WorldWideScience

Sample records for bangladesh design select

  1. The 2005 census and mapping of slums in Bangladesh: design, select results and application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeles Gustavo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The concentration of poverty and adverse environmental circumstances within slums, particularly those in the cities of developing countries, are an increasingly important concern for both public health policy initiatives and related programs in other sectors. However, there is a dearth of information on the population-level implications of slum life for human health. This manuscript describes the 2005 Census and Mapping of Slums (CMS, which used geographic information systems (GIS tools and digital satellite imagery combined with more traditional fieldwork methodologies, to obtain detailed, up-to-date and new information about slum life in all slums of six major cities in Bangladesh (including Dhaka. Results The CMS found that Bangladeshi slums are very diverse: there are wide intra- and inter-city variations in population size, density, the percent of urban populations living in slums, and sanitation conditions. Findings also show that common beliefs about slums may be outdated; of note, tenure insecurity was found to be an issue in only a small minority of slums. Conclusion The methodology used in the 2005 Bangladesh CMS provides a useful approach to mapping slums that could be applied to urban areas in other low income societies. This methodology may become an increasingly important analytic tool to inform policy, as cities in developing countries are forecasted to continue increasing their share of total global population in the coming years, with slum populations more than doubling in size during the same period.

  2. A survey of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) farming in selected areas of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Abu Nasar Md. Aminoor Rahman; Md. Nazmul Hoque; Anup Kumar Talukder; Ziban Chandra Das

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the status, problems and prospects of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) farming in selected areas of Bangladesh. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in 14 districts of Bangladesh, viz., Dhaka, Narayanganj, Munshiganj, Mymensingh, Netrakona, Faridpur, Jessore, Khulna, Satkhira, Kushtia, Bogra, Naogaon, Comilla, and Sylhet during the period from July 2011 to June 2012. A total of 52 quail farmers were interviewed for data collection using a structured...

  3. Designing an Health Insurance Scheme for Government Employees in Bangladesh: A Concept Paper

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid, Syed Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Introducing compulsory health insurance for government employees bears immense importance for stepping towards universal healthcare coverage in Bangladesh. Lack of scientific study on designing such scheme, in the Bangladesh context, motivates this paper. The study aims at designing a comprehensive insurance package simultaneously covering health, life and accident related disability risks of the public employees, where the health component would extend to all dependent family members. ...

  4. Design Strategies and Preliminary Prototype for a Low-Cost Arsenic Removal System for Rural Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathieu, Johanna L.; Gadgil, Ashok J.; Kowolik, Kristin; Qazi, Shefah; Agogino, Alice M.

    2009-09-14

    Researchers have invented a material called ARUBA -- Arsenic Removal Using Bottom Ash -- that effectively and affordably removes arsenic from Bangladesh groundwater. Through analysis of studies across a range of disciplines, observations, and informal interviews conducted over three trips to Bangladesh, we have applied mechanical engineering design methodology to develop eight key design strategies, which were used in the development of a low-cost, community-scale water treatment system that uses ARUBA to removearsenic from drinking water. We have constructed, tested, and analysed a scale version of the system. Experiments have shown that the system is capable of reducing high levels of arsenic (nearly 600 ppb) to below the Bangladesh standard of 50 ppb, while remaining affordable to people living on less than US$2/day. The system could be sustainably implemented as a public-private partnership in rural Bangladesh.

  5. Design of a Braille Learning Application for Visually Impaired Students in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Lutfun; Jaafar, Azizah; Ahamed, Eistiak; Kaish, A B M A

    2015-01-01

    Visually impaired students (VIS) are unable to get visual information, which has made their learning process complicated. This paper discusses the overall situation of VIS in Bangladesh and identifies major challenges that they are facing in getting education. The Braille system is followed to educate blind students in Bangladesh. However, lack of Braille based educational resources and technological solutions have made the learning process lengthy and complicated for VIS. As a developing country, Bangladesh cannot afford for the costly Braille related technological tools for VIS. Therefore, a mobile phone based Braille application, "mBRAILLE", for Android platform is designed to provide an easy Braille learning technology for VIS in Bangladesh. The proposed design is evaluated by experts in assistive technology for students with disabilities, and advanced learners of Braille. The application aims to provide a Bangla and English Braille learning platform for VIS. In this paper, we depict iterative (participatory) design of the application along with a preliminary evaluation with 5 blind subjects, and 1 sighted and 2 blind experts. The results show that the design scored an overall satisfaction level of 4.53 out of 5 by all respondents, indicating that our design is ready for the next step of development.

  6. Design of a rural water provision system to decrease arsenic exposure in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathieu, Johanna [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2009-01-09

    Researchers at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory have invented ARUBA (Arsenic Removal Using Bottom Ash) a material that effectively and affordably removes high concentrations of arsenic from contaminated groundwater. The technology is cost-effective because the substrate-bottom ash from coal fired power plants-is a waste material readily available in South Asia. During fieldwork in four sub-districts of Bangladesh, ARUBA reduced groundwater arsenic concentrations as high as 680 ppb to below the Bangladesh standard of 50 ppb. Key results from three trips in Bangladesh and one trip to Cambodia include (1) ARUBA removes more than half of the arsenic from contaminated water within the first five minutes of contact, and continues removing arsenic for 2-3 days; (2) ARUBA's arsenic removal efficiency can be improved through fractionated dosing (adding a given amount of ARUBA in fractions versus all at once); (3) allowing water to first stand for two to three days followed by treatment with ARUBA produced final arsenic concentrations ten times lower than treating water directly out of the well; and (4) the amount of arsenic removed per gram of ARUBA is linearly related to the initial arsenic concentration of the water. Through analysis of existing studies, observations, and informal interviews in Bangladesh, eight design strategies have been developed and used in the design of a low-cost, community-scale water treatment system that uses ARUBA to remove arsenic from drinking water. We have constructed, tested, and analyzed a scale version of the system. Experiments have shown that the system is capable of reducing high levels of arsenic (nearly 600 ppb) to below 50 ppb, while remaining affordable to people living on less than $2 per day. The system could be sustainably implemented as a public-private partnership in rural Bangladesh.

  7. Microcredit and domestic violence in Bangladesh: an exploration of selection bias influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajracharya, Ashish; Amin, Sajeda

    2013-10-01

    This article explores the relationship between women's participation in microcredit groups and domestic violence in Bangladesh. Several recent studies have raised concern about microcredit programs by reporting higher levels of violence among women who are members. These results, however, may be attributable to selection bias because members might differ from nonmembers in ways that make them more susceptible to violence to begin with. Using a sample of currently married women from the 2007 Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey (BDHS) (N = 4,195), we use propensity score matching (PSM) as a way of exploring selection bias in this relationship. Results suggest that the previously seen strong positive association between membership and violence does not hold when an appropriate comparison group, generated using PSM, is used in the analyses. Additional analyses also suggest that levels of violence do not differ significantly between members and nonmembers and instead could depend on context-specific factors related to poverty. Members for whom a match is not found report considerably higher levels of violence relative to nonmembers in the unmatched group. The background characteristics of members and nonmembers who do not match suggest that they are more likely to be younger and from relatively well-to-do households.

  8. A survey of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica farming in selected areas of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Nasar Md. Aminoor Rahman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate the status, problems and prospects of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica farming in selected areas of Bangladesh. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in 14 districts of Bangladesh, viz., Dhaka, Narayanganj, Munshiganj, Mymensingh, Netrakona, Faridpur, Jessore, Khulna, Satkhira, Kushtia, Bogra, Naogaon, Comilla, and Sylhet during the period from July 2011 to June 2012. A total of 52 quail farmers were interviewed for data collection using a structured questionnaire. Focus group discussions were also carried out with unsuccessful farmers and those want to start quail farming. Workers of quail farms, quail feeds and medicine suppliers, quail eggs and meat sellers were also interviewed regarding the issue. Results: Out of 52 farms, 86.5% were operated by male, 67.3% farmers did not receive any training and 92.3% farmers had no earlier experience of quail farming although 58.0% farmers primary occupation was quail farming. Most of the farms (63.4% were mixed in type having ≤5000 birds of two or three varieties. About 80.7% farms were operated separately round the year with no other poultry and 83.0% farmers wanted to expand their farming. The average pullet weight 14.5±0.12, 11.0±0.07, 12.0±0.22, and 12.8±0.17 g; age at the first lay 46.0±0.04, 42.0±0.31, 42.0±0.09, and 45.2±0.05 days; rearing period 15.0±0.01, 12.0±0.14, 15.0±0.32, and 15.2±0.18 months; culling period 15.5±0.14, 13.0±0.06, 15.0±0.03, and 15.4±0.26 months were for layer, parent stock, hatchery, and mixed farms, respectively. Most of the layer farms had an average egg production of ≤5000/day and net profit BDT 0.75/egg. However, an average number of birds, hatchability and net profit per day-old-chick were ≤5000, 76.8% and BDT 2.75, respectively, in the hatchery. Broiler quails were sold at 30 days with mean weight of 110.8 g and net profit BDT 9.02/bird. The major constraints of quail farming were higher feed price

  9. A survey of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) farming in selected areas of Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasar, Abu; Rahman, Aminoor; Hoque, Nazmul; Kumar Talukder, Anup; Das, Ziban Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the status, problems and prospects of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) farming in selected areas of Bangladesh. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in 14 districts of Bangladesh, viz., Dhaka, Narayanganj, Munshiganj, Mymensingh, Netrakona, Faridpur, Jessore, Khulna, Satkhira, Kushtia, Bogra, Naogaon, Comilla, and Sylhet during the period from July 2011 to June 2012. A total of 52 quail farmers were interviewed for data collection using a structured questionnaire. Focus group discussions were also carried out with unsuccessful farmers and those want to start quail farming. Workers of quail farms, quail feeds and medicine suppliers, quail eggs and meat sellers were also interviewed regarding the issue. Results: Out of 52 farms, 86.5% were operated by male, 67.3% farmers did not receive any training and 92.3% farmers had no earlier experience of quail farming although 58.0% farmers primary occupation was quail farming. Most of the farms (63.4%) were mixed in type having ≤5000 birds of two or three varieties. About 80.7% farms were operated separately round the year with no other poultry and 83.0% farmers wanted to expand their farming. The average pullet weight 145.0±0.12, 110.0±0.07, 120.0±0.22, and 128.0±0.17 g; age at the first lay 46.0±0.04, 42.0±0.31, 42.0±0.09, and 45.2±0.05 days; rearing period 15.0±0.01, 12.0±0.14, 15.0±0.32, and 15.2±0.18 months; culling period 15.5±0.14, 13.0±0.06, 15.0±0.03, and 15.4±0.26 months were for layer, parent stock, hatchery, and mixed farms, respectively. Most of the layer farms had an average egg production of ≤5000/day and net profit BDT 0.75/egg. However, an average number of birds, hatchability and net profit per day-old-chick were ≤5000, 76.8% and BDT 2.75, respectively, in the hatchery. Broiler quails were sold at 30 days with mean weight of 110.8 g and net profit BDT 9.02/bird. The major constraints of quail farming were higher feed price, outbreak of endemic

  10. Evaluation of functional potentiality of selected commonly consumed foods of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazma Shaheen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rising tide of chronic nutrition related non-communicable diseases yoked with extant under nutrition problems makes it imperative to carry out scientific research towards the discovery of functional foods. Although the emergence of these diseases are believed to be related to a constellation of dietary, socio-economic and lifestyle related risk factors, central to the pathogenesis of these diseases (or disease states are free radicals, oxidative stress, and inflammatory processes typically accompanied by pain. Therefore, functional whole foods with physiologically active antioxidants, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic compounds seem to be the most promising option to deal with the pathogenesis of existing and emerging chronic diseases burden of Bangladesh. Methods: Edible portions of 70 commonly consumed Bangladeshi foods – including one cereal, five legumes, fourteen vegetables, four tea varieties, five oil seeds, twenty spices, and twenty one fruits – were evaluated for total phenol content (TPC by Folin-Ciocalteau assay. To evaluate functional potentiality, in vitro antioxidant capacity (AC of selected food items were evaluated by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl- 1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assays, in vitro anti-inflammatory potential by observing the production of pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α using J774A.1 cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, in vivo anti-inflammatory potential by measuring carrageenan induced rat paw edema reduction, and in vivo analgesic potential by acetic acid induced writhing test in mice. Results: Spices, oilseeds, and teas showed high concentration of TPC among the analyzed foods, while spices and teas exhibited notable AC. Green tea showed highest concentrations of TPC (2349 mg Gallic Acid Equivalent / g and AC (2432 µmole Trolox Equivalent/g. Fourteen food items showed potential in vitro anti-inflammatory activity with confirmatory dose response effect shown by 8 items. In vivo, black sesame

  11. Approaches to Increase Arsenic Awareness in Bangladesh: An Evaluation of an Arsenic Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Christine Marie; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Khan, Khalid; Islam, Tariqul; Singha, Ashit; Moon-Howard, Joyce; van Geen, Alexander; Graziano, Joseph H.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to design and evaluate a household-level arsenic education and well water arsenic testing intervention to increase arsenic awareness in Bangladesh. The authors randomly selected 1,000 study respondents located in 20 villages in Singair, Bangladesh. The main outcome was the change in knowledge of arsenic from…

  12. Status and constraints of jute cultivation in Bangladesh: An experience from selected upazilas under chandpur district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Muzahidul Islam

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at exploring the obstacles of jute cultivation under Chandpur Districts in Bangladesh by the principle component analysis (PCA. The required data were collected through structured interview schedule from 803 jute farmers sampled conveniently. Though jute diversified industry has been seen as potential since the last decade in Bangladesh, raw jute production is not satisfactory due to several obstacles. The study has identified three categories of constraints that hinder sustainable jute production. These are lack of capital and inputs, knowledge and natural resources, and market information. Basically farmers cultivate jute for earning profit but they are not conscious about forward market. Lack of jute diversification knowledge is the unique findings of this study. The findings may help policy makers and stakeholders for taking effective decision in addressing the barriers to jute cultivation in Bangladesh.

  13. Study on rural duck production systems in selected areas of Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khanum, J.; Chwalibog, André; Huque, K.S.

    2005-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate scavenging duck production systems in two regions (Netrokona Sadar Upazila and Sundargonj Upazila) of Bangladesh. Feeding systems and availability of feed for raising ducks, production performance of scaavenging ducks and profitability of raising...

  14. A proposal for optimizing the tunnel design of the Khalashpir coal field, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu Sarkar, D.; Quamruzzaman, C.; Ahmed, R.; Mohiuddin, Z.; Murshed, S.

    2012-12-01

    The Khalashpir coal field is one of the five hitherto discovered coal fields in Bangladesh. The 25 sq km coal field accommodates itself to the prolific northwestern part - deemed as the Stable Precambrian Platform - of the country representing a Gondwana deposit. The total in-situ reserve of coal in 8 seams of the 7.5 square km surveyed area is 451 million tons while the measured reserve is 277 million tons and the indicated reserve is 174 million tons. However, only seams I, II and IV are considered to have potential for mining. Our aim is to provide a tool - to design a tunnel for the coal field - to be used throughout the planning and construction process. We know a strong bond ties the Murphy's Law and the science of Geology together. Tracking the variability of geologic conditions is thus a real challenge in the optimization of the tunnel design. Consequently, recording of the geological parameters along the excavated tunnel has to be made as the tunnel construction proceeds. A case study has been done in order to develop insight into the loading mechanisms and nature of the associated convergence in the long wall mining. A series of nonlinear equations on the concrete support structure has also been analyzed with the finite element model developed. We make use of the Finite Element Method (FEM) to produce a reliable and practical tunnel design.; Tunnel cross section ; Coarse finite element mesh using the quadrilateral elements. Node numbers are as shown - 33 elements.

  15. Selection bias in the link between child wantedness and child survival: theory and data from Matlab, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishai, David; Razzaque, Abdur; Christiansen, Susan; Mustafa, A H M Golam; Hindin, Michelle

    2015-02-01

    We examine the potential effects of selection bias on the association between unwanted births and child mortality from 7,942 women from Matlab, Bangladesh who declared birth intentions in 1990 prior to conceiving pregnancies. We explore and test two opposing reasons for bias in the distribution of observed births. First, some women who report not wanting more children could face starvation or frailty; and if these women are infecund, the remaining unwanted births would appear more healthy. Second, some women who report not wanting more children could have social privileges in acquiring medical services, abortion, and contraceptives; and if these women avoid births, the remaining unwanted births would appear less healthy. We find (1) no overall effect of unwantedness on child survival in rural Bangladesh in the 1990s, (2) no evidence that biological processes are spuriously making the birth cohort look more healthy, and (3) some evidence that higher schooling for women who avoid unwanted births is biasing the observed sample to make unwanted births look less healthy. Efforts to understand the effect of unwantedness in data sets that do not control for complex patterns of selective birth may be misleading and require more cautious interpretation.

  16. Prescribing behavior of diabetes treating physicians in selected health care facilities of the Diabetic Association of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilkis Banu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Practicing behavior of the physicians varies from population to population due to diverse socioeconomic, cultural, and professional factors. Evidence on these issues is almost nonexistent in the developing countries. Objective: The prescribing behavior of diabetes treating physicians working in selected hospitals of the Diabetic Association of Bangladesh was studied along with the factors affecting those behaviors. Materials and Methods: This was an observational study on 818 prescriptions given by 49 physicians working in 16 health care facilities, which were photocopied by a portable photocopier. The various components of the prescription were scrutinized for presence and absence, and evaluated independently by two expert Diabetologists for their qualitative aspects. Results: The mean ± standard deviation of the total prescribing score (expressed as percentage was 60 ± 11. Physicians scoring around or below 60% belonged more to lower age (<40 years, less experienced (<7 years and mid-position (Senior Medical Officers groups. Most of them also had public medical college background. Physicians with Certificate Course on Diabetology (CCD had significantly higher score compared with the Non-CCD group (P < 0.001. Direction and duration of drug use were absent in majority of prescriptions (72.0% and 61.6%, respectively. Symptoms were not written in 78.0% and the family histories were not recorded in 98.5% prescriptions. Diet (49.4% and exercise (51.0% related advices were not mentioned in a large number of prescriptions. Appropriate change of drug (78.2% and proper use of drug (99.1% and brand (93.8% were found rational, but still, 22.4% of the prescriptions found illegible. Conclusion: A large proportion of prescriptions in Bangladesh related to diabetes care still lack standardization and acceptable quality. Nondrug related issues (such as history, symptoms, and dietary/exercise-related advices are the most neglected ones in a

  17. Conceptual Design of Solar-micro Hydro Power Plant to Increase Conversion Efficiency for Supporting Remote Tribal Community of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anmona Shabnam Pranti

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh is endowed with people along with limited primary energy sources and low electrification rate. Most of the hilly areas are out of the coverage of national grid where tribal people, a significant part of the country, are dwelling. The economic development of the whole country depends upon their advancement which is related to the electrification rate. Available micro hydro potential in hilly region could be a solution for this crisis if modified design is used. This paper deals with a new design of water power potential conversion efficiency increment of a micro hydro power plant to 95% from about 50% by using solar power for heating the water. In this proposed hybrid design, a parabolic reflector is considered to be used after comparative solar intensity analysis on different micro hydro power sites in Bangladesh to increase the velocity as well as the flow rate through penstock by heating the water to increase power production and efficiency. The main purpose of this concept is to supply electricity to more people, especially, remote tribal community by available renewable energy sources for economic development.

  18. Selecting materials in product design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Kesteren, I.E.H.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis exists of several studies and design steps that resulted in a new material selection technique for user-centred design, which is supported by tools. The tools use examples of materials in products and stimulate the discussions about the user-interaction aspects of those materials desired

  19. Selection and design of solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    . With increasing interest on issues such as waste, sustainability, environmental impact and green chemistry, the selection and design of solvents have become important problems that need to be addressed during chemical product-process design and development. Systematic methods and tools suitable for selection...... and design of solvents will be presented together with application examples. The selection problem is defined as finding known chemicals that match the desired functions of a solvent for a specified set of applications. The design problem is defined as finding the molecular structure (or mixture of molecules......) that match the desired functions of a solvent for a specified set of applications. Use of organic chemicals and ionic liquids as solvents will be covered....

  20. Bayesian Spatial Design of Optimal Deep Tubewell Locations in Matlab, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Joshua L; Perez-Heydrich, Carolina; Yunus, Mohammad

    2013-09-01

    We introduce a method for statistically identifying the optimal locations of deep tubewells (dtws) to be installed in Matlab, Bangladesh. Dtw installations serve to mitigate exposure to naturally occurring arsenic found at groundwater depths less than 200 meters, a serious environmental health threat for the population of Bangladesh. We introduce an objective function, which incorporates both arsenic level and nearest town population size, to identify optimal locations for dtw placement. Assuming complete knowledge of the arsenic surface, we then demonstrate how minimizing the objective function over a domain favors dtws placed in areas with high arsenic values and close to largely populated regions. Given only a partial realization of the arsenic surface over a domain, we use a Bayesian spatial statistical model to predict the full arsenic surface and estimate the optimal dtw locations. The uncertainty associated with these estimated locations is correctly characterized as well. The new method is applied to a dataset from a village in Matlab and the estimated optimal locations are analyzed along with their respective 95% credible regions.

  1. The Daudkandi model of community floodplain aquaculture in Bangladesh: a case for Ostrom’s design principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamin Bayazid

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Floodplain water-bodies are major common-pool resources (CPRs of Bangladesh and constitute more than fifty percent of inland open water bodies. Throughout the British colonial period, Pakistani rule and the first one and half decades of independent Bangladesh, a majority of inland water-bodies remained under direct government management, though the floodplains by getting heavily inundated during the monsoon turn into open access resource. In the mid-1980s co-management was introduced on a small scale with the help of NGOs as providers of management styles and credit to communities of fishers or villagers. NGOs also got involved in floodplain water-bodies and came up with different models of user-managed fishery bodies. This paper examines a specific management system of community-governed floodplain aquaculture (FPA known as the Daudkandi model, developed by a local NGO in the Daudkandi sub-district of the Comilla district. Applying the design principles developed by Ostrom (1990 characterizing long surviving successful user-managed common-pool resource institutions, this paper explores the rules devised by partners in the management of a FPA under the Daudkandi model. Though the FPA management model is relatively new as it has been adopted in 1996, it has been found to follow the design principles in devising its management rules. However, because of its unique features in terms of seasonality, NGO-community partnership, exclusion of past users, and numerous replications, etc. the future of the model as a CPR governance system holds many challenges and deserves continuous research focus.

  2. A cluster-randomized, placebo-controlled, maternal vitamin a or beta-carotene supplementation trial in bangladesh: design and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schulze Kerry

    2011-04-01

    infectious morbidity, infant infectious morbidity, maternal and infant micronutrient status, fetal and infant growth and prematurity, external birth defects and postnatal infant growth to 3 months of age. Conclusion Aspects of study site selection and its "resonance" with national and rural qualities of Bangladesh, the trial's design, methods and allocation group comparability achieved by randomization, field procedures and innovative approaches to solving challenges in trial conduct are described and discussed. This trial is registered with http://Clinicaltrials.gov as protocol NCT00198822.

  3. Attitude of Farmers towards Thai Koi Farming in Selected Upazila of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farruk Ahmed

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The main purposes of the study were to determine the attitude of farmers towards Thai Koi farming in a selected area of Mymensingh district. Attempt was also made to identify the problems faced by the farmers in Thai Koi farming. Data were obtained from randomly selected 70 Thai Koi farmers of Shaiod and Ahmedpur villages in Kheruajani Union under Muktagachha Upazila of Mamensingh district during April, 2015. Attitude of the farmers was measured in respect of different aspects of Thai koi production. A three-point rating scale was used to indicate the Thai koi farmers’ response against each statement. The possible score for each respondent could range from 15 to 45 and observed score ranged from 31 to 41. It is evident that ‘I believe that Thai koi farming in pond can supply protein and nutrition to the family members ranked first as a statement in attitude scale of Thai Koi farmers. Second is ‘I like Thai Koi farming because it has higher growth rate than that of other local Koi’. Most of the Thai Koi farmers had highly favourable attitude. Among the problems, ‘high sensitivity to disease of Thai Koi’ got the highest problem confrontation score and stood the first ranked problem and other problem were ‘High price of Thai koi feed’, High price of drugs’ and ‘High price of farm labour’ etc. Farmers suggested from their experiences that there should have need-based spot training on effective management of Thai Koi farming. In achieving this target, Department of Fisheries and allied NGOs may play a crucial role.

  4. Selected papers on optomechanical design

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Donald C.

    The papers included in this volume deal with a variety of topics in optical and optoelectronic science, engineering, and technology under the following headings: design, materials, tolerancing and specification, mounting, mechanical analysis, thermal analysis, stabilization, baffling, assembly and alignment, and scanning. Particular topics discussed include selection of materials and processes for metal optics, trends and limits in the production of optical elements and optical systems, aerospace mounts for down-to-earth optics, and thermal effects in optical systems. Papers are also presented on integrating Nd:YAG lasers into optical systems, line-of-sight steering and stabilization, and motors and control systems for rotating mirror deflectors.

  5. Spotlight: Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, L

    1998-01-01

    This brief article highlights the progress made in Bangladesh in reducing fertility and improving women's status. The mid-1997 population was an estimated 122.2 million persons. The land area is 50,260 square miles. Population density was 2432 people per square mile. Births were 31 per 1000 persons. Deaths were 11 per 1000 persons. Infant deaths were 77 per 1000 live births. Natural increase was 2% per year. The total fertility rate was 3.3 births per woman. Life expectancy was 58 years for males and females. Bangladesh is one of the most densely populated countries in the world and has about 50% of US population situated on land the size of Wisconsin. Average annual income is about $240. Livelihoods from agriculture are affected by monsoons and natural disasters. Bangladesh has reduced its fertility by half since the mid-1970s. Almost 50% of married women relied on contraception during 1996-97, compared to only 8% of married women in 1975. Increases in contraceptive prevalence are attributed to the family planning program and parents' desire for smaller families. The government has made slowing population growth a priority since the 1970s. The 35,000 field workers provide door-to-door contraception and counseling. Mass media has promoted messages about the economic and health advantages of limiting or spacing births. Women continue to play a subordinate role to men, despite their improved control over fertility. Under 30% of women are literate compared to 50% of men. Islamic practices still confine women to the home. Programs are directed to improving women's financial status through credit programs. Women now hold many jobs in the new garment industry, which is the largest nonagricultural employer.

  6. Impacts of Climatic Hazards on the Small Wetland Ecosystems (ponds: Evidence from Some Selected Areas of Coastal Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Faulkner

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Most climate related hazards in Bangladesh are linked to water. The climate vulnerable poor—the poorest and most marginalized communities living in remote villages along Bangladesh’s coastal zone that are vulnerable to climate change impacts and who possess low adaptive capacity are most affected by lack of access to safe water sources. Many climate vulnerable poor households depend on small isolated wetlands (ponds for daily drinking water needs and other domestic requirements, including cooking, bathing and washing. Similarly, the livelihoods of many of these households also depend on access to ponds due to activities of small-scale irrigation for rice farming, vegetable farming and home gardening. This is particularly true for those poorest and most marginalized communities living in Satkhira, one of the most vulnerable coastal districts in south-west Bangladesh. These households rely on pond water for vegetable farming and home gardening, especially during winter months. However, these pond water sources are highly vulnerable to climate change induced hazards, including flooding, drought, salinity intrusion, cyclone and storm surges, erratic rainfall patterns and variations in temperature. Cyclone Sidr and Cyclone Aila, which hit Bangladesh in 2007 and 2009 respectively, led to a significant number of such ponds being inundated with saline water. This impacted upon and resulted in wide scale implications for climate vulnerable poor households, including reduced availability of safe drinking water, and safe water for health and hygiene practices and livelihood activities. Those households living in remote areas and who are most affected by these climate impacts are dependent on water being supplied through aid, as well as travelling long distances to collect safe water for drinking purposes.

  7. An assessment of the quality of care for children in eighteen randomly selected district and sub-district hospitals in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoque Dewan ME

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quality hospital care is important in ensuring that the needs of severely ill children are met to avert child mortality. However, the quality of hospital care for children in developing countries has often been found poor. As the first step of a country road map for improving hospital care for children, we assessed the baseline situation with respect to the quality of care provided to children under-five years age in district and sub-district level hospitals in Bangladesh. Methods Using adapted World Health Organization (WHO hospital assessment tools and standards, an assessment of 18 randomly selected district (n=6 and sub-district (n=12 hospitals was undertaken. Teams of trained assessors used direct case observation, record review, interviews, and Management Information System (MIS data to assess the quality of clinical case management and monitoring; infrastructure, processes and hospital administration; essential hospital and laboratory supports, drugs and equipment. Results Findings demonstrate that the overall quality of care provided in these hospitals was poor. No hospital had a functioning triage system to prioritise those children most in need of immediate care. Laboratory supports and essential equipment were deficient. Only one hospital had all of the essential drugs for paediatric care. Less than a third of hospitals had a back-up power supply, and just under half had functioning arrangements for safe-drinking water. Clinical case management was found to be sub-optimal for prevalent illnesses, as was the quality of neonatal care. Conclusion Action is needed to improve the quality of paediatric care in hospital settings in Bangladesh, with a particular need to invest in improving newborn care.

  8. Effective Recruitment Challenges Faced by the Hospitality Industry in Bangladesh: A Study on Selected Star Rated Residential Hotels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazi HUDA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In Human Resource Management (HRM, Recruitment is the first and foremost issue to be considered with full of sincerity, because its role is to create a positive impression about the employer in the job market by ensuring effective stimuli for the job seekers. At the beginning, the study sets a picture that focuses on the importance of effective recruitment in the hospitality sector of Bangladesh and then the study details obligatory determinants of attracting efficient human resource for the development of this sector. The main objective of the paper is to study the status and the scopes of recruitment function in hospitality industry with focus towards star rated residential hotels. This study is based on primary data collection through a formal questionnaire. The questionnaire was of mixed mode with most questions in likert-type scale and few were dichotomous in nature. The key finding of the study is that recruitment is a highly challenging task in hospitality and it is quite evident that attractive compensation package is the key factor to attract potential employees. The need and scope to modernize the recruitment practices along with the line of company and employer branding ideas are also recommended in details. There is a long way to go on the way of conceptualizing and actualizing recruitment functions and practices. A paper like this can help to discuss and debate on the necessity of developing better recruitment cultural and conceptual change in these sectors.

  9. Laboratory evaluation of selected larvicides and insect growth regulators against field-collected Culex quinquefasciatus larvae from urban Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, A; Chowdhury, M A; Hossain, M I; Mahmud-Ul-Ameen; Habiba, D B; Aslam, A F

    1999-03-01

    Five organophosphates (OPs) (chlorpyrifos, chlorpyrifos methyl, fenthion, malathion, and temephos), 3 pyrethroids (bifenthrin, cypermethrin, and permethrin), 1 phenyl pyrazole (fipronil), 2 microbial pesticides (Bacillus thuringiensis serovar. israelensis [B.t.i.] and Bacillus sphaericus), and 3 insect growth regulators (IGRs) (diflubenzuron, methoprene, and pyriproxyfen) were evaluated against field-collected Culex quinquefasciatus larvae from urban Dhaka, Bangladesh. The LC90 values of all OPs, except for temephos (LC90 = 0.0096 ppm), were high, ranging from 0.13 ppm (fenthion) to 2.882 ppm (chlorpyrifos methyl). Pyrethroid LC90 values were 0.021 ppm (bifenthrin), 0.00061 (cypermethrin), and 0.017 ppm (permethrin). Fipronil exhibited a superior activity with LC90 value of 0.000896 ppm. Technical powders of B.t.i. and B. sphaericus (VectoBac TP and VectoLex TP) were considered highly effective against the Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae. The IGRs also were effective with pyriproxyfen (LC90 = 0.0011 ppm), being 3 times and 47 times more active than diflubenzuron (LC90 = 0.0034 ppm) and methoprene (LC90 = 0.052 ppm), respectively. In general, toxicity ranking of chemicals and microbials tested was phenyl pyrazole > IGRs > pyrethroids > microbials > OPs.

  10. Logic Circuit Design Selected Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Vingron, Shimon P

    2012-01-01

        In three main divisions the  book covers combinational circuits, latches, and asynchronous sequential circuits. Combinational circuits have  no memorising ability, while sequential circuits have such an ability to various degrees. Latches are the simplest sequential circuits, ones with the shortest memory. The presentation is decidedly non-standard.         The design of combinational circuits is discussed in an orthodox manner using normal forms and in an unorthodox manner using set-theoretical evaluation formulas relying heavily on Karnaugh maps. The latter approach allows for a new design technique called composition.          Latches are covered very extensively. Their memory functions are expressed mathematically in a time-independent manner allowing the use of (normal, non-temporal) Boolean logic in their calculation. The theory of latches is then used as the basis for calculating asynchronous circuits.         Asynchronous circuits are specified in a tree-representation, eac...

  11. Microbiological quality of selected street food items vended by school-based street food vendors in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Mamun, Mohammad; Rahman, Shah Mahfuzur; Turin, Tanvir Chowdhury

    2013-09-16

    A cross sectional study was conducted to assess the microbiological quality of local food items vended by the school-based street food vendors in Dhaka City. A total of 80 schools from 19 school-zones of Dhaka City and its outskirts were chosen for the study. A total of 110 food samples, one each from 110 school-based street food vendors, were collected for laboratory analysis. Face to face interviews were conducted with the food vendors using a pre-tested questionnaire. The food samples were analyzed for coliform counts in the Public Health Laboratory, Institute of Public Health, Dhaka, which is a national level central food testing laboratory in Bangladesh. Microbiological criteria recommended by the International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods (ICMSF) were considered to classify food samples as 'satisfactory' (total coliforms food vendors with the presence of unsatisfactory levels of coliforms in their food items. Of the 110 school-based street food samples analyzed in the laboratory, 44% were unsatisfactory. Among different items of street vended foods, 54% of sliced fruits samples, 59% of jhalmuri samples, 29% of chotpotis samples, 53% of vajavuji samples, and all (100%) sharbat samples were unsatisfactory, while all samples from achar (100%) and ice cream (100%) were found to be satisfactory. Logistic regression models showed that the food samples collected from the vendors belonging to the age group '15-24 years' and the vendors possessing an educational status higher than primary level were less likely to be unsatisfactory, while the food samples collected from the vendors having a daily income of more than 200 Bangladeshi Taka (equivalent to 3.00 USD) were more likely to be unsatisfactory. Our study findings reflected poor microbiological quality for a considerable proportion of the school-based street vended foods indicating a health threat to the school children of Dhaka City.

  12. Nutritional Status among the Children of Age Group 5-14 Years in Selected Arsenic Exposed and Non-Exposed Areas of Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rezaul Karim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To assess and compare the nutritional status of children aged 5-14 years in arsenic exposed and non- exposed areas.It was a cross sectional study conducted on 600 children of age 5-14 years from arsenic exposed and non-exposed areas in Bangladesh. Designed questionnaire and check list were used for collection of data. To estimate BMI necessary anthropometric measurements of the studied children were done. Dietary intakes of the study children were assessed using 24-hours recall method.The difference of socio-economic conditions between the children of exposed area and non-exposed area was not significant. On an average the body mass index was found to be significantly (p < 0.01 lower among the children of arsenic exposed area (49% in comparison to that of children in non-exposed area (38%. Stunting (p < 0.01, wasting (p < 0.05 and underweight (p < 0.05 were significantly higher in exposed group in comparison to non-exposed group. No significant difference of nutrition intake was found between exposed and non-exposed children as well as thin and normal children.In this study children exposed to arsenic contaminated water were found to be suffered from lower nutritional status.

  13. Microbial quality of selected sandwiches sold at retail outlets of fast food shops in Dhaka city and Mymensingh town of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazmul Hoque

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available the experiment was designed to undertake a study on the sanitary quality of commercial fast foods sold at retail outlets of fast food shops in Dhaka city and Mymensingh town of Bangladesh. One hundred sandwiches were subjected to bacteriological examinations. The mean values of total viable count (TVC, total coliform count (TCC and total staphylococcal count (TSC in wrapped and unwrapped samples of pre-microwave oven and post-microwave oven fast foods were determined. In pre-microwave oven the TVC, TCC and TSC were log 6.36, log 3.42 and log 4.21 respectively. similarly in post-microwave oven the TVC, TCC and TSC were log 4.89, log 2.60 and log 3.03 respectively. The role of packaging and heat treatment prior to sale on the bacterial changes of the fast foods were demonstrated. It was observed that the values of TVC of all fast food samples except post-microwave oven treated McDonald’s; Pizza and Ruma were higher than the maximum microbial limit. In TCC and TSC all values were higher than the maximum limit. The degree of initial contamination in fast food samples which may pose health hazard to public health has been discussed. It was concluded that the hygienically packaged fast foods and microoven treatment prior to sale would retain the best quality attributes required for consumer’s acceptability and safety.  

  14. Inclusive Education in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahsan, Mohammad Tariq; Burnip, Lindsay

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on inclusive education in Bangladesh for children with special needs. Bangladesh is not behind other developed countries in enacting laws and declarations in favour of inclusive education, but a lack of resources is the main barrier in implementing inclusive education. Special education and integrated education models exist in…

  15. Foreign Exchange Reserves: Bangladesh Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Zahangir Alam

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is about foreign exchangereserves of Bangladesh. The mainpurpose of this study is to the influence of exchange rates on foreign exchangereserves to the Bangladesh context.  Both the primary and secondary data has been used inthis study. The primary data has been collected through a structuredquestionnaire from 50 respondents. The secondary data, namely Bangladeshforeign exchange reserves (FER, Bangladesh current account balance (CAB,Bangladesh capital andfinancial account balance (CFAB, and BDT/USD exchange rates (ER.  This study covers yearly data from July 01,1996 to June 30, 2005 and quarterly data from July 01, 2005 to June 30, 2012. Findingsof this study shows that out of the selected 16 factors affecting foreignexchange reserves, exchange rates occupy the first position, weighted averagescore (WAS being 4.56. Foreign exchange reserves (FER and current accountbalance (CAB have increased by 502.9087% and 1451.218%,whereas capital and financial account (CFAB has decreased by -649.024% on June30, 2012 compared to June 30, 1997. The influence of other factors heldconstant, as ER changes by 285.6894 units due to one unit change in FER, onaverage in the same direction which represents that ER has positive effect on theFER and this relationship is statistically significant.  62.1526 percentof the variation in FER is explained by ER. The outcomes of Breusch-Godfrey test (LM test, ARCHtest, and the Normality test are that there is a serial correlation among residuals, the variance of residuals is notconstant, and the residuals are not normally distributed.

  16. Application of radiation in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naiyyum Choudhury; Najmul Alam Chowdhury; Feroza Akhtar [Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    2001-03-01

    Radiation technology offers a very wide scope for utilisation and commercial exploitation in various field. All over the world, this technology is being favourably considered for different applications like radiation sterilisation of medical products, preservation of food by controlling the physiological processes for extending shelf-life and eradication of microbial and insect pests, radiation processing of polymeric materials and treatment of sewage sludge. Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission has taken radiation processing programmes in a big way right from its inception. This paper describes the studies carried out by various research groups in Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission mainly using Cobalt-60 gamma radiation. The investigation covers medical sterilisation, food preservation and development and modification of polymeric materials by gamma radiation. Both food preservation and radiation sterilisation of medical products are now being commercially carried out in the Gammatech facility as a joint venture company of BAEC and a private entrepreneur. Bangladesh is soon going to establish a full-fledged Tissue Bank to cater the needs of various tissue allografts for surgical replacement. Recently Government of Bangladesh has allocated US$ 1.00 million for strengthening of the Tissue Banking Laboratory. BAEC has made quite a good research contribution on vulcanization of natural rubber latex, wood plastic composites, surface coating curing, polymer modification etc. As a result of successful achievement of R and D activities in all these projects, a pilot plant project involving about US$ 4.00 million is under implementation at the Atomic energy Research Establishment campus of BAEC. In addition a project on 'National Polymer Centre' at a cost of US$ 2.00 million has already been approved. It is expected that work on radiation processing including commercialization will be accelerated with the implementation of these projects. The impact of radiation

  17. Crop Farmers' Willingness to Pay for Agricultural Extension Services in Bangladesh: Cases of Selected Villages in Two Important Agro-Ecological Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Ektear MD.; Gao, Qijie; Mamun-Ur-Rashid, MD.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Globally, many extension professionals and policy-makers are advocating fee based services, in addressing the fund shortage and sustainable provision of agricultural advisory services. Hence, the article attempts to expose the farmers' willingness to pay (WTP) as agricultural extension in Bangladesh is experiencing chronic fund crisis.…

  18. Personnel Selection Using Fuzzy Axiomatic Design Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anant V. Khandekar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Overall competency of the working personnel is often observed to ultimately affect the productivity of an organization. The globalised competitive atmosphere coupled with technological improvements demands for efficient and specialized manpower for the industrial operations. A set of typical technological skills and attitudes is thus demanded for every job profile. Most often, these skills and attitudes are expressed imprecisely and hence, necessitating the support of fuzzy sets for their effective understanding and further processing. In this paper, a method based on fuzzy axiomatic design principles is applied for solving the personnel selection problems. Selecting a middle management staff of a service department for a large scale organization is demonstrated here as a real life example. Five shortlisted candidates are assessed with respect to a set of 18 evaluation criteria, and the selection committee with experts from the related fields also realizes the outcome of the adopted approach to be quite appropriate, befitting and in agreement with their expectations.

  19. Cancer control in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Syed Akram; Sullivan, Richard

    2013-12-01

    Cancer is predicted to be an increasingly important cause of morbidity and mortality in Bangladesh in the next few decades. The estimated incidence of 12.7 million new cancer cases will rise to 21.4 million by 2030. More than two-thirds of the total expenditure on health is through out-of-pocket payments. According to the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, cancer is the sixth leading cause of death. International Agency for Research on Cancer has estimated cancer-related death rates in Bangladesh to be 7.5% in 2005 and 13% in 2030. The two leading causes are in males are lung and oral cancer and in females are breast cancer and cervical cancer. Bangladesh is now in severe shortage of radiation therapy machines, hospital bed, trained oncologists, medical radiation physicists and technologists. Bangladesh having different cancers associated with smoking and smokeless tobacco use, Human papilloma virus infection, Hepatitis B and C infection, Helicobacter Pylori infection, arsenic contaminated groundwater, availability of chemical carcinogens mainly formalin treated fruits, fish and vegetables at open market, tannery waste contaminated with chromium (which is used for poultry feed and fish feed preparation). A World Health Organization study revealed the annual cost of illnesses in Bangladesh attributable to tobacco usage is US$ 500 million and the total annual benefit from the tobacco sector is US$ 305 million as tax revenue. Bangladesh has developed a National Cancer Control Strategy and Action Plan with the aim of delivering a universal, quality-based and timely service. Cancer prevention through tobacco control, health promotion and vaccination program, cancer early detection program for oral cavity, breast and cervix has initiated. Cancer detection and diagnostic facilities will be made available at medical colleges and district- hospitals and establish a referral chain. National capacity development, more cancer research will allow Bangladesh to deal effectively

  20. Computer Aided Solvent Selection and Design Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitrofanov, Igor; Conte, Elisa; Abildskov, Jens

    for indentifying the best candidates depending on different multi-objective criteria namely environment, health, safety, process feasibility and economics. One of the criteria of solvent selection is the environmental impact because of the excessive consumption and utilization in a wide range of industries......Solvents are widely used as a reaction medium, as a reactant or as carrier at some stages of the manufacturing chain in products from the chemical, fine chemical, pharmaceutical, food, and agrochemical industries. Solvent are either required for processing after which they are removed...... or they are part of the final product formulation. Therefore, solvents are playing an important role in product synthesis and formulation, product delivery, separation processes etc [1]. On the other hand, solvent selection and design is a complex problem, which requires decision making in several levels...

  1. Health Insurance for Government Employees in Bangladesh: A Concept Paper

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid, Syed Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Introducing compulsory health insurance for government employees bears immense importance for stepping towards universal healthcare coverage in Bangladesh. Lack of scientific study on designing such scheme, in the Bangladesh context, motivates this paper. The study aims at designing a comprehensive insurance package simultaneously covering health, life and accident related disability risks of the public employees, where the health component would extend to all dependent family members. ...

  2. In-service Teachers' Perceptions toward Inclusion of Students with Disabilities in Mainstream Primary Classroom : A Case of Some Selected Primary Schools in Southern Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of present study was to examine perceptions towards inclusion of students with disabilities among inservice teachers working in mainstream primary schools of southern Bangladesh. This paper reviewed the prevailing situation of education of students with disabilities in mainstream education setting. A number of 62 in-service teachers of 18 mainstream schools in four southern districts participated in this study. This article was based on selfrated questionnaires that were distribut...

  3. Improving newborn care practices through home visits: lessons from Malawi, Nepal, Bangladesh, and Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Sitrin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nearly all newborn deaths occur in low- or middle-income countries. Many of these deaths could be prevented through promotion and provision of newborn care practices such as thermal care, early and exclusive breastfeeding, and hygienic cord care. Home visit programmes promoting these practices were piloted in Malawi, Nepal, Bangladesh, and Uganda. Objective: This study assessed changes in selected newborn care practices over time in pilot programme areas in four countries and evaluated whether women who received home visits during pregnancy were more likely to report use of three key practices. Design: Using data from cross-sectional surveys of women with live births at baseline and endline, the Pearson chi-squared test was used to assess changes over time. Generalised linear models were used to assess the relationship between the main independent variable – home visit from a community health worker (CHW during pregnancy (0, 1–2, 3+ – and use of selected practices while controlling for antenatal care, place of delivery, and maternal age and education. Results: There were statistically significant improvements in practices, except applying nothing to the cord in Malawi and early initiation of breastfeeding in Bangladesh. In Malawi, Nepal, and Bangladesh, women who were visited by a CHW three or more times during pregnancy were more likely to report use of selected practices. Women who delivered in a facility were also more likely to report use of selected practices in Malawi, Nepal, and Uganda; association with place of birth was not examined in Bangladesh because only women who delivered outside a facility were asked about these practices. Conclusion: Home visits can play a role in improving practices in different settings. Multiple interactions are needed, so programmes need to investigate the most appropriate and efficient ways to reach families and promote newborn care practices. Meanwhile, programmes must take advantage of

  4. Diagnosis of chronic conditions with modifiable lifestyle risk factors in selected urban and rural areas of Bangladesh and sociodemographic variability therein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parr John D

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bangladesh suffers from a lack of healthcare providers. The growing chronic disease epidemic's demand for healthcare resources will further strain Bangladesh's limited healthcare workforce. Little is known about how Bangladeshis with chronic disease seek care. This study describes chronic disease patients' care seeking behavior by analyzing which providers diagnose these diseases. Methods During 2 month periods in 2009, a cross-sectional survey collected descriptive data on chronic disease diagnoses among 3 surveillance populations within the International Center for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR, B network. The maximum number of respondents (over age 25 who reported having ever been diagnosed with a chronic disease determined the sample size. Using SAS software (version 8.0 multivariate regression analyses were preformed on related sociodemographic factors. Results Of the 32,665 survey respondents, 8,591 self reported having a chronic disease. Chronically ill respondents were 63.4% rural residents. Hypertension was the most prevalent disease in rural (12.4% and urban (16.1% areas. In rural areas chronic disease diagnoses were made by MBBS doctors (59.7% and Informal Allopathic Providers (IAPs (34.9%. In urban areas chronic disease diagnoses were made by MBBS doctors (88.0% and IAP (7.9%. Our analysis identified several groups that depended heavily on IAP for coverage, particularly rural, poor and women. Conclusion IAPs play important roles in chronic disease care, particularly in rural areas. Input and cooperation from IAPs are needed to minimize rural health disparities. More research on IAP knowledge and practices regarding chronic disease is needed to properly utilize this potential healthcare resource.

  5. Made In Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUCHEN

    2004-01-01

    It is nothing new for global consumers to find the tag ‘Made in China' on the back of products from famous brands such as Nike or Panasonic.or will it surprise North American or European customers to find clothes from big brands like Esprit or GAP containing the mark ‘Made in Bangladesh'.

  6. Tools for Material Design and Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehage, Kristopher

    The present thesis focuses on applications of numerical methods to create tools for material characterization, design and selection. The tools generated in this work incorporate a variety of programming concepts, from digital image analysis, geometry, optimization, and parallel programming to data-mining, databases and web design. The first portion of the thesis focuses on methods for characterizing clustering in bimodal 5083 Aluminum alloys created by cryomilling and powder metallurgy. The bimodal samples analyzed in the present work contain a mixture of a coarse grain phase, with a grain size on the order of several microns, and an ultra-fine grain phase, with a grain size on the order of 200 nm. The mixing of the two phases is not homogeneous and clustering is observed. To investigate clustering in these bimodal materials, various microstructures were created experimentally by conventional cryomilling, Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP), Extrusion, Dual-Mode Dynamic Forging (DMDF) and a new 'Gradient' cryomilling process. Two techniques for quantitative clustering analysis are presented, formulated and implemented. The first technique, the Area Disorder function, provides a metric of the quality of coarse grain dispersion in an ultra-fine grain matrix and the second technique, the Two-Point Correlation function, provides a metric of long and short range spatial arrangements of the two phases, as well as an indication of the mean feature size in any direction. The two techniques are implemented on digital images created by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Electron Backscatter Detection (EBSD) of the microstructures. To investigate structure--property relationships through modeling and simulation, strategies for generating synthetic microstructures are discussed and a computer program that generates randomized microstructures with desired configurations of clustering described by the Area Disorder Function is formulated and presented. In the computer program, two

  7. INCREASING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF ANTI-SMOKING CAMPAIGN BY ANALYZING THE BEHAVIOR AND ATTITUDES OF SMOKING PERSONS & UTILIZING 4PS OF MARKETING: A STUDY ON SYLHET CITY, BANGLADESH

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsin Hossain; Abdul Latif; Md. Akhlakur Rahman; Ali Ahmed Chowdhury

    2015-01-01

    Different anti-smoking campaigns are not proved as expectedly effective in reducing smoking habit among citizen of Sylhet as well as other districts of Bangladesh. This paper is designed to search out the ways to increase the effectiveness of such campaign by analyzing the behaviour and attitudes of smoking people of Sylhet city. Primary data are collected from 268 respondents selected by stratified sampling design by a semi-structured questionnaire and secondary from different...

  8. Clutches and brakes design and selection

    CERN Document Server

    Orthwein, William C

    2004-01-01

    FRICTION MATERIALSFriction CodeWearBrake FadeFriction MaterialsNotationReferencesBAND BRAKESDerivation of EquationsApplicationLever-Actuated Band Brake: Backstop DesignExample: Design of a BackstopNotationFormula CollectionReferencesEXTERNALLY AND INTERNALLY PIVOTED SHOE BRAKESPivoted External Drum BrakesPivoted Internal Drum BrakesDesign of Dual-Anchor Twin-Shoe Drum BrakesDual-Anchor Twin-Shoe Drum Brake Design ExamplesDesign of Single-Anchor Twin-Shoe Drum BrakesSingle-Anchor Twin-Shoe Drum Brake Design Exam

  9. Farmers’ Education and Farmers’ Wealth in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Zafar Mahmudul Haq

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of farmers’ education is examined with a view to evaluate the actual situation of farmers’ education in Bangladesh. Fifty samples were collected from two sub districts of the Gazipur district in Bangladesh. The selection of the study sites and collection of the samples such as the years of schooling of the farm household head, total income, farm size, number of earners of farm families, family size, years of farming experience of farm household head, number of times extension contacts and rice yield were done purposively. It is cleared from the study that education is necessary for farmers to raise their wealth. Results were derived through regression analysis. The study has also shown that size of family and years of farming experience contributed significantly to the wealth accumulation of farmers.

  10. Factors associated with repeated outbreak of anthrax in Bangladesh: qualitative and quantitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayedul Hassan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Anthrax, caused by Bacillus anthracis is an acute, febrile disease of warm blooded animals including humans. Social norms and poverty in addition to climatic factors such as soil conditions, seasons of year, ambient temperature and rainfall influence the persistence of the B. anthracis and anthrax outbreaks. The present study was designed to reveal the factors influencing the repeated outbreak of anthrax in Bangladesh. Considering the previous outbreaks of anthrax, Sirajganj, Bogra, Kushtia, Tangail and Mymensingh districts of Bangladesh were selected for this study. To elucidate the factors, qualitative data relating to the animal management, knowledge and behavior of the people; and quantitative data relating to soil conditions, ambient temperature and rainfall were acquired, and analyzed critically. Based on the outbreak histories, a year was divided into two seasons, anthrax prone season (May-November and anthrax dry season (December-April. Anthrax spores could be isolated from 11.67% (n=14/120 of the soil samples collected from the study areas. The present study revealed that poor knowledge, lack of awareness, improper carcass disposal, inadequate vaccination, high Ca content and moisture in the soil along with high ambient temperature and rainfall during the anthrax prone season were the possible influencing factors of repeated outbreaks of anthrax in the study areas. Intensive propaganda to create public awareness of anthrax together with proper vaccination may reduce anthrax outbreaks in Bangladesh.

  11. Rape in Rural Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowsher Ali

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rape is one of the silent brutal sexual offences in Bangladesh. Despite strong laws against it, the evil of rape continues to rise. Increasing trend of the silent cruel sexual offence (rape represents a major psychopath sexual disorder and public health problem and progress of the country. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the pattern of alleged rape victims in a rural district of Bangladesh with the ultimate aim to create public awareness about the brutal crime. Materials and method: This retrospective study was carried out on 330 sexually assailed alleged rape victims’ report forms, who reported at Faridpur Medical College, Bangladesh from 2007 to 2011 for medical examination. Results: Among the study subjects maximum number (70.0% of alleged rape cases were under the age of 20 years. More than two-thirds (64.60% of the assailants were known to the victims, most of the incidents (64.20% occurred in the victims’ houses and nearby places. The study also revealed that minimum number of victims (14.20% reported within 24 hours for medical examination. Almost one fourth of the alleged rape cases were gang rape and no positive finding in favour of sexual intercourse was found in about three fourth (72.40% of cases. Conclusion: Public awareness about rape would be effective to report in due time with preserving the evidence of crime and modern techniques like DNA diagnosis may be of help to detect the assailant.

  12. Women's housing conditions in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shefali, M K

    1996-01-01

    This news article describes women's housing conditions, housing policy, and pilot programs to house poor women in Bangladesh. Although Bangladesh has a constitution that reinforces the equal status of women, in practice, men dominate and patrilineal customs determine inheritance and property rights. Religious affiliation also determines land tenure and inheritance. Muslim women can inherit 12.5% of their husband's property if there are children. 25% is inherited if wives are without children. Hindu women without sons can inherit their husband's property, but not parental property. Many families refuse to release property to women without a fight. Women, regardless of ownership of land, rarely control or use their land. The custom of requiring men to maintain wives during the marriage, and daughters until marriage, creates obstacles to women's decision making about property. Without collateral and other security women are unable to secure bank loans. Many women are also constrained by the requirement of male consent or guarantees for bank transactions. Banks do not have a gender responsive criteria for selecting loan recipients. The government does not provide sufficient housing to satisfy the growing housing needs due to population growth. Some housing is available from slum landlords. A National Housing Policy was formulated in 1993. Priority would be given to the housing needs of low income women in urban areas and women-headed households with income below the poverty line. The policy does not address the underlying factors that prevent equal access to housing for women. The government prepared a Human Settlement and Urban Development proposal for the Habitat II conference. The plan did not address gender issues. Special efforts are being made by nongovernmental groups to meet the housing needs of professional women and for some disadvantaged women.

  13. Liquid cooled data center design selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chainer, Timothy J.; Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Parida, Pritish R.

    2016-09-13

    Input data, specifying aspects of a thermal design of a liquid cooled data center, is obtained. The input data includes data indicative of ambient outdoor temperature for a location of the data center; and/or data representing workload power dissipation for the data center. The input data is evaluated to obtain performance of the data center thermal design. The performance includes cooling energy usage; and/or one pertinent temperature associated with the data center. The performance of the data center thermal design is output.

  14. Game Methodology for Design Methods and Tools Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Rafiq; Lahonde, Nathalie; Omhover, Jean-françois

    2014-01-01

    Design process optimisation and intelligence are the key words of today's scientific community. A proliferation of methods has made design a convoluted area. Designers are usually afraid of selecting one method/tool over another and even expert designers may not necessarily know which method is the best to use in which circumstances. This…

  15. Qualitative Research Designs: Selection and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, John W.; Hanson, William E.; Plano Clark, Vicki L.; Morales, Alejandro

    2007-01-01

    Counseling psychologists face many approaches from which to choose when they conduct a qualitative research study. This article focuses on the processes of selecting, contrasting, and implementing five different qualitative approaches. Based on an extended example related to test interpretation by counselors, clients, and communities, this article…

  16. Human rabies in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, M; Ahmed, K; Bulbul, T; Hossain, S; Rahman, A; Biswas, M N U; Nishizono, A

    2012-11-01

    Rabies is a major public health problem in Bangladesh, where most of the population live in rural areas. However, there is little epidemiological information on rabies in rural Bangladesh. This study was conducted in 30 upazilas (subdistricts) covering all six divisions of the country, to determine the levels of rabies and animal bites in Bangladesh. The total population of these upazilas was 6 992 302. A pretested questionnaire was used and data were collected by interviewing the adult members of families. We estimated that in Bangladesh, 166 590 [95% confidence interval (CI) 163 350-170 550] people per year are bitten by an animal. The annual incidence of rabies deaths in Bangladesh was estimated to be 1·40 (95% CI 1·05-1·78)/100 000 population. By extrapolating this, we estimated that 2100 (95% CI 1575-2670) people die annually from rabies in Bangladesh. More than three-quarters of rabies patients died at home. This community-based study provides new information on rabies epidemiology in Bangladesh.

  17. Selected aspects of designing deep excavations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrzud, Rafał F.; Hartmann, Sébastien; Podleś, Krzysztof

    2016-09-01

    This paper analyzes two approaches to serviceability limit state (SLS) verification for the deep excavation boundary value problem. The verification is carried out by means of the finite element (FE) method with the aid of the commercial program ZSoil v2014. In numerical simulations, deep excavation in non-cohesive soil is supported with a diaphragm wall. In the first approach, the diaphragm wall is modeled with the Hookean material assuming reduced average stiffness and possible concrete cracking. The second approach is divided into two stages. In the first stage, the wall is modeled by defining its stiffness with the highest nominal Young's modulus. The modulus makes it possible to find design bending moments which are used to compute the minimal design cross-section reinforcement for the retaining structure. The computed reinforcement is then used in a non-linear structural analysis which is viewed as the "actual" SLS verification. In the second part, the paper examines the same boundary value problem assuming that the excavation takes place in quasi-impermeable cohesive soils, which are modeled with the Hardening Soil model. This example demonstrates the consequences of applying the steady-state type analysis for an intrinsically time-dependent problem. The results of this analysis are compared to the results from the consolidation-type analysis, which are considered as a reference. For both analysis types, the two-phase formulation for partially- saturated medium, after Aubry and Ozanam, is used to describe the interaction between the soil skeleton and pore water pressure.

  18. Partner Selection for Interfirm Collaboration: The Context of Ship Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solesvik, Marina Z.; Encheva, Sylvia

    There is a growing body of research devoted to the issues of cooperative design. However, there are still gaps in the existing knowledge on partner selection for cooperation. This paper intends to explore partner selection issues in the context of collaborative ship design. The study aims to fill a gap in the partner selection literature by proposing a quantitative technique based on formal concept analysis. An illustrative example of the selection of a partner for a project-based alliance in a naval architect firm is presented. The study has implications for practitioners and researchers.

  19. Financial Liberalization, Savings and the Banking Sector in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Murshed (Syed); I.A. Robin (Iftekhar Ahmed)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis article explores the consequences of financial liberalization policy on the banking sector in Bangladesh. Following a motivating portfolio selection theor-etical model on the impact of liberalization, it applies time series techniques with annual banking sector data for the period 1

  20. A decision tool for selecting trench cap designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paige, G.B.; Stone, J.J.; Lane, L.J. [USDA-ARS, Tucson, AZ (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    A computer based prototype decision support system (PDSS) is being developed to assist the risk manager in selecting an appropriate trench cap design for waste disposal sites. The selection of the {open_quote}best{close_quote} design among feasible alternatives requires consideration of multiple and often conflicting objectives. The methodology used in the selection process consists of: selecting and parameterizing decision variables using data, simulation models, or expert opinion; selecting feasible trench cap design alternatives; ordering the decision variables and ranking the design alternatives. The decision model is based on multi-objective decision theory and uses a unique approach to order the decision variables and rank the design alternatives. Trench cap designs are evaluated based on federal regulations, hydrologic performance, cover stability and cost. Four trench cap designs, which were monitored for a four year period at Hill Air Force Base in Utah, are used to demonstrate the application of the PDSS and evaluate the results of the decision model. The results of the PDSS, using both data and simulations, illustrate the relative advantages of each of the cap designs and which cap is the {open_quotes}best{close_quotes} alternative for a given set of criteria and a particular importance order of those decision criteria.

  1. Designing Intervention Studies: Selected Populations, Range Restrictions, and Statistical Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miciak, Jeremy; Taylor, W. Pat; Stuebing, Karla K.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Vaughn, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    An appropriate estimate of statistical power is critical for the design of intervention studies. Although the inclusion of a pretest covariate in the test of the primary outcome can increase statistical power, samples selected on the basis of pretest performance may demonstrate range restriction on the selection measure and other correlated…

  2. H&m i Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Refsøe, Anna; Sørensen, Johan; Skytte, Josephine; Skovgaard, Louise

    2014-01-01

    Outsourcing remains an increasingly attractive strategy for many large companies. The enormous distance between the companies and its suppliers, has resulted in a hazy labor policy in the companies suppliers' production factories. Companies find it difficult to maintain ideal working conditions in developing countries due to the geographical distance. This project, focus on H&M's outsourcing to Bangladesh. Bangladesh is interesting because H&M gets 25% of their products produced in the cou...

  3. Marriage and its transition in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, A U

    1986-01-01

    The author examines developments in marriage patterns in Bangladesh in light of social, cultural, and economic conditions. Previous literature on the subject is used to discuss Muslim marriage, Hindu marriage, child marriage, mate selection and social mobility, and the question of a marriage squeeze. "The analysis presents evidence that the society is experiencing a change in its family formation, mating process and family type. This transition is to some extent towards the characteristics of [the] Western World, but in a poor economy. Part of this transition is due to the effect of modernization and part due to increasing poverty."

  4. Annual incidence of snake bite in rural bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridwanur Rahman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Snake bite is a neglected public health problem in the world and one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity in many areas, particularly in the rural tropics. It also poses substantial economic burdens on the snake bite victims due to treatment related expenditure and loss of productivity. An accurate estimate of the risk of snake bite is largely unknown for most countries in the developing world, especially South-East Asia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We undertook a national epidemiological survey to determine the annual incidence density of snake bite among the rural Bangladeshi population. Information on frequency of snake bite and individuals' length of stay in selected households over the preceding twelve months was rigorously collected from the respondents through an interviewer administered questionnaire. Point estimates and confidence intervals of the incidence density of snake bite, weighted and adjusted for the multi-stage cluster sampling design, were obtained. Out of 18,857 study participants, over one year a total of 98 snake bites, including one death were reported in rural Bangladesh. The estimated incidence density of snake bite is 623.4/100,000 person years (95% C I 513.4-789.2/100,000 person years. Biting occurs mostly when individuals are at work. The majority of the victims (71% receive snake bites to their lower extremities. Eighty-six percent of the victims received some form of management within two hours of snake bite, although only three percent of the victims went directly to either a medical doctor or a hospital. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Incidence density of snake bite in rural Bangladesh is substantially higher than previously estimated. This is likely due to better ascertainment of the incidence through a population based survey. Poor access to health services increases snake bite related morbidity and mortality; therefore, effective public health actions are warranted.

  5. Human Resource Management Practices and Employees’ Satisfaction Towards Private Banking Sector in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Tofael Hossain Majumder

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dramatic advances of Information and Communication Technology (ICT, changing mix and personal values of the workforce, emergence of the knowledge economy and increasing global competition have created enormous challenges on organizations. To cope with the challenges efficiently, human resource has been considered as one of the most important factors in today’s hyper-competitive market place. The focus of this study is to gain an insight into the current HRM practices and its impact on employee’s satisfaction on the private banking sector in Bangladesh. For conducting this research, 100 bank employees are selected from the chosen banks and out of this 88 employees responses properly, the response rate is 88 percent. The questionnaire consists of different questions on nine HRM dimensions such as recruitment and selection systems, compensation package, job security, career growth, training and development, management style, job design and responsibilities, reward and motivation and working environment. The questionnaire was developed by using a five point Likert scale. In this study, some statistical measures such as Z-test, mean and proportion analysis is used to examine employee’s satisfaction. The study reveals that all HRM dimensions exercised in the private banking sector of Bangladesh does not satisfied to the employees equally. Most of the employees are dissatisfied with compensation package followed by reward and motivation, career growth, training and development, management style, and job design and responsibilities. So, these HRM dimensions quality should be improved for the betterment of the bank’s success.

  6. On Optimal Input Design and Model Selection for Communication Channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yanyan [ORNL; Djouadi, Seddik M [ORNL; Olama, Mohammed M [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the optimal model (structure) selection and input design which minimize the worst case identification error for communication systems are provided. The problem is formulated using metric complexity theory in a Hilbert space setting. It is pointed out that model selection and input design can be handled independently. Kolmogorov n-width is used to characterize the representation error introduced by model selection, while Gel fand and Time n-widths are used to represent the inherent error introduced by input design. After the model is selected, an optimal input which minimizes the worst case identification error is shown to exist. In particular, it is proven that the optimal model for reducing the representation error is a Finite Impulse Response (FIR) model, and the optimal input is an impulse at the start of the observation interval. FIR models are widely popular in communication systems, such as, in Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) systems.

  7. Distributing and Showing Farmer Learning Videos in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Jeffery W.; Van Mele, Paul; Harun-ar-Rashid, Md.; Krupnik, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the results of showing farmer learning videos through different types of volunteers. Design/Methodology/Approach: Semi-structured interviews with volunteers from different occupational groups in Bangladesh, and a phone survey with 227 respondents. Findings: Each occupational group acted differently. Shop keepers, tillage…

  8. Rational principles of compound selection for combinatorial library design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropsha, Alexander; Zheng, Weifan

    2002-03-01

    It is practically impossible in a short period of time to synthesize and test all compounds in any large exhaustive chemical library. We discuss rational approaches to selecting representative subsets of virtual libraries that help direct experimental synthetic efforts for both targeted and diverse library design. For targeted library design, we consider principles based on the similarity to lead molecules. In the case of diverse library design, we discuss algorithms aimed at the selection of both diverse and representative subsets of the entire chemical library space. We illustrate methodologies with several practical examples.

  9. Health Status, Occupational Hygiene & Safety Practices among Female Workers in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AbulKashem Obidul HUQ

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the rising of baking industries in Bangladesh, more female workers are surprisingly engaged compared to male workers. The major aim of this study was to observe the working conditions, available safety facilities and hygiene maintained by the female workers.Methods: A cross sectional survey was carried out among the randomly selected 384 female workers from different baking industries located at Dhaka and Tangail regions in Bangladesh by a well-designed semi-structured questionnaire.Results: About 33% of all respondents opined the machine room was congested, 27% narrow packaging and sealing room while 37% unhealthy storage areas. Two industries did not have proper accident prevention facilities. Although all the industries had monitoring personnel hygiene practices, about 40% of the workers were found not strictly maintaining some basic personal hygiene criteria. Socio-demographic result showed that the workers education level and monthly family income were poor. About 59.1% of all workers were suffering from various degrees of Chronic Energy Deficiencies (CED. It was also observed that nutritional status of the workers significantly related to their expenditure of the foods and working loads (χ2 Value < 0.05.Conclusion: The survey revealed that the occupational hygiene and safety practices were not at satisfactory level in some selected food industries in Bangladesh. The currently available food safety tools and system like Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP should be adapted by the industries and concurrently ensure the sufficient wages for workers. Keywords: Industrial female workers, Occupational hygiene, Safety practices, Chronic Energy Deficiencies (CED 

  10. IMPACT OF MARKETING STRATEGIES ON SACHET PRODUCTS IN BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossain Shahid SHOHROWARDHY

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A product is anything that can be accessible to the market for satisfaction. The basic objective of marketing is maximum satisfaction since satisfaction of consumer and business performance is positively related to each other. For satisfaction, product is diversified in different categories i.e. generic product, product type product, substitute product and product line etc. Sachet product is one of the expansions of product line. The term ‘Sachet’ is originated from the French word which means “mini”. In Bangladesh, sachet product has a strong market share. Thus, this study attempts to determine the exiting share of sachet product and measure the impact of marketing strategies on sachet product in Bangladesh. This study uses the selective 22 dimensions to favor the sachet product on the basis of 4Ps (Product, Price, Place and Promotion. To accomplish the study, 125 samples have been taken from selective markets in Cosmopolitan city, Chittagong. The study found that sachet product has strong market position comparative with other categories of products, where promotional effect is the dominant factor who played the vital role to sustain the sachet product in Bangladesh. The results of this study will be constructive for executives and policy-makers of business organization who works with fast moving consumer good (FMCG items effectively in Bangladesh.

  11. Best practices selection to design for mass customization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Castro Fettermann

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of the best practice in New Product development process (PDP is an alternative to promote Mass Customization (MC strategy in the companies. This paper proposes a decision support system to identify the best practices for designing product features. The decision support system is applied in the service counters design project of a retail company. The results indicate the ability of the decision support system to select MC product design best practices according to the project design features and the project customization level.

  12. Optimal tariff design under consumer self-selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raesaenen, M.; Ruusunen, J.; Haemaelaeinen, R.

    1995-12-31

    This report considers the design of electricity tariffs which guides an individual consumer to select the tariff designed for his consumption pattern. In the model the utility maximizes the weighted sum of individual consumers` benefits of electricity consumption subject to the utility`s revenue requirement constraints. The consumers` free choice of tariffs is ensured with the so-called self-selection constraints. The relationship between the consumers` optimal choice of tariffs and the weights in the aggregated consumers` benefit function is analyzed. If such weights exist, they will guarantee both the consumers` optimal choice of tariffs and the efficient consumption patterns. Also the welfare effects are analyzed by using demand parameters estimated from a Finnish dynamic pricing experiment. The results indicate that it is possible to design an efficient tariff menu with the welfare losses caused by the self-selection constraints being small compared with the costs created when some consumers choose tariffs other than assigned for them. (author)

  13. Socio-economic Conditions of Tribal Female Workers of the Beauty Parlors in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Nargis Akhter; Feroz Ahmed; Sohrab Hossain

    2011-01-01

    The study highlights the socio-economic conditions of tribal female workers of the beauty parlors in Bangladesh. The study consists of 240 sample tribal female workers of the different beauty parlors situated in six divisional towns of Bangladesh and judgment sampling technique was used to select this sample. The study reveals that tribal women working at beauty parlor draw competitively higher salary than other tribal people; they live at a comparatively healthy physical environment provided...

  14. Concurrent materials and process selection in conceptual design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleban, Stephen D.; Knorovsky, Gerald A.

    2000-08-16

    A method for concurrent selection of materials and a joining process based on product requirements using a knowledge-based, constraint satisfaction approach facilitates the product design and manufacturing process. Using a Windows-based computer video display and a data base of materials and their properties, the designer can ascertain the preferred composition of two parts based on various operating/environmental constraints such as load, temperature, lifetime, etc. Optimum joinder of the two parts may simultaneously be determined using a joining process data base based upon the selected composition of the components as well as the operating/environmental constraints.

  15. Designer ligands: The search for metal ion selectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perry T. Kaye

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews research conducted at Rhodes University towards the development of metal-selective ligands. The research has focused on the rational design, synthesis and evaluation of novel ligands for use in the formation of copper complexes as biomimetic models of the metalloenzyme, tyrosinase, and for the selective extraction of silver, nickel and platinum group metal ions in the presence of contaminating metal ions. Attention has also been given to the development of efficient, metal-selective molecular imprinted polymers.

  16. School exclusion as social exclusion: the practices and effects of a conditional cash transfer programme for the poor in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Naomi

    2010-01-01

    Evidence indicates that a much-feted conditional cash transfer programme designed to widen access to basic education in Bangladesh has failed in its aims. The programme is analysed here as an instance of the effort to govern chronic poverty. For the state, education fits within a national project of poverty reduction and creating governable citizens. For the poor, education signals social inclusion and access to the state. Yet class and social distinctions through which state actors 'see' poor children result in beneficiary selection practices that routinely exclude the poorest from school, with longer-term adverse effects for their social inclusion and citizenship.

  17. Transition from the Lactational Amenorrhea Method to other modern family planning methods in rural Bangladesh: barrier analysis and implications for behavior change communication program intervention design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouyaté, Robin Anthony; Ahmed, Salahuddin; Haver, Jaime; McKaig, Catharine; Akter, Nargis; Nash-Mercado, Angela; Baqui, Abdullah

    2015-06-01

    The timely transition from Lactational Amenorrhea Method (LAM)(2) to another modern family planning method contributes to healthy spacing of pregnancies by increasing the adoption of family planning during the first year postpartum. Yet, literature suggests challenges in completing a timely LAM transition. To guide program implementation in Bangladesh, this study identified factors influencing women's transition decisions. Eighty postpartum women, comprising 40 who transitioned from LAM(3) and 40 who did not,(4) participated. Half of each group participated in in-depth interviews to explore the decision-making process. All participants responded to a "Barrier Analysis" questionnaire to identify differences in eight behavioral determinants. More than half of transitioners switched to another modern method before or within the same month that LAM ended. Of the 18 transitioners who delayed,(5) 15 waited for menses to return. For non-transitioners, key barriers included waiting for menses to return, misconceptions on return to fertility, and perceived lack of familial support. The LAM transition can help women prevent unintended pregnancy during the first year postpartum. Increased emphasis on counseling women about the risk of pregnancy, and misconceptions about personal fertility patterns are critical for facilitating the transition. Strategies should also include interventions that train health workers and improve social support.

  18. Model selection in systems biology depends on experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Daniel; Kirk, Paul D W; Barnes, Chris P; Toni, Tina; Stumpf, Michael P H

    2014-06-01

    Experimental design attempts to maximise the information available for modelling tasks. An optimal experiment allows the inferred models or parameters to be chosen with the highest expected degree of confidence. If the true system is faithfully reproduced by one of the models, the merit of this approach is clear - we simply wish to identify it and the true parameters with the most certainty. However, in the more realistic situation where all models are incorrect or incomplete, the interpretation of model selection outcomes and the role of experimental design needs to be examined more carefully. Using a novel experimental design and model selection framework for stochastic state-space models, we perform high-throughput in-silico analyses on families of gene regulatory cascade models, to show that the selected model can depend on the experiment performed. We observe that experimental design thus makes confidence a criterion for model choice, but that this does not necessarily correlate with a model's predictive power or correctness. Finally, in the special case of linear ordinary differential equation (ODE) models, we explore how wrong a model has to be before it influences the conclusions of a model selection analysis.

  19. Antimalarial drug resistance in Bangladesh, 1996-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Ubydul; Glass, Gregory E; Haque, Waziul; Islam, Nazrul; Roy, Shyamal; Karim, Jahirul; Noedl, Harald

    2013-12-01

    Malaria remains an important health problem in Bangladesh, with approximately 14 million people at risk. Antimalarial drug resistance is a major obstacle to the control of malaria in endemic countries. In 2012, Bangladesh reported an estimated 29 522 malaria episodes, of which 94% were reported as being caused by Plasmodium falciparum. In this study, we reviewed and summarized antimalarial drug resistance data from Bangladesh published until June 2013. We searched published sources for data referring to any type of P. falciparum drug resistance (in vivo, in vitro, or molecular) and found 169 articles published in peer-reviewed journals. Of these, 143 articles were excluded because they did not meet our inclusion criteria. After detailed review of the remaining 26 articles, 14 were selected for evaluation. Published studies indicate that P. falciparum shows varying levels of resistance to chloroquine, mefloquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine. Combination therapy of chloroquine and primaquine has proven ineffective and combinations of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine with either quinine or chloroquine have also shown poor efficacy. Recent studies indicate that artemisinin derivatives, such as artesunate, remain highly efficacious in treating P. falciparum malaria. Available data suggest that artemisinins, quinine, doxycyline, mefloquine-artesunate and azithromycin-artesunate combination therapy remain efficacious in the treatment of P. falciparum malaria in Bangladesh.

  20. Considerations around the introduction of a cholera vaccine in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Christopher B; Mogasale, Vittal; Bari, Tajul Islam A; Clemens, John D

    2014-12-12

    Cholera is an endemic and epidemic disease in Bangladesh. On 3 March 2013, a meeting on cholera and cholera vaccination in Bangladesh was convened by the Foundation Mérieux jointly with the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR, B). The purpose of the meeting was to discuss the investment case for cholera vaccination as a complimentary control and prevention strategy. The performance of a new low cost oral cholera vaccine, Shanchol™, used in recent trials in Bangladesh, was also reviewed in the context of a potential large-scale public-sector vaccination program. Findings showed the oral vaccine to be highly cost-effective when targeting ages 1-14 y, and cost-effective when targeting ages 1+y, in high-burden/high-risk districts. Other vaccination strategies targeting urban slums and rural areas without improved water were found to be cost-effective. Regardless of cost-effectiveness (value), the budget impact (affordability) will be an important determinant of which target population and vaccination strategy is selected. Most importantly, adequate vaccine supply for the proposed vaccination programs must be addressed in the context of global efforts to establish a cholera vaccine stockpile and supply other control and prevention efforts.

  1. Design of Nonuniform Filter Bank Transceivers for Frequency Selective Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Han-Ting; Phoong, See-May; Lin, Yuan-Pei

    2006-12-01

    In recent years, there has been considerable interest in the theory and design of filter bank transceivers due to their superior frequency response. In many applications, it is desired to have transceivers that can support multiple services with different incoming data rates and different quality-of-service requirements. To meet these requirements, we can either do resource allocation or design transceivers with a nonuniform bandwidth partition. In this paper, we propose a method for the design of nonuniform filter bank transceivers for frequency selective channels. Both frequency response and signal-to-interference ratio (SIR) can be incorporated in the transceiver design. Moreover, the technique can be extended to the case of nonuniform filter bank transceivers with rational sampling factors. Simulation results show that nonuniform filter bank transceivers with good filter responses as well as high SIR can be obtained by the proposed design method.

  2. Material Design, Selection, and Manufacturing Methods for System Sustainment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Sowder, Jim Lula, Curtis Marshall

    2010-02-18

    This paper describes a material selection and validation process proven to be successful for manufacturing high-reliability long-life product. The National Secure Manufacturing Center business unit of the Kansas City Plant (herein called KCP) designs and manufactures complex electrical and mechanical components used in extreme environments. The material manufacturing heritage is founded in the systems design to manufacturing practices that support the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA). Material Engineers at KCP work with the systems designers to recommend materials, develop test methods, perform analytical analysis of test data, define cradle to grave needs, present final selection and fielding. The KCP material engineers typically will maintain cost control by utilizing commercial products when possible, but have the resources and to develop and produce unique formulations as necessary. This approach is currently being used to mature technologies to manufacture materials with improved characteristics using nano-composite filler materials that will enhance system design and production. For some products the engineers plan and carry out science-based life-cycle material surveillance processes. Recent examples of the approach include refurbished manufacturing of the high voltage power supplies for cockpit displays in operational aircraft; dry film lubricant application to improve bearing life for guided munitions gyroscope gimbals, ceramic substrate design for electrical circuit manufacturing, and tailored polymeric materials for various systems. The following examples show evidence of KCP concurrent design-to-manufacturing techniques used to achieve system solutions that satisfy or exceed demanding requirements.

  3. Target selection and transfer trajectories design for exploring asteroid mission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Technique of target selection and profiles of transfer trajectory for Chinese asteroid exploring mission are studied systemically.A complete set of approaches to selecting mission targets and designing the transfer trajectory is proposed.First,when selecting a target for mission,some factors regarded as the scientific motivations are discussed.Then,when analyzing the accessibility of targets,instead of the classical strategy,the multiple gravity-assist strategy is provided.The suitable and possible targets,taking into account scientific value and technically feasible,are obtained via selection and estimation.When designing the transfer trajectory for exploring asteroid mission,an approach to selecting gravity-assist celestial body is proposed.Finally,according to the mission constraints,the trajectory profile with 2-years △V-EGA for exploring asteroid is presented.Through analyzing the trajectory profile,unexpected result that the trajectory would pass by two main-belts asteroids is found.So,the original proposal is extended to the multiple flybys mission.It adds the scientific return for asteroid mission.

  4. License Application Design Selection Report, REV 01. August 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hastings, C.R.

    1999-08-30

    In December 1998, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) published the ''Viability Assessment of a Repository at Yucca Mountain'' (DOE 1998b). The Viability Assessment described a preliminary design of a potential repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, and assessed the probable behavior of that repository design in the Yucca Mountain geologic setting. The report concluded that 'Yucca Mountain remains a promising site for a geologic repository and that work should proceed to support a decision in 2001 on whether to recommend the site to the President for development as a repository'. It also concluded that 'uncertainties remain about key natural processes, the preliminary design, and how the site and design would interact'. Recognizing that the design that was evaluated will be refined before a license application could be submitted, the Viability Aassesment notes that 'DOE is evaluating several design options and alternatives that could reduce existing uncertainty and improve the performance of the repository system'. During the preparation of the Viability Assessment, DOE asked the contractor for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program to study alternative design concepts for a potential geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain. The License Application Design Selection (LADS) project was initiated to conduct that study. The goal of the project was to develop and evaluate a diverse range of conceptual repository designs that work well in concert with the Yucca Mountain site and to recommend an initial design concept for the possible Site Recommendation and License Apllication. This report presents the results of the LADS project. The design process consisted of two phases. In Phase I, a series of basic design concepts (design alternatives) and components (design features) were analyzed for their potential value

  5. Designing a fuzzy expert system for selecting knowledge management strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameneh Khadivar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available knowledge management strategy is mentioned as one of the most important success factors for implementing knowledge management. The KM strategy selection is a complex decision that requires consideration of several factors. For evaluation and selection of an appropriate knowledge management strategy in organizations, many factors must be considered. The identified factors and their impact on knowledge management strategy are inherently ambiguous. In this study, an overview of theoretical foundations of research regarding the different knowledge management strategies has been done And factors influencing the knowledge management strategy selection have been extracted from conceptual frameworks and models. How these factors influence the knowledge management strategy selection is extracted through the fuzzy Delphi. Next a fuzzy expert system for the selection of appropriate knowledge management strategy is designed with respect to factors that have an impact on knowledge management strategy. The factors which influence the selection of knowledge management strategy include: general business strategy, organizational structure, cultural factors, IT strategy, strategic human resource management, social level, the types of knowledge creation processes and release it. The factors which influence the knowledge management strategy selection include: business strategy general, organizational structure, cultural factors, IT strategy, human resource management strategies, socialization level, knowledge types and its creation and diffusion processes. According to identified factors which affect the knowledge management strategy, the final strategy is recommended based on the range of human-oriented and system-oriented by keep the balance of explicit and implicit knowledge. The Designed system performance is tested and evaluated by the information related to three Iranian organization.

  6. Software Radio Sampling Rate Selection, Design and Synchronization

    CERN Document Server

    Venosa, Elettra; Palmieri, Francesco A N

    2012-01-01

    Software Radio represents the future of communication devices. By moving a radio's hardware functionalities into software, SWR promises to change the communication devices creating radios that, built on DSP based hardware platforms, are multiservice, multiband, reconfigurable and reprogrammable. This book describes the design of Software Radio (SWR). Rather than providing an overview of digital signal processing and communications, this book focuses on topics which are crucial in the design and development of a SWR, explaining them in a very simple, yet precise manner, giving simulation results that confirm the effectiveness of the proposed design.  Readers will gain in-depth knowledge of key issues so they can actually implement a SWR.  Specifically the book addresses the following issues: proper low-sampling rate selection in the multi-band received signal scenario, architecture design for both software radio receiver and transmitter devices and radio synchronization. Addresses very precisely the most imp...

  7. Bangladesh Development Update, October 2016

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This update introduces Bangladesh's new poverty numbers at $1.90 per capita per day in 2011 purchasing power parity (PPP) prices, followed by an account of recent economic development, the outlook, risks, and policy responses. The revised poverty rates are significantly lower, but follow the same downward historical trend seen when using the 2005 international extreme poverty line. Banglad...

  8. Wind Energy Potential in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Z.A. Saifullah

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh is encountering difficulties in supplying energy to maintain its economic growth. Government of Bangladesh is looking for renewable energy sources to meet up the total power demand in this country. The present study aims to assess wind energy potential in Bangladesh as a sustainable solution to overcome the energy crisis. Wind speed at six coastal zones Patenga, Cox’s Bazar, Teknaf, Char Fassion, Kuakata and Kutubdia at Bay of Bengal of Bangladesh have been analyzed. A near shore wind farm has been considered at these locations having a coastal line of 574 km. The turbines are spaced 7D apart in the prevailing wind direction, and 3D apart in the perpendicular direction, where D is rotor diameter. This near shore wind farm with an array of 5104 horizontal axis wind turbines with hub height of 100 m and rotor diameter of 75 m with a wind speed of 7 m/sec is capable to generate 1855.25 MW of electrical power. This can mitigate 55.93 per cent of energy shortage in 2016. By developing renewable energy sources it is possible to compensate 11.25 per cent of total power demand by 2020.

  9. Design, Selection and Application of High Efficient Complex Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The design, selection and application principles of complex alloys according to the requirements of making low-alloy steels are di scussed. The designed complex alloys containing calcium, barium, magne sium, strontium, rare earth elements, etc. should not only be able to deoxidize, desulphurize and refine liquid steel, but also alloy it. Th e application principles of alloys are as follows: using Si-Mn or Si-M n-Al alloys for pre-deoxidizing, Si-Al-Ba or Si-Al-Ca-Ba alloys for fi nal deoxidizing and Si-Ca-Ba-Mg(Sr) alloys for refining.

  10. Design and Verification of Advanced Carry Select Adder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guru Dixit Chepuri

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Design ofareaefficient data pathlogicsystems formsthelargestareasofresearch inVLSIsystem design.Indigital adders, thespeed of addition islimitedbythetimerequired totransmit a carrythroughtheadder.CarrySelectAdder (CSA isoneofthefastestadders usedinmanydata-processingprocessorstoperform fastarithmetic functions. Fromthestructure oftheCSA,itisclear thatthereisscopeforreducing thearea and powerintheCSA. This work usesasimpleandefficient gate-level modification todrasticallyreducetheareaandpower oftheCSA.Basedonthismodification 16,32,64 and128-bitsquare-root CSA(SQRT CSA architectureshavebeendevelopedandcomparedwith theregularSQRTCSAarchitecture. Theproposed designhasreducedarea and powerascompared withtheregular SQRTCSA.Thisworkestimates theperformanceof theproposed designsintermsofpower,areaand isimplementedusingXilinxISE and synthesized using cadence in 90nm technology.

  11. Computational design of nanoparticle drug delivery systems for selective targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Gregg A; Bevan, Michael A

    2015-10-01

    Ligand-functionalized nanoparticles capable of selectively binding to diseased versus healthy cell populations are attractive for improved efficacy of nanoparticle-based drug and gene therapies. However, nanoparticles functionalized with high affinity targeting ligands may lead to undesired off-target binding to healthy cells. In this work, Monte Carlo simulations were used to quantitatively determine net surface interactions, binding valency, and selectivity between targeted nanoparticles and cell surfaces. Dissociation constant, KD, and target membrane protein density, ρR, are explored over a range representative of healthy and cancerous cell surfaces. Our findings show highly selective binding to diseased cell surfaces can be achieved with multiple, weaker affinity targeting ligands that can be further optimized by varying the targeting ligand density, ρL. Using the approach developed in this work, nanomedicines can be optimally designed for exclusively targeting diseased cells and tissues.

  12. Lunar base habitat designs: Characterizing the environment, and selecting habitat designs for future trade-offs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganapathi, Gani B.; Ferrall, Joseph; Seshan, P. K.

    1993-01-01

    A survey of distinct conceptual lunar habitat designs covering the pre- and post-Apollo era is presented. The impact of the significant lunar environmental challenges such as temperature, atmosphere, radiation, soil properties, meteorites, and seismic activity on the habitat design parameters are outlined. Over twenty habitat designs were identified and classified according to mission type, crew size; total duration of stay, modularity, environmental protection measures, and emplacement. Simple selection criteria of (1) post-Apollo design, (2) uniqueness of the habitat design, (3) level of thoroughness in design layout, (4) habitat dimensions are provided, and (5) materials of construction for the habitat shell are specified, are used to select five habitats for future trade studies. Habitat emplacement scenarios are created to examine the possible impact of emplacement of the habitat in different locations, such as lunar poles vs. equatorial, above ground vs. below ground, etc.

  13. Selection and trajectory design to mission secondary targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victorino Sarli, Bruno; Kawakatsu, Yasuhiro

    2017-02-01

    Recently, with new trajectory design techniques and use of low-thrust propulsion systems, missions have become more efficient and cheaper with respect to propellant. As a way to increase the mission's value and scientific return, secondary targets close to the main trajectory are often added with a small change in the transfer trajectory. As a result of their large number, importance and facility to perform a flyby, asteroids are commonly used as such targets. This work uses the Primer Vector theory to define the direction and magnitude of the thrust for a minimum fuel consumption problem. The design of a low-thrust trajectory with a midcourse asteroid flyby is not only challenging for the low-thrust problem solution, but also with respect to the selection of a target and its flyby point. Currently more than 700,000 minor bodies have been identified, which generates a very large number of possible flyby points. This work uses a combination of reachability, reference orbit, and linear theory to select appropriate candidates, drastically reducing the simulation time, to be later included in the main trajectory and optimized. Two test cases are presented using the aforementioned selection process and optimization to add and design a secondary flyby to a mission with the primary objective of 3200 Phaethon flyby and 25143 Itokawa rendezvous.

  14. Optimum Tower Crane Selection and Supporting Design Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo Won Sohn

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available To optimize tower crane selection and supporting design, lifting requirements (as well as stability should be examined, followed by a review of economic feasibility. However, construction engineers establish plans based on data provided by equipment suppliers since there are no tools with which to thoroughly examine a support design’s suitability for various crane types, and such plans lack the necessary supporting data. In such cases it is impossible to optimize a tower crane selection to satisfy lifting requirements in terms of cost, and to perform lateral support and foundation design. Thus, this study is intended to develop an optimum tower crane selection and supporting design management method based on stability. All cases that are capable of generating an optimization of approximately 3,000 ~ 15,000 times are calculated to identify the candidate cranes with minimized cost, which are examined. The optimization method developed in the study is expected to support engineers in determining the optimum lifting equipment management.

  15. RURAL MARKETS IN BANGLADESH AND THE RURAL MAINTENANCE PROGRAMME

    OpenAIRE

    Uddin, M. Mosleh; Kabir, M.; Alam, M. Mostafa; Boss, G. K.

    1989-01-01

    This study describes the Impact of rural maintenance programme on rural markets in Bangladesh. Rural Maintenance programme (RMP) is a year-round programme for maintenance ol 16 miles earthen roads In each selected union. The programme is run by crews consisting of 15 destitute women. The findings suggest that better road maintenance by RMP in the programme areas has resulted in more traffic f low through which the markets in the programme areas have been expanded. Better supply of services su...

  16. Hepatitis B in Bangladesh: Further Suggestions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shafiul Jamal

    2006-06-01

    adolescent programme (6. This has already happened in Italy; all persons born since 1979 have been targeted by either the infant or adolescent HBV vaccination programme in the space of 12 years (7. Following these examples Bangladesh can implement both neonatal and adolescent vaccination programmes together in the beginning but can withdraw the adolescent programme after a decade or so when the current neonatal cohort will reach the age of puberty.l| The proposed strategy is applicable to other resource-poor countries that implement HBV vaccination policy similar to Bangladesh viz: India, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Pakistan and many more. Selecting the most appropriate HBV vaccination policy appears to be an ever-debatable issue; what we need before everything else is a global consensus on HBV vaccination strategy in the third world countries. Competing interests: None declared*

  17. Socio-economic Conditions of Tribal Female Workers of the Beauty Parlors in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nargis Akhter

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The study highlights the socio-economic conditions of tribal female workers of the beauty parlors in Bangladesh. The study consists of 240 sample tribal female workers of the different beauty parlors situated in six divisional towns of Bangladesh and judgment sampling technique was used to select this sample. The study reveals that tribal women working at beauty parlor draw competitively higher salary than other tribal people; they live at a comparatively healthy physical environment provided by their owners. Majority of the respondents mentioned that their earnings have improved their economic condition significantly and more than half of them have past work experience of the same job. The tribal female workers of the beauty parlors in Bangladesh are not only generating income from the beauty parlors they are providing a valuable service to the new consumer society. The main stream society is not yet ready to provide this type of services. So, we should not treat this migrant community as temporary visitors rather we should treat them as indispensable and contributing factor of the social and economic development in Bangladesh. There should be initiative from the government of Bangladesh to inspect health; safety; welfare and other related issues of the beauty parlors in Bangladesh and take necessary actions in this regard. Finally, the future research directions are presented.

  18. The effect of a school-based educational intervention on menstrual health: an intervention study among adolescent girls in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haque, S.E.; Rahman, M.; Itsuko, K.; Mutahara, M.; Sakisaka, K.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the impact of a school-based menstrual education programme on: (1) menstrual knowledge, beliefs and practices, (2) menstrual disorders experienced, and (3) restrictions on menstruating adolescents. Design: Intervention study. Setting: Araihazar area, Bangladesh. Participants: 4

  19. Approaches to the rational design of selective melanocortin receptor antagonists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruby, Victor J; Cai, Minying; Nyberg, Joel; Muthu, Dhanasekaran

    2015-01-01

    Introduction When establishing the physiological roles of specific receptors in normal and disease states, it is critical to have selective antagonist ligands for each receptor in a receptor system with several subtypes. The melanocortin receptors have five subtypes referred to as the melanocortin 1 receptor, melanocortin 2 receptor, melanocortin 3 receptor, melanocortin 4 receptor and melanocortin 5 receptor, and they are of critical importance for many aspects of human health and disease. Areas covered This article reviews the current efforts to design selective antagonistic ligands for the five human melanocortin receptors summarizing the currently published orthosteric and allosteric antagonists for each of these receptors. Expert opinion Though there has been progress, there are still few drugs available that address the many significant biological activities and diseases that are associated with these receptors, which is possibly due to the lack of receptor selectivity that these designed ligands are currently showing. The authors believe that further studies into the antagonists’ 3D conformational and topographical properties in addition to future mutagenesis studies will provide greater insight into these ligands which could play a role in the treatment of various diseases in the future. PMID:22646078

  20. Chemical and environmental vector control as a contribution to the elimination of visceral leishmaniasis on the Indian subcontinent: cluster randomized controlled trials in Bangladesh, India and Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Pradeep

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bangladesh, India and Nepal are working towards the elimination of visceral leishmaniasis (VL by 2015. In 2005 the World Health Organization/Training in Tropical Diseases launched an implementation research programme to support integrated vector management for the elimination of VL from Bangladesh, India and Nepal. The programme is conducted in different phases, from proof-of-concept to scaling up intervention. This study was designed in order to evaluate the efficacy of the three different interventions for VL vector management: indoor residual spraying (IRS; long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLIN; and environmental modification (EVM through plastering of walls with lime or mud. Methods Using a cluster randomized controlled trial we compared three vector control interventions with a control arm in 96 clusters (hamlets or neighbourhoods in each of the 4 study sites: Bangladesh (one, India (one and Nepal (two. In each site four villages with high reported VL incidences were included. In each village six clusters and in each cluster five households were randomly selected for sand fly collection on two consecutive nights. Control and intervention clusters were matched with average pre-intervention vector densities. In each site six clusters were randomly assigned to each of the following interventions: indoor residual spraying (IRS; long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLIN; environmental management (EVM or control. All the houses (50-100 in each intervention cluster underwent the intervention measures. A reduction of intra-domestic sand fly densities measured in the study households by overnight US Centres for Disease Prevention and Control light trap captures (that is the number of sand flies per trap per night was the main outcome measure. Results IRS, and to a lesser extent EVM and LLINs, significantly reduced sand fly densities for at least 5 months in the study households irrespective of type of walls or whether or

  1. IMAGE SELECTION FOR 3D MEASUREMENT BASED ON NETWORK DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Fuse

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available 3D models have been widely used by spread of many available free-software. On the other hand, enormous images can be easily acquired, and images are utilized for creating the 3D models recently. However, the creation of 3D models by using huge amount of images takes a lot of time and effort, and then efficiency for 3D measurement are required. In the efficiency strategy, the accuracy of the measurement is also required. This paper develops an image selection method based on network design that means surveying network construction. The proposed method uses image connectivity graph. By this, the image selection problem is regarded as combinatorial optimization problem and the graph cuts technique can be applied. Additionally, in the process of 3D reconstruction, low quality images and similarity images are extracted and removed. Through the experiments, the significance of the proposed method is confirmed. Potential to efficient and accurate 3D measurement is implied.

  2. Design of an operations manager selection system in service encounter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanawin Nunthaphanich

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to provide criteria for selecting operations managers at the ‘service encounter’ for mobile telecommunication companies, and develop a system for this multi-criteria decision-making scheme based on the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP. There are three main criteria for evaluating the capability of service-encounter operation managers: (1 the ability to design service process; (2 the ability to operate service process; (3 the ability to conduct improvement. The AHP operation manager selection tool was developed based on the complex problems at the service encounter. It was created as a decision support system which was used to recruit and evaluate operations managers’ capability for the purpose of career advancement.

  3. Materials selection and design of products with low environmental impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashby, M.F. [Engineering Design Centre, Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Engineering, Engineering Design Centre; Wegst, U.G.K. [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Metallforschung, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2002-06-01

    The creation, use and disposal of any engineering product carry with it an environmental burden. Materials contribute to it in their production, use and disposal of these products. The minimisation of the environmental burden for the whole life-time requires the selection of materials that-without compromising product quality-create less toxic by-products, allow a longer life, are more easily recycled, are lighter and less energy intensive, and that, where possible, use renewable or non-critical resources. The research described here aims at the environmentally-conscious selection of materials early in the design process. It is illustrated by a case study on materials substitution for lightweight cars. (orig.)

  4. Designed amyloid fibers as materials for selective carbon dioxide capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Furukawa, Hiroyasu; Deng, Hexiang; Liu, Cong; Yaghi, Omar M; Eisenberg, David S

    2014-01-07

    New materials capable of binding carbon dioxide are essential for addressing climate change. Here, we demonstrate that amyloids, self-assembling protein fibers, are effective for selective carbon dioxide capture. Solid-state NMR proves that amyloid fibers containing alkylamine groups reversibly bind carbon dioxide via carbamate formation. Thermodynamic and kinetic capture-and-release tests show the carbamate formation rate is fast enough to capture carbon dioxide by dynamic separation, undiminished by the presence of water, in both a natural amyloid and designed amyloids having increased carbon dioxide capacity. Heating to 100 °C regenerates the material. These results demonstrate the potential of amyloid fibers for environmental carbon dioxide capture.

  5. Photovoltaic module encapsulation design and materials selection. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuddihy, E.

    1984-06-01

    This is Volume II of Photovoltaic Module Encapsulation Design and Materials Selection: a periodically updated handbook of encapsulation technology, developed with the support of the Flat-Plate Solar Array Project (FSA), managed for the Department of Energy (DOE) by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Volume II describes FSA encapsulation technology developed between June 1, 1982, and January 1, 1984. Emphasis during this period shifted from materials development to demonstration of reliability and durability in an outdoor environment; the updated information in this volume reflects the developing technology base related to both reliability and encapsulation process improvements.

  6. Agile Contracts: Designing an Agile Team Selection Guideline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Lene; Pries-Heje, Jan

    2014-01-01

    with “endless” re-negotiation of the requirements; you need a more flexible way to develop IS. A new way of coping with many changes is to use an agile development approach and a fixed budget and resources contract. This paper presents an example case. We analyse the case and design a guideline for how...... to implement a fixed budget and resources contract in the public sector. The guideline includes elements to cope with challenges in a tender process such as transparency, criteria for supplier selection, and live assessment of resource skills and capabilities, as well as achieving the flexibility for change...

  7. Design and Analysis of a High Speed Carry Select Adder

    OpenAIRE

    Simarpreet Singh Chawla; Swapnil Aggarwal; Anshika; Nidhi Goel

    2015-01-01

    An optimal high-speed and low-power VLSI architecture requires an efficient arithmetic processing unit that is optimized for speed and power consumption. Adders are one of the widely used in digital integrated circuit and system design.High speed adder is the necessary component in a data path, e.g. Microprocessors and a Digital signal processor. The present paper proposes a novel high-speed adder by combining the advantages of Carry Look Ahead Adder (CLAA) and Carry Select Adder (CSA), devis...

  8. Design and Analysis of a High Speed Carry Select Adder

    OpenAIRE

    Simarpreet Singh Chawla; Swapnil Aggarwal; Anshika; Nidhi Goel

    2015-01-01

    An optimal high-speed and low-power VLSI architecture requires an efficient arithmetic processing unit that is optimized for speed and power consumption. Adders are one of the widely used in digital integrated circuit and system design. High speed adder is the necessary component in a data path, e.g. Microprocessors and a Digital signal processor. The present paper proposes a novel high-speed adder by combining the advantages of Carry Look Ahead Adder (CLAA) and Carry Select Adder (CSA), devi...

  9. THE ROLE OF NGOs IN THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizul Hassan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Non-governmental organizations are claimed to have impacts on the sustainable development in rural areas of the developing countries and the Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC is identified as an example. This study has considered BRAC as the case and has been aimed to critically outline the roles of this selected non-governmental organization (BRAC in sustainable development process. With this particular aim, this study has also explored the trends of current poverty situations in Bangladesh. In addition, impacts of the BRAC sustainable development initiatives have also been analyzed, to some extent. This study has selected two villages of the Chandpur district of Bangladesh, where BRAC has been operating intense programmes. This study has used both the qualitative and quantitative methods of research. Results suggest that programmes undertaken by NGOs are capable of having positive contributions in the sustainable development process to a certain level. The fact is that the programme implementation, where efficiency of the NGO employees is an indicator of success factor. The research is empirical and is expectedly fill the gap of literature.

  10. Selection of design parameters for a slurry injection tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Y; Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Nyord, Tavs

    2013-01-01

    selected through applying the optimization approach. The four sweeps were tested at different working depths (75, 100, and 125 mm below soil surface) in a field with loamy sandy soil. The results showed that draft force and soil cross-sectional area tilled had similar trends as predicted......Injection has been recognized as an effective method for land application of liquid slurry. Optimization design is essential for developing higher-performance injection tools and identifying potential improvement of existing tools. In this study, design parameters of an injection tool were...... in the optimization in terms of the effects of sweep width and working depth. Among all the combinations of sweep width and working depth, the 180 mm sweep working at 100 mm depth had the best performance, as indicated by its lowest draft force and most favorable soil surface profile for covering injected slurry....

  11. Energy Flow in Agriculture: Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    M. S. Alam; Alam, M.R; Islam, K. K.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a qualitative energy flow analysis in Bangladesh agriculture has been made for a period from 1980-81 to 2000-01 to evaluate the impact of energy input to produce output. Human & animal muscle power and machinery energy for tillage operation, electricity and diesel energy for irrigation, fertilizer and pesticides energy for growth and protection are taken into account. Energy values are calculated by multiplying respective quantity by their respective energy equivalents with...

  12. Photovoltaic-module encapsulation design and materials selection: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuddihy, E.; Carroll, W.; Coulbert, C.; Gupta, A.; Liang, R.

    1982-06-01

    Encapsulation-material system requirements, material-selection criteria, and the status and properties of encapsulation materials and processes available to the module manufacturer are presented in detail. Technical and economic goals established for photovoltaic modules and encapsulation systems and their status are described for material suppliers to assist them in assessing the suitability of materials in their product lines and the potential of new-material products. A comprehensive discussion of available encapsulation technology and data is presented to facilitate design and material selection for silicon flat-plate photovoltaic modules, using the best materials available and processes optimized for specific power applications and geographic sites. A basis is provided for specifying the operational and environmental loads that encapsulation material systems must resist. Potential deployment sites for which cost effectiveness may be achieved at a module price much greater than $0.70/W/sub p/, are also considered; data on higher-cost encapsulant materials and processes that may be in use and other material candidates that may be justified for special application are discussed. Described are encapsulation-system functional requirements and candidate design concepts and materials that have been identified and analyzed as having the best potential to meet the cost and performance goals for the Flat-Plate Solar Array Project. The available data on encapsulant material properties, fabrication processing, and module life and durability characteristics are presented.

  13. Bangladesh Quarterly Economic Update - December 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank

    2015-01-01

    The Bangladesh Quarterly Economic Update (QEU) has been produced by the Bangladesh Resident Mission of the Asian Development Bank since March 2001. The QEU provides information and analysis on Bangladesh’s macroeconomic and sector developments, key development challenges, and policy and institutional reforms. The QEU has wide readership in government, academia, development partners, private sector, and civil society.

  14. Bangladesh Quarterly Economic Update June 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank

    2014-01-01

    The Bangladesh Quarterly Economic Update (QEU) has been produced by the Bangladesh Resident Mission of the Asian Development Bank since March 2001. The QEU provides information and analysis on Bangladesh’s macroeconomic and sector developments, key development challenges, and policy and institutional reforms. The QEU has wide readership in government, academia, development partners, private sector, and civil society.

  15. Bangladesh Quarterly Economic Update September 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank

    2014-01-01

    The Bangladesh Quarterly Economic Update (QEU) has been produced by the Bangladesh Resident Mission of the Asian Development Bank since March 2001. The QEU provides information and analysis on Bangladesh’s macroeconomic and sector developments, key development challenges, and policy and institutional reforms. The QEU has wide readership in government, academia, development partners, private sector, and civil society.

  16. Impact of 4.0% chlorhexidine cleansing of the umbilical cord on mortality and omphalitis among newborns of Sylhet, Bangladesh: design of a community-based cluster randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Saifuddin

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organization recommends dry cord care for newborns but this recommendation may not be optimal in low resource settings where most births take place in an unclean environment and infections account for up to half of neonatal deaths. A previous trial in Nepal indicated that umbilical cord cleansing with 4.0% chlorhexidine could substantially reduce mortality and omphalitis risk, but policy changes await additional community-based data. Methods The Projahnmo Chlorhexidine study was a three-year, cluster-randomized, community-based trial to assess the impact of three cord care regimens on neonatal mortality and omphalitis. Women were recruited mid-pregnancy, received a basic package of maternal and neonatal health promotion messages, and were followed to pregnancy outcome. Newborns were visited at home by local village-based workers whose areas were randomized to either 1 single- or 2 7-day cord cleansing with 4.0% chlorhexidine, or 3 promotion of dry cord care as recommended by WHO. All mothers received basic messages regarding hand-washing, clean cord cutting, and avoidance of harmful home-base applications to the cord. Death within 28 days and omphalitis were the primary outcomes; these were monitored directly through home visits by community health workers on days 1, 3, 6, 9, 15, and 28 after birth. Discussion Due to report in early 2010, the Projahnmo Chlorhexidine Study examines the impact of multiple or single chlorhexidine cleansing of the cord on neonatal mortality and omphalitis among newborns of rural Sylhet District, Bangladesh. The results of this trial will be interpreted in conjunction with a similarly designed trial previously conducted in Nepal, and will have implications for policy guidelines for optimal cord care of newborns in low resource settings in Asia. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00434408

  17. A Study on Plant Selection for Green Building Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izudinshah Abd. Wahab

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous researches show that incorporating natural elements in design has proven a significant result in balancing building indoor environment. Using plant as part of the design has been widely accepted to contribute good thermal impact as shown in bioclimatic design, green roofing system and living wall elements. As there are so many species of plants for selection, this research was carried out to analyze types of indoor plants that have the potential to contribute thermal comfort to their surrounding. Based on the fact that plant leaves are the part where transpiration and guttation take place, plants are categorized into seven types based on their leaves architecture. They were then tested on their impact on surrounding temperature and humidity. Result shows that Linear, Lanceolate and Oblong shaped leaves categories are good in lowering the relative humidity while the categories that are good in lowering the temperature are Linear, Lanceolate, Cordate and Oblong shaped leaves categories. The study was carried out through series of relative humidity and air temperature monitoring of several room casings that consist with the plants. Both relative humidity and air temperature of the rooms with plants were recorded lower compared with the one without plant. Different categories of plants do give good result in relative humidity and air temperature. Thus, with a good combination of plant installation inside or onto building, it may contribute towards providing a good thermal comfort to the occupants.

  18. Prevalence and characterization of motile Salmonella in commercial layer poultry farms in Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barua, Himel; Biswas, Paritosh K.; Olsen, Katharina E. P.;

    2012-01-01

    at farm/holding level, and the zoonotic serovars circulating in layer poultry in the South and South-East Asian countries including Bangladesh, where small-scale commercial farms are predominant, is limited. To investigate the prevalence of Salmonella at layer farm level, and to identify the prevalent...... serovars we conducted a cross-sectional survey by randomly selecting 500 commercial layer poultry farms in Bangladesh. Faecal samples from the selected farms were collected following standard procedure, and examined for the presence of Salmonella using conventional bacteriological procedures. Thirty...... showed that all of them were clonally related because only one genotype and three subtypes were determined based on the variation in two or three bands. This is also the first report on the presence of any specific serovar of Salmonella enterica in poultry in Bangladesh....

  19. Mapping malaria risk in Bangladesh using Bayesian geostatistical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Heidi; Haque, Ubydul; Clements, Archie C A; Tatem, Andrew J; Vallely, Andrew; Ahmed, Syed Masud; Islam, Akramul; Haque, Rashidul

    2010-10-01

    Background malaria-control programs are increasingly dependent on accurate risk maps to effectively guide the allocation of interventions and resources. Advances in model-based geostatistics and geographical information systems (GIS) have enabled researchers to better understand factors affecting malaria transmission and thus, more accurately determine the limits of malaria transmission globally and nationally. Here, we construct Plasmodium falciparum risk maps for Bangladesh for 2007 at a scale enabling the malaria-control bodies to more accurately define the needs of the program. A comprehensive malaria-prevalence survey (N = 9,750 individuals; N = 354 communities) was carried out in 2007 across the regions of Bangladesh known to be endemic for malaria. Data were corrected to a standard age range of 2 to less than 10 years. Bayesian geostatistical logistic regression models with environmental covariates were used to predict P. falciparum prevalence for 2- to 10-year-old children (PfPR(2-10)) across the endemic areas of Bangladesh. The predictions were combined with gridded population data to estimate the number of individuals living in different endemicity classes. Across the endemic areas, the average PfPR(2-10) was 3.8%. Environmental variables selected for prediction were vegetation cover, minimum temperature, and elevation. Model validation statistics revealed that the final Bayesian geostatistical model had good predictive ability. Risk maps generated from the model showed a heterogeneous distribution of PfPR(2-10) ranging from 0.5% to 50%; 3.1 million people were estimated to be living in areas with a PfPR(2-10) greater than 1%. Contemporary GIS and model-based geostatistics can be used to interpolate malaria risk in Bangladesh. Importantly, malaria risk was found to be highly varied across the endemic regions, necessitating the targeting of resources to reduce the burden in these areas.

  20. High Selective Performance of Designed Antibacterial and Anticancer Peptide Amphiphiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cuixia; Chen, Yucan; Yang, Cheng; Zeng, Ping; Xu, Hai; Pan, Fang; Lu, Jian Ren

    2015-08-12

    Short designed peptide amphiphiles are attractive at killing bacteria and inhibiting cancer cell growth, and the flexibility in their structural design offers a great potential for improving their potency and biocompatibility to mammalian host cells. Amino acid sequences such as G(IIKK)nI-NH2 (n≥3) have been shown to be membrane lytic, but terminal amino acid modifications could impose a huge influence on their performance. We report in this work how terminal amino acid modifications to G(IIKK)3I-NH2 influence its α-helical structure, membrane penetrating ability, and selective actions against different cell types. Deletion of an N-terminal Gly or a C-terminal Ile did not affect their antibacterial activity much, an observation consistent with their binding behavior to negatively charged membrane lipid monolayers. However, the cytotoxicity against mammalian cells was much worsened by the N-terminal Gly deletion, consistent with an increase in its helical content. Despite little impact on the antibacterial activity of G(IIKK)3I-NH2, deletion of both terminal amino acids greatly reduced its antitumor activity. Cholesterol present in tumor cell membrane-mimic was thought to constrain (IIKK)3-NH2 from penetrating into the cancerous membranes, evident from its lowest surface physical activity at penetrating model lipid membranes. On the other hand, its low toxicity to normal mammalian cells and high antibacterial activity in vitro and in vivo made it an attractive antibacterial agent. Thus, terminal modifications can help rebalance the different interactions involved and are highly effective at manipulating their selective membrane responses.

  1. Demand of eLearning for Professional Education and Learners’ Preparation: Bangladesh Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K.M. Iftekhar Khalid

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper demonstrates the demand of elearning that needs to cope with and possible technology introduction through Bangladesh Open University as a lone government agency of distance education in Bangladesh for its learners who are doing Commonwealth Executive MBA (CEMBA/Commonwealth Executive MPA (CEMPA offered in cooperation with Commonwealth of Learning (COL and MBA program of its own. Web based learning or eLearning is a new genre for providing services in the arena of education. Though in most developed countries such USA, Canada, UK, web based learning becomes popular to learners of their country, that is a very new to a third country like Bangladesh. Students of Bangladesh are also partaking courses through online programmes offered by those developed countries. These courses are expensive too, so it is necessary to establish our own elearning system in Bangladesh. As the demand of training and education is huge in Bangladesh, it is necessary to adapt the mobile and flexible system. Keeping the eye on view, a survey was conducted among the learners of those professional academic programmes. The informants were selected both from the capital city of Bangladesh as well as divisional cities and district town. The survey demonstrates that this technology can be appropriately used to meet the demands of the professional programmes. However, this survey also shows that the professional programmes require careful planning and sound technological infrastructures. The study will clarify how far prospective learners have the appreciation of the technology and how the learners have comparatively more preparation to participate in an eLearning programme rather than the organizations. The survey also focuses the primary and secondary education through collected data from websites of Bangladeshi government and private organization.

  2. Darwin's explanation of design: from natural theology to natural selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Francisco J

    2010-08-01

    Copernicus, Galileo, Newton and other physical scientists ushered in a conception of the universe as matter in motion governed by natural laws. Their discoveries brought about a fundamental revolution, namely a commitment to the postulate that the universe obeys immanent laws that can account for natural phenomena. The workings of the universe were brought into the realm of science: explanation through natural laws. Darwin completed the Copernican revolution by extending it to the living world. Darwin demonstrated the evolution of organisms. More important yet is that he discovered natural selection, the process that explains the "design" of organisms. The adaptations and diversity of organisms, the origin of novel and complex species, even the origin of mankind, could now be explained by an orderly process of change governed by natural laws. The origin of species and the exquisite features of organisms had previously been explained as special creations of an Omniscient God. Darwin brought them into the domain of science. Evolution is a creative process that produces genuine novelty. The creative power of evolution arises from a distinctive interaction between chance and necessity, between random mutation and natural selection.

  3. Molecular Design of Trypsin Towards High Substrate Selectivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    来鲁华; 王彦力; 徐筱杰; 唐有祺; 倪逸声; 张龙翔

    1994-01-01

    Molecular design of trypsin mutants towards higher substrate specificity for arginine or ly-sine type substrates was studied. The difference in side chain pKa of arginine and lysine was utilized in redesigning trypsin. If the enzyme could react effectively at a pH higher than lysine’s pKa but lower than that of arginine, it would react more selectively with arginine-type substrates, since in that pH range, the side chain of arginie remain protonated, while that of lysine is deprotonated. For trypsin. the change of histidine (57)’s pKa reflects the shift in reaction optimum pH. Electrostatic calculations showed that when surface positive residues were mutated into neutral or negative ones, the pKa of histidine(57) would be raised and those surface charges within a cone of 70 degree around histidine(57) have strong influence on its pKa. Several sites were suggested in rat trypsin which might serve as potential mutation locations to make trypsin active at a higher pH, thus more selective towards arginine t

  4. Salt Intake and Health Risk in Climate Change Vulnerable Coastal Bangladesh: What Role Do Beliefs and Practices Play?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Rasheed

    Full Text Available High salt consumption is an important risk factor of elevated blood pressure. In Bangladesh about 20 million people are at high risk of hypertension due to climate change induced saline intrusion in water. The objective of this study is to assess beliefs, perceptions, and practices associated with salt consumption in coastal Bangladesh.The study was conducted in Chakaria, Bangladesh between April-June 2011. It was a cross sectional mixed method study. For the qualitative study 6 focus group discussions, 8 key informant interviews, 60 free listing exercises, 20 ranking exercises and 10 observations were conducted. 400 adults were randomly selected for quantitative survey. For analysis we used SPSS for quantitative data, and Anthropac and Nvivo for qualitative data.Salt was described as an essential component of food with strong cultural and religious roots. People described both health benefits and risks related to salt intake. The overall risk perception regarding excessive salt consumption was low and respondents believed that the cooking process can render the salt harmless. Respondents were aware that salt is added in many foods even if they do not taste salty but did not recognize that salt can occur naturally in both foods and water.In the study community people had low awareness of the risks associated with excess salt consumption and salt reduction strategies were not high in their agenda. The easy access to and low cost of salt as well as unrecognised presence of salt in drinking water has created an environment conducive to excess salt consumption. It is important to design general messages related to salt reduction and test tailored strategies especially for those at high risk of hypertension.

  5. Electricity consumption and economic growth nexus in Bangladesh: Revisited evidences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahamad, Mazbahul Golam, E-mail: mg.ahamad@gmail.com [Research Division, Centre for Policy Dialogue (CPD), House: 40C, Road: 11, Dhanmondi, Dhaka 1209 (Bangladesh); Islam, A.K.M. Nazrul, E-mail: nazrul2002@yahoo.com [Research Division, Centre for Policy Dialogue (CPD), House: 40C, Road: 11, Dhanmondi, Dhaka 1209 (Bangladesh)

    2011-10-15

    In this paper, an attempt is being made to examine the causal relationship between per capita electricity consumption and per capita GDP of Bangladesh using the vector error correction specified Granger causality test to search their short-run, long-run and joint causal relationships for the period of 1971-2008. Empirical findings reveal that there is a short-run unidirectional causal flow running from per capita electricity consumption to per capita GDP without feedback. The presence of a positive short-run causality explains that an increase in electricity consumption directly affects economic activity in Bangladesh. Likewise, results from joint causality exhibit the same as in short-run. By contrast, long-run results show a bi-directional causality running from electricity consumption to economic growth with feedback. These findings can provide essential policy insights to design immediate and long-term growth prospect for Bangladesh keeping in mind its present planned growth strategy and dismal power and energy sector. - Highlights: > Short-run causality running from electricity consumption to economic growth. > Positive SR causality explains electricity generation directly affects economic growth. > For long run, causality runs from electricity consumption to economic growth with feedback. > Joint causality implies the same as in short-run.

  6. Recognizing child maltreatment in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, N Z; Lynch, M A

    1997-08-01

    Concern is increasing in Bangladesh over child abuse, neglect, and exploitation. Children from all walks of life are being treated at the Child Development Center (CDC) Dhaka Shishu Hospital for neurodevelopmental problems resulting from abuse and neglect. Efforts to protect children from sexual harassment result in girls being isolated at home or married at an early age. Some young brides are eventually abandoned and forced into prostitution. Early marriage reflects the lack of acknowledgement of a period of adolescence and the belief that puberty is a marker of adulthood. Many girls aged 8-16 are employed as live-in domestic servants, and many suffer sexual as well as emotional abuse. Garment factories, on the other hand, offer girls an escape from extreme poverty, domestic service, and early marriage but are threatened by forces that condemn child labor. Rather than ending such opportunities, employers should be encouraged to provide employees with educational and welfare facilities. The CDC seeks to explore the extent and depth of the problem of child abuse while recognizing the special circumstances at work in Bangladesh. It is also necessary to raise awareness of these issues and of the discrepancies between the law and cultural practices. For example, the legal marriage age of 18 years for a woman and 21 years for a man is often ignored. Additional forms of abuse receiving the attention of women's organizations and human rights groups include the trafficking of children. A network of concerned organizations should be created to work against the child abuse, neglect, and exploitation that Bangladesh has pledged to overcome by signing the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child.

  7. Arsenic poisoning of Bangladesh groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickson, Ross; McArthur, John; Burgess, William; Ahmed, Kazi Matin; Ravenscroft, Peter; Rahmanñ, Mizanur

    1998-09-01

    In Bangladesh and West Bengal, alluvial Ganges aquifers used for public water supply are polluted with naturally occurring arsenic, which adversely affects the health of millions of people. Here we show that the arsenic derives from the reductive dissolution of arsenic-rich iron oxyhydroxides, which in turn are derived from weathering of base-metal sulphides. This finding means it should now be possible, by sedimentological study of the Ganges alluvial sediments, to guide the placement of new water wells so they will be free of arsenic.

  8. Geospatial Technology: A Tool to Aid in the Elimination of Malaria in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen E. Kirk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh is a malaria endemic country. There are 13 districts in the country bordering India and Myanmar that are at risk of malaria. The majority of malaria morbidity and mortality cases are in the Chittagong Hill Tracts, the mountainous southeastern region of Bangladesh. In recent years, malaria burden has declined in the country. In this study, we reviewed and summarized published data (through 2014 on the use of geospatial technologies on malaria epidemiology in Bangladesh and outlined potential contributions of geospatial technologies for eliminating malaria in the country. We completed a literature review using “malaria, Bangladesh” search terms and found 218 articles published in peer-reviewed journals listed in PubMed. After a detailed review, 201 articles were excluded because they did not meet our inclusion criteria, 17 articles were selected for final evaluation. Published studies indicated geospatial technologies tools (Geographic Information System, Global Positioning System, and Remote Sensing were used to determine vector-breeding sites, land cover classification, accessibility to health facility, treatment seeking behaviors, and risk mapping at the household, regional, and national levels in Bangladesh. To achieve the goal of malaria elimination in Bangladesh, we concluded that further research using geospatial technologies should be integrated into the country’s ongoing surveillance system to identify and better assess progress towards malaria elimination.

  9. Designing lipids for selective partitioning into liquid ordered membrane domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momin, Noor; Lee, Stacey; Gadok, Avinash K; Busch, David J; Bachand, George D; Hayden, Carl C; Stachowiak, Jeanne C; Sasaki, Darryl Y

    2015-04-28

    Self-organization of lipid molecules into specific membrane phases is key to the development of hierarchical molecular assemblies that mimic cellular structures. While the packing interaction of the lipid tails should provide the major driving force to direct lipid partitioning to ordered or disordered membrane domains, numerous examples show that the headgroup and spacer play important but undefined roles. We report here the development of several new biotinylated lipids that examine the role of spacer chemistry and structure on membrane phase partitioning. The new lipids were prepared with varying lengths of low molecular weight polyethylene glycol (EGn) spacers to examine how spacer hydrophilicity and length influence their partitioning behavior following binding with FITC-labeled streptavidin in liquid ordered (Lo) and liquid disordered (Ld) phase coexisting membranes. Partitioning coefficients (Kp Lo/Ld) of the biotinylated lipids were determined using fluorescence measurements in studies with giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs). Compared against DPPE-biotin, DPPE-cap-biotin, and DSPE-PEG2000-biotin lipids, the new dipalmityl-EGn-biotin lipids exhibited markedly enhanced partitioning into liquid ordered domains, achieving Kp of up to 7.3 with a decaethylene glycol spacer (DP-EG10-biotin). We further demonstrated biological relevance of the lipids with selective partitioning to lipid raft-like domains observed in giant plasma membrane vesicles (GPMVs) derived from mammalian cells. Our results found that the spacer group not only plays a pivotal role for designing lipids with phase selectivity but may also influence the structural order of the domain assemblies.

  10. Profile of lichen planus in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khondker, L; Wahab, M A; Khan, S I

    2010-04-01

    Lichen planus is one of the common inflammatory disorders of skin, mucous membrane, nail and hair characterized by violaceous, polish, pruritic, polygonal, flat-topped papules usually distributed bilaterally symmetrically over the extremities. Our objectives in this study were to explore the prevalence of lichen planus in large area of Dhaka in Bangladesh and to establish the clinical characteristics of lichen planus. This descriptive type of cross sectional study was carried out from September 2006 to August 2008 in the Department of Dermatology and Venereology of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka Medical College Hospital (DMCH) and Combined Military Hospital (CMH) in Dhaka. Patients suffering from lichen planus were selected as study population. By face to face interview and clinical observations, data were collected from sample. A total 120 patients of lichen planus were selected, on the basis of age, 30(25%) were 10-30 years of age, 75(62.56%) were 30-50 years and 16(13.33%) were over 50 years of age. The mean age of the patient was 40+/-4 years. Out of 120 patients, 80(66.66%) were male and 60(33.33%) were female and eight patients (6.67%) had positive family history among highest age group (30 to 50 years). In case of duration of disease, highest percentage (68%) of cases was 15 days to 6 months and considering clinical sign, koebnerization was present 45(37.5%) cases and Wickhams striae 22(18.33%) cases. Regarding site of onset of lesion, lesions were highest 100(83.33%) in upper limbs, next lower limbs, trunk, oral mucosa etc. The distribution of clinical pattern of lichen planus showing classic pattern (68.33%) was the most common type, followed by hypertrophic, actinic, ashy dermatoses, lichen plano-pilaris, erosive or ulcerative etc. This clinico-epidemiological study of lichen planus attending in the different hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh has shown that lichen planus is usually associated with 30 to 50 years of age group, with

  11. Energy poverty in rural Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Douglas F. [Senior Energy Consultant, World Bank, 1818 H Street, NW, Washington, DC 20433 (United States); Khandker, Shahidur R. [Lead Economist, Development Research Group, World Bank, 1818 H Street, NW, Washington, DC 20433 (United States); Samad, Hussain A. [Consultant, World Bank, 1818 H Street, NW, Washington, DC 20433 (United States)

    2011-02-15

    Energy poverty is a well-established concept among energy and development specialists. International development organizations frequently cite energy-poverty alleviation as a necessary condition to reduce income poverty. Several approaches used to measure energy poverty over the past 20 years have defined the energy poverty line as the minimum quantity of physical energy needed to perform such basic tasks as cooking and lighting. This paper uses a demand-based approach to define the energy poverty line as the threshold point at which energy consumption begins to rise with increases in household income. At or below this threshold point, households consume a bare minimum level of energy and should be considered energy poor. This approach was applied using cross-sectional data from a comprehensive 2004 household survey representative of rural Bangladesh. The findings suggest that some 58 percent of rural households in Bangladesh are energy poor, versus 45 percent that are income poor. The findings also suggest that policies to support rural electrification and greater use of improved biomass stoves might play a significant role in reducing energy poverty. (author)

  12. Converting Bangladesh's influential religious leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neaz, A

    1996-01-01

    While the Family Planning Association of Bangladesh (FPAB) introduced family planning to Bangladesh in 1953, very little progress was achieved before the 1980s. It was noticed during the 1980s that despite solid service delivery efforts with interpersonal communication at the community level and expanding choices of contraceptive methods, program success was impeded by religious leader opposition. Religious leader claims that family planning was against Islam reinforce male opposition to contraception. In an effort to win the support of religious leaders, the FPAB established an Islamic Research Cell (IRC) in 1984 and launched targeted advocacy and orientation programs. An expert with religious education and background ran the IRC. The leaders were taught that Islam directly or indirectly promotes family welfare from the viewpoint of the health and economic needs of the family, and that the Qur'an nowhere argues that family planning is forbidden. The Qur'an actually encourages prolonged breastfeeding and the avoidance of unwanted births. Orientation courses, seminars, a national conference, and the distribution of educational printed media eventually convinced the religious leaders to support family planning. Male involvement in family planning is essential in such a male-dominated society.

  13. Sexually transmitted infections and sexual behaviour among youth clients of hotel-based female sex workers in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haseen, F; Chawdhury, F A H; Hossain, M E; Huq, M; Bhuiyan, M U; Imam, H; Rahman, D M M; Gazi, R; Khan, S I; Kelly, R; Ahmed, J; Rahman, M

    2012-08-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted among youth clients of hotel-based female sex workers (YCHBFSWs) in nine randomly selected hotels in Bangladesh to examine sexual-risk behaviour, condom use and determinants of condom use in last sex, knowledge of HIV, sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevalence and STI care-seeking behaviour. A prestructured questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic, behavioural, clinical information; urine specimens (before sex) and blood were collected for diagnosis of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, syphilis and herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV2) infection. One thousand and thirteen participants were enroled in the study. Approximately half of them reported visiting female sex workers (FSWs) at least once a month and 25% visited FSWs at least once a week. Only 12% of participants reported regular condom use. The prevalence of N. gonorrhoeae, C. trachomatis, T. vaginalis, syphilis and HSV2 was 2.2%, 3.9%, 7.2%, 2.6% and 12.9%, respectively. Only 15.3% of the YCHBFSW sought STI care in the past year. Negotiation of condom use with FSWs was the main determinant (odds ratio = 17.95) for condom use at last sex. Male clients of FSWs, including YCHBFSW, are an important bridge population for HIV transmission in Bangladesh and HIV interventions should be designed and implemented for them.

  14. Italian Textile Machinery Seminar in Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The Association of Italian Textile Machinery Manufacturers (ACIMIT) and the Italian Trade Commission will hold a technological seminar on "Italian textile machinery: the way to improve Bangladesh textile competitiveness"

  15. Surface Geology of Bangladesh (geo8bg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage includes arcs, polygons, and polygon labels that describe the geologic age and type of surface outcrops of bedrock of the Bangladesh. It also includes...

  16. Rohingyas and refugee status in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia Prytz Phiri

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The Rohingya refugees from northern Rakhine Statein Myanmar are living in a precarious situation in theircountry of asylum, Bangladesh, but have seen significantimprovements in recent times.

  17. 78 FR 52560 - Hurricane Sandy Rebuilding Task Force-Rebuild-by-Design; Announcement of Selection of Design Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Hurricane Sandy Rebuilding Task Force--Rebuild-by-Design; Announcement of Selection of Design Teams AGENCY: Hurricane Sandy Task Force, HUD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In June 2013, the Hurricane Sandy Task Force launched Rebuild by Design, a multi-stage regional design competition to...

  18. Floods in Northeast India and Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    For the past two weeks floods have ravaged Bangladesh (center) and eastern India (draped around Bangladesh to the north), killing over 50 people and displacing hundreds of thousands from their homes. These false-color images acquired on July 15 and 16, 2002, by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the Terra satellite show some of the worst flooding. The dark brown, swollen river in the images (top right on July 16; center on July 15) is the Brahmaputra River, which flows through the middle of the Indian state of Assam at the foothills of the Himalaya Mountains. A large, black area south of the Brahmaputra (partially obscured by clouds) shows flooded areas in Bangladesh. Floods of this magnitude have been known to occur in southern Bangladesh and are caused by storms washing seawater over coastal regions. This year, however, unrelenting torrential rains across the entire eastern sub-continent gave rise to the deluge. The massive amounts of rainwater that fell on Nepal and Assam drained into an already waterlogged eastern Bangladesh. Normally, the Brahmaputra River and its tributaries would resemble a tangle of thin lines, and the large black patches in Bangladesh would be the color of the rest of the land surface, tan. In these false-color images, land is tan, and clouds are pink and white. Water comes across as black or dark brown, depending on its sediment level, with clearer water being closer to black. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  19. [Children and bankers in Bangladesh].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, B

    1991-06-01

    This critique of the World Bank's role in developing country population programs begins with a description of a 1987 case in which an 80-year- old Bangladeshi man was persuaded to undergo vasectomy and then robbed of his incentive payment by the health agent. For over 20 years, the World Bank has pressured 3rd World governments to implement population control programs. Although there are divergent opinions within the World Bank, the most dominant is the neomalthusian view that the poor through their high fertility help perpetuate their own poverty. This view hides the real source of poverty in the Third World: the unequal distribution of resources within these countries and between the developed and developing countries. The World Bank has always been blind to the inequalities, and has associated with the elites of developing countries who monopolize the resources of their countries and thereby impede authentic development. Furthermore, the emphasis on population control distorts social policy and hinders the implementation of safe and voluntary family planning services. In many countries the World Bank has required governments to give greater priority to population control than to basic health services. It has pressured them to relax contraceptive prescription norms and has promoted the more effective methods without regard to proper use or side effects. In Bangladesh the World Bank has sponsored sterilization programs that rely on coercion and incentives. In that country of enormous inequities, 10% of landowners control over 50% of lands, while nearly half the population is landless and chronically underemployed. Political power is concentrated in the military government, which annually receives over 1.5 billion dollars in external aid. External aid primarily benefits the wealthy. 3/4 of the population are undernourished and less than 1/3 are literate or have access to basic health care. The poor of Bangladesh, as in many other countries, feel that their only

  20. Area-Efficient Selective Multi-Threshold CMOS Design Methodology for Standby Leakage Power Reduction

    CERN Document Server

    Kitahara, Takeshi; Minami, Fimihiro; Seta, Katsuhiro; Furusawa, Toshiyuki

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a design flow for an improved selective multi-threshold(Selective-MT) circuit. The Selective-MT circuit is improved so that plural MT-cells can share one switch transistor. We propose the design methodology from RTL(Register Transfer Level) to final layout with optimizing switch transistor structure.

  1. Selecting the best design for nonstandard toxicology experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Jennifer M; Smucker, Byran J; Bailer, A John

    2014-10-01

    Although many experiments in environmental toxicology use standard statistical experimental designs, there are situations that arise where no such standard design is natural or applicable because of logistical constraints. For example, the layout of a laboratory may suggest that each shelf serve as a block, with the number of experimental units per shelf either greater than or less than the number of treatments in a way that precludes the use of a typical block design. In such cases, an effective and powerful alternative is to employ optimal experimental design principles, a strategy that produces designs with precise statistical estimates. Here, a D-optimal design was generated for an experiment in environmental toxicology that has 2 factors, 16 treatments, and constraints similar to those described above. After initial consideration of a randomized complete block design and an intuitive cyclic design, it was decided to compare a D-optimal design and a slightly more complicated version of the cyclic design. Simulations were conducted generating random responses under a variety of scenarios that reflect conditions motivated by a similar toxicology study, and the designs were evaluated via D-efficiency as well as by a power analysis. The cyclic design performed well compared to the D-optimal design.

  2. An Explorative Study on Environmental Literacy among the Secondary Level Students in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Md. Mahbub Alam; Ara, Quazi Afroz Jahan; Raihan, Jahir; Ozaki, Koji

    2008-01-01

    This study was intended to explore the environmental literacy among the secondary level students of Bangladesh. Specifically, it was designed to: i) determine environmental knowledge of the secondary students, ii) explore their environmental attitude, iii) find out their environment related practices, and iv) explore school's environment-friendly…

  3. Determinants of Quality Education in Private Universities from Student Perspectives: A Case Study in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Mohammad A.; Osman, Abu Zafar Rashed; Ratan, Sarker Rafij Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present study is to identify the determinants that potentially influence quality education in private universities in Bangladesh. Design/methodology/approach: To attain this objective, 234 data were collected through face-to-face interviews on campus during February-March 2013 from Bachelor of Business Administration…

  4. 48 CFR 36.301 - Use of two-phase design-build selection procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of two-phase design... ACQUISITION REGULATION SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Two-Phase Design-Build Selection Procedures 36.301 Use of two-phase design-build selection procedures....

  5. Design and Implementation of High Speed Carry Select Adder

    OpenAIRE

    B. Gopinath; N Sangeetha; S.Jenifer nancy; T.Umarani

    2015-01-01

    In electronic adder is a digital circuit that performs addition of numbers. Adders can be constructed for many numerical representations such as arithmetic and logical operation. The most adders operates on binary numbers. Among the different types of adders, carry select adder is a one of the fastest adder.The gate level modification is to reduce the power and area of carry select adder by using the concept of Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU). In this paper , different techniques such as Binary T...

  6. Fast scenario-based design space exploration using feature selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Stralen, P.; Pimentel, A.; Mühl, G.; Richling, J.; Herkersdorf, A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to efficiently perform early system level design space exploration (DSE) of MultiProcessor System-on-Chip (MPSoC) based embedded systems. By modeling dynamic multi-application workloads using application scenarios, optimal designs can be quickly identified using

  7. A Guidebook to Selected Projects in Design Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Denise A.; Mirochnik, Elijuh

    Design education includes those projects or activities where children are actively engaged in a process of making and doing with architecture, landscape architecture, urban design, and/or city planning as a context for the learning activity. The goal of such experiences is to sensitize children to their surroundings and better inform them about…

  8. Selection of Environmental Conditions for Nearshore Structure Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Sheng; GAN Buhong; HAO Xiaoli

    2004-01-01

    Different from the traditional one-dimensional extreme value statistical method, practical design criteria for nearshore structure design are presented based on joint probability theory in this paper. The proposed procedure considers the combined effect of tide level, huge waves and wind affecting coastal structures. The Importance Sampling Procedure (ISP) is utilized to solve the joint distribution of non-Gaussian correlated multivariate distributions. The calculation results show that the ISP is a simulating technique with the advantages of efficiency and high convergency. Finally the environmental conditions are given using this technique for near-shore structure design in the Qingdao area.

  9. A Comprehensive Framework for Surfactant Selection and Design for Emulsion Based Chemical Product Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattei, Michele; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Gani, Rafiqul

    2014-01-01

    The manufacture of emulsified products is of increasing interest in the consumer oriented chemical indus-try. Several cosmetic, house-hold and pharmaceutical products are in the emulsified form when soldand/or they are expected to form an emulsion when used. Therefore, there is a need for the dev......The manufacture of emulsified products is of increasing interest in the consumer oriented chemical indus-try. Several cosmetic, house-hold and pharmaceutical products are in the emulsified form when soldand/or they are expected to form an emulsion when used. Therefore, there is a need...... ingredientsis consequently necessary to tackle this problem with computer-aided methods and tools. A compre-hensive framework for the selection and design of surfactants, the main responsible for the formationand the stability of emulsions, is presented here together with the modeling of the cloud point, a key......-property of nonionic surfactants, with a group-contribution model. The mathematical formulation of astandard product design problem is presented, together with the list of both the pure component prop-erties (related to nonionic surfactants) and the mixture properties (relevant to the overall products asan emulsion...

  10. Application of the Fuzzy Comprehensive Assessment Technique to Optimal Selection of Pipeline Design Alternative

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChuFeixue; ChuYanfan; LiuXiumin

    2005-01-01

    Regarding the influencing factors in an optimal selection of pipeline design alternative as fuzzy variables with different weights, a fuzzy comprehensive assessment was applied to an optimal selection of the design alternative. Giving the Lanzhou-Chengdu pipeline as an example to explain the process, the result shows that this method is acceptable.

  11. 48 CFR 570.105-2 - Two-phase design-build selection procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Two-phase design-build..., you must use the two-phase design-build selection procedures in section 303M of the Federal Property... use of the two-phase selection procedures. (v) The capability of the agency to manage the...

  12. 23 CFR 636.202 - When are two-phase design-build selection procedures appropriate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When are two-phase design-build selection procedures appropriate? 636.202 Section 636.202 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS DESIGN-BUILD CONTRACTING Selection Procedures, Award Criteria §...

  13. Operation and design of selected industrial process heat field tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kearney, D. W.

    1981-02-01

    The DOE program of solar industrial process heat field tests has shown solar energy to be compatible with numerous industrial needs. Both the operational projects and the detailed designs of systems that are not yet operational have resulted in valuable insights into design and hardware practice. Typical of these insights are the experiences discussed for the four projects reviewed. Future solar IPH systems should benefit greatly not only from the availability of present information, but also from the wealth of operating experience from projects due to start up in 1981.

  14. Identification and epidemiology of a rare HoBi-like pestivirus strain in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, N; Rahman, M S; Khan, S U; Mikolon, A; Gurley, E S; Osmani, M G; Shanta, I S; Paul, S K; Macfarlane-Berry, L; Islam, A; Desmond, J; Epstein, J H; Daszak, P; Azim, T; Luby, S P; Zeidner, N; Rahman, M Z

    2014-06-01

    The genus pestivirus of the family flaviviridae consists of four recognized species: bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (BVDV-1), bovine viral diarrhoea virus 2 (BVDV-2), classical swine fever virus and border disease virus. A new putative pestivirus species tentatively named as either 'HoBi-like pestivirus' or BVDV-3 has recently been identified in Brazil, Italy and Thailand. Despite reports of serological evidence of BVDV in Bangladesh, the types of the virus circulating in cattle have not been identified. We conducted surveillance in cattle from May 2009 to August 2010 in three government veterinary hospitals to characterize BVDV in cattle of Bangladesh. We tested serum for BVDV using an antigen-capture ELISA. Of 638 cattle samples, 3% (16/638) tested positive for BVDV antigen. The ELISA-positive samples were selected for further molecular detection and characterization of BVDV. Molecular analysis of the partial 5' untranslated region (UTR) nucleotide sequences of BVDV-positive samples identified the rare HoBi-like pestivirus or BVDV-3 virus circulating in cattle of Bangladesh. The identification of this rare HoBi-like pestivirus or BVDV-3 strain in Bangladesh warrants further surveillance to evaluate its impact on livestock production.

  15. Factors associated with the utilization of institutional delivery services in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishwajit, Ghose; Ekholuenetale, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Bangladesh has made remarkable progress towards reducing its maternal mortality rate (MMR) over the last two decades and is one of the few countries on track to achieving the MMR-related Millennium Development Goals (MDG-5A). However, the provision of universal access to reproductive healthcare (MDG-5B) and the utilization of maternal healthcare services (MHS) such as institutional delivery, which are crucial to the reduction of maternal mortality, are far behind the internationally agreed-upon target. Effective policymaking to promote the utilization of MHS can be greatly facilitated by the identification of the factors that hinder service uptake. In this study, we therefore aim to measure the prevalence of institutional delivery services and explore the factors associated with their utilization in Bangladesh. Methods Data for this study were extracted from the 2011 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS, 2011); participants were 7,313 women between the ages of 15 and 49 years, selected from both urban and rural households. Data were analyzed using Chi-square analysis, and conditional logistic regression. Results According to the findings, fewer than one in three women reported delivering at a health facility. The multivariable regression analysis showed that participants from rural areas were 46.9% less likely to have institutional deliveries compared to urban dwellers (OR = 0.531; pBangladesh could be aided by investments into education, poverty reduction and the strengthening of reproductive healthcare services through community clinics, with particular focus on rural areas. PMID:28192478

  16. Seasonal forecasting of Bangladesh summer monsoon rainfall using simple multiple regression model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Md Mizanur Rahman; M Rafiuddin; Md Mahbub Alam

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, the development of a statistical forecasting method for summer monsoon rainfall over Bangladesh is described. Predictors for Bangladesh summer monsoon (June–September) rainfall were identified from the large scale ocean–atmospheric circulation variables (i.e., sea-surface temperature, surface air temperature and sea level pressure). The predictors exhibited a significant relationship with Bangladesh summer monsoon rainfall during the period 1961–2007. After carrying out a detailed analysis of various global climate datasets; three predictors were selected. The model performance was evaluated during the period 1977–2007. The model showed better performance in their hindcast seasonal monsoon rainfall over Bangladesh. The RMSE and Heidke skill score for 31 years was 8.13 and 0.37, respectively, and the correlation between the predicted and observed rainfall was 0.74. The BIAS of the forecasts (% of long period average, LPA) was −0.85 and Hit score was 58%. The experimental forecasts for the year 2008 summer monsoon rainfall based on the model were also found to be in good agreement with the observation.

  17. Selection of References in Wind Turbine Model Predictive Control Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Hovgaard, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Lowering the cost of energy is one of the major focus areas in the wind turbine industry. Recent research has indicated that wind turbine controllers based on model predictive control methods can be useful in obtaining this objective. A number of design considerations have to be made when designi...

  18. [MCU selection analysis in portable electronic medical instrument design].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mengxing; Ye, Shuming; Xu, Zhi; Chen, Hang

    2014-05-01

    Around the features of low power and high integration of portable electronic medical equipment design, the primary low power MCU series from the current semiconductor manufacturers were compared. The analysis results showed that the 32-bit MCUs based on the low cost and high energy efficient ARM Cortex-M architectures, have comprehensive advantages on power level, operational performance and integrated peripherals obviously.

  19. Spatial patterns of mortality in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, A H; Huq, S M; Mesbah-us-Saleheen

    1993-05-01

    This paper depicts the spatial patterns of mortality of the administrative upazilas of Bangladesh. Due to the absence of adequate data on mortality rates from across the country, the mortality rates of the upazilas are calculated from the age sex structure of the population of the respective upazilas employing the standardized mortality rates of divisional headquarters. Crude death rates are used to determine spatial patterns of mortality in Bangladesh. The patterns portray strong regional differences. Such differentiation is accounted for by traditional differences in demographic and socio-economic factors. Also, regression analysis is used to assist in explaining spatial variations.

  20. Arsenic Mobility and Groundwater Extraction in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Charles F.; Swartz, Christopher H.; Badruzzaman, A. B. M.; Keon-Blute, Nicole; Yu, Winston; Ali, M. Ashraf; Jay, Jenny; Beckie, Roger; Niedan, Volker; Brabander, Daniel; Oates, Peter M.; Ashfaque, Khandaker N.; Islam, Shafiqul; Hemond, Harold F.; Ahmed, M. Feroze

    2002-11-01

    High levels of arsenic in well water are causing widespread poisoning in Bangladesh. In a typical aquifer in southern Bangladesh, chemical data imply that arsenic mobilization is associated with recent inflow of carbon. High concentrations of radiocarbon-young methane indicate that young carbon has driven recent biogeochemical processes, and irrigation pumping is sufficient to have drawn water to the depth where dissolved arsenic is at a maximum. The results of field injection of molasses, nitrate, and low-arsenic water show that organic carbon or its degradation products may quickly mobilize arsenic, oxidants may lower arsenic concentrations, and sorption of arsenic is limited by saturation of aquifer materials.

  1. New detection systems of bacteria using highly selective media designed by SMART: selective medium-design algorithm restricted by two constraints.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Kawanishi

    Full Text Available Culturing is an indispensable technique in microbiological research, and culturing with selective media has played a crucial role in the detection of pathogenic microorganisms and the isolation of commercially useful microorganisms from environmental samples. Although numerous selective media have been developed in empirical studies, unintended microorganisms often grow on such media probably due to the enormous numbers of microorganisms in the environment. Here, we present a novel strategy for designing highly selective media based on two selective agents, a carbon source and antimicrobials. We named our strategy SMART for highly Selective Medium-design Algorithm Restricted by Two constraints. To test whether the SMART method is applicable to a wide range of microorganisms, we developed selective media for Burkholderia glumae, Acidovorax avenae, Pectobacterium carotovorum, Ralstonia solanacearum, and Xanthomonas campestris. The series of media developed by SMART specifically allowed growth of the targeted bacteria. Because these selective media exhibited high specificity for growth of the target bacteria compared to established selective media, we applied three notable detection technologies: paper-based, flow cytometry-based, and color change-based detection systems for target bacteria species. SMART facilitates not only the development of novel techniques for detecting specific bacteria, but also our understanding of the ecology and epidemiology of the targeted bacteria.

  2. New detection systems of bacteria using highly selective media designed by SMART: selective medium-design algorithm restricted by two constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawanishi, Takeshi; Shiraishi, Takuya; Okano, Yukari; Sugawara, Kyoko; Hashimoto, Masayoshi; Maejima, Kensaku; Komatsu, Ken; Kakizawa, Shigeyuki; Yamaji, Yasuyuki; Hamamoto, Hiroshi; Oshima, Kenro; Namba, Shigetou

    2011-01-27

    Culturing is an indispensable technique in microbiological research, and culturing with selective media has played a crucial role in the detection of pathogenic microorganisms and the isolation of commercially useful microorganisms from environmental samples. Although numerous selective media have been developed in empirical studies, unintended microorganisms often grow on such media probably due to the enormous numbers of microorganisms in the environment. Here, we present a novel strategy for designing highly selective media based on two selective agents, a carbon source and antimicrobials. We named our strategy SMART for highly Selective Medium-design Algorithm Restricted by Two constraints. To test whether the SMART method is applicable to a wide range of microorganisms, we developed selective media for Burkholderia glumae, Acidovorax avenae, Pectobacterium carotovorum, Ralstonia solanacearum, and Xanthomonas campestris. The series of media developed by SMART specifically allowed growth of the targeted bacteria. Because these selective media exhibited high specificity for growth of the target bacteria compared to established selective media, we applied three notable detection technologies: paper-based, flow cytometry-based, and color change-based detection systems for target bacteria species. SMART facilitates not only the development of novel techniques for detecting specific bacteria, but also our understanding of the ecology and epidemiology of the targeted bacteria.

  3. Teachers’ recruitment process via MCDM methods: A case study in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Karmaker

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of faculty members is very significant for educational organization to prompt reputation of the organization and to provide quality education. Teaching staff, the pillars of the educational institution, can change the whole nation stimulating the magnet of interest, knowledge, and wisdom in the pupils. Selecting a better academic staff among the others is very crucial for Human Resources Management (HRM as the success of any organization solely depends on how well it selects its manpower. Institute managing committee must have a reliable technique to judge a teachers’ ranking through multiple conflicting criteria because different teachers have various capabilities. In Bangladesh, it is a common practice in public engineering universities to select teachers only having good academic records. But teaching staff selection problem is a multi-staged decision-making problem having both quantitative and qualitative criteria. It is evident that it has become challenging as the number of alternatives and conflicting criteria increases. In this paper, a structured framework has been developed using MCDM methods both in fuzzy as well as non-fuzzy environments in the renowned engineering university of Bangladesh, where seven candidates under fifteen different sub-criteria are evaluated and ranked. The study helps the recruitment panel of educational organization in Bangladesh select the most eligible academic staff for required posts.

  4. Effectiveness of solar disinfection (SODIS) in rural coastal Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Atikul; Azad, Abul Kalam; Akber, Md Ali; Rahman, Masudur; Sadhu, Indrojit

    2015-12-01

    Scarcity of drinking water in the coastal area of Bangladesh compels the inhabitants to be highly dependent on alternative water supply options like rainwater harvesting system (RWHS), pond sand filter (PSF), and rain-feed ponds. Susceptibility of these alternative water supply options to microbial contamination demands a low-cost water treatment technology. This study evaluates the effectiveness of solar disinfection (SODIS) to treat drinking water from available sources in the southwest coastal area of Bangladesh. A total of 50 households from Dacope upazila in Khulna district were selected to investigate the performance of SODIS. Data were collected in two rounds to examine fecal coliform (FC) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) contamination of drinking water at the household water storage containers and SODIS bottles, and thereby determined the effectiveness of SODIS in reducing fecal contamination. All water samples were analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity, turbidity and salinity. SODIS significantly reduced FC and E. coli contamination under household conditions. The median health risk reduction by SODIS was more than 96 and 90% for pond and RWHS, respectively. Besides, turbidity of the treated water was found to be less than 5 NTU, except pond water. Only 34% of the participating households routinely adopted SODIS during the study.

  5. OSU TOMF Program Site Selection and Preliminary Concept Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spadling, Steve [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States)

    2012-05-10

    The purpose of this report is to confirm the programmatic requirements for the new facilities, identify the most appropriate project site, and develop preliminary site and building concepts that successfully address the overall project goals and site issues. These new facilities will be designed to accommodate the staff, drivers and maintenance requirements for the future mixed fleet of passenger vehicles, Transit Style Buses and School Buses.

  6. Quantitative modeling of selective lysosomal targeting for drug design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trapp, Stefan; Rosania, G.; Horobin, R.W.;

    2008-01-01

    Lysosomes are acidic organelles and are involved in various diseases, the most prominent is malaria. Accumulation of molecules in the cell by diffusion from the external solution into cytosol, lysosome and mitochondrium was calculated with the Fick–Nernst–Planck equation. The cell model considers....... This demonstrates that the cell model can be a useful tool for the design of effective lysosome-targeting drugs with minimal off-target interactions....

  7. Determination of Insulin Secretory Defect and Insulin Sensitivity in Type 2 Diabetic Subjects in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdous, J; Ahmed, S; Laila, R; Islam, M T; Rahaman, M F; Snigdha, K R; Sarkar, S; Khan, A S; Sarkar, A K

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is defined as a group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. This study was undertaken to explore the basic defect in type 2 diabetes patients in Bangladesh. This was an observational study with case control design, was conducted in the Biomedical Research Group, Research Division, Bangladesh Institute of Research and Rehabilitation in Diabetes, Endocrine Metabolic Disorders (BIRDEM), Dhaka, Bangladesh, during the period of July 2008 to June 2009. A total of 153 subjects were included in study of which 63 belonged to type 2 diabetes mellitus group and 90 were healthy controls. Fasting and 2 hours postprandial blood glucose, serum insulin, HOMA%B, HOMA%S, QuickI, Glucose /insulin ratio, TG were measured and age, BMI, WHR were recorded. Waist-hip ratio (WHR), was significantly higher in T2DM as compared to control subjects [WHR, mean±SD, 0.94±0.12 vs. 0.88±0.06, pBangladesh.

  8. Evolutionary design of bone scaffolds with reference to material selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heljak, M K; Swięszkowski, W; Lam, C X F; Hutmacher, D W; Kurzydłowski, K J

    2012-01-01

    The favourable scaffold for bone tissue engineering should have desired characteristic features, such as adequate mechanical strength and three-dimensional open porosity, which guarantee a suitable environment for tissue regeneration. In fact, the design of such complex structures like bone scaffolds is a challenge for investigators. One of the aims is to achieve the best possible mechanical strength-degradation rate ratio. In this paper we attempt to use numerical modelling to evaluate material properties for designing bone tissue engineering scaffold fabricated via the fused deposition modelling technique. For our studies the standard genetic algorithm was used, which is an efficient method of discrete optimization. For the fused deposition modelling scaffold, each individual strut is scrutinized for its role in the architecture and structural support it provides for the scaffold, and its contribution to the overall scaffold was studied. The goal of the study was to create a numerical tool that could help to acquire the desired behaviour of tissue engineered scaffolds and our results showed that this could be achieved efficiently by using different materials for individual struts. To represent a great number of ways in which scaffold mechanical function loss could proceed, the exemplary set of different desirable scaffold stiffness loss function was chosen.

  9. ANALYZING AND ESTIMATING PORTFOLIO PERFORMANCE OF BANGLADESH STOCK MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Zobaer Hasan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM is one of the most important developments in the finance literature. Simply, CAPM is a model that describes the relationship between risk and expected return. The theoretical validity of CAPM is well tested and accepted but the practical validity of CAPM is in questioned. This study is designed to analyze and estimate the portfolio performance of Bangladesh stock market in a CAPM framework. For this study, monthly stock returns from 80 companies for the period of January 2005 to December 2009 are chosen. In order to examine whether the CAPM is satisfied in the portfolio or not, the 80 stocks are arranged in descending order of beta and 10 portfolios are being made of eight stocks in each. The All Share Price Index (DSI is used as a proxy for the market portfolio and Bangladesh government 3-Month T-bill rate is used as the proxy for the risk-free asset. The results of this analysis show that the intercept terms are not significantly different from zero, linearity in the securities market line and insignificant unique risk for the 10 portfolios during the period. But, the results in term of slope contradict the CAPM hypothesis and indicate evidence against the CAPM in the portfolios. This analysis will obviously be used as a basis of reference for future investigates and the researchers and they will get proper instruction from this study.

  10. Rain Attenuation Prediction for Terrestrial Microwave Link in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HOSSAIN Sakir

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Rain attenuation is a major shortcoming of microwave transmission. As a subtropical country, Bangladesh is one of the highest rainy areas of the world. Thus, designing a terrestrial microwave link is a serious challenge to the engineers. In this paper, the annual rain rate and monthly variation of rate are predicted for different percentage of time of the year from the measured rainfall data. Using ITU rain model for terrestrial microwave communication, the rain attenuation is predicted for five major cities of Bangladesh, namely Dhaka, Chittagong, Rajshahi, Sylhet, and Khulna. It is found that rain attenuation is the most severe in Sylhet and least in Rajshahi. The attenuation is estimated for different frequency and polarization. A horizontally polarized signal encounters 15% more rain attenuation than that of vertically polarized signal. It is also found that attenuation in Rajshahi is about 20% lesser than that in Sylhet. Thus, the horizontally polarized transmission in Rajshahi experiences about 5% less attenuation than the vertically polarized transmission in Sylhet.

  11. Designing Passivating, Carrier-Selective Contacts for Photovoltaic Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boccard, Matthieu [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Koswatta, Priyaranga [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Holman, Zachary [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)

    2015-04-06

    "The first step towards building a high-efficiency solar cell is to develop an absorber with few recombination-active defects. Many photovoltaic technologies have already achieved this (monocrystalline Si, III-V materials grown on lattice-matched substrates, perovskites, polycrystalline CdTe and CIGS); those that have not (a-Si:H, organics) have been limited to low open-circuit voltage. The second step is to develop contacts that both inhibit surface recombination and allow for low-resistance collection of either only electrons or only holes. For most photovoltaic technologies, this step is both more difficult and less explored than the first, and we are unaware of a prescribed methodology for selecting materials for contacts to solar cells. We elucidate a unified, conceptual understanding of contacts within which existing contacting schemes can be interpreted and future contacting schemes can be imagined. Whereas a split of the quasi-Fermi levels of holes and electrons is required in the absorber of any solar cell to generate a voltage, carriers are eventually collected through a metallic wire in which no such quasi-Fermi-level split exists. We define a contact to be all layers between the bulk of the absorber and the recombination-active interface through which carriers are extracted. The quasi-Fermi levels must necessarily collapse at this interface, and thus the transition between maximal quasi-Fermi-level splitting (in the absorber) and no splitting occurs entirely in the contact. Depending on the solar cell architecture, the contact will usually extend from the surface of the absorber to the surface of a metal or transparent conductive oxide layer, and may include deposited or diffused doped layers (e.g., as in crystalline and thin-film Si cells) and heterostructure buffer layers (e.g., the CdS layer in a CdTe device). We further define a passivating contact as one that enables high quasi-Fermi-level splitting in the absorber (large “internal” voltage

  12. Simple Sari Cloth Filtration of Water Is Sustainable and Continues To Protect Villagers from Cholera in Matlab, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Huq, Anwar; Yunus, Mohammed; Sohel, Syed Salahuddin; Bhuiya, Abbas; Emch, Michael; Luby, Stephen P.; Russek-Cohen, Estelle; Nair, G. Balakrish; Sack, R. Bradley; Colwell, Rita R.

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT A simple method for filtering water to reduce the incidence of cholera was tested in a field trial in Matlab, Bangladesh, and proved effective. A follow-up study was conducted 5 years later to determine whether the filtration method continued to be employed by villagers and its impact on the incidence of cholera. A total of 7,233 village women collecting water daily for their households in Bangladesh were selected from the same study population of the original field trial for intervi...

  13. Teacher Educators' Attitude towards Computer: Perspective Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mohammad Ataur

    2011-01-01

    This study examined how teacher educators perceive the attitude towards use of computer technology in Teachers' Training Colleges in Bangladesh. This study investigated teacher educators' computer attitudes by using the valid and reliable instruments of Loyd and Gressard's (1984) Computer Attitude Scale (CAS). The data was collected through …

  14. Gender Disparities in Secondary Education in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huq, Molla; Rahman, Pk Md. Motiur

    2008-01-01

    Enrolment and success rates are very crucial for any educational system in the world but they are more important for the developing countries like Bangladesh. Gender differences in enrolment and success rates are also emerging issues. This study investigated the enrolment and success rate's status in secondary educational system of Bangladesh…

  15. Gender, Parenting, and Adolescent Functioning in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Sunita Mahtani; Bond, Michael Harris; Abdullah, Abu Saleh M.; Ma, Stefan S. L.

    2000-01-01

    Examined associations of self-esteem, relationship harmony, and academic achievement with perceptions of parents' styles and supervisory practices among 212 adolescents in Islamic Bangladesh. Found that parental supervisory practices were associated with a warm parental style for girls and parental dominating control for boys. Girls' (but not…

  16. First Outbreak of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Mahbubur; Rahman, Khalilur; Siddque, A. K.; Shoma, Shereen; A. H. M. Kamal; Ali, K.S.; Nisaluk, Ananda; Breiman, Robert F

    2002-01-01

    During the first countrywide outbreak of dengue hemorrhagic fever in Bangladesh, we conducted surveillance for dengue at a hospital in Dhaka. Of 176 patients, primarily adults, found positive for dengue, 60.2% had dengue fever, 39.2% dengue hemorrhagic fever, and 0.6% dengue shock syndrome. The Dengue virus 3 serotype was detected in eight patients.

  17. Digital geologic and geophysical data of Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persits, Feliks M.; Wandrey, C.J.; Milici, R.C.; Manwar, Abdullah

    1997-01-01

    The data set for these maps includes arcs, polygons, and labels that outline and describe the general geologic age and geophysical fields of Bangladesh. Political boundaries are provided to show the general location of administrative regions and state boundaries. Major base topographic data like cities, rivers, etc. were derived from the same paper map source as the geology.

  18. First case of chromoblastomycosis from Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brun Sophie

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Chromoblastomycosis is a rare and chronic cutaneous and subcutaneous infection caused by black fungi and mostly reported in tropical and subtropical areas. Here we report the first case of chromoblastomycosis from Bangladesh. Molecular biology permitted to identify Fonsecaea nubica, and the patient responded well to antifungal treatment alone.

  19. Women's Struggle against Tradition in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Mainus

    1994-01-01

    In rural Bangladesh, women's participation in a literacy program was opposed by Mullahs for several reasons: content encouraged decision making, monopoly of the Qur'anic schools was threatened, Mullahs' leadership and spiritual roles were potentially subverted, and it conflicted with the practice of polygamy. (SK)

  20. Fuzzy Axiomatic Design approach based green supplier selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kannan, Devika; Govindan, Kannan; Rajendran, Sivakumar

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM) is a developing concept recently utilized by manufacturing firms of all sizes. All industries, small or large, seek improvements in the purchasing of raw materials, manufacturing, allocation, transportation efficiency, in curbing storage time, importing...... and company requirements. Next, the FAD methodology evaluates the requirements of both the manufacturer (design needs) and the supplier (functional needs), and because multiple criteria must be considered, a multi-objective optimization model of a fuzzy nature must be developed. The application...... and disposing of products, with a view towards achieving environment objectives and reducing costs in the manufacturing process. Hence, GSCM has an impact both from an academic scholarly perspective, as well as from the view of industrial managers, because organizations benefit when they are socially...

  1. Pelamis WEC - main body structural design and materials selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, C.

    2003-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a study evaluating the potential use of rolled steel, glass reinforced plastic, wood-epoxy laminate, and different forms of concrete as primary structural materials for the Pelamis Wave Energy Converter (WEC) as part of a strategy to refine the design by highlighting cost savings for long-term manufacture. Details are given of the drawing up of a load spectrum in order to assess the candidate structures, the choice of glass reinforced plastic, concrete, and steel for further evaluation based on preliminary screening, the assessment of the material requirements for each candidate structure, and cost estimates. The advantages of the use of concrete are discussed and recommendations are presented.

  2. Design of practical T2-selective RF excitation (TELEX) pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, M S; Pauly, J M; Wright, G A

    1998-12-01

    Traditional T2-based imaging techniques are geared toward imaging long-T2 species. Traditional techniques are, therefore, not optimal in clinical situations where the information of interest lies in the short-T2 species. T2-selective RF excitation (TELEX) is a technique for obtaining a T2-based contrast that highlights short-T2 values while suppressing long-T2 values-opposite to traditional T2 contrast. Previously, TELEX has been demonstrated qualitatively to highlight only very short-T2 values (T2 approximately 0.001 s). When applied to longer T2 values (T2 > or = 0.01 s), TELEX becomes sensitive to deltaB0 non-uniformities. This restricts its application to problems in which the T2 of interest is very short. In this study, TELEX is characterized quantitatively. Furthermore, a bandwidth broadening scheme is developed that reduces the deltaB0 sensitivity of TELEX. This permits the technique to be applied to longer T2 values. The capabilities and limitations of a practical implementation of TELEX are discussed.

  3. Select Generic Dry-Storage Pilot Plant Design for Safeguards and Security by Design (SSBD) per Used Fuel Campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demuth, Scott Francis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sprinkle, James K. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-05-26

    As preparation to the year-end deliverable (Provide SSBD Best Practices for Generic Dry-Storage Pilot Scale Plant) for the Work Package (FT-15LA040501–Safeguards and Security by Design for Extended Dry Storage), the initial step was to select a generic dry-storage pilot plant design for SSBD. To be consistent with other DOE-NE Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCR&D) activities, the Used Fuel Campaign was engaged for the selection of a design for this deliverable. For the work Package FT-15LA040501–“Safeguards and Security by Design for Extended Dry Storage”, SSBD will be initiated for the Generic Dry-Storage Pilot Scale Plant described by the layout of Reference 2. SSBD will consider aspects of the design that are impacted by domestic material control and accounting (MC&A), domestic security, and international safeguards.

  4. Prevalence and Correlates of Physical Spousal Violence against Women in Slum and Nonslum Areas of Urban Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambisa, William; Angeles, Gustavo; Lance, Peter M.; Naved, Ruchira T.; Thornton, Juliana

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the prevalence and correlates of past-year physical violence against women in slum and nonslum areas of urban Bangladesh. The authors use multivariate logistic regression to analyze data from the 2006 Urban Health Survey, a population-based survey of 9,122 currently married women aged between 15 and 49 who were selected using a…

  5. Valve selection handbook engineering fundamentals for selecting the right valve design for every industrial flow application

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Valves are the components in a fluid flow or pressure system that regulate either the flow or the pressure of the fluid. They are used extensively in the process industries, especially petrochemical. Though there are only four basic types of valves, there is an enormous number of different kinds of valves within each category, each one used for a specific purpose. No other book on the market analyzes the use, construction, and selection of valves in such a comprehensive manner.-Covers new environmentally-conscious equipment and practices, the most important hot-button issue in the p

  6. Relationship between Untreated Dental Caries and Weight and Height of 6- to 12-Year-Old Primary School Children in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masuma Pervin Mishu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Children in low-income developing countries are likely to suffer from undergrowth. Dental caries is another common problem in these countries. Aim. To examine the association between untreated dental caries in primary and permanent teeth with age-adjusted height and weight among 6–12-year-old children in Bangladesh. Design. Social, behavioural, and clinical data were collected from 1699 children in nine different randomly selected primary schools in socially deprived areas of Bangladesh. The associations of age-adjusted weight and height and being underweight with dental caries were examined adjusting for sex, area of residence, socioeconomic position, skipping meals, tooth cleaning, and doctor visits. Results. 26% of the children were underweight and 55% had untreated dental caries. Children with at least one decayed tooth were significantly underweight with odds ratios 1.6 (95% CI 1.1, 2.3 and 1.5 (95% CI 1.1, 2.0 for 6–8-years and 9–12-year-old children, respectively, in the adjusted model. The number of decayed teeth was inversely and significantly associated with the standardized age-adjusted weight. Conclusions. The findings highlight the association between untreated dental caries and being underweight in primary school children in socially deprived areas in low-income developing countries and emphasize the need to integrate oral and general health policies with social policies.

  7. GROWTH, INSTABILITY AND FORECASTING OF PIGEON PEA, CHICKPEA AND FIELD PEA PULSE PRODUCTION IN BANGLADESH

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Niaz Md. Farhat; Imam, M. F.

    2008-01-01

    The study tried to find out the appropriate models using latest model selection criteria that could describe the best growth pattern of pigeon pea, chickpea and field pea pulse production. The study also tried to measure the instability, growth rates of pigeon pea, chickpea and field pea pulse production and to determine the efficient time series models, to forecast the future pigeon pea, chickpea and field pea pulse production in Bangladesh. Forecasting attempts have been made to achieve the...

  8. Correlates of Unwanted Births in Bangladesh: A Study through Path Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Brijesh P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Unwanted birth is an important public health concern due to its negative association with adverse outcomes of mothers and children as well as socioeconomic development of a country. Although a number of studies have been investigated the determinants of unwanted births through logistic regression analysis, an extensive assessment using path model is lacking. In the current study, we applied path analysis to know the important covariates for unwanted births in Bangladesh. Methods The study used data extracted from Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) 2011. It considered sub-sample consisted of 7,972 women who had given most recent births five years preceding the date of interview or who were currently pregnant at survey time. Correlation analysis was used to find out the significant association with unwanted births. This study provided the factors affecting unwanted births in Bangladesh. The path model was used to determine the direct, indirect and total effects of socio-demographic factors on unwanted births. Results The result exhibited that more than one-tenth of the recent births were unwanted in Bangladesh. The differentials of unwanted births were women’s age, education, age at marriage, religion, socioeconomic status, exposure of mass-media and use of family planning. In correlation analysis, it showed that unwanted births were positively correlated with women age and place of residence and these relationships were significant. On the contrary, unwanted births were inversely significantly correlated with education and social status. The total effects of endogenous variables such as women age, place of residence and use of family planning methods had favorable effect on unwanted births. Conclusion Policymakers and program planners need to design programs and services carefully to reduce unwanted births in Bangladesh, especially, service should focus on helping those groups of women who were identified in the analysis as being at

  9. Feeding Devices Design for Selective Laser Melting Formation of Heterogeneous Powder Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinin, O. I.; Valdaytseva, E. A.; Lasota, I. T.; Pevzner, Ya B.; Somonov, V. V.

    2016-08-01

    The article presents the principles of selective laser melting technology for manufacturing of polymetallic products. The results of theoretical investigations of heat and mass transfer at the border of materials are shown. Types of feeding devices design have been demonstrated.

  10. The prospects and challenges of plastic industries in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Pintu, MD. Nazmul Hossain

    2016-01-01

    Plastic is one of the most used engineered material in Bangladesh that has come out as im-portant industrial sector during the last few decades. The size of Domestic market is more than thousands of billions euros. The available cheap labor, vast population and fast development of plastics wastes recycling industries have given Bangladesh a huge potential advantages to compete in the global market. Although, plastics sector is one of the most growing markets in Bangladesh, but still it is fac...

  11. Clustering Words to Match Conditions: An Algorithm for Stimuli Selection in Factorial Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guasch, Marc; Haro, Juan; Boada, Roger

    2017-01-01

    With the increasing refinement of language processing models and the new discoveries about which variables can modulate these processes, stimuli selection for experiments with a factorial design is becoming a tough task. Selecting sets of words that differ in one variable, while matching these same words into dozens of other confounding variables…

  12. Design, Prototyping and Measurement of a Cascaded 6-GHz Frequency Selective Surface Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Bender Perotoni

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The design, prototyping, and free-space measurement of a 6-GHz Frequency Selective Surface filter is presented. The prototyping resolution of a large (A4 sheet size Frequency Selective Surface with small loops as elements is checked, as well as the correlation with measurements performed with a 3-D full-wave solver. The test also involved the effect of cascading two different Frequency Selective Surfaces with a viewpoint towards a narrower frequency range, which provided good results.

  13. Protection from annual flooding is correlated with increased cholera prevalence in Bangladesh: a zero-inflated regression analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunus Mohammad

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alteration of natural or historical aquatic flows can have unintended consequences for regions where waterborne diseases are endemic and where the epidemiologic implications of such change are poorly understood. The implementation of flood protection measures for a portion of an intensely monitored population in Matlab, Bangladesh, allows us to examine whether cholera outcomes respond positively or negatively to measures designed to control river flooding. Methods Using a zero inflated negative binomial model, we examine how selected covariates can simultaneously account for household clusters reporting no cholera from those with positive counts as well as distinguishing residential areas with low counts from areas with high cholera counts. Our goal is to examine how residence within or outside a flood protected area interacts with the probability of cholera presence and the effect of flood protection on the magnitude of cholera prevalence. Results In Matlab, living in a household that is protected from annual monsoon flooding appears to have no significant effect on whether the household experiences cholera, net of other covariates. However, counter-intuitively, among households where cholera is reported, living within the flood protected region significantly increases the number of cholera cases. Conclusions The construction of dams or other water impoundment strategies for economic or social motives can have profound and unanticipated consequences for waterborne disease. Our results indicate that the construction of a flood control structure in rural Bangladesh is correlated with an increase in cholera cases for residents protected from annual monsoon flooding. Such a finding requires attention from both the health community and from governments and non-governmental organizations involved in ongoing water management schemes.

  14. Impact of the Grameen Bank on childhood mortality in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M; Davanzo, J; Sutradhar, S C

    1996-01-01

    The Grameen Bank (GB) is a highly innovative and well-supervised credit program for the rural poor in Bangladesh. About 95% of over 2 million participants are women. GB can positively affect child survival among its participants through its income-generation and consciousness-raising activities. The study examines if GB influences childhood mortality among its participants. An integrated family life survey was carried out during 1993-94 among about 2500 married women in landless households who are eligible for membership in GB. The survey was carried out among randomly selected married women regardless of GB membership in 3 thanas of Tangail district and 1 thana of Mymensingh district. The study permits an analysis in a "before-after" and "treatment-comparison" framework for measuring the impact of GB on childhood mortality. Estimation was done through proportional hazards models, where the effects of confounding factors like calendar year, maternal age, parity, maternal education, economic conditions, and areal variation were controlled for. There was a 34% and significant reduction in childhood (under-5) mortality after the mothers joined the GB. Similar effects of other NGOs on childhood mortality were also observed. Childhood mortality was similar between the GB members before joining the Bank and never-members, indicating that the GB members were not from a selective group. Childhood mortality was 21% and significantly lower among women who worked for income generation than those women who did not work. Income generation and social development programs modeled after the GB and other NGOs can reduce childhood mortality in Bangladesh and similar settings.

  15. Investigating patterns of tiger and prey poaching in the Bangladesh Sundarbans: Implications for improved management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abdul Aziz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Poaching of tigers and their key prey threatens the survival of tigers across their range. This study investigated the methods, intensity, and driving factors of tiger and prey poaching in the Sundarbans Reserved Forest of Bangladesh, to help better design and direct future management interventions. The study identified a range of snaring methods used to catch prey and an approach to killing tigers by poisoning prey carcasses with a Carbofuran pesticide. We recorded six poisoned baits set to kill tigers and 1427 snare loops in 56 snare sets to kill tiger prey. With an average of 23 snare loops/snare set, this is equivalent to an estimated 6268 snare loops across the Sundarbans or 147 snare loops/100 km2. Poachers selected sites that tended to be away from guard posts, and close to river banks, but were not influenced by protected area status or distance to the forest boundary. The current poaching pressure is likely to have contributed to a recent decline in relative tiger abundance. We recommend using better regulation of Carbofuran use across tiger range countries, and using remote camera traps set up around snares and poisoned baits to help authorities identify poachers for arrest. This study demonstrates a simple approach to investigating the methods, intensity and distribution of poaching, that could be replicated across all tiger landscapes to better direct mitigating actions and monitor changes in threat levels over time.

  16. Selection of the variant solution of forest road alignment conceptual design using multicriteria optimisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanović Bogdan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the three studied variant solutions of forest road conceptual design was selected based on the linear distribution of criteria, as the method of multicriteria optimization. The selection was performed with 25 parameters classified as economic, technical, production and social criteria. The parameters of technical criteria were grouped into design, construction and building parameters. Based on calculated nominal values of parameters by the given criteria, their ranking, comparison, point rating and scoring, the selected most favorable solution was variant 1.

  17. 10 CFR 435.306 - Selecting a life cycle effective proposed building design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... between or among proposed building designs which comply with the applicable energy consumption goal under... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Selecting a life cycle effective proposed building design... FOR NEW FEDERAL LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Mandatory Energy Efficiency Standards for...

  18. The Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching and Assessing: Current Practices at Polytechnics in Bangladesh and Its Effects in Developing Students' Competences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haolader, Faruque A.; Ali, Md Ramjan; Foysol, Khan Md

    2015-01-01

    Polytechnics in Bangladesh endeavour to produce quality graduates for national and international job markets. The quality of graduates depends on several factors. This study examines the implementation process of the polytechnic curriculum with the objectives of determining the current level of practices in learning/teaching material design, in…

  19. Materials Selection in Gas Turbine Engine Design and the Role of Low Thermal Expansion Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagow, Benjamin W.

    2016-11-01

    Materials selection criteria in gas turbine engine design are reviewed, and several design challenges are introduced where selection of low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) materials can help improve engine performance and operability. This is followed by a review of the types of low CTE materials that are suitable for gas turbine engine applications, and discussion of their advantages and disadvantages. The primary limitation of low CTE materials is their maximum use temperature; if higher temperature materials could be developed, this could result in novel turbine system designs for gas turbine engines.

  20. Materials Selection in Gas Turbine Engine Design and the Role of Low Thermal Expansion Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagow, Benjamin W.

    2016-08-01

    Materials selection criteria in gas turbine engine design are reviewed, and several design challenges are introduced where selection of low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) materials can help improve engine performance and operability. This is followed by a review of the types of low CTE materials that are suitable for gas turbine engine applications, and discussion of their advantages and disadvantages. The primary limitation of low CTE materials is their maximum use temperature; if higher temperature materials could be developed, this could result in novel turbine system designs for gas turbine engines.

  1. Design & Analysis of Low Power, Area-Efficient Carry Select Adder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuchi Verma

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the design & analysis of Carry Select Adder (CSLA & Carry lookahead adder (CLA. Adders are designed using 0.18µm CMOS process technology & simulated with Modelsim6.3f. The adder designs, Regular CSLA, modified CSLA using BEC, modified CSLA without using multiplexer, modified CSLA using D-Latch & Carry lookahead adders in 4-bit, 16-bit, 32-bit, are compared with the simulated results on the basis area.

  2. Heat exchanger selection and design analyses for metal hydride heat pump systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzucco, Andrea; Voskuilen, Tyler G.; Waters, Essene L.

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a design analysis for the development of highly efficient heat exchangers within stationary metal hydride heat pumps. The design constraints and selected performance criteria are applied to three representative heat exchangers. The proposed thermal model can be applied to select...... the most efficient heat exchanger design and provides outcomes generally valid in a pre-design stage. Heat transfer effectiveness is the principal performance parameter guiding the selection analysis, the results of which appear to be mildly (up to 13%) affected by the specific Nusselt correlation used....... The thermo-physical properties of the heat transfer medium and geometrical parameters are varied in the sensitivity analysis, suggesting that the length of independent tubes is the physical parameter that influences the performance of the heat exchangers the most. The practical operative regions for each...

  3. QUALITY AND PROCESSES OF BANGLADESH OPEN UNIVERSITY COURSE MATERIALS DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Rezanur RAHMAN

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available A new member of the mega-Universities, Bangladesh Open University (BOU introduced a course team approach for developing effective course materials for distance students. BOU teaching media includes printed course books, study guides, radio and television broadcasts, audiocassettes and occasional face-to-face tutorials. Each course team comprises specialist course writer(s, editor, trained style editor, graphic designer,illustrator, audio-visual producer and anonymous referees. An editorial board or preview committee is responsible for the final approval for publishing or broadcasting materials for learners. This approach has been proved to be effective, but appeared to be complicated and time-consuming. This report focuses on the quality and processes of BOU course materials development taking into account the strengths and weaknesses of the current approach.

  4. The limitations of microcredit for promoting microenterprises in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alam Mahmudul

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Microcredit is regarded as a tool for poverty alleviation. A stereotyped delivery system is designed and used for promoting and serving survival- and subsistence-level economic activities, particularly for poor female clients. In Bangladesh its success has raised social expectations as to its potential as also a promoter of microenterprises, which are growth-yielding small businesses beyond subsistence-level economic activity. The field survey shows that about 11.7% of the microcredit borrowers are this kind of potential or growing microentrepreneur. It also shows that microcredit’s standardised delivery system, particularly in respect of gender preference, loan size, loan disbursement, and repayment schedules, is a strong limiting factor in effectively serving the microenterprises, which require a more flexible credit package. Therefore a methodological modification is necessary to accommodate flexibility in the microcredit delivery system.

  5. Hepatitis B Vaccination in Bangladesh: a Suggestion Based on Current Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafquat Mohammed Rafiq

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionThe hepatitis B virus (HBV causes up to a million deaths worldwide and 16 million health care related infections in the tropics each year(1,2, and over 350 million become chronically infected carriers who have no significant liver disease; approximately three quarters of them are in Asia and the western pacific region(3,4. HBV infection is a potentially life threatening condition as many of the affected individuals progress to chronic hepatitis,cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC(3. In infants and children, acute hepatitis B infection is nearly always asymptomatic, whereas in adults it is usually the opposite. But on the other hand, the risk of becoming chronic carriage is much greater in children than in adults; as many as 90% of infants born to Hepatitis B e Antigen (HBeAg positive mothers become carriers themselves and, therefore, in long term are more likely to developchronic liver disease(5. Currently, though several antiviral drugs are used,there is no reliable curative treatment for HBV once it has been acquired and prevention by universal immunization remains the strategy for reducing the number of acute infections, chronic carriage and the long-term burden from diseases such as HCC(4,6. In 1991, in an attempt to reduce the global impact of HBV infection, WHO recommended that hepatitis B vaccination should be integrated into national immunization programs in all countries(7.Some Asian countries, for instance, Thailand, haveadopted the policy of immunizing children universally against the disease as early as 1992, however many others lagged behind(4.The true prevalence of Hepatitis B in Bangladesh is yet to be ascertained by a reliable study. Data available from different studies show that it ranges between 0.8 and 5.4% depending on the study design, samples and laboratory methods used(8-10.These data were based on detection of HBsAg antigen; the rates would have been higher, had they been based on anti-HBc antibody(11

  6. Programme impact on current contraception in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, M A

    1994-03-01

    "This paper analyses the impact of three credit programmes--the Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC), the Bangladesh Rural Development Board's Rural Development-12 (BRDB RD-12), and the Grameen Bank (GB), on current rate of contraception. These programmes are targeted to alleviate poverty by providing group-based credit to the rural poor in creating self employment opportunities. With small credits, these programmes combine family planning activities in terms of consciousness raising, awareness building and motivation. Sample survey data are used to analyse the problem of impact evaluation. The analyses show that the BRAC and the GB programmes have [a] significantly positive impact on the current rate of contraception, while the BRDB RD-12 programme does not have any such impact. It is also found that education, both of female[s] and male[s] separately, and child survivorship have independently positive impact[s] on current contraception."

  7. Development Dynamics of Remittances in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munim K. Barai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Remittance inflows in the economy of Bangladesh are getting larger every passing year, matching with the increasing external demand for its manpower. The ensuing development impacts of remittances, as a means of transfer of wealth, on socioeconomic factors are increasingly viewed with importance. Remittances have helped improve the social and economic indicators like nutrition, living condition and housing, education, health care, poverty reduction, social security, and investment activities of the recipient households. The relative weight of remittances has also increased against most of the macroeconomic variables alongside the contribution to GDP. Moreover, Bangladesh has been able to avoid any serious imbalances in BOP’s current account, although it has persistent merchandize trade deficits. Not only that, the export tradable sector has thus far remained unaffected from the Dutch Disease effects of remittances.

  8. Nutrient composition of important fish species in Bangladesh and potential contribution to recommended nutrient intakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogard, Jessica R.; Thilsted, Shakuntala H.; Marks, Geoffrey C.;

    2015-01-01

    Fish, in Bangladesh where malnutrition remains a significant development challenge, is an irreplaceable animal-source food in the diet of millions. However, existing data on the nutrient composition of fish do not reflect the large diversity available and have focused on only a few select nutrients....... The purpose of this study was to fill the gaps in existing data on the nutrient profiles of common fish in Bangladesh by analysing the proximate, vitamin, mineral and fatty acid composition of 55 fish, shrimp and prawn species from inland capture, aquaculture and marine capture fisheries. When comparing......, and all typically consumed whole with head and bones, could potentially contribute ≥25% of RNIs for three or more of these nutrients, simultaneously, from a standard portion. This illustrates the diversity in nutrient content of fish species and in particular the rich nutrient composition of small...

  9. Introduction of new vaccines: decision-making process in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Jasim; Sarma, Haribondhu; Bari, Tajul I; Koehlmoos, Tracey P

    2013-06-01

    The understanding of the decision-making process in the introduction of new vaccines helps establish why vaccines are adopted or not. It also contributes to building a sustainable demand for vaccines in a country. The purpose of the study was to map and analyze the formal decision-making process in relation to the introduction of new vaccines within the context of health policy and health systems and identify the ways of making decisions to introduce new vaccines in Bangladesh. During February-April 2011, a qualitative assessment was made at the national level to evaluate the decision-making process around the adoption of new vaccines in Bangladesh. The study population included: policy-level people, programme heads or associates, and key decision-makers of the Government, private sector, non-governmental organizations, and international agencies at the national level. In total, 13 key informants were purposively selected. Data were collected by interviewing key informants and reviewing documents. Data were analyzed thematically. The findings revealed that the actors from different sectors at the policy level were involved in the decision-making process in the introduction of new vaccines. They included policy-makers from the ministries of health and family welfare, finance, and local government and rural development; academicians; researchers; representatives from professional associations; development partners; and members of different committees on EPI. They contributed to the introduction of new vaccines in their own capacity. The burden of disease, research findings on vaccine-preventable diseases, political issues relating to outbreaks of certain diseases, initiatives of international and local stakeholders, pressure of development partners, the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI) support, and financial matters were the key factors in the introduction of new vaccines in Bangladesh. The slow introduction and uptake of new vaccines is a concern

  10. Globalization and its Impact on Bangladesh Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    to other continents and the three monotheistic religions namely Islam , Christianity and Judaism took root. In the nineteenth century, the technology...Institute of Development Studies, Institute of Development Studies (Sussex) and Oxfam-Great Britain-Bangladesh Program, January 2003, 2. 2Md Saiful ...Haque, Md Saiful . “Critical Challenges Await the Economy’s Thrust Sector.” The Independent (Dhaka), 15 May 2003, 4. 63 Mondal Abdul Hye, “Study

  11. CPAFFC Delegation Visits Bangladesh, India and Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    <正>At the invitation of the Bang-ladesh-China People’s Friendship Association (BCPFA), the Unity International Foundation of India (UIFI), the India-China Society and the Thai-Chinese Friendship Association (TCFA), from November 7 to 22, 2005, a CPAFFC delegation led by its Vice President Wang Yunze paid a visit to Bangladesh, India and Thailand, where they were accorded warm and friendly reception. The BCPFA attached great importance to the CPAFFC delegation’s visit.

  12. Impact of Iraq War on Bangladesh Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Debapriya Bhattacharya; Mustafizur Rahman; Ananya Raihan

    2003-01-01

    The paper is aimed at providing an early assessment of the anticipated consequences of Iraq war and its possible impacts on Bangladesh economy. Critical insights and fact-based information on possible changes in several areas including oil price, flow of remittance, volume of export and import, migration of labour force etc., and how these will reshape the country’s economic settings in the post-war era, have been presented in the paper.

  13. Maternal care practices among the ultra poor households in rural Bangladesh: a qualitative exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choudhury Nuzhat

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although many studies have been carried out to learn about maternal care practices in rural areas and urban-slums of Bangladesh, none have focused on ultra poor women. Understanding the context in which women would be willing to accept new practices is essential for developing realistic and relevant behaviour change messages. This study sought to fill in this knowledge gap by exploring maternal care practices among women who participated in a grant-based livelihood programme for the ultra poor. This is expected to assist the designing of the health education messages programme in an effort to improve maternal morbidity and survival towards achieving the UN millennium Development Goal 5. Methods Qualitative method was used to collect data on maternal care practices during pregnancy, delivery, and post-partum period from women in ultra poor households. The sample included both currently pregnant women who have had a previous childbirth, and lactating women, participating in a grant-based livelihood development programme. Rangpur and Kurigram districts in northern Bangladesh were selected for data collection. Results Women usually considered pregnancy as a normal event unless complications arose, and most of them refrained from seeking antenatal care (ANC except for confirmation of pregnancy, and no prior preparation for childbirth was taken. Financial constraints, coupled with traditional beliefs and rituals, delayed care-seeking in cases where complications arose. Delivery usually took place on the floor in the squatting posture and the attendants did not always follow antiseptic measures such as washing hands before conducting delivery. Following the birth of the baby, attention was mainly focused on the expulsion of the placenta and various maneuvres were adapted to hasten the process, which were sometimes harmful. There were multiple food-related taboos and restrictions, which decreased the consumption of protein during

  14. OPPORTUNITIES OF DEVELOPING TOURISM INDUSTRY IN BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad SHAMSUDDOHA

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Tourism appeal includes natural places like beaches, eco-parks, lakes, valleys, rivers, islands etc., archeological sites, historic mosques and monuments, resorts, picnic spots, forest and wildlife. Bangladesh is a riverine country having attractive panoramic beauty. There are hills, valley, canals, lake, eco-park and mangrove forests, rivers, so many islands and the longest beach in the world. In this country, the scope of nature based tourism, resource based tourism, culture based tourism and eco-tourism is quite evident. Bangladesh is trying hard to develop its tourism industry. Therefore the whole situation deserves to be seen from right perspectives. Role of government is positive since the last twenty years both private and public organizations have come forwarded to attract the local and foreign tourists. The cracks of problem could not identify accurately because of the paucity number of researches and investigations in our country. Developed and organized tourism industry could change the economic condition and contribute a big share in the GDP of Bangladesh. This study will impede the opportunities of developing tourism industry in the light of existing resources.

  15. Rainfall variability and seasonality in northern Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, Sheikh Hefzul; Hussain, Md. Manjurul; Husna, Noor-E.-Ashmaul

    2016-05-01

    This paper aimed at the analysis of rainfall seasonality and variability for the northern part of South-Asian country, Bangladesh. The coefficient of variability was used to determine the variability of rainfall. While rainfall seasonality index (SI ) and mean individual seasonality index ( overline{SI_i} ) were used to identify seasonal contrast. We also applied Mann-Kendall trend test and sequential Mann-Kendall test to determine the trend in seasonality. The lowest variability was found for monsoon among the four seasons whereas winter has the highest variability. Observed variability has a decreasing tendency from the northwest region towards the northeast region. The mean individual seasonality index (0.815378 to 0.977228) indicates that rainfall in Bangladesh is "markedly seasonal with a long dry season." It was found that the length of the dry period is lower at the northeastern part of northern Bangladesh. Trend analysis results show no significant change in the seasonality of rainfall in this region. Regression analysis of overline{SI_i} and SI, and longitude and mean individual seasonality index show a significant linear correlation for this area.

  16. Empowerment and family planning in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, S R

    1994-08-01

    A 1992 survey of 1500 women (1300 married and under age 50 years) was conducted in Bangladesh. Women who participated in 1 of 2 nongovernmental programs which provide small business loans for women (the Grameen Bank and the Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee) were compared with women who were not members but lived in villages served by the programs and with women who were eligible but lived in villages where the loans were not available. It was found that Grameen Bank membership had a significant positive effect on the use of contraceptives and on the rate in which the level of contraceptive use increased. The greater economic independence enjoyed by the Grameen Bank members is a factor in the increased contraceptive usage as is the promotion by the Bank of a small family norm. Empowerment indicators for women in Bangladesh include mobility, economic security, the ability to make purchases, freedom from domination and violence within the family, political and legal awareness, and participation in political activities. Women are able to achieve their fertility goals by participating in programs that decrease their social isolation and their economic dependence on men.

  17. Type 1 diabetes: The Bangladesh perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishwar Azad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is a common endocrine disorder among children and adolescents in Bangladesh. The latest International Diabetes Federation atlas estimated the incidence of type 1 DM (T1DM in Bangladesh as 4.2 new cases of T1DM/100,000 children (0-14 years/year, in 2013. Diabetes, being a lifelong disease, places a huge burden on the economy of the most densely populated, and resource-poor country of the world. The Diabetic Association of Bangladesh (BADAS, the largest of its kind in the world, provides comprehensive care to the biggest number of diabetics at any one centre and is engaged in advocacy. Although sounding grandiose, it′s aims that ′no diabetic shall die untreated, unfed or unemployed, even if poor′ is pursued with a passion. Recently BADAS has been supported in its endeavor for children and adolescents by two programmes; viz the Changing Diabetes in Children program (a joint initiative of BADAS, the World Diabetes Foundation and Novo Nordisk, and the Life for a Child Programme (LFAC supported by the IDF. Numerous studies from the prosperous countries have demonstrated the incidence of T1DM is increasing. Data from the CDiC clinic at BIRDEM shows a rising trend in patients presenting with classical T1DM. In addition, the pattern of DM is changing.

  18. Present status of radiation education in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullah, Sana [Atomic Energy Centre, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    1999-09-01

    Radioisotopes and Radiation are being widely used in the fields of agriculture, medicine, industry for the benefit of people throughout the world. At the same time the use of radiation sources can do harm to man and environment. In order to ensure the satiety against radiation hazards and safe use of radiation, proper education, training, knowledge and awareness are essential. Like other achieve economic development through application f count rues Bangladesh is flying to in agriculture, food, industry, power; health or medi of isotopes and radiation technology cine. Basic education about radiation is incorporated in the school curriculum. Courses on radiation are also given in college and university education. Research organizations, universities carry out research and development works on different disciplines using radiation and radioisotopes. Seminars, workshops, conferences, takings on isotopes and radiation are also being organized. In 1993 Government of Bangladesh passed the Nuclear Satiety and Radiation Control Act 1993 for see use of radiation. The present paper win cover the radiation education, research and development works on radiation, applications of radiation in agriculture, medicine and industry, personal safety and radiation protection against radiation hazard and rules and regulations of the nuclear safety and radiation control act practised in Bangladesh. (author)

  19. Bangladesh: giving girls the "key of keys".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, R

    1998-01-01

    In Bangladesh, 100 nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) have worked with the government to create approximately 52,000 nonformal schools for children who have never attended school or have dropped out. The Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC) alone has 34,000 nonformal education centers. The BRAC program has been particularly effective at increasing educational opportunities for girls, and BRAC is a major implementing agency of the agreement forged by the International Labor Organization and the UN Children's Fund with the Bangladesh Garment Manufacturers Export Association, which gives about 10,000 former child garment workers a meager stipend allowing them to study instead of work. BRAC, the Grameen Bank, and several other NGOs are also developing alternative income-generating methods to compete with the exploitative working conditions suffered by impoverished girls. BRAC now has more than a million students enrolled each year, 700,000 of whom are girls. Students participate in special condensed courses in classes that average 33 pupils (20 must be girls). Gender sensitivity is incorporated at every level. BRAC also relies on community participation in running the schools, and the flexible hours and imaginative curriculum have resulted in very high attendance rates. Government actions (making primary education compulsory and tripling education expenditure) have also resulted in increased primary enrollment while special programs seek to increase the number of girls in secondary schools.

  20. Cause-specific mortality and socioeconomic status in Chakaria, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed M. A. Hanifi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bangladesh has achieved remarkable gains in health indicators during the last four decades despite low levels of economic development. However, the persistence of inequities remains disturbing. This success was also accompanied by health and demographic transitions, which in turn brings new challenges for a nation that has yet to come to terms with pre-transition health challenges. It is therefore important to understand the causes of death and their relationship with socioeconomic status (SES. Objective: The paper aims to assess the causes of death by SES based on surveillance data from a rural area of Bangladesh, in order to understand the situation and inform policy makers and programme leaders. Design: We analysed population-based mortality data collected from the Chakaria Health and Demographic Surveillance System in Bangladesh. The causes of death were determined by using a Bayesian-based programme for interpreting verbal autopsy findings (InterVA-4. The data included 1,391 deaths in 217,167 person-years of observation between 2010 and 2012. The wealth index constructed using household assets was used to assess the SES, and disease burdens were compared among the wealth quintiles. Results: Analysing cause of death (CoD revealed that non-communicable diseases (NCDs were the leading causes of deaths (37%, followed by communicable diseases (CDs (22%, perinatal and neonatal conditions (11%, and injury and accidents (6%; the cause of remaining 24% of deaths could not be determined. Age-specific mortality showed premature birth, respiratory infections, and drowning were the dominant causes of death for childhood mortality (0–14 years, which was inversely associated with SES (p<0.04. For adult and the elderly (15 years and older, NCDs were the leading cause of death (51%, followed by CDs (23%. For adult and the elderly, NCDs concentrated among the population from higher SES groups (p<0.005, and CDs among the lower SES groups (p<0

  1. Young Adults' Linguistic Manipulation of English in Bangla in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Shaila

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly assumed in the print media that bilingual young adults in Bangladesh are subjugated by the colonial legacy of English and they are "polluting" Bangla, the national language of Bangladesh, by their indiscriminate insertion of English in it. However, this ethnographic study on a group of young adults in a university in…

  2. Engineering Education in Bangladesh--An Indicator of Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Harun; Alam, Firoz

    2012-01-01

    Developing nations including Bangladesh are significantly lagging behind the millennium development target due to the lack of science, technology and engineering education. Bangladesh as a least developing country has only 44 engineers per million people. Its technological education and gross domestic product growth are not collinear. Although…

  3. Gender mainstraming in the Bangladesh Rural Electrification Board

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clancy, Joy; Ekram, Lailun Nahar; Halim, Sadeka; Mhatab, Nazmunnessa

    2004-01-01

    A Gender Equity Strategy and Action Plan has been integrated into the Bangladesh Rural Electrification Board’s Master Plan. Implementation of this plan will be the first gender mainstreaming exercise in the energy sector in Bangladesh, and possibly in the world.

  4. Making Work Pay in Bangladesh : Employment, Growth, and Poverty Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Paci, Pierella; Sasin, Marcin

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this report is to analyze the important roles of labor markets, employment, productivity, and labor income in facilitating shared growth and promoting poverty reduction in Bangladesh. First, the report provides a background discussion of poverty, reform, and growth in Bangladesh. Following that, it gives an overview of the labor market, describing the country's demographic...

  5. Upgradation of nuclear medical equipment in the developing countries and its impact in Bangladesh

    CERN Document Server

    Jahangir, S M; Haque, M A S; Hoq, M; Mawla, Y; Morium, T; Uddin, M R; Xie, Y

    2002-01-01

    Bangladesh has thirteen Nuclear Medical Centres and one Institute of Nuclear Medicine in the country which are being run and maintained by the physicians scientists and engineers of Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission. The peaceful application of atomic energy was initiated through all these Centres with the use of clinical isotopes for thyroid and kidney studies. The equipment used for these purposes were the thyroid uptake system, rectilinear scanner and the multiprobe renogram system. The first gamma camera was installed in the country in 1980 at the Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Dhaka. That was the turning point for the country in the field of nuclear medicine. Presently all the nuclear medical establishments are equipped least with a gamma camera, thyroid uptake system and a renogram system. In the last two decades there has been a tremendous development in the design of nuclear medical equipment. Most of the old equipments were slow and manually operated. In the beginning of nineties of the past centur...

  6. Diversity, stand characteristics and spatial aggregation of tree species in a Bangladesh forest ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uddin, Mohammad B.; Steinbauer, Manuel; Beierkuhnlein, Carl

    2011-01-01

    in the Reserve Forest were associated with higher species turnover than in the National Park. We suggest anthropogenic disturbance, which occurs in the less strictly protected Reserve Forest, is the main driver for the detected spatial heterogeneity in species composition.......Assessing biodiversity and the spatial structures of forest ecosystems are important for forestry and nature conservation. However, tropical forests of Bangladesh are only sparsely investigated. Here we determined biodiversity (alpha, beta and gamma), spatial species turnover and stand...... characteristics of one of the few remnant tropical forests in Bangladesh. Two differently protected areas of Satchari forest were compared. We recorded tree species composition, in a systematic plot design, measured diameter at breast height for each individual tree (to assess basal area), and calculated decay...

  7. Sensory evaluation based fuzzy AHP approach for material selection in customized garment design and development process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Y.; Curteza, A.; Zeng, X.; Bruniaux, P.; Chen, Y.

    2016-06-01

    Material selection is the most difficult section in the customized garment product design and development process. This study aims to create a hierarchical framework for material selection. The analytic hierarchy process and fuzzy sets theories have been applied to mindshare the diverse requirements from the customer and inherent interaction/interdependencies among these requirements. Sensory evaluation ensures a quick and effective selection without complex laboratory test such as KES and FAST, using the professional knowledge of the designers. A real empirical application for the physically disabled people is carried out to demonstrate the proposed method. Both the theoretical and practical background of this paper have indicated the fuzzy analytical network process can capture expert's knowledge existing in the form of incomplete, ambiguous and vague information for the mutual influence on attribute and criteria of the material selection.

  8. Manufacturing process and material selection in concurrent collaborative design of MEMS devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Xuan F.; Du, H.

    2003-09-01

    In this paper we present knowledge of an intensive approach and system for selecting suitable manufacturing processes and materials for microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices in concurrent collaborative design environment. In the paper, fundamental issues on MEMS manufacturing process and material selection such as concurrent design framework, manufacturing process and material hierarchies, and selection strategy are first addressed. Then, a fuzzy decision support scheme for a multi-criteria decision-making problem is proposed for estimating, ranking and selecting possible manufacturing processes, materials and their combinations. A Web-based prototype advisory system for the MEMS manufacturing process and material selection, WebMEMS-MASS, is developed based on the client-knowledge server architecture and framework to help the designer find good processes and materials for MEMS devices. The system, as one of the important parts of an advanced simulation and modeling tool for MEMS design, is a concept level process and material selection tool, which can be used as a standalone application or a Java applet via the Web. The running sessions of the system are inter-linked with webpages of tutorials and reference pages to explain the facets, fabrication processes and material choices, and calculations and reasoning in selection are performed using process capability and material property data from a remote Web-based database and interactive knowledge base that can be maintained and updated via the Internet. The use of the developed system including operation scenario, use support, and integration with an MEMS collaborative design system is presented. Finally, an illustration example is provided.

  9. Scientific basis for process and catalyst design in the selective oxidation of methane to formaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, Francesco; Parmaliana, Adolfo

    2003-12-01

    The mechanism and kinetics of the gas-phase selective oxidation of methane to formaldehyde (MPO) are revised in the general context of catalytic oxidations. In agreement with ab initio calculations of the energy barrier for the activation of methane on transition metal oxide complexes, a formal Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic model is proposed which accounts for the "steady-state" conditions and activity-selectivity pattern of MPO catalysts, providing an original support to process design and catalyst development.

  10. Reliable selection of earthquake ground motions for performance-based design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katsanos, Evangelos; Sextos, A.G.

    2016-01-01

    of selected Engineering Demand Parameters. Such a procedure, even though typically overlooked, is imperative to increase the reliability of the average response values, as required for the code-prescribed design verification of structures. Structure-related attributes such as the dynamic characteristics...... of the herein proposed multi-criterion approach, particularly in terms of extensively reducing the intra-suite response variability of ground motions, while at the same time increasing the reliability of the design values. They also demonstrate that the new index greatly reduces the size of the suite...... of selected ground motions, for a given level of target reliability, with respect to the conventional methods....

  11. Designing of Modified Area Efficient Square Root Carry Select Adder(SQRT CSLA)

    OpenAIRE

    Priya Meshram; Prof.Mamta Sarode

    2015-01-01

    In the design of Integrated Circuits, The necessity of portable systems is increasing an area occupancy plays a vital role. Square Root Carry Select Adder (SQRT CSLA) is one of the fastest adders which is used in this data-processing processor to perform fast arithmetic functions. In this paper, an area-efficient square root carry select adder(SQRT CSLA design) by sharing Common Boolean logic term (CBL) is proposed The modified architecture has been developed using Binary to Excess-1 converte...

  12. Design of Modified Area Efficient Square Root Carry Select Adder (SQRT CSLA)

    OpenAIRE

    Priya Meshram; Prof.Mamta Sarode

    2015-01-01

    In the design of Integrated Circuits, The necessity of portable systems is increasing an area occupancy plays a vital role. Square Root Carry Select Adder (SQRT CSLA) is one of the fastest adders which is used in this data-processing processor to perform fast arithmetic functions. In this paper, an area-efficient square root carry select adder(SQRT CSLA design) by sharing Common Boolean logic term (CBL) is proposed The modified architecture has been developed using Binary to Excess-1 converte...

  13. Connecting Environmental Observations with Cholera Outbreaks in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack, D.; Sandborn, A.; Widmeyer, P. A.; Escobar, V. M.

    2011-12-01

    Research has demonstrated that cholera epidemics in Bangladesh occur seasonally. This bimodal outbreak pattern closely follows times when large monsoon events are most frequent (spring and fall). While these patterns are presented in regional data, this knowledge alone cannot forecast the severity and location of cholera outbreaks until a monsoon event occurs, or an outbreak is reported. Therefore, there can only be reactive responses to cholera outbreaks. A heightened understanding of the link between environmental factors and outbreak occurrence will greatly enhance disease management capabilities. A predictive tool capable of giving an advanced warning of the environmental hazards that lead to location specific outbreaks allows for proactive and preventative responses, minimizing negative effects. A specific goal of this research was to relate latitude-longitude data with existing points associated with V. cholerae human case data collected from four cities in Bangladesh. Remotely sensed products were used to better understand the correlation between human outbreak occurrences, chlorophyll-a estimates, sea surface temperature (SST), and rainfall. Using MODIS, SeaWiFS, and TRMM satellite data, a gridded regional image was developed. Correlation analyses of the data were studied within the context of geographically diverse locations for the four cities of interest. Seasonal relationships were found between the cholera case data and all three of the chosen remotely sensed parameters. The strongest correlation found was between chlorophyll-a concentrations and reported human cases. The primary deliverable of this project was the production of an interactive Google Earth base map for use in a pilot design study that will lead to the development of applications to connect earth science products with water and health studies. The base map, with its inherent value of merging remotely sensed data with in situ observation points, can be used as a basis for constructing

  14. Design of High-Speed Hybrid Carry Select Adders using VHDL

    OpenAIRE

    Mr. Vijay V. Gotmare; Dr. Pankaj Agarwal

    2016-01-01

    Carry select adder (CSA) is a square-root time high-speed adder. CSA is one of the fastest adders used in many data processing systems to perform fast arithmetic operations. In this project we propose to design hybrid carry select adders with a focus on high speed. CSA is a compromise between the longer delay Ripple carry adder (RCA) and the shorter delay Carry look-ahead adder (CLA). Conventionally carry select adders are realize using the full adders and 2:1 multiplexers. On the other hand ...

  15. Selection of Weather Parameters for Air-Conditioning System Design for Buildings with Long Thermal Lag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Lian-feng; LEI Ming; CHEN You-ming

    2009-01-01

    Two building factors-a longer thermal lag of more than one hour for building envelops and a lag of indoor radiation to convert into cooling load-have impact on the instantaneous heat input and instantaneous cooling load.So the two factors should be taken into account when selecting the weather parameters for air-con-ditioning system design.This paper developed a new statistic method for the rational selection of coincident solar irradiance,dry-bulb and wet-bulb temperatures.The method was applied to historic weather records of 25 years in Hong Kong to generate coincident design weather data.And the results show that traditional design solar irra-diance,dry-bulb and wet-bulb temperatures may be significantly overestimated in many conditions,and the de-sign weather data for the three different constructions is not kept constant.

  16. In vivo analysis of toxic effect of hydrose used in food preparations in Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tuhin Reza; Asafudullah; Farjana Nikkon; Khaled Hossain; Zahangir Alam Saud; Sharmin Aktar; Hasan Al Amin; Mashiur Rahman; Afroza Arefin; Nayan Chandra Mohanto; Shahnur Alam; Abdullah Al Mamun; Anwar Habib

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the toxic effect of hydrose used in the molasses preparation in Bangladesh.Methods:Molasses were collected from open markets in different parts of Bangladesh. The presence of hydrose in selected molasses was detected using commercial kit. To evaluate the toxic effect of hydrose, Swiss albino male mice were divided into four groups. Group I was used as control, while Groups II, III and IV received hydrose mixing food (5, 10 and 25 g/kg food), respectively, and these supplementations were continued to the end of the study (16 weeks). Blood was collected from thoracic arteries of the mice under ether anesthesia and then organs were taken. To determine the effect of hydrose on host, blood indices related to liver, heart and kidney dysfunctions were measured.Results:Creatinine and urea levels were significantly (P<0.05) increased in a dose dependent manner in hydrose treated mice, whereas calcium level was significantly decreased in hydrose exposed mice compared to control mice. Histological study of kidney showed the glomeruler inflammation, increased diameter of renal glomeruli and enlargement of proximal tubular lumen of kidneys of mice exposed to hydrose compared to that of control animals. Conclusions: The results of this study indicated that use of hydrose in molasses and other food preparations in Bangladesh may cause kidney impairment.

  17. In vivo analysis of toxic effect of hydrose used in food preparations in Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tuhin; Reza; Sharmin; Aktar; Hasan; Al; Amin; Mashiur; Rahman; Afroza; Arefin; Nayan; Chandra; Mohanto; Shahnur; Alam; Abdullah; Al; Mamun; Anwar; Habib; Asafudullah; Farjana; Nikkon; Khaled; Hossain; Zahangir; Alam; Saud

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the toxic effect of hydrose used in the molasses preparation in Bangladesh.Methods:Molasses were collected from open markets in different parts of Bangladesh.The presence of hydrose in selected molasses was detected using commercial kit.To evaluate the toxic effect of hydrose.Swiss albino male mice were divided into four groups.Group Ⅰ was used as control,while Groups Ⅱ,Ⅲ and Ⅳ received hydrose mixing food(5.10 and 25 g/kg food),respectively,and these supplementations were continued to the end of the study(16weeks).Blood was collected from thoracic arteries of the mice under ether anesthesia and then organs were taken.To determine the effect of hydrose on host,blood indices related to liver,heart and kidney dysfunctions were measured.Result:Creatinine and urea levels were significantly(P<0.05) increased in a dose dependent manner in hydrose treated mice,whereas calcium level was significantly decreased in hydrose exposed mice compared to control mice.Histological study of kidney showed the glomeruler inflammation,increased diameter of renal glomeruli and enlargement of proximal tubular lumen of kidneys of mice exposed to hydrose compared to that of control animals.Conclusion:The results of this study indicated that use of hydrose in molasses and other food preparations in Bangladesh may cause kidney impairment.

  18. Food provisioning experiences of ultra poor female heads of household living in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Lynn; Rondeau, Krista; Kirkpatrick, Sharon; Hatfield, Jennifer; Islam, Khaled Shamsul; Huda, Syed Nazmul

    2011-03-01

    Ultra poor women in Bangladesh are especially vulnerable to poverty and food insecurity, and they have generally been excluded from recent improvements in hunger and poverty rates in the country. An examination of the food provisioning narratives of 43 ultra poor female heads of household in Bangladesh was conducted in order to deepen understanding of this obstacle to the country's achievement of the First Millennium Development Goal. All participants were the household's sole income provider, had dependent children, and earned less than $1 USD per day. Women were purposively selected based on occupational group, context, and personal characteristics. Ethnographic interviews were conducted in January and February, 2008. Analysis of women's accounts of their daily food routine revealed chronic and pervasive food insecurity punctuated by acute episodes of absolute food deprivation that resulted from seasonal fluctuations in earnings, rising food prices, illness disrupting work, and healthcare costs. Women's accounts of their daily food provisioning experiences suggested compromises in, and trade-offs between, multiple basic needs as a result of inadequate income. Women were further constrained by social norms and gender roles that influenced their ability to work outside the home. Our method of inquiry led us to construct an organizing framework that extends knowledge of ultra poor women in Bangladesh's complex and multi-sphered experience of poverty and food insecurity. Based on these findings, we propose a strategy called whole person development (WPD), which seeks small adjustments to services, programs, and policies based on leverage points identified through in-depth narratives.

  19. Validation of a Dish-Based Semiquantitative Food Questionnaire in Rural Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pi-I. D. Lin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A locally validated tool was needed to evaluate long-term dietary intake in rural Bangladesh. We assessed the validity of a 42-item dish-based semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ using two 3-day food diaries (FDs. We selected a random subset of 47 families (190 participants from a longitudinal arsenic biomonitoring study in Bangladesh to administer the FFQ. Two 3-day FDs were completed by the female head of the households and we used an adult male equivalent method to estimate the FD for the other participants. Food and nutrient intakes measured by FFQ and FD were compared using Pearson’s and Spearman’s correlation, paired t-test, percent difference, cross-classification, weighted Kappa, and Bland–Altman analysis. Results showed good validity for total energy intake (paired t-test, p < 0.05; percent difference <10%, with no presence of proportional bias (Bland–Altman correlation, p > 0.05. After energy-adjustment and de-attenuation for within-person variation, macronutrient intakes had excellent correlations ranging from 0.55 to 0.70. Validity for micronutrients was mixed. High intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs were found for most nutrients between the two seasons, except vitamin A. This dish-based FFQ provided adequate validity to assess and rank long-term dietary intake in rural Bangladesh for most food groups and nutrients, and should be useful for studying dietary-disease relationships.

  20. Groundwater arsenic contamination in Bangladesh-21 Years of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborti, Dipankar; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Mukherjee, Amitava; Alauddin, Mohammad; Hassan, Manzurul; Dutta, Rathindra Nath; Pati, Shymapada; Mukherjee, Subhash Chandra; Roy, Shibtosh; Quamruzzman, Quazi; Rahman, Mahmuder; Morshed, Salim; Islam, Tanzima; Sorif, Shaharir; Selim, Md; Islam, Md Razaul; Hossain, Md Monower

    2015-01-01

    Department of Public Health Engineering (DPHE), Bangladesh first identified their groundwater arsenic contamination in 1993. But before the international arsenic conference in Dhaka in February 1998, the problem was not widely accepted. Even in the international arsenic conference in West-Bengal, India in February, 1995, representatives of international agencies in Bangladesh and Bangladesh government attended the conference but they denied the groundwater arsenic contamination in Bangladesh. School of Environmental Studies (SOES), Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India first identified arsenic patient in Bangladesh in 1992 and informed WHO, UNICEF of Bangladesh and Govt. of Bangladesh from April 1994 to August 1995. British Geological Survey (BGS) dug hand tube-wells in Bangladesh in 1980s and early 1990s but they did not test the water for arsenic. Again BGS came back to Bangladesh in 1992 to assess the quality of the water of the tube-wells they installed but they still did not test for arsenic when groundwater arsenic contamination and its health effects in West Bengal in Bengal delta was already published in WHO Bulletin in 1988. From December 1996, SOES in collaboration with Dhaka Community Hospital (DCH), Bangladesh started analyzing hand tube-wells for arsenic from all 64 districts in four geomorphologic regions of Bangladesh. So far over 54,000 tube-well water samples had been analyzed by flow injection hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (FI-HG-AAS). From SOES water analysis data at present we could assess status of arsenic groundwater contamination in four geo-morphological regions of Bangladesh and location of possible arsenic safe groundwater. SOES and DCH also made some preliminary work with their medical team to identify patients suffering from arsenic related diseases. SOES further analyzed few thousands biological samples (hair, nail, urine and skin scales) and foodstuffs for arsenic to know arsenic body burden and people sub

  1. Women's participation in rural credit programmes in Bangladesh and their demand for formal health care: is there a positive impact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, P

    1999-08-01

    Within the overall aim of poverty alleviation, development efforts have included credit and self-employment programmes. In Bangladesh, the major beneficiaries of such group-based credit programmes are rural women who use the loans to initiate small informal income-generating activities. This paper explores the benefits of women's participation in credit programmes on their own health seeking. Using data from a sample of 1798 households from rural Bangladesh, conducted in 1991-1992 through repeated random sampling of 87 districts covered by Grameen Bank, Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC) and Bangladesh Rural Development Board (BRDB), this paper addresses the question: does women's participation in credit programmes significantly affect their use of formal health care? A non-unitary household preference model is suggested to test the hypothesis that women's empowerment through participation in these programmes results in greater control of resources for their own demand for formal health care. The analysis controls for endogeneity due to self-selection and other unobserved village level factors through the use of a weighted two stage instrumental variable approach with village level fixed effects. The findings indicate a positive impact of women's participation in credit programmes on their demand for formal health care. The policy simulations on the results of this study highlight the importance of credit programmes as a health intervention in addition to being a mechanism for women's economic empowerment.

  2. A QFD-based decision making model for computer-aided design software selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanika Prasad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available With the progress in technology and innovation in product development, the contribution of computer- aided design (CAD software in the design and manufacture of parts/products is growing on significantly. Selection of an appropriate CAD software is not a trifling task as it involves analyzing the appositeness of the available software packages to the unique requirements of the organization. Existence of a large number of CAD software vendors, presence of discordance among different hardware and software systems, and dearth of technical knowledge and experience of the decision makers further complicate the selection procedure. Moreover, there are very few published research papers related to CAD software selection, and majority of them have either employed criteria weights computed utilizing subjective judgements of the end users or floundered to incorporate the voice of customers in the decision making process. Quality function deployment (QFD is a well-known technique for determining the relative importance of customers’ defined criteria for selection of any product or service. Therefore, this paper deals with design and development of a QFD-based decision making model in Visual BASIC 6.0 for selection of CAD software for manufacturing organizations. In order to demonstrate the applicability and potentiality of the developed model in the form of a software prototype, two illustrative examples are also provided.

  3. Design and synthesis of selective keto-1,2,4-oxadiazole-based tryptase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, James T; Rydzewski, Robert M; Mendonca, Rohan V; Sperandio, David; Spencer, Jeffrey R; Hirschbein, Bernard L; Lohman, Julia; Beltman, Jeri; Nguyen, Margaret; Liu, Liang

    2006-07-01

    Using a scaleable, directed library approach based on orthogonally protected advanced intermediates, we have prepared a series of potent keto-1,2,4-oxadiazoles designed to explore the P(2) binding pocket of human mast cell tryptase, while building in a high degree of selectivity over human trypsin and other serine proteases.

  4. An Examination of Item Selection Rules by Stratified CAT Designs Integrated with Content Balancing Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Chi-Keung; Chang, Hua-Hua; Hau, Kit-Tai

    The multistage alpha-stratified computerized adaptive testing (CAT) design advocated a new philosophy of pool management and item selection using low discriminating items first. It has been demonstrated through simulation studies to be effective both in reducing item overlap rate and enhancing pool utilization with certain pool types. Based on…

  5. Simple and Effective Way for Data Preprocessing Selection Based on Design of Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerretzen, Jan; Szymańska, Ewa; Jansen, Jeroen J; Bart, Jacob; van Manen, Henk-Jan; van den Heuvel, Edwin R; Buydens, Lutgarde M C

    2015-12-15

    The selection of optimal preprocessing is among the main bottlenecks in chemometric data analysis. Preprocessing currently is a burden, since a multitude of different preprocessing methods is available for, e.g., baseline correction, smoothing, and alignment, but it is not clear beforehand which method(s) should be used for which data set. The process of preprocessing selection is often limited to trial-and-error and is therefore considered somewhat subjective. In this paper, we present a novel, simple, and effective approach for preprocessing selection. The defining feature of this approach is a design of experiments. On the basis of the design, model performance of a few well-chosen preprocessing methods, and combinations thereof (called strategies) is evaluated. Interpretation of the main effects and interactions subsequently enables the selection of an optimal preprocessing strategy. The presented approach is applied to eight different spectroscopic data sets, covering both calibration and classification challenges. We show that the approach is able to select a preprocessing strategy which improves model performance by at least 50% compared to the raw data; in most cases, it leads to a strategy very close to the true optimum. Our approach makes preprocessing selection fast, insightful, and objective.

  6. 'Lived Islam' in India and Bangladesh: negotiating religion to realise reproductive aspirations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Biswamitra; Hutter, Inge

    2012-01-01

    This paper seeks to answer the question of how Muslim women interpret and negotiate religion in order to realise their reproductive aspirations. A close reading of lived experiences of 32 Muslim women from a varied educational background yields a wider perspective of the different interpretations of reproductive norms employed by adherents of the same religion (Islam), situated in two countries (India/Bangladesh) and group (majority/minority) contexts. Further, this comparative study yields a deeper understanding of agency that is employed by Muslim participants in each country. Muslim women - both in India and Bangladesh - are not passive followers of religious norms, but have agency to bring change in their own life and take an active role in planning their family, thereby transgressing religious norms in reproductive matters. Muslim women in India exercise their agency by adopting sterilisation - a method proscribed by Islam - without the knowledge of their significant others. Muslim women in Bangladesh use their agency by making a flexible interpretation of Islam in reproductive matters. A lesson learned from this comparative study is the need to remove barriers that prevent the adoption of contraceptives by Muslim minorities in India and to design family planning programmes that takes into account their religious needs.

  7. Ethnomedicinal plants used by the Nag clan of the Rai Ghatual tribe of Moulvibazar district, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Protiva Rani Das

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Medicinal practices of the tribes of Bangladesh remain largely un-documented. Aims: The aim of the present study was to conduct an ethnomedicinal survey and documentation among the Nag clan of the Rai Ghatual tribe of Bangladesh. Settings and Design: The survey was carried out among the Nag clan of the Rai Ghatual tribal community of Moulvibazar district. The clan, according to them, is the only Nag clan of the Rai Ghatual tribe in Bangladesh. The clan has three tribal healers, still continuing their traditional medicinal practices. Materials and Methods: Interviews of the healers were carried out with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire and the guided field-walk method. Results: The Nag clan healers were observed to use 28 different plant species distributed into 22 families for treatment of ailments such as fever, loss of appetite, male infertility, dysentery, lower abdominal pain during menstruation, jaundice, stomachache, burning sensations during urination, bodily pain and weak health. Conclusions: This is the first reported study of the traditional medicinal practices of Nag clan healers. Several of the plants can be validated in their uses on the basis of existing scientific literature. The medicinal plants used by the Nag healers warrant further scientific studies, for the plants are readily available and can form alternative medicinal sources instead of costlier biomedical drugs.

  8. Evaluation of peptide selection approaches for epitope‐based vaccine design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schubert, B.; Lund, Ole; Nielsen, Morten

    2013-01-01

    A major challenge in epitope-based vaccine (EV) design stems from the vast genomic variation of pathogens and the diversity of the host cellular immune system. Several computational approaches have been published to assist the selection of potential T cell epitopes for EV design. So far, no thoro......A major challenge in epitope-based vaccine (EV) design stems from the vast genomic variation of pathogens and the diversity of the host cellular immune system. Several computational approaches have been published to assist the selection of potential T cell epitopes for EV design. So far...... in terms of in silico measurements simulating important vaccine properties like the ability of inducing protection against a multivariant pathogen in a population; the predicted immunogenicity; pathogen, allele, and population coverage; as well as the conservation of selected epitopes. Additionally, we...... evaluate the use of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) supertypes with regards to their applicability for population-spanning vaccine design. The results showed that in terms of induced protection methods that simultaneously aim to optimize pathogen and HLA coverage significantly outperform methods focusing...

  9. Selecting a proper design period for heliostat field layout optimization using Campo code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghafifar, Mohammad; Gadalla, Mohamed

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, different approaches are considered to calculate the cosine factor which is utilized in Campo code to expand the heliostat field layout and maximize its annual thermal output. Furthermore, three heliostat fields containing different number of mirrors are taken into consideration. Cosine factor is determined by considering instantaneous and time-average approaches. For instantaneous method, different design days and design hours are selected. For the time average method, daily time average, monthly time average, seasonally time average, and yearly time averaged cosine factor determinations are considered. Results indicate that instantaneous methods are more appropriate for small scale heliostat field optimization. Consequently, it is proposed to consider the design period as the second design variable to ensure the best outcome. For medium and large scale heliostat fields, selecting an appropriate design period is more important. Therefore, it is more reliable to select one of the recommended time average methods to optimize the field layout. Optimum annual weighted efficiency for heliostat fields (small, medium, and large) containing 350, 1460, and 3450 mirrors are 66.14%, 60.87%, and 54.04%, respectively.

  10. Removing Arsenic from Contaminated Drinking Water in Rural Bangladesh: Recent Fieldwork Results and Policy Implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathieu, Johanna L.; Gadgil, Ashok J.; Kowolik, Kristin; Addy, Susan E.A.

    2009-09-17

    ARUBA (Arsenic Removal Using Bottom Ash) has proven effective at removing high concentrations of arsenic from drinking water in Bangladesh. During fieldwork in four sub-districts of the country, ARUBA reduced arsenic levels ranging from 200 to 900 ppb to below the Bangladesh standard of 50 ppb. The technology is cost-effective because the substrate--bottom ash from coal fired power plants--is a waste material readily available in South Asia. In comparison to similar technologies, ARUBA uses less media for arsenic removal due to its high surface area to volume ratio. Hence, less waste is produced. A number of experiments were conducted in Bangladesh to determine the effectiveness of various water treatment protocols. It was found that (1) ARUBA removes more than half of the arsenic from water within five minutes of treatment, (2) ARUBA, that has settled at the bottom of a treatment vessel, continues to remove arsenic for 2-3 days, (3) ARUBA's arsenic removal efficiency can be improved through sequential partial dosing (adding a given amount of ARUBA in fractions versus all at once), and (4) allowing water to first stand for two to three days followed by treatment with ARUBA produced final arsenic levels ten times lower than treating water directly out of the well. Our findings imply a number of tradeoffs between ARUBA's effective arsenic removal capacity, treatment system costs, and waste output. These tradeoffs, some a function of arsenic-related policies in Bangladesh (e.g., waste disposal regulations), must be considered when designing an arsenic removal system. We propose that the most attractive option is to use ARUBA in communityscale water treatment centers, installed as public-private partnerships, in Bangladeshi villages.

  11. A Pilot Astronomy Outreach Project in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Dipen; Mridha, Shahjahan; Afroz, Maqsuda

    2015-08-01

    In its strategic planning for the "Astronomy for Development Project," the International Astronomical Union (IAU) has ecognized, among other important missions, the role of astronomy in understanding the far-reaching possibilities for promoting global tolerance and citizenship. Furthermore, astronomy is deemed inspirational for careers in science and technology. The "Pilot Astronomy Outreach Project in Bangladesh"--the first of its kind in the country--aspires to fulfill these missions. As Bangladesh lacks resources to promote astronomy education in universities and schools, the role of disseminating astronomy education to the greater community falls on citizen science organizations. One such group, Anushandhitshu Chokro (AChokro) Science Organization, has been carrying out a successful public outreach program since 1975. Among its documented public events, AChokro organized a total solar eclipse campaign in Bangladesh in 2009, at which 15,000 people were assembled in a single open venue for the eclipse observation. The organization has actively pursued astronomy outreach to dispel public misconceptions about astronomical phenomena and to promote science. AChokro is currently working to build an observatory and Science Outreach Center around a recently-acquired 14-inch Scmidt-Cassegrain telescope and a soon-to-be-acquired new 16-inch reflector, all funded by private donations. The telescopes will be fitted with photometers, spectrometers, and digital and CCD cameras to pursue observations that would include sun spot and solar magnetic fields, planetary surfaces, asteroid search, variable stars and supernovae. The Center will be integrated with schools, colleges, and community groups for regular observation and small-scale research. Special educational and observing sessions for adults will also be organized. Updates on the development of the Center, which is expected to be functioning by the end of 2015, will be shared and feedback invited on the fostering of

  12. Harnessing pluralism for better health in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Syed Masud; Evans, Timothy G; Standing, Hilary; Mahmud, Simeen

    2013-11-23

    How do we explain the paradox that Bangladesh has made remarkable progress in health and human development, yet its achievements have taken place within a health system that is frequently characterised as weak, in terms of inadequate physical and human infrastructure and logistics, and low performing? We argue that the development of a highly pluralistic health system environment, defined by the participation of a multiplicity of different stakeholders and agents and by ad hoc, diffused forms of management has contributed to these outcomes by creating conditions for rapid change. We use a combination of data from official sources, research studies, case studies of specific innovations, and in-depth knowledge from our own long-term engagement with health sector issues in Bangladesh to lay out a conceptual framework for understanding pluralism and its outcomes. Although we argue that pluralism has had positive effects in terms of stimulating change and innovation, we also note its association with poor health systems governance and regulation, resulting in endemic problems such as overuse and misuse of drugs. Pluralism therefore requires active management that acknowledges and works with its polycentric nature. We identify four key areas where this management is needed: participatory governance, accountability and regulation, information systems, and capacity development. This approach challenges some mainstream frameworks for managing health systems, such as the building blocks approach of the WHO Health Systems Framework. However, as pluralism increasingly defines the nature and the challenge of 21st century health systems, the experience of Bangladesh is relevant to many countries across the world.

  13. Detecting selection for negative design in proteins through an improved model of the misfolded state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minning, Jonas; Porto, Markus; Bastolla, Ugo

    2013-07-01

    Proteins that need to be structured in their native state must be stable both against the unfolded ensemble and against incorrectly folded (misfolded) conformations with low free energy. Positive design targets the first type of stability by strengthening native interactions. The second type of stability is achieved by destabilizing interactions that occur frequently in the misfolded ensemble, a strategy called negative design. Here, we investigate negative design adopting a statistical mechanical model of the misfolded ensemble, which improves the usual Gaussian approximation by taking into account the third moment of the energy distribution and contact correlations. Applying this model, we detect and quantify selection for negative design in most natural proteins, and we analytically design protein sequences that are stable both against unfolding and against misfolding.

  14. Optical design of f-theta lens for dual wavelength selective laser melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lianhua; Cao, Hongzhong; Zhang, Ning; Xu, Xiping; Duan, Xuanming

    2016-10-01

    F-theta lens is an important unit for selective laser melting (SLM) manufacture. The dual wavelength f-theta lens has not been used in SLM manufacture. Here, we present the design of the f-theta lens which satisfies SLM manufacture with coaxial 532 nm and 1030 nm 1080 nm laser beams. It is composed of three pieces of spherical lenses. The focal spots for 532 nm laser and 1030 nm 1080 nm laser are smaller than 35 μm and 70 μm, respectively. The results meet the demands of high precision SLM. The chromatic aberration could cause separation between two laser focal spots in the scanning plane, so chromatic aberration correction is very important to our design. The lateral color of the designed f-theta lens is less than 11 μm within the scan area of 150 mm x 150 mm, which meet the application requirements of dual wavelength selective laser melting.

  15. Mapping Chemical Selection Pathways for Designing Multicomponent Alloys: an informatics framework for materials design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Srikant; Broderick, Scott R; Zhang, Ruifeng; Mishra, Amrita; Sinnott, Susan B; Saxena, Surendra K; LeBeau, James M; Rajan, Krishna

    2015-12-18

    A data driven methodology is developed for tracking the collective influence of the multiple attributes of alloying elements on both thermodynamic and mechanical properties of metal alloys. Cobalt-based superalloys are used as a template to demonstrate the approach. By mapping the high dimensional nature of the systematics of elemental data embedded in the periodic table into the form of a network graph, one can guide targeted first principles calculations that identify the influence of specific elements on phase stability, crystal structure and elastic properties. This provides a fundamentally new means to rapidly identify new stable alloy chemistries with enhanced high temperature properties. The resulting visualization scheme exhibits the grouping and proximity of elements based on their impact on the properties of intermetallic alloys. Unlike the periodic table however, the distance between neighboring elements uncovers relationships in a complex high dimensional information space that would not have been easily seen otherwise. The predictions of the methodology are found to be consistent with reported experimental and theoretical studies. The informatics based methodology presented in this study can be generalized to a framework for data analysis and knowledge discovery that can be applied to many material systems and recreated for different design objectives.

  16. Mapping Chemical Selection Pathways for Designing Multicomponent Alloys: an informatics framework for materials design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Srikant; Broderick, Scott R.; Zhang, Ruifeng; Mishra, Amrita; Sinnott, Susan B.; Saxena, Surendra K.; Lebeau, James M.; Rajan, Krishna

    2015-12-01

    A data driven methodology is developed for tracking the collective influence of the multiple attributes of alloying elements on both thermodynamic and mechanical properties of metal alloys. Cobalt-based superalloys are used as a template to demonstrate the approach. By mapping the high dimensional nature of the systematics of elemental data embedded in the periodic table into the form of a network graph, one can guide targeted first principles calculations that identify the influence of specific elements on phase stability, crystal structure and elastic properties. This provides a fundamentally new means to rapidly identify new stable alloy chemistries with enhanced high temperature properties. The resulting visualization scheme exhibits the grouping and proximity of elements based on their impact on the properties of intermetallic alloys. Unlike the periodic table however, the distance between neighboring elements uncovers relationships in a complex high dimensional information space that would not have been easily seen otherwise. The predictions of the methodology are found to be consistent with reported experimental and theoretical studies. The informatics based methodology presented in this study can be generalized to a framework for data analysis and knowledge discovery that can be applied to many material systems and recreated for different design objectives.

  17. Design and synthesis of protein kinase C epsilon selective diacylglycerol lactones (DAG-lactones).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ann, Jihyae; Yoon, Suyoung; Baek, Jisoo; Kim, Da Hye; Lewin, Nancy E; Hill, Colin S; Blumberg, Peter M; Lee, Jeewoo

    2015-01-27

    DAG-lactones afford a synthetically accessible, high affinity platform for probing structure activity relationships at the C1 regulatory domain of protein kinase C (PKC). Given the central role of PKC isoforms in cellular signaling, along with their differential biological activities, a critical objective is the design of isoform selective ligands. Here, we report the synthesis of a series of DAG-lactones varying in their side chains, with a particular focus on linoleic acid derivatives. We evaluated their selectivity for PKC epsilon versus PKC alpha both under standard lipid conditions (100% phosphatidylserine, PS) as well as in the presence of a nuclear membrane mimetic lipid mixture (NML). We find that selectivity for PKC epsilon versus PKC alpha tended to be enhanced in the presence of the nuclear membrane mimetic lipid mixture and, for our lead compound, report a selectivity of 32-fold.

  18. Electrochemical arsenic remediation for rural Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Addy, Susan Amrose [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Arsenic in drinking water is a major public health problem threatening the lives of over 140 million people worldwide. In Bangladesh alone, up to 57 million people drink arsenic-laden water from shallow wells. ElectroChemical Arsenic Remediation(ECAR) overcomes many of the obstacles that plague current technologies and can be used affordably and on a small-scale, allowing for rapid dissemination into Bangladesh to address this arsenic crisis. In this work, ECAR was shown to effectively reduce 550 - 580 μg=L arsenic (including both As[III]and As[V]in a 1:1 ratio) to below the WHO recommended maximum limit of 10 μg=L in synthetic Bangladesh groundwater containing relevant concentrations of competitive ions such as phosphate, silicate, and bicarbonate. Arsenic removal capacity was found to be approximately constant within certain ranges of current density, but was found to change substantially between ranges. In order of decreasing arsenic removal capacity, the pattern was: 0.02 mA=cm2> 0.07 mA=cm2> 0.30 - 1.1 mA=cm2> 5.0 - 100 mA=cm2. Current processing time was found to effect arsenic removal capacity independent of either charge density or current density. Electrode polarization studies showed no passivation of the electrode in the tested range (up to current density 10 mA=cm2) and ruled out oxygen evolution as the cause of decreasing removal capacity with current density. Simple settling and decantation required approximately 3 days to achieve arsenic removal comparable to filtration with a 0.1 mu m membrane. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) showed that (1) there is no significant difference in the arsenic removal mechanism of ECAR during operation at different current densities and (2) the arsenic removal mechanism in ECAR is consistent with arsenate adsorption onto a homogenous Fe(III)oxyhydroxide similar in structure to 2-line ferrihydrite. ECAR effectively reduced high arsenic concentrations (100

  19. Adolescent motherhood in Bangladesh: Evidence from 2007 BDHS data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Mostafa Kamal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the factors affecting adolescent motherhood in Bangladesh using the 2007 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey data. Overall, 69.3 per cent of the married adolescents began childbearing. Among them 56.4 per cent were already mothers and 12.9per cent were pregnant for the first time. Of the adult married women age 20–49, 62.1 per cent initiated childbearing before age 19. The multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that women’s education, husband’s education, place of residence, ever use of contraceptive method, religion, wealth and region are important determinants of adolescent motherhood in Bangladesh.

  20. Summer rains in northeast Bangladesh: Onset and triggering mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Ssemujju, Musa

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to shed light on convective triggering mechanisms around the onset of the summer rains in Northeast Bangladesh. We want to understand this rainfall since it has a large impact on the local climate, and because 25.3% of the annual rainfall in Northeast Bangladesh falls in Bangladesh summer (March - May). To do this, we first identified the onset of the summer rains for each year using Sylhet station rainfall data with a 11 mm/day pentad rainfall mean threshold and a 6-...

  1. Microfinance Participation and Marital Violence in Bangladesh: A Qualitative Inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murshid, Nadine Shaanta; Zippay, Allison

    2016-09-15

    This study explores the experiences of marital violence within the context of microfinance participation among a sample of women living in poverty in Bangladesh. Status inconsistency theory suggests that the higher incomes and female independence that may occur with microfinance participation may threaten or destabilize marital norms in Bangladesh, and have implications in terms of increased violence. We use qualitative data from in-depth interviews with 30 women residing in a slum in Dhaka, Bangladesh, to assess the circumstances in which there may be an association between microfinance participation and marital violence and elucidate the context in which this interaction occurs.

  2. Harnessing the Big Data Paradigm for ICME: Shifting from Materials Selection to Materials Enabled Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, Scott R.; Santhanam, Ganesh Ram; Rajan, Krishna

    2016-08-01

    As the size of databases has significantly increased, whether through high throughput computation or through informatics-based modeling, the challenge of selecting the optimal material for specific design requirements has also arisen. Given the multiple, and often conflicting, design requirements, this selection process is not as trivial as sorting the database for a given property value. We suggest that the materials selection process should minimize selector bias, as well as take data uncertainty into account. For this reason, we discuss and apply decision theory for identifying chemical additions to Ni-base alloys. We demonstrate and compare results for both a computational array of chemistries and standard commercial superalloys. We demonstrate how we can use decision theory to select the best chemical additions for enhancing both property and processing, which would not otherwise be easily identifiable. This work is one of the first examples of introducing the mathematical framework of set theory and decision analysis into the domain of the materials selection process.

  3. Design and synthesis of novel chalcones as potent selective monoamine oxidase-B inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammuda, Arwa; Shalaby, Raed; Rovida, Stefano; Edmondson, Dale E; Binda, Claudia; Khalil, Ashraf

    2016-05-23

    A novel series of substituted chalcones were designed and synthesized to be evaluated as selective human MAO-B inhibitors. A combination of either methylsulfonyl or trifluoromethyl substituents on the aromatic ketone moiety with a benzodioxol ring on the other end of the chalcone scaffold was investigated. The compounds were tested for their inhibitory activities on both human MAO-A and B. All compounds appeared to be selective MAO-B inhibitors with Ki values in the micromolar to submicromolar range. Molecular modeling studies have been performed to get insight into the binding mode of the synthesized compounds to human MAO-B active site.

  4. A strategy for sampling on a sphere applied to 3D selective RF pulse design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, S T; Roos, M S

    1994-12-01

    Conventional constant angular velocity sampling of the surface of a sphere results in a higher sampling density near the two poles relative to the equatorial region. More samples, and hence longer sampling time, are required to achieve a given sampling density in the equatorial region when compared with uniform sampling. This paper presents a simple expression for a continuous sample path through a nearly uniform distribution of points on the surface of a sphere. Sampling of concentric spherical shells in k-space with the new strategy is used to design 3D selective inversion and spin-echo pulses. These new 3D selective pulses have been implemented and verified experimentally.

  5. Development of a novel set of criteria to select methodology for designing product service systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuananh Tran

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes eight groups of twenty nine scoring criteria that can help designers and practitioners to compare and select an appropriate methodology for a certain problem in designing product service system (PSS. PSS has been researched for more than a decade and is now becoming more and more popular in academia as well as industry. Despite that fact, the adoption of PSS is still limited for its potential. One of the main reasons is that designing PSS itself is a challenge. Designers and developers face difficulties in choosing appropriate PSS design methodologies for their projects so that they can design effective PSS offerings. By proposing eight groups of twenty nine scoring criteria, this paper enables a “step by step” process to identify the most appropriate design methodology for a company’s PSS problem. An example is also introduced to illustrate the use of the proposed scoring criteria and provide a clear picture of how different design methodologies can be utilized at their best in terms of application.

  6. Electricity Crisis and Load Management in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajib Kanti Das

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh is a densely populated country. Only a small part of her area is electrified which cover around 18% of total population. The people who are in the electrified area are suffering from severe load shedding. A systematic load management procedure related to demand side may improve the situation is the research problem. The major objectives serve by the research are to analyze contemporary electricity status with a view to drawing inference about demand supply gap and extracting benefits from load management. Data supplied by the Bangladesh Power Development Board, World Bank and outcome of survey are analyzed with some simple statistical tools to test the hypothesis. Analysis discloses that with properly managed uses of electricity with load switch and rotation week-end can improve the concurrent condition of electricity. Moreover, introducing smart distribution system, reducing system loss, shifting load to off-peak, large scale use of prepaid mete, observing energy week and using energy efficient home and office appliance are recommended to improve load through demand side management. Some other recommendations such as introducing alternative energy, public private partnership and using renewable energy development and producing energy locally are made for load management from the supply side.

  7. Social implications of arsenic poisoning in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, M Manzurul; Atkins, Peter J; Dunn, Christine E

    2005-11-01

    Besides its toxicity, groundwater arsenic contamination creates widespread social problems for its victims and their families in Bangladesh. There is, for instance, a tendency to ostracise arsenic-affected people, arsenicosis being thought of as a contagious disease. Within the community, arsenic-affected people are barred from social activities and often face rejection, even by their immediate family members. Women with visible arsenicosis symptoms are unable to get married and some affected housewives are divorced by their husbands. Children with symptoms are not sent to school in an effort to hide the problem. This paper employs mainly qualitative methods to interpret people's understandings about the toxic impact of groundwater arsenic poisoning on their social lives. Arsenic-affected patients in southwest Bangladesh were asked to determine their 'own priorities' in measuring arsenic toxicity on their social activities and to explore their perceptions about their own survival strategies. We found that patients' experiences reveal severe negative social impacts, and a sharp difference of perceptions about arsenic and social issues between arsenicosis patients and unaffected people.

  8. Medical Biotechnology: Problems and Prospects in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaikh Mizan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biotechnology is the knowledge and techniques of developing and using biological systems for deriving special products and services. The age-old technology took a new turn with the advent of recombinant DNA techniques, and boosted by the development of other molecular biological techniques, cell culture techniques and bioinformatics. Medical biotechnology is the major thrust area of biotechnology. It has brought revolutions in medicine – quick methods for diagnosing diseases, generation of new drugs and vaccines, completely novel approach of treatment are only a few to mention. The industrial and financial bulk of the industry mushroomed very rapidly in the last three decades, led by the USA and western advanced nations. Asian countries like China, India, South Korea, Taiwan and Singapore joined late, but advancing forward in a big way. In all the Asian countries governments supported the initiatives of the expert and entrepreneur community, and invested heavily in its development. Bangladesh has got great potential in developing biotechnology and reaping its fruits. However, lack of commitment and patriotism, and too much corruption and irresponsibility in political and bureaucratic establishment are the major hindrance to the development of biotechnology in Bangladesh.

  9. Strategic Intervention of ODL in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Q. M. Bazlur RASHID

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Education has been considered as a priority sector and a great challenge to the Bangladesh Government, with a view to transforming human potential into a productive workforce. The conventional face to face education system is not enough to cope with the need of an ever increasing population, rapid changes in human knowledge and the global context being changed. Education through open and distance learning (ODL has been recognized as an important alternative in the country. Bangladesh Open University (BOU, established in 1992, has been mandated to improve the quality, relevance and efficiency of the education system with a view to eradicating illiteracy, developing human resources and alleviating poverty in the country. This article outlines the services provided by BOU, and explains how BOU utilizes its infrastructure and support services to deliver formal and non-formal programmes in basic and applied sciences, agriculture, technology, health, environment, education, language, teaching education, literature, population and gender issues to create awareness and promote knowledge. The impact of the programmes are reviewed and evaluated, based on feedback studies with target groups, and with particular reference to ODL in agriculture and rural development.

  10. Profile of childhood epilepsy in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banu, Selina H; Khan, Naila Z; Hossain, Mahmuda; Jahan, Anisa; Parveen, Monwara; Rahman, Narsis; Boyd, Stewart H; Neville, Brian

    2003-07-01

    Very little is known about childhood epilepsies in Bangladesh. This study was conducted within a national children's hospital in Dhaka city to provide baseline information on diagnosis and clinical outcomes of 151 children (98 males, 53 females, age range between 2 months to 15 years, median age of 3 years). Participants who presented with recurrent unprovoked seizures were followed up in an epilepsy clinic for at least 1 year. Of presenting families, 68.3% were from middle-income and lower-income groups. A history of perinatal asphyxia and neonatal seizures was present in 46.4% and 41.1% of participants respectively. Generalized, partial, and unclassifiable epilepsy were found in 63.6%, 25.2%, and 11.2% respectively. Severe outcome (malignant) epilepsy syndromes were diagnosed in 14.6%. Symptomatic epilepsy was found in 61%. Poor cognitive development was present in 72.8% and poor adaptive behaviour in 57%. Poor seizure remission occurred in 50.3%. Factors most predictive of poor seizure remission were: multiple types of seizures, poor cognition at presentation, high rates of seizures, associated motor disability, and EEG abnormalities. The study suggests that most children presenting at tertiary hospitals for seizure disorders come late and with associated neurodevelopmental morbidities. Specialized services are needed closer to their homes. The process for establishing early referral and comprehensive management of childhood epilepsies in Bangladesh requires further study.

  11. SELECTED DESIGNING ISSUES OF INNOVATIVE MEANS OF TRANSPORT ADAPTED TO PEOPLE WITH LIMITED PHYSICAL ABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona GRABAREK

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the challenge for transport designers is to ensure more mobility and participation in social life of elderly and disabled people, because of the systematic increase of this group. The selected issues regarding designing of the two new public means of transport construction, completely adjusted to the elderly and disabled people have been presented in this paper. The research work has been carried out within the Eco Mobility Project that is co-financed by the European Regional Development Fund/Operational Programme for Innovative Economy. The innovative solution of eco-car and PRT vehicle have been presented.

  12. Design of Low Power and Efficient Carry Select Adder Using 3-T XOR Gate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagandeep Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In digital systems, mostly adder lies in the critical path that affects the overall performance of the system. To perform fast addition operation at low cost, carry select adder (CSLA is the most suitable among conventional adder structures. In this paper, a 3-T XOR gate is used to design an 8-bit CSLA as XOR gates are the essential blocks in designing higher bit adders. The proposed CSLA has reduced transistor count and has lesser power consumption as well as power-delay product (PDP as compared to regular CSLA and modified CSLA.

  13. Agricultural livelihoods in coastal Bangladesh under climate and environmental change--a model framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lázár, Attila N; Clarke, Derek; Adams, Helen; Akanda, Abdur Razzaque; Szabo, Sylvia; Nicholls, Robert J; Matthews, Zoe; Begum, Dilruba; Saleh, Abul Fazal M; Abedin, Md Anwarul; Payo, Andres; Streatfield, Peter Kim; Hutton, Craig; Mondal, M Shahjahan; Moslehuddin, Abu Zofar Md

    2015-06-01

    pricing due to greater susceptibility to climate vagaries. The livelihood and poverty results highlight the importance of the holistic consideration of the human-nature system and the careful selection of poverty indicators. Although the simulation model at this stage contains the minimum elements required to simulate the complexity of farmer livelihood interactions in coastal Bangladesh, the crop and socio-economic findings compare well with expected behaviours. The presented integrated model is the first step to develop a holistic, transferable analytic method and tool for coastal Bangladesh.

  14. Design and synthesis of zinc-selective chelators for extracellular applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Eri; Kikuchi, Kazuya; Urano, Yasuteru; Kojima, Hirotatsu; Odani, Akira; Nagano, Tetsuo

    2005-01-26

    Zinc (Zn2+) is found in every cell in human bodies. A few millimolar of free Zn2+ exists in the vesicles of presynaptic neurons in the mammalian brain and is released by synaptic activity or depolarization, modulating the function of certain ion channels and receptors. Although various chemical tools for measuring Zn2+ in biological samples, such as fluorescent probes for Zn2+, have been developed, Zn2+-selective chelators have room to be improved. Research on Zn2+ signals in the brain has traditionally employed several chelators, which have several shortcomings for biological applications. Here we report the design, synthesis, and properties of new membrane-impermeable chelators selective for Zn2+ and describe biological applications in hippocampal slices. As a result, our newly designed chelator revealed the first biological implication that presynaptic Zn2+ can be released in the CA1 region. This confirms the utility of these new chelatotrs as extracellular Zn2+ chelators for biological applications.

  15. Design of Skin Penetration Enhancers Using Replacement Methods for the Selection of the Molecular Descriptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beshoy Abdelmalek

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Transdermal delivery of certain drugs is challenging because of skin barrier resistance. This study focuses on the implementation of feature-selection algorithms to design chemical penetration enhancers. A database, consisting of 145 polar and nonpolar chemicals, was chosen for the investigation. Replacement, enhanced replacement and stepwise algorithms were applied to identify relevant structural properties of these compounds. The descriptors were calculated using Molecular Modeling Pro™ Plus. Based on the coefficient of determination, the replacement methods outperformed the stepwise approach in selecting the features that best correlated with the flux enhancement ratio. An artificial neural network model was built to map a subset of descriptors from sixty-one nonpolar enhancers onto the output vector. The R2 value improved from 0.68, for a linear model, to 0.74, which shows that the improved framework might be effective in the design of compounds with user-defined properties.

  16. Amino Acid Derivatives as New Zinc Binding Groups for the Design of Selective Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariateresa Giustiniano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs are important medicinal targets for conditions ranging from rheumatoid arthritis to cardiomyopathy, periodontal disease, liver cirrhosis, multiple sclerosis, and cancer invasion and metastasis, where they showed to have a dual role, inhibiting or promoting important processes involved in the pathology. MMPs contain a zinc (II ion in the protein active site. Small-molecule inhibitors of these metalloproteins are designed to bind directly to the active site metal ions. In an effort to devise new approaches to selective inhibitors, in this paper, we describe the synthesis and preliminary biological evaluation of amino acid derivatives as new zinc binding groups (ZBGs. The incorporation of selected metal-binding functions in more complex biphenyl sulfonamide moieties allowed the identification of one compound able to interact selectively with different MMP enzymatic isoforms.

  17. Design of an Optical system for the In Situ Process Monitoring of Selective Laser Melting (SLM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, Philipp; Schleifenbaum, Henrich; Meiners, Wilhelm; Wissenbach, Konrad; Hinke, Christian; Bültmann, Jan

    Selective Laser Melting (SLM) is an Additive Manufacturing technology that enables the production of complex shaped individual parts with series identical mechanical properties. Areas of improvement are up to now quality and reproducibility of parts made by SLM due to different kinds of errors. Therefore the integration of a monitoring and control module into a SLM-machine is aspired. The design of such an optical system capable of monitoring high scanning velocities and melt pool dynamics is introduced as a first step.

  18. Residue-based Coordinated Selection and Parameter Design of Multiple Power System Stabilizers (PSSs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Chi; Hu, Weihao; Fang, Jiakun

    2013-01-01

    data from time domain simulations. Then a coordinated approach for multiple PSS selection and parameter design based on residue method is proposed and realized in MATLAB m-files. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is adopted in the coordination process. The IEEE 39-bus New England system model...... as the test system is built in DIgSIELNT PowerFactory 14.0, in which the proposed coordination method is validated by time domain simulations and modal analysis....

  19. Selective G-Quadruplex DNA Recognition by a New Class of Designed Cyanines

    OpenAIRE

    Germann, Markus W.; David Wilson, W.; Henary, Maged M.; Huynh, Hang T.; Stroeva, Ekaterina M.; Dost, Tyler L.; Rupesh Nanjunda; Leah Mickelson; Owens, Eric A.

    2013-01-01

    A variety of cyanines provide versatile and sensitive agents acting as DNA stains and sensors and have been structurally modified to bind in the DNA minor groove in a sequence dependent manner. Similarly, we are developing a new set of cyanines that have been designed to achieve highly selective binding to DNA G-quadruplexes with much weaker binding to DNA duplexes. A systematic set of structurally analogous trimethine cyanines has been synthesized and evaluated for quadruplex targeting. The ...

  20. Design and Implementation of a Time Source Selecting and Monitoring System for the Telephone Speaking Clock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    TL) Local Office Data Base TCP/IP IRIG -B IRIG -B voice NTPIRIG-B 50 km Figure 1. Architecture of the “117...time signal sources have been designed for the TSMS. They are the external IRIG -B Time, the external NTP Time, and the internal System Time. Generally...the TSMS chooses the IRIG -B Time as its time signal source. If the above source is in a bad condition, the system will switch to select the NTP

  1. Map Service Showing Geologic and Geophysical Data of Bangladesh

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map service includes geology, major faults, geologic provinces, and political boundaries in Bangladesh. This compilation is part of an interim product of the...

  2. Aeromagnetic Anomaly Map of Bangladesh (mag8bg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage includes arcs and arc labels that hold the Aeromagnetic anomaly value for contours and type contours of the original map of Bangladesh with the same...

  3. History, problems, and prospects of Islamic insurance (Takaful) in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Issa; Rahman, Noor Naemah Binti Abdul; Yusoff, Mohd Yakub Zulkifli Bin Mohd; Nor, Mohd Roslan Bin Mohd

    2016-01-01

    This study explains the history, current problems, and future possibilities of Islamic insurance (takaful) in Bangladesh. To articulate these issues, the researcher has adopted the qualitative method, and data has been collected through secondary sources i.e. articles, books, and online resources. The study reveals that Islamic insurance in Bangladesh is regulated by the Insurance Act 2010 which is contradictory with Islamic insurance causing numerous problems for Islamic insurance. This study also points out that Islamic insurance is a fast growing industry with huge prospects in Bangladesh. The government should introduce separate regulations for both Islamic and conventional insurance. The research concludes with suggestions for the further development of Islamic insurance in Bangladesh.

  4. Bouguer Gravity Anomaly Map of Bangladesh (grav8bg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage includes arcs and arc labels that hold the Bouguer Gravity anomaly value for contours and type contours of the original map of Bangladesh with the same...

  5. Weather Impact on Nursery Diseases of Mango Saplings in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. H. Khan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out during the period of July 2010 to April 2012 to find out the effect of weather prevalence of seedling diseases ofmango in different areas of Bangladesh. The locations were Mymensingh Dinajpur, Rajshahi and Khagrachari. Altogether 12 nurseries in fourdistricts of Bangladesh were surveyed and mango seedling diseases were recorded. Incidence and severity of important seedling diseases ofhas been studied under different geographical locations (viz. Mymensingh, Dinajpur, Rajshahi and Khagrachari of Bangladesh. The effects oftemperature, rainfall, and relative humidity on the incidence and severity of noted diseases were observed the aforesaid locations of Bangladesh.The studied diseases were anthracnose, leaf spot, red rust, powdery mildew, scab, bacterial leaf blight and malformation of mango seedlings.The graphs of weather parameters and incidence and severity of diseases were performed to determine the relationship between differentcomponents of climatic factor and seedling diseases of mango.

  6. Selection of industrial robot using axiomatic design principles in fuzzy environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anant V. Khandekar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, industrial robots are being pervasively used in almost every manufacturing organization for improving operational quality, safety and productivity. Depending on the nature of task to be performed, many varieties of robots are now commercially available from different manufacturers. For efficiently carrying out the designed task, a number of functional attributes of an industrial robot are also simultaneously responsible. Therefore, selection of an appropriate and competitive robot alternative becomes a complicated and equally challenging task for the decision makers. A quite strong model of multi-criteria decision-making is needed to deal with this problem of industrial robot evaluation and selection. In this paper, the applicability of fuzzy axiomatic design (FAD principles is explored for solving a real time robot selection problem. Seven candidate robots which are commercially available for light assembly operations are evaluated with respect to a mix of nine criteria. All these criteria are either qualitative in nature or expressed as a range of numerical values. Suitability rankings of all the feasible alternatives are derived using FAD methodology, thus establishing it as a systematic and dependable tool for solving industrial robot selection problems in fuzzy environment.

  7. Corporate social responsibility initiatives addressing social exclusion in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Wendy J

    2009-08-01

    The private sector is often seen as a driver of exclusionary processes rather than a partner in improving the health and welfare of socially-excluded populations. However, private-sector initiatives and partnerships- collectively labelled corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives-may be able to positively impact social status, earning potential, and access to services and resources for socially-excluded populations. This paper presents case studies of CSR projects in Bangladesh that are designed to reduce social exclusion among marginalized populations and explores whether CSR initiatives can increase economic and social capabilities to reduce exclusion. The examples provide snapshots of projects that (a) increase job-skills and employment opportunities for women, disabled women, and rehabilitated drug-users and (b) provide healthcare services to female workers and their communities. The CSR case studies cover a limited number of people but characteristics and practices replicable and scaleable across different industries, countries, and populations are identified. Common success factors from the case studies form the basis for recommendations to design and implement more CSR initiatives targeting socially-excluded groups. The analysis found that CSR has potential for positive and lasting impact on developing countries, especifically on socially-excluded populations. However, there is a need for additional monitoring and critical evaluation.

  8. Tourism in Bangladesh: Present Status and Future Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjay Chandra Roy; Mallika Roy

    2015-01-01

    Bangladesh is full of natural beauty. Rivers, coasts and beaches, archaeological sites, religious places, hills, forests, waterfalls, tea gardens surround it. The Sundarban, Historic Mosque in city of Bagerhat, Ruins of the Buddihist Vihara at Paharpur are the three world heritage sites in Bangladesh among 1007. To observe the beauty of nature, huge amount of domestic and foreign tourists visit the country and its tourist attraction sites. In 2012, around six-lakh (6 hundred thousand) tourist...

  9. Female labour force participation in Bangladesh : trends, drivers and barriers

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Rushidan I; Islam, Rizwanul

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to the stylized implications of the U-shaped hypothesis, there has been an increase in female labour force participation in Bangladesh, alongside the acceleration in economic growth since the 1990s. In this regard, Bangladesh has witnessed a substantial increase in female employment in labour- intensive export-oriented industries in urban areas. The study also finds that the rapid expansion of micro-finance in rural areas has supported women’s employment. However, the economy in g...

  10. Key Performance Characteristics of Organic Shrimp Aquaculture in Southwest Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Reinhard Vogl; Brojo Gopal Paul

    2012-01-01

    In Bangladesh, black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon; Fabricius, 1798) aquaculture has come to be one of the most important sectors in both the rural and national economies. Likewise, organic shrimp aquaculture has emerged as an alternative farming enterprise for farmers especially in the southwestern districts of Bangladesh. The present study aims to show key performance characteristics of organic shrimp farmers and farming in a prototypical shrimp farming area in Banglade...

  11. Causality relationship between electricity consumption and GDP in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mozumder, Pallab [Environmental Institute, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)]. E-mail: pallab@tei.umass.edu; Marathe, Achla [Virginia Bioinformatics Institute, Virginia Tech, 1880 Pratt Drive, Bldg XV, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States)]. E-mail: amarathe@vt.edu

    2007-01-15

    In this paper, we examine the causal relationship between the per capita electricity consumption and the per capita GDP for Bangladesh using cointegration and vector error correction model. Our results show that there is unidirectional causality from per capita GDP to per capita electricity consumption. However, the per capita electricity consumption does not cause per capita GDP in case of Bangladesh. The finding has significant implications from the point of view of energy conservation, emission reduction and economic development.

  12. Sample Design and Cohort Selection in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaVange, Lisa M.; Kalsbeek, William; Sorlie, Paul D.; Avilés-Santa, Larissa M.; Kaplan, Robert C.; Barnhart, Janice; Liu, Kiang; Giachello, Aida; Lee, David J.; Ryan, John; Criqui, Michael H.; Elder, John P.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE The Hispanic Community Health Study (HCHS)/Study of Latinos (SOL) is a multi-center, community based cohort study of Hispanic/Latino adults in the United States. A diverse participant sample is required that is both representative of the target population and likely to remain engaged throughout follow-up. The choice of sample design, its rationale, and benefits and challenges of design decisions are described in this paper. METHODS The study design calls for recruitment and follow-up of a cohort of 16,000 Hispanics/Latinos aged 18-74 years, with 62.5% (10,000) over 44 years of age and adequate subgroup sample sizes to support inference by Hispanic/Latino background. Participants are recruited in community areas surrounding four field centers in the Bronx, Chicago, Miami, and San Diego. A two-stage area probability sample of households is selected with stratification and over-sampling incorporated at each stage to provide a broadly diverse sample, offer efficiencies in field operations, and ensure that the target age distribution is obtained. CONCLUSIONS Embedding probability sampling within this traditional, multi-site cohort study design enables competing research objectives to be met. However, the use of probability sampling requires developing solutions to some unique challenges in both sample selection and recruitment, as described here. PMID:20609344

  13. Antibiotic-free selection in E. coli: new considerations for optimal design and improved production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peubez Isabelle

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing regulatory requirements to which biological agents are subjected will have a great impact in the field of industrial protein expression and production. There is an expectation that in a near future, there may be "zero tolerance" towards antibiotic-based selection and production systems. Besides the antibiotic itself, the antibiotic resistance gene is an important consideration. The complete absence of antibiotic-resistance gene being the only way to ensure that there is no propagation in the environment or transfer of resistance to pathogenic strains. Results In a first step, we have designed a series of vectors, containing a stabilization element allowing a complete elimination of antibiotics during fermentation. Vectors were further improved in order to include alternative selection means such as the well known poison/antidote stabilization system. Eventually we propose an elegant positive pressure of selection ensuring the elimination of the antibiotic-resistance gene through homologous recombination. In addition, we have shown that the presence of an antibiotic resistance gene can indirectly reduce the amount of expressed protein, since even in absence of selection pressure the gene would be transcribed and account for an additional stress for the host during the fermentation process. Conclusions We propose a general strategy combining plasmid stabilization and antibiotic-free selection. The proposed host/vector system, completely devoid of antibiotic resistance gene at the end of construction, has the additional advantage of improving recombinant protein expression and/or plasmid recovery.

  14. Good governance and political culture: A case study of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Serajul Islam

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In a democratic system it is essential to have a competitive, and a tolerant party system, but Bangladesh has experienced an intolerant and a confrontational party system that has created a deadlock and brought uncertainty to the whole country. Since 1990, except 2014, Bangladesh has witnessed four systematic peaceful free elections, one each--in 1991, 1996, 2001, and 2008. On January 5, 2014, however, a controversial election took place in which major opposition political parties did not participate except the ruling alliance parties. The two dominant parties—the Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP and the Awami League (AL—each won two previous free and fair elections, with the BNP winning in1991, and a BNP-led 4-party coalition in 2001, and the AL in 1996, and an AL-led 14 party alliance in 2008. However, from 2014 Bangladesh is heading towards an authoritarian system. All these are happening due to the lack of good governance. This article intends to emphasize that the political culture emanating from the party politics is retarding good governance in Bangladesh. This article argues that the cultural traits developed in the last four decades in various dimensions,, particularly in more recent years, have worked as an “earth-worm” in the fabrics of democracy in Bangladesh preventing ‘good governance’.

  15. Molecular dating of HIV-1 subtype C from Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontell, Irene; Sarker, Md Safiullah; Rahman, Mustafizur; Afrad, Mokibul Hassan; Sönnerborg, Anders; Azim, Tasnim

    2013-01-01

    Bangladesh has an overall low HIV prevalence of Bangladesh and related strains from other countries, and thereby clarify when and from where subtype C was introduced in the country and how it subsequently spread within Bangladesh. The phylogenetic analysis included 118 Bangladeshi gag sequences and 128 sequences from other countries and was performed using the BEAST package. Our analysis revealed that the vast majority of Bangladeshi sequences (97/118, 82%) fall into a large regional cluster of samples from Bangladesh, India, China and Myanmar, which dates back to the early 1960's. Following its establishment in the region, this strain has entered Bangladesh multiple times from around 1975 and onwards, but extensive in-country transmission could only be detected among drug users and not through sexual transmission. In addition, there have been multiple (at least ten) introductions of subtype C to Bangladesh from outside this region, but no extensive spread could be detected for any of these. Since many HIV-infections remain undetected while asymptomatic, the true extent of the transmission of each strain remains unknown, especially among hard to reach groups such as clients of sex workers and returning migrants with families.

  16. MEASURING THE CUSTOMER SATISFACTION OF ISLAMIC BANKING SECTOR IN BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossain Shahid SHOHROWARDHY

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The banking sector has been playing a significant role in achieving the economic growth of Bangladesh, where contribution of Islamic Banking Sector is remarkable. Islamic Banking Sector shows a substantial growth position in Bangladesh. Customer satisfaction is the most significant affecting phenomenon in determining the banking growth. Thus, this study attempts to measure the existing level of customer satisfaction of Islamic Banks in Bangladesh, using the Structural Equation Model (SEM. This study uses the 22 dimensions of customer satisfaction which used in the earlier studies in different countries for measuring the customer satisfaction of Islamic Banking Sector. A total of 385 samples have been taken from six full pledged Islamic Banks in Bangladesh. It reveals form the study that Human Resources and Systemization Service Delivery is the strongest indicator of customer satisfaction of Islamic Banking Sector in Bangladesh followed by Core Product, Service Capability and Social Responsibility. The findings therefore, may be helpful for policy-makers of banking authorities who have been making serious endeavor to sustain the growth of Islamic Banking Sector in Bangladesh.

  17. A note on “An alternative multiple attribute decision making methodology for solving optimal facility layout design selection problems”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Venkata Rao

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A paper published by Maniya and Bhatt (2011 (An alternative multiple attribute decision making methodology for solving optimal facility layout design selection problems, Computers & Industrial Engineering, 61, 542-549 proposed an alternative multiple attribute decision making method named as “Preference Selection Index (PSI method” for selection of an optimal facility layout design. The authors had claimed that the method was logical and more appropriate and the method gives directly the optimal solution without assigning the relative importance between the facility layout design selection attributes. This note discusses the mathematical validity and the shortcomings of the PSI method.

  18. Past and future flooding in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele-Eich, Insa; Hopson, Thomas; Simmer, Clemens; Simon, Thorsten

    2016-04-01

    Currently, an average of about 20 % of the land surface in Bangladesh is flooded each year, affecting one of the most densely populated regions in the world. We aim to understand the processes currently determining flooding in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) basin, in particular the role of precipitation and sea-level rise, as well as to assess how climate change might impact flood characteristics in the future. Water level and discharge data were provided by the Bangladesh Water Development Board on a daily basis for a period of 1909-2009. Monthly maps based on daily sea level anomalies from the Data Unification Altimeter Combination System DUACS are available on a 0.25° by 0.25° grid for the time period 1993-2014. Ensemble model output for upper catchment precipitation and annual mean thermosteric sea-level rise is taken from historical and RCP scenario runs conducted with the CCSM4. We first analyzed daily water levels of the past 100 years in order to detect potential shifts in extremes. The available observations are then used to set up a generalized linear model to detect how precipitation influences flooding in the GBM basin. This model can then be used to give a prognosis on changes in future flooding. Our analysis suggests that water levels have indeed changed over the course of the past century. While the magnitude and duration of average flood events decreased, the frequency of extreme flood events has increased. Low water levels have also changed, with a significant decrease in the annual minimum water level most noticeable when we compare the time periods 1909-1939 and 1979-2009. For the future, first results confirm the decrease in return periods of strong flood events found in previous studies. The impact of climate change on flooding will also be compared to the impact of man-made structures such as Farakka barrage, built across the Ganges on the border between India and Bangladesh and operating since 1975. This is of particular interest as

  19. Accounts of severe acute obstetric complications in Rural Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikder Shegufta S

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As maternal deaths have decreased worldwide, increasing attention has been placed on the study of severe obstetric complications, such as hemorrhage, eclampsia, and obstructed labor, to identify where improvements can be made in maternal health. Though access to medical care is considered to be life-saving during obstetric emergencies, data on the factors associated with health care decision-making during obstetric emergencies are lacking. We aim to describe the health care decision-making process during severe acute obstetric complications among women and their families in rural Bangladesh. Methods Using the pregnancy surveillance infrastructure from a large community trial in northwest rural Bangladesh, we nested a qualitative study to document barriers to timely receipt of medical care for severe obstetric complications. We conducted 40 semi-structured, in-depth interviews with women reporting severe acute obstetric complications and purposively selected for conditions representing the top five most common obstetric complications. The interviews were transcribed and coded to highlight common themes and to develop an overall conceptual model. Results Women attributed their life-threatening experiences to societal and socioeconomic factors that led to delays in seeking timely medical care by decision makers, usually husbands or other male relatives. Despite the dominance of male relatives and husbands in the decision-making process, women who underwent induced abortions made their own decisions about their health care and relied on female relatives for advice. The study shows that non-certified providers such as village doctors and untrained birth attendants were the first-line providers for women in all categories of severe complications. Coordination of transportation and finances was often arranged through mobile phones, and referrals were likely to be provided by village doctors. Conclusions Strategies to increase timely

  20. Changing Climate; Bangladesh Facing the Challenge of Severe Flood Problems; A Comparison of Flood Management between Bangladesh and the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    BISWAS, KALLOL KUMAR

    2010-01-01

    Both Bangladesh and the Netherlands are the most flood prone countries in two continents Asia and Europe. Bangladesh is known to be highly vulnerable to floods. Frequent floods have put enormous constraints on its development potential. Unfortunately, the frequency of high intensity floods is increasing every year. So far the country has struggled to put a sizeable infrastructure in place to prevent flooding in many parts of the country with limited success. Where, the Netherlands has develop...

  1. Socio Demographic Determinants of Delivery Practice in Rural Women of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meherunnessa Begum

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Every year, world wide, 200 million women become pregnant. The development of urban areas allowed women to receive more care and treatment. However, in rural areas such measures are not available to every woman. Data on delivery practice of rural woman may help the social and public health planners and decision makers to minimize and prevent maternal mortality and morbidity ensuring safe motherhood.Objective: The aim of the study was to observe the delivery practice of rural women of Bangladesh.Materials and method: A cross-sectional study was conducted and data were collected from Dhamrai upazila, Dhaka, Bangladesh in April 2008. Total 159 women of reproductive age group at least having one child were selected purposively to elicit information on various demographic, socioeconomic, cultural and selected programmatic variables including maternal health care and delivery practices.Results: Among the respondents about 55% were literate. Majority (80% of the respondents delivered at home and most of the them (71% felt that home delivery was comfortable where as about 29% of the respondents were compelled to deliver at home due to family decision and financial constraint. Among the deliveries about 82% occurred normally and 18.2% were by cesarean section. A considerable percentage of deliveries (49% were attended by traditional birth attendants. Blade was used for cutting umbilical cord in majority of the cases (74% who delivered at home. Most of the respondents (90% took ante natal check up and about 74% were vaccinated by tetanus toxoid.Conclusion: The results of the study suggest that a lot of work is still to do for the policy makers and health planners to target, plan, develop and deliver maternal health services to the rural women of Bangladesh.

  2. Susceptibility of microorganism to selected medicinal plants in Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S M Masud Rana; Md Mustahsan Billah; Mohammad Salim Hossain; A K M Saifuddin; S K M Azizul Islam; Sujan Banik; Zannatul Naim; Golam Sarwar Raju

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To analyze in-vitro antimicrobial activities of some ethno-pharmacologically significant medicinal plants (methanol extract) against the pathogenic microorganisms (Escherichiacoli, Salmonella spp., Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans).Methods:The disc diffusion method was applied for antibacterial test and the poisoned food technique was applied for antifungal test.Results:The methanol extract of Terminalia chebula (bark), Phyllanthus acidus (fruits), Sarcochlamys pulcherrima (leaves) and Abelmoschus esculentus (fruits) had significant in vitro antibacterial activity angainst the entire test samples in comparison to standard drug ciprofloxacin. Most of the plant extracts showed low activity against Gram negative bacteria while potential activity against Gram positive bacteria. The antifungal activities of methanol extracts of these plants and standard drug griseofulvin were determined against two pathogenic fungi, andPolygonum lapathifolium (leaves) and Cinnamomum tamala (leaves) showed maximum activity, while Erioglossum rubiginosum (leaves) showed no antifungal activity.Conclusions:Further chemical and pharmacological investigations are required to identify and isolate chemical constituents responsible for these potential bioactivities and thus to determine their full spectrum of efficacy.

  3. Susceptibility of microorganism to selected medicinal plants in Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.M.Masud; Rana; Md.Mustahsan; Billah; Mohammad; Salim; Hossain; A.K.M.Saifuddin; S.K.M.Azizul; Islam; Sujan; Banik; Zannatul; Nairn; Golam; Sarwar; Raju

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To analyze in-vitro antimicrobial activities of some ethno-pharmacologically significant medicinal plants(methanol extract) against the pathogenic microorganisms(Escherichia coli,Salmonella spp..Bacillus cereus.Staphylococcus aureus.Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans).Methods:The disc diffusion method was applied for antibacterial test and the poisoned food technique was applied for antifungal test.Results:The methanol extract of Terminalia chebula(bark),Fhyllanthus acidus(fruits).Sarcochlamys pulcherrima(leaves) and Abelmoschus esculcntus(fruits) had significant in vitro antibacterial activity angainst the entire test samples in comparison to standard drug ciprofloxacin.Most of the plant extracts showed low activity against Gram negative bacteria while potential activity against Gram positive bacteria.The antifungal activities of methanol extracts of these plants and standard drug griseofulvin were determined against two pathogenicfungi,and Polygonum Iapathifolium(leaves) and Cinnamomum tamala(leaves) showed maximum activity,while Erioglossum rubiginosum(leaves) showed no antifungal activity.Conclusions:Further chemical and pharmacological investigations are required to identify and isolate chemical constituents responsible for these potential bioactivities and thus to determine their full spectrum of efficacy.

  4. Anthrax Outbreaks in Bangladesh, 2009–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Apurba; Khan, Salah Uddin; Hasnat, Mohammed Abul; Parveen, Shahana; Islam, M. Saiful; Mikolon, Andrea; Chakraborty, Ranjit Kumar; Ahmed, Be-Nazir; Ara, Khorsed; Haider, Najmul; Zaki, Sherif R.; Hoffmaster, Alex R.; Rahman, Mahmudur; Luby, Stephen P.; Hossain, M. Jahangir

    2012-01-01

    During August 2009–October 2010, a multidisciplinary team investigated 14 outbreaks of animal and human anthrax in Bangladesh to identify the etiology, pathway of transmission, and social, behavioral, and cultural factors that led to these outbreaks. The team identified 140 animal cases of anthrax and 273 human cases of cutaneous anthrax. Ninety one percent of persons in whom cutaneous anthrax developed had history of butchering sick animals, handling raw meat, contact with animal skin, or were present at slaughtering sites. Each year, Bacillus anthracis of identical genotypes were isolated from animal and human cases. Inadequate livestock vaccination coverage, lack of awareness of the risk of anthrax transmission from animal to humans, social norms and poverty contributed to these outbreaks. Addressing these challenges and adopting a joint animal and human health approach could contribute to detecting and preventing such outbreaks in the future. PMID:22492157

  5. Radon measurements in some areas in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamid Khan, M.A. [Physics Division, Atomic Energy Centre, Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box 164, Dhaka-1000 (Bangladesh)], E-mail: hamidkhan1950@yahoo.com; Chowdhury, M.S. [Physics Department, Dhaka University, Dhaka-1000 (Bangladesh)

    2008-08-15

    A survey of radon level measurements using CR-39 has been carried out in some of urban and rural residential areas and one gas explosion area in Bangladesh. The lowest level of radon concentration was found to be 49Bqm{sup -3} inside a hospital in Cox's Bazar district and the highest level was found to be 835Bqm{sup -3} inside a mud-made old residential house in Sylhet city. It was observed that old residential houses were found to have higher levels of radon concentrations compared to newly built houses. The radon level at the gas explosion area at Magurchara in Moulvibazar district was found to be 408{+-}98Bqm{sup -3}.

  6. Real-time 2D spatially selective MRI experiments: Comparative analysis of optimal control design methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maximov, Ivan I; Vinding, Mads S; Tse, Desmond H Y; Nielsen, Niels Chr; Shah, N Jon

    2015-05-01

    There is an increasing need for development of advanced radio-frequency (RF) pulse techniques in modern magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems driven by recent advancements in ultra-high magnetic field systems, new parallel transmit/receive coil designs, and accessible powerful computational facilities. 2D spatially selective RF pulses are an example of advanced pulses that have many applications of clinical relevance, e.g., reduced field of view imaging, and MR spectroscopy. The 2D spatially selective RF pulses are mostly generated and optimised with numerical methods that can handle vast controls and multiple constraints. With this study we aim at demonstrating that numerical, optimal control (OC) algorithms are efficient for the design of 2D spatially selective MRI experiments, when robustness towards e.g. field inhomogeneity is in focus. We have chosen three popular OC algorithms; two which are gradient-based, concurrent methods using first- and second-order derivatives, respectively; and a third that belongs to the sequential, monotonically convergent family. We used two experimental models: a water phantom, and an in vivo human head. Taking into consideration the challenging experimental setup, our analysis suggests the use of the sequential, monotonic approach and the second-order gradient-based approach as computational speed, experimental robustness, and image quality is key. All algorithms used in this work were implemented in the MATLAB environment and are freely available to the MRI community.

  7. Design and synthesis of benzodiazepine analogs as isoform-selective human lysine deacetylase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, D Rajasekhar; Ballante, Flavio; Zhou, Nancy J; Marshall, Garland R

    2017-02-15

    A comprehensive investigation was performed to identify new benzodiazepine (BZD) derivatives as potent and selective human lysine deacetylase inhibitors (hKDACis). A total of 108 BZD compounds were designed, synthesized and from that 104 compounds were biologically evaluated against human lysine deacetylases (hKDACs) 1, 3 and 8 (class I) and 6 (class IIb). The most active compounds showed mid-nanomolar potencies against hKDACs 1, 3 and 6 and micromolar activity against hKDAC8, while a promising compound (6q) showed selectivity towards hKDAC3 among the different enzyme isoforms. An hKDAC6 homology model, refined by molecular dynamics simulation was generated, and molecular docking studies performed to rationalize the dominant ligand-residue interactions as well as to define structure-activity-relationships. Experimental results confirmed the usefulness of the benzodiazepine moiety as capping group when pursuing hKDAC isoform-selectivity inhibition, suggesting its continued use when designing new hKDACis.

  8. Some aspects of design and analysis of selection programmes in aquaculture species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Ponzoni, R W

    2015-04-01

    The aquaculture industry is one of the fastest growing animal food-producing sectors in the world, largely driven by an increasing demand for high-quality protein from developing countries. However, the majority of cultured production of aquatic species currently relies heavily on the collection of wild animals for use as broodstock. Aquatic animal domestication and genetic selection programmes in controlled environments are essential to enable the provision of a continued supply of high-quality food for an ever-expanding world population. Professor John James' significant contributions to the genetic improvement of conventional livestock species are well known. By contrast, his contributions to the aquaculture industry are less well known, especially in the areas of design and conduct of selective breeding programmes in aquatic animal species. In this study, we focus on a few aspects of aquaculture genetics to which Professor James made substantial contributions. His outstanding ability to comprehend, clarify and simplify complex problems with easy-to-understand mathematical derivations is clearly demonstrated in the areas of large-scale strain comparisons, genotype-by-environment interactions (GxE), transformations and interpretation of selection response, as well as in the treatment of economic aspects of designing breeding programmes.

  9. Development of Abrasive Selection Model/Chart for Palm Frond Broom Peeling Machine Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nwankwojike

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A model for predicting the friction required by a palm frond broom peeling machine for effective peeling of palm leaf to broom bristle and a chart for selecting the best abrasive material for this machine’s peeling operation were developed in this study using mechanistic modeling method. The model quantified the relationship between the coefficient of friction and other operational parameters of this machine while the abrasives selection chart constitutes a plot of this measured friction parameter against the abrasive materials used in palm frond broom peeling machine fabrication. The values of the coefficient of friction of palm leaf on different abrasive materials used in this plot were determined from experimental study of the effect of moisture content level of naturally withered palm leaves (uninfluenced by external forces on their coefficient of friction with the abrasives. Results revealed the average moisture content of palm leaf this machine can peel effectively as 6.96% and also that the roughest among the abrasives that approximate the coefficient of friction for a specific design of this peeling machine gives maximum peeling efficiency. Thus, the roughest among the abrasive materials that approximate the coefficient of friction for a specific design of this machine should be selected and used for its fabrication and operation.

  10. Selective G-Quadruplex DNA Recognition by a New Class of Designed Cyanines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus W. Germann

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A variety of cyanines provide versatile and sensitive agents acting as DNA stains and sensors and have been structurally modified to bind in the DNA minor groove in a sequence dependent manner. Similarly, we are developing a new set of cyanines that have been designed to achieve highly selective binding to DNA G-quadruplexes with much weaker binding to DNA duplexes. A systematic set of structurally analogous trimethine cyanines has been synthesized and evaluated for quadruplex targeting. The results reveal that elevated quadruplex binding and specificity are highly sensitive to the polymethine chain length, heterocyclic structure and intrinsic charge of the compound. Biophysical experiments show that the compounds display significant selectivity for quadruplex binding with a higher preference for parallel stranded quadruplexes, such as cMYC. NMR studies revealed the primary binding through an end-stacking mode and SPR studies showed the strongest compounds have primary KD values below 100 nM that are nearly 100-fold weaker for duplexes. The high selectivity of these newly designed trimethine cyanines for quadruplexes as well as their ability to discriminate between different quadruplexes are extremely promising features to develop them as novel probes for targeting quadruplexes in vivo.

  11. Selective G-quadruplex DNA recognition by a new class of designed cyanines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanjunda, Rupesh; Owens, Eric A; Mickelson, Leah; Dost, Tyler L; Stroeva, Ekaterina M; Huynh, Hang T; Germann, Markus W; Henary, Maged M; Wilson, W David

    2013-11-04

    A variety of cyanines provide versatile and sensitive agents acting as DNA stains and sensors and have been structurally modified to bind in the DNA minor groove in a sequence dependent manner. Similarly, we are developing a new set of cyanines that have been designed to achieve highly selective binding to DNA G-quadruplexes with much weaker binding to DNA duplexes. A systematic set of structurally analogous trimethine cyanines has been synthesized and evaluated for quadruplex targeting. The results reveal that elevated quadruplex binding and specificity are highly sensitive to the polymethine chain length, heterocyclic structure and intrinsic charge of the compound. Biophysical experiments show that the compounds display significant selectivity for quadruplex binding with a higher preference for parallel stranded quadruplexes, such as cMYC. NMR studies revealed the primary binding through an end-stacking mode and SPR studies showed the strongest compounds have primary KD values below 100 nM that are nearly 100-fold weaker for duplexes. The high selectivity of these newly designed trimethine cyanines for quadruplexes as well as their ability to discriminate between different quadruplexes are extremely promising features to develop them as novel probes for targeting quadruplexes in vivo.

  12. Photocatalysis deconstructed: design of a new selective catalyst for artificial photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vivek; Beltran, Ignacio J Castellanos; Ribot, Josep Casamada; Nagpal, Prashant

    2014-02-12

    A rapid increase in anthropogenic emission of greenhouse gases, mainly carbon dioxide, has been a growing cause for concern. While photocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) into solar fuels can provide a solution, lack of insight into energetic pathways governing photocatalysis has impeded study. Here, we utilize measurements of electronic density of states (DOS), using scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/STS), to identify energy levels responsible for photocatalytic reduction of CO2-water in an artificial photosynthetic process. We introduce desired states in titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles, using metal dopants or semiconductor nanocrystals, and the designed catalysts were used for selective reduction of CO2 into hydrocarbons, alcohols, and aldehydes. Using a simple model, we provide insights into the photophysics governing this multielectron reduction and design a new composite photocatalyst based on overlapping energy states of TiO2 and copper indium sulfide (CIS) nanocrystals. These nanoparticles demonstrate the highest selectivity for ethane (>70%) and a higher efficiency of converting ultraviolet radiation into fuels (4.3%) using concentrated sunlight (>4 Sun illumination), compared with platinum-doped TiO2 nanoparticles (2.1%), and utilize hot electrons to tune the solar fuel from alkanes to aldehydes. These results can have important implications for the development of new inexpensive photocatalysts with tuned activity and selectivity.

  13. Principles for selecting earthquake motions in engineering design of large dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krinitzsky, E.L.; Marcuson, William F.

    1983-01-01

    This report gives a synopsis of the various tools and techniques used in selecting earthquake ground motion parameters for large dams. It presents 18 charts giving newly developed relations for acceleration, velocity, and duration versus site earthquake intensity for near- and far-field hard and soft sites and earthquakes having magnitudes above and below 7. The material for this report is based on procedures developed at the Waterways Experiment Station. Although these procedures are suggested primarily for large dams, they may also be applicable for other facilities. Because no standard procedure exists for selecting earthquake motions in engineering design of large dams, a number of precautions are presented to guide users. The selection of earthquake motions is dependent on which one of two types of engineering analyses are performed. A pseudostatic analysis uses a coefficient usually obtained from an appropriate contour map; whereas, a dynamic analysis uses either accelerograms assigned to a site or specified respunse spectra. Each type of analysis requires significantly different input motions. All selections of design motions must allow for the lack of representative strong motion records, especially near-field motions from earthquakes of magnitude 7 and greater, as well as an enormous spread in the available data. Limited data must be projected and its spread bracketed in order to fill in the gaps and to assure that there will be no surprises. Because each site may have differing special characteristics in its geology, seismic history, attenuation, recurrence, interpreted maximum events, etc., as integrated approach gives best results. Each part of the site investigation requires a number of decisions. In some cases, the decision to use a 'least ork' approach may be suitable, simply assuming the worst of several possibilities and testing for it. Because there are no standard procedures to follow, multiple approaches are useful. For example, peak motions at

  14. Educating girls in Bangladesh: exploding the myth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, M

    1993-01-01

    Poor landless families in Bangladesh typically see no need to educate their girls. Even where school fees are waived, exercise books, pencils, and school clothes cost money, and girls are especially needed to care for siblings and do other household chores. The Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC), however, has found it possible to get girls to school by adapting education to the circumstances of poverty instead of requiring families and students to adjust to the conventional rules of primary school. The BRAC non-formal primary education (NFPE) program in five years has expanded to 12,000 centers serving 360,000 children in two programs of three-year duration each for 8-10 year olds and 11-14 year olds. Reflecting the policy of giving priority to girls, more than 70% of enrolled children are female. Almost all teachers are also female and typically young, married, from the neighborhood, and with 9-10 years of schooling. Each center is a thatch or tin-roofed hut accommodating thirty children managed by a village committee and a parent-teacher committee at a cost of US$18 per child per year. All learning materials are provided at the center for the three hours of courses six days per week set according to students' availability and convenience. The course for the younger children offers the equivalent of three years of primary education, while the course for the older children offers basic literacy and life skills. The success of the BRAC centers demonstrates how parents and children may respond when education is socially and culturally acceptable, affordable, and strives to meet parents' and child's expectations.

  15. Bangladesh: towards health for all by the year 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazour-ul-karim

    1986-11-01

    To achieve its twin goals of realizing a net reproduction rate of 1% in population growth, and health for its population by the year 2000, Bangladesh has launched an Integrated Maternal and Child Health/Family Planning Program (MCH/FP). Several plans, each spanning a 5-year period, have been developed. Until July 1986, family planning services were given a higher priority than maternal and child health care. The third 5-year plan attempts to give equal emphasis to these 2 concerns. The information, education, communication (IEC) program or information, education, and motivation (IEM) program as it is named in Bangladesh, is an important component of the MCH/FP program. The IEC implementors have adopted the following strategies: make the people aware of the population problem and the need for family planning and MCH care; familiarize people with the MCH/FP concepts, methods, and services; make family planning and MCH services socially acceptable; counteract misconceptions about family planning and MCH services; overcome religious opposition to family planning; motivate people to accept family planning and MCH services; and mobilize community support for MCH/FP services. The program has been designed to reach people through the 3 reinforcing approaches of mass media, small group, and family contacts. The organizational framework responsible for implementing communication activities includes family planning and health field workers at the grassroots level and the IEM unit of the Directorate of Family Planning of the Ministry of Health and Family Planning (MOHFP), units of the Ministry of Information, and the Health Education Bureau of the MOHFP at other various levels. Interpersonal communication, the mainstay of the MCH/FP communication activities is carried out primarily by female family welfare assistants and the male health assistants. Many social support activities are geared to reach a group that can help influence the eligible couples to practice family

  16. Simulating future uncertainty to guide the selection of survey designs for long-term monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garman, Steven L.; Schweiger, E. William; Manier, Daniel J.; Gitzen, Robert A.; Millspaugh, Joshua J.; Cooper, Andrew B.; Licht, Daniel S.

    2012-01-01

    A goal of environmental monitoring is to provide sound information on the status and trends of natural resources (Messer et al. 1991, Theobald et al. 2007, Fancy et al. 2009). When monitoring observations are acquired by measuring a subset of the population of interest, probability sampling as part of a well-constructed survey design provides the most reliable and legally defensible approach to achieve this goal (Cochran 1977, Olsen et al. 1999, Schreuder et al. 2004; see Chapters 2, 5, 6, 7). Previous works have described the fundamentals of sample surveys (e.g. Hansen et al. 1953, Kish 1965). Interest in survey designs and monitoring over the past 15 years has led to extensive evaluations and new developments of sample selection methods (Stevens and Olsen 2004), of strategies for allocating sample units in space and time (Urquhart et al. 1993, Overton and Stehman 1996, Urquhart and Kincaid 1999), and of estimation (Lesser and Overton 1994, Overton and Stehman 1995) and variance properties (Larsen et al. 1995, Stevens and Olsen 2003) of survey designs. Carefully planned, “scientific” (Chapter 5) survey designs have become a standard in contemporary monitoring of natural resources. Based on our experience with the long-term monitoring program of the US National Park Service (NPS; Fancy et al. 2009; Chapters 16, 22), operational survey designs tend to be selected using the following procedures. For a monitoring indicator (i.e. variable or response), a minimum detectable trend requirement is specified, based on the minimum level of change that would result in meaningful change (e.g. degradation). A probability of detecting this trend (statistical power) and an acceptable level of uncertainty (Type I error; see Chapter 2) within a specified time frame (e.g. 10 years) are specified to ensure timely detection. Explicit statements of the minimum detectable trend, the time frame for detecting the minimum trend, power, and acceptable probability of Type I error (

  17. Optimal design and selection of magneto-rheological brake types based on braking torque and mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Q. H.; Lang, V. T.; Choi, S. B.

    2015-06-01

    In developing magnetorheological brakes (MRBs), it is well known that the braking torque and the mass of the MRBs are important factors that should be considered in the product’s design. This research focuses on the optimal design of different types of MRBs, from which we identify an optimal selection of MRB types, considering braking torque and mass. In the optimization, common types of MRBs such as disc-type, drum-type, hybrid-type, and T-shape types are considered. The optimization problem is to find an optimal MRB structure that can produce the required braking torque while minimizing its mass. After a brief description of the configuration of the MRBs, the MRBs’ braking torque is derived based on the Herschel-Bulkley rheological model of the magnetorheological fluid. Then, the optimal designs of the MRBs are analyzed. The optimization objective is to minimize the mass of the brake while the braking torque is constrained to be greater than a required value. In addition, the power consumption of the MRBs is also considered as a reference parameter in the optimization. A finite element analysis integrated with an optimization tool is used to obtain optimal solutions for the MRBs. Optimal solutions of MRBs with different required braking torque values are obtained based on the proposed optimization procedure. From the results, we discuss the optimal selection of MRB types, considering braking torque and mass.

  18. BICM-based cooperative communication systems with relay selection: Constellation and multiplexer design

    KAUST Repository

    Malik, Muhammad Talha

    2014-09-01

    We propose a new bit-interleaved coded modulation (BICM)-based cooperative communication system where different BICM modules can be optimized jointly considering the average signal to noise ratios of the direct and the two-hop Rayleigh fading channels. As such, the full benefit of BICM can be exploited in the context of cooperative communication. Our design considers cooperative communication systems with so called max-min relay selection scheme that has no loss in performance in terms of diversity- multiplexing trade off in orthogonal cooperation. The presented numerical results for rate 1/2 convolutional code with 8-ary pulse amplitude modulation equivalently 64-ary quadrature amplitude modulation show that the proposed design can offer gains up to 1.4 dB over the traditional BICM design for a target bit error rate of 10-6. Moreover the results show that the amount of gain depends on the relays\\' positions and increases with the number of relays available for selection.

  19. Digital Bangladesh: Using Formative Research to Develop Phone Messages for the Prevention and Control of Diabetes in Rural Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Maria Jennings

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: As with many low-income countries, diabetes is an increasing issue in Bangladesh affecting an estimated 20% to 30% of the population either as intermediate hyperglycaemia or fully expressed diabetes mellitus (Bhowmik et al., 2012. The Bangladesh D-MAGIC project is a cluster randomised control trial to test the effectiveness of interventions to improve detection, management and control of diabetes in rural Bangladesh. One of these interventions is an mHealth intervention, which involves sending health promotion voice messages to individuals’ mobile phones to target diabetes prevention and management. In-depth formative research (interviews and focus group discussions has been undertaken in rural Faridpur District in order to gain a greater understanding of people’s beliefs, practices and behaviour regarding diabetes prevention and control and their access to and use of mobile phones. The findings of the research, used within the COM-B framework (Michie et al 2011, are being used to inform and appropriately tailor the voice messages to the needs of the target population. This presentation will highlight key findings of the formative research and discuss how these findings are being used to design the mHealth intervention. Aim: To identify key issues for the content and delivery of voice messages regarding the prevention and control of diabetes in rural Bangladesh through in-depth formative research. Methods: We conducted sixteen semi-structured interviews with purposively sampled diabetics, non-diabetics and health professionals. In addition, nine focus group discussions with diabetics and non-diabetics were conducted in villages in three sub-districts of Faridpur. We explored beliefs and behaviour regarding diet, exercise, smoking, stress and care-seeking. The findings from the interviews and focus group discussions were analysed thematically, and specific enablers and barriers to behaviour change related to diabetes identified

  20. Organic biowastes blend selection for composting industrial eggshell by-product: experimental and statistical mixture design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Micaela A R; Andrade, Sandra R; Martins, Rui C; Quina, Margarida J; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa M

    2012-01-01

    Composting is one of the technologies recommended for pre-treating industrial eggshells (ES) before its application in soils, for calcium recycling. However, due to the high inorganic content of ES, a mixture of biodegradable materials is required to assure a successful procedure. In this study, an adequate organic blend composition containing potato peel (PP), grass clippings (GC) and wheat straw (WS) was determined by applying the simplex-centroid mixture design method to achieve a desired moisture content, carbon: nitrogen ratio and free air space for effective composting of ES. A blend of 56% PP, 37% GC and 7% WS was selected and tested in a self heating reactor, where 10% (w/w) of ES was incorporated. After 29 days of reactor operation, a dry matter reduction of 46% was achieved and thermophilic temperatures were maintained during 15 days, indicating that the blend selected by statistical approach was adequate for composting of ES.

  1. Characterization and Design of Zeolite Catalysts Solid Acidity, Shape Selectivity and Loading Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Niwa, Miki; Okumura, Kazu

    2010-01-01

    Zeolites are microporous, aluminosilicate minerals commonly used as commercial adsorbents. Zeolite-based catalysts are used by industrial chemical companies in the interconversion of hydrocarbons and the alkylation of aromatic compounds. The current book deals with the characterization of specific properties of Zeolites and calculations for the design of catalysts. Measurements and utilization of solid acidity, shape selectivity, and loading properties, that are three prominent properties of a Zeolite catalyst, are treated in detail. These features concern chemical vapor deposition of silica, shape selectivity, loading properties, solid activity, Brønsted or Lewis character, ammonia temperature programmed desorption, control of the pore-opening size by chemical vapor deposition of silica and XAFS analysis of metals being highly dispersed inside and outside a framework.

  2. Performance of Cross-Layer Design with Antenna Selection and Imperfect Feedback Information in MIMO Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Dang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available By combining adaptive modulation and automatic repeat request, a cross-layer design (CLD scheme for MIMO system with antenna selection (AS and imperfect feedback is presented, and the corresponding performance is studied. Subject to a target packet loss rate and fixed power constraint, the variable switching thresholds of fading gain are derived. According to these results, and using mathematical manipulation, the average spectrum efficiency (SE and packet error rate (PER of the system are further derived. As a result, closed-form expressions of the average SE and PER are obtained, respectively. These expressions include the expressions under perfect channel state information as special cases and provide good performance evaluation for the system. Numerical results show that the proposed CLD scheme with antenna selection has higher SE than the existing CLD scheme with space-time block coding, and the CLD scheme with variable switching thresholds outperforms that with conventional-fixed switching thresholds.

  3. Transfer function design based on user selected samples for intuitive multivariate volume exploration

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Liang

    2013-02-01

    Multivariate volumetric datasets are important to both science and medicine. We propose a transfer function (TF) design approach based on user selected samples in the spatial domain to make multivariate volumetric data visualization more accessible for domain users. Specifically, the user starts the visualization by probing features of interest on slices and the data values are instantly queried by user selection. The queried sample values are then used to automatically and robustly generate high dimensional transfer functions (HDTFs) via kernel density estimation (KDE). Alternatively, 2D Gaussian TFs can be automatically generated in the dimensionality reduced space using these samples. With the extracted features rendered in the volume rendering view, the user can further refine these features using segmentation brushes. Interactivity is achieved in our system and different views are tightly linked. Use cases show that our system has been successfully applied for simulation and complicated seismic data sets. © 2013 IEEE.

  4. Structure-guided design of selective Epac1 and Epac2 agonists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Schwede

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The second messenger cAMP is known to augment glucose-induced insulin secretion. However, its downstream targets in pancreatic β-cells have not been unequivocally determined. Therefore, we designed cAMP analogues by a structure-guided approach that act as Epac2-selective agonists both in vitro and in vivo. These analogues activate Epac2 about two orders of magnitude more potently than cAMP. The high potency arises from increased affinity as well as increased maximal activation. Crystallographic studies demonstrate that this is due to unique interactions. At least one of the Epac2-specific agonists, Sp-8-BnT-cAMPS (S-220, enhances glucose-induced insulin secretion in human pancreatic cells. Selective targeting of Epac2 is thus proven possible and may be an option in diabetes treatment.

  5. Design and optimization of selective azaindole amide M1 positive allosteric modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoren, Jennifer E; O'Neil, Steven V; Anderson, Dennis P; Brodney, Michael A; Chenard, Lois; Dlugolenski, Keith; Edgerton, Jeremy R; Green, Michael; Garnsey, Michelle; Grimwood, Sarah; Harris, Anthony R; Kauffman, Gregory W; LaChapelle, Erik; Lazzaro, John T; Lee, Che-Wah; Lotarski, Susan M; Nason, Deane M; Obach, R Scott; Reinhart, Veronica; Salomon-Ferrer, Romelia; Steyn, Stefanus J; Webb, Damien; Yan, Jiangli; Zhang, Lei

    2016-01-15

    Selective activation of the M1 receptor via a positive allosteric modulator (PAM) is a new approach for the treatment of the cognitive impairments associated with schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. A novel series of azaindole amides and their key pharmacophore elements are described. The nitrogen of the azaindole core is a key design element as it forms an intramolecular hydrogen bond with the amide N-H thus reinforcing the bioactive conformation predicted by published SAR and our homology model. Representative compound 25 is a potent and selective M1 PAM that has well aligned physicochemical properties, adequate brain penetration and pharmacokinetic (PK) properties, and is active in vivo. These favorable properties indicate that this series possesses suitable qualities for further development and studies.

  6. Deciphering transmissivity and hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer by vertical electrical sounding (VES) experiments in Northwest Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattar, Golam Shabbir; Keramat, Mumnunul; Shahid, Shamsuddin

    2016-03-01

    The vertical electrical soundings (VESs) are carried out in 24 selective locations of Chapai-Nawabganj area of northwest Bangladesh to determine the transmissivity and hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer. Initially, the transmissivity and hydraulic conductivity are determined from the pumping data of nearby available production wells. Afterwards, the T and K are correlated with geoelectrical resistance and the total resistivity of the aquifer. The present study deciphers the functional analogous relations of the geoelectrical resistance with the transmissivity and the total resistivity with the hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer in northwest Bangladesh. It has been shown that the given equations provide reasonable values of transmissivity and hydraulic conductivity where pumping test information is unavailable. It can be expected that the aquifer properties viz. transmissivity and hydraulic conductivity of geologically similar area can be determined with the help of the obtained equations by conducting VES experiments.

  7. Antimicrobial resistance and related issues: An overview of Bangladesh situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Sayedur Rahman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to understand Bangladesh situation about antimicrobial resistance. Half of the Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas and Klebsiella showed resistance against older and common antimicrobials. Most (50% common reasons to prescribe antimicrobial are fever, respiratory and urinary tract infection. About 70% prescriber mentioned diagnostic uncertainty and emergence of resistance as causes for increase in antimicrobial prescribing. 51.9% of prescribers opined that physicians prescribe antimicrobial more than the actual need. About two-third of 5th year medical students answered correctly on different issues related to antimicrobials and resistance. Antimicrobial and resistance received little emphasis in Pharmacology and Microbiology written questions at both undergraduate (0.7 to 16.1% and postgraduate (0.9 to 18.4% level. Print (0.02% to 2.0% and electronic media (0.0 to 0.6% attaches small importance on the issues. Nothing related to ‘antimicrobials’ and ‘measure to contain resistance’ were mentioned in related policy documents.

  8. Hydrological control of As concentrations in Bangladesh groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stute, M.; Zheng, Y.; Schlosser, P.; Horneman, A.; Dhar, R. K.; Datta, S.; Hoque, M. A.; Seddique, A. A.; Shamsudduha, M.; Ahmed, K. M.; van Geen, A.

    2007-09-01

    The elevated arsenic (As) content of groundwater from wells across Bangladesh and several other South Asian countries is estimated to slowly poison at least 100 million people. The heterogeneous distribution of dissolved arsenic in the subsurface complicates understanding of its release from the sediment matrix into the groundwater, as well as the design of mitigation strategies. Using the tritium-helium (3H/3He) groundwater dating technique, we show that there is a linear correlation between groundwater age at depths <20 m and dissolved As concentration, with an average slope of 19 μg L-1 yr-1 (monitoring wells only). We propose that either the kinetics of As mobilization or the removal of As by groundwater flushing is the mechanism underlying this relationship. In either case, the spatial variability of As concentrations in the top 20 m of the shallow aquifers can to a large extent be attributed to groundwater age controlled by the hydrogeological heterogeneity in the local groundwater flow system.

  9. Bangladesh apparel industry and its workers in a changing world economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmed, N.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis explores and analyses recent changes and challenges faced by the apparel industry of Bangladesh and the consequences of those for the Bangladesh economy. More specifically, it explores and analyses the importance of the apparel industry in the Bangladesh economy, the challenges faced by

  10. Evaluation and selection of the ship collaborative design resources based on AHP and genetic and simulated annealing algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The characteristics of the design resources in the ship collaborative design is described and the hierarchical model for the evaluation of the design resources is established. The comprehensive evaluation of the co-designers for the collaborative design resources has been done from different aspects using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP),and according to the evaluation results,the candidates are determined. Meanwhile,based on the principle of minimum cost,and starting from the relations between the design tasks and the corresponding co-designers,the optimizing selection model of the collaborators is established and one novel genetic combined with simulated annealing algorithm is proposed to realize the optimization. It overcomes the defects of the genetic algorithm which may lead to the premature convergence and local optimization if used individually. Through the application of this method in the ship collaborative design system,it proves the feasibility and provides a quantitative method for the optimizing selection of the design resources.

  11. Biomimicry in Product Design through Materials Selection and Computer Aided Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandridis, G.; Tzetzis, D.; Kyratsis, P.

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study is to demonstrate a 7-step methodology that describes the way nature can act as a source of inspiration for the design and the development of a product. Furthermore, it suggests special computerized tools and methods for the product optimization regarding its environmental impact i.e. material selection, production methods. For validation purposes, a garden chaise lounge that imitates the form of a scorpion was developed as a result for the case study and the presentation of the current methodology.

  12. From First Principles Design to Realization of Bimetallic Catalysts for Enhanced Selectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobo, Raul F.; Crooks, Richard M.; Mavrikakis, Manos

    2014-04-08

    “Catalysis by design” has been a dream for decades. To specify the composition and structure of matter to effect a desired catalytic transformation with desired and predicted rate and selectivity remains a monumental challenge, especially in heterogeneous catalysis. Our research thrusts have been chosen not only for their practical and scientific relevance, e.g. for more efficient and sustainable chemicals and fuels production, but also because they provide a foundation for developing and exploring broadly applicable principles and strategies for catalyst design.

  13. Automatic Weight Selection Algorithm for Designing H Infinity controller for Active Magnetic Bearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarath S Nair

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent times active magnetic bearing has got wide acceptance in industries and other special systems. Current researches focus on improving the disturbance rejection properties of magnetic bearings towork well in industrial environment. So far many controllers have been developed to control the system, of which the H∞ controller is found to guarantee robustness and performance. In this paper an automatic weight selection algorithm is proposed to design robust H Infinity controller automatically for active magnetic bearing system and detailed disturbance analysis is done. This paper focuses on the controller implementation point of view and analyses the variation in control current, peak responses and steady state error of the developed controller. Comparison with a well tuned PID controller shows the efficacy of H infinity controller designed using the proposed algorithm.

  14. Design and direct manufacture of non-assembly abacus by Selective Laser Melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Changhui; Yang, Yongqiang; Xiao, Zefeng; Wang, Di; Liu, Yang; Liu, Ruicheng

    2014-12-01

    Selective Laser Melting (SLM), as an additive manufacturing technology, can directly manufacture desired functional metal parts. With the ability to freeform manufacture, SLM has had breakthroughs on design and manufacture compared with traditional methods. SLM apparatus in Dimetal series, DiMetal-100 developed by SCUT research group, has been used to study non-assembly mechanism. Taking copper cash abacus and collapsible abacus as examples, this article had studied the design rules and the key points to manufacture the non-assembly mechanism based on the SLM. An investigation into the capability of SLM technology, such as the geometric features resolution, critical incline angle, provided theoretical basis for designing the clearance of the joint and manufacturing direction of non-assembly mechanism. Then, the experiment of manufacturing copper cash abacus and collapsible abacus were conducted. The results proved that non-assembly mechanism can be well manufactured by SLM. This study provides basis for designing and manufacturing of creative non-assembly mechanism based on SLM technique.

  15. Ergonomic Design Measures on Work Process and Workplace Layout in the Selected Structural and Fabrication Shops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzette M. Mercado

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to analyze the process and workplace layout in the selected structural and fabrication shops located in Batangas, Philippines thus provide improvements using the results of Ergonomic Design Measures. These shops generally focused on preparation, cutting, welding, grinding and assembly using multi-functioning machines and many aspects of human work. Using different Ergonomic Assessment Checklist, Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA, Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA and Ovako Working Posture Assessment System (OWAS, and with direct observations, it was found out that existing design of the work processes and workplace layout does not match the ergonomic requirements. The study exposed the presence of Musculoskeletal Disorder (MSD risks due to awkward posture, forceful exertion and fatigue; position of workers is dangerous to themselves due to inappropriate measurement of facilities which is in need of change. The researcher recommended ergonomically based actions to address the health, comfort, and well-being of employees such as changing the workstation surface height, integration of safeguarding; application of Group Technology to reduce the production lead time and material handling and offered smooth workflow in production line. Furthermore, the researcher developed a proposed workstation and workplace design as part of the ergonomic-based actions. The effectiveness of the proposed design alternatives were measured with the use of Trade-off Analysis technique, such as, Standard Weighted Sum Method, MAXIMIN decision and Analytic Hierarchy Process.

  16. Design-Optimization and Material Selection for a Proximal Radius Fracture-Fixation Implant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grujicic, M.; Xie, X.; Arakere, G.; Grujicic, A.; Wagner, D. W.; Vallejo, A.

    2010-11-01

    The problem of optimal size, shape, and placement of a proximal radius-fracture fixation-plate is addressed computationally using a combined finite-element/design-optimization procedure. To expand the set of physiological loading conditions experienced by the implant during normal everyday activities of the patient, beyond those typically covered by the pre-clinical implant-evaluation testing procedures, the case of a wheel-chair push exertion is considered. Toward that end, a musculoskeletal multi-body inverse-dynamics analysis is carried out of a human propelling a wheelchair. The results obtained are used as input to a finite-element structural analysis for evaluation of the maximum stress and fatigue life of the parametrically defined implant design. While optimizing the design of the radius-fracture fixation-plate, realistic functional requirements pertaining to the attainment of the required level of the devise safety factor and longevity/lifecycle were considered. It is argued that the type of analyses employed in the present work should be: (a) used to complement the standard experimental pre-clinical implant-evaluation tests (the tests which normally include a limited number of daily-living physiological loading conditions and which rely on single pass/fail outcomes/decisions with respect to a set of lower-bound implant-performance criteria) and (b) integrated early in the implant design and material/manufacturing-route selection process.

  17. Slim by design: serving healthy foods first in buffet lines improves overall meal selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Wansink

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Each day, tens of millions of restaurant goers, conference attendees, college students, military personnel, and school children serve themselves at buffets--many being all-you-can-eat buffets. Knowing how the food order at a buffet triggers what a person selects could be useful in guiding diners to make healthier selections. METHOD: The breakfast food selections of 124 health conference attendees were tallied at two separate seven-item buffet lines (which included cheesy eggs, potatoes, bacon, cinnamon rolls, low-fat granola, low-fat yogurt, and fruit. The food order between the two lines was reversed (least healthy to most healthy, and vise-versa. Participants were randomly assigned to choose their meal from one line or the other, and researchers recorded what participants selected. RESULTS: With buffet foods, the first ones seen are the ones most selected. Over 75% of diners selected the first food they saw, and the first three foods a person encountered in the buffet comprised 66% of all the foods they took. Serving the less healthy foods first led diners to take 31% more total food items (p<0.001. Indeed, diners in this line more frequently chose less healthy foods in combinations, such as cheesy eggs and bacon (r = 0.47; p<0.001 or cheesy eggs and fried potatoes (r= 0.37; p<0.001. This co-selection of healthier foods was less common. CONCLUSIONS: Three words summarize these results: First foods most. What ends up on a buffet diner's plate is dramatically determined by the presentation order of food. Rearranging food order from healthiest to least healthy can nudge unknowing or even resistant diners toward a healthier meal, helping make them slim by design. Health-conscious diners, can proactively start at the healthier end of the line, and this same basic principle of "first foods most" may be relevant in other contexts - such as when serving or passing food at family dinners.

  18. Selection of magnetorheological brake types via optimal design considering maximum torque and constrained volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Q. H.; Choi, S. B.

    2012-01-01

    This research focuses on optimal design of different types of magnetorheological brakes (MRBs), from which an optimal selection of MRB types is identified. In the optimization, common types of MRB such as disc-type, drum-type, hybrid-types, and T-shaped type are considered. The optimization problem is to find the optimal value of significant geometric dimensions of the MRB that can produce a maximum braking torque. The MRB is constrained in a cylindrical volume of a specific radius and length. After a brief description of the configuration of MRB types, the braking torques of the MRBs are derived based on the Herschel-Bulkley model of the MR fluid. The optimal design of MRBs constrained in a specific cylindrical volume is then analysed. The objective of the optimization is to maximize the braking torque while the torque ratio (the ratio of maximum braking torque and the zero-field friction torque) is constrained to be greater than a certain value. A finite element analysis integrated with an optimization tool is employed to obtain optimal solutions of the MRBs. Optimal solutions of MRBs constrained in different volumes are obtained based on the proposed optimization procedure. From the results, discussions on the optimal selection of MRB types depending on constrained volumes are given.

  19. Selecting the optimum plot size for a California design-based stream and wetland mapping program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackey, Leila G; Stein, Eric D

    2014-04-01

    Accurate estimates of the extent and distribution of wetlands and streams are the foundation of wetland monitoring, management, restoration, and regulatory programs. Traditionally, these estimates have relied on comprehensive mapping. However, this approach is prohibitively resource-intensive over large areas, making it both impractical and statistically unreliable. Probabilistic (design-based) approaches to evaluating status and trends provide a more cost-effective alternative because, compared with comprehensive mapping, overall extent is inferred from mapping a statistically representative, randomly selected subset of the target area. In this type of design, the size of sample plots has a significant impact on program costs and on statistical precision and accuracy; however, no consensus exists on the appropriate plot size for remote monitoring of stream and wetland extent. This study utilized simulated sampling to assess the performance of four plot sizes (1, 4, 9, and 16 km(2)) for three geographic regions of California. Simulation results showed smaller plot sizes (1 and 4 km(2)) were most efficient for achieving desired levels of statistical accuracy and precision. However, larger plot sizes were more likely to contain rare and spatially limited wetland subtypes. Balancing these considerations led to selection of 4 km(2) for the California status and trends program.

  20. Seat Capacity Selection for an Advanced Short-Haul Aircraft Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marien, Ty V.

    2016-01-01

    A study was performed to determine the target seat capacity for a proposed advanced short-haul aircraft concept projected to enter the fleet by 2030. This analysis projected the potential demand in the U.S. for a short-haul aircraft using a transportation theory approach, rather than selecting a target seat capacity based on recent industry trends or current market demand. A transportation systems model was used to create a point-to-point network of short-haul trips and then predict the number of annual origin-destination trips on this network. Aircraft of varying seat capacities were used to meet the demand on this network, assuming a single aircraft type for the entire short-haul fleet. For each aircraft size, the ticket revenue and operational costs were used to calculate a total market profitability metric for all feasible flights. The different aircraft sizes were compared, based on this market profitability metric and also the total number of annual round trips and markets served. Sensitivity studies were also performed to determine the effect of changing the aircraft cruise speed and maximum trip length. Using this analysis, the advanced short-haul aircraft design team was able to select a target seat capacity for their design.

  1. Daughter neglect, women's work, and marriage: Pakistan and Bangladesh compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, B D

    1984-01-01

    This article looks at juvenile sex ratios, juvenile mortality, women's work roles and marriage patterns in Pakistan and bangladesh in order to assess whether patterns previously observed in India, namely, daughter neglect in the northwest and equal juvenile sex ratios in the eastern part of the country, are carried over into the 2 adjacent nations, Pakistan and Bangladesh, respectively. The Indian study indicates that nationwide sex ratio data, sample survey data on childhood mortality, longitudinal population records in several locations and ethonographic evidence all point to inequalities in mortality as the prime cause of unbalanced sex ratios. The juvenile sex ratios of Pakistan and Bangladesh are very different from 1 another. Whereas there are no regional contrasts among juvenile sex ratios within Bangladesh, it is greater within Pakistan. Sex ratio data correspond roughly to what the mortality data indicate in terms of the contrast between Pakistan and Bangladesh. The evidence on juvenile mortality in both countries is too scant to support an airtight argument that juvenile females in Pakistan have much higher mortality rates than boys, while mortality rates are more balanced in Bangladesh. But the existing evidence clearly points to that conclusion. The immediate causes of the greater sex-differential mortality in Pakistan cannot be documented in the available ethnographic literature. Biased allocation of food, medical care, and love might be operating. Looking at the economic and sociocultural complex that promotes much differences between Pakistan and Bangladesh, it is argued that, in both countries, class-based variations in both women's work and marriage patterns exist and are important. It is hypothesized that females in Pakistan are little valued for agricultural labor, and pose an economic liability on their families who need to provide a large dowry with her marriage to compensate for the daughter's low economic utility to the agrucultural workforce

  2. Demand-based water options for arsenic mitigation: an experience from rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, B A; Hoque, M M; Ahmed, T; Islam, S; Azad, A K; Ali, N; Hossain, M; Hossain, M S

    2004-01-01

    A supply of safe drinking water is a recognized global concern. The arsenic contamination of groundwater in Bangladesh and other countries has furthered this concern. Lack of appropriate water options is one of the main barriers to the supply of safe drinking water for 30-60 million people who are exposed to the risk of drinking arsenic-contaminated water in Bangladesh. This paper describes the experience from a water supply programme for arsenic mitigation based on demand and participation of 30,000 rural people in Srinagar, a subdistrict of Bangladesh. About 85% of the 912 tubewell water samples tested had an arsenic content higher than 0.05 mg/l. The project promoted 11 options including groundwater, surface-water and rainwater-harvesting household-based options as well as community managed technologies. Most people, particularly women, wanted piped water, and hand-operated deep tubewells were also requested. Four cluster-based motorized piped water systems, 20 home-based arsenic-removal options (two types) and an arsenic-removal filter plant were installed. The public contributed about 49, 25 and 20% of the installation costs of piped water, home-based options and filter options, respectively, and 100% of all operation and maintenance costs. The household options and filter plant were abandoned within a few weeks. Reportedly, those options required too much attention, discharged small volumes of water at low rates, were difficult to maintain, and discharged poor-quality water. The proportion of families (54%) that drank arsenic-contaminated water during the final survey was significantly lower than in the baseline survey (87%). For arsenic-affected areas, it is recommended that a cluster-based piped water system be given proper consideration when selecting appropriate water options rather than household-based options or the development of new low-cost options.

  3. A cluster-based randomized controlled trial promoting community participation in arsenic mitigation efforts in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Christine

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To reduce arsenic (As exposure, we evaluated the effectiveness of training community members to perform water arsenic (WAs testing and provide As education compared to sending representatives from outside communities to conduct these tasks. Methods We conducted a cluster based randomized controlled trial of 20 villages in Singair, Bangladesh. Fifty eligible respondents were randomly selected in each village. In 10 villages, a community member provided As education and WAs testing. In a second set of 10 villages an outside representative performed these tasks. Results Overall, 53% of respondents using As contaminated wells, relative to the Bangladesh As standard of 50 μg/L, at baseline switched after receiving the intervention. Further, when there was less than 60% arsenic contaminated wells in a village, the classification used by the Bangladeshi and UNICEF, 74% of study households in the community tester villages, and 72% of households in the outside tester villages reported switching to an As safe drinking water source . Switching was more common in the outside-tester (63% versus community-tester villages (44%. However, after adjusting for the availability of arsenic safe drinking water sources, well switching did not differ significantly by type of As tester (Odds ratio =0.86[95% confidence interval 0.42-1.77. At follow-up, among those using As contaminated wells who switched to safe wells, average urinary As concentrations significantly decreased. Conclusion The overall intervention was effective in reducing As exposure provided there were As-safe drinking water sources available. However, there was not a significant difference observed in the ability of the community and outside testers to encourage study households to use As-safe water sources. The findings of this study suggest that As education and WAs testing programs provided by As testers, irrespective of their residence, could be used as an effective, low cost

  4. Integrated socio-environmental modelling: A test case in coastal Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Attila

    2013-04-01

    Delta regions are vulnerable with their populations and ecosystems facing multiple threats in the coming decades through extremes of poverty, environmental and ecological stress and land degradation. External and internal processes initiate these threats/changes and results in for example water quality and health risk issues, declining agricultural productivity and sediment starvation all of which directly affecting the local population. The ESPA funded "Assessing Health, Livelihoods, Ecosystem Services and Poverty Alleviation In Populous Deltas" project (2012-16) aims to provide policy makers with the knowledge and tools to enable them to evaluate the effects of policy decisions on people's livelihoods. It considers coastal Bangladesh in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna Delta: one of the world's most dynamic and significant deltas. This is being done by a multidisciplinary and multinational team of policy analysts, social and natural scientists and engineers using a participatory, holistic approach to formally evaluate ecosystem services and poverty in the context of the wide range of changes that are occurring. An integrated model with relevant feedbacks is being developed to explore options for management strategies and policy formulation for ecosystem services, livelihoods and health in coastal Bangladesh. This requires the continuous engagement with stakeholders through the following steps: (1) system characterisation, (2) research question definition, (3) data and model identification, (4) model validation and (5) model application. This presentation will focus on the first three steps. Field-based social science and governance related research are on the way. The bio-physical models have been selected and some are already set up for the study area. These allow preliminary conceptualisation of the elements and linkages of the deltaic socio-environmental system and thus the preliminary structure of the integrated model. This presentation describes these steps

  5. Antibiotic Resistance of Escherichia Coli Isolated From Poultry and Poultry Environment of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad A. Akond

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Increased emergence in microbial resistance to antibiotics is a growing problem in Bangladesh, a tropical country with a large agrarian population having limited medical facilities. Wide spread use of antimicrobials in poultry farming here is a concern of multi-drug microbial resistance development that can potentially be transmitted to human pathogens even from non-pathogenic carrier strains. Attempt was made to assess drug susceptibility in Escherichia coli from poultry sources of Bangladesh. Approach: Eighty selected strains isolated from poultry sources were thoroughly characterized by standard cultural and biochemical tests followed by final identification using latex agglutination test of polyvalent anti-sera, from which 50 were tested for susceptibility to 13 antibiotics following disk diffusion method. Results: 145 (58%, out of total 250, were found positive for E. coli. 52-88% of tested E. coli strains from poultry sources were found resistant to Penicillin, Ciprofloxacin, Riphampicin, Kanamycin, Streptomycin, Cefixine, Erythromycin, Ampicillin, Tetracycline, and 20% strains showed resistance to both Chloramphenicol and Neomycin. No strains showed resistance to Norfloxacin and Gentamicin. Sensitivity was recorded in case of 60-86% strains to Norfloxacin, Gentamicin, Chloramphenicol, and Neomycin; and 26-36% strains against Tetracycline, Streptomycin, and Ampicillin. Intermediate resistance/ susceptibility to various antibiotics were observed for 12-36% Escherichia coli strains. Both, resistance and susceptibility were exhibited against Chloramphenicol, Ampicillin, Gentamicin, Neomycin, Tetracycline, Streptomycin and Norfloxacin. Multi drug resistance was found in case of 6-10 antibiotics for all strains tested. Conclusion: Further study is required on the role of poultry borne bacteria as vectors in transmitting drug resistance. Attention is to be paid for personnel hygiene in processing and handling of poultry and

  6. Impact of an in-built monitoring system on family planning performance in rural Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Ali

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During 1982–1992, the Maternal and Child Health Family Planning (MCH-FP Extension Project (Rural of International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B, in partnership with the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW of the Government of Bangladesh (GoB, implemented a series of interventions in Sirajganj Sadar sub-district of Sirajganj district. These interventions were aimed at improving the planning mechanisms and for reviewing the problem-solving processes to build an effective monitoring system of the interventions at the local level of the overall system of the MOHFW, GoB. Methods The interventions included development and testing of innovative solutions in service-delivery, provision of door-step injectables, and strengthening of the management information system (MIS. The impact of an in-built monitoring system on the overall performance was assessed during the period from June 1995 to December 1996, after the withdrawal of the interventions in 1992. Results The results of the assessment showed that Family Welfare Assistants (FWAs increased household-visits within the last two months, and there was a higher use of service-delivery points even after the withdrawal of the interventions. The results of the cluster surveys, conducted in 1996, showed that the selected indicators of health and family-planning services were higher than those reported by the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS 1996–1997. During June 1995-December, 1996, the contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR increased by 13 percentage points (i.e. from 40% to 53%. Compared to the national CPR (49%, this increase was statistically significant (p Conclusion The in-built monitoring systems, including effective MIS, accompanied by rapid assessments and review of performance by the programme managers, have potentials to improve family planning performance in low-performing areas.

  7. Accelerated active case detection of visceral leishmaniasis patients in endemic villages of Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahanara Khatun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The visceral leishmaniasis (VL elimination program in Bangladesh is in its attack phase. The primary goal of this phase is to decrease the burden of VL as much as possible. Active case detection (ACD by the fever camp method and an approach using past VL cases in the last 6-12 months have been found useful for detection of VL patients in the community. We aimed to explore the yield of Accelerated Active Case Detection (AACD of non-self reporting VL as well as the factors that are associated with non-self reporting to hospitals in endemic communities of Bangladesh. METHODS: Our study was conducted in the Trishal sub-district of Mymensingh, a highly VL endemic region of Bangladesh. We used a two-stage sampling strategy from 12 VL endemic unions of Trishal. Two villages from each union were selected at random. We looked for VL patients who had self-reported to the hospital and were under treatment from these villages. Then we conducted AACD for VL cases in those villages using house-to-house visit. Suspected VL cases were referred to the Trishal hospital where diagnosis and treatment of VL was done following National Guidelines for VL case management. We collected socio-demographic information from patients or a patient guardian using a structured questionnaire. RESULTS: The total number of VL cases was 51. Nineteen of 51 (37.3% were identified by AACD. Poverty, female gender and poor knowledge about VL were independent factors associated with non self-reporting to the hospital. CONCLUSION: Our primary finding is that AACD is a useful method for early detection of VL cases that would otherwise go unreported to the hospital in later stage due to poverty, poor knowledge about VL and gender inequity. We recommend that the National VL Program should consider AACD to strengthen its early VL case detection strategy.

  8. Doublet III limiter performance and implications for mechanical design and material selection for future limiters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabado, M.M.; Marcus, F.B.; Trester, P.W.; Wesley, J.C.

    1979-10-01

    The plasma limiter system for Doublet III is described. Initially, high-Z materials, Ta-10W for the primary limiter and Mo for the backup limiters, were selected as the most attractive metallic candidates from the standpoint of thermal and structural properties. For the purpose of evaluating the effect of material Z on plasma performance, the nonmagnetic, Ni-base alloy Inconel X-750 was selected for a medium-Z limiter material. Graphite, a low-Z material, will likely be the next limiter material for evaluation. Design and material selection criteria for the different Z ranges are presented. The performance of the high-Z limiters in Doublet III is reviewed for an operation period that included approximately 5000 plasma shots. Changes in surface appearance and metallurgical changes are characterized. Discussion is presented on how and to what extent the high-Z elements affected the performance of the plasma based on theory and measurements in Doublet III. The fabrication processes for the Inconel X-750 limiters are summarized, and, last, observations on early performance of the Inconel limiters are described. (MOW)

  9. Investigation of protein selectivity in multimodal chromatography using in silico designed Fab fragment variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkov, Hanne Sophie; Krogh, Berit Olsen; Woo, James; Parimal, Siddharth; Ahmadian, Haleh; Cramer, Steven M

    2015-11-01

    In this study, a unique set of antibody Fab fragments was designed in silico and produced to examine the relationship between protein surface properties and selectivity in multimodal chromatographic systems. We hypothesized that multimodal ligands containing both hydrophobic and charged moieties would interact strongly with protein surface regions where charged groups and hydrophobic patches were in close spatial proximity. Protein surface property characterization tools were employed to identify the potential multimodal ligand binding regions on the Fab fragment of a humanized antibody and to evaluate the impact of mutations on surface charge and hydrophobicity. Twenty Fab variants were generated by site-directed mutagenesis, recombinant expression, and affinity purification. Column gradient experiments were carried out with the Fab variants in multimodal, cation-exchange, and hydrophobic interaction chromatographic systems. The results clearly indicated that selectivity in the multimodal system was different from the other chromatographic modes examined. Column retention data for the reduced charge Fab variants identified a binding site comprising light chain CDR1 as the main electrostatic interaction site for the multimodal and cation-exchange ligands. Furthermore, the multimodal ligand binding was enhanced by additional hydrophobic contributions as evident from the results obtained with hydrophobic Fab variants. The use of in silico protein surface property analyses combined with molecular biology techniques, protein expression, and chromatographic evaluations represents a previously undescribed and powerful approach for investigating multimodal selectivity with complex biomolecules.

  10. Elucidating features that drive the design of selective antifolates using crystal structures of human dihydrofolate reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Kristen M; G-Dayanandan, Narendran; Wright, Dennis L; Anderson, Amy C

    2013-10-15

    The pursuit of antimicrobial drugs that target dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) exploits differences in sequence and dynamics between the pathogenic and human enzymes. Here, we present five crystal structures of human DHFR bound to a new class of antimicrobial agents, the propargyl-linked antifolates (PLAs), with a range of potency (IC50 values of 0.045-1.07 μM) for human DHFR. These structures reveal that interactions between the ligands and Asn 64, Phe 31, and Phe 34 are important for increased affinity for human DHFR and that loop residues 58-64 undergo ligand-induced conformational changes. The utility of these structural studies was demonstrated through the design of three new ligands that reduce the number of contacts with Asn 64, Phe 31, and Phe 34. Synthesis and evaluation show that one of the designed inhibitors exhibits the lowest affinity for human DHFR of any of the PLAs (2.64 μM). Comparisons of structures of human and Staphylococcus aureus DHFR bound to the same PLA reveal a conformational change in the ligand that enhances interactions with residues Phe 92 (Val 115 in huDHFR) and Ile 50 (Ile 60 in huDHFR) in S. aureus DHFR, yielding selectivity. Likewise, comparisons of human and Candida glabrata DHFR bound to the same ligand show that hydrophobic interactions with residues Ile 121 and Phe 66 (Val 115 and Asn 64 in human DHFR) yield selective inhibitors. The identification of residue substitutions that are important for selectivity and the observation of active site flexibility will help guide antimicrobial antifolate development for the inhibition of pathogenic species.

  11. Evaluation of selectivity in homologous multimodal chromatographic systems using in silico designed antibody fragment libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkov, Hanne Sophie; Woo, James; Krogh, Berit Olsen; Ahmadian, Haleh; Cramer, Steven M

    2015-12-24

    This study describes the in silico design, surface property analyses, production and chromatographic evaluations of a diverse set of antibody Fab fragment variants. Based on previous findings, we hypothesized that the complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) constitute important binding sites for multimodal chromatographic ligands. Given that antibodies are highly diversified molecules and in particular the CDRs, we set out to examine the generality of this result. For this purpose, four different Fab fragments with different CDRs and/or framework regions of the variable domains were identified and related variants were designed in silico. The four Fab variant libraries were subsequently generated by site-directed mutagenesis and produced by recombinant expression and affinity purification to enable examination of their chromatographic retention behavior. The effects of geometric re-arrangement of the functional moieties on the multimodal resin ligands were also investigated with respect to Fab variant retention profiles by comparing two commercially available multimodal cation-exchange ligands, Capto MMC and Nuvia cPrime, and two novel multimodal ligand prototypes. Interestingly, the chromatographic data demonstrated distinct selectivity trends between the four Fab variant libraries. For three of the Fab libraries, the CDR regions appeared as major binding sites for all multimodal ligands. In contrast, the fourth Fab library displayed a distinctly different chromatographic behavior, where Nuvia cPrime and related multimodal ligand prototypes provided markedly improved selectivity over Capto MMC. Clearly, the results illustrate that the discriminating power of multimodal ligands differs between different Fab fragments. The results are promising indications that multimodal chromatography using the appropriate multimodal ligands can be employed in downstream bioprocessing for challenging selective separation of product related variants.

  12. The environment associated with significant tornadoes in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikos, Dan; Finch, Jonathan; Case, Jonathan L.

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the environmental parameters favoring significant tornadoes in Bangladesh through a simulation of ten high-impact events. A climatological perspective is first presented on classifying significant tornadoes in Bangladesh, noting the challenges since reports of tornadoes are not documented in a formal manner. The statistical relationship between United States and Bangladesh tornado-related deaths suggests that significant tornadoes do occur in Bangladesh so this paper identifies the most significant tornadic events and analyzes the environmental conditions associated with these events. Given the scarcity of observational data to assess the near-storm environment in this region, high-resolution (3-km horizontal grid spacing) numerical weather prediction simulations are performed for events identified to be associated with a significant tornado. In comparison to similar events over the United States, significant tornado environments in Bangladesh are characterized by relatively high convective available potential energy, sufficient deep-layer vertical shear, and a propensity for deviant (i.e., well to the right of the mean flow) storm motion along a low-level convergence boundary.

  13. The Bangladesh paradox: exceptional health achievement despite economic poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, A Mushtaque R; Bhuiya, Abbas; Chowdhury, Mahbub Elahi; Rasheed, Sabrina; Hussain, Zakir; Chen, Lincoln C

    2013-11-23

    Bangladesh, the eighth most populous country in the world with about 153 million people, has recently been applauded as an exceptional health performer. In the first paper in this Series, we present evidence to show that Bangladesh has achieved substantial health advances, but the country's success cannot be captured simplistically because health in Bangladesh has the paradox of steep and sustained reductions in birth rate and mortality alongside continued burdens of morbidity. Exceptional performance might be attributed to a pluralistic health system that has many stakeholders pursuing women-centred, gender-equity-oriented, highly focused health programmes in family planning, immunisation, oral rehydration therapy, maternal and child health, tuberculosis, vitamin A supplementation, and other activities, through the work of widely deployed community health workers reaching all households. Government and non-governmental organisations have pioneered many innovations that have been scaled up nationally. However, these remarkable achievements in equity and coverage are counterbalanced by the persistence of child and maternal malnutrition and the low use of maternity-related services. The Bangladesh paradox shows the net outcome of successful direct health action in both positive and negative social determinants of health--ie, positives such as women's empowerment, widespread education, and mitigation of the effect of natural disasters; and negatives such as low gross domestic product, pervasive poverty, and the persistence of income inequality. Bangladesh offers lessons such as how gender equity can improve health outcomes, how health innovations can be scaled up, and how direct health interventions can partly overcome socioeconomic constraints.

  14. Determinants of drinking arsenic-contaminated tubewell water in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M M H; Aklimunnessa, Khandoker; Kabir, M; Mori, Mitsuru

    2007-09-01

    Bangladesh has already experienced the biggest catastrophe in the world due to arsenic contamination of drinking water. This study investigates the association of drinking arsenic-contaminated water (DACW) with both personal and household characteristics of 9116 household respondents using the household data of the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) 2004. Here DACW means that arsenic level in the drinking water is greater than the permissible limit (50 microg/l) of Bangladesh. The overall rate of DACW was 7.9%. It was found to be significantly associated with education, currently working, and division of Bangladesh, either by cross tabulation or multivariate logistic regression analyses or both. Similarly, household characteristics -- namely television, bicycle, materials of the wall and floor, total family members, number of sleeping rooms, and availability of foods -- were significantly associated in bivariate analyses. Many household characteristics -- namely electricity, television, wall and floor materials, and number of sleeping rooms -- revealed significant association in the logistic regression analysis when adjusted for age, education and division. This study indicates that respondents from Chittagong division and lower socio-economic groups (indicated by household characteristics) are at significantly higher risk of DACW. These findings should be taken into account during the planning of future intervention activities in Bangladesh.

  15. History and Perspectives of Nuclear Medicine in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Raihan

    2016-01-01

    Bangladesh is one of the smaller states in Asia. But it has a long and rich history of nuclear medicine for over sixty years. The progress in science and technology is always challenging in a developing country. In 1958, work for the first Nuclear Medicine facility was commenced in Dhaka in a tin-shed known as 'Radioisotope Centre' and was officially inaugurated in 1962. Since the late 50s of the last century nuclear medicine in Bangladesh has significantly progressed through the years in its course of development, but still the facilities are inadequate. At present there are 20 nuclear medicine establishments with 3 PET-CTs, 42 gamma camera/SPECTs with 95 physicians, 20 physicists, 10 radiochemists and 150 technologists. The Society of Nuclear Medicine, Bangladesh (SNMB) was formed in 1993 and publishing its official journal since 1997. Bangladesh also has close relationships with many international organizations like IAEA, ARCCNM, AOFNMB, ASNM, WFNMB and WARMTH. The history and the present scenario of the status of nuclear medicine in Bangladesh are being described here.

  16. Achieving behaviour change at scale: Alive & Thrive's infant and young child feeding programme in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanghvi, Tina; Haque, Raisul; Roy, Sumitro; Afsana, Kaosar; Seidel, Renata; Islam, Sanjeeda; Jimerson, Ann; Baker, Jean

    2016-05-01

    The Alive & Thrive programme scaled up infant and young child feeding interventions in Bangladesh from 2010 to 2014. In all, 8.5 million mothers benefited. Approaches - including improved counselling by frontline health workers during home visits; community mobilization; mass media campaigns reaching mothers, fathers and opinion leaders; and policy advocacy - led to rapid and significant improvements in key practices related to breastfeeding and complementary feeding. (Evaluation results are forthcoming.) Intervention design was based on extensive formative research and behaviour change theory and principles and was tailored to the local context. The programme focused on small, achievable actions for key audience segments identified through rigorous testing. Promotion strategies took into account underlying behavioural determinants and reached a high per cent of the priority groups through repeated contacts. Community volunteers received monetary incentives for mothers in their areas who practised recommended behaviours. Programme monitoring, midterm surveys and additional small studies to answer questions led to ongoing adjustments. Scale-up was achieved through streamlining of tools and strategies, government branding, phased expansion through BRAC - a local non-governmental implementing partner with an extensive community-based platform - and nationwide mainstreaming through multiple non-governmental organization and government programmes. Key messages Well-designed and well-implemented large-scale interventions that combine interpersonal counselling, community mobilization, advocacy, mass communication and strategic use of data have great potential to improve IYCF practices rapidly. Formative research and ongoing studies are essential to tailor strategies to the local context and to the perspectives of mothers, family members, influential community members and policymakers. Continued use of data to adjust programme elements is also central to the process. Scale

  17. Molecular design of a highly selective and strong protein inhibitor against matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, Shouichi; Hirose, Tomokazu; Takeuchi, Tomoka; Miyazaki, Kaoru

    2013-03-29

    Synthetic inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), designed previously, as well as tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) lack enzyme selectivity, which has been a major obstacle for developing inhibitors into safe and effective MMP-targeted drugs. Here we designed a fusion protein named APP-IP-TIMP-2, in which the ten amino acid residue sequence of APP-derived MMP-2 selective inhibitory peptide (APP-IP) is added to the N terminus of TIMP-2. The APP-IP and TIMP-2 regions of the fusion protein are designed to interact with the active site and the hemopexin-like domain of MMP-2, respectively. The reactive site of the TIMP-2 region, which has broad specificity against MMPs, is blocked by the APP-IP adduct. The recombinant APP-IP-TIMP-2 showed strong inhibitory activity toward MMP-2 (Ki(app) = 0.68 pm), whereas its inhibitory activity toward MMP-1, MMP-3, MMP-7, MMP-8, MMP-9, or MT1-MMP was six orders of magnitude or more weaker (IC50 > 1 μm). The fusion protein inhibited the activation of pro-MMP-2 in the concanavalin A-stimulated HT1080 cells, degradation of type IV collagen by the cells, and the migration of stimulated cells. Compared with the decapeptide APP-IP (t½ = 30 min), APP-IP-TIMP-2 (t½ ≫ 96 h) showed a much longer half-life in cultured tumor cells. Therefore, the fusion protein may be a useful tool to evaluate contributions of proteolytic activity of MMP-2 in various pathophysiological processes. It may also be developed as an effective anti-tumor drug with restricted side effects.

  18. Bangladesh Enterprises Continue to Participate in Trade Promotion Events in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2007-01-01

    @@ On March 26, 2007,Bangladesh celebrated its 36th anniversary of the Independence and National Day.China and Bangladesh enjoy time tested friendly relations. The bilateral relations are characterized by sustained efforts to further broaden the nature and scope of the cooperation. In 2005, China emerged as the biggest source of import for Bangladesh, outstripping the volume of import from Bangladesh's other immediate neighbors. Bangladesh is the third largest trading partner of China in South Asia. The total bilateral trade volume has reached beyond US$ 3 billion in 2006.

  19. Optimizing trial design in pharmacogenetics research: comparing a fixed parallel group, group sequential, and adaptive selection design on sample size requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boessen, Ruud; van der Baan, Frederieke; Groenwold, Rolf; Egberts, Antoine; Klungel, Olaf; Grobbee, Diederick; Knol, Mirjam; Roes, Kit

    2013-01-01

    Two-stage clinical trial designs may be efficient in pharmacogenetics research when there is some but inconclusive evidence of effect modification by a genomic marker. Two-stage designs allow to stop early for efficacy or futility and can offer the additional opportunity to enrich the study population to a specific patient subgroup after an interim analysis. This study compared sample size requirements for fixed parallel group, group sequential, and adaptive selection designs with equal overall power and control of the family-wise type I error rate. The designs were evaluated across scenarios that defined the effect sizes in the marker positive and marker negative subgroups and the prevalence of marker positive patients in the overall study population. Effect sizes were chosen to reflect realistic planning scenarios, where at least some effect is present in the marker negative subgroup. In addition, scenarios were considered in which the assumed 'true' subgroup effects (i.e., the postulated effects) differed from those hypothesized at the planning stage. As expected, both two-stage designs generally required fewer patients than a fixed parallel group design, and the advantage increased as the difference between subgroups increased. The adaptive selection design added little further reduction in sample size, as compared with the group sequential design, when the postulated effect sizes were equal to those hypothesized at the planning stage. However, when the postulated effects deviated strongly in favor of enrichment, the comparative advantage of the adaptive selection design increased, which precisely reflects the adaptive nature of the design.

  20. Carbon dioxide emission from brickfields around Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Imran

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken at six divisions of Bangladesh to investigate the CO2 emission from brickfields. to explore the rate of carbon emission over the last 10 years, based on existing technology for brick production. The finding reveals that there were more than 45,000 Brick kilns in Bangladesh which together account for about 95% of operating kilns including Bull's Trench Kiln, Fixed Chimney Kiln, Zigzag Kiln and Hoffman Kiln. These kilns were the most carbon emitting source but it varies on fuel type, kiln type and also for location. It has been found that, maximum carbon emission area was Chittagong, which was 93.150 with percentage of last 10 years and 9.310 per cent per year. Whereas Sylhet was lower carbon emission area indicating percentage 17.172 of last 10 years and 4.218 percent per year. It has been found that total annual amount of CO2 emission for 4 types brick kilns from Dhaka, Chittagong, Rajshahi, Khulana, Sylhet and Barisal were 8.862 Mt yr-1, 10.048 Mt yr-1, 12.783 Mt yr-1, 15.250 Mt yr-1, in the year of 2002, 2005, 2007 and 2010 respectively. In Mymensingh district, the maximum CO2 emission and coal consumption was obtained in Chamak brick field, which was 1882 tons and 950 tons, respectively and minimum was obtained in Zhalak brick field, which was 1039.5 tons and 525.0 tons, respectively during the year of 2013. The percentage in last 10 years of CO2 emission was 72.784 and per cent per year 7.970, which is very alarming for us. The estimates obtained from surveys and on-site investigations indicate that these kilns consume an average of 240 tons of coal to produce 1 million bricks. This type of coal has a measured calorific value of 6,400 KJ, heating value of coal is 20.93 GJ t-1 and it produces 94.61 TJ t-1 and 56.1 TJ t-1 CO2 from coal and natural gas, respectively.

  1. [Selection of appropriate design in the development of interventional and observational research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinotsu, Shiro

    2014-04-01

    Selecting the appropriate study design is crucial when developing clinical research. A fundamental decision is whether to collect data to address the research question using an observational study or to apply an intervention and measure outcomes in a clinical trial. There are two well-known types of observational studies: cohort studies and cross-sectional studies. In the former, a cohort of subjects is observed over time. In prospective cohort studies, observations begin in the present and follow subjects for a given time period. In retrospective cohort studies, information is collected at time intervals in the past. The third potential study design is the case-control study. In such studies, the researcher compares a group of subjects who have a disease or some other outcome with a group without that characteristic. Among clinical trial options, the randomized clinical trial is thought to be higher evidence level than other clinical trials. Developing clinical research begins with the research question, which specifies the primary endpoint, explanatory variables, and the target population. Then, the clinical question and study outline are expanded to the study protocol and case report form. In developing the study protocol, the investigators consider study design, study size, data quality, and feasibility.

  2. Design and Lessons Learned on the Development of a Cryogenic Pupil Select Mechanism (PSM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Alissa L.; Capon, Thomas L.; Hakun, Claef; Haney, Paul; Koca, Corina; Guzek, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Calibration and testing of the instruments on the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is being performed by the use of a cryogenic, full-field, optical simulator that was constructed for this purpose. The Pupil Select Mechanism (PSM) assembly is one of several mechanisms and optical elements that compose the Optical Telescope Element SIMulator, or OSIM. The PSM allows for several optical elements to be inserted into the optical plane of OSIM, introducing a variety of aberrations, distortions, obscurations, and other calibration states into the pupil plane. The following discussion focuses on the details of the design evolution, analysis, build, and test of this mechanism along with the challenges associated with creating a sub arc-minute positioning mechanism operating in an extreme cryogenic environment. In addition, difficult challenges in the control system design will be discussed including the incorporation of closed-loop feedback control into a system that was designed to operate in an open-loop fashion.

  3. Selecting representative affective dimensions using Procrustes analysis: an application to mobile phone design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chih-Chieh; Chang, Hua-Cheng

    2012-11-01

    Collecting affective responses (ARs) from consumers is crucial to designers aspiring to produce an appealing product. Adjectives are frequently used by researchers as an affective means by which consumers can describe their subjective feelings regarding a specific product design. This study proposes a Kansei engineering (KE) approach for selecting representative affective dimensions using factor analysis (FA) and Procrustes analysis (PA). A semantic differential (SD) experiment is used to examine consumers' ARs toward a set of representative product samples. FA is employed to extract the underlying latent factors using an initial set of affective dimensions. A backward elimination process based on PA is used to determine the relative significance of adjectives in each step according to the calculated residual sum of squared differences (RSSDs) to finally obtain the ranking of the initial set of adjectives. Additionally, the results of the proposed approach are compared to the method that combines FA and two-stage cluster analysis (CA). A case study of mobile phone design is provided to demonstrate the analysis results.

  4. HIGH QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL PRINCIPLES APPLIED TO THE ARCHITECTONIC DESIGN SELECTION PROCEDURE: THE NUTRE LAB CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Barroso Krause

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The need to produce more sustainable buildings has been influencing the design decisions all over the world. That’s why it is imperative, in Brazil, the development of strategies and method to aid the decision making during the design process, focused on high quality environmental. This paper presents a decision support tool based on the principles of sustainable construction developed by the Project, Architecture and Sustainability Research Group (GPAS of Federal University of Rio de Janeiro – Brazil. The methodology has been developed for the selection of a preliminary design of a laboratory to be built at Rio Technology Park at the University campus. The support provided by GPAS occurred in three stages: the elaboration of the Reference Guide for the competitors, the development of a methodology to evaluate the proposed solutions (based on environmental performance criteria and the assistance of the members of jury in the trial phase. The theoretical framework was based upon the concepts of the bioclimatic architecture, the procedures specified by the certification HQE® (Haute Qualité Environnementale and the method suggested by the ADDENDA® architecture office. The success of this experience points out the possibility to future application in similar cases.

  5. Role of spatial tools in public health policymaking of Bangladesh: opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dohyeong; Sarker, Malabika; Vyas, Priyanka

    2016-02-27

    In spite of the increasing efforts to gather spatial data in developing countries, the use of maps is mostly for visualization of health indicators rather than informed decision-making. Various spatial tools can aid policymakers to allocate resources effectively, predict patterns in communicable or infectious diseases, and provide insights into geographical factors which are associated with utilization or adequacy of health services. In Bangladesh, the launch of District Health Information System 2, along with recent efforts to gather spatial data of facilities location, provides an interesting opportunity to study the current landscape and the potential barriers in advancing the use of spatial tools for informed decision making. This study assessed the current level of map usage and spatial tools for health sector planning in Bangladesh, focusing on investigating why map usage and spatial tools remained at a basic level for the purpose of health policy. The study design involved in-depth interviews, followed by an expert survey (n = 39) obtained through snowball sampling.Our survey revealed that assessing areas with shortage of community health workers emerged as the top most for basic map usage or primarily for visualization purpose, while planning for emergency and obstetric care services, and disease mapping was the most frequent category for intermediate and advanced map usage, respectively. Furthermore, we found lack of inter-institutional collaboration, lack of continuous availability of trained personnel, and lack of awareness on the use of geographic information system (GIS) as a decision-making tool as three most critical barriers in the current landscape. Our findings highlight the barriers in increasing the adoption of spatial tools for health policymaking and planning in Bangladesh.

  6. Digital Divide between Teachers and Students in Urban Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khalid, Md. Saifuddin

    2011-01-01

    data available on them in Bangladesh context. A study was conducted to study the digital divide and ICT usage pattern among the urban students and teachers of schools and colleges in Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh. About 75 students enrolled in probability and statistics course of Independent...... to use’ compared to Bangla medium students. Significantly higher percentage of students can use and own desktop, laptop, cellphone, iPOD and MP3 player. While teachers mostly use computers for work (73%), study (45%) and listening music (34%), students use for playing games (63%), listening musing (62...... University, Bangladesh (IUB) in autumn 2009 participated in conducting survey activities. Total 33 academic institutes were south for approval and 11 could be surveyed before the Christmas and annual recess. Responses from 6 other academics institutes were collected from the personal networks of students...

  7. Climate change and soil salinity: The case of coastal Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Susmita; Hossain, Md Moqbul; Huq, Mainul; Wheeler, David

    2015-12-01

    This paper estimates location-specific soil salinity in coastal Bangladesh for 2050. The analysis was conducted in two stages: First, changes in soil salinity for the period 2001-2009 were assessed using information recorded at 41 soil monitoring stations by the Soil Research Development Institute. Using these data, a spatial econometric model was estimated linking soil salinity with the salinity of nearby rivers, land elevation, temperature, and rainfall. Second, future soil salinity for 69 coastal sub-districts was projected from climate-induced changes in river salinity and projections of rainfall and temperature based on time trends for 20 Bangladesh Meteorological Department weather stations in the coastal region. The findings indicate that climate change poses a major soil salinization risk in coastal Bangladesh. Across 41 monitoring stations, the annual median projected change in soil salinity is 39 % by 2050. Above the median, 25 % of all stations have projected changes of 51 % or higher.

  8. Applicability of Telemedicine in Bangladesh: Current Status and Future Prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Nessa, Ahasanun; Ullah, Sana; Kwak, Kyung Sup

    2009-01-01

    Telemedicine refers to the use of information and communication technology to provide and support health care mainly for the purpose of providing consultation. It is also a way to provide medical procedures or examinations to remote locations. It has the potential to improve both the quality and the access to health care services delivery while lowering costs even in the scarcity of resources. Understanding the potentiality of telemedicine, many developing countries are implementing telemedicine to provide health care facility to remote area where health care facilities are deficient. Bangladesh is not an exception to this either. In this paper we mention the reasons why Bangladesh has to move for telemedicine. We also present the past and on-going telemedicine activities and projects in Bangladesh. Analyzing these projects we have found out some factors which should be assessed carefully for successful implementation of telemedicine application. Finally we propose a prototype telemedicine network for Banglad...

  9. Investigation of household contamination of Vibrio cholerae in Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hossain, Zenat Zebin; Farhana, Israt; Mohan Tulsiani, Suhella

    The role of in-house transmission on the incidence of Vibrio cholerae, the deadly waterborne pathogen, is still not developed. The aim of the current study was to investigate possible contamination routes in household domain for effective cholera control in Bangladesh. To examine the prevalence...... and water supply may be the reason behind this relatively high presence of virulence factors in food plates and water pots. Direct exposure routes of disease transmission should be a major consideration in cholera prevention policies. Investigation of household contamination of Vibrio cholerae in Bangladesh........ Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/305215719_Investigation_of_household_contamination_of_Vibrio_cholerae_in_Bangladesh [accessed Oct 14, 2016]....

  10. Inflation Targeting as the Monetary Policy Framework: Bangladesh Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed SAIFUL ISLAM

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Inflation targeting strategy has become a widely accepted monetary policy framework in many countries all over the world. Our study finds that the central bank of Bangladesh is neither inflation targeting nor does follow any other rule-guided monetary policy, rather the policy is formulated with substantial discretion under the guidelines of donor agencies. This paper provides the evidence that monetary sector of Bangladesh economy has gained considerable degree of maturity and fulfils a number of prerequisites to adopt inflation targeting strategy. Using data over 1980-2010 we estimate an error correction model in order to examine if interest rate policy could fight the inflation. This is evident that deviation in inflation from target can be corrected via the changes in interest rate. Empirical findings jointly with few descriptive statistics provide strong evidence to recommend inflation targeting as the monetary policy strategy for Bangladesh.

  11. Board Composition and Firm Performance: Evidence from Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afzalur Rashid

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the influence of corporate board composition in the form of representation of outsideindependent directors on firm economic performance in Bangladesh. Two hypotheses are developed toexamine the relationship among composition of board memberships including independent directors andfirm performance. An observation of 274 Bangladeshi firm-years is used in the study. A linear regressionanalysis is used to test the hypotheses. Results reveal that the outside (independent directors cannot addpotential value to the firm’s economic performance in Bangladesh. The idea of the introduction ofindependent directors may have benefits for greater transparency, but the non-consideration of theunderlying institutional and cultural differences in an emerging economy such as Bangladesh may not resultin economic value addition to the firm. The findings provide an insight to the regulators in their quest forharmonization of international corporate governance practices.

  12. Challenges in Teaching Pronunciation at Tertiary Level in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanzina Tahereen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Teaching pronunciation is one the most challenging parts of ELT in Bangladesh. Very few research and least attention on pronunciation teaching has instigated those challenges more. Moreover, setting an ambitious target to achieve native like pronunciation and teaching without considering the Bangladeshi context are more specific reasons for creating those problems. Therefore, this paper concentrates on the discussion of the existing condition of teaching pronunciation in Bangladesh. Consequently, it starts with presenting existing circumstances of pronunciation teaching in Bangladesh, and showing what the achievable and realistic goal should be for this situation. Then, it talks about the challenges that the teachers face while teaching pronunciation in ELT classroom. This discussion provides deep insight into those challenges which are only applicable to Bangladeshi students. Finally, the paper suggests some contextual and practical solutions to those specific problems.

  13. The Effects of Remittances on Inflation: Evidence from Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. S. Khan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Like many developing countries, remittances are relatively larger capital inflows in Bangladesh in the recent years. Hence, understanding the impact of remittances on the macroeconomic variables such as inflation is essential for the policy makers of the recipient economy. Incorporating remittances as an exogenous variable to the standard inflation function, this paper verifies how it affects the inflation rate in Bangladesh in the 1972-2010 periods. Applying Vector Autoregressive (VAR techniques, the empirical results find that a one percent increase in remittances inflows increases inflation rate by 2.48 percent in the long run, whereas no significant relationship is evident between these two variables in the short-run in Bangladesh.

  14. Chronic suppurative otitis media and its association with socio-econonic factors among rural primary school children of bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Md Mazharul; Raquib, Ahmed; Ahmad, Shaikh Muniruddin

    2012-03-01

    Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media (CSOM) is a common community health disorder of children in all developing countries like Bangladesh which causes significant impact in speech, cognitive, educational and psychological development. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of CSOM and its association with certain socio-economic factors and health related practice and believes among rural primary school children of Bangladesh. The study was done among 1468 rural school going children (Boys:Girls, 1:1.23) aged between 4 and 12 years (mean 8.8 ± 1.66) in five randomly selected rural primary school of Palash Upazilla of Narsingdi district, Bangladesh. They had underwent ENT check up by the doctors trained in ENT and their guardians were interviewed regarding their socioeconomic status, health related practices and beliefs and other related issues using a pre tested protocol. Total 77 (5.2%) cases of CSOM were detected with girl's predominance (5.7 vs. 4.7%). Our study revealed statistically significant association of CSOM with yearly income of guardian (P ear cleaning habit (P problem of CSOM can be resolved by collective effort by incorporating primary ear care program with primary health care system among the vulnerable children of rural area along with their socio-economic development. Thus, future citizens can be safeguarded from developing CSOM, hearing impairment and its resultant complications.

  15. A critical review and database of biomass and volume allometric equation for trees and shrubs of Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, H.; Siddique, M. R. H.; Akhter, M.

    2016-08-01

    consistency in field sampling, sample processing, data recording and selection of allometric equations should be maintained to ensure accuracy in estimation of biomass, volume, and carbon stock in different forest types of Bangladesh.

  16. Life Expectancy After Spinal Cord Injury In a Developing Country-A Retrospective Study At CRP, Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reshma Parvin Nuri

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To find out the average survival rate following Spinal Cord Injury (SCI in Bangladesh. Method: 158 randomly selected death records  of  persons with SCI  from the years 1979 to 1999, were analysed retrospectively in August 2009, at the Centre for the Rehabilitation of the Paralysed, (CRP, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh. The records showed that 91% were males and the mean age of sustaining injury was 33.85 years. Most of them were paraplegic (79.75% and the injuries were traumatic in origin (86.1%. Overall, 56.4% of those admitted died within 5 years and only 16.4% survived beyond 10 years following SCI. Every four out of five affected persons died at home.Results: Though there was difficulty in comparing survival rates of persons with  SCI  in developing and developed countries,  life expectancy among persons with SCI  in the current study was found to be much lower than that of similar patients in developed countries.Conclusions: Further research on a larger scale, using an international standardised method to compare results, is essential to  produce more accurate data. Special attention needs to be paid to improving the support systems for persons with SCI in  the acute rehabilitation   and reintegration phases of care in Bangladesh. Key words: Paraplegia, life expectancy, survival, SCI, developing countries, Bangladesh.doi 10.5463/DCID.v22i2.34 

  17. Family planning knowledge and current use of contraception among the Mru indigenous women in Bangladesh: a multivariate analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam MR

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available M Rakibul Islam1, Gunnar Thorvaldsen21Bangladesh Agricultural University, Bangladesh; 2Norwegian Historical Data Centre, University of Tromsø, NorwayBackground: This article aims to understand the family planning (FP knowledge and current use of contraception and its predictors among women of the Mru people – the most underprivileged indigenous community in Bangladesh.Methods: In this study, 374 currently married Mru women were interviewed and selected purposively from three upazilas (administrative subdistricts of the Bandarban area, where most of the Mru people live. The association between the variables was assessed in bivariate analysis using the Chi-square test and binary logistic regression models were employed to explore the predictors of FP knowledge and current use of contraception among the Mru women.Results: Only about 40% of respondents had ever heard FP messages or about FP methods – two-fifths of the national figure (99.9%. The current use of contraception was much lower (25.1% among the Mru people than at the national level (55.8%. Among both modern and traditional methods, the contraceptive pill ranked first. About two-thirds (66.0% of married women used this method – more than two times than the national figure (28.5%. On the other hand, the prevalence of male methods was comparatively lower than at the national level. Logistic regression models revealed that place of residence, religion, age, school attendance, husband's school attendance, service provided in the community, distance to the service center, and exposure to mass media had significant effects on knowledge of FP and on use of contraception.Conclusion: Education for mothers and vernacular language-based doorstep FP programs with special emphasis on awareness are suggested for the community.Keywords: family planning, contraceptive use, the Mru, logistic regression, Bangladesh

  18. Intern doctors’ views on the current and future antibiotic resistance situation of Chattagram Maa O Shishu Hospital Medical College, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoque R

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Rozina Hoque,1 Asma Mostafa,2 Mainul Haque3 1Department of Pharmacology, 2Department of Anatomy, Chattagram Maa O Shishu Hospital Medical College, Agrabad, Chittagong, Bangladesh; 3Unit of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Terengganu, Malaysia Background: Bacterial resistance due to antibiotic misuse is reported every day. Such threat calls for a consensus to develop new strategies to prevent the development of antibiotic resistance of bacteria. Medical doctors must play a pivotal role to control and prevent the misuse of antibiotics. There were complaints that prescribers are lacking behind in updates and advancement in the field. To address such knowledge gap, a study was conducted to know the views of interns on the current antibiotic resistance situation in a teaching hospital in Bangladesh. Methods: This study was a cross-sectional, randomized, and questionnaire-based survey. Interns of the medicine, gynecology, and surgery departments of Chattagram Maa O Shishu Hospital Medical College were the study population. Results: Out of 50 respondents, 98% would like more education on antibiotic selection. All respondents believed that prescribing inappropriate or unnecessary antibiotics was professionally unethical. Ninety percent of the participants were confident in making an accurate diagnosis of infection. Eighty-four percent of them were confident about dosage schedule. In all, 98% participants thought that antibiotic resistance is a national problem and 64% of the respondents thought that same problem also existed in their hospital. Study participants were of the view that 41%–60% of antibiotic usages are irrational in Bangladesh. Fifty-eight percent of the study population thought that antimicrobial resistance (AR would be a greater problem in the future. Conclusion: The interns believe that there is a knowledge gap on AR. More emphasis should be given to AR and its implications in the undergraduate

  19. Issues in developing a mitigation strategy for Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asaduzzaman, M. [Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    1996-12-31

    Bangladesh, it is by now well-known, is at the receiving end, in the literal sense of the term, of the global climate change and its potential impacts. She contributes very little to the current global emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs). The Emission Inventory under the present umbrella project, Bangladesh Climate Change Study (BCCS), has found that her annual emission of carbon has been only 3.99 mn metric tons per year. An earlier study arrived at exactly the same figure. The figures for estimated release of methane is far less firm. The estimated methane emission in 1990 could be anywhere between 1 million and 6 million metric tons. In any case the total emission is unlikely to be more than one-half of one percent of the global total. On the other hand, however, she faces specter of widespread and more frequent floods, more frequent droughts, cyclones and above all sea-level rise (SLR) which may inundate a substantial part of the country all of these bringing in immeasurable misery and destitution and loss of income, employment and growth. One would expect that in such a situation, Bangladesh`s basic concern should be to prepare an appropriate adaptation strategy. This is already a major policy concern of the Government. There is, however, an increasing realization that Bangladesh should as well emphasize an appropriate mitigation strategy (MS). There may be at least three reasons why this should be so. The first is that she is a signatory of the Framework Convention on Climate Change. The second is that in the medium, if not short term she expects major growth due to a developing economy. Third is that Bangladesh depends primarily on fossil fuel imports for energy, and will become a larger source with further development.

  20. FORMAL TRADE BETWEEN INDIA AND BANGLADESH: AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K.S. YADAV

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The importance of improving trade flows between India and Bangladesh is not only beneficial to them, but for the whole SAARC region, given that Bhutan and Nepal utilise Bangladesh ports as gateways to trade outside the region. Bangladesh’s overall exports are dominated by labour-intensive manufacturing and its imports to India by primary commodities. The shares of manufactured goods in country’s overall export were about 92 and 91 percent in 2001 and 2011 respectively. However, the composition of bilateral trade between these two countries has been changing over time. Addition and removal in the list of products of trade basket is a usual process. Consistent products in the trade basket of Bangladesh are ready made garments and sea food, whereas those of India are raw cotton, cereals and products and machinery of iron and steel. Expansion of trade of these countries with outside world, but not with each other confirms the prevalence of certain barriers, physical or non-physical in nature, rendering many potential products remain untraded. India and Bangladesh being geographically proximate to each other possess huge scope to trade. Specifically as both the countries are rich in natural resources and are competent in the production of small-scale manufacturing and agrarian supplies, mostly from the eastern parts of India and Bangladesh, both possess huge potential for bilateral trade. Many items having high trade potential are still not able to get market exposure in the neighbouring country because of various non-tariff barriers prevailing in current trade scenario, which have hiked up the cost of doing business to unacceptable proportions and as most of the highly tradable products are still kept under the sensitive lists of Bangladesh. There are numerous bottlenecks in the current trade infrastructure which turns out to be physical barrier to trade. The present paper highlights the import export and Exchange Rate change and prospects of

  1. NEW TRENDS IN LEGAL EDUCATION AT BANGLADESH OPEN UNIVERSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid FERDOUSI

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In Bangladesh, Formal legal education is provided by either a department of a university or an affiliated college. There are four public universities and above twenty six private universities in our country with law as a regular subject of teaching. Besides, the National University imparts teaching of law through law colleges in the country. All public and private universities providing law graduate degree by conventional system but many people deprived from this opportunities. Thus to increase equitable access to education and to develop the human resources of the country the Bangladesh Open University playing significant role. Large numbers of students of rural areas, particularly women, out of school and adults who must do work to support their families are include with the university. Bangladesh Open University is the only institution in Bangladesh which imparts education in open and distance mode and offers 23 formal programmes, the demand for the introduction of LL.B programme for the benefit of those who have been, for various reasons, deprived of the opportunity of undertaking graduate course in law in conventional mode of education. The decision to offer the programme in distance mode is being taken in response to the earnest desire of the relevant quarters expressed in various dailies and formal applications submitted to the university authority as the learners in the open and distance mode learn at his own place and any time whenever he feels convenient to learn and is not for restricted by time, space or age. Distance learning is, indeed, presently considered as a viable alternative of the conventional system of education to fulfill the growing demand for legal education.This paper presents the new academic trends in Bangladesh Open University by distance learning Bachelor of Laws (LL.B. degree and modern aspects of the legal education at School of Law in Bangladesh Open University.

  2. Sexual violence towards married women in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naved, Ruchira Tabassum

    2013-05-01

    This article explored the magnitude and nature of within marriage sexual violence against women and factors associated with physically forced sex by husbands in urban and rural Bangladesh using population-based survey data from 2001 (n = 2,702). Results showed high prevalence of lifetime sexual violence: 37 % in urban and 50 % in rural areas. An overwhelming majority of the women reported being sexually abused by husbands more than once. Logistic regression analyses revealed that six out of ten independent variables included in the models were significant. The factors positively associated with physically forced sex by husbands during the last 12 months were: history of physical abuse of husband's mother by his father; level of controlling behavior by husband; and forced or coerced first sex. Women's age (20-24 compared to 15-19) and dowry demand at marriage increased the likelihood of this violence in the rural area. Urban women in the second and third income quartiles were more likely to be exposed to this violence compared to women in the first quartile. Results highlight the need for prevention programs targeting men, which would help at the same time to break the cycle of intergenerational exposure and thereby transmission of violence. Notions of gender equality; women's sexual rights; and women's right to consent and choice need to be widely promoted particularly among men.

  3. Status of contamination monitoring in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begum, Aleya [Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Savar, Dacca (Bangladesh)

    1997-06-01

    The applications of radioisotopes and radiation sources to the research and development in medicine, food agriculture, industries and others are rapidly increasing in Bangladesh. The existing major nuclear facilites and allied laboratories of the country include 3 MW TRIGA Mark-2 research reactor for training, research and radioisotope production, 14 MeV neutron generator for nuclear data measurement and elemental analysis via neutron activation, 3 MeV Van de Graaff accelerator for the research and application of nuclear physics, and 50,000 Ci and 5,000 Ci Co-60 irradiators. About 10 Co-60 and Cs-137 teletherapy units are in operation in hospitals. The radioactive contamination of working areas, equipment, protective clothing and skin may result from normal operation and accidents, and contamination monitoring and decontamination are the essential part of radiation protection program. Surface contamination is monitored with Berthold survey meters. Hand and foot monitors have been used. Routine systematic search, continuous air monitoring, the examination of silt movement in Chittagong harbor using Sc-46 tracer and the measurement of tritium contamination for the neutron generator are reported. (K.I.)

  4. Ultra-Wideband Channel Sounder – Design, Construction and Selected Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Zetik

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes construction, design, and application of a real-time ultra-wideband channel sounder. Its specific architecture allows measurements of time-variant radio propagation channels in different frequency bands. The sounder’s stimulation signal is the maximum length binary sequence. Synchronous multi-channel operation is supported by its excellent timing stability and by its low power consumption of miniature sized low temperature co-fired ceramics modules that comprise custom integrated SiGe circuits. This is a prerequisite to build a multiple-input-multiple-output sounder which is suitable for sounding even in distributed scenarios such as sensor networks. Selected application examples demonstrated the performance and possibilities of the sounder.

  5. ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in environmental water in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Anwarul; Yoshizumi, Ayumi; Saga, Tomoo; Ishii, Yoshikazu; Tateda, Kazuhiro

    2014-11-01

    Pathogens encoding extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genes represent a threat for failure of empirical antibiotic therapy and are associated with high mortality, morbidity and expenses. We examined surface water in Dhaka, capital of Bangladesh and isolated ESBL-producing Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter cloacae, suggesting the potential role of water for the dissemination and transmission of resistant genes among microorganisms. E. coli found most prevalent among isolated Enterobacteriaceae from environmental water. Molecular and genetic analysis revealed CTX-M-type and SHV-type ESBL genes in isolates that may influence the spread of multidrug resistant pathogenic bacteria causing human and animal infections in Bangladesh.

  6. A rainfall simulation model for agricultural development in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sayedur Rahman

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A rainfall simulation model based on a first-order Markov chain has been developed to simulate the annual variation in rainfall amount that is observed in Bangladesh. The model has been tested in the Barind Tract of Bangladesh. Few significant differences were found between the actual and simulated seasonal, annual and average monthly. The distribution of number of success is asymptotic normal distribution. When actual and simulated daily rainfall data were used to drive a crop simulation model, there was no significant difference of rice yield response. The results suggest that the rainfall simulation model perform adequately for many applications.

  7. Existing and Expected Service Quality of Grameenphone Users in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmat Ullah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Grameenphone (GP is a market leader in the telecommunication industry in Bangladesh. This study investigates the existing and expected service quality of Grameenphone users in Bangladesh. The Study reveals that there are significant gap between existing and expected perceived service network, 3G, customer care, physical facilities, billing cost, information service, mobile banking and GP offers. The study concludes that customer satisfaction is a dynamic phenomenon. Maintaining desired level of customer satisfaction requires corporate proactive responsiveness in accessing, building & retaining satisfied customers for sustainable competitive advantages in the marketplace.

  8. Renewable energy and rural development activities experience in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barua, D.C.

    1997-12-01

    The per capita per year fuel consumption in Bangladesh is only 56 kg oil equivalent. The supply of electricity by Bangladesh power development board (BPDB) and Dhaka electricity supply authority (DESA) is mainly confined to cities and towns. Rural Electrification Board (REB) distributes electricity to the rural people through cooperatives. The rural cooperatives cover only 10% of the total population. Only about 15% of the total population is directly connected to the electricity. In order to meet the increasing energy demand for development of agriculture and industry and for the generation of better employment opportunities, it will be necessary to harness all the available alternative sources of energy immediately.

  9. The emerging disease occurrence of pet animals in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umma Habiba

    2016-12-01

    Results: Among the most general pet animals in Bangladesh (dog, cat, rabbit, the mostly occured diseases were scabies (23.07%, feline ascariasis (37.14% and rabbit mange (34.61%, while the less frequent diseases were canine parvovirus enteritis (2.19%, cat scratch disease (5.71% and overgrown teeth (7.69%. Conclusion: The study provides basic information about the current status and the percentage (% of disease occurrence considering the emerging diseases of pet animals in Bangladesh. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(4.000: 413-419

  10. Ebola Virus Disease – Global Scenario & Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Rezwanur Rahman

    2015-03-01

    test, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assay, electron microscopy and virus isolation by cell culture.1 Supportive care - rehydration with oral or intravenous fluids - and treatment of specific symptoms, improves survival. There is as yet no proven treatment available for EVD.1 Raising awareness of risk factors for Ebola infection and protective measures that individuals can take is an effective way to reduce human transmission. Risk reduction messaging should focus on several factors like reducing the risks of wildlife-to-human transmission and human-to-human transmission and also on outbreak containment measures.1 Health care workers caring for patients with suspected or confirmed Ebola virus should apply extra infection control measures to prevent contact with the patient’s blood and body fluids and contaminated surfaces or materials such as clothing and bedding, wear face protection besides routine measures. Samples taken from humans and animals for investigation of Ebola infection should be handled by trained staff with utmost care and processed in suitably equipped laboratories.1 The infections of two health care workers in Dallas, USA and a nurse in Madrid, Spain have revealed the truth that even highly developed nations are not immune. Still, Asia has some advantages as it readies itself for Ebola. Flight patterns suggest that the influx of travelers from Ebola-stricken West African countries to the Asian continent is far less than it is to Africa, Europe or North America.10 The recent outbreak affecting several nations also alarmed the public health sector of Bangladesh. But virus and healthcare experts have assured that there is nothing to be anxious about Ebola in Bangladesh as it has been categorized as among the least threatened countries by the World Health Organization (WHO on August 8, 2014 in its first Emergency Committee meeting.11 Bangladesh Government has already taken effective preventive measures suggested by WHO, which

  11. Designing Organizational Effectiveness Model of Selected Iraq’s Sporting Federations Based on Competing Values Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Eydi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was designing effectiveness model of selected Iraq sport federations based on competing values framework. Statistical society of present study included 221 subjects ranging from chairmen, expert staffs, national adolescent athletes, and national referees. 180 subjects (81.4 percent answered standard questionnaire of Eydi et al (2011 with five Likert values scale. Content and face validity of this tool was confirmed by 12 academic professors and its reliability was validated by Cronbach's alpha (r = 0.97. Results of Structural Equation Model (SEM based on path analysis method showed that factors of expert human resources(0.88, organizational interaction (0.88, productivity (0.87, employees' cohesion (0.84, planning (0.84, organizational stability (0.81, flexibility (0.78, and organizational resources (0.74 had the most effects on organizational effectiveness.Also, findings of factor analysis showed that patterns of internal procedures and rational goals were main patterns of competing values framework and determinants of organizational effectiveness in Iraq's selected sport federations. Moreover, federations of football, track and field, weightlifting, and basketball had the highest mean of organizational effectiveness, respectively. Hence, Iraq sport federations mainly focused on organizational control, and internal attention as index of OE.

  12. Genomic libraries and a host strain designed for highly efficient two-hybrid selection in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, P; Halladay, J; Craig, E A

    1996-12-01

    The two-hybrid system is a powerful technique for detecting protein-protein interactions that utilizes the well-developed molecular genetics of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, the full potential of this technique has not been realized due to limitations imposed by the components available for use in the system. These limitations include unwieldy plasmid vectors, incomplete or poorly designed two-hybrid libraries, and host strains that result in the selection of large numbers of false positives. We have used a novel multienzyme approach to generate a set of highly representative genomic libraries from S. cerevisiae. In addition, a unique host strain was created that contains three easily assayed reporter genes, each under the control of a different inducible promoter. This host strain is extremely sensitive to weak interactions and eliminates nearly all false positives using simple plate assays. Improved vectors were also constructed that simplify the construction of the gene fusions necessary for the two-hybrid system. Our analysis indicates that the libraries and host strain provide significant improvements in both the number of interacting clones identified and the efficiency of two-hybrid selections.

  13. A rational design for the selective detection of dopamine using conducting polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabregat, Georgina; Casanovas, Jordi; Redondo, Edurne; Armelin, Elaine; Alemán, Carlos

    2014-05-07

    Poly(N-methylpyrrole) (PNMPy), poly(N-cyanoethylpyrrole) (PNCPy) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) films have been prepared using both single and two polymerization steps for the selective determination of low concentrations of dopamine, ascorbic acid and uric acid in tertiary mixtures. Analysis of the sensitivity and resolution parameters derived from the electrochemical response of such films indicates that PEDOT is the most appropriate for the unambiguous detection of the three species. Indeed, the performance of PEDOT is practically independent of the presence of both gold nanoparticles at the surface of the film and interphases inside the film, even though these two factors are known to improve the electroactivity of conducting polymers. Quantum mechanical calculations on model complexes have been used to examine the intermolecular interaction involved in complexes formed by PEDOT chains and oxidized dopamine, ascorbic acid and uric acid. Results show that such complexes are mainly stabilized by C-HO interactions rather than by conventional hydrogen bonds. In order to improve the sensitivity of PEDOT through the formation of specific hydrogen bonds, a derivative bearing a hydroxymethyl group attached to the dioxane ring of each repeat unit has been designed. Poly(hydroxymethyl-3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PHMeDOT) has been prepared and characterized by FTIR, UV-vis spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Finally, the performance of PHMeDOT and PEDOT for the selective detection of the species mentioned above has been compared.

  14. Climate change and health in Bangladesh: a baseline cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Iqbal Kabir

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bangladesh is facing the unavoidable challenge of adaptation to climate change. However, very little is known in relation to climate change and health. This article provides information on potential climate change impact on health, magnitude of climate-sensitive diseases, and baseline scenarios of health systems to climate variability and change. Design: A cross-sectional study using multistage cluster sampling framework was conducted in 2012 among 6,720 households of 224 rural villages in seven vulnerable districts of Bangladesh. Information was obtained from head of the households using a pretested, interviewer-administered, structured questionnaire. A total of 6,720 individuals participated in the study with written, informed consent. Results: The majority of the respondents were from the low-income vulnerable group (60% farmers or day labourers with an average of 30 years’ stay in their locality. Most of them (96% had faced extreme weather events, 45% of people had become homeless and displaced for a mean duration of 38 days in the past 10 years. Almost all of the respondents (97.8% believe that health care expenditure increased after the extreme weather events. Mean annual total health care expenditure was 6,555 Bangladeshi Taka (BDT (1 USD=77 BDT in 2015 and exclusively out of pocket of the respondents. Incidence of dengue was 1.29 (95% CI 0.65–2.56 and malaria 13.86 (95% CI 6.00–32.01 per 1,000 adult population for 12 months preceding the data collection. Incidence of diarrhoea and pneumonia among under-five children of the households for the preceding month was 10.3% (95% CI 9.16–11.66 and 7.3% (95% CI 6.35–8.46, respectively. Conclusions: The findings of this survey indicate that climate change has a potential adverse impact on human health in Bangladesh. The magnitude of malaria, dengue, childhood diarrhoea, and pneumonia was high among the vulnerable communities. Community-based adaptation strategy for health

  15. Compact design of a planar filtering antenna array including a frequency selective common-mode rejection module

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cifola, L.; Cavallo, D.; Gerini, G.; Morini, A.

    2012-01-01

    A new compact design of a planar phased-array antenna with inherent frequency selectivity properties is presented. In previous works, starting from an array of connected dipoles, the design of a filtenna structure and a strategy for the suppression of common-mode resonances have been addressed. In t

  16. Laparoscopic assisted appendicectomy in District Hospital, Joypurhat, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashar, M K; Alam, M Z; Aziz, M M; Nur-E-Elahi, M; Taher, M A; Jahan, I

    2014-01-01

    "Laparoscopic assisted appendicectomy" refers to visualization of abdominal cavity, identification of appendix, drawing the appendix out through the port wound and appendicectomy. The objective of this study is to evaluate the outcome of the procedure of laparoscopic assisted appendicectomy. In this prospective study patients with appendicitis were randomly selected for laparoscopic assisted appendicectomy from August 2007 to February 2009 in the Department of Surgery, Modernized District Hospital, Joypurhat, Bangladesh. Out of 73 patients Laparoscopic assisted appendicectomy was performed successfully in 95.89% cases and conversion rate was 4.11%. Male to female ratio was almost 1:2 with mean±SD age 18.62±9.16 years. The wound infection rate was 8.2% and urinary retention 2.7%. Early postoperative feeding was started within 24 hours in 86.3% cases and mean duration of hospital stay was 2 days in 76.71% patients. More than 82% returned to their home and started social activities within 5 days. Duration of surgery was almost similar in emergency and interval appendicectomy group (19.35±10.13 vs. 23.66±9.43) minutes. Postoperative morbidity in emergency appendicectomy group showed significantly higher morbidity than interval appendicectomy group (p=0.003). This study indicates that the laparoscopic assisted appendicectomy is feasible for the majority of the patients with appendicitis in both emergency and interval settings. It reduces the operative time, shortens hospital stay and helps in early resumption of normal activities with good cosmetic outcome and patients' satisfaction.

  17. Poverty status and health equity: evidence from rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, F; Tripura, A; Gani, M S; Chowdhury, A M R

    2006-03-01

    Many studies have examined the health inequities between different social groups, often measured by individual independent variables, such as education, gender, ethnicity, geography, rich, poor, etc. Although inequities are increasingly widening, a few studies have looked at the health inequity between different poverty groups within the poor. The present study, using equity terms, examined the use of health services in two rural areas of Bangladesh. Using a multistage sampling method, a total of 80 villages were selected from the Bogra and Dinajpur sadar thanas (subdistricts) for the study. A total of 4003 households in these villages were visited for data collection on mortality and fertility, while data related to use of health services was collected from a subsample of 1032 households. A poverty index, constructed using three variables (household landholding, education level of head of household, and self-rated categorization of household's annual food security), categorized the households into three groups: extreme poor, moderate poor and non-poor. Overall, the data revealed considerable inequities in many study indicators between the poor and the non-poor. However, inequities of varying degrees were also found between the extreme poor and the moderate poor. Lower levels of inequities were found between the poor and the non-poor in the use of health services, which were easily accessible and free of charge (immunization, vitamin A capsule, etc.). On the whole, the extreme poor were less likely to use health services than the moderate poor and the non-poor, suggesting the need for a more appropriate programme to address their pressing health needs.

  18. Micro-scale Spatial Clustering of Cholera Risk Factors in Urban Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qifang Bi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Close interpersonal contact likely drives spatial clustering of cases of cholera and diarrhea, but spatial clustering of risk factors may also drive this pattern. Few studies have focused specifically on how exposures for disease cluster at small spatial scales. Improving our understanding of the micro-scale clustering of risk factors for cholera may help to target interventions and power studies with cluster designs. We selected sets of spatially matched households (matched-sets near cholera case households between April and October 2013 in a cholera endemic urban neighborhood of Tongi Township in Bangladesh. We collected data on exposures to suspected cholera risk factors at the household and individual level. We used intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs to characterize clustering of exposures within matched-sets and households, and assessed if clustering depended on the geographical extent of the matched-sets. Clustering over larger spatial scales was explored by assessing the relationship between matched-sets. We also explored whether different exposures tended to appear together in individuals, households, and matched-sets. Household level exposures, including: drinking municipal supplied water (ICC = 0.97, 95%CI = 0.96, 0.98, type of latrine (ICC = 0.88, 95%CI = 0.71, 1.00, and intermittent access to drinking water (ICC = 0.96, 95%CI = 0.87, 1.00 exhibited strong clustering within matched-sets. As the geographic extent of matched-sets increased, the concordance of exposures within matched-sets decreased. Concordance between matched-sets of exposures related to water supply was elevated at distances of up to approximately 400 meters. Household level hygiene practices were correlated with infrastructure shown to increase cholera risk. Co-occurrence of different individual level exposures appeared to mostly reflect the differing domestic roles of study participants. Strong spatial clustering of exposures at a small spatial scale in a

  19. Micro-scale Spatial Clustering of Cholera Risk Factors in Urban Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Qifang; Azman, Andrew S; Satter, Syed Moinuddin; Khan, Azharul Islam; Ahmed, Dilruba; Riaj, Altaf Ahmed; Gurley, Emily S; Lessler, Justin

    2016-02-01

    Close interpersonal contact likely drives spatial clustering of cases of cholera and diarrhea, but spatial clustering of risk factors may also drive this pattern. Few studies have focused specifically on how exposures for disease cluster at small spatial scales. Improving our understanding of the micro-scale clustering of risk factors for cholera may help to target interventions and power studies with cluster designs. We selected sets of spatially matched households (matched-sets) near cholera case households between April and October 2013 in a cholera endemic urban neighborhood of Tongi Township in Bangladesh. We collected data on exposures to suspected cholera risk factors at the household and individual level. We used intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) to characterize clustering of exposures within matched-sets and households, and assessed if clustering depended on the geographical extent of the matched-sets. Clustering over larger spatial scales was explored by assessing the relationship between matched-sets. We also explored whether different exposures tended to appear together in individuals, households, and matched-sets. Household level exposures, including: drinking municipal supplied water (ICC = 0.97, 95%CI = 0.96, 0.98), type of latrine (ICC = 0.88, 95%CI = 0.71, 1.00), and intermittent access to drinking water (ICC = 0.96, 95%CI = 0.87, 1.00) exhibited strong clustering within matched-sets. As the geographic extent of matched-sets increased, the concordance of exposures within matched-sets decreased. Concordance between matched-sets of exposures related to water supply was elevated at distances of up to approximately 400 meters. Household level hygiene practices were correlated with infrastructure shown to increase cholera risk. Co-occurrence of different individual level exposures appeared to mostly reflect the differing domestic roles of study participants. Strong spatial clustering of exposures at a small spatial scale in a cholera endemic

  20. Establishment of an Indirect Genetic Transformation Method for Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulbul AHMED

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Arabidopsis thaliana is a small flowering plant belonging to the Brassicaceae family, which is adopted as a model plant for genetic research. Agrobacterium tumifaciensmediated transformation method for A. thaliana ecotype Bangladesh was established. Leaf discs of A. thaliana were incubated with A. tumefaciens strain LBA4404 containing chimeric nos. nptII. nos and intron-GUS genes. Following inoculation and co-cultivation, leaf discs were cultured on selection medium containing 50 mg/l kanamycin + 50 mg/l cefotaxime + 1.5 mg/l NAA and kanamycin resistant shoots were induced from the leaf discs after two weeks. Shoot regeneration was achieved after transferring the tissues onto fresh medium of the same combination. Finally, the shoots were rooted on MS medium containing 50 mg/l kanamycin. Incorporation and expression of the transgenes were confirmed by PCR analysis. Using this protocol, transgenic A. thaliana plants can be obtained and indicates that genomic transformation in higher plants is possible through insertion of desired gene. Although Agrobacterium mediated genetic transformation is established for A. thaliana, this study was the conducted to transform A. thaliana ecotype Bangladesh.

  1. ADDRESSING RATIONAL PRESCRIBERS THROUGH THE PHARMACOLOGY AND THERAPEUTICS COURSE WORK OF MBBS SYLLABUS IN BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdus Salam

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacology is most rapidly expanding science in medical discipline which leads to the development of many important drugs to treat many medical conditions that was previously untreatable. This paper focuses on the necessity of integration of pharmacology in the medical curriculum in all clinical phases and ethical aspects of medicine in terms of irrational prescribing. Irrational prescribing of drugs is a major global health problem in medical practice. Currently Pharmacology is taught at phase-II, a 2 year period in a 5 years undergraduate medical Programme in Bangladesh under the name ‘Pharmacology and Therapeutics’. Indiscriminate use of clinically inappropriate and ineffective medicines are a serious problem. Medicines in Bangladesh are inappropriately prescribed, again all kinds of drugs including controlled products are dispensed and sold out frequently without prescription. Henceforth there are regular violation of medical ethics and professionalism. As only pharmacology and therapeutics deals with the correct selection of drugs, the subject should be continued to teach up to phase-III. In addition, therapeutic discussion should be incorporated with proper logbook during internship in order to make safe and efficient prescribers. Supreme priority should be given to legal and ethical aspects of medicine. Medical professionals must uphold social order by ensuring ethical practices of medicine and appropriate role modelling especially by the faculty.

  2. Cross-sectional test of the Fama-French three-factor model: Evidence from Bangladesh stock market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Md. Zobaer; Kamil, Anton Abdulbasah

    2014-09-01

    Stock market is an important part of a country's economy. It supports the country's economic development and progress by encouraging the efficiency and profitability of firms. This research was designed to examine the risk-return association of companies in the Dhaka Stock Exchange (DSE) market of Bangladesh by using the Fama-French three-factor model structure. The model is based on three factors, which are stock beta, SMB (difference in returns of the portfolio with small market capitalisation minus that with big market capitalisation) and HML (difference in returns of the portfolio with high book-to-market ratio minus that with low book-to-market ratio). This study focused on the DSE market as it is one of the frontier emerging stock markets of South Asia. For this study, monthly stock returns from 71 non-financial companies were used for the period of January 2002 to December 2011. DSI Index was used as a proxy for the market portfolio and Bangladesh government 3-Month T-bill rate was used as the proxy for the risk-free asset. It was found that large capital stocks outperform small capital stocks and stocks with lower book-to-market ratios outperform stocks with higher book-to-market ratios in the context of Bangladesh stock market.

  3. Feasibility, Acceptability, and Programme Effectiveness of Misoprostol for Prevention of Postpartum Haemorrhage in Rural Bangladesh: A Quasiexperimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Quaiyum

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We explored the feasibility of distributing misoprostol tablets using two strategies in prevention of postpartum haemorrhage (PPH among women residing in the Abhoynagar subdistrict of Bangladesh. We conducted a quasiexperimental study with a posttest design and nonequivalent comparison and intervention groups. Paramedics distributed three misoprostol tablets, one delivery mat (Quaiyum’s delivery mat, a packet of five standardized sanitary pads, and one lidded plastic container with detailed counseling on their use. All materials except misoprostol were also provided with counseling sessions to the control group participants. Postpartum blood loss was measured by paramedics using standardized method. This study has demonstrated community acceptability to misoprostol tablets for the prevention of PPH that reduced overall volume of blood loss after childbirth. Likewise, the delivery mat and pad were found to be useful to mothers as tools for assessing the amount of blood loss after delivery and informing care-seeking decisions. Further studies should be undertaken to explore whether government outreach health workers can be trained to effectively distribute misoprostol tablets among rural women of Bangladesh. Such a study should explore and identify the programmatic requirements to integrate this within the existing reproductive health program of the Government of Bangladesh.

  4. Choosing architects for competitions - experiences from the selection of design teams in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Rönn

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents results from a study of prequalification in architectural competitions. The aim is to develop knowledge of how the organizer appoints candidates to restricted competitions in Sweden. Prequalification is a selection procedure used early in the competition process to identify suitable candidates for the following design phase. The overall research question in the study is about how organizers identify architects / design teams. The methodology includes an inventory of competitions, case studies, document review and interviews of key-persons. Ten municipal and governmental competitions have been examined in the study. The invitation emerges during negotiation at the organizing body. General conditions, submission requirements and criteria for the evaluation of applications by architect firms are part of an established practice. All clients have an assessment procedure made up of two distinct stages. First they check whether applications meet the specific "must requirements" in the invitation. Thereafter follows an evaluative assessment of the candidate's professional profile, which is based on the criteria in the invitation. Reference projects and information from the referees are important sources of information in this stage. Decisive in the final assessment is the organizer's perception of the candidates' ability to produce projects of architectural quality, the ability to combine creative solutions with functional requirements and aptitude to work with developers and contractors.

  5. Comparison of 2-D Magnetic Designs of Selected Coil Configurations for the Next European Dipole (NED)

    CERN Document Server

    Toral, F; Felice, H; Fessia, Paolo; Loveridge, P W; Regis, Federico; Rochford, J; Sanz, S; Schwerg, Nikolai; Védrine, P; Völlinger, Christine

    2007-01-01

    The Next European Dipole (NED) activity is developing a high-performance Nb3Sn wire (aiming at a non-copper critical current density of 1500 A/mm2 at 4.2 K and 15 T), within the framework of the Coordinated Accelerator Research in Europe (CARE) project. This activity is expected to lead to the fabrication of a large aperture, high field dipole magnet. In preparation for this phase, a Working Group on Magnet Design and Optimization (MDO) has been established to propose an optimal design. Other parallel Work Packages are concentrating on relevant topics, such as quench propagation simulation, innovative insulation techniques, and heat transfer measurements. In a first stage, the MDO Working Group has selected a number of coil configurations to be studied, together with salient parameters and features to be considered during the evaluation: the field quality, the superconductor efficiency, the conductor peak field, the stored magnetic energy, the Lorentz Forces and the fabrication difficulties. 2-D magnetic calc...

  6. An Expert System for Supporting the Design and Selection of Mechanical Equipment for Recreational Crafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Gonciarz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Expert Systems can be defined as computer programs, whose main task is to simulate a human expert, usually in a narrow field of expertise. Expert Systems have experienced tremendous growth and popularity since their commercial introduction in the early 1970’s. Today, Expert Systems are used in business, science, engineering, manufacturing and other engineering applications such as planning, scheduling, diagnosing equipment failures and are used in almost every stage of the manufacturing process and also in medicine and many other fields. Expert Systems belong to the field of artificial intelligence. An intelligent computer program that uses knowledge and inference procedures to solve problems that are difficult enough to require significant human expertise for the solution. The purpose of this paper is to present an Expert System which assists with the design of yachts and supports the selection of mechanical equipment for yachts and includes knowledge in the field of yachting engineering. Using the presented Expert System reduces the time during the design and production preparation process.

  7. Effect of electrode material and design on sensitivity and selectivity for high temperature impedancemetric NOx sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, L Y; Glass, R S; Novak, R F; Visser, J H

    2009-09-23

    Solid-state electrochemical sensors using two different sensing electrode compositions, gold and strontium-doped lanthanum manganite (LSM), were evaluated for gas phase sensing of NO{sub x} (NO and NO{sub 2}) using an impedance-metric technique. An asymmetric cell design utilizing porous YSZ electrolyte exposed both electrodes to the test gas (i.e., no reference gas). Sensitivity to less than 5 ppm NO and response/recovery times (10-90%) less than 10 s were demonstrated. Using an LSM sensing electrode, virtual identical sensitivity towards NO and NO{sub 2} was obtained, indicating that the equilibrium gas concentration was measured by the sensing electrode. In contrast, for cells employing a gold sensing electrode the NO{sub x} sensitivity varied depending on the cell design: increasing the amount of porous YSZ electrolyte on the sensor surface produced higher NO{sub 2} sensitivity compared to NO. In order to achieve comparable sensitivity for both NO and NO{sub 2}, the cell with the LSM sensing electrode required operation at a lower temperature (575 C) than the cell with the gold sensing electrode (650 C). The role of surface reactions are proposed to explain the differences in NO and NO{sub 2} selectivity using the two different electrode materials.

  8. Rational Design of Potent and Selective Inhibitors of an Epoxide Hydrolase Virulence Factor from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Seiya; Hvorecny, Kelli L; Niu, Jun; Hammock, Bruce D; Madden, Dean R; Morisseau, Christophe

    2016-05-26

    The virulence factor cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) inhibitory factor (Cif) is secreted by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and is the founding member of a distinct class of epoxide hydrolases (EHs) that triggers the catalysis-dependent degradation of the CFTR. We describe here the development of a series of potent and selective Cif inhibitors by structure-based drug design. Initial screening revealed 1a (KB2115), a thyroid hormone analog, as a lead compound with low micromolar potency. Structural requirements for potency were systematically probed, and interactions between Cif and 1a were characterized by X-ray crystallography. On the basis of these data, new compounds were designed to yield additional hydrogen bonding with residues of the Cif active site. From this effort, three compounds were identified that are 10-fold more potent toward Cif than our first-generation inhibitors and have no detectable thyroid hormone-like activity. These inhibitors will be useful tools to study the pathological role of Cif and have the potential for clinical application.

  9. An integrated framework to assess plausible future livelihood and poverty changes in deltas: an application to coastal Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lázár, A. N.; Payo, A.; Nicholls, R. J.; Hutton, C.; Adams, H.; Salehin, M.; Haque, A.; Clarke, D.; Bricheno, L.; Fernandes, J. A.; Rahman, M.; Ahmed, A.; Streatfield, P. K.

    2015-12-01

    Deltas represent one of the most densely populated areas in the world. This is especially true for the coastal zone of Bangladesh where more than a thousand people live in each square kilometre of land. Livelihoods, food security and poverty in Bangladesh are strongly dependent on natural resources affected by several factors including climate variability and change, upstream river flow modifications, commercial fish catches in the Bay of Bengal, and engineering interventions such as polderisation. The scarcity of fresh water, saline water intrusion and natural disasters (e.g. river flooding, cyclones and storm surges) have negative impact on drinking water availability and crop irrigation potential; thus severely affect land use and livelihood opportunities of the coastal population. Hydro-environmental changes can be especially detrimental for the well-being of the poorest households that are highly dependent on natural resources. The ESPA Deltas project aims to holistically examine the interaction between the coupled bio-physical environment and the livelihoods of these poor populations in coastal Bangladesh. Here we describe a new integrated model that allows the long-term analysis of the possible changes in this system by linking projected changes in physical processes (e.g. river flows, nutrients), with productivity (e.g. fish, rice), social processes (e.g. access, property rights, migration) and governance/management (e.g. fisheries, agriculture, water and land use management). This integrated approach is designed to provide Bangladeshi policy makers with science-based evidence of possible development trajectories within the coastal delta plain over timescales up to 50 years, including the likely robustness of different governance options on natural resource conservation and poverty levels. This presentation describes the model framework and aims to illustrate the cause-effect relationship in-between changes of the hydro-environment and the livelihoods and

  10. SIGNAL CONSTELLATIONS DESIGN FOR DIFFERENTIAL UNITARY SPACE-TIME IN MIMO-OFDM SYSTEM OVER FREQUENCY-SELECTIVE FADING CHANNELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Jing; Zhu Qi

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the design of signal constellations parameters is studied for Differential Unitary Space-Time Modulation (DUSTM) based on the design criterion of maximizing the diversity product. Farther, noninteger searching method for the signal constellation parameters design is proposed in order to get better codes. Experimental results show that under the different Doppler spread and data transmission rate, the proposed design performs better than the previous design using integer parameters in Multiple Input Multiple Output Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing(MIMO-OFDM) system over frequency-selective fading channels.

  11. Design of a large acceptance, high efficiency energy selection system for the ELIMAIA beam-line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillaci, F.; Maggiore, M.; Andó, L.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Romano, F.; Scuderi, V.; Allegra, L.; Amato, A.; Gallo, G.; Korn, G.; Leanza, R.; Margarone, D.; Milluzzo, G.; Petringa, G.

    2016-08-01

    A magnetic chicane based on four electromagnetic dipoles is going to be realized by INFN-LNS to be used as an Energy Selection System (ESS) for laser driven proton beams up to 300 MeV and C6+ up to 70 MeV/u. The system will provide, as output, ion beams with a contrallable energy spread varying from 5% up to 20% according to the aperture slit size. Moreover, it has a very wide acceptance in order to ensure a very high transmission efficiency and, in principle, it has been designed to be used also as an active energy modulator. This system is the core element of the ELIMED (ELI-Beamlines MEDical and Multidisciplinary applications) beam transport, dosimetry and irradiation line that will be developed by INFN-LNS (It) and installed at the ELI-Beamlines facility in Prague (Cz). ELIMED will be the first user's open transport beam-line where a controlled laser-driven ion beam will be used for multidisciplinary research. The definition of well specified characteristics, both in terms of performance and field quality, of the magnetic chicane is crucial for the system realization, for the accurate study of the beam dynamics and for the proper matching with the Permanent Magnet Quadrupoles (PMQs) used as a collection system already designed. Here, the design of the magnetic chicane is described in details together with the adopted solutions in order to realize a robust system form the magnetic point of view. Moreover, the first preliminary transport simulations are also described showing the good performance of the whole beam line (PMQs+ESS).

  12. Design and Fabrication of a Precision Template for Spine Surgery Using Selective Laser Melting (SLM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Wang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to meet the clinical requirements of spine surgery, this paper proposes the fabrication of the customized template for spine surgery through computer-aided design. A 3D metal printing-selective laser melting (SLM technique was employed to directly fabricate the 316L stainless steel template, and the metal template with tiny locating holes was used as an auxiliary tool to insert spinal screws inside the patient’s body. To guarantee accurate fabrication of the template for cervical vertebra operation, the contact face was placed upwards to improve the joint quality between the template and the cervical vertebra. The joint surface of the printed template had a roughness of Ra = 13 ± 2 μm. After abrasive blasting, the surface roughness was Ra = 7 ± 0.5 μm. The surgical metal template was bound with the 3D-printed Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS plastic model. The micro-hardness values determined at the cross-sections of SLM-processed samples varied from HV0.3 250 to HV0.3 280, and the measured tensile strength was in the range of 450 MPa to 560 MPa, which showed that the template had requisite strength. Finally, the metal template was clinically used in the patient’s surgical operation, and the screws were inserted precisely as the result of using the auxiliary template. The geometrical parameters of the template hole (e.g., diameter and wall thickness were optimized, and measures were taken to optimize the key geometrical units (e.g., hole units in metal 3D printing. Compared to the traditional technology of screw insertion, the use of the surgical metal template enabled the screws to be inserted more easily and accurately during spinal surgery. However, the design of the high-quality template should fully take into account the clinical demands of surgeons, as well as the advice of the designing engineers and operating technicians.

  13. INCREASING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF ANTI-SMOKING CAMPAIGN BY ANALYZING THE BEHAVIOR AND ATTITUDES OF SMOKING PERSONS & UTILIZING 4PS OF MARKETING: A STUDY ON SYLHET CITY, BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsin Hossain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Different anti-smoking campaigns are not proved as expectedly effective in reducing smoking habit among citizen of Sylhet as well as other districts of Bangladesh. This paper is designed to search out the ways to increase the effectiveness of such campaign by analyzing the behaviour and attitudes of smoking people of Sylhet city. Primary data are collected from 268 respondents selected by stratified sampling design by a semi-structured questionnaire and secondary from different published materials for this empirical research. It is inferred that lack of awareness and seriousness about warning is the cause of smoking habit that is prevailed mostly among lower and medium income people who are struggling for their livelihood. It started from their student life when emotion and curiosity dominates over other elements in human life cycle. But at the matured stage they cannot give up the addiction habit easily till the suffering from disease started or the strong obstruction from closest family members faced. It is also inferred that strong will power to give up that habit at a time make the intended people successful in that most necessary abandoning event to save himself from active effect of smoking and others from passive effect of smoking. Social Marketing through the strong hand of Social Advertising along with other 3P’s (Product, Place & Price can play the most significant role by creating mass awareness and guiding self control in anti-smoking campaign by bringing change in social attitude.

  14. Sexual Health of Women with Spinal Cord Injury in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huib Cornielje

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To identify factors influencing the sexual health of women with spinal cord injury (SCI in Bangladesh.Methods: This study used both qualitative and quantitative methods. The quantitative part used a case-control design. Cases were women with SCI and controls were age-matched women without SCI.  Questionnaires were used to collect data concerning the sexual health status of women. Multivariate logistic regression was done to determine which factors had an independent effect on sexual health.  In-depth interviews were held with a sub-group of women from both groups, and interview guides were used. The in-depth interview data was subjected to content analysis.Results: In total, 92 questionnaires were given out and 30 in-depth interviews were conducted. A relationship was found between physical factors and sexual health, as pain, vaginal dryness and physical discomfort were mentioned more frequently among women with SCI. Environmental and emotional factors such as stigma, satisfaction of the husband and support from the husband and friends had an influence on the sexual health of the women with SCI, as well as the other group of women.Conclusions: From interviews it became clear that most of the women with SCI were dissatisfied with their sexual health as compared to the women without SCI. However, environmental and emotional factors such as attitudes, support and stigma, rather than physical factors, were the most important influences on sexual health in both groups of women.doi: 10.5463/dcid.v23i3.60

  15. Prevalence and Patterns of Tobacco Use in Bangladesh from 2009 to 2012: Evidence from International Tobacco Control (ITC Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigar Nargis

    Full Text Available Smoking and passive smoking are collectively the biggest preventable cause of death in Bangladesh, with major public health burden of morbidity, disability, mortality and community costs. The available studies of tobacco use in Bangladesh, however, do not necessarily employ nationally representative samples needed to monitor the problem at a national scale. This paper examines the prevalence and patterns of tobacco use among adults in Bangladesh and the changes over time using large nationally representative comparable surveys.Using data from two enumerations of the International Tobacco Control (ITC Bangladesh Project conducted in 2009 and 2012, prevalence estimates are obtained for all tobacco products by socio-economic determinants and sample types of over 90,000 individuals drawn from over 30,000 households. Household level sample weights are used to obtain nationally representative prevalence estimates and standard errors. Statistical tests of difference in the estimates between two time periods are based on a logistic regression model that accounts for the complex sampling design. Using a multinomial logit model, the time trend in tobacco use status is identified to capture the effects of macro level determinants including changes in tobacco control policies.Between 2009 and 2012, overall tobacco use went down from 42.4% to 36.3%. The decline is more pronounced with respect to smokeless tobacco use than smoking. The prevalence of exclusive cigarette smoking went up from 7.2% to 10.6%; exclusive bidi smoking remained stable at around 2%; while smoking both cigarette and bidi went down from 4.6% to 1.8%; exclusive smokeless tobacco use went down from 20.2% to 16.9%; and both smokeless tobacco use and smoking went down from 8.4% to 5.1%. In general, the prevalence of tobacco use is higher among men, increases from younger to older age groups, and is higher among poorer people. Smoking prevalence is the highest among the slum population

  16. New Strategies for Designing Inexpensive but Selective Bioadsorbants for Environmental Pollutants: Selection of specific Ligands and Their Cell Surface Expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brent L. Iverson; George Georgiou; Mohammad M. Ataai; Richard R. Koepsel

    2001-02-22

    The Broad, long term objective of the research plan is to develop exquisitely selective polypeptide metal chelators for the remediation of aqueous systems. A variety of polypeptide chelators will be developed and optimized ranging from antibodies to small peptides. Then, through unique molecular engineering approaches developed in our laboratories, the polypeptide chelators will be anchored directly on the surface of the cells that produce them. Thus, instead of using isolated biomolecules we will employ inexpensive genetically engineered whole cell adsorbents. Following a simple, easily scaleable treatment, the engineered cells can be used to manufacture an inexpensive, particulate adsorbent for metal removal.

  17. PASSENGER CAR EQUIVALENT (PCE OF THROUGH VEHICLES AT SIGNALIZED INTERSECTIONS IN DHAKA METROPOLITAN CITY, BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha SAHA

    2009-01-01

    PCE currently used in Bangladesh is based on the values given in Geometric Design of Highways (MoC, 2001, which is the modification of the values given by Webster (1958 on the study performed in the United Kingdom in the 50's and 60's. But now-a-days, the situation is far different both for traffic and road user as the characteristics have changed from that time. Hence, in this paper an empirical study was carried out to determine the PCE of different types of vehicle that reflect the actual traffic conditions of Dhaka Metropolitan City. Data were collected from ten signalized intersections and the headway ratio method was used to estimate the PCE of different types of vehicle. The main vehicle compositions observed during the study period consist of passenger cars, auto-rickshaws, mini-buses and buses. The PCE obtained in this study were compared to the values established earlier. It was found that the estimated PCE are smaller than those being used in Bangladesh.

  18. Household Air Pollution and Under-Five Mortality in Bangladesh (2004–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Naz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Household air pollution (HAP is one of the leading causes of respiratory illness and deaths among children under five years in Bangladesh. This study investigates the association between HAP from cooking fuel and under-five mortality using Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS datasets over the period 2004–2011 (n = 18,308 children, and the extent to which this association differed by environmental and behavioral factors affecting level of exposure. The association between HAP and neonatal (age between 0–28 days, infant (age between 0 and 11 months and under–five (age between 0 and 59 months mortality was examined using multilevel logistic regression models. HAP was not strongly associated with overall neonatal (OR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.01–2.22, p = 0.043, infant (OR = 1.27, 95% CI = 0.91–1.77, p = 0.157 or under-five mortality (OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 0.83–1.55, p = 0.422 in the context of overall decreasing trends in under-five mortality. The association was stronger for households with an indoor kitchen using polluting fuels, and in women who had never breastfed. Reductions in exposure to pollution from cooking fuel, given it is a ubiquitous and modifiable risk factor, can result in further declines in under-five mortality with household design and behavioural interventions.

  19. Informal sector providers in Bangladesh: how equipped are they to provide rational health care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Syed Masud; Hossain, Md Awlad; Chowdhury, Mushtaque Raja

    2009-11-01

    In Bangladesh, there is a lack of knowledge about the large body of informal sector practitioners, who are the major providers of health care to the poor, especially in rural areas, knowledge which is essential for designing a need-based, pro-poor health system. This paper addresses this gap by presenting descriptive data on their professional background including knowledge and practices on common illnesses and conditions from a nationwide, population-based health-care provider survey undertaken in 2007. The traditional healers (43%), traditional birth attendants (TBAs, 22%), and unqualified allopathic providers (village doctors and drug sellers, 16%) emerged as major providers in the health care scenario of Bangladesh. Community health workers (CHWs) comprised about 7% of the providers. The TBAs/traditional healers had sector, instead of ignoring, recognize the importance of the informal providers for the health care of the poor. Consequently, their capacity should be developed through training, supportive supervision and regulatory measures so as to accommodate them in the mainstream health system until constraints on the supply of qualified and motivated health care providers into the system can be alleviated.

  20. Deplorable Living Conditions of Female Workers: A Study in a Tea Garden of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B.M Enamol Hassan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The study reveals the living conditions of the female laborers of tea garden in Bangladesh exploring the social and job environment with the inclusion of consciousness level as the deplorable scenario of their life styles. This research has been done in a tea garden of Sylhet district in Bangladesh namely Lackatoorah Tea Estate, as the study area, taken into account at random. It shows that female workers are being oppressed and suppressed in each and every sphere of life as from family residence to job field. It also exhibits very explicitly that 68 percent of female workers have no control over their own income. 94 percent have no hereditary property ownership though they are entitled to get it legally from their family. 92 percent females think that they are being physically tortured and mentally harassed by their husband, male members of family and also by representative of estates manager. 86 percent women want to keep small size of family but cannot play role in the decision making of child issue. The study  is fully based on primary level data that followed stratified sampling method with triangulation research design and reviewing some related literatures from past research reports.

  1. Diversity, Stand Characteristics and Spatial Aggregation of Tree Species in a Bangladesh Forest Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Beierkuhnlein

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Assessing biodiversity and the spatial structures of forest ecosystems are important for forestry and nature conservation. However, tropical forests of Bangladesh are only sparsely investigated. Here we determined biodiversity (alpha, beta and gamma, spatial species turnover and stand characteristics of one of the few remnant tropical forests in Bangladesh. Two differently protected areas of Satchari forest were compared. We recorded tree species composition, in a systematic plot design, measured diameter at breast height for each individual tree (to assess basal area, and calculated decay in similarity of tree species composition with geographical distance. The distance-decay was assessed separately for the whole study area and for two subsamples from Satchari National Park and Satchari Reserve Forest. Satchari National Park (strictly protected had, despite its smaller area, a higher Alpha and Gamma diversity, but a lower Beta diversity than Satchari Reserve Forest. Variation in species composition was not significant between the two differently protected areas. Basal area increased significantly with protection status although tree individuals were of equal size in both areas. Plots in the Reserve Forest were associated with higher species turnover than in the National Park. We suggest anthropogenic disturbance, which occurs in the less strictly protected Reserve Forest, is the main driver for the detected spatial heterogeneity in species composition.

  2. Abundance of sardine fish species in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Bikram Jit

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted during January, 2012 to December 2012 in the sardine fisheries which is occurred both in artisanal and industrial fishing sector in the marine water of the Bay of Bengal of Bangladesh region. During this study period the total landing amounts by weight of sardines were 7352.99 MT, among these 23.76% (1747.22 MT was exploited by the artisanal mechanized boats and 76.24% (5605.77 MT captured through different industrial fishing trawlers and contributed 17.51% of the total marine fish production by commercial fish trawlers during the study period. 4 sardine species have been recorded from our marine territory. Among them, 2 sardine species are highly abundant, Sardinella fimbriata total production volumes was 5495.79 MT (74.74% contributed 1747.22MT (31.79% from the artisanal and 3748.57MT (68.21% from the industrial sector and Dussumieria acuta production amounts was 1857.20MT (25.26% contributed only from the industrial fishing sector.Species wise contribution shows that S. fimbriata contributed 100% in the artisanal sector and in the industrial fishing S. fimbriata contributed 66.87% and D. acuta contributed the rest 33.13%. The distribution of the S. fimbriata is within 10-20 meters depth and abundance was observed in the southern part of the South patches and South of south patches (N: 210.09// -22, E: 920.04/-07 to N: 200.45/-25, E: 920.18/-56 and 10-50m depth in onshore and off shore areas in the north-west to north-east of Middle ground (Kohinoor point -N: 210.36/.23, E: 900.06/.43 to N: 210.18/.18, E 910.17/.57. The distribution of the D. acuta is within 40-60 m. depth and abundance was observed in the north-west to north-east of Middle ground areas (Kohinoor point - N: 210.36/.23, E: 900.06/.43 to N: 210.18/.18, E 910.17/.57 and south-west to south-east of Middle ground (Kohinoor point- N: 200-17/.29, E: 900.15/.21 to N: 200.29/.56, E: 910.24/.22 in the Bay of Bengal of Bangladesh region. The peak capture season of

  3. Child marriage in Bangladesh: trends and determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, S M Mostafa; Hassan, Che Hashim; Alam, Gazi Mahabubul; Ying, Yang

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the trends and determinants of child marriage among women aged 20-49 in Bangladesh. Data were extracted from the last six nationally representative Demographic and Health Surveys conducted during 1993-2011. Simple cross-tabulation and multivariate binary logistic regression analyses were adopted. According to the survey conducted in 2011, more than 75% of marriages can be categorized as child marriages. This is a decline of 10 percentage points in the prevalence of child marriage compared with the survey conducted in 1993-1994. Despite some improvements in education and other socioeconomic indicators, Bangladeshi society still faces the relentless practice of early marriage. The mean age at first marriage has increased by only 1.4 years over the last one and half decades, from 14.3 years in 1993-1994 to 15.7 years in 2011. Although the situation on risk of child marriage has improved over time, the pace is sluggish. Both the year-of-birth and year-of-marriage cohorts of women suggest that the likelihood of marrying as a child has decreased significantly in recent years. The risk of child marriage was significantly higher when husbands had no formal education or little education, and when the wives were unemployed or unskilled workers. Muslim women living in rural areas have a greater risk of child marriage. Women's education level was the single most significant negative determinant of child marriage. Thus, the variables identified as important determinants of child marriage are: education of women and their husbands, and women's occupation, place of residence and religion. Programmes to help and motivate girls to stay in school will not only reduce early marriage but will also support overall societal development. The rigid enforcement of the legal minimum age at first marriage could be critical in decreasing child marriage.

  4. Design and development of self-passivating biodegradable magnesium alloys using selective element oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brar, Harpreet Singh

    Metallic biomaterials such as stainless steels, titanium alloys, and cobalt-chromium alloys have been used as structural implant materials for many years. However, due to their limitations in temporary implant applications, there has been increased interest in the development of a biodegradable structural implant device. Magnesium (Mg) alloys have shown great potential as a material for biodegradable structural implant applications. However, low strength and high degradation rate of Mg under physiological conditions are major limitations, causing the implant to lose its structural integrity before the healing process is complete. The main aim of this work was to investigate the possibility of designing Mg-based alloys with ability to form selective protective oxides, thereby aiding in the reduction of the initial degradation rate. A thermodynamics-driven design was utilized to select three elements, namely Gadolinium (Gd), Scandium (Sc) and Yttrium (Y), due to the low enthalpy of formation associated with their oxide species. First, binary alloys were cast under inert atmosphere, solution treated and investigated for degradation rate in Hanks' solution. The Mg-Gd binary alloy showed the fastest degradation rate whereas the Mg-Sc binary alloy showed the slowest degradation rate. The degradation of Mg-Gd and Mg-Y was 18 and 5 times faster than Mg-Sc alloy, respectively. The microstructural analysis of the alloys was performed using X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Optical Microscopy (OM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). It was observed that the grain size of Mg-Sc alloys is significantly smaller than Mg-Gd and Mg-Y alloys and can be a contributing factor to the reduction in degradation rate. The hardness behavior of the alloys was also investigated using Vickers microhardness Testing. To understand the oxidation behavior and kinetics, samples were oxidized in pure oxygen environment and investigated using microstructural and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Auger

  5. Design and preparation of matrine surface-imprinted material and studies on its molecule recognition selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Qingjuan; Gao, Baojiao; Zhang, Dandan

    2016-01-01

    A matrine molecule surface-imprinted material was designed and prepared using an effective surface-imprinting technique developed by our group, and its molecular recognition performance and mechanism were investigated in depth. Monomer glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) was first graft-polymerized on the surfaces of micron-sized silica gel particles in surface-initiated graft polymerization manner, obtaining the grafted particles PGMA/SiO(2) with high grafting degree. Subsequently, the ring-opening reaction of the epoxy groups of the grafted macromolecules PGMA with 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) was carried out, resulting in the functional grafted particle SA-PGMA/SiO(2), on whose surfaces salicylic acid as functional group was chemically bonded. By right of the mutual strong secondary bond forces, electrostatic interaction and hydrogen bonding, SA-PGMA/SiO(2) particles produced strong adsorption for matrine. Finally, with this strong adsorption, matrine molecule surface imprinting was carried out on the surfaces of SA-PGMA/SiO(2) particles with ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether as cross-linking agent, resulting in the matrine molecule surface-imprinted material MIP-SAP/SiO(2). The binding characteristic of MIP-SAP/SiO(2) toward matrine was investigated in depth with both batch and column methods and using oxymatrine and cytisine as two contrast alkaloids. The experimental results show that MIP-SAP/SiO(2) has special recognition selectivity and excellent binding affinity for matrine. Relative to oxymatrine and cytisine, the selectivity coefficients of MIP-SAP/SiO(2) for matrine are 5.66 and 11.17, respectively.

  6. Children's Rights and the Imagination of Community in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Sarah C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper suggests that sharply divergent images of children in Bangladesh reflect different "imagined communities" of society and polity, local and global. Universal concepts of "the rights of the child" contrast strongly with a local culture of "guardianship", as the key social institution that governs children's lives. How might bringing these…

  7. Private University Librarian's Experience on Procurement of Books in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Muhammad Hossam Haider

    2011-01-01

    The private universities in Bangladesh are playing an important role in modernizing the higher education system in the country and the role of librarians is also different and challenging. Specially, procuring books and monographs is an exigent function being this lost its demand very quickly. In some cases, titles bear only one semester…

  8. Caesarean of Lion (Panthera leo at Dulahajra Safari Park, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.M.M. Rahman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A six years eight months pregnant lioness at the Dulahajara Safari Park, Chakoria, Cox’s Bazar, Bangladesh, was presented with dystocia. This paper described the pre-, intra- and postoperative procedures including anesthetic protocol carried out and performing a caesarean section to remove dead fetuses and the successful recovery of the lioness without complications.

  9. Dowry and Spousal Physical Violence against Women in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naved, Ruchira Tabassum; Persson, Lars Ake

    2010-01-01

    This article explores whether payment issues or presence of dowry demand in marriage reflecting patriarchal attitude of marital family underlies the positive relationship between dowry and wife abuse using a sample of reproductive-age women (N = 2,702) from a population-based survey conducted in urban and rural Bangladesh in 2001. Regression…

  10. International Briefing 24: Training and Development in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Monowar; Akhter, Salma

    2011-01-01

    Training and development activities in Bangladesh have yet to be systematic and able to fulfil the needs of the economy and industry. The national educational and training system failed to provide adequate knowledge and skills to the workforce. However, private sector organizations are undertaking different initiatives to cope with the industry…

  11. Enhanced Ties with China Can Help Bangladesh Develop

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shihabur; Rahman

    2013-01-01

    <正>Construction of a deep seaport in Chittagong and establishment of Chittagong-Kunming rail and road communications have been a much-talked-about issue following Bangladesh Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina’s visit to China.She went for the trip in the rising economic superpower in one and a half years of her assuming office early 2009.During

  12. The Dissonance between Schooling and Learning: Evidence from Rural Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadullah, M. Niaz; Chaudhury, Nazmul

    2015-01-01

    Using a basic mathematics competence test based on the primary school curricular standard, we examine the extent to which years spent in school actually increases numeracy achievement in rural Bangladesh. Our sample includes 10-18-year-old children currently enrolled in school as well as those out of school. About half of the children failed to…

  13. Neoliberalism, Policy Reforms and Higher Education in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Ariful Haq

    2013-01-01

    Bangladesh has introduced neoliberal policies since the 1970s. Military regimes, since the dramatic political changes in 1975, accelerated the process. A succession of military rulers made rigorous changes in policy-making in various sectors. This article uses a critical approach to document analysis and examines the perceptions of key…

  14. Impact of an aquaculture extension project in Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    2009-01-01

    This paper is an impact study of key short- and long-run effects of the Danida supported Mymensingh Aquaculture Extension Project (MAEP) in Bangladesh, applying different matching and double difference estimators. Results are mixed. First, the paper finds a positive short-run impact on pond...

  15. Military Strategy of Bangladesh to Counter Terrorism in Near Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    Paper presented at first bi-annual international symposium of the Center for Asian Terrorism Research (CATR) at Denpensar, Bali , Indonesia, 19-21...observed phenomena . Bangladesh has had and is likely to experience more terrorist acts in the near future...qualitative in nature. By characteristics, qualitative research uses a naturalistic approach that seeks to understand phenomena in context-specific

  16. Postburn contracture treatment: a healthcare project in Bangladesh.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paul, A.; Swapan, K.B.; Spronk, C.A.E.M.; Niemeijer, R.P.; Spauwen, P.H.M.

    2008-01-01

    Over the last 6 years, a health care program aimed at the surgical correction of postburn contractures has taken place in Faridpur, Bangladesh. People in this rural region are very poor and often cannot afford medical treatment. Often secondary flexion contractures of the face and chin as well as th

  17. Household Schooling and Child Labor Decisions in Rural Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiq, M. Najeeb

    2007-01-01

    Using empirical methods, this paper examines household schooling and child labor decisions in rural Bangladesh. The results suggest the following: poverty and low parental education are associated with lower schooling and greater child labor; asset-owning households are more likely to have children combine child labor with schooling; households…

  18. Ganokendra: An Innovative Model for Poverty Alleviation in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Kazi Rafiqul

    2006-01-01

    Ganokendras (people's learning centers) employ a literacy-based approach to alleviating poverty in Bangladesh. They give special attention to empowering rural women, among whom poverty is widespread. The present study reviews the Ganokendra-approach to facilitating increased political and economic awareness and improving community conditions in…

  19. MEDIA CONCERN AND TRENDS OF FERTILITY IN BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Morad

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses how the media interprets Bangladeshian fertility trends by analyzing 11 online available articles from two Bangladeshi leading dailies, The Daily Star and the Prothom Alo. The exploration of the newspaper articles reveals that print media in Bangladesh has shown concern notably on the present scenario of the country’s declining fertility trend. It has been observed from the newspaper clippings that both population growth rate and fertility rate are gradually declining in Bangladesh which they explain as a matter of great satisfaction. Drawing on examples from South Asia, the articles explain that Bangladesh has a remarkable achievement in fertility reduction compared to India and Pakistan. However, almost all of the articles have expressed concern over the population bomb of Bangladesh. The newspapers also report that though fertility is declining at the national level, significant variation exists at the regional level and among different socio economic groups. The fertility rate is reported to be very high in the urban shanties and poverty-stricken rural areas. In this regard, the clippings have often criticized the government activities, especially governmental population control programme.

  20. Living Sexualities: Negotiating Heteronormativity in Middle Class Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Karim (Shuchi)

    2012-01-01

    textabstract‘Living Sexualities’ is a study of erotic desires, practices and identities, lived within the heteronormative and marriage-normative socio-sexual structures of the urban middle class in contemporary Bangladesh. The study is based on two years fieldwork during which data was generated thr

  1. Quality and Processes of Bangladesh Open University Course Materials Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Tofazzal; Rahman, Morshedur; Rahman, K. M. Rezanur

    2006-01-01

    A new member of the mega-Universities, Bangladesh Open University (BOU) introduced a course team approach for developing effective course materials for distance students. BOU teaching media includes printed course books, study guides, radio and television broadcasts, audiocassettes and occasional face-to-face tutorials. Each course team…

  2. Living with infertility : Experiences among urban slum populations in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papreen, N; Sabin, K; Begum, L; Ahsan, SK; Baqui, AH

    2000-01-01

    This paper explores the perceived causes of infertility, treatment-seeking for infertility and the consequences of childlessness, particularly for women, among a predominantly Muslim population in urban slums of Dhaka in Bangladesh. In-depth interviews were conducted with 60 women and GO men randoml

  3. Folk medicinal uses of Verbenaceae family plants in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmatullah, Mohammed; Jahan, Rownak; Azam, F M Safiul; Hossan, S; Mollik, M A H; Rahman, Taufiq

    2011-01-01

    Folk medicinal practitioners form the first tier of primary health-care providers to most of the rural population of Bangladesh. They are known locally as Kavirajes and rely almost solely on oral or topical administration of whole plants or plant parts for treatment of various ailments. Also about 2% of the total population of Bangladesh are scattered among more than twenty tribes residing within the country's borders. The various tribes have their own tribal practitioners, who use medicinal plants for treatment of diseases. The objective of the present survey was to conduct an ethnomedicinal survey among the Kavirajes and tribal practitioners to determine which species of plants belonging to the Verbenaceae family are used by the practitioners. The Verbenaceae family plants are well known for constituents having important bio-active properties. The present survey indicated that 13 species belonging to 8 genera are used by the folk and tribal medicinal practitioners of Bangladesh. A comparison of their folk medicinal uses along with published reports in the scientific literature suggests that the Verbenaceae family plants used in Bangladesh can potentially be important sources of lead compounds or novel drugs for treatment of difficult to cure debilitating diseases like malaria and rheumatoid arthritis.

  4. The link between infertility and poverty: evidence from Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Papreen

    2012-03-01

    The link between high fertility and poverty is well established. However, this paper shows how infertility may also generate poverty among childless families in Bangladesh. An ethnographic study was conducted, involving various qualitative research methods that revealed economic consequences to be one of the crucial sequelae of childlessness in Bangladesh. This paper details how the poverty/fertility relationship is dependent on social and institutional characteristics, including patriarchal values, education, urban-rural location and health services. Empirical data show that childlessness generates poverty in various ways, including the deprivation of children's earnings, decline in women's mobility, demoralisation of men to earn an income, marriage devaluation by the husband, disbursements for treatment and denial of microcredit (very small loans to those in poverty, which support them to become self-employed to generate income). The current study shows that the infertility/poverty relationship is mostly contingent upon class and gender. It is therefore the rural poor childless women who are most badly affected economically in Bangladesh rather than the urban middle class childless women. In other words, this study reveal that along with gender, class plays a dominant role in terms of the economic consequences of childlessness in Bangladesh. It sheds light on a different and unusual aspect of poverty and aims to contribute to the gender discussion of livelihood and poverty.

  5. Research achievements in Bangladesh agriculture using nuclear techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sattar, M.A. [Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture, Mymensingh, (Bangladesh)

    1997-10-01

    Application of isotope and radiation techniques in Bangladesh agriculture has been initiated in 1961 with the establishment of Atomic Energy Agricultural Research Centre, Dhaka under the then Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission. The activity of the centre was strengthened and upgraded to the level of an institute as a constituent organization of Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission in 1972. It was further reorganized, made an autonomous research organization under the Ministry of Agriculture in 1982 and renamed as Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture. The other organizations involved in nuclear agricultural research are Institute of Food and Radiation Biology and Bangladesh Agricultural University. A number of technologies have been developed using nuclear techniques that imparted on agricultural development. Sixteen new crops were developed using physical (200-700 Gy gamma rays) and chemical mutagen (NaN{sub 3}). Soil fertility and plant nutrition technologies were developed using both stable and radio isotopes. The improved feeding strategies and utilization of locally available low quality feed material (rice straw) were determined using {sup 51}Cr-EDTA and {sup 125}I in order to have better livestock growth and reproduction ability. Several constraints related to nuclear research were identified. Increased government commitment and international cooperation are of the utmost importance for effective utilization of the benefits of nuclear technology and to face the increasing demand for food for the ever increasing population in years to come 32 refs., 1 tab.

  6. E-Banking of Economical Prospects in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Azizul Baten

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Now a day’s due to emerging global economy, e-commerce and e-business have increasingly become a necessary component of business strategy and a strong catalyst for economic development. The new information technology is becoming an important factor in the future development of financial services industry, and especially banking industry. As a third-world developing country, Bangladesh is far behind to reach the expected level in global banking system. So it is our urgent need to upgrade its banking system. This paper is aimed at to determine economical prospects of e-banking and to explain the present scenario of banking sectors in Bangladesh and at the same time it demonstrates the scope and benefits of e-banking compared with the existing system. This paper also tries to present actual sit uation of e-banking in the marketing point of view in Bangladesh. The results of th is study shows that e-banking serves several advantages to Bangladeshi banking sector, however, the study also shows that the Bangladeshi customers have not enough knowledge regarding e-banking which is rendering by banking sector in Bangladesh. A discussion of the implications of these results and limitations are provided at the end.

  7. Study-design selection criteria in systematic reviews of effectiveness of health systems interventions and reforms: A meta-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockers, Peter C; Feigl, Andrea B; Røttingen, John-Arne; Fretheim, Atle; de Ferranti, David; Lavis, John N; Melberg, Hans Olav; Bärnighausen, Till

    2012-03-01

    At present, there exists no widely agreed upon set of study-design selection criteria for systematic reviews of health systems research, except for those proposed by the Cochrane Collaboration's Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) review group (which comprises randomized controlled trials, controlled clinical trials, controlled before-after studies, and interrupted time series). We conducted a meta-review of the study-design selection criteria used in systematic reviews available in the McMaster University's Health Systems Evidence or the EPOC database. Of 414 systematic reviews, 13% did not indicate any study-design selection criteria. Of the 359 studies that described such criteria, 50% limited their synthesis to controlled trials and 68% to some or all of the designs defined by the EPOC criteria. Seven out of eight reviews identified at least one controlled trial that was relevant for the review topic. Seven percent of the reviews included either no or only one relevant primary study. Our meta-review reveals reviewers' preferences for restricting synthesis to controlled experiments or study designs that comply with the EPOC criteria. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the current practices regarding study-design selection in systematic reviews of health systems research as well as alternative approaches.

  8. Designing zeolite catalysts for size- and shape-selective reactions: Selective hydrogenation of acetylene in the presence of butadiene and ethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbin, D.R.; Abrams, L.; Bonifaz, C. (E.I. du Pont de Nemours Company, Wilmington, DE (USA))

    1989-02-01

    In the production of ethylene from the steam cracking of natural gas, small amounts of acetylene and butadiene are produced. Downstream, acetylene can present a hazard in a cryogenic separation process while nonselective hydrogenation removes acetylene as well as valuable ethylene and butadiene. With the aid of adsorption measurements, a selective hydrogenation catalyst has been designed. Small-pore zeolites, which serve as catalytic supports and provide reactant selective control, were ion-exchanged with Ni{sup 2+} and subsequently reduced. Compared to a commercial catalyst in which 60% of butadiene and all of the acetylene are hydrogenated, these new catalysts totally hydrogenate acetylene with only 10-20% hydrogenation of the butadiene and almost no hydrogenation of ethylene. To achieve selective hydrogenation, poisoning of the metal sites on the external zeolite surface is essential in order to obtain a product spectrum dominated by catalytic sites within the zeolite framework.

  9. The intergenerational transmission of intimate partner violence in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Towfiqua Mahfuza Islam

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: A number of individual risk factors for intimate partner violence (IPV have been identified in Bangladesh. However, the etiology of IPV, intergenerational transmission, has never been tested in Bangladesh. Objective: We examined whether witnessing inter-parental physical violence (IPPV was associated with IPV to identify whether IPV passes across generations in Bangladesh. Methods: We used nationally representative data of currently married women from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey-2007. Variations in experiencing IPV were assessed by Chi-square tests. Logistic regression models were fit to determine the association between witnessing IPPV and different types of IPV against women. Results: One-fourth of women witnessed IPPV and experienced IPV. After adjusting for the covariates, women who witnessed IPPV were 2.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.0–2.8 times more likely to experience any kind of IPV, 2.5 (95% CI: 2.0–3.0 times more likely to experience moderate physical IPV, 2.3 (95% CI: 1.8–3.0 times more likely to experience severe physical IPV, and 1.8 (95% CI: 1.4–2.3 times more likely to experience sexual IPV. Age, age at first marriage, literacy, work status, wealth, justified wife beating, and women's autonomy were also identified as significant correlates of IPV. Conclusions: This study's results indicate that IPV passes from one generation to another. We make recommendations for preventing IPPV so that subsequent generations can enjoy healthy, respectful, nonviolent relationships in married life without exposure to IPV in Bangladesh.

  10. Financial Aid for the Rehabilitation of Individuals with Spinal Cord Injuries in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilias Mahmud

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In Bangladesh, a majority of individuals with spinal cord injuries (SCI are either poor or very poor. In most cases, their families undergo extreme hardship as they lose the income of the only or main earning member, and are unable to bear costs of rehabilitation.Purpose: This mixed method study explored perspectives of individuals with SCI regarding financial aid in the form of interest-free loans for their treatment and rehabilitation at the Centre for the Rehabilitation of the Paralysed (CRP.Method: In the first part of the study, 10 semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted. In the second part of the study, 40 persons with SCI were surveyed. The qualitative method involved selection of respondents according to their age, sex and severity of disability. Quantitative interviews were conducted with all persons with SCI in the final stage of hospital rehabilitation, in the third quarter of 2008. Results: Though CRP provides financial support depending on the individual’s economic status, many persons with SCI needed additional funding from multiple sources, such as savings (42.5%, mortgaging assets (12.5%, selling assets (45%, receiving loans (37.5%, begging for money (42.5%, and receiving donations from relatives (47.5% or the community (30%, to meet the direct and indirect costs of rehabilitation. Majority (85% of those interviewed wanted to receive financial aid in the form of interest-free loans. 76.4% of them wanted the loans to be disbursed in two phases; initially, to offset some of their costs during rehabilitation at CRP, and thereafter, for economic reintegration in their community. The remaining 23.6% wanted the loan only for vocational reintegration. 70.59% of those interviewed proposed repayment in monthly instalments, while 17.64% suggested quarterly instalments and 11.76% favoured annual instalments. Over half of the participants (55.88% wanted to have vocational training, and the rest wanted vocational training for

  11. Samples Selection for Artificial Neural Network Training in Preliminary Structural Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TONG Fei; LIU Xila

    2005-01-01

    An artificial neural network (ANN) is applied in the preliminary structural design of reticulated shells. Major efforts are made to enhance the generalization ability of networks through well-selected training samples. Number-theoretic methods (NTMs) are adopted to generate samples with low discrepancy, i.e., uniformly scattered in the domain, where discrepancy is a quantitative measurement of the uniformity. The discrepancy of the NTM-based sample set is 1/6-1/7 that of samples with equal spacing. In a case study, networks trained by NTM-based samples are compared with those trained by equal-spaced samples in generalizing performance. The results show that both the computational precision and stability of the former ANNs are more satisfactory than those of the latter. It is concluded that the flexibility of ANNs in generalizing can be effectively increased by use of uniformly distributed training samples rather than simply piling data. More reliable uniformity should be obtained, however, through NTMs instead of equal-spaced samples.

  12. Nanocasting Design and Spatially Selective Sulfonation of Polystyrene-Based Polymer Networks as Solid Acid Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Felix H; Sahraoui, Laila; Schüth, Ferdi

    2016-09-12

    Nanocasting is a general and widely applied method in the generation of porous materials during which a sacrificial solid template is used as a mold on the nanoscale. Ideally, the resulting structure is the inverse of the template. However, replication is not always as direct as anticipated, so the influences of the degree of pore filling and of potential restructuring processes after removal of the template need to be considered. These apparent limitations give rise to opportunities in the synthesis of poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) (PSD) polymer networks of widely varying porosities (BET surface area=63-562 m(2)  g(-1) ; Vtot =0.18-1.05 cm(3)  g(-1) ) by applying a single synthesis methodology. In addition, spatially selective sulfonation on the nanoscale seems possible. Together, nanocasting and sulfonation enable rational catalyst design. The highly porous nanocast and predominantly surface-sulfonated PSD networks approach the activity of the corresponding molecular catalyst, para-toluenesulfonic acid, and exceed those of commercial ion-exchange polymers in the depolymerization of macromolecular inulin.

  13. The art and science of magnet design: Selected notes of Klaus Halbach. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    This volume contains a compilation of 57 notes written by Dr. Klaus Halbach selected from his collection of over 1650 such documents. It provides an historic snapshot of the evolution of magnet technology and related fields as the notes range from as early as 1965 to the present, and is intended to show the breadth of Dr. Halbach`s interest and ability that have long been an inspiration to his many friends and colleagues. As Halbach is an experimental physicist whose scientific interests span many areas, and who does his most innovative work with pencil and paper rather than at the workbench or with a computer, the vast majority of the notes in this volume were handwritten and their content varies greatly--some reflect original work or work for a specific project, while others are mere clarifications of mathematical calculations or design specifications. As the authors converted the notes to electronic form, some were superficially edited and corrected, while others were extensively re-written to reflect current knowledge and notation. The notes are organized under five categories which reflect their primary content: Beam Position Monitors, (bpm), Current Sheet Electron Magnets (csem), Magnet Theory, (thry), Undulators and Wigglers (u-w), and Miscellaneous (misc). Within the category, they are presented chronologically starting from the most recent note and working backwards in time.

  14. Cross-layer design for cooperative MIMO systems with relay selection and imperfect CSI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU XiangBin; ZHOU TingTing; RUI Yun; YIN Xin; CHEN Ming

    2013-01-01

    Based on imperfect channel state information (CSI) and relay selection, a cross-layer optimization scheme is developed for cooperative MIMO system, and the corresponding system performance is investigated in Rayleigh fading channel. By the theoretical analysis and mathematical manipulation, the average spectral efficiency (SE), packet error rate (PER) and packet loss rate (PLR) are derived. As a result, closed-form expressions of the average SE, PER and PLR are obtained, respectively. According to these, a cross-layer design (CLD) scheme subject to the average PER constraints is proposed to avoid the SE performance loss caused by the conventional instantaneous PER constraints. The scheme optimizes the adaptive thresholds by maximizing the average SE of the system, and an iteration method joint the Lagrange multiplier and Newton methods is presented to solve the above optimization problem. Simulation results verify the validity of the theoretical analysis. The results show that the proposed CLD scheme can improve the SE while target PLR is maintained. The CLD scheme under average PER constraints has higher SE than the conventional CLD scheme under instantaneous PER constraints.

  15. Design and validation of laboratory-scale simulations for selecting tribomaterials and surface treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blau, P.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Metals and Ceramics Div.

    1997-05-01

    Engineering approaches to solving tribology problems commonly involve friction, lubrication, or wear testing, either in the field or in a laboratory setting. Since wear and friction are properties of the materials in the larger context of the tribosystem, the selection of appropriate laboratory tribotesting procedures becomes critically important. Laboratory simulations must exhibit certain key characteristics of the application in order for the test results to be relevant, but they may not have to mimic all operating conditions. The current paper illustrates a step-by-step method to develop laboratory-scale friction and wear simulations based on a tribosystem analysis. Quantitative or qualitative metrics are established and used to validate the effectiveness of the tribosimulation. Sometimes standardized test methods can be used, but frequently a new type of test method or procedure must be developed. There are four factors to be addressed in designing effective simulations: (1) contact macrogeometry and the characteristics of relative motion, (2) pressure--velocity relationships, (3) thermal and chemical environment (including type of lubrication), and (4) the role of third-bodies. In addition, there are two typical choices of testing philosophy: (1) the worst-case scenario and, (2) the nominal-operations scenario. Examples of the development and use of simulative friction and wear tests are used to illustrate major points.

  16. Laboratory facility design and microbial indoor air quality in selected hospital laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luksamijarulkul, Pipat; Kiennukul, Nuchanard; Vatthanasomboon, Pisit

    2014-05-01

    Hospital laboratory is one of workplace areas contaminated with a variety of biohazards. A cross sectional study was conducted to assess the microbial air quality and facility design in the laboratories of four selected governmental hospitals (Hospitals A, B, C, and D) in Bangkok, Thailand. One hundred eighty-eight indoor air samples were collected from 40 laboratory rooms to investigate bacterial and fungal counts using the Millipore air tester. Forty air samples were collected from the waiting areas of those laboratories, and 16 outdoor air samples were collected to use for comparison. Additionally, those laboratory facilities were assessed following biosafety facility design (10 items). Results indicated that the facility design of laboratory in the Hospital A met most of items of the biosafety facility criteria. The rest met only seven items of the criteria. Means +/- standard deviation (SD) of bacterial counts of 253.1 +/- 247.7 cfu/m3, 236.8 +/- 200.1 cfu/m3, 304.4 +/- 264.2 cfu/m3, and 146.7 +/- 127.0 cfu/m3, and fungal counts of 500.8 +/- 64.2 cfu/ m3, 425.0 +/- 21.2 cfu/m3, 357.0 +/- 121.2 cfu/m3, and 355.7 +/- 86.8 cfu/m3 were found in hospital laboratories A, B, C and D, respectively. The isolated colonies of bacteria and fungi were identified as group or genus. It was found that the most common bacteria was Staphylococcus spp (84.1%, 76.0%, 72.1% and 80.5%, respectively), whereas, the most common fungi were Aspergillus spp and septate hyphae fungi (42.0%, 37.5%, 39.5%, and 45.7%; vs 38.6%, 56.2%, 52.1%, and 37.2%, respectively). These data may be valuable to develop interventions to improve the microbial indoor air quality among hospital laboratories and for preventing the laboratory-acquired infections.

  17. Geographic information system (GIS) representation of coal-bearing areas in India and Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippi, Michael H.; Tewalt, Susan J.

    2011-01-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) information may facilitate energy studies, which in turn provide input for energy policy decisions. Prior to this study, no GIS file representing the occurrence of coal-bearing units in India or Bangladesh was known to exist. This Open-File Report contains downloadable shapefiles representing the coalfields of India and Bangladesh and a limited number of chemical and petrographic analyses of India and Bangladesh coal samples. Also included are maps of India and Bangladesh showing the locations of the coalfields and coal samples in the shapefiles, figures summarizing the stratigraphic units in the coalfields of India and Bangladesh, and a brief report summarizing the stratigraphy and geographic locations of coal-bearing deposits in India and Bangladesh.

  18. Multi-diameter pigging: factors affecting the design and selection of pigging tools for multi-diameter pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson, Karl [Pipeline Engineering and Supply Co. Ltd., Richmond, NY (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This paper will consider the process involved in pigging tool selection for pipelines with two or more significant internal diameters which require pigging tools capable of negotiating the different internal diameters whilst also carrying out the necessary pipeline cleaning operation. The paper will include an analysis of pipeline features that affect pigging tool selection and then go on to look at other variables that determine the pigging tool design; this will include a step by step guide outlining how the tool is designed, the development of prototype pigs and the importance of testing and validation prior to final deployment in operational pigging programmes. (author)

  19. Total System Performance Assessment- License Appication Design Selection (LADS) Phase 1 Analysis for Post-Closure Ventilation (Design Alternative 3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. Erb

    1999-06-21

    The objective of this report is to evaluate the effect of potential changes to the TSPA-VA base case design on long-term repository performance. The design changes that are evaluated in this report include two configurations for post-closure ventilation. bow tie and open loop (Design Alternative 3 or D3). The following paragraphs briefly describe the motivation for evaluating post-closure ventilation. The bow tie configuration for post closure ventilation has been identified as a design alternative to the TSPA-VA base case model (CRWMS M&O, 1998a) that may provide improved performance by reducing the temperature and relative humidity within the waste package drifts. The bow tie configuration for post-closure ventilation is a closed-loop design. In this design. cross drifts are placed in pairs with each drift angling up on opposite sides of the repository. From the side, the cross drifts and side drifts form the shape of a bow tie. Movement of air through the system is driven by convective heating from the waste packages in the cross drifts. The open loop configuration is also being considered for its potential to improve post-closure performance of the repository. As with the bow tie configuration, the open loop is designed to decrease temperature and relative humidity within the waste package drifts. For the open loop configuration, air is drawn into the drifts from outside the mountain. The configuration for the repository with open-loop ventilation is similar to the base case repository design with a few added shafts to increase air flow through the drifts. This report documents the modeling assumptions and calculations conducted to evaluate the long-term performance of Design Alternative 3. The performance measure for this evaluation is dose rate. Results are presented that compare the dose-rate time histories with the new design alternatives to that for the TSPA-VA base case calculation (CRWMS M&O, 1998a).

  20. Observed practices and perceived advantages of different hand cleansing agents in rural Bangladesh: ash, soil, and soap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizame, Fosiul A; Nasreen, Sharifa; Halder, Amal K; Arman, Shaila; Winch, Peter J; Unicomb, Leanne; Luby, Stephen P

    2015-06-01

    Bangladeshi communities have historically used ash and soil as handwashing agents. A structured observation study and qualitative interviews on the use of ash/soil and soap as handwashing agents were conducted in rural Bangladesh to help develop a handwashing promotion intervention. The observations were conducted among 1,000 randomly selected households from 36 districts. Fieldworkers observed people using ash/soil to wash their hand(s) on 13% of occasions after defecation and on 10% after cleaning a child's anus. This compares with 19% of people who used soap after defecation and 27% after cleaning a child who defecated. Using ash/soil or soap was rarely (soap.

  1. In vivo expression of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi genes in the blood of patients with typhoid fever in Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaullah Sheikh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi is the cause of typhoid fever. It is a human-restricted pathogen, and few data exist on S. Typhi gene expression in humans. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We applied an RNA capture and amplification technique, Selective Capture of Transcribed Sequences (SCOTS, and microarray hybridization to identify S. Typhi transcripts expressed in the blood of five humans infected with S. Typhi in Bangladesh. In total, we detected the expression of mRNAs for 2,046 S. Typhi genes (44% of the S. Typhi genome in human blood; expression of 912 genes was detected in all 5 patients, and expression of 1,100 genes was detected in 4 or more patients. Identified transcripts were associated with the virulence-associated PhoP regulon, Salmonella pathogenicity islands, the use of alternative carbon and energy sources, synthesis and transport of iron, thiamine, and biotin, and resistance to antimicrobial peptides and oxidative stress. The most highly represented group were genes currently annotated as encoding proteins designated as hypothetical, unknown, or unclassified. Of the 2,046 detected transcripts, 1,320 (29% of the S. Typhi genome had significantly different levels of detection in human blood compared to in vitro cultures; detection of 141 transcripts was significantly different in all 5 patients, and detection of 331 transcripts varied in at least 4 patients. These mRNAs encode proteins of unknown function, those involved in energy metabolism, transport and binding, cell envelope, cellular processes, and pathogenesis. We confirmed increased expression of a subset of identified mRNAs by quantitative-PCR. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We report the first characterization of bacterial transcriptional profiles in the blood of patients with typhoid fever. S. Typhi is an important global pathogen whose restricted host range has greatly inhibited laboratory studies. Our results suggest that S. Typhi uses a largely

  2. A high performance neutron powder diffractometer at 3 MW Triga Mark-II research reactor in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, I.; Yunus, S. M.; Datta, T. K.; Zakaria, A. K. M.; Das, A. K.; Aktar, S.; Hossain, S.; Berliner, R.; Yelon, W. B.

    2016-07-01

    A high performance neutron diffractometer called Savar Neutron Diffractometer (SAND) was built and installed at radial beam port-2 of TRIGA Mark II research reactor at AERE, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Structural studies of materials are being done by this technique to characterize materials crystallograpohically and magnetically. The micro-structural information obtainable by neutron scattering method is very essential for determining its technological applications. This technique is unique for understanding the magnetic behavior in magnetic materials. Ceramic, steel, electronic and electric industries can be benefited from this facility for improving their products and fabrication process. This instrument consists of a Popovicimonochromator with a large linear position sensitive detector array. The monochromator consists of nine blades of perfect single crystal of silicon with 6mm thickness each. The monochromator design was optimized to provide maximum flux on 3mm diameter cylindrical sample with a relatively flat angular dependence of resolution. Five different wave lengths can be selected by orienting the crystal at various angles. A sapphire filter was used before the primary collimator to minimize the first neutron. The detector assembly is composed of 15 linear position sensitive proportional counters placed at either 1.1 m or 1.6 m from the sample position and enclosed in a air pad supported high density polythene shield. Position sensing is obtained by charge division using 1-wide NIM position encoding modules (PEM). The PEMs communicate with the host computer via USB. The detector when placed at 1.1 m, subtends 30˚ (2θ) at each step and covers 120˚ in 4 steps. When the detector is placed at 1.6 m it subtends 20˚ at each step and covers 120˚ in 6 steps. The instrument supports both low and high temperature sample environment. The instrument supports both low and high temperature sample environment. The diffractometer is a state-of-the art technology

  3. Risk Management Practices in Islamic Bank: A Case Study of Islami Bank Bangladesh Limited

    OpenAIRE

    Uddin, Md Akther

    2015-01-01

    Islamic banking industry has been growing rapidly for last three decades. As risk is inherent in banking business it is necessary to develop a comprehensive risk management framework and process. In this paper, a humble attempt has been made to study and analyze risk management practices of Islami Bank Bangladesh Limited (IBBL), one of the leading Islamic banks in Bangaladesh. Annual reports of IBBL and 7 other full-fledged Islamic banks, Bangladesh Bank, the central bank of Bangladesh, publi...

  4. The Big Four in Bangladesh:Caught between the Global and the Local

    OpenAIRE

    Belal, Ataur; Spence, Crawford; Carter, Chris; Zhu, Jingqi

    2017-01-01

    PurposeThis article explores the work practices of Big 4 firms in Bangladesh with the aim of exploring the extent to which Global Professional Service Firms can be thought of as being genuinely ‘global’. Methodology/Approach Interviews were undertaken with the vast majority of Big 4 partners in Bangladesh. These interviews explored a number of themes related to the professional service work context in Bangladesh and the relationship between local and global firms. Findings The central finding...

  5. Reanalysis of the Stress-Strain Conditions in Maddhapara Granite Mine, Dinajpur, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdhury, Dr.Quamruzzaman; Kaniz, Fatema; Hasan, Md. Rizwanul; Noor, Samia; Sanzida, Murshed; WoobaidUllah, A.S M

    2013-01-01

    Underground mining is not a process to the world but Bangladesh is experiencing second underground mining and first hard rock mining project at Maddhapara in the district of Dinajpur. Maddhapara is the only hard rock mining project in Bangladesh. Since Maddhapara is the first experience of hard rock mine in Bangladesh, it is a matter of great interest to make it successful and highly profitable project. While research it was found that there are lot of doubtful calculations and interpretation...

  6. BRAND AND QUALITY CONTROL OF GARMENT PRODUCTS IN THE BANGLADESH GARMENT INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Hoshen, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This thesis paper contains information on the garment industry of Bangladesh. The garment business plays a vital part in global market. There are a large numbers of world renowned apparel companies that outsource their products in Bangladesh. The aim of the thesis is to explicate quality management in garment production and the brand protection process during outsourcing in Bangladesh. The theoretical part of the thesis provides basic information about garment products, the glo...

  7. Household Transmission of Vibrio cholerae in Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan D Sugimoto

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae infections cluster in households. This study's objective was to quantify the relative contribution of direct, within-household exposure (for example, via contamination of household food, water, or surfaces to endemic cholera transmission. Quantifying the relative contribution of direct exposure is important for planning effective prevention and control measures.Symptom histories and multiple blood and fecal specimens were prospectively collected from household members of hospital-ascertained cholera cases in Bangladesh from 2001-2006. We estimated the probabilities of cholera transmission through 1 direct exposure within the household and 2 contact with community-based sources of infection. The natural history of cholera infection and covariate effects on transmission were considered. Significant direct transmission (p-value<0.0001 occurred among 1414 members of 364 households. Fecal shedding of O1 El Tor Ogawa was associated with a 4.9% (95% confidence interval: 0.9%-22.8% risk of infection among household contacts through direct exposure during an 11-day infectious period (mean length. The estimated 11-day risk of O1 El Tor Ogawa infection through exposure to community-based sources was 2.5% (0.8%-8.0%. The corresponding estimated risks for O1 El Tor Inaba and O139 infection were 3.7% (0.7%-16.6% and 8.2% (2.1%-27.1% through direct exposure, and 3.4% (1.7%-6.7% and 2.0% (0.5%-7.3% through community-based exposure. Children under 5 years-old were at elevated risk of infection. Limitations of the study may have led to an underestimation of the true risk of cholera infection. For instance, available covariate data may have incompletely characterized levels of pre-existing immunity to cholera infection. Transmission via direct exposure occurring outside of the household was not considered.Direct exposure contributes substantially to endemic transmission of symptomatic cholera in an urban setting. We provide the first estimate of

  8. Birds in Kurigram district of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.I. Khan

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A study of the birds in the area adjacent to the Dharala and Brahmaputra rivers in Kurigram District, Bangladesh, was conducted between November 2000 and February 2002. A total of 105 species of birds belonging to 12 orders, 35 families and 77 genera were recorded. Out of 105 species, 51 (48.6% were non-passerine and 54 (51.4% passerine, 33 (31.4% migratory and 72 (68.6% resident. Of the non-passerine birds, 15 (29.4% were migratory and 36 (70.6% were resident, while, among the passerines 18 (33.3% were migratory and 36 (66.7% were resident. Of the total (105 species 14 (13.3% were found to be very common, 30 (28.6% common, 25 (23.8% fairly common and 36 (34.3% were rare or few. Out of 105 species, 30 (28.6% were aquatic and semiaquatic birds and 75 (71.4% were terrestrial. Among 105 species, 52 (49.5% were widely distributed in Kurigram, 31 (29.5% restricted only to the northern side, five (4.8% to the central side, eight (7.6% to the southern side, and nine (8.6% species were common in two or three parts of the study area. Among the three canopy categories, 16 (15.2% species were observed in lower canopy, 32 (30.5% species were recorded from both lower and middle canopies, 19 (18.1% species from upper and middle canopies and only one (1% species was recorded from upper canopy. In the study area 37 (35.2% species of birds used all levels of the canopy. Out of 105 species, 48 (45.7% were insectivorous, 11 (10.4% were grainivorous, five (4.8% frugivorous, 10 (9.5% were piscivorous, five (4.8% were predatory, and 19 (18.1% species of birds were omnivorous. Only one (1% was vegetarian and the diet of 6 (5.7% species could not be determined.

  9. CATALYSIS SCIENCE INITIATIVE: From First Principles Design to Realization of Bimetallic Catalysts for Enhanced Selectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MAVRIKAKIS, MANOS

    2007-05-03

    In this project, we have integrated state-of-the-art Density Functional Theory (DFT) models of heterogeneous catalytic processes with high-throughput screening of bimetallic catalytic candidates for important industrial problems. We have studied a new class of alloys characterized by a surface composition different from the bulk composition, and investigated their stability and activity for the water-gas shift reaction and the oxygen reduction reaction. The former reaction is an essential part of hydrogen production; the latter is the rate-limiting step in low temperature H2 fuel cells. We have identified alloys that have remarkable stability and activity, while having a much lower material cost for both of these reactions. Using this knowledge of bimetallic interactions, we have also made progress in the industrially relevant areas of carbohydrate reforming and conversion of biomass to liquid alkanes. One aspect of this work is the conversion of glycerol (a byproduct of biodiesel production) to synthesis gas. We have developed a bifunctional supported Pt catalyst that can cleave the carbon-carbon bond while also performing the water-gas shift reaction, which allows us to better control the H2:CO ratio. Knowledge gained from the theoretical metal-metal interactions was used to develop bimetallic catalysts that perform this reaction at low temperature, allowing for an efficient coupling of this endothermic reaction with other reactions, such as Fischer-Tropsch or methanol synthesis. In our work on liquid alkane production from biomass, we have studied deactivation and selectivity in these areas as a function of metal-support interactions and reaction conditions, with an emphasis on the bifunctionality of the catalysts studied. We have identified a stable, active catalyst for this process, where the selectivity and yield can be controlled by the reaction conditions. While complete rational design of catalysts is still elusive, this work demonstrates the power of

  10. Study on existing nutritional condition of peri-urban dairies at Chittagong, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hasanuzzaman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed to observe the nutritive value of concentrate used in different dairy farms at peri-urban areas of Chittagong, Bangladesh. Ten (10 different concentrate feeds were randomly selected from ten different farms which analyzed for moisture, dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, crude fiber (CF, nitrogen free extracts (NFE, ether extracts (EE, total ash (TA and acid insoluble ash (AIA and requirements of concentrate for unit production of milk was calculated. It was found that the nutritive value of individual feed concentrate of each farm varied significantly. The observed proportion of using feed ingredients was also significantly different among the farms. Finally, it may be summarized that the concentrate mixture used by the different farmers of peri-urban areas of Chittagong was different in regards to chemical composition, ingredients and amount required for milk production.

  11. A COMPREHENSIVE ETHNOMEDICINAL DOCUMENTATION OF MEDICINAL PLANTS OF ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY, REGION, BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gazi Ziaul Haque Masum*, Biplab Kumar Dash, Shital Kumar Barman and M. Kumer Sen

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: An ethnobotanical survey was carried out through semi-structured questionnaire and the guided field-walk method in Islamic University, Kushtia, Bangladesh to document the utilization of medicinal plants by local people for general ailments. A total of 87 species belonging to 51 families with their local names, useable parts and mode of application were recorded for their usages for curing at least 70 ailments. Ethnomedicinally most important families are Asteraceae, Combretaceae, Moraceae, Solanaceae, Apocynaceae. These plant species are utilized by local peoples against various ailments such as dysentery, fever, cough, sexual debility, asthma, skin disease, diarrhea, indigestion, wound healing, toothache, malaria, etc. Indigenous knowledge of Kavirajes or knowledgeable local persons have great contributions in formulating applicable strategy for the development of various medicine using plants as either fresh or raw sources or both. These scattered, selective, fast eroding and highly valuable knowledge needs proper documentation.

  12. Design of RC frames for pre-selected collapse mechanism and target displacement using energy–balance

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Onur Merter; Taner Ucar

    2014-06-01

    In earthquake-prone countries, structures may be exposed to several seismic loads in any stage of building’s life. It is expected that the structures designed by engineers will show ductile behaviour under the effect of vertical and lateral loads and remain stable without making a sudden collapse. In consequence of nonlinear behaviour, plastic hinges are expected to form in structural members which are under the effect of external loads. Earthquake input energy is dissipated in plastic hinges, so, structures behave ductile. In this study, total energy of RC frames is calculated and the energy–based base shear force is determined by equating the total internal energy to the work done by external lateral design forces for pre-selected target displacement and collapse mechanism. Sections of RC frames are controlled if they can resist the calculated design lateral loads or not. If the capacity of the sections cannot withstand the external design loads, the design is rearranged and new sections are chosen. Beam and column sections that can resist the design loads securely are accepted as final sections of the energy–based design methodology. Pre-selected target displacement for desired performance level is checked using the results of nonlinear analyses. The results of the presented design methodology in this study are compatible with the results of nonlinear analyses.

  13. 浮生——孟加拉chomra地区漂浮农田系统的构建%Floating Life-The Floating Farmland System of Chomra in Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋梦雅; 沈忱; 李紫; 李孟迪

    2012-01-01

    The paper introduced the details of the Second Prize work of the 2012 49th IFLA Internationa! College Student Design Competition. Under the background of frequent global climate issues, the designers concern and try to alleviate the plight faced by the growing number of "climate refugees". After a lot of dala collection and exchanges and discussions, combined with the teacher's guidance, the designers determine to take landscape design to improve the lifestyle of Bangladesh climate refugees as the topic. The designers select Chomra of Bangladesh as the study area, and think about how to use the method of landscape design to cope with the challenges of respecting ihe natural water law and minimizing flood hazards on the premise of meeting agricultural needs. The designers put forward the concept of "floaling life" through the research of the current local situation. The designers hope to construct floating farmland system by the use of floating technology in order to provide local residents living place in the flooding period, also form a local new landscape at the same time.%介绍2012年第49届IFAL国际大学生设计竞赛二等奖作品的详细内容.在全球气候问题频发的大背景之下,关心并尝试缓解越来越多的“气候难民”所面临的生活困境,确定以改善孟加拉国气候难民生活方式的景观设计为最终选题.选取孟加拉chomra地区为研究对象,思考如何通过景观的手段,在尊重自然水节规律,满足农业需求的前提下,尽可能减小洪水的危害.通过对当地具体现状的研究,希望能够实践生存空间与水“共生”,提出“浮生”的概念,并希望通过利用漂浮技术,构建出漂浮农田系统,形成一种农业景观模式,为当地居民提供在洪泛期可以栖居、生活的场所,同时也形成当地的新景观.

  14. Design and synthesis of benzimidazole analogs endowed with oxadiazole as selective COX-2 inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathore, Ankita; Rahman, Mujeeb Ur; Siddiqui, Anees Ahamad; Ali, Abuzer; Shaharyar, Mohammad

    2014-12-01

    New molecules of benzimidazole endowed with oxadiazole were designed and synthesized from 2-(2-((pyrimidin-2-ylthio)methyl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-1-yl)acetohydrazide as 1-((5-substituted alkyl/aryl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)methyl)-2-((pyrimidin-2-ylthio)methyl)-1H-benzimidazoles (5a-r) with the aim to acquire selective cyclooxygenase (COX-2) inhibitor activity. The synthesized compounds were screened by in vitro cyclooxygenase assays to determine COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitory potency and the results showed that they had good-to-remarkable activity with an IC50 range of 11.6-56.1 µM. The most active compounds were further screened for their in vivo anti-inflammatory activity by using the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model. In vitro anticancer activities of the hybrid compounds were assessed by the National Cancer Institute (NCI), USA, against 60 human cell lines, and the results showed a good spectrum. Compound 5l exhibited significant COX-2 inhibition with an IC50 value of 8.2 µM and a percent protection of 68.4%. Compound 5b evinced moderate cytotoxicity toward the UO-31 cell line of renal cancer. A docking study was performed using Maestro 9.0, to provide the binding mode into the binding sites of the cyclooxygenase enzyme. Hopefully, in the future, compound 5l could serve as a lead compound for developing new COX-2 inhibitors.

  15. Experimental Design for Evaluating Selected Nondestructive Measurement Technologies - Advanced Reactor Technology Milestone: M3AT-16PN2301043

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramuhalli, Pradeep [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hirt, Evelyn H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pitman, Stan G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dib, Gerges [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Roy, Surajit [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Good, Morris S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Walker, Cody M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-07-16

    Report documents design of bench-scale experiments for evaluating capability and sensitivity of selected nondestructive measurement technologies for early detection of degradation modes of interest for passive components condition in advanced reactors. Includes requirements for deploying instrumentation for in-situ monitoring at ongoing materials testing sites.

  16. Refrigeration Playbook: Natural Refrigerants; Selecting and Designing Energy-Efficient Commercial Refrigeration Systems That Use Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Caleb [CTA Architects Engineers, Boise, ID (United States); Reis, Chuck [CTA Architects Engineers, Boise, ID (United States); Nelson, Eric [CTA Architects Engineers, Boise, ID (United States); Armer, James [CTA Architects Engineers, Boise, ID (United States); Arthur, Rob [CTA Architects Engineers, Boise, ID (United States); Heath, Richard [CTA Architects Engineers, Boise, ID (United States); Rono, James [CTA Architects Engineers, Boise, ID (United States); Hirsch, Adam [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Doebber, Ian [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report provides guidance for selecting and designing energy efficient commercial refrigeration systems using low global warming potential refrigerants. Refrigeration systems are generally the largest energy end use in a supermarket type building, often accounting for more than half of a building's energy consumption.

  17. Selected Lessons Learned through the ISS Design, Development, Assembly, and Operations: Applicability to International Cooperation for Standardization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, David B.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews selected lessons that were learned during the design, development, assembly and operation of the International Space Station. The critical importance of standards and common interfaces is emphasized to create a common operation environment that can lead to flexibility and adaptability.

  18. Structure-based drug design targeting the cell membrane receptor GPBAR1: exploiting the bile acid scaffold towards selective agonism

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Leva, Francesco Saverio; Festa, Carmen; Renga, Barbara; Sepe, Valentina; Novellino, Ettore; Fiorucci, Stefano; Zampella, Angela; Limongelli, Vittorio

    2015-11-01

    Bile acids can regulate nutrient metabolism through the activation of the cell membrane receptor GPBAR1 and the nuclear receptor FXR. Developing an exogenous control over these receptors represents an attractive strategy for the treatment of enterohepatic and metabolic disorders. A number of dual GPBAR1/FXR agonists are known, however their therapeutic use is limited by multiple unwanted effects due to activation of the diverse downstream signals controlled by the two receptors. On the other hand, designing selective GPBAR1 and FXR agonists is challenging since the two proteins share similar structural requisites for ligand binding. Here, taking advantage of our knowledge of the two targets, we have identified through a rational drug design study a series of amine lithocholic acid derivatives as selective GPBAR1 agonists. The presence of the 3α-NH2 group on the steroidal scaffold is responsible for the selectivity over FXR unveiling unprecedented structural insights into bile acid receptors activity modulation.

  19. Hypertension: adherence to treatment in rural Bangladesh – findings from a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masuma Akter Khanam

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Poor adherence has been identified as the main cause of failure to control hypertension. Poor adherence to antihypertensive treatment is a significant cardiovascular risk factor, which often remains unrecognized. There are no previous studies that examined adherence with antihypertensive medication or the characteristics of the non-adherent patients in Bangladesh. Objective: This paper aims to describe hypertension and factors affecting adherence to treatment among hypertensive persons in rural Bangladesh. Design: The study population included 29,960 men and women aged 25 years and older from three rural demographic surveillance sites of the International Center for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b: Matlab, Abhoynagar, and Mirsarai. Data was collected by a cross-sectional design on diagnostic provider, initial, and current treatment. Discontinuation of medication at the time of interview was defined as non-adherence to treatment. Results: The prevalence of hypertension was 13.67%. Qualified providers diagnosed only 53.5% of the hypertension (MBBS doctors 46.1 and specialized doctors 7.4%. Among the unqualified providers, village doctors diagnosed 40.7%, and others (nurse, health worker, paramedic, homeopath, spiritual healer, and pharmacy man each diagnosed less than 5%. Of those who started treatment upon being diagnosed with hypertension, 26% discontinued the use of medication. Age, sex, education, wealth, and type of provider were independently associated with non-adherence to medication. More men discontinued the treatment than women (odds ratio [OR] 1.74, confidence interval [CI] 1.48–2.04. Non-adherence was greater when hypertension was diagnosed by unqualified providers (OR 1.52, CI 1.31–1.77. Hypertensive patients of older age, least poor quintile, and higher education were less likely to be non-adherent. Patients with cardiovascular comorbidity were also less likely to be non-adherent to antihypertensive

  20. Hypertension: adherence to treatment in rural Bangladesh – findings from a population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanam, Masuma Akter; Lindeboom, Wietze; Koehlmoos, Tracey Lynn Perez; Alam, Dewan Shamsul; Niessen, Louis; Milton, Abul Hasnat

    2014-01-01

    Background Poor adherence has been identified as the main cause of failure to control hypertension. Poor adherence to antihypertensive treatment is a significant cardiovascular risk factor, which often remains unrecognized. There are no previous studies that examined adherence with antihypertensive medication or the characteristics of the non-adherent patients in Bangladesh. Objective This paper aims to describe hypertension and factors affecting adherence to treatment among hypertensive persons in rural Bangladesh. Design The study population included 29,960 men and women aged 25 years and older from three rural demographic surveillance sites of the International Center for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b): Matlab, Abhoynagar, and Mirsarai. Data was collected by a cross-sectional design on diagnostic provider, initial, and current treatment. Discontinuation of medication at the time of interview was defined as non-adherence to treatment. Results The prevalence of hypertension was 13.67%. Qualified providers diagnosed only 53.5% of the hypertension (MBBS doctors 46.1 and specialized doctors 7.4%). Among the unqualified providers, village doctors diagnosed 40.7%, and others (nurse, health worker, paramedic, homeopath, spiritual healer, and pharmacy man) each diagnosed less than 5%. Of those who started treatment upon being diagnosed with hypertension, 26% discontinued the use of medication. Age, sex, education, wealth, and type of provider were independently associated with non-adherence to medication. More men discontinued the treatment than women (odds ratio [OR] 1.74, confidence interval [CI] 1.48–2.04). Non-adherence was greater when hypertension was diagnosed by unqualified providers (OR 1.52, CI 1.31–1.77). Hypertensive patients of older age, least poor quintile, and higher education were less likely to be non-adherent. Patients with cardiovascular comorbidity were also less likely to be non-adherent to antihypertensive medication (OR 0

  1. Analysis of Drug Design for a Selection of G Protein-Coupled Neuro-Receptors Using Neural Network Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerskov, Claus; Mortensen, Rasmus M.; Bohr, Henrik G.

    2015-01-01

    mu-opioid, serotonin 2B (5-HT2B) and metabotropic glutamate D5. They are selected due to the availability of pharmacological drug-molecule binding data for these receptors. Feedback and deep belief artificial neural network architectures (NNs) were chosen to perform the task of aiding drug-design.......925. The performance of 8 category networks (8 output classes for binding strength) obtained a prediction accuracy of above 60 %. After training the networks, tests were done on how well the systems could be used as an aid in designing candidate drug molecules. Specifically, it was shown how a selection of chemical...... computational tools, able to aid in drug-design in a fast and cheap fashion, compared to conventional pharmacological techniques....

  2. Systematic Methods for Working Fluid Selection and the Design, Integration and Control of Organic Rankine Cycles—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Linke

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Efficient power generation from low to medium grade heat is an important challenge to be addressed to ensure a sustainable energy future. Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs constitute an important enabling technology and their research and development has emerged as a very active research field over the past decade. Particular focus areas include working fluid selection and cycle design to achieve efficient heat to power conversions for diverse hot fluid streams associated with geothermal, solar or waste heat sources. Recently, a number of approaches have been developed that address the systematic selection of efficient working fluids as well as the design, integration and control of ORCs. This paper presents a review of emerging approaches with a particular emphasis on computer-aided design methods.

  3. 长距离带式输送机选型设计%Selection Design of Long Belt Conveyor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王颖; 陶焜

    2015-01-01

    文章介绍了长距离带式输送机的选型设计方法,并依据给定设计参数对输送机的传动滚筒、拉紧装置、输送带以及电控等主要部件进行选型设计。%This paper introduces the selection of long belt conveyor design method, and based on the given design parame-ters on the conveyor drive roller, drives, tensioning device, conveyor belts and so on major components of the selection and design, focusing on the conveyor belt tension analyzed and calculated, and finally gives a reasonable start-up mode and elec-tronically controlled program.

  4. The role of designer expertise in source selection during product metaphor generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cila, N.; Hekkert, P.P.M.; Visch, V.T.

    2012-01-01

    Metaphors have a communicative role in design that entails a transfer of meaning from an entity (i.e. source) to the designed product (i.e. target). In this paper, we investigate the effect of the expertise of designer on the accessibility of the sources that they employ in metaphors. In the study c

  5. Assessment of impact on health of children working in the garbage dumping site in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiry, Gargy; Rahman, Tania; Hasan, A K M Mahbub; Dutta, Alak K; Arif, Md; Howlader, Zakir H

    2011-12-01

    Waste dumping is one of the major causes of environment pollution in Bangladesh. This study was designed to assess the impact on health of children working in one of the garbage dumping sites in Dhaka. Blood samples were collected from exposed (n = 20, aged: 8-15 years, exposed to dumped garbage from 6 months to 6 years) and control subjects (n = 15, age matched and never worked in the garbage dumping site). Oxidative stress markers like lipid hydroperoxides, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and protein carbonyl content were measured. Alkaline comet assay was performed to assess the possible damage in DNA. To check the consequences of possible toxic exposure, we performed liver function tests of the study subjects. Oxidative stress-mediated damage of macromolecules was found to be significantly increased in the exposed children. Liver function tests were found normal. Thus, the children working in garbage dumping site are in severe health risk.

  6. Review of the Bangladesh female secondary school stipend project using a social exclusion framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurmann, Anna T

    2009-08-01

    The Female Secondary School Stipend Project in Bangladesh was established to increase the enrollment of girls in secondary schools, thereby delaying marriage and childbearing. This analysis examined the existing data using the social exclusion framework to clarify the primary exclusionary factors that have kept girls from education: harassment, poverty, and the primacy of marriage and childbirth and explored the extent to which the project has diminished such barriers. While causality is difficult to establish, data suggest that the stipend programme has contributed to the rise in enrollment of girls in secondary schools. Questions remain as to the impact of the stipend programme on delaying marriage, empowerment of girls and women, and enhancing employment opportunities. A thorough assessment of the impact is required. The case study suggests that, if the programme design had focused on the quality and content of education and the broader economic and social context, more opportunities would have been created for social and economic participation of girls.

  7. Investigation of hydrologic and biogeochemical controls on arsenic mobilization using distributed sensing at a field site in Munshiganj, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, N.; Estrin, D.; Harmon, T.; Harvey, C.; Jay, J.; Kohler, E.; Rothenberg, S.

    2006-12-01

    The presence of arsenic in the groundwater has led to the largest environmental poisoning in history; tens of millions of people in the Ganges Delta continue to drink groundwater that is dangerously contaminated with arsenic. A current working hypothesis is that arsenic is mobilized in the near surface environment where sediments are weathered by seasonal changes in the redox state that drive a cycle of pyrite oxidation and iron oxide reduction. In order to test the supporting hypothesis that subsurface geochemical changes may be induced by agricultural activity, we deployed 42 wirelessly networked ion-selective electrodes, including calcium, ammonium, nitrate, ORP, chloride, carbonate, and pH in a rice paddy in the Munshiganj district of Bangladesh in January of 2006. Each sensor was connected to an MDA300 sensor board and Mica2 wireless transceiver and computational device. Over a period of 11 days, we observed clear diel, and diurnal trends in 4 of the electrodes (calcium, ammonium, chloride and carbonate). The trends may be due to hydrological changes, or geochemical changes induced either by photosynthesis in the overlying water (which then infiltrated to the depth of the sensors) or in the root zone of rice plants. While the spatiotemporally dense measurements from wireless sensor networks enable scientists to ask new questions and elucidate complex relationships in heterogeneous physical environments such as soil, there are many practical issues to address in order to collect data usable for scientific purposes. For example, in response to a stream of faults in one of our sensor network deployments, we designed Sympathy to enable users to find and fix problems impacting the quantity of data collected in the field. Sympathy detects packet loss experienced at the base station and systematically assigns blame to faulty components in the network for remediation, replacing the prior policy of ad-hoc node rebooting and battery replacements. Sympathy has been

  8. Bangladesh: currently the worst, but possibly the future's best.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Garrett

    2015-02-01

    Garment workers in Bangladesh producing clothing for international brands have experienced repeated factory fires and building collapses in the last 10 years, resulting in more than 1,600 deaths and hundreds of disabling injuries. After the Tazreen Fashion fire in December 2012 and the Rana Plaza building collapse in April 2013, more than 190 international clothing brands and retailers signed an "Accord on Fire and Building Safety" with two international union federations. Full implementation of the provisions of the Accord would change "business as usual" in Bangladesh's garment industry and set a positive example for other countries and other industries with global supply chains. The components, challenges, and controversies of the Accord are detailed in the article.

  9. Observations of cyclone-induced storm surge in coastal Bangladesh

    CERN Document Server

    Chiu, Soyee

    2015-01-01

    Water level measurements from 15 tide gauges in the coastal zone of Bangladesh are analyzed in conjunction with cyclone tracks and wind speed data for 54 cyclones between 1977 and 2010. Storm surge magnitude is inferred from residual water levels computed by subtracting modeled astronomical tides from observed water levels at each station. Observed residual water levels are generally smaller than reported storm surge levels for cyclones where both are available, and many cyclones produce no obvious residual at all. Both maximum and minimum residual water levels are higher for west-landing cyclones producing onshore winds and generally diminish for cyclones making landfall on the Bangladesh coast or eastward producing offshore winds. Water levels observed during cyclones are generally more strongly influenced by tidal phase and amplitude than by storm surge alone. In only 7 of the 15 stations does the highest plausible observed water level coincide with a cyclone. While cyclone-coincident residual water level ...

  10. Secondary Educational Institution Centered Diffusion of ICT in Rural Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khalid, Md. Saifuddin

    were: an integrated purchase and training facilitation, smart classroom implementation, educational administration, extracurricular activities, a non-formal computer literacy center, and school-based internship. Two live-in field studies were conducted: from August 2011 to January 2012 and from August......This dissertation presents a holistic approach for exploring, analyzing, solving, and circumventing the barriers to the integration and adoption of ICT in relation to the learning environments of secondary educational institutions in rural Bangladesh. It contributes to the fields of ICT...... in the secondary education systems (i.e., covering grades 6–12) in Bangladesh. Having positioned this investigation within the transformative paradigm, I took six strategic approaches to diffuse ICT in the learning environment of the stakeholders in rural private vocational school. The ICT diffusion strategies...

  11. Flourescence Humic Substances in Arsenic Contaminated Groundwater of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHAFI M. TAREQ

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the past, only arsenic (As concentrations in groundwater of Bangladesh were considered as having direct effects on the epidemical degrees of different types of diseases including arsenicosis, but the results of the present investigation indicated that fluorescence humic substance (HS is also an important component of dissolved organic matter in groundwater of Bangladesh. Therefore, it is suspected that both fluorescent HS and As in groundwater may have effects on the biological toxicity. The evidence of presence of high fluorescent HS and As in groundwater of Faridpur supports the above synergistic effect. The spatial distribution of fluorescence HS and As in groundwater of Faridpur indicated that the variations may be related to local hydrogeological conditions.

  12. FDI, Economic Growth, Energy Consumption & Environmental Nexus in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandip SARKER

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to investigate the relationship among economic growth, energy consumption, CO2 emission, FDI and natural gas usage in Bangladesh through co-integration and Vector Error Correction model (VECM over the period 1978 to 2010. Using ADP unit root tests it is found that all the four variables are integrated in first difference. The Johansen co-integration tests indicate that there is existence of long-run relationship among the variables. The VECM long run causality model indicates that there is a long run causality running from energy consumption and natural gas usage by industrial sector to GDP as well as from CO2 emission to FDI. Likewise in the short run a causal relationships have also been found among the variables. Moreover our model is found be error free based on several statistical test. Our results provide important policy suggestions regarding our foreign direct investment, environmental issues and economic growth nexus in Bangladesh.

  13. An ethnomedicinal survey of cucurbitaceae family plants used in the folk medicinal practices of Bangladesh 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Rahmatullah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Cucurbitaceae family comprising about 125 genera and 960 species is a family that is further characterized by commonly having five-angled stems and coiled tendrils and is also known as gourd family of flowering plants. Plant species belonging to this family have a worldwide distribution, but most species can be found in tropical and subtropical countries. A number of the plants belonging to this family have reported important pharmacological activities. Cucurbitaceae family plants are also in use in the folk medicinal system of Bangladesh-a traditional medicinal system, which mainly relies on medicinal plants for treatment of diverse ailments. Aims: Since folk medicinal practitioners form the first tier of primary health care in Bangladesh, the objective of this study was to conduct ethnomedicinal surveys among 75 folk medicinal practitioners (Kavirajes practicing among the mainstream Bengali-speaking population of randomly selected 75 villages in 64 districts of Bangladesh and 8 tribal practitioners (1 each from 8 major indigenous communities or tribes, namely, Bede, Chakma, Garo, Khasia, Marma, Murong, Santal, and Tripura of the country. Materials and Methods: Surveys were carried out with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire and the guided field-walk method. Results: It was observed that the folk and tribal medicinal practitioners use a total of 19 Cucurbitaceae family species for treatment of ailments such as dysentery, diabetes, edema, skin disorders, leukoderma, hypertension, jaundice, typhoid, spleen disorders, respiratory problems, leprosy, rheumatoid arthritis, chicken pox, and cancer. The 19 species of Cucurbitaceae family plants in use were Benincasa hispida, Bryonopsis laciniosa, Citrullus colocynthis, Citrullus lanatu, Coccinia grandis, Cucumis melo, Cucumis sativus, Cucurbita maxima, Cucurbita pepo, Hodgsonia macrocarpa, Lagenaria vulgaris, Luffa acutangula, Luffa cylindrica, Momordica charantia, Momordica

  14. Climate-Resilient Low Emission Development in Bangladesh (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, A.; Sandor, D.; Butheau, M.

    2013-11-01

    Bangladesh is widely considered to be one of the nations most threatened by climate change. With two-thirds of the country less than 20 feet above sea level, the intrusion of salt into freshwater wells, frequent flooding, and the displacement of people from their homes is an ongoing threat. At the same time, the country's cities are rapidly growing, and the demand for energy is increasing at a corresponding rate.

  15. Serodiagnosis of Viruses Infecting Some Crops of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Akanda, Abdul Mannan; Tsuno, Kazunori; Wakimoto, Satoshi

    1991-01-01

    As many as 39 plant samples representing nine different botanical families, showing symptoms like virus diseases, were collected from different locations of Bangladesh in 1986- X7. The samples were preserved at 4°C after drying by lyophilization or over calcium chloride. Double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA) and dot-immunobinding assay (DIBA) were applied for serological detection of viruses by using 11 different antiivirus-sera. Many of the samples (28/39) sh...

  16. Lead Poisoning: An Alarming Public Health Problem in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. M. K. Bashar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To assess the risk of lead poisoning among preschool and school-aged children in Bangladesh, 345 children were screened for blood lead levels (BLLs from one rural and two urban areas in Bangladesh from September 2007 through January 2008. An urban industrial area at Tongi was identified as a disaster area, where 99% (104/105 of those tested had BLLs ≥10 µg/dL. Industrial emissions and use of leaded gasoline by two-stroke engine vehicles were identified as possible sources of lead in that area. A rural nonindustrial area at Chirirbandar, Dinajpur was identified as another high-risk area, where 14% of the children screened had BLLs ≥10 µg/dL. BLLs at the urban industrial area were significantly higher than those at the rural and urban nonindustrial areas (24.58 ± 10.32, 7.24 ± 6.31, and 2.47 ± 3.32 µg/dL, respectively; p <0.001. Weight-for-age z-scores of the urban children were significantly lower than that of the rural children (-1.41 ± 1.88 vs. 0.20 ± 1.16, p <0.001. Children with elevated BLLs had poorer nutritional status (p = 0.05 than those with normal BLLs. Over 90% of the parents did not know that lead causes health problems. In conclusion, the problem of lead poisoning in children was found to be high in both urban and rural Bangladesh. A universal lead screening for preschool and school-aged children and a lead education program for parents are recommended for implementation in Bangladesh.

  17. Inflation and Financial Sector Correlation: The Case of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu N.M. Wahid

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of inflation on financial development in case of Bangladesh for the period of 1985-2005. In doing so, ARDL bounds testing approach and Error Correction Method (ECM have been employed. Empirical findings reveal that high trends of inflation impede the performance of financial markets. GDP per capita promotes development of financial sector through its causal channels.

  18. Knowledge and awareness about STDs among women in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background Knowledge and awareness concerning sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) has become the burning issue of the day. Although STDs pose serious risks to health security, there is very little literature quantifying the knowledge and awareness of these diseases and their principal socioeconomic determinants. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of different socio-economic and demographic factors on knowledge and awareness about STDs among women in Bangladesh. Methods This is ...

  19. Relative sea-level changes during the Holocene in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Towhida; Suzuki, S.; Sato, Hiroshi; Monsur, M. H.; Saha, S. K.

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents a reconstruction of the Holocene paleo-environment in the central part of Bangladesh in relation to relative sea-level changes 200 km north of the present coastline. Lithofacies characteristics, mangal peat, diatoms and paleophysiographical evidence were considered to reconstruct the past position and C-14 ages were used to determine the time of formation of the relative sea level during the Holocene. With standard reference datum, the required m.s.l. at the surface of five sections was calculated. The relative sea-level (RSL) curve suggests that Bangladesh experienced two mid-Holocene RSL transgressions punctuated by regressions. The curve shows an RSL highstand at approximately 7500 cal BP, although the height of this highstand could not be determined because the transgressive phase was observed in a bioturbated sand flat facies. The curve shows a regression of approximately 6500 cal BP, and the RSL was considerably lower, perhaps 1-2 m, than the present m.s.l. The abundant marine diatoms and mangrove pollens indicate the highest RSL transgression in Bangladesh at approximately 6000 cal BP, being at least 4.5 to 5 m higher than the modern m.s.l. After this phase, the relative sea level started to fall, and consequently, a freshwater peat developed at approximately 5980-5700 cal BP. The abundant mangrove pollens in the salt-marsh succession shows the regression at approximately 5500 cal BP, when it was 1-2 m higher than the modern sea level. The curve indicates that at approximately 5000 cal BP and onwards, the RSL started to fall towards its present position, and the present shoreline of Bangladesh was established at approximately 1500 cal BP and has not noticeably migrated inland since.

  20. Iron in tubewell water and linear growth in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briend, A; Hoque, B A; Aziz, K M

    1990-02-01

    The growth of 694 children from rural Bangladesh was studied. Children drinking water containing greater than 1 mg iron/l (n = 628) were significantly taller than those drinking less than 1 mg iron/l (n = 66): their mean (SD) height for age Z score was -2.10 (1.34) compared with -2.45 (1.24), p less than 0.05. This suggests that iron deficiency may contribute to growth retardation in poor communities.