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Sample records for bangladesh cuba indonesia

  1. Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-01

    Cuba's population characteristics, geography, history, government, political conditions, and foreign relations were briefly described. Cuba, the largest island in the East Indies, has a tropical climate and is made up of a large area of rolling plains and a smaller mountainous region. Cuba's current population of 9.946 million (1983) is 70% urban and 30% rural. The annual population growth rate is 1.1%. The literacy rate among those aged 10-49 years is 96%, and school is compulsory for 6 years. The infant mortality rate is 21/1000 live births, and life expectancy is 74.7 years. 47% of the work force is engaged in industry and commerce, 28% in services and government, and 25% in agriculture. Since the revolution, Cuba has had a centrally planned, nonmarket economy. Large state enterprises run all segments of the economy, and economic policy is formulated by a central planning board. Farmers are allowed to privately market some of their produce. The government provide a wide range of social services. Most of the services are free, but some entail a minimal fee. Cuba's economy is depressed and overly dependent on the production of sugar. Since the revolution, Cuba's sugar production has increased by only 1.1% annually. In addition to sugar production, the country is engaged in some food processing and other light forms of industry. Cuba has a large reserve of nickle. Cuba's economic indicators are calculated differently than those used in market countries and are not comparable to those used in market countries. In 1983, disposable national income was US$15.8 billion, and per capita income was US$2,590. Cuba's imports exceed her exports. In 1983 exports totalled US$6.5 billion and imports amounted to US$7.2 billion. Cuba's foreign debt is increasing annually, and Cuba is highly dependent on economic assistance from Russia. Between 1961-83, the USSR provided Cuba with US$30 billion in economic aid and US$10 billion in military aid. The country's serious economic

  2. Genetically Modified Food and International Trade: The Case of India, Bangladesh, Indonesia and the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Gruere, Guillaume P.; Bouet, Antoine; Mevel, Simon

    2007-01-01

    "Genetically modified (GM) food crops have the potential to raise agricultural productivity in Asian countries, but they are also associated with the risk of market access losses in sensitive importing countries. We study the potential effects of introducing GM food crops in Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, and the Philippines in the presence of trade-related regulations of GM food in major importers. We focus on GM field crops (rice, wheat, maize, soybeans, and cotton) resistant to biotic and a...

  3. Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-02-01

    Cuba is a country of 110,860 sq.km with 10.8 million inhabitants, of whom 99% are literate. Independence was gained on May 20, 1902. The terrain consists of flat or gently rolling plains, hills, and mountains up to 2000 meters in the Southeast, with a climate which is tropical, yet moderated by trade winds. Spanish is spoken by the Spanish-African mixed population. Life expectancy ranges over 74-77 years. Gross social product is $21 billion, declining at a rate of -20%. Per capita income is $1500. The country's natural resources include nickel, cobalt, iron ore, copper, manganese, salt, and timber. Sugar, fruits, tobacco, coffee, rice, beans, meat, vegetables, food processing, oil refining, cement, electric power, light consumer, and industrial products are areas of economic production. Capital goods, industrial raw materials, food, petroleum, and consumer goods are imported, and sugar and its by-products, petroleum, nickel, seafood, citrus, tobacco products and rum are exported. Indepth information is also given on the people and history, government and principal officials, political conditions, the economy, defense, foreign relations, relations with the U.S., and names of principal U.S. officials in the country.

  4. User perceptions of shared sanitation among rural households in Indonesia and Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Kali B; Karver, Jonathan; Kullman, Craig; Graham, Jay P

    2014-01-01

    The practice of sharing sanitation facilities does not meet the current World Health Organization/UNICEF definition for what is considered improved sanitation. Recommendations have been made to categorize shared sanitation as improved sanitation if security, user access, and other conditions can be assured, yet limited data exist on user preferences with respect to shared facilities. This study analyzed user perceptions of shared sanitation facilities in rural households in East Java, Indonesia, and Bangladesh. Cross-sectional studies of 2,087 households in East Java and 3,000 households in Bangladesh were conducted using questionnaires and observational methods. Relative risks were calculated to analyze associations between sanitation access and user perceptions of satisfaction, cleanliness, and safety. In East Java, 82.4% of households with private improved sanitation facilities reported feeling satisfied with their place of defecation compared to 68.3% of households with shared improved facilities [RR 1.19, 95% CI 1.09, 1.31]. In Bangladesh, 87.7% of households with private improved facilities reported feeling satisfied compared to 74.5% of households with shared improved facilities [RR 1.15, 95% CI 1.10, 1.20]. In East Java, 79.5% of households who reported a clean latrine also reported feeling satisfied with their place of defecation; only 38.9% of households who reported a dirty latrine also reported feeling satisfied [RR 1.74, 95% CI 1.45, 2.08]. Simple distinctions between improved and unimproved sanitation facilities tend to misrepresent the variability observed among households sharing sanitation facilities. Our results suggest that private improved sanitation is consistently preferred over any other sanitation option. An increased number of users appeared to negatively affect toilet cleanliness, and lower levels of cleanliness were associated with lower levels of satisfaction. However, when sanitation facilities were clean and shared by a limited number

  5. User perceptions of shared sanitation among rural households in Indonesia and Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kali B Nelson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The practice of sharing sanitation facilities does not meet the current World Health Organization/UNICEF definition for what is considered improved sanitation. Recommendations have been made to categorize shared sanitation as improved sanitation if security, user access, and other conditions can be assured, yet limited data exist on user preferences with respect to shared facilities. OBJECTIVE: This study analyzed user perceptions of shared sanitation facilities in rural households in East Java, Indonesia, and Bangladesh. METHODS: Cross-sectional studies of 2,087 households in East Java and 3,000 households in Bangladesh were conducted using questionnaires and observational methods. Relative risks were calculated to analyze associations between sanitation access and user perceptions of satisfaction, cleanliness, and safety. RESULTS: In East Java, 82.4% of households with private improved sanitation facilities reported feeling satisfied with their place of defecation compared to 68.3% of households with shared improved facilities [RR 1.19, 95% CI 1.09, 1.31]. In Bangladesh, 87.7% of households with private improved facilities reported feeling satisfied compared to 74.5% of households with shared improved facilities [RR 1.15, 95% CI 1.10, 1.20]. In East Java, 79.5% of households who reported a clean latrine also reported feeling satisfied with their place of defecation; only 38.9% of households who reported a dirty latrine also reported feeling satisfied [RR 1.74, 95% CI 1.45, 2.08]. CONCLUSION: Simple distinctions between improved and unimproved sanitation facilities tend to misrepresent the variability observed among households sharing sanitation facilities. Our results suggest that private improved sanitation is consistently preferred over any other sanitation option. An increased number of users appeared to negatively affect toilet cleanliness, and lower levels of cleanliness were associated with lower levels of satisfaction

  6. Mobile Banking for Empowerment Muslim Women Entrepreneur: Evidence from Asia (Indonesia and Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucky Nugroho

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective - Women entrepreneurs have positive contribution to the household economy in particular, and the sustainable economic development in general. Nevertheless, there are limitations in mobility for women entrepreneurs, especially in Muslim countries to conduct their business activities outside the home, which was due to concern, to take care of their children, and the values or customs, which is embraced by the local community, so that limited mobility of women entrepreneurs, not because of the Islamic religiosity. Therefore, is requires form of technology solutions for women entrepreneurs, which can reduce, the limitations.Methods - literature reviewResults - the role of mobile banking as well as branchless banking for women entrepreneurs has been shown to have a very important role to connect their access to financial services. The role of education for women, is also an important factor to improve the knowledge and ability to use technology, including mobile banking services. In addition to the phenomenon of the increasing number of women entrepreneurs and the growing literacy of women in developing countries such as Indonesia and Bangladesh, it will have an impact on increasing the professionalism of women entrepreneurs, and the demand for technology-based financial services such as mobile banking.Conclusions - Implementation of this program must have the support of all stakeholders, including the cooperation between the banks with microfinance institutions to expand the reach of the benefits of this technology. Keywords: Women Entrepreneur, mobile banking, branchless banking,

  7. Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    Bangladesh is a country of 143,998 sq.km with 116 million inhabitants, of whom 47-22% for males and females, respectively, are literate. Independence was gained on 1971. The terrain consists of mainly flat, alluvial plain, with hills in the Southeast, with a climate which is semi-tropical with monsoons. Bangla and English are spoken by Bengali, nonBengali Muslims, and other ethnic groups who are of mainly Muslim and Hindu faiths. Life expectancy ranges over 52-54 years. GDP is $23 billion, growing at a rate of 3.6%. Per capita income is $198. The country's natural resources include natural gas and water. Rice, jute, tea, sugar, wheat, jute goods, garments, frozen shrimp, textiles, fertilizer, leather, metal reprocessing, pharmaceutical, and newspring are areas of economic production. Capital goods, foodgrains, petroleum, consumer goods, fertilizer, chemicals, vegetable oils, and textiles are imported, and ready-made garments, jute goods, leather, frozen fish, shrimp, raw jute, and tea are exported. In-depth information is also given on the people and history, government and principal officials, political conditions, the economy, defense, foreign relations with the U.S., and names of principal U.S. officials in the country.

  8. Facilitators and barriers for retention in HIV care between testing and treatment in Asia-A study in Bangladesh, Indonesia, Lao, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines and Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushil Koirala

    Full Text Available The need for efficient retention in HIV care is more evident than ever because of the expansion of earlier ART initiation and the shift towards 'Test and Treat'. This study assesses factors affecting participation in the HIV care cascade among people living with HIV (PLHIV in the Asia-Pacific Region.A total of 7843 PLHIV aged 18-50 years were recruited using targeted and venue-based sampling between October 1, 2012, and May 31, 2013, across 59 sites in 7 countries (Bangladesh, Indonesia, Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines and Vietnam. Statistically significant associations between demographic and health system determinants, and various steps in the HIV care cascade were computed using a generalized structural equation model.A high proportion of PLHIV (40-51% presented late for HIV care and delayed linkage to care in all seven countries. However, once PLHIV enrolled in care, retention in the various steps of the care cascade including adherence to antiretroviral treatment (ART was satisfactory. The proportion still engaged in HIV care at 36 months post HIV diagnosis, varied from 78% in Nepal to >90% in Lao PDR. Similarly, the proportion of ART initiation who also were adherent to ART ranged from 91% in Bangladesh to >95% in Philippines/ Vietnam and from 70% in Lao PDR to 89% in the Philippines respectively. The following factors enhanced the likelihood of ART initiation and high adherence to HIV care and ART: good client-provider communication, high HIV treatment literacy, a referral from a health worker and TB/HIV co-infection. The following barriers were identified: young age, sex work, imprisonment, transgender identity, illiteracy, rural residence, alcohol/ injecting drug use, perceived poor health status, lack of health insurance, fear of confidentiality breach, self-referral for HIV testing, and public hospital as the place of HIV diagnosis.HIV programme planners should ensure easy access to HIV testing

  9. Facilitators and barriers for retention in HIV care between testing and treatment in Asia—A study in Bangladesh, Indonesia, Lao, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nampaisan, Oranuch; Marrone, Gaetano

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The need for efficient retention in HIV care is more evident than ever because of the expansion of earlier ART initiation and the shift towards ‘Test and Treat’. This study assesses factors affecting participation in the HIV care cascade among people living with HIV (PLHIV) in the Asia-Pacific Region. Methods A total of 7843 PLHIV aged 18–50 years were recruited using targeted and venue-based sampling between October 1, 2012, and May 31, 2013, across 59 sites in 7 countries (Bangladesh, Indonesia, Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR), Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines and Vietnam). Statistically significant associations between demographic and health system determinants, and various steps in the HIV care cascade were computed using a generalized structural equation model. Results A high proportion of PLHIV (40–51%) presented late for HIV care and delayed linkage to care in all seven countries. However, once PLHIV enrolled in care, retention in the various steps of the care cascade including adherence to antiretroviral treatment (ART) was satisfactory. The proportion still engaged in HIV care at 36 months post HIV diagnosis, varied from 78% in Nepal to >90% in Lao PDR. Similarly, the proportion of ART initiation who also were adherent to ART ranged from 91% in Bangladesh to >95% in Philippines/ Vietnam and from 70% in Lao PDR to 89% in the Philippines respectively. The following factors enhanced the likelihood of ART initiation and high adherence to HIV care and ART: good client-provider communication, high HIV treatment literacy, a referral from a health worker and TB/HIV co-infection. The following barriers were identified: young age, sex work, imprisonment, transgender identity, illiteracy, rural residence, alcohol/ injecting drug use, perceived poor health status, lack of health insurance, fear of confidentiality breach, self-referral for HIV testing, and public hospital as the place of HIV diagnosis. Conclusions HIV programme planners

  10. Concurrent Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, T.

    2016-10-01

    The parallel version of the multidimensional numerical integration package Cuba is presented and achievable speed-ups discussed. The parallelization is based on the fork/wait POSIX functions, needs no extra software installed, imposes almost no constraints on the integrand function, and works largely automatically.

  11. Biofortified β-carotene rice improves vitamin A intake and reduces the prevalence of inadequacy among women and young children in a simulated analysis in Bangladesh, Indonesia, and the Philippines1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeles-Agdeppa, Imelda; Atmarita, Atmarita; Gironella, Glen M; Muslimatun, Siti; Carriquiry, Alicia

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vitamin A deficiency continues to be a major public health problem affecting developing countries where people eat mostly rice as a staple food. In Asia, rice provides up to 80% of the total daily energy intake. Objective: We used existing data sets from Bangladesh, Indonesia, and the Philippines, where dietary intakes have been quantified at the individual level to 1) determine the rice and vitamin A intake in nonpregnant, nonlactating women of reproductive age and in nonbreastfed children 1–3 y old and 2) simulate the amount of change that could be achieved in the prevalence of inadequate intake of vitamin A if rice biofortified with β-carotene were consumed instead of the rice consumed at present. Design: We considered a range of 4–20 parts per million (ppm) of β-carotene content and 10–70% substitution levels for the biofortified rice. Software was used to estimate usual rice and vitamin A intake for the simulation analyses. Results: In an analysis by country, the substitution of biofortified rice for white rice in the optimistic scenario (20 ppm and 70% substitution) decreased the prevalence of vitamin A inadequacy from baseline 78% in women and 71% in children in Bangladesh. In Indonesia and the Philippines, the prevalence of inadequacy fell by 55–60% in women and dropped by nearly 30% in children from baseline. Conclusions: The results of the simulation analysis were striking in that even low substitution levels and modest increases in the β-carotene of rice produced a meaningful decrease in the prevalence of inadequate intake of vitamin A. Increasing the substitution levels had a greater impact than increasing the β-carotene content by >12 ppm. PMID:27510534

  12. Tsunamis in Cuba?; Tsunamis en Cuba?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotilla Rodriguez, M. O.

    2011-07-01

    Cuba as neo tectonics structure in the southern of the North American plate had three tsunamis. One of them [local] occurred in the Central-Northern region [1931.10.01, Nortecubana fault], the other was a tele tsunami [1755.11.01, in the SW of the Iberian Peninsula] that hit the Bay of Santiago de Cuba, and the third took place at 1867.11.18, by the regional source of Virgin Islands, which produced waves in the Eastern Cuban region. This tsunami originated to the NE of Puerto Rico in 1918.10.11, with another earthquake of equal magnitude and at similar coordinates, produced a tsunami that did not affect Cuba. Information on the influence of regional tsunami in 1946.08.08 of the NE of the Dominican Republic [Matanzas] in Northwestern Cuba [beaches Guanabo-Baracoa] is contrary to expectations with the waves propagation. The local event of 1939.08.15 attributed to Central- Northern Cuba [Cayo Frances with M = 8.1] does not correspond at all with the maximum magnitude of earthquakes in this region and the potential of the Nortecubana fault. Tsunamis attributed to events such as 1766.06.11 and 1932.02.03 in the Santiago de Cuba Bay are not reflected in the original documents from experts and eyewitnesses. Tsunamis from Jamaica have not affected the coasts of Cuba, despite its proximity. There is no influence in Cuba of tsunamigenic sources of the southern and western parts of the Caribbean, or the Gulf of Mexico. Set out the doubts as to the influence of tsunamis from Haiti and Dominican Republic at Guantanamo Bay which is closer to and on the same latitude, and spatial orientation than the counterpart of Santiago de Cuba, that had impact. The number of fatalities by authors in the Caribbean is different and contradictory. (Author) 76 refs.

  13. Country report INDONESIA - MFS II EVALUATIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaver, D.C.; Kusters, C.S.L.; Pradhan, M.; Vigh, M.; Groot Bruinderink, M.; Rossum, van I.; Böhnke, L.; Wallaart, K.; Malamas, S.; Berkhout, E.; Ni Wayan Suriasatini,; Sikoki, B.; Ginting, M.B.; Mulia, M.; Ningsih, K.; Pujiastuti, S.; Dwi Andari, B.; Suprobo, N.; Priyahita, W.; Sihombing, R.R.; Rokhmatulloh, S.W.; Rosita, I.; Wieriks, M.; Smidt, H.; Nugroho, K.; Prasetyo, K.; Larastiti, C.; Amir, S.; Sutikno,

    2015-01-01

    This report on Indonesia is one of a series of evaluation reports, consisting of ten reports in total, reflecting the results of the jointly-organised MFS II evaluation: - eight country reports (India, Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Uganda, Indonesia, DR Congo, Liberia, Pakistan); - a synthesis report

  14. Digital Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Masudul Alam Choudhury

    2013-01-01

    The present fever to launch an extensive digitalization program is sweeping the Bangladesh political, business, and elitist minds. In the face of an overarching outlook of sustainable development the Bangladesh digitalization program runs into some grave questions. The paper points out that ethics as a strongly endogenous force in development is indispensable to keep in view the simultaneity of attaining growth and social justice. These targets are variously manifested in different sectors an...

  15. Storm Warnings for Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    34 10Comisi6n de Relaciones Internacionales , Asamblea Nacional del Poder Popular, Datos, Reflexiones y Argumentos Sobre la Actual Situaci6n de Cuba, n.p...Comisi6n de Relaciones Internacionales , Asamblea Nacional del Poder Popular, Datos, Reflexiones y Argumentos Sobre la Actual Situaci6n de Cuba

  16. Tsunamis in Cuba?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotilla Rodriguez, M. O.

    2011-01-01

    Cuba as neo tectonics structure in the southern of the North American plate had three tsunamis. One of them [local] occurred in the Central-Northern region [1931.10.01, Nortecubana fault], the other was a tele tsunami [1755.11.01, in the SW of the Iberian Peninsula] that hit the Bay of Santiago de Cuba, and the third took place at 1867.11.18, by the regional source of Virgin Islands, which produced waves in the Eastern Cuban region. This tsunami originated to the NE of Puerto Rico in 1918.10.11, with another earthquake of equal magnitude and at similar coordinates, produced a tsunami that did not affect Cuba. Information on the influence of regional tsunami in 1946.08.08 of the NE of the Dominican Republic [Matanzas] in Northwestern Cuba [beaches Guanabo-Baracoa] is contrary to expectations with the waves propagation. The local event of 1939.08.15 attributed to Central- Northern Cuba [Cayo Frances with M = 8.1] does not correspond at all with the maximum magnitude of earthquakes in this region and the potential of the Nortecubana fault. Tsunamis attributed to events such as 1766.06.11 and 1932.02.03 in the Santiago de Cuba Bay are not reflected in the original documents from experts and eyewitnesses. Tsunamis from Jamaica have not affected the coasts of Cuba, despite its proximity. There is no influence in Cuba of tsunamigenic sources of the southern and western parts of the Caribbean, or the Gulf of Mexico. Set out the doubts as to the influence of tsunamis from Haiti and Dominican Republic at Guantanamo Bay which is closer to and on the same latitude, and spatial orientation than the counterpart of Santiago de Cuba, that had impact. The number of fatalities by authors in the Caribbean is different and contradictory. (Author) 76 refs.

  17. Las Haloragaceae de Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betancourt Gandul, Martha

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available A study of the Haloragaceae in Cuba is presented. The presence of Proserpinaca palustris, P. pectinata. Myriophyllum laxum and M. pinnatum is confirmed, and the possible extinction of M. sparsiflorum is suggestedEstudio de la familia Haloragaceae en Cuba. Se confirma la existencia de Proserpinaca palustris, P. pectinata. Myriophyllum laxum y M, pinnatum, y se plantea la posible extinción de M. sparsiflorum.

  18. An Island Called Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Stubbs

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Review of: An Island Called Home: Returning to Jewish Cuba. Ruth Behar, photographs by Humberto Mayol. New Brunswick NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2007. xiii + 297 pp. (Cloth US$ 29.95 Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography. Fidel Castro & Ignacio Ramonet. New York: Scribner/Simon & Schuster, 2008. vii + 724 pp. (Paper US$ 22.00, e-book US$ 14.99 Cuba: What Everyone Needs to Know. Julia E. Sweig. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009. xiv + 279 pp. (Paper US$ 16.95 [First paragraph] These three ostensibly very different books tell a compelling story of each author’s approach, as much as the subject matter itself. Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography is based on a series of long interviews granted by the then-president of Cuba, Fidel Castro, to Spanish-Franco journalist Ignacio Ramonet. Cuba: What Everyone Needs to Know, by U.S. political analyst Julia Sweig, is one of a set country series, and, like Ramonet’s, presented in question/answer format. An Island Called Home: Returning to Jewish Cuba, with a narrative by Cuban-American anthropologist Ruth Behar and photographs by Cuban photographer Humberto Mayol, is a retrospective/introspective account of the Jewish presence in Cuba. While from Ramonet and Sweig we learn much about the revolutionary project, Behar and Mayol convey the lived experience of the small Jewish community against that backdrop.

  19. The `Sol` of Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, L. [Solar Energy International, Carbondale, CO (United States)

    1997-03-01

    Cuba`s renewable energy program was discussed. Prior to 1989, Cuba`s electricity was based on petroleum imported from the socialist bloc at low prices. With the demise of the socialist bloc, Cuba had to reduce its energy usage by 50 per cent, which led to a complete revamping of the national energy plan and a huge push for renewable energy. Today, sugar cane is supplying almost 30 per cent of the energy used in Cuba. 156 sugar mills use sugar cane residue to power their mills. The excess is sold back to the grid. Micro-hydro power is the second most important renewable energy source in the country. A total of 220 micro-hydro systems generate 80 GWh annually. The mountain town of Magdalena, a photovoltaic (PV)-powered community of 574 people, was cited as an example of the strides made in renewable energy development in the Carribean island country. Because the community is off the power grid, each house has its own 70 watt PV system which supplies 18 lighting hours power day. There are 11-watt PV street lights lining the streets. A 3 kW PV powered water pumping system pumps 30,000 gallons of water per day for the entire community. Throughout Cuba there are a total of 295 PV powered rural homes, three community systems averaging 2500 peak watts each, and over 50 PV powered doctor`s offices. Because of the intense summer heat, Cubans have devised a reverse greenhouse so they can grow winter crops in the summer. There are also 9000 wind mills in service, pumping water. 3 figs.

  20. All projects related to Indonesia | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Project. A number of studies in recent years have reported disturbingly high levels of violence against women in the workplace. Topic: Gender. Region: Bangladesh, Cambodia, India, Indonesia. Program: Governance and Justice. Total Funding: CA$ 675,900.00. Large-scale land transformations in Indonesia: The role of ...

  1. Cuba: transition of disintegration?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Stubbs

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Toward a New Cuba? Legacies of a Revolution. MIGUEL ANGEL CENTENO & MAURICIO FONT (eds.. Boulder CO: Lynne Rienner, 1997. ix + 245 pp. (Cloth US$ 49.95 Essays on Cuban History: Historiography and Research. Louis A. PEREZ, JR. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1994. xiv + 306 pp. (Cloth US$ 44.95 Cuba's Second Economy: From Behind the Scenes to Center Stage. JORGE F. PEREZ-LOPEZ. New Brunswick NJ: Transaction, 1995. 221 pp. (Cloth US$ 32.95 Sport in Cuba: The Diamond in the Rough. PAULA J. PETTAVINO & GERALYN PYE. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1994. ix + 301 pp. (Cloth US$ 49.94, Paper US$ 19.95 Cuba is clearly at yet another major turning point, and the four books under review here testify, each in its way, to this. Two are single-authored monographs (one on sport, the other on the informal economy one is a single-authored collection of essays on history and historiography; and one is a multidisciplinary anthology of essays by various authors. In approach, they cover a broad political spectrum, and all are concerned with an understanding of process in Cuba, whether prior to or since the 1959 revolution, pre- or post-1989, or during the 1990s.

  2. IDRC in Cuba

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC began to support research in. Cuba in 1974, focusing primarily on health and agriculture. The country's dire shortages of food and medicine that began in the 1990s spurred researchers to explore non- traditional approaches to these issues, including urban agriculture and the use of medicinal plants. Draw ing on.

  3. in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juwel Rana

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background . About 8,900 people are living with HIV/AIDS, and 1,000 AIDS-related deaths had been reported in Bangladesh by the end of 2014. Objectives . The study investigates the social determinants of awareness and behavior regarding STDs and HIV/AIDS among ever married women in Bangladesh. Material and methods. This cross-sectional research extracted data concerning 17,828 ever married women from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS in 2014. The chi-square (χ2 and multinomial logistic regression model were used to identify the factors associated with knowledge, awareness and behavior concerning STDs and HIV/AIDS. Results . Overall, 28.6% of examined ever married women have never heard of STDs or HIV/AIDS nor any of their prevention methods. Also, only 15.6% of reported women were the decision makers regarding the use of contraception during sexual intercourse, and 91.3% of women had the capacity to refuse sexual contact with their STD-infected husband/partner. Women who belong to households classified as lower class (OR = 0.525, 95% CI = 0.461–0.598 or middle class (OR = 0.643, 95% CI = 0.564–0.733 had less comprehensive knowledge and awareness of STDs and HIV/AIDS than those categorized as upper class. Women at a level of education below secondary (OR = 0.200, 95% CI = 0.179–0.223 also had less comprehensive knowledge and awareness than highly educated women. Moreover, women living in an urban residence (OR = 1.141, 95% CI = 1.003–1.297 were more likely to make the decision of using contraception and (OR = 1.546, 95% CI = 1.351–1.770 more likely to refuse sexual contact with an STD-infected husband/partner than their rural counterparts. Formally unemployed women (OR = 0.894, 95% CI = 0.793–1.010 were less likely to refuse sexual intercourse with an STD-infected husband than employed women. Conclusions . Social determinants such as education, wealth and media exposure determine the level of knowledge and awareness

  4. Bagasse utilization in Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-11-01

    Fluctuations in world sugar prices retard economic development in sugar-producing countries like Cuba, and so there is a pressing need to find alternative uses for sugar cane through the industrialization of its by-products, such as bagasse. In 1971 the United Nations Development Program began a cooperative venture with the Cuban Research Institute for Sugar Cane Derivatives to develop methods of making newsprint from bagasse. An experimental plant - Cuba 9, located 35 kilometers south of Havana, was inaugurated in May 1981. It is semi-commercial in character and has a daily capacity of 34 tonnes of newsprint and five tonnes of dissolving pulp. Pilot plants for the production of furfural and for the production of reconstituted panelboard are in operation.

  5. Cuba: Clearing Perilous Waters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Freedom House, Cuba Brief, June 1995, p. 3. 9On the declaration and fate of those who signed it, including the poetess Maria Elena Cruz Varela, see... Esteban Lazo, Provincial First Secretary Jorge Lezcano, and Division General Abelardo Colome of the Ministry of Interior. As committed fidelista...the political consciousness of Cubans. In the westernmost province of Pinar del Rio , for example, a lay worker has been conducting a 10-week home

  6. A democracia em Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César Guanche Zaldívar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O triunfo revolucionário de 1959 consagrou em Cuba um novo conceito de democracia, com o intuito de garantir o acesso à vida política ativa de grandes setores da população, antes excluídos. Para isso, foi desenvolvida uma política de inclusão social com caráter universal. A prática política popular deixou as riquezas do país em mãos da população carente e gerou uma grande mobilidade social, fato que foi central para o aumento da participação popular. O contexto de agressão imperialista e o próprio desenvolvimento do processo produziram a consolidação de noções que limitaram a participação popular: o apogeu da burocracia, a compreensão da unidade como unanimidade e o seguimento, em certa medida, de correntes do marxismo soviético. Os desafios atuais para aprofundar a democracia em Cuba se apresentam em três planos: socializar o poder, promover a sociodiversidade e desenvolver a ideologia revolucionária.El triunfo revolucionario de 1959 consagró en Cuba un nuevo concepto de democracia, basado en garantizar acceso a la vida política activa a grandes sectores poblacionales, antes excluidos de ella. Para ello desarrolló una política de inclusión social con carácter universal. La práctica política popular puso las riquezas del país en manos de los desposeídos y generó gran movilidad social, hecho que resultó clave para el aumento de la participación popular. El contexto de agresión imperialista y el propio desarrollo del proceso produjo el afianzamiento de nociones que limitaron la participación popular: el auge de la burocracia, la comprensión de la unidad como unanimidad y el seguimiento, en parte, de corrientes del marxismo soviético. Los desafíos actuales se presentan en tres planos para profundizar la democracia en Cuba: socializar el poder, promover la sociodiversidad y desarrollar la ideología revolucionaria.The revolutionary triumph of 1959 established in Cuba a new concept of democracy, one that

  7. Contratados peninsulares para Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iglesias García, Fe

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Not available.

    Ante las presiones británicas, la metrópoli española y los ideólogos de los hacendados cubanos tuvieron que dar, desde la tercera década del siglo XIX, una respuesta a la previsible escasez de mano de obra esclava. El artículo estudia los sistemas de contrata implantados en la isla para abastecer de mano de obra blanca y barata a Cuba, deteniéndose particularmente la autora en el estudio de las condiciones de semiesclavitud que se escondían en las mencionadas contratas y en el perfil de los inmigrantes (profesiones, sexo, edad, procedencia....

  8. Security Requirements for Post-Transition Cuba

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crowther, Glenn A

    2007-01-01

    .... With that change, Cuba's security requirements will change as well. This monograph analyzes security requirements that the new Cuba will face and proposes what missions and structure the Cuban security forces might have after a...

  9. Cuba: The Next Unanticipated Anticipated Strategic Crisis?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gorrell, Tim

    2005-01-01

    ...; and the current Bush administration with the global war on terrorism (GWOT). Cuba, specifically post-Castro Cuba, could very well trigger the next unanticipated crisis even though the writing is on the...

  10. Cuba [Country report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peralta Vital, J.

    2005-01-01

    Cuba has been committed to the peaceful use of ionising radiation for benefits of the society, this comprises the safety management of all radioactive waste generated from the nuclear applications. The Center for Radiation Protection and Hygiene (CPHR) is responsible for the radioactive wastes management in the country, including the safety assessment (SA) of disposal facilities. Into the SA methodologies, the associated impact to the environment and the human health from the radioactive waste disposal is measured through of safety indicators. The radiological dose and risk are the most common endpoints adopted, but when in the SA the long-term impact is evaluated, the former indicators can be affected by different assumptions about the critical group, assessment period and parameter uncertainties. With the inclusion of others safety indicators besides dose and risk a reasonable assurance can be achievable and may facilitate the defence of the safety assessment results, according to the radiation protection principles. The concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides (NOR) and the natural fluxes of radionuclides were selected as safety indicators complementary to dose and risk for the carried out assessment. Both indicators can provide a measure of the potential effect on the human health and the environment, they are less affected for the time and also, it is easy to implement in the safety assessment methodology. The NOR concentrations for Cuba were obtained from a database based in the results of geological and geophysical surveys in the country, the natural concentrations of U, Ra, Th, K were associated with different lithologies for 3 geographical areas of the Country. The site selected for the disposal facility is located in a massif granodiorite in the central part of the country, all relevant information about the geosphere was obtained during the site selection process where geologic, hydrogeologic and geophysical investigation were carried out in

  11. Cuba Through A New Lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Stubbs

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] The Origins of the Cuban Revolution Reconsidered. Samuel Farber. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2006. x + 212 pp. (Paper US$ 19.95 Cuba: A New History. Ric hard Gott . New Haven: Yale University Press, 2005. xii + 384 pp. (Paper US$ 17.00 Havana: The Making of Cuban Culture. Antoni Kapcia. Oxford: Berg Publishers, 2005. xx + 236 pp. (Paper US$ 24.95 Richard Gott, Antoni Kapcia, and Samuel Farber each approach Cuba through a new lens. Gott does so by providing a broad-sweep history of Cuba, which is epic in scope, attaches importance to social as much as political and economic history, and blends scholarship with flair. Kapcia homes in on Havana as the locus for Cuban culture, whereby cultural history becomes the trope for exploring not only the city but also Cuban national identity. Farber revisits his own and others’ interpretations of the origins of the Cuban Revolution.

  12. EMME (Indonesia)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — EMME is a program specific M&E tool for the Indonesia Mission that is managed by RTI and provides access to project statuses and success stories for the USAID...

  13. CASE STUDY: Cuba — Farmers and Researchers Reshape Cuba's ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-05

    Jan 5, 2011 ... They began a project designed to improve the yield and quality of the corn and bean crops through a combined effort of increased varietal diversity and strengthened local farmer organizations. The project is already making an important contribution to improving Cuba's food security options.

  14. Cancer control in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Syed Akram; Sullivan, Richard

    2013-12-01

    Cancer is predicted to be an increasingly important cause of morbidity and mortality in Bangladesh in the next few decades. The estimated incidence of 12.7 million new cancer cases will rise to 21.4 million by 2030. More than two-thirds of the total expenditure on health is through out-of-pocket payments. According to the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, cancer is the sixth leading cause of death. International Agency for Research on Cancer has estimated cancer-related death rates in Bangladesh to be 7.5% in 2005 and 13% in 2030. The two leading causes are in males are lung and oral cancer and in females are breast cancer and cervical cancer. Bangladesh is now in severe shortage of radiation therapy machines, hospital bed, trained oncologists, medical radiation physicists and technologists. Bangladesh having different cancers associated with smoking and smokeless tobacco use, Human papilloma virus infection, Hepatitis B and C infection, Helicobacter Pylori infection, arsenic contaminated groundwater, availability of chemical carcinogens mainly formalin treated fruits, fish and vegetables at open market, tannery waste contaminated with chromium (which is used for poultry feed and fish feed preparation). A World Health Organization study revealed the annual cost of illnesses in Bangladesh attributable to tobacco usage is US$ 500 million and the total annual benefit from the tobacco sector is US$ 305 million as tax revenue. Bangladesh has developed a National Cancer Control Strategy and Action Plan with the aim of delivering a universal, quality-based and timely service. Cancer prevention through tobacco control, health promotion and vaccination program, cancer early detection program for oral cavity, breast and cervix has initiated. Cancer detection and diagnostic facilities will be made available at medical colleges and district- hospitals and establish a referral chain. National capacity development, more cancer research will allow Bangladesh to deal effectively

  15. 48 Human Rights in and around Cuba

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The article takes point of department in the current reform process in Cuba and its perspectives regarding human rights. To understand the background of the fundamental human rights' problems in Cuba, an analysis of the 'constituting dichotomy' is included and discussed in relation to its...... representation in the film, 'Strawberry and Chocolate'. The further perspectives for human rights in Cuba in relation to other Developments in Latin America constitutes the last part....

  16. Cuba: Multidimensional numerical integration library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    The Cuba library offers four independent routines for multidimensional numerical integration: Vegas, Suave, Divonne, and Cuhre. The four algorithms work by very different methods, and can integrate vector integrands and have very similar Fortran, C/C++, and Mathematica interfaces. Their invocation is very similar, making it easy to cross-check by substituting one method by another. For further safeguarding, the output is supplemented by a chi-square probability which quantifies the reliability of the error estimate.

  17. El envejecimiento poblacional en Cuba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Bernal Sánchez

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available En todo el mundo las poblaciones de los distintos países están envejeciendo, por tanto, la gente vive más tiempo y el número de personas adultas es cada vez mayor. Esto requiere de la toma de medidas con el fin de lograr mantener a estas personas vinculadas a la sociedad. Cuba teniendo en cuenta esta realidad se ha enfrascado en una serie de programas al respecto en lo cual Sancti Spíritus no se ha quedado detrás, llegando a cada rincón del país. Este trabajo presenta la investigación llevada a cabo de un estudio referativo sobre el envejecimiento poblacional en Cuba, cuyos objetivos son, profundizar en las diferentes aristas del tema así como valorar las dimensiones del mismo, para lo cual se emplearon métodos del nivel teórico y empírico. Entre los resultados obtenidos se encuentra diseño de un trabajo referativo que abarca doce dimensiones del envejecimiento poblacional en Cuba. La realización de este documento facilita el estudio del tema ya que permite profundizar en el contenido sobre Adulto Mayor visto como un sistema desde múltiples aristas.

  18. Bangladesh Jobs Diagnostic

    OpenAIRE

    Farole, Thomas; Cho, Yoonyoung

    2017-01-01

    This Jobs Diagnostic presents the characteristics and constraints of the labor market in Bangladesh, identifies the objectives of the jobs agenda, and proposes a policy framework to progress toward them. This multisectoral diagnostic assesses the relationships between supply- and demand-side factors that interact to determine job creation, quality, and inclusion outcomes. Understanding the...

  19. 31 CFR 515.420 - Travel to Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Travel to Cuba. 515.420 Section 515....420 Travel to Cuba. The prohibition on dealing in property in which Cuba or a Cuban national has an...) also prohibits payment for air travel to Cuba on a third-country carrier unless the travel is pursuant...

  20. Through the looking glass on Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Stubbs

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] State Resistance to Globalisation in Cuba. Antonio Carmona Báez. Sterling VA: Pluto Press, 2004. vii + 264 pp. (Paper US$ 29.95 La Lucha for Cuba: Religion and Politics on the Streets of Miami. Miguel A. de la Torre. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003. xi + 181 pp. (Paper US$ 21.95 By Heart/De Memoria: Cuban Women’s Journeys in and out of Exile. María de los Angeles Torres (ed.. Philadelphia PA: Temple University Press, 2003. vii + 192 pp. (Paper US$ 19.95 Looking at Cuba: Essays on Culture and Civil Society. Rafael Hernández. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2003. vii + 145 pp. (Cloth US$ 24.95 In the politically charged world of scholarship on Cuba, it is salutary to comment in one review essay on four quite different volumes, each complementing the others. Three are single-authored, two on island Cuba (by Antonio Carmona Báez and Rafael Hernández and one on Miami (by Miguel A. de la Torre. All three draw on theory and concepts and are male-authored and place-centric (Cuba/Miami. The fourth (by María de los Angeles Torres is an edited collection of the personal testimonies of women seeking a place in between the hardened politics of Cuba and Miami.

  1. Cuba's oil crisis spells trouble for Castro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on Cuba's oil crisis which presents long term woes for the government of Fidel Castro but new opportunities for foreign petroleum investment. That's the main thesis of a study by East-West Center (EWC), Honolulu. Since the cutoff of subsidized oil supplies from the former Soviet Union at the first of the year, Cuba has endured a crippling loss of export revenues and draconian energy rationing measures at home. The Soviets had reduced oil supplies to Cuba since 1989 after decades of providing the Castro government with subsidized oil supplies. Former Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev exempted Cuba from paying market prices for Soviet oil in 1991 while requiring that of Soviet trading partners in eastern Europe. With the collapse of Communism in the former U.S.S.R., however, oil supplies from that region are available to Cuba only at market prices and for hard currency. That has triggered a crisis in the Western Hemisphere's sole Communist regime as Cuba's gross special product - equivalent to GNP - fell by 5% in 1990 and a further 20% in 1991. The foreign exchange loss of $1.6 billion stemming from the loss of Soviet subsidized oil supplies exceeds that of total foreign exchange earnings from all other sources. If Cuba imports oil in 1989 volumes at current prices, its oil import tab alone will be $1.3 billion, EWC projects

  2. Arqueofauna del Nororiente de Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Pérez Iglesias

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available La región nororiental de Cuba, que abarca el norte de los territorios de las provincias Las Tunas, Holguín y Guantánamo, posee un potencial arqueológico de alrededor de 220 sitios, de ellos se posee información zooarqueológica de 35 localidades. Esta información se ha reunido en un sistema de información geográfica(SIG denominado Arqueofauna del Nororiente de Cuba, que permite el manejo de los datos a través de entradas como: nombre del sitio, coordenadas, provincia, municipio, categoría, filiación, lista de taxones presentes (Moluscos, Crustáceos, Peces, Reptiles, Aves, Mamíferos, número de especies respectiva a cada taxón, fechado del sitio, persona y fecha en que fue trabajado. Este levantamiento zooarqueológico ofrece además, una aproximación del uso de los recursos faunísticos por parte de las comunidades aborígenes, en esta área geográfica, así como datos sobre el uso de especies extintas, variaciones en la distribución de especies en el pasado, cuestión tratada en el presente trabajo.

  3. Country programme review Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamel, R.; Maluszynski, Y.; Maudarbocus, Y.; Cherif, H.S.; Morre, P.

    1993-12-01

    A five-expert mission was organized from 21-26 August 1993 and this document reflects the findings and recommendations of the team. Intensive contacts with heads of institutions, scientists and decision making persons in various sectors in the country were co-ordinated by the Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission. The terms of reference of the mission were: To assess the on-going TC projects; to assist the Bangladesh nationals to finalize the formulation of the new requests for 1995-96 TC programme and to establish priority areas with regard to the introduction of national projects involving accelerated technological transfer in order to catalyze national development plans in specific areas; to examine institutional framework suitable for the introduction of these priority nuclear techniques

  4. Rape in Rural Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowsher Ali

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rape is one of the silent brutal sexual offences in Bangladesh. Despite strong laws against it, the evil of rape continues to rise. Increasing trend of the silent cruel sexual offence (rape represents a major psychopath sexual disorder and public health problem and progress of the country. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the pattern of alleged rape victims in a rural district of Bangladesh with the ultimate aim to create public awareness about the brutal crime. Materials and method: This retrospective study was carried out on 330 sexually assailed alleged rape victims’ report forms, who reported at Faridpur Medical College, Bangladesh from 2007 to 2011 for medical examination. Results: Among the study subjects maximum number (70.0% of alleged rape cases were under the age of 20 years. More than two-thirds (64.60% of the assailants were known to the victims, most of the incidents (64.20% occurred in the victims’ houses and nearby places. The study also revealed that minimum number of victims (14.20% reported within 24 hours for medical examination. Almost one fourth of the alleged rape cases were gang rape and no positive finding in favour of sexual intercourse was found in about three fourth (72.40% of cases. Conclusion: Public awareness about rape would be effective to report in due time with preserving the evidence of crime and modern techniques like DNA diagnosis may be of help to detect the assailant.

  5. [Family planning in Bangladesh].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, S

    1981-03-01

    The author participated in the family planning project in Bangladesh from August 1, 1977 to December 31, 1979. The population of Bangladesh was 81 million in 1977 with annual increase of 3%, and the government was aiming at zero population growth. The government guidelines emphasized family planning as an effort integrated with other community programs. The use of adult education classes, mass media, and agricultural field workers and the training of paramedical personnel were proposed. The project members' activities involved motivating the public to delay marriages, to space births and to limit the family size to two children (average family size 6.5 children) as well as distributing contraceptives, promoting IUD and sterilization. Sterilization campaign for women in DNN district, 30 km south of Dacca, was carried out as follows. The women who had signed up in advance arrived at the elementary school classroom, where 2 medical teams performed operations using the teachers' desks and the equipment rented from a hospital in Dacca. The general procedure involved a physical examination by a female doctor, checking blood pressure, changing into a brand new native gown, premedication by injection, total anesthesia and operation itself. The equipment was sterilized by boiling. The patients were carried on the stretchers to the other classroom where they recuperated, staying overnight on the straw mats on the mud floor. They went home on foot the next day. The shortage of food and resources, high unemployment rate and low standard of living are some of the social problems Bangladesh faces along with overpopulation.

  6. Motivating women. Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-08-01

    The Integrated Family Development Program (IFDP) in Bangladesh is expanding from the original project areas in Panchdona Union and Dhalian Union into four neighboring unions under the initiative of the Family Planning Association of Bangladesh (FPAB). The JOICFP-executed project entered its second cycle this year as part of the UNFPA-supported regional Capacity Building for Sustainable Community-based Reproductive Health/Family Planning (FP) Project Emphasizing Quality of Care. The community-based project has won wide acceptance from people at the grass roots who have helped fuel its expansion into other villages. In particular, villagers have welcomed the comprehensive approach of the project which integrates a range of components such as reproductive health including FP/maternal and child health (MCH), income-generating activities, skills and literacy education for women and children and primary health care including parasite control. The success of the project also convinced the Japanese Embassy in Bangladesh to extend funding under the Japanese government's Grant Assistance for Grass Roots Cooperation Projects. With the funds, FPAB will establish a Women's Multipurpose Training Center in Panchdona Union. The sum of US$68,157 was officially handed over to FPAB on March 29 by Japanese Ambassador Yoshikazu Kaneko. The center, which is to open within this year, will contribute to improving reproductive health and promoting the empowerment of women. Once completed, it will be used for such activities as training in health care, literacy and skills for income generation for women's empowerment. full text

  7. Cuba: Issues for the 109th Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sullivan, Mark P

    2006-01-01

    Since the early 1960s, U.S. policy toward Cuba under Fidel Castro has consisted largely of isolating the communist nation through comprehensive economic sanctions, which have been significantly tightened by the Bush Administration...

  8. Cuba: Issues for the 111th Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-04

    Argentine President Cristina Fernández de Kirchner dispelled rumors that he was on his deathbed. Fidel did note in one of his published essays...economic changes. 27 Marc Frank , “Raúl Castro Overhauls Cuba’s Farm Bureaucracy,” Reuters News, May 1...74 Jeff Franks , “Cuba Oil Claims Raise Eyebrows in Energy World,” October 24, 2008; and Larry Luxner, “Cuba May have 20 Billion Barrels of Oil But

  9. The Curious Case of Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Gail A.

    2012-01-01

    As health professionals in the United States consider how to focus health care and coverage to ensure better, more equitable patient and population health outcomes, the experience of Cuba’s National Health System over the last 5 decades may provide useful insights. Although mutual awareness has been limited by long-term political hostilities between the United States and Cuban governments, the history and details of the Cuban health system indicate that their health system merits attention as an example of a national integrated approach resulting in improved health status. More extensive analysis of the principles, practices, and outcomes in Cuba is warranted to inform health system transformation in the United States, despite differences in political-social systems and available resources. PMID:22698011

  10. PULPA CUBA MILL ENERGY ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pedro Hernández Touset

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available An energy study was performed at Pulpa Cuba Paper Mill, located in Sancti Spiritus, where an energy management system was applied according to NC: ISO 50001, in order to assess the energy system by applying energy management systems for energy and water reduction in the paper mill, in which the current steam generation, distribution and consumption system is diagnosed. The proposal of a modified energy scheme with 1 MW Backpressure Steam Turbine Generator and rehabilitation of the original boiler or installing a lower capacity boiler contributes to save financial resources by the concept of water, fuel and electricity. The implementation of four projects will save 3,095,574 CUC / y and an average payback period of about 1 year is expected.

  11. National Program of Quality Assurance in Radiotherapy in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso Samper, J. L.; Dominguez Hung, L.; Morales Lopez, J. L.; Alfonso Laguardia, R.; Garcia Yip, F.

    2001-01-01

    It tries on the establishment of a Quality Assurance Nacional System, a Quality Assurance Committee implemented in Cuba, and a Quality Auditory National Program implemented in Cuba to control and assure radiotherapy quality

  12. Mass media tours Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-07-01

    In May 1998, representatives of Japan's mass media toured Bangladesh to learn about the country's reproductive health and population programs. The goal of the visit was for the journalists to spread information about the projects to their peers, to government officials, and parliamentarians responsible for allocations of foreign aid. The 1st stage of the visit involved meetings with program officials and organizers. In the 2nd stage, the journalists toured: 1) Matlab, where the International Center for Diarrhoeal Disease Research has been implementing an intensive family planning (FP) program; 2) the Panchdona IP area, where the Integrated Family Development Project is being conducted with funding from the Japanese government; 3) an FP office and satellite clinic; and 4) a site where voluntary organizations are providing FP/maternal-child health care. The journalists also learned about how micro-credit loans operate. Participating journalists reported that they were very impressed with the people of Bangladesh, and that they had gained a new understanding of the relationship between reproductive health and human rights.

  13. Cuba: U.S. Restrictions on Travel and Remittances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-31

    that do not allow travel to visit cousins, aunts, uncles, and more- distant relatives. Another argument opposing restrictions on travel and private...office. In January 2006, OFAC suspended a South Florida travel agency, La Estrella de Cuba, from booking travel to Cuba. The agency reportedly was one...plans to conduct 25 on-site audits in 2006 at agencies that do business with Cuba.22 In addition to La Estrella de Cuba, OFAC suspended the service

  14. EPA Collaboration with Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indonesia is a key actor in the global environmental arena. In addition to significant ecological resources, Indonesia also has the fourth largest population in the world and the third largest greenhouse gas emissions.

  15. Bangladesh floods, cyclones and ENSO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudhury, A.M.

    1994-04-01

    It has been found that in general there is a reduction of rainfall in all the regions of Bangladesh in all the seasons - premonsoon, monsoon and post monsoon during El Nino years. It has also been observed that in strong El Nino year Bangladesh is not hit by a catastrophic flood or a catastrophic cyclone. In the past, occurrence of famines in this region of the world coincided with El Nino years. The years of weak El Nino or when the El Nino index is positive seem to be favourable for the occurrence of floods and cyclones in Bangladesh. A theory of the modulation of the monsoon in Bangladesh by the Walker circulation has been described in the paper. (author). 14 refs, 7 figs, 1 tab

  16. Case Study: Bangladesh Bank Heist

    OpenAIRE

    Md Ahsan Habib

    2017-01-01

    Cyber crime is a threat to our E- commerce . A hacker group named "Lazarus" hacked $951 million from Bangladesh Bank's account. This is the short case study of this incident with professional ethical view.

  17. Waterfowl in Cuba: Current status and distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco Rodríquez, Pedro; Vilella, Francisco; Sánchez Oria, Bárbara

    2014-01-01

    Cuba and its satellite islands represent the largest landmass in the Caribbean archipelago and a major repository of the region’s biodiversity. Approximately 13.4% of the Cuban territory is covered by wetlands, encompassing approximately 1.48 million ha which includes mangroves, flooded savannas, peatlands, freshwater swamp forests and various types of managed wetlands. Here, we synthesise information on the distribution and abundance of waterfowl on the main island of Cuba, excluding the numerous surrounding cays and the Isla de la Juventud (Isle of Youth), and report on band recoveries from wintering waterfowl harvested in Cuba by species and location. Twenty-nine species of waterfowl occur in Cuba, 24 of which are North American migrants. Of the five resident Anatid species, three are of conservation concern: the West Indian Whistling-duck Dendrocygna arborea (globally vulnerable), White-cheeked Pintail Anas bahamensis (regional concern) and Masked Duck Nomonyx dominicus(regional concern). The most abundant species of waterfowl wintering in Cuba include Blue-winged Teal A. discors, Northern Pintail A. acuta, and Northern Shoveler A. clypeata. Waterfowl banded in Canada and the United States and recovered in Cuba included predominantly Blue-winged Teal, American Wigeon and Northern Pintail. Banding sites of recovered birds suggest that most of the waterfowl moving through and wintering in Cuba are from the Atlantic and Mississippi flyways. Threats to wetlands and waterfowl in Cuba include: 1) egg poaching of resident species, 2) illegal hunting of migratory and protected resident species, 3) mangrove deforestation, 4) reservoirs for irrigation, 5) periods of pronounced droughts, and 6) hurricanes. Wetland and waterfowl conservation efforts continue across Cuba’s extensive system of protected areas. Expanding collaborations with international conservation organisations, researchers and governments in North America will enhance protection

  18. 14 CFR 91.709 - Operations to Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Operations to Cuba. 91.709 Section 91.709... Board Such Aircraft § 91.709 Operations to Cuba. No person may operate a civil aircraft from the United States to Cuba unless— (a) Departure is from an international airport of entry designated in § 6.13 of...

  19. 31 CFR 515.566 - Religious activities in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Religious activities in Cuba. 515.566..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.566 Religious activities in Cuba. (a) Specific license... involving transactions (including travel-related transactions) in which Cuba or a Cuban national has an...

  20. 31 CFR 515.563 - Journalistic activities in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Journalistic activities in Cuba. 515..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.563 Journalistic activities in Cuba. (a) General license... directly incident to journalistic activities in Cuba by persons regularly employed as journalists by a news...

  1. Herbal mixtures in the traditional medicine of Eastern Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernández, J.; Volpato, G.

    2004-01-01

    Herbal mixtures in the traditional medicine of Eastern Cuba. Traditional herbal mixtures in Eastern Cuba are investigated through interviews with 130 knowledgeable people and traditional healers of the provinces of Santiago de Cuba and Guantanamo. One hundred seventy plant species and other products

  2. Science and Technology Diplomacy with Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colon, Frances

    President Obama's announcement of U. S. policy change toward Cuba and increased freedom of interaction with the Cuban people opens unprecedented and long-awaited opportunities for the scientific and engineering communities in the U. S. and in Cuba to establish and expand collaborative efforts that will greatly advance U.S. and Cuba science and technology agendas. New rules for export of donated-only items for scientific use will bring researchers closer to the level of their professional peers around the world. Increasing Cubans' access to information will result in greater interactions between scientific communities and enable the sharing of ideas and discoveries that can fuel entrepreneurship on the island. The scientific community has expressed an extraordinary level of interest in the wide range of scientific opportunities that the new policy presents, in collaborating with their Cuban counterparts, and in supporting the development of scientific capacity in Cuba. In response to numerous expressions of interest and inquiries from the scientific community, the Office of the Science and Technology Adviser to the Secretary of State (STAS) has engaged in public outreach to inform the U.S. science and technology community of the implications of the new policy for collaborative research, emerging scientific opportunities, and the standing limitations for engagement with the people of Cuba.

  3. Bangladesh : Growth and Export Competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2005-01-01

    Bangladesh's growth over the past two decades or more, in terms of developing-country standards, has been notable. Such record of progress is one guide to the country's potential to grow, and to score well in world markets. To this end, i.e., to make the most of its export opportunities on a changing international playing field, Bangladesh needs to follow a strategic game plan, invest in infrastructure, technology and skills, streamline policies, and improve quality and safety standards. This...

  4. Dietary Arsenic Exposure in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Kile, Molly L.; Houseman, E. Andres; Breton, Carrie V.; Smith, Thomas; Quamruzzaman, Quazi; Rahman, Mahmuder; Mahiuddin, Golam; Christiani, David C.

    2007-01-01

    Background Millions of people in Bangladesh are at risk of chronic arsenic toxicity from drinking contaminated groundwater, but little is known about diet as an additional source of As exposure. Methods We employed a duplicate diet survey to quantify daily As intake in 47 women residing in Pabna, Bangladesh. All samples were analyzed for total As, and a subset of 35 samples were measured for inorganic arsenic (iAs) using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry equipped with a dynamic rea...

  5. Astronomy TV outreach, CUBA experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Oscar

    2015-08-01

    As professional astronomer and science communicator, I want to share my personal experience communicating Astronomy and general science principles in maybe, the most popular science outreach devoted TV program in Cuba. It is broadcasted nationwide in a prime time schedule every Sunday. The Science Popularization on TV, is in a Third World Country hard to do if you want to produce attractive materials for a broad audience. Budgets constraints in most of the cases and lack of the technical equipment required to produce first class visual materials conspire, against motivation and creativity of local scientists and media professionals. A way to show the advance of the national scientific community in Science fields and connecting them in a friendly relation with a broad majority of the people, is to combine the wisdom and knowledge of the local scientists together with the most spectacular TV production of the first world countries. Commenting, analyzing and conveying the hard science into the public debate of the common citizens. Here is shown a way to convey cutting edge science to the general public, using limited resources to produce imaginative television productions, highlighting the development, knowledge and wisdom of the local scientists.

  6. HBV Genotypic Variability in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loureiro, Carmen L.; Aguilar, Julio C.; Aguiar, Jorge; Muzio, Verena; Pentón, Eduardo; Garcia, Daymir; Guillen, Gerardo; Pujol, Flor H.

    2015-01-01

    The genetic diversity of HBV in human population is often a reflection of its genetic admixture. The aim of this study was to explore the genotypic diversity of HBV in Cuba. The S genomic region of Cuban HBV isolates was sequenced and for selected isolates the complete genome or precore-core sequence was analyzed. The most frequent genotype was A (167/250, 67%), mainly A2 (149, 60%) but also A1 and one A4. A total of 77 isolates were classified as genotype D (31%), with co-circulation of several subgenotypes (56 D4, 2 D1, 5 D2, 7 D3/6 and 7 D7). Three isolates belonged to genotype E, two to H and one to B3. Complete genome sequence analysis of selected isolates confirmed the phylogenetic analysis performed with the S region. Mutations or polymorphisms in precore region were more common among genotype D compared to genotype A isolates. The HBV genotypic distribution in this Caribbean island correlates with the Y lineage genetic background of the population, where a European and African origin prevails. HBV genotypes E, B3 and H isolates might represent more recent introductions. PMID:25742179

  7. Soil and Terrain Database for Cuba, primary data (version 1.0) - scale 1:1 million (SOTER_Cuba)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkshoorn, J.A.; Huting, J.R.M.

    2014-01-01

    The Soil and Terrain database for Cuba primary data (version 1.0), at scale 1:1 million (SOTER_Cuba), was compiled of enhanced soil informtion within the framework of the FAO's program Land Degradation Assessment in Drylands (LADA). Primary soil and terrain data for Cuba were obtained from the

  8. A Perspective on Physics in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handy, Carlos R.

    The author is Cuban by birth: the son of an Afro-Cuban mother and an Afro-American father. He spent the first 8 years of his life attending schools in Havana and New York City. He left Cuba in 1958 so as to gain a more uninterrupted educational experience. This led to his PhD in theoretical physics from Columbia University in 1978, followed by a post-doctoral appointment at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico. He returned to Cuba in 1980 as a member of an academic tour organized by the University of New Mexico in Albuquerque. This provided an introduction to various government-run scientific facilities in Havana and the easternmost city of "Santiago de Cuba" in the province of Oriente.

  9. Bangladesh becomes "success story".

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The State Minister for Health and Family of Bangladesh, Dr. Mohammed Amanullah, highlighted some of the successes being achieved by his country in lowering fertility and improving the lives of the people since the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. Some of these successes include practical measures to eliminate violence against women; introduction of a quota for women in public sector employment; and launching of the Health and Population Sector Program to provide a one-stop, full range of essential reproductive health, family planning and child health services through an integrated delivery mechanism. Moreover, the Minister informed the Forum participants that their success is attributable to many factors which include support from the government, from non-governmental organizations, civil society, mass media, religious and other community leaders, intersectoral collaboration, microcredit and income-generation activities.

  10. Bangladesh Integrated Household Survey (BIHS) 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — This dataset is the second round of Bangladesh Integrated Household Survey (BIHS). The BIHS is the only nationally representative survey in Bangladesh that collects...

  11. International petroleum agreements : Republic of Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Foreign investment in the oil and gas sector has had a profound impact on the development of crude oil production in Cuba. In 1982, in order to encourage economic development, the Cuban government adopted a form of Production Sharing Contract (PSC) for international petroleum agreements. In 1990, the first PSC was negotiated with a consortium of European companies. This was followed in 1992 through 1994 with companies from Canada, Europe and Latin America. Then in 1995, a more comprehensive foreign investment law was enacted to further encourage foreign investment in Cuba. Onshore and shallow water regions of Cuba were divided into 45 blocks, 19 of which were under licence in 2001. In addition, in 1999 the government of Cuba offered 53 blocks in the deep water zones of the Cuban sector of the Gulf of Mexico to foreign investment, of which 6 are already under licence. Most exploration for oil and gas since 1991 has been carried out by foreign companies. Crude oil production in 1991 totalled 11,000 bopd of heavy oil production from the north coast of Cuba. By 2001, domestic crude oil production increased to more than 50,000 bopd, mostly due to foreign investment in exploration and development. This paper described the model form for Cuban Production Sharing Contracts with reference to parties, rights granted, terms, relinquishments, minimum exploration commitments, discovery of hydrocarbons and recovery of petroleum operation expenses. The paper also discussed gross production, cost recovery for contractors, and sharing of profits with contractors and the state oil company, CubaPetroleo. 1 fig

  12. Cuba in Transition: Communism vs Charisma "Who Will Emerge as Cuba's Next Leader"

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Colmenares, Antonio

    2001-01-01

    .... The beliefs of communism has shaped the hearts and minds of thousands of cubans. This paper provides a future perspective on Cuba's transition as well as identifies potential actors who will emerge as potential leaders once Fidel Castro is gone...

  13. All projects related to bangladesh | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Program: Maternal and Child Health. Total Funding: CA$ 438,600.00. Reducing dietary related risks associated with non-communicable diseases in Bangladesh. Project. Bangladesh is undergoing a rapid demographic and epidemiological transition. Region: Bangladesh, Canada. Program: Food, Environment, and Health.

  14. ÉTUDE DE CAS — Cuba : Le logement et le capital humain à Cuba ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    10 janv. 2011 ... ÉTUDE DE CAS — Cuba : Le logement et le capital humain à Cuba .... Elle reconnaît qu'il existe des liens inéluctables entre les humains et les milieux biophysique, social et économique qui ont des répercussions sur la santé des gens », explique le Dr Mariano Bonet, l'un des chercheurs de l'équipe et ...

  15. Protecting the Marine Environment in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorisek, Alexandra Sasa

    2013-01-01

    The Cienfuegos Environmental Studies Centre (CEAC) in Cuba is a marine environmental research centre with expertise in nuclear and isotopic technologies. Cuba’s food security, transportation and tourism depend upon a healthy marine environment. CEAC scientists master resource challenges to produce the validated data needed for better environmental management

  16. Cuba shows jump in HIV positives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuba experienced a substantial increase in the number of HIV cases in 1996 due primarily to a growth of foreign tourism and an increase in prostitution, health officials said. The Juventud Rebelde newspaper said that since HIV/AIDS testing began in 1985, government-run hospitals and clinics have detected 1609 HIV-positive cases. In 1995 the total was reported at 1196, meaning that 413 new cases were detected in 1996. This compared with only 97 new cases reported during 1995. HIV infection among the island's 11 million inhabitants has remained relatively low due to a massive testing program and a public health infrastructure that provides universal and free medical treatment. Cuba was a pioneer in the use of interferon on those testing HIV-positive. Cuba produces its own interferon, which prolongs the life expectancy of patients, and also reagents for AIDS testing. There are special sanitariums for AIDS patients in most of Cuba's 12 provinces. Cuban adults who test HIV-positive are required to enter the sanitarium in a policy reminiscent of the way tuberculosis patients were tested in the US earlier in this century. Officials said the isolation of patients in sanitariums has been somewhat relaxed over past years by introducing greater flexibility in allowing persons who are considered reliable to live at home or make prolonged visits. full text

  17. The history of physics in Cuba

    CERN Document Server

    Renn, Jürgen; Wendt, Helge

    2014-01-01

    This book brings together a broad spectrum of authors, both from inside and from outside Cuba, who describe the development of Cuba's scientific system from the colonial period to the present. It is a unique documentation of the self-organizing power of a local scientific community engaged in scientific research on an international level. The first part includes several contributions that reconstruct the different stages of the history of physics in Cuba, from its beginnings in the late colonial era to the present. The second part comprises testimonies of Cuban physicists, who offer lively insights from the perspective of the actors themselves. The third part presents a series of testimonies by foreign physicists, some of whom were directly involved in developing Cuban physics, in particular in the development of teaching and research activities in the early years of the Escuela de Física. The fourth part of the volume deals with some of the issues surrounding the publishing of scientific research in Cuba. C...

  18. Cuba | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In the early 2000s, Cuban researchers improved crops by putting farmers at the heart of the plant-breeding process. Local farmers worked with researchers and government to develop new bean varieties that increased yields by 15 to 36% in test areas. Some 7,000 farmers in 51 communities in Cuba benefited from these ...

  19. Cuba: Issues for 111th Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-14

    Humanos y Reconciliacion Nacional, “Cuba en el año 2009: la situacíon de derechos civiles, políticos y económicos,” February 2, 2009. 13 Anita Snow...park. On April 21, 2008, ten members of the Ladies in White were 12 Comision Cubana de Derechos

  20. Palo Monte, um rito Congo em Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José da Silva Ribeiro

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Juntaram-se em Cuba a partir do século XVI africanos provenientes de toda a costa ocidental africana pertencentes a muitos grupos étnicos. Estes em contacto com as culturas em presença (autóctone, espanhola, portuguesa, africanas desenvolveram diversos sistemas de crença, rituais e práticas mágico-religiosas. No Século XIX o dia de Reis construía o momento mais alto da afirmação da cultura africana em Cuba. Estas manifestações eram acompanhadas da coroação de reis e rainhas Congo, figuras principais da festa e da vida social africana.Africans coming from all West Africa coasts from a large variety of ethnic groups gathered in Cuba since XVIth century. These, in contact with other cultures (native, Spanish, Portuguese, Africans developed some belief systems, rituals and magical-religious practices. On XIXth century the King’s day was the highest moment of affirmation of African culture in Cuba. These experiences were accompanied of king and queen’s crowning, principal figures of African festival and social life.

  1. Forest nursery pest management in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rene Alberto Lopez Castilla; Angela Duarte Casanova; Celia Guerra Rivero; Haylett Cruz Escoto; Natividad Triguero Issasi

    2002-01-01

    A systematic survey of methods to detect pests in forest nurseries before they damage plants was done. These surveys recorded the most important forest nursery pests during 18 years (from 1980 to 1998) and their geographical and temporal distribution in the principal enterprises in Cuba. Approximately a dozen insect species and three fungi species responsible for the...

  2. Historical Overview of Leprosy Control in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldarraín-Chaple, Enrique

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Leprosy, an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, affects the nervous system, skin, internal organs, extremities and mucous membranes. Biological, social and environmental factors influence its occurrence and transmission. The first effective treatments appeared in 1930 with the development of dapsone, a sulfone. The main components of a control and elimination strategy are early case detection and timely administration of multidrug therapy. OBJECTIVES Review the history of leprosy control in Cuba, emphasizing particularly results of the National Leprosy Control Program, its modifications and influence on leprosy control. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION The historiological method was applied using document review, complemented by interviews with experts on leprosy and its control. Archived documents, medical records, disease prevalence censuses conducted since 1942, and incidence and prevalence statistics for 1960-2015 from the Ministry of Public Health's National Statistics Division were reviewed. Reports and scientific literature published on the Program and the history of leprosy in Cuba were also reviewed. DEVELOPMENT Leprosy has been documented in Cuba since 1613. In 1938, the Leprosy Foundation was created with ten dispensaries nationwide for diagnosis and treatment. The first National Leprosy Control Program was established in 1962, implemented in 1963 and revised five times. In 1972, leper colonies were closed and treatment became ambulatory. In 1977, rifampicin was introduced. In 1988, the Program instituted controlled, decentralized, community-based multidrug treatment and established the criteria for considering a patient cured. In 2003, it included actions aimed at early diagnosis and prophylactic treatment of contacts. Since 2008, it prioritizes actions directed toward the population at risk, maintaining five-year followup with dermatological and neurological examination. Primary health care carries out diagnostic and treatment

  3. Child abuse in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Islam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Bangladesh, a large number of children are deprived of their basic human rights due to unacceptable health, nutrition, education as well as social conditions. In addition, children are exposed to severe forms of sexual, physical and mental abuses at home, in the work place, in institutions and other public places. The nature and extent of violence against children irrespective of age, sex and class has been increasing day by day. These include physical torture, rape, homicide and sometimes heinous attacks with acid. Children are also victims of child labor and trafficking, both of which are treated as the most severe form of child exploitation and child abuse in the world today. This review article is aimed to focus on the present situation of various forms of child abuses in our country. Data collection is based on secondary sources of information from Dhaka Medical College Hospital, One Stop Crisis Center (OCC,UNICEF, Ministry of Home Affairs, Ministry of Women and Children Affairs, several Dhaka based organizations and news paper clipping. Ibrahim Med. Coll. J. 2015; 9(1: 18-21

  4. Biofertilizer for food legumes: Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    In Bangladesh grain legumes are the protein meat substitute of the poor, and an integral part of the daily diet. Yet present yields cannot meet demand and every year about 25% of the country's grain legumes' requirements have to be imported at a cost of about US $23 million in hard-earned foreign exchange. This money could easily be saved by increasing production in the country. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme, with technical support from the Joint FAO/IAEA Division, in Bangladesh to find ways of increasing yields of grain legumes using efficient strains of biofertilizers. (IAEA)

  5. Geologic Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the North Cuba Basin, Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    Petroleum generation in the North Cuba Basin is primarily the result of thrust loading of Jurassic and Cretaceous source rocks during formation of the North Cuba fold and thrust belt in the Late Cretaceous to Paleogene. The fold and thrust belt formed as Cuban arc-forearc rocks along the leading edge of the Caribbean plate translated northward during the opening of the Yucatan Basin and collided with the passive margin of southern North America in the Paleogene. Petroleum fluids generated during thrust loading migrated vertically into complex structures in the fold and thrust belt, into structures in the foreland basin, and possibly into carbonate reservoirs along the margins of the Yucatan and Bahama carbonate platforms. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) defined a Jurassic-Cretaceous Composite Total Petroleum System (TPS) and three assessment units (AU)-North Cuba Fold and Thrust Belt AU, North Cuba Foreland Basin AU, and the North Cuba Platform Margin Carbonate AU-within this TPS based mainly on structure and reservoir type (fig. 1). There is considerable geologic uncertainty as to the extent of petroleum migration that might have occurred within this TPS to form potential petroleum accumulations. Taking this geologic uncertainty into account, especially in the offshore area, the mean volumes of undiscovered resources in the composite TPS of the North Cuba Basin are estimated at (1) 4.6 billion barrels of oil (BBO), with means ranging from an F95 probability of 1 BBO to an F5 probability of 9 BBO; and (2) 8.6 trillion cubic feet of of gas (TCFG), of which 8.6 TCFG is associated with oil fields, and about 1.2 TCFG is in nonassociated gas fields in the North Cuba Foreland Basin AU.

  6. All projects related to bangladesh | Page 6 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: Internet, LANGUAGE BARRIER, ASIAN LANGUAGES, COMPUTER PROGRAMS, SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, INFORMATION SOCIETY. Region: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, ... From Tobacco to Food Production: Constraints and Transition Strategies in Bangladesh. Project. Bangladesh is one of the many ...

  7. Modern population trends in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abul-basher, M M

    1985-01-01

    Population growth trends in Bangladesh in the 1871-1981 period were analyzed, with emphasis on fertility and mortality differentials, to provide a basis for population planning. Following proclamation of British Imperial Rule in 1857, mortality rates in Bangladesh began to decline as a result of preventive measures against natural disasters such as draught and famine, but the fertility rate remained unaltered. The demographic pattern was unstable over time, reflecting the impact of the influenza epidemic of 1918-19, war, migration, and economic development. Population growth accelerated greatly during the 1961-74 period, when industrialization emerged and job opportunities were created in the urban centers. Economic hardship, food shortages, and the introduction of family planning curbed urban growth drastically and total growth to some extent in 1974-81. On the average, growth has been higher in the Dhaka and Chittagong Divisions of Bangladesh than in the Khulna and Rajshahi Divisions. Differences in population growth among the regions are attributable largely to internal and external migration. The regression polynomial model best fits past population trends in Bangladesh and can reproduce the observed population by 99.60%. This polynomial is most suitable for graduation and prediction of population trends.

  8. Seismicity and tectonics of Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, K.M.

    1989-05-01

    Northern and eastern Bangladesh and surrounding areas belong to a seismically active zone and are associated with the subduction of the Indian plate. The seismicity and tectonics have been studied in detail and the observations have been correlated to understand the earthquake phenomenon in the region. The morphotectonic behaviour of northern Bangladesh shows that it is deeply related to the movement of the Dauki fault system and relative upliftment of the Shillong plateau. Contemporary seismicity in the Dauki fault system is relatively quiet comparing to that in the Naga-Disang-Haflong thrust belt giving rise to the probability of sudden release of energy being accumulated in the vicinity of the Dauki fault system. This observation corresponds with the predicted average return period of a large earthquake (1897 type) and the possibility of M > 8 earthquake in the vicinity of the Dauki fault within this century should not be ruled out. The seismicity in the folded belt in the east follows the general trend of Arakan-Yoma anticlinorium and represents shallow and low-angled thrust movements in conformity with the field observation. Seismotectonic behaviour in the deep basin part of Bangladesh demonstrates that an intraplate movement in the basement rock has been taking place along the deep-seated faults causing relative upliftment and subsidence in the basin. Bangladesh has been divided into three seismic zones on the basis of morphotectonic and seismic behaviour. Zone-I has been identified as the zone of high seismic risk. (author). 43 refs, 5 figs, 3 tabs

  9. LDC nuclear power: Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poneman, D.B.

    1982-01-01

    Indonesia's five-year plan to develop a research reactor is still in the feasibility stage of a policy to minimize domestic oil consumption. The evolution of a nuclear program in Indonesia illustrates the importance of strong political leadership in developing countries which lack technical skills and political and economic stability and the need for strong international support. 39 references

  10. SASTRA CYBER DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laily Fitriani

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The digital era started when the internet technology spread to the developing countries including Indonesia. The flourish of cyber literature leads to the debate on the quality of the work of literature. Above all, the existence of literature sites (cyber literature becomes an important alternative for writers and literary activist in Indonesia.

  11. Four decades of kidney transplantation in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonzo, Jorge P

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the background, beginnings, development, evolution and outcomes of kidney transplantation in Cuba. Nephrology as a medical specialty in Cuba began in 1962 and was formalized in 1966. Conditions were created to implement renal replacement therapy (including transplants), bring nephrology care to the entire country and train human resources who would assume this responsibility, making Cuba one of the first countries with a comprehensive program for renal patient care. After three unsuccessful cadaveric-donor kidney transplantations in 1968-69, the ensuing history of kidney transplantation can be summarized in the following three stages. 1970-1975: In January 1970, cadaveric-donor kidney transplantation began at the Nephrology Institute. That year, 17 kidney transplantations were performed; four of these patients lived with functional kidneys for 15-25 years; 10-year graft survival was 23.5% (Kaplan-Meier survival curve); HLA typing began in 1974. By December 1975, 170 grafts had been done in three hospitals. 1976-1985: Seven transplantation centers performed 893 grafts during this period. HLA-DR typing was introduced in 1976 and the National Histocompatibility Laboratory Network was founded in 1978. The first related living-donor kidney transplantation was done in 1979. 1986-2011: The National Kidney Transplantation Coordinating Center and the National Kidney Transplantation Program were created in 1986; the first combined kidney-pancreas transplantation was performed the same year. In 1990, cyclosporine and the Cuban monoclonal antibody IOR-T3 were introduced for immunosuppression to prevent rejection, as were other Cuban products (hepatitis B vaccine and recombinant human erythropoietin) for transplant patients. By December 2011, the cumulative number of transplants was 4636 (384 from related living donors). With over 40 years of experience, kidney transplantation is now well established in Cuba; it is free and universally accessible, on the

  12. Area Handbook Series: Cuba; a Country Study,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Management and Planning (Sistema de Direcci6n y Plan- ificaci6n de la Economia -SDPE), which was expected to be fully operational by the mid-1980s...1970s the System of Economic Management and Planning (Sistema de Direccion y Planificaci6n de la Economia -SDPE) introduced 134 The Econom-Y measures...information from Jo4 Angel Pescador Osuna, "Una approximaci6n a Ia experiencia educativa en Cuba," Revista Latinoamericana de Estudios Educativos. Mexico

  13. Cuba: Issues for the 109th Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-19

    severely affected Cuba’s tourist industry , with reports of some hotels closing and restaurants being empty. Hurricane Michelle damaged some 45,000...September 1994 where farmers could sell part of their produce on the open market; opening artisan markets in October 1994 for the sale of handicrafts ...and produce biological agents, given its biotechnology infrastructure...”54 Cuba began building up its biotechnology industry in the 1980s and has

  14. Toxocariasis in Cuba: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sariego, Idalia; Kanobana, Kirezi; Rojas, Lázara; Speybroeck, Niko; Polman, Katja; Núñez, Fidel A.

    2012-01-01

    Human toxocariasis (HT) is a zoonotic disease caused by infection with the larval stage of Toxocara canis, the intestinal roundworm of dogs. Infection can be associated with a wide clinical spectrum varying from asymptomatic to severe organ injury. While the incidence of symptomatic human toxocariasis appears to be low, infection of the human population is widespread. In Cuba, a clear overview on the status of the disease is lacking. Here, we review the available information on toxocariasis in Cuba as a first step to estimate the importance of the disease in the country. Findings are discussed and put in a broader perspective. Data gaps are identified and suggestions on how to address these are presented. The available country data suggest that Toxocara infection of the definitive dog host and environmental contamination with Toxocara spp. eggs is substantial, but information on HT is less conclusive. The availability of adequate diagnostic tools in the country should be guaranteed. Dedicated studies are needed for a reliable assessment of the impact of toxocariasis in Cuba and the design of prevention or control strategies. PMID:22389726

  15. Drinking water in Cuba and seawater desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meneses-Ruiz, E.; Turtos-Carbonell, L.M.; Oviedo-Rivero, I.

    2004-01-01

    The lack of drinking water has become a problem at world level because, in many places, supplies are very limited and, in other places, their reserves have been drained. At the present time there are estimated to be around two thousand million people that don't have drinking water for several reasons, such as drought, contamination and the presence of saline waters not suitable for human consumption. Because of the human need for water, they have always taken residence in areas where the supply was guaranteed, sometimes impeding the exploitation of other areas that can be economically very interesting. However, this resource is usually very close and in abundance in the form of seawater but its salinity makes it unusable for many basic requirements. Humanity has been forced, therefore, to take into consideration the possibilities of the economic treatment of seawater. Cuba has regions where the supplies of drinking water are scarce and others where the lack of this resource limits economic exploitation. The present work is approached with regard to the situation of hydro resources in Cuba, it includes: a description of the main hydrographic basins of the country; the contamination levels of the waters and the measures for mitigation; analysis of the supplies and demand for drinking water and its quality; regulatory aspects. The state of seawater desalination in Cuba is also included and the possibility of its realisation using nuclear energy and the advantages that this would bring is evaluated. (author)

  16. Invasive Meningococcal Disease. Cuba, 1983- 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio E. Pérez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Invasive Meningococcal Disease (IMD is a worldwide health problem. In Cuba, vaccination against meningococcal B-C has been carried out since 1989. The study aimed at describing the epidemiology of IMD in Cuba from 1983 to 2006 and at contributing to the immunization strategy. A descriptive and analytical study was carried out. Epidemiological data was obtained from the National Surveillance System at the Institute "Pedro Kourí". More than 1 000 cases were reported in 1986 and the overall incidence was above 10/100 000 inhabitants. Since 1989 a remarkable and continuous decline in the incidence was observed. In the last nine years a strong association of IMD to boarding school students (OR=9.4; confidence interval 95%: 5.1-17.4, recluses (OR=5.9; CI 95%: 1.5 -24.3 and day students (OR=3.9; CI 95%: 2.8-5.6 was observed. Housewife (OR=4.9; CI 95%: 1.9-12.4 and pensioned (OR=4.5; CI 95%: 1.2-16.8 showed association with mortality. Previous vaccination was a protective factor against morbidity (OR=0.6; CI 95%: 0.4-1.0 and mortality (OR=0.4; CI 95%: 0.2-0.9 by IMD. Neisseria meningitidis B4:P1.15 was the main circulating strain. Incidence of IMD declined markedly in Cuba by using group BC strain-specific meningococcal vaccine.

  17. Drinking water in Cuba and seawater desalination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meneses-Ruiz, E. [CUBAENERGIA, Playa, Havana (Cuba)]. E-mail: emeneses@cien.energia.inf.cu; Turtos-Carbonell, L.M.; Oviedo-Rivero, I. [CUBAENERGIA, Playa, Havana (Cuba)

    2004-07-01

    The lack of drinking water has become a problem at world level because, in many places, supplies are very limited and, in other places, their reserves have been drained. At the present time there are estimated to be around two thousand million people that don't have drinking water for several reasons, such as drought, contamination and the presence of saline waters not suitable for human consumption. Because of the human need for water, they have always taken residence in areas where the supply was guaranteed, sometimes impeding the exploitation of other areas that can be economically very interesting. However, this resource is usually very close and in abundance in the form of seawater but its salinity makes it unusable for many basic requirements. Humanity has been forced, therefore, to take into consideration the possibilities of the economic treatment of seawater. Cuba has regions where the supplies of drinking water are scarce and others where the lack of this resource limits economic exploitation. The present work is approached with regard to the situation of hydro resources in Cuba, it includes: a description of the main hydrographic basins of the country; the contamination levels of the waters and the measures for mitigation; analysis of the supplies and demand for drinking water and its quality; regulatory aspects. The state of seawater desalination in Cuba is also included and the possibility of its realisation using nuclear energy and the advantages that this would bring is evaluated. (author)

  18. Policies and strategies. Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huq, N

    1992-08-01

    Bangladesh has a population of nearly 108 million on a landmass of 143,998 sq km. The rate of population growth peaked at around 35 in the 1960s. The population increased from about 43 million in 1951 to 68 million in 1970 and to about 90 million in 1981. In 1976 a national policy for population control and family planning (FP) was announced which employed thousands of full-time field workers, and developed information, education, and motivation activities. The implementation strategy entailed the integration of health and FP, maternal child health (FP/MCH) service delivery systems at subdistrict (upazila) levels with a wide choice of contraceptive methods and expanded good quality services. Greater emphasis on MCH services included immunization, oral rehydration, and training of traditional birth attendants. Even if the goal of net reproductive rate of 1 is achieved by 2005, the population will rise to about 137 million by 2000. The Fourth 5 year Plan (1990-95) seeks to lower the growth rate from 2.15 in 1990 to 1.8% by 1995; to cut the crude birth rate of 34.5 live births/1000 people in 1990 to 30.1/1000 by 1995; and to reduce the crude death rate of 13.6/1000 population in 1990 to 11.9/1000 by 1995. The reduction of the total fertility rate from 4.30 in 1990 to 3.40 by 1995 would require increasing the contraceptive prevalence rate of 40% in 1991 to 50% in 1995. It is also planned to raise the number of the continuous users of contraceptives from 8.8 million in 1991 to 12.3 million acceptors by 1995. The government has been providing continuous institutional support to a network of FP clinics in rural areas which the Family Planning Board started to operate in 1965. The present field structure is composed of the division level (4 divisions in the country), district level (64 districts), upazila level (460 upazilas), and union level (4500 rural unions).

  19. Perspectivas para la lexicografía especializada en Cuba

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Sven

    1995-01-01

    En diskussion af muligheder for at udvikle et fagleksikografisk arbejde på Cuba og i det øvrige Latinamerika......En diskussion af muligheder for at udvikle et fagleksikografisk arbejde på Cuba og i det øvrige Latinamerika...

  20. Zoological Collections and Collecting in Cuba during the Twentieth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taboada, Gilberto Silva

    1994-01-01

    Traces the history of 20th-century zoological collections in Cuba, and the present whereabouts of Cuba's zoological collections. The historical accounts are divided into two periods: from 1902 to 1959 and from 1959 to the present. A preliminary survey of the nature, size, and current state of these collections is included. (MDH)

  1. Coping with water crisis in Cuba | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Over the past ten years, Cuba's economic decline has led to a slow but steady deterioration of water supplies and sanitation services — and a resulting increase in water-borne disease. When water shortages in parts of Cuba reached crisis proportions last year, two communities solved the problem by taking matters in their ...

  2. Dinamika Kurikulum di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Asri

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Education does not have a standard reference, which covers access for revision by the authorities. Because education continues to grow along with the rolling times. Therefore, all matters relating to education also do not have a standard reference, including educational curriculum. The curriculum is one of the important elements that has a role to advance education in Indonesia, in accordance with the ideals of the constitution. Curriculum changes are not taboo for education in developed countries of the world (such as Japan, Finlandia,  USA, etc.. Basically the dynamics of curriculum in Indonesia aims to make education in Indonesia able to compete with the developed countries in the world.

  3. Cancer care scenario in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. M. Kamal Uddin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh is a developing country that is facing many challenges, especially in the health sector. Cancer management is a priority due to the current trend of increased incidence in this region. In this article, the current scenario of cancer in Bangladesh and its management with brief history is outlined. The combined effort of government and private sector is highlighted with the gradual progress in cancer management. Recent introduction of the state-of-the-art facilities and the training facilities for human resource development are also outlined. The existing challenges and cooperation from local NGOs and other overseas sources are also highlighted to provide an insight regarding possible ways to tackle these challenges to ensure a better future.

  4. Cancer care scenario in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, A F M Kamal; Khan, Zohora Jameela; Islam, Johirul; Mahmud, Am

    2013-04-01

    Bangladesh is a developing country that is facing many challenges, especially in the health sector. Cancer management is a priority due to the current trend of increased incidence in this region. In this article, the current scenario of cancer in Bangladesh and its management with brief history is outlined. The combined effort of government and private sector is highlighted with the gradual progress in cancer management. Recent introduction of the state-of-the-art facilities and the training facilities for human resource development are also outlined. The existing challenges and cooperation from local NGOs and other overseas sources are also highlighted to provide an insight regarding possible ways to tackle these challenges to ensure a better future.

  5. CASE STUDY: Cuba — Housing and human capital in Cuba | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-10

    Jan 10, 2011 ... From a focus on infrastructure, the project grew to include some social planning -- the local government started programs for seniors, which included self-esteem workshops and exercise programs. The project's cost totaled 13 million pesos -- about CA $2.04 million, a massive investment for Cuba at the ...

  6. Physics in Cuba from the Perspective of Bibliometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Werner; Cardona, Manuel

    We present a bibliometric analysis of the development of the physical sciences in Cuba since the revolution of 1959. We analyze, using available databases (Web of Science, Essential Science Indicators, INSPEC), the development of the output (number of publications of authors based in Cuba) and of their impact (number of citations) from 1959 until now. We discuss the productivity of Cuba in comparison to the Latin American sister republics and the collaborative efforts between Cuba and highly developed countries. The most important areas of scientific activity within the field of physics, the preferred journals and the leading affiliations are identified. The most frequently cited Cuban physics publications are given. Finally, the overall scientific ranking of Cuba among the world nations is investigated.

  7. Application of radiation in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naiyyum Choudhury; Najmul Alam Chowdhury; Feroza Akhtar [Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    2001-03-01

    Radiation technology offers a very wide scope for utilisation and commercial exploitation in various field. All over the world, this technology is being favourably considered for different applications like radiation sterilisation of medical products, preservation of food by controlling the physiological processes for extending shelf-life and eradication of microbial and insect pests, radiation processing of polymeric materials and treatment of sewage sludge. Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission has taken radiation processing programmes in a big way right from its inception. This paper describes the studies carried out by various research groups in Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission mainly using Cobalt-60 gamma radiation. The investigation covers medical sterilisation, food preservation and development and modification of polymeric materials by gamma radiation. Both food preservation and radiation sterilisation of medical products are now being commercially carried out in the Gammatech facility as a joint venture company of BAEC and a private entrepreneur. Bangladesh is soon going to establish a full-fledged Tissue Bank to cater the needs of various tissue allografts for surgical replacement. Recently Government of Bangladesh has allocated US$ 1.00 million for strengthening of the Tissue Banking Laboratory. BAEC has made quite a good research contribution on vulcanization of natural rubber latex, wood plastic composites, surface coating curing, polymer modification etc. As a result of successful achievement of R and D activities in all these projects, a pilot plant project involving about US$ 4.00 million is under implementation at the Atomic energy Research Establishment campus of BAEC. In addition a project on 'National Polymer Centre' at a cost of US$ 2.00 million has already been approved. It is expected that work on radiation processing including commercialization will be accelerated with the implementation of these projects. The impact of radiation

  8. Cucumber Mosaic Virus in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Akanda, Abdul Mannan; Tsuno, Kazunori; Maeda, Takanori; Wakimoto, Satoshi; 津野, 和宣; 前田, 孚憲; 脇本, 哲

    1991-01-01

    As many as 92 different samples belonging to 15 botanical families, showing virus disease-like symptom were collected from various locations of Bangladesh in 1986-87. Plant samples were lyophilized or dried lvith calcium chloride and preserved at 4℃. Since inactivation of most of the samples was observed in mechanical inoculation to original or closely related host plants in 1989, the dried samples were subjected to double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA) and do...

  9. Foreign Exchange Reserves: Bangladesh Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Zahangir Alam

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is about foreign exchangereserves of Bangladesh. The mainpurpose of this study is to the influence of exchange rates on foreign exchangereserves to the Bangladesh context.  Both the primary and secondary data has been used inthis study. The primary data has been collected through a structuredquestionnaire from 50 respondents. The secondary data, namely Bangladeshforeign exchange reserves (FER, Bangladesh current account balance (CAB,Bangladesh capital andfinancial account balance (CFAB, and BDT/USD exchange rates (ER.  This study covers yearly data from July 01,1996 to June 30, 2005 and quarterly data from July 01, 2005 to June 30, 2012. Findingsof this study shows that out of the selected 16 factors affecting foreignexchange reserves, exchange rates occupy the first position, weighted averagescore (WAS being 4.56. Foreign exchange reserves (FER and current accountbalance (CAB have increased by 502.9087% and 1451.218%,whereas capital and financial account (CFAB has decreased by -649.024% on June30, 2012 compared to June 30, 1997. The influence of other factors heldconstant, as ER changes by 285.6894 units due to one unit change in FER, onaverage in the same direction which represents that ER has positive effect on theFER and this relationship is statistically significant.  62.1526 percentof the variation in FER is explained by ER. The outcomes of Breusch-Godfrey test (LM test, ARCHtest, and the Normality test are that there is a serial correlation among residuals, the variance of residuals is notconstant, and the residuals are not normally distributed.

  10. Application of radiation in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naiyyum Choudhury; Najmul Alam Chowdhury; Feroza Akhtar

    2001-01-01

    Radiation technology offers a very wide scope for utilisation and commercial exploitation in various field. All over the world, this technology is being favourably considered for different applications like radiation sterilisation of medical products, preservation of food by controlling the physiological processes for extending shelf-life and eradication of microbial and insect pests, radiation processing of polymeric materials and treatment of sewage sludge. Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission has taken radiation processing programmes in a big way right from its inception. This paper describes the studies carried out by various research groups in Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission mainly using Cobalt-60 gamma radiation. The investigation covers medical sterilisation, food preservation and development and modification of polymeric materials by gamma radiation. Both food preservation and radiation sterilisation of medical products are now being commercially carried out in the Gammatech facility as a joint venture company of BAEC and a private entrepreneur. Bangladesh is soon going to establish a full-fledged Tissue Bank to cater the needs of various tissue allografts for surgical replacement. Recently Government of Bangladesh has allocated US$ 1.00 million for strengthening of the Tissue Banking Laboratory. BAEC has made quite a good research contribution on vulcanization of natural rubber latex, wood plastic composites, surface coating curing, polymer modification etc. As a result of successful achievement of R and D activities in all these projects, a pilot plant project involving about US$ 4.00 million is under implementation at the Atomic energy Research Establishment campus of BAEC. In addition a project on 'National Polymer Centre' at a cost of US$ 2.00 million has already been approved. It is expected that work on radiation processing including commercialization will be accelerated with the implementation of these projects. The impact of radiation processing

  11. Hypertension in Bangladesh: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K.M. Monwarul Islam

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension (HTN is an increasingly important medical and public health problem. In Bangladesh, approximately 20% of adult and 40–65% of elderly people suffer from HTN. High incidence of metabolic syndrome, and lifestyle-related factors like obesity, high salt intake, and less physical activity may play important role in the pathophysiology of HTN. The association of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE gene polymorphism and low birth weight with blood pressure has been studied inadequately. Studies have found relationship between mass arsenic poisoning and HTN. Hypovitaminosis D presumably plays role in the aetiopathogenesis of HTN in Bangladeshi population. South Asians appear to respond to antihypertensive therapy in a similar manner to the Whites. The latest National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence guideline advocates a calcium-channel blocker as step 1 antihypertensive treatment to people aged > 55 years and an ACE inhibitor or a low-cost angiotensin-II receptor blocker for the younger people. Calcium-channel blockers and beta-blockers have been found to be the most commonly prescribed antihypertensive drugs in Bangladesh. Non-adherence to the standard guidelines and irrational drug prescribing are likely to be important. On the other hand, non-adherence to antihypertensive treatment is quite high. At the advent of the new millennium, we are really unaware of our real situation. Large-scale, preferably, nation-wide survey and clinical research are needed to explore the different aspects of HTN in Bangladesh.

  12. Inequality in disability in Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Ismail Tareque

    Full Text Available To investigate inequality in disability in Bangladesh.The study used both household level and individual level data from a large nationally representative data set, Bangladesh's Household Income and Expenditure Survey-2010. Principal component analysis was used to construct a wealth index based on household assets from household level data. Then, using data from 49,809 individuals aged 5 years and over, chi-square tests and logistic regression were performed to test the association between wealth level and disability.Women and older people are significantly more likely to report having disabilities than men and younger people. For middle and rich families, respectively, there is a 14 percent lower likelihood of reporting disabilities than for poor families. Changes in the probability of having disabilities are linear with increasing wealth. In addition, the study identifies some significant factors affecting disability, namely, age, sex, education, marital status, and place of residence including divisional differences.In Bangladesh, worse health among the poor argues for policies prioritizing this group while at the same time giving special attention to women and the elderly.

  13. Bangladesh mission sees great benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-10-01

    A JOICFP 2-member mission visited Bangladesh during August 9-22 to monitor the progress of cooperative projects in Narsingdhi and Feni districts, implemented by the Family Planning Association of Bangladesh (FPAB), and to discuss the implementation of Postal Savings for International Voluntary Aid (POSIVA) funds. POSIVA is in its 4th year of providing funds to Bangladesh. The Population Reference Bureau's (PRB) Japan Representative joined the mission on a study tour during August 9-17 to directly observe reproductive health and family planning, women's empowerment, and micro-credit at the grassroots level. The representative hopes to raise the Japanese public's awareness of international nongovernmental organization (NGO) partnerships in order to encourage them to help rural populations in developing countries. The offices of the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, the International Secretariat of Partners in Population and Development, UNFPA, Population Council, OECF, the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), and the Grammin Bank were visited, as well as the project areas of Panchdona and Dhalia Unions of the Integrated Family Development Project. ODA assistance should be strengthened to improve grassroots activities, with a focus upon women's empowerment, maternal and child health, and alleviating poverty through NGOs working together with communities. A project to build capacity in reproductive health in Jessore District is described.

  14. Energy poverty in rural Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, Douglas F.; Khandker, Shahidur R.; Samad, Hussain A.

    2011-01-01

    Energy poverty is a well-established concept among energy and development specialists. International development organizations frequently cite energy-poverty alleviation as a necessary condition to reduce income poverty. Several approaches used to measure energy poverty over the past 20 years have defined the energy poverty line as the minimum quantity of physical energy needed to perform such basic tasks as cooking and lighting. This paper uses a demand-based approach to define the energy poverty line as the threshold point at which energy consumption begins to rise with increases in household income. At or below this threshold point, households consume a bare minimum level of energy and should be considered energy poor. This approach was applied using cross-sectional data from a comprehensive 2004 household survey representative of rural Bangladesh. The findings suggest that some 58 percent of rural households in Bangladesh are energy poor, versus 45 percent that are income poor. The findings also suggest that policies to support rural electrification and greater use of improved biomass stoves might play a significant role in reducing energy poverty. - Research Highlights: →We estimate energy poverty for rural Bangladesh adopting a demand-based approach. →Findings suggest that energy poverty does not necessarily follow the same pattern as income poverty. →Access to modern energy and efficient use of traditional energy help alleviate energy poverty. →Energy poverty indicator can help track the effectiveness of a wide range of energy policies.

  15. Jepara Indonesia Furniture

    OpenAIRE

    romanzick

    2016-01-01

    Jepara Indonesia Furniture A wide choice of Indonesian furniture companies provide free business listings to all types of furniture also for outlets and stores. Each section is accessible that contains a comprehensive list of our range of furniture details information and full campaign. We provided a platform create various products along with featured inspiration section related products, services, accessories. Indonesia Furniture Teak Garden Furniture It is bringing customers distinctive as...

  16. Determinan Ekspor CPO Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratih Rosita

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil is one of the products that are important to the economy of Indonesia. This study aims to analyze the performance of Indonesia's CPO exports and to look for the influence of the independent variables such as production volume CPO, CPO consumption and the value of the rupiah against the U.S. dollar. The authors of this study tested using the Method of Error Correction Model. The time interval used is from 1998 to 2011 with the data quarter. The findings suggest that Indonesia's CPO production volume variables exert a positive and significant impact on the number of Indonesian CPO exports in both the short and long term, then the variable volume Indonesia CPO consumption in the short and long term is also a significant effect on the number of Indonesian CPO exports but negatively related, this is due to the domestic CPO consumption greater that the capacity to export will be reduced. Variables of the Rupiah against the U.S. dollar also affects Indonesia's CPO exports significantly and negatively related to both the short and long term and conditions of the depreciation of the rupiah exchange rate is not enough to effectively be driving exports. Estimates show that the close relationship between external demand caused exports to Indonesia's export performance vulnerable to external shocks. Side factors are also a determinant of export performance.

  17. Determinan Ekspor CPO Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratih Rosita

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil is one of the products that are important to the economy of Indonesia. This study aims to analyze the performance of Indonesia's CPO exports and to look for the influence of the independent variables such as production volume CPO, CPO consumption and the value of the rupiah against the U.S. dollar. The authors of this study tested using the Method of Error Correction Model. The time interval used is from 1998 to 2011 with the data quarter. The findings suggest that Indonesia's CPO production volume variables exert a positive and significant impact on the number of Indonesian CPO exports in both the short and long term, then the variable volume Indonesia CPO consumption in the short and long term is also a significant effect on the number of Indonesian CPO exports but negatively related, this is due to the domestic CPO consumption greater that the capacity to export will be reduced. Variables of the Rupiah against the U.S. dollar also affects Indonesia's CPO exports significantly and negatively related to both the short and long term and conditions of the depreciation of the rupiah exchange rate is not enough to effectively be driving exports. Estimates show that the close relationship between external demand caused exports to Indonesia's export performance vulnerable to external shocks. Side factors are also a determinant of export performance. Keywords: palm oil, CPO consumption, Error Correction Model

  18. Challenges of Women in Science: Bangladesh Perspectives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ranjeetha

    Challenges of Women in Science: Bangladesh Perspectives. Professor Shamima K Choudhury. Department of Physics, University of Dhaka, Dhaka-1000, Bangladesh. And. Director, Bose Centre for Advanced Study and Research in Natural Sciences shamima@univdhaka.edu; skc.phy@gmail.com ...

  19. All projects related to Bangladesh | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Total Funding: CA$ 1,245,177.00. Preventing early marriage in urban poor settlements in Bangladesh. Project. Child marriage among girls is most common in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, with Bangladesh having the highest rate of marriage involving girls under age 15. Topic: MARRIAGE, GIRLS, POLICY MAKING, ...

  20. Radurization of spices by irradiation in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez Gil, M.; Rodriguez, M.; Prieto, E.; Pino, J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the research results that prove the technical feasibility according to the hygiene conditions existing in Cuba for irradiating different spices. The results show both the possibility and and the benefit of using a one irradiation application to these products. One global average doses of 5 KGy was enough for decontaminating black pepper, paprika, cumin, must meg and oregano without affecting either their chemical components or the quality of their taste. Sausages manufactured with irradiated spices did not irradiating spices is much higher that of fumigation, et has many important social and economic advantages

  1. Nuclear law in Cuba. Utopia or reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso Gonzalez, Ivonne

    2009-01-01

    The present article is a summary review of the legal basis for the use of nuclear energy in Cuba. Background, historical evolution and the current concept of the Cuban legislation are approached by illustrating the reader on a topic that is practically unknown, in spite of its daily presence in places such as hospitals, factories or airports. The awareness, perception and acceptance of nuclear energy applications consequently should have an impact on the ignorance of their legal edges, the issue we approached presenting a group of weighing elements, in pursue of the answer. Utopia or Reality

  2. Mortalidad infantil en Cuba 1959-1999

    OpenAIRE

    Raúl Riverón Corteguera; Pedro Azcuy Henríquez

    2001-01-01

    De 1959 a 1999, con los datos estadísticos disponibles, la mortalidad infantil en Cuba disminuyó en 81,3 %, la mortalidad neonatal precoz se redujo el 73,4 %, la mortalidad neonatal tardía el 83,6 % y la posneonatal en 86,0 %. Las reducciones obtenidas en el período se distribuyeron uniformemente entre todas las provincias, aunque la mayor disminución se produjo en las provincias centrales y occidentales. Los rubros que más disminuyeron sus tasas fueron: enteritis y otras enfermedades diarrei...

  3. Possibility of regional fuel cycle centres in the context of Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Innas, A.M.; Ahsan, M.; Husain, S.R.; Chowdhury, R.K.; Rahman, A.

    1977-01-01

    The region consisting of Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Ceylon, Bangladesh, Burma, Malaysia, Thailand, Singapore and Indonesia is considered for a model study on the possibility of establishing regional fuel cycle centres. Nuclear power generation capacity for this region is estimated and projected through 2000 A.D. and accordingly the demands for various nuclear fuel cycle services are determined. Preliminary calculations show that for the region conversion and fuel fabrication plants may be economically feasible before 1990 whereas reprocessing plants may become feasible only after 1990. The possibility of enrichment plant is even more uncertain. Ore, enrichment and fabrication in future may constitute more than 95-98% of the total fuel cycle cost. For fuel cycle economy, therefore, regional cooperation should be emphasized for these services. Reprocessing has to be considered because of the valuable fissile materials present in the spent fuel. Assuming that regional fuel cycle centre/centres may be established in Bangladesh, the study considered the local advantages and disadvantages of such an effort. Though no major problem could be identified in the case of conversion and fabrication plants, considerable difficulty is anticipated from a large reprocessing plant because of waste management and disposal problems. Bangladesh does not appear to have any suitable waste disposal site in view of the present technology. However, if the long term leaching problemns of solidified wastes are resolved then wastes may be dumped in the sea-canyon in the Bay of Bengal (called the ''Swatch of no ground'') or in the deep underground caverns

  4. La guerra de 1895 en Cuba y sus consecuencias

    OpenAIRE

    Tarragó, Rafael E.

    2009-01-01

    On 24 February 1895 most people in Cuba did not want a war of independence, because reforms for the island had been approved by the Madrid parliament. The reaction to the insurrection begun in Cuba on that date by the Spanish government of Antonio Cánovas del Castillo was to treat all Cubans as rebels. In 1896 Cánovas sent general Weyler to Cuba, and by the end of 1897 he had stopped the advances of the insurrectionists, but the forced removal of the rural population into urban settlements th...

  5. Recognizing child maltreatment in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, N Z; Lynch, M A

    1997-08-01

    Concern is increasing in Bangladesh over child abuse, neglect, and exploitation. Children from all walks of life are being treated at the Child Development Center (CDC) Dhaka Shishu Hospital for neurodevelopmental problems resulting from abuse and neglect. Efforts to protect children from sexual harassment result in girls being isolated at home or married at an early age. Some young brides are eventually abandoned and forced into prostitution. Early marriage reflects the lack of acknowledgement of a period of adolescence and the belief that puberty is a marker of adulthood. Many girls aged 8-16 are employed as live-in domestic servants, and many suffer sexual as well as emotional abuse. Garment factories, on the other hand, offer girls an escape from extreme poverty, domestic service, and early marriage but are threatened by forces that condemn child labor. Rather than ending such opportunities, employers should be encouraged to provide employees with educational and welfare facilities. The CDC seeks to explore the extent and depth of the problem of child abuse while recognizing the special circumstances at work in Bangladesh. It is also necessary to raise awareness of these issues and of the discrepancies between the law and cultural practices. For example, the legal marriage age of 18 years for a woman and 21 years for a man is often ignored. Additional forms of abuse receiving the attention of women's organizations and human rights groups include the trafficking of children. A network of concerned organizations should be created to work against the child abuse, neglect, and exploitation that Bangladesh has pledged to overcome by signing the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child.

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL TAX IN CUBA, CONTROL YOUR FUND IN SANTIAGO DE CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira Vázquez-Díaz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available By issuing the Law 73 of the Tax System in 1994, the taxation on the usage and exploitation of natural resources began to be applied to promote a rational usage of these resources on the protection of the environment. This article refers to the application of this tax in Cuba based on records of imprinted and digital bibliography containing considerations of environmental economists about the subject on a legal approach. It also offers the reader a general view of the application of this tax in the province of Santiago de Cuba as well as information for the specialists incharge of collecting its income which is used to encourage the protection of the environment. 

  7. Powering Cuba: A Possible Action Plan For Creating Cuba's Sustainable Energy Future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, Brandon; Hess, Matt; Sloane, Taylor; Harris, Zach

    2017-01-01

    While Cuba enjoys a high rate of electrification, 82% of its electricity today is generated from oil with an overall estimated levelized cost of energy (LCOE) of $0.27 per kWh. Moreover, Cuba is experiencing increased electricity demand driven by a burgeoning tourism industry and an emerging small-medium size business sector. If the current power mix persists until 2040, power generation costs and carbon emissions would nearly double to US$9.8B and 24M MT CO2 per year respectively. This paper presents an overall strategy for Cuba to ensure its energy security and provide the Cuban people with clean, affordable and reliable access to electricity. With a total estimated cost of $14.1B, our proposal aims to reduce the overall cost of electricity generation to $0.14 per kWh by 2040. We recommend: Implementing a comprehensive renewable energy strategy that includes an energy mix of: (1) community-solar for small cooperative business (8.5%); (2) long-term investments for utility-scale solar IPPs (8.5%); (3) development of wind farms by IPPs (17.5%); and (4) maintaining supplementary biomass generation (6%); Installing complementary reliable sources of grid power from natural gas combined cycle plants (NGCC) via domestic production and LNG imports from a floating storage regasification unit (FSRU), accounting for 35% of Cuba’s energy; Attracting $700 million in infrastructure investment necessary to decrease transmission and distribution (T&D) losses; and Enacting reforms that increase regulatory certainty, investor protection, and the ease of doing business in Cuba for foreign investors. (author)

  8. ÉTUDE DE CAS — Cuba : L'innovation agricole à Cuba | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    5 janv. 2011 ... La recherche de solutions de rechange viables. Devant la crise économique sans précédent que traversait Cuba, le système agricole national était sur le point de s'effondrer, mettant ainsi en péril la sécurité alimentaire du pays. Mais des groupes d'agriculteurs, une équipe de phytogénéticiens et d'autres ...

  9. Cuba in Transition: Communism vs Charisma Who Will Emerge as Cuba’s Next Leader

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-04-04

    38 Olivo Verde, Defense of the Socialist Homeland, 6 March 1986. 26 MajGen Frias LtGen Espinosa MajGen Sola Cuban forces.39 The FAR is...comprised of three separate branches: the Army (Ejercito 150,000 troops strong), the Navy [Marina de Guerra Revolucionaria (MG) 5,000 troops strong] and...Cintro Frias , and is headquartered in Havana. The Eastern Army Corps, is led by General Ramon Espinosa Martin, and is headquartered in Santiago de Cuba

  10. El Programa de Medicina Transfusional de Cuba The Transfusion Medicine Program in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Ballester Santovenia

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Cuba's Transfusion Medicine Program (TMP is a subsystem of the country's National Health System. The TMP's objective is to ensure hemotherapy with blood that is safe and sufficient for all the individuals who need it. The TMP subsystem is made up of the National Commission on Transfusion Medicine, the Institute of Hematology and Immunology, 37 clinical services, 44 blood banks, 120 collection centers, 19 mobile units, and 37 blood certification laboratories. Additional facilities include a laboratory for plasma separation, a laboratory that produces leukocyte interferon and transfer factor, and two laboratories that produce reagents for blood classification and blood diagnosis systems. In Cuba, blood donation is voluntary. Since 1997 approximately 5% of the population per year has donated blood, thus meeting the goal recommended by the Pan American Health Organization of one voluntary blood donation annually for every 20 persons. During 2002, 563 204 blood donations were received, and there were 445 898 transfusions of blood or blood components. All donations are individually screened for HIV 1 and 2, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and syphilis, thus meeting the country's current regulations. In 2002 these screening measures led to discarding, respectively, 0.12%, 0.60%, 0.71%, and 1.8% of the blood donations. Although the prevalence of human T-cell lymphotropic virus I and II in Cuba is very low, this test will soon be added to the screening process.

  11. Epidemic optic neuropathy in Cuba. Eye findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadun, A A; Martone, J F; Muci-Mendoza, R; Reyes, L; DuBois, L; Silva, J C; Roman, G; Caballero, B

    1994-05-01

    To characterize and establish a clinical definition of the optic neuropathy that appeared in epidemic form in Cuba in 1992 and 1993. At the invitation of the Cuban Ministry of Health, Havana, members of ORBIS International and the Pan American Health Organization, assembled teams that traveled to Cuba in May 1993. We were initially briefed by Cuban national experts in the areas of virology, nutrition, toxicology, ophthalmology, neurology, and public health. We then examined 20 patients on our own. Thirteen of these patients underwent a comprehensive neuro-ophthalmologic examination, including neurologic examination, ophthalmologic examination, visual fields, optic nerve function studies, contrast sensitivity studies, and funduscopy. We returned 4 months later to perform an additional 12 comprehensive neuro-ophthalmologic and follow-up examinations. Only seven of the 13 patients who were alleged to have the optic form of the epidemic and who were rigorously and systematically examined on the first visit demonstrated a bilateral optic neuropathy. These seven patients had several features that included decreased visual acuity, poor color vision, central scotomas, decreased contrast sensitivity, saccadic eye movements, and most prominent and distinctive of all, nerve fiber layer wedge defects of the papillomacular bundle. Our clinical definition was then implemented by the Cuban ophthalmologists and epidemiologists. On returning 4 months later, we found that all newly presented patients were correctly diagnosed to have the epidemic disease. With the new case definition and the application of a few simple psychophysical tests, the false-positive rate of diagnosis became much lower. After vitamin therapy, we reexamined the patients seen on our initial visit, and all showed marked improvement. The Cuban epidemic was characterized by an optic neuropathy with features that were similar to those of tobacco/alcohol amblyopia and Leber's optic atrophy. Recent political

  12. Visiting the Republic of Cuba: An Experience to Remember.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Geraldine

    2015-01-01

    A few years ago, I was privileged to visit the Republic of Cuba as a summer vacation. Officially, this Spanish island is the largest island in the Caribbean, with more than 12 million people. It is only second as being most populous after Hispaniola with its people, culture and customs. Havana is the capital and Cuba's largest city. The United States lies to the immediate north only about 95 miles away, and the Bahamas and Mexico to the west, the Cayman Islands and Jamaica are on the southern end, and Haiti and the Dominion Republic are in the southeastern area. The history of this island is truly amazing. I was able to vist a hospital, and ride public transportation (bus). The trip was made at the time when Cuba was not open to travelers coming direct from the United States. I traveled to Montreal, Canada to board Cabana Arlines to Havana, Cuba.

  13. Towards an HIV-free generation in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Last year Cuba became the first country in the world to eliminate mother-to-child transmission of HIV and syphilis as public health problems. Other countries are following suit. Andréia Azevedo Soares reports.

  14. All projects related to cuba | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION, ECONOMIC IMPLICATIONS, SOCIAL IMPLICATIONS, SOCIAL SECURITY, RETIREMENT PENSIONS, HEALTH SYSTEM, SOCIAL SERVICES. Region: North and Central America, South America, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Mexico. Program: Employment and Growth.

  15. All projects related to Cuba | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION, ECONOMIC IMPLICATIONS, SOCIAL IMPLICATIONS, SOCIAL SECURITY, RETIREMENT PENSIONS, HEALTH SYSTEM, SOCIAL SERVICES. Region: North and Central America, South America, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Mexico. Program: Employment and Growth.

  16. Cuba : tous les projets | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION, ECONOMIC IMPLICATIONS, SOCIAL IMPLICATIONS, SOCIAL SECURITY, RETIREMENT PENSIONS, HEALTH SYSTEM, SOCIAL SERVICES. Région: North and Central America, South America, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Mexico. Programme: Emploi et croissance.

  17. Corales pétreos: jardines sumergidos de Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    González-Ferrer, S.

    2004-01-01

    Se describen los principios fundamentales para la tenencia de corales en acuarios marinos, los diferentes sistemas que se aplican y la experiencia obtenida en el Acuario Nacional de Cuba en la exhibición de estos organismos.

  18. Cuba y las fronteras de la utopía

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Artiklen indeholder nogle generelle overvejelser om den sociale utopi som fænomen samt en række empiriske observationer og del analyser af dette fænomen i ft det revolutionære Cuba.......Artiklen indeholder nogle generelle overvejelser om den sociale utopi som fænomen samt en række empiriske observationer og del analyser af dette fænomen i ft det revolutionære Cuba....

  19. Climate vulnerability in Cuba. The role of social networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sygna, L.

    2005-10-01

    The case of Cuba offers a unique opportunity to investigate the dynamics of climate vulnerability. This paper takes a closer look at recent economic and social developments in Cuba, and how these affect patterns of vulnerability. Faced with the ongoing processes of climate change and economic globalization, Cuban households are carefully trying to sustain livelihood. Findings suggest that social networks are important as means of accessing coping strategies. Their access is on the other hand not equally distributed

  20. Physics and Women: A Challenge Being Successfully Met in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias de Fuentes, Olimpia

    The history of physics in Cuba, like all the country's educational and scientific development, cannot be understood without taking into account its close relationship with the social changes that took place in Cuba during the five decades elapsed since 1959. This should include due consideration to the role played by women in this process, all the more since the link between science and gender is now generally regarded as a subject of growing special interest

  1. Oncology nursing in Cuba: report of the delegation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Lisa Kennedy; Leonard, Kathleen; Gross, Anne; Hartnett, Erin; Poage, Ellen; Squires, Jennifer; Ullemeyer, Vicki; Schueller, Mary; Stary, Susan; Miller, Mary Alice

    2012-08-01

    In December 2011, the first delegation of oncology nurses from the United States visited Havana, Cuba. The delegation included oncology nurses, educators, and leaders from across America and provided opportunities to learn about the healthcare system, cancer, and oncology nursing in Cuba. Delegation members attended lectures, toured facilities, and enjoyed Cuban culture. This exchange highlighted the similarities in cancer care and oncology nursing between countries and opened doors for future collaborations.

  2. International Medical Collaboration: Lessons from Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelló González, Mauro; Pons Vásquez, Reinaldo; Rodriguez Bencomo, David; Choonara, Imti

    2016-01-01

    Over 50,000 Cuban health professionals are currently working overseas in 67 different countries. They work in conjunction with local health professionals. The majority work in primary care in deprived areas. The aim is to reduce morbidity and mortality but also improve health in the long term by training local health professionals, and building both institutions and a structure to deliver health care alongside educating the local population. Cuba is a small, middle-income country. It has, however, made a significant international contribution in relation to medical collaboration. Cuba’s international collaboration is based on the principles of social justice and equity for all. It has set an example for other countries to emulate. PMID:27763571

  3. Energy and sustainable development in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bravo Hidalgo, Debrayan

    2015-01-01

    Employment and enhancing the use of renewable energy sources could be considered as the beginning of a third ¨Industrial Revolution¨. The transition to a low carbon dioxide emission permits to a momentous turning point in the fight against climate change, improve energy security, and last but not least, significantly reduce the geopolitical intentions of this.The increase in renewable sources constitutes a guideline for energy policy in Cuba. Thus, programs for the construction of small hydropower plants, plant cells and photovoltaic panels, solar thermal energy systems for various services are developed; and the use of other primary sources such as wind and biomass.This work shows the implementation of these practices in the nation, the present results and future aspirations facing the demands of sustainable and steady development of generation and power consumption. (author)

  4. ENERGY AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debrayan Bravo Hidalgo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Employment and enhancing the use of renewable energy sources could be considered as the beginning of a third ¨Industrial Revolution¨. The transition to a low carbon dioxide emission permits to a momentous turning point in the fight against climate change, improve energy security, and last but not least, significantly reduce the geopolitical intentions of this. The increase in renewable sources constitutes a guideline for energy policy in Cuba. Thus, programs for the construction of small hydropower plants, plant cells and photovoltaic panels, solar thermal energy systems for various services are developed; and the use of other primary sources such as wind and biomass. This work shows the implementation of these practices in the nation, the present results and future aspirations facing the demands of sustainable and steady development of generation and power consumption.

  5. Radiological monitoring of food in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerez V, S.F.

    1996-01-01

    The appearing of the problem for protecting the environment from radioactive contamination is not an accidental matter. The introduction into the earth crust of radioactive material coming from nuclear weapons, accidents, wastes, etc, has caused, as a consequence, the contamination of the biosphere. The extensive trade of food in our country has made necessary the establishment of radiological monitoring in food, which was organized by the Department of Public Health. The structure, functions, characteristics and aspects related to radiological monitoring of food in Cuba are shown in the present paper. The organization and resources for performing the monitoring program, both for normal conditions and for nuclear and/or radiological emergency cases, are detailed. (author). 12 refs., 2 figs

  6. International Medical Collaboration: Lessons from Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Castelló González

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Over 50,000 Cuban health professionals are currently working overseas in 67 different countries. They work in conjunction with local health professionals. The majority work in primary care in deprived areas. The aim is to reduce morbidity and mortality but also improve health in the long term by training local health professionals, and building both institutions and a structure to deliver health care alongside educating the local population. Cuba is a small, middle-income country. It has, however, made a significant international contribution in relation to medical collaboration. Cuba’s international collaboration is based on the principles of social justice and equity for all. It has set an example for other countries to emulate.

  7. Bangladesh: Background and U.S. Relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vaughn, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    .... Bangladesh has been a largely moderate and democratic country. This status is increasingly under threat from a combination of political violence, weak governance, poverty, corruption, and rising Islamist militancy...

  8. Petroleum systems of Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doust, H.; Noble, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    Indonesia contains many Tertiary basins, several of which have proven to be very prolific producers of oil and gas. The geology and petroleum systems of these productive basins are reviewed, summarized and updated according to the most recent developments. We have linked the recognized petroleum

  9. My Classroom: Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balazs, Erica

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the teaching experiences of Alief Noor Farida--a junior lecturer at Indonesia's "Universitas Negeri Semarang" (Semarang State University [UNNES]). Now teaching her fourth semester and an alumna of the English Education program at UNNES, Ms. Farida is an especially motivated and dedicated educator. She teaches 18…

  10. IDRC in Indonesia

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    and establish an Internet access point for students at its tsunami-devastated campus in Banda Aceh. Community forest management. IDRC has long supported research on the sustainable use of forests in Indonesia. It contributed, for example, to community participation in managing the Berau and Margowitan forests, two ...

  11. EKSISTENSI OMBUDSMAN REPUBLIK INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    yusnani hasjimzoem

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Republic of Indonesia is a rule of law under Article 1 (3 of the 1945 Constitution and should uphold respect for the rights of individuals and communities in implementing the country. The rights strengthened by the basic norms that become the main spirit of the people of Indonesia, Pancasila. Basic norms that the political objectives in developing the Indonesian nation and enact any bill. Thus the state agency that was created by a special law should work in line with the basic norms of the nation and work together to create prosperity. In 2003 the Ombudsman created by a special law has the duty and function to oversee public services effectively, efficiently, and in spite of the practice of (corruption, collusion, and nepotism. Ombudsman based its duties and functions that have the same vision as mandated in the fourth paragraph of the preamble of the Constitution of 1945. The Ombudsman is thus expected to make a good bureaucratic reform so that it can be a model and public services watchdog whose presence is really felt by the people of Indonesia. Keywords: Ombudsman of the Republic of Indonesia

  12. ANALISIS EKSPOR KOPI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SRI - WIDAYANTI

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT   This study aimed at analyzing, firstly, the factors influencing the coffee export of Indonesia; secondly, the factors influencing the domestic coffee supply; and thirdly, the factors influencing the domestic coffee demand. This research used secondary data, time series data of 1975–1997 which were collected from many resources, i.e. Statistical Center Bureau (BPS, Trade Department, Indonesian Coffee Exporter Association, Forestry and Commercial Agricultural Enterprise Department, and the Indonesian Bank. The factors influencing the coffee export of Indonesia as well as the domestic coffee demand and supply were analyzed by simultaneous equation model in the form of double logarithm using the two stage least square method (2SLS. The research results show that the factors influencing the export quantity of coffee were the coffee FOB price, the coffee price in domestic markets, the exchange rate and the coffee supply of the previous year. The coffee export price had negative correlation with the coffee export quantity of Indonesia with export supply elasticity toward the export price of 2.04. In other words, the increase of coffee export price was followed by the decrease of coffee export quantity. This condition was due to the low quality of the coffee export of Indonesia. The coffee price at domestic markets has positive correlation with the coffee export quantity of Indonesia. Export was still conducted when the coffee price at domestic markets increased because the demand for domestic coffee was still very low. Other factors positively influencing the coffee export quantity were the exchange rate of rupiah and the coffee supply of the previous year. The factors influencing the domestic coffee supply were the domestic coffee price, technology level and the coffee supply of the previous year. The domestic coffee price positively related to the coffee supply at domestic markets with a supply elasticity of 0.04. This means that the

  13. IDRC in Indonesia

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Indonesia's young democracy, large pluralist society, and global environ- mental significance have made the country an important site for IDRC- supported research. Information and communication technologies, in particular, are important tools for development in the world's largest archipelago. IDRC support enabled the ...

  14. Understanding children’s work in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    UCW

    2011-01-01

    Child labour constitutes an important obstacle to achieving Universal Primary Education and other Millennium Development Goals in Bangladesh. The current report provides an overview of the child labour phenomenon in Bangladesh – its extent and nature, its determinants, and its consequences on education. The report also addresses the national response to child labour and policy option for its elimination. The analysis considers the various causes of child labour and follows a cross-sectoral ap...

  15. Health Consequences of Child Labour in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Salma; Ray, Ranjan

    2012-01-01

    Background: The paper examines the effect of child labour on child health outcomes in Bangladesh, advancing the methodologies and the results of papers published in different journals. Objective: We examine the effect of child labour on child health outcomes. Methods: We used Bangladesh National Child Labour Survey data for 2002-2003 for our analysis. Results: The main finding of the paper suggests that child labour is positively and significantly associated with the probability of b...

  16. Targeted Killings in Bangladesh: Diversity at Stake

    OpenAIRE

    Syed, Jawad

    2016-01-01

    Since 2013, Bangladesh has repeatedly been in headline news across the world due to systematic and incessant targeted killings. In the mainstream media, both in South Asia and the West, the focus has been generally on high profile murders of secular and progressive bloggers. This includes the recent worldwide broad coverage on the tragic murder of Xulhaz Mannan, editor of Bangladesh's first LGBT rights magazine. However, not many know that these killings are only one part of the story. Secula...

  17. Malaria Prevalence in Endemic Districts of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Haque, Ubydul; Ahmed, Syed Masud; Hossain, Shahed; Huda, Mamun; Hossain, Awlad; Alam, Mohammad Shafiul; Mondal, Dinesh; Khan, Wasif Ali; Khalequzzaman, Mohammod; Haque, Rashidul

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Following the 1971 ban of DDT in Bangladesh, malaria cases have increased steadily. Malaria persists as a major health problem in the thirteen south-eastern and north-eastern districts of Bangladesh. At present the national malaria control program, largely supported by the Global Fund for AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM), provides interventions including advocacy at community level, Insecticide Treated Net (ITN) distribution, introduction of Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDT) and ...

  18. Kriptosporidiosis di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Wijayanti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTCryptosporidiosis included to waterborne and soil transmited diseases, caused by Cryptosporidium, obligat intraceluller pathogen organism. Cryptosporidium cause intestinal infection of human and animal acute diarrhea. Lung cryptosporidiosis on HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis  patients was reported. Diarrhea still be important health problem because diarrhea was be the third dominant contributor of children morbidity and mortality at some country include Indonesia. Every children have 1,6-2x diarrhea onset annually. Diarrhea cases caused by Cryptosporidium sp parasite was around 4-11%. Focus of this review is  about cryptosporidiosis on children, HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis patients, animal, environment, diagnostic and it’s prevention and control. Cryptosporidium species confirmed in Indonesia are C. wrairi, C. muris,  C. felis, C. hominis, C. meleagridis and C. parvum, indicated that there was a big rule of animal on Cryptosporidium transmission. Cryptosporidium was necessary to be one of diseases diagnose on HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis patients. Transmission of Cryptosporidium by  respiratory secretion (droplet, aerosol or contact with vomiting must be anticipated to prevent cryptosporidiosis especially on imunocompromissed/imunodeficiency people. Rapid Diagnostic Test that have highly sensitivity and spesificity is very important on Cryptosporidium cases finding and surveillance in Indonesia. Environment and cattle sanitation, personal hygiene, water and food treatment, is necessary to prevent cryptosporidiosis transmission.  Kriptosporidiosis termasuk waterborne dan soil transmitted diseases, disebabkan oleh Cryptosporidium yang bersifat obligat intraseluler. Cryptosporidium menyebabkan infeksi pada usus halus dan dapat menyebabkan diare akut pada manusia dan hewan. Kriptosporidiosis paru telah dilaporkan pada penderita HIV/AIDS dan tuberkulosis. Diare merupakan penyumbang utama ketiga angka kesakitan dan kematian anak di berbagai negara

  19. MEWUJUDKAN NEGARA HUKUM INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Soebechi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Artikel yang berjudul “Mewujudkan Negara Hukum” ini merupakan studi tentang konsepsi negara hukum Indonesia yang membedakannya dengan konsepsi negara hukum lain. meski mendapat pengaruh dari berbagai pemikiran, tetapi konsepsi negara hukum Indonesia berbeda dengan konsepsi rule of law dan rechtsstaat. Hal tersebut dapat ditelisik dari dasar falsafah, sifat kedaulatan, kekuasaan organ negara, dan hak asasi manusia. Terdapat enam unsur utama negara hukum indonesia, yaitu : 1 Pancasila; 2 supremasi hukum; 3 demokratis; 4 pembatasan dan pemencaran kekuasaan negara; 5 kekuasaan kehakiman yang bebas dan mandiri; 6 perlindungan hak asasi manusia. Dengan penguatan Indonesia sebagai negara hukum yang demokratis berdasarkan Pancasila maka seharusnya segala bentuk tindakan bernegara dan bermasyarakat harus disandarkan pada hukum.   This Article entitled " the State law of Indonesian" is the result of a study on the conception of the characteristic of law states of Indonesian that distinguish the conception of the state laws in other countries. Based on the research results, can be explained even get the effect of various thoughts, but the conception of law state of Indonesian different with conception the rule of law and rechtstaat. This can be searched from basic of philosophy, the nature of sovereignty, the powers of state organs, and human rights. There are six main elements of Indonesian law states, namely: 1 Pancasila; 2 supremacy of law;; 3 democratic 4 restrictions and dispersal of state power; 4 independent judiciary; 6 protection of human rights. the statement of Indonesia as a democratic rule of law based on Pancasila then should all forms of civic and social action must be based on the law.

  20. Breastfeeding practices in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suharyono; Paul, M

    1997-01-01

    Breastfeeding promotion program was started by the paediatricians and others in 1977, and is becoming a strong activity since 1990 it was declared by the President of the Republic of Indonesia as a National Movement. One year later the First Lady stated the importance of every Indonesian mother to breast-feed her baby, and thereafter many hospitals created the so called "Baby Friendly Hospital". In this occasion we only limit with eminent topics, i.e., "Exclusive Breast-feeding" in Indonesia, and "Breastfeeding amongst Working Mothers." In fact, until now the percentage of mothers who breastfeed exclusively is very low. Although the ever breastfed babies in Indonesia is 97% (Kodyat, 1996) but the data of the "Exclusive Breastfeeding" of Indonesia is just like Pakistan and Thailand, i.e. nearly 2 months, whereas the Philippines and Ceylon showed a figure of 4 months, and India 5 months. The Home Health Survey (SKRT) data in 1992 showed that 63.7% of the babies were exclusively breast-fed until 3 months. Three quarter of the quality of the exclusive breastmilk is quite good, enough or excellent, whereas the other one quarter is poor and this should be interfered by increasing the quality of the breastmilk and/or adding other formula, to prevent the baby of getting "failure to thrive" (Suharyono, 1996). Working mothers use to do "Early Weaning Practices" with very high mixed feeding practices (Matulessy et al, 1996). Mothers have to go to work because they have to support their family income, but unfortunately most of them ignore their main task of care their children. the experience in Indonesia proves that a very hard work should still be continued on the effort of promoting breastfeeding, especially regarding the two issues, i.e. "Exclusive breastfeeding" (we do hope at least until 4 months) and the other issue is regarding the "Working Mothers".

  1. La guerra de 1895 en Cuba y sus consecuencias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarragó, Rafael E.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available On 24 February 1895 most people in Cuba did not want a war of independence, because reforms for the island had been approved by the Madrid parliament. The reaction to the insurrection begun in Cuba on that date by the Spanish government of Antonio Cánovas del Castillo was to treat all Cubans as rebels. In 1896 Cánovas sent general Weyler to Cuba, and by the end of 1897 he had stopped the advances of the insurrectionists, but the forced removal of the rural population into urban settlements that he decreed in order to prevent their assistance to the insurgents, led to thousands of deaths by hunger and disease, and in the United States public opinion began to clamor for intervention in Cuba to expel Spain, and this was advised by people like the Consul General in Havana, Fitzhugh Lee. The war begun in 1895 for the independence of Cuba had as consecuences the war of the United States with Spain in 1898 and its transformation into a world power with the colonies that it took from Spain in Asia and America.El 24 de febrero de 1895 la mayor parte de los habitantes de Cuba no deseaba una guerra de independencia, porque se acababa de votar en el parlamento de Madrid por reformas liberalizantes para la isla. La reacción del gobierno de Antonio Cánovas del Castillo a la insurrección iniciada en Cuba en esa fecha fue no implementar las reformas y tratar a todos los cubanos como insurrectos. En 1896 Cánovas envió al general Weyler a Cuba, quien logró frenar el avance de los insurrectos, pero la reconcentración de los campesinos en centros urbanos que este decretó para privar de su apoyo a los insurrectos causó miles de muertes por hambre y enfermedad y en los Estados Unidos la opinión pública comenzó a favorecer la intervención en Cuba, acción aconsejada por expansionistas como el Cónsul General de los Estados Unidos en La Habana, Fitzhugh Lee. La guerra comenzada en 1895 para la independencia de Cuba tuvo como consecuencias la guerra de

  2. NEGARA HUKUM INDONESIA KEBALIKAN NACHTWACHTERSTAAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkarnain Ridlwan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penulisan ini adalah untuk mendeskripsikan konsep negara hukum Indonesia berdasarkan konstitusi yang pernah dan sedang berlaku di Indonesia. Berdasarkan tinjauan normatif dan perkembangan ketatanegaraan Indonesia disimpulkan bahwa sejak awal Republik Indonesia berdiri pilihan konsep negara hukum yang dicitakan adalah negara hukum demokratis yang secara aktif bertujuan untuk mewujudkan perlindungan terhadap segenap bangsa Indonesia dan seluruh tumpah darah Indonesia; memajukan kesejahteraan umum; mencerdaskan kehidupan bangsa; dan ikut serta memelihara ketertiban dunia yang berdasarkan kemerdekaan, perdamaian abadi dan keadilan sosial. Disamping itu, negara hukum Indonesia dipengaruhi Pancasila sebagai kumpulan nilai-nilai dasar yang disepakatu dan menjadi landasan praktek kedaulatan rakyat, yakni Ketuhanan Yang Maha Esa; Kemanusiaan Yang Adil dan Beradab; Persatuan Indonesia dan Kerakyatan yang dipimpin oleh hikmat kebijaksanaan dalam Permusyawaratan/Perwakilan; serta menciptakan keadilan sosial bagi seluruh rakyat Indonesia. Dengan demikian, Negara Hukum Indonesia yang dijalankan haruslah senantiasa memperhatikan aspek ketuhanan, kemanusiaan, persatuan, permusyawaratan dan keadilan. Meski pernah berganti konstitusi dan melakukan perubahan atas konstitusi yang berlaku, namun pilihan konsep negara hukum masih tetap sama yaitu negara hukum aktif atau dinamis dalam mewujudkan kesejahteraan rakyat. Konsep negara hukum demikian dipresentasikan sebagai welvaarstaat, yang adalah kebalikan negara penjaga malam (nachtwachterstaat.

  3. Women's housing conditions in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shefali, M K

    1996-01-01

    This news article describes women's housing conditions, housing policy, and pilot programs to house poor women in Bangladesh. Although Bangladesh has a constitution that reinforces the equal status of women, in practice, men dominate and patrilineal customs determine inheritance and property rights. Religious affiliation also determines land tenure and inheritance. Muslim women can inherit 12.5% of their husband's property if there are children. 25% is inherited if wives are without children. Hindu women without sons can inherit their husband's property, but not parental property. Many families refuse to release property to women without a fight. Women, regardless of ownership of land, rarely control or use their land. The custom of requiring men to maintain wives during the marriage, and daughters until marriage, creates obstacles to women's decision making about property. Without collateral and other security women are unable to secure bank loans. Many women are also constrained by the requirement of male consent or guarantees for bank transactions. Banks do not have a gender responsive criteria for selecting loan recipients. The government does not provide sufficient housing to satisfy the growing housing needs due to population growth. Some housing is available from slum landlords. A National Housing Policy was formulated in 1993. Priority would be given to the housing needs of low income women in urban areas and women-headed households with income below the poverty line. The policy does not address the underlying factors that prevent equal access to housing for women. The government prepared a Human Settlement and Urban Development proposal for the Habitat II conference. The plan did not address gender issues. Special efforts are being made by nongovernmental groups to meet the housing needs of professional women and for some disadvantaged women.

  4. bangladesh : tous les projets | Page 3 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    End Date: 28 septembre 2015. Sujet: SMALL ENTERPRISES, TAX EXEMPTIONS, EMPLOYMENT CREATION, WOMEN, POLICY MAKING, INDIA, PAKISTAN, SRI LANKA, NEPAL, BANGLADESH. Région: South Asia, Central Asia, Far East Asia, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Pakistan. Programme: Emploi et croissance.

  5. Baculovirus potential for agricultural pests management in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luis Ayala Sifontes

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Cuba has an international reputation for implementing widespread biological control of pests, and microbial biocontrol is an integral component of most pest management programs. One class of microbial pesticides however, has not been developed in Cuba, bio-insecticides based on the Baculoviridae. This class of safe and environmentally protective microbial pesticides is used ever more commonly worldwide as an alternative to chemical pesticides. The characteristics of the viruses of this family, particularly their high host specificity, safety to non-target organisms, capacity to persist in nature and create epizootics, and the economy with which they can be produced "in vivo", all make them attractive for incorporation into pest management programs along with other pesticides developed in Cuba. The mass production technology is well understood in Cuba and biofactories already exist for a number of microbial biocontrol products. In the province of Sancti Spíritus, the Plant Protection Laboratory of the Ministry of Agriculture, with the cooperation of the Institute for Sustainable Horticulture, Kwantlen Polytechnic University, are resuming the work which began in the 90´s to develop baculovirus products in support of sustainable agriculture in Cuba. This work is being carried out with the participation of young Canadian and Cuban students and professionals. The program includes research with the multicapsid nuclear polyhedrosis viruses of Spodoptera frugiperda (SfMNPV and S. exigua (SeMNPV and the search for native isolates of Baculovirus in Plutella xylostella, three priority pests in Cuba. In other jurisdictions they are well controlled by baculoviruses, and the expectation is that this same result is possible in Cuba.

  6. ÉTUDE DE CAS — Cuba : Le logement et le capital humain à Cuba ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    10 janv. 2011 ... Colin Campbell. Des projets communautaires améliorent la santé du cœur de La Havane. La vie en plein centre-ville peut mettre à rude épreuve la résistance des gens. Lorsque les quartiers périclitent, le dépérissement de la santé humaine suit de près. Un projet mené à Cuba avec l'appui du Centre de ...

  7. Analisis Cadangan Devisa Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lusia Bunga Uli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aims to determine the relationship between variables export, import, and exchange rate against Foreign Exchange Reserves in Indonesia. The data used in the empirical study of a sequence of data monthly time of year 2011.01 through 2014.12 from Bank Indonesia and the Central Statistics Agency (BPS. The analysis tool used is Auto Regression Vector Model (VAR. The results of this study indicate that the one-way relationship between the variables of foreign reserves and export. Then one-way relationship between exchange rate and exports. Lastly, there is a two-way relationship between imports and foreign exchange reserves, two-way relationship between exchange rate and foreign exchange reserves, two-way relationship between imports and exports, two-way relationship between the exchange rate and imports. The results also showed foreign exchange reserves are significantly influenced by the movement itself at a probability of 1 %. Export variable negative and not significantly affect the foreign exchange reserves. While imports of positive and not significant to the foreign exchange reserves. Foreign Exchange Reserves Indonesia is positively influenced by the exchange rate and not significant. Keywords: Foreign exchange reserves, exports, imports, exchange rate   Abstrak. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui seberapa keterkaitan antar variabel ekspor, impor, dan nilai tukar rupiah terhadap Cadangan Devisa Indonesia. Data yang digunakan dalam kajian empiris ini merupakan data runtutaan waktu bulanan dari tahun 2011.01 sampai 2014. 12 yang berasal dari Bank Indonesia dan Badan Pusat Statistik (BPS. Alat analisis yang digunakan yaitu Vector Autoregression Model (VAR. Hasil dari penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa hubungan searah antara variabel cadangan devisa ke ekspor. Lalu hubungan searah antara kurs terhadap ekspor Terakhir, terdapat hubungan dua arah antara impor dan cadangan devisa, hubungan dua arah antara kurs dan cadangan

  8. Nuclear safety. Concerns about the nuclear power reactors in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, Jim; Aloise, Gene; Flaherty, Thomas J.; Fitzgerald, Duane; Zavala, Mario; Hayward, Mary Alice

    1992-09-01

    In 1976, the Soviet Union and Cuba concluded an agreement to construct two 440-megawatt nuclear power reactors near Cienfuegos on the south central coast of Cuba, about 180 miles south of Key West, Florida. The construction of these reactors, which began around 1983, was a high priority for Cuba because of its heavy dependence on imported oil. Cuba is estimated to need an electrical generation capacity of 3,000 megawatts by the end of the decade. When completed, the first reactor unit would provide a significant percentage (estimated at over 15 percent) of Cuba's need for electricity. It is uncertain when Cuba's nuclear power reactors will become operational. On September 5, 1992, Fidel Castro announced the suspension of construction at both of Cuba's reactors because Cuba could not meet the financial terms set by the Russian government to complete the reactors. Cuban officials had initially planned to start up the first of the two nuclear reactors by the end of 1993. However, before the September 5 announcement, it was estimated that this reactor would not be operational until late 1995 or early 1996. The civil construction (such as floors and walls) of the first reactor is currently estimated to be about 90 percent to 97 percent complete, but only about 37 percent of the reactor equipment (such as pipes, pumps, and motors) has been installed. The civil construction of the second reactor is about 20 percent to 30 percent complete. No information was available about the status of equipment for the second reactor. According to former Cuban nuclear power and electrical engineers and a technician, all of whom worked at the reactor site and have recently emigrated from Cuba, Cuba's nuclear power program suffers from poor construction practices and inadequate training for future reactor operators. One former official has alleged, for example, that the first reactor containment structure, which is designed to prevent the accidental release of radioactive material into

  9. EL PROCESO DE ORDENAMIENTO AMBIENTAL EN CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obllurys Cárdenas López

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La necesaria interacción entre el ordenamiento territorial y ordenamiento ambiental fue promulgada en la Ley 81 y en las Estrategias Ambientales Nacionales (EAN desde 1997, en Cuba. Varias situaciones frenaron su cumplimentación, la falta de procedimientos metodológicos que guiaran el proceso, fue una de ellas por lo que la EAN de 2011-2015 y los Lineamientos del PCC lo ratifican como objetivo. En el abordaje de este problema y en la inclusión de los resultados de los estudios de peligro, vulnerabilidad y riesgo y de los escenarios de cambio climático radica la actualidad de la presente investigación. Teniendo como hipótesis que: el empleo de procedimientos metodológicos integradores y participativos facilitará la elaboración de modelos de ordenamiento ambiental (MOA que aporten regulaciones, lineamientos y normas ambientales al proceso de ordenamiento territorial; se persigue como objetivo principal: proponer los procedimientos metodológicos para la elaboración de los MOA y realizar su validación a nivel nacional y municipal. Son empleados métodos teóricos y empíricos combinados en la elaboración de los procedimientos y en su validación a diferentes escalas. Se obtienen como resultado los procedimientos metodológicos, con cinco fases de trabajo y su validación con la elaboración del MOA para el territorio emergido de Cuba, para los sectores agrícola y pecuario y del MOA para el municipio de Yagüajay, para los sectores agrícola, pecuario, forestal, hídrico, turismo y conservación. Se concluyó en la pertinencia de utilizar los procedimientos propuestos para la elaboración de los MOA, teniendo como base el enfoque participativo y a las unidades de paisaje, como unidad de análisis.

  10. Historia de la Puericultura en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Román Lafont

    Full Text Available En la Edad Media los niños eran tratados como adultos pequeños. A partir del Renacimiento surge mayor interés en la infancia. En 1722 aparece el término Pediatría en la Europa Central, y en 1865, por primera vez, es acuñado el término Puericultura por Alfred Pierre Caron, profesor en la Universidad de París. Realizar consultas de Puericultura en la primera mitad del siglo XX en Cuba era prácticamente un lujo. Con el sistema único de salud y cobertura total de la atención primaria a partir de 1959, se lograron establecer consultas de Pediatría (1960 y Puericultura (1963 en los policlínicos. El nuevo enfoque de la práctica médica preventivo-curativa influyó en el desarrollo de la Puericultura, con programas como: Atención integral al niño y la mujer, la normación de las especialidades, la reducción de la mortalidad infantil, la medición de indicadores de salud en la población cubana de 0 a 19 años, la dispensarización de niños y adolescentes, Puericultura prenatal, así como la evaluación de "Hospitales y policlínicos Amigos de la madre y el niño". En 2004 fue creado un grupo multidisciplinario para el rescate de la calidad de las consultas de Puericultura, y se inauguró el Centro de Referencia Nacional de Puericultura en el año 2007, con funciones docentes, de investigación, asistenciales-metodológicas y administrativas. Sorprende la búsqueda de cómo se introdujo en Cuba la Puericultura, a través de Infomed e Internet, visitas a bibliotecas especializadas y la Oficina del Historiador del Ministerio de Salud Pública.

  11. Burden of serious fungal infections in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugnani, H C; Denning, D W; Rahim, R; Sadat, A; Belal, M; Mahbub, M S

    2017-06-01

    In Bangladesh there are several published papers on superficial mycoses. Deep mycoses are also recognized as an important emerging problem. Here, we estimate the annual incidence and prevalence of serious fungal infections in Bangladesh. Demographic data were obtained from world population reports and the data on TB and HIV extracted from the online publications on tuberculosis in Bangladesh and Asia Pacific research statistical data information resources AIDS Data HUB. All the published papers on fungal infections in Bangladesh were identified through extensive search of literature. We estimated the number of affected people from populations at risk and local epidemiological data. Bangladesh has a population of ∼162.6 million, 31% children and only 6% over the age of 60 years. The pulmonary TB caseload reported in 2014 was 119,520, and we estimate a prevalence of 30,178 people with chronic pulmonary aspergillosis, 80% attributable to TB. An anticipated 90,262 and 119,146 patients have allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis or severe asthma with fungal sensitization. Only 8,000 people are estimated to be HIV-infected, of whom 2900 are not on ART with a CD4 count Bangladesh. Candida bloodstream infection was estimated based on a 5 per 100,000 rate (8100 cases) and invasive aspergillosis based primarily on leukemia and COPD rates, at 5166 cases. Histoplasmosis was documented in 16 cases mostly with disseminated disease and presumed in 21 with HIV infection. This study constitutes the first attempt to estimate the burden of several types of serious fungal infections in Bangladesh.

  12. Evaluation of Tobacco Control Policies in Bangladesh | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Evaluation of Tobacco Control Policies in Bangladesh. Bangladesh introduced its first comprehensive tobacco control act in 2005, in an attempt to address the country's high prevalence of tobacco use. ... Institution. University of Dhaka. Pays d' institution. Bangladesh. Site internet. http://www.univdhaka.edu ...

  13. Ads in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wulan Roro Retno

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cosmetics industry created the beauty myth for women through advertising. A cosmetic ad in Indonesia has spread a new concept of white skin: East Asia beauty myth. The white concept of Asia white skin basically derived from colonial legacy. The purpose of the research was analyzing the beauty myth in Indonesia ads using postcolonial perspective. The principal result brought the discourse analysis and postcolonial perspective a new insight in communication research. Particularly on media and cultural studies. Major conclusions showed that the beauty myth since the Dutch colonial period never been change. The main concept is always in colonialism’s idea: “white is better”. The West is better than the East.

  14. Potential Transportation Impacts of Expanded U.S.-Cuba Trade, Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-02

    Before 1960, the United States and Cuba were major trading partners. At that time, Cuba was the seventh largest export market for U.S. products. In the years since then, U.S. trade with Cuba has been highly regulated. Exports have been mostly prohibi...

  15. 77 FR 55183 - Effectiveness of Licensing Procedures for Agricultural Commodities to Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-07

    ...] Effectiveness of Licensing Procedures for Agricultural Commodities to Cuba AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and... Administration Regulations for the export of agricultural commodities to Cuba. BIS will include a description of...), to Cuba. Requirements and procedures associated with such authorization are set forth in Sec. 740.18...

  16. 76 FR 5058 - Airports of Entry or Departure for Flights to and From Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... [CBP Dec 11-05] RIN 1651-AA86 Airports of Entry or Departure for Flights to and From Cuba AGENCY: U.S... (DHS) regulations, direct flights between the United States and Cuba must arrive at or depart from one... Border Protection (CBP) to process authorized flights between the United States and Cuba. These...

  17. 31 CFR 515.553 - Bank accounts of official representatives in Cuba of foreign governments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representatives in Cuba of foreign governments. 515.553 Section 515.553 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Bank accounts of official representatives in Cuba of foreign governments. Specific licenses are issued authorizing payments from accounts of official representatives in Cuba of foreign governments for transactions...

  18. 31 CFR 515.561 - Persons visiting close relatives in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Cuba. 515.561 Section 515.561 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... Cuba. (a) General license. (1) Persons subject to the jurisdiction of the United States and persons... close relative, as defined in § 515.339 of this part, who is a national of Cuba, as defined in § 515.302...

  19. 31 CFR 515.207 - Entry of vessels engaged in trade with Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... with Cuba. 515.207 Section 515.207 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 515.207 Entry of vessels engaged in trade with Cuba. Except as specifically... place in Cuba to engage in the trade of goods or the purchase or provision of services, may enter a U.S...

  20. 31 CFR 515.548 - Services rendered by Cuba to United States aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Services rendered by Cuba to United... REGULATIONS Licenses, Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.548 Services rendered by Cuba to United States aircraft. Specific licenses are issued for payment to Cuba of charges for services...

  1. 75 FR 54594 - Effectiveness of Licensing Procedures for Agricultural Commodities to Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ...] Effectiveness of Licensing Procedures for Agricultural Commodities to Cuba AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and... Administration Regulations for the export of agricultural commodities to Cuba. BIS will include a description of...), to Cuba. Requirements and procedures associated with such authorization are set forth in section 740...

  2. 31 CFR 515.337 - Prohibited officials of the Government of Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Government of Cuba. 515.337 Section 515.337 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 515.337 Prohibited officials of the Government of Cuba. For purposes of this part, the term prohibited officials of the Government of Cuba means Ministers and Vice-ministers...

  3. 31 CFR 515.415 - Travel to Cuba; transportation of certain Cuban nationals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Travel to Cuba; transportation of... CONTROL REGULATIONS Interpretations § 515.415 Travel to Cuba; transportation of certain Cuban nationals... or a returning resident of the United States, from Cuba to the United States, unless otherwise...

  4. Revolution on the mind: Cuba, between fact and fable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Stubbs

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] To make a world safe for revolution: Cuba's foreign policy. JORGE I. DOMÏNGUEZ. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press, 1989. viii + 365 pp. (Cloth US$ 35.00 U.S. - Cuba relations in the 1990s. JORGE I. DoMfNGUEZ & RAFAEL HERNANDEZ (eds.. Boulder CO: Westview, 1989. ix + 324 pp. (Cloth US$ 42.00, Paper US$ 15.95 Transformation and struggle: Cuba faces the 1990s. SANDOR HALEBSKY & JOHN M. KIRK (eds.. with the assistance of Rafael Hernéndez. New York: Praeger, 1990. xxvi + 291 pp. (Cloth US$ 45.00, Paper US$ 17.95 "A masterpiece of political intrigue" was one description of Jorge Dominguez' earlier book, Cuba: order and revolution; and it is a fitting comment for its sequel foreign policy volume. Dominguez himself opens with: "This is not a book of fiction, yet much of the story seems a fantasy." The story is how, from 1959 to 1988, Cuban leaders sought "to make a world safe for revolution" and, in the process, that small country Cuba came to have "the foreign policy of a big power." In his thorough, methodical fashion, Dominguez marshalls a wealth of documentary evidence from varied and conflicting sources, backed with extensive interview material, to paint a "behind the scènes" story of policymakers and their policy.

  5. KONFLIK AGRARIA DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Zuber

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article describe agrarian conflict in Indonesia. Until this moment many agrarian conflict are happen in Papua, Java, Kalimantan and Sumatera. This conflict consist many interests and there isn’t equity policy to society are following this conflict. The implication the agrarian conflict become latent conflict. It usually make huge damage in society and nation.

  6. Risiko Sistemik Perbankan Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Wijaya, Miryam Lilian; Utama, Chandra; Kusuma, Charvin

    2015-01-01

    Studi ini menelaah penggunaan Altman Z-score sebagai sebuah indikator untuk menggambarkan kesehatan bank secara individual dalam konteks stabilitas industri perbankan. Terhadap 77 bank umum di Indonesia, masing-masing dengan 96 periode waktu (bulanan 2006 - 2013), dihitung nilai Altman Z-score (ZSCORE). Rasio simpanan suatu bank di bank lain dalam portofolio asset bank tersebut dipakai sebagai indikator keterkaitan bank tersebut dengan bank lain (GIRO), sedangkan rasio simpanan masyarakat di ...

  7. Designing Futures in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Crosby

    2016-08-01

    This curated issue takes as its departure point Fry’s notion that design broadly shapes the world we occupy. To ask what happens when the world we occupy is not conceived simply in terms of local issues and solutions, but rather as a set of shared concerns that are localised and play out through global flows. To do so this issue presents ten contributions from Indonesia.

  8. Terrorism in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusponegoro, Aryono D

    2003-01-01

    Indonesia has had its share of natural and manmade disasters. From 1997 to 2002, Indonesia has experienced 90 incidents of terrorist bomb attacks. In 13 (14.4%) of the terrorist attacks, the bombs did not explode. A total of 224 persons have been killed, and 340 persons have been injured. Most of those killed or injured were the result of the bombings in Jakarta and Bali. Besides bombings, there have been riots, especially in Jakarta. The Indonesian Surgeons Association established the 1-1-8 Emergency Ambulance Service Foundation to develop the Prehospital Emergency Medical Services in Indonesia. Despite difficulties, this service has been implemented in 18 cities. The occurrence of disasters, riots, ethnic conflicts, terrorist attacks, and the introduction of the Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) course in 1995, have helped to convince the people and the government that it was important to develop this 1-1-8 Emergency Ambulance Services system, and agreed to accept a Safe Community Program. With the Safe Community Program, Jakarta with its Integrated 1-1-8 Emergency Ambulance Service managed to provide proper emergency medical care to the casualties caused by terrorist bombings, riots, and in the three weeks of floods during which 75% of Jakarta was submerged.

  9. Iodization: case report: Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, R; Pandaya

    1996-01-01

    Historically, most of Indonesia's interior has been severely iodine-deficient, resulting in high levels of endemic goiter and cretinism. In some interior hamlets during the 1980s, cretinism prevalence was found to be 15%, among the world's highest levels. Early in 1995, a national survey of iodized salt consumption found that half of 220,000 households were using adequately iodized salt, 28% inadequately iodized salt, and the rest noniodized salt. A program to teach primary school students about the existence of and rationale for using iodized salt was launched in West Java and six other provinces in 1995. The program was subsequently expanded in 1996 with the training of 100,000 more teachers nationwide. 95% of children in Indonesia attend primary school. Part of Indonesia's goal to eliminate iodine deficiency disorders by the year 2000, the program involves children testing samples of salt consumed at home for the presence of adequate iodine content. Students and parents are then expected to tell their neighbors about the need for iodized salt and share their school iodine test kit with them.

  10. Tobacco Diversity in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djajadi Djajadi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco variants in Indonesia are very diverse which can be identified from their morphology or their characteristics. This is related to tobacco long adaptation in different agro ecology of plantation areas which spread out at 15 provinces, from dry to irrigated land and from low land to high land areas. Tobacco has been introduced in Indonesia for more than four centuries and mostly used as cigarette. This commodity and its products are still economically important for government and farmer income. It contributes in government income which reached up to 114 trillion rupiahs and farmer income up to 70% in 2014. Tobacco diversity in Indonesia can be grouped according to their growing season and their usage in cigarette blending. Tobaccos which grown at the end of wet season and harvested in dry season are called Voor Oogst tobaccos, otherwise tobaccos which grown at dry season and harvested in wet season are called Na Oogst tobaccos. Based on their usage, tobaccos are categorized as main ingredients for kretek cigarette, Rolled Your Own (RYO cigarette, and cigar industries.

  11. COUNTER-TERRORISM IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan Sebastian Meliala

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the incident of World Trade Center (WTC in USA, Indonesia has become an easy target for the next terrorism. Counterterrorist campaigns can be undertaken by military and paramilitary forces. Counterterrorism refers to proactive policies that specifically seek to eliminate terrorist environments and groups, Regardless of which policy is selected, the ultimate goal of counterterrorism is clear: to save lives by proactively preventing or decreasing the number of terrorist attacks. But, so far the Government of Indonesia is only able to capture the terrorists but is unable to eradicate terrorism. Therefore, the government of Indonesia still needs a comprehensive ways to counter terrorism in Indonesia

  12. Mortalidad infantil en Cuba 1959-1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Riverón Corteguera

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available De 1959 a 1999, con los datos estadísticos disponibles, la mortalidad infantil en Cuba disminuyó en 81,3 %, la mortalidad neonatal precoz se redujo el 73,4 %, la mortalidad neonatal tardía el 83,6 % y la posneonatal en 86,0 %. Las reducciones obtenidas en el período se distribuyeron uniformemente entre todas las provincias, aunque la mayor disminución se produjo en las provincias centrales y occidentales. Los rubros que más disminuyeron sus tasas fueron: enteritis y otras enfermedades diarreicas, infecciones respiratorias agudas, afecciones perinatales en general y las meningitis, aunque todas las causas reducen la mortalidad en el período. La natalidad descendió el 51,3 %, la fecundidad lo hizo en 30 %, el crecimiento demográfico bruto de la población disminuyó el 59,8 %, el parto institucional aumentó en 65,9 %, el bajo peso al nacer descendió el 36,9 %, la mortalidad perinatal se redujo el 67,2 %, los nacidos vivos disminuyeron el 21,1 % y la supervivencia infantil a los 5 años aumentó el 3,8 %. Esto ha sido posible debido principalmente a la decisión política de priorizar el sector de la salud y muy especialmente la salud maternoinfantil adoptada por nuestro Estado a principios de la década de los 60, lo que permitió alcanzar avances en la organización, calidad de la atención y una amplia cobertura de los servicios de salud. También fueron elementos importantes, el mejoramiento del nivel de vida y de la educación alcanzados por la población, las mejoras logradas en la situación sanitaria y epidemiológica, la distribución equitativa de los alimentos que prioriza a la madre y al niño. Un elemento fundamental en la última década ha sido el desarrollo del "médico de la familia" en la atención primaria y el mejoramiento de la atención hospitalaria. Por otra parte han contribuido de manera notable el establecimiento del Programa Nacional de Atención Maternoinfantil, que abarca las inmunizaciones, el control de las

  13. Las actuales transformaciones en Cuba y sus efectos en las relaciones Cuba-CARICOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Laguardia Martínez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En 2011 Cuba aprobó una nueva política económica con el objetivo de relanzar su economía sin comprometer los principales logros sociales asociados a su modelo socialista. La apuesta es lo suficientemente ambiciosa como para generar dudas sobre la posibilidad real de instrumentar con éxito una transformación socioeconómica de tales dimensiones. Lo cierto es que, a pesar de los temores y resistencias a la “actualización” del modelo económico cubano, los cambios internos son obligatorios con el fin de construir un socialismo “próspero y sostenible”, idea que el presidente Raúl Castro ha promovido como objetivo central de los cambios. El artículo analiza las relaciones de Cuba y los países del CARICOM en el contexto de la cambiante realidad cubana actual y examina las posibles modificaciones que esta relación podría experimentar en un futuro próximo como consecuencia de la actualización económica cubana.

  14. Contemporary United States Foreign Policy Towards Indonesia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McAslan, Hugh

    2004-01-01

    United States national interests in Indonesia have traditionally being based on strategic security requirements given Indonesia's geographic location between the Indian and Pacific Oceans, and strong...

  15. Newborn care practices in rural Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam MT

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad Tajul Islam,1 Nazrul Islam,2 Yukie Yoshimura,1 Monjura Khatun Nisha,3 Nawzia Yasmin4 1Safe Motherhood Promotion Project, Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 2School of Population and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 3International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b; 4Department of Public Health, State University of Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh Background: Neonatal mortality is high in Bangladesh. Most of the neonatal deaths are preventable through simple and cost-effective essential newborn care interventions. Studies to document the determinants of unhealthy newborn care practices are scarce. Objective: The objective of this study is to describe the pattern of neonatal care practices and their determinants in rural Bangladesh. Methodology: This study is based on baseline data of a community-based intervention to assess impact of limited postnatal care services on maternal and neonatal health-seeking behavior. Data from 510 women, who had a live birth at home 1 year prior to survey, of six randomly selected unions of an Upazila (subdistrict were analyzed. Results: Majority of the respondents were at an age group of 20–34 years. Only 6% had delivery by skilled providers. Immediate drying and wrapping, and giving colostrums to newborns were almost universal. Unhealthy practices, like unclean cord care (42%, delayed initiation of breastfeeding (60%, use of prelacteals (36%, and early bathing (71% were very common. Muslims were more likely to give early bath (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 2.01; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.13–3.59; P=0.018 and delay in initiating breastfeeding (adjusted OR: 1.45; 95% CI: 1.18–1.78; P<0.001 to newborns. Practice of giving prelacteals was associated with teenage mothers (adjusted OR: 2.26; 95% CI: 1.19–4.28; P=0.013 and women’s lack of education (adjusted OR: 2.64; 95% CI: 1.46–4.77; P=0

  16. CSM a success in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    The Bangladesh Social Marketing Project (SMP), providing contraceptives at an annual rate of 931,000 couple years of protection (CYP) as of June 1983, is a success. This figure has grown markedly since the start of the program in late 1975, when the SMP provided 80,000 CYPs, or 8% of nonclinical protection provided. The SMP has contributed to the steadily increasing national nonclinical contraceptive distribution. Currently, SMP distribution accounts for as much as the government and nongovernment programs combined. When clinical methods (including sterilizations) are added to national distribution, the SMP share represents about 28% of total contraceptive use. The SMP does not provide clinical methods, but the entire increase in nonclinical protection provided by the national program since 1975 has been the result of SMP product sales. The SMP utilizes the available mass media for promotion, including print, radio, television, as well as outdoor media and point of purchase materials. Mobile Film Units (MFUs) are an innovative promotional method employed by the SMP. Approximately 80 night time outdoor showings are organized each month in rural areas by SMP promoters. Typically, several short films, usually a popular story with a family planning theme, are run. Between each film the SMP products are of advertised. Products are often sold during and after the films. Retail outlets for SMP products include general stores, pharmacies, and other small shops. When products were introduced in 1975 retail outlets totaled 7500. By August 1983 the number of country wide retailers carrying SMP products had grown to nearly 100,000. In 1982 a marketing strategy emphasizing the role of doctors and rural medical practitioners (RMPs) was introduced. There are between 70,00-100,000 RMPs in Bangladesh. They are well known and respected "doctors" in their villages and add an extensive family planning outreach to the SMP system. The most important advantage of using the RMPs is their

  17. Bangladesh (country/area statements).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    According to this statement presented to the Committee on Population of the UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, the population of Bangladesh increased from 76.4 million in 1974 to 89.9 million in 1981 and if the annual estimated growth rate of 2.4% continues unchecked, the population will be 111.5 million by 1990. Rapid population growth increases the man-land ratio, while the undesirable age structure entails a high dependency burden and provides a large base for further population growth. The huge investment in food production is neutralized and educational facilities remain unavailable for most of the nation's 15.6 million school-age children. Even under the most optimistic population projection, the total will increase by more than 60% by the year 2015, exacerbating the already serious problems of poverty and unemployment. The urban population is expected to increase from 17.5 million at present to 37.3 million by 2000, including a multitude of squatters with no visible income-earning opportunities. The population policy adopted by the government in June 1976 was directed toward influencing demographic behavior primarily through information, education, and motivation activities and a wide array of family planning services provided at maternal-child health and family planning centers. The government has taken some steps to increase economic productivity and create employment, and has made administrative changes including upgrading the smallest administrative units and creating directorates for primary education and women's affairs. Health and population control strategies will include establishing primary health care and maternal-child health and family planning centers throughout the country, expanding the family planning worker to population ratio, and integrating the family planning programs with all development oriented programs. The National Council for Population Control and several other organizational structures have been created

  18. [Public health and intellectual property in Cuba: a conceptual map].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Delgado, Beatriz; Di Fabio, José Luis; Vidal Casanovas, Jaume; Fitzgerald, James; Silva, Ana Paula

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the legal framework for health and intellectual property in Cuba and its impact on people's access to health resources and on the roles of different social actors. The methods used were those developed by the Pan American Health Organization to implement the project of the Conceptual Map on Public Health and Intellectual Property. Information retrieved specifically on the legal framework for the National Health System, the Intellectual Property System and the strengthening of the country's biopharmaceutical industry-and on the framework's development over time-was processed and analyzed to generate Cuba's Conceptual Map on Public Health and Intellectual Property. Analysis of Cuba's adaptation of its legal framework and assessment of the interaction between the social actors involved show how the political will that has prevailed over several decades has had a positive impact on people's access to health resources.

  19. Intelectualidad criolla y nación en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Miguel GARCÍA MORA

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: En este artículo se analizan las interacciones entre las posiciones intelectuales de los autonomistas cubanos y su idea de la nacionalidad, y la utilización que de la "raza" hicieron los científicos criollos. En una primera parte, se estudian los debates en torno a los pobladores "ideales" con los que constituir una nación moderna y "civilizada", que alejara de Cuba el fantasma de la "africanización". La segunda parte del trabajo se centra en el análisis de la publicación cultural más importante del momento, como fue la Revista de Cuba (1877-1884. Una publicación al servicio de una ciencia criolla, en la que se expuso el concepto de nacionalidad y el proyecto político de los autonomistas, compartido por la mayoría de los científicos cubanos. Palabras Clave: Cuba, ciencia criolla, autonomismo, intelectuales, nacionalidad. ABSTRACT: This article analyzes the interactions between the Cuban Autonomists, their intellectual positions and their ideas about "nationality", and the use of the concept of "race" made by the Criollo scientists. The first part studies debates on the "ideal" settlers for the forming of a modern and "civilized" nation, which would remove the spectre of "Africanization" from Cuba. The second part of this work is focused on the analysis of the most important cultural review of the time, the Revista de Cuba (1877-1884. It was in this publi- cation —which acted as the voice of Criollo science— that the concept of nationality and the political project of the Autonomists, which was shared by most of the Cuban scientists, was expressed. Key words: Cuba, Criollo Science, Autonomism, Intellectuals, Nationality.

  20. Health consequences of child labour in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The paper examines the effect of child labour on child health outcomes in Bangladesh, advancing the methodologies and the results of papers published in different journals. Objective: We examine the effect of child labour on child health outcomes. Methods: We used Bangladesh National Child Labour Survey data for 2002-2003 for our analysis. Results: The main finding of the paper suggests that child labour is positively and significantly associated with the probability of being injured or becoming ill. Intensity of injury or illness is significantly higher in construction and manufacturing sectors than in other sectors. Health disadvantages for different age groups are not essentially parallel. Conclusions: The results obtained in this paper strengthen the need for stronger enforcement of laws that regulate child labour, especially given its adverse consequences on health. Although the paper focuses on Bangladesh, much of the evidence presented has implications that are relevant to policymakers in other developing countries.

  1. Future demand scenarios of Bangladesh power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondal, Md. Alam Hossain; Boie, Wulf; Denich, Manfred

    2010-01-01

    Data on the future electricity demand is an essential requirement for planning the expansion of a power system. The purpose of this study is to provide a general overview of electricity consumption in Bangladesh, forecast sector-wise electricity demand up to 2035 considering the base year 2005, and compare the results with official projections. The Long-range Energy Alternative Planning (LEAP) model with three scenarios, namely low gross domestic product (GDP) growth, average GDP growth and high GDP growth, is applied in this study. In the low to high GDP growth scenarios, the extent of industrial restructuring and technical advancement is gradually increased. The findings have significant implications with respect to energy conservation and economic development. The study also compares the projected per capita electricity consumption in Bangladesh with the historical growth in several other developing countries. Such an evaluation can create awareness among the planners of power system expansion in Bangladesh to meet the high future demand.

  2. A New Approach to Health Services and Pharmacy in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Alina M

    2015-12-01

    In December 17, 2014, U.S. President Barack Obama surprised the world by announcing his intention to enter into negotiations aimed at reestablishing diplomatic relations with Cuba. Since then, expectations and interest regarding the health system of that country have increased. This report focuses on the Cuban health and pharmacy systems from a practical and educational standpoint. Pharmaceutical services, strengths, opportunities, and challenges are described. Cuba's new trends toward patient-centered care are analyzed to provide insights for developing pharmaceutical care practice and implementing policies suitable for practice in all health care settings. © 2015 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  3. L’insegnamento della lingua e letteratura italiane a Cuba.

    OpenAIRE

    Bello Valdés, Mayerìn

    2009-01-01

    Nel suo articolo l’autrice ricostruisce la storia dell’insegnamento delle lingua e della letteratura italiane a Cuba dal Novecento ai giorni nostri, e fornisce una ricca documentazione sui corsi di italiano, sugli studi e  sulle opere più importanti pubblicate a Cuba sulla nostra letteratura e sulle manifestazioni realizzate per la diffusione della cultura italiana nel paese. In particolare riferisce dell’importante ruolo svolto dalla rivista “Cuadernos de italianística cubana” – e dalle ...

  4. Some considerations on the Music Education in Santiago de Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysmara Borlot-Faure

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the distinctive features of music education in Santiago de Cuba, to enhance historical knowledge in professional education (Bachelor's Degree in Art Education and Art Instructor. the historical and pedagogical process of musical education, an essential aspect in order to rescue and preservation of our most genuine traditions in the formation of present and future generations addresses. For education professionals is a conception of learning developer, in order to promote a new content to encourage new knowledge in the educational process taking place in higher education in Cuba.

  5. Cuba & ICTs: Real Crisis Leads to Virtual Innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urra, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    The only sustainable way to avail ourselves of opportunities provided by information and communications technologies (ICTs) for health is when they're folded into a clear, specific political commitment to improve health systems; there are no magic recipes or technologies. Cuba's achievements in using ICTs for health are the result of a social and political process based on universal, equitable health services and education. Together these explain the paradox of how a country in severe economic crisis managed to create a nationwide network providing access to health information and medical knowledge, so that today, Cuba is making strategic use of the Internet and international networks.

  6. Malaria prevalence in endemic districts of Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubydul Haque

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Following the 1971 ban of DDT in Bangladesh, malaria cases have increased steadily. Malaria persists as a major health problem in the thirteen south-eastern and north-eastern districts of Bangladesh. At present the national malaria control program, largely supported by the Global Fund for AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM, provides interventions including advocacy at community level, Insecticide Treated Net (ITN distribution, introduction of Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDT and combination therapy with Coartem. It is imperative, therefore, that baseline data on malaria prevalence and other malaria indicators are collected to assess the effectiveness of the interventions and rationalize the prevention and control efforts. The objective of this study was to obtain this baseline on the prevalence of malaria and bed net use in the thirteen malaria endemic districts of Bangladesh. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In 2007, BRAC and ICDDR,B carried out a malaria prevalence survey in thirteen malaria endemic districts of Bangladesh. A multi-stage cluster sampling technique was used and 9750 blood samples were collected. Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDT were used for the diagnosis of malaria. The weighted average malaria prevalence in the thirteen endemic districts was 3.97%. In five south-eastern districts weighted average malaria prevalence rate was 6.00% and in the eight north-eastern districts weighted average malaria prevalence rate was (0.40%. The highest malaria prevalence was observed in Khagrachari district. The majority of the cases (90.18% were P. falciparum infections. Malaria morbidity rates in five south-eastern districts was 2.94%. In eight north-eastern districts, morbidity was 0.07%. CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: Bangladesh has hypoendemic malaria with P. falciparum the dominant parasite species. The malaria situation in the five north-eastern districts of Bangladesh in particular warrants urgent attention. Detailed maps of the

  7. Indonesia : Country Financial Accountability Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2001-01-01

    This Country Financial Accountability Assessment (CFAA) report, supports the Government of Indonesia's efforts to reform the process of managing public resources, increase transparency in handling financial affairs, and combat corruption. The report assesses that the control environment in Indonesia is weak, despite a political leadership committed to improvement, and, recommends enacting ...

  8. ANALISIS DAYA SAING KEDELAI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarwono Sarwono

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available RCA (Revealed Comparative Advantage index of soybean in Indonesia from 1983 up to 2013 is less than one, mostly. It means that the competitiveness of soybean in Indonesia is low. The purpose of this study is to analyze the factors influence the soybean competitiveness. OLS (Ordinary Least Square was used as the analysis method. Hypotheses test based on that analysis model is not bias, so that, classic divergence test is needed. It is for getting the Best Linier Unbiased Estimator (BLUE appraisal. T statistic and F statistic were also applied. The result of this research shows that production and export have positive and significant influence. In addition, exchange rate and government policy do not influence the Indonesia soybean competitiveness.Indeks RCA (Revealed Comparative Advantage kedelai Indonesia dari tahun 1983-2013 kecenderungan bernilai kurang dari satu yang berarti daya saing kedelai Indonesia rendah.Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi daya saing kedelai Indonesia.Metode analisis yang digunakan adalah Ordinary Least Square (OLS.Pengujian hipotesis berdasarkan model analisis tersebut tidak bias maka perlu dilakukan uji penyimpangan klasik yang tujuannya agar diperoleh penaksiran yang bersifat Best Linier Unbiased Estimator (BLUE.Pengujian statistik menggunakan uji t statistikdan uji f statistik.Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa produksi dan ekspor berpengaruh secara positif dan signifikan terhadap daya saing kedelai Indonesia. Nilai tukar rupiah dan kebijakan pemerintah tidak berpengaruh terhadap daya saing kedelai Indonesia.

  9. [Eugenic abortion could explain the lower infant mortality in Cuba compared to that in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoso S, Enrique; Carvajal C, Jorge A

    2012-08-01

    Cuba and Chile have the lower infant mortality rates of Latin America. Infant mortality rate in Cuba is similar to that of developed countries. Chilean infant mortality rate is slightly higher than that of Cuba. To investigate if the lower infant mortality rate in Cuba, compared to Chile, could be explained by eugenic abortion, considering that abortion is legal in Cuba but not in Chile. We compared total and congenital abnormalities related infant mortality in Cuba and Chile during 2008, based on vital statistics of both countries. In 2008, infant mortality rates in Chile were significantly higher than those of Cuba (7.8 vs. 4.7 per 1,000 live born respectively, odds ratio (OR) 1.67; 95% confidence intervals (Cl) 1.52-1.83). Congenital abnormalities accounted for 33.8 and 19.2% of infant deaths in Chile and Cuba, respectively. Discarding infant deaths related to congenital abnormalities, infant mortality rate continued to be higher in Chile than in Cuba (5.19 vs. 3.82 per 1000 live born respectively, OR 1.36; 95%CI 1.221.52). Considering that antenatal diagnosis is widely available in both countries, but abortion is legal in Cuba but not in Chile, we conclude that eugenic abortion may partially explain the lower infant mortality rate observed in Cuba compared to that observed in Chile.

  10. REVALUATION OF WOMEN'S WORK IN BANGLADESH

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdhury, Nuimuddin

    1986-01-01

    The paper seeks to revalue women's nonmarket work in the context of parts of rural Bangladesh, v} ich is where most of her women folk live. It raises relevant conceptual and methodological considerations relating to revaluation of women's work, reviews various sets of evidence on the pattern of time use of women in Bangladesh, and then puts up a broad order of magnitude as to the value of women's nonmarket work. For this purpose, it taken the sexual division of labour and sexual differential ...

  11. Emergence of Melioidosis in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauran, Patricia M; Sennang, Nurhayana; Rusli, Benny; Wiersinga, W Joost; Dance, David; Arif, Mansyur; Limmathurotsakul, Direk

    2015-12-01

    Melioidosis is known to be highly endemic in parts of southeast Asia and northern Australia; however, cases are rarely reported in Indonesia. Here we report three cases of melioidosis in Makassar, South Sulawesi, Indonesia occurring between 2013 and 2014. Two patients died and the other was lost to follow-up. Burkholderia pseudomallei isolates from all three cases were identified by the VITEK2 Compact installed in the hospital in 2012. None of the three patients reported received antimicrobials recommended for melioidosis because of the delayed recognition of the organism. We reviewed the literature and found only seven reports of melioidosis in Indonesia. Five were reported before 1960. We suggest that melioidosis is endemic throughout Indonesia but currently under-recognized. Training on how to identify B. pseudomallei accurately and safely in all available microbiological facilities should be provided, and consideration should be given to making melioidosis a notifiable disease in Indonesia. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  12. KURVA PHILLIPS DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maichal Maichal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the existence of the Philips curve in the Indonesian economy, 2000Q1-2010Q3. The results obtained by using OLS method shows that the expectations augmented Philips curve and the New Keynesian Philips curve models cannot give a clear results of Philips curve existence in the Idonesia economy. Shocks variable such as percentage change of exchange rates and crude oil prices provide a very small effect on the inflation rate in Indonesia. Furthermore, the results obtained by using GMM method on the hybrid model of the New Keynesian Philips curve shows that the Philips curve exists in the Indonesian economy.

  13. Female labour force status and fertility behaviour in Bangladesh: search for policy interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhury, R H

    1983-09-01

    This paper examines the effect of female labor force participation on fertility behavior because of its immediate relevance to the formulation of small family norm policies. The hypothesis that female employment is inversely related to fertility and positively related to contraceptive use is based on the following assumptions: 1) the satisfactions of outside employment can substitute for those of child rearing; 2) employment delays marriage and increases the probability of women remaining single, thus reducing fertility; 3) every additional child increases the "opportunity cost" (income lost) of a working mother; 4) a working wife has more status with her husband, and the resultant improved spousal communication leads to more contraceptive use; and 5) working women do not have to rely on their children for support in their old age. Using data from various rural and urban surveys of women in Bangladesh (mostly in Dhaka) and data from the 1961 Bangladesh Population Census, the author finds that fertility is reduced and contraceptive use increases for poor and illiterate women if they work outside the home, but employment has no effect on fertility for higher educated women, who have comparatively fewer children to begin with. In Java, Indonesia, it was found that poor working women have the lowest fertility compared to any other higher socioeconomic group. In Thailand, too, it was found that women who worked outside the home and who had modern values had significantly fewer children than other women. Evaluations of income generating programs for women in Bangladesh attest to the fertility lowering success of integrating family planning and health services with employment programs. Employment through these cooperatives has also indirectly lowered fertility by leading to longer birth spacing and marriage delays. The author recommends such integrated programs and cooperatives because they enhance the social and economic status of women, and by doing so, modernize the

  14. Jurnalisme Tabloid di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diyah Hayu Rahmitasari

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Many scholars have criticised tabloid journalism because it often contains drama and sensationalism. However, tabloid journalism actually cater the taste of the readers who were ignored by mainstream newspapers. This article is based on a research analyse Pos Kota and Lampu Hijau, relying on content analysis of the papers’ editions in December 2011 and January 2012, as well as interviews with the editors and journalists. The analyses conclude that tabloid journalism in Indonesia is an urban phenomenon focuses on local issues and targets urban workers as their core readers and has been most successful in Jakarta and its surrounds. Abstrak: Jurnalisme tabloid merupakan terminologi yang sering diperdebatkan, dikritisi dan dicaci. Padahal, bentuk jurnalisme ini sebenarnya melayani selera pembaca yang cenderung diabaikan oleh jurnalisme arus utama. Artikel ini dibuat berdasarkan penelitian atas isi Pos Kota dan Lampu Hijau periode Desember 2011-Januari 2012, serta wawancara dengan editor dan jurnalis. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa jurnalisme tabloid di Indonesia adalah jurnalisme yang fokus pada isu-isu lokal dan menyasar para pekerja urban sebagai pembaca utamanya sehingga meraih sukses di kota-kota besar terutama Jakarta dan sekitarnya.

  15. Socialism and Education in Cuba and Soviet Uzbekistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charon-Cardona, Euridice

    2013-01-01

    During the Cold War over half a million Asians, Africans and Latin Americans studied and graduated in the Soviet Union's universities and technical schools as part of this country's educational aid policies. Cuba was an intermediary player in the Cold War geopolitical contest between the United States and the Soviet Union, fuelled by the…

  16. Courting the future: cancer and genetics in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Describing this double issue of MEDICC Review could be an exercise for a first-year philosophy course in logic. It's not about "cancer and genetics" in Cuba. It's about cancer in Cuba and about genetics in Cuba, not about exploring relationships between them. Nevertheless, while the marriage of the two themes was fortuitous, in that the two had long been scheduled for the journal in 2014, there is a certain felicity to their sharing an issue. To date, the outstanding accomplishments of genetics have been most helpful for conditions occurring at the beginning of life and cancer is largely (though not exclusively) a disease related to aging. But the two are intrinsically connected: Although only a few of the more than 100 different diseases grouped under the term cancer are known to be hereditary, every cancer begins with a mutation in one or more genes, whether the mutation is inherited, due to an exposure, or is simply a random error in the millions of cell divisions that are part and parcel of cellular reproduction. Our cover image, a stained-glass window by Cuban artist Rosa María de la Terga at Cuba's National Medical Genetics Center, illustrates the elegance of the DNA molecule, the intricate key to life.

  17. Multi-scale landslide risk assessment in Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castellanos Abella, E.A.

    2008-01-01

    Landslides cause a considerable amount of damage in the mountainous regions of Cuba, which cover about 25% of the territory. Until now, only a limited amount of research has been carried out in the field of landslide risk assessment in the country. This research presents a methodology and its

  18. Different Strokes: Spanish Policy toward Cuba and Equatorial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spanish policy toward Cuba and Equatorial Guinea up to the end of the 19th century differed markedly. The policy itself is difficult to define but the general principle emphasized the exploitation of the resources of the colonies for the benefit of Spain. It also provided for the spread of Spanish culture and the Christian faith.

  19. Disaster management and multihazard risk assessment in Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castellanos Abella, E.A.

    2008-01-01

    The success, statistically proved, of the civil defense system in Cuba have been justified differently worldwide. While some experts relate this fact to the social welfare others debate about the forced evacuation. Beside, the long term development of disaster reduction in the country is commonly

  20. 31 CFR 515.570 - Remittances to Nationals of Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Remittances to Nationals of Cuba. 515.570 Section 515.570 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued... source. Certain remittances from blocked accounts are authorized pursuant to paragraph (c) of this...

  1. U.S. Embargo Against Cuba: Should it Be Continued

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-23

    two leaders, Jose Antonio Echeverria and Frank Pais. Even at this early stage, both political and 6 7Schulz, "Can Castro Survive?," pp. 104-105...1994. Arquilla, John. A Decision Modelinq Perspective on U.S.- Cuba Relations, Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 1993. Aguilar Leon, Luis . "Some are Viewing Castro

  2. Medicinal plants sold at the El Rio Market, Camaguey, Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Godinez-Caraballo, D.; Volpato, G.

    2008-01-01

    Information regarding medicinal plants sold in the El Rio Market, Camaguey, Cuba, revealed 184 species belonging to 69 vascular plant families. The most important family was Fabaceae s.l. with 13 species, followed by Lamiaceae with 12, and Asteraceae with 8. More than 90 general medicinal

  3. Cuba's Strategy for Alzheimer Disease and Dementia Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch-Bayard, Rodolfo I; Llibre-Rodríguez, Juan J; Fernández-Seco, Alberto; Borrego-Calzadilla, Carmen; Carrasco-García, Mayra R; Zayas-Llerena, Tania; Moreno-Carbonell, Carmen R; Reymond-Vasconcelos, Ana G

    2016-10-01

    Dementia is a great challenge to public health in Cuba due to its impact on society and families. Cuba's National Intervention Strategy for Alzheimer Disease and Dementia Syndromes is designed to address this challenge. The Strategy includes working guidelines for primary and secondary care, education about rights of people with cognitive impairment, professional development, research, and health promotion and dementia prevention. An associated action plan, focused on primary care, includes proposals for creation of memory clinics, day centers and comprehensive rehabilitation services for cognitive stimulation. Short-term measures proposed include increasing early detection; creating a dementia morbidity and mortality registry; promoting professional training; providing support for families; and promoting basic and clinical research on dementia. Medium-term proposals aim to reduce dementia incidence and mortality by controlling risk factors and promoting healthy lifestyles, offering new treatment options and optimizing early detection. A set of indicators has been developed to evaluate strategy implementation. With this strategy, Cuba joins the small number of developing countries that have responded to WHO's call to improve care for patients with dementia and alleviate its impact on society and families. KEYWORDS Dementia, Alzheimer disease, aging, national health programs, social stigma, primary prevention, health promotion, civil rights, Cuba.

  4. A molecular epidemiological study of rabies in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadin-Davis, S A; Torres, G; Ribas, M De Los Angeles; Guzman, M; De La Paz, R Cruz; Morales, M; Wandeler, A I

    2006-12-01

    To investigate the emergence and current situation of terrestrial rabies in Cuba, a collection of rabies virus specimens was employed for genetic characterization. These data supported the monophyletic nature of all terrestrial rabies viruses presently circulating in Cuba but additionally delineated several distinct variants exhibiting limited spatial distribution which may reflect the history of rabies spread on the island. The strain of rabies currently circulating in Cuba, which emerged on the island in the early 20th century, has very close evolutionary ties to the Mexican dog type and is a member of the cosmopolitan lineage widely distributed during the colonial period. The Cuban rabies viruses, which circulate predominantly within the mongoose population, are phylogenetically distant from viruses circulating in mongooses in other parts of the world. These studies illustrate, at a global level, the adaptation of multiple strains of rabies to mongoose species which should be regarded as important wildlife hosts for rabies re-emergence. Given the recent emergence of human cases due to bat contact in Cuba, this study also included a single insectivorous bat specimen which was found to most closely resemble the rabies viruses known to circulate in Mexican vampire bats.

  5. The formation of means of agricultural family in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Eugenio León Hernández

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presen ts a historical outline about the formation of technical means in the Specialty Agriculture in Cuba , and shows how these characteristics are present in Pinar del Río province. It also make s an analysis of the current strategies of the formation of this personnel at international level.

  6. Poliomyelitis and its elimination in Cuba: an historical overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldarraín, Enrique

    2013-04-01

    Polio was first detected in Cuba in the late 19th century among residents of the US community on the Isla de Pinos (Isle of Pines, now Isle of Youth), apparently introduced through migration from the USA. The first outbreak was reported in 1906 on the Isle, with the first epidemic reported in the former province of Las Villas in 1909. The epidemics subsequently intensified, by 1934 becoming periodic every four to five years, and accompanied by high morbidity, mortality and crippling sequelae, primarily among children. To review and analyze the history of polio and its control in Cuba, from the disease's first appearance in 1898 until WHO/PAHO certification of elimination in 1994. The historiological method was used; archival documents, medical records, and available polio morbidity and mortality statistics from the Ministry of Public Health's National Statistics Division before 1959 and from 1959 through 2000 were reviewed. Crude morbidity and mortality rates were calculated using population estimates at mid-period. Reports and scientific publications describing polio vaccination campaigns and their results were also reviewed, and key informants were interviewed. After initial introduction of polio in Cuba, five major epidemics occurred between 1932 and 1958: in 1934 (434 cases, 82 deaths); 1942 (494 cases, 58 deaths); 1946 (239 cases, 33 deaths), 1952 (492 cases, 15 deaths) and 1955 (267 cases, 8 deaths). Between 1957 and 1961 the disease's endemicity reached epidemic levels, with the last outbreak occurring in 1961, with 342 cases, 30% of them in children aged >4 years. In 1962, Cuba launched a nationwide polio vaccination campaign, the first of annual campaigns thereafter carried out in the framework of a coherent national program aimed at polio elimination. Using the Sabin oral vaccine and targeting the entire pediatric population in a single time period, five million doses were administered in the first campaign, reaching 87.5% of the target population aged 1

  7. Challenges of Women in Science: Bangladesh Perspectives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ranjeetha

    Women in Bangladesh very often face discrimination in career in every field of Science and Engineering. • A study was undertaken to see the barriers limiting the. A study was undertaken to see the barriers limiting the appointment, retention, and advancement of women faculty in the Universities, Administration and other.

  8. Indigenous Plasmodium ovale malaria in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuehrer, Hans-Peter; Starzengruber, Peter; Swoboda, Paul; Khan, Wasif Ali; Matt, Julia; Ley, Benedikt; Thriemer, Kamala; Haque, Rashidul; Yunus, Emran Bin; Hossain, Shah Monir; Walochnik, Julia; Noedl, Harald

    2010-07-01

    In spite of the high prevalence of malaria in Southeastern Bangladesh, there remains a significant shortage of information regarding the presence of three of five human malaria parasites: Plasmodium ovale, P. malariae, and P. knowlesi. The presence of P. ovale and P. knowlesi has previously never been reported from Bangladesh. We used a genus- and species-specific nested polymerase chain reaction, targeting highly conserved regions of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene, to investigate the presence of malaria parasites in a total number of 379 patient samples in a survey of patients with febrile illnesses in the Chittagong Hill Tracts in Southeastern Bangladesh. We identified the first cases of P. ovale in Bangladesh. They were confirmed by sequence analysis; 189 of 379 samples (49.9%; 95% confidence interval = 44.9-54.9%) were positive for Plasmodium sp. by PCR. P. falciparum monoinfections accounted for 68.3% (61.3-74.5%), followed by P. vivax (15.3%; 10.9-21.2%), P. malariae (1.6%; 0.5-4.6%), P. ovale (1.6%; 0.5-4.6%), and mixed infections (13.2%; 9.1-18.8%). We found no evidence of P. knowlesi in this region.

  9. eyes on bangladesh's disappearing coasts: proposed constitutional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAYAN_

    mph has an eye at the centre of the storm, which is the calmest part of the storm. National ... 1. INTRODUCTION. Although Bangladesh is not a significant emitter of greenhouse gases that contribute to climate change, the coastal country is suffering ..... situation.61 Her mud and bamboo hut was washed away by the cyclone.

  10. Pangolin distribution and conservation status in Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott J Trageser

    Full Text Available Asian pangolins are a highly-threatened species group, mainly due to the perceived medicinal value of their scales. Increased demand from China has resulted in pangolins being the most trafficked mammal in the world. Three pangolin species are reported to occur in Bangladesh: Manis pentadactyla, M. crassicaudata, and M. javanica. No peer-reviewed studies exist detailing these species' current distribution or status within Bangladesh. A literature review was conducted resulting in the clarification of conflicting reports and misidentified observations and specimen records. In this paper, we also report the current status of pangolins (Manis spp. in Bangladesh based on semi-structured interviews, camera trapping, media queries, and field surveys employing traditional ecological knowledge and non-randomized transect surveys. Ethnozoological knowledge pertaining to the natural history of M. pentadactyla is also reported from experienced Mro tribal hunters. The critically endangered M. pentadactyla was verified to occur in northwest, northeast, and southeast Bangladesh in natural and degraded habitats. Interviews with the Mro tribe in the southeast indicate that pangolin populations there were likely extirpated in 2014 due to skilled commercial collection beginning in 2010. Evidence of extant M. crassicaudata and M. javanica populations remain unverified and questionable, and historical records of M. crassicaudata and M. javanica are likely a result of misidentification.

  11. First Outbreak of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Mahbubur; Rahman, Khalilur; Siddque, A. K.; Shoma, Shereen; Kamal, A. H. M.; Ali, K. S.; Nisaluk, Ananda; Breiman, Robert F.

    2002-01-01

    During the first countrywide outbreak of dengue hemorrhagic fever in Bangladesh, we conducted surveillance for dengue at a hospital in Dhaka. Of 176 patients, primarily adults, found positive for dengue, 60.2% had dengue fever, 39.2% dengue hemorrhagic fever, and 0.6% dengue shock syndrome. The Dengue virus 3 serotype was detected in eight patients.

  12. REGIONAL VARIATIONS IN CHILD MARRIAGE IN BANGLADESH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Kamrul; Haque, Md Rabiul; Hossain, Mohammad Bellal

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate the regional variations in the prevalence of child marriage in Bangladesh with a view to providing recommendations for division-specific policy interventions. Data from the 2011 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey were analysed using multivariate logistic regression. Substantial regional variations in child marriage were found in Bangladesh. Rangpur and Khulna had more than four times higher odds of child marriage than Sylhet (4.57 and 4.11 times, respectively). Barisal and Rajshahi had more than three times higher odds of child marriage than Sylhet (3.70 and 3.48 times, respectively). Chittagong and Dhaka had about two times odds of child marriage than Sylhet (1.98 and 2.67 times, respectively), even after controlling for selected socio-demographic, economic and cultural characteristics. Respondent's education, employment status, husband's education and wealth index were inversely associated with the prevalence of child marriage. The policy implications of these findings are discussed in the context of Bangladesh.

  13. Teacher Educators' Attitude towards Computer: Perspective Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mohammad Ataur

    2011-01-01

    This study examined how teacher educators perceive the attitude towards use of computer technology in Teachers' Training Colleges in Bangladesh. This study investigated teacher educators' computer attitudes by using the valid and reliable instruments of Loyd and Gressard's (1984) Computer Attitude Scale (CAS). The data was collected through …

  14. Epidemiology of Drowning in Bangladesh: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Aminur; Alonge, Olakunle; Bhuiyan, Al-Amin; Agrawal, Priyanka; Salam, Shumona Sharmin; Talab, Abu; Rahman, Qazi Sadeq-Ur; Hyder, Adnan A

    2017-05-05

    Over one-quarter of deaths among 1-4 year-olds in Bangladesh were due to drowning in 2003, and the proportion increased to 42% in 2011. This study describes the current burden and risk factors for drowning across all demographics in rural Bangladesh. A household survey was carried out in 51 union parishads of rural Bangladesh between June and November 2013, covering 1.17 million individuals. Information on fatal and nonfatal drowning events was collected by face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire. Fatal and non-fatal drowning rates were 15.8/100,000/year and 318.4/100,000/6 months, respectively, for all age groups. The highest rates of fatal (121.5/100,000/year) and non-fatal (3057.7/100,000/6 months) drowning were observed among children 1 to 4 years of age. These children had higher rates of fatal (13 times) and non-fatal drowning (16 times) compared with infants. Males had slightly higher rates of both fatal and non-fatal drowning. Individuals with no education had 3 times higher rates of non-fatal drowning compared with those with high school or higher education. Non-fatal drowning rates increased significantly with decrease in socio-economic status (SES) quintiles, from the highest to the lowest. Drowning is a major public health issue in Bangladesh, and is now a major threat to child survival.

  15. Telecentre Network Startup : Bangladesh - Mission 2011 | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The second generation of telecentres has seen the emergence of national-level networks in various parts of the word including the Ugandan Telecentre Network, Mission 2007 in India and Mission Swaabhimaan in Nepal. Telecentre stakeholders in Bangladesh would like to replicate the methodology used in Mission 2007, ...

  16. Bangladesh | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Since 1974, we have supported researchers' efforts to improve lives in Bangladesh. As local concerns evolve, so does our focus. Information and communication technologies have been at the heart of many of our activities. In the late 1990s, IDRC-supported research provided low-cost Internet connectivity to schools and ...

  17. Survey of Hypertension in Dhaka, Bangladesh: Changing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To assess changes in the prescribing pattern of antihypertensive drugs and lifestyle factors associated with hypertensive patients in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 50 hypertensive patients in various heart disease hospitals and the consulting rooms of 10 cardiologists ...

  18. Defining and Predicting Heat Waves in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nissan, H.; Burkart, K.; Coughlan, E.R.; van Aalst, M.; Mason, S.

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a heat-wave definition for Bangladesh that could be used to trigger preparedness measures in a heat early warning system (HEWS) and explores the climate mechanisms associated with heat waves. A HEWSrequires a definition of heat waves that is both related to human health outcomes

  19. Gender, Parenting, and Adolescent Functioning in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Sunita Mahtani; Bond, Michael Harris; Abdullah, Abu Saleh M.; Ma, Stefan S. L.

    2000-01-01

    Examined associations of self-esteem, relationship harmony, and academic achievement with perceptions of parents' styles and supervisory practices among 212 adolescents in Islamic Bangladesh. Found that parental supervisory practices were associated with a warm parental style for girls and parental dominating control for boys. Girls' (but not…

  20. English, Education, and Globalisation: A Bangladesh Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akteruzzaman, Mohammad; Islam, Rakibul

    2017-01-01

    As a third world country and a former British colony, Bangladesh has seen a dramatic upsurge in the use of the English language. Built on the concept of imperialistic aspects of the English language, this paper draws on responses from anonymous survey results and interviews and attempts to provide deeper insights into the global aspects of English…

  1. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-12

    BANGLADESH OBSER VER 18 Jul] ...................................................................................... 7 Rahman Returns From ECOSOC Session, Meets...French Secretary of State for Humanitarian Affairs Ber- and Social Commission ( ECOSOC ) had endorsed Bang- nard Kouchner, who chaired the one-day...Geneva via London at the Zia international The World Bank and the Asian Development Bank were airport after attending the ECOSOC special session. among

  2. Protozoal enteric infections among expatriates in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speelman, P.; Ljungström, I.

    1986-01-01

    In order to study the prevalence, incidence, and symptoms of infections with Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica, we followed 251 expatriates in Bangladesh over a 1-year period. Microscopic examination of fecal specimens was performed upon enrollment, at 3-month intervals, and during episodes

  3. Making healthcare accessible in Bangladesh | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-01-29

    Jan 29, 2018 ... View infographics. Even so, the country is still far from its goal of universal health coverage. Bangladesh aims to provide all citizens and communities with the health services they need, at a price they can afford, by 2032. Among the challenges in achieving this goal are rapid urbanization, deep poverty, and ...

  4. First case of chromoblastomycosis from Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brun Sophie

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Chromoblastomycosis is a rare and chronic cutaneous and subcutaneous infection caused by black fungi and mostly reported in tropical and subtropical areas. Here we report the first case of chromoblastomycosis from Bangladesh. Molecular biology permitted to identify Fonsecaea nubica, and the patient responded well to antifungal treatment alone.

  5. [Some general considerations concerning Cuba's population policies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldana Martinez, L

    1978-01-01

    The policies developed in Cuba after the revolution that influenced population were primarily intended to alter basic structures hindering social and economic development rather than to affect population growth. Fertility has declined rapidly from 35.1/1000 in 1963 to a preliminary figure of 19.8/1000 in 1977, and interprovincial differences have significantly lessened. Factors influencing the decline include the increased participation of women in economic activities, improved access to contraception, the higher cultural level of couples and especially women made possible through adult education, and increased urbanization following the agrarian reform. Infant mortality declined from about 80/1000 live births in the late 1950s to 24.6/1000 live births in 1977, while mortality for 1-4 year olds is now 1.1/1000. Maternal mortality declined from 10.7/10,000 live births in 1965 to 4.6 in 1976. Expectation of life at birth was 70 years for both sexes in 1976. The most significant factors in the mortality decline appear to have been general improvements in material standards and the disappearance of nutritional deficiencies in children and mothers, creation of the National Health System which offers free health care nationwide, and improved educational levels. By the beginning of the century 40% of the urban population resided in places with over 2000 inhabitants. In 1953 the proportion was 51.4% and Havana contained 23% of the national population. The policy of the Revolution has been to exploit the natural resources of the entire country and to reform agriculture and livestock raising. The growth rate of the urban population between 1953 and 1970 of 3.1% was only slightly higher than the growth rate of 2.19% of the entire country. Havana grew by only 2.2% during the same time, and by only 1.3% between 1971-74. Intermediate cities increased their share of the total population from 10.6% in 1958 to 17.3% in 1970. Government programs to orient migration toward

  6. Antenatal cytogenetic testing in Havana, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Rosado, Luis A; Quiñones, Olga; Molina, Odalys; González, Nereida; del Sol, Marylin; Maceiras, Luanda; Bravo, Yomisleidy

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Antenatal cytogenetic testing was started in Havana in 1984, as a diagnostic option for fetal chromosome complement. The techniques applied are amniocyte culture, chorionic villus sampling, cordocentesis and fluorescence in situ hybridization in interphase cells. OBJECTIVE Describe the results of antenatal cytogenetic testing in the cytogenetic laboratory of the Cuba's National Medical Genetics Center in Havana, from 1984 through 2012. METHODS A retrospective descriptive study was carried out of the 22,928 pregnant women who had antenatal testing with conclusive results during the period 1984-2012. Information was obtained from laboratory databases for four antenatal diagnostic techniques. Variables studied were: antenatal diagnostic method, indications for genetic testing, type of chromosomal abnormality detected and couple's decision concerning pregnancy continuation if hereditary disease was diagnosed. Results were reported in absolute numbers and percentages. RESULTS Overall positivity was 2.8% (641 cases). Of the total, 20,565 samples were from amniocyte culture (558 positive cases, 2.7%); 1785 chorionic villus sampling (38 positive, 2.1%); 407 cord blood culture (28 positive, 6.9%); and 171 fluorescence in situ hybridization in interphase cells (17 positive, 9.9%). Advanced maternal age was the predominant indication for amniocyte culture and chorionic villus sampling. Positivity was higher for the two less frequently used methods, cordocentesis (6.9% positivity) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (9.9%). The predominant chromosomal abnormality was Down syndrome, with 45.4% of cases detected (291/641; 279 pure lines and 12 mosaic trisomies), followed by Edward syndrome with 12% (77/641, 71 pure lines and 6 mosaics) and Patau syndrome 4.7% (30/641, 27 pure lines and 3 mosaics). Sexual aneuploidy with pure lines affected 6.9% of cases (44/641) and with mosaicism 4.7% (30/641). Structural chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 22.5% of cases

  7. Comprehensive update on cancer scenario of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Md Akram Hussain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh, at 142 million people, is the ninth most populous country in the world. There are 13 to 15 lakh cancer patients in Bangladesh, with about two lakh patients newly diagnosed with cancer each year. As an overview, lung cancer and mouth-oropharynx cancer rank as the top two prevalent cancers in males. Other types of cancers are esophagus cancer and stomach cancer. In women, cancer cervix uteri and breast cancer are most prevalent. Other cancer types, which affect women, are mouth and oropharynx cancer, lung cancer, and esophagus cancer. There are around 150 qualified clinical oncologists and 16 pediatric oncologists working in the different parts of the country. Regular cancer treatment is available in 19 hospitals and 465 hospital beds are attached as indoor or day care facilities for chemotherapy in the oncology/radiotherapy departments. There are about 15 linear accelerators, 12 Co-60 teletherapy and 12 brachytherapy units currently available. Approximately, 56 cancer chemotherapeutic agents are obtainable in Bangladesh. Research facilities are available at tertiary care centers and a few multi country collaborative research activities are ongoing. Bangladesh has a unique National Cancer Control Strategy and Plan of Action 2009-2015 formulated with the assistance of WHO with an objective to develop and implement continuum of cancer care through a comprehensive cancer control programe. Preventive measures taken to reduce the incidence of cancer include reduced tobacco smoking, change of dietary habit and reduced food adulteration, ensuring reproductive hygiene, increased physical activity, and reduced occupational hazard. Awareness buildup and media campaign are going on by organizing the general people, opinion leaders of the society, and boy and girl scout. Training of general physicians on cancer warning signs and setup of early cancer detection centers at each medical college and district levels are ongoing. Beside these, some

  8. Comprehensive update on cancer scenario of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Syed Md Akram

    2013-10-01

    Bangladesh, at 142 million people, is the ninth most populous country in the world. There are 13 to 15 lakh cancer patients in Bangladesh, with about two lakh patients newly diagnosed with cancer each year. As an overview, lung cancer and mouth-oropharynx cancer rank as the top two prevalent cancers in males. Other types of cancers are esophagus cancer and stomach cancer. In women, cancer cervix uteri and breast cancer are most prevalent. Other cancer types, which affect women, are mouth and oropharynx cancer, lung cancer, and esophagus cancer. There are around 150 qualified clinical oncologists and 16 pediatric oncologists working in the different parts of the country. Regular cancer treatment is available in 19 hospitals and 465 hospital beds are attached as indoor or day care facilities for chemotherapy in the oncology/radiotherapy departments. There are about 15 linear accelerators, 12 Co-60 teletherapy and 12 brachytherapy units currently available. Approximately, 56 cancer chemotherapeutic agents are obtainable in Bangladesh. Research facilities are available at tertiary care centers and a few multi country collaborative research activities are ongoing. Bangladesh has a unique National Cancer Control Strategy and Plan of Action 2009-2015 formulated with the assistance of WHO with an objective to develop and implement continuum of cancer care through a comprehensive cancer control programe. Preventive measures taken to reduce the incidence of cancer include reduced tobacco smoking, change of dietary habit and reduced food adulteration, ensuring reproductive hygiene, increased physical activity, and reduced occupational hazard. Awareness buildup and media campaign are going on by organizing the general people, opinion leaders of the society, and boy and girl scout. Training of general physicians on cancer warning signs and setup of early cancer detection centers at each medical college and district levels are ongoing. Beside these, some other major cancer

  9. EFISIENSI PERBANKAN SYARIAH DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afif Amirillah

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to find out the factors that can cause the efficiency value difference of Islamic Banking in In-donesia. The data at this research is monetary data of Islamic Banking. It was obtained from Bank of Indonesia. Then, it was divided into input and output variables. The determination of input output variables at this research uses Value Added Approach. Its input output variables consist of Demand Deposits, Saving Deposits, Time Depo-sits, Paid -In Capital, Placement at Bank ofIndonesia, Inter Bank Assets, Mudharabah, Musyara kah, Murabahah, Istishna, Ijarahand Qardh. This research used Data Envelopment Analysis method. This method has a strength that is having the capability to measure inefficiency input output variables, so that, the variable can have the efficiency. This research has resulted Islamic Banking efficiency in Indonesia, but it does not include BPRS. The mean efficiency of Islamic banking in Indonesia is 99,94%. Penelitian ini bertujuan mencari faktor –faktor penyebab perbedaan nilai efisiensiperbankan syariah di Indo-nesia yang dibandingkan secara relatif untuk setiap periode. Data yang digunakan pada penelitian ini menggu-nakan data keuangan perbankan syariah yang diperoleh dari Bank Indonesia kemudian dibagi menjadi variabel input dan output. Penentuan variabel input dan output pada penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan Value Added Approach. Variabel input outputnyaterdiri dari : Giro iB, Tabungan iB, Deposito iB, Modal disetor, Pen-empatan padaBank Indonesia, Penempatan pada bank lain, Mudharabah, Musyarakah, Murabahah,Istishna, Ijarah dan Qardh. Pada penelitian ini menggunakan metode Data Envelopment Analysis yang mempunyai kel-ebihan dalam menghitung efisiensi untuk setiap variabel input outputyang mengalami inefisiensi. Penelitian ini menghasilkan nilai efisiensi perbankan syariah di Indoenesia (tidak termasuk BPRS. Efisiensi perbankan syariah di Indonesia mengalami efisiensi rata-rata sebesar 99,94%.

  10. Digital Democracy in Rural Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuswantoro Ranggabumi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Citizen participation is the key to democracy. The development of information and communication technologies makes citizens more empowered, have broad access to information and able to influence policy making, especially at the local level. This paper will describe digital democracy in rural indonesia, when the villagers report their local isues and fight for their right to have a favorable policy. “Speaker Kampung” is an online community media that express the aspirations of citizens in Ketangga Village, East Lombok, West Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. “Speaker Kampung” is a prototype of a digital democracy in Indonesia.

  11. La tuberculosis pulmonar, enfermedad reemergente en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita González Tapia

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Sr. Editor: La tuberculosis es una de las enfermedades remergentes en Cuba; por ello en todas las provincias cubanas se trabaja con mucha fuerza, dedicación y profesionalidad con respecto a esta problemática. En este contexto, resulta muy acertada la publicación del artículo “Algunas variables clínico-epidemiológicas de la tuberculosis pulmonar. Puerto Padre, 2008-2012”, que salió en el Vol.38 No.6.01 del mes de junio de 2013 de la Revista Electrónica Dr. Zoilo E. Marinello Vidaurreta; tanto por el significado social que reviste la divulgación de este tema, como por el propio resultado de la investigación realizada. La historia de la tuberculosis es un tema apasionante. En pocas enfermedades es posible documentar su estrecha relación con la historia de la propia humanidad como en la que nos ocupa. Existen evidencias paleológicas de tuberculosis vertebral en momias egipcias que datan aproximadamente del año 2400 a.C. La tuberculosis se ha conocido a través de la historia, con los nombres de: tisis, consunción, escrófula, mal de Pott, plaga blanca y mal del rey.1 En el artículo se plantea como conclusión que la tendencia de la tuberculosis en el quinquenio de estudio es estacionaria, pero en los últimos cuatro años tiende al ascenso. En los casos diagnosticados de tuberculosis en este quinquenio más de dos tercios correspondieron al sexo masculino y mayores de 45 años, las ocupaciones que más prevalecieron fueron recluso, desocupado, ama de casa y jubilado. Los factores de riesgo que más se relacionaron fueron el albergamiento prolongado en instituciones cerradas, el alcoholismo, y la edad mayor de 65 años; la forma clínica de mayor incidencia en casi la totalidad de los pacientes fue la pulmonar y, dentro de ella, los casos con baciloscopia positiva. Hubo fallas en el diagnóstico, ya que alrededor de la mitad de los casos se diagnosticaron en la atención secundaria y con un tiempo de demora de más de dos meses de

  12. La Educacion de los Jesuitas en Cuba durante el Siglo XVI (1566-1574) (Jesuit Education in Cuba during the 16th Century (1566-1574).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puentes, Roberto Valdes

    2000-01-01

    Explains the relationship between Spanish colonialism in Cuba, evangelization of the Indians, and the origins of Cuban culture, as well as the role the Jesuits played in this process of transculturation. Analyzes the first phase in the history of the educational work of the Jesuits in Cuba (1566-1574). (BT)

  13. Konservatisme Akuntansi di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Hananto Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Dalam penyajian laporan keuangan yang berkualitas, perusahaan dihadapkan oleh pertimbangan yang salah satunya adalah penerapan konservatisme akuntansi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memberikan bukti empiris pengaruh company growth, profitability, dan investment opportunity set (IOS terhadap penerapan prinsip konservatisme akuntansi. Konservatisme akuntansi dalam penelitian ini diukur menggunakan perhitungan total akrual. Total akrual adalah selisih antara laba sebelum extraordinary item ditambah dengan depresiasi dikurangi dengan arus kas operasi untuk mengetahui apakah perusahaan menggunakan konservatisme akuntansi tinggi atau rendah di dalam perusahaan. Sampel yang digunakan sebanyak 114 perusahaan manufaktur yang terdaftar di Bursa Efek Indonesia (BEI di tahun 2012 dan 2013. Metoda pemilihan sampel yang digunakan yaitu purposive sampling. Alat analisis yang digunakan untuk pengujian adalah regresi linier berganda yang sebelumnya harus lolos uji asumsi klasik. Hasil pengujian secara parsial menunjukkan company growth, profitability dan investment opportunity set berpengaruh positif signifikan terhadap konservatisme akuntansi.

  14. Plasmodium ovale in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, J K; Purnomo; Masbar, S

    1990-12-01

    We report 34 infections by Plasmodium ovale found among 15,806 blood film examinations taken between 1973 and 1989 from several sites in Indonesia. Twenty five of the P. ovale infections occurred in a single sample of 514 people living in Owi, Irian Jaya. We detected five additional infections at 3 other sites in Irian Jaya. Other infections by P. ovale occurred at two sites in West Flores. Another infection has already been reported from East Timor. Despite relatively frequent sampling of populations on Sumatra, Kalimantan, Java and Sulawesi, P. ovale has not been found on those islands. It appears that this parasite occurs only on the easternmost islands of the Indonesian archipelago where it is nonetheless a rare finding.

  15. Health services in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosen, S; Gunawan, S

    In Indonesia, rapid economic development has led to a reduction in poverty among the 195 million inhabitants. While population increased more than 50% from 1971 to 1990, the annual growth rate, crude birth rate, and total fertility rates have declined rapidly. Life expectancy has increased from 45.7 years in 1971 to 62.7 in 1994 as crude death rates and infant and child mortality rates have declined. Causes of death have shifted from infectious to chronic diseases, but in 1992 major causes of death in children under 5 years old were preventable, and the maternal mortality rate was 425/100,000. Policies which guide the development of health care call for improvements in quality of life, adherence to humanitarian principles, use of scientifically approved traditional medicine, and provision of public health through a three-tiered system. Health care is financed by the government and the community, and managed care has been encouraged. Foreign aid has bolstered development in the health sector. Adequate sanitation has been achieved for 35% of the population, and 65% of urban and 35% of rural residents have reasonable access to clean water. Improvements in health indicators include 55% contraceptive prevalence, reduction in prevalence of anemia during pregnancy, 55.8% of pregnant women receiving prenatal care, a decrease in protein-energy malnutrition among children under five, and high vaccination coverage. Remaining public health problems include malaria, tuberculosis, dengue hemorrhagic fever, an increase in HIV/AIDS, iodine-deficiency, an increasing number of traffic fatalities, and an increasing number of smokers. New health policies have been instituted to meet these challenges as Indonesia's need for a productive and competitive labor force increases.

  16. English Language Teaching in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musthafa, Bachrudin

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the education system in Indonesia, the development of a national English syllabus, English in elementary and secondary schools and in higher education, private sector English courses, teacher preparation and professional development, and expatriate English teachers. (Author/VWL)

  17. Interregional migration flows in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wajdi, N.; van Wissen, L.J.G.; Mulder, C.H.

    2015-01-01

    Population Census and Intercensal Population Survey data permit description of the origin–destination patterns that characterize interregional migration flows in Indonesia. Application of the framework of population redistribution proposed by Long (1985) results in indications of over-urbanization,

  18. Decentralization and Governance in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holzhacker, Ronald; Wittek, Rafael; Woltjer, Johan

    2016-01-01

    I. Theoretical Reflections on Decentralization and Governance for Sustainable Society 1. Decentralization and Governance for Sustainable Society in Indonesia Ronald Holzhacker, Rafael Wittek and Johan Woltjer 2. Good Governance Contested: Exploring Human Rights and Sustainability as Normative Goals

  19. December 2004 Sumatra, Indonesia Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The December 26, 2004 magnitude 9.1 Sumatra, Indonesia earthquake (3.316 N, 95.854 E, depth 30 km) generated a tsunami that was observed worldwide and caused...

  20. MEASURING THE CUSTOMER SATISFACTION OF ISLAMIC BANKING SECTOR IN BANGLADESH

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain Shahid SHOHROWARDHY

    2015-01-01

    The banking sector has been playing a significant role in achieving the economic growth of Bangladesh, where contribution of Islamic Banking Sector is remarkable. Islamic Banking Sector shows a substantial growth position in Bangladesh. Customer satisfaction is the most significant affecting phenomenon in determining the banking growth. Thus, this study attempts to measure the existing level of customer satisfaction of Islamic Banks in Bangladesh, using the Structural Equation Model (SEM). Th...

  1. Trends in international migration and remittance flows: Case of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Farid, K.S; Mozumdar, L.; Kabir, M.S; Hossain, K.B

    2009-01-01

    International migration from Bangladesh has become a defining characteristic of the country. Especially since 1980s, large scale labour migration has become a common phenomenon of Bangladesh. This paper examines the various issues of international migration and remittance flows of Bangladesh on the basis of the secondary data generated from various reports of government and non-government organizations and of various publications of home and abroad. With a few exceptions, manpower export has ...

  2. Bangladesh : tous les projets | Page 5 | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Région: South Asia, Central Asia, Far East Asia, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, India, Nepal, Pakistan. Financement total : CA$ 390,500.00. Évaluation des politiques de lutte contre le tabagisme au Bangladesh. Projet. En 2005, le Bangladesh a adopté sa première loi de vaste portée visant à contrer la prévalence élevée du ...

  3. Global Financial Crisis, Remittances, Exports and Poverty in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Raihan, Selim

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the impacts of reduced inflow of remittances and export earnings in the face of global financial crisis on the economy of Bangladesh. There is no denying the fact that remittances have emerged as a key driver of macroeconomic stability, economic growth and poverty reduction in Bangladesh. Also, Bangladesh experienced robust growth in export earnings, especially through the remarkable growth in readymade garments, over the last two decades. The study suggests that remittanc...

  4. FUTURE OF BANGLADESH-INDIA RELATIONSHIP-A CRITICAL ANALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    the Indian Government imposed a lot of restrictions in terms of tariffs and other barriers on Bangladesh goods entering into its market. “An average...relations have been fluctuating for reasons like changes of governments and the political scenarios in Bangladesh as well as the non -cooperative attitude of... tariffs duty for consumer goods in Bangladesh was 23% while the same was 30-55% in India”.13 Thus, Bangladeshi goods exported to India faced

  5. Kedudukan Musyawarah dan Demokrasi di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hanafi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak: Kedudukan Musyawarah dan Demokrasi di Indonesia. Negara Kesatuan Republik Indonesia (NKRI berdasarkan lintasan sejarah perjuangan, memiliki konstruksi kenegaraan satu-satunya di dunia yang bangsa terlahir dahulu, kemudian baru membentuk negara. Presiden pertama Republik Indonesia Ir. Soekarno menegaskan, bahwa Negara Kesatuan ialah Negara Kebangsaan. Tujuan Bangsa Indonesia terlahir, merdeka, dan membentuk negara memiliki satu cita-cita, Kehendak Untuk Mengangkat Harkat dan Martabat Hidup Rakyat Indonesia (Kedaulatan Rakyat Indonesia. Melalui analisis atas realitas kehidupan saat ini, Bangsa Indonesia telah hidup pada kondisi tatanan kehidupan seolah-olah sama dengan Negara Demokrasi, ialah negara dulu terbentuk baru bangsanya dilahirkan kemudian. Sehingga kedaulatan rakyat Indonesia yang berdasarkan prinsip musyawara-mufakat dan perwakilan belum mampu terealisasi. Sementara pelaksanaan demokrasi voting yang memiliki dasar liberalisme terus bergulir, sehingga kehidupan bangsa Indonesia semakin jauh dari cita-cita awal. DOI: 10.15408/jch.v1i2.2657

  6. Diferensi Makna Kurikulum Di Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    In Indonesia, the curriculum is understood in accordance with the Act mentioned in the National Education System in the top ie, a set of plans and arrangements regarding the purpose, content, and teaching materials, as well as the methods used to guide the organization of learning activities to achieve specific educational goals. Here explicitly can be observed that the anatomy curriculum in Indonesia contains three aspects, namely: learning objectives, learning materials, and methods. Then s...

  7. PROSES PEMBENTUKAN KOMUNITAS MUSLIM INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirhan AM

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a study in mapping out more about the process of formation of the Muslim community in Indonesia. History is a reconstruct of the past. It seems as if the past was to be away from the present. Is it true that this view. We borrow the Kuntowijoyo’s words: “Historians are like people take who takes the train to look back, and he can freely turn to the right and to the left, which can not be done is to look ahead”. History is a valuable clue, a picture of the past that can be used as guidelines in stride, present and future. The Indonesian Islam history has significance for this nation generation. Because it has its own characteristics compared to the history of Islam in other countries. It can give the feel of the real Islam in Indonesia. The Indonesian Islam is an Islamic hue promising future in the era of globalization. Thus, Indonesian Islam will be in focus in the eyes of the world. In this description, the writer describes the entry and the development of Islam in Indonesia with discussion; process and the introduction of Islam to Indonesia, acceptance by indigenous and institutionalization of Islam in society. Then, point the establishment of Islam in Indonesia, as well as the transformation of Indonesia society

  8. KEANEKARAGAMAN HAYATI FLORA DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecep Kusmana

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia merupakan negara kepuluauan seluas sekitar 9 juta km2 yang terletak diantara dua samudra dan dua benua dengan jumlah pulau sekitar 17.500 buah yang panjang garis pantainya sekitar 95.181 km. Kondisi geografis tersebut menyebabkan negara Indonesia menjadi suatu negara megabiodiversitas walaupun luasnya hanya sekitar 1,3% dari luas bumi. Dalam dunia tumbuhan, flora di wilayah Indonesia termasuk bagian dari flora dari Malesiana yang diperkirakan memiliki sekitar 25% dari spesies tumbuhan berbunga yang ada di dunia yang menempati urutan negara terbesar ketujuh dengan jumlah spesies mencapai 20.000 spesies, 40%-nya merupakan tumbuhan endemik atau asli Indonesia. Negara Indonesia termasuk negara dengan tingkat keterancaman dan kepunahan spesies tumbuhan tertinggi di dunia. Saat ini tercatat sekitar 240 spesies tanaman dinyatakan langka, diantaranya banyak yang merupakan spesies tanaman budidaya. Selain itu, sekitar 36 spesies pohon di Indonesia dinyatakan terancam punah, termasuk kayu ulin di Kalimantan Selatan, sawo kecik di Jawa Timur, Bali Barat, dan Sumbawa, kayu hitam di Sulawesi, dan kayu pandak di Jawa serta ada sekitar 58 spesies tumbuhan yang berstatus dilindungi.Keywords: keanekaragaman hayati flora, megabiodiversitas, tingkat kepunahan, tumbuhan dilindungi, tumbuhan langka

  9. Water, climate change and society in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele-Eich, Insa; Aßheuer, Tibor; Simmer, Clemens

    2017-04-01

    Due to its location in the extensive Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna river delta, Bangladesh faces multiple natural hazards, in particular flooding, droughts and sea-level rise. In addition to climate change, transboundary water sharing issues resulting from dam structures such as Farakka Barrage complicate a prognosis on how the rapidly growing population will be affected in the 21st century. This is particularly important as our previous research suggests that the Greater Dhaka population already experiences a significant increase in mortality during droughts (Thiele-Eich et al., 2015). We attempt to explore the complex interactions between the hydrological system under climate change and anthropogenic impacts due to dams as well as a growing population. Our approach consists of a quantitative assessment of climate change using over fourty years of meteorological data (Bangladesh Meteorological Department) and hydrological data (Bangladesh Water Development Board), and CCSM4 climate model output (NCAR, 1950-2100). In addition to an extensive literature review, we also conducted qualitative interviews with slum dwellers in the megacity Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh. Results show that significant changes in flood characteristics are expected for the later part of the 21st century, although they are difficult to quantify down to exact numbers due to large uncertainties. These changes take place over longer stretches of time and thus enable the population of Bangladesh to adapt slowly. Resources such as social capital, which is one of the main tools for slum dwellers to be able to cope with flooding can be altered over time, and as such the system can be considered overall stable and resilient. The presented results will also focus on how the riparian and coastal population is impacted by the interplay of natural changes such as sea-level rise and anthropogenic changes such as Farakka Barrage and the associated reduction in dry season flow. Thiele-Eich, I.; Burkart, K

  10. Radium-226 on drinking water of Camaguey, Cuba; Radio-226 en agua potable de Camaguey, Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montalvan Estrada, Adelmo; Brigido Flores, Osvaldo; Barrera Caballero, Aldo [Centro de Atencion a la Actividad Nuclear, Camaguey (Cuba)]. E-mail: sean@caonao.cmw.inf.cu; Escalante, Alexander [Centro Provincial de Higiene y Epidemiologia, Camaguey (Cuba)

    2001-07-01

    The specific activity of Ra-226 in drinking water of Camaguey city, Cuba, was measured using the emanometric method. The specific activity of Ra-226 in drinking water ranged from 15 {+-} 5 mBq.l{sup -1} to 39 {+-}12 mBq.l{sup -1}. The mean specific activity of Ra-226 was found to be 27 {+-} 8 mBq.l{sup -1}. No seasonal variation was found. Water samples were collected from the two main sources of drinking water: private wells and governmental water supply system, being the mean specific activities of Ra-226: 25 {+-} 7 mBq.l{sup -1} and 31 {+-} 9 mBq.l{sup -1} , respectively. Based upon measured concentrations the age-dependent associated effective doses due to the ingestion of Ra-226, as a consequence of direct consumption of drinking water, have been calculated. For the age interval 1 year to 5 years, the average effective dose was 6,2 {mu}Sv.y{sup -1}, and for adults the average effective dose was 5,2 {mu}Sv.y{sup -1}. (author)

  11. Origin of invasive Florida frogs traced to Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinicke, Matthew P.; Diaz, Luis M.; Hedges, S. Blair

    2011-01-01

    Two of the earliest examples of successful invasive amphibians are the greenhouse frog (Eleutherodactylus planirostris) and the Cuban treefrog (Osteopilus septentrionalis) in Florida. Although both are generally assumed to be recent introductions, they are widespread on Caribbean islands and also have been proposed as natural colonizers. We obtained nucleotide sequence data for both species and their closest relatives in their native and introduced ranges. Phylogenetic analyses trace the origin of E. planirostris to a small area in western Cuba, while O. septentrionalis is derived from at least two Cuban sources, one probably a remote peninsula in western Cuba. The tropical-to-temperate invasion began with colonization of the Florida Keys followed by human-mediated dispersal within peninsular Florida. The subtropical Keys may have served as an adaptive stepping stone for the successful invasion of the North American continent. PMID:21270024

  12. Comparison of family planning in Cuba and Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Suzie; Stronge, Shirley

    2015-08-26

    Family planning gives individuals and couples control and choice over the number of children they have and the timing of their births. Developments in reproductive health have resulted in major changes in the options for family planning, providing more choice and control over fertility. This article explores reproductive health in the Republic of Cuba and the Republic of Ireland, with a focus on contraceptive use and termination of pregnancy as methods of family planning. The predominant religion in both countries is Catholicism, which promotes the right to life of the unborn child. The two countries have adopted different approaches to the availability of both contraception and termination of pregnancy. Cuba has offered free access to contraception and termination of pregnancy since the 1960s to reduce maternal mortality. In Ireland, contraception was not widely available until 1995 and termination of pregnancy is available only in extremely limited circumstances.

  13. Cuba: plenty of care, few condoms, no corruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeken, H

    1995-10-07

    The health system in Cuba guarantees accessibility to the entire population, is free of charge, and covers the spectrum from vaccinations to sophisticated interventions. The results are impressive: Cuba's health figures are on a par with developed countries that have 20 times the budget. The country is experiencing a difficult period because of the collapse and loss of support from the Soviet Union; over 30 years' trade embargo by the United States; and the gradual change from a centrally planned economy towards more of a free market system. Shortages are experienced in every sector, and maintaining health care services at the current level is too expensive. Doctors and nurses continue to work towards the goal of health for all Cubans, even though their salaries are minimal. Signs of negligence or corruption, often seen in other socialist countries where incentives for output are lacking, are unknown. Topics such as family planning and AIDS deserve immediate attention.

  14. Europa y Estados Unidos ante los Derechos Humanos en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Gratius

    2008-01-01

    de la UE no han sido estrategias eficaces para promover los derechos humanos en la isla. Al ser diferentes, las políticas de la UE y EEUU incluso han contribuido a mantener el régimen castrista en el poder: la UE por su reconocimiento diplomático y la cooperación económica; EEUU, al proporcionar una imagen de enemigo externo. Por ello, y ante el nuevo panorama que ofrece el cambio de gobierno en Cuba, la próxima revisión de la Posición Común de la UE y las elecciones presidenciales en EEUU, es necesario replantearse los objetivos y estrategias políticas para incentivar los derechos humanos en Cuba.

  15. Occurrence and managing of fruit flies in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, Luis L.; Perez, Isabel; Navarro, Aurelio; Casin, Juan C.

    2000-01-01

    Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are considered to be pests of potential importance because they damage fruits or limit their commercialisation. They therefore constitute one of the principal problems for the fruit industry world-wide. Of particular interest are the species of the genus Anastrepha Schiner widely distributed in the neotropical region where, according to Norrbom and Chung (1988), more than 180 species are known. In Cuba, five members of this genus are reported in addition to Toxotrypana curvicauda Gerstaeker and up to now, no other species are known (Alayo and Garcia, 1983). Although Ceratitis capitata Wiedeman or pest fruit flies from the genus Anastrepha and Bactrocera do not exist in the country, a defence programme has been operating for many years which includes among other measures, fruit sampling and trapping. The present work was undertaken in order to study the status of these insects in Cuba

  16. Development and current state of dosimetry in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieto Miranda, E.F.; Cuesta Fuente, G.; Chavez Ardanza, A.

    1999-01-01

    In Cuba, the application of the radiation technologies has been growing in the last years, and at present there are several dosimetry systems with different ranges of absorbed dose. Diverse researches were carried out on high dose dosimetry with the following dosimetry systems: Fricke, ceric-cerous sulfate, ethanol-chlorobenzene, cupric sulfate and Perspex (Red 4034 AE and Clear HX). In this paper the development achieved during the last 15 years in the high dose dosimetry for radiation processing in Cuba is presented, as well as, the current state of different dosimetry systems employed for standardization and for process control. The paper also reports the results of dosimetry intercomparison studies that were performed with the Ezeiza Atomic Center of Argentine and the International Dose Assurance Service (IDAS) of IAEA. (author)

  17. China, Global Governance and the Future of Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian H. Hearn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available China’s deepening engagement with Latin America has been accompanied by concerns about the Chinese government’s regard for international conventions of economic governance. Critics claim that across Latin America and the Caribbean, Chinese aid and trade are characterised by excessive state intervention. This article argues that, for two reasons, the rationale for these misgivings is dissipating. First, since the onset of the global financial crisis, China has gained influence in multilateral institutions, prompting them toward greater acceptance of public spending in developing countries. Second, recent developments in Cuba show that China is actively encouraging the Western hemisphere’s only communist country to liberalise its economy. China sits at the crossroads of these local and global developments, prompting Cuba toward rapprochement with international norms even as it works to reform them.

  18. La postemancipación y trabajo en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Zeuske

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza los procesos de transculturación y fecundación mutua entre los espacios de trabajo en la postemancipación. El caso de Cuba es complejo, pues se dio en una época de desestructuración progresiva de la esclavitud, jalonada por guerras anticoloniales y una modernización tecnológica ininterrumpida. Se argumenta que aunque las condiciones de trabajo no mejoraron en lo sustancial, sí lo hizo la división sexual del trabajo, los patrones de movilidad, y el acceso a la propiedad informal de la tierra. La modernización de Cuba como productor azucarero introdujo fuerzas de inmenso calado en las luchas sociales del período.

  19. [A battle won: the elimination of poliomyelitis in Cuba].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaple, Enrique Beldarraín

    2015-01-01

    Poliomyelitis was introduced in Cuba in the late nineteenth century by American residents in Isla de Pinos. The first epidemics occurred in 1906 and 1909 and increased in intensity between 1930 and 1958. The scope of the paper is to reconstruct the history of the disease and its epidemics in Cuba prior to 1961, the first National Polio Vaccination Campaign (1962) and its results, as well as analyze the ongoing annual vaccination campaigns through to certified elimination of the disease (1994). The logical historical method was used and archival documents and statistics from the Ministry of Health on morbidity and mortality through 2000 were reviewed. Gross morbidity and mortality rates were calculated and interviews with key figures were conducted.

  20. Plagued by Politics: Cuba's National Sanatorium Project, 1936-59.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Kelly

    2017-01-01

    In 1936, Fulgencio Batista, the head of the Cuban military (and the de facto ruler of Cuba), founded the National Tuberculosis Council (CNT) to lead a state-directed anti-tuberculosis campaign. While most national and colonial governments neglected tuberculosis until the postwar period, populist politics pushed Batista to prioritize a disease of poverty by the mid-1930s. However, national politics also undermined efforts to control the disease in Cuba. Authoritarianism facilitated Batista's considerable influence over tuberculosis policy, and he and his advisors pursued political objectives rather than following the technical advice offered by professional groups. As a result, the administration of the campaign was inefficient, nowhere more notably than in the CNT's premiere project, the Topes de Collantes National Sanatorium. Citizen and physician discontent with this project, the anti-tuberculosis campaign, and the state health sector fed into processes of political delegitimation and regime change in the 1950s.

  1. Modelling the UV/X-ray cosmic background with CUBA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haardt, F.; Madau, P.

    In this paper, I will describe the features of the numerical code CUBA, aimed at the solution of the radiative transfer equation in a cosmological context. CUBA will be soon available for public use at the URL http://pitto.mib.infn.it/~haardt/, allowing for several user-supplied input parameters, such as favourite cosmology, luminosity functions, Type II object evolution, stellar spectra, and many others. I will also present some new results of the UV/X-ray cosmic background as produced by the observed populations of QSOs and star forming galaxies, updating and extending our previous works. The background evolution is complemented with a number of derived quantities such as the ionization and thermal state of the IGM, the HeII opacity, the HI and HeII ionization rates, and the HI, HeII and Compton heating rates.

  2. The United States and Cuba: An Intermestics Agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Soreanu Pecequilo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Após mais de meio século, Estados Unidos e Cuba sinalizaram, em 2014, o reatamento de suas relações diplomáticas. Diante da importância desse acontecimento, o artigo visa analisar as perspectivas para a relação bilateral e seus impactos regionais, globais e domésticos, tomando por base seus antecedentes históricos.  After almost half a century, in 2014, the United States and Cuba indicated the revival of their diplomatic ties. Due to the relevance of this agenda this article aims to analyze the prospects of this bilateral relation and its regional, global and domestic impacts, starting from a brief analysis of its historical features.

  3. Farmers’ Education and Farmers’ Wealth in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Zafar Mahmudul Haq

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of farmers’ education is examined with a view to evaluate the actual situation of farmers’ education in Bangladesh. Fifty samples were collected from two sub districts of the Gazipur district in Bangladesh. The selection of the study sites and collection of the samples such as the years of schooling of the farm household head, total income, farm size, number of earners of farm families, family size, years of farming experience of farm household head, number of times extension contacts and rice yield were done purposively. It is cleared from the study that education is necessary for farmers to raise their wealth. Results were derived through regression analysis. The study has also shown that size of family and years of farming experience contributed significantly to the wealth accumulation of farmers.

  4. Development Dynamics of Remittances in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munim K. Barai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Remittance inflows in the economy of Bangladesh are getting larger every passing year, matching with the increasing external demand for its manpower. The ensuing development impacts of remittances, as a means of transfer of wealth, on socioeconomic factors are increasingly viewed with importance. Remittances have helped improve the social and economic indicators like nutrition, living condition and housing, education, health care, poverty reduction, social security, and investment activities of the recipient households. The relative weight of remittances has also increased against most of the macroeconomic variables alongside the contribution to GDP. Moreover, Bangladesh has been able to avoid any serious imbalances in BOP’s current account, although it has persistent merchandize trade deficits. Not only that, the export tradable sector has thus far remained unaffected from the Dutch Disease effects of remittances.

  5. IMPLEMENTASI PENDIKTEAN BAHASA INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayu Purwarianti

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Paper ini memaparkan hasil penelitian dalam membangun aplikasi pendiktean Bahasa Indonesia untuk waktu nyata. Dalam membangun sebuah aplikasi pendiktean, terdapat beberapa masalah seperti perintah suara (voice command, Out Of Vocabulary (OOV, noise, dan filler. Adapun yang menjadi fokus dalam penelitian ini adalah penanganan perintah suara dan OOV dari kata yang didiktekan. Pendiktean suara merupakan pengembangan lanjut dari pengenalan suara secara waktu nyata dengan tambahan metode untuk menangani hal-hal yang telah dinyatakan sebelumnya. Untuk menangani perintah suara, sebuah modul ditambahkan untuk mengecek hasil decoding dari sistem pengenalan suara. Adapun untuk menangani OOV, ditambahkan modul penanganan pengejaan setelah sebelumnya dinyatakan status ejaan. Model perintah suara dan model huruf ditambahkan ke dalam kamus dan digunakan sebagai pelatihan dari model bahasa n-gram. Dalam pengujian, dilakukan evaluasi terhadap sistem pengenalan suara, penanganan perintah suara, dan modul pengejaan sebagai strategi untuk menangani kata OOV. Untuk modul pengenalan suara, akurasi yang dicapai adalah 70%. Untuk modul penanganan perintah suara, pengujian menunjukkan bahwa perintah suara dapat ditangani dengan baik. Sedangkan untuk modul pengejaan, pengujian menunjukkan bahwa hanya 20 dari 26 huruf yang berhasil dikenali. In this paper, we presented the results of research in building applications dictation of the Bahasa Indonesia for real-time. In developing a dictation application, there are some problems such as voice command, Out of Vocabulary (OOV, noise, and filler. As the focus in this research is the handling of voice command and OOV from dictated words. Voice dictation is a further development of real time voice recognition with an additional method to deal with things that have been stated before. To handle voice commands, a module is added to check the results of decoding of the voice recognition system. To handle OOV, spelling handling

  6. Phylodynamics of the HIV-1 epidemic in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delatorre, Edson; Bello, Gonzalo

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the HIV-1 epidemic in Cuba displayed a complex molecular epidemiologic profile with circulation of several subtypes and circulating recombinant forms (CRF); but the evolutionary and population history of those viral variants remains unknown. HIV-1 pol sequences of the most prevalent Cuban lineages (subtypes B, C and G, CRF18_cpx, CRF19_cpx, and CRFs20/23/24_BG) isolated between 1999 and 2011 were analyzed. Maximum-likelihood analyses revealed multiple introductions of subtype B (n≥66), subtype C (n≥10), subtype G (n≥8) and CRF18_cpx (n≥2) viruses in Cuba. The bulk of HIV-1 infections in this country, however, was caused by dissemination of a few founder strains probably introduced from North America/Europe (clades B(CU-I) and B(CU-II)), east Africa (clade C(CU-I)) and central Africa (clades G(CU), CRF18(CU) and CRF19(CU)), or locally generated (clades CRFs20/23/24_BG). Bayesian-coalescent analyses show that the major HIV-1 founder strains were introduced into Cuba during 1985-1995; whereas the CRFs_BG strains emerged in the second half of the 1990s. Most HIV-1 Cuban clades appear to have experienced an initial period of fast exponential spread during the 1990s and early 2000s, followed by a more recent decline in growth rate. The median initial growth rate of HIV-1 Cuban clades ranged from 0.4 year⁻¹ to 1.6 year⁻¹. Thus, the HIV-1 epidemic in Cuba has been a result of the successful introduction of a few viral strains that began to circulate at a rather late time of the AIDS pandemic, but then were rapidly disseminated through local transmission networks.

  7. The Current State of Physics in Cuba: A Personal Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Marcelo

    After 40 years of absence I returned twice to Cuba, in January and December of 2000, to participate as a guest lecturer in two international scientific meetings. The first dealt with physics education, and the second with current issues related to quantum mechanics. In addition to a few participants from Europe, the US and Latin America, the two meetings were well attended by Cuban physicists.

  8. EL LARGO COMPROMISO DE CANADÁ CON CUBA: PARADOJAS Y POSIBILIDADES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas LEGLER

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Tanto la Unión Europea como América Latina, e incluso Estados Unidos, han iniciado distintos procesos de diálogo con Cuba. ¿Cuáles lecciones relevantes se pueden extraer de la larga historia canadiense de compromiso con la Revolución Cubana? Este artículo documenta la evolución de las relaciones entre Canadá y Cuba desde la década de 1940, centrándose en sus altibajos desde que se lanzó, a mediados de la década de 1990, una política de «compromiso constructivo ». Se argumenta que este acercamiento (en sus diversas formas no ha tenido mayor influencia en la liberalización de la política cubana. Además, la poca influencia que Canadá pudo haber tenido durante el «Periodo Especial» ha disminuido con la recuperación económica y diversificación de las relaciones exteriores de Cuba en la última década. En ese sentido, los autores concluyen que la estrategia más apropiada para Canadá y otros actores es llevar a cabo un acercamiento coordinado y de largo plazo que brinde apoyo a una variedad de procesos endógenos de cambio en Cuba. Una estrategia realista debería incluir diálogo de bajo perfil con el régimen actual, cooperación con un amplio espectro de posibles reformadores dentro y fuera del Estado y apoyo para la realización de cambios sociales más extensos a través del comercio, la inversión extranjera, el turismo así como los intercambios académicos y culturales.

  9. Nuclear instrumentation in Cuba and for osseous densitometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marrero, M.; Lopez, B.; Bolanos, L.; Fernandez, J.L.; Cabal, A.; Medina, D.; Laria, J.; Alonso, D.

    1997-01-01

    The present job describes the technical characteristics and operation of two clinical equipment designed in Cuba, for the determination in vivo of the osseous mineral content in forearm, based on the of gamma absorption technique of a single photon. The development of these equipment and the measurements done with one of them are the first intents carried out in the country to diagnose osseous illnesses by means of this method. (author) [es

  10. Flowering of taro germplasm (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott) in Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Yadelys Figueroa Águila; Marilys D Milián Jiménez; Yuniel Rodríguez García; Manuel Lima Díaz

    2016-01-01

    Research was done at the Center for Tropical Crop Research (INIVIT), to evaluate inflorescence of taro germplasm (104 accessions) in Cuba´s climatic conditions. Sampling was made every 7 days in the 2013-2014 period to evaluate inflorescence; accessions were characterized according to flowering parameters. The results showed that natural flowering by the 26-accession sample (25%), was observed to early blossom from July to October in 18 accessions (69.2%). Increased temperature and relative h...

  11. Phylodynamics of the HIV-1 epidemic in Cuba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Delatorre

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that the HIV-1 epidemic in Cuba displayed a complex molecular epidemiologic profile with circulation of several subtypes and circulating recombinant forms (CRF; but the evolutionary and population history of those viral variants remains unknown. HIV-1 pol sequences of the most prevalent Cuban lineages (subtypes B, C and G, CRF18_cpx, CRF19_cpx, and CRFs20/23/24_BG isolated between 1999 and 2011 were analyzed. Maximum-likelihood analyses revealed multiple introductions of subtype B (n≥66, subtype C (n≥10, subtype G (n≥8 and CRF18_cpx (n≥2 viruses in Cuba. The bulk of HIV-1 infections in this country, however, was caused by dissemination of a few founder strains probably introduced from North America/Europe (clades B(CU-I and B(CU-II, east Africa (clade C(CU-I and central Africa (clades G(CU, CRF18(CU and CRF19(CU, or locally generated (clades CRFs20/23/24_BG. Bayesian-coalescent analyses show that the major HIV-1 founder strains were introduced into Cuba during 1985-1995; whereas the CRFs_BG strains emerged in the second half of the 1990s. Most HIV-1 Cuban clades appear to have experienced an initial period of fast exponential spread during the 1990s and early 2000s, followed by a more recent decline in growth rate. The median initial growth rate of HIV-1 Cuban clades ranged from 0.4 year⁻¹ to 1.6 year⁻¹. Thus, the HIV-1 epidemic in Cuba has been a result of the successful introduction of a few viral strains that began to circulate at a rather late time of the AIDS pandemic, but then were rapidly disseminated through local transmission networks.

  12. Career choices among medical students in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, SM Moslehuddin; Majumdar, Md Anwarul Azim; Karim, Rezina; Rahman, Sayeeda; Rahman, Nuzhat

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Information regarding career choices of medical students is important to plan human resources for health, design need-based educational programs, and ensure equitable and quality health care services in a country. Aim The aim of the study is to identify career choices, nature of career, intended practice locations, and reasons for career choices of Bangladesh medical students. Method First-, third-, and fifth-year students of Bangladesh Medical College and Uttara Adhunik Medical College completed a self-report questionnaire on career choices, nature of career, intended practice locations, and reasons for career choices. The students were requested to choose three long-term choices from the given specialties. Results A total of 132 students responded (46 males and 86 females) and response rate was 75%. The popular choices (first choice) among males and females were medical specialty, surgical specialty, obstetrics and gynecology, and general practice. For first, second, and third choices altogether, male students chose surgical specialties and female students preferred medical specialties. The leading reasons for selecting a specialty were personal interest and wide job opportunity. More than 67% of respondents wanted to join private services and about 90% chose major cities as practice locations. About 43% of respondents expressed willingness to practice medicine in Bangladesh, whereas 51% of total respondents wanted to practice abroad. Discussion Majority of students intended to specialize in established clinical specialties and subsequently practice in major cities, and more than half wanted to immigrate to other countries. Basic medical subjects and service-oriented (lifestyle-related) and preventive/social medical specialties were found to be less attractive. If this pattern continues, Bangladesh will suffer a chronic shortage of health personnel in certain specialties and in rural areas. Conclusions Reorientation of health care and medical

  13. Comparative advantage in Bangladesh crop production

    OpenAIRE

    Shahabuddin, Quazi; Dorosh, Paul A.

    2002-01-01

    "This study uses data from 1996/97 through 1998/99 to examine the relative efficiency of production of crops in Bangladesh and their comparative advantage in international trade as measured by net economic profitability (the profitability using economic, rather than financial costs and prices), and the domestic resource cost ratio, (the amount of value of non-tradable domestic resources used in production divided by the value of tradable products). The economic profitability analysis demonstr...

  14. Risk factors for wheezing in infants born in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venero-Fernández, S J; Suárez-Medina, R; Mora-Faife, E C; García-García, G; Valle-Infante, I; Gómez-Marrero, L; Abreu-Suárez, G; González-Valdez, J; Fabró-Ortiz, D Dania; Fundora-Hernández, H; Venn, A; Britton, J; Fogarty, A W

    2013-11-01

    Cuba is a unique country, and despite limited economic development, has an excellent health system. However, the prevalence of asthma symptoms in children in Havana, Cuba, is unusually high. As early life exposures are critical to the aetiology of asthma, we have studied environmental influences on the risk of wheezing in Cuban infants. Cross-sectional study. A random sample of 2032 children aged 12-15 months living in Havana was selected for inclusion in the cohort. Data were collected using questionnaires administered by researchers. Of 2032 infants invited to participate, 1956 (96%) infants provided data. The prevalence of any wheeze was 45%, severe wheeze requiring use of emergency services was 30% and recurrent wheeze on three or more occasions was 20%. The largest adjusted risk factors for any wheeze were presence of eczema [odds ratio (OR) 2.09; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.48-2.94], family history of asthma (OR 2.05; 95% CI 1.60-2.62), poor ventilation in the house (OR 1.99; 95% CI 1.48-2.67), attendance at nursery (OR 1.78; 95% CI 1.24-2.57), male sex (OR1.52; 95% CI 1.19-1.96) and the number of smokers in the house (P Cuba. As the prevalence of smoking in the house is high (51%), intervention studies are required to determine effective strategies to improve infant health.

  15. In Defense of Clinical Autopsy and Its Practice in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Brito, Alfredo D; de Mendoza-Amat, José Hurtado

    2017-01-01

    There has been a notable decrease in the global practice of clinical autopsy; the rate has fallen to below 10%, even in high-income countries. This is attributed to several causes, including increased costs, overreliance on modern diagnostic techniques, cultural and religious factors, the emergence of new infectious diseases and negative attitudes on the part of doctors, even pathologists. Alternative methods to autopsy in postmortem studies have been developed based on imaging, endoscopy and biopsy (all quite expensive). These methods have been used in developed countries but never as effectively as the classic autopsy for identifying cause of death and potential medical errors. Although Cuba has also seen a decrease in its autopsy rates, they remain comparatively high. Between 1996 and 2015, there were 687,689 hospital deaths in Cuba and 381,193 autopsies, 55.4% of the total. These autopsies have positively affected medical care, training, research, innovation, management and society as a whole. Autopsies are an important tool in the National Health System's quest for safe, quality patient care based on the lessons learned from studying the deceased. KEYWORDS Autopsy, postmortem examination, postmortem diagnosis, quality of care, patient safety, medical error, Cuba.

  16. The mechanisms of direct democracy in Cuba: design and reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    (Teodoro Yan Guzman Hernández

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In Cuba the 1940 Constitution regulated different mechanisms of direct democracy (mdd that were not implemented; while the 1976 Constitution in force, although committed from the norm with the direct participation and popular sovereignty, was unambitious in regulating these mechanisms. After the Revolution, direct participation has had different expressions that have been nominated wrongly as some of the mdd, that political theory today recognizes on the ba­sis of certain assumptions. This article examines the mdd in Cuba from 1940 until the present. For this purpose it makes a critical analysis of its regulation, based on the criteria that political theory and constitutional law have offered for the configuration of these mechanisms, and tak­ing into account the particularities and results of the implementation in the Cuban context. The main conclusion of this work is that Cuba regulates forms of participation that directly involve the citizenry, but require changes in its design, so that they become real mechanisms of direct democracy that contribute to the political empowerment of citizens.

  17. CUBA: TRANSICIÓN, SUCESIÓN, ESTABILIDAD, SEGURIDAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín ROY

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este análisis trata de la relación entre la estabilidad del presente gobierno cubano y la necesidad de seguridad en su territorio y en la zona circundante. Este vínculo se produce en un momento político de Cuba, entre un primer paso de la sucesión de Fidel Castro a Raúl, sin que se den señales claras de una transición hacia otro tipo de sistema político. Mientras tanto, el gobierno de Estados Unidos ha declarado que su prioridad estriba en el reestablecimiento de la democracia en Cuba, tanto durante el último periodo de la administración de George W. Bush como con Barack Obama ya asentado en la Casa Blanca. Sin embargo, las delicadas circunstancias de Cuba (precariedad económica, desastres naturales, dependencia alimentaria y energética, etc. señalan que la prioridad de los intereses nacionales de Estados Unidos se centran primero en la estabilidad del escenario. Incluso al precio del retraso de la evolución del régimen, un cierto grado de seguridad es necesario para enfrentarse a los riesgos de una emigración incontrolada y las hipotéticas tensiones internas que provoquen confrontaciones.

  18. Tricontinental Routes of Solidarity: Stokely Carmichael in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Seidman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Stokely Carmichael’s visit to Cuba for three weeks in the summer of 1967 illustrates a convergence in the transnational routes of the African American freedom struggle and the Cuban Revolution. African American activists saw Cuba as a model for resisting US power, eradicating racism, and enacting societal change, while the Cuban government considered African Americans allies against US imperialism and advocates of Cuba’s antiracist stance. Amidst racial violence in the United States and Cuba’s efforts to inspire revolution, Carmichael’s presence at the Organization of Latin American Solidarity conference in Havana—and in particular his interactions with Fidel Castro—caused ripples worldwide. A shared “tricontinental” vision that promoted unity in the Global South against imperialism, capitalism, and racism facilitated Carmichael’s solidarity with Castro. Yet divergent views on the role of race in fighting oppression limited their solidarity. Carmichael and Castro’s spectacular alliance demonstrated their personal affinity and ideological commonalities but did not result in an institutional alliance between the black liberation movement and the Cuban state. Instead Carmichael’s connection with the Cuban Revolution left an underexplored legacy. Examining Carmichael’s visit to Cuba illustrates the possibilities and pitfalls of transnational solidarity and furthers our understanding of postwar struggles for change.

  19. OPPORTUNITIES OF DEVELOPING TOURISM INDUSTRY IN BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayub CHOWDHURY

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Tourism appeal includes natural places like beaches, eco-parks, lakes, valleys, rivers, islands etc., archeological sites, historic mosques and monuments, resorts, picnic spots, forest and wildlife. Bangladesh is a riverine country having attractive panoramic beauty. There are hills, valley, canals, lake, eco-park and mangrove forests, rivers, so many islands and the longest beach in the world. In this country, the scope of nature based tourism, resource based tourism, culture based tourism and eco-tourism is quite evident. Bangladesh is trying hard to develop its tourism industry. Therefore the whole situation deserves to be seen from right perspectives. Role of government is positive since the last twenty years both private and public organizations have come forwarded to attract the local and foreign tourists. The cracks of problem could not identify accurately because of the paucity number of researches and investigations in our country. Developed and organized tourism industry could change the economic condition and contribute a big share in the GDP of Bangladesh. This study will impede the opportunities of developing tourism industry in the light of existing resources.

  20. Rainfall variability and seasonality in northern Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, Sheikh Hefzul; Hussain, Md. Manjurul; Husna, Noor-E.-Ashmaul

    2017-08-01

    This paper aimed at the analysis of rainfall seasonality and variability for the northern part of South-Asian country, Bangladesh. The coefficient of variability was used to determine the variability of rainfall. While rainfall seasonality index ( SI ) and mean individual seasonality index ( \\overline{SI_i} ) were used to identify seasonal contrast. We also applied Mann-Kendall trend test and sequential Mann-Kendall test to determine the trend in seasonality. The lowest variability was found for monsoon among the four seasons whereas winter has the highest variability. Observed variability has a decreasing tendency from the northwest region towards the northeast region. The mean individual seasonality index (0.815378 to 0.977228) indicates that rainfall in Bangladesh is "markedly seasonal with a long dry season." It was found that the length of the dry period is lower at the northeastern part of northern Bangladesh. Trend analysis results show no significant change in the seasonality of rainfall in this region. Regression analysis of \\overline{SI_i} and SI, and longitude and mean individual seasonality index show a significant linear correlation for this area.

  1. Trapped in Statelessness: Rohingya Refugees in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, Abul Hasnat; Rahman, Mijanur; Hussain, Sumaira; Jindal, Charulata; Choudhury, Sushmita; Akter, Shahnaz; Ferdousi, Shahana; Mouly, Tafzila Akter; Hall, John; Efird, Jimmy T

    2017-08-21

    The Rohingya people are one of the most ill-treated and persecuted refugee groups in the world, having lived in a realm of statelessness for over six generations, and who are still doing so. In recent years, more than 500,000 Rohingyas fled from Myanmar (Burma) to neighboring countries. This article addresses the Rohingya refugee crisis in Bangladesh, with special emphasis on the living conditions of this vulnerable population. We reviewed several documents on Rohingya refugees, visited a registered refugee camp (Teknaf), collected case reports, and conducted a series of meetings with stakeholders in the Cox's Bazar district of Bangladesh. A total of 33,131 registered Rohingya refugees are living in two registered camps in Cox's Bazar, and up to 80,000 additional refugees are housed in nearby makeshift camps. Overall, the living conditions of Rohingya refugees inside the overcrowded camps remain dismal. Mental health is poor, proper hygiene conditions are lacking, malnutrition is endemic, and physical/sexual abuse is high. A concerted diplomatic effort involving Bangladesh and Myanmar, and international mediators such as the Organization of Islamic Countries and the United Nations, is urgently required to effectively address this complex situation.

  2. English, Education, and Globalisation: A Bangladesh Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Akteruzzaman

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available As a third world country and a former British colony, Bangladesh has seen a dramatic upsurge in the use of the English language. Built on the concept of imperialistic aspects of the English language, this paper draws on responses from anonymous survey results and interviews and attempts to provide deeper insights into the global aspects of English as a language and the credibility of this language in the minds of the populace. This paper assesses the English language as a feature of globalization where English is considered to be of the utmost value. Questionnaires were designed and interviews were arranged to evaluate the commercial and linguistic aspects of English in Bangladesh to reach a conclusion whether the mass perceives this very language as it should be or there are any other economic and cultural aspects. The findings were presented graphically and the study showed that English fails to meet the expectations of the stakeholders and policy makers of Bangladesh. The paper concludes with some recommendations that could help resolve the situation and present English to the people in a better light.

  3. Present status of radiation education in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullah, Sana

    1999-01-01

    Radioisotopes and Radiation are being widely used in the fields of agriculture, medicine, industry for the benefit of people throughout the world. At the same time the use of radiation sources can do harm to man and environment. In order to ensure the satiety against radiation hazards and safe use of radiation, proper education, training, knowledge and awareness are essential. Like other achieve economic development through application f count rues Bangladesh is flying to in agriculture, food, industry, power; health or medi of isotopes and radiation technology cine. Basic education about radiation is incorporated in the school curriculum. Courses on radiation are also given in college and university education. Research organizations, universities carry out research and development works on different disciplines using radiation and radioisotopes. Seminars, workshops, conferences, takings on isotopes and radiation are also being organized. In 1993 Government of Bangladesh passed the Nuclear Satiety and Radiation Control Act 1993 for see use of radiation. The present paper win cover the radiation education, research and development works on radiation, applications of radiation in agriculture, medicine and industry, personal safety and radiation protection against radiation hazard and rules and regulations of the nuclear safety and radiation control act practised in Bangladesh. (author)

  4. DESENTRALISASI PENGELUARAN DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Herni Rochana

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the implementation of Law 22/1999 and Law 25/1999 of 2001, has been an increase in the implementation of fiscal decentralization with a phenomenon called Big Bang. The study was conducted to determine the degree of decentralization of expenditure covering the period before and after the implementation of regional autonomy. The research data is a panel data drawn from 30 provinces between 1994 to 2007. The results showed that in Indonesia there has been a significant increase in expenditure decentralization since 2001. Significant increases occurred mainly on the expenditure side, especially the decentralization of authority be spending more than doubled from the previous. On a national scale, the degree of decentralization of authority expenditure increased from 10.48% in the year 2000 to 25.45% in 2001. And the average for each province, the degree of decentralization of spending authority increased from 0.40% in 2000 to 0, 85% in 2001DOI: 10.15408/sjie.v2i2.2423

  5. TREN URBANISASI DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felecia P. Adam

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization always give negative and positive influences to the development in anysectors. Impact that has been occurred from this process is not only be implicated to the aspect ofspacing, but also to social, economy, and cultural aspect. The consequences of urbanization flowrapidly to urban area will cause the slum settlements spread widely, and the micro informalsectors are mushrooming. Informal sector is really developed rapidly and profitable, but it has aconsequence to the increasing of poverty. This condition will disturb the urban structure becausebuffer area like “DAS” will be the target of settlement. The increasing of labor force which couldnot be involved in the industry are able to bring about internal conflict in the sector ofmanpower, like unemployment. Social and services facilities became increasingly as a reactionof user demand, however the benefit does not spread evenly because of high cost operating.The analysis of secondary data in this article/writing will try to show the urbanizationcondition in Indonesia and its developments.

  6. Health Information in Indonesian (Bahasa Indonesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → Indonesian (Bahasa Indonesia) URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/indonesian.html Health Information in Indonesian (Bahasa Indonesia) To use the sharing features on this page, ...

  7. INFLUENCE OF MICRO-FINANCE ON BANGLADESH RURAL PEOPLE

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Rasel

    2013-01-01

    KYMENLAAKSON AMMATTIKORKEAKOULU University of Applied Sciences International Business Bangladesh is a rising country located in the southern part of Asia. More than half of the population of it lives in rural areas and they are living under the poverty level. In Bangladesh rural people are not capable of getting loan facilities from the regular financial sector due to the guarantee r...

  8. Can Bangladesh produce enough cereals to meet future demand?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timsina, J.; Wolf, J.; Guilpart, N.; Bussel, van L.G.J.; Grassini, P.; Wart, van J.; Hossain, A.; Rashid, H.; Islam, S.; Ittersum, van M.K.

    2018-01-01

    Bangladesh faces huge challenges in achieving food security due to its high population, diet changes, and limited room for expanding cropland and cropping intensity. The objective of this study is to assess the degree to which Bangladesh can be self-sufficient in terms of domestic maize, rice and

  9. Seasonal forecasting of Bangladesh summer monsoon rainfall using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, the development of a statistical forecasting method for summer monsoon rainfall over. Bangladesh is described. Predictors for Bangladesh summer monsoon (June–September) rainfall were identified from the large scale ocean–atmospheric circulation variables (i.e., sea-surface temperature, surface air ...

  10. Young Adults' Linguistic Manipulation of English in Bangla in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Shaila

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly assumed in the print media that bilingual young adults in Bangladesh are subjugated by the colonial legacy of English and they are "polluting" Bangla, the national language of Bangladesh, by their indiscriminate insertion of English in it. However, this ethnographic study on a group of young adults in a university in…

  11. Gender mainstraming in the Bangladesh Rural Electrification Board

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clancy, Joy S.; Ekram, Lailun Nahar; Halim, Sadeka; Mhatab, Nazmunnessa

    2004-01-01

    A Gender Equity Strategy and Action Plan has been integrated into the Bangladesh Rural Electrification Board’s Master Plan. Implementation of this plan will be the first gender mainstreaming exercise in the energy sector in Bangladesh, and possibly in the world.

  12. Seasonal forecasting of Bangladesh summer monsoon rainfall using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, the development of a statistical forecasting method for summer monsoon rainfall over Bangladesh is described. Predictors for Bangladesh summer monsoon (June–September) rainfall were identified from the large scale ocean–atmospheric circulation variables (i.e., sea-surface temperature, surface air ...

  13. Rainfall and temperature scenarios for Bangladesh for the middle of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    mean surface air temperature projection for Bangladesh is experimentally obtained for 2050 and 2060. This work discloses that simulated ... seasonal and annual rainfall, and mean surface air temperature in Bangladesh. The projected change ... already being felt in South Asia and will continue to intensify (Haq et al 1998; ...

  14. Health Impacts of Tobacco Cultivation in Bangladesh | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Health Impacts of Tobacco Cultivation in Bangladesh. Research on the links between tobacco farming and health problems among men, women, and children in Bangladesh will examine the health and socio-economic impact of tobacco cultivation. To date, the health hazards of growing tobacco have not been documented ...

  15. Acute myocardial infarction mortality in Cuba, 1999-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Nurys B; Ortega, Yanela Y; de la Noval, Reinaldo; Suárez, Ramón; Llerena, Lorenzo; Dueñas, Alfredo F

    2012-10-01

    Acute myocardial infarction is one of the leading causes of death in the world. This is also true in Cuba, where no national-level epidemiologic studies of related mortality have been published in recent years. Describe acute myocardial infarction mortality in Cuba from 1999 through 2008. A descriptive study was conducted of persons aged ≥25 years with a diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction from 1999 through 2008. Data were obtained from the Ministry of Public Health's National Statistics Division database for variables: age; sex; site (out of hospital, in hospital or in hospital emergency room) and location (jurisdiction) of death. Proportions, age- and sex-specific rates and age-standardized overall rates per 100,000 population were calculated and compared over time, using the two five-year time frames within the study period. A total of 145,808 persons who had suffered acute myocardial infarction were recorded, 75,512 of whom died, for a case-fatality rate of 51.8% (55.1% in 1999-2003 and 49.7% in 2004-2008). In the first five-year period, mortality was 98.9 per 100,000 population, falling to 81.8 per 100,000 in the second; most affected were people aged ≥75 years and men. Of Cuba's 14 provinces and special municipality, Havana, Havana City and Camagüey provinces, and the Isle of Youth Special Municipality showed the highest mortality; Holguín, Ciego de Ávila and Granma provinces the lowest. Out-of-hospital deaths accounted for the greatest proportion of deaths in both five-year periods (54.8% and 59.2% in 1999-2003 and 2004-2008, respectively). Although risk of death from acute myocardial infarction decreased through the study period, it remains a major health problem in Cuba. A national acute myocardial infarction case registry is needed. Also required is further research to help elucidate possible causes of Cuba's high acute myocardial infarction mortality: cardiovascular risk studies, studies of out-of-hospital mortality and quality of care

  16. MÚSICA CAMPESINA Y CULTURA POPULAR EN CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radisbel Galán Rizo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen La música campesina en Cuba constituye la base fundamental para el estudio de la cultura del país. En ella confluye junto a escasos elementos de la población aborigen las culturas de diferentes etnias que conformaron el amplio mosaico cultural de la Isla siendo la música campesina síntesis inequívoca de este proceso. A través de un análisis crítico, se tomaron en consideración ideas planteadas por varios autores, lo que permite enriquecer los términos y la comprensión del tema. El estudio de la realidad posibilitó analizar la presencia de la música campesina en el contexto nacional a través de sus componentes étnicos, motivaciones, características, rasgos originales, evolución histórica y social como parte indisoluble en la conformación de la nación y su salvaguarda como reafirmación de identidad. De esta forma, el presente texto responde a la insuficiencia de información acerca de los esfuerzos para la salvaguarda y rescate de la tradición musical campesina en Cuba. PALABRAS CLAVE: Música campesina; cultura popular; identidad. THE CONTRY MUSIC AND POPULAR CULTURE IN CUBA ABSTRACT The country music in Cuba is the fundamental for the study of the country's culture base. It converges with few elements of Aboriginal people from different ethnic cultures that shaped the broad cultural mosaic of the island country music being unequivocal synthesis of this process. Through critical analysis, were taken into consideration ideas raised by several authors, allowing enrich the terms and understanding of the subject. The study of reality allowed analyze the presence of country music in the national context through its ethnic components, motivations, characteristics, original features, historical and social evolution as an indissoluble part in shaping the nation and its protection as a reaffirmation of identity. Thus, this text responds to insufficient information on efforts to safeguard and rescue of peasant musical

  17. Kenaf: its prospect in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estri Laras Arumingtyas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Kenaf is a plant fibre with high potential as source of material industry. Originally, kenaf usage in Indonesia is still limited only for jute sacks material, which is then displaced by plastic sacks production. While at international scale, kenaf has been started to be developed as pulp material, polypropylene composite, fibreglass replacement, and particle board for automotive industry materials. Indonesia is a tropical country this condition which suitable for kenaf cultivation. However, research reports about kenaf potential usages are still few and limited in domestic level only. Whereas, Indonesian kenaf plant information is needed by international community to understand comprehensively about the potential of tropical plants. This article aims to provide an overview about kenaf cultivation potential and usages in Indonesia as well as the possibility of future development. Key words: kenaf, fibre, prospect, potential.

  18. PERSPEKTIF ARSITEKTUR SURYA DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy Priatman

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy is a prospective alternative resource due to its existence as a non-polluting source of renewable energy. The potency of solar energy in Indonesia at the belt of equator enables its usage in buildings directly to fulfill human needs. The integrative implementation of solar technology into building emerges specific challenges in architectural design and evolves a new architectural approach which is called "solar architecture". Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Energi surya merupakan sumberdaya alternatif yang prospektif karena energi surya merupakan sumber energi yang dapat diperbarui dan tidak menimbulkan polusi. Potensi energi surya di Indonesia yang berada dijalur khatulistiwa memungkinkan penggunaan secara langsung dalam bangunan untuk memenuhi kebutuhan manusia. Implementasi teknik pemanfaatan energi surya kedalam bangunan secara integratif menimbulkan tantangan spesifik dalam perancangan arsitektur dan merupakan embrio pewujudan suatu tatanan arsitektur baru yang dikenal sebagai "arsitektur surya" Keywords: arsitektur surya, energi surya

  19. DETERMINAN TABUNGAN MUDHARABAH DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roikhan Moch Aziz

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research to determine how the influence of macro variables were Profit Sharing Ratio (equivalent rate, Inflation, GDP, and SWBI against Mudharabah Savings at Islamic Banking in Indonesia. The data used in this research were data time series by using multiple regressions and analysis by Ordinary Least Squares. The results showed that simultaneously independent variables (Profit Sharing ratio, Inflation, GDP, and SWBI have significant influence the dependent variable (MudharabaH Savings with probability 0.000000. End that partially independent variables (Inflation with probability 0.0013, GDP with probability 0.0000, and SWBI with probability 0.0000 have positively influence and significantly to dependent variable (Mudharabah Savings in the Islamic Banking of Indonesia. While between the variable independent (Profit Sharing ratio to dependent variable (Mudharabah Savings have not significantly with probability 0.2040, in the Islamic Banking of IndonesiaDOI: 10.15408/sjie.v2i2.2425

  20. 78 FR 13207 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ...--Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority Relating to the... Respect to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority Relating to the Regulation of the Anchorage and Movement of... north of Cuba. On February 26, 2004, by Proclamation 7757, the national emergency was extended and its...

  1. 76 FR 11071 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-28

    ...--Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority Relating to the... Respect to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority Relating to the Regulation of the Anchorage and Movement of... north of Cuba. On February 26, 2004, by Proclamation 7757, the national emergency was extended and its...

  2. 75 FR 8791 - Continuation of the National Emergency Relating to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority Relating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ... to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority Relating to the Regulation of the Anchorage and Movement of... February 23, 2010 Continuation of the National Emergency Relating to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority....-registered civilian aircraft in international airspace north of Cuba. On February 26, 2004, by Proclamation...

  3. Indonesia country report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murni Soedyartomo Soentono, Tri [National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia - Batan, Radioisotopes and Radiopharmaceuticals Development Centre, Pasar Jum' at, Cinere Raya, 12570 Jakarta (Indonesia)

    2008-07-01

    Several nuclear research are currently operation in Serpong, Jakarta, Bandung and Yogyakarta; these facilities has been in operation step wisely and having strong link with various universities and laboratories within the country (30 MW in Serpong, 2 MW in Bandung, Cyclotron CS-30 Serpong, Accelerator Yogyakarta, Irradiator Co-60). Public Acceptance: Further more the routine activities of the public information by WiN regarding the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, especially to the immediate environment of the NPP candidate site are indeed of important steps. Future of nuclear power: Since 1990's, Indonesia planned to build NPP station in Jepara to anticipate future energy crisis. Indonesia National Energy Policy has four main objectives: - Securing the continuity of energy supply for domestic use at price affordable to the public, - Enhancing the life quality of the people, - Stimulating economic growth, and, - Reserving an adequate supply of oil and gas for expert to provide source of foreign exchange to fund the national development program. Nuclear Waste Management Policy: Law no 10/1997 on nuclear power became the basic policy in management of radioactive waste The only national agency dealing with radioactive substances, BATAN possesses all data and information concerning the use of nuclear power. Radioactive waste management is particularly earmarked for maximum protection of living creatures, the environment and its ecosystems. In order to guarantee maximum safety and protection, all parties involved in the acquisition of radioactive materials should abide by the ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) principle. In order to achieve radioactive waste management that complies with the principle of sustainable development, technological applications should be technically and economically viable for maximum protection of the environment and safety from any potential nuclear hazards, now and in future. The application must also be accepted by the community

  4. ANALISIS IMPOR BERAS DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratih Kumala Sari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak ___________________________________________________________________ Salah satu kebijakan pemerintah untuk memenuhi kebutuhan beras yaitu dengan menggenjot produksi beras dalam negeri. Namun dengan semakin meningkatnya jumlah penduduk akan meningkatkan permintaan terhadap beras dan upaya peningkatan produktivitas dalam negeri tidak dapat memenuhi kebutuhan beras dalam negeri. Sehingga untuk menutupi kekurangan tersebut pemerintah mengambil keputusan untuk melakukan impor beras dari negara lain. Akan tetapi pada kenyataannya impor beras dilakukan ketika data statistik menunjukkan bahwa Indonesia sedang mengalami surplus beras. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui faktor-faktor apa saja yang mempengaruhi impor beras di Indonesia. Metode analisis yang digunakan adalah analisis regresi linier berganda dengan model Error Correction Model (ECM. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian disimpulkan bahwa secara parsial maupun secara bersama-sama produksi beras, konsumsi beras, harga beras dalam negeri dan nilai tukar rupiah terhadap dollar AS berpengaruh dan signifikan terhadap impor beras di Indonesia. Abstract ___________________________________________________________________ One of the government’s policy to fulfill the need of rice is to boost the domestic production. However, by increasing the population, the demand of rice will also increase and the effort of increasing the domestic productivity cannot supply domestic rice need. So, to cover the shortage the government make decision to import rice from other countries. Yet, in fact importing rice is occurred when the statistical data showed that the supply of rice in Indonesia is surplus. The purpose of this research is necessary to study the factors which influence the import of rice in Indonesia. The analysis method used is multiple linear regression analysis model with Error Correction Model (ECM. Based on the research proven that partially or jointly the production, the consumption, the

  5. Agriculture in the City : A Key to Sustainability in Havana, Cuba ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Agriculture in the City : A Key to Sustainability in Havana, Cuba. Couverture du livre Agriculture in the City : A Key to Sustainability in Havana, Cuba. Auteur(s):. Maria Caridad Cruz et Roberto Sánchez Medina. Maison(s) d'édition: Ian Randle Publishers, CRDI. 29 septembre 2005. ISBN : 976637158X. 244 pages. e-ISBN :.

  6. Speciose opportunistic nectar-feeding avifauna in Cuba and its association to hummingbird island biogeography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Bo; Baquero, Andrea C.; Rahbek, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    rich than expected based on Cuba's elevation, when compared to the rest of the West Indian islands. Thereafter, we report nectar-feeding behaviour by 26 non-Trochilidae bird species in Cuba, encompassing pigeons/doves, woodpeckers and passerines, and endemic, resident and migratory species. We discuss...

  7. Technical project of a solar water heating system for Hostal FRATERNIDAD, Santiago de Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arzuaga Machado, Yusnel; Torres Ten, Alonso; Fonseca Fonseca, Susana; Fuetes lombá, Osmanys; Massipe Hernández, J. Raúl; Gonzalez, Wagner Roberto

    2017-01-01

    It is presented the technical project of a solar water heating system for Hostal FRATERNIDAD, Santiago de Cuba, Cuba, 20 Cabannas type tourism and a one of 2 square meter flat solar collector will be used, with a storage tank of 200 liters capacity, that is to say one system per cabin. (author)

  8. Theological Higher Education in Cuba: Part 2--Origins and Ministry of Protestant Seminaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esqueda, Octavio J.

    2007-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the main Protestant theological seminaries in Cuba: Western Cuba Baptist Seminary, Cedars of Lebanon Seminary, The New Pines Evangelical Seminary, Evangelical Theological Seminary, Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial Center, Nazarene Theological Seminary and International School of Theology. The history and…

  9. Methodology applied in Cuba for siting, designing, and building a radioactive waste repository under safety conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orbera, L.; Peralta, J.L.; Franklin, R.; Gil, R.; Chales, G.; Rodriguez, A.

    1993-01-01

    The work presents the methodology used in Cuba for siting, designing, and building a radioactive waste repository safely. This methodology covers both the technical and socio-economic factors, as well as those of design and construction so as to have a safe siting for this kind of repository under Cuba especial condition. Applying this methodology will results in a safe repository

  10. Probabilitas Teroris Perempuan di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Endy Saputro

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Indonesian police through Densus 88 have analyzed and predicted the strategy of terrorism in Indonesia, which was important to note that those Indonesian terrorist are males. In short, the Indonesian terrorists need to set up their strategy of attack. Will the Indonesian terrorists build a new strategy with taking involve woman within the strategy? This paper aims to understand the involvement of women terrorist in some suicide actions in global context. To sum up, this paper argues that the emergence of women terrorist in Indonesia are possible, yet it requires the precedence conditions of world women terrorists in global contexts.

  11. Harnessing pluralism for better health in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Syed Masud; Evans, Timothy G; Standing, Hilary; Mahmud, Simeen

    2013-11-23

    How do we explain the paradox that Bangladesh has made remarkable progress in health and human development, yet its achievements have taken place within a health system that is frequently characterised as weak, in terms of inadequate physical and human infrastructure and logistics, and low performing? We argue that the development of a highly pluralistic health system environment, defined by the participation of a multiplicity of different stakeholders and agents and by ad hoc, diffused forms of management has contributed to these outcomes by creating conditions for rapid change. We use a combination of data from official sources, research studies, case studies of specific innovations, and in-depth knowledge from our own long-term engagement with health sector issues in Bangladesh to lay out a conceptual framework for understanding pluralism and its outcomes. Although we argue that pluralism has had positive effects in terms of stimulating change and innovation, we also note its association with poor health systems governance and regulation, resulting in endemic problems such as overuse and misuse of drugs. Pluralism therefore requires active management that acknowledges and works with its polycentric nature. We identify four key areas where this management is needed: participatory governance, accountability and regulation, information systems, and capacity development. This approach challenges some mainstream frameworks for managing health systems, such as the building blocks approach of the WHO Health Systems Framework. However, as pluralism increasingly defines the nature and the challenge of 21st century health systems, the experience of Bangladesh is relevant to many countries across the world. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A Pilot Astronomy Outreach Project in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Dipen; Mridha, Shahjahan; Afroz, Maqsuda

    2015-08-01

    In its strategic planning for the "Astronomy for Development Project," the International Astronomical Union (IAU) has ecognized, among other important missions, the role of astronomy in understanding the far-reaching possibilities for promoting global tolerance and citizenship. Furthermore, astronomy is deemed inspirational for careers in science and technology. The "Pilot Astronomy Outreach Project in Bangladesh"--the first of its kind in the country--aspires to fulfill these missions. As Bangladesh lacks resources to promote astronomy education in universities and schools, the role of disseminating astronomy education to the greater community falls on citizen science organizations. One such group, Anushandhitshu Chokro (AChokro) Science Organization, has been carrying out a successful public outreach program since 1975. Among its documented public events, AChokro organized a total solar eclipse campaign in Bangladesh in 2009, at which 15,000 people were assembled in a single open venue for the eclipse observation. The organization has actively pursued astronomy outreach to dispel public misconceptions about astronomical phenomena and to promote science. AChokro is currently working to build an observatory and Science Outreach Center around a recently-acquired 14-inch Scmidt-Cassegrain telescope and a soon-to-be-acquired new 16-inch reflector, all funded by private donations. The telescopes will be fitted with photometers, spectrometers, and digital and CCD cameras to pursue observations that would include sun spot and solar magnetic fields, planetary surfaces, asteroid search, variable stars and supernovae. The Center will be integrated with schools, colleges, and community groups for regular observation and small-scale research. Special educational and observing sessions for adults will also be organized. Updates on the development of the Center, which is expected to be functioning by the end of 2015, will be shared and feedback invited on the fostering of

  13. Economic development and population policy in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M R

    1984-09-01

    This paper deals with Bangladesh's growth rate and the policy implications for its economy. Despite its obvious influence on the economy, population has never been integrated as an endogenous variable in any planning model. Development planning is mostly supported by donor agencies, involving little micro-level planning and practically no trickle-down effect. This paper examines the interaction of population and other development variables in the country's planning process. Much of the rural population consists of landless farmers share croppers, so that the land ownership pattern contributes to low productivity. Population increase is making the rural masses even poorer. This process is further compounded by increasing foreign aid dependence, adverse terms of trade in the international market, low savings and investments, and the rural sector's worsening terms of trade. During 1950-1970 real per capita gross domestic product (GDP) increased only at a rate of 1% per annum and during 1950-1970 real growth of GDP fell behind the population growth rate. A cost benefit analysis of fertility reduction is needed. The cost benefit ratio of most countries varies between 1:10 to 1:30; for Bangladesh it is 1:16. Macro-model studies indicate that the higher the fertility reduction and shorter the period of required decline, the higher will be the benefits in terms of gains in per capita income. There is, however, a contradiction between national and household interests. The latter's decision to have more children has a negative spillover effect, which nullifies the gains of the community. The national family planning program suffered a serious setback during and after the liberation of Bangladesh, mainly due to lack of administrative leadership and support. In order for the population growth rate to be checked and to increase the quality of life for the entire population, the family planning program must be revitalized by mobilizing the entire government machinery and

  14. Water, climate change and society in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele-Eich, I.; Simmer, C.

    2017-12-01

    Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh with a population of over 17 million people, is among the top five coastal cities most vulnerable to climate change, with over 30 % of the population living in slums. Effective disaster mitigation and adaptation requires an understanding how hazards such as flooding impact the population. The impacts of climate change on flooding and thus livelihoods in the complex delta of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna rivers can not be treated isolated from other anthropogenic impacts due to e.g. the construction of dams as well as a growing population. We illustrate this by setting up a conceptual socio-hydrological causal network using the enhanced Driving force - Pressure - State - Impact - Response framework. The constructed socio-hydrological framework includes both natural and anthropogenic processes and their two-way feedbacks, allowing policy makers to know where available resources can be used effectively to increase resilience and reduce vulnerability. We conclude that climate change takes place over long stretches of time and thus enable the population of Bangladesh to adapt slowly. Resources such as social capital, which is one of the main tools for slum dwellers to be able to cope with flooding can be altered over time, and as such the system can be considered overall stable and resilient. However, transboundary water sharing issues during the dry season and other implications resulting from dam structures such as Farakka Barrage complicate a prognosis on how the rapidly growing population will be affected in the 21st century. This is particularly important in connection with previous findings, which suggest that the Greater Dhaka population already experience a significant increase in mortality during droughts. Climate change can thus be seen as an anthropogenic amplification of the socio-hydrological challenges already faced by Bangladesh today.

  15. Adolescent motherhood in Bangladesh: Trends and determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammad Mainul; Islam, Md Kamrul; Hasan, Mohammad Sazzad; Hossain, Mohammad Bellal

    2017-01-01

    While studies on fertility and contraceptives issues are available, until recently adolescent motherhood has not received enough attention among policy makers in understanding adolescent motherhood in Bangladesh. We aimed to examine the trends and determinants of adolescent motherhood among women aged 15-49 years. For trend analysis we used all the 7 waves of Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS, 1993-2014) data but for multivariate analysis 4 waves of BDHS (2004-2014). Two separate analyses were carried out on ever married women aged 15-49: (1) teenage girls aged 15-19 and (2) adult women aged 20 and above. The prevalence of adolescent motherhood had declined to a slower pace from 1993 to2014 (from 33.0% to 30.8%). Lower spousal age gap and higher education were found to be associated with lower likelihood of adolescent motherhood both among teenage girls [OR 0.447 (0.374-0.533)] and adult women [OR 0.451 (0.420-0.484)]. Teenage girls in the poorest wealth quintile [OR 1.712 [1.350-2.173] were more likely to experience adolescent motherhood than the richest wealth quintile. Teenage girls who had no education were found to have 2.76 times higher odds of adolescent motherhood than their counterparts who had higher than secondary education. Concerning the time effect, the odds of adolescent motherhood among adult women was found to decline overtime. Despite substantial decrease in total fertility rate in Bangladesh adolescent motherhood is still highly prevalent though declining from 1993 to 2014. Social policies including those addressing poverty, ensuring greater emphasis on education for women; and adolescent mothers in rural areas are needed.

  16. Cuatro aspectos del sector construcción, en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salas, Julián

    1983-09-01

    Full Text Available Under the common title of «Four Aspects of the Construction Sector in Cuba», we gather some other works, to a certain extent different in theme and focus, but which globally may help to outline both the present level of the technical development of the construction sector and its potential installed. There is described in the «Technical Center of Construction and Materials», which is a basic institution and one which promotes the technological development of the sector. In another work are reviewed the construction systems employed in Cuba, both autochthonous and foreign, as these systems are the basis and support of Cuban construction. In the third place there is reproduced a punctual aspect of the research work being carried out in ICIDCA (Research Center of the élite of Cuba; it deals with the employment of megasse in the production of agglomerates for use in construction. The panorama finalizes with a brief, schematical resume of the construction of industrial buildings of one storey, by means of prefabricated elements or of industrial origin, which respond to some strict conditions and which are carried out following rigorous rules of the project. We understand that the ensemble of these four facets constitutes a significant sample of that plural prism and ensemble which Is the construction sector of any country.Bajo el título común de «Cuatro Aspectos del Sector Construcción, en Cuba», recogemos otros tantos trabajos, en cierto modo dispares de temática y enfoque, pero que globalmente pueden ayudar a perfilar tanto el nivel actual del desarrollo técnico del sector construcción, como su potencial instalado. Se describe el «Centro Técnico de la Construcción y los Materiales» a modo de institución básica e impulsora del desarrollo tecnológico sectorial. Se pasa revista, en otro trabajo, a los sistemas constructivos empleados en Cuba, tanto autóctonos como foráneos, por ser estos sistemas la base y soporte real del

  17. Electrochemical arsenic remediation for rural Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Addy, Susan Amrose [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Arsenic in drinking water is a major public health problem threatening the lives of over 140 million people worldwide. In Bangladesh alone, up to 57 million people drink arsenic-laden water from shallow wells. ElectroChemical Arsenic Remediation(ECAR) overcomes many of the obstacles that plague current technologies and can be used affordably and on a small-scale, allowing for rapid dissemination into Bangladesh to address this arsenic crisis. In this work, ECAR was shown to effectively reduce 550 - 580 μg=L arsenic (including both As[III]and As[V]in a 1:1 ratio) to below the WHO recommended maximum limit of 10 μg=L in synthetic Bangladesh groundwater containing relevant concentrations of competitive ions such as phosphate, silicate, and bicarbonate. Arsenic removal capacity was found to be approximately constant within certain ranges of current density, but was found to change substantially between ranges. In order of decreasing arsenic removal capacity, the pattern was: 0.02 mA=cm2> 0.07 mA=cm2> 0.30 - 1.1 mA=cm2> 5.0 - 100 mA=cm2. Current processing time was found to effect arsenic removal capacity independent of either charge density or current density. Electrode polarization studies showed no passivation of the electrode in the tested range (up to current density 10 mA=cm2) and ruled out oxygen evolution as the cause of decreasing removal capacity with current density. Simple settling and decantation required approximately 3 days to achieve arsenic removal comparable to filtration with a 0.1 mu m membrane. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) showed that (1) there is no significant difference in the arsenic removal mechanism of ECAR during operation at different current densities and (2) the arsenic removal mechanism in ECAR is consistent with arsenate adsorption onto a homogenous Fe(III)oxyhydroxide similar in structure to 2-line ferrihydrite. ECAR effectively reduced high arsenic concentrations (100

  18. Social marketing of contraceptives in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellstede, W P; Ciszewski, R L

    1984-01-01

    Since 1975 there has been a family planning program operating in Bangladesh which advertises and commercially distributes contraceptive products in both rural and urban areas throughout the country. The program, known as the Social Marketing Project (SMP) and managed by Population Services International (PSI), now serves almost 1 million acceptors per month at an annual cost per couple of less than US$6.50, including the cost of donated contraceptives. This paper looks at the evolution of the project and its growth through the years, and addresses some primary concerns of planners of social marketing programs.

  19. Status of radiation curing in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idriss Ali, K.M.

    1999-01-01

    Bangladesh is a small country covering about 148 thousand square kilometer area with a population of 120 million. It has only 15% urban area; most of the people live in the rural area. It is neither industrial nor developed. It is trying hard to stand on its feet combating all damages caused by frequent natural calamities like cyclones and floods. Thus, most of the technological activities are still being carried out on turnkey basis. However, some research and development institutions have already been developed to such an extent that transfer of technology can occur and the local industries can also benefit out of this endeavour

  20. Ladies without lamps: nurses in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Shahaduz

    2009-03-01

    In this article, I explore the experiences and concerns of Bangladeshi nurses. I have based this on a larger ethnographic study that was conducted in a ward of a government teaching hospital in Bangladesh. The study shows how the values and norms of Bangladeshi society have shaped the life of Bangladeshi nurses, that they do scarcely any nursing work, and that they suffer from various negative social images. I argue, through this article, that the role, image, and concerns of Bangladeshi nurses have changed dramatically from the ideal image of nursing, and are dissimilar from the ways nursing is practiced in many other parts of the world.

  1. Diferensi Makna Kurikulum Di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Muhammad

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In Indonesia, the curriculum is understood in accordance with the Act mentioned in the National Education System in the top ie, a set of plans and arrangements regarding the purpose, content, and teaching materials, as well as the methods used to guide the organization of learning activities to achieve specific educational goals. Here explicitly can be observed that the anatomy curriculum in Indonesia contains three aspects, namely: learning objectives, learning materials, and methods. Then some of the experts whom Hilda Taba, Nana Syaodih Sukmadinata and Oemar Hamalik add evaluation component as an important component of the curriculum, because the evaluation is considered as an inseparable part of the curriculum. Di Indonesia kurikulum dipahami sesuai dengan yang disebutkan dalam Undang-undang Sistem Pendidikan Nasional di atas yaitu, seperangkat rencana dan pengaturan mengenai tujuan, isi, dan bahan pelajaran, serta cara yang digunakan sebagai pedoman penyelenggaraan kegiatan pembelajaran untuk mencapai tujuan pendidikan tertentu. Di sini secara eksplisit dapat diamati bahwa anatomi kurikulum di Indonesia mengandung tiga aspek, yaitu: tujuan pembelajaran, materi pembelajaran, dan metode. Kemudian beberapa para ahli di antaranya Hilda Taba, Nana Syaodih Sukmadinata dan Oemar Hamalik menambah komponen evaluasi sebagai komponen penting kurikulum, karena evaluasi dianggap sebagai bagian yang tidak dapat dipisahkan dari kurikulum.

  2. Politik Pemberantasan Korupsi di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suherry Suherry

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the politics of eradicating corruption in Indonesia. The most difficult problem in the running of the government process is due to the massive corruption, collusion and nepotism practices that have impacted widely on society. Corruption in the legal world is classified as an extraordinary crime because it not only harms the State's finances, but also practices violate the social and economic rights of society widely so that its eradication measures must also be done in an extraordinary way. That is what is disclosed in the consideration of the Law on the Eradication of Corruption. Through a juridical-empirical approach of this article, the question of corruption in Indonesia is well answered.   Artikel ini membahas tentan politik pemberantasan korupsi di Indonesia. Masalah tersulit dalam berjalannya proses pemerintahan dikarenakan massifnya praktik korupsi, kolusi dan nepotisme yang meraja lela yang berdampak secara luas bagi masyarakat. Korupsi dalam dunia hukum sudah tergolong sebagai extra ordinary crime (kejahatan luar biasa karena tidak hanya merugikan keuangan Negara, tetapi juga praktik tersebut melanggar hak-hak sosial dan ekonomi masyarakat secara luas sehingga tindakan pemberantasannya harus juga dilakukan dengan cara yang luar biasa pula. Begitulah yang diungkapkan dalam konsideran Undang-Undang Tentang Pemberantasan Tindak Pidana Korupsi. Melalui pendekatan yuridis-empiris, pertanyaan terkait pemberatasan korupsi di Indonesia terjawab dengan baik.

  3. Community Solutions for Indonesia's Waste

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    test

    The tragedy at the Leuwigajah landfill is the most spectacular recent example of Indonesia's challenges in solid waste management. Although less dramatic, the daily struggle of the poorest residents of Indonesian cities with deficient solid waste management also imposes major costs in health and environmental impacts.

  4. Tuberculosis mortality trends in cuba, 1998 to 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Edilberto; Risco, Grisel E; Borroto, Susana; Perna, Abel; Armas, Luisa

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Tuberculosis (TB) is a major cause of illness and death throughout the world. The World Health Organization's Global Plan to Stop TB 2006-2015 proposes that countries cut TB mortality by half compared to 1990 rates. In Cuba, TB mortality declined steadily throughout the 20th century, particularly after 1960. Objective Describe TB mortality distribution and trends in Cuba from January 1998 to December 2007 by infection site, sex, age and province, and determine progress towards the WHO's 2015 target for TB mortality reduction. Methods A time series ecological study was conducted. Death certificates stating TB as cause of death were obtained from the Ministry of Public Health's National Statistics Division, and population data by age group, sex, and province were obtained from the National Statistics Bureau. Crude and specific death rate trends and variation were analyzed. Results TB mortality declined from 0.4 per 100,000 population in 1998 to 0.2 (under half the 1990 rate) in 2007. Clinical forms of the disease, both pulmonary and extrapulmonary, also declined. The highest mortality rates were found in males and in the group aged ≥ 65 years. Rates were also highest in the capital, Havana, with extreme values of 0.73 and 0.39 per 100,000 population at the beginning and end of the period, respectively. Conclusions Deaths from TB declined steadily compared to total deaths and deaths caused by infectious diseases. The Global Plan to Stop TB target was met well ahead of 2015. If this trend continues, TB is likely to become an exceptional cause of death in Cuba.

  5. Epidemiology of Suicide in Cuba, 1987-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona-Miranda, Beatriz; Hernández-Sánchez, Mariela; Lomba-Acevedo, Paula

    2016-07-01

    INTRODUCTION Suicide is a health problem influenced by biological, genetic, psychological, social and economic factors. It is responsible for 50% of violent deaths in the male population, worldwide, and 71% in the female. In the Americas, 65,000 deaths by suicide occur every year. It is the ninth most frequent cause of death in Cuba, and third among people aged 10-19. OBJECTIVE Characterize the epidemiology of suicide in Cuba from 1987 to 2014. METHODS A retrospective descriptive study was conducted. The information comprised all records of death by suicide from January 1, 1987 to December 31, 2014, in the Cuban Ministry of Public Health's National Statistics Division database. The variables were sex, age, skin color, employment status/occupation, marital status, and method of suicide. Crude and age-standardized mortality rates and age-sex specific mortality rates were calculated, all per 100,000 population, as well as the sex ratio. Relative change over the series was calculated as a percentage. Distribution of suicides by variable was calculated and proportions expressed as percentages. RESULTS A total of 51,113 deaths by suicide were reported (annual average 1825), of which 34,671 (67.8%) were among men. The sex ratio was 2.1:1 for the entire study period, and 3.9:1 for 2011-2014. Over the course of the period studied, age-standardized suicide rates decreased from 23.9 to 10.8 per 100,000 population (54.8% reduction). The group aged ≥60 years had the highest average age-standardized rate, 44.6 per 100,000 population. The highest suicide burden by age was in the group aged 20-59 years (60.5%). By skin color, the highest burden was in those recorded as white, 68.9%. By marital status, the highest burden was in persons with a stable partner (46.7%), and by employment status/occupation, in retired (25.9%). The most commonly used method was hanging (59.4%). CONCLUSIONS Over the course of about three decades, suicide mortality rates have declined by almost half and

  6. Anatomic pathology in Cuba before 1959: a personal recollection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buesa, René J

    2016-04-01

    Reminiscing when reaching life's twilight is a human condition and hopefully leads to an objective self-evaluation of the past years. I have just done that with this recollection and now I can conclude that, in spite of the outcome of my professional life in Cuba, I remain convinced that one should not complete a journey just because it was started, that everything we learn in life will be sued in due time, and that we should always pursue our dreams because we become our best in the process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The right to health care for transsexual people in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, Alberto; Rodríguez, R Mayra

    2012-04-01

    Gender identity is a sociocultural construct based (in nearly every society) on a binary norm: female and male. Transsexual individuals suffer from intense family and social discrimination because they express a dissident sexuality incongruent with this norm. They assert they feel trapped in a body that does not belong to them, so they seek help from health professionals to modify their bodies, to "adapt their bodies to their minds." This essay discusses health care for transsexual persons in Cuba from a human rights perspective that does not pathologize their gender identification.

  8. Flowering of taro germplasm (Colocasia esculenta (L. Schott in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadelys Figueroa Águila

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Research was done at the Center for Tropical Crop Research (INIVIT, to evaluate inflorescence of taro germplasm (104 accessions in Cuba´s climatic conditions. Sampling was made every 7 days in the 2013-2014 period to evaluate inflorescence; accessions were characterized according to flowering parameters. The results showed that natural flowering by the 26-accession sample (25%, was observed to early blossom from July to October in 18 accessions (69.2%. Increased temperature and relative humidity lasted until November, when inflorescence ends.

  9. Present situation of regulatory control of radiation sources in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Gomez, U.

    2001-01-01

    The report explains the basis for an effective regulatory control and in particular refers to the system established in Cuba for such purposes. Reference is made to the new Decree-Law No. 207 'On the Use of Nuclear Energy' and the main topics it covers and to the 'Rules for Authorization of Practices Involving the use of Radiation Sources' which have been in force since 1998. Following it, the report illustrates the existing Cuban system of notification, registration and licensing, and of inspection and enforcement, including information of the established classification of radiation practices in the country. (author)

  10. Isotopic hydrodynamic of the aquifer systems Jaruco and Aguacate, Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moleiro Leon, L.F.; Guerra Oliva, M.G.; Maloszewski, P.; Arellano Acosta, D.M.

    2002-01-01

    An isotopic dispersive model is applied to the Jaruco and Aguacate karstic groundwater basins of Western Cuba. The best fit of the model was validated with stable ( 18 O and 2 H ) and radioactive ( 3 H) isotopes. Modeling showed an aquifer stratification in two basic levels with turnover times of three month to upper level and close to 100 years to the lower level. The last one mainly supplies the base flow of the Ojo de agua and Bello springs and therefore, controls the dry season exploitation yields of the aqueducts of El Gato and Bello. Model results introduces an important constraint in the exploitation of groundwater resource of both aquifer systems

  11. Contribution to the knowledge of Galumnoidea (Acari, Oribatida) of Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermilov, Sergey G; Tolstikov, Andrei V

    2015-01-01

    An annotated checklist of identified oribatid mites of the superfamily Galumnoidea collected from Cuba, including ten species from four genera and two families, is provided. Galumna flabellifera Hammer, 1958, Pergalumna bifissurata Hammer, 1972, Pergalumna bryani (Jacot, 1934), Pergalumna decorata Balogh & Mahunka, 1977 and Galumnopsis secunda Sellnick, 1923 are recorded for the first time in the Cuban fauna. A new species of Pergalumna, Pergalumna cubaensis sp. n., is described; it is morphologically similar to Pergalumna decorata Balogh & Mahunka, 1977, but differs from the latter by the larger body size, heavily granulated prodorsum and well-developed interlamellar setae. The adult of Allogalumna cubana Balogh & Mahunka, 1979 is redescribed.

  12. El programa de control de la tuberculosis en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Marrero Figueroa

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available La evolución de la tuberculosis en Cuba, después de una reducción progresiva de la incidencia en los últimos años, modifica su comportamiento a partir de 1992 al producirse un incremento en la detección de casos. Se describe este problema, se analizan las principales características de la enfermedad y la estrategia del programa de control adoptada para enfrentar esta nueva situación.

  13. Environmental gamma radiation measurements on providence of Camaguey, Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brigido, F.O.; Barrerras Caballero, A.; Montalvan Estrada, A.; Queipo Garcia, M.; Perez Sanchez, D.

    1999-01-01

    The population exposure to those living on the Camaguey Province of Cuba, was estimated by measuring the natural gamma background. Gamma spectra of soils and measurements of absorbed dose rate in air were taken. Radiological measurements carried out with a portable ionization chamber RSS-112 at the sampled sites revealed an average outdoor absorbed dose rate of 63.6 n Gy.h 1 - due to cosmic rays and terrestrial gamma radiation. Computed dose rates obtained through the UNSCEAR(1993) dose coefficients range from 5-136 n Gy.h 1 - , with a mean value of 39.2 n Gy.h 1 - , due to natural terrestrial gamma radiation

  14. L’insegnamento della lingua e letteratura italiane a Cuba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayerìn Bello Valdés

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} Nel suo articolo l’autrice ricostruisce la storia dell’insegnamento delle lingua e della letteratura italiane a Cuba dal Novecento ai giorni nostri, e fornisce una ricca documentazione sui corsi di italiano, sugli studi e  sulle opere più importanti pubblicate a Cuba sulla nostra letteratura e sulle manifestazioni realizzate per la diffusione della cultura italiana nel paese. In particolare riferisce dell’importante ruolo svolto dalla rivista “Cuadernos de italianística cubana” – e dalle istituzioni accademiche e culturali che ad essa fanno riferimento – nel campo della ricerca linguistica, della glottodidattica, dello studio della cultura italiana nelle sue diverse manifestazioni, tra cui la musica e l’opera lirica, e nella diffusione dell’italiano attraverso specifici programmi televisivi.  Normal 0 14 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} In her article the author reconstructs the history of Italian language and literature teaching in Cuba from the Nineteen Hundreds up to the present and provides a wealth of documentation on the Italian courses, studies and the most important works published in Cuba on our literature, as well as on events organized to spread Italian culture throughout the country.  In particular

  15. Uranium mineralization in the central region of Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdez, M.G.; Olivera, J.; Fernandez, P.

    1995-01-01

    The present work shows different geological and geophysical index for uranium mineralization found at Loma Alta iron ore deposit, located in the central region of Cuba. In this deposit was carried out pull work of iron ore. The tunnels were radiometrically documented in the wall and the floor observing some anomalies of the gamma ray intensity (up to 1700 c.p.s.) associated with the poor iron ore. In those points were collected solid sample. The obtained results were very important (uranium concentrations values up to 3500 ppm)

  16. Cuba-guatemala cooperation: building viable models for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorry, Conner

    2009-07-01

    The intertwined history of Cuba and Guatemala goes back almost five centuries. In 1536, Friar Bartolom� de las Casas sailed from Cuba to Guatemala with material for his book, A Brief Account of the Destruction of the Indies, seared upon his conscience. Documenting atrocities against Cuba's indigenous populations, the book persuaded Guatemala's colonial powers to rewrite abusive labor laws that were killing the Maya; the book also earned De las Casas the nickname 'apostle of the Indians.' Over 300 years later, the apostle of Cuban independence, Jos� Mart�, cut his journalistic teeth in Guatemala, while Cuban poet Jos� Joaqu�n Palma authored Guatemala's national anthem. More recently, in the 1950s, Dr Ernesto ('Che') Guevara's time in the country solidified his belief in the need for radical social change a few years before he would join Fidel Castro's Rebel Army. And in 1998, Guatemala, like Cuba so many times before and since, was struck by a fierce, fatal hurricane, opening in its wake a new chapter in the countries' shared history. Hurricane Mitch took over 30,000 lives in Central America and is widely considered the deadliest hurricane to hit the Western Hemisphere in 200 years. The storm made landfall in Guatemala on October 26, 1998 killing 268 people and displacing 106,000. Losses were estimated at US$750 million, with 6,000 homes completely destroyed and another 20,000 damaged. Seven health centers and 48 rural health stations serving 50,000 people were affected.[1] Within days, a team of 19 Cuban doctors landed in Puerto San Jos� in the southern department of Escuintla to provide medical assistance. Working alongside Spanish, US, and Guatemalan relief workers, the Cuban contingent set broken bones, treated some 900 cases of cholera[2] and 14,000 of malaria,[3] evacuated pregnant women, and delivered babies. Implementing vector control, safeguarding food supplies, and providing potable water were other measures taken by the Cuban volunteers, who

  17. Energy policy review of Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-11-21

    The Republic of Indonesia is the world's fourth most populous nation and a developing economy in transition. It is now consolidating its democratic government and implementing governance and financial reforms. After the Asian financial crisis of 1997-99, Indonesia's economy has returned to a strong and stable 5-6% annual growth. Over recent decades, its resource wealth, openness to trade and investment, and a strategically favourable location in East Asia have made Indonesia a key global exporter of oil, gas, and coal. However, Indonesia now faces the serious challenge of fast-rising domestic energy demand with declining oil and gas production. The country's energy policy makers are looking closely at domestic energy requirements and best policies to meet these needs. This includes moving prices towards international parity, improving the energy sector investment climate, and developing electricity generation capacity. While some very difficult decisions have been made over recent years, many challenges remain. This study assesses the country's major energy issues. The study was conducted by a team of IEA member country specialists - an approach which has also been used for national and sectoral reviews of other non-IEA countries, including Angola, China, India, Russia, and Ukraine, as well as the Western Balkan region. The Review offers an analysis of Indonesia's energy sector, with findings and recommendations that draw on experience in IEA member countries. Six areas are suggested for priority attention, including progressive reduction in fuel and electricity subsidies, better implementation of policy, improving clarity of the investment framework, helping the energy regulators do their job more effectively, and harnessing a sustainable development agenda particularly renewable energy and energy efficiency.

  18. Las relaciones Unión Europea-Cuba. Evolución y perspectivas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelio Díaz Lezcano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Las relaciones entre la Unión Europea y Cuba han sido oscilantes y precarias desde que fueron establecidas en 1988. A pesar del importante papel de Europa en la actividad económica de Cuba, ésta es el único país de América Latina y uno de los pocos del mundo que no tiene un convenio de colaboración con la Unión Europea. Ello se debe, en lo fundamental, a la supeditación de la U.E a la política de los Estados Unidos.Siguiendo los dictados de Washington, las relaciones de la U.E con Cuba se rigen, desde 1996, por la llamada Posición Común, que condiciona el mejoramiento de los vínculos a un cambio radical en el sistema político prevaleciente en la Isla. De mantenerse esta situación, como todo parece indicar, no se debe esperar un cambio notable a corto y mediano plazo.Palabras Clave: Cuba como caso especial; Posición Común de la U.E.; Triángulo U.E - EE.UU.-Cuba; Transición a la Democracia en Cuba; Crisis del 2003. The relations European Union-Cuba. Evolution and perspective.AbstractThe relations between the European Union and Cuba have been oscillating and precarious since they were established in 1988. In spite of the important paper of Europe in the economic activity of Cuba, this one is the only country of Latin America and one of the few of the world that does not have an agreement of collaboration with the European Union. It must, in the fundamental thing, to the supeditation of the U.E to the policy of the United States.Following the dictations of Washington, the relations of the U.E with Cuba govern, from 1996, by the call Common Position, that it conditions the improvement of the bonds to a radical change in the prevaleciente political system in the Island. to stay this situation, as everything seems to indicate, a remarkable change to and medium term is not due to hope short.Keywords: Cuba as special case; Common Position of the U.E.; Triangle U.E - EE.UU. - Cuba; Transition to the Democracy in Cuba; Crisis of the

  19. Digital Divide between Teachers and Students in Urban Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khalid, Md. Saifuddin

    2011-01-01

    Telecom boom since 2000 and ‘Digital Bangladesh’ campaign since late 2008 created significant nationwide hype, resulting rapid increase in the use of digital devices. While studies are being conducted to use the ability of “power users of technology” for reducing digital divide, there is hardly any...... data available on them in Bangladesh context. A study was conducted to study the digital divide and ICT usage pattern among the urban students and teachers of schools and colleges in Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh. About 75 students enrolled in probability and statistics course of Independent...... into digital divide and associated reasons in four different educations systems in Bangladesh....

  20. Medical Biotechnology: Problems and Prospects in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaikh Mizan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biotechnology is the knowledge and techniques of developing and using biological systems for deriving special products and services. The age-old technology took a new turn with the advent of recombinant DNA techniques, and boosted by the development of other molecular biological techniques, cell culture techniques and bioinformatics. Medical biotechnology is the major thrust area of biotechnology. It has brought revolutions in medicine – quick methods for diagnosing diseases, generation of new drugs and vaccines, completely novel approach of treatment are only a few to mention. The industrial and financial bulk of the industry mushroomed very rapidly in the last three decades, led by the USA and western advanced nations. Asian countries like China, India, South Korea, Taiwan and Singapore joined late, but advancing forward in a big way. In all the Asian countries governments supported the initiatives of the expert and entrepreneur community, and invested heavily in its development. Bangladesh has got great potential in developing biotechnology and reaping its fruits. However, lack of commitment and patriotism, and too much corruption and irresponsibility in political and bureaucratic establishment are the major hindrance to the development of biotechnology in Bangladesh.

  1. Electricity Crisis and Load Management in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajib Kanti Das

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh is a densely populated country. Only a small part of her area is electrified which cover around 18% of total population. The people who are in the electrified area are suffering from severe load shedding. A systematic load management procedure related to demand side may improve the situation is the research problem. The major objectives serve by the research are to analyze contemporary electricity status with a view to drawing inference about demand supply gap and extracting benefits from load management. Data supplied by the Bangladesh Power Development Board, World Bank and outcome of survey are analyzed with some simple statistical tools to test the hypothesis. Analysis discloses that with properly managed uses of electricity with load switch and rotation week-end can improve the concurrent condition of electricity. Moreover, introducing smart distribution system, reducing system loss, shifting load to off-peak, large scale use of prepaid mete, observing energy week and using energy efficient home and office appliance are recommended to improve load through demand side management. Some other recommendations such as introducing alternative energy, public private partnership and using renewable energy development and producing energy locally are made for load management from the supply side.

  2. Indonesia-DLN Is A Digital Library Network In Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahmi, Ismail

    2001-01-01

    Within this paper, philosophy of the knowledge sharing, vision of the network, and how it can give benefits to Indonesia are described. The status of the network is described that show the successfulness of the architecture in tying together partner's knowledge from all big islands of Indonesia (Sumatera, Java, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, and Irian Jaya) whether they have dedicated internet connection or only a dial-up one. Currently 13 institutions have joined the network and 15+ in progress of developing their servers. Features of the software, Ganesha Digital Library (GDL version 3.1) are presented, that is now distributed as a Free-Software that is based on My SQL, PHP, and Apache

  3. Implementation of tissue microarrays technique for cancer research in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Lahera-Sánchez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The tissue microarray (TMA technique is based on making cylindrical cores from paraffin donor blocks and transfer to a single recipient block. The TMA has revolutionized the field of pathology for the possibility to evaluate multiple samples in one slide. There is no precedent of this subject in Cuba, so the objective of this research was to implement the TMA technique. The concordance of the results obtained by complete section and the TMA were evaluated for this purpose, in the evaluation of the estrogen receptors (ER, progesterone (PR and epidermal growth factor type 2 (HER2 in samples of breast cancer. Forty-five paraffin-embedded samples from women diagnosed with breast cancer at the Institute of Oncology in 2012 were studied. Two TMA blocks were constructed, and subsequently the expression of markers ER, PR and HER2 was determined by immunohistochemistry, in the complete section of tissue and in the TMA. Kappa index was used for concordance analysis. A good concordance was obtained for all three markers (ER k=0.8272; PR k=0.793 and HER2 k=0.716. This study constitutes the first report on the TMA technique in Cuba and shows that it is a valuable tool, suggesting its potential use in translational research and clinical trials on vaccines.

  4. Innovative Tuberculosis Symposium held during Cuba Salud 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Helena J; Armas Pérez, Luisa

    2016-12-01

    The fourth Tuberculosis (TB) Symposium, held during the Cuba Salud 2015 International Convention, highlighted advancements in research on TB and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) by interdisciplinary teams from academic and federal institutions in Cuba, Colombia, Mexico, and the Dominican Republic. Delegates focused on the targets presented in the World Health Organization End TB Strategy for 2016-2035 and elaborated on four primary themes: 1) attention to vulnerable populations such as immunocompromised individuals, health care workers, and residents of long-term institutions such as prisons and nursing homes; 2) identification of active and latent TB cases through contact investigations; 3) spread and control of drug-resistant Mtb strains; and 4) advancements in the development of novel vaccines or "booster" immunizations. This international TB forum served as a platform for experts in diverse disciplines in these Latin American countries to discuss challenges faced by TB research and control programs, proposing novel research initiatives and promoting collaborative teamwork strategies for TB elimination. In solidarity, collaborative efforts in TB control require identification of symptomatic individuals, rapid diagnostic testing for TB, drug susceptibility assays on Mtb strains, and management that provide universal and gratuitous access to directly observed short-course therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The role of popular energy education and diffusion in Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montesinos Larrosa, A. [Sociedad Cubana para la Promocion de las Energias Renovables (Cuba); Moreno Figueredo, C. [Centro de Estudio de Tecnologias Energeticas Renovables (Cuba)

    2008-07-01

    Cuba's Energy Revolution is a national program for developing renewable energy sources to conserve energy, promote sustainable development and address environmental concerns. It includes the Energy Saving Program by the Ministry of Education (PAEME), the Electricity Saving Program in Cuba (PAEC) by the Ministry of Basic Industry (MINBAS) and the National Program for Energy Sustainable Culture developed by CUBASOLAR. The most important programs related to the use of renewable energy sources have been carried out in the field of biomass, hydropower, wind energy, water supply and solar photovoltaic energy in rural areas. This paper presented the Cuban experiences on education, diffusion and publication of energy themes. Mass communication including television, radio and magazines has been used to explain the rationale of using renewable energy, its efficiency and social impact. The positive results thus far indicate that these measures can be applied in other developing countries such as Latin America and Caribbean, and could also serve as a guide for other areas, including developed countries.

  6. Virtual Tour Environment of Cuba's National School of Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napolitano, R. K.; Douglas, I. P.; Garlock, M. E.; Glisic, B.

    2017-08-01

    Innovative technologies have enabled new opportunities for collecting, analyzing, and sharing information about cultural heritage sites. Through a combination of two of these technologies, spherical imaging and virtual tour environment, we preliminarily documented one of Cuba's National Schools of Art, the National Ballet School.The Ballet School is one of the five National Art Schools built in Havana, Cuba after the revolution. Due to changes in the political climate, construction was halted on the schools before completion. The Ballet School in particular was partially completed but never used for the intended purpose. Over the years, the surrounding vegetation and environment have started to overtake the buildings; damages such as missing bricks, corroded rebar, and broken tie bars can be seen. We created a virtual tour through the Ballet School which highlights key satellite classrooms and the main domed performance spaces. Scenes of the virtual tour were captured utilizing the Ricoh Theta S spherical imaging camera and processed with Kolor Panotour virtual environment software. Different forms of data can be included in this environment in order to provide a user with pertinent information. Image galleries, hyperlinks to websites, videos, PDFs, and links to databases can be embedded within the scene and interacted with by a user. By including this information within the virtual tour, a user can better understand how the site was constructed as well as the existing types of damage. The results of this work are recommendations for how a site can be preliminarily documented and information can be initially organized and shared.

  7. United Vietnam and Cuba will overcome all obstacles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This article presents the speech of the President of the Viet Nam Women's Union, given on April 15, 1998, at a world women's solidarity meeting held in Cuba. The President gave the Cuban Women's Federation US$50,000 for women's and children's programs. The President indicated that the Vietnamese people wanted to help alleviate the hardships of the Cuban people and show solidarity with Cuba and Comrade Fidel Castro. The money was collected in a nationwide campaign in an effort to express Viet Nam's sympathy for Cubans who face difficult living conditions due to the US embargo. The President thanked the Cuban people for standing up to a superpower for all the world to see and for being confident and optimistic despite hardships. The Vietnamese are ready to defend revolutionary achievements, independence, and socialism. The Vietnamese will be celebrating the 35th year of the founding of the Cuban Committee for Solidarity with Viet Nam, Laos, and Cambodia. The Vietnamese delegation offered warm greetings to the Cuban Party and State and the Cuban women and children under the leadership of Comrade Fidel Castro.

  8. Vietnamese women at solidarity meeting of world women in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This article summarizes experiences of a Vietnamese delegation at a solidarity meeting of world women during April 13-16, 1998, in Cuba. The President of the Viet Nam Women's Union headed the delegation. The advisor was the vice-chairperson of the Vietnamese National Assembly. The delegation participated in 6 forums: women and sustainable economic development; women, health, education, and social security; women, communication and the mass media; women in politics and decision-making; women, violence and discrimination; and national independence, sovereignty, peace, and women. The delegation also participated in sessions on women's issues; implementation issues; women parliamentarians; and migrant and displaced women. The delegation met with delegates from other countries and participated in a world meeting and an Asian-Pacific meeting to support Cuban women. The entire delegation presented a stage show of songs, which was well received by the 3000 participants. The delegation met with Cuban delegates to discuss the formation of women's groups and to build better relations between the women of both countries. The delegation visited a training center of women cadres and the center for gender education. Participants adopted the Havana Declaration, which states the intention of world women to eradicate poverty and war and to promote peace, progress, and happiness in all countries. The Havana Declaration condemned the US embargo against Cuba. Fidel Castro spoke and expressed gratitude for the strong support from world women, especially Vietnamese women.

  9. Radiological control of the junk exports in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez L, O.; Capote F, E.; Carrazana G, J.A.; Zerquera, J.T.; Ramos V, O.; Alonso A, D.; Fernandez, I.M.; Caveda R, C.A.; Madrazo M, S.; Barroso P, I.

    2006-01-01

    Even when in Cuba a strict control exists on the radiation sources that enter to the country to be used in the different applications, it can be given the case that sources or contaminated materials that never were under this control due fundamentally to that entered to the country before the same one existed, appear in the junk that is marketed. In our country it is effective the Combined Resolution CITMA-MINCEX dated on April, 2002 that settles down the necessity and obligation that has all that manipulates, imports, exports or process junk of carrying out it a radiological control. From April, 2002 making use of a minimum of resources, an own methodology, a properly qualified personnel and the support of a credited laboratory by the ISO 17025 standard, the radioactivity measurement service in junk belonging to the Center of Protection and Hygiene of the Radiations (CPHR), it has reduced the risks that sources or contaminated materials are found in the junk that is exported in the main exporter companies of this line in Cuba avoiding possible radiological emergency situations that affect the population and the environment. (Author)

  10. Las finanzas de Cuba en el ocaso colonial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iglesias García, Fe

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available The author discusses the repercussions of the War of Independence on the Cuban economy as a Whole. The data provided include costs per sector, their effects on exports, customs figures and collection of taxes. In addition, the author's analysis on property imposts provides the reader with information on Cuba´s financial situation and that of the landowners at the time when the reconstruction of the country began.

    En este artículo se estudian las repercusiones provocadas por la Guerra de Independencia en el conjunto de la economía cubana, así mismo se aporta información del costo por sectores, su repercusión sobre las exportaciones, los ingresos aduaneros y el cobro de impuestos, y se traza en líneas generales la situación financiera de Cuba y de los propietarios al momento de iniciarse la reconstrucción del país, a partir del estudio de los gravámenes que afectaban la propiedad.

  11. Studi Komparatif Fragmentatif Program IDT dengan Program Pemberdayaan Perempuan Melalui Mikro Kredit Grameen Bank di Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ema Khotimah

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Pembangunan, idealnya mewujudkan kesejahteraan dan kemakmuran rakyat. Namun yang terjadi, setelah bertahun-tahun pembangunan dijalankan, rakyat yang menderita kemiskinan masih saja dalam bilangan yang sangat besar. Di Indonesia sendiri, pasca krisis moneter tahun 1997 akibat bertambahnya pengangguran, kemiskinan yang semula terdapat di daerah pedesaan, terjadi pula menimpa orang-orang perkotaan kondisi ini di perburuk dengan kenaikan BBM tahun 2005 lalu, yang menyebabkan penduduk yang terjadinya tidak miskin menjadi miskin, dan yang sudah miskin semakin miskin akibat semakin meningkatnya harga-harga dan kebutuhan hidup. Hasil penelitian berbagai kalangan, terutama kaum ekofiminesme menunjukan bahwa, beban terberat akibat kemiskinan diderita kaum perempuan. Bila dalam pratik pembangunan kaum perempuan hanya ditempatkan sebagai obyek, maka saat oreantasi pembangunan diperbaharui pun, perempuan tetap saja termarjinalkan. DI indonesia misalnya perempuan miskin telah menjadi alat devisa negara melalui keberadaannya sebagai tenaga kerja wanita di luar negri meski tampa skill yang memadai, juga tampa ada jaminan hukum yang memadai. Terhadap pratik dan paradigma pembangunan yang dilakukan negara-negara  Duinia Ketiga, banyak ahli yang mengkritisi dengan kesimpulan bahwa telah terjadi kemiskinan struktural akibat kekeliruan keragka paradigmatik konsep pembngunan Inilah yang menyebabkan program penanggulan kemiskinan tidak juga menampakan hasil sesuai yang dihapkan. proggram IDT, raskin, P2KP, JPS, semuanya hanya pemecahan masalah kemiskinan bersipat sementara. sementara selain itu, program-program  yang diterapkan lebih banyak memihak kepada kepetingan pemegang kepentingan pemeggang kebijakan. Perguruan tinggi sebagai “Agent  Of Chang” mengemban tugas dalam ikut serta  menyelesaikan permasalahan kemiskinan. Pemenang Nobel  Perdamaian Dr. Muhammad  Yunus dari Bangladesh melalui Grameen Bank yang didirikannya terbukti telah menjadi contoh kongrit

  12. An export gas pipeline for Bangladesh; Un gazoduc d'exportation pour le Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2002-08-01

    Unocal, one of the few foreign company operating in Bangladesh, has submitted in November 2001 a proposal of gas pipeline for the export of natural gas towards India and which should link the Bibiyana field to the main gas network of India: the Hazira-Bijaipur-Jagdishpur (HBJ) gas pipeline. However, the project of export of natural gas to India is a subject of controversy and the government has postponed several times its decision. (J.S.)

  13. Towards the effective plastic waste management in Bangladesh: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourshed, Monjur; Masud, Mahadi Hasan; Rashid, Fazlur; Joardder, Mohammad Uzzal Hossain

    2017-12-01

    The plastic-derived product, nowadays, becomes an indispensable commodity for different purposes. A huge amount of used plastic causes environmental hazards that turn in danger for marine life, reduces the fertility of soil, and contamination of ground water. Management of this enormous plastic waste is challenging in particular for developing countries like Bangladesh. Lack of facilities, infrastructure development, and insufficient budget for waste management are some of the prime causes of improper plastic management in Bangladesh. In this study, the route of plastic waste production and current plastic waste management system in Bangladesh have been reviewed extensively. It emerges that no technical and improved methods are adapted in the plastic management system. A set of the sustainable plastic management system has been proposed along with the challenges that would emerge during the implementation these strategies. Successful execution of the proposed systems would enhance the quality of plastic waste management in Bangladesh and offers enormous energy from waste.

  14. All projects related to Bangladesh | Page 6 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2007-04-30

    ... English language and North American culture. Start Date: April 30, 2007. End Date: June 26, 2012. Topic: Internet, LANGUAGE BARRIER, ASIAN LANGUAGES, COMPUTER PROGRAMS, SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, INFORMATION SOCIETY. Region: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, Far East Asia, Cambodia, ...

  15. bangladesh : tous les projets | Page 4 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: INFECTIOUS DISEASES, DISEASE VECTORS, Disease control, SOCIAL ASPECTS, ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS, PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH. Région: Bangladesh, Central ... Sujet: ATTITUDES, GENDER DISCRIMINATION, GENDER RELATIONS, GENDER ANALYSIS, GENDER EQUALITY, Gender. Région: ...

  16. All projects related to Bangladesh | Page 2 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION, MIGRATION, GENDER ANALYSIS, POLICY MAKING, ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT, ADAPTATION, Gender. Region: Bangladesh, Egypt, Ghana, India. Program: Collaborative Adaptation Research Initiative in Africa and Asia. Total Funding: CA$ 12,455,362.00.

  17. All projects related to bangladesh | Page 2 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: Climate change, MIGRATION, GENDER ANALYSIS, POLICY MAKING, ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT, ADAPTATION. Region: Bangladesh, Egypt, Ghana, India. Program: Climate Change. Total Funding: CA$ 12,455,362.00. Himalayan Adaptation, Water, and Resilience. Project. This research project ...

  18. All projects related to Bangladesh | Page 5 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: Bangladesh, Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, India, Malaysia, Nepal, Viet Nam, Thailand. Total Funding: CA$ ... Topic: TELECOMMUNICATIONS NETWORKS, INFORMATION CENTRES, COMMUNITY FACILITIES. Region: Far ... Topic: TOBACCO, TOBACCO INDUSTRY, CROP DIVERSIFICATION. Region: ...

  19. Poverty-led higher population growth in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakibullah, A; Rahman, A

    1996-01-01

    This article discusses the issue whether population growth is exogenous or endogenous in the economic development of Bangladesh. Overpopulation adversely affects food supplies, foreign exchange, and human resources. Moreover, it depresses savings per capita and retards growth of physical capital per labor. Underdeveloped countries, like Bangladesh, are faced with the problem of allocating resources between infrastructure, education, and health service that are essential for human capital development and population control measures. With this, determination whether fertility is exogenous or endogenous is important for policy purposes in the context of Bangladesh. Results showed that there is a correlation between population growth and real gross domestic products per capita. Based on Granger causality test, population growth is endogenous in the development process of Bangladesh and its overpopulation is due to poverty. Thus, there is a need for appropriate policy to take measures to improve human capital and decrease fertility rates.

  20. Examen estatal de la carrera de Medicina. Evolución en Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Guadalupe Alvarez-Bustamante; Nelson Melgarejo-Lopez; Rafael Saul González-Ponce de León; Yohandra Valdés-Roque; Yohalis Valdés-Roque

    2016-01-01

    Objetivo: Describir la evolución del examen estatal en Cuba de la carrera de Medicina. Desarrollo: Un dilema de las facultades y escuelas de Medicina en todo el mundo y en Cuba, ha sido la evaluación del progreso de los estudiantes a la largo de la carrera. En Cuba el pensamiento estratégico educacional del Comandante en Jefe, Fidel Castro Ruz, ha permitido mantener un desarrollo ascendente en la educación cubana, A partir del curso académico 1998-1999, se determinó por el Ministerio de Sa...

  1. Rafael María de Labra ante la cuestión de Cuba, 1898

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo Acebrón, M. Dolores

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Not available.

    Rafael María de Labra fue uno de los intelectuales del siglo XIX más sensibilizados por el problema colonial y principalmente por la cuestión de Cuba. La lucha infatigable de Labra por conseguir reformas políticas para las dos últimas colonias, Cuba y Puerto Rico, su defensa del sistema político autonomista y el respeto y tolerancia hacia los revolucionarios cubanos le valdría incluso, después de la independencia de Cuba en 1898, el reconocimiento moral de la nueva nación.

  2. Data supporting the assessment of biomass based electricity and reduced GHG emissions in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagastume Gutiérrez, Alexis; Cabello Eras, Juan J; Vandecasteele, Carlo; Hens, Luc

    2018-04-01

    Assessing the biomass based electricity potential of developing nations like Cuba can help to reduce the fossil fuels dependency and the greenhouse gas emissions. The data included in this study present the evolution of electricity production and greenhouse gas emissions in Cuba. Additionally, the potentialities to produce biomass based electricity by using the most significant biomass sources in Cuba are estimated. Furthermore, estimations of the potential reductions of greenhouse gas emissions, resulting from implementing the biomass based electricity potential of the different sources discussed in the study, are included. Results point to the most promising biomass sources for electricity generation and their potential to reduce GHG emissions.

  3. INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY LAW IN INDONESIA AFTER 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Selvie Sinaga

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the major changes of intellectual property condition in Indonesia after 2001. In that year, Indonesia, which has become a member of the Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS since 1994, was ready to meet its commitment under TRIPS. To do so, Indonesiahas made changes in the areas of legislation, administration, court proceedings, and law enforcement. The paper also discusses problematic issues surrounded the implementation of such changes in Indonesia. Tulisan ini melihat kembali perubahan-perubahan besar dalam bidang hak kekayaan intelektual di Indonesia setelah tahun 2001. Pada tahun tersebut, Indonesia, yang telah menjadi anggota Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS sejak 1994, siap untuk memenuhi komitmennya dalam TRIPS. Untuk memenuhi komitmen tersebut, Indonesia telah membuat perubahan-perubahan dalam bidang legislatif, administratif, tata cara pengadilan dan penegakan hukum. Tulisan ini juga membahas permasalahan di seputar pelaksanaan perubahan-perubahan tersebut.

  4. FINANCIAL DEPTH AND FINANCIAL ACCESS IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigit Setiawan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study is intended to analyze the current levels of financial depth and financial access in Indonesia and to analyze the factors affecting them. The analysis method used was a combination of descriptive quantitative, benchmarking, and literature reviews. The conclusion is that the financial depth in Indonesia has not shown a satisfactory level since it was the lowest, or the second lowest ranked country among the sampled countries. Meanwhile, the financial access in Indonesia is relatively better than its financial depth, especially for financial markets, in which Indonesia ranks in the lower average group. From literature reviews, it can be inferred that the main factor driving the poor financial depth in Indonesia is non-competitiveness of the institutions; whereas the driving force of poor financial access in Indonesia are geographical constraints, poverty, a high income gap, and a less than effective national financial development policy.

  5. Understanding arsenic contamination of groundwater in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabir, Babar

    2001-01-01

    The problem of water contamination by naturally occurring arsenic confronts governments, public and private utilities, and the development community with a new challenge for implementing operational mitigation activities under difficult conditions of imperfect knowledge - especially for arsenic mitigation for the benefit of the rural poor. With more than a conservative estimate of 20 million of its 130 million people assumed to be drinking contaminated water and another 70 million potentially at risk, Bangladesh is facing what has been described as perhaps the largest mass poisoning in history. High concentrations of naturally occurring arsenic have already been found in water from tens of thousands of tube wells, the main source of potable water, in 59 out of Bangladesh's 64 districts. Arsenic contamination is highly irregular, so tube wells in neighboring locations or even different depths can be safe. Arsenic is extremely hazardous if ingested in drinking water or used in cooking in excess of the maximum permissible limit of 0.01 mg/liter over an extended period of time. Even in the early 1970s, most of Bangladesh's rural population got its drinking water from surface ponds and nearly a quarter of a million children died each year from water-borne diseases. Groundwater now constitutes the major source of drinking water in Bangladesh with 95% of the drinking water coming from underground sources. The provision of tube well water for 97 percent of the rural population has been credited with bringing down the high incidence of diarrheal diseases and contributing to a halving of the infant mortality rate. Paradoxically, the same wells that saved so many lives now pose a threat due to the unforeseen hazard of arsenic. The provenance of arsenic rich minerals in sediments of the Bengal basin as a component of geological formations is believed to be from the Himalayan mountain range. Arsenic has been found in different uncropped geological hard rock formations

  6. Exploring the communication barriers in private commercial banks of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Sultana, Nahneen; Abdullah, Abu Md.; Tabassum, Ayesha

    2013-01-01

    In Bangladesh, lots of private commercial banks are contributing for economic growth. The performance of the banks depends on a well-structured communication system. So by maintaining an effective communication system, the banks can gain competitive advantage. Thus the study aims to investigate the communication barriers that should be removed for effective communication in the private commercial banks of Bangladesh. A structured questionnaire survey based on 5-point Likert-scale was conducte...

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF BOND MARKET IN BANGLADESH: ISSUES, STATUS AND POLICIES

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Saleh JAHUR; S.M. Nasrul QUADIR

    2010-01-01

    Bond market acts as buffer of equity market. This market in Bangladesh has been found very inefficient with respect to number of issues, volume of trade, number of participant, long-term yield curve, interest rate policy etc. In view of this, the present study has been undertaken aiming at identifying the problems that impedes the growth and development of Bond Market in Bangladesh. Researchers have collected both primary and secondary data and analysed the same by employing descriptive measu...

  8. Taming the Jamuna : Effects of river training in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bryant, S.; Mosselman, E.; Hoitink, A.J.F.; de Ruijsscher, T.V.; Geertsema, T.J.; Makaske, B.; Wallinga, J.; Candel, J.H.J.; Poelman, J.

    2017-01-01

    The 10 km wide Jamuna river in Bangladesh is  one of the most morphologically active rivers in  the world, with bank erosion rates of up to 500  m per year (Mutton and Haque 2004). Such  extreme river migration in the center of  Bangladesh, one of the most densely 

  9. Consequences of Climate Change and Gender Vulnerability: Bangladesh Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Zayeda Sharmin; Mohammad Samiul Islam

    2013-01-01

    Bangladesh’s geographic location and geo-morphological conditions have made the country one of the most vulnerable to weather and climate induced changes. Bangladesh is a land of wetlands, which occupy around 50 percent of the country. Wetlands play a crucial role in maintaining the ecological balance of ecosystems, but wetland habitats of Bangladesh are under constant threats due to climate induced changes and anthropogenic activities. Climate change is causing a rise in sea levels, which al...

  10. Enhancing Public Service Ethics in Bangladesh: Dilemmas and Deterrents

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Pan-Suk; Monem, Mobasser; Baniamin, Hasan Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    There may be many factors that diminish or destroy trust in governmental institutions. However, none may destroy trust easier or faster than unethical behavior or blatant corruption by public officials. Bangladesh is rated as one of the most corrupt countries in the world by different organizations. One of the most fundamental obstacles to building trust in Bangladesh is the pervasive nature of corruption at many levels. A glance at the newspapers or a glimpse of the news on the television sh...

  11. Parasitoids (Hymenoptera of leafminer flies (Diptera: Agromyzidae from Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Mazumdar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine hymenopteran parasitoids attacking leafminers (Agromyzidae: Diptera in Bangladesh.  Four parasitoid species, viz. Chrysocharis pentheus (Walker, Neochrysocharis formosa (Westwood and Cirrospilus sp. belonging to family Eulophidae and Opius sp. under family Braconidae of the order Hymenoptera are reported as new to the fauna of Bangladesh.  All parasitoids were reared from three agromyzid flies namely Liriomyza sativae Blanchard, Melanagromyza obtusa Mallochand and Ophiomyia phaseoli (Tryon. 

  12. Epidemiology of brucellosis in humans and domestic ruminants in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, AKM Anisur

    2015-01-01

    Background Brucellosis is an ancient and one of the world’s most widespread zoonotic diseases affecting both, public health and animal production. It is endemic in many developing countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America including Bangladesh. Since the first report in 1970, a lot of brucellosis seroprevalence reports are available in cattle, goats, sheep and humans in Bangladesh. Most of the previously reported prevalence studies were based on non-random samples, which may not give a tr...

  13. Perlakuan Akuntansi Karbon di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Meliana Taurisianti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to understand the implementation of accounting for carbon, about how it can be measured, recognized, recorded, presentedand disclosed based on Pernyataan Standar Akuntansi (PSAK 19, 23, 32 and 57, also the impact toward the financial ratios. The object of this study is the financial statements of an integrated timber company in Indonesia. This study has analyzed the enables account to be used to record accounting for carbon, also analyzed the impact of implementation of accounting for carbon toward the financial ratios. The results of this study are support the previous study, which intangible asset can be recognized based on PSAK 19, whereas asset and contingent liabilities can be recognized based on PSAK 57. This study also fit out the previous study, which a company can recognize its expense and other income based on PSAK 19, 23 and 32 as a basis for forestry accounting in Indonesia.

  14. KERAGAAN KOPI PASAR DOMESTIK INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufani Sagita

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Coffee has been becoming one of priority commodity of Indonesia since this country also as one of main producer in the world. However, Indonesia got hardly in maintaining world position due to increasing of production and capacity of other country such as in Vietnam and Brazil. Therefore, it is necessary to recognize situation of demand and supply for coffee commodity in domestic scope to understand further the bargaining position level. Various variable such as production, productivity,demand, supply, domestic price, export and import of coffe are considered to be performance variables for domestic market. This research used SAS (Statistical Analysis System tool by using times series data. The result of the analysis shown that the performance of Indonesian coffee trading is affected by the supply, demand and price of Indonesian coffee.

  15. PURWARUPA PORTAL MEMBER DOTA 2 INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    Yogi Anggoro; Tri Listyorini; Tutik Khotimah

    2017-01-01

    Game di Indonesia sangatlah berkembang pesat, dari game offline maupun online. Penggemar game bukan hanya dari kalangan anak kecil, namun dari semua kalangan. Apalagi game online, sampai diperlombakan. Salah satunya yaitu game Dota 2, yang merupakan salah satu game online. Pada gamers bahkan tidak hanya di lingkup Indonesia saja, namun dapat tanding dengan negara manapun. Dari game ini muncul komunitas Dota 2, di Indonesia terdapat website yang memberikan informasi tentang Dota 2. Tetapi dari...

  16. Area Handbook Series: Indonesia: A Country Study,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-11-01

    131 viii Trad’tional and Modern Health Practices .......... 132 Acquireýd Immune Deficiency Syndrome .......... 133 Pharmaceuticals...Often they use Baha - sa Indonesia because they are no longer sure of the social situation at home. Although Bahasa Indonesia is a neutral medium, it...Deficiency Syndrome Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) posed a major public health threat for Indonesia in the early 1990s. Although in an

  17. Perancangan Basecamp Arsenal Indonesia Supporter Di Surabaya

    OpenAIRE

    Poppy F. Nilasari, Ifan Setiawan Andereas Pandu Setiawan

    2016-01-01

    Football is one of the sports that is loved by many people. Many fans of a club founded organizations in support of their beloved club. One of the clubs that have a lot of fans is Arsenal FC. In Indonesia, many fans have set up an organization called Arsenal Indonesia Supporter. Where they support Arsenal by watching alongside Arsenal's games and various other activities. But there's a lack of place to accommodate a wide range of activities of Arsenal Indonesia Supporter.

  18. Analisis Industri Pengolahan Susu di Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    lim Sanny

    2011-01-01

    Milk is the main food for all ages. In addition, many products can be made from milk such as food, beverages, cheese, butter, yogurt, etc.. Opportunities milk processing industry in Indonesia is very good, considering that Indonesia with a population based on census 2010 reached 237.6 million people. If viewed from the supply side, current milk production in Indonesia is still very low, the number of dairy farmers around 118.75 thousand breeders. National dairy cow productivity stagnated, the...

  19. KEJAHATAN KORPORASI DALAM HUKUM PERBANKAN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodosiva Yovita

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Subjects involved in criminal law are people and corporation. In banking crime when a corporate involved the law enforcement is frequently less cared about. Therefore, it will be a need to do further study on how a banking law regulates the corporation crime in Indonesia. Corporation in Banking Law has a broader meaning than in Civil Law A form of corporation crime is raising fund from the community without any license from Central Bank of Indonesia, Bank Indonesia.

  20. An optimal renewable energy mix for Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Leduc, S.; Patrizio, P.; Yowargana, P.; Kraxner, F.

    2016-01-01

    Indonesia has experienced a constant increase of the use of petroleum and coal in the power sector, while the share of renewable sources has remained stable at 6% of the total energy production during the last decade. As its domestic energy demand undeniably continues to grow, Indonesia is committed to increase the production of renewable energy. Mainly to decrease its dependency on fossil fuel-based resources, and to decrease the anthropogenic emissions, the government of Indonesia has estab...

  1. FINANCIAL DEPTH AND FINANCIAL ACCESS IN INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    Sigit Setiawan

    2015-01-01

    This study is intended to analyze the current levels of financial depth and financial access in Indonesia and to analyze the factors affecting them. The analysis method used was a combination of descriptive quantitative, benchmarking, and literature reviews. The conclusion is that the financial depth in Indonesia has not shown a satisfactory level since it was the lowest, or the second lowest ranked country among the sampled countries. Meanwhile, the financial access in Indonesia is relativel...

  2. Radiological control of the junk exports in Cuba; Control radiologico de las exportaciones de chatarra en Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez L, O.; Capote F, E.; Carrazana G, J.A.; Zerquera, J.T.; Ramos V, O.; Alonso A, D.; Fernandez, I.M.; Caveda R, C.A.; Madrazo M, S.; Barroso P, I. [CPHR, Calle 20 No. 4113 e/41 y 47, Playa, C.P. 11300, A.P. 6195, C.P. 10600 La Habana (Cuba)]. e-mail: orlando@cphr.edu.cu

    2006-07-01

    Even when in Cuba a strict control exists on the radiation sources that enter to the country to be used in the different applications, it can be given the case that sources or contaminated materials that never were under this control due fundamentally to that entered to the country before the same one existed, appear in the junk that is marketed. In our country it is effective the Combined Resolution CITMA-MINCEX dated on April, 2002 that settles down the necessity and obligation that has all that manipulates, imports, exports or process junk of carrying out it a radiological control. From April, 2002 making use of a minimum of resources, an own methodology, a properly qualified personnel and the support of a credited laboratory by the ISO 17025 standard, the radioactivity measurement service in junk belonging to the Center of Protection and Hygiene of the Radiations (CPHR), it has reduced the risks that sources or contaminated materials are found in the junk that is exported in the main exporter companies of this line in Cuba avoiding possible radiological emergency situations that affect the population and the environment. (Author)

  3. Transmigration and accumulation in Indonesia.

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Sáinz, Juan Pablo

    1980-01-01

    ILO pub-wep pub. Working paper tracing the evolution of migration policy involving state intervention to reduce problems of overpopulation and employment in Indonesia - describes historical internal migration from java and bali to the outer islands during colonialism and after to up 1979, and argues that migration policy based on exploitation of surplus labour supply for reasons of capitalism has ended in failure. References and statistical tables.

  4. Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) Trends Over Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salam, A.

    2016-12-01

    An important omission in the Southeast Asian observing network is the border region with the Indian subcontinent. Significant amounts of pollution are generated and transported down the Indo-Gangenic Plain into the Bay of Bengal. High population density in a semi-arid region leads to the development of a complex mixture of absorbing pollution coupled with dust. Transport patterns of this mixture takes pollutants into Bangladesh, where more pollution is added to the atmosphere-leading to what is one of the highest non urban emission loading in the world (AOD500= 0.75 during the premonsoon season). Bangladesh is essentially a riverine country, and atmospheric outflow is over delta regions fed by over 500 rivers, including the Ganges, Bramaputra, Jamuna, and Padma systems forming the massive Meghna river. This combination of atmospheric and riverine components makes for an optically complex littoral region which challenges a host of environmental sensors and modeling systems. Data is needed to understand the sources, transport and optical characteristics of aerosol particles in the region. Dhaka (23.8103° N, 90.4125° E) is the capital of Bangladesh with a population of about 16 million. It has been growing rapidly with all the problem of a mega city. We have installed a sun photometer with NASA Aeronet project at the roof of the Chemistry Department, Dhaka University with other aerosol particles and gas measuring instruments. Bhola is an Island of the Bay of Bengal. It is surrounded by the Meghna River on the north and east, the Tatulia River on the west and the Bay of Bengal on the south. The observatory is located at Charfashion Bazar, Bhola (N 22o10´01″, E 90o45´00″, 3m asl). There is very little influence from traffic and industrial emissions. A Cimel sunphotometer (NASA AERONET) was installed for AOD measurements at this locations since 2013. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) trends between 2012 and 2016 at two different locations (Dhaka and Bhola) will be

  5. Coastal surface water suitability analysis for irrigation in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahtab, Mohammad Hossain; Zahid, Anwar

    2018-03-01

    Water with adequate quality and quantity is very important for irrigation to ensure the crop yields. Salinity is common problem in the coastal waters in Bangladesh. The intensity of salinity in the coastal zone in Bangladesh is not same. It fluctuates over the year. Sodium is another hazard which may hamper permeability and ultimately affects the fertility. It can reduce the crop yields. Although surface water is available in the coastal zone of Bangladesh, but its quality for irrigation needs to be monitored over the year. This paper will investigate the overall quality of coastal surface waters. Thirty-three water samples from different rivers were collected both in wet period (October-December) and in dry period (February-April). Different physical and chemical parameters are considered for investigation of the adequacy of water with respect to international irrigation water quality standards and Bangladesh standards. A comparison between the dry and wet period coastal surface water quality in Bangladesh will also be drawn here. The analysis shows that coastal surface water in Bangladesh is overall suitable for irrigation during wet period, while it needs treatment (which will increase the irrigation cost) for using for irrigation during dry period. Adaptation to this situation can improve the scenario. An integrated plan should be taken to increase the water storing capacity in the coastal area to harvest water during wet period.

  6. MEASURING THE CUSTOMER SATISFACTION OF ISLAMIC BANKING SECTOR IN BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossain Shahid SHOHROWARDHY

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The banking sector has been playing a significant role in achieving the economic growth of Bangladesh, where contribution of Islamic Banking Sector is remarkable. Islamic Banking Sector shows a substantial growth position in Bangladesh. Customer satisfaction is the most significant affecting phenomenon in determining the banking growth. Thus, this study attempts to measure the existing level of customer satisfaction of Islamic Banks in Bangladesh, using the Structural Equation Model (SEM. This study uses the 22 dimensions of customer satisfaction which used in the earlier studies in different countries for measuring the customer satisfaction of Islamic Banking Sector. A total of 385 samples have been taken from six full pledged Islamic Banks in Bangladesh. It reveals form the study that Human Resources and Systemization Service Delivery is the strongest indicator of customer satisfaction of Islamic Banking Sector in Bangladesh followed by Core Product, Service Capability and Social Responsibility. The findings therefore, may be helpful for policy-makers of banking authorities who have been making serious endeavor to sustain the growth of Islamic Banking Sector in Bangladesh.

  7. Good governance and political culture: A case study of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Serajul Islam

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In a democratic system it is essential to have a competitive, and a tolerant party system, but Bangladesh has experienced an intolerant and a confrontational party system that has created a deadlock and brought uncertainty to the whole country. Since 1990, except 2014, Bangladesh has witnessed four systematic peaceful free elections, one each--in 1991, 1996, 2001, and 2008. On January 5, 2014, however, a controversial election took place in which major opposition political parties did not participate except the ruling alliance parties. The two dominant parties—the Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP and the Awami League (AL—each won two previous free and fair elections, with the BNP winning in1991, and a BNP-led 4-party coalition in 2001, and the AL in 1996, and an AL-led 14 party alliance in 2008. However, from 2014 Bangladesh is heading towards an authoritarian system. All these are happening due to the lack of good governance. This article intends to emphasize that the political culture emanating from the party politics is retarding good governance in Bangladesh. This article argues that the cultural traits developed in the last four decades in various dimensions,, particularly in more recent years, have worked as an “earth-worm” in the fabrics of democracy in Bangladesh preventing ‘good governance’.

  8. Pembaruan Hukum Perwakafan di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Siregar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article concentrates on Islamic law product relating to charitable religious endowment (waqf in Indonesia. Based on the traditional perspective of fiqh originated from the earlier Islamic jurists of orthodox view and in turn it had long been legislised as part of Indonesia positive law system, the law of waqfhad regulated that the wealth to be waqf shall be limited to only unmoving properties.  This regulation had led the management of waqf to be unproductive to raise the social welfare.By the virtue of the relatively wider viwpoint of the contemporar y Islamic law thinkers,the Islamic law refor m takes place in Indonesia particularly at the level of postive law ,namely Law Number 41/2004 Relating to Waqf. This law stipulates the thing to be waqf could be either unmoving or moving properties, like cash, gold, certificate of obligation, inteletual wealth, and so forth. This law also lays down the regulation relating to the penalty against those who deviate in managing a waqf. However, as a critque and recommendation the writer propose that the society could be involved in preser ving the purpose of a waqf which is the right of Allah. And it could be conducted by stipulating the class action as a way of the settlements of dispute occuring to a waqf property.

  9. Rethinking Language Education in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maslihatul Umami Umami

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Language education in Indonesia may be discussed by over viewing the nature of the three language categories in the country: Indonesian language, indigenous languages, and foreign languages. From the picture of how the three groups of languages work and function, the problem raised in this paper is based on two fundamental assumptions. Language education in this multilingual and multicultural country is not done on the context of literacy, on the one hand, and it is not yet considered important in comparison with that of the subjects related to basic science and technology, on the other. After reviewing a number of models of bilingual education and comparing them with what has been done in Indonesia, a preferred model will be offered. Finally, it will also be suggested that language education in Indonesia should be associated with literacy development in a wider sense. Furthermore, meanwhile language education should be given an adequate room; language teaching should be based on the functional use of the existing languages in the country and should be done in tandem with the teaching of content since content is delivered through the medium of language.

  10. Multinationals and Unionism in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riani Rachmawati

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a critical analysis of the factors shaping the interaction between multinationals and trade unions in Indonesia, focusing on the recent period of democratization following the downfall of the Suharto regime. It has been suggested that union growth risks undermining Indonesia’s competitive advantages (cheap labour and could encourage the exit of multinationals to cheaper competitors. In order to test this proposition, two case studies were conducted: one in the automotive industry and the other in the banking industry. The paper first provides an overview of multinational activity and FDI in Indonesia, and their interaction with a nascent union movement. This is followed by presenting the findings of interviews conducted at the multinational enterprises with managers and union officials; to provide empirical insights into the bargaining process. The final part of the paper provides a preliminary assessment of the impact of union behaviour on MNC profitability and competitiveness in Indonesia. In contrast to traditional views of unions as impeding MNC profitability and “encouraging” exit, the paper finds that unions and MNCs can engage in constructive partnerships, but that pressures and contradictions in the relationship remain.

  11. Multinationals and Unionism in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riani Rachmawati

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a critical analysis of the factors shaping the interaction between multinationals and trade unions in Indonesia, focusing on the recent period of democratization following the downfall of the Suharto regime. It has been suggested that union growth risks undermining Indonesia’s competitive advantages (cheap labour and could encourage the exit of multinationals to cheaper competitors. In order to test this proposition, two case studies were conducted: one in the automotive industry and the other in the banking industry.The paper first provides an overview of multinational activity and FDI in Indonesia, and their interaction with a nascent union movement. This is followed by presenting the findings of interviews conducted at the multinational enterprises with managers and union officials; to provide empirical insights into the bargaining process. The final part of the paper provides a preliminary assessment of the impact of union behaviour on MNC profitability and competitiveness in Indonesia. In contrast to traditional views of unions as impeding MNC profitability and “encouraging” exit, the paper finds that unions and MNCs can engage in constructive partnerships, but that pressures and contradictions in the relationship remain.

  12. PERSPEKTIF GLOBAL PENYELESAIAN SENGKETA INVESTASI DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Syaifuddin

    2011-06-01

    Pembentukan UUPM No. 25/2007 adalah konsekwensi yuridis dari ratifikasi Perjanjian WTO. TRIMs, yang bertujuan menciptakan hukum investasi, termasuk hukum penyelesaian sengketa investasi, yang sesuai dengan kehendak investor asing dalam perspektif global, yaitu: pertama, mengandung karakter hukum yang berkepastian, berkeadilan, dan berefisiensi; dan kedua, berlandaskan spirit hukum yang mengarahkan pemerintah dan penanaman modal asing menyelesaikan sengketa investasi melalui arbitrase internasional daripada pengadilan bahkan arbitrase nasional di Indonesia. Krisis lembaga peradilan di Indonesia harus diselesaikan dengan cara membangun sistem hukum peradilan dengan mengacu pada Pancasila sebagai cita hukum investasi Indonesia. Hal tersebut adalah  suatu syarat bagi terbentuknya aturan hukum penyelesaian sengketa investasi yang serasi dalam perspektif global dan lokal (Indonesia.

  13. The Third Wave of Democratization in Indonesia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Delin, Azizan

    2000-01-01

    .... The revolutionary struggle shaped general Indonesian acceptance of the authoritarian rule. However, by 1997 Indonesia's authoritarian rule was faced with a serious problem of legitimacy and governability...

  14. Determinants of Food Consumption During Pregnancy in Rural Bangladesh: Examination of Evaluative Data from the Bangladesh Integrated Nutrition Project

    OpenAIRE

    Rezaul Karim; Deepa Bhat; Lisa Troy; Sascha Lamstein; F. James Levinson

    2002-01-01

    The common practice of reducing food consumption during pregnancy is recognized as a primary cause of poor pregnancy outcomes and, in turn, malnutrition among young children in many developing countries including Bangladesh. This paper analyzes data from the 1998 Mid-Term Evaluation of the Bangladesh Integrated Nutrition Project (BINP) to identify the determinants of pregnancy food consumption. The analysis found that information available to the mother (through project-based counseling) was ...

  15. Burden of Self-reported Acute Gastrointestinal Illness in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Pablo Aguiar; Finley, Rita L.; Guerin, Michele T.; Isaacs, Sandy; Domínguez, Arnaldo Castro; Marie, Gisele Coutín; Perez, Enrique

    2009-01-01

    Acute gastrointestinal illness is an important public-health issue worldwide. Burden-of-illness studies have not previously been conducted in Cuba. The objective of the study was to determine the magnitude, distribution, and burden of self-reported acute gastrointestinal illness in Cuba. A retrospective, cross-sectional survey was conducted in three sentinel sites during June-July 2005 (rainy season) and during November 2005–January 2006 (dry season). Households were randomly selected from a list maintained by the medical offices in each site. One individual per household was selected to complete a questionnaire in a face-to-face interview. The case definition was three or more bouts of loose stools in a 24-hour period within the last 30 days. In total, 97.3% of 6,576 interviews were completed. The overall prevalence of acute gastrointestinal illness was 10.6%. The risk of acute gastrointestinal illness was higher during the rainy season (odds ratio [OR]=3.85, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.18-4.66) in children (OR=3.12, 95% CI 2.24-4.36) and teens (OR=2.27, 95% CI 1.51-3.41) compared to people aged 25-54 years, in males (OR=1.24, 95% CI 1.04-1.47), and in the municipality of Santiago de Cuba (OR=1.33, 95% CI 1.11-1.61). Of 680 cases, 17.1-38.1% visited a physician, depending on sentinel site. Of the cases who visited a physician, 33.3-53.9% were requested to submit a stool sample, and of those, 72.7-100.0% complied. Of the cases who sought medical care, 16.7- 61.5% and 0-31.6% were treated with antidiarrhoeals and antibiotics respectively. Acute gastrointestinal illness represented a substantial burden of health compared to developed countries. Targeting the identified risk factors when allocating resources for education, food safety, and infrastructure might lower the morbidity associated with acute gastrointestinal illness. PMID:19507750

  16. El turismo como estrategia de desarrollo en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    del Risco Yera, Yoel

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Tourism has become an economic activity which is becoming more and more important, socially, economically and environmentally. This fact is especially relevant in the case of Cuba. The tourist activity is seen as a form of stabilising the balance of payments, a source of income and employment. However, in this times of economic and political uncertainty, the dangers of substituting the basic commodity of sugar for something else (tourism is very big and it may be necessary to revise the use of tourism as a way of future development.

    [es] El turismo se ha convertido en una actividad económica que, cada vez tiene mayor importancia en el desarrollo económico, social y medio ambiental. Este hecho adquiere una especial relevancia en el caso de Cuba. La actividad turística es vista como una forma de equilibrar la balanza de pagos, una fuente de divisas y de empleo. Sin embargo, en momentos de incertidumbre económica y política como son los actuales, los peligros de sustituir un monocultivo (del azúcar por otro (el turismo son muy grandes y se hace necesario revisar su utilización como vía para el desarrollo. [fr] Le tourisme est devenu une activité économique de plus en plus importante du point de vue économique, social et environnemental. Il s'agit là d'un fait tout particulièrement essentiel dans le cas de Cuba. L'activité touristique est abordée comme un moyen permettant d'équilibrer la balance des paiements, ainsi qu'une source de devises et d'emploi. Cependant, considérant la conjoncture actuelle d'incertitude économique et politique qui accroît les risques de remplacer une monoculture (celle du sucre par une autre (le tourisme, il est donc nécessaire de réétudier l'utilisation du tourisme en tant que voie de développement.

  17. Wetland agribusiness aspects and potential in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Aurup Ratan; Islam, Md Monirul; Jannat, Arifa; Ahmed, Jasim Uddin

    2018-02-01

    The study was conducted to document farmers' livelihood aspects and agribusiness potentials in wetland areas of Bangladesh. A total of 120 farmers and 24 service providers were interviewed for data collection. Most of the farmers were small farmers having less than 1.0 ha of cultivable land. The differences in productivity of crop farming and poultry rearing between wetland area and main land were statistically significant. Favorable farm environment and proper utilization of agricultural resources were major strength and opportunity. The data may be helpful for formation of agribusiness clusters involving input suppliers, credit/financial organizations and different support service providers for more income, better nutrition and improved livelihood of the wetland people.

  18. Bangladesh: new directions for achieving national target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Professor A.Q.M. Badruddoza Chowdhury, Minister for Health and Population Control, says there is much work to be done in Bangladesh in the field of family planning. Although 67,000 couples had reportedly been sterilized in the previous 6 months, officials claim that the number of acceptors should be an impetus to accelerate the pace of all measures being taken to arrest the population boom. An action program is being formulated by the government to broaden and effectuate the family planning program to contain population to 10 crore (1 crore is 10 million) by the year 2000. The population explosion negates the developments in health, nutrition, education, clothing, housing, communication, and the environment.

  19. Aflatoxin contamination in food commodities in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Monika; Harris, Julie; Afreen, Sadia; Deak, Eszter; Gade, Lalitha; Balajee, S Arunmozhi; Park, Benjamin; Chiller, Tom; Luby, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    During September 2009, we performed a rapid cross-sectional study to investigate the extent of aflatoxin contamination among common Bangladeshi foods. We collected eight common human food commodities (rice, lentils, wheat flour, dates, betelnut, red chili powder, ginger and groundnuts) and poultry feed samples from two large markets in each of three cities in Bangladesh. We quantified aflatoxin levels from pooled subsamples using fluorescence high-performance liquid chromatography. Aflatoxin levels were highest in dates and groundnuts (maximum 623 and 423 ng/g), respectively. Samples of betelnut (mean 30.6 ng/g), lentils (mean 21.2 ng/g) and red chili powder (>20 ng/g) also had elevated levels. The mean aflatoxin level among poultry feed samples was 73.0 ng/g. Aflatoxin levels were above the US maximum regulatory levels of 20 ng/g in five of eight commonly ingested human food commodities tested.

  20. INDONESIA: FROM PLURALISM TO MULTICULTURALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasino Wasino

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia was not a new entity when started to become national country. It was called a continuation of the history of the Dutch East Indies. The people lived under western colonial was a pluralistic society, people separated by social class, ethnicity, religion, race and inter-group. Between the authorities and the people separated along racial lines. In addition there was the separation of ethnic groups associated with the economic, educational and social relations. After Indonesian independence the pluralistic society situation continues. The end of the New Order has opened a Pandora's Box of poor relations between ethnic and inter-religious. As a result many conflicts occurred based on religious and ethnic differences. The conflict heated up as the influx of political interests. The process of political reform gave birth to a new awareness of the relationship between ethnicity and religion. The starting point of this change was when the President Abdurrahman Wahid unlocked barriers on multicultural relationship that respects the differences of cultural orientation among the existing ethnic. From that moment the concept of multiculturalism experienced socialization process within Indonesian society. Key words: pluralism, multiculturalism, colonial, new order, socialization Ketika Indonesia lahir sebagai negara nasional, Indonesia bukanlah  entitas yang baru. Ia merupakan kelanjutan  sejarah dari masyarakat yang disebut Hindia Belanda. Masyarakat di bawah penjajah Barat ini merupakan masyarakat majemuk, masyarakat yang terpisah-pisah berdasarkan kelas sosial, suku, agama, ras, dan antar golongan. Antara penguasa dan rakyat terpisah secara garis rasial. Selain itu ada pe-misahan suku bangsa terkait dengan ekonomi, pendidikan, dan hubungan-hubungan sosial. Setelah Indonesia merdeka situasi masyarakat majemuk terus berlangsung. Berakhirnya Orde Baru telah membuka kotak pandora  buruknya hubungan antar etnik dan antar agama. Akibatnya

  1. Gingivitis in primary school children of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masuma Pervin Mishu

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Though early diagnosis and intervention of gingivitis in school children can eliminate progression to frank periodontal diseases, no such measures in Bangladesh are in place to detect gingivitis at an early stage in school children. This survey was conducted in 2007 in the primary schools of rural, suburban and urban areas of Bangladesh to evaluate oral hygiene with special emphasis on gingivitis prevalent among 6-13 years school children. The clinical examination of the gingiva was carried out using a mouth mirror and a periodontal probe. A total of 1,820 primary school students (m/f = 946/873 took part in the investigation. The crude prevalence of gingivitis, AS* and plaque were 17.5%, 9.2% and 56.0% respectively. The prevalence of gingivitis was significantly higher in males than females (20.3 vs. 14.3%, p<0.001, lower than upper social class (21.1 vs. 12.6%, p<0.001 and in rural than urban plus suburban children (22.5 vs. 15.1%, p<0.001. Likewise, the prevalence of AS was higher in females, lower social class and rural children. Significantly lower prevalence of gingivitis, AS and plaque was found among those who used tooth brush and tooth paste than those who did not (15.4% vs 22.4%, p<0.001. The study concludes that the prevalence of oro-dental diseases is high in Bangladeshi children. The male children of low social class of rural communities are the most vulnerable group. Ibrahim Med. Coll. J. 2009; 3(2: 71-74

  2. Baseline research for action: adolescent alcohol consumption in Los Palacios Municipality, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Yolanda; Espinosa, Yairelis

    2013-04-01

    In Cuba, alcohol is an important contributor to morbidity, mortality and social problems. The foundation of Cuba's universal primary health care coverage, family doctor-and-nurse offices play a critical role in prevention, early detection and treatment of alcohol abuse. Los Palacios Municipality of the westernmost province of Pinar del Río, Cuba, is a socially complex, periurban area where alcohol abuse and alcoholism have been identified as important health problems. Adolescents constitute a population at high risk for alcohol abuse because of their receptivity to social influences, but the precise extent of the problem is unknown. This paper reports baseline findings from a survey and direct observation of alcohol consumption in the catchment area of a primary care center, conducted to inform planning for an educational intervention. KEYWORDS Alcohol, alcoholism, alcohol abuse, alcohol dependence, adolescence, primary health care, Cuba.

  3. Economic and Security Reasons Why the U.S. Should Normalize Relations with Cuba

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Curtain, Joseph W

    2008-01-01

    ...) that has occurred as a result. The thesis also shows how China, Venezuela and Iran continue to invest more money in the island and subsequently threaten to wield more influence over Cuba. The U.S...

  4. Informational Element of Power: The Role of Public Diplomacy in United States-Cuba Policy Implementation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Andujar, Roberto C

    2005-01-01

    ...: The Castro Regime has a monopoly on all media and information in Cuba which permits the regime to control what the Cuban people see and believe about the outside world and indeed their own country...

  5. First report of a Florida Manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Aleman, Anmari; Beck, Cathy A.; Powell, James A.

    2010-01-01

    Manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) in Florida utilize intake and effluent canals of power plants as resting and thermoregulatory habitat. We report the use of a power plant canal in Cuba by a known Florida manatee, the first documented case of movement by a manatee between Florida and Cuba. In January, February, and April 2007, two manatees (mother and calf) were reported entering a power plant canal in north Havana, Cuba. The larger manatee had several distinctive scars which were photographed. Digital images were matched to a previously known Florida manatee (CR131) with a sighting history dating from December 1979 to July 2006. Exchanges of individuals between Florida and Cuba may have important genetic implications, particularly since there appears to be little genetic exchange between the Florida manatee subspecies with populations of the Antillean manatee subspecies (T. m. manatus) in Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic.

  6. Informational Element of Power: The Role of Public Diplomacy in United States-Cuba Policy Implementation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Andujar, Roberto C

    2005-01-01

    THESIS: The United States should reassess its Public Diplomacy strategy toward Cuba and the key role that Public Diplomacy plays in preparing the Cuban people to transition to a free and democratic state. RATIONALE...

  7. DNA barcoding of the vegetable leafminer Liriomyza sativae Blanchard (Diptera: Agromyzidae) in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    DNA barcoding revealed the presence of the polyphagous leafminer pest Liriomyza sativae Blanchard in Bangladesh. DNA barcode sequences for mitochondrial COI were generated for Agromyzidae larvae, pupae and adults collected from field populations across Bangladesh. BLAST sequence similarity searches ...

  8. Rivulus berovidesi, a new killifish species (Teleostei: Rivulidae) from western Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Rodet Rodriguez

    2015-04-24

    Rivulus berovidesi, a new killifish species, is described from a small stream in Sierra de Cajalbana, northwestern Cuba. It is readily distinguished from Rivulus cylindraceus Poey by the combination of an exclusive color pattern and meristic characters such as a d-type frontal scalation pattern (versus e-type pattern in Rivulus cylindraceus). The current diagnosis of Rivulus berovidesi based on chromatic, morphological and meristic characters is consistent with a recent molecular analysis of this genus in Cuba.

  9. The Cuba-United States Thaw: Building Bridges Through Science and Global Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bausch, Daniel G; Kouri, Vivian; Resik, Sonia; Acosta, Belsy; Guillen, Gerardo; Goraleski, Karen; Espinal, Marcos; Guzman, Maria G

    2017-06-01

    AbstractBeginning in 2014, there has been significant progress in normalization of relations between Cuba and the United States. Herein, we discuss the history and recent progress in scientific collaboration between the two countries as well as the continued challenges. Science and global health diplomacy can be key tools in reestablishing a trusting and productive relationship of mutual and global benefit, bringing about better and healthier lives for people in both Cuba and the United States.

  10. What We Talk About When We Talk About Transition: The case of Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Valentin, Lukas; Jensen, Aagerup; Gustav, Jens; Bisbjerg, Mark; Holme Larsen, Nichlas

    2015-01-01

    Since 1959, Cuba has been struggling against internal and external forces in order to preserve their totalitarian regime and communist ideology. With the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, Cuba displayed two unexpected tendencies; regime survival and a gradual reformation of their plan-economy towards market economy. This project utilises a combination of regime survival theory and transition theory to investigate the political and economic inputs and outputs in the interest of understandi...

  11. An approach to taxation of non-agricultural cooperatives in Cuba. Proposals for improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orestes Rodríguez Musa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is a review of some general elements about the taxation system of cooperatives, to then focus on the legal regulation of taxation in Cuba with special reference to the treatment of the cooperative sector. These analyzes allow us to develop a comprehensive assessment of how developed the taxation of non-agricultural cooperatives in Cuba, in order to outline proposals for their improvement.Received: 31.05.2016Accepted: 30.09.2016

  12. First molecular evidence of Coxiella burnetii infecting ticks in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Angel A; Rodríguez, Islay; Miranda, Jorge; Contreras, Verónica; Mattar, Salim

    2016-02-01

    Coxiella burnetii is the causative agent of Q fever. In order to explore the occurrence of C. burnetii in ticks, samples were collected from horses, dogs and humans living in a Cuban occidental community. The species most commonly recovered were Amblyomma mixtum (67%), Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l. (27%) and Dermacentor nitens (6%). Specific IS1111 PCR and amplicon sequencing allowed the identification of C. burnetii DNA in A. mixtum collected from a domestic horse. These findings, for first time in Cuba, indicate the need for an in-depth assessment of the C. burnetii occurrence in hosts and humans at risk of infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. TRINIDAD, PRODUCTO TURÍSTICO INTEGRAL Y SOSTENIBLE EN CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorio Canales Martínez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el desmantelamiento de la Unión Soviética, Cuba apostó claramente por el desarrollo del sector turístico. Trinidad, debido a su histórico conjunto urbano propio de la ciudad colonial y su enclave geográfico entre la montaña y el litoral, se ha convertido en un importante destino que aúna el turismo de playa con el de naturaleza y el cultural. En el presente artículo se analizarán los factores que hacen de Trinidad un referente internacional, así como la repercusión que esta actividad ejerce tanto en la economía familiar como en la recuperación del patrimonio local y su entorno ambiental; por ello ha sido declarado Patrimonio de la Humanidad.

  14. Past, Present and Future of the Civil Registry in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malena Proenza-Reyes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The registration status of people becomes public activity of general interest to preconstitución instrument considered proof of marital status and legitimacy in the traffic. In order to illustrate the activity of the Civil Registry in Cuba to bring with greater impact on students and the knowledge of lawyers as significant activity, from the investigative shortcomings in this field suffers national law, they are presented a result the main legislative history of this institution and features distinguish its operation in different historical periods. In that pursuit used methods of social research as historical logic, analysis–synthesis and content analysis, the interview was used as instrument to collect valuable information on the issue.

  15. Cuba: mitigation policies and the Environmental Kuznets curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusimit Betancourt-Alayón

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to determine whether there is for Cuba a growing non-monotonic relationship, known as the Environmental Kuznets Curve, between emissions of CO2, NOx and SO2 in relation to income levels as a measure of the degree of development a basic model from 1970 to 2010. In addition to exploring an extended model involving product structure and trade on emissions. These gases by the importance of the intensification of global warming and therefore in strengthening the climate change are studied. A positive relationship of emissions of the three gases with GDP, although with evidence of an emerging virtuous development path of emissions is obtained, in any case it is possible without a comprehensive development policy which is prioritized design mitigation options.

  16. Making Travel to Cuba Work for Health and Sustainable Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorry, Conner

    2017-01-01

    In 2015, a record-breaking 3.5 million visitors-1 million from Canada alone-traveled to Cuba to explore its history, culture, natural splendor, and visit family. That same year, US President Barack Obama relaxed travel restrictions, giving general authorization for a dozen categories of legal travel by US citizens and residents. As a result, US visitors to the island ballooned by 80% between January 2015 and June 2016. And the numbers keep growing: the latest data show that foreign arrivals reached 4 million in 2016.[1] The surge in visitors highlights the potential negative impact of tourism on a developing country's infrastructure, environment, cultural patrimony and local economy-all considered important social determinants of health.

  17. The societies of french tomb in Cuba: investigative precedents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Coca-Izaguirre

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This work proposes the studies related with the Societies of French tomb in Cuba, aspect that has been treated by Cuban novelists, essayists and investigators and foreing as well. The epistemolological point of view revealed that this group has of Franc-Haitian traditions that, although it was for a lot of time to the margin of the "dominant culture" in the oriental region of the country, it has gotten the attention of diverse specialists interested in preserving the roots of the marginals. The present study intends to evidence the bibliographic referents that these musical dancing spaces of over a century of existence. This publication, between other benefits, contribute in the rescue and the safeguard of the information once the French tomb was  related to, declared Oral and Inmaterial Patrimony of the UNESCO from 2003. The text constitutes a reference document, as base for the future incursions on the societies of french tomb.

  18. Inventory of land snails from Boquerones, Ciego de Avila, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Jonathan Pereira-Miller

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A census of mollusks in Boquerones, Ciego de Avila, Cuba was carried out. Biodiversity index were studied by vegetal formation, which are: Evergreen Forest, Semideciduous Forest and Mogote Vegetation Complex. The families best represented were Helicinidae, Annularidae, Urocoptidae and Subulinidae, taking the 97.6% of the species some degree of national endemism and being the 45.24% of these local endemic. The most widely distributed species was Farcimen camaguayanum Torre & Bartsch 1941 and the rarest was Euclastaria euclasta Shuttleworth 1852. The highest biodiversity values were observed in the Mogote Vegetation Complex being of 2,856 according to Shannon-Wiener (H´ index. So far species extinction events are not seen but not discarded for the future due to a decline in local rainfall during the last 15 years as well as human activities such as agriculture and local tourism.

  19. Ensuring quality while going local: IAEA helps Cuba produce radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jawerth, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Cancer and cardiovascular disease are health conditions Cuba will now be able to more readily diagnose and treat thanks to its newly built facility for producing key radiopharmaceuticals. Nuclear medicine requires a constant and reliable supply of these radioactive drugs, prepared according to what the industry calls good manufacturing practices (GMP), and there have so far been limitations in getting them to the island nation. “Through our work with the IAEA, we now have a dedicated GMP compliant facility and the expertise to meet most of our national needs for diagnostic and therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals for helping patients,” said René Leyva Montaña, Director of Production at the Isotope Centre (CENTIS), Cuba’s centre dedicated to radiopharmaceutical production.

  20. Cuba y la cuestión racial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velia Cecilia Bobes

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes race relations in Cuba within the context of her different historical conjunctures, and aims to demonstrate the existence of a racial cleavage in the present, within the dominant idea of the Nation as a supraracial and homogenous body. The paper demonstrates that the question of race has been present in all political movements in Cuba’s history, since it has always permeated the way in which Cubans perceive both themselves and others. Finally, the problem is analyzed within the framework of the revolutionary transformations from 1959 on, with special attention to the tensions implicit in the disjunction of equality before de low vs. the survival of racial prejudice.

  1. Mycoplasmas hyorhinis in different regions of cuba: diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Lobo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available M. hyorhinis is considered one of the etiological agents of arthritis in sucking pigs, but recently as seen, some strains can produce pneumonia that could not be distinguished from the mycoplasmosis caused by M. hyopneumoniae. The study was conducted to research the presence of Mycoplasma hyorhinis (M. hyorhinis in different regions of the country from exudates of pig lungs with typical EP lesions. Exudates from 280 pig lungs with typical EP lesions were studied using molecular techniques such as PCR, real time PCR and amplification of the 16S-23S rRNA. It was detected that the 66% of the samples studied resulted positive to M. hyorhinis, and the presence of this species was detected in all the provinces. Amplification and studies on the intergenic region 16S-23S of M. hyorhinis rRNA demonstrated the existing variability among strains of a same species. This study is the first report on M. hyorhinis detection in Cuba.

  2. La vacuna en Cuba durante el gobierno de Someruelos

    OpenAIRE

    Vázquez Cienfuegos, Sigfrido

    2004-01-01

    La Real Expedición Filantrópica de la Vacuna (1803-1806), dirigida por Francisco Javier de Balmis, se dirigió al Nuevo Mundo para paliar las epidemias de viruelas que habían venido asolando América desde casi el mismo momento del Descubrimiento. Para entonces en la isla de Cuba ya se había iniciado una labor con el mismo objetivo por el médico cubano Tomás Romay, apoyado en el fomento de la introducción y aplicación de la vacuna por el marqués de Someruelos gobernador y capitán general de la ...

  3. Meditate about the racial identity and the heritage in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maricelys E. Manzano-García

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The positive influences of the human creation in own humanization of social relations, with active role of heritage for confront predator actions of time and people left in the last middle century toward the increasing of goods including in the Humaneness Heritage. From this point of view, with the consensus involving human groups, and supported researches and the act of spreading of its results, could establish new goods to keep. These goods in Cuba could be singular aspects of racial identity, such as an wide diversity of the skin colors; appreciative flexibilities; existing races turn into differences by the skin color inside of the Cuban peoples, including fear to Negro and tendency to whiteness.

  4. Santiago de Cuba: between july 1955 and november 1956

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Pevida-Pupo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the historical context of the city of Santiago de Cuba in the months prior to November 30, 1956, when the armed uprising took place in support of the landing of the Granma yacht expedition led by Fidel Castro Ruz; The material and human assurances made by the 26th of July Revolutionary Movement (MR-26-7 to provide all possible assistance to those arriving at the coast of the country; Among this action is the making of uniforms and the location of medical kits. It also emphasizes the role played by young teacher Frank País García at the front of the plan drawn up months before 

  5. Kajian Tvc Wonderful Indonesia sebagai Cermin Citra Indonesia di Mata Dunia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Oscario

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is one of the most important sectors supporting the economy of Indonesia. One way to develop the Indonesian tourism is strengthening the image of Indonesia in the world. To strengthen the image, Indonesia has replaced the old brand, “Visit Indonesia”, and launched a new brand, “Wonderful Indonesia”. Besides the logo, in order to campaign “Wonderful Indonesia,” some television commercials have been launched. An advertising, which creates a powerful image, not only has a great power to influence the viewers but can also be a double-edged sword. Advertising can become a mirror of reality, but it can also become a distorted mirror of reality. A similar case happens with Wonderful Indonesia television commercial, which was released early in 2012 by the Ministry of Tourism and Creative Economy. The television commercial is considered to have distorted the image of Indonesia in the world by displaying only the culture, society, and nature of Java and Bali. Meanwhile, the other Wonderful Indonesia television commercial, “Feeling is Believing,” which was launched by Indonesia Tourism Board in 2012 considered to have become quite successful framing the beauty, and diversity of the cultures, communities, regions, and natures of Indonesia. Learning from the mistakes, and considering the importance of an image, the future Wonderful Indonesia television commercial should be dealt more carefully. The image that is proper to represent Indonesia, the visual signifier should reflect the intended signified precisely.  

  6. A magnetic survey of mineral resources in northeastern Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista Rodriguez, Jose Alberto [Instituto Superior Minero Metalurgico de Moa (Cuba)

    2006-01-15

    Interpretation of the aeromagnetic survey of northeastern Cuba at scale 1 50 000 is presented. Mainly ophiolitic rocks are characterized by a high magnetic response. The aeromagnetic data was reduced to the pole and the horizontal and vertical gradients, as well as the upward continuation were calculated. To define areas of serpentinized ultrabasic rocks at surface and depth, the magnetic field transformations were interpreted. We discuss lateral extension of outcrops, thickness variation of the ophiolitic rocks, basement extension and fault zones. Hydrothermal alterations indicate associated precious metal secondary mineralization. Operations are planned to limit damage to mining by siliceous material in Fe+Ni laterites. [Spanish] Cuba, en la cual afloran fundamentalmente rocas ofioliticas caracterizadas por un alto grado de magnetizacion. Los datos aeromagneticos fueron reducidos al polo y luego se realizaron los calculos de gradientes horizontales y verticales y la continuacion analitica ascendente. A partir de los resultados de estas transformaciones se delimitaron zonas donde predominan las rocas ultrabasicas serpentinizadas tanto en superficie como en profundidad, definiendose la extension lateral de estas rocas por debajo de las rocas que afloran en superficie. Tambien se estimaron las variaciones de los espesores de las rocas ofioliticas, el basamento de las rocas que afloran, la presencia de estructuras disyuntivas, y se proponen nuevas estructuras de este tipo. Por ultimo se delimitan las zonas de alteracion hidrotermal, lo cual posee gran importancia, ya que con las mismas se pueden vincular mineralizaciones de metales preciosos. Ademas, su delimitacion en depositos lateriticos permite orientar los trabajos de explotacion minera, teniendo en cuenta el dano que causa al proceso metalurgico la presencia de material silicio en las lateritas Fe+Ni.

  7. US-CUBA RELATIONS: A NEW WAVE OF CONFRONTATION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    С Перес Бенитес

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article seeks to analyze the role of the changes introduced by the administration of the former president Barack Obama in 2014-2016 into the bilateral US-Cuba relations; and the way in which the new presidential team are to reorganize this direction. The question on the attitude of Donald Trump towards currently existing policies aimed at solving the long-lasting problem with Cuban socialism is especially interesting since new US president has multiple times condemned the old ways practiced by the former establishment, but at the same time has shown readiness to act in a straight-forward and confrontational manner. One of contributors of the paper, Santiago Perez Benitez, deputy director of the Center for International Political Studies in Havana, is attempting to provide his professional expertise in granting an insider view from the Cuban side, evaluating the progress made since the 2014 and interpret the notion of the upcoming policy changes in Washington. The importance of the Cuban issue in the framework of US. policy in the Western hemisphere is explained by the fact that a solution in this sphere could help remake a negative image of Pan-American policies that haunts Washington. Cuban issue has also been long considered a possible key for reestablish-ment of trust between the United States and Latin American countries. For president Trump, quite unpopular judging by the polls, Cuban issue also has a potential to earn support of his own constituents, who strongly support lifting the embargo from Cuba. However now after certain decisions of Donald Trump the future of US-Cuban relations seems to get gloomier by the day.

  8. JENIS PINJAL DAN INANG DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adil Ustiawan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Pinjal (ordo Siphonaptera serangga sangatpenting dalam bidang kesehatan karenakemampuannya menularkan berbagai jenispenyakit. Beberapa hasil penelitian tentang pinjalini menggambarkan keaneragaman pinjal diIndonesia dan tidak menutup kemungkinan spesiesyang akan ditemukan bertambah karena masihluasnya daerah dan sedikitnya tenaga yangmendalami bidang ini. Beberapa spesies pinjal daninang yang terdapat di Indonesia

  9. The Third Wave of Democratization in Indonesia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Delin, Azizan

    2000-01-01

    .... For half a century, authoritarianism was dominant in Indonesia, but like all dictatorships, Indonesia subsequently had to return to democracy. Pressures from within the authoritarian government and Indonesian society dictated the democratization process. However, the long term prospects for unstable democracy remain unclear.

  10. Report on Fulbright Summer Seminar on Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, Charles Elroy

    This resource packet was compiled by a participant in the Fulbright Summer Seminar on Indonesia. The materials provide information for teaching about the diaspora of Hinduism and Islamic beliefs throughout the southeast Asia archipelagoes and their influence on art and culture. The handouts supplement information on Indonesia as part of an Asian…

  11. Bangladesh apparel industry and its workers in a changing world economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmed, N.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis explores and analyses recent changes and challenges faced by the apparel industry of Bangladesh and the consequences of those for the Bangladesh economy. More specifically, it explores and analyses the importance of the apparel industry in the Bangladesh economy, the challenges faced by

  12. The Effectiveness of Farm Programmes on Bangladesh Betar in Educating Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Md. Mahedi; Mondal, Md. Nazrul Islam; Islam, Md. Nurul; Hoque, Md. Aminul

    2017-01-01

    Farm programmes (FPs) of varied categories have been developed and aired over several decades by Bangladesh Betar, the national radio of Bangladesh for the diffusion of farm technologies. The study aimed to produce an in-depth academic evaluation of their effectiveness in educating farmers in Bangladesh. A sample of 465 respondents from the Khulna…

  13. Goal Programming for the Optimization of the Harvest´s Structurein the Sugar Factory “Paquito Rosales” from Province Santiago de Cuba, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elio David Zaldívar-Linares

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The organizational deficiencies impact negatively in the sugar sector in Cuba. The roots of these deficiencies arise from the activity that precedes it: the planning. The objective of this paper is to perfect the planning of the transportation of the cane like part of the process of production of the sugar. For this a model of Goal Programming will be built, in order to optimize the mentioned planning and the same one will be validated in the Managerial Unit of Base (MUB sugar station "Paquito Rosales" of the county Santiago de Cuba. This model will facilitate an improvement of the economic and industrial meters.

  14. Shia: Its History and Development in Indonesia

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    Moh Hasyim

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Shiah becomes a new problem in Indonesia after hundreds years of living together. Currently, treatment to Shiah tends to violate the principles of religious freedom. Therefore, it is necessary to know, how the history of the emergence of Shiah and its development in Indonesia? This is a library research using a critical analysis approach. This study found that the Syiah is a religious ideology which refers to the views of Saidina Ali (the fourth khalifat and his descendants. This teaching emerged since the beginning of the khulafaurasidin. Shiah has developed dozens of religiousstreams due to disagreement and differences on the idea of Imamah. There are four stages of Shiah development in Indonesia, namely: Firstly, along with the arrival of Islam in Indonesia; Secondly, after the Islamic revolution in Iran; Thirdly, through Indonesian Muslim Intellectuals who studied in Iran, and Finally,  during the open era there was an establishment of as association Jamaah Ahlul Bai’t Indonesia.

  15. Perkembangan Korupsi Dalam Novel Indonesia

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    M. Shoim Anwar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Tulisan ini bertujuan mendeskripsikan perkembangan korupsi yang terepresentasikan dalam novel Indonesia. Teori yang digunakan adalah teori sosiologi, kajian budaya, jaringan, dan pasca­kolonial. Sumber datanya adalah novel Korupsi (1954 karya Pramoedya Ananta Toer, Senja di Jakarta (1970 karya Mochtar Lubis, Ladang Perminus (1990 karya Ramadhan K.H., Orang-­Orang Proyek (2002 karya Ahmad Tohari, dan Memburu Koruptor (2009 karya Urip Sutomo. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa sesuai dengan latar waktu dalam novel, waktu penyelesaian, serta waktu diterbitkan, perkembangan korupsi dalam novel Indonesia dapat dirumuskan dengan periode tahun: 1945-1954, 1954-1957, 1966-1976/1982, 1991-1992/2001, 1998-2009. Korupsi dalam teks novel Indonesia berkembang semakin luas baik dari segi pelaku, penyebab, modus, maupun sifatnya. Abstract: This paper is aimed at describing the development of corruption in Indonesian novels. This paper uses theories of sociology, cultural studies, network, and postcolonial. The sources of data are Korupsi (1954 by Pramoedya Ananta Toer, Senja di Jakarta (1970 by Mochtar Lubis, Ladang Perminus (1990 by Ramadhan K.H., Orang­Orang Proyek (2002 by Ahmad Tohari, and Memburu Koruptor (2009 by Urip Sutomo. The result of the research shows that in accordance with the background of the time in the novels, completion time, and publication time, the development of corruption in Indonesian novels can be formulated by the way of periods of years: 1945-1954, 1954-1957, 1966-1976/1982, 1991-1992/2001, 1998-2009. Corruption in the texts of Indonesian novels has developed widely in terms of actors, causes, modes, and nature. Key Words: corruption, period, development, Indonesian novels

  16. Diversidad florística del Paisaje Natural Protegido “Estrella-Aguadores”, Santiago de Cuba, Cuba

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    Miguel Ángel Castell-Puchades

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available El Paisaje Natural Protegido “Estrella-Aguadores” se considera entre las áreas de mayor riqueza florística de la costa suroriental de Cuba, sin embargo, son insuficientes los estudios florísticos locales que les posibilite a técnicos y decisores locales contar con la información necesaria para emprender acciones adecuadas de conservación y manejo; con el objetivo de resolver este problema, realizamos un estudio de la diversidad florística que caracteriza el área protegida. Se desarrolló un muestreo preferencial, sin rumbo fijo, teniendo en cuenta en cada recorrido las características físico-geográficas del área, así como la ecología de las especies. El trabajo de campo se realizó según la metodología de los inventarios biológicos rápidos. Se identifican 266 especies de angiospermas para el Paisaje Natural Protegido “Estrella-Aguadores”, de las cuales 112 constituyen nuevos registros para el área protegida. Se registran 38 especies endémicas y seis especies amenazadas. El 48% de las angiospermas registradas presentan algún tipo de uso o valor para los comunitarios. Este trabajo muestra al Paisaje Natural Protegido “Estrella-Aguadores” como una de las reservas más importantes en diversidad de angiospermas de las terrazas costeras de Cuba, lo cual resalta su función como área de protección de la flora.

  17. Safeguarding Water Contracts in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Mova Al Afghani

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The provision of water and sewerage services has been in the public sector for thousands of years. However, the trend towards privatising these basic services has recently been growing. When dealing with Multinational Corporations (MNCs, governments face risks in the form of legal asymmetries. This paper explains the theory and practice of water privatisation in Indonesia. It analyses the legal anatomy of privatisation, from the regulatory to the contractual levels. It attempts to highlight important issues and risks that governments and other stakeholders need to focus on when dealing with privatisation.

  18. Indonesia knowledge dissemination: a snapshot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasution, M. K. M.

    2018-03-01

    The educational progress of a country or educational institution is measured through the implementation of knowledge dissemination. Evidence of knowledge dissemination has carried out be in form of the type of published document, which is based on the databases of the index of scientific publications: Scopus. This paper expresses a simple form of knowledge dissemination based on document type. Although the growth of knowledge dissemination does not have the same pattern based on the appearance of document types, the general implementation is almost the same. However, maximum effort needs to be done by PTN-bh to support Indonesia knowledge dissemination.

  19. MANAJEMEN RANTAI PASOKAN INDUSTRI FARMASI DI INDONESIA

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    Ronny H. Mustamu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Supply Chain Management (SCM plays a very important role in the pharmaceutical industry, especially in Indonesia, where more than 90 percent of raw materials for pharmaceutical industry are actually imported. It is known that Indonesia's pharmaceutical industry is very expensive. Government of Indonesia (GOI is hardly managed the pharmaceutical industry due to its complexity. Too many players put its stakes in this industry. The growing industry clusters are also coloring the competition amongst existing players. This article is a literature review and enriched with secondary data to continue the work of Mustamu (2000. Meant to describe Indonesia's pharmaceutical industry from the perspective of supply chain management. The 120 days throughput time within the industry and the high margins make this industry very attractive for illegal pharmaceutical producers. To make it worse, the illegal pharmaceutical producers that copying products of legal pharmaceutical companies are also developing its distribution channels in the market. At the end, the unaware end-users are becoming victims of the game. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Manajemen Rantai Pasokan (MRP memainkan peran penting dalam industri farmasi, terutama di Indonesia di mana lebih dari 90 prosen bahan baku industri farmasi adalah bahan impor. Di dunia, industri farmasi Indonesia dikenal sangat mahal. Pemerintah Republik Indonesia (RI sulit mengendalikan industri farmasi akibat kompleksitas yang dimilikinya. Terlalu banyak pemain yang memiliki kepentingan dalam industri ini. Kelompok industri pendukung yang sedang tumbuh juga mewarnai persaingan antar pemain yang ada. Artikel ini bersifat kajian pustaka dan diperkaya dengan data sekunder sebagai kelanjutan karya Mustamu (2000. Dimaksudkan untuk menggambarkan industri farmasi Indonesia dari perspektif MRP. 120 hari waktu perlaluan (throughput time dalam industri ini serta tingginya prosentase keuntungan, menjadikan industri ini sangat

  20. INDUSTRI KREATIF INDONESIA: PENDEKATAN ANALISIS KINERJA INDUSTRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Kamil

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2008, the Department of Commerce of the Republic of Indonesia has launched a creative economic development documents interpreted the 2025 Indonesia became the starting point and guide the development of the creative economy in Indonesia. With the existence of this document, the industry and its stakeholders or other stakeholders can readily develop the creative economy in Indonesia. Economic development in the direction of the creative industries is one manifestation of optimism aspiration to support the Master Plan for the Acceleration and Expansion of Indonesia's Economic Development in realizing the vision of Indonesia are being developed nation. The main objective of this study is the first to analyze the role of the creative industries in Indonesia for labor, value added and productivity, secondly, to analyze the performance trend of the creative industries sector, and third, to analyze the factors affecting the performance of the creative industries sector in Indonesia. Under Indonesia Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC and codes 151-372 (manufacturing industries category identified 18 industry groups belonging to the creative industries, showed that the performance of the national creative industries has been relatively high (in terms of trend analysis of the performance of the industrial creative. Furthermore, regression analysis of panel data (econometrics indicates that company size (SIZE, wages for workers (WAGE and the content of local inputs (LOCAL has a significant impact on the performance of Indonesia's creative industry. Meanwhile, the concentration ratio (CR4 no consequences but have koresi significantly positive effect on the performance of Indonesia’s creative industry.

  1. Edad de ocurrencia de los fallecimientos por diabetes en Cuba Age of occurrence of deaths from diabetes in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Domínguez Alonso

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: el incremento de la tasa bruta de mortalidad en Cuba durante los últimos años, unido al acelerado proceso de envejecimiento poblacional, nos encauzó en el presente estudio. Objetivo: identificar diferencias en la edad de ocurrencia de las defunciones por diabetes en Cuba del año 1990 a 2010. Métodos: se incluyeron todas las defunciones por diabetes ocurridas en el país durante los años 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005 y 2010. A partir de estas se calcularon: las tasas de años de vida potencial perdidos por mortalidad por 1 000, los años de vida potencial perdidos por cada defunción, la media de la edad de los fallecidos, los cuartiles de la distribución de la edad de la muerte, y el porcentaje del total de fallecidos por diabetes por grupos quinquenales de edad. Resultados: la tasa de años de vida potencial perdidos se elevó en el sexo masculino de 2,44 a 2,63 por 1 000, mientras que en las mujeres tuvo un comportamiento discretamente descendente (de 4,54 a 4,46 por 1 000. Los años de vida potencial perdidos por cada defunción disminuyeron en ambos sexos (de 15,98 a 14,83 en hombres, y de 16,31 a 15,27 en mujeres. Esto último se relaciona directamente con el incremento de la media de la edad de los fallecidos, de 67,51 y 69,31 en 1990, a 70,24 y 72,33 en 2010 en hombres y mujeres respectivamente, así como con que los tres cuartiles se correspondieron con una mayor edad en los años 2005 y 2010, en relación con 1990 en ambos sexos. El porcentaje del total de defunciones perteneciente al grupo de 85 años y más fue de 9,9 y 16,2 % en 1990 y 2010 respectivamente. Las defunciones en las mujeres ocurrieron más tardíamente, a pesar de mostrar mayores tasas de años de vida potencial perdidos. Conclusiones: la mortalidad por diabetes en Cuba durante los últimos años se ha desplazado a los grupos de edades más avanzadas.Introduction: the increase of the gross mortality rate in Cuba in the last few years, together with the

  2. The intergenerational transmission of intimate partner violence in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Towfiqua Mahfuza; Tareque, Md Ismail; Tiedt, Andrew D; Hoque, Nazrul

    2014-01-01

    A number of individual risk factors for intimate partner violence (IPV) have been identified in Bangladesh. However, the etiology of IPV, intergenerational transmission, has never been tested in Bangladesh. We examined whether witnessing inter-parental physical violence (IPPV) was associated with IPV to identify whether IPV passes across generations in Bangladesh. We used nationally representative data of currently married women from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey-2007. Variations in experiencing IPV were assessed by Chi-square tests. Logistic regression models were fit to determine the association between witnessing IPPV and different types of IPV against women. One-fourth of women witnessed IPPV and experienced IPV. After adjusting for the covariates, women who witnessed IPPV were 2.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.0-2.8) times more likely to experience any kind of IPV, 2.5 (95% CI: 2.0-3.0) times more likely to experience moderate physical IPV, 2.3 (95% CI: 1.8-3.0) times more likely to experience severe physical IPV, and 1.8 (95% CI: 1.4-2.3) times more likely to experience sexual IPV. Age, age at first marriage, literacy, work status, wealth, justified wife beating, and women's autonomy were also identified as significant correlates of IPV. This study's results indicate that IPV passes from one generation to another. We make recommendations for preventing IPPV so that subsequent generations can enjoy healthy, respectful, nonviolent relationships in married life without exposure to IPV in Bangladesh.

  3. High mortality from Guillain-Barré syndrome in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishaque, Tanveen; Islam, Mohammad B; Ara, Gulshan; Endtz, Hubert P; Mohammad, Quazi D; Jacobs, Bart C; Islam, Zhahirul

    2017-06-01

    Although Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) has higher incidence and poor outcome in Bangladesh, mortality from GBS in Bangladesh has never been explored before. We sought to explore the frequency, timing, and risk factors for deaths from GBS in Bangladesh. We conducted a prospective study on 407 GBS patients who were admitted to Dhaka Medical College Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh from 2010 to 2013. We compared deceased and alive patients to identify risk factors. Cox regression model was used to adjust for confounders. Of the 407 GBS patients, 50 (12%) died, with the median time interval between the onset of weakness and death of 18 days. Among the fatal cases, 24 (48%) were ≥40 years, 36 (72%) had a Medical Research Council sum score ≤20 at entry, 33 (66%) had a progressive phase 8 days) (HR: 2.06; 95% CI: 1.1-3.8), autonomic dysfunction (HR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.05-3.6), and bulbar nerve involvement (HR: 5.4; 95% CI: 1.5-19.2). In Bangladesh, GBS is associated with higher mortality rates, which is related to lack of ventilator support, disease severity, longer progressive phase of the disease, autonomic dysfunction, and involvement of the bulbar nerves. © 2017 Peripheral Nerve Society.

  4. Potentiality of wind power generation along the Bangladesh coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Md. Akramuzzaman; Chowdhury, K. M. Azam; Sen, Sukanta; Islam, Mohammad Masudul

    2017-12-01

    Nowadays Bangladesh is facing the problem with electricity as the production is less comparing to the demand. A significant amount of electricity is consumed in urban areas especially by industries whereas in rural or coastal areas most of the people are not having it. Around 40 millions of people living in the 724 km long coast in Bangladesh. Moreover, it is surprising that throughout the year there is sufficient wind blow in coastal areas by which we can produce a massive amount of electricity. However, day by day the utilization of wind energy is increasing in the world which reduces costs of renewable energy technology, improves efficiency. It would be a good alternative solution instead of dependency on natural gas. Wind energy is mainly potential in coastal and offshore areas with strong wind regimes. Wind energy is vital for ensuring a green energy for the future. The agricultural land of Bangladesh needs the supply of water at right time for better yielding. The installation of windmills will be very much convenient for operating the water supply pumps. This research highlights the possibility of wind energy and describes the necessary steps to implement and develop wind energy sector in Bangladesh by using other's successful ideas. Supportive policies, rules, and decree can be applied to make government, non-government organization, and donor organizations work together to develop wind energy sector in Bangladesh.

  5. Modeling and forecasting natural gas demand in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadud, Zia; Dey, Himadri S.; Kabir, Md. Ashfanoor; Khan, Shahidul I.

    2011-01-01

    Natural gas is the major indigenous source of energy in Bangladesh and accounts for almost one-half of all primary energy used in the country. Per capita and total energy use in Bangladesh is still very small, and it is important to understand how energy, and natural gas demand will evolve in the future. We develop a dynamic econometric model to understand the natural gas demand in Bangladesh, both in the national level, and also for a few sub-sectors. Our demand model shows large long run income elasticity - around 1.5 - for aggregate demand for natural gas. Forecasts into the future also show a larger demand in the future than predicted by various national and multilateral organizations. Even then, it is possible that our forecasts could still be at the lower end of the future energy demand. Price response was statistically not different from zero, indicating that prices are possibly too low and that there is a large suppressed demand for natural gas in the country. - Highlights: → Natural gas demand is modeled using dynamic econometric methods, first of its kind in Bangladesh. → Income elasticity for aggregate natural gas demand in Bangladesh is large-around 1.5. → Demand is price insensitive, indicating too low prices and/or presence of large suppressed demand. → Demand forecasts reveal large divergence from previous estimates, which is important for planning. → Attempts to model demand for end-use sectors were successful only for the industrial sector.

  6. History and Perspectives of Nuclear Medicine in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Raihan

    2016-01-01

    Bangladesh is one of the smaller states in Asia. But it has a long and rich history of nuclear medicine for over sixty years. The progress in science and technology is always challenging in a developing country. In 1958, work for the first Nuclear Medicine facility was commenced in Dhaka in a tin-shed known as ‘Radioisotope Centre’ and was officially inaugurated in 1962. Since the late 50s of the last century nuclear medicine in Bangladesh has significantly progressed through the years in its course of development, but still the facilities are inadequate. At present there are 20 nuclear medicine establishments with 3 PET-CTs, 42 gamma camera/SPECTs with 95 physicians, 20 physicists, 10 radiochemists and 150 technologists. The Society of Nuclear Medicine, Bangladesh (SNMB) was formed in 1993 and publishing its official journal since 1997. Bangladesh also has close relationships with many international organizations like IAEA, ARCCNM, AOFNMB, ASNM, WFNMB and WARMTH. The history and the present scenario of the status of nuclear medicine in Bangladesh are being described here. PMID:27904875

  7. History and Perspectives of Nuclear Medicine in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Raihan

    2016-01-01

    Bangladesh is one of the smaller states in Asia. But it has a long and rich history of nuclear medicine for over sixty years. The progress in science and technology is always challenging in a developing country. In 1958, work for the first Nuclear Medicine facility was commenced in Dhaka in a tin-shed known as 'Radioisotope Centre' and was officially inaugurated in 1962. Since the late 50s of the last century nuclear medicine in Bangladesh has significantly progressed through the years in its course of development, but still the facilities are inadequate. At present there are 20 nuclear medicine establishments with 3 PET-CTs, 42 gamma camera/SPECTs with 95 physicians, 20 physicists, 10 radiochemists and 150 technologists. The Society of Nuclear Medicine, Bangladesh (SNMB) was formed in 1993 and publishing its official journal since 1997. Bangladesh also has close relationships with many international organizations like IAEA, ARCCNM, AOFNMB, ASNM, WFNMB and WARMTH. The history and the present scenario of the status of nuclear medicine in Bangladesh are being described here.

  8. Children’s use of Bahasa Indonesia in Jakarta kindergartens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everaert, M.B.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/071746080; Van de Velde, H.; Kushartanti, B.

    2015-01-01

    At a very young age children living in Jakarta use both Colloquial Jakarta Indonesia and Bahasa Indonesia. The children’s first and most used language is Colloquial Jakarta Indonesia. In the formal school setting Bahasa Indonesia is frequently used and stimulated on a daily basis, and the learning

  9. Analysis on traditional fishing grounds in Indonesia`s Natuna waters under International Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniaty, R.; Ikaningtyas; Ruslijanto, P. A.

    2018-04-01

    This paper examines the boundary tension between Indonesia and China regarding traditional fishing ground in Natuna. Indonesia`s Natuna island is claimed by the China government as its traditional fishing zone/ground. The inclusion of Natuna territory into China`s traditional fishing zone brings new problems to Indonesia, especially with the Chinese ships docked and entered Indonesia`s exclusive economic zone, as well as several cases of illegal fishing over the territorial waters of Indonesia. Claims on traditional fishing zones have the potential to threaten the sovereignty of the Indonesian territory. This study aims to analyze the claims of the traditional fishing rights of China over the waters of the Natuna Islands under international law, especially UNCLOS 1982. This study revealed that the china`s argument of traditional fishing ground in Natuna to the nine dash line map is a unilateral claim, there is no international legal norm that can be used as the legal basis. Indonesia and some ASEAN countries have Internationally validated bilateral agreement on the continental shelf (i.e. Indonesia-Vietnam and Indonesia-Malaysia) thus the inclusion of Natuna into China`s nine dash line map rejects the legal status of Indonesian water under UNCLOS 1982.

  10. Menggagas Pendidikan Multikultur di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anin Nurhayati

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia with diversity of ethnic, culture, tradition, social group, religion, and so on, on the one hand, has aroused the dynamics of cultural diversity and positive civilization; on the other hand, it will even become the cause of conflict and disintegration, if it is not managed wisely and comprehensively. Multicultural education in Indonesia, however, should not only become an academic discourse, but it needs to be implemented in the concrete sphere, among them is in the education realm. Here, we need a conceptual frame in its implementation, so that the problem that emerges as the effect of the diversity and religiousness bias does not become a heavy burden of this nation. Multicultural education is a reform as well as the process of education which inculcate to the students the values and beliefs the importance of uniqueness recognition at every ethnic, culture, and other social groups. There are at least five scopes in multicultural education, they are (1 promotion to strengthen cultural diversity; (2 promotion to respect human right and other different people; (3 promotion to act based on his own way of life for every human being; and (5 promotion to the importance of equality and distribution of authority among different social groups.

  11. Responding book banning in indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aji, RNB; Artono; Liana, C.

    2018-01-01

    The prohibition of books conducted by the government through its apparatus without any due process of law is unfortunate. The Constitutional Court of the Republic of Indonesia (MKRI) in 2010 was decided that book banning is contradictory to the 1945 Constitution (UUD 1945). The purpose of this paper is to know Indonesia, according to the Constitutional Court must absolutely carry out the function of due process of law that is law enforcement in a judicial system when it wants to prohibit printed material which is a book, whether it is a book that is considered criticism and books that teach radicalism. It would be wise for anyone who disagrees with a book, and then responds by writing through a book. The result of this article is to support and suggest that the government and its apparatus in the state of the law should not arbitrarily impose a book ban. Likewise, people should not take violence action to respond this issue. In historical records, the prohibition of books without due process of law is always followed by the withdrawal of books and make people unable to deal with differences, especially in knowledge. That’s why, the government and its apparatus must create a conducive situation and support the creation of various perspectives in the framework of the progress of science through a book. It would implicate that people can respect in any perspective and thought.

  12. Pricing of electricity in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amarullah, M.

    1983-01-01

    The objectives of this study are 1) to establish a sound theoretical basis for the determinants of electricity demand in Indonesia, 2) to measure the welfare losses of existing electricity pricing, and 3) to suggest a method of reducing these welfare losses. An econometric model for electricity demand is estimated using pooled time-series of fifteen regions in Indonesia covering the period 1970-1979. The short run price elasticities for both residential and industrial/business sectors are found to be inelastic, while the long run price elasticities for these sectors are found to be quite elastic with a value of -.61 for the residential sector and of -1.1 for the industrial/business sector. Income elasticity is .8 in the short run and around 1.00 for the long run. The exposure variable that captures the accessibility of electricity, has long run elasticity of 1.00 for the residential sector and less than 1.00 for the industrial/business sector. Due to distributional considerations, the 1980's electricity rate was set below its efficient level, and has created a welfare loss of Rp.8273.23 million per month. This accounts for 36.03% of the monthly electricity revenue. A rebate mechanism is recommended in this study, which provides a way to mitigate conflicting aspects of efficiency and equity

  13. Profil Literasi Informasi Pustakawan Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arief Wicaksono

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Information literacy is one of the competencies of the library profession. Information literacy is needed in the work of librarianship. Reference service, the key determinant of library status in the society, requires competencies in information literacy. The purpose of this study is to find out how librarians in Indonesia meet the requirement of information literacy competencies and what factors affect the mastery of information literacy. This study is a qualitative research with literature survey. Based on the existing literature, the hypothesis was developed that librarians of Indonesia have information literacy skills if their personal development are supported by both internal and external factors. Internal factors comprise motivation (encouragement of work, efforts to achieve success, material and non-material motivation, attitudes towards the profession (job satisfaction, professional satisfaction, and organizational commitment, and other knowledge-skill-attitude (knowledge, computer literacy, digital literacy, and English language skills, educational background, and level of education. While external factors include availability of computers and Internet network, library policy to support the development of information literacy of librarians.

  14. TRAMWAY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN INDONESIA

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    Melia Damayanti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tramway systems, which can carry more passengers than buses at one haul, are now being proposed to meet Indonesia’s public transport requirement. The objective of this research is to analyze the management structures for operating tram in different countries and then propose a suitable organizational structure for operating trams, if re-introduced, in Indonesia. The author chose France (Montpellier tramway, Germany (Karlsruhe tram-train and the UK (Nottingham Express Transit as the role model countries for investigation. From the analysis, the most appropriate organizational structure and suitable tramway management structure for operating tramways implementation in Indonesia. The key features of the research are to establish public transport company by local government to manage all public transport systems, propose tramway construction and operation to exist as separate departments under the tramway team division of the public company, recommend the public transport company to have responsibility for overseeing construction of the trams, operating, and maintaining the trams, suggest local government to own them and have responsibility for tramway strategic policy, control regulation as well as supervision and coordination of the performance of the public transport company, propose joint working between public and private sectors.

  15. Increased sex ratio in Russia and Cuba after Chernobyl: a radiological hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherb, Hagen; Kusmierz, Ralf; Voigt, Kristina

    2013-08-15

    The ratio of male to female offspring at birth may be a simple and non-invasive way to monitor the reproductive health of a population. Except in societies where selective abortion skews the sex ratio, approximately 105 boys are born for every 100 girls. Generally, the human sex ratio at birth is remarkably constant in large populations. After the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in April 1986, a long lasting significant elevation in the sex ratio has been found in Russia, i.e. more boys or fewer girls compared to expectation were born. Recently, also for Cuba an escalated sex ratio from 1987 onward has been documented and discussed in the scientific literature. By the end of the eighties of the last century in Cuba as much as about 60% of the food imports were provided by the former Soviet Union. Due to its difficult economic situation, Cuba had neither the necessary insight nor the political strength to circumvent the detrimental genetic effects of imported radioactively contaminated foodstuffs after Chernobyl. We propose that the long term stable sex ratio increase in Cuba is essentially due to ionizing radiation. A synoptic trend analysis of Russian and Cuban annual sex ratios discloses upward jumps in 1987. The estimated jump height from 1986 to 1987 in Russia measures 0.51% with a 95% confidence interval (0.28, 0.75), p value Cuba the estimated jump height measures 2.99% (2.39, 3.60), p value Cuba and by radiological analyses of remains in Cuba for Cs-137 and Sr-90. If the evidence for the hypothesis is strengthened, there is potential to learn about genetic radiation risks and to prevent similar effects in present and future exposure situations.

  16. Increased sex ratio in Russia and Cuba after Chernobyl: a radiological hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The ratio of male to female offspring at birth may be a simple and non-invasive way to monitor the reproductive health of a population. Except in societies where selective abortion skews the sex ratio, approximately 105 boys are born for every 100 girls. Generally, the human sex ratio at birth is remarkably constant in large populations. After the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in April 1986, a long lasting significant elevation in the sex ratio has been found in Russia, i.e. more boys or fewer girls compared to expectation were born. Recently, also for Cuba an escalated sex ratio from 1987 onward has been documented and discussed in the scientific literature. Presentation of the hypothesis By the end of the eighties of the last century in Cuba as much as about 60% of the food imports were provided by the former Soviet Union. Due to its difficult economic situation, Cuba had neither the necessary insight nor the political strength to circumvent the detrimental genetic effects of imported radioactively contaminated foodstuffs after Chernobyl. We propose that the long term stable sex ratio increase in Cuba is essentially due to ionizing radiation. Testing of the hypothesis A synoptic trend analysis of Russian and Cuban annual sex ratios discloses upward jumps in 1987. The estimated jump height from 1986 to 1987 in Russia measures 0.51% with a 95% confidence interval (0.28, 0.75), p value < 0.0001. In Cuba the estimated jump height measures 2.99% (2.39, 3.60), p value < 0.0001. The hypothesis may be tested by reconstruction of imports from the world markets to Cuba and by radiological analyses of remains in Cuba for Cs-137 and Sr-90. Implications of the hypothesis If the evidence for the hypothesis is strengthened, there is potential to learn about genetic radiation risks and to prevent similar effects in present and future exposure situations. PMID:23947741

  17. Corrupción, burocracia colonial y veteranos separatistas en Cuba, 1868-1910

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quiroz, Alfonso W.

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Administrative corruption in Cuba during the nineteenth century was a serious problem addressed both by Spanish authorities and the critics of the colonial system in Cuba. In the long run the fiscal, financial, institutional, and ideological costs of corruption undermined Spanish colonial control in Cuba. While the state and Cuban taxpayers had to pay for the increased costs of corruption, corrupt public officials and private contractors and financiers benefited. This study uses both archival manuscript administrative sources and published sources to assess the impact of corruption and its institutional bases during the final phase of Spanish colonialism in Cuba and the early period of post-colonial transition.

    La corrupción administrativa en Cuba durante el siglo XIX constituyó un problema reconocido como muy grave tanto por las autoridades españolas como por los críticos del sistema colonial cubano. Los costos fiscales, institucionales, e ideológicos de la corrupción contribuían a la erosión del dominio español en Cuba. A causa de la corrupción el Estado percibía menos ingresos y los contribuyentes cubanos se veían forzados a llevar a cuestas una creciente deuda pública. Los funcionarios corruptos y los contratistas y financistas privilegiados por el rígido sistema colonial, por el contrario, percibían los beneficios informales a que se creían acreedores por defender el dominio territorial español en Cuba. Utilizando fuentes administrativas manuscritas de archivos cubanos y españoles, así como fuentes públicas impresas, este trabajo evalúa el impacto de la corrupción y sus particulares bases institucionales en la fase final del colonialismo español en la isla y la transición post-colonial temprana.

  18. Intimate Encounters: Affective Economies in Cuba and the Dominican Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia L. Cabezas

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on research in Cuba and the Dominican Republic this paper explores the uses of intimacy in both the corporate sector and in romantic relationships. I use research with hotel workers and with people involved in sexual-affective exchanges connected to tourism to link intimacy to the political economic structures of transnational tourism. These are new spaces of analysis that present practices of transnational corporategenerated intimacy that combine love – or the exploitation of worker’s emotions − and labour. The central aim is to intertwine the intimate with the global, from the formal customer service policies of transnational hotels with the informal, on-the-ground, intimate encounters between tourists and hospitality workers. The commercialization of intimacy, including sexual-affective relations in the delivery of hospitality services, is linked to political and economic processes that are part of transnational tourism practices. This paper challenges the notion that sex tourism and sex work are individualistic practices that exist outside of the spaces of corporate global profit. It further posits that relationships where money is exchanged are not necessarily devoid of care and intimacy.Resumen: Encuentros íntimos: economías afectivas en Cuba y República Dominicana A partir de investigaciones en Cuba y la República Dominicana, este trabajo explora los usos de la intimidad, tanto en el sector empresarial como en las relaciones románticas. Se hicieron investigaciones entre trabajadores de hostelería y personas involucradas en el intercambio afectivosexual relacionado con el turismo con el fin de vincular la intimidad de las estructuras políticoeconómicas del turismo transnacional. Estos son nuevos espacios de análisis que las prácticas de las empresas transnacionales generan por el uso de la intimidad que combinan el amor – o la explotación de las emociones del trabajador – y la mano de obra. El objetivo central

  19. An interview with Mahmuder Rahman: Bangladesh's arsenic agony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mahmuder

    2008-01-01

    Professor Mahmuder Rahman obtained his medical degree from Dhaka University in Bangladesh and is a member of the Royal College of Physicians (United Kingdom). He was a full professor and consultant physician at Dhaka National Medical College and Hospital until 2003. Apart from his clinical and academic work, he has contributed extensively to formulating policy for affordable health services, and is actively involved in developing integrated health delivery services such as Dhaka Community Hospital, which is a self-financing hospital dedicated to providing health care for people on low incomes. Rahman was actively involved in developing the "Arsenicosis" National Case Detection and Case Management Protocols. He has published more than 15 papers on Bangladesh's arsenic problem. As a member of Bangladesh's National Expert Committee on Arsenic, he took a leading role in formulating the National Arsenic Mitigation Policy and Action Plan.

  20. Climate change and soil salinity: The case of coastal Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Susmita; Hossain, Md Moqbul; Huq, Mainul; Wheeler, David

    2015-12-01

    This paper estimates location-specific soil salinity in coastal Bangladesh for 2050. The analysis was conducted in two stages: First, changes in soil salinity for the period 2001-2009 were assessed using information recorded at 41 soil monitoring stations by the Soil Research Development Institute. Using these data, a spatial econometric model was estimated linking soil salinity with the salinity of nearby rivers, land elevation, temperature, and rainfall. Second, future soil salinity for 69 coastal sub-districts was projected from climate-induced changes in river salinity and projections of rainfall and temperature based on time trends for 20 Bangladesh Meteorological Department weather stations in the coastal region. The findings indicate that climate change poses a major soil salinization risk in coastal Bangladesh. Across 41 monitoring stations, the annual median projected change in soil salinity is 39 % by 2050. Above the median, 25 % of all stations have projected changes of 51 % or higher.

  1. Challenges in Teaching Pronunciation at Tertiary Level in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanzina Tahereen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Teaching pronunciation is one the most challenging parts of ELT in Bangladesh. Very few research and least attention on pronunciation teaching has instigated those challenges more. Moreover, setting an ambitious target to achieve native like pronunciation and teaching without considering the Bangladeshi context are more specific reasons for creating those problems. Therefore, this paper concentrates on the discussion of the existing condition of teaching pronunciation in Bangladesh. Consequently, it starts with presenting existing circumstances of pronunciation teaching in Bangladesh, and showing what the achievable and realistic goal should be for this situation. Then, it talks about the challenges that the teachers face while teaching pronunciation in ELT classroom. This discussion provides deep insight into those challenges which are only applicable to Bangladeshi students. Finally, the paper suggests some contextual and practical solutions to those specific problems.

  2. Evangelizacion Indigena en Cuba (1512-1550): Estrategia y Razones de su Fracaso (Evangelization of Indigenous People in Cuba (1512-1550): Strategies and Reasons for its Failure).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puentes, Roberto Valdes; Reyes, Francisco Barroso

    2000-01-01

    Presents the different moments and contents of the strategies of the evangelization process practiced by the Spanish during the conquest and colonization of Cuba, as well as possible reasons for its failure. States that the Indians were enslaved and directed through evangelism toward acculturation. (BT)

  3. Sustainable agriculture: a challenge in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.A. Faroque

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The sustainability of conventional agriculture in Bangladesh is under threat from the continuous degradation of land and water resources, and from declining yields due to indiscriminate use of agro-chemicals. Government is pursuing efforts to promote sustainable agriculture with emphasis on better use of on-farm resources and the reduction of external inputs. This paper presents four dimensions of agricultural sustainability as productivity, environmental stability, economical profitability, and social and economic equity. Six characters were selected to evaluate sustainability. Significant differences were found between the two systems (conventional and sustainable agriculture in crop diversification, soil fertility management, pests and diseases management, use of agro-chemicals and environmental issues. However, no significant variations were found in other indicators such as land-use pattern, crop yield and stability, risk and uncertainties, and food security. Although crop yield and financial return were found to be slightly higher in the conventional system, the economic return and value addition per unit of land did not show any difference. It can be suggested that sustainable agriculture has a tendency towards becoming environmental, economically and socially more sound than conventional agriculture, as it requires considerably less agro-chemicals, adds more organic matter to the soil, provides balanced food, and requires higher local inputs without markedly compromising output and financial benefits. Broad-policy measures, including the creation of mass awareness of adverse health effects of agrochemical-based products, are outlined for the promotion of sustainable agriculture.

  4. Coalbed Methane prospect of Jamalganj Coalfield Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imam, M. Badrul; Rahman, M.; Akhtar, Syed Humayun

    2002-01-01

    Five major Gondwana coalfields have been discovered in the half-graben type basins in the subsurface in the Precambrian platform area of the Northwest Bangladesh. The Jamalganj coalfields with an estimated reserve of about 1053 millions tons of coal, has seven coal seams in the depth range between 640 to 1158m below the ground surface. Compared to the other coalfields of the area, with coal occurring at 150 to 500m depth, Jamalganj coal is considered to be too deep to be exploited by conventional underground or open pit mining. Instead, developing coal bed methane from Jamalganj coalfield may be considered as a viable option for its exploitation. The positive factors of Jamalganj coal bed methane development include high net thickness of coal with at least one very thick (40m+) and widely developed seam, coal seam burial depth within optimum range, large coal reserves, indication of significant gas content from drilling data, and poor permeability in the rocks above and surrounding the coal layers. The thickest seam III can be primary target for CBM development especially where it combines with seam IV in the eastern part of coalfield. However, there are a number of unknown factors like actual gas content of coal, permeability, and in-seam pressure that need to be evaluated before deciding the viability of the project. An initial attempt to collect these base line data should include drilling test well or wells in the primary target area where seam III is most thick and widely developed. (author)

  5. Status of contamination monitoring in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begum, Aleya [Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Savar, Dacca (Bangladesh)

    1997-06-01

    The applications of radioisotopes and radiation sources to the research and development in medicine, food agriculture, industries and others are rapidly increasing in Bangladesh. The existing major nuclear facilites and allied laboratories of the country include 3 MW TRIGA Mark-2 research reactor for training, research and radioisotope production, 14 MeV neutron generator for nuclear data measurement and elemental analysis via neutron activation, 3 MeV Van de Graaff accelerator for the research and application of nuclear physics, and 50,000 Ci and 5,000 Ci Co-60 irradiators. About 10 Co-60 and Cs-137 teletherapy units are in operation in hospitals. The radioactive contamination of working areas, equipment, protective clothing and skin may result from normal operation and accidents, and contamination monitoring and decontamination are the essential part of radiation protection program. Surface contamination is monitored with Berthold survey meters. Hand and foot monitors have been used. Routine systematic search, continuous air monitoring, the examination of silt movement in Chittagong harbor using Sc-46 tracer and the measurement of tritium contamination for the neutron generator are reported. (K.I.)

  6. Sexual violence towards married women in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naved, Ruchira Tabassum

    2013-05-01

    This article explored the magnitude and nature of within marriage sexual violence against women and factors associated with physically forced sex by husbands in urban and rural Bangladesh using population-based survey data from 2001 (n = 2,702). Results showed high prevalence of lifetime sexual violence: 37 % in urban and 50 % in rural areas. An overwhelming majority of the women reported being sexually abused by husbands more than once. Logistic regression analyses revealed that six out of ten independent variables included in the models were significant. The factors positively associated with physically forced sex by husbands during the last 12 months were: history of physical abuse of husband's mother by his father; level of controlling behavior by husband; and forced or coerced first sex. Women's age (20-24 compared to 15-19) and dowry demand at marriage increased the likelihood of this violence in the rural area. Urban women in the second and third income quartiles were more likely to be exposed to this violence compared to women in the first quartile. Results highlight the need for prevention programs targeting men, which would help at the same time to break the cycle of intergenerational exposure and thereby transmission of violence. Notions of gender equality; women's sexual rights; and women's right to consent and choice need to be widely promoted particularly among men.

  7. Antenatal testing for cystic fibrosis in Cuba, 1988-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collazo, Teresa; López, Ixchel; Clark, Yulia; Piloto, Yaixa; González, Laura; Gómez, Manuel; García, Marileivis; Reyes, Lidice; Rodríguez, Fidel

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Cystic fibrosis is a multisystem autosomal recessive disease with wide variability in clinical severity. It is incurable and characterized by elevated and premature mortality, as well as poor quality of life. Its frequency, lethality and devastating impact on both the physical and psychological wellbeing of patients and their families, make it a serious health problem. Its frequency in Cuba is 1 in 9862 live births, where marked molecular heterogeneity of the CFTR gene makes molecular diagnosis difficult. Six mutations have been identified that together enable molecular characterization of only 55.5% of cystic fibrosis chromosomes. This paper presents national results of antenatal diagnostic testing, using direct and indirect methods, for detection of cystic fibrosis. OBJECTIVE Characterize the Cuban public health system's experience with antenatal molecular testing for cystic fibrosis from 1988 through 2011. METHODS A retrospective descriptive study was conducted with results of antenatal diagnostic testing of amniotic fluid, performed nationwide from 1988 through 2011, for 108 fetuses of couples with some risk of having children affected by cystic fibrosis, who requested testing. Polymerase chain reaction detected mutations p.F508del, p.G542X, p.R1162X, p.R334W, p.R553X and c.3120+1G>A, and markers XV2C and KM19. Data were analyzed using absolute frequencies and percentages, and presented in tables. RESULTS For 93 cases (86.1%), testing for cystic fibrosis was done using direct analysis of mutations p.F508del, p.G542X, p.R1162X, p.R334W, p.R553X and c.3120+1G>A; five cases (4.6%) were tested indirectly using markers XV2C/Taq I and KM19/Pst I; and 10 (9.3%) were tested using a combination of the two methods. A total of 72 diagnoses (66.7% of studies done) were concluded, of which there were 20 healthy fetuses, 16 affected, 27 carrier, and 9 who were either healthy or carriers of an unknown mutation. CONCLUSIONS Direct or indirect molecular study was

  8. NEW TRENDS IN LEGAL EDUCATION AT BANGLADESH OPEN UNIVERSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid FERDOUSI

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In Bangladesh, Formal legal education is provided by either a department of a university or an affiliated college. There are four public universities and above twenty six private universities in our country with law as a regular subject of teaching. Besides, the National University imparts teaching of law through law colleges in the country. All public and private universities providing law graduate degree by conventional system but many people deprived from this opportunities. Thus to increase equitable access to education and to develop the human resources of the country the Bangladesh Open University playing significant role. Large numbers of students of rural areas, particularly women, out of school and adults who must do work to support their families are include with the university. Bangladesh Open University is the only institution in Bangladesh which imparts education in open and distance mode and offers 23 formal programmes, the demand for the introduction of LL.B programme for the benefit of those who have been, for various reasons, deprived of the opportunity of undertaking graduate course in law in conventional mode of education. The decision to offer the programme in distance mode is being taken in response to the earnest desire of the relevant quarters expressed in various dailies and formal applications submitted to the university authority as the learners in the open and distance mode learn at his own place and any time whenever he feels convenient to learn and is not for restricted by time, space or age. Distance learning is, indeed, presently considered as a viable alternative of the conventional system of education to fulfill the growing demand for legal education.This paper presents the new academic trends in Bangladesh Open University by distance learning Bachelor of Laws (LL.B. degree and modern aspects of the legal education at School of Law in Bangladesh Open University.

  9. FORMAL TRADE BETWEEN INDIA AND BANGLADESH: AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K.S. YADAV

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The importance of improving trade flows between India and Bangladesh is not only beneficial to them, but for the whole SAARC region, given that Bhutan and Nepal utilise Bangladesh ports as gateways to trade outside the region. Bangladesh’s overall exports are dominated by labour-intensive manufacturing and its imports to India by primary commodities. The shares of manufactured goods in country’s overall export were about 92 and 91 percent in 2001 and 2011 respectively. However, the composition of bilateral trade between these two countries has been changing over time. Addition and removal in the list of products of trade basket is a usual process. Consistent products in the trade basket of Bangladesh are ready made garments and sea food, whereas those of India are raw cotton, cereals and products and machinery of iron and steel. Expansion of trade of these countries with outside world, but not with each other confirms the prevalence of certain barriers, physical or non-physical in nature, rendering many potential products remain untraded. India and Bangladesh being geographically proximate to each other possess huge scope to trade. Specifically as both the countries are rich in natural resources and are competent in the production of small-scale manufacturing and agrarian supplies, mostly from the eastern parts of India and Bangladesh, both possess huge potential for bilateral trade. Many items having high trade potential are still not able to get market exposure in the neighbouring country because of various non-tariff barriers prevailing in current trade scenario, which have hiked up the cost of doing business to unacceptable proportions and as most of the highly tradable products are still kept under the sensitive lists of Bangladesh. There are numerous bottlenecks in the current trade infrastructure which turns out to be physical barrier to trade. The present paper highlights the import export and Exchange Rate change and prospects of

  10. Issues in developing a mitigation strategy for Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asaduzzaman, M. [Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    1996-12-31

    Bangladesh, it is by now well-known, is at the receiving end, in the literal sense of the term, of the global climate change and its potential impacts. She contributes very little to the current global emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs). The Emission Inventory under the present umbrella project, Bangladesh Climate Change Study (BCCS), has found that her annual emission of carbon has been only 3.99 mn metric tons per year. An earlier study arrived at exactly the same figure. The figures for estimated release of methane is far less firm. The estimated methane emission in 1990 could be anywhere between 1 million and 6 million metric tons. In any case the total emission is unlikely to be more than one-half of one percent of the global total. On the other hand, however, she faces specter of widespread and more frequent floods, more frequent droughts, cyclones and above all sea-level rise (SLR) which may inundate a substantial part of the country all of these bringing in immeasurable misery and destitution and loss of income, employment and growth. One would expect that in such a situation, Bangladesh`s basic concern should be to prepare an appropriate adaptation strategy. This is already a major policy concern of the Government. There is, however, an increasing realization that Bangladesh should as well emphasize an appropriate mitigation strategy (MS). There may be at least three reasons why this should be so. The first is that she is a signatory of the Framework Convention on Climate Change. The second is that in the medium, if not short term she expects major growth due to a developing economy. Third is that Bangladesh depends primarily on fossil fuel imports for energy, and will become a larger source with further development.

  11. Augmented Reality Edugame Senjata Tradisional Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endah Sudarmilah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Senjata tradisional merupakan sebuah produk yang berkaitan erat dengan budaya suatu masyarakat. Selain berfungsi sebagai senjata, senjata tradisional telah menjadi identitas suatu bangsa yang membantu memperkaya khasanah budaya nusantara. Pendidikan di Indonesia berpedoman pada kurikulum baru yang disebut kurikulum 2013. Salah satu materi kurikulum mengarahkan siswa untuk belajar tentang senjata tradisional bentuk senjata tradisional. Berdasarkan pada masalah yang timbul dari kurikulum 2013, peneliti menyiapkan metode pembelajaran dengan menggabungkan Augmented Reality (AR dengan permainan edukasi berbasis adventure game dalam menyajikan materi keanekaragaman budaya Indonesia, terutama untuk senjata tradisional sehingga siswa memiliki semangat dalam belajar tentang keanekaragaman budaya Indonesia khusunya senjata.

  12. The production sharing contract in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machmud, T.N.

    1994-01-01

    The basic concept of production sharing is that the petroleum resource is owned and controlled by the host country while all cost and risk of exploration are borne by the contractor who is freely allowed to lift his share of petroleum. The first Production Sharing Contract (PSC) was established by the government of Indonesia in 1967 and has since become an accepted pattern for petroleum exploration and exploitation agreements between host governments and private oil companies in many developing countries in addition to Indonesia. The history of the PSC in Indonesia is briefly reviewed and a new incentive package and new contractual arrangements for gas developments are discussed. (UK)

  13. Financial Depth and Financial Access in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Setiawan, Sigit

    2015-01-01

    This study is intended to analyse the current levels of financial depth and financial access in Indonesia and to analyse the factors affecting them. The analysis method used was a combination of descriptive quantitative, benchmarking, and literature reviews. The conclusion is that the financial depth in Indonesia has not shown a satisfactory level since it was the lowest, or the second lowest ranked country among the sampled countries. Meanwhile, the financial access in Indonesia is relativel...

  14. Ebola Virus Disease – Global Scenario & Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Rezwanur Rahman

    2015-03-01

    test, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assay, electron microscopy and virus isolation by cell culture.1 Supportive care - rehydration with oral or intravenous fluids - and treatment of specific symptoms, improves survival. There is as yet no proven treatment available for EVD.1 Raising awareness of risk factors for Ebola infection and protective measures that individuals can take is an effective way to reduce human transmission. Risk reduction messaging should focus on several factors like reducing the risks of wildlife-to-human transmission and human-to-human transmission and also on outbreak containment measures.1 Health care workers caring for patients with suspected or confirmed Ebola virus should apply extra infection control measures to prevent contact with the patient’s blood and body fluids and contaminated surfaces or materials such as clothing and bedding, wear face protection besides routine measures. Samples taken from humans and animals for investigation of Ebola infection should be handled by trained staff with utmost care and processed in suitably equipped laboratories.1 The infections of two health care workers in Dallas, USA and a nurse in Madrid, Spain have revealed the truth that even highly developed nations are not immune. Still, Asia has some advantages as it readies itself for Ebola. Flight patterns suggest that the influx of travelers from Ebola-stricken West African countries to the Asian continent is far less than it is to Africa, Europe or North America.10 The recent outbreak affecting several nations also alarmed the public health sector of Bangladesh. But virus and healthcare experts have assured that there is nothing to be anxious about Ebola in Bangladesh as it has been categorized as among the least threatened countries by the World Health Organization (WHO on August 8, 2014 in its first Emergency Committee meeting.11 Bangladesh Government has already taken effective preventive measures suggested by WHO, which

  15. Human Development Sector Profile, Indonesia 2010-2011 : Strengthening Health and Education Institutions in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    The World Bank's Country Partnership Strategy (CPS) for 2009-2012 marks Indonesia's re-emergence as a confident middle-income country, and one that is enjoying a rising regional and global standing. Ten years ago, Indonesia was in the middle of an extremely severe economic crisis. Today, Indonesia has embarked upon a far-reaching institutional transformation and has become one of the regio...

  16. Human Resources Development for Rooppur Nuclear Power Programme in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, Md. Kabir

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: • Bangladesh faces a huge challenge in implementing the Rooppur NPP and its total nuclear power; • A preliminary assessment has been chalked out a plan to find out methods that can be applied to find out our gaps and then fill them up; • Bangladesh seeks cooperation from the Russian Federation in the form assistance package like National training courses, Seminar/Workshop, Expert Mission/Review and other form of bilateral arrangements in establishing infrastructure for “Rooppur NPP” building;

  17. A rainfall simulation model for agricultural development in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sayedur Rahman

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A rainfall simulation model based on a first-order Markov chain has been developed to simulate the annual variation in rainfall amount that is observed in Bangladesh. The model has been tested in the Barind Tract of Bangladesh. Few significant differences were found between the actual and simulated seasonal, annual and average monthly. The distribution of number of success is asymptotic normal distribution. When actual and simulated daily rainfall data were used to drive a crop simulation model, there was no significant difference of rice yield response. The results suggest that the rainfall simulation model perform adequately for many applications.

  18. Determination of Causality between Remittance and Import: Evidence from Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewan Muktadir-Al-Mukit

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the relationship between remittance and import for the economy of Bangladesh. The study used different econometric techniques of measuring the long and short term relationship between variables. The Johansen Cointegration test is used to determine the existence of a long term relationships between study variables. The normalized Cointegrating coefficients are found statistically significant and show a stable and positive relationship between study variables. Our Granger causality analysis suggests the existence of a unidirectional causality running from import to remittance. This confirms that remittances have no significant impact on the demand for imported goods rather import exerts a positive shock on the remittance of Bangladesh.

  19. Variabilité climatique, changements sociaux et dengue au Bangladesh

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Variabilité climatique, changements sociaux et dengue au Bangladesh. Depuis 2000, les grandes villes du Bangladesh connaissent une résurgence de la dengue. Il s'agit là d'un problème de santé publique préoccupant, puisqu'une épidémie risque d'éclater d'une année à l'autre. Or, on connaît mal la dynamique de ...

  20. DATA ENVELOPMENT ANALYSIS OF BANKING SECTOR IN BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rashedul Hoque

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Banking sector of Bangladesh is flourishing and contributing to its economy. In this aspect measuring efficiency is important. Data Envelopment Analysis technique is used for this purpose. The data are collected from the annual reports of twenty four different banks in Bangladesh. Data Envelopment Analysis is mainly of two types - constant returns to scale and variable returns to scale. Since this study attempts to maximize output, so the output oriented Data Envelopment Analysis is used. The most efficient bank is one that obtains the highest efficiency score.