safe drinking water source . Switching was more common in the outside-tester (63% versus community-tester villages (44%. However, after adjusting for the availability of arsenic safe drinking water sources, well switching did not differ significantly by type of As tester (Odds ratio =0.86[95% confidence interval 0.42-1.77. At follow-up, among those using As contaminated wells who switched to safe wells, average urinary As concentrations significantly decreased. Conclusion The overall intervention was effective in reducing As exposure provided there were As-safe drinking water sources available. However, there was not a significant difference observed in the ability of the community and outside testers to encourage study households to use As-safe water sources. The findings of this study suggest that As education and WAs testing programs provided by As testers, irrespective of their residence, could be used as an effective, low cost

  15. Antibiotic Resistance of Escherichia Coli Isolated From Poultry and Poultry Environment of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad A. Akond

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Increased emergence in microbial resistance to antibiotics is a growing problem in Bangladesh, a tropical country with a large agrarian population having limited medical facilities. Wide spread use of antimicrobials in poultry farming here is a concern of multi-drug microbial resistance development that can potentially be transmitted to human pathogens even from non-pathogenic carrier strains. Attempt was made to assess drug susceptibility in Escherichia coli from poultry sources of Bangladesh. Approach: Eighty selected strains isolated from poultry sources were thoroughly characterized by standard cultural and biochemical tests followed by final identification using latex agglutination test of polyvalent anti-sera, from which 50 were tested for susceptibility to 13 antibiotics following disk diffusion method. Results: 145 (58%, out of total 250, were found positive for E. coli. 52-88% of tested E. coli strains from poultry sources were found resistant to Penicillin, Ciprofloxacin, Riphampicin, Kanamycin, Streptomycin, Cefixine, Erythromycin, Ampicillin, Tetracycline, and 20% strains showed resistance to both Chloramphenicol and Neomycin. No strains showed resistance to Norfloxacin and Gentamicin. Sensitivity was recorded in case of 60-86% strains to Norfloxacin, Gentamicin, Chloramphenicol, and Neomycin; and 26-36% strains against Tetracycline, Streptomycin, and Ampicillin. Intermediate resistance/ susceptibility to various antibiotics were observed for 12-36% Escherichia coli strains. Both, resistance and susceptibility were exhibited against Chloramphenicol, Ampicillin, Gentamicin, Neomycin, Tetracycline, Streptomycin and Norfloxacin. Multi drug resistance was found in case of 6-10 antibiotics for all strains tested. Conclusion: Further study is required on the role of poultry borne bacteria as vectors in transmitting drug resistance. Attention is to be paid for personnel hygiene in processing and handling of poultry and

  16. Daughter neglect, women's work, and marriage: Pakistan and Bangladesh compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, B D

    1984-01-01

    This article looks at juvenile sex ratios, juvenile mortality, women's work roles and marriage patterns in Pakistan and bangladesh in order to assess whether patterns previously observed in India, namely, daughter neglect in the northwest and equal juvenile sex ratios in the eastern part of the country, are carried over into the 2 adjacent nations, Pakistan and Bangladesh, respectively. The Indian study indicates that nationwide sex ratio data, sample survey data on childhood mortality, longitudinal population records in several locations and ethonographic evidence all point to inequalities in mortality as the prime cause of unbalanced sex ratios. The juvenile sex ratios of Pakistan and Bangladesh are very different from 1 another. Whereas there are no regional contrasts among juvenile sex ratios within Bangladesh, it is greater within Pakistan. Sex ratio data correspond roughly to what the mortality data indicate in terms of the contrast between Pakistan and Bangladesh. The evidence on juvenile mortality in both countries is too scant to support an airtight argument that juvenile females in Pakistan have much higher mortality rates than boys, while mortality rates are more balanced in Bangladesh. But the existing evidence clearly points to that conclusion. The immediate causes of the greater sex-differential mortality in Pakistan cannot be documented in the available ethnographic literature. Biased allocation of food, medical care, and love might be operating. Looking at the economic and sociocultural complex that promotes much differences between Pakistan and Bangladesh, it is argued that, in both countries, class-based variations in both women's work and marriage patterns exist and are important. It is hypothesized that females in Pakistan are little valued for agricultural labor, and pose an economic liability on their families who need to provide a large dowry with her marriage to compensate for the daughter's low economic utility to the agrucultural workforce

  17. Determinants of drinking arsenic-contaminated tubewell water in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M M H; Aklimunnessa, Khandoker; Kabir, M; Mori, Mitsuru

    2007-09-01

    Bangladesh has already experienced the biggest catastrophe in the world due to arsenic contamination of drinking water. This study investigates the association of drinking arsenic-contaminated water (DACW) with both personal and household characteristics of 9116 household respondents using the household data of the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) 2004. Here DACW means that arsenic level in the drinking water is greater than the permissible limit (50 microg/l) of Bangladesh. The overall rate of DACW was 7.9%. It was found to be significantly associated with education, currently working, and division of Bangladesh, either by cross tabulation or multivariate logistic regression analyses or both. Similarly, household characteristics -- namely television, bicycle, materials of the wall and floor, total family members, number of sleeping rooms, and availability of foods -- were significantly associated in bivariate analyses. Many household characteristics -- namely electricity, television, wall and floor materials, and number of sleeping rooms -- revealed significant association in the logistic regression analysis when adjusted for age, education and division. This study indicates that respondents from Chittagong division and lower socio-economic groups (indicated by household characteristics) are at significantly higher risk of DACW. These findings should be taken into account during the planning of future intervention activities in Bangladesh.

  18. The environment associated with significant tornadoes in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikos, Dan; Finch, Jonathan; Case, Jonathan L.

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the environmental parameters favoring significant tornadoes in Bangladesh through a simulation of ten high-impact events. A climatological perspective is first presented on classifying significant tornadoes in Bangladesh, noting the challenges since reports of tornadoes are not documented in a formal manner. The statistical relationship between United States and Bangladesh tornado-related deaths suggests that significant tornadoes do occur in Bangladesh so this paper identifies the most significant tornadic events and analyzes the environmental conditions associated with these events. Given the scarcity of observational data to assess the near-storm environment in this region, high-resolution (3-km horizontal grid spacing) numerical weather prediction simulations are performed for events identified to be associated with a significant tornado. In comparison to similar events over the United States, significant tornado environments in Bangladesh are characterized by relatively high convective available potential energy, sufficient deep-layer vertical shear, and a propensity for deviant (i.e., well to the right of the mean flow) storm motion along a low-level convergence boundary.

  19. Determinants of drinking arsenic-contaminated tubewell water in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M M H; Aklimunnessa, Khandoker; Kabir, M; Mori, Mitsuru

    2007-09-01

    Bangladesh has already experienced the biggest catastrophe in the world due to arsenic contamination of drinking water. This study investigates the association of drinking arsenic-contaminated water (DACW) with both personal and household characteristics of 9116 household respondents using the household data of the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) 2004. Here DACW means that arsenic level in the drinking water is greater than the permissible limit (50 microg/l) of Bangladesh. The overall rate of DACW was 7.9%. It was found to be significantly associated with education, currently working, and division of Bangladesh, either by cross tabulation or multivariate logistic regression analyses or both. Similarly, household characteristics -- namely television, bicycle, materials of the wall and floor, total family members, number of sleeping rooms, and availability of foods -- were significantly associated in bivariate analyses. Many household characteristics -- namely electricity, television, wall and floor materials, and number of sleeping rooms -- revealed significant association in the logistic regression analysis when adjusted for age, education and division. This study indicates that respondents from Chittagong division and lower socio-economic groups (indicated by household characteristics) are at significantly higher risk of DACW. These findings should be taken into account during the planning of future intervention activities in Bangladesh. PMID:17584808

  20. History and Perspectives of Nuclear Medicine in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raihan Hussain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh is one of the smaller states in Asia. But it has a long and rich history of nuclear medicine for over sixty years. The progress in science and technology is always challenging in a developing country. In 1958, work for the first Nuclear Medicine facility was commenced in Dhaka in a tin-shed known as ‘Radioisotope Centre’ and was officially inaugurated in 1962. Since the late 50s of the last century nuclear medicine in Bangladesh has significantly progressed through the years in its course of development, but still the facilities are inadequate. At present there are 20 nuclear medicine establishments with 3 PET-CTs, 42 gamma camera/SPECTs with 95 physicians, 20 physicists, 10 radiochemists and 150 technologists. The Society of Nuclear Medicine, Bangladesh (SNMB was formed in 1993 and publishing its official journal since 1997. Bangladesh also has close relationships with many international organizations like IAEA, ARCCNM, AOFNMB, ASNM, WFNMB and WARMTH. The history and the present scenario of the status of nuclear medicine in Bangladesh are being described here.

  1. Modeling and forecasting natural gas demand in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural gas is the major indigenous source of energy in Bangladesh and accounts for almost one-half of all primary energy used in the country. Per capita and total energy use in Bangladesh is still very small, and it is important to understand how energy, and natural gas demand will evolve in the future. We develop a dynamic econometric model to understand the natural gas demand in Bangladesh, both in the national level, and also for a few sub-sectors. Our demand model shows large long run income elasticity - around 1.5 - for aggregate demand for natural gas. Forecasts into the future also show a larger demand in the future than predicted by various national and multilateral organizations. Even then, it is possible that our forecasts could still be at the lower end of the future energy demand. Price response was statistically not different from zero, indicating that prices are possibly too low and that there is a large suppressed demand for natural gas in the country. - Highlights: → Natural gas demand is modeled using dynamic econometric methods, first of its kind in Bangladesh. → Income elasticity for aggregate natural gas demand in Bangladesh is large-around 1.5. → Demand is price insensitive, indicating too low prices and/or presence of large suppressed demand. → Demand forecasts reveal large divergence from previous estimates, which is important for planning. → Attempts to model demand for end-use sectors were successful only for the industrial sector.

  2. Achieving behaviour change at scale: Alive & Thrive's infant and young child feeding programme in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanghvi, Tina; Haque, Raisul; Roy, Sumitro; Afsana, Kaosar; Seidel, Renata; Islam, Sanjeeda; Jimerson, Ann; Baker, Jean

    2016-05-01

    The Alive & Thrive programme scaled up infant and young child feeding interventions in Bangladesh from 2010 to 2014. In all, 8.5 million mothers benefited. Approaches - including improved counselling by frontline health workers during home visits; community mobilization; mass media campaigns reaching mothers, fathers and opinion leaders; and policy advocacy - led to rapid and significant improvements in key practices related to breastfeeding and complementary feeding. (Evaluation results are forthcoming.) Intervention design was based on extensive formative research and behaviour change theory and principles and was tailored to the local context. The programme focused on small, achievable actions for key audience segments identified through rigorous testing. Promotion strategies took into account underlying behavioural determinants and reached a high per cent of the priority groups through repeated contacts. Community volunteers received monetary incentives for mothers in their areas who practised recommended behaviours. Programme monitoring, midterm surveys and additional small studies to answer questions led to ongoing adjustments. Scale-up was achieved through streamlining of tools and strategies, government branding, phased expansion through BRAC - a local non-governmental implementing partner with an extensive community-based platform - and nationwide mainstreaming through multiple non-governmental organization and government programmes. Key messages Well-designed and well-implemented large-scale interventions that combine interpersonal counselling, community mobilization, advocacy, mass communication and strategic use of data have great potential to improve IYCF practices rapidly. Formative research and ongoing studies are essential to tailor strategies to the local context and to the perspectives of mothers, family members, influential community members and policymakers. Continued use of data to adjust programme elements is also central to the process. Scale

  3. Achieving behaviour change at scale: Alive & Thrive's infant and young child feeding programme in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanghvi, Tina; Haque, Raisul; Roy, Sumitro; Afsana, Kaosar; Seidel, Renata; Islam, Sanjeeda; Jimerson, Ann; Baker, Jean

    2016-05-01

    The Alive & Thrive programme scaled up infant and young child feeding interventions in Bangladesh from 2010 to 2014. In all, 8.5 million mothers benefited. Approaches - including improved counselling by frontline health workers during home visits; community mobilization; mass media campaigns reaching mothers, fathers and opinion leaders; and policy advocacy - led to rapid and significant improvements in key practices related to breastfeeding and complementary feeding. (Evaluation results are forthcoming.) Intervention design was based on extensive formative research and behaviour change theory and principles and was tailored to the local context. The programme focused on small, achievable actions for key audience segments identified through rigorous testing. Promotion strategies took into account underlying behavioural determinants and reached a high per cent of the priority groups through repeated contacts. Community volunteers received monetary incentives for mothers in their areas who practised recommended behaviours. Programme monitoring, midterm surveys and additional small studies to answer questions led to ongoing adjustments. Scale-up was achieved through streamlining of tools and strategies, government branding, phased expansion through BRAC - a local non-governmental implementing partner with an extensive community-based platform - and nationwide mainstreaming through multiple non-governmental organization and government programmes. Key messages Well-designed and well-implemented large-scale interventions that combine interpersonal counselling, community mobilization, advocacy, mass communication and strategic use of data have great potential to improve IYCF practices rapidly. Formative research and ongoing studies are essential to tailor strategies to the local context and to the perspectives of mothers, family members, influential community members and policymakers. Continued use of data to adjust programme elements is also central to the process. Scale

  4. Comparison of 2-D Magnetic Designs of Selected Coil Configurations for the Next European Dipole (NED)

    CERN Document Server

    Toral, F; Felice, H; Fessia, Paolo; Loveridge, P W; Regis, Federico; Rochford, J; Sanz, S; Schwerg, Nikolai; Védrine, P; Völlinger, Christine

    2007-01-01

    The Next European Dipole (NED) activity is developing a high-performance Nb3Sn wire (aiming at a non-copper critical current density of 1500 A/mm2 at 4.2 K and 15 T), within the framework of the Coordinated Accelerator Research in Europe (CARE) project. This activity is expected to lead to the fabrication of a large aperture, high field dipole magnet. In preparation for this phase, a Working Group on Magnet Design and Optimization (MDO) has been established to propose an optimal design. Other parallel Work Packages are concentrating on relevant topics, such as quench propagation simulation, innovative insulation techniques, and heat transfer measurements. In a first stage, the MDO Working Group has selected a number of coil configurations to be studied, together with salient parameters and features to be considered during the evaluation: the field quality, the superconductor efficiency, the conductor peak field, the stored magnetic energy, the Lorentz Forces and the fabrication difficulties. 2-D magnetic calc...

  5. Choosing architects for competitions - experiences from the selection of design teams in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Rönn

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents results from a study of prequalification in architectural competitions. The aim is to develop knowledge of how the organizer appoints candidates to restricted competitions in Sweden. Prequalification is a selection procedure used early in the competition process to identify suitable candidates for the following design phase. The overall research question in the study is about how organizers identify architects / design teams. The methodology includes an inventory of competitions, case studies, document review and interviews of key-persons. Ten municipal and governmental competitions have been examined in the study. The invitation emerges during negotiation at the organizing body. General conditions, submission requirements and criteria for the evaluation of applications by architect firms are part of an established practice. All clients have an assessment procedure made up of two distinct stages. First they check whether applications meet the specific "must requirements" in the invitation. Thereafter follows an evaluative assessment of the candidate's professional profile, which is based on the criteria in the invitation. Reference projects and information from the referees are important sources of information in this stage. Decisive in the final assessment is the organizer's perception of the candidates' ability to produce projects of architectural quality, the ability to combine creative solutions with functional requirements and aptitude to work with developers and contractors.

  6. Rational Design of Potent and Selective Inhibitors of an Epoxide Hydrolase Virulence Factor from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Seiya; Hvorecny, Kelli L; Niu, Jun; Hammock, Bruce D; Madden, Dean R; Morisseau, Christophe

    2016-05-26

    The virulence factor cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) inhibitory factor (Cif) is secreted by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and is the founding member of a distinct class of epoxide hydrolases (EHs) that triggers the catalysis-dependent degradation of the CFTR. We describe here the development of a series of potent and selective Cif inhibitors by structure-based drug design. Initial screening revealed 1a (KB2115), a thyroid hormone analog, as a lead compound with low micromolar potency. Structural requirements for potency were systematically probed, and interactions between Cif and 1a were characterized by X-ray crystallography. On the basis of these data, new compounds were designed to yield additional hydrogen bonding with residues of the Cif active site. From this effort, three compounds were identified that are 10-fold more potent toward Cif than our first-generation inhibitors and have no detectable thyroid hormone-like activity. These inhibitors will be useful tools to study the pathological role of Cif and have the potential for clinical application. PMID:27120257

  7. Bangladesh Enterprises Continue to Participate in Trade Promotion Events in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2007-01-01

    @@ On March 26, 2007,Bangladesh celebrated its 36th anniversary of the Independence and National Day.China and Bangladesh enjoy time tested friendly relations. The bilateral relations are characterized by sustained efforts to further broaden the nature and scope of the cooperation. In 2005, China emerged as the biggest source of import for Bangladesh, outstripping the volume of import from Bangladesh's other immediate neighbors. Bangladesh is the third largest trading partner of China in South Asia. The total bilateral trade volume has reached beyond US$ 3 billion in 2006.

  8. SIGNAL CONSTELLATIONS DESIGN FOR DIFFERENTIAL UNITARY SPACE-TIME IN MIMO-OFDM SYSTEM OVER FREQUENCY-SELECTIVE FADING CHANNELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Jing; Zhu Qi

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the design of signal constellations parameters is studied for Differential Unitary Space-Time Modulation (DUSTM) based on the design criterion of maximizing the diversity product. Farther, noninteger searching method for the signal constellation parameters design is proposed in order to get better codes. Experimental results show that under the different Doppler spread and data transmission rate, the proposed design performs better than the previous design using integer parameters in Multiple Input Multiple Output Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing(MIMO-OFDM) system over frequency-selective fading channels.

  9. Design and Fabrication of a Precision Template for Spine Surgery Using Selective Laser Melting (SLM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Wang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to meet the clinical requirements of spine surgery, this paper proposes the fabrication of the customized template for spine surgery through computer-aided design. A 3D metal printing-selective laser melting (SLM technique was employed to directly fabricate the 316L stainless steel template, and the metal template with tiny locating holes was used as an auxiliary tool to insert spinal screws inside the patient’s body. To guarantee accurate fabrication of the template for cervical vertebra operation, the contact face was placed upwards to improve the joint quality between the template and the cervical vertebra. The joint surface of the printed template had a roughness of Ra = 13 ± 2 μm. After abrasive blasting, the surface roughness was Ra = 7 ± 0.5 μm. The surgical metal template was bound with the 3D-printed Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS plastic model. The micro-hardness values determined at the cross-sections of SLM-processed samples varied from HV0.3 250 to HV0.3 280, and the measured tensile strength was in the range of 450 MPa to 560 MPa, which showed that the template had requisite strength. Finally, the metal template was clinically used in the patient’s surgical operation, and the screws were inserted precisely as the result of using the auxiliary template. The geometrical parameters of the template hole (e.g., diameter and wall thickness were optimized, and measures were taken to optimize the key geometrical units (e.g., hole units in metal 3D printing. Compared to the traditional technology of screw insertion, the use of the surgical metal template enabled the screws to be inserted more easily and accurately during spinal surgery. However, the design of the high-quality template should fully take into account the clinical demands of surgeons, as well as the advice of the designing engineers and operating technicians.

  10. Stresses and storms: the case of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, N

    1993-01-01

    The problems of women and environmental degradation have recently come to be addressed by women's groups, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and government policies in Bangladesh. NGOs have been the most active, with 600 registered organizations: 40% international, 38% national, and 22% local. NGOs have promoted the recent inclusion of environmental concerns into development plans. About 100 NGOs are engaged in forestry projects. The National Association for Resource Improvement, for example, involves women in tree planting along roadsides and income-generating activities. About 75% of upazilas (administrative units) have environmental and women's projects, but under 20% of all villages are affected and 1% of landless people are reached. Women's groups have created awareness of women's problems and advocated for socioeconomic changes. Women, despite cultural and social restrictions on their social behavior, have changed environmental and economic conditions. Women's leadership and organizing abilities have contributed to public awareness of environmental degradation. Because Bangladesh is a delta, a rise in sea level from greenhouse effects would have serious consequences for the land and population. Global warming has contributed to river flooding and climate changes that have increased rainfall and tropical storms. Deforestation upriver adds to the water runoff problems. About 20% of the cultivable land area is affected by natural disasters. Population density is 760 persons per sq km. About 50% of forested areas have been destroyed within the past 20 years. 4% of gross domestic product comes from forest activity. The lack of wood fuel limits the ability of people to boil water and contributes to the increased incidence of diarrhea, other intestinal problems, and less nutritious food. Drought is another problem. Urban migration has overwhelmed the ability of urban centers to provide basic services. Coastal areas have been settled by 20% of total population

  11. Carbon dioxide emission from brickfields around Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Imran

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken at six divisions of Bangladesh to investigate the CO2 emission from brickfields. to explore the rate of carbon emission over the last 10 years, based on existing technology for brick production. The finding reveals that there were more than 45,000 Brick kilns in Bangladesh which together account for about 95% of operating kilns including Bull's Trench Kiln, Fixed Chimney Kiln, Zigzag Kiln and Hoffman Kiln. These kilns were the most carbon emitting source but it varies on fuel type, kiln type and also for location. It has been found that, maximum carbon emission area was Chittagong, which was 93.150 with percentage of last 10 years and 9.310 per cent per year. Whereas Sylhet was lower carbon emission area indicating percentage 17.172 of last 10 years and 4.218 percent per year. It has been found that total annual amount of CO2 emission for 4 types brick kilns from Dhaka, Chittagong, Rajshahi, Khulana, Sylhet and Barisal were 8.862 Mt yr-1, 10.048 Mt yr-1, 12.783 Mt yr-1, 15.250 Mt yr-1, in the year of 2002, 2005, 2007 and 2010 respectively. In Mymensingh district, the maximum CO2 emission and coal consumption was obtained in Chamak brick field, which was 1882 tons and 950 tons, respectively and minimum was obtained in Zhalak brick field, which was 1039.5 tons and 525.0 tons, respectively during the year of 2013. The percentage in last 10 years of CO2 emission was 72.784 and per cent per year 7.970, which is very alarming for us. The estimates obtained from surveys and on-site investigations indicate that these kilns consume an average of 240 tons of coal to produce 1 million bricks. This type of coal has a measured calorific value of 6,400 KJ, heating value of coal is 20.93 GJ t-1 and it produces 94.61 TJ t-1 and 56.1 TJ t-1 CO2 from coal and natural gas, respectively.

  12. Weighted Euclidean distance based approach as a multiple attribute decision making method for plant or facility layout design selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Venkata Rao

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In response to increasing inflexible customer demands and to improve the competitive advantage, industrial organizations have to adopt strategies to achieve cost reduction, continual quality improvement, increased customer service and on-time delivery performance. Selection of the most suitable plant or facility layout design for an organization is one among the most important strategic issues to fulfill all these above-mentioned objectives. Nowadays, many industrial organizations have come to realize the importance of proper selection of the plant or facility layout design to survive in the global competitive market. Selecting the proper layout design from a given set of candidate alternatives is a difficult task, as many potential qualitative and quantitative criteria need to be considered. This paper proposes a Euclidean distance based approach (WEDBA as a multiple attribute decision making method to deal with the complex plant or facility layout design problems of the industrial environment. Three examples are included to illustrate the approach.

  13. Upgradation of nuclear medical equipment in the developing countries and its impact in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangladesh has thirteen Nuclear Medical Centres and one Institute of Nuclear Medicine in the country which are being run and maintained by the physicians scientists and engineers of Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission. The peaceful application of atomic energy was initiated through all these Centres with the use of clinical isotopes for thyroid and kidney studies. The equipment used for these purposes were the thyroid uptake system, rectilinear scanner and the multiprobe renogram system. The first gamma camera was installed in the country in 1980 at the Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Dhaka. That was the turning point for the country in the field of nuclear medicine. Presently all the nuclear medical establishments are equipped least with a gamma camera, thyroid uptake system and a renogram system. In the last two decades there has been a tremendous development in the design of nuclear medical equipment. Most of the old equipments were slow and manually operated. In the beginning of nineties of the past century there was an uprising in the computer technology and most of the manually operated machines were brought under computerization. It was basically done with a custom built processor to perform only the specific job and spare the users from doing some extra manual work. But the performances of the recent models of the same computerized equipment are by far the best as compared with the past ones. This report describes the role of the IAEA in the upgradation of medical equipment, PC interfacing, upgrading of old gamma cameras and the technological and socio-economic impact in Bangladesh

  14. Role of spatial tools in public health policymaking of Bangladesh: opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dohyeong; Sarker, Malabika; Vyas, Priyanka

    2016-01-01

    In spite of the increasing efforts to gather spatial data in developing countries, the use of maps is mostly for visualization of health indicators rather than informed decision-making. Various spatial tools can aid policymakers to allocate resources effectively, predict patterns in communicable or infectious diseases, and provide insights into geographical factors which are associated with utilization or adequacy of health services. In Bangladesh, the launch of District Health Information System 2, along with recent efforts to gather spatial data of facilities location, provides an interesting opportunity to study the current landscape and the potential barriers in advancing the use of spatial tools for informed decision making. This study assessed the current level of map usage and spatial tools for health sector planning in Bangladesh, focusing on investigating why map usage and spatial tools remained at a basic level for the purpose of health policy. The study design involved in-depth interviews, followed by an expert survey (n = 39) obtained through snowball sampling.Our survey revealed that assessing areas with shortage of community health workers emerged as the top most for basic map usage or primarily for visualization purpose, while planning for emergency and obstetric care services, and disease mapping was the most frequent category for intermediate and advanced map usage, respectively. Furthermore, we found lack of inter-institutional collaboration, lack of continuous availability of trained personnel, and lack of awareness on the use of geographic information system (GIS) as a decision-making tool as three most critical barriers in the current landscape. Our findings highlight the barriers in increasing the adoption of spatial tools for health policymaking and planning in Bangladesh. PMID:26922788

  15. New Strategies for Designing Inexpensive but Selective Bioadsorbants for Environmental Pollutants: Selection of specific Ligands and Their Cell Surface Expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brent L. Iverson; George Georgiou; Mohammad M. Ataai; Richard R. Koepsel

    2001-02-22

    The Broad, long term objective of the research plan is to develop exquisitely selective polypeptide metal chelators for the remediation of aqueous systems. A variety of polypeptide chelators will be developed and optimized ranging from antibodies to small peptides. Then, through unique molecular engineering approaches developed in our laboratories, the polypeptide chelators will be anchored directly on the surface of the cells that produce them. Thus, instead of using isolated biomolecules we will employ inexpensive genetically engineered whole cell adsorbents. Following a simple, easily scaleable treatment, the engineered cells can be used to manufacture an inexpensive, particulate adsorbent for metal removal.

  16. Development of multidrug resistant tuberculosis in Bangladesh: a case-control study on risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahfuza Rifat

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the risk factors for developing multidrug resistant tuberculosis in Bangladesh. METHODS: This case-control study was set in central, district and sub-district level hospitals of rural and urban Bangladesh. Included were 250 multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB patients as cases and 750 drug susceptible tuberculosis patients as controls. We recruited cases from all three government hospitals treating MDR-TB in Bangladesh during the study period. Controls were selected randomly from those local treatment units that had referred the cases. Information was collected through face-to-face interviews and record reviews. Unadjusted and multivariable logistic regression were used to analyse the data. RESULTS: Previous treatment history was shown to be the major contributing factor to MDR-TB in univariate analysis. After adjusting for other factors in multivariable analysis, age group "18-25" (OR 1.77, CI 1.07-2.93 and "26-45" (OR 1.72, CI 1.12-2.66, some level of education (OR 1.94, CI 1.32-2.85, service and business as occupation (OR 2.88, CI 1.29-6.44; OR 3.71, CI 1.59-8.66, respectively, smoking history (OR 1.58, CI 0.99-2.5, and type 2 diabetes (OR 2.56 CI 1.51-4.34 were associated with MDR-TB. Previous treatment was not included in the multivariable analysis as it was correlated with multiple predictors. CONCLUSION: Previous tuberculosis treatment was found to be the major risk factor for MDR-TB. This study also identified age 18 to 45 years, some education up to secondary level, service and business as occupation, past smoking status, and type 2 diabetes as comorbid illness as risk factors. National Tuberculosis programme should address these risk factors in MDR-TB control strategy. The integration of MDR-TB control activities with diabetes and tobacco control programmes is needed in Bangladesh.

  17. Board Composition and Firm Performance: Evidence from Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afzalur Rashid

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the influence of corporate board composition in the form of representation of outsideindependent directors on firm economic performance in Bangladesh. Two hypotheses are developed toexamine the relationship among composition of board memberships including independent directors andfirm performance. An observation of 274 Bangladeshi firm-years is used in the study. A linear regressionanalysis is used to test the hypotheses. Results reveal that the outside (independent directors cannot addpotential value to the firm’s economic performance in Bangladesh. The idea of the introduction ofindependent directors may have benefits for greater transparency, but the non-consideration of theunderlying institutional and cultural differences in an emerging economy such as Bangladesh may not resultin economic value addition to the firm. The findings provide an insight to the regulators in their quest forharmonization of international corporate governance practices.

  18. Applicability of Telemedicine in Bangladesh: Current Status and Future Prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Nessa, Ahasanun; Ullah, Sana; Kwak, Kyung Sup

    2009-01-01

    Telemedicine refers to the use of information and communication technology to provide and support health care mainly for the purpose of providing consultation. It is also a way to provide medical procedures or examinations to remote locations. It has the potential to improve both the quality and the access to health care services delivery while lowering costs even in the scarcity of resources. Understanding the potentiality of telemedicine, many developing countries are implementing telemedicine to provide health care facility to remote area where health care facilities are deficient. Bangladesh is not an exception to this either. In this paper we mention the reasons why Bangladesh has to move for telemedicine. We also present the past and on-going telemedicine activities and projects in Bangladesh. Analyzing these projects we have found out some factors which should be assessed carefully for successful implementation of telemedicine application. Finally we propose a prototype telemedicine network for Banglad...

  19. Climate change and soil salinity: The case of coastal Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Susmita; Hossain, Md Moqbul; Huq, Mainul; Wheeler, David

    2015-12-01

    This paper estimates location-specific soil salinity in coastal Bangladesh for 2050. The analysis was conducted in two stages: First, changes in soil salinity for the period 2001-2009 were assessed using information recorded at 41 soil monitoring stations by the Soil Research Development Institute. Using these data, a spatial econometric model was estimated linking soil salinity with the salinity of nearby rivers, land elevation, temperature, and rainfall. Second, future soil salinity for 69 coastal sub-districts was projected from climate-induced changes in river salinity and projections of rainfall and temperature based on time trends for 20 Bangladesh Meteorological Department weather stations in the coastal region. The findings indicate that climate change poses a major soil salinization risk in coastal Bangladesh. Across 41 monitoring stations, the annual median projected change in soil salinity is 39 % by 2050. Above the median, 25 % of all stations have projected changes of 51 % or higher.

  20. Investigation of household contamination of Vibrio cholerae in Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hossain, Zenat Zebin; Farhana, Israt; Tulsiani, Suhella;

    The role of in-house transmission on the incidence of Vibrio cholerae, the deadly waterborne pathogen, is still not developed. The aim of the current study was to investigate possible contamination routes in household domain for effective cholera control in Bangladesh. To examine the prevalence...... and water supply may be the reason behind this relatively high presence of virulence factors in food plates and water pots. Direct exposure routes of disease transmission should be a major consideration in cholera prevention policies. Investigation of household contamination of Vibrio cholerae in Bangladesh........ Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/305215719_Investigation_of_household_contamination_of_Vibrio_cholerae_in_Bangladesh [accessed Oct 14, 2016]....

  1. Floods in Bangladesh: a geo-environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, B.; Sultan-Ul-Islam [Rajshahi Univ. (Bangladesh). Dept. of Geology and Mining

    2000-07-01

    Flood is a major natural devastating annual hazard that made Bangladesh familiar to the world community as a land of endemic natural disaster. It causes a tremendous hindrance to the sustainable development of the country within her limited wealth. Peoples are living with this inevitable natural hazard since prehistoric time and adopted their living and farming habits accordingly. The floodplains of the three mighty rivers - the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna constitute about 80% of the whole country. The land is located at the lower reaches and around the confluence of these rivers which makes a single conduit through Bangladesh discharging enormous amount of water from the extensive catchment area of 1.7 million sq. km of Bangladesh and surrounding countries. (orig.)

  2. The Effects of Remittances on Inflation: Evidence from Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. S. Khan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Like many developing countries, remittances are relatively larger capital inflows in Bangladesh in the recent years. Hence, understanding the impact of remittances on the macroeconomic variables such as inflation is essential for the policy makers of the recipient economy. Incorporating remittances as an exogenous variable to the standard inflation function, this paper verifies how it affects the inflation rate in Bangladesh in the 1972-2010 periods. Applying Vector Autoregressive (VAR techniques, the empirical results find that a one percent increase in remittances inflows increases inflation rate by 2.48 percent in the long run, whereas no significant relationship is evident between these two variables in the short-run in Bangladesh.

  3. A critical review and database of biomass and volume allometric equation for trees and shrubs of Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, H.; Siddique, M. R. H.; Akhter, M.

    2016-08-01

    consistency in field sampling, sample processing, data recording and selection of allometric equations should be maintained to ensure accuracy in estimation of biomass, volume, and carbon stock in different forest types of Bangladesh.

  4. Life Expectancy After Spinal Cord Injury In a Developing Country-A Retrospective Study At CRP, Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reshma Parvin Nuri

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To find out the average survival rate following Spinal Cord Injury (SCI in Bangladesh. Method: 158 randomly selected death records  of  persons with SCI  from the years 1979 to 1999, were analysed retrospectively in August 2009, at the Centre for the Rehabilitation of the Paralysed, (CRP, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh. The records showed that 91% were males and the mean age of sustaining injury was 33.85 years. Most of them were paraplegic (79.75% and the injuries were traumatic in origin (86.1%. Overall, 56.4% of those admitted died within 5 years and only 16.4% survived beyond 10 years following SCI. Every four out of five affected persons died at home.Results: Though there was difficulty in comparing survival rates of persons with  SCI  in developing and developed countries,  life expectancy among persons with SCI  in the current study was found to be much lower than that of similar patients in developed countries.Conclusions: Further research on a larger scale, using an international standardised method to compare results, is essential to  produce more accurate data. Special attention needs to be paid to improving the support systems for persons with SCI in  the acute rehabilitation   and reintegration phases of care in Bangladesh. Key words: Paraplegia, life expectancy, survival, SCI, developing countries, Bangladesh.doi 10.5463/DCID.v22i2.34 

  5. Intern doctors’ views on the current and future antibiotic resistance situation of Chattagram Maa O Shishu Hospital Medical College, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoque R

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Rozina Hoque,1 Asma Mostafa,2 Mainul Haque3 1Department of Pharmacology, 2Department of Anatomy, Chattagram Maa O Shishu Hospital Medical College, Agrabad, Chittagong, Bangladesh; 3Unit of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Terengganu, Malaysia Background: Bacterial resistance due to antibiotic misuse is reported every day. Such threat calls for a consensus to develop new strategies to prevent the development of antibiotic resistance of bacteria. Medical doctors must play a pivotal role to control and prevent the misuse of antibiotics. There were complaints that prescribers are lacking behind in updates and advancement in the field. To address such knowledge gap, a study was conducted to know the views of interns on the current antibiotic resistance situation in a teaching hospital in Bangladesh. Methods: This study was a cross-sectional, randomized, and questionnaire-based survey. Interns of the medicine, gynecology, and surgery departments of Chattagram Maa O Shishu Hospital Medical College were the study population. Results: Out of 50 respondents, 98% would like more education on antibiotic selection. All respondents believed that prescribing inappropriate or unnecessary antibiotics was professionally unethical. Ninety percent of the participants were confident in making an accurate diagnosis of infection. Eighty-four percent of them were confident about dosage schedule. In all, 98% participants thought that antibiotic resistance is a national problem and 64% of the respondents thought that same problem also existed in their hospital. Study participants were of the view that 41%–60% of antibiotic usages are irrational in Bangladesh. Fifty-eight percent of the study population thought that antimicrobial resistance (AR would be a greater problem in the future. Conclusion: The interns believe that there is a knowledge gap on AR. More emphasis should be given to AR and its implications in the undergraduate

  6. Family planning knowledge and current use of contraception among the Mru indigenous women in Bangladesh: a multivariate analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam MR

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available M Rakibul Islam1, Gunnar Thorvaldsen21Bangladesh Agricultural University, Bangladesh; 2Norwegian Historical Data Centre, University of Tromsø, NorwayBackground: This article aims to understand the family planning (FP knowledge and current use of contraception and its predictors among women of the Mru people – the most underprivileged indigenous community in Bangladesh.Methods: In this study, 374 currently married Mru women were interviewed and selected purposively from three upazilas (administrative subdistricts of the Bandarban area, where most of the Mru people live. The association between the variables was assessed in bivariate analysis using the Chi-square test and binary logistic regression models were employed to explore the predictors of FP knowledge and current use of contraception among the Mru women.Results: Only about 40% of respondents had ever heard FP messages or about FP methods – two-fifths of the national figure (99.9%. The current use of contraception was much lower (25.1% among the Mru people than at the national level (55.8%. Among both modern and traditional methods, the contraceptive pill ranked first. About two-thirds (66.0% of married women used this method – more than two times than the national figure (28.5%. On the other hand, the prevalence of male methods was comparatively lower than at the national level. Logistic regression models revealed that place of residence, religion, age, school attendance, husband's school attendance, service provided in the community, distance to the service center, and exposure to mass media had significant effects on knowledge of FP and on use of contraception.Conclusion: Education for mothers and vernacular language-based doorstep FP programs with special emphasis on awareness are suggested for the community.Keywords: family planning, contraceptive use, the Mru, logistic regression, Bangladesh

  7. Design and development of self-passivating biodegradable magnesium alloys using selective element oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brar, Harpreet Singh

    Metallic biomaterials such as stainless steels, titanium alloys, and cobalt-chromium alloys have been used as structural implant materials for many years. However, due to their limitations in temporary implant applications, there has been increased interest in the development of a biodegradable structural implant device. Magnesium (Mg) alloys have shown great potential as a material for biodegradable structural implant applications. However, low strength and high degradation rate of Mg under physiological conditions are major limitations, causing the implant to lose its structural integrity before the healing process is complete. The main aim of this work was to investigate the possibility of designing Mg-based alloys with ability to form selective protective oxides, thereby aiding in the reduction of the initial degradation rate. A thermodynamics-driven design was utilized to select three elements, namely Gadolinium (Gd), Scandium (Sc) and Yttrium (Y), due to the low enthalpy of formation associated with their oxide species. First, binary alloys were cast under inert atmosphere, solution treated and investigated for degradation rate in Hanks' solution. The Mg-Gd binary alloy showed the fastest degradation rate whereas the Mg-Sc binary alloy showed the slowest degradation rate. The degradation of Mg-Gd and Mg-Y was 18 and 5 times faster than Mg-Sc alloy, respectively. The microstructural analysis of the alloys was performed using X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Optical Microscopy (OM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). It was observed that the grain size of Mg-Sc alloys is significantly smaller than Mg-Gd and Mg-Y alloys and can be a contributing factor to the reduction in degradation rate. The hardness behavior of the alloys was also investigated using Vickers microhardness Testing. To understand the oxidation behavior and kinetics, samples were oxidized in pure oxygen environment and investigated using microstructural and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Auger

  8. Design and preparation of matrine surface-imprinted material and studies on its molecule recognition selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Qingjuan; Gao, Baojiao; Zhang, Dandan

    2016-01-01

    A matrine molecule surface-imprinted material was designed and prepared using an effective surface-imprinting technique developed by our group, and its molecular recognition performance and mechanism were investigated in depth. Monomer glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) was first graft-polymerized on the surfaces of micron-sized silica gel particles in surface-initiated graft polymerization manner, obtaining the grafted particles PGMA/SiO(2) with high grafting degree. Subsequently, the ring-opening reaction of the epoxy groups of the grafted macromolecules PGMA with 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) was carried out, resulting in the functional grafted particle SA-PGMA/SiO(2), on whose surfaces salicylic acid as functional group was chemically bonded. By right of the mutual strong secondary bond forces, electrostatic interaction and hydrogen bonding, SA-PGMA/SiO(2) particles produced strong adsorption for matrine. Finally, with this strong adsorption, matrine molecule surface imprinting was carried out on the surfaces of SA-PGMA/SiO(2) particles with ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether as cross-linking agent, resulting in the matrine molecule surface-imprinted material MIP-SAP/SiO(2). The binding characteristic of MIP-SAP/SiO(2) toward matrine was investigated in depth with both batch and column methods and using oxymatrine and cytisine as two contrast alkaloids. The experimental results show that MIP-SAP/SiO(2) has special recognition selectivity and excellent binding affinity for matrine. Relative to oxymatrine and cytisine, the selectivity coefficients of MIP-SAP/SiO(2) for matrine are 5.66 and 11.17, respectively.

  9. NEW TRENDS IN LEGAL EDUCATION AT BANGLADESH OPEN UNIVERSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid FERDOUSI

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In Bangladesh, Formal legal education is provided by either a department of a university or an affiliated college. There are four public universities and above twenty six private universities in our country with law as a regular subject of teaching. Besides, the National University imparts teaching of law through law colleges in the country. All public and private universities providing law graduate degree by conventional system but many people deprived from this opportunities. Thus to increase equitable access to education and to develop the human resources of the country the Bangladesh Open University playing significant role. Large numbers of students of rural areas, particularly women, out of school and adults who must do work to support their families are include with the university. Bangladesh Open University is the only institution in Bangladesh which imparts education in open and distance mode and offers 23 formal programmes, the demand for the introduction of LL.B programme for the benefit of those who have been, for various reasons, deprived of the opportunity of undertaking graduate course in law in conventional mode of education. The decision to offer the programme in distance mode is being taken in response to the earnest desire of the relevant quarters expressed in various dailies and formal applications submitted to the university authority as the learners in the open and distance mode learn at his own place and any time whenever he feels convenient to learn and is not for restricted by time, space or age. Distance learning is, indeed, presently considered as a viable alternative of the conventional system of education to fulfill the growing demand for legal education.This paper presents the new academic trends in Bangladesh Open University by distance learning Bachelor of Laws (LL.B. degree and modern aspects of the legal education at School of Law in Bangladesh Open University.

  10. FORMAL TRADE BETWEEN INDIA AND BANGLADESH: AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K.S. YADAV

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The importance of improving trade flows between India and Bangladesh is not only beneficial to them, but for the whole SAARC region, given that Bhutan and Nepal utilise Bangladesh ports as gateways to trade outside the region. Bangladesh’s overall exports are dominated by labour-intensive manufacturing and its imports to India by primary commodities. The shares of manufactured goods in country’s overall export were about 92 and 91 percent in 2001 and 2011 respectively. However, the composition of bilateral trade between these two countries has been changing over time. Addition and removal in the list of products of trade basket is a usual process. Consistent products in the trade basket of Bangladesh are ready made garments and sea food, whereas those of India are raw cotton, cereals and products and machinery of iron and steel. Expansion of trade of these countries with outside world, but not with each other confirms the prevalence of certain barriers, physical or non-physical in nature, rendering many potential products remain untraded. India and Bangladesh being geographically proximate to each other possess huge scope to trade. Specifically as both the countries are rich in natural resources and are competent in the production of small-scale manufacturing and agrarian supplies, mostly from the eastern parts of India and Bangladesh, both possess huge potential for bilateral trade. Many items having high trade potential are still not able to get market exposure in the neighbouring country because of various non-tariff barriers prevailing in current trade scenario, which have hiked up the cost of doing business to unacceptable proportions and as most of the highly tradable products are still kept under the sensitive lists of Bangladesh. There are numerous bottlenecks in the current trade infrastructure which turns out to be physical barrier to trade. The present paper highlights the import export and Exchange Rate change and prospects of

  11. Issues in developing a mitigation strategy for Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asaduzzaman, M. [Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    1996-12-31

    Bangladesh, it is by now well-known, is at the receiving end, in the literal sense of the term, of the global climate change and its potential impacts. She contributes very little to the current global emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs). The Emission Inventory under the present umbrella project, Bangladesh Climate Change Study (BCCS), has found that her annual emission of carbon has been only 3.99 mn metric tons per year. An earlier study arrived at exactly the same figure. The figures for estimated release of methane is far less firm. The estimated methane emission in 1990 could be anywhere between 1 million and 6 million metric tons. In any case the total emission is unlikely to be more than one-half of one percent of the global total. On the other hand, however, she faces specter of widespread and more frequent floods, more frequent droughts, cyclones and above all sea-level rise (SLR) which may inundate a substantial part of the country all of these bringing in immeasurable misery and destitution and loss of income, employment and growth. One would expect that in such a situation, Bangladesh`s basic concern should be to prepare an appropriate adaptation strategy. This is already a major policy concern of the Government. There is, however, an increasing realization that Bangladesh should as well emphasize an appropriate mitigation strategy (MS). There may be at least three reasons why this should be so. The first is that she is a signatory of the Framework Convention on Climate Change. The second is that in the medium, if not short term she expects major growth due to a developing economy. Third is that Bangladesh depends primarily on fossil fuel imports for energy, and will become a larger source with further development.

  12. Status of contamination monitoring in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begum, Aleya [Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Savar, Dacca (Bangladesh)

    1997-06-01

    The applications of radioisotopes and radiation sources to the research and development in medicine, food agriculture, industries and others are rapidly increasing in Bangladesh. The existing major nuclear facilites and allied laboratories of the country include 3 MW TRIGA Mark-2 research reactor for training, research and radioisotope production, 14 MeV neutron generator for nuclear data measurement and elemental analysis via neutron activation, 3 MeV Van de Graaff accelerator for the research and application of nuclear physics, and 50,000 Ci and 5,000 Ci Co-60 irradiators. About 10 Co-60 and Cs-137 teletherapy units are in operation in hospitals. The radioactive contamination of working areas, equipment, protective clothing and skin may result from normal operation and accidents, and contamination monitoring and decontamination are the essential part of radiation protection program. Surface contamination is monitored with Berthold survey meters. Hand and foot monitors have been used. Routine systematic search, continuous air monitoring, the examination of silt movement in Chittagong harbor using Sc-46 tracer and the measurement of tritium contamination for the neutron generator are reported. (K.I.)

  13. Sexual violence towards married women in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naved, Ruchira Tabassum

    2013-05-01

    This article explored the magnitude and nature of within marriage sexual violence against women and factors associated with physically forced sex by husbands in urban and rural Bangladesh using population-based survey data from 2001 (n = 2,702). Results showed high prevalence of lifetime sexual violence: 37 % in urban and 50 % in rural areas. An overwhelming majority of the women reported being sexually abused by husbands more than once. Logistic regression analyses revealed that six out of ten independent variables included in the models were significant. The factors positively associated with physically forced sex by husbands during the last 12 months were: history of physical abuse of husband's mother by his father; level of controlling behavior by husband; and forced or coerced first sex. Women's age (20-24 compared to 15-19) and dowry demand at marriage increased the likelihood of this violence in the rural area. Urban women in the second and third income quartiles were more likely to be exposed to this violence compared to women in the first quartile. Results highlight the need for prevention programs targeting men, which would help at the same time to break the cycle of intergenerational exposure and thereby transmission of violence. Notions of gender equality; women's sexual rights; and women's right to consent and choice need to be widely promoted particularly among men. PMID:23254953

  14. Sexual violence towards married women in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naved, Ruchira Tabassum

    2013-05-01

    This article explored the magnitude and nature of within marriage sexual violence against women and factors associated with physically forced sex by husbands in urban and rural Bangladesh using population-based survey data from 2001 (n = 2,702). Results showed high prevalence of lifetime sexual violence: 37 % in urban and 50 % in rural areas. An overwhelming majority of the women reported being sexually abused by husbands more than once. Logistic regression analyses revealed that six out of ten independent variables included in the models were significant. The factors positively associated with physically forced sex by husbands during the last 12 months were: history of physical abuse of husband's mother by his father; level of controlling behavior by husband; and forced or coerced first sex. Women's age (20-24 compared to 15-19) and dowry demand at marriage increased the likelihood of this violence in the rural area. Urban women in the second and third income quartiles were more likely to be exposed to this violence compared to women in the first quartile. Results highlight the need for prevention programs targeting men, which would help at the same time to break the cycle of intergenerational exposure and thereby transmission of violence. Notions of gender equality; women's sexual rights; and women's right to consent and choice need to be widely promoted particularly among men.

  15. Coalbed Methane prospect of Jamalganj Coalfield Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five major Gondwana coalfields have been discovered in the half-graben type basins in the subsurface in the Precambrian platform area of the Northwest Bangladesh. The Jamalganj coalfields with an estimated reserve of about 1053 millions tons of coal, has seven coal seams in the depth range between 640 to 1158m below the ground surface. Compared to the other coalfields of the area, with coal occurring at 150 to 500m depth, Jamalganj coal is considered to be too deep to be exploited by conventional underground or open pit mining. Instead, developing coal bed methane from Jamalganj coalfield may be considered as a viable option for its exploitation. The positive factors of Jamalganj coal bed methane development include high net thickness of coal with at least one very thick (40m+) and widely developed seam, coal seam burial depth within optimum range, large coal reserves, indication of significant gas content from drilling data, and poor permeability in the rocks above and surrounding the coal layers. The thickest seam III can be primary target for CBM development especially where it combines with seam IV in the eastern part of coalfield. However, there are a number of unknown factors like actual gas content of coal, permeability, and in-seam pressure that need to be evaluated before deciding the viability of the project. An initial attempt to collect these base line data should include drilling test well or wells in the primary target area where seam III is most thick and widely developed. (author)

  16. Renewable energy and rural development activities experience in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barua, D.C.

    1997-12-01

    The per capita per year fuel consumption in Bangladesh is only 56 kg oil equivalent. The supply of electricity by Bangladesh power development board (BPDB) and Dhaka electricity supply authority (DESA) is mainly confined to cities and towns. Rural Electrification Board (REB) distributes electricity to the rural people through cooperatives. The rural cooperatives cover only 10% of the total population. Only about 15% of the total population is directly connected to the electricity. In order to meet the increasing energy demand for development of agriculture and industry and for the generation of better employment opportunities, it will be necessary to harness all the available alternative sources of energy immediately.

  17. Engineering education in Bangladesh - an indicator of economic development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Harun; Alam, Firoz

    2012-05-01

    Developing nations including Bangladesh are significantly lagging behind the millennium development target due to the lack of science, technology and engineering education. Bangladesh as a least developing country has only 44 engineers per million people. Its technological education and gross domestic product growth are not collinear. Although limited progress was made in humanities, basic sciences, agriculture and medical sciences, a vast gap is left in technical and engineering education. This paper describes the present condition of engineering education in the country and explores ways to improve engineering education in order to meet the national as well as global skills demand.

  18. Existing and Expected Service Quality of Grameenphone Users in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmat Ullah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The Grameenphone (GP is a market leader in the telecommunication industry in Bangladesh. This study investigates the existing and expected service quality of Grameenphone users in Bangladesh. The Study reveals that there are significant gap between existing and expected perceived service network, 3G, customer care, physical facilities, billing cost, information service, mobile banking and GP offers. The study concludes that customer satisfaction is a dynamic phenomenon. Maintaining desired level of customer satisfaction requires corporate proactive responsiveness in accessing, building & retaining satisfied customers for sustainable competitive advantages in the marketplace.Keywords: Service Quality, Customer Satisfaction, Existing Service Quality, Expected Service Quality, Grameenphone 

  19. DATA ENVELOPMENT ANALYSIS OF BANKING SECTOR IN BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rashedul Hoque

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Banking sector of Bangladesh is flourishing and contributing to its economy. In this aspect measuring efficiency is important. Data Envelopment Analysis technique is used for this purpose. The data are collected from the annual reports of twenty four different banks in Bangladesh. Data Envelopment Analysis is mainly of two types - constant returns to scale and variable returns to scale. Since this study attempts to maximize output, so the output oriented Data Envelopment Analysis is used. The most efficient bank is one that obtains the highest efficiency score.

  20. Serum lipid profile and its association with hypertension in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choudhury KN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Kamrun Nahar Choudhury,1 AKM Mainuddin,2 Mohammad Wahiduzzaman,3 Sheikh Mohammed Shariful Islam4,51Department of Epidemiology, National Centre for Control of Rheumatic Fever and Heart Disease, 2Center for Communicable Diseases, International Center for Diarrheal Disease Research, 3Department of Cardiology, Bangladesh Institute of Health Science, Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 4Center for Control of Chronic Diseases, International Center for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 5Center for International Health, University of Munich, Munich, GermanyBackground: Hypertension and dyslipidemia are major risk factors for cardiovascular disease, accounting for the highest morbidity and mortality among the Bangladeshi population. The objective of this study was to determine the association between serum lipid profiles in hypertensive patients with normotensive control subjects in Bangladesh.Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among 234 participants including 159 hypertensive patients and 75 normotensive controls from January to December 2012 in the National Centre for Control of Rheumatic Fever and Heart Disease in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Data were collected on sociodemographic factors, anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, and lipid profile including total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, low density lipoprotein (LDL, and high density lipoprotein (HDL.Results: The mean (± standard deviation systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure of the participants were 137.94±9.58 and 94.42±8.81, respectively, which were higher in the hypertensive patients (P<0.001. The serum levels of TC, TG, and LDL were higher while HDL levels were lower in hypertensive subjects compared to normotensives, which was statistically significant (P<0.001. Age, waist circumference, and body mass index showed significant association with hypertensive patients (P<0.001 but not with normotensives. The logistic regression analysis showed

  1. A rainfall simulation model for agricultural development in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sayedur Rahman

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A rainfall simulation model based on a first-order Markov chain has been developed to simulate the annual variation in rainfall amount that is observed in Bangladesh. The model has been tested in the Barind Tract of Bangladesh. Few significant differences were found between the actual and simulated seasonal, annual and average monthly. The distribution of number of success is asymptotic normal distribution. When actual and simulated daily rainfall data were used to drive a crop simulation model, there was no significant difference of rice yield response. The results suggest that the rainfall simulation model perform adequately for many applications.

  2. Human Resources Development for Rooppur Nuclear Power Programme in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conclusions: • Bangladesh faces a huge challenge in implementing the Rooppur NPP and its total nuclear power; • A preliminary assessment has been chalked out a plan to find out methods that can be applied to find out our gaps and then fill them up; • Bangladesh seeks cooperation from the Russian Federation in the form assistance package like National training courses, Seminar/Workshop, Expert Mission/Review and other form of bilateral arrangements in establishing infrastructure for “Rooppur NPP” building;

  3. History and Perspectives of Nuclear Medicine in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Raihan Hussain

    2016-01-01

    Bangladesh is one of the smaller states in Asia. But it has a long and rich history of nuclear medicine for over sixty years. The progress in science and technology is always challenging in a developing country. In 1958, work for the first Nuclear Medicine facility was commenced in Dhaka in a tin-shed known as ‘Radioisotope Centre’ and was officially inaugurated in 1962. Since the late 50s of the last century nuclear medicine in Bangladesh has significantly progressed through the years in its...

  4. Climate change and health in Bangladesh: a baseline cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Iqbal Kabir

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bangladesh is facing the unavoidable challenge of adaptation to climate change. However, very little is known in relation to climate change and health. This article provides information on potential climate change impact on health, magnitude of climate-sensitive diseases, and baseline scenarios of health systems to climate variability and change. Design: A cross-sectional study using multistage cluster sampling framework was conducted in 2012 among 6,720 households of 224 rural villages in seven vulnerable districts of Bangladesh. Information was obtained from head of the households using a pretested, interviewer-administered, structured questionnaire. A total of 6,720 individuals participated in the study with written, informed consent. Results: The majority of the respondents were from the low-income vulnerable group (60% farmers or day labourers with an average of 30 years’ stay in their locality. Most of them (96% had faced extreme weather events, 45% of people had become homeless and displaced for a mean duration of 38 days in the past 10 years. Almost all of the respondents (97.8% believe that health care expenditure increased after the extreme weather events. Mean annual total health care expenditure was 6,555 Bangladeshi Taka (BDT (1 USD=77 BDT in 2015 and exclusively out of pocket of the respondents. Incidence of dengue was 1.29 (95% CI 0.65–2.56 and malaria 13.86 (95% CI 6.00–32.01 per 1,000 adult population for 12 months preceding the data collection. Incidence of diarrhoea and pneumonia among under-five children of the households for the preceding month was 10.3% (95% CI 9.16–11.66 and 7.3% (95% CI 6.35–8.46, respectively. Conclusions: The findings of this survey indicate that climate change has a potential adverse impact on human health in Bangladesh. The magnitude of malaria, dengue, childhood diarrhoea, and pneumonia was high among the vulnerable communities. Community-based adaptation strategy for health

  5. Micro-scale Spatial Clustering of Cholera Risk Factors in Urban Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qifang Bi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Close interpersonal contact likely drives spatial clustering of cases of cholera and diarrhea, but spatial clustering of risk factors may also drive this pattern. Few studies have focused specifically on how exposures for disease cluster at small spatial scales. Improving our understanding of the micro-scale clustering of risk factors for cholera may help to target interventions and power studies with cluster designs. We selected sets of spatially matched households (matched-sets near cholera case households between April and October 2013 in a cholera endemic urban neighborhood of Tongi Township in Bangladesh. We collected data on exposures to suspected cholera risk factors at the household and individual level. We used intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs to characterize clustering of exposures within matched-sets and households, and assessed if clustering depended on the geographical extent of the matched-sets. Clustering over larger spatial scales was explored by assessing the relationship between matched-sets. We also explored whether different exposures tended to appear together in individuals, households, and matched-sets. Household level exposures, including: drinking municipal supplied water (ICC = 0.97, 95%CI = 0.96, 0.98, type of latrine (ICC = 0.88, 95%CI = 0.71, 1.00, and intermittent access to drinking water (ICC = 0.96, 95%CI = 0.87, 1.00 exhibited strong clustering within matched-sets. As the geographic extent of matched-sets increased, the concordance of exposures within matched-sets decreased. Concordance between matched-sets of exposures related to water supply was elevated at distances of up to approximately 400 meters. Household level hygiene practices were correlated with infrastructure shown to increase cholera risk. Co-occurrence of different individual level exposures appeared to mostly reflect the differing domestic roles of study participants. Strong spatial clustering of exposures at a small spatial scale in a

  6. Monte Carlo dosimetry for beta source selection and design for endovascular irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose/Objective: Low dose irradiation is emerging as an exciting and promising new treatment modality for the prevention of vessel restenosis, which occurs in about 40% of the percutaneous transluminal angioplasty cases. The most challenging aspect of this new vessel irradiation modality is the determination of an effective target dose, and selection of an optimal source and delivery system. There is still much work to be done in the areas of radiobiological mechanisms, optimal source selection and design, optimal delivery system design, and precise dosimetric evaluation. This particular study was undertaken to use Monte Carlo techniques to examine and compare dose characteristics of two different beta sources (P-32 and Sr-90/Y-90), and to examine the dosimetric effects of source design considerations and vessel heterogeneities, i.e. calcification buildup. Materials and Methods: All our dose calculations were made using the MCNP4A code (Monte Carlo N-Particle, version 4A). This code was originally developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory and is capable of simulating coupled neutron-photon-electron problems using a three dimensional geometry modeling package. To validate our code, we compared point dose distributions for P32 and Sr90/Y90 with published data. We also compared our Monte Carlo calculations with physical measurements made with LiF TLDs about a custom made P-32 source sealed in the end of a flexible NiTi wire. We precisely modeled the source, the detectors, and the phantom material for our calculations. Once validated, we used both conventional and lattice tally geometries to examine two dimensional dosimetric effects resulting from design considerations such as: source selection (P32 verses Sr90/Y90); source length (3mm verses 10mm); source encapsulation materials (NiTi verses Stainless Steel); and catheter material composition (Nylon12, Nylon12 with BaSO4, and PVC) and thicknesses (0.15, 1, and 2 mm), and centering balloon design. We are also

  7. Establishment of an Indirect Genetic Transformation Method for Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulbul AHMED

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Arabidopsis thaliana is a small flowering plant belonging to the Brassicaceae family, which is adopted as a model plant for genetic research. Agrobacterium tumifaciensmediated transformation method for A. thaliana ecotype Bangladesh was established. Leaf discs of A. thaliana were incubated with A. tumefaciens strain LBA4404 containing chimeric nos. nptII. nos and intron-GUS genes. Following inoculation and co-cultivation, leaf discs were cultured on selection medium containing 50 mg/l kanamycin + 50 mg/l cefotaxime + 1.5 mg/l NAA and kanamycin resistant shoots were induced from the leaf discs after two weeks. Shoot regeneration was achieved after transferring the tissues onto fresh medium of the same combination. Finally, the shoots were rooted on MS medium containing 50 mg/l kanamycin. Incorporation and expression of the transgenes were confirmed by PCR analysis. Using this protocol, transgenic A. thaliana plants can be obtained and indicates that genomic transformation in higher plants is possible through insertion of desired gene. Although Agrobacterium mediated genetic transformation is established for A. thaliana, this study was the conducted to transform A. thaliana ecotype Bangladesh.

  8. Observed hand cleanliness and other measures of handwashing behavior in rural Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halder Amal K

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We analyzed data from the baseline assessment of a large intervention project to describe typical handwashing practices in rural Bangladesh, and compare measures of hand cleanliness with household characteristics. Methods We randomly selected 100 villages from 36 districts in rural Bangladesh. Field workers identified 17 eligible households per village using systematic sampling. Field workers conducted 5-hour structured observations in 1000 households, and a cross-sectional assessment in 1692 households that included spot checks, an evaluation of hand cleanliness and a request that residents demonstrate their usual handwashing practices after defecation. Results Although 47% of caregivers reported and 51% demonstrated washing both hands with soap after defecation, in structured observation, only 33% of caregivers and 14% of all persons observed washed both hands with soap after defecation. Less than 1% used soap and water for handwashing before eating and/or feeding a child. More commonly people washed their hands only with water, 23% after defecation and 5% before eating. Spot checks during the cross sectional survey classified 930 caregivers (55% and 453 children (28% as having clean appearing hands. In multivariate analysis economic status and water available at handwashing locations were significantly associated with hand cleanliness among both caregivers and children. Conclusions A minority of rural Bangladeshi residents washed both hands with soap at key handwashing times, though rinsing hands with only water was more common. To realize the health benefits of handwashing, efforts to improve handwashing in these communities should target adding soap to current hand rinsing practices.

  9. ADDRESSING RATIONAL PRESCRIBERS THROUGH THE PHARMACOLOGY AND THERAPEUTICS COURSE WORK OF MBBS SYLLABUS IN BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdus Salam

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacology is most rapidly expanding science in medical discipline which leads to the development of many important drugs to treat many medical conditions that was previously untreatable. This paper focuses on the necessity of integration of pharmacology in the medical curriculum in all clinical phases and ethical aspects of medicine in terms of irrational prescribing. Irrational prescribing of drugs is a major global health problem in medical practice. Currently Pharmacology is taught at phase-II, a 2 year period in a 5 years undergraduate medical Programme in Bangladesh under the name ‘Pharmacology and Therapeutics’. Indiscriminate use of clinically inappropriate and ineffective medicines are a serious problem. Medicines in Bangladesh are inappropriately prescribed, again all kinds of drugs including controlled products are dispensed and sold out frequently without prescription. Henceforth there are regular violation of medical ethics and professionalism. As only pharmacology and therapeutics deals with the correct selection of drugs, the subject should be continued to teach up to phase-III. In addition, therapeutic discussion should be incorporated with proper logbook during internship in order to make safe and efficient prescribers. Supreme priority should be given to legal and ethical aspects of medicine. Medical professionals must uphold social order by ensuring ethical practices of medicine and appropriate role modelling especially by the faculty.

  10. Designing zeolite catalysts for size- and shape-selective reactions: Selective hydrogenation of acetylene in the presence of butadiene and ethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbin, D.R.; Abrams, L.; Bonifaz, C. (E.I. du Pont de Nemours Company, Wilmington, DE (USA))

    1989-02-01

    In the production of ethylene from the steam cracking of natural gas, small amounts of acetylene and butadiene are produced. Downstream, acetylene can present a hazard in a cryogenic separation process while nonselective hydrogenation removes acetylene as well as valuable ethylene and butadiene. With the aid of adsorption measurements, a selective hydrogenation catalyst has been designed. Small-pore zeolites, which serve as catalytic supports and provide reactant selective control, were ion-exchanged with Ni{sup 2+} and subsequently reduced. Compared to a commercial catalyst in which 60% of butadiene and all of the acetylene are hydrogenated, these new catalysts totally hydrogenate acetylene with only 10-20% hydrogenation of the butadiene and almost no hydrogenation of ethylene. To achieve selective hydrogenation, poisoning of the metal sites on the external zeolite surface is essential in order to obtain a product spectrum dominated by catalytic sites within the zeolite framework.

  11. Feasibility, Acceptability, and Programme Effectiveness of Misoprostol for Prevention of Postpartum Haemorrhage in Rural Bangladesh: A Quasiexperimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Quaiyum

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We explored the feasibility of distributing misoprostol tablets using two strategies in prevention of postpartum haemorrhage (PPH among women residing in the Abhoynagar subdistrict of Bangladesh. We conducted a quasiexperimental study with a posttest design and nonequivalent comparison and intervention groups. Paramedics distributed three misoprostol tablets, one delivery mat (Quaiyum’s delivery mat, a packet of five standardized sanitary pads, and one lidded plastic container with detailed counseling on their use. All materials except misoprostol were also provided with counseling sessions to the control group participants. Postpartum blood loss was measured by paramedics using standardized method. This study has demonstrated community acceptability to misoprostol tablets for the prevention of PPH that reduced overall volume of blood loss after childbirth. Likewise, the delivery mat and pad were found to be useful to mothers as tools for assessing the amount of blood loss after delivery and informing care-seeking decisions. Further studies should be undertaken to explore whether government outreach health workers can be trained to effectively distribute misoprostol tablets among rural women of Bangladesh. Such a study should explore and identify the programmatic requirements to integrate this within the existing reproductive health program of the Government of Bangladesh.

  12. Cross-sectional test of the Fama-French three-factor model: Evidence from Bangladesh stock market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Md. Zobaer; Kamil, Anton Abdulbasah

    2014-09-01

    Stock market is an important part of a country's economy. It supports the country's economic development and progress by encouraging the efficiency and profitability of firms. This research was designed to examine the risk-return association of companies in the Dhaka Stock Exchange (DSE) market of Bangladesh by using the Fama-French three-factor model structure. The model is based on three factors, which are stock beta, SMB (difference in returns of the portfolio with small market capitalisation minus that with big market capitalisation) and HML (difference in returns of the portfolio with high book-to-market ratio minus that with low book-to-market ratio). This study focused on the DSE market as it is one of the frontier emerging stock markets of South Asia. For this study, monthly stock returns from 71 non-financial companies were used for the period of January 2002 to December 2011. DSI Index was used as a proxy for the market portfolio and Bangladesh government 3-Month T-bill rate was used as the proxy for the risk-free asset. It was found that large capital stocks outperform small capital stocks and stocks with lower book-to-market ratios outperform stocks with higher book-to-market ratios in the context of Bangladesh stock market.

  13. An integrated framework to assess plausible future livelihood and poverty changes in deltas: an application to coastal Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lázár, A. N.; Payo, A.; Nicholls, R. J.; Hutton, C.; Adams, H.; Salehin, M.; Haque, A.; Clarke, D.; Bricheno, L.; Fernandes, J. A.; Rahman, M.; Ahmed, A.; Streatfield, P. K.

    2015-12-01

    Deltas represent one of the most densely populated areas in the world. This is especially true for the coastal zone of Bangladesh where more than a thousand people live in each square kilometre of land. Livelihoods, food security and poverty in Bangladesh are strongly dependent on natural resources affected by several factors including climate variability and change, upstream river flow modifications, commercial fish catches in the Bay of Bengal, and engineering interventions such as polderisation. The scarcity of fresh water, saline water intrusion and natural disasters (e.g. river flooding, cyclones and storm surges) have negative impact on drinking water availability and crop irrigation potential; thus severely affect land use and livelihood opportunities of the coastal population. Hydro-environmental changes can be especially detrimental for the well-being of the poorest households that are highly dependent on natural resources. The ESPA Deltas project aims to holistically examine the interaction between the coupled bio-physical environment and the livelihoods of these poor populations in coastal Bangladesh. Here we describe a new integrated model that allows the long-term analysis of the possible changes in this system by linking projected changes in physical processes (e.g. river flows, nutrients), with productivity (e.g. fish, rice), social processes (e.g. access, property rights, migration) and governance/management (e.g. fisheries, agriculture, water and land use management). This integrated approach is designed to provide Bangladeshi policy makers with science-based evidence of possible development trajectories within the coastal delta plain over timescales up to 50 years, including the likely robustness of different governance options on natural resource conservation and poverty levels. This presentation describes the model framework and aims to illustrate the cause-effect relationship in-between changes of the hydro-environment and the livelihoods and

  14. Nanocasting Design and Spatially Selective Sulfonation of Polystyrene-Based Polymer Networks as Solid Acid Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Felix H; Sahraoui, Laila; Schüth, Ferdi

    2016-09-12

    Nanocasting is a general and widely applied method in the generation of porous materials during which a sacrificial solid template is used as a mold on the nanoscale. Ideally, the resulting structure is the inverse of the template. However, replication is not always as direct as anticipated, so the influences of the degree of pore filling and of potential restructuring processes after removal of the template need to be considered. These apparent limitations give rise to opportunities in the synthesis of poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) (PSD) polymer networks of widely varying porosities (BET surface area=63-562 m(2)  g(-1) ; Vtot =0.18-1.05 cm(3)  g(-1) ) by applying a single synthesis methodology. In addition, spatially selective sulfonation on the nanoscale seems possible. Together, nanocasting and sulfonation enable rational catalyst design. The highly porous nanocast and predominantly surface-sulfonated PSD networks approach the activity of the corresponding molecular catalyst, para-toluenesulfonic acid, and exceed those of commercial ion-exchange polymers in the depolymerization of macromolecular inulin.

  15. Selective wet chemical etching of metallic thin films designed by laser interference metallurgy (LIMET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catrin, Rodolphe; Gachot, Carsten; Marchand, Günter; Schmid, Ulrich; Mücklich, Frank

    2009-05-01

    The physical and chemical behaviour of materials is strongly correlated with their microstructure. Therefore, much effort is invested in the advanced microstructural design of metallic thin films. Laser Interference Metallurgy (LIMET) is used to locally tune the grain architecture of metallic thin films from the nanoto the microscale. This means a defined size and orientation of the grains with lateral periodicity, by interfering on the sample surface two or more laser beams of a high power nanosecond pulsed Nd:YAG laser. This technique enables the local nucleation and crystallization of amorphous or nanocrystalline metallic thin films, thus combining nano- and microcrystalline regions ordered in periodic line- or lattice-like arrangements in a composite architecture. After having locally modified the microstructure of e-beam evaporated Pt and Au thin films by laser irradiation a wet chemical etching procedure was induced in hot aqua regia. Doing so, a selective etching is achieved without using conventional lithography. Due to the laser-induced recrystallization in periodic structures, these microcrystalline zones of specific oriented grains show a higher resistance against the wet chemical etchant than the as-deposited, nanocrystalline areas, which are completely removed down to the substrate. Therefore, this procedure may have the potential to be an alternative, low cost approach to conventional lithographic techniques and provides a novel method for a straight-forward patterning of metallic thin films.

  16. The art and science of magnet design: Selected notes of Klaus Halbach. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    This volume contains a compilation of 57 notes written by Dr. Klaus Halbach selected from his collection of over 1650 such documents. It provides an historic snapshot of the evolution of magnet technology and related fields as the notes range from as early as 1965 to the present, and is intended to show the breadth of Dr. Halbach`s interest and ability that have long been an inspiration to his many friends and colleagues. As Halbach is an experimental physicist whose scientific interests span many areas, and who does his most innovative work with pencil and paper rather than at the workbench or with a computer, the vast majority of the notes in this volume were handwritten and their content varies greatly--some reflect original work or work for a specific project, while others are mere clarifications of mathematical calculations or design specifications. As the authors converted the notes to electronic form, some were superficially edited and corrected, while others were extensively re-written to reflect current knowledge and notation. The notes are organized under five categories which reflect their primary content: Beam Position Monitors, (bpm), Current Sheet Electron Magnets (csem), Magnet Theory, (thry), Undulators and Wigglers (u-w), and Miscellaneous (misc). Within the category, they are presented chronologically starting from the most recent note and working backwards in time.

  17. A High-Adhesive Lysine-Cyclic RGD Peptide Designed for Selective Cell Retention Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Keyu; Mei, Tieniu; Li, Zhiqiang; Deng, Moyuan; Zhang, Zehua; Hou, Tianyong; Dong, Shiwu; Xie, Zhao; Xu, Jianzhong; Luo, Fei

    2016-06-01

    Cell adhesion is an important property of biomaterials used in selective cell retention (SCR) technology, which fabricates bone grafts rapidly in clinical settings. This could be improved by physical and biologic manipulations. To facilitate retention of the cells on the scaffold, especially osteoprogenitors from bone marrow in the convenient SCR procedure, a lysine-cyclic RGD (LcRGD) peptide was here designed to coordinate positively charged amino acids and the RGD sequence to enhance the adhesion performance of the scaffold. Demineralized bone matrix (DBM) is an important therapeutic resource, but its cell adhesion ability and osteoinductive capacity are low because of its processing. These capabilities can be increased to enhance the performance of DBM when used in SCR technology. Here, LcRGD peptide was used to modify DBM and produce a DBM/LcRGD composite. This composite exhibited enhanced adhesion performance on cultured human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells and retained more osteoprogenitors from bone marrow than other materials did. The DBM/LcRGD composite displayed a preferable osteoinduction in vitro and osteogenic capacity in vivo. Thus, LcRGD peptide as a commendable modifier of DBM applied in SCR technology can improve bone transplantation. PMID:27154386

  18. Samples Selection for Artificial Neural Network Training in Preliminary Structural Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TONG Fei; LIU Xila

    2005-01-01

    An artificial neural network (ANN) is applied in the preliminary structural design of reticulated shells. Major efforts are made to enhance the generalization ability of networks through well-selected training samples. Number-theoretic methods (NTMs) are adopted to generate samples with low discrepancy, i.e., uniformly scattered in the domain, where discrepancy is a quantitative measurement of the uniformity. The discrepancy of the NTM-based sample set is 1/6-1/7 that of samples with equal spacing. In a case study, networks trained by NTM-based samples are compared with those trained by equal-spaced samples in generalizing performance. The results show that both the computational precision and stability of the former ANNs are more satisfactory than those of the latter. It is concluded that the flexibility of ANNs in generalizing can be effectively increased by use of uniformly distributed training samples rather than simply piling data. More reliable uniformity should be obtained, however, through NTMs instead of equal-spaced samples.

  19. The design and evaluation of a selectively modulated interferometric dispersive spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In approaching the problem of rapid simultaneous multielement analysis, the large light gathering power, wide spectral range and high resolution of a Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) should be of benefit. The severe mechanical tolerances required in the construction and operation of a classical Michelson interferometer for use in the UV-Visible spectral region have limited investigations in the application of simultaneous trace quantitative analysis. Theory is presented demonstrating that replacement of the fixed mirror in one arm of the Michelson interferometer with a rotating grating preserves most of the FTS advantages and results in a greatly simplified detector system. No mathematical Fourier transform is required. The need for a computer is eliminated. An instrument, SEMIDS (Selectively Modulated Interferometric Dispersive Spectrometer), was constructed to investigate the mathematical model. Design criteria and basic operational performance as a flame emission spectrometer are presented. SEMIDS achieved high resolution, high throughput and greatly simplified operation compared to a Michelson interferometer. Performance as a trace quantitative tool was disappoint because of unanticipated noise contributions from flame background. A summary of the noise component contributions is discussed

  20. The art and science of magnet design: Selected notes of Klaus Halbach. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains a compilation of 57 notes written by Dr. Klaus Halbach selected from his collection of over 1650 such documents. It provides an historic snapshot of the evolution of magnet technology and related fields as the notes range from as early as 1965 to the present, and is intended to show the breadth of Dr. Halbach's interest and ability that have long been an inspiration to his many friends and colleagues. As Halbach is an experimental physicist whose scientific interests span many areas, and who does his most innovative work with pencil and paper rather than at the workbench or with a computer, the vast majority of the notes in this volume were handwritten and their content varies greatly--some reflect original work or work for a specific project, while others are mere clarifications of mathematical calculations or design specifications. As the authors converted the notes to electronic form, some were superficially edited and corrected, while others were extensively re-written to reflect current knowledge and notation. The notes are organized under five categories which reflect their primary content: Beam Position Monitors, (bpm), Current Sheet Electron Magnets (csem), Magnet Theory, (thry), Undulators and Wigglers (u-w), and Miscellaneous (misc). Within the category, they are presented chronologically starting from the most recent note and working backwards in time

  1. Experience and challenges on safeguards practices and approaches for BAEC 3 MW TRIGA Mk-II research reactor and other establishment of Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    in this document. IAEA would decide on the modalities, frequency and scope of conducting its verification program on the basis of the declaration. It may be pointed out that the IAEA Inspectors are as a rule designated subject to their acceptance by the Government. After intensive preparatory works, Bangladesh signed the CTBT in October 1996. The treaty was ratified in March 2000. This treaty provides for an additional commitment of the signatory country that it would not conduct any nuclear detonation in the future. It may be pointed out that Bangladesh is one of the 34 countries of an exclusive list relevant to the treaty. It was envisaged that the treaty would not come into force until and unless each of these states signs the treaty. This is a manifestation of Bangladesh's potential nuclear capabilities and by signing this Bangladesh has adequately and convincingly reiterated its commitment to the international community about its peaceful intentions. This paper describes Bangladesh's experience to implement IAEA safeguards including various legal and institutional agreements made for the rectification and smooth implementation of NPT, safeguards and Additional Protocol. (author)

  2. INCREASING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF ANTI-SMOKING CAMPAIGN BY ANALYZING THE BEHAVIOR AND ATTITUDES OF SMOKING PERSONS & UTILIZING 4PS OF MARKETING: A STUDY ON SYLHET CITY, BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsin Hossain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Different anti-smoking campaigns are not proved as expectedly effective in reducing smoking habit among citizen of Sylhet as well as other districts of Bangladesh. This paper is designed to search out the ways to increase the effectiveness of such campaign by analyzing the behaviour and attitudes of smoking people of Sylhet city. Primary data are collected from 268 respondents selected by stratified sampling design by a semi-structured questionnaire and secondary from different published materials for this empirical research. It is inferred that lack of awareness and seriousness about warning is the cause of smoking habit that is prevailed mostly among lower and medium income people who are struggling for their livelihood. It started from their student life when emotion and curiosity dominates over other elements in human life cycle. But at the matured stage they cannot give up the addiction habit easily till the suffering from disease started or the strong obstruction from closest family members faced. It is also inferred that strong will power to give up that habit at a time make the intended people successful in that most necessary abandoning event to save himself from active effect of smoking and others from passive effect of smoking. Social Marketing through the strong hand of Social Advertising along with other 3P’s (Product, Place & Price can play the most significant role by creating mass awareness and guiding self control in anti-smoking campaign by bringing change in social attitude.

  3. Multi-diameter pigging: factors affecting the design and selection of pigging tools for multi-diameter pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson, Karl [Pipeline Engineering and Supply Co. Ltd., Richmond, NY (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This paper will consider the process involved in pigging tool selection for pipelines with two or more significant internal diameters which require pigging tools capable of negotiating the different internal diameters whilst also carrying out the necessary pipeline cleaning operation. The paper will include an analysis of pipeline features that affect pigging tool selection and then go on to look at other variables that determine the pigging tool design; this will include a step by step guide outlining how the tool is designed, the development of prototype pigs and the importance of testing and validation prior to final deployment in operational pigging programmes. (author)

  4. Sexual Health of Women with Spinal Cord Injury in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huib Cornielje

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To identify factors influencing the sexual health of women with spinal cord injury (SCI in Bangladesh.Methods: This study used both qualitative and quantitative methods. The quantitative part used a case-control design. Cases were women with SCI and controls were age-matched women without SCI.  Questionnaires were used to collect data concerning the sexual health status of women. Multivariate logistic regression was done to determine which factors had an independent effect on sexual health.  In-depth interviews were held with a sub-group of women from both groups, and interview guides were used. The in-depth interview data was subjected to content analysis.Results: In total, 92 questionnaires were given out and 30 in-depth interviews were conducted. A relationship was found between physical factors and sexual health, as pain, vaginal dryness and physical discomfort were mentioned more frequently among women with SCI. Environmental and emotional factors such as stigma, satisfaction of the husband and support from the husband and friends had an influence on the sexual health of the women with SCI, as well as the other group of women.Conclusions: From interviews it became clear that most of the women with SCI were dissatisfied with their sexual health as compared to the women without SCI. However, environmental and emotional factors such as attitudes, support and stigma, rather than physical factors, were the most important influences on sexual health in both groups of women.doi: 10.5463/dcid.v23i3.60

  5. Prevalence and Patterns of Tobacco Use in Bangladesh from 2009 to 2012: Evidence from International Tobacco Control (ITC Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigar Nargis

    Full Text Available Smoking and passive smoking are collectively the biggest preventable cause of death in Bangladesh, with major public health burden of morbidity, disability, mortality and community costs. The available studies of tobacco use in Bangladesh, however, do not necessarily employ nationally representative samples needed to monitor the problem at a national scale. This paper examines the prevalence and patterns of tobacco use among adults in Bangladesh and the changes over time using large nationally representative comparable surveys.Using data from two enumerations of the International Tobacco Control (ITC Bangladesh Project conducted in 2009 and 2012, prevalence estimates are obtained for all tobacco products by socio-economic determinants and sample types of over 90,000 individuals drawn from over 30,000 households. Household level sample weights are used to obtain nationally representative prevalence estimates and standard errors. Statistical tests of difference in the estimates between two time periods are based on a logistic regression model that accounts for the complex sampling design. Using a multinomial logit model, the time trend in tobacco use status is identified to capture the effects of macro level determinants including changes in tobacco control policies.Between 2009 and 2012, overall tobacco use went down from 42.4% to 36.3%. The decline is more pronounced with respect to smokeless tobacco use than smoking. The prevalence of exclusive cigarette smoking went up from 7.2% to 10.6%; exclusive bidi smoking remained stable at around 2%; while smoking both cigarette and bidi went down from 4.6% to 1.8%; exclusive smokeless tobacco use went down from 20.2% to 16.9%; and both smokeless tobacco use and smoking went down from 8.4% to 5.1%. In general, the prevalence of tobacco use is higher among men, increases from younger to older age groups, and is higher among poorer people. Smoking prevalence is the highest among the slum population

  6. Deplorable Living Conditions of Female Workers: A Study in a Tea Garden of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B.M Enamol Hassan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The study reveals the living conditions of the female laborers of tea garden in Bangladesh exploring the social and job environment with the inclusion of consciousness level as the deplorable scenario of their life styles. This research has been done in a tea garden of Sylhet district in Bangladesh namely Lackatoorah Tea Estate, as the study area, taken into account at random. It shows that female workers are being oppressed and suppressed in each and every sphere of life as from family residence to job field. It also exhibits very explicitly that 68 percent of female workers have no control over their own income. 94 percent have no hereditary property ownership though they are entitled to get it legally from their family. 92 percent females think that they are being physically tortured and mentally harassed by their husband, male members of family and also by representative of estates manager. 86 percent women want to keep small size of family but cannot play role in the decision making of child issue. The study  is fully based on primary level data that followed stratified sampling method with triangulation research design and reviewing some related literatures from past research reports.

  7. CATALYSIS SCIENCE INITIATIVE: From First Principles Design to Realization of Bimetallic Catalysts for Enhanced Selectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MAVRIKAKIS, MANOS

    2007-05-03

    In this project, we have integrated state-of-the-art Density Functional Theory (DFT) models of heterogeneous catalytic processes with high-throughput screening of bimetallic catalytic candidates for important industrial problems. We have studied a new class of alloys characterized by a surface composition different from the bulk composition, and investigated their stability and activity for the water-gas shift reaction and the oxygen reduction reaction. The former reaction is an essential part of hydrogen production; the latter is the rate-limiting step in low temperature H2 fuel cells. We have identified alloys that have remarkable stability and activity, while having a much lower material cost for both of these reactions. Using this knowledge of bimetallic interactions, we have also made progress in the industrially relevant areas of carbohydrate reforming and conversion of biomass to liquid alkanes. One aspect of this work is the conversion of glycerol (a byproduct of biodiesel production) to synthesis gas. We have developed a bifunctional supported Pt catalyst that can cleave the carbon-carbon bond while also performing the water-gas shift reaction, which allows us to better control the H2:CO ratio. Knowledge gained from the theoretical metal-metal interactions was used to develop bimetallic catalysts that perform this reaction at low temperature, allowing for an efficient coupling of this endothermic reaction with other reactions, such as Fischer-Tropsch or methanol synthesis. In our work on liquid alkane production from biomass, we have studied deactivation and selectivity in these areas as a function of metal-support interactions and reaction conditions, with an emphasis on the bifunctionality of the catalysts studied. We have identified a stable, active catalyst for this process, where the selectivity and yield can be controlled by the reaction conditions. While complete rational design of catalysts is still elusive, this work demonstrates the power of

  8. Abundance of sardine fish species in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Bikram Jit

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted during January, 2012 to December 2012 in the sardine fisheries which is occurred both in artisanal and industrial fishing sector in the marine water of the Bay of Bengal of Bangladesh region. During this study period the total landing amounts by weight of sardines were 7352.99 MT, among these 23.76% (1747.22 MT was exploited by the artisanal mechanized boats and 76.24% (5605.77 MT captured through different industrial fishing trawlers and contributed 17.51% of the total marine fish production by commercial fish trawlers during the study period. 4 sardine species have been recorded from our marine territory. Among them, 2 sardine species are highly abundant, Sardinella fimbriata total production volumes was 5495.79 MT (74.74% contributed 1747.22MT (31.79% from the artisanal and 3748.57MT (68.21% from the industrial sector and Dussumieria acuta production amounts was 1857.20MT (25.26% contributed only from the industrial fishing sector.Species wise contribution shows that S. fimbriata contributed 100% in the artisanal sector and in the industrial fishing S. fimbriata contributed 66.87% and D. acuta contributed the rest 33.13%. The distribution of the S. fimbriata is within 10-20 meters depth and abundance was observed in the southern part of the South patches and South of south patches (N: 210.09// -22, E: 920.04/-07 to N: 200.45/-25, E: 920.18/-56 and 10-50m depth in onshore and off shore areas in the north-west to north-east of Middle ground (Kohinoor point -N: 210.36/.23, E: 900.06/.43 to N: 210.18/.18, E 910.17/.57. The distribution of the D. acuta is within 40-60 m. depth and abundance was observed in the north-west to north-east of Middle ground areas (Kohinoor point - N: 210.36/.23, E: 900.06/.43 to N: 210.18/.18, E 910.17/.57 and south-west to south-east of Middle ground (Kohinoor point- N: 200-17/.29, E: 900.15/.21 to N: 200.29/.56, E: 910.24/.22 in the Bay of Bengal of Bangladesh region. The peak capture season of

  9. The Potential Use of an Alternative Fluid for SFR Intermediate Loops: Selection and First Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the Generation IV systems, Sodium Fast Reactors (SFR) are promising and benefit of considerable technological experience, but improvements are researched on safety approach and capital cost reduction. One of the main problems to be solved by the standard SFR design is the proper management of the risk of leakage between the intermediate circuit filled with sodium and the energy conversion system using a water Rankine cycle. This risk requires notably an early detection of water leakage to prevent a water-sodium reaction, and adequate draining and pressure resistant components to mitigate the reaction consequences. One can think also to suppress this risk by replacing the sodium in the secondary loops by an alternative fluid, less reactive with water. This alternative fluid might also allow innovative designs, e.g. Intermediate Heat eXchanger (IHX) and Steam Generator Unit (SGU) grouped in the same component. CEA, AREVA and EDF have formed a working group in order to evaluate different 'alternative fluids' that might replace sodium. A first selection retained seven fluids on the bases of 'required properties' as: large operating range (low melting point, high boiling point ...), fluid cost and availability, acceptable corrosion at SFR working temperature. These are three bismuth alloys, two nitrate salts, one molten hydroxide and sodium with nanoparticles. Then, it was decided to evaluate these fluids through a multi-criteria analysis in order to point out advantages and drawbacks of each fluid and to compare them with sodium. Lack of knowledge, impact on materials, design, working conditions and reactor availability should be emphasized by this analysis, in order to provide sound arguments for a research program on one or two most promising fluids. A global note is given to each fluid by evaluating them with respect to 'major criteria', weighted differently according to their importance. The major criteria were: thermal properties, reactivity with structures

  10. Application of CellDesigner to the Selection of Anticancer Drug Targets: Test Case using P53

    OpenAIRE

    Isea, Raul; Hoebeke, Johan; Mayo, Rafael; Alvarez, Fernando; Holmes, David S.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is a disease involving many genes, consequently it has been difficult to design anticancer drugs that are efficacious over a broad range of cancers. The robustness of cellular responses to gene knockout and the need to reduce undesirable side effects also contribute to the problem of effective anti-cancer drug design. To promote the successful selection of drug targets, each potential target should be subjected to a systems biology scrutiny to locate effective and specific targets whil...

  11. Iodized salt induced thyrotoxicosis: Bangladesh perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parveen, S; Latif, S A; Kamal, M M; Asaduzzaman, M; Akther, A; Laila, Z H

    2009-07-01

    The effects of iodized and non-iodized salt on the thyroid gland and its hormones T3, T4 and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were studied in 200 individuals who were the residents of plain areas of greater Mymensingh district. The subjects were collected from the Center for Nuclear Medicine and Ultrasound, Mymensingh. Out of 200 individuals 150 were using iodized salt and 50 were using non-iodized salt. The iodized and non-iodized salt users were marked as study and control groups respectively. Blood samples were taken from both the groups and T3 and T4 in blood serum were determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA) while TSH was determined by immunoradiometricassay (IRMA). The mean concentration of T3 were 2.633 nmol/L and 2.223 nmol/L and T4 concentration were 122.444 nmol/L and 110.355 nmol/L in study and control group respectively. The mean TSH concentration was 5.044 mIU/L and 9.622 mIU/L in study and control group respectively. The data indicated that continuous and long term use of iodized salt increased both T3 and T4 and decreased TSH in study group. The results were significant (piodinated salt induced thyrotoxicosis (ISIT) in peoples living in plain areas of Bangladesh. We suggest close regular monitoring of T3, T4 and TSH and urinary excretion of iodine of individuals who are using iodized salt for better management of iodinated salt program in our setting. PMID:19623141

  12. Minimal pharmacophoric elements and fragment hopping, an approach directed at molecular diversity and isozyme selectivity. Design of selective neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Haitao; Stanton, Benjamin Z; Igarashi, Jotaro; Li, Huiying; Martásek, Pavel; Roman, Linda J; Poulos, Thomas L; Silverman, Richard B

    2008-03-26

    Fragment hopping, a new fragment-based approach for de novo inhibitor design focusing on ligand diversity and isozyme selectivity, is described. The core of this approach is the derivation of the minimal pharmacophoric element for each pharmacophore. Sites for both ligand binding and isozyme selectivity are considered in deriving the minimal pharmacophoric elements. Five general-purpose libraries are established: the basic fragment library, the bioisostere library, the rules for metabolic stability, the toxicophore library, and the side chain library. These libraries are employed to generate focused fragment libraries to match the minimal pharmacophoric elements for each pharmacophore and then to link the fragment to the desired molecule. This method was successfully applied to neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), which is implicated in stroke and neurodegenerative diseases. Starting with the nitroarginine-containing dipeptide inhibitors we developed previously, a small organic molecule with a totally different chemical structure was designed, which showed nanomolar nNOS inhibitory potency and more than 1000-fold nNOS selectivity. The crystallographic analysis confirms that the small organic molecule with a constrained conformation can exactly mimic the mode of action of the dipeptide nNOS inhibitors. Therefore, a new peptidomimetic strategy, referred to as fragment hopping, which creates small organic molecules that mimic the biological function of peptides by a pharmacophore-driven strategy for fragment-based de novo design, has been established as a new type of fragment-based inhibitor design. As an open system, the newly established approach efficiently incorporates the concept of early "ADME/Tox" considerations and provides a basic platform for medicinal chemistry-driven efforts. PMID:18321097

  13. Research achievements in Bangladesh agriculture using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of isotope and radiation techniques in Bangladesh agriculture has been initiated in 1961 with the establishment of Atomic Energy Agricultural Research Centre, Dhaka under the then Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission. The activity of the centre was strengthened and upgraded to the level of an institute as a constituent organization of Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission in 1972. It was further reorganized, made an autonomous research organization under the Ministry of Agriculture in 1982 and renamed as Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture. The other organizations involved in nuclear agricultural research are Institute of Food and Radiation Biology and Bangladesh Agricultural University. A number of technologies have been developed using nuclear techniques that imparted on agricultural development. Sixteen new crops were developed using physical (200-700 Gy gamma rays) and chemical mutagen (NaN3). Soil fertility and plant nutrition technologies were developed using both stable and radio isotopes. The improved feeding strategies and utilization of locally available low quality feed material (rice straw) were determined using 51Cr-EDTA and 125I in order to have better livestock growth and reproduction ability. Several constraints related to nuclear research were identified. Increased government commitment and international cooperation are of the utmost importance for effective utilization of the benefits of nuclear technology and to face the increasing demand for food for the ever increasing population in years to come

  14. Skill Intensity and Skills Development in Bangladesh Manufacturing Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comyn, Paul

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on recent research into enterprise skill profiles and workplace training practices in the Bangladesh manufacturing industry. The article presents survey and interview data for 37 enterprises across eight manufacturing sectors collected during a study for the International Labour Organisation. The research analysed enterprise and…

  15. Enhanced Ties with China Can Help Bangladesh Develop

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shihabur; Rahman

    2013-01-01

    <正>Construction of a deep seaport in Chittagong and establishment of Chittagong-Kunming rail and road communications have been a much-talked-about issue following Bangladesh Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina’s visit to China.She went for the trip in the rising economic superpower in one and a half years of her assuming office early 2009.During

  16. Neoliberalism, Policy Reforms and Higher Education in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Ariful Haq

    2013-01-01

    Bangladesh has introduced neoliberal policies since the 1970s. Military regimes, since the dramatic political changes in 1975, accelerated the process. A succession of military rulers made rigorous changes in policy-making in various sectors. This article uses a critical approach to document analysis and examines the perceptions of key…

  17. Children's Rights and the Imagination of Community in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Sarah C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper suggests that sharply divergent images of children in Bangladesh reflect different "imagined communities" of society and polity, local and global. Universal concepts of "the rights of the child" contrast strongly with a local culture of "guardianship", as the key social institution that governs children's lives. How might bringing these…

  18. International Briefing 24: Training and Development in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Monowar; Akhter, Salma

    2011-01-01

    Training and development activities in Bangladesh have yet to be systematic and able to fulfil the needs of the economy and industry. The national educational and training system failed to provide adequate knowledge and skills to the workforce. However, private sector organizations are undertaking different initiatives to cope with the industry…

  19. Private University Librarian's Experience on Procurement of Books in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Muhammad Hossam Haider

    2011-01-01

    The private universities in Bangladesh are playing an important role in modernizing the higher education system in the country and the role of librarians is also different and challenging. Specially, procuring books and monographs is an exigent function being this lost its demand very quickly. In some cases, titles bear only one semester…

  20. Living with infertility : Experiences among urban slum populations in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papreen, N; Sabin, K; Begum, L; Ahsan, SK; Baqui, AH

    2000-01-01

    This paper explores the perceived causes of infertility, treatment-seeking for infertility and the consequences of childlessness, particularly for women, among a predominantly Muslim population in urban slums of Dhaka in Bangladesh. In-depth interviews were conducted with 60 women and GO men randoml