WorldWideScience

Sample records for bangkok treaty

  1. Lisbon Treaty

    OpenAIRE

    Ylber Sela; Lirim Shabani

    2010-01-01

    Rejection of Constitutional treaty and enlargement of EU to 27 member states drew highlights for the need of institutional reform of the Union. These reforms were important for the functioning of the EU. So, leaders of member states prepared a new treaty which will fulfill needed reforms in order to achieve the goals. Thus, in order to avoid the referendums, they decided to take out those parts of the rejected treaty and to continue forward with reformation of European Union. Lisbon treaty is...

  2. A Treaty for Europe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The European Union will return to center stage with the enforcement of the Lisbon Treaty As the Lisbon Treaty entered into force on December 1, the world is waiting to see the changes it will bring to the European Union (EU). The Lisbon Treaty came into being based on the treaty establishing a constitution for Europe-more commonly referred to as the European Constitution.

  3. Bangkok: Anatomy of a traffic disaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poboon, C.; Kenworthy, J.; Barter, P.

    1995-12-31

    Traditional urban and transport policy which relies on road-base planning has been proven inadequate for tackling Bangkok`s traffic chaos. After employing such policy for more than three decades Bangkok traffic has become a disaster and the city has become notorious world-wide for its traffic congestion and air pollution. The simplistic application of theses largely American models took little consideration if any of the walking city and transit city structure of Bangkok. The policies recommended by the authors rely on the awareness of Bangkok`s unique characteristics and also encompass social and environmental aspects. The worldwide comparison has contributed substantially to more insight in selecting the appropriate measures for Bangkok. The introduction of a mass rapid transit system, water transport improvement, control of car use, provision of infrastructure for walking and cycling, improvement in paratransit together with transit-oriented land use development are believed to be able to work effectively in Bangkok. Nevertheless, institutional improvement including public participation is very necessary to achieve these urban planning and transport strategies. With the combination of these sustainable urban and transport policies, it is possible for Bangkok to be converted into a city for people again, though it will take probably 10 to 20 years or more for substantial improvements.

  4. Fatal melioidosis in goats in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonpitak, Walaiporn; Sornklien, Chulabha; Chawanit, Mongkol; Pavasutthipaisit, Suvarin; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Hantrakun, Viriya; Amornchai, Premjit; Thaipadungpanit, Janjira; Day, Nicholas P J; Yingst, Samuel; Peacock, Sharon J; Limmathurotsakul, Direk

    2014-08-01

    Bangkok, Thailand, is a city considered to be at low risk for melioidosis. We describe 10 goats that died of melioidosis in Bangkok. Half of them were born and reared in the city. Multilocus sequence typing ruled out an outbreak. This finding challenges the assumption that melioidosis is rarely acquired in central Thailand.

  5. The Tlatelolco treaty: An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America, known as the Tlatelolco Treaty, is the first - and up until now the only agreement - establishing a nuclear-weapon-free zone in an important, densely populated region of the earth. The Tlatelolco Treaty, which actually antedates the NPT, marked the culmination of a process undertaken as an act of sovereign will by the governments of the Latin American countries. It was opened for signature on 14 February 1967 and entered into force on 25 April 1969. The author gives a review of the Treaty and its history

  6. An American in Bangkok: Reconsidering Pedagogical Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knee, Adam

    1999-01-01

    Describes an English instructor's experiences teaching at a private, English-language university in Bangkok, Thailand. Illustrates the difficulties the author faced in dealing with differences in cultures and learning styles and indicates the generative potential of such difficulties. Notes that the instructor's solution was to use a combination…

  7. Bargains, treaties, and delusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waska, R T

    1999-01-01

    Using a case example, I have explored a particular type of difficult patient. This individual has typically suffered poor attachment with his maternal object and through projective identification has developed highly conflicted object ties within the ego. These relations produce cycles of intense persecutory and depressive anxieties, forcing the subject to rely on excessive splitting and other primitive defenses. As part of these protective maneuvers, the ego begins to build internal bargains and treaties with the adversarial objects. These repetitious intrapsychic negotiations lead to delusional thought systems that bring on the very anxiety the ego tried to avoid, creating vicious feedback loops with more severe delusional systems and more rigid bargains to strike. For the price of survival, and the maintenance of an intact object, the ego builds and maintains certain relational configurations. These are attempted solutions for fantasies about destructive forces threatening the ego or the object. Self and object protection are the goals. If these intrapsychic bargains break down, fantasies about self and object destruction, loss, or annihilation enter the forefront. Infusing the concept of compromise formation with the ideas of object relations theory allows a better understanding of this highly defended anxiety state. PMID:10615642

  8. Menopausal symptoms among Thai women in Bangkok.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukwatana, P; Meekhangvan, J; Tamrongterakul, T; Tanapat, Y; Asavarait, S; Boonjitrpimon, P

    1991-09-01

    A random probability cluster area sampling of 614 women living in Bangkok was conducted to determine the prevalence of abnormal symptoms related to the menopause. Women interviewed were aged 40 and above currently registered as living in the Bangkok Metropolitan area. Sixty-nine percent of the women interviewed experienced abnormal symptoms. Eighty-two percent of those with abnormal symptoms reported having hot flushes. Palpitation, increased heat intolerance and emotional liability were common symptoms. Minor abnormalities included insomnia, weakness, anxiety and urinary symptoms. Changes related to sexual function were difficult to elicit due to cultural limitations. Economic and cultural factors might play important roles in the way these women perceived symptoms related to the menopause and sought medical assistance.

  9. Bangkok and its air pollution problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panich, S.

    1995-12-31

    Bangkok is the city on a former river delta and is a very flat area. The topography is unremarkable but being only a few kilometers (about 20) from the sea in the Gulf of Bangkok, the City experiences the sea breeze every afternoon and evening. The natural phenomenon is caused by the uplifting of hot air from the sun-baked ground and heat generation in the city, to be replaced by the cooler air from the sea, which is to the south. During the nighttime the sea breeze ceases to operate as the ground temperature cools down. The late night and early morning is characterized by the calm or no wind. With 2.1 million vehicles, the city has a serious problem of carbon monoxide from the gasoline vehicles stuck in the traffic on start and stop cycles, while particulate matter is the result of diesel vehicles. Hydrocarbons mainly result from two-stroke motorcycles and tuk-tuk (three-wheeled) taxis. Air pollution in Bangkok and major cities of Thailand is the result of emissions from gasoline, diesel, and LPG fueled vehicles, which contribute to the observed levels of carbon monoxide, lead, particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone and hydrocarbons. The industrial activities contribute smaller share due to tall stacks and more efficient combusting processes and pollution control.

  10. Principles of the Antarctic Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candidi, M.

    The operation of any base or expedition to Antarctica is regulated by the mutual agreement among nations in the “Antarctic Treaty”. This treaty deals with the major aspects of life in Antarctica and its main principles and provisions are described in what follows.

  11. Nuclear non-Proliferation treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The text of a speech is presented delivered by the State President of South Africa, Mr. F.W. de Klerk, to a joint session of Parliament on 24 March 1993, announcing developments relating to South Africa's nuclear capability and accession to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

  12. The effects of treaties in domestic law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Nollkaemper

    2014-01-01

    Treaties, while operating primarily at international level, by definition require a legal connection to the national level. The connection between treaties and domestic law is particularly relevant when treaties regulate matters that also are also dealt with by domestic law, and determine the positi

  13. Comprehensive Nuclear Test-ban Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty was adopted by the General Assembly on 10 September 1996 (Res/50/245) and was open for signature by all states on 24 September 1996. It will enter into force 180 days after the date of deposit of the instruments of ratification by all states listed in Annex 2 to the Treaty. This document reproduces the text of the Treaty and the Protocol to the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Protocol to the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty

  14. European constitution and EURATOM treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European Council held in Laeken in December 2001 had decided to call a convention preparing the next conference of the heads of state and government which, among other topics, was to deliberate the question of a fully formulated European constitution. Under the presidency of Giscard d'Estaing, all delegates to the European Convention on July 10, 2003 signed the draft treaty for a European constitution. This final document is the basis of the conference of the heads of state and government to begin in October 2003. On this occasion, the draft of a separate chapter on energy could well come up again for examination. This chapter had been introduced only at the end of the deliberations of the convention and adds to the competences of the EU institutions. Also the Euratom Treaty was a topic of the convention preparing the constitution. As the presidency felt that no specific issues had been raised in the Laeken declaration, it is proposed to adapt the Euratom Treaty to the new provisions of the constitution by adding a protocol. This would mean that the European Atomic Energy Community, for the time being, would retain its independent legal status. The contents would have to be examined at some later date. Consequently, the real discussion of the Euratom Treaty is yet to come. Also, the speedy completion of the single market for electricity would make it desirable for the Community to adopt a uniform, positive stance in the use of nuclear power at the best possible safety standards so as to ensure a level playing field. Current events entailing power failures in the United States and the United Kingdom have alerted the public to the problem of the continuity of power supply. This could well be the beginning of a new, unbiased, balanced energy discussion in a bigger Europe. (orig.)

  15. The Limits of Monetary Treaty

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher E.S. Warburton

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the viability of monetary treaty. Using time series data, estimates of trade masses, trade trend ratios and the trade accumulation coefficient, it finds that the European monetary union is trade-creating. Descriptive statistics indicate that internal trade has been asymmetric and that a substantial amount of intra-European union real income has been transferred to non-members. The internal trade imbalances threaten the growth and welfare of the deficit members. In the abse...

  16. Nuclear weapons non proliferation treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taking into account the devastation that a nuclear war would inflict upon mankind, and the resulting need to do all that is in our power to keep such a tragedy from occuring, as well as to implement measures to safeguard all the peoples' safety, each State that owns nuclear weapons and that is a part of the Treaty pledges not to trade nuclear weapons, other explosive devices nor the control over such instruments to any other entity whatsoever, wether directly or indirectly. Likewise, all States that does not posses any nuclear weaponry and that are part of the Treaty, in turn pledge not to receive from any other entity nuclear weaponry or other explosive devices in trade, wether directly or indirectly; not to manufacture or otherwise acquire this fashion of weaponry and not to request or accept any help whatsoever in the manufacturing of nuclear weaponry or related devices. The present Treaty remains open to the subscription of other countries, on July 26, 1968, with Mexico as one of the signatory countries

  17. Self discipline and obesity in Bangkok school children

    OpenAIRE

    Srisorrachatr Suwat; Temcharoen Paradee; Ratanopas Wasoontara; Sirikulchayanonta Chutima

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Childhood obesity has become an important public health problem in Thailand. This study aimed to determine the relationship between self discipline and obesity in Bangkok school children. Methods A case control study was conducted. 140 cases (obese children) and 140 controls (normal weight children) were randomly chosen from grades 4-6 students in 4 Bangkok public schools. Questionnaire responses regarding general characteristics and child self-discipline were obtained fro...

  18. Tax Treaty Abuse: Is Canada responding effectively?

    OpenAIRE

    Geoffrey T. Loomer

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the means by which tax authorities worldwide seek to strengthen their tax treaties, through safeguards of varying nature and scope, in order to identify and prevent what they consider to be abuse of such treaties. These means of challenge may be grouped under two headings: purposive approaches to treaty interpretation, particularly with respect to the terms 'person', 'resident' and 'beneficial ownership'; and broader responses to unacceptable tax avoidance, specifically re...

  19. The Revision of Japans Early Commercial Treaties.

    OpenAIRE

    Nigel Brailey; Sir Hugh Cortazzi; James Hoare; Ayako Hotta-Lister

    1999-01-01

    A joint symposium between the Japan Society and the London School of Economics and Political Science was held in the Suntory and Toyota International Centres for Economics and Related Disciplines on 9 July 1999 to mark the centenary of Treaty Revision in Japan. In the Bakumatsu period of the 1850s and 1860s Japan had entered into a number of commercial treaties with foreign countries which (among other things) gave foreign nationals extraterritorial rights in Japanese treaty ports. These trea...

  20. The revision of Japan's early commercial treaties

    OpenAIRE

    CORTAZZI, Hugh; Hoare, James; Brailey, Nigel; Hotta-Lister, Ayako

    1999-01-01

    A joint symposium between the Japan Society and the London School of Economics and Political Science was held in the Suntory and Toyota International Centres for Economics and Related Disciplines on 9 July 1999 to mark the centenary of Treaty Revision in Japan. In the Bakumatsu period of the 1850s and 1860s Japan had entered into a number of commercial treaties with foreign countries which (among other things) gave foreign nationals extraterritorial rights in Japanese treaty ports. These trea...

  1. The Cross-Referenced Patent Cooperation Treaty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, C.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    'The Cross-Referenced Patent Cooperation Treaty' is a book covering the 'Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT)' and the 'Regulations under the PCT'. The large number of references in the articles and rules makes the PCT difficult to read. The idea behind this book is to add cross-references to the article

  2. The Cross-Referenced Patent Cooperation Treaty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, C.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    'The Cross-Referenced Patent Cooperation Treaty' is a book covering the 'Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT)' and the 'Regulations under the PCT'. The large number of references in the articles and rules makes the PCT difficult to read. The idea behind this book is to add cross-references to the article

  3. The cross-Referenced Patent Cooperation Treaty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, C.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    'The Cross-Referenced Patent Cooperation Treaty' is a book covering the 'Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT)' and the 'Regulations under the PCT'. The large number of references in the articles and rules makes the PCT difficult to read. The idea behind this book is to add cross-references to the article

  4. The Cross-Referenced Patent Cooperation Treaty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, C.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    'The Cross-Referenced Patent Cooperation Treaty' is a book covering the 'Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT)' and the 'Regulations under the PCT'. The large number of references in the articles and rules makes the PCT difficult to read. The idea behind this book is to add cross-references to the article

  5. The Cross-Referenced Patent Cooperation Treaty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, C.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    'The Cross-Referenced Patent Cooperation Treaty' is a book covering the 'Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT)' and the 'Regulations under the PCT'. The large number of references in the articles and rules makes the PCT difficult to read. The idea behind this book is to add cross-references to the article

  6. Emerging market for sustainable food in Bangkok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Oosterveer

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available More and more food is traded all over the world, changing the general pattern of food production and consumption dramatically. This transformation includes increasing consumer demand for safe and environmentally friendly produced food. Food is no longer produced only by farmers in the vicinity where consumers can easily observe how they produce their food. Nowadays, food can be produced in Asia and presented on a supermarket’s shelf in Europe, this unknown origin makes consumers more concerned about the safety of their food. Food scandals such as mad cow disease, bird flu, and GMOs make consumers concerned, uncertain and worried about their food. In response to these concerns, modern retailers in many countries improve their sustainable development policy and actively increase the provision of sustainable food. As a newly industrialized country in Southeast Asia, Thailand can be expected to witness a similar increasing domestic demand for sustainable food products, particularly in its urban areas. The general patterns of global change affect Thailand as well, but the specific processes of change differ due to specific conditions of urban Thailand. This paper analyzes the process of change towards sustainable food provision in Bangkok by investigating how consumers and the system of provision interact in retail outlets.

  7. The Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) is a cornerstone of the international regime on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons and an essential foundation for the pursuit of nuclear disarmament. Its total ban of any nuclear weapon test explosion will constrain the development and qualitative improvement of nuclear weapons and end the development of advanced new types of these weapons. The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly, and was opened for signature in New York on 24 September 1996. The Treaty will enter into force after it has been ratified by the 44 States listed in its Annex 2. These states possess nuclear power or research reactors. The Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO Preparatory Commission) is an international organization established by the States Signatories to the Treaty on 19 November 1996. It carries out the necessary preparations for the effective implementation of the Treaty, and prepares for the first session of the Conference of the States Parties to the Treaty. The Treaty has been signed and ratified by the Republic of Croatia and National Commission for the implementation of the Treaty has been established. Basic obligations of the Treaty, as specified in Article I, are: (1) Each State Party undertakes not to carry out any nuclear weapon test explosion or any other nuclear explosion, and to prohibit and prevent any such nuclear explosion at any place under its jurisdiction or control. (2) Each State Party undertakes, furthermore, to refrain from causing, encouraging, or in any way participating in the carrying out of any nuclear weapon test explosion or any other nuclear explosion.(author)

  8. 22 CFR 120.31 - North Atlantic Treaty Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DEFINITIONS § 120.31 North Atlantic Treaty Organization. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) is..., France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, The Netherlands,...

  9. Bangkok's Linguistic Landscapes: Environmental Print, Codemixing and Language Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, Thom

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the linguistic landscapes of 15 Bangkok neighbourhoods to explore questions of language contact, language mixing and language dominance. It provides a linguistic framework for analysis of types of codemixing. It highlights the importance and influence of English as a global language. It examines the signs from government…

  10. Influential sources affecting Bangkok adolescent body image perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thianthai, Chulanee

    2006-01-01

    The study of body image-related problems in non-Western countries is still very limited. Thus, this study aims to identify the main influential sources and show how they affect the body image perceptions of Bangkok adolescents. The researcher recruited 400 Thai male and female adolescents in Bangkok, attending high school to freshmen level, ranging from 16-19 years, to participate in this study. Survey questionnaires were distributed to every student and follow-up interviews conducted with 40 students. The findings showed that there are eight main influential sources respectively ranked from the most influential to the least influential: magazines, television, peer group, familial, fashion trend, the opposite gender, self-realization and health knowledge. Similar to those studies conducted in Western countries, more than half of the total percentage was the influence of mass media and peer groups. Bangkok adolescents also internalized Western ideal beauty through these mass media channels. Alike studies conducted in the West, there was similarities in the process of how these influential sources affect Bangkok adolescent body image perception, with the exception of familial source. In conclusion, taking the approach of identifying the main influential sources and understanding how they affect adolescent body image perceptions can help prevent adolescents from having unhealthy views and taking risky measures toward their bodies. More studies conducted in non-Western countries are needed in order to build a cultural sensitive program, catered to the body image problems occurring in adolescents within that particular society. PMID:17340854

  11. Honouring indigenous treaty rights for climate justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantyka-Pringle, C. S.; Westman, C. N.; Kythreotis, A. P.; Schindler, D. W.

    2015-09-01

    Expansion of the oil sands industry in Canada has caused land destruction and social friction. Canada could become a leader in climate governance by honouring treaty commitments made with indigenous peoples.

  12. The Euratom Treaty v. Treaties of the European Union: limits of competence and interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main aim of this research was to analyse the interaction between the Euratom Treaty and the TFEU in certain specific fields - environmental nuclear liability, transport of radioactive substances and common market (free movement of goods, competition law and state aid). However, before doing that, certain introduction to regulation of the Euratom Treaty, its special features and the changes made by the Lisbon Treaty seemed beneficial. Therefore, the research consists of two parts - the introduction to the Euratom Treaty and the assessment of the relation between the Euratom Treaty and the TFEU in the areas mentioned above. The conclusions related to each of the areas are presented in the end of each chapter while the general conclusions of the research are provided in the end. The literature used in the research include legislative and non-legislative acts of the Euratom Community and the European Union, Judgements of the Court of Justice of the European Union, publications of various researchers and internet resources

  13. Why START. [Strategic Arms Reduction Talks treaty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendelsohn, J.

    1991-04-01

    Barring some major unexpected downturn in US-Soviet relations, it seems likely that the long-awaited Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (START) treaty will be signed sometime in 1991. Under negotiation for the past nine years, public acceptance and Senate approval of a START treaty will be facilitated by the generally less confrontational East-West relationship which has evolved over that time, by the growing constraints on the US defense budget, and by the obvious merits of the treaty itself. Not only will the nearly complete START treaty be an extremely useful and powerful arms control agreement, it is also decidedly advantageous to US security interests. First and foremost, a START treaty will cap and reduce the steady buildup of nuclear weapons that has characterized the last 30 years of the US-Soviet strategic relationship. As a result of the basic outline originally agreed to at the Reykjavik summit, START will take a 25 to 35 percent bite out of existing nuclear arsenals, impose approximately a 50 percent cut in overall Soviet ballistic missile warheads and throw-weight (lifting power or payload capacity), and produce an exact 50 percent cut in Soviet SS-18 missiles.

  14. EURATOM Treaty and European Internal Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief survey of the main operative chapters of the EURATOM Treaty already reveals that this Treaty, 30 years prior to the Single Act taking effect, has anticipated substantial elements of the Internal Market. The lecture deals with definitions in the EURATOM and EEC Treaty and with questions relating to practical examples from legislation in the field of energy. With the Commission's report 'The Internal Market for Energy' of May 1988 stock was taken of existing obstacles on the energy sector. In Annex V this document deals with the situation of nuclear energy and identifies problems on the market for installations and components, in particular on account of the different national systems regarding construction and safety standards. In an update the Commission has developed proposals for solutions. (orig./HSCH)

  15. Flooded: an auto-ethnography of the 2011 Bangkok flood

    OpenAIRE

    Erik Cohen

    2012-01-01

    "In this personal account I report my perceptions, experiences, and conduct during the 2011 Bangkok flood, in which my home and neighbourhood have been badly inundated and damaged. Therefore, I draw on auto-ethnography as an increasingly popular, though controversial qualitative methodology in social sciences. Though personal, the account has some broader implications, deriving primarily from the examination of the relationship between my perceptions and conduct in the disaster and my life ex...

  16. South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On 8 August 1986 the Protocols to the South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty were adopted by the South Pacific Forum at its 17th session, in Suva. The attached texts of the Protocols were formally communicated to the Director General by the Director of the South Pacific Bureau for Economic Co-operation (SPEC) and are herewith being circulated to all Member States for their information pursuant to a request made by the Director of SPEC. Following the deposit of the eighth instrument of ratification, the South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty entered into force on 11 December 1986

  17. Impending revision of the euratom treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decision by the European Court of Justice in the matter of the EEC's participation in international negotiations on safety problems of the nuclear fuel cycle is of basic importance, beyond the case to which it referred, in the interpretation of the respective provisions of the Euratom Treaty in the nuclear fuel sector. The reasoning of the European Court of Justice, which constitutes a reinforcement and advancement of the responsibilities and rights of the EEC, has made France ask for a revision of the Treaty. (orig.)

  18. 78 FR 7759 - Patent Cooperation Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Patent Cooperation Treaty ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its continuing effort to reduce...: Susan K. Fawcett, Records Officer, Office of the Chief Information Officer, United States Patent...

  19. Verifying the INF and START treaties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The INF and START Treaties form the basis for constraints on nuclear weapons. Their verification provisions are one of the great success stories of modern arms control and will be an important part of the foundation upon which the verification regime for further constraints on nuclear weapons will be constructed

  20. South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The full text of the South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty with its Annexes endorsed on 6 August 1985 by the South Pacific Forum (a body comprising the independent and self-governing countries of the South Pacific, namely Australia, the Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Nauru, New Zealand, Nive, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu and Western Samoa) is presented

  1. South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On 6 August 1985 the South Pacific Forum, a body comprising the independent and self-governing countries of the South Pacific (Australia, the Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Nauru, New Zealand, Niue, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu and Western Samoa), endorsed the text of the South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty and opened it for signature

  2. Formalism versus Flexibility in the Law of Treaties

    OpenAIRE

    Aspremont, d', J.

    2014-01-01

    This contribution aims to show that the dominance of formalism in treaty law is much more nuanced and qualified than the general perception sketched out in the preceding paragraph suggests. It will be argued that from its making to its termination, a treaty see-saws between formalism and flexibility, and that the body of rules designed by international lawyers to regulate the life of treaties mirrors this constant oscillation: the law of treaties, as codified in the two Vienna Conventions, di...

  3. The Asian countries and the non-proliferation treaty prorogation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work deals with the non-proliferation treaty prorogation of Asia. The position of the asian countries under the old non-proliferation treaty is given. It includes the 1968 non-proliferation treaty signatories, the calling in question again and the criticisms revealed by the asian countries. The positions and the open forecasts expressed on the non-proliferation treaty prorogation and the article on the elimination of the nuclear weapons are also given. (O.L.)

  4. Treaty for the prohibition of nuclear weapons in Latin America (Treaty of Tlatelolco)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Treaty of Tlatelolco enhances the security of the countries of the region by reducing the risk of a nuclear-arms race among them, with all the danger and cost that it would entail, and, as a contribution to the world-wide nuclear non-proliferation regime, it constitutes an important confidence-building measure by ensuring, through its control and verification system, that parties to the Treaty do not posses and will not acquire nuclear weapons. List of parties to the Treaty of Tlatelolco as of 31 July 1989: Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Bolivia, Brazil (not full party), Chile (not full party), Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Grenada, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay and Venezuela. (Argentina and Dominica have signed the Treaty)

  5. Twenty years of the Non-proliferation Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report assesses the achievements of the Non-proliferation Treaty (NPT) and discusses ways in which the non-proliferation regime could be strenghtened. It recommends a series of measures to be taken by the parties of the Treaty, both nuclear and non-nuclear weapons states, with a view to reinforcing the Treaty and achieving its universality. 198 refs

  6. 50 CFR 660.407 - Treaty Indian fishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Treaty Indian fishing. 660.407 Section 660.407 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... § 660.407 Treaty Indian fishing. Except as otherwise provided in this subpart, treaty Indian fishing...

  7. The first bilateral investment treaties : U.S. friendship, commerce and navigation treaties in the Truman administration

    OpenAIRE

    Vandevelde, Kenneth J.

    2012-01-01

    The first bilateral investment treaties addresses the processes by which, and the purposes for which, the State Department, during the years of the Truman administration, reconceptualized as bilateral investment treaties the friendship, commerce and navigation (FCN) treaties that the United States had negotiated since its independence, originally as treaties to establish trade and maritime relations. It argues that, at the end of the Second World War, to ensure peace and prosperity the United...

  8. Flaws in the Non-Proliferation Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current review conference must come to grips with serious weaknesses in the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), especially regarding the spread of weapons-grade material and the continuing superpower arms race. One-third of the world's nations, including two of the original nuclear-weapons states (France and China), have not signed the NPT, and some countries are trying to buy nuclear weaponry without developing a domestic capability. The greatest danger is latent proliferation through the acquisition of materials and capabilities for peaceful power and research programs. The author recommends modifying the NPT to restrict nuclear trade, improve International Atomic Energy Agency inspections and audits, expand safeguards coverage to nonparties of the Treaty, and set minimum standards for guarding international shipments

  9. Towards A Business and Human Rights Treaty

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Si

    2015-01-01

    Business enterprises can contribute to the realization of human rights in many instances. However, they may also cause adverse effect on the enjoyment of human rights. The increasing disclosure of business involvement in human rights abuses can be dated back to decades ago. Despite the failed attempts to regulate business enterprises with respect to human rights via a binding approach, a proposal on a business and human rights treaty by some states, typically represented by Ecuador, has reope...

  10. Sustainable Markets Investment Briefings: Investment Treaties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotula, Lorenzo

    2007-08-15

    This is the second of a series of briefings which discuss the sustainable development issues raised by legal arrangements for the protection of foreign investment. The briefings are based on legal research by IIED and its partners. The goal is to provide accessible but accurate information for human rights, development and environmental organisations working on issues raised by foreign investment in low- and middle-income countries. Briefing 2 explains how investment treaties between states work to protect and promote foreign investment.

  11. Antarctic Treaty Summit: Washington, DC (2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkman, P. A.; Young, O. R.

    2005-12-01

    Advancement in Earth system science and international cooperation have been intertwined with the International Polar Years since 1882. In particular, the 3rd International Polar Year (which was convened as the International Geophysical Year from 1 July 1957 through 31 December 1958) specifically demonstrates the role of science in international policy: Acknowledging the substantial contributions to scientific knowledge resulting from international cooperation in scientific investigation in Antarctica; Convinced that the establishment of a firm foundation for the continuation and development of such cooperation on the basis of freedom of scientific investigation in Antarctica as applied during the International Geophysical Year accords with the interests of science and the progress of all mankind; Preamble, 1959 Antarctic Treaty To commemorate the 50th anniversary of the 1959 Antarctic Treaty and to explore the complexities of the science-policy relationship through the lens of a well-constrained case study, an international and interdisciplinary Antarctic Treaty Summit is being planned for 2009 in Washington, DC in conjunction with the International Polar Year 2007-08 (http://www.ipy.org).

  12. Flaws in the Non-Proliferation Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nucler Weapons has the twin objectives of stopping the further spread of nuclear weapons and ending the nuclear arms race on the one hand, and promoting peaceful uses of atomic energy on the other. In quantitative and symbolic terms the NPT is a huge success. More than two-thirds of the world's nations have signed on, making this the most popular arms control agreement on earth. Not a single nation has declared itself to be a nuclear-weapons state beyond the original five members of the ''nuclear club'' who qualified for weapons status under the terms of the Treaty itself: the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, France, and China. No party to the Treaty has exercised the permitted option to drop out, and none has been found by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to have diverted nuclear material from civil to weapons purposes. Nor has any party been known to have violated NPT prohibitions on developing or assisting other nations to develop nuclear weapons

  13. Antarctic Treaty Summit to Focus on Global Science Policy Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkman, Paul Arthur; Walton, David W. H.; Weiler, C. Susan

    2008-10-01

    The Antarctic Treaty Summit, which will coincide with the fiftieth anniversary of the treaty's signing, will be held at the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History, in Washington, D. C., from 30 November to 3 December 2009. The summit will provide an open international forum for scientists, legislators, lawyers, administrators, educators, students, corporate executives, historians, and other members of global civil society to explore science policy achievements from the first 50 years of the Antarctic Treaty. In addition, the summit will complement official government celebrations of the Antarctic Treaty anniversary that do not include public participation.

  14. 25th anniversary of the Non-Proliferation Treaty. A treaty has had a good career

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear proliferation is the short term for what is meant by the concept of misuse of nuclear installations or materials owned by a state, for producing nuclear weapons. Non-proliferation is the opposite concept, which aims at restricting the power to use nuclear energy for non-peaceful purposes to only a few states. As nuclear energy has a benign potential as well as a malignant one, non-proliferation is an essential factor of peace in the world, and has been the goal of a multitude of national, bilateral, regional, and international conventions and treaties in the last two and a half decades since the peaceful uses of nuclear energy have become common technology in many states of the world. The conventions and treaties represent a network of control for preventing misuse, covering today the largest part of the world. The Non-Proliferation Treaty is the center part of this network, concluded in 1968 and internationally effective since 1970. The article summarizes the history of the Treaty, its provisions, problems left unresolved, and perspectives. (orig./HP)

  15. Cross-sectional study of use of electronic media by secondary school students in Bangkok, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    KIATRUNGRIT, Komsan; HONGSANGUANSRI, Sirichai

    2014-01-01

    Background There is increasing concern about the negative psychological effects of excessive use of various electronic media by adolescents but the monitoring of these behaviors in low- and middle-income countries has some methodological flaws. Aim Assess the use of all types of electronic media among secondary school students in Bangkok, Thailand. Methods A stratified random sample of students from four schools in Bangkok completed a modified version of a questionnaire used in a major study ...

  16. The 2015 NEC Conference in Bangkok: Enhancing National Evaluation Capacities and Achieving the Sustainable Development Goals

    OpenAIRE

    Ariane Cassoli Alvarenga; Ana Rosa Soares; Lívia Maria da Costa Nogueira

    2015-01-01

    From 27 April to 22 May 2015 the National Evaluation Capacities (NEC) Community of Practice (COP), with support from the UNDP International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth (IPC-IG) and the UNDP Independent Evaluation Office (IEO), promoted an online discussion3 linked to the upcoming NEC conference in Bangkok, on How the 2015 NEC Conference in Bangkok: Blending Evaluation Principles with Development Practices can enhance national evaluation capacities and help to develop and achieve the Su...

  17. An Assessment of Ecosystem Services Provided by Street Trees in Bangkok, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    SOONSAWAD, NATTHANIJ

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on the analysis of ecosystem services provided by green spaces in Bangkok, Thailand, as a potential tool to address urban and environmental problems there. The analyses are divided into two parts for achieving two objectives, 1) estimating the magnitude of ecosystem services provided by public street trees, and 2) examining the relationship between stable isotopic data of tree leaves and the environmental quality of Bangkok's streets. The findings could be used to identify ...

  18. Control and adherence: living with diabetes in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naemiratch, Bhensri; Manderson, Lenore

    2006-09-01

    Diabetes is managed via a regimen of control. Physicians advise adults living with type 2 diabetes to control blood sugar levels by controlling diet, maintaining regular exercise, and complying with medication. The extent to which individuals are able to adhere to such recommendations varies. In this article, we explore lay perceptions of diabetes and its control, drawing on data from an ethnographic study conducted in Bangkok, Thailand. Between August 2001 and February 2003 the first author spent time with twelve man and women living with type 2 diabetes, their spouses, children and health providers. An additional 21 people were interviewed to extend the data and test for generalisibility. It was found that individual explanations of control, and adherence or resistance to medical advice, are interpreted and adapted in ways consistent with Buddhist philosophy and Thai norms that govern everyday life. Notions of moderation and cultural values of being and behaving, and ideals of interaction, provide a philosophical basis and practical guidelines for control.

  19. Solid waste scavenger community: an investigation in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kungskulniti, N; Pulket, C; Miller, F D; Smith, K R

    1991-01-01

    A solid waste scavenger community at On-Nooch dump site in Bangkok was investigated. The purpose was to identify the dimensions of the public health risk to this group of people and their community due to exposure to hazardous conditions from waste materials. A cross-sectional descriptive study utilizing field surveys and measurements was performed. The demographic, socioeconomic, health related and environmental characteristics of this community were examined. Health complaints and injuries were inventoried among scavengers. Prevalence of childhood respiratory illness was high especially in those households where smoking was present. Intestinal helminthic and protozoan infection in children were detected. Six individuals with possible HIV infection and a number of Hepatitis B anti-genemia were found among male respondents. An appreciable proportion of respondents fell below normal when tested for lung function. Air pollution measurements showed acceptable ambient air levels except for particulate matters. Water quality was low for both potable and nonpotable water.

  20. Changes in residential, occupational and gender structure of the greater Bangkok in the globalization process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Nakagawa

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated recent changes in migration and population structure of the GreaterBangkok considering the impact of economic globalization. The spatial policy of the Thaigovernment has lead newer investments for manufacturing to locate away from BangkokMetropolis and thereby the industrial structure of Bangkok Metropolis has gradually turnedinto service-dominated, while the region surrounding Bangkok Metropolis has attractedfactories mainly owned by foreign capital. Light industry and electronics industry are concentratedin the adjacent provinces to Bangkok Metropolis and the heavy and petrochemicalindustry tends to be located in the outer zone of the surrounding region. The service sectorand light industry as well as electronics industry prefer female workers and Bangkok metropolisand the adjoining provinces have become female-dominated population structurewhile male workers tend to gather in the outer zone attracted by heavy and petrochemicalindustry. It is possible to mention accordingly that the unbalanced spatial distribution of sexstructure of population which might cause changes in the norm to the family formation infuture is one of the consequences of economic globalization of Thailand, which the investmentpromotion policy of the government did not assume.

  1. Flooded: An Auto-Ethnography of the 2011 Bangkok Flood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Cohen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this personal account I report my perceptions, experiences, and conduct during the 2011 Bangkok flood, in which my home and neighbourhood have been badly inundated and damaged. Therefore, I draw on auto-ethnography as an increasingly popular, though controversial qualitative methodology in social sciences. Though personal, the account has some broader implications, deriving primarily from the examination of the relationship between my perceptions and conduct in the disaster and my life experiences and present social position, as set against the perceptions and conduct of my Thai wife, our neighbours, and the broader community. The contrast throws some light on an aspect of Thai culture rarely discussed in the literature: the Thai response to disaster. ----- In dieser persönlichen Darstellung berichte ich über meine Wahrnehmungen, Erfahrungen und mein Verhalten während der Überschwemmungen 2011 in Bangkok, in denen mein Heim und die Nachbarschaft überschwemmt und schwer beschädigt wurden. In diesem Zusammenhang stütze ich mich auf die Autoethnografie als zunehmend populäre, wenn auch umstrittene qualitative Methode in der sozialwissenschaftlichen Forschung. Trotz des persönlichen Zugangs einer Autoethnografie lässt diese breitere Schlussfolgerungen zu, die sich hauptsächlich aus der Betrachtung der Beziehung zwi- schen meinen Wahrnehmungen und Verhalten während der Katastrophe sowie meinen persönlichen Erfahrungen und meiner sozialen Stellung im Gegensatz zu den Wahrnehmungen und Verhalten meiner thailändischen Ehefrau, unserer Nachbarn und der Community ableiten lassen. Dieser Kontrast wirft Licht auf einen bisher in der Literatur wenig diskutierten Aspekt der thailändischen Kultur: der thailändischen Antwort auf Katastrophen.

  2. Formalism versus flexibility in the law of treaties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. d' Aspremont

    2013-01-01

    This contribution aims to show that the dominance of formalism in treaty law is much more nuanced and qualified than the general perception sketched out in the preceding paragraph suggests. It will be argued that from its making to its termination, a treaty see-saws between formalism and flexibility

  3. 32 CFR 1630.46 - Class 4-T: Treaty alien.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Class 4-T: Treaty alien. 1630.46 Section 1630.46 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM CLASSIFICATION RULES § 1630.46 Class 4-T: Treaty alien. In Class 4-T shall be placed any registrant who is an alien...

  4. 50 CFR 660.324 - Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... tribal consensus. (e) Identification. A valid treaty Indian identification card issued pursuant to 25 CFR... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries. 660.324 Section 660.324 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC...

  5. 50 CFR 300.95 - Treaty Indian fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... or engaged in any activity related to fishing the treaty Indian identification required by 25 CFR 249... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Treaty Indian fisheries. 300.95 Section 300.95 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL...

  6. The nuclear nonproliferation treaty after the review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In comparison to the last Review Conference five years ago that resulted in an irresolvable dispute, the NPT Review Conference in May 2010 was quite successful. But as measured by the requirements for an effective nuclear disarmament the success was not more than decent. Harald Mueller participated at the conference as an observer and witnessed the tedious struggle for a conjoint final declaration from a close range. In HSFK Report No. 3/2010 ''Der nukleare Nichtverbreitungsvertrag nach der Ueberpruefung'' (''The Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty after the Review''), Harald Mueller presents the results of the negotiations and encourages the German government to form networks with moderate non-aligned states and states that are interested in disarmament within the Western group in order to develop common positions for the strengthening of nuclear disarmament outside EU and NATO.

  7. Nitrogen Removal Efficiency at Centralized Domestic Wastewater Treatment Plants in Bangkok, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongsak Noophan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, influents and effluents from centralized domestic wastewater treatment systems in Bangkok (Rattanakosin, Dindaeng, Chongnonsi, Nongkhaem, and Jatujak were randomly collected in order to measure organic nitrogen plus ammonium-nitrogen (total Kjeldahl nitrogen, total organic carbon, total suspended solids, and total volatile suspended solids by using Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater 1998. Characteristics of influent and effluent (primary data of the centralized domestic wastewater treatment system from the Drainage and Sewerage Department of Bangkok Metropolitan Administration were used to analyze efficiency of systems. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH was used to identify specific nitrifying bacteria (ammonium oxidizing bacteria specific for Nitrosomonas spp. and nitrite oxidizing bacteria specific for Nitrobacter spp. and Nitrospira spp.. Although Nitrosomonas spp. and Nitrobacter spp. were found, Nitrospira spp. was most prevalent in the aeration tank of centralized wastewater treatment systems. Almost all of the centralized domestic wastewater treatment plants in Bangkok are designed for activated sludge type biological nutrient removal (BNR. However, low efficiency nitrogen removal was found at centralized wastewater treatment plants in Bangkok. Influent ratio of TOC:N at centralized treatment plant is less than 2.5. Centralized wastewater treatment systems have not always been used suitability and used successfully in some areas of Bangkok Thailand.

  8. National security and the comprehensive test ban treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For nearly three years now, the US, UK, and USSR have been working on the draft of a treaty that would ban all nuclear explosions (both peaceful applications and weapon tests) and institute verification and monitoring provisions to ensure compliance with the treaty. The status of the draft treaty is summarized. The question, Is a CTBT really in the interest of US national security. is analyzed with arguments used by both proponents and opponents of the CTBT. It is concluded that there are arguments both for and against a CTBT, but, for those whose approach to national security can be expressed as peace through preparedness, the arguments against a CTBT appear persuasive

  9. Why we should let the Lisbon treaty rest in peace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beach, Derek

    2008-01-01

    Should the Irish be forced to vote again on the recently rejected Lisbon Treaty in a second referendum? The diplomatic signals coming from Brussels suggest that the Irish will be asked to solve the problem themselves using the Danish/Irish model of sending the same treaty with some clarifications......-or-less the same treaty that now has been rejected by three countries, there is a serious risk that the talk of an existential crisis for the EU becomes a self-fulfilling prophecy regardless of whether the Irish vote yes or no next time around.   Udgivelsesdato: 26.6.08...

  10. Services Marketing Mix of Foreign Coffee Franchiser in Bangkok

    OpenAIRE

    Kombenjamas, Warangkana; Lertrattananon, Nuchanart

    2011-01-01

                                                                           Abstract Title:                     Services Marketing Mix of Foreign Coffee Franchiser in Bangkok Program:               International Marketing Authors:                Miss Warangkana Kombenjamas (19801029)                             Miss Nuchanart Lertrattananon (19870818) Supervisor:            Jean-Charles Languilaire Examiner:              Ole Liljefors Final Seminar:        30/5/2011 Research Question: How services...

  11. THE CASE C-301/06. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EC TREATY AND EU TREATY. THE NATURE OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriele QUARANTA

    2009-01-01

    The object of this paper is a case law decided by the European Union Court of Justice in which it has evaluated and judged the proper legislative act to be used by the EU legislator. The Court has applied the principles of the matters division between EU Treaty and EU Treaty, stating that the chosen legal basis, Article 95 EC Treaty, was correct and the consequent act, the Directive, was the correct act to adopt. In my opinion this case law shows that it’s impossible approach to problems by o...

  12. A formal approach to verifying treaty compliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The risks posed by the spread of sensitive technologies that can be used to produce weapons of mass destruction have increased dramatically in recent years. The 21st century has ushered geopolitical transformation, socio-economic movements and environmental change on an global scale. The bipolar, East-West world of the last century exists no more; old political alliances are drifting; new coalitions are forming; and the global war on terrorism creates new divides. Political turmoil and conflict in the post September 11, 2001 era have led to a growing realization that nuclear, chemical and biological weapons may now be obtained clandestinely by non-state actors, sub-national groups or terrorists who, in a fluid and rapidly changing environment of globalization, could use them to destroy people or blackmail their leaders. International efforts necessary to inhibit the spread of weapons of mass destruction, and to eliminate them as far as possible, face challenges of extraordinary complexity. International treaties and conventions requiring binding commitments on the part of the member states and establishing appropriate compliance verification regimes constitute a primary assurance against such risks. For instance, the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) with its safeguards system, applied by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) on nuclear materials and facilities on the territories of the member states, represents the cornerstone in the nuclear field, gives assurance about the peaceful nature of the nuclear activities and aims to prevent nuclear proliferation. The NPT, with its long history and positive experience since 1968, has become a model, and its elements have influenced other fields where proliferation concerns exist, such as the biological and chemical industries. In the environmental field, the Kyoto Protocol represents the major international effort to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases. From a technical

  13. Bangkok as a magnet for rural labour: changing conditions, 1900-1970.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyyanont, P

    1998-06-01

    This article describes labor force shifts, in Thailand, from rural areas to Bangkok during 1900-1970 and is a revision of a chapter from a doctoral thesis. Urban growth of Bangkok occurred primarily after World War II. Pre-war wages in rural areas were higher than coolie wages in Bangkok. Opportunity costs of changing occupations were high. Chinese immigration was the key to development of non-farm occupations. The Chinese from Siam were drawn to higher wages in Bangkok than were possible in South China ports. After the war, the Lewis-Fei and Ranis migration model fits a pattern of migration that adjusts the disequilibrium between urban and rural markets. There are shifts from low productivity rural sectors to urban high productivity sectors. Capital investment in commerce and industry raised urban labor productivity. The wage data suggest a growing gap between urban and rural sectors postwar. Rail travel during the 1950s brought higher wages for the unskilled in railroad construction. There was high agricultural productivity relative to labor input due to availability of land. Underpopulation meant little unemployment. After 1950, conditions changed. The population growth rate increased. More in rural areas lived below the poverty line. Low rice productivity constrained rural wages and incomes during the 1950s and 1960s. The more favored commercial crops needed less labor. Chinese immigration declined, and demand for labor increased in urban areas. Low urban wages due to cheap labor stimulated profits and growth. Major roads connected Bangkok to the south and the north. Bangkok was viewed as a magical and desirable place. PMID:12157855

  14. Impact of Lisbon Treaty on European Union's Future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bi Siwei

    2010-01-01

    @@ Introduction The"Lisbon Treaty"was approved and signed by the European Union's heads of state on December13th,2007 and then handed over to the various E.U.members for ratification.In January 2009,the"Lisbon Treaty"entered into force,despite the many political and economic difficulties in the ratification process that all member countries were experiencing.

  15. Leptospira species in floodwater during the 2011 floods in the Bangkok Metropolitan Region, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaipadungpanit, Janjira; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Chantratita, Narisara; Yimsamran, Surapon; Amornchai, Premjit; Boonsilp, Siriphan; Maneeboonyang, Wanchai; Tharnpoophasiam, Prapin; Saiprom, Natnaree; Mahakunkijcharoen, Yuvadee; Day, Nicholas P J; Singhasivanon, Pratap; Peacock, Sharon J; Limmathurotsakul, Direk

    2013-10-01

    Floodwater samples (N = 110) collected during the 2011 Bangkok floods were tested for Leptospira using culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR); 65 samples were PCR-positive for putatively non-pathogenic Leptospira species, 1 sample contained a putatively pathogenic Leptospira, and 6 samples contained Leptospira clustering phylogenetically with the intermediate group. The low prevalence of pathogenic and intermediate Leptospira in floodwater was consistent with the low number of human leptospirosis cases reported to the Bureau of Epidemiology in Thailand. This study provides baseline information on environmental Leptospira in Bangkok together with a set of laboratory tests that could be readily deployed in the event of future flooding.

  16. Committees and groups related to the EURATOM treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The EURATOM Treaty has not been modified since its creation (Rome, 25 March 1957) but has simply been adapted to take account of the fusion of the executive bodies of the three original European Treaties and the enlargement with new Member States. The EURATOM Treaty is in existence simultaneously with the 1992 Maastricht Treaty. No changes in the EURATOM Treaty that influence the practical working conditions were brought about in the 1997 intergovernmental conference. This edition of the survey of groups related to the EURATOM Treaty is an update of earlier versions issued in Danish language. It is sponsored by the Nordic Committee for Nuclear Safety Research (NKS) in conjunction with the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI). The main purpose is to informally provide those circles in the Nordic countries who want to get acquainted with the groups involved in work related to EURATOM with a simplified overview. The present edition is not different from earlier issues in that it contains an outline without the intent to go into details, and without the ambition to be complete. It thus does not represent an official picture of the committees and groups. Nor should it be seen as an organisation chart of related Commission services. The information is mostly based on personal contacts with persons having knowledge from work with the groups in question. The author would be grateful for corrections and suggestions in order to improve the picture given

  17. Temporal variation of stable isotopes in precipitation at Bangkok, Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Some studies discussed spatial and temporal variability of the stable isotope composition of precipitation in the Asia Pacific region. However, the relationship between isotope signature of precipitation and climate is not well understood, because the long-term isotopic data in precipitation is limited. The purpose of this study is to understand the observed by the IAEA/GNIP network. (author) period and, on the other precipitation mechanism in Monsoon Asia region in response with El Nino/Southern Oscillation. The monthly averaged stable isotopes (Oxygen-18, Deuterium) in precipitation and meteorological data for the period of 1968 to 1995 at Bangkok (13.73 deg N, 100.5 deg E), which are provided by the Global Network for Isotopes in Precipitation. The vertically integrated precipitable water and moisture flux datasets in NCEP/NCAR global atmospheric reanalysis with 2.5 deg. x 2.5 deg. resolution are used to determine the circulation anomalies for the period of 1979 to 1995. To consider the influence of El Nino/Southern Oscillation to precipitation in Bangkok, correlations between oxygen-18 of precipitation and SST in Nino-3 region (that is ENSO index) are considered for each month. The positive correlations with statistically 95% significant level are found only May and October, which is onset and offset period of Asian Monsoon in Thailand. The correlation coefficient is 0.39 for May and 0.62 for October. The isotopic low-phase years in May are 1981, 86, 88 and 91, and isotopic high-phase years are 1979, 80, 83, 87, 92, 94 and 95. Also, the isotopic low-phase year in October are 1988, 90 and 95, and isotopic high-phase years are 1979, 80, 82, 91 and 94. The large-scale circulation fields are considered to elucidate the cause the variations of stable isotopes in precipitation and its relation to ENSO. Composite mean of precipitable water (PW) and moisture flux (UQ, VQ) anomalies for isotopic low and high phases in May and October are considered. An

  18. Overdose experiences among injection drug users in Bangkok, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wood Evan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although previous studies have identified high levels of drug-related harm in Thailand, little is known about illicit drug overdose experiences among Thai drug users. We sought to investigate non-fatal overdose experiences and responses to overdose among a community-recruited sample of injection drug users (IDU in Bangkok, Thailand. Methods Data for these analyses came from IDU participating in the Mit Sampan Community Research Project. The primary outcome of interest was a self-reported history of non-fatal overdose. We calculated the prevalence of past overdose and estimated its relationship with individual, drug-using, social, and structural factors using multivariate logistic regression. We also assessed the prevalence of ever witnessing an overdose and patterns of response to overdose. Results These analyses included 252 individuals; their median age was 36.5 years (IQR: 29.0 - 44.0 and 66 (26.2% were female. A history of non-fatal overdose was reported by 75 (29.8% participants. In a multivariate model, reporting a history of overdose was independently associated with a history of incarceration (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] = 3.83, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.52 - 9.65, p = 0.004 and reporting use of drugs in combination (AOR = 2.48, 95% CI: 1.16 - 5.33, p = 0.019. A majority (67.9% reported a history of witnessing an overdose; most reported responding to the most recent overdose using first aid (79.5%. Conclusions Experiencing and witnessing an overdose were common in this sample of Thai IDU. These findings support the need for increased provision of evidence-based responses to overdose including peer-based overdose interventions.

  19. Experience of Thai women in Bangkok with Norplant-2 implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chompootaweep, S; Kochagarn, E; Tang-Usaha, J; Theppitaksak, B; Dusitsin, N

    1998-10-01

    A prospective study of the Norplant-2 contraceptive subdermal implant system was conducted in Bangkok, Thailand. The objective of the study was to evaluate the efficacy, adverse effects, and overall acceptability of Norplant-2 implants. A total of 140 women were enrolled in a 3-year clinical trial. The mean age was 29 years. Of all the acceptors, 70% had completed primary school. The continuation rates at years 1, 2, and 3 were, respectively, 94%, 89%, and 83%. No accidental pregnancies occurred throughout the 3 years of use in this study. Personal reasons were the leading cause for termination of Norplant-2 implant use. The 3-year cumulative termination rate for personal reasons was 7.2%. These personal reasons were divorce, husband having vasectomy, and moving away from the study area. The other leading cause for termination was medical reasons; acne, headache, and pain at the implant site were the complaints. The termination rate for medical reasons in year 3 of the study was 4.6%. Prolonged menstrual flow was the other main reason for termination. The 3-year cumulative termination rate for menstrual irregularities was 3.8%. In this study, the cumulative termination for planned pregnancy at the end of the year 3 was only 1.6%. The incidence of difficult removals was 8%. Breakage of the rods on removal was encountered in the majority of these cases. The study findings presented suggest that the Norplant-2 implants are highly effective with high continuation rates. The Norplant-2 system could become another choice of long acting reversible contraception for Thai women.

  20. Clinical features of gastrointestinal salmonellosis in children in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vithayasai, Niyada; Rampengan, Novie Homenta; Hattasingh, Weerawan; Jennuvat, Siriluck; Sirivichayakul, Chukiat

    2011-07-01

    This retrospective descriptive study was conducted at Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health (QSNICH), Bangkok, Thailand to describe the clinical features of gastrointestinal salmonellosis in children. The medical records of 134 patients admitted to QSNICH in 2009 who had a positive stool culture for Salmonella spp were reviewed. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, treatment, culture and antimicrobial sensitivity data were collected and analyzed. The mean age of the patients was 22.9 months (range 0.5 to 158 months); 76.9% were < 2 years old. The male to female ratio was 1.5:1. Salmonella B was most commonly found serogroup (47%). The common clinical manifestations included diarrhea (99.3%), fever (93.3%), dehydration (64.9%) and nausea/vomiting (48.5%). Most of the Salmonella isolates were sensitive to a fluoroquinolone and many were sensitive to Cotrimoxazole, but few were sensitive to ampicillin. There were no significant differences in the clinical manifestations and drug sensitivities of the different Salmonella serogroups, except convulsions were more common in Salmonella E infected patients (p = 0.04) and more Salmonella C isolates were sensitive to ampicillin (p = 0.04). There was no significant correlation between clinical course and antimicrobial treatment, except the duration of diarrhea was significantly longer in patients who received antimicrobial treatment (mean 6.1, SD 4.7 days vs mean 4.2, SD 2.1 days) (p = 0.03). Three patients had Salmonella bacteremia. Three patients died but not directly due to Salmonella infection.

  1. Considering the Continuing Development of Inclusive Teachers: A Case Study from Bangkok, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the barriers to and opportunities for supporting the development of inclusive teachers, based on a case study describing two schools in Bangkok, Thailand. Data were collected between 2003 and 2009 using an ethnographic approach whereby the author positioned as a consultant-researcher visited and worked alongside teachers in…

  2. Developmentally Appropriate Practice in Early Elementary Grade Schools in Bangkok, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saifah, Yotsawee

    2012-01-01

    The purposes of this study were (a) to examine early elementary grade teachers' developmentally appropriate beliefs and their teaching practices in public schools in Bangkok, (b) to explore the functioning of developmentally appropriate practice in the two chosen early elementary schools, and (c) to determine the factors that influence the…

  3. Risk factors for traffic accidents in Bangkok Metropolis: a case-reference study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na Ayuthya, R S; Böhning, D

    1997-12-01

    It was aimed to study injures from road traffic accidents in Bangkok Metropolis and identify patients' characteristics as well as to search for risk factors for traffic accidents leading to hospitalization. The study included 346 in-patient cases suffering injuries from road traffic accidents in Bangkok Metropolis. The patients were recruited during a period of 4 months of the year 1992 from five hospitals in various areas of Bangkok which were judged to be representative for Bangkok Metropolis. Using the method of case-reference, relative risk could be estimated for various exposure factors. Most of the patients drove a motorcycle, had their license for only a short period, and drove more than 5 hours a day. About one third of the patients were under the influence of alcohol. The traffic accident characteristics were that they occurred mainly at night time with the peak between 21.00 and 24.00 hours. About 90% of all traffic accidents occurred during the rainy season and most of them occurred near to road junctions. Reference data was available for some variables and the following risk group could be identified: RR (male-age 20-24) = 17.06 (8.8-33.9), RR (single-marital status) = 2.25 (1.7-3.1), RR (primary-education) = 6.2 (2.9-12.6), RR (unskilled labourer-occupation) = 3.91 (2.7-5.9), RR (salesperson-occupation) = 3.34 (2.2-5.0). PMID:9656420

  4. Measuring readiness for sustainable transformation: an application of integral theory in the suburbs of Bangkok

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Panthasen; A. Santisan; B. Lambregts

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a pilot study into the readiness of a local community to engage in an environmental transformation process. It uses elements of Sufficiency Economy and Integral Theory to explore to what extent a suburban Bangkok community is ready to adopt biological wastewater tr

  5. Maritime Expansion and Delimitation After the Timor Gap Treaty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Hendrapati

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Timor Gap Treaty on oil and gas management cooperation in some parts of the Timor Sea was full of political intrigues between Australia and Republic of Indonesia, since the treaty which comprises three areas of cooperation was detrimental to Indonesia and it indicated the highest influence of Indonesian Republic by Australia. Renunciation of the treaty due to the independence of Timor Leste after a referendum resulted in the issue of maritime delimitation between Timor Leste and Indonesia. Nevertheless in fact in 2002 the new state declared maritime expansion to a distance of 100 nautical miles measured from the former Timor Gap lines. The result of the expansion was that it potentially reached to Indonesian oil and gas fields located in the west and east of the lines. Apparently the unilateral expansion conducted by the country which from 1975 until 1999 was the 27th province of Indonesian Republic motivated both states to accelerate maritime delimitation aimed at achieving equitable solution. Although some points existing in border territory have not been agreed yet, the disagreement did not hamper the two states to conduct any negotiations regarding maritime delimitation, mainly delimitation of exclusive economic zone on the basis of the international law rules aimed at achieving equitable solution. This article is designed to examine the substance of Timor Gap Treaty and other issues relating to it, such as the maritime expansion and implementation of the equitable solution principle in maritime delimitation between the two states after the Timor Gap Treaty.

  6. Rush-Bagot and the upkeep of arms treaties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signing an arms treaty after a long negotiation brings a great sense of completion, but that is only the beginning. Living under a treaty - implementing it, resolving different interpretations and compliance disputes, adapting it to changed times - is itself a continuing negotiating process. Handling this process poorly can greatly undermine the original agreement. But nurturing a treaty properly can strengthen it and keep it effective in new circumstances. The history of the Rush-Bagot Agreement of 1817, which limited warships on the Great Lakes, provides examples of many of the problems that can come up. It was violated, subjected to proportional responses, threatened with unilateral reinterpretation and abrogation, modified by executive agreement, and violated again. It proved hard to kill, but ultimately these successive traumas compromised its purpose and value. Indeed, continual threats and violations worsened the rancor between the US and Canada. Today, what influence the agreement still has on restraining armaments on the lakes flows mainly from its symbolism; although the agreement remains in force, none of its original provisions are currently observed. In many ways - violations, untenable reinterpretations, proposals for proportionate responses, claims of technological obsolescence - the Rush-Bagot experience foreshadowed the Antiballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty's troubles over the past decade. But the ABM Treaty's drafters built in provisions to deal with such problems. The Rush-Bagot experience offers lessons for managing today's accords - but largely lessons in what not to do

  7. Transport growth in Bangkok: Energy, environment, and traffic congestion. Workshop proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philpott, J. [Asia Regional Office, Bangkok (Thailand)

    1995-07-01

    Bangkok, the capital of Thailand, is a physically and economically complexcity with a complicated transport system. With daily traffic congestion averaging 16 hours, the air quality is such that to breathe street level pollution for 8 eight hours is roughly equivalent to smoking nine cigarettes per day. Estimates suggest idling traffic costs up to $1.6 billion annually. Energy use within the transport sector is on a steady rise with an estimated increase in 11 years of two and one half times. Severe health impacts have begun to effect many residents - young children and the elderly being particularly vulnerable. Bangkok`s air quality and congestion problems are far from hopeless. Great potential exists for Bangkok to remedy its transport-related problems. The city has many necessary characteristics that allow an efficient, economical system of transport. For example, its high density level makes the city a prime candidate for an efficient system of mass transit and the multitude and close proximity of shops, street vendors, restaurants, and residential areas is highly conducive to walking and cycling. Technical knowledge and capacity to devise and implement innovative policies and projects to address air quality and congestion problems is plentiful. There is also consensus among Bangkokians that something needs to be done immediately to clear the air and the roads. However, little has been done. This report proposes a new approach to transport planning for Bangkok that integrates consideration of ecological, social, and financial viability in the process of making decisions regarding managing existing infrastructure and investments in new infrastructure. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  8. Age at menarche and performance intelligence quotients of adolescents in Bangkok, Thailand: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Noipayak, Pongsak; Rawdaree, Petch; Supawattanabodee, Busaba; Manusirivitthaya, Sumonmal

    2016-01-01

    Background The presence of an association between age at the onset of puberty and intelligence quotient (IQ) in young adolescents remains controversial. The aim of this study was to explore the association between age at menarche and performance IQ scores of young female adolescents in Bangkok, Thailand. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 537 students aged 11–15 years attending primary and secondary schools in the Dusit district of Bangkok, Thailand. The participants were sel...

  9. Potential for Absorption Cooling Generated from Municipal Solid Waste in Bangkok : A Comparison between Waste Incineration & Biogas Production with Combustion

    OpenAIRE

    Hedberg, Erika; Danielsson, Helén

    2010-01-01

    This master’s thesis has been performed in Bangkok, Thailand at the company Eco Design Consultant Co., Ltd. The aim is to investigate the possibilities to generate absorption cooling from municipal solid waste in the Bangkok area. The investigation includes a comparison between waste incineration and biogas production with combustion to see which alternative is preferable. During the investigation, a Swedish perspective has been used. The research for the report mainly consisted of published ...

  10. Santi Asoke Buddhism and the Occupation of Bangkok International Airport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marja-Leena Heikkilä-Horn

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Thailand experienced dramatic political turmoil from February 2006 to November 2008 culminating in the occupation of the Bangkok International Airport. The demonstrations against then Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra and his political allies were organised by the People’s Alliance for Democracy (PAD. One of the PAD leaders, Major-General Chamlong Srimuang, is an active member of the Buddhist Santi Asoke group. The group is controversial as it is not under the state Buddhist authorities and has implicitly criticised the Thai state Buddhist monks for moral corruption. Known as the ‘Dharma Army’, hundreds of Santi Asoke monks, nuns and lay people participated in PAD demonstrations. This paper analyses what the Santi Asoke Buddhist group represents, what the ‘Dharma Army’ is, how its reality differs from media images, what the ideological reasons for Asoke to initially support Thaksin were, and why the group finally turned against him. The paper argues that the group cannot be viewed as a monolithic community. Instead, it should be considered as an amalgamation of monks and nuns, urban and rural temple residents, lay followers of Asoke monks, practitioners of organic agriculture in Asoke village communities, students and former students of Asoke schools, and supporters of Major-General Chamlong Srimuang. Representatives of all these networks participated in the demonstrations albeit with different intensity. ----- Zwischen Februar 2006 und November 2008 stand Thailand unter dem Zeichen tiefgehender politischer Unruhen, die in der Besetzung des internationalen Flughafens ihren Höhepunkt fanden. Organisiert wurden diese Demonstrationen, die sich gegen den damaligen Premierminister Thaksin Shinawatra und seine politischen Verbündeten richteten, von der Volksallianz für Demokratie (PAD. Einer ihrer Anführer, Generalmajor Chamlong Srimuang, ist aktives Mitglied der buddhistischen Santi Asoke Gruppe. Da sich Santi Asoke nicht der

  11. Conceptualising Commom Commercial Policy Treaty revision: explaining stagnancy and dynamics from the Amsterdam IGC to the Treaty of Lisbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Niemann

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to explain the varying, and sometimes intriguing, outcomes of the past three revisions of the Treaty concerning the Community’s Common Commercial Policy (CCP. The analysis particularly focuses on the development of competence and decision rules, i.e. the process of (further supranationalisation, of the CCP. Subjecting the external trade policy outcomes of the Treaties of Amsterdam, Nice and Lisbon to causal analysis, the paper argues that stagnancy and change across cases can be explained by four factors: (i functional pressures; (ii the role of supranational institutions; (iii socialisation, deliberation and learning processes; and (iv countervailing forces.

  12. Overview of Major Issues of Tax Treaties Law in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedri Peci

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to analyze and find out the major issue of tax treaties law in Kosovo. In this analysis we have used the research method of case study. The results of research show that the legal framework for the elimination of double taxation, after 1999, initially started its establishment journey from the United Nations Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK. Taking into consideration the specifications of the political status, the process for the establishment of the unilateral and bilateral legal framework has been made with mistakes, slow and with delays. Following its declaration of independence, Kosovo has paid greater attention to tax treaties. Although double taxation relief in Kosovo may be obtained either unilaterally or under a tax treaty, there remains a lot of work to be done for the completion of the necessary framework for elimination of double taxation. The double taxation relief provided by a tax treaty prevails over the domestic relief. The study is of particular relevance to scholars, tax practitioners, expatriates who work and invest in Kosovo, etc

  13. Bounded Rationality and the Diffusion of Modern Investment Treaties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard Poulsen, Lauge

    2014-01-01

    insights on cognitive heuristics. In line with recent work on policy diffusion, it suggests that a bounded rationality framework has considerable potential to explain why, and how, developing countries have adopted modern investment treaties. To illustrate the potential of this approach, the case of South...

  14. Leadership in politics and science within the Antarctic Treaty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Dudeney

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available For over 50 years the Antarctic has been governed through the Antarctic Treaty, an international agreement now between 49 nations of whom 28 Consultative Parties (CPs undertake the management role. Ostensibly, these Parties have qualified for their position on scientific grounds, though diplomacy also plays a major role. This paper uses counts of policy papers and science publications to assess the political and scientific outputs of all CPs over the last 18 years. We show that a subset of the original 12 Treaty signatories, consisting of the seven claimant nations, the USA and Russia, not only set the political agenda for the continent but also provide most of the science, with those CPs producing the most science generally having the greatest political influence. None of the later signatories to the Treaty appear to play a major role in managing Antarctica compared with this group, with half of all CPs collectively producing only 7% of the policy papers. Although acceptance as a CP requires demonstration of a substantial scientific programme, the Treaty has no formal mechanism to review whether a CP continues to meet this criterion. As a first step to addressing this deficiency, we encourage the CPs collectively to resolve to hold regular international peer reviews of their individual science programmes and to make the results available to the other CPs.

  15. Indian Policy of John Adams Administration: Treaties with the Indians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelin Timur V.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author examines the treaties that were concluded with the Native Americans in the period of John Adams presidency. Treaties with the Natives can be a good source for the study of the US Indian policy. They help to understand the character of Indian-white relations, the attitudes of Federal authorities towards certain Indian nation, the actual problems of the Frontier and so on. Unfortunately the policy of the second President of the USA toward the Native Americans is investigated not so good as the policy of other Presidents of Early American Republic. The study of the treaties helps to know more about John Adams Indian policy. In the years of his presidency only few agreements were signed with the Native American tribes. These were the Mohawk, the Seneca, the Oneida of the Iroquois Nation and the Cherokee. The procedure of Indian-white agreements was well developed until 1797 year. And John Adams administration did not explore something new in this question. The second President of the United States adopted the George Washington’s principals of dealing with the Natives. But in fact he had to consider the internal and external situation in the country. The treaties with the Indians, concluded by the administration of John Adams did not become a bright episode of American history. However they helped to reduce tensions in US-Indian relations.

  16. North-South FDI and Bilateral Investment Treaties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falvey, R.; Foster-McGregor, N.

    2015-01-01

    Bilateral Investment Treaties (BITs) have become increasingly popular as a means of encouraging FDI from developed to developing countries. We adopt a matched difference-in-difference estimation to deal with the problem of endogeneity when estimating the effects of BITs on inward FDI. Our results in

  17. 50 CFR 660.50 - Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... issued pursuant to 25 CFR part 249, subpart A, is prima facie evidence that the holder is a member of the... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries. 660.50 Section 660.50 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC...

  18. The Arms Trade Treaty Opens New Possibilities at the UN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Scales Avery

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available On 2 April, 2013, the Arms Trade Treaty, which had been blocked for ten years in the consensus-bound Conference on Disarmament in Geneva, was put directly before the United Nations General Assembly, and was passed by a massive majority. This historic victory opens new possibilities for progress on other seemingly intractable issues. In particular, it gives hope that a Nuclear Weapons Convention might be adopted by a direct vote on the floor of the General Assembly. The adoption of the NWC, even if achieved against the bitter opposition of the nuclear weapon states, would make it clear that the world’s peoples consider the threat of an all-destroying thermonuclear war to be completely unacceptable.Other precedents can be found in the International Criminal Court and the Ottawa Land Mine Treaty, both of which were adopted despite the vehement opposition of militarily powerful states. The Arms Trade Treaty, the ICC and the Land Mine Treaty all represent great steps forward. Although they may function imperfectly because of powerful opposition, they make the question of legality clear. In time, world public opinion will force aggressor states to follow international law.

  19. Competing for scarce foreign capital: spatial dependence in the diffusion of double taxation treaties .

    OpenAIRE

    Barthel, Fabian; Neumayer, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Recent research suggests that double taxation treaties (DTTs) increase bilateral foreign direct investment (FDI). However, entering such a tax treaty is not unambiguously favorable for both partners if their bilateral FDI positions are asymmetric. Due to the usual bias toward residence-based taxation in DTTs, net capital importers can face a considerable loss of tax revenues when entering these treaties. Nevertheless, there is an ever denser and growing global network of such treaties. This a...

  20. 75 FR 43198 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request for the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    ... Test Ban Treaty (1 Form) AGENCY: U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Interior. ACTION: Notice of an... requirements for the USGS Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). This collection consists of one form and this... OMB Control Number: 1028-0059. Form Number: 9-4040-A. Title: Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. Type...

  1. 78 FR 25298 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request for the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ... Test Ban Treaty (1 Form) AGENCY: U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Interior. ACTION: Notice of an... information is required by the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), and will, upon request, provide the CTBT... Test Ban Treaty. Type of Request: Extension of a currently approved collection. Affected...

  2. The San Francisco Peace Treaty: The Cold War and the Peace Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunette, Rachel

    International treaties have played a central role in diplomatic history since the rise of the modern nation state. Since the end of World War II, more treaties have been formed than in the preceding four centuries. The year 2001 marks the 50th anniversary of the San Francisco Peace Treaty. This unit provides students with historical knowledge of…

  3. Identification of volatile organic compounds in suburban Bangkok, Thailand and their potential for ozone formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suthawaree, Jeeranut; Tajima, Yosuke; Khunchornyakong, Alisa; Kato, Shungo; Sharp, Alice; Kajii, Yoshizumi

    2012-02-01

    Measurement of Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) was carried out in suburban Bangkok during July 2-8, 2008. Analysis was performed using GC-FID and GC-MS. High mixing ratios of VOCs detected during the morning and evening are most likely due to vehicular emissions. Averaged VOC mixing ratios revealed distinct difference between mixing ratios of weekdays and weekend, which the latter were found to be lower. The most abundance species were propane and toluene. Ratios of benzene over toluene suggested that additional toluene mixing ratios was owing to industrial emission, which was particularly larger during weekdays. Comparison between C2Cl4 and CH3Cl mixing ratios obtained for suburban Tokyo reveal a relatively lower influence of biomass burning than suburban Bangkok. Elucidating by Ozone Formation Potential, toluene was found to contribute the most to O3 production followed by ethylene, m-,p-xylene, and propylene.

  4. Spirituality within the family and the prevention of health risk behavior among adolescents in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamratrithirong, Aphichat; Miller, Brenda A; Byrnes, Hilary F; Rhucharoenpornpanich, Orratai; Cupp, Pamela K; Rosati, Michael J; Fongkaew, Warunee; Atwood, Katharine A; Chookhare, Warunee

    2010-11-01

    This study investigates the influences of a family's spiritual beliefs and practices on substance use and sexual risk behaviors among young adolescents 13-14 years old in Bangkok, Thailand. Independent predictor variables are the parents' and teens' spiritual beliefs and practices in Buddhism and parental monitoring behaviors. The study uses data from the 2007 Baseline Survey of the Thai Family Matters Project, which adapted a U.S. based family prevention program for Thai culture. A representative sample of 420 pairs of parents and teens from the Bangkok metropolitan area was recruited to participate in the study. Structural equation models indicate that positive direct and indirect associations of the spirituality of parents and teens within a family and the prevention of adolescent risk behaviors are significant and consistent.

  5. Sixth Conference on China-ASEAN People-to-People Friendship Organizations Held in Bangkok

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>With the theme of "Opportunities and Challenges of China-ASEAN Friendly Cooperation", the Sixth Conference on China-ASEAN People-to-People Friendship Organizations organized by the Thai-Chinese Friendship Association was held in Bangkok August 18 and 19. A delegation of China-ASEAN Association led by its president Gu Xiulian joined about 200 representatives from friendship-with-China organizations in 10 ASEAN countries.

  6. Land Subsidence in and around Bangkok area using ALOS/PALSAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, A.; Mio, A.; Saito, Y.

    2012-12-01

    The metropolitan area of Bangkok, Thailand, has been subsided during the past decades. To effectively monitor, assess, and manage this ground deformation on various time scales and over broad areas, understanding these processes is of critical importance. This ground deformation has been monitored using leveling surveys since 1978 and InSAR (Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar) analysis. These results show that the Bangkok metropolitan city is subsiding with a rate of -20 mm/year in recent years, due to the law limiting groundwater pumping since the late 1980s, although in 1981 the highest subsidence rate up to 120 mm/year had been recorded in the eastern area [Phien-wej et al., 2006]. However, these studies were focused in the Bangkok metropolitan city using C-band satellites images. In this study, we applied the method of measuring long-term land subsidence by Differential InSAR and InSAR time series analysis using ALOS (Advanced Land Observing Satellite) PALSAR (Phased Array type L-band SAR) data acquired between 2007 and 2010 to investigate ground deformation in and around Bangkok area. The ground deformation were detected both near the Chao Phraya river and the Tha Chin river, which is a distributary of the Chao Phraya river and flows westerly from the Chao Phraya through the central plains of Thailand until it mouths into the Gulf of Thailand. We compared our results with previous leveling and InSAR studies to find an overall consistency in the deformation estimates. The deformation rates have been monitored, with velocity a maximum rate of about -20 mm/year, and showed consistent with previous studies (e.g., Aobpaet et al., 2009). These results verify the validity of the method and data used.

  7. The roles of perceived effectiveness and problem awareness in the acceptability of road pricing in Bangkok

    OpenAIRE

    Surames Piriyawat; Hong Tan; Satoshi Fujii

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of perceived effectiveness and problem awareness on social and individual scales on the acceptability of an assumed road pricing (RP) scenario in Bangkok. The results indicate that perceived effectiveness and problem awareness on the individual scale are determinants of RP acceptability, and that car users oppose the applicationof RP since they are not convinced of its effectiveness. The study suggests that when implementing RP, it is important to educate th...

  8. The characteristics of agricultural practices in Bang Kachao area, the Bangkok metropolitan fringe

    OpenAIRE

    Khaokhrueamuang, Amnaj

    2014-01-01

    Bang Kachao area, a conserved green zone in the southern part of Bangkok, has been recently well-known asone of the tourist destinations for rural tourism at a short distance to the city, which are mostly based on thetourism resources generated from agriculture. The present study, therefore, discusses agritourism that shouldbe mainly facilitated in four agricultural systems: traditional mixed orchards, monoculture, integratedfarming, and agroforestry. These systems have applied “sufficiency e...

  9. Customer Satisfaction with Luxury Hotel in Bangkok: The Influence of Housekeeping Services Quality

    OpenAIRE

    P. Kawachart

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this study is to examine the service quality, to represent what factors of housekeeping-service quality make the greatest contribution to customer satisfaction in housekeeping services of luxury hotels in Bangkok. The items of these four dimensions were adapted and reworded based on the LQI model for investigating the specific context.Design/methodology/approach – Data are collected from 200 Thai and foreign respondents who stayed in the luxury hotel located at CBD of...

  10. War, Trade and Desire: Urban Design and the Counter Public Spheres of Bangkok

    OpenAIRE

    Brian McGrath

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses an emergent public sphere in Bangkok in order to reveal the gap between ideals of public space as representation of power, nationhood, and modernity, versus its social production in everyday political struggles. The setting for political demonstrations recently shifted from royalist-nationalist Ratchadamnoen Avenue to the Ratchaprasong intersection, the heart of Bangkok’s shopping district. Ratchadamnoen, formerly a stage-set for royalist and nationalist pomp, has been con...

  11. Spirituality within the Family and the Prevention of Health Risk Behavior among Adolescents in Bangkok, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Chamratrithirong, Aphichat; Miller, Brenda A.; Byrnes, Hilary F.; Rhucharoenpornpanich, Orratai; CUPP, PAMELA K.; Rosati, Michael J.; Fongkaew, Warunee; Atwood, Katharine A.; Chookhare, Warunee

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the influences of a family's spiritual beliefs and practices on substance use and sexual risk behaviors among young adolescents 13 to 14 years old in Bangkok, Thailand. Independent predictor variables are the parents' and teens' spiritual beliefs and practices in Buddhism and parental monitoring behaviors. The study uses data from the 2007 Baseline Survey of the Thai Family Matters Project, which adapted a U.S. based family prevention program for Thai culture. A repres...

  12. Leptospira Species in Floodwater during the 2011 Floods in the Bangkok Metropolitan Region, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Thaipadungpanit, Janjira; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Chantratita, Narisara; Yimsamran, Surapon; Amornchai, Premjit; Boonsilp, Siriphan; Maneeboonyang, Wanchai; Tharnpoophasiam, Prapin; Saiprom, Natnaree; Mahakunkijcharoen, Yuvadee; Nicholas P J Day; Singhasivanon, Pratap; Peacock, Sharon J; Limmathurotsakul,Direk

    2013-01-01

    Floodwater samples (N = 110) collected during the 2011 Bangkok floods were tested for Leptospira using culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR); 65 samples were PCR-positive for putatively non-pathogenic Leptospira species, 1 sample contained a putatively pathogenic Leptospira, and 6 samples contained Leptospira clustering phylogenetically with the intermediate group. The low prevalence of pathogenic and intermediate Leptospira in floodwater was consistent with the low number of human lept...

  13. Elementary study on evaluation of environmental loads and costs for waste treatment system in Bangkok

    OpenAIRE

    Inazumi, Shinya; Ohtsu, Hiroyasu; Shiotani, Tomoki; KATSUMI, Takeshi

    2010-01-01

    It is very important for waste to be controlled and appropriately treated in a waste treatment system because of its impact on the environment. This study quantitatively evaluates the current waste treatment system and suggests countermeasures based on their impact on reducing the environmental and treatment costs in order to solve waste treatment problems in Bangkok, Thailand. Evaluation models are applied to estimate the treatment and environmental costs in the current waste treatment syste...

  14. An artificial neural network model for rainfall forecasting in Bangkok, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, N. Q.; Babel, M. S.; Weesakul, S.; Tripathi, N. K.

    2009-08-01

    This paper presents a new approach using an Artificial Neural Network technique to improve rainfall forecast performance. A real world case study was set up in Bangkok; 4 years of hourly data from 75 rain gauge stations in the area were used to develop the ANN model. The developed ANN model is being applied for real time rainfall forecasting and flood management in Bangkok, Thailand. Aimed at providing forecasts in a near real time schedule, different network types were tested with different kinds of input information. Preliminary tests showed that a generalized feedforward ANN model using hyperbolic tangent transfer function achieved the best generalization of rainfall. Especially, the use of a combination of meteorological parameters (relative humidity, air pressure, wet bulb temperature and cloudiness), the rainfall at the point of forecasting and rainfall at the surrounding stations, as an input data, advanced ANN model to apply with continuous data containing rainy and non-rainy period, allowed model to issue forecast at any moment. Additionally, forecasts by ANN model were compared to the convenient approach namely simple persistent method. Results show that ANN forecasts have superiority over the ones obtained by the persistent model. Rainfall forecasts for Bangkok from 1 to 3 h ahead were highly satisfactory. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the most important input parameter besides rainfall itself is the wet bulb temperature in forecasting rainfall.

  15. Meteorological factors affecting lower tropospheric ozone mixing ratios in Bangkok, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjai, S.; Buntoung, S.; Nunez, M.; Chiwpreecha, K.; Pattarapanitchai, S.

    2016-09-01

    This paper examines the influence of meteorological conditions in ozone mixing ratio measured at the Thai Meteorological Department (TMD) in Bangkok, Thailand. In addition to surface wind speed and direction, surface ozone concentrations, ozonesondes and CALIPSO Lidar images were collected during the study period extending from 01/01/2014 to 30/04/2015. Surface ozone concentrations show a strong seasonality, with maximum in the dry months of December to April and minimum during the wet southwest (SW) monsoon period extending from May to October. High ozone concentrations are related to biomass burning in the northeast highland regions of the country and neighboring Myanmar and southern China. These precursors travel in a southerly direction towards Bangkok in a well-defined aerosol layer which may be at ground level or at elevated heights. The growth of the daytime mixed layer scavenges some of the upper level aerosols, although local maxima in ozone concentrations at 1-2 km are a frequent feature at Bangkok. There is an evidence of fumigation in the Gulf of Thailand and a return flow via the southerly sea breezes.

  16. An artificial neural network model for rainfall forecasting in Bangkok, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Q. Hung

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new approach using an Artificial Neural Network technique to improve rainfall forecast performance. A real world case study was set up in Bangkok; 4 years of hourly data from 75 rain gauge stations in the area were used to develop the ANN model. The developed ANN model is being applied for real time rainfall forecasting and flood management in Bangkok, Thailand. Aimed at providing forecasts in a near real time schedule, different network types were tested with different kinds of input information. Preliminary tests showed that a generalized feedforward ANN model using hyperbolic tangent transfer function achieved the best generalization of rainfall. Especially, the use of a combination of meteorological parameters (relative humidity, air pressure, wet bulb temperature and cloudiness, the rainfall at the point of forecasting and rainfall at the surrounding stations, as an input data, advanced ANN model to apply with continuous data containing rainy and non-rainy period, allowed model to issue forecast at any moment. Additionally, forecasts by ANN model were compared to the convenient approach namely simple persistent method. Results show that ANN forecasts have superiority over the ones obtained by the persistent model. Rainfall forecasts for Bangkok from 1 to 3 h ahead were highly satisfactory. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the most important input parameter besides rainfall itself is the wet bulb temperature in forecasting rainfall.

  17. Anthropogenic effects on the subsurface thermal and groundwater environments in Osaka, Japan and Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Makoto; Shimada, Jun; Fukuda, Yoichi; Yamano, Makoto; Onodera, Shin-ichi; Kaneko, Shinji; Yoshikoshi, Akihisa

    2009-04-15

    Anthropogenic effects in both Osaka and Bangkok were evaluated to compare the relationships between subsurface environment and the development stage of both cities. Subsurface thermal anomalies due to heat island effects were found in both cities. The Surface Warming Index (SWI), the departure depth from the steady geothermal gradient, was used as an indicator of the heat island effect. SWI increases (deeper) with the magnitude of heat island effect and the elapsed time starting from the surface warming. Distributions of subsurface thermal anomalies due to the heat island effect agreed well with the distribution of changes in air temperature due to the same process, which is described by the distribution of population density in both Osaka and Bangkok. Different time lags between groundwater depression and subsidence in the two cities was found. This is attributed to differences in hydrogeologic characters, such as porosity and hydraulic conductivity. We find that differences in subsurface degradations in Osaka and Bangkok, including subsurface thermal anomalies, groundwater depression, and land subsidence, depends on the difference of the development stage of urbanization and hydrogeological characters. PMID:18790519

  18. Analysis of potential energy saving strategies in a Bangkok school building. With CD-ROM; Analyse von Energieeinsparpotentialen am Beispiel einer Schule in Bangkok

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temming, H.V.

    2000-05-01

    In cooperation with the Gesellschaft fuer technische Zusammenarbeit GTZ, a school building in Thailand was selected for an analysis of potentials for energy saving. The selected school was the New International School of Thailand (NIST) in Bangkok. Energy-relevant data were acquired by measurements, and solutions for more efficient energy supply were developed. Recommendations were made on this basis. This dissertation is also available on CD-ROM. [German] In Zusammenarbeit mit der Gesellschaft fuer technische Zusammenarbeit GTZ wurde als Beispielobjekt eine thailaendische Schule, die New International School of Thailand (NIST) in Bangkok ausgewaehlt. An diesem Objekt wurden die verschiedenen energetischen Messungen durchgefuehrt. Diese wurden bedarfsgerecht ausgewertet. Auf der Basis der Ergebnisse wurden Loesungsmoeglichkeiten fuer eine effizientere Energieversorgung der Schule konstruiert und diese Alternativen wie oben beschrieben bewertet, woraus sich entsprechende Empfehlungen ergeben. Der Aufbau dieser Arbeit stellt sich nun folgendermassen dar: Nachdem in einem ersten Schritt die fuer diesen Kontext wichtigsten Parameter Thailands und des Untersuchungsobjektes dargestellt werden, schliesst sich hieran die Vorstellung verschiedener technische Alternativen zur Erzeugung von Kaelte an, da hier ein Fokus fuer moegliche Energieeinsparungen gesetzt wird. Anschliessend werden einige in der Arbeit verwandte Berechnungsverfahren fuer energetische oder wirtschaftliche Zuammenhaenge sowie eine ausfuehrliche Beschreibung der energetischen 1st-Situation des Untersuchungsobjektes dargestellt. Darauf aufbauend folgt nun die Vorstellung der verschiedenen Energieeinsparpotentiale durch technische und verhaltensinduzierte Optimierungsmassnahmen. Diese Arbeit endet mit der Bewertung aller aufgedeckten Potentiale und einem Gesamtfazit aus der Untersuchung. (Diese Diplomarbeit liegt auch in Form einer CD-ROM vor.) (orig./AKF)

  19. The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, the relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Thomas, Jr.

    2014-05-01

    The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) is the most important international security arrangement that we have that is protecting the world community and this has been true for many years. But it did not happen by accident, it is a strategic bargain in which 184 states gave up the right forever to acquire the most powerful weapon ever created in exchange for a commitment from the five states allowed to keep nuclear weapons under the NPT (U.S., U.K., Russia, France and China), to share peaceful nuclear technology and to engage in disarmament negotiations aimed at the ultimate elimination of their nuclear stockpiles. The most important part of this is the comprehensive nuclear test ban (CTBT); the thinking by the 184 NPT non-nuclear weapon states was and is that they understand that the elimination of nuclear weapon stockpiles is a long way off, but at least the NPT nuclear weapon states could stop testing the weapons. The CTBT has been ratified by 161 states but by its terms it can only come into force if 44 nuclear potential states ratify; 36 have of the 44 have ratified it, the remaining eight include the United States and seven others, most of whom are in effect waiting for the United States. No state has tested a nuclear weapon-except for complete outlier North Korea-in 15 years. There appears to be no chance that the U.S. Senate will approve the CTBT for ratification in the foreseeable future, but the NPT may not survive without it. Perhaps it is time to consider an interim measure, for the UN Security Council to declare that any future nuclear weapon test any time, anywhere is a "threat to peace and security", in effect a violation of international law, which in today's world it clearly would be.

  20. How to strengthen the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NPT consists of a complex set of undertakings and obligations, each of which represents in its own right a highly desirable objective that should be pursued whether or not the Treaty itself existed, and irrespective of the success (or lack of it) achieved in pursuit of the other objectives. These objectives are: (a) to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons to countries other than the five that possessed them at the end of 1966. Obviously, this is the main purpose of the Treaty. It provides the substance of the first three articles and gives the Treaty its name (Arts. I, II, III); (b) to promote international co-operation in developing the peaceful use of nuclear energy, and particularly to help developing countries in this regard (Art. IV); (c) to afford all parties whatever benefits may be derived from the peaceful uses of nuclear explosions (Art. V); (d) to pursue negotiations towards the cessation of the arms race, nuclear disarmament and eventually a treaty on general and complete disarmament, 'under strict and effective international control'. Although this is not actually said in the relevant article (Article VI), it is generally considered that this obligation falls particularly upon those parties of the Treaty that are 'Nuclear Weapon States'. (Art. VI) The preambular paragraph regarding the 'determination expressed' by the parties to the Moscow Test Ban Treaty to seek a complete and perpetual discontinuance of all test explosions of nuclear weapons, is also relevant to the objective of arms control and disarmament. (Art. VI) Since consummation of each of these objectives is 'devoutly to be wished', in Hamlet's words, there should be no question of bargaining or horse-trading between them. Despite some specious arguments to the contrary, history shows that the possession of superior weapons has never prevented war and a further spread of nuclear weapons must inevitably increase, perhaps in geometrical progression, the likelihood of a nuclear conflict

  1. Non-occupational lead and cadmium exposure of adult women in Bangkok, Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z.-W.; Shimbo, S. [Department of Food and Nutrition, Kyoto Women' s University, Kyoto (Japan); Watanabe, T. [Miyagi University of Education, Sendai (Japan); Srianujata, S. [Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand); Banjong, O.; Chitchumroonchokchai, C. [Institute of Nutrition, Mahidol University, Salaya, Phuthamonthon, Nakhonpathom (Thailand); Nakatsuka, H.; Matsuda-Inoguchi, N. [Miyagi University, Taiwa-cho (Japan); Higashikawa, K.; Ikeda, M. [Kyoto Industrial Health Association, Kyoto (Japan)

    1999-02-02

    This survey was conducted to examine the extent of the exposure of Bangkok citizens to lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd), and to evaluate the role of rice as the source of these heavy metals. In practice, 52 non-smoking adult women in an institution in the vicinity of Bangkok, volunteered to offer blood, spot urine, boiled rice and 24-h total food duplicate samples. Samples were wet-ashed, and then analyzed for Pb and Cd by ICP-MS. Geometric means for the levels in blood (Pb-B and Cd-B) and urine (Pb-U and Cd-U as corrected for creatinine concentration), and also for dietary intake (Pb-F and Cd-F) were 32.3 {mu}g/l for Pb-B, 0.41 {mu}g/l for Cd-B, 2.06 {mu}g/g creatinine for Pb-U, 1.40 {mu}g/g creatinine for Cd-U, 15.1 {mu}g/day for Pb-F and 7.1 {mu}g/day for Cd-F. Rice contributed 30% and 4% of dietary Cd and Pb burden, respectively. When compared with the counterpart values obtained in four neighboring cities in southeast Asia (i.e. Nanning, Tainan, Manila, and Kuala Lumpur), dietary Pb burden of the women in Bangkok was middle in the order among the values for the five cities. Pb level in the blood was the lowest of the levels among the five cities and Pb in urine was also among the low group. This apparent discrepancy in the order between Pb-B (i.e. the fifth) and Pb-F (the third) might be attributable to recent reduction of Pb levels in the atmosphere in Bangkok. Regarding Cd exposure, Cd levels in blood and urine as well as dietary Cd burden of Bangkok women were either the lowest or the next lowest among those in the five cities. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  2. Treaties, Truths and Transgressive Pedagogies: Re-Imagining Indigenous Presence in the Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Kovach

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay contemplates the context of treaty and the values it offers as a way to imagine anew a just relationship between Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples within the particular context of education. It begins with a theoretical meandering of sorts, a ‘thinking it through piece’, and asks, ‘What does the treaty relationship, as envisioned by Indigenous peoples, teach us about critical and respectful pedagogy? What are the tensions and contradictions involved in teaching from and through treaty. The essay then explores the implications of a treaty lens within formal schooling through including both Indigenous and non-Indigenous perspectives. Situating treaty within identity, relationship, and a sacred dialogue, the focus is less on treaty or treaties themselves and but rather explores the spirit and possibility of ‘treaty’, as imagined by Indigenous peoples, in thinking about transgressive pedagogies and practicing transformative dialogue.

  3. Proposal for revisions of the United Nations Moon Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Vera; Abreu, Neyda; Fritz, J.; Knapmeyer, Martin; Smeenk, Lisa; Ten Kate, Inge; Trüninger, Monica

    During this new 2010-decade, it will be imperative to reconsider the effectiveness of the current United Nations (U.N.) Moon Treaty (c.1979). Amendments are necessary to underline the mandatory human stewardship of this fragile planetary body of our Solar System, indispensible to life on Earth. After the very successful Apollo and Luna missions to the Moon (ending in 1976), which brought a wide array of data (samples, surface and orbital experiments), the Moon lost its exploratory attraction in favor of other programs, such as the International Space Station and potential human exploration of Mars. However, since the mid-90's, the enthusiasm for the Moon has been revived, which resulted in several space agencies worldwide (NASA, ESA, ISRO, JAXA, and the Chinese Space Agency) having made great efforts to re-start ex-ploratory and scientific campaigns even though budgetary changes may delay the process. As a result, a wide array of peoples and their interests are put together in each mission planned to reach the Moon (e.g., orbiters and landers). Up to now, mission plans focus on technical requirements and the desires of scientists and engineers, but hardly any other aspects. Field specialists on issues regarding the social, economic, political, cultural, ethical and environmen-tal impacts of Moon exploration and colonization have had little to no involvement in current and past lunar missions. However, these fields would provide different and essential points of view regarding the planning of lunar missions. Moreover, recent documents written by the scientific community, such as "The Scientific Context for Exploration of the Moon: Final Re-port" Committee on the Scientific Context for Exploration of the Moon, National Research Council (2007), or the recent (summer 2009) White Papers for the National Research Council Planetary Science Decadal Survey 2011-2020, do not seem to leave space for a multidisciplinary approach regarding the future lunar exploration either

  4. Overview of Major Issues of Tax Treaties Law in Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    Bedri Peci

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to analyze and find out the major issue of tax treaties law in Kosovo. In this analysis we have used the research method of case study. The results of research show that the legal framework for the elimination of double taxation, after 1999, initially started its establishment journey from the United Nations Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK). Taking into consideration the specifications of the political status, the process for the establishment o...

  5. North Korea threatens withdrawal from Non-Proliferation Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On March 12, 1993 North Korea announced its intention to be with draw from the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). The decision, which was made public in a letter from Foreign Minister Kim Yong Nam to the president of the UN Security Council, is widely viewed as having potentially serious implications for East Asia security and for the global non-proliferation regime. The IAEA response and the reaction from the USA are briefly discussed

  6. Overview of Major Issues of Tax Treaties Law in Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    Bedri Peci

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to analyze and find out the major issue of tax treaties law in Kosovo. In this analysis we have used the research method of case study. The results of research show that the legal framework for the elimination of double taxation, after 1999, initially started its establishment journey from the United Nations Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK). Taking into consideration the specifications of the political status, the process for the establishment of the unilat...

  7. The Brazilian position during the final transactions the treaty for the proscriptions of nuclear weapons in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Brazilian position during the final transactions on the treaty for the proscription of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America is presented. An analysis of the main clauses of this treaty is given, well as a comparative study between the principle points of Tlatelolco Treaty and Non-Proliferation Treaty

  8. EU Enlargement Law: History and Recent Developments: Treaty Custom Concubinage?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitry Kochenov

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available This note provides a detailed account of the development of the EU enlargement law. Based on the material provided by the latest enlargement round, it outlines the main set of enlargement principles, criteria and procedural tools employed by the Union in the process, also making a sketch of the actual chronology of enlargement events. Based on the analysis of the legal regulation of five rounds of enlargement and making parallels with the notion of customary law as understood in public international law, it argues that the Union enlargements have always enjoyed a dual regulation: by written (mostly Treaty based and also by customary enlargement law. The existence of customary law explains the consistency of enlargement regulation throughout all the rounds of this process, notwithstanding the stage of the Treaty reform in force at the time of every particular accession. The minimal amendments introduced into the enlargement article by the Treaty Establishing a Constitution for Europe (Art. I-58 suggest that the future enlargements are likely to be building on the body of customary law in force to date. The process of gradual incorporation of customary law into the written law of the EU is also likely to continue.

  9. Analyses on the Possible Brexit through the Lisbon Treaty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria Teodora Andronic

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Europe is facing a social crisis like never before, and this comes just after an economical one. The huge flow of migrants that started crossing into Europe at the end of 2015 was just the straw that broke the camel for Great Britain, because the Brits were threatening to leave the EU for some time. Prime Minister David Cameron has warned his European counterparts that his country might leave if his demands are not met. He clearly affirmed that he wants to stay in the EU, but under different rules. He negotiated a package of reforms, demanding concessions from a frightened Brussels, that has seen almost inevitable the change in some EU treaty terms. The PM used the 2011 European Union Act at the negotiations, document which requires any EU treaty that passes new powers to Brussels to be put to an internal British referendum. On June 23rd there is set a referendum on the country’s membership to the EU. But this amount of uncertainty led to the fall of the pound (reaching its lowest level since 2009, to fear for the investors and furious debates between the political parties. We shall further analyze the Lisbon Treaty, in order to better understand the legislation behind this European-wide tension, and to explain the implications of such an event.

  10. Measurement of volatile organic compounds in suburban Bangkok, Thailand: characteristics and influence from combustion related activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suthawaree, J.; Tajima, Y.; Kato, S.; Khunchornyakong, A.; Sharp, A.; Kajii, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Elucidation of air quality in the suburban area of Bangkok, Thailand is essential in order to achieve effective regulations and mitigation strategies. VOCs plays important role in formation of tropospheric urban ozone. Without overkill NO concentration, transport of O3 precursors into suburban area which add surplus to local O3 formation as well as direct transport of O3 itself results in relatively higher total O3 observed in suburban area rather than urban. Whole air canister sampling was carried out in the suburban Bangkok during 2008, July 2-7. 4 samples per day were collected at 30 min passes 6, 12, 17, 21 hours with sampling time of 1 min. Analysis was achieved by using GC-FID and GC-MS. High concentrations of VOCs detected during the peak periods in the morning and evening are most likely due to vehicular emission. Averaged VOCs concentrations, reveal distinct different between data measured for weekday and weekend which the latter were found with lower concentrations. No difference was found for CFCs which the levels are also comparable to global background level reported by World Meteorological Organization. The most abundance species have found to be propane and toluene with averaged concentration of 3100 and 2891 pptv, respectively. Ratios of benzene over toluene suggest additional concentration owing to industrial emission, of which particularly larger during the weekday. Comparison with C2Cl4 and CH3Cl concentrations obtained for suburban Tokyo reveal relatively higher influence of biomass burning at suburban Bangkok. In order to estimate the role of the different VOCs towards tropospheric ozone formation, ozone formation potential was calculated using maximum incremental reactivity. Toluene was found to contribute the most to O3 production followed by ethylene, m,p-xylene, and propylene.

  11. Ecosystem Services and Potential Utilization of of Urban Typha angustifolia Wetlands of across Metropolitan Bangkok, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sritrairat, S.

    2014-12-01

    Over half the world's 7.2 billion population are living in urban habitats. While these cities only occupy 2% of the world's surface, the ecological footprint by these cities combined is far greater than that of the other 98% of the world. Bangkok, Thailand has experienced this rapid urbanization that has resulted in various environmental problems, including pollution, land subsidence, and flooding. Major flooding in 2011 has raised awareness about the importance of restoring ecosystem services in urban space to cope up with the forecasted extreme climatic conditions. Finding localized flooding, carbon and pollution mitigation methods will be important to cities. Upland reforestration has been proposed as a way to decrease these anthropogenic and climate change impacts. However, there is also a large area of wetlands in Bangkok with possibly high ecosystem services that have not been quantified. This study measure above ground and below ground carbon accumulation in wide-spread Typha angustifolia wetlands as an untapped source of ecosystem services that are worth projected. These wetlands are typically viewed as wasteland and are not being protected. We examined carbon and heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cu) pools in 7 wetlands across Bangkok with various environmental settings--from industrialized zone, to residential area, farms, and protected urban green space. The results indicate recent peat accumulation layer by these wetlands at high rate. Heavy concentration are found near contaminant source such as industries and farms. Combined with their ability to buffer storms and being habitats for wildlife, these wetlands have important values in increasing ecosystem services in urban space and should be considered for protection.

  12. Urban Deformation Monitoring in Bangkok Metropolitan (Thailand) using Permanent Scatterer and Differential Interferometry Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worawattanamateekul, J.; Hoffmann, J.; Adam, N.; Kampes, B.

    2004-06-01

    Extensive ground water extraction has been identified as the principle cause of land subsidence in Bangkok and its vicinity. To mitigate major damages from large subsidence magnitudes the phenomenon must be well understood in this area. Up-to-date and reliable subsidence information is indispensable to develop this understanding. Conventionally, surface leveling has served as the primary method for measuring subsidence in Bangkok. But this is costly and time consuming. Differential SAR interferometry (DInSAR) can be an alternative means to obtain measurements of the surface displacement providing better resolution and comparable accuracy while being less time consuming. However, spatial and temporal decorrelation and atmospheric signal contributions in repeat-pass SAR interferometry often hamper the accurate measurement of surface displacements in SAR interferograms. The recently developed Permanent Scatterer (PS) technique invented by POLIMI researchers [1],[2],[3], overcomes these difficulties by interpreting time-series of interferometric phases at coherent point scatterers. In this study, we apply both DInSAR and PS techniques using two time-series of 17 and 11 ERS-SAR acquisitions for two partly overlapping image frames. This study is the first attempt to apply the PS technique to derive urban displacement information in Bangkok. We investigate the feasibility and reliability of using this technique with relatively few acquisitions and in a tropical location for deformation estimation. Using a linear deformation model and network algorithm, we estimate spatially varying displacement rates for the metropolitan area. Our first PS estimation results agree well with available ground leveling measurements.

  13. Transport and its energy-related air pollution problems in Bangkok

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boontherawara, N.; Panich, S.; Phiu-Nual, K.

    1995-12-31

    Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) is a major pollutant, followed by carbon monoxide and lead, as the ambient levels of these pollutants all exceed international standards such as those laid down by the World Health Organization (WHO). In order to meet these standards, it is necessary to reduce the emissions of these pollutants by 84.9%, 47.3%, and 13.0% respectively. Ambient air quality in Bangkok will continue to deteriorate to an unacceptable level by the year 2000, if no action is taken over and above implementation of already approved projects (including mass transit projects). Carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions could be reduced by 28 and 22% respectively, with the implementation of Reasonable Technology Measures used to control vehicle emissions alone. These measures include inspection and maintenance programs. Their success is dependent on effective quality control and on the application of stringent standards. However, these measures would have little impact in reducing the emissions of SPM. It can therefore be concluded that Reasonable Technology Measures will be insufficient to address Bangkok`s air pollution problems, without complementary measures to reduce traffic congestion. Implementation of the traffic measures outlined under the Demand-Management Policy Scenario alone will reduce CO and HC emissions by up to 45%. These measures serve to reduce traffic congestion and increase the average travel speed. However, in order to improve air quality to internationally acceptable levels, traffic measures must be implemented in conjunction with the Reasonable Technology Scenario. This will provide an additional reduction of CO and HC emissions by 45%.

  14. Experiences with policing among people who inject drugs in Bangkok, Thailand: a qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanna Hayashi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite Thailand's commitment to treating people who use drugs as "patients" not "criminals," Thai authorities continue to emphasize criminal law enforcement for drug control. In 2003, Thailand's drug war received international criticism due to extensive human rights violations. However, few studies have since investigated the impact of policing on drug-using populations. Therefore, we sought to examine experiences with policing among people who inject drugs (PWID in Bangkok, Thailand, between 2008 and 2012. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Between July 2011 and June 2012, semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with 42 community-recruited PWID participating in the Mitsampan Community Research Project in Bangkok. Interviews explored PWID's encounters with police during the past three years. Audio-recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim, and a thematic analysis was conducted to document the character of PWID's experiences with police. Respondents indicated that policing activities had noticeably intensified since rapid urine toxicology screening became available to police. Respondents reported various forms of police misconduct, including false accusations, coercion of confessions, excessive use of force, and extortion of money. However, respondents were reluctant to report misconduct to the authorities in the face of social and structural barriers to seeking justice. Respondents' strategies to avoid police impeded access to health care and facilitated transitions towards the misuse of prescribed pharmaceuticals. The study's limitations relate to the transferability of the findings, including the potential biases associated with the small convenience sample. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that policing in Bangkok has involved injustices, human rights abuses, and corruption, and policing practices in this setting appeared to have increased PWID's vulnerability to poor health through various pathways. Novel to this study are

  15. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the airborne particulate matter at a location 40 km north of Bangkok, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim Oanh, N. T.; Bætz Reutergårdh, L.; Dung, N. Tr.; Yu, M.-H.; Yao, W.-X.; Co, H. X.

    Total suspended particulate matter in ambient air was sampled by high-volume samplers at four sites at the Asian Institute of Technology campus, west of the Phahonyothin Road, Phathumthani Province, 40 km North of Bangkok, Thailand. The concentrations of 18 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), were measured by gas chromatography with flame ionisation and/or liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The PAH profile with relatively high concentrations of benzo(ghi)perylene and coronene, decreasing with the distance from the road, suggested a substantial contribution from the traffic. The concentrations in the core of the campus were in the same range as those reported for residential areas in the Bangkok Metropolitan.

  16. Écrire Bangkok: La ville dans la nouvelle contemporaine en Thaïlande, Louise Pichard-Bertaux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ward Keeler

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In Verdi’s mid-19th century opera, “La Traviata,” Violetta refers to “questo popoloso deserto che appellano Parigi.” The 20th century caused fiction writers throughout Southeast Asia to echo her sentiments, as government and commerce, or just bright lights and brighter dreams, drew huge numbers of people to such rapidly growing cities as Jakarta, Rangoon, and Bangkok. Louise Pichard-Bertaux has decided to address two immense and somewhat intractable topics—the city of Bangkok, and the endless...

  17. The roles of perceived effectiveness and problem awareness in the acceptability of road pricing in Bangkok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surames Piriyawat

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of perceived effectiveness and problem awareness on social and individual scales on the acceptability of an assumed road pricing (RP scenario in Bangkok. The results indicate that perceived effectiveness and problem awareness on the individual scale are determinants of RP acceptability, and that car users oppose the applicationof RP since they are not convinced of its effectiveness. The study suggests that when implementing RP, it is important to educate the general public, and especially car users, about the effectiveness of RP schemes in reducing the impact of traffic problems on the individual.

  18. The comprehensive nuclear-test-ban treaty eight years after the opening of the treaty for signature: what is the situation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International community has just celebrated the eight anniversary of the opening for signature, on 24 September 1996, of the Comprehensive Nuclear -test-Ban Treaty (C.T.B.T.). This event provides an opportunity to review briefly the current situation with regard to the Treaty and the international organisation responsible for preparing the various steps necessary for its implementation. The purpose of this paper is not to give once again a detailed description of the history of the Treaty, the issues at stake and its prospects. It is simply recalled that the major undertaking by States Parties to the Treaty is not to carry out any nuclear weapon test explosion or any other nuclear explosion, and to prohibit and prevent any such nuclear explosion at any place under its jurisdiction or control. It is also useful to note that the Treaty provides for a verification regime consisting of the following four elements: creation of a permanent International Monitoring system; consultation and clarification procedures to be followed by states in the event of a suspicious occurrence; on-site inspections, carried out at the request of a State Party; confidence-building measures. On the eve of important deadlines particularly during 2005 for disarmament and nonproliferation, it was useful to give a brief factual picture of the current Treaty situation and above all of the results obtained to date by the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization. (N.C.)

  19. Environmental Screening for the Scedosporium apiospermum Species Complex in Public Parks in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luplertlop, Natthanej; Pumeesat, Potjaman; Muangkaew, Watcharamat; Wongsuk, Thanwa; Alastruey-Izquierdo, Ana

    2016-01-01

    The Scedosporium apiospermum species complex, comprising filamentous fungal species S. apiospermum sensu stricto, S. boydii, S. aurantiacum, S. dehoogii and S. minutispora, are important pathogens that cause a wide variety of infections. Although some species (S. boydii and S. apiospermum) have been isolated from patients in Thailand, no environmental surveys of these fungi have been performed in Thailand or surrounding countries. In this study, we isolated and identified species of these fungi from 68 soil and 16 water samples randomly collected from 10 parks in Bangkok. After filtration and subsequent inoculation of samples on Scedo-Select III medium, colony morphological examinations and microscopic observations were performed. Scedosporium species were isolated from soil in 8 of the 10 parks, but were only detected in one water sample. Colony morphologies of isolates from 41 of 68 soil samples (60.29%) and 1 of 15 water samples (6.67%) were consistent with that of the S. apiospermum species complex. Each morphological type was selected for species identification based on DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the β-tubulin gene. Three species of the S. apiospermum species complex were identified: S. apiospermum (71 isolates), S. aurantiacum (6 isolates) and S. dehoogii (5 isolates). In addition, 16 sequences could not be assigned to an exact Scedosporium species. According to our environmental survey, the S. apiospermum species complex is widespread in soil in Bangkok, Thailand.

  20. Influence of driving cycles on exhaust emissions and fuel consumption of gasoline passenger car in Bangkok.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutramon, Tamsanya; Supachart, Chungpaibulpatana

    2009-01-01

    The influence of different driving cycles on their exhaust emissions and fuel consumption rate of gasoline passenger car was investigated in Bangkok based on the actual measurements obtained from a test vehicle driving on a standard chassis dynamometer. A newly established Bangkok driving cycle (BDC) and the European driving cycle (EDC) which is presently adopted as the legislative cycle for testing automobiles registered in Thailand were used. The newly developed BDC is constructed using the driving characteristic data obtained from the real on-road driving tests along selected traffic routes. A method for selecting appropriate road routes for real driving tests is also introduced. Variations of keyed driving parameters of BDC with different driving cycles were discussed. The results showed that the HC and CO emission factors of BDC are almost two and four times greater than those of EDC, respectively. Although the difference in the NOx emission factor is small, the value from BDC is still greater than that of EDC by 10%. Under BDC, the test vehicle consumes fuel about 25% more than it does under EDC. All these differences are mainly attributed to the greater proportion of idle periods and higher fluctuations of vehicle speed in the BDC cycle. This result indicated that the exhausted emissions and fuel consumption of vehicles obtained from tests under the legislative modal-type driving cycle (EDC) are significantly different from those actually produced under real traffic conditions especially during peak periods. PMID:20108661

  1. Occupational Exposure of Gasoline Station Workers to BTEX Compounds in Bangkok, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Nopparatbundit

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gasoline station workers are exposed to volatile organic compounds such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX. Objectives: To determine the level of exposure to BTEX compounds among gasoline station workers and measure the roadside concentrations of these compounds in the inner and outer areas of Bangkok, Thailand.Methods: 49 workers at 6 gasoline stations in the inner and outer areas of Bangkok participated in this study. Samples of ambient air were collected from the area near gas pumps at each station and at the roadside in front of the gas stations by charcoal tubes. All samples were analyzed for BTEX compounds by gas chromatography-flame ionized detector (GC-FID.Results: The mean BTEX concentration in gas stations was slightly higher than that of the roadside; there was no significant difference in the concentration between inner and outer areas. The mean lifetime cancer risks for workers exposed to benzene and ethylbenzene for 30 years were estimated at 1.75×10–4 and 9.55×10–7. The estimated hazard quotients for BTEX compounds were 0.600, 0.008, 0.007 and 0.002, respectively. The most prevalent symptoms of workers were headache (61%, fatigue (29% and throat irritation (11%, respectively. Exposure to benzene and toluene was significantly associated with fatigue (p<0.05.Conclusion: Exposure to BTEX compounds would increase the risk of cancer in gasoline station workers. Exposure to benzene and toluene may cause fatigue.

  2. Environmental Screening for the Scedosporium apiospermum Species Complex in Public Parks in Bangkok, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pumeesat, Potjaman; Muangkaew, Watcharamat; Wongsuk, Thanwa; Alastruey-Izquierdo, Ana

    2016-01-01

    The Scedosporium apiospermum species complex, comprising filamentous fungal species S. apiospermum sensu stricto, S. boydii, S. aurantiacum, S. dehoogii and S. minutispora, are important pathogens that cause a wide variety of infections. Although some species (S. boydii and S. apiospermum) have been isolated from patients in Thailand, no environmental surveys of these fungi have been performed in Thailand or surrounding countries. In this study, we isolated and identified species of these fungi from 68 soil and 16 water samples randomly collected from 10 parks in Bangkok. After filtration and subsequent inoculation of samples on Scedo-Select III medium, colony morphological examinations and microscopic observations were performed. Scedosporium species were isolated from soil in 8 of the 10 parks, but were only detected in one water sample. Colony morphologies of isolates from 41 of 68 soil samples (60.29%) and 1 of 15 water samples (6.67%) were consistent with that of the S. apiospermum species complex. Each morphological type was selected for species identification based on DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the β-tubulin gene. Three species of the S. apiospermum species complex were identified: S. apiospermum (71 isolates), S. aurantiacum (6 isolates) and S. dehoogii (5 isolates). In addition, 16 sequences could not be assigned to an exact Scedosporium species. According to our environmental survey, the S. apiospermum species complex is widespread in soil in Bangkok, Thailand. PMID:27467209

  3. An artificial neural network model for rainfall forecasting in Bangkok, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Q. Hung

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study developed an artificial neural network (ANN model to overcome the difficulties in training the ANN models with continuous data consisting of rainy and non-rainy days. Among the six models analyzed the ANN model which used generalized feedforward type network and a hyperbolic tangent function and a combination of meteorological parameters (relative humidity, air pressure, wet bulb temperature and cloudiness, and the rainfall at the point of forecasting and rainfall at the surrounding stations, as an input for training of the model was found most satisfactory in forecasting rainfall in Bangkok, Thailand. The developed ANN model was applied to derive rainfall forecast from 1 to 6 h ahead at 75 rain gauge stations in the study area as forecast point from the data of 3 consecutive years (1997–1999. Results were highly satisfactory for rainfall forecast 1 to 3 h ahead. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the most important input parameter beside rainfall itself is the wet bulb temperature in forecasting rainfall. Based on these results, it is recommended that the developed ANN model can be used for real-time rainfall forecasting and flood management in Bangkok, Thailand.

  4. Influence of driving cycles on exhaust emissions and fuel consumption of gasoline passenger car in Bangkok

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NUTRAMON Tamsanya; SUPACHART Chungpaibulpatana

    2009-01-01

    The influence of different driving cycles on their exhaust emissions and fuel consumption rate of gasoline passenger car was investigated in Bangkok based on the actual measurements obtained from a test vehicle driving on a standard chassis dynamometer. A newly established Bangkok driving cycle (BDC) and the European driving cycle (EDC) which is presently adopted as the legislative cycle for testing automobiles registered in Thailand were used. The newly developed BDC is constructed using the driving characteristic data obtained from the real on-road driving tests along selected traffic routes. A method for selecting appropriate road routes for real driving tests is also introduced. Variations of keyed driving parameters of BDC with different driving cycles were discussed. The results showed that the HC and CO emission factors of BDC are almost two and four times greater than those of EDC, respectively. Although the difference in the NOx emission factor is small, the value from BDC is still greater than that of EDC by 10%. Under BDC, the test vehicle consumes fuel about 25% more than it does under EDC. All these differences are mainly attributed to the greater proportion of idle periods and higher fluctuations of vehicle speed in the BDC cycle. This result indicated that the exhausted emissions and fuel consumption of vehicles obtained from tests under the legislative modal-type driving cycle (EDC) are significantly different from those actually produced under real traffic conditions especially during peak periods.

  5. Effect of PM10 pollution in Bangkok on children with and without asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preutthipan, Aroonwan; Udomsubpayakul, Umaporn; Chaisupamongkollarp, Thitida; Pentamwa, Prapat

    2004-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of PM10 concentrations exceeding the Thai national standard (24-hr average, >120 microg/m3) on daily reported respiratory symptoms and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) of schoolchildren with and without asthma in Bangkok. The 93 asthmatic and 40 nonasthmatic schoolchildren were randomly recruited from a school located in a highly congested traffic area. Daily respiratory symptoms and PEFR of each child were evaluated and recorded in the diary for 31 successive school days. During the study period, 24-hr average PM10 levels ranged between 46-201 microg/m3. PM10 levels exceeded 120 microg/m3 for 14 days. We found that when PM10 levels were >120 microg/m3, the daily reported nasal irritation of asthmatic children was significantly higher than when PM10 levels were 120 microg/m3, nonasthmatic children had a significantly higher daily reported combination of any respiratory symptoms. PEFR did not change with different ambient PM10 levels in both groups. This study suggests that elevated levels of PM10 concentrations in Bangkok affect respiratory symptoms of schoolchildren with and without asthma. PMID:14966811

  6. Economic costs incurred by households in the 2011 Greater Bangkok flood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabangchang, Orapan; Allaire, Maura; Leangcharoen, Prinyarat; Jarungrattanapong, Rawadee; Whittington, Dale

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the first comprehensive estimates of the economic costs experienced by households in the 2011 Greater Bangkok flood. More generally, it contributes to the literature by presenting the first estimates of flood costs based on primary data collected from respondents of flooded homes using in-person interviews. Two rounds of interviews were conducted with 469 households in three of the most heavily affected districts of greater Bangkok. The estimates of economic costs include preventative costs, ex post losses, compensation received, and any new income generated during the flood. Median household economic costs were US3089, equivalent to about half of annual household expenditures (mean costs were US5261). Perhaps surprisingly given the depth and duration of the flood, most houses incurred little structural damage (although furniture, appliances, and cars were damaged). Median economic costs to poor and nonpoor households were similar as a percentage of annual household expenditures (53% and 48%, respectively). Compensation payments received from government did little to reduce the total economic losses of the vast majority of households. Two flood-related deaths were reported in our sample—both in low-income neighborhoods. Overall, ex post damage was the largest component of flood costs (66% of total). These findings are new, important inputs for the evaluation of flood control mitigation and preventive measures that are now under consideration by the Government of Thailand. The paper also illustrates how detailed microeconomic data on household costs can be collected and summarized for policy purposes.

  7. The Treaty of Amsterdam: Towards a New Institutional Balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Nentwich

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the so-called 'Draft Treaty of Amsterdam' of 19 June 1997, focusing on the changes concerning the institutions and the decision-making procedures. It is argued that the sum of envisaged changes will considerably alter the institutional balance between the three main actors, i.e. the Commission, the Council and the European Parliament. The latter, in particular, will have an increased influence vis-à-vis the Commission (via the investiture procedure and a greater say vis-à-vis the Council (in the codecision procedure. With regard to the internal organisation of the three institutions, too, remarkable changes are on the horizon. The roles of the Committee of the Regions and of the national parliaments in EC policy-making have been consolidated and clarified respectively. We conclude with an overall assessment of the results of the IGC 1996/97. The paper includes a synopsis of all Treaty changes in the procedural field, and a graph presenting the new codecision procedure.

  8. The Treaty of Amsterdam: Towards a New Institutional Balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Nentwich

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the so-called 'Draft Treaty of Amsterdam' of 19 June 1997, focusing on the changes concerning the institutions and the decision-making procedures. It is argued that the sum of envisaged changes will considerably alter the institutional balance between the three main actors, i.e. the Commission, the Council and the European Parliament. The latter, in particular, will have an increased influence vis-à-vis the Commission (via the investiture procedure and a greater say vis-à-vis the Council (in the codecision procedure. With regard to the internal organisation of the three institutions, too, remarkable changes are on the horizon. The roles of the Committee of the Regions and of the national parliaments in EC policy-making have been consolidated and clarified respectively. We conclude with an overall assessment of the results of the IGC 1996/97. The paper includes a synopsis of all Treaty changes in the procedural field, and a graph presenting the new codecision procedure.

  9. Delegation, Agency and Agenda Setting in the Treaty of Amsterdam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. Pollack

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies a principal-agent model of delegation, agency and agenda setting to the 1996 intergovernmental conference and the Treaty of Amsterdam, in order to understand both the delegation of powers to supranational organizations in the new Treaty, and the efforts of such organizations to set the agenda for the conference. At Amsterdam, the member governments of the European Union delegated new powers to the Commission, the Court of Justice, and especially the European Parliament; these new powers, however, are carefully hedged with elaborate mechanisms to control, if not eliminate, supranational autonomy in the future. In the intergovernmental conference, moreover, the EUs supranational organizations attempted to influence the outcome of the negotiations as informal agenda setters, but they were limited in their ability to do so by the information-rich content of the IGC. However, while the influence of the Commission, Court and Parliament was indeed limited in the intergovernmental conference and at Amsterdam, we should beware of generalizing from IGCs to the day-to-day workings of EU politics, where the powers of the supranational organizations are far greater than in any intergovernmental conference.

  10. Delegation, Agency and Agenda Setting in the Treaty of Amsterdam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. Pollack

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies a principal-agent model of delegation, agency and agenda setting to the 1996 intergovernmental conference and the Treaty of Amsterdam, in order to understand both the delegation of powers to supranational organizations in the new Treaty, and the efforts of such organizations to set the agenda for the conference. At Amsterdam, the member governments of the European Union delegated new powers to the Commission, the Court of Justice, and especially the European Parliament; these new powers, however, are carefully hedged with elaborate mechanisms to control, if not eliminate, supranational autonomy in the future. In the intergovernmental conference, moreover, the EU’s supranational organizations attempted to influence the outcome of the negotiations as informal agenda setters, but they were limited in their ability to do so by the information-rich content of the IGC. However, while the influence of the Commission, Court and Parliament was indeed limited in the intergovernmental conference and at Amsterdam, we should beware of generalizing from IGCs to the day-to-day workings of EU politics, where the powers of the supranational organizations are far greater than in any intergovernmental conference.

  11. Socioeconomic inequality and road traffic accidents in Thailand: comparing cases treated in government hospitals inside and outside of Bangkok.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongchaitrakul, Teerachai; Juntakarn, Chantip; Prasartritha, Thavat

    2012-05-01

    The study aims to report annual demographic characteristics and to compare the differences of socioeconomic inequality, type of motor vehicles, and seating relating to major bone injuries among hospitals in and outside Bangkok. Six public hospitals in Bangkok and six regional hospitals in the provinces were studied over a one year period (2008-2009). There were 3,650 cases: 3,596 injured patients and 54 deaths. Patients with a lower education level accounted for the largest number of cases, both in the provinces (46.3%) and Bangkok (17.1%). Their incomes were less than THB 10,000/yearly. Total number of motorcycle cases (3,360) was higher (11.6:1) than 290 cases of motor vehicles. Pickup cars were used more commonly. Riding a motorcycle was likely to be fatal. The front seat was the most common involvement. Passengers occupying the middle and rear seat of the motorcycle were involved in 16.0% and 1.0% cases, respectively. Long bone and joints were the most common injuries. The results strongly confirmed the striking contribution of motorcycles and pickups to road traffic accidents. People with a low educational level, in conjunction with low income, and in areas outside of Bangkok were more at risk. Specific education on road safety should be delivered, preferably in primary schools. PMID:23077859

  12. 48 CFR 225.871 - North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) cooperative projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) cooperative projects. 225.871 Section 225.871 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Other International Agreements and Coordination 225.871 North Atlantic Treaty Organization...

  13. 50 CFR 300.102 - Relationship to other treaties, conventions, laws, and regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... implements the Antarctic Treaty Agreed Measures for the Conservation of Antarctic Fauna and Flora (12 U.S.T... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Relationship to other treaties... RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Antarctic Marine Living Resources §...

  14. 78 FR 32362 - Implementation of the Defense Trade Cooperation Treaty Between the United States and Australia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-30

    ... United States and Australia; Announcement of Effective Date for Regulations ACTION: Final rule... regulations implementing the Treaty Between the Government of the United States of America and the Government...: Effective Date: The rule, ``Implementation of the Defense Trade Cooperation Treaty Between the United...

  15. The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty: Regulating Nuclear Weapons around the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Tiffany Willey

    2010-01-01

    In May 2010, scientists, national security experts, and state delegates from nations around the world will convene in New York for the 2010 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Review Conference. They will review current guidelines for nuclear testing and possession of nuclear weapons in accordance with the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty of 1968,…

  16. China's Case Against the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty: Rationality and Morality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Geoffrey

    1986-01-01

    China and other major Third World nations have refused to sign the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). While this position appears morally unjustified and even irrational, their claim that the treaty is discriminatory merits serious attention. Only if certain aspects of this claim are accepted by the nuclear weapons signatories, does a moral…

  17. 78 FR 57653 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request for the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... Geological Survey Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request for the Comprehensive Test Ban.... Abstract The collection of this information is required by the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), and...: 1028-0059. Form Number: 9-4040-A. Title: Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. Type of Request: Extension of...

  18. 50 CFR 216.21 - Actions permitted by international treaty, convention, or agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., convention, or agreement. 216.21 Section 216.21 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE... international treaty, convention, or agreement. The MMPA and these regulations shall not apply to the extent that they are inconsistent with the provisions of any international treaty, convention or agreement,...

  19. 78 FR 21523 - Implementation of the Defense Trade Cooperation Treaty Between the United States and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ...) of this section; (xiii) Purchase order or contract; (xiv) Technical data actually exported; (xv) The... cannot be exported pursuant to the licensing exemption created by the Treaty, and make certain other... Trade Cooperation Treaty Between the United States and the United Kingdom,'' 77 FR 16592,...

  20. 50 CFR 300.64 - Fishing by U.S. treaty Indian tribes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... pursuant to 25 CFR part 249, subpart A, and must comply with the treaty Indian vessel and gear... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fishing by U.S. treaty Indian tribes. 300.64 Section 300.64 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES...

  1. Political significance of the CTBT (History, status, relationship with the Pelindaba Treaty, etc.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation deals with historical overview, negotiations on CTBT and its adoption, status and verification system of the Treaty, political significance of CTBT and its significance for States signatories in Africa. Separate chapters are devoted to the African region, CTBT Pelindaba Treaty and cooperative prospects and relevance of the CTBT for Africa

  2. Rough Journal Page Documenting Ratification and Final Page of the Treaty of Paris, 1783

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Lee Ann

    2008-01-01

    The 1783 Treaty of Paris formally ended the American Revolution and established the United States as an independent and sovereign nation. In words reminiscent of those in the resolution presented by Richard Henry Lee to Congress in June 1776, and later included in the Declaration of Independence, Article I of the treaty stated that the king now…

  3. The Paradoxes of Colonial Reparation: Foreclosing memory and the 2008 Italy-Libya Friendship Treaty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. De Cesari

    2012-01-01

    This article explores a paradox relating to the highly contested project of compensating for mass crimes perpetrated during the colonial period. It analyses the only postcolonial reparation treaty to be signed to date: the Italy-Libya Friendship Treaty of 2008. While all other former colonial powers

  4. Present status of the Treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Treaty for the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons plays an important role in enhancing the security of all States. It is essential to maintain in the implementation of the Treaty an acceptable balance of the mutual responsibilities and obligations of all the countries Party to the Treaty wether or not nuclear weapon States. These questions were discussed during the Conference on the operation of the Treaty held in Geneva in May 1975. It was emphasized at the Conference that the first five years of application of the Treaty had shown a consistent increase in the number of ratifications and in the safeguards agreements concluded on the basis of the Agreement. (N.E.A.)

  5. Optimal imaging for treaty verification FY2014 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilton, Nathan R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Johnson, William C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Brubaker, Erik M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Kupinski, Matthew Alan [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); MacGahan, Christopher Jonathan [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2014-10-01

    FY2014 technical report of our project funded by DNN R&D that leverages advanced inference methods developed for medical and adaptive imaging to address arms control applications. We seek a method to acquire and analyze imaging data of declared treaty-accountable items without creating an image of those objects or otherwise storing or revealing any classified information. Such a method would avoid the use of classified-information barriers. We present our progress on FY2014 tasks defined in our life-cycle plan. We also describe some future work that is part of the continuation of this project in FY2015 and beyond as part of a venture that joins ours with a related PNNL project.

  6. Insolvency probability in reinsurance treaty: a case study in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansar Asnawi Ahmad Anuar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In developing countries such as Malaysia, the availability of reinsurance arrangements provides several advantages to the primary insurers such as keeping their risk exposures at prudent levels by having their large risk exposures reinsured by another company, meeting client requests for larger insurance coverage by having their limited financial sources supported by another company, and acquiring underwriting skills, experience and ability of handling complex claims by depending on another company for such services. This paper aims to model insurance claims and assess the insolvency probability of reinsurance treaties. Claims data was obtained from one of the leading insurers in Malaysia and R programming with actuar package is used to compute the probability of insolvency.

  7. 77 FR 16591 - Implementation of the Defense Trade Cooperation Treaty Between the United States and the United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ... between the United States and Australia will be published later in the year once that treaty enters into... Defense Trade Cooperation Treaty Between the United States and the United Kingdom; Final Rule #0;#0... Trade Cooperation Treaty Between the United States and the United Kingdom AGENCY: Department of...

  8. PREVALENCE AND FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH MULTIDRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS AT SIRIRAJ HOSPITAL, BANGKOK, THAILAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jitmuang, Anupop; Munjit, Parnwad; Foongladda, Suporn

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) at Siriraj Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand. We conducted a retrospective unmatched case-control study of patients clinically diagnosed and microbiologically confirmed to have tuber- culosis (TB) at Siriraj Hospital from 2010 to 2012. Patient characteristics, clinical data, microbiological findings, outcomes and drug susceptibilities were recorded. A total of 188 subjects were included in the study; 52.1% (98) were males; the mean age was 48.9 years. Subjects were categorized into one of two groups, as follows: non-MDR-TB (141 patients) and MDR-TB (47 patients). The prevalence of MDR- TB was 2.6%. Co-morbidities of study subjects included diabetes mellitus (16.5%), HIV infection (16%) and cancer (5.9%). One hundred thirty-one patients (69.7%) had pulmonary TB. Factors significantly associated with MDR-TB were age Thailand.

  9. Maximum flow in road networks with speed-dependent capacities – application to Bangkok traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvin J Moore

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A road network can be modeled as a graph with a set of nodes representing intersections and a set of weighted edgesrepresenting road segments between intersections. In this paper, a traffic flow problem is studied, where edge weightsrepresent road capacities (maximum vehicles per hour that are functions of the traffic speed (km/hr and traffic density(vehicles per kilometer. To estimate road capacities for a given speed, empirical data on safe vehicle separations for a givenspeed are used. A modified version of the Ford-Fulkerson algorithm is developed to solve maximum flow problems with speeddependent capacities, with both one-way and two-way flows allowed on edges and with multiple source and target nodes.The modified algorithm is used to estimate maximum traffic flow through a selected network of roads in Bangkok. It was foundthat the maximum safe traffic flow occurs at a speed of 30 km/hr.

  10. Trace element determination in the airborne particulate matter of Bangkok and Samutprakan by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During October 1995 - January 1996, 66 samples of airborne particulate matter were collected from Bangkok and Samutprakan provinces. Samples of the particle sizes of 2.5 - 10 microns (33 samples) and less than 2.5 microns (33 samples) were determined for elemental concentration of 34 elements. A comparative study of the data from both sampling size was initiated to investigate the trends, source and origin of the aerosols by comparing the concentration, enrichment factor (E F) and coarse/ fine ratio. The results show Al, Fe, Sc are from crustal elements, Ca, K, Mn, V has moderate high E F and As, Br, Cd, Cu, Ni, Sb, Se and Zn has rather high E F. Comparison between the two sites yields higher levels of As and Sb at Samutprakan appearly due to smelting or other industries nearby. Higher level of Br might be due to the heavier of transportation of trucks in and out of the city

  11. Quantification of phosphorus flows throughout the consumption system of Bangkok Metropolis, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thitanuwat, Bussarakam; Polprasert, Chongchin; Englande, Andrew J

    2016-01-15

    Due to unequal distribution of the world's Phosphorus (P) sources for fertilizer production, an evaluation of P flows throughout the consumption system of a city is needed. The prime objective of this paper is to assess and prioritize P recovery options as to bring about, as much as possible, a close-looped P-for-food system. Using the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (BMA) as a case study, the aim of this work is to quantify the potential mass flow of P for four major types of urban wastes: domestic wastewater (DWW), septage sludge (SS), food waste (FW) and green garbage (GB) and to determine the recoverable stock of P available. The consumption of food and supplements such as cleansing products and fertilizer is estimated at a rate of 1146.4 g P·cap(-1)·year(-1). P contained in wastes being discarded from its average 7.9 million population plus 33.8 million Bangkok-visiting tourists per annum is determined to be 8.01 kt P annually. Only 4% of the above quantity is recycled and used internally for cultivating plants grown in public parks. An annual amount of 7.68 kt P was found to be disposed of in landfills (6.23 kt P) and in the river systems (1.45 kt P). From the findings of this study, therefore, it is recommended that P recovery efforts from BMA's urban wastes should be focused on wastes enrouted to landfills since these constitute 81% of P discarded. As a consequence, solid waste combustion coupled with energy recovery from P-binding organics may be an appropriate means of P recovery. This technology has the potential to reduce waste volume, generate electricity, and produce P-containing ash that can be used for further application on farm lands. PMID:26412419

  12. Source index B. Agreements under international law and treaties with the GDR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This source index B covers the agreements under international law concluded by the Federal Republic of Germany and its legal predecessors, and announced in the Federal Law Gazette, the Federal Gazette and their predecessors, as far as these agreements are still valid or otherwise of practical significance. Source index B refers to: (a) Bilateral treaties with states, communities or organisations, given in alphabetical order. Agreements on capital aid or financial cooperation are given in tables, due to their large number. (b) Multilateral treaties, presented in chronological order. This means all treaties with more than two states being party to the treaty, i.e. also those where one party is one state, and the other party comprises several states. The bilateral treaties with the German Democratic Republic have been compiled in a separate, subsequent section because of their special nature. The third section covers declarations of the FRG of significance in international law. There is a chronological survey of the multilateral treaties, a subject index of the treaties (nuclear energy, environment) with a preceding classification scheme, and a keyword index. (orig./HP)

  13. Amendments to the Tlatelolco treaty 1990-1992: a demonstration of international collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vez, L.; Anaya, R. [Instituto Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Mexico City (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    The amendments to the Tlatelolco treaty made between 1990-1992, had a major impact on its full enforcement. The paper will analyze the different process for its achievement and their consequences. The first and second amendments were made with the intention of including the Caribbean Countries within the geographical scope of the Treaty; and the third and most important one dealt with the adaptation of the control system foreseen in the Tlatelolco Treaty, to permit the integration of Argentina, Brazil and Chile to it. This work also quotes some facts that implied international collaboration in achieving the complete military denuclearization of Latin America and the Caribbean. (author). 25 refs.

  14. The Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    The Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean, known as the Treaty of Tlatelolco, seeks to establish a nuclear-weapon-free zone (NWFZ) that will extend from the US-Mexican border to Antarctica`s territorial boundaries, including large areas of open ocean. Under the treaty, signatory states pledge not to test, use, produce, manufacture or acquire nuclear weapons; to use nuclear materials and facilities {open_quotes}exclusively for peaceful purposes;{close_quotes} and not to permit the stationing or development of nuclear weapons on their territories.

  15. International tax planning & prevention of abuse under domestic tax law, tax treaties & EC-law

    OpenAIRE

    De Broe, Luc

    2007-01-01

    PART ONE:THE USE OF CONDUIT & BASE COMPANIES IN INTERNATIONAL TAX PLANNING 1 1. CONDUIT COMPANIES 1 1.1. Treaty shopping 1 1.1.1. Description of the term “Treaty shopping” in relation to conduit companies 1 1.1.2. Basic features of “Treaty Shopping” in relation to conduit companies 6 1.1.2.1. Form of the conduit: company or partnership ? 6 1.1.2.2. Tax considerations in setting up the conduit 8 1.2. Directive shopping 11 1.2.1. Description of the term ...

  16. Fossil mollusc-faunas: Their bearing on the Holocene evolution of the Lower Central Plain of Bangkok (Thailand)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negri, Mauro Pietro

    2009-08-01

    In this work, fossil molluscan assemblages are analyzed in order to reconstruct the evolution of the Northern Gulf of Thailand during the Holocene. The marine sediments (Bangkok Clay Formation) of the Lower Central Plain of Bangkok and the coastal plain of Phetchaburi were sampled at 16 localities, obtaining fossil shells and mangrove peat whose 14C ages range from 9000 to 2000 CYBP. A statistical treatment of abundance data returned four major groups, namely the Dendostrea rosacea association (intertidal mud), the Corbula fortisulcata- Mactra luzonica association (shallow infralittoral sandy mud), the Nuculana mauritiana- Timoclea scabra association (infralittoral sand spit) and the Timoclea scabra- Arcopagia pudica association (infralittoral mud). The data allowed both a stratigraphic correlation along two transects covering all of the Holocene basin and the creation of digitalized maps showing the presumable extension of the Thai paleogulf around the apex of Flandrian transgression event (about 5500 CYBP).

  17. Mine seismicity and the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiappetta, F. [Blasting Analysis International, Allentown, PA (United States); Heuze, F.; Walter, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Hopler, R. [Powderman Consulting Inc., Oxford, MD (United States); Hsu, V. [Air Force Technical Applications Center, Patrick AFB, FL (United States); Martin, B. [Thunder Basin Coal Co., Wright, WY (United States); Pearson, C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Stump, B. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States); Zipf, K. [Univ. of New South Wales (Australia)

    1998-12-09

    Surface and underground mining operations generate seismic ground motions which are created by chemical explosions and ground failures. It may come as a surprise to some that the ground failures (coal bumps, first caves, pillar collapses, rockbursts, etc.) can send signals whose magnitudes are as strong or stronger than those from any mining blast. A verification system that includes seismic, infrasound, hydroacoustic and radionuclide sensors is being completed as part of the CTBT. The largest mine blasts and ground failures will be detected by this system and must be identified as distinct from signals generated by small nuclear explosions. Seismologists will analyze the seismic records and presumably should be able to separate them into earthquake-like and non earthquake-like categories, using a variety of so-called seismic discriminants. Non-earthquake essentially means explosion- or implosion-like. Such signals can be generated not only by mine blasts but also by a variety of ground failures. Because it is known that single-fired chemical explosions and nuclear explosion signals of the same yield give very similar seismic records, the non-earthquake signals will be of concern to the Treaty verification community. The magnitude of the mine-related events is in the range of seismicity created by smaller nuclear explosions or decoupled tests, which are of particular concern under the Treaty. It is conceivable that legitimate mining blasts or some mine-induced ground failures could occasionally be questioned. Information such as shot time, location and design parameters may be all that is necessary to resolve the event identity. In rare instances where the legitimate origin of the event could not be resolved by a consultation and clarification procedure, it might trigger on On-Site Inspection (OSI). Because there is uncertainty in the precise location of seismic event as determined by the International Monitoring System (IMS), the OSI can cover an area of up to 1

  18. Mapping and modeling the urban landscape in Bangkok, Thailand: Physical-spectral-spatial relations of population-environmental interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yang

    This research focuses on the application of remote sensing, geographic information systems, statistical modeling, and spatial analysis to examine the dynamics of urban land cover, urban structure, and population-environment interactions in Bangkok, Thailand, with an emphasis on rural-to-urban migration from rural Nang Rong District, Northeast Thailand to the primate city of Bangkok. The dissertation consists of four main sections: (1) development of remote sensing image classification and change-detection methods for characterizing imperviousness for Bangkok, Thailand from 1993-2002; (2) development of 3-D urban mapping methods, using high spatial resolution IKONOS satellite images, to assess high-rises and other urban structures; (3) assessment of urban spatial structure from 2-D and 3-D perspectives; and (4) an analysis of the spatial clustering of migrants from Nang Rong District in Bangkok and the neighborhood environments of migrants' locations. Techniques are developed to improve the accuracy of the neural network classification approach for the analysis of remote sensing data, with an emphasis on the spectral unmixing problem. The 3-D building heights are derived using the shadow information on the high-resolution IKONOS image. The results from the 2-D and 3-D mapping are further examined to assess urban structure and urban feature identification. This research contributes to image processing of remotely-sensed images and urban studies. The rural-urban migration process and migrants' settlement patterns are examined using spatial statistics, GIS, and remote sensing perspectives. The results show that migrants' spatial clustering in urban space is associated with the source village and a number of socio-demographic variables. In addition, the migrants' neighborhood environments in urban setting are modeled using a set of geographic and socio-demographic variables, and the results are scale-dependent.

  19. Price Elasticity of Demand and Capacity-Restraint Transit Fare Strategy: A Case Study of Bangkok Mass Transit System

    OpenAIRE

    Ackchai Sirikijpanichkul; Sarintorn Winyoopadit

    2015-01-01

    Traffic congestion is a chronic problem of Bangkok. Similar to other metropolises, the city perpetually seeks for alternatives to road travel. Mass rapid transit seems to be the only way out that is expected to mitigate traffic congestion in the city. However, without common fare system, travelers need to pay an initial entrance fee every time they enter each transit system. This excess cost tapers the demand and affects the efficient use of the system. This research investigates the influenc...

  20. Association of Sanitary Conditions and Bacteriological Quality of Tube Ice in Ice Plants in Metropolitan Bangkok, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Kraichat Tantrakarnapa

    2010-01-01

    This investigation aimed at studying the correlation between ice plant sanitary conditions and bacteriological quality of ice. The sanitary conditions in accordance with GMP regulations, the bacteriological quality of tube ice, and the processing water in 20 plants in Bangkok were studied. A modified inspection form from the Office of Food and Drug Administration was used for sanitary condition surveys. Ice and processing water samples were collected 2 times per plant with 3 samples each time...

  1. Suitable Assimilation Model of Culture, Beliefs and Rites Concerning Deities of Buddhism and Hindu-Brahmanism for Peace of Thai Society in Bangkok and Circumferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phra M.K. Kaewchaiya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: At present, Thai society widely assimilates culture, beliefs and rites concerning deities of Buddhism and Hindu-Brahmanism by worshipping the deity images at the temples or the abodes of gods in Bangkok and circumferences. A typical worship is to pray the deity for help. As a matter of fact, people should help themselves first and use a prayer as willpower. The purpose of this research were these; (1 to investigate the background of culture, belief and rites concerning deities of Buddhism and Hindu-Brahmanism in Bangkok and circumferences, (2 to investigate the current situations of the assimilation of culture, beliefs and rites concerning deities of Buddhism and Hindu-Brahmanism in Bangkok and circumferences and (3 to determine a suitable assimilation model of culture beliefs and rite concerning deities of Buddhism and Hindu-Brahmanism for peace of Thai society in Bangkok and circumferences. Approach: A qualitative research was used for this research. Research areas were these: (1 Yannawa Temple, Yannawa sub district, Sathon district, Bangkok, (2 Lum Charoen Satta Temple, Yannawa sub district, Sathon district, Bangkok, (3 Brahma House at the Erawan Hotel, Lum Phini sub district, Pathumwan district , Bangkok, (4 Phai Lom Temple, Phra Pathom Chedi, Muang district, Nakhon Pathom Province, (5 Sisa Thong Temple, Sisa Thong sub district, Nakhon Chaisi, Nakhon Pathom Province, (6 Phra Sri Maha Uma Thewi Temple, Silom sub district, Bangkok district, Bangkok, (7 Visanu temple, Thung Wat Don sub district, Sathon district, Bangkok, (8 Thep Nimit Temple, Khok Phaed sub district, Nong Chok district, Bangkok, (9 Brahman Temple, Sao Chingcha sub district, Phra Nakhon district, Bangkok and (10 Ganesha House at Ratchada crossroads, Huay Khwang district, Bangkok. Deity worships have been held at these areas for a long time and a lot of people have participated in these worships. A population was the people who lived in 9 districts. A sample

  2. Integrated energy and carbon modeling with a decision support system: Policy scenarios for low-carbon city development in Bangkok

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy use in Bangkok accounts for a large portion of the total energy consumption in Thailand. Few energy and carbon studies, however, have focused on the level of the city. International research indicates that cities are the key drivers of energy usage and the associated carbon emissions. This paper presents a study on the options for energy and carbon development for the city of Bangkok. The Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning System (LEAP) model is used to simulate a range of policy interventions and to predict how these would change energy and carbon development from 2000 to 2025. The planning period is assumed to start in 2005, and 2000 is used as the baseline year. Sustainability of the sixteen proposed policies and scenarios is analyzed using a multi-criteria decision-making approach. Results of this study provide an insight into Bangkok's energy and carbon future and highlight the steps required to promote a sustainable low-carbon society. The most significant energy savings are in the transport sector, where a modal shift from private passenger vehicles to mass transit systems has the potential to significantly reduce energy demand, carbon emissions, and local air pollutants.

  3. Will the Constitutional Treaty Contribute to the Legitimacy of the European Union?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Wolf

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The article explores whether the Constitutional Treaty may provide more legitimacy for governance in the European Union. After presenting a list of normative criteria, relevant parts of the Constitutional Treaty are summarised and evaluated. It is concluded that the Constitutional Treaty's 'added value' is rather small: the document does not make the complicated nature of Union powers and Union decision-making visible and understandable to the public; the vertical and horizontal checks on the use of Union power are suboptimal; the EU's weak 'input legitimacy' is not strengthened. On the other side, the Constitutional Treaty might provide for a better protection of fundamental rights at the supranational level. Hence, as regards enhanced legitimacy, the overall picture, albeit somewhat daunting, is not altogether bleak.

  4. The Non-Proliferation Treaty: Fifteen years after entry into force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need to halt a wider spread of nuclear weapons grew out of the realization that the increase in the number of countries possessing such weapons would increase the threat to world security. As the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons clearly states in its preamble, the proliferation of nuclear weapons would seriously enhance the danger of nuclear war. The Treaty - also known as the non-proliferation Treaty - was concluded in 1968, at a time when there were already five nuclear-weapon Powers: the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, France and China. This fact sheet is intended to provide background material on the Treaty, including the events that led to its conclusion, an overview of its provisions and the developments at the two previously held Review Conferences

  5. A comparison of temporal variation of particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pPAHs) concentration in different urban environments: Tokyo, Japan, and Bangkok, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetwittayachan, T.; Shimazaki, D.; Yamamoto, K.

    A comparative study of the real-time ambient concentrations of particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pPAHs) in the vicinity of roads in Tokyo (Japan) and in Bangkok (Thailand) in summertime was carried out by using a photoelectric aerosol sensor (PAS), which gives continuous signal in relation to the total amount of pPAHs concentration. The PAS output gave a good correlation to the total concentration of the selected PAHs determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). This technique was then employed to observe temporal variation of total pPAHs. The measurements at roadside and general areas in Tokyo and in Bangkok were performed for seven consecutive days in August 2000, and in March 2001, respectively. The diurnal profiles of pPAHs concentrations in both cities were generally similar; explicit peak concentrations were observed in early morning in association with the traffic growth in the morning rush hours. A significant reduction occurred during the daytime was probably due to rising in the mixing zone. At roadside areas, the average pPAHs concentrations throughout the sampling period in Bangkok were significantly higher than those of Tokyo, owing to the larger contribution of vehicular traffic, especially heavy-duty vehicles, on the roads near the sampling site. Otherwise, all average concentrations in the general area in Tokyo were slightly higher than that of Bangkok. This was probably due to the percentage of road coverage in Tokyo being higher than that in Bangkok, creating a higher possibility for pPAHs evolving from road traffic, and the transportation pattern of the pPAHs in Tokyo showed a more broadly diffused profile than that of Bangkok. This suggests the widespread dispersion of pPAHs over the entire study area in Tokyo. At this study scale especially at the roadside, however, a high pPAHs concentration observed in Tokyo and in Bangkok was predominantly located at low wind speed, roads.

  6. Key issues in the emerging U.S. debate on the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty

    OpenAIRE

    Kane, Christian D.

    2009-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited This thesis analyzes both sides of the U.S. debate concerning the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), which was rejected by the U.S. Senate in 1999, and which has attracted renewed interest under the Barack Obama administration. Significant events in international politics have changed the prospects of nuclear proliferation since 1999. Scientists and engineers have improved methods for verifying treaty compliance and ensuring the safety...

  7. Living in the EMU. The Dynamics of the Maastricht Treaty's Fiscal Rules

    OpenAIRE

    Tamborini Roberto

    1997-01-01

    This paper examines the macroeconomic implications of the Maastricht Treaty's fiscal rules for the European monetary union's member countries, and shows that these rules are technically inconsistent in that they may fail to achieve their declared goal, namely convergence of fiscal aggregates and stability of public debts. Alternatively to the fixed-rules approach of the Maastricht Treaty, the paper suggests for further development a country-by-country system of control of public debt sustaina...

  8. Swimming against the current: valuation of white sturgeon in renewal of the columbia river treaty

    OpenAIRE

    Sihota, Sukhraj Kaur

    2015-01-01

    The Columbia River Treaty (CRT) between Canada and the United States was implemented in 1964 to cooperatively manage water-related issues. Treaty terms were based on concerns of flood control and economic growth with no consideration for ecosystem health and the benefits therein. In turn, basin management has become fragmented and deleterious to the River’s vast and complex watershed ecosystems. To ensure the Columbia River Basin (CRB) is able to absorb increasing demands while protecting env...

  9. Treaty-Port English in Nineteenth-Century Shanghai: Speakers, Voices, and Images

    OpenAIRE

    Jia Si

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the introduction of English to the treaty port of Shanghai and the speech communities that developed there as a result. English became a sociocultural phenomenon rather than an academic subject when it entered Shanghai in the 1840s, gradually generating various social activities of local Chinese people who lived in the treaty port. Ordinary people picked up a rudimentary knowledge of English along trading streets and through glossary references, and went to private schoo...

  10. Criminal law in the Lisbon Treaty and the police and justice cooperation in criminal matters

    OpenAIRE

    Josifovic, Ivica; Keskoski, Zlatko

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the changes in the Area of Freedom, Security and Justice according the Lisbon Treaty, especially the Police and Justice Cooperation in criminal matters. The three pillar structure is replaced and the competences in the Area of Freedom, Security and Justice are increased and provisions transferred in the Treaty on Functioning of the European Union and within the ambit of the Court of Justice’s jurisdiction. Criminal law is an issue of particular sensibility. On one side, cri...

  11. Regulations and Indirect Expropriation: Major criteria for deciding indirect expropriations in investment treaty arbitration (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumoto, Kayo

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the current jurisprudence of expropriation in investment treaty arbitration. For investors, the expropriation of local companies or factories in foreign countries is the biggest of all foreseen risks, but expropriation itself is not illegal under international law, and is illegal only when it does not satisfy certain conditions. Currently, most investment treaties provide explicit conditions, namely that the measures (1) are done for a public purpose, (2) are not discrimin...

  12. Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Notification of the Entry into Force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By letters addressed to the Director General on 5, 6 and 20 March 1970 respectively, the Governments of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, which are designated as the Depository Governments in Article IX. 2 of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, informed the Agency that the Treaty had entered into force on 5 March 1970

  13. EU External Trade and the Treaty of Lisbon: A Revised Neofunctionalist Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Niemann

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the EU’s Common Commercial Policy (CCP at the level of Treaty revision and particularly focuses on the last Treaty negotiations that led to the Treaty of Lisbon. The analysis is based on a revised neofunctionalist framework that the author developed in previous work. It draws on the following concepts: (i functional spillover; (ii cultivated spillover; (iii social spillover; and (iv countervailing forces. Insights into the dynamics and countervailing forces driving Treaty revisions considerably deepen our understanding of the Common Commercial Policy, as EU external trade policy-making is substantially affected by the parameters set by the Treaty. The analysis indicates that the revised neofunctionalist framework can broadly account for the changes of the Common Commercial Policy during the last Treaty revision. It is further suggested that integration in the area of trade policy cannot be explained exclusively by rational choice dynamics, such as utility maximizing actors with fixed preferences, but that socialization through deliberation also needs to be taken into account.

  14. Lisbon Treaty – the architect of a new European institutional structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria POPESCU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The European Union is today managed by the Lisbon Treaty, which stated, in his time, and rightly so, that is a step towards European integration, both at the institutional and human level, a treaty that succeed, despite difficulties, to move forward the European project that combined his account about half a century. The changes introduced by the Lisbon Treaty have a significant impact on EU governance. Treaty of Lisbon makes substantial changes in the management of the EU, especially with regard to the European Council, the Council of Ministers and the EU's rotating presidency. The main task of the research in this paper is the approach of the provisions of the EU Reform Treaty (Lisbon Treaty in terms of constitutional law. Research conducted prior to permit formulation of a general belief, namely that common European history of all its successes and difficulties demonstrates the viability of the European idea and the correct direction of institutional developments in the EU and the Member States.

  15. Characterization of black carbon at roadside sites and along vehicle roadways in the Bangkok Metropolitan Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Nguyen Tri Quang; Lee, Seung-Bok; Hang, Nguyen Thanh; Kongpran, Jira; Kim Oanh, Nguyen Thi; Shim, Shang-Gyoo; Bae, Gwi-Nam

    2014-08-01

    To understand the seasonality of concentrations of traffic-related black carbon (BC) in a megacity, BC concentrations in fine particles were monitored at the roadside and on roads during both the wet and dry seasons of 2010 in the city center of Bangkok, Thailand. The BC concentration measured every 2 min by an aethalometer at the Dingdaeng roadside in the dry season was 17.9 ± 6.6 μg m-3, which was 1.6-fold higher than the value (11.5 ± 2.7 μg m-3) during the wet season. This seasonal difference could not be explained by washout by rain but was instead due to more frequent upwind conditions caused by a prevailing wind direction from the monitoring site toward the road in the wet season. When the prevailing wind direction was from the road, the average BC concentration at the roadside increased up to 30 μg m-3 during both seasons. In contrast, when the wind direction was from the site to the road, the BC concentration was reduced to the level of urban background concentrations measured inside Lumphini Park and the Dusit Zoo of Bangkok. Roadside BC concentrations were strongly correlated with NOx concentrations and elemental carbon (EC) concentrations measured in 24-h PM2.5 filter samples. Both relationships exhibited linear determination coefficients of more than 0.80, implying that NOx can be used as an indicator and an alternative for traffic-related BC at this roadside site when real-time BC monitors are not available. The average on-road BC concentration (25.5 μg m-3) was similar to the average at the roadside under downwind conditions (25.5 μg m-3) from morning to evening only. In contrast, the latter value was 1.7-fold higher than the daily average at the roadside (14.7 μg m-3) and 7.3-fold higher than the urban background level during the daytime (3.5 μg m-3). The results of this study suggest that residents who live next to major roads, pedestrians at the roadside, and drivers on the roads experience a high risk of exposure to severe levels of

  16. Hydrodynamic modelling and global datasets: Flow connectivity and SRTM data, a Bangkok case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigg, M. A.; Bates, P. B.; Michaelides, K.

    2012-04-01

    The rise in the global interconnected manufacturing supply chains requires an understanding and consistent quantification of flood risk at a global scale. Flood risk is often better quantified (or at least more precisely defined) in regions where there has been an investment in comprehensive topographical data collection such as LiDAR coupled with detailed hydrodynamic modelling. Yet in regions where these data and modelling are unavailable, the implications of flooding and the knock on effects for global industries can be dramatic, as evidenced by the recent floods in Bangkok, Thailand. There is a growing momentum in terms of global modelling initiatives to address this lack of a consistent understanding of flood risk and they will rely heavily on the application of available global datasets relevant to hydrodynamic modelling, such as Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data and its derivatives. These global datasets bring opportunities to apply consistent methodologies on an automated basis in all regions, while the use of coarser scale datasets also brings many challenges such as sub-grid process representation and downscaled hydrology data from global climate models. There are significant opportunities for hydrological science in helping define new, realistic and physically based methodologies that can be applied globally as well as the possibility of gaining new insights into flood risk through analysis of the many large datasets that will be derived from this work. We use Bangkok as a case study to explore some of the issues related to using these available global datasets for hydrodynamic modelling, with particular focus on using SRTM data to represent topography. Research has shown that flow connectivity on the floodplain is an important component in the dynamics of flood flows on to and off the floodplain, and indeed within different areas of the floodplain. A lack of representation of flow connectivity, often due to data resolution limitations, means

  17. Nuclear weapons test detection: Ensuring a verifiable treaty. Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty research and development program 1995 progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has an active program to provide technologies for monitoring and verifying a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). DOE technologies will significantly increase the nation`s capability to identify potential nuclear explosions with high confidence and with minimal false alarms. This report presents the highlights of the first year of this program. The primary objectives of the CTBT monitoring system are to deter nuclear explosions in all environments (underground, underwater, or in the atmosphere) and, if such an explosion does occur, to detect, locate, and identify its source. The system is designed to provide credible evidence to national authorities to aid in resolving ambiguities and to serve as the basis for appropriate action. To collect this evidence, one must develop technologies that can detect and identify the signals from a nuclear test against a background of hundreds of thousands of benign events. The monitoring system must have high sensitivity to detect the events of interest and, to minimize false alarms, it must identify those events with a high level of confidence.

  18. CIVIL LIABILITY FOR NUCLEAR DAMAGE: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF INTERNATIONAL TREATIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Rimšaitė

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available It was widely accepted that nuclear damage might be extensive and spread to other countries. International civil liability for nuclear damage is embodied by two major instruments: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA 1963 Vienna Convention on Civil liability for Nuclear Damage and Paris Convention of 1960 on third party liability (OECD with its amending protocols. Major problem arises because of lack of coherence and for this reason supplementary conventions and protocols has been adopted but sufficient results has not been achieved. International treaties on civil liability for nuclear damage are mostly based upon principles of operator’s exclusive, channeling, strict liability for nuclear damage, mandatory financial coverage, compensation without discrimination. These principles set ground for the appropriate compensation standard thus minimizing the difficulty level of complicated legal cross-actions and identifies certain subjects in individual cases who are liable also allows a concentration of the insurance capacity. Although Conventions sets similar principles, Europe remains in two different liability regimes which cover differences of liability amounts, scope of application, rules of jurisdiction conflicts. Problem of legal coherence at European Union level also arises because Member States are either parties to the Paris Convention or Vienna Convention at different speeds. This research paper provides an in-depth analysis of international legal framework development and impetus to create trans-boundary compensation mechanisms thus to foster development of European Union nuclear energy market and to provide higher protection for victims inside and outside the country where the incident has occurred. Purpose – provide comparative analysis of international treaties which regulate civil liability for nuclear damage in the context of European Union nuclear energy market development. Design/methodology - paper is based on document

  19. Factors influencing wastewater management performance: case study of housing estates in suburban Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujaritpong, Sarunya; Nitivattananon, Vilas

    2009-01-01

    As population densities have risen and settlements become increasingly crowded, wastewater effluent volumes have, not unexpectedly, also risen. The adverse impacts of effluent from housing estates (HEs) in suburban areas of Thailand, served by local wastewater management (WWM) systems, are of particular concern. Because of this problem, which reflects the poor performance of WWM systems, it has become increasingly important that the pivotal factors that hinder WWM improvements be identified and effective solutions be proposed and implemented. The goal of the research described in this paper was to determine the critical factors influencing WWM performance at HEs in suburban Bangkok, using multiple regression analysis. Three significant factors encompassing financial, social, institutional and general aspects were identified for each type of WWM system (community centralized and onsite). For the community centralized system, the key factors were house price, type of organization managing the HE, and the attitudes of the organization. For onsite systems, the three factors were total number of house units, direct experience with water pollution and percentage of occupied houses. These findings reflect the importance of having a WWM that employs an integrated approach rather than focusing on specific aspects in isolation from other factors. WWM performance could be improved if significant factors indicating high priority concerns were to be identified and properly applied. Addressing the priority concerns could, consequently, contribute to the development of appropriate environmental management measures, plans, and policies related to HE WWM.

  20. Information Seeking Behaviour of Faculty Members of Rajabhat Universities in Bangkok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neela J. Deshpande

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reports the results of a study of the information seeking behaviour of faculty members of Rajabhat Universities in Bangkok, Thailand. Data were collected by using a questionnaire from seven faculties in Rajabhat Universities. Results show that most of respondents (forty one percent stated their method of seeking information by consulting a knowledgeable person in the field. Two hundred and thirteen respondents (82 percent seek information for preparing lectures. Fifty-four percent of faculty members access more documents was references from a book. It is revealed that most of the faculty members (57 percent used textbooks. Seventy four percent of respondents read information materials in Thai and twenty four percent read materials in English. The Internet had been almost universally adopted; they trace materials from the library via the Internet. Google.com was used for searching information by respondents. They use frequently e-mail for communication. It is found that 42 percent of respondents use the ERIC (Education Resources Information Centre database. The majority of respondents faced the common problem while seeking information i.e. unavailability of information.

  1. Effects of 10% biofuel substitution on ground level ozone formation in Bangkok, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milt, Austin; Milano, Aaron; Garivait, Savitri; Kamens, Richard

    2009-12-01

    The Thai Government's search for alternatives to imported petroleum led to the consideration of mandating 10% biofuel blends (biodiesel and gasohol) by 2012. Concerns over the effects of biofuel combustion on ground level ozone formation in relation to their conventional counterparts need addressing. Ozone formation in Bangkok is explored using a trajectory box model. The model is compared against O 3, NO, and NO 2 time concentration data from air monitoring stations operated by the Thai Pollution Control Department. Four high ozone days in 2006 were selected for modeling. Both the traditional trajectory approach and a citywide average approach were used. The model performs well with both approaches but slightly better with the citywide average. Highly uncertain and missing data are derived within realistic bounds using a genetic algorithm optimization. It was found that 10% biofuel substitution will lead to as much as a 16 ppb peak O 3 increase on these four days compared to a 48 ppb increase due to the predicted vehicle fleet size increase between 2006 and 2012. The approach also suggests that when detailed meteorological data is not available to run three dimensional airshed models, and if the air is stagnant or predominately remains over an urban area during the day, that a simple low cost trajectory analysis of O 3 formation may be applicable.

  2. Characterization of yellow and colorless decorative glasses from the Temple of the Emerald Buddha, Bangkok, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klysubun, Wantana; Ravel, Bruce; Klysubun, Prapong; Sombunchoo, Panidtha; Deenan, Weeraya

    2013-06-01

    Yellow and colorless ancient glasses, which were once used to decorate the Temple of the Emerald Buddha, Bangkok, Thailand, around 150 years ago, are studied to unravel the long-lost glass-making recipes and manufacturing techniques. Analyses of chemical compositions, using synchrotron x-ray fluorescence (SRXRF), indicate that the Thai ancient glasses are soda lime silica glasses (60 % SiO2; 10 % Na2O; 10 % CaO) bearing lead oxide between 2-16 %. Iron (1.5-9.4 % Fe2O3) and manganese (1.7 % MnO) are present in larger abundance than the other 3 d transition metals detected (0.04-0.2 %). K-edge x-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) and extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) provide conclusive evidence on the oxidation states of Fe being 3+ and Mn being 2+ and on short-length tetrahedral structures around the cations. This suggests that iron is used as a yellow colorant with manganese as a decolorant. L 3-edge XANES results reveal the oxidation states of lead as 2+. The results from this work provide information crucial for replicating these decorative glasses for the future restoration of the Temple of the Emerald Buddha.

  3. Maternal return to paid work and breastfeeding practices in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikawa, Tomomi; Pavadhgul, Patcharanee; Chongsuwat, Rewadee; Sawasdivorn, Siraporn; Boonshuyar, Chaweewon

    2015-03-01

    This study explored the association between mothers' work-related factors and breastfeeding practices in Bangkok, Thailand. Data were collected from 84 working mothers with a child aged 6 to 24 months who visited the breastfeeding mobile clinic at a nursery goods exhibition. Thai interviewers collected data using a structured questionnaire. Analysis of the data showed that exclusive breastfeeding for 3 months was 78.6%, and for 6 months it was 38.1%. Mothers who returned to work 3 months or more after giving birth exclusively breastfed more than the mothers who returned to work in less than 3 months (crude odds ratio [OR] = 4.26, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.39-13.05; adjusted OR = 4.15, 95% CI = 1.15-14.95). Moreover, mothers who worked at self-employed or family-owned businesses and some mothers working at private companies showed tendencies of returning to work in less than 3 months. Results suggest that longer maternity leave would help extend the duration of exclusive breastfeeding. In addition, the improvement of a breastfeeding supportive environment in the workplace would be valuable and may be an effective means to improve breastfeeding practices and infant health.

  4. Forty Years of Dengue Surveillance at a Tertiary Pediatric Hospital in Bangkok, Thailand, 1973-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisalak, Ananda; Clapham, Hannah E; Kalayanarooj, Siripen; Klungthong, Chonticha; Thaisomboonsuk, Butsaya; Fernandez, Stefan; Reiser, Julia; Srikiatkhachorn, Anon; Macareo, Louis R; Lessler, Justin T; Cummings, Derek A T; Yoon, In-Kyu

    2016-06-01

    Long-term observational studies can provide valuable insights into overall dengue epidemiology. Here, we present analysis of dengue cases at a pediatric hospital in Bangkok, Thailand, during a 40-year period from 1973 to 2012. Data were analyzed from 25,715 hospitalized patients with laboratory-confirmed dengue virus (DENV) infection. Several long-term trends in dengue disease were identified including an increase in mean age of hospitalized cases from an average of 7-8 years, an increase after 1990 in the proportion of post-primary cases for DENV-1 and DENV-3, and a decrease in the proportion of dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome cases in primary and post-primary cases over time. Exploratory mechanistic analysis of these observed trends considered changes in diagnostic methods, demography, force of infection, and Japanese encephalitis vaccination as possible explanations. Thailand is an important setting for studying DENV transmission as it has a "mature" dengue epidemiology with a strong surveillance system in place since the early 1970s. We characterized changes in dengue epidemiology over four decades, and possible impact of demographic and other changes in the human population. These results may inform other countries where similar changes in transmission and population demographics may now or may soon be occurring.

  5. Occurrence and efficacy of bisphenol A (BPA) treatment in selected municipal wastewater treatment plants, Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pookpoosa, Intira; Jindal, Ranjna; Morknoy, Daisy; Tantrakarnapa, Kraichat

    2015-01-01

    Investigations were carried out on the occurrence and fate of bisphenol A (BPA) in five wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Bangkok, namely, Rattanakosin, Chong Non Si, Din Daeng (DD), Nong Khaem and Thungkru (TK) during three sampling events between October 2013 and February 2014. Based on the results, the influent and effluent BPA concentrations ranged between 128.5 ng/L and 606.0 ng/L; and 38.7 ng/L and 270.5 ng/L, respectively. The effluent BPA concentrations of most of the five WWTPs were lower than the influent levels. TK had the highest removal efficiency in October 2013 (80.4%) and December 2013 (90.7%) and the second highest in February 2014 (69.2%). DD had the highest removal efficiency in February 2014 (91.8%). The treatment processes employed at TK and DD were vertical loop reactor activated sludge process and activated sludge with nutrients removal, respectively. Thus, these processes seem to be good for BPA degradation.

  6. Field Experiments of PV-Thermal Collectors for Residential Application in Bangkok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Akisawa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study presents experimental results on Photovoltaic-thermal (PVT solar systems, the commercial photovoltaic (PV panels used as solar absorbers in PVT collectors, which are amorphous and multi-crystalline silicon. Testing was done with outdoor experiments in the climate of Bangkok corresponding to energy consumption behavior of medium size Thai families. The experimental results show that the thermal recovery of amorphous silicon PVT collector is almost the same as that of multi-crystalline silicon PVT collectors while electricity generation of multi crystalline silicon PVT is 1.2 times as much as that of amorphous silicon PVT. The maximum of heat gain from the PVT systems were obtained in March in summer. It was found that PVT collectors of unit area annually produced 1.1 × 103 kWh/m2 .year of heat and 55–83 kWh/m2.year of electricity, respectively. The results show that annual average solar factor of hot water supply is 0.45 for unit collector area. Economical evaluation based on energy costs in Thailand was conducted, which estimated the payback time would be 7 and 14 years for a-Si PVT and mc-Si PV, respectively.

  7. Characterization of airborne particulates in Bangkok urban area by neutron activation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouchpramool, S; Sumitra, T; Leenanuphunt, V

    1999-01-01

    Samples of airborne particulates were collected in a residential area and in an area near a busy highway in Bangkok during the period from January 1997 to May 1998. A stacked filter system was used for the former site and a Partisol 2000 was used for the latter site. Both 2.5 microns and 10-micron particulates were collected every week. The total suspended particulate matters were also collected at the latter site. The samples were analyzed by neutron activation analysis utilizing neutron flux from a 2-MW TRIGA MARK III research reactor. The elements most frequently detected in the airborne particulates were Al, As, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, I, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Th, Ti, V, and Zn. The enrichment factor and factor analysis were used to investigate trends, sources, and origin of the atmospheric aerosols. Anthropogenic elements in road dust, construction dust, motor vehicles emission, and other combustion components were identified. A comparative study of data between both sites was performed and it was found that the mass concentration in the area close to the highway was about three times higher than in the residential area. PMID:10676491

  8. Evaluation of removal efficiency of human antibiotics in wastewater treatment plants in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinthuchai, Donwichai; Boontanon, Suwanna Kitpati; Boontanon, Narin; Polprasert, Chongrak

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the antibiotic concentration at each stage of treatment and to evaluate the removal efficiency of antibiotics in different types of secondary and advanced treatment, as well as the effects of the location of their discharge points on the occurrence of antibiotics in surface water. Eight target antibiotics and four hospital wastewater treatment plants in Bangkok with different conventional and advanced treatment options were investigated. Antibiotics were extracted by solid phase extraction and analysed by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The antibiotic with the highest concentration at influent was cefazolin at 13,166 ng/L, while the antibiotic with the highest concentration at effluent was sulfamethoxazole at 1,499 ng/L. The removal efficiency of antibiotics from lowest to highest was sulfamethoxazole, piperacillin, clarithromycin, metronidazole, dicloxacillin, ciprofloxacin, cefazolin, and cefalexin. The adopted conventional treatment systems could not completely remove all antibiotics from wastewater. However, using advanced treatments or disinfection units such as chlorination and UV could increase the antibiotic removal efficiency. Chlorination was more effective than UV, ciprofloxacin and sulfamethoxazole concentration fluctuated during the treatment process, and sulfamethoxazole was the most difficult to remove. Both these antibiotics should be studied further regarding their contamination in sludge and suitable treatment options for their removal. PMID:26744950

  9. Occurrence and susceptibilities to disinfectants of Cryptococcus neoformans in fecal droppings from pigeons in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krangvichain, Prathomporn; Niyomtham, Waree; Prapasarakul, Nuvee

    2016-03-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic pathogenic yeast that causes meningoencephalitis and deep skin dermatitis in humans and animals. A hygienic strategy using disinfectants on environmental samples can reduce the risk to the public. The objectives were to survey the distribution of C. neoformans in pigeon fecal droppings collected in 11 districts in Bangkok during 2011-2012 and to evaluate the efficacy of three commercial disinfectant products (based on potassium monopersulfate, sodium hypochlorite and quaternary ammonium compounds, respectively). These were evaluated against pure C. neoformans and yeasts resuspended in sterile pigeon feces using the dilution-neutralization method [Europäische NORM (EN) 1656]. In total, 18 of 164 (11%) samples were positive for C. neoformans. These came from only three of the 11 districts, with a prevalence of between 13-56%. Using multiplex PCR, serotype A was the sole group found. For all disinfectants, C. neoformans mixed in feces was tolerated at a higher dose and time exposure than pure isolates. The most effective disinfectant in this study was a 0.12% quaternary ammonium compound that could rapidly eradicate the yeasts mixed in feces. This finding highlights the occurrence and distribution of C. neoformans in the capital city of Thailand and the need to prolong the duration of exposure to disinfectants with pigeon feces. PMID:26596636

  10. War, Trade and Desire: Urban Design and the Counter Public Spheres of Bangkok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian McGrath

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses an emergent public sphere in Bangkok in order to reveal the gap between ideals of public space as representation of power, nationhood, and modernity, versus its social production in everyday political struggles. The setting for political demonstrations recently shifted from royalist-nationalist Ratchadamnoen Avenue to the Ratchaprasong intersection, the heart of Bangkok’s shopping district. Ratchadamnoen, formerly a stage-set for royalist and nationalist pomp, has been continuously occupied for political uprisings.In contrast, as the political base of protest in Thailand widened, the glittering shopping malls at Ratchaprasong became a new site of protest, fuelled by urban and rural working poor who sensed they could not afford to partake in Bangkok’s phantasmagorical splendours. The paper argues that in following Bangkok’s historical cycles of blood and massacre in the street lies the possibility of finding new forms of urban design and a public sphere not yet imagined in the West.

  11. Maternal return to paid work and breastfeeding practices in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikawa, Tomomi; Pavadhgul, Patcharanee; Chongsuwat, Rewadee; Sawasdivorn, Siraporn; Boonshuyar, Chaweewon

    2015-03-01

    This study explored the association between mothers' work-related factors and breastfeeding practices in Bangkok, Thailand. Data were collected from 84 working mothers with a child aged 6 to 24 months who visited the breastfeeding mobile clinic at a nursery goods exhibition. Thai interviewers collected data using a structured questionnaire. Analysis of the data showed that exclusive breastfeeding for 3 months was 78.6%, and for 6 months it was 38.1%. Mothers who returned to work 3 months or more after giving birth exclusively breastfed more than the mothers who returned to work in less than 3 months (crude odds ratio [OR] = 4.26, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.39-13.05; adjusted OR = 4.15, 95% CI = 1.15-14.95). Moreover, mothers who worked at self-employed or family-owned businesses and some mothers working at private companies showed tendencies of returning to work in less than 3 months. Results suggest that longer maternity leave would help extend the duration of exclusive breastfeeding. In addition, the improvement of a breastfeeding supportive environment in the workplace would be valuable and may be an effective means to improve breastfeeding practices and infant health. PMID:22815310

  12. In sickness or in health: TDR's parners. 7. Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-02-01

    Mahidol University's Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Bangkok, Thailand, established in 1960, is one of 14 faculties, 5 institutions, 5 centers, and 2 colleges within Mahidol University. It consists of the following departments: Helminthology, Medical Entomology, Microbiology and Immunology, Protozoology, Social and Environmental Medicine, Tropical Hygiene, Tropical Medicine, Tropical Nutrition and Food Science, Tropical Pediatrics, Tropical Pathology, and Tropical Radioisotopes. The UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Program for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) has been associated with the Faculty since 1977, collaborating mainly upon malaria research, but also in filariasis, leprosy, and schistosomiasis research. Early TDR support was directed at research training and institutional strengthening, although by the early 1980s, the Faculty played an increasingly important role in TDR's research and development program. In recent years, the Faculty has focused upon researching malaria, parasitic and bacterial diseases, nutrition and food sciences, and environmental health. The Faculty's malaria-related research is described. The Faculty also conducts research in many other areas of tropical medicine outside of those of interest to TDR. PMID:12348565

  13. Forty Years of Dengue Surveillance at a Tertiary Pediatric Hospital in Bangkok, Thailand, 1973-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisalak, Ananda; Clapham, Hannah E; Kalayanarooj, Siripen; Klungthong, Chonticha; Thaisomboonsuk, Butsaya; Fernandez, Stefan; Reiser, Julia; Srikiatkhachorn, Anon; Macareo, Louis R; Lessler, Justin T; Cummings, Derek A T; Yoon, In-Kyu

    2016-06-01

    Long-term observational studies can provide valuable insights into overall dengue epidemiology. Here, we present analysis of dengue cases at a pediatric hospital in Bangkok, Thailand, during a 40-year period from 1973 to 2012. Data were analyzed from 25,715 hospitalized patients with laboratory-confirmed dengue virus (DENV) infection. Several long-term trends in dengue disease were identified including an increase in mean age of hospitalized cases from an average of 7-8 years, an increase after 1990 in the proportion of post-primary cases for DENV-1 and DENV-3, and a decrease in the proportion of dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome cases in primary and post-primary cases over time. Exploratory mechanistic analysis of these observed trends considered changes in diagnostic methods, demography, force of infection, and Japanese encephalitis vaccination as possible explanations. Thailand is an important setting for studying DENV transmission as it has a "mature" dengue epidemiology with a strong surveillance system in place since the early 1970s. We characterized changes in dengue epidemiology over four decades, and possible impact of demographic and other changes in the human population. These results may inform other countries where similar changes in transmission and population demographics may now or may soon be occurring. PMID:27022151

  14. Evaluation of removal efficiency of human antibiotics in wastewater treatment plants in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinthuchai, Donwichai; Boontanon, Suwanna Kitpati; Boontanon, Narin; Polprasert, Chongrak

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the antibiotic concentration at each stage of treatment and to evaluate the removal efficiency of antibiotics in different types of secondary and advanced treatment, as well as the effects of the location of their discharge points on the occurrence of antibiotics in surface water. Eight target antibiotics and four hospital wastewater treatment plants in Bangkok with different conventional and advanced treatment options were investigated. Antibiotics were extracted by solid phase extraction and analysed by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The antibiotic with the highest concentration at influent was cefazolin at 13,166 ng/L, while the antibiotic with the highest concentration at effluent was sulfamethoxazole at 1,499 ng/L. The removal efficiency of antibiotics from lowest to highest was sulfamethoxazole, piperacillin, clarithromycin, metronidazole, dicloxacillin, ciprofloxacin, cefazolin, and cefalexin. The adopted conventional treatment systems could not completely remove all antibiotics from wastewater. However, using advanced treatments or disinfection units such as chlorination and UV could increase the antibiotic removal efficiency. Chlorination was more effective than UV, ciprofloxacin and sulfamethoxazole concentration fluctuated during the treatment process, and sulfamethoxazole was the most difficult to remove. Both these antibiotics should be studied further regarding their contamination in sludge and suitable treatment options for their removal.

  15. Recent HIV Testing Among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men in Bangkok and Chiang Mai: HIV Testing and Prevention Strategies Must Be Enhanced in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Lisa G; Steinhaus, Mara C; Sass, Justine; Sirinirund, Petchsri; Lee, Catherine; Benjarattanaporn, Patchara; Gass, Robert

    2016-09-01

    HIV infection among men who have sex with men, particularly in Thai urban settings and among younger cohorts, is escalating. HIV testing and counseling (HTC) are important for prevention and obtaining treatment and care. We examine data from a 2013 survey of males, 15-24 years, reporting past-year sex with a male and living in Bangkok or Chiang Mai. Almost three quarters of young MSM (YMSM) in Bangkok and only 27 % in Chiang Mai had an HIV test in the previous year. Associations for HIV testing varied between cities, although having employment increased the odds of HIV testing for both cities. In Bangkok, family knowledge of same sex attraction and talking to parents/guardians about HIV/AIDS had higher odds of HIV testing. Expanded HTC coverage is needed for YMSM in Chiang Mai. All health centers providing HTC, including those targeting MSM, need to address the specific needs of younger cohorts.

  16. The Treaty of Friendship, Partnership and Cooperation between Libya and Italy: From an Awkward Past to a Promising Equal Partnership

    OpenAIRE

    Kashiem, Mustafa Abdalla A.

    2010-01-01

    Italian-Libyan international relations entered a new era when the two countries signed the Treaty on Friendship, Partnership, and Cooperation on August 30, 2008. The treaty allowed Italy to extend its interests into the southern basin of the Mediterranean in order to balance Atlanticism and Europeanism in the region. The treaty enabled Libya also to create a partnership with a northern ally that was until recently described as an adversary. In politics, however, there is no such thing as perm...

  17. New Developments on Investor-Versus-State Arbitration and their Implications: Impact of "Legalization" of Investment Treaties (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    KOTERA Akira

    2005-01-01

    Since the later half of the 1990s, there has been a remarkable rise in the use of investor-versus-state arbitration clauses under investment treaties (hereinafter "investment treaty arbitration"). Points at issue that have frequently been raised in arbitration under investment treaties include (1) obligations to compensate for expropriation, (2) obligations to provide fair and equitable treatment, and (3) obligations to grant most-favored nation treatment. Of these, the first two points are o...

  18. Procurement after the entry of the Lisbon Treaty : Will social economical market have an impact on procurment?

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    As of 1 December 2009 the Treaty of Lisbon came into force. The Treaty brings along several changes for the physical structure of the EU. There are no changes aimed directly towards procurement, however the Treaty of Lisbon might prove to include changes of major impact. Article 3 (3) NEU includes a change to how the inner market shall be achieved. The Treaty text has gone from an inner market based on competition to include a “social economic market”, however there is no indication of what t...

  19. The Non-Proliferation Treaty increases security; Pysyvae ydinsulkusopimus lisaeae kansainvaelistae vakautta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahiluoto, K.

    1995-12-31

    Extension of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty indefinitely was a historic decision. The Treaty is the most extensive international agreement on security policy to date; now its obligations have become a permanent part of international justice. Moreover, the NPT represents a political and moral obligation. Through the NPT, the international community has made a permanent commitment to restrict the proliferation of nuclear weapons. Increasing pressures will be applied to the few countries still outside the NPT, making it more likely that these countries will eventually change their views. The likelihood of regional bans on nuclear weapons in the Middle East and in Asia, too, will increase. The Treaty promotes the establishment of new nuclear-free zones. The nuclear-free zone in Latin America - the countries covered by the Tlatelolco Treaty - is already very close to its full implementation. Finland is firmly committed to the obligations of the Non-Proliferation Treaty. The NPT Conference of 1995 was among the first international meetings in which Finland participated, and took an active role, as a Member State of the European Union. (orig.).

  20. Treaties to avoid international double income taxation and their relation with investments involving Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jônatas de Pessoa Alburquerque Martins

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available To fight against fiscal evasion and facilitate the investment flow, the countries close agreements to go against double income taxation. This study aims to investigate the impact of the treaties to avoid double income taxation on the direct foreign investment relations of Brazil. The analysis included 162 countries and jurisdictions with which investments transactions were closed that originated or were received in Brazil, between 2005 and 2011. The panel data analysis technique was applied through the selection of six independent variables, in order to verify the behavior of the double taxation treaties in view of the investments. Through the estimated model, it was verified that these treaties had a positive and statistically significant impact – when compared to earlier studies – on the direct foreign investment volume. When dividing the sample between the investments received and made in Brazil, a greater increase was identified in the direct foreign investments received (130.1% than in the investments made (76.9%, although this was the variable with the second largest positive impact in the model. In conclusion, exclusively in the Brazilian context, the international double income taxation is a relevant factor in the investment decision, as the presence of treaties to guarantee the investors in the receipt of revenues without double taxation substantially increases the investment flow. This study differs from earlier research by the sample that only contains treaties in force in Brazil.

  1. Photochemical smog pollution in the Bangkok Metropolitan Region of Thailand in relation to O 3 precursor concentrations and meteorological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, B.-N.; Kim Oanh, N. T.

    Analysis of photochemical pollution was done using the available 5-yr monitoring data (1996-2000) from 11 monitoring stations in Bangkok and 5 stations in other surrounding provinces, i.e. the Bangkok Metropolitan Region (BMR). Status and trend of O 3 as well as the monthly and diurnal variations were analyzed in relation to the local meteorological conditions as well as the regional transport of pollutants associated with the monsoon. The O 3 in Bangkok was found to be typical for the polluted urban areas with a lower concentration in the city center, especially at curbside stations, and higher concentration at the downwind locations. O 3 pollution was highest in 1997 with the maximum hourly average of 370 ppbv and the total hours exceeding the national hourly O 3 standard (100 ppbv) of 314 h, which is most likely related to the strong El Niño and the forest fire in Southeast Asia in this year. Meteorology-unadjusted trend shows a slight increase in O 3 from 1998 to 2000. Local emission and photochemistry are mainly responsible for O 3 episodes in the BMR. Seasonal fluctuations of O 3, however, were found to relate to the regional transport associated with the Asian monsoon. Highest O 3 pollution was found in the period from January to April (winter and local summer) and lowest during mid-rainy season, August. The O 3 increase isopleth diagram was constructed which shows that O 3 production in BMR is effective when the NO x/NMHC ratio is in the range of 0.04-0.15 with optimum ratio of around 0.07. Seasonal variations in NO x/NMHC ratios are consistent with the O 3 variations, i.e., optimum in summer (0.07), followed by winter (0.05), and the lowest in rainy season (0.03).

  2. The Study of Equilibrium factor between Radon-222 and its Daughters in Bangkok Atmosphere by Gamma-ray Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rujiwarodom, Rachanee

    2010-05-01

    To study the Equilibrium between radon-222 and its daughters in Bangkok atmosphere by Gamma-ray spectrometry, air sample were collected on 48 activated charcoal canister and 360 glass fiber filters by using a high volume jet-air sampler during December 2007 to November 2008.The Spectra of gamma-ray were measured by using a HPGe (Hyper Pure Germanium Detector). In the condition of secular equilibrium obtaining between Radon-222 and its decay products, radon-222 on activated charcoal canister and its daughters on glass fiber filters collected in the same time interval were calculated. The equilibrium factor (F) in the open air had a value of 0.38 at the minimum ,and 0.75 at the maximum. The average value of equilibrium factor (F) was 0.56±0.12. Based on the results, F had variations with a maximum value in the night to the early morning and decreased in the afternoon. In addition, F was higher in the winter than in the summer. This finding corresponds with the properties of the Earth atmosphere. The equilibrium factor (F) also depended on the concentration of dust in the atmosphere. People living in Bangkok were exposed to average value of 30 Bq/m3 of Radon-222 in the atmosphere. The equilibrium factor (0.56±0.12) and the average value of Radon-222 showed that people were exposed to alpha energy from radon-222 and its daughters decay at 0.005 WL(Working Level) which is lower than the safety standard at 0.02 WL. Keywords: Radon, Radon daughters , equilibrium factor, Gamma -ray spectrum analysis ,Bangkok ,Thailand

  3. Coastal vulnerability to typhoon inundation in the Bay of Bangkok, Thailand? Evidence from carbonate boulder deposits on Ko Larn island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, James P.; Jankaew, Kruawun; Dunne, Kieran

    2015-11-01

    At the head of the Gulf of Thailand, the subsiding Chao Phraya delta and adjacent low-lying coastlines surrounding the Bay of Bangkok are at risk of coastal flooding. Although a significant marine inundation event has not been experienced in historical times, this work identifies coastal depositional evidence for high-energy waves in the past. On Ko Larn island in eastern Bay of Bangkok, numerous coastal carbonate boulders (CCBs) were discovered at elevations up to 4+ m above sea level, the largest weighing over 1.3 tonnes. For the majority of CCBs, their karstified appearance bears testimony to long periods of immobility since original deposition, whilst their geomorphic settings on coastal slopes of coarse blocky talus is helpful in recognising lifting (saltation) as the probable mode of wave transport. In the absence of local tsunamigenic potential, these CCBs are considered to be prehistoric typhoon deposits, presumably sourced from fringing coral reefs by high-energy wave action. Application of existing hydrodynamic flow transport equations reveals that 4.7 m/s and 7.1 m/s are the minimum flow velocities required to transport 50% and 100% of the measured CCBs, respectively. Such values are consistent with cyclone-impacted coastlines studied elsewhere in the tropical Asia-Pacific region. Overall, the evidence of elevated carbonate boulder deposits on Ko Larn implies that typhoons before the modern record may have entered the Bay of Bangkok. The recurrence of a similar event in future would have the potential to cause damaging marine inundation on surrounding low-lying coastlines.

  4. Assessment of a ground water flow model of the Bangkok Basin, Thailand, using carbon-14-based ages and paleohydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, W.E.; Buapeng, S.

    1996-01-01

    A study was undertaken to understand the groundwater flow conditions in the Bangkok Basin, Thailand, by comparing 14C-based and simulated groundwater ages. 14C measurements were made on about 50 water samples taken from wells throughout the basin. Simulated ages were obtained using 1) backward-pathline tracking based on the well locations, and 2) results from a three-dimensional groundwater flow model. Comparisons of ages at these locations reveal a large difference between 14C-based ages and ages predicted by the steady-state groundwater flow model. Mainly, 14C and 13C analyses indicate that groundwater in the Bangkok area is about 20,000 years old, whereas steady-state flow and transport simulations imply that groundwater in the Bangkok area is 50,000-100,000 years old. One potential reason for the discrepancy between simulated and 14C-based ages is the assumption in the model of steady-state flow. Groundwater velocities were probably greater in the region before about 10,000 years ago, during the last glacial maximum, because of the lower position of sea level and the absence of the surficial Bangkok Clay. Paleoflow conditions were estimated and then incorporated into a second set of simulations. The new assumption was that current steady-state flow conditions existed for the last 8,000 years but were preceded by steady-state conditions representative of flow during the last glacial maximum. This "transient" paleohydrologic simulation yielded a mean simulated age that more closely agrees with the mean 14C-based age, especially if the 14C-based age is corrected for diffusion into clay layers. Although the uncertainties in both the simulated and 14C-based ages are nontrivial, the magnitude of the improved match in the mean age using a paleohydrologic simulation instead of a steady-state simulation suggests that flow conditions in the basin have changed significantly over the last 10,000-20,000 years. Given that the valid age range of 14C-dating methods and the

  5. Assessment of selected metals in the ambient air PM10 in urban sites of Bangkok (Thailand).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongpiachan, Siwatt; Iijima, Akihiro

    2016-02-01

    Estimating the atmospheric concentrations of PM10-bounded selected metals in urban air is crucial for evaluating adverse health impacts. In the current study, a combination of measurements and multivariate statistical tools was used to investigate the influence of anthropogenic activities on variations in the contents of 18 metals (i.e., Al, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd, Sb, Ba, La, Ce and Pb) in ambient air. The concentrations of PM10-bounded metals were measured simultaneously at eight air quality observatory sites during a half-year period at heavily trafficked roads and in urban residential zones in Bangkok, Thailand. Although the daily average concentrations of Al, V, Cr, Mn and Fe were almost equivalent to those of other urban cities around the world, the contents of the majority of the selected metals were much lower than the existing ambient air quality guidelines and standard limit values. The sequence of average values of selected metals followed the order of Al > Fe > Zn > Cu > Pb > Mn > Ba > V > Sb > Ni > As > Cr > Cd > Se > Ce > La > Co > Sc. The probability distribution function (PDF) plots showed sharp symmetrical bell-shaped curves in V and Cr, indicating that crustal emissions are the predominant sources of these two elements in PM10. The comparatively low coefficients of divergence (COD) that were found in the majority of samples highlight that site-specific effects are of minor importance. A principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that 37.74, 13.51 and 11.32 % of the total variances represent crustal emissions, vehicular exhausts and the wear and tear of brakes and tires, respectively.

  6. Benzene and lead exposure assessment among occupational bus drivers in Bangkok traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muttamara, S; Leong, Shing Tet; Arayasiri, M

    2004-01-01

    Four environmental and biological monitoring sites were strategically established to evaluate benzene and lead exposure assessment at various traffic zones of Bangkok Metropolitan Region(BMR). Biological measurement of 48 non air-conditioned, male bus drivers was carried to study the relationship between individual exposure levels and exposure biomarkers. The study group was further subdivided into four age groups(16-25, 26-35, 36-45 and 46-55 years old) to monitor the age-related exposure effects. A total of 12 unexposed persons were deliberately chosen as the control group. Measurement of unmetobolized benzene in blood and analysis of urinary tt-Muconic acid urine and urinary creatinine are recommended as biomarkers of benzene exposure. Measurement of lead in blood and urine is also recommended for the biological monitoring of lead exposure. During the monitoring period, benzene and lead levels at Yaowarat Road was C6H6: 42.46 +/- 3.88 microg/m3 , Pb: 0.29 +/- 0.03 microg/m3 and decreased to C6H6: 33.5 +/- 1.35 microg/m3, Pb: 0.13 +/- 0.01 microg/m3 at Phahonyothin Road. Significant difference was established between the nonsmoking exposed group and nonsmoking control group for blood benzene concentrations (P < 0.001, two-tailed, Mann-Whiteney U test). Strong correlations were also found between trans-trans-Muconic acid concentrations in post shift samples and atmospheric benzene concentrations. Similarly, good correlation between all of biomarkers and lead level in air is established from automobile emissions. The analysis revealed that among the occupational population in the urban sites, the driver groups were found to have the highest risk of benzene and lead exposures derived from automobile emission. PMID:14971454

  7. Levels and major sources of PM2.5 and PM10 in Bangkok Metropolitan Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuersuwan, Nares; Nimrat, Subuntith; Lekphet, Sukanda; Kerdkumrai, Tida

    2008-07-01

    This research was the first long-term attempt to concurrently measure and identify major sources of both PM(10) and PM(2.5) in Bangkok Metropolitan Region (BMR). Ambient PM(10) and PM(2.5) were evaluated at four monitoring stations and analyzed for elemental compositions, water-soluble ions, and total carbon during February 2002-January 2003. Fifteen chemical elements, four water-soluble ions, and total carbon were analyzed to assist major source identification by a receptor model approach, known as chemical mass balance. PM(10) and PM(2.5) were significantly different (ptraffic location while two separated residential sites were similar. Seasonal difference of PM(10) and PM(2.5) concentrations was distinct between dry and wet seasons. Major source of PM(10) at the traffic site indicated that automobile emissions and biomass burning-related sources contributed approximately 33% each. Automobiles contributed approximately 39 and 22% of PM(10) mass at two residential sites while biomass burning contributed about 36 and 28%. PM(10) from re-suspended soil and cooking sources accounted for 10 to 15% at a residential site. Major sources of PM(2.5) at traffic site were automobile and biomass burning, contributing approximately 32 and 26%, respectively. Biomass burning was the major source of PM(2.5) mass concentrations at residential sites. Meat cooking also accounted for 31% of PM(2.5) mass at a low impact site. Automobile, biomass burning, and road dust were less significant, contributed 10, 6, and 5%, respectively. Major sources identification at some location had difficulty to achieve performance criteria due to limited source profiles. Improved in characterize other sources profiles will help local authority to better air quality. PMID:18258301

  8. Social and cultural contexts of HIV risk behaviors among Thai female sex workers in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Tooru; Iwamoto, Mariko; Sakata, Maria; Perngparn, Usaneya; Areesantichai, Chitlada

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the number of indirect female sex workers (FSWs) who work at bars/clubs and massage parlors is substantially increasing in Thailand; however, there are huge gaps in knowledge about HIV risk behaviors among indirect FSWs. This study aimed to describe and understand HIV risk behaviors among Thai FSWs in Bangkok in relation to sociocultural factors and work environment (e.g., bars/clubs, massage parlors, brothels, and street). Based on venue-based purposive sampling methods, Thai FSWs were recruited for qualitative interviews (n=50) and survey interviews (n=205). Based on mixed methods, the study revealed that HIV risk and substance use behaviors among FSWs significantly differed depending on work venues, although there were no significant differences between work venues on some key risk behaviors (e.g., inconsistent condom use with primary partners and customers; willingness to engage in unsafe sex with customers). A multiple linear regression analysis revealed that FSWs who had used illicit drugs, were young, had low levels of self-esteem, or reported STIs had frequently engaged in unprotected vaginal sex with customers. Also, FSWs who worked at bars/clubs, were young, had higher income, or reported STIs had frequently engaged in sex with customers under the influence of alcohol. Qualitative interviews illustrated FSWs' alcohol and drug use due to their stressful life (e.g., long working hours and a large number of customers) and easy access to alcohol and drugs. FSWs had shown inaccurate knowledge about HIV prevention methods and engaged in risky behaviors, such as washing vagina with water or toothpaste after having had sex with customers. The HIV prevention strategies in Thailand need to be re-structured through implementing evidence-based HIV prevention intervention programs for FSWs, which must address sociocultural factors (e.g., self-esteem) and alcohol and drug use specific to work venues.

  9. Benzene and lead exposure assessment among occupational bus drivers in Bangkok traffic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHING TET LEONG; PREECHA LAORTANAKUL

    2004-01-01

    Four environmental and biological monitoring sites were strategically established to evaluate benzene and lead exposure assessment at various traffic zones of Bangkok Metropolitan Region(BMR). Biological measurement of 48 non air-conditioned, male bus drivers was carried to study the relationship between individual exposure levels and exposure biomarkers. The study group was further subdivided into four age groups( 16-25, 26-35, 36-45 and 46-55 years old) to monitor the age-related exposure effects. A total of 12unexposed persons were deliberately chosen as the control group. Measurement of unmetobolized benzene in blood and analysis of urinary tt-Muconic acid urine and urinary creatinine are recommended as biomarkers of benzene exposure. Measurement of lead in blood and urine is also recommended for the biological monitoring of lead exposure.During the monitoring period, benzene and lead levels at Yaowarat Road was C6H6: 42.46 + 3.88 μg/m3 , Pb: 0.29 + 0.03 μg/m3 and decreased to C6 H6: 33.5 ± 1.35 μg/m3 , Pb: O. 13 + 0.01 μg/m3 at Phahonyothin Road. Significant difference was established between the nonsmoking exposed group and nonsmoking control group for blood benzene concentrations ( P < 0.001, two-tailed, Mann-Whiteney U test). Strong correlations were also found between trans-trans-Muconic acid concentrations in post shift samples and atmospheric benzene concentrations. Similarly, good correlation between all of biomarkers and lead level in air is established from automobile emissions.The analysis revealed that among the occupational population in the urban sites, the driver groups were found to have the highest risk of benzene and lead exposures derived from automobile emission.

  10. The Euratom Community Treaty's prospects at the start of the new millennium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Which aspects of the Euratom Treaty might require reform in order to answer the challenges of the new Millennium? A call is made for the integration of the Euratom Treaty into a comprehensive European Union Treaty or Constitution encompassing all EU activities, making the promotion of nuclear technology a matter of enhanced cooperation, while preserving uniform radiation protection and safeguards standards. Provisions regarding nuclear safety and waste management standards should be added. Both enhanced cooperation and uniform standards should be guided by uniform constitutional principles, including democracy and the commitment to environmental protection. This would, on the one hand, preserve as much unity of EU and Euratom law as possible. On the other hand, it would allow Member States which have opted for the use of nuclear technology to pursue this within the common EU framework, and the others to terminate their involvement in the promotion of nuclear technology. (author)

  11. Radionuclide observables during the Integrated Field Exercise of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Jonathan L; Miley, Harry S; Milbrath, Brian D

    2016-03-01

    In 2014 the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) undertook an Integrated Field Exercise (IFE14) in Jordan. The exercise consisted of a simulated 0.5-2 kT underground nuclear explosion triggering an On-site Inspection (OSI) to search for evidence of a Treaty violation. This research paper evaluates two of the OSI techniques used during the IFE14, laboratory-based gamma-spectrometry of soil samples and in-situ gamma-spectrometry, both of which were implemented to search for 17 OSI relevant particulate radionuclides indicative of nuclear explosions. The detection sensitivity is evaluated using real IFE and model data. It indicates that higher sensitivity laboratory measurements are the optimum technique during the IFE and within the Treaty/Protocol-specified OSI timeframes. PMID:26802699

  12. Criminal law policy of Latvia in the context of European Union: The treaty of Lisbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilks A.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of the content of EU Treaty of Lisbon, which deals with ensurance of freedom, security and justice in the joint European space. The Treaty of Lisbon describes the attempts of the European Union to ensure a high security level to prevent and fight crime, rasism and xenophobia, to develop particular measures of coordination and cooperation between police and judicial authorities and other competent authorities for their further development, as well as for the mutual recognition of judgements in criminal matters. Correspondingly, the implementation of the requirements of the Treaty of Lisbon identifies the need to form an adequate national criminal law policy in our country as well.

  13. Under fire: Is the world's treaty against the spread of nuclear weapons strong enough?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifteen years into the 'atoms for peace' era, Ireland in 1968 took the historic first step to sign the global treaty against tile spread of nuclear weapons. Since then, more than 180 other countries without nuclear weapons have joined the pact, most of them during the cold war period. They see their security in not having (lie bomb, and bind themselves to work for nuclear disarmament everywhere. Their shared commitments make the global Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) the most accepted arms-control agreement in history, a cornerstone of nuclear cooperation, countries that join it renounce the military atom, and they must accept IAEA safeguards on their nuclear activities to verify it. But the Treaty is under fire, and some critics think it no longer fits the times. They say it cannot prevent Treaty countries from breaking out at will, or ensure that those having nuclear ambitions or arsenals are actually honouring their pledges. Neither has it attracted three key countries - India and Pakistan, which have tested atomic bombs, and Israel, which is suspected of having them - to its ranks of members. Not everyone agrees that the NPT is outdated. But it is clear that the Treaty and its associated regime are under stress, and that its fragile condition needs urgent care. The debate is important and timely - the Treaty comes up for international review in 2005 and countries already are preparing for it. A major question today is whether the NPT is strong enough to keep the lid on nuclear weapons in the world's changed security environment. A former senior official at the IAEA looks at the challenging picture

  14. IAEA Director General welcomes Cuba's intention to join the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: IAEA Director General Mohamed ElBaradei welcomed Cuba's announcement to accede to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) and to ratify the Treaty of Tlatelolco establishing a nuclear-weapon-free zone in Latin America and the Caribbean. He expressed the hope that Cuba will conclude soon a comprehensive safeguards agreement with the Agency, as required under Article III of the NPT. 'With Cuba's intention to become party to the NPT, we have come a step closer to a universal nuclear non-proliferation regime,' Mr. ElBaradei said. Only three countries worldwide with significant nuclear activities now remain outside the NPT. With 188 countries party to the Treaty, the NPT is the most adhered to international agreement after the United Nations Charter and the most widely adhered to multilateral arms control treaty. The NPT makes it mandatory that all non-nuclear-weapon States conclude comprehensive safeguards agreements with the IAEA, and thus put all of their nuclear material under IAEA safeguards. The Director General also welcomed Cuba's ratification of the Tlatelolco Treaty, which completes the process of having all countries in the region of Latin America and the Caribbean as members of the nuclear-weapon-free zone in that region. Mr. ElBaradei said that, 'the Tlatelolco Treaty provides a good model for other regional nuclear-weapon-free zones to follow'. He added that 'universal adherence of all countries in regions having nuclear-weapon-free zone arrangements is important to further strengthen the non-proliferation regime'. (IAEA)

  15. The Text of the Agreement between Mexico and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The text of the Agreement between Mexico and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members

  16. The non-proliferation treaty and the issue of the DPRK nuclear programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The test to which the Non-proliferation Treaty is being put in North Korea is only a small part of the larger issue of nuclear proliferation and its control. If the government of North Korea would agree to adhere to the Non-proliferation Treaty and allow the inspections that IAEA considers necessary at the same time entering into serious negotiations with the South Korea this would mean implementation of the Declaration of the Denuclearization of the Korean peninsula as well as progress in respect to other agreements signed by two sides

  17. Tax Treaty Treatment of Dividend Related Payments under Share Loan Agreements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyppel, Katja Joo

    2014-01-01

    The article analyses some of the qualification and allocation challenges that dividend related payments under share loan agreements give rise to for tax treaty purposes. The analysis is based on constructed scenarios illustrating how inconsistent domestic allocation of the dividend related payments...... give rise to qualification and allocation conflicts for tax treaty purposes in cross-border situations. The main challenges concern to what extent dividend related payments may be covered by the term “dividends” in article 10 of the OECD double tax convention and to what extent the lender in a share...

  18. Radionuclide observables during the Integrated Field Exercise of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnett, Jonathan L.; Miley, Harry S.; Milbrath, Brian D.

    2016-01-05

    In 2014 the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) undertook the Integrated Field Exercise (IFE) in Jordan. The exercise consisted of a simulated 0.5 – 2 kT underground explosion triggering an On-site Inspection (OSI) to search for evidence of a Treaty violation. This research evaluates two of the OSI techniques, including laboratory-based gamma-spectrometry of soil samples and in situ gamma-spectrometry for 17 particulate radionuclides indicative of nuclear weapon tests. The detection sensitivity is evaluated using real IFE and model data. It indicates that higher sensitivity laboratory measurements are the optimum technique during the IFE and OSI timeframes.

  19. THE IMPACT OF THE LISBON TREATY ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF EU IMMIGRATION LEGISLATION

    OpenAIRE

    Roots, Lehte

    2009-01-01

    Summary: Although the status of the Lisbon Treaty is still pending, the possible impact that it can have on the EU’s immigration legislation is worth analysing and discussing. The importance of immigration, asylum and border control is evident in the fact that the topic is presented as early as in Article 3 of Title I of the Common Provisions of the Lisbon Treaty. It states that the Union ‘shall offer its citizens an area of freedom, security and justice’. The common area is supposed to ex...

  20. Resolution establishing the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organization. Adopted on 19 November 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document reproduces the text of the Resolution on the Establishment of a Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organization which was adopted on 19 November 1996 at a meeting of the States Signatories of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty

  1. Longitudinal analysis of key HIV-risk behavior patterns and predictors in men who have sex with men, Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtz, Timothy H; Pattanasin, Sarika; Chonwattana, Wannee; Tongtoyai, Jaray; Chaikummao, Supaporn; Varangrat, Anchalee; Mock, Philip A

    2015-02-01

    The HIV incidence among Thai men who have sex with men (MSM) enrolled in the Bangkok MSM Cohort Study (BMCS) has remained high since its inception in 2006. The purpose of this BMCS analysis was to determine: (1) changes in three HIV-risk behaviors (unprotected anal intercourse (UAI), recreational drug use, and multiple sexual partners i.e., more than four male/transgender partner) over time; and (2) factors associated with each one separately. Thai MSM aged 18 years or older and living in Bangkok were eligible to participate in the BMCS. At each follow-up visit, participants were asked to report their sexual and drug behaviors in the previous 4 months. We conducted a longitudinal analysis using generalized estimating equations logistic regression that included 1,569 MSM who were enrolled from 2006 to 2010 and contributed at least one follow-up visit. For each four-month visit increase, we found a 2, 1, and 1 % decrease in odds for reported UAI, recreational drug use, and multiple sexual partners, respectively. We found significant predictors associated with three HIV-risk behaviors such as binge drinking, participation in group sex, and use of erectile dysfunction drugs. The statistically significant decrease in odds of HIV-risk behaviors among the participants is encouraging; however, continued vigilance is required to address the factors associated with HIV-risk behaviors through currently available interventions reaching MSM.

  2. Commuter exposure to black carbon, carbon monoxide, and noise in the mass transport khlong boats of Bangkok, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, A. D.; Velasco, E.; Ho, K. J.

    2013-12-01

    Khlong (canal) boats are a unique mass transport alternative in the congested city of Bangkok. Canals and rivers provide exclusive transit-ways for reducing the commuting time of thousands of city residents daily. However, as a consequence of the service characteristics and boats design and state of repair, they can represent a potential public health risk and an important source of black carbon and greenhouse gases. This work quantifies commuter exposure to black carbon, CO and noise when waiting for and travelling in these diesel fueled boats. Exposure to toxic pollutants and acute noise is similar or worse than for other transportation modes. Mean black carbon concentrations observed at one busy pier and along the main canal were much higher than ambient concentrations at sites impacted by vehicular traffic. Concentrations of CO were similar to those reported for roadside areas of Bangkok. The equivalent continuous sound levels registered at the landing pier were similar to those reported for roadsides, but values recorded inside the boats were significantly higher. We believe that the boat service is a viable alternative mode of mass transport, but public safety could be improved to provide a high quality service, comparable to modern rail systems or emerging bus rapid transit systems. These investments would also contribute to reduce the emission of black carbon and other greenhouse and toxic pollutants.

  3. Longitudinal analysis of key HIV-risk behavior patterns and predictors in men who have sex with men, Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtz, Timothy H; Pattanasin, Sarika; Chonwattana, Wannee; Tongtoyai, Jaray; Chaikummao, Supaporn; Varangrat, Anchalee; Mock, Philip A

    2015-02-01

    The HIV incidence among Thai men who have sex with men (MSM) enrolled in the Bangkok MSM Cohort Study (BMCS) has remained high since its inception in 2006. The purpose of this BMCS analysis was to determine: (1) changes in three HIV-risk behaviors (unprotected anal intercourse (UAI), recreational drug use, and multiple sexual partners i.e., more than four male/transgender partner) over time; and (2) factors associated with each one separately. Thai MSM aged 18 years or older and living in Bangkok were eligible to participate in the BMCS. At each follow-up visit, participants were asked to report their sexual and drug behaviors in the previous 4 months. We conducted a longitudinal analysis using generalized estimating equations logistic regression that included 1,569 MSM who were enrolled from 2006 to 2010 and contributed at least one follow-up visit. For each four-month visit increase, we found a 2, 1, and 1 % decrease in odds for reported UAI, recreational drug use, and multiple sexual partners, respectively. We found significant predictors associated with three HIV-risk behaviors such as binge drinking, participation in group sex, and use of erectile dysfunction drugs. The statistically significant decrease in odds of HIV-risk behaviors among the participants is encouraging; however, continued vigilance is required to address the factors associated with HIV-risk behaviors through currently available interventions reaching MSM. PMID:25637308

  4. A Cross-cultural Analytical Framework for Territorial Development Policies: The Application to Flood Risk Management Policies in the Bangkok Metropolitan Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rongwinriyaphanich, S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the application of a proposed analytical framework that takes cultural dimensions as main parameters to explain territorial development processes. It is illustrated through the analysis of flood risk management in two case study areas in the Bangkok Metropolitan Region. It aims t

  5. A comparison of temporal variation of particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pPAHs) concentration in different urban environments: Tokyo, Japan, and Bangkok, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetwittayachan, T.; Shimazaki, D.; Yamamoto, K.

    A comparative study of the real-time ambient concentrations of particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pPAHs) in the vicinity of roads in Tokyo (Japan) and in Bangkok (Thailand) in summertime was carried out by using a photoelectric aerosol sensor (PAS), which gives continuous signal in relation to the total amount of pPAHs concentration. The PAS output gave a good correlation to the total concentration of the selected PAHs determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). This technique was then employed to observe temporal variation of total pPAHs. The measurements at roadside and general areas in Tokyo and in Bangkok were performed for seven consecutive days in August 2000, and in March 2001, respectively. The diurnal profiles of pPAHs concentrations in both cities were generally similar; explicit peak concentrations were observed in early morning in association with the traffic growth in the morning rush hours. A significant reduction occurred during the daytime was probably due to rising in the mixing zone. At roadside areas, the average pPAHs concentrations throughout the sampling period in Bangkok were significantly higher than those of Tokyo, owing to the larger contribution of vehicular traffic, especially heavy-duty vehicles, on the roads near the sampling site. Otherwise, all average concentrations in the general area in Tokyo were slightly higher than that of Bangkok. This was probably due to the percentage of road coverage in Tokyo being higher than that in Bangkok, creating a higher possibility for pPAHs evolving from road traffic, and the transportation pattern of the pPAHs in Tokyo showed a more broadly diffused profile than that of Bangkok. This suggests the widespread dispersion of pPAHs over the entire study area in Tokyo. At this study scale especially at the roadside, however, a high pPAHs concentration observed in Tokyo and in Bangkok was predominantly located at low wind speed, <1.0 and 0.4 m s -1, respectively, and along

  6. RIVALITAS PERANCIS-AMERIKA SERIKAT DI NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION PASCA PERANG DINGIN

    OpenAIRE

    RIO ARIANTO, ADI

    2012-01-01

    Penelitian ini menggambarkan tentang rivalitas antara Perancis dan Amerika Serikat di North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) pasca Perang Dingin. Pembahasan ini difokuskan pada konflik kepentingan antara Perancis dan Amerika Serikat di NATO. Penelitian ini mencoba memahami perilaku kedua negara ??????Perancis dan Amerika Serikat di NATO, kemudian menelaah pengaruhnya terhadap bentuk kebijakan dan kinerja NATO dalam melihat postur keamanan internasional di masa kekinian. Metode Penelitia...

  7. 77 FR 22221 - Security Zones; North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Summit, Chicago, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ...) Summit, Chicago, Illinois in the Federal Register (77 FR 13232). Although the G8 Summit is now planned to... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zones; North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO... NATO Summit and associated events, which will be held in Chicago from May 16, 2012, through May...

  8. 77 FR 25892 - Security Zones; North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Summit, Chicago, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ... proposed rule (77 FR 13232) that would establish four separate security zones in the Chicago Harbor and Chicago River during the NATO Summit. This statement is incorrect. The Coast Guard received one comment... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zones; North Atlantic Treaty Organization...

  9. Mark Twain, “The Treaty with China,” and the Chinese Connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Zehr

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available For today’s reader of Twain, the chronological appearance of “The Treaty with China” in August of 1868 may seem an anomalous entry in his bibliography, published at a time when his growing reputation is still primarily dependent on his ability to elicit a laugh or, for the more sophisticated reader, a knowing snicker. However, issues of race, class, and politics are not absent from his journalistic work prior to August 1868. Nothing in Twain’s writing prior to 1868, however, which had limited circulation, would have prepared the contemporary reader for the strong, unequivocal sympathies expressed toward the Chinese immigrants in “The Treaty with China.” For this reason alone, a closer analysis of “The Treaty” is warranted, providing prescient evidence regarding the political basis of Twain’s oeuvre at this embryonic stage of his career as a public figure. Many Twain scholars, largely through the brilliant analysis in Philip Foner’s 1958 work, Mark Twain: Social Critic, are already aware of the existence of “The Treaty with China,” even if they have never seen the text, but it has otherwise suffered from undeserved neglect, primarily because it has not been widely available to scholars since its 1868 publication, except for those with access to adequate microfilm resource libraries. This lacuna in Twain studies, at least, is now remedied with this reappearance of the entire text of “The Treaty with China.”

  10. Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty research and development: plans and accomplishments ...from signature to entry into force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-06-01

    This brochure describes the high-priority R&D that is being pursued in the DOE Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) R&D Program and how it will support effective CTBT monitoring. Monitoring challenges, sensor systems, signal analysis, resolution of ambiguities, and the timeline for CTBT history and program milestones are covered.

  11. Protocols, treaties, and action: the 'climate change process' viewed through gender spectacles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skutsch, Margaret M.; Masika, Rachel

    2002-01-01

    This paper starts by assessing the extent to which gender considerations have been taken into account in the international processes concerning the development of climate change policy. Finding that there has been very little attention to gender issues, neither in the protocols and treaties nor in t

  12. From Paris to Dublin: Domestic Politics and the Treaty of Lisbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Carbone

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the domestic politics of treaty reform in the European Union, from the failed referendum on the Constitutional Treaty held in France in May 2005 to the failed referendum on the Treaty of Lisbon held in Ireland in June 2008. A meticulous examination of the national level, it is argued here, helps us to better understand the European level and why some Member States manage to influence outcomes more than it would be expected. In particular, this article looks at the role played by actors beyond national governments, the impact of the political system and the general context on preference formation and inter-state bargaining, and the use that national negotiators made of ratification hurdles to receive extra concessions. More generally, by looking at the preparatory, negotiation and ratification process of the Treaty of Lisbon, this article aims to make a contribution to an emerging literature, which argues that we can no longer explain the evolution of the European Union without understanding the increased politicisation of the European project.

  13. 50 CFR 18.21 - Actions permitted by international treaty, convention, or agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., convention, or agreement. 18.21 Section 18.21 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE... Actions permitted by international treaty, convention, or agreement. The Act and these regulations shall..., convention or agreement, or any statute implementing the same, relating to the taking or importation...

  14. Explaining ratification of human rights treaties : signaling for aid during regional crises

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Heather Michelle

    2007-01-01

    In the face of pressure from transnational social groups and increasingly influential human rights organizations the international community has quietly introduced provisions into four global human rights treaties that challenge the received wisdom in international relations. These individual petition mechanisms allow citizens to file complaints of human rights violations against their governments before global tribunals. International relations scholarship suggests that governments should be...

  15. After the Storm: Ojibwe Treaty Rights Twenty-Five Years after the "Voigt" Decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loew, Patty; Thannum, James

    2011-01-01

    Twenty-five years ago a "perfect storm" of economic, environmental, and social conditions swirled in northern Wisconsin and battered attempts by the Ojibwe to exercise their treaty-based fishing rights. This article examines the socioeconomic, political, and cultural factors that contributed to the spearfishing crisis twenty-five years ago and the…

  16. "Treaties with American Indians: An Encyclopedia of Rights, Conflicts, and Sovereignty"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Karla

    2009-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the three-volume reference set, "Treaties with American Indians: An Encyclopedia of Rights, Conflicts, and Sovereignty" published by ABC-CLIO. This reference work is edited by Donald Fixico, Arizona State University, and dedicated to the people of his tribes: (1) Shawnee; (2) Sac and Fox; (3) Seminole; and (4)…

  17. 77 FR 30361 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Defense Trade Cooperation Treaty With the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    ... performance of DoD contracts. 225.7902-1 Definitions. Approved Community, defense articles, export... the Contract. 225.7902-2 Purpose. The Treaty permits the export of certain U.S. defense articles..., Exports by Approved Community Members in Performance of the Contract, in solicitations and contracts...

  18. 78 FR 36108 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Defense Trade Cooperation Treaties With...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ... contractor to be aware of export controls as they apply to the performance of DoD contracts. (b) It is the.... 225.7901-4 Contract clause. Use the clause at 252.225-7048, Export-Controlled Items, in all... Treaty- eligible requirements'' are defined in contract clause DFARS 252.225- 7047, Exports by...

  19. Ten years after accession to the Euratom Treaty, Pt. 3: Health and safety protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Key legal issues of Chapter III of the Euratom Treaty and its interpretation in the decision-making of the European Court of Justice are described and the allocation of competencies to the Council, the Commission and the Member States in the health and safety areas is highlighted. (orig.)

  20. A treaty more alarming than efficient. The dismantled warheads will not be destroyed. Danger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This political analysis presents the new treaty of nuclear weapons dismantling between Russia and Usa. In fact the warheads will not be completely dismantling but only stocked, leading to a possible recovery by terrorists. It underlines the real interests of this agreement which are more economic than peaceful. (A.L.B.)

  1. Incarceration experiences among a community-recruited sample of injection drug users in Bangkok, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Calvin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 2003 Thailand has waged an aggressive "war on drugs" campaign focused on arresting and incarcerating suspected drug users and dealers. However, little is known about incarceration experiences among IDU in the wake of the recent war on drugs. Therefore, we sought to examine incarceration experiences among IDU in Bangkok, Thailand. Methods We examined the prevalence of incarceration among community-recruited IDU participating in the Mitsampan Community Research Project. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with a self-reported history of incarceration. We also examined the prevalence of injection drug use and syringe sharing within prisons. Results 252 IDU were recruited in August 2008; 66 (26.2% were female and the median age was 36.5 years. In total, 197 (78.2% participants reported a history of incarceration. In multivariate analyses, reporting a history of incarceration was associated with a history of compulsory drug treatment (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 4.93; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.95 - 12.48, non-fatal overdose (AOR = 3.69; 95%CI: 1.45 - 9.39, syringe sharing (AOR = 2.20; 95%CI: 1.12 - 4.32, and female gender (AOR = 0.41; 95%CI: 0.20 - 0.82. Among those who reported a history of incarceration, 59 (29.9% reported injection drug use in prison, and 48 (81.4% of these individuals reported sharing syringes in prison. Incarceration was not associated with the number of injections performed in the previous week (p = 0.202. Conclusion Over three-quarters of the IDU participating in this study reported a history of incarceration, and 30% of these individuals reported injection drug use within prison. Further, an alarmingly high level of syringe sharing within prison was reported, and incarceration was not associated with reductions in drug use. These findings provide further evidence of the need for community diversion strategies, as well as harm reduction programs, in Thai

  2. The Street Vendors of Bangkok: Alternatives to Indoor Retailers at a Time of Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Walsh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: During an economic crisis, consumers will use different techniques to make their money go as far as possible: More carefully comparing prices at point of sale locations, bringing out the coins they previously left unused in saving banks, switching to lower cost options and choosing to shop in less convenient locations in order to find discounts. One such option is to use street vendors rather than regular indoor retailers. Street vendors can provide cheaper goods because, in many cases, they do not need to pay for electricity or water bills and their rental costs can be much lower. Further, vendors themselves may be more willing to enter into haggling negotiations and offer cash discounts to well-known or regular customers. However, it would be wrong to assume that all street vendors are the same in terms of character or that they operate according to the same business model. Approach: This is a case study based principally on secondary sources and recapitulating primary research reported previously. Results: Research among street vendors in several locations reveal a wide variety of experiences, ability to provide value added goods and services and intentions and ambitions for the business concerned. While the majority of vendors have quite low levels of ambition, earn minimum wages or less and have little concept of marketing or adding value to products, there are other vendors who have organized their own international supply chains, contract manufactured their own branded goods and franchise stalls throughout the city of Bangkok. In some cases, therefore, street vending should be encouraged because it can offer a route out of the informal economy and into the formal economy for people who might not otherwise be able to achieve regular employment. Vendors also offer, in some cases, good quality alternatives to indoor retailers and help keep prices as a whole down. Conclusion/Recommendations: This case study addressed the

  3. Oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and azaarenes in urban soils: a comparison of a tropical city (Bangkok) with two temperate cities (Bratislava and Gothenburg).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandowe, Benjamin A Musa; Lueso, María Gómez; Wilcke, Wolfgang

    2014-07-01

    Environmental conditions in the tropics favor the formation of polar polycyclic aromatic compound (polar PACs, such as oxygenated PAHs [OPAHs] and azaarenes [AZAs]), but little is known about these hazardous compounds in tropical soils. The objectives of this work were to determine (i) the level of contamination of soils (0-5 and 5-10 cm layers) from the tropical metropolis of Bangkok (Thailand) with OPAHs and AZAs and (ii) the influence of urban emission sources and soil properties on the distribution of PACs. We hypothesized that the higher solar insolation and microbial activity in the tropics than in the temperate zone will lead to enhanced secondary formation of OPAHs. Hence, OPAH to related parent-PAH ratios will be higher in the tropical soils of Bangkok than in temperate soils of Bratislava and Gothenburg. The concentrations of ∑15OPAHs (range: 12-269 ng g(-1)) and ∑4AZAs (0.1-31 ng g(-1)) measured in soils of Bangkok were lower than those in several cities of the industrialized temperate zone. The ∑15OPAHs (r=0.86, pPAHs highlighting similar sources and related fate. The octanol-water partition coefficient did not explain the transport to the subsoil, indicating soil mixing as the reason for the polar PAC load of the lower soil layer. Data on PAC concentrations in soils of Bratislava and Gothenburg were taken from published literature. The individual OPAH to parent-PAH ratios in soils of Bangkok were mostly higher than those of Bratislava and Gothenburg (e.g. 9-fluorenone/fluorene concentration ratio was 12.2 ± 6.7, 5.6 ± 2.4, and 0.7 ± 02 in Bangkok, Bratislava and Gothenburg soils, respectively) supporting the view that tropical environmental conditions and higher microbial activity likely lead to higher OPAH to parent-PAH ratios in tropical than in temperate soils. PMID:24529396

  4. High-Resolution Fast-Neutron Spectrometry for Arms Control and Treaty Verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David L. Chichester; James T. Johnson; Edward H. Seabury

    2012-07-01

    Many nondestructive nuclear analysis techniques have been developed to support the measurement needs of arms control and treaty verification, including gross photon and neutron counting, low- and high-resolution gamma spectrometry, time-correlated neutron measurements, and photon and neutron imaging. One notable measurement technique that has not been extensively studied to date for these applications is high-resolution fast-neutron spectrometry (HRFNS). Applied for arms control and treaty verification, HRFNS has the potential to serve as a complimentary measurement approach to these other techniques by providing a means to either qualitatively or quantitatively determine the composition and thickness of non-nuclear materials surrounding neutron-emitting materials. The technique uses the normally-occurring neutrons present in arms control and treaty verification objects of interest as an internal source of neutrons for performing active-interrogation transmission measurements. Most low-Z nuclei of interest for arms control and treaty verification, including 9Be, 12C, 14N, and 16O, possess fast-neutron resonance features in their absorption cross sections in the 0.5- to 5-MeV energy range. Measuring the selective removal of source neutrons over this energy range, assuming for example a fission-spectrum starting distribution, may be used to estimate the stoichiometric composition of intervening materials between the neutron source and detector. At a simpler level, determination of the emitted fast-neutron spectrum may be used for fingerprinting 'known' assemblies for later use in template-matching tests. As with photon spectrometry, automated analysis of fast-neutron spectra may be performed to support decision making and reporting systems protected behind information barriers. This paper will report recent work at Idaho National Laboratory to explore the feasibility of using HRFNS for arms control and treaty verification applications, including simulations

  5. Introduction of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) and preparatory activities for its entry into force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tani, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Mutsu Establishment, Mutsu, Aomori (Japan)

    2001-03-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) is a very important treaty, not only for Japan but also for the world, because it prohibits any nuclear weapon test explosion or any other nuclear explosion anywhere in the world. The treaty however will not enter into force until it has been signed and ratified by all the 44 states listed in Annex 2 to the treaty. Many efforts to facilitate the treaty's early entry into force are being done by many countries and many international organizations. As one of result of these efforts, a Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization had be established at a meeting of State Signatories on 19 November 1996, and the Commission started activities to establish global verification regime of the treaty and to prepare for its entry into force. Under the CTBT activities, the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) is expected to play an important role as supporter for the Japanese Government, especially in a field of an International Monitoring System (IMS). However, there is no appropriate guide book on the CTBT for JAERI staff at present. This report provides some introduction of the CTBT regime and preparatory activities for its entry into force. Only open source information is used for making the report. If anyone need more detail information, it should be asked to contact competent authorities. (author)

  6. Air Pollution Distribution under an Elevated Train Station

    Air Pollution Distribution under an Elevated Train Station

    (A Case Study Downtown Bangkok, Silom Station)

    OpenAIRE

    Charusombat, Umarporn

    1998-01-01

    To solve traffic congestion in Bangkok, the Bangkok Mass Transit system (BTS) constructed an overhead rail system with 24 stations. The BTS train station, S2, in this study area covers Silom road and obstructs the air pollutant dispersion in a congestion area. The 1: 200 physical model of the buildings along Silom road with the train station, S2, was simulated in this research to determine the air pollutant dispersion in the train station area. A tracer gas (CO2) was emit...

  7. A STUDY ON A COOPERATIVE RELATIONSHIP TO THE IMPROVEMENT OF THE REGIONAL FIRE FIGHTING VALIDITY -Case Study in Bangkok, Thailand-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sripramai, Keerati; Oikawa, Yasushi; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Katada, Toshitaka

    Generally, in order to improve some regional fire fighting validity, indispensable strategies are not only a reinforcement of the governmental fire fighting ability, but also a strengthening of the cooperative relationship between governmental and non-governmental fire fighting ability. However, for practical purposes, the effective strategy should be different depending on the actual situationin the subject area. So, in this study, we grasp the actual state and background of the problems that need to be solved for the improvement of the regional fire fighting validity in Bangkok as a case study, and examine the appropriate solution focusing on the relationship between official and voluntary fire fighting. Through some practicable activities such as interviews, investigati ons, and making the regional fire fighting validity map, it became clear that the problems of uncooperative relationship and the lack of trust between stakeholders should be solved first and foremost.

  8. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Blastocystis Infection Among Children and Caregivers in a Child Care Center, Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipatsatitpong, Duangnate; Leelayoova, Saovanee; Mungthin, Mathirut; Aunpad, Ratchaneewan; Naaglor, Tawee; Rangsin, Ram

    2015-08-01

    In September 2009, a cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate parasitic infections in a child care center in Khlong Toei, Bangkok, Thailand. Of 503 children and staff members, 258 (51.3%) stool samples and questionnaires were obtained. The most common parasitic infection was Blastocystis sp. (13.6%). Blastocystis sp. subtype 3 was predominantly found (80.0%), followed by subtypes 2 (12.0%) and 1 (8.0%). The prevalence of Blastocystis infection varied among different age groups. The prevalence of Blastocystis infection in non-HIV-infected children aged < 10 and 10-19 years were 14.5% and 10.3%, respectively, which were not significantly different. All 31 HIV-infected children were not infected with Blastocystis sp. The most likely reason could be the result of properly using prevention measures for this specific group.

  9. Price Elasticity of Demand and Capacity-Restraint Transit Fare Strategy: A Case Study of Bangkok Mass Transit System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ackchai Sirikijpanichkul

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic congestion is a chronic problem of Bangkok. Similar to other metropolises, the city perpetually seeks for alternatives to road travel. Mass rapid transit seems to be the only way out that is expected to mitigate traffic congestion in the city. However, without common fare system, travelers need to pay an initial entrance fee every time they enter each transit system. This excess cost tapers the demand and affects the efficient use of the system. This research investigates the influence of fare price on transit use which is measured by price elasticity of demand and proposes the optimum fare price if the common fare is used. The analysis is based on the findings from the stated preference survey techniques. Finally, the conclusion on fare level that encourage more patronage, maintain service quality and operator revenue is addressed.

  10. Exposure to genotoxins present in ambient air in Bangkok, Thailand - particle associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruchirawat, Mathuros; Mahidol, Chulabhorn; Tangjarukij, Chanthana;

    2002-01-01

    officers were divided into a high exposure group (traffic police) and low exposure (office duty). Particulate matter was collected using personal pumps (2 l/min) and the eight carcinogenic PAHs were analysed by standard procedures. The traffic police was exposed to a 20-fold higher level of total PAHs than.......001) in the office group. Lower biomarker levels were observed during the period when the traffic police officers were wearing a simple facemask, indicating that these masks protect against particle-associated PAHs. No statistically significant correlations were observed between biomarker levels and the level...... of individual PAHs or total PAH. Our data show, that people in Bangkok, who spend most of the day outside air-conditioned offices, are exposed to high levels of genotoxic PAHs. However, for people who spend their working day in offices, the exposure is similar to people living in other metropolitan areas....

  11. Evaluating occupational health nursing units in Bangkok textile factories: exploring the world through international occupational health programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silpasuwan, Pimpan; Viwatwongkasem, Chukiat; Phalee, Piangjai; Kalampakorn, Surintorn

    2006-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the service quality of nursing units in Bangkok textile factories. Descriptive survey research was combined with a qualitative design using participative observation. The sample consisted of factory managers, nurses, and employees. Data were collected between November 2001 and February 2002 using questionnaires, observation, in-depth interviews, and focus groups. Nurses' education levels and quality of design and arrangement of nursing units explained 15.7% of the variance in service quality. Furthermore, qualitative data supported clients' satisfaction with service quality, except for the tangibility of the service. These findings suggest that the quality of nursing service units could be improved by management's attention to unit design, arrangement of nursing units, and nurses' education levels. Hiring registered nurses and restructuring nursing units are recommended.

  12. Hypoplastic model for simulation of compressibility characteristics of cement-admixed Bangkok soft clay at high water content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattonjai, Piyachat

    2016-06-01

    The developed hypoplastic model for simulation of compressibility characteristics of cement-admixed Bangkok soft clay at high water content was proposed in this paper. By using unique equation, the model is able to predict the relationship between void ratio and vertical effective stress of different water and cement content of soil cement. For practically convenient utilization and understanding, the parameters of Q1 which represented to initial cement bonding of soil (the initial value of structure tensor at time = 0) and C2 which effected to the model stiffness on isotropic consolidation direction, at 45° for loading and 225° for unloading of stress response envelope, were proposed as the function of cement and water content by comparing with dry weight of soil. By numerical integration that satisfied one-dimensional settlement, the simulation results were directly compared with fifteen experimental results to verify the accuracy of the proposed model.

  13. EFFECTIVENESS OF AN ORAL HYGIENE EDUCATION PROGRAM COMBINED WITH FLUORIDE MOUTHRINSE AMONG VISUALLY IMPAIRED STUDENTS IN BANGKOK, THAILAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunakul, Malee; Asvanund, Yuwadee; Tantakul, Apirat; Mitrakul, Kemthong; Srisatjaluk, Ratchapin; Vongsavan, Kutkao

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of oral hygiene education kits (OHE kits) and 0.05% sodium fluoride mouth rinse among visually impaired students (VIS) in Bangkok, Thailand. Seventy-five VIS aged 10-12 years were included in the study and examined for plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI) and mutans streptococci (MS) salivary levels at baseline and after intervention. The subjects were then randomly divided into three groups. Group 1 received OHE kits and 0.05% NaF mouth rinse and brushing instructions. Group 2 received only the OHE kits and brushing instructions. Group 3 (control) received only brushing instructions. PI, GI and MS levels, were reassessed 3 months after intervention. Pre- and post-intervention evaluation data were compared with the Wilcoxon match-pairs test (p index and lower number of MS than control group.

  14. Performance of the BACTEC MGIT 960 compared with solid media for detection of Mycobacterium in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srisuwanvilai, La-Ong; Monkongdee, Patama; Podewils, Laura Jean; Ngamlert, Keerataya; Pobkeeree, Vallerut; Puripokai, Panitchaya; Kanjanamongkolsiri, Photjanart; Subhachaturas, Wonchat; Akarasewi, Pasakorn; Wells, Charles D; Tappero, Jordan W; Varma, Jay K

    2008-08-01

    Controlled trials have demonstrated that liquid media culture (LMC) is superior to solid media culture for diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), but there is limited evidence about its performance in resource-limited settings. We evaluated the performance of LMC in a demonstration project in Bangkok, Thailand. Sputum specimens from persons with suspected or clinically diagnosed tuberculosis were inoculated in parallel on solid (Lowenstein-Jensen [LJ]) and liquid (mycobacterial growth indicator tube [MGIT 960]) media. Biochemical tests identified isolates as MTB or nontuberculosis mycobacteria (NTM). Of 2566 specimens received from October 2004 to September 2006, 1355 (53%) were culture positive by MGIT compared with 1013 (39%) by LJ. Median time to growth for MGIT was significantly less than LJ: 11 versus 27 days. Of 1417 isolates detected by at least 1 media, 1255 (86%) were identified as MTB and 162 (11%) NTM. MGIT improved speed and sensitivity of MTB isolation and drug susceptibility testing, regardless of HIV status.

  15. Application of microtremor array measurements to delineate S-wave velocity structures in Bangkok Basin, central Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, K.; Pananont, P.; Wongpanit, T.; Habangkham, S.

    2014-12-01

    The Bangkok Basin, located in the lower part of the Chao Phraya River Basin in central Thailand contains very thick sediment and are often affected by the large distant earthquakes due to local site amplification. Shear wave velocities (Vs) measurements have been performed at five sites in the Bangkok Basin (Figure 1) by a two-station spatial autocorrelation method (2ST-SPAC) using long-period accelerometers. Receiver separation varied from 5 to 2,100m and maximum separation (array size) varied from 1,800 to 2,100 m. In each separation, 10 to 90 minutes ambient noise was recorded with sampling interval of 10 ms. Due to the security concern, data acquisition was performed in the day-time and in relatively quiet places such as in parks or less densely residential areas. A spatial autocorrelation was used for calculating phase velocity and clear dispersion curves were obtained in frequency range from about 0.3 to 10 Hz. Minimum frequency and corresponding maximum wavelength ranged from 0.32 to 0.48 Hz and about 2,180 to 5,140 m, depending on the site. An inversion consisting of a least squares method and a Genetic Algorithm was used to estimate Vs profiles from the dispersion curves to a depth of about 1,000 to 2,500 m depending on the sites. Figure 2 shows comparison of Vs profiles obtained by the inversion. We can see that a low velocity layer with Vs lower than 400 m/s exists between depths of 0 to 200 m at all sites. Intermediate bedrock with Vs higher than 1,000 m/s exists between depths of 240 to 1,250 m. Deepest bedrock with Vs higher than 2,000 m/s seems to exist at a depth of at least 1,600 m.

  16. Evolutionary relationship of 5’-untranslated regions among Thai dengue-3 viruses, Bangkok isolates, during 24 year-evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Watcharee Attatippaholkun; Panyupa Pankhong; Ananda Nisalak; Siripen Kalayanarooj

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To study evolutionary relationship of the 5’untranslated regions (5’UTRs) in low passage dengue3 viruses (DEN3) isolated from hospitalized children with different clinical manifestations in Bangkok during 24 year-evolution (1977-2000) comparing to the DEN3 prototype (H87).Methods:The 5’UTRs of these Thai DEN3 and the H87 prototype were amplified by RT-PCR and sequenced. Their multiple sequence alignments were done by Codon Code Aligner v 4.0.4 software and their RNA secondary structures were predicted by MFOLD software. Replication of five Thai DEN3 candidates comparing to the H87 prototype were done in human (HepG2) and the mosquito (C6/36) cell lines.Results:Among these Thai DEN3, the completely identical sequences of their first 89 nucleotides, their high-order secondary structure of 5’UTRs and three SNPs including the predominant C90T, and two minor SNPs including A109G and A112G were found. The C90T of Thai DEN3, Bangkok isolates was shown predominantly before 1977. Five Thai DEN3 candidates with the predominant C90T were shown to replicate in human (HepG2) and the mosquito (C6/36) cell lines better than the H87 prototype. However, their highly conserved sequences as well as SNPs of the 5’UTR did not appear to correlate with their disease severity in human.Conclusions:Our findings highlighted evolutionary relationship of the completely identical 89 nucleotide sequence, the high-order secondary structure and the predominant C90T of the 5’UTR of these Thai DEN3 during 24 year-evolution further suggesting to be their genetic markers and magic targets for future research on antiviral therapy as well as vaccine approaches of Thai DEN3.

  17. Reports of evidence planting by police among a community-based sample of injection drug users in Bangkok, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Calvin

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drug policy in Thailand has relied heavily on law enforcement-based approaches. Qualitative reports indicate that police in Thailand have resorted to planting drugs on suspected drug users to extort money or provide grounds for arrest. The present study sought to describe the prevalence and factors associated with this form of evidence planting by police among injection drug users (IDU in Bangkok. Methods Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with evidence planting of drugs by police among a community-based sample of IDU in Bangkok. We also examined the prevalence and average amount of money paid by IDU to police in order to avoid arrest. Results 252 IDU were recruited between July and August, 2008, among whom 66 (26.2% were female and the median age was 36.5 years. In total, 122 (48.4% participants reported having drugs planted on them by police. In multivariate analyses, this form of evidence planting was positively associated with midazolam use (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] = 2.84; 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.58 - 5.11, recent non-fatal overdose (AOR = 2.56; 95%CI: 1.40 - 4.66, syringe lending (AOR = 2.08; 95%CI: 1.19 - 3.66, and forced drug treatment (AOR = 1.88; 95%CI: 1.05 - 3.36. Among those who reported having drugs planted on them, 59 (48.3% paid police a bribe in order to avoid arrest. Conclusion A high proportion of community-recruited IDU participating in this study reported having drugs planted on them by police. Drug planting was found to be associated with numerous risk factors including syringe sharing and participation in government-run drug treatment programs. Immediate action should be taken to address this form of abuse of power reportedly used by police.

  18. Agreement between the Kingdom of Cambodia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons and the Southeast Asia Nuclear Weapon-Free Zone Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document reproduces the text of the Agreement (and the Protocol thereto) concluded between the Kingdom of Cambodia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) and the Southeast Asia Nuclear Weapon-Free Zone Treaty. The Agreement was approved by the Board of Governors on 11 November 1999, signed in Vienna on 17 December 1999, and entered into force on the same date

  19. The Treaty of Pelindaba: In the footsteps of Tlatelolco and Rarotonga

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of Nuclear-Weapon-Free-Zones was emphasized by the United Nations in its resolution 3472B (XXX) in 1975. It is stated that Nuclear-Weapon-Free-Zones constitute one of the most effective means for preventing the proliferation, both horizontal and vertical of nuclear weapons and for contributing to the elimination of the danger of nuclear holocaust. The third Nuclear-Weapon-Free-Zone is to be created in Africa due to Treaty of Pelindaba which was signed in April 1996. The first and the second Nuclear-Weapon-Free-Zones were the Latin America and Caribbean Zone and South Pacific Zone created by the Treaties of Tlatelolco and Rarotonga respectively

  20. Mark Twain, “The Treaty with China,” and the Chinese Connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Zehr

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available

    For today’s reader of Twain, the chronological appearance of “The Treaty with China” in August of 1868 may seem an anomalous entry in his bibliography, published at a time when his growing reputation is still primarily dependent on his ability to elicit a laugh or, for the more sophisticated reader, a knowing snicker. However, issues of race, class, and politics are not absent from his journalistic work prior to August 1868. Nothing in Twain’s writing prior to 1868, however, which had limited circulation, would have prepared the contemporary reader for the strong, unequivocal sympathies expressed toward the Chinese immigrants in “The Treaty with China.” For this reason alone, a closer analysis of “The Treaty” is warranted, providing prescient evidence regarding the political basis of Twain’s oeuvre at this embryonic stage of his career as a public figure. Many Twain scholars, largely through the brilliant analysis in Philip Foner’s 1958 work, Mark Twain: Social Critic, are already aware of the existence of “The Treaty with China,” even if they have never seen the text, but it has otherwise suffered from undeserved neglect, primarily because it has not been widely available to scholars since its 1868 publication, except for those with access to adequate microfilm resource libraries. This lacuna in Twain studies, at least, is now remedied with this reappearance of the entire text of “The Treaty with China.”

  1. Standardizacija materijalnih sredstava u Severnoatlantskom savezu / Materiel standardization in North Atlantic Treaty Organisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Glišić

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available U radu je prikazan proces standardizacije materijalnih sredstava u Severnoatlantskom savezu kroz sagledavanje njegovog mesta i uloge u okviru zajedničke standardizacije, koja se realizuje radi dostizanja interoperabilnosti između vojnih snaga zemalja uključenih u evroatlantske integracije. / This paper presents a process of materiel standardization in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization through analysis of its place and role in common standardization process that should achieve interoperability between allied forces.

  2. Sustainable power and scenic beauty: The Niagara River Water Diversion Treaty and its relevance today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niagara Falls and the Niagara River have always attracted great public interest due to their natural beauty, their enormous potential for electricity generation, their recreational value and as an important ecosystem. There have been simultaneous efforts to preserve this unique natural wonder and harness its power through hydroelectric development projects by both the United States and Canada. This paper explores the evolution of these efforts that culminated with the signing of the 1950 Niagara River Water Diversion Treaty that established minimum water flow rates to protect the “scenic beauty” of the falls, allowing the remaining water to be diverted for power production. We examine the rationale that led to specific water flow restrictions and question to what extent they are relevant today, as water intake capacity on the Canadian side has just been extended by around 25%. We find that current restrictions under the Niagara River Water Treaty (that expired in 2000) are not based on sound scientific evidence and estimate the upper limit of potential foregone benefits from clean electricity generation and greenhouse gas reductions. We identify a number of important issues that emerged in the last decades and that would justify an exploration of new treaty rules. - Highlights: • We examine the history of water diversion at Niagara Falls. • We examine the rationale that led to water flow restrictions over Niagara Falls and its relevance today. • We estimate the opportunity cost of foregone energy generation with the new Canadian intake capacity. • Water flow stipulations were not based on the sound scientific or ecosystem analysis. • A renegotiation of the 1950 Niagara River Water Diversion Treaty is overdue

  3. "Fair and Equitable Treatment" in Investment Treaties: Function of general provisions (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    KOTERA Akira

    2008-01-01

    Bilateral investment treaties (BITs) typically obligate a contracting country to grant "fair and equitable treatment" (hereinafter referred to as "fair treatment") to the investments of other contracting country's investors, such as their subsidiaries. In the past, the fair treatment obligation attracted scant attention due to the abstractness of the provision; such was certainly the case in Japan. However, the fair treatment obligation in recent years jumped into the spotlight as the provisi...

  4. The Russian-Ukrainian Friendship Treaty and the search for regional stability in Eastern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Dale B

    1997-01-01

    Since the collapse of the Soviet Union in December 1991, world attention has focused on the future of the new independent states (NIS) in Central and Eastern Europe. Ukraine has been of particular importance because, m becoming an independent state, it has completely changed the geopolitics of Eastern Europe. Ukraine's independence pushed Russian borders 500 miles to the east and limited Russia's access to the Black Sea. Since 1991, Ukraine and Russia were unable to sign a Friendship Treaty r...

  5. Policy issues facing the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty and prospects for the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeney, J.

    1999-04-01

    This report is divided into the following 5 sections: (1) Background; (2) Major Issues Facing Ratification of CTBT; (3) Current Status on CTBT Ratification; (4) Status of CTBT Signatories and Ratifiers; and (5) CTBT Activities Not Prohibited. The major issues facing ratification of CTBT discussed here are: impact on CTBT of START II and ABM ratification; impact of India and Pakistan nuclear tests; CTBT entry into force; and establishment of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organization.

  6. The Non-Proliferation Treaty on the threshold to the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic outlines of non-proliferation policy, its instruments, the position of the protagonists' interests and the fundamental fields of conflict are to the fore. The history and structure of international non-poliferation policy and, in particular, of the NPT, are described, the instruments for verifying the purely peaceful use of nuclear power (safeguards) are analysed, and important future technological and political challenges of the Treaty are listed. (orig./HP)

  7. Open Skies and monitoring a fissile materials cut-off treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Treaty on Open Skies (Open Skies) is intended among other things to provide, in the words of its preamble, means ''to facilitate the monitoring of compliance with existing or future arms control agreements.'' Open Skies permits overflights of the territory of member states by aircraft equipped with an array of sensors of various types. Their types and capabilities are treaty-limited. To find useful application in monitoring a cut-off treaty Open Skies would need to be amended. The number of signatories would need to be expanded so as to provide greater geographical coverage, and restrictions on sensor-array capabilities would need to be relaxed. To facilitate the detection of impending violations of a cut-off convention by Open Skies overflights, the data base provided by parties to the former should include among other things an enumeration of existing and former fuel cycle and research facilities including those converted to other uses, their precise geographic location, and a site plan

  8. Preparation for the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Extension Conference in 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    About 30 specialists in non-proliferation participated in a workshop to explore ideas for US Government preparatory steps leading to the 1995 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) Extension Conference. To that end, workshop sessions were devoted to reviewing the lessons learned from previous Review Conferences, discussing the threats to the non-proliferation regime together with ways of preserving and strengthening it, and examining the management of international nuclear commerce. A fundamental premise shared by workshop participants was that extension of the NPT is immensely important to international security. The importance of stemming proliferation and, more specifically, extending the Treaty, is growing as a result of the significant changes in the world. If the conferees of the Extension Conference decide on no extension or extension for a short limited duration, some technically advanced states that have foregone development of nuclear weapons may begin to rethink their options. Also, other arms control measures, such as the Chemical Weapons Convention, could start to unravel. The US must provide strong international leadership to ensure that the Extension Conference is a success, resulting in Treaty extension, perhaps through successive terms, into the indefinite future. Workshop participants were struck by the urgent need for the US to take organizational steps so that it is highly effective in its advance preparations for the Extension Conference. Moreover, the Extension Conference provides both a challenge and an opportunity to mold a cohesive set of US policy actions to define the future role of nuclear weapons and combat their proliferation

  9. Treaty-Port English in Nineteenth-Century Shanghai: Speakers, Voices, and Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Si

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the introduction of English to the treaty port of Shanghai and the speech communities that developed there as a result. English became a sociocultural phenomenon rather than an academic subject when it entered Shanghai in the 1840s, gradually generating various social activities of local Chinese people who lived in the treaty port. Ordinary people picked up a rudimentary knowledge of English along trading streets and through glossary references, and went to private schools to improve their linguistic skills. They used English to communicate with foreigners and as a means to explore a foreign presence dominated by Western material culture. Although those who learned English gained small-scale social mobility in the late nineteenth century, the images of English-speaking Chinese were repeatedly criticized by the literati and official scholars. This paper explores Westerners’ travel accounts, as well as various sources written by the new elite Chinese, including official records and vernacular poems, to demonstrate how English language acquisition brought changes to local people’s daily lives. I argue that treaty-port English in nineteenth-century Shanghai was not only a linguistic medium but, more importantly, a cultural agent of urban transformation. It gradually molded a new linguistic landscape, which at the same time contributed to the shaping of modern Shanghai culture.

  10. Preparation for the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Extension Conference in 1995. Workshop summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chrzanowski, P.L.

    1993-05-07

    About 30 specialists in non-proliferation participated in a workshop to explore ideas for US Government preparatory steps leading to the 1995 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) Extension Conference. To that end, workshop sessions were devoted to reviewing the lessons learned from previous Review Conferences, discussing the threats to the non-proliferation regime together with ways of preserving and strengthening it, and examining the management of international nuclear commerce. A fundamental premise shared by workshop participants was that extension of the NPT is immensely important to international security. The importance of stemming proliferation and, more specifically, extending the Treaty, is growing as a result of the significant changes in the world. If the conferees of the Extension Conference decide on no extension or extension for a short limited duration, some technically advanced states that have foregone development of nuclear weapons may begin to rethink their options. Also, other arms control measures, such as the Chemical Weapons Convention, could start to unravel. The US must provide strong international leadership to ensure that the Extension Conference is a success, resulting in Treaty extension, perhaps through successive terms, into the indefinite future. Workshop participants were struck by the urgent need for the US to take organizational steps so that it is highly effective in its advance preparations for the Extension Conference. Moreover, the Extension Conference provides both a challenge and an opportunity to mold a cohesive set of US policy actions to define the future role of nuclear weapons and combat their proliferation.

  11. The competences of European Union institutions in the trade policy (Lisbon Treaty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareta Timbur

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The European Union is the best known at the world’s leading trade power and the common trade policy is the core of EU external relations. The events of the last years and the extension of the EU to 27 member proved that the functioning system could no longer continue and was requiring a new institutional framework. The Lisbon Treaty was the right solution. It purposes are to bring changes for the citizens, institutions, external relations foe the consolidation of democracy in EU. This paper attempts to provide an overview of the major revisions introduced by the Treaty of Lisbon regarding the trade policy. Also, it analyses the extension and clarification of EU competence, the greater role of the European Parliament and the inclusion of investment policy in trade policy, the voting rules in trade area and the international negotiation of trade agreements. The study describes, as well, the impact of Lisbon Treaty implementation on the MS which are independent nations, but without power of decision in the common trade policy.

  12. Economic Governance Reform and Financial Stabilization in the EU and in the Eurosystem – Treaty-Based and Intergovernmental Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Sylvia Gloggnitzer; Isabella Lindner

    2011-01-01

    The institutional framework and the tools for economic governance provided by the Treaty of Lisbon were inadequate for preventing or resolving the recent banking and sovereign debt crisis in the EU. For instance, the Treaty did not provide any instruments for stabilizing euro area finances, and the existing economic governance instruments, such as the Stability and Growth Pact or the Broad Economic Policy Guidelines, were not applied adequately by the Member States. In addition, the instituti...

  13. Assessing Child Maltreatment in Children Born to Mothers Who Used Methamphetamine during Pregnancy at Siriraj Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Patcharoros, Nontima; Chulakadabba, Sudsabuy; Na Manorom, Nattawadee; Boon-yasidhi, Vitharon

    2014-01-01

    Studies on maltreatment of children born to methamphetamine abusing mothers are lacking. This cross-sectional study examined child maltreatment among children born at Siriraj Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand, to mothers who used methamphetamines during pregnancy. During the study period between July 2011 and January 2012, 34 caretakers of these children were interviewed using the ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tool-Parent Version (ICAST-P) to assess their disciplinary actions. The associations betwe...

  14. Suitable Assimilation Model of Culture, Beliefs and Rites Concerning Deities of Buddhism and Hindu-Brahmanism for Peace of Thai Society in Bangkok and Circumferences

    OpenAIRE

    Phra M.K. Kaewchaiya; Suoneth Photisan; Makhawin Purisuttamo

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: At present, Thai society widely assimilates culture, beliefs and rites concerning deities of Buddhism and Hindu-Brahmanism by worshipping the deity images at the temples or the abodes of gods in Bangkok and circumferences. A typical worship is to pray the deity for help. As a matter of fact, people should help themselves first and use a prayer as willpower. The purpose of this research were these; (1) to investigate the background of culture, belief and rites concerning dei...

  15. Adaptation Strategies to Address Coastal Erosion/Flooding: A Case Study of the Communities in Bang Khun Thian District, Bangkok, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Rawadee Jarungrattanapong; Areeya Manasboonphemphool

    2009-01-01

    Coastal erosion is a serious problem in Thailand nowadays. The impacts of coastal erosion on the flat and low-lying Gulf area are expected to be high. The sediment supply to the coasts in the Upper Gulf of Thailand, including Bang Khun Thian district in Bangkok, has been decreasing because of dam constructions, combined with relative sealevel rise (subsidence) due to excessive ground water extraction. The loss of coastal land significantly affects the livelihood of the local people. At presen...

  16. A case-control study of non-fatal traffic accidents on hospital patients in Bangkok metropolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhning, D; Na Ayutha, R S

    1997-01-01

    Morbidity and mortality from road traffic accidents in Bangkok metropolis is high with a trend strictly increasing in time, thus establishing one of the major public health problems and targets of the Kingdom of Thailand. An unmatched case-control study was undertaken to evaluate various risk patterns connected with the occurrence of traffic accidents. 350 cases were sampled from five major hospitals distributed over the Bangkok Metropolitan area and 350 controls were included from out-patients of Rajawithi hospital. The major interest in this case-control analysis is to estimate relative risk (through odds ratio) and measure statistical significance of association between road traffic accident and the following risk factors: the demographic risk factors are age (age between 15 and 19 years has odds ratio of 8.25 [1.01, 67.72]; age above 40 is baseline), marital status (single has odds ratio of 2.74 [1.26, 5.95]; baseline is not-single), sex (males have an odds ratio of 2.05 [0.51, 8.24], occupation (salespersons have an odds ratio of 4.27 [1.47, 12.46]; baseline are office workers); the driving related exposure factors type of vehicle (motorbikers have an odds ratio of 6.22 [2.82, 13.78]; baseline are other vehicle drivers), driving time per day (odds ratio 1.35 [0.88, 2.09]) and the number of accidents in the last three years (odds ratio of 4.36 [2.51, 7.58]); the behavioral factors one hour before driving such as the consumption of alcohol (odds ratio 3.01 [1.53, 5.94]; baseline in no alcohol) and the consumption of a lot of food (odds ratio of 0.07 [0.03, 0.16]; baseline is not eating a lot before driving). The odds ratios for traffic accident when being under allergic medication and the consumption of tranquilizer were not significant. The results are consistent with current results in traffic accident research and point to target groups for potential prevention programmes in traffic accident prevention. PMID:9499466

  17. A cross-sectional study of pre-travel health-seeking practices among travelers departing Sydney and Bangkok airports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heywood Anita E

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pre-travel health assessments aim to promote risk reduction through preventive measures and safe behavior, including ensuring travelers are up-to-date with their immunizations. However, studies assessing pre-travel health-seeking practices from a variety of medical and non-medical sources and vaccine uptake prior to travel to both developing and developed countries within the Asia-Pacific region are scarce. Methods Cross-sectional surveys were conducted between July and December 2007 to assess pre-travel health seeking practices, including advice from health professionals, health information from other sources and vaccine uptake, in a sample of travelers departing Sydney and Bangkok airports. A two-stage cluster sampling technique was used to ensure representativeness of travelers and travel destinations. Pre-travel health seeking practices were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire distributed at the check-in queues of departing flights. Logistic regression models were used to identify significant factors associated with seeking pre-travel health advice from a health professional, reported separately for Australian residents, residents of other Western countries and residents of countries in Asia. Results A total of 843 surveys were included in the final sample (Sydney 729, response rate 56%; Bangkok 114, response rate 60%. Overall, pre-travel health information from any source was sought by 415 (49% respondents with 298 (35% seeking pre-travel advice from a health professional, the majority through general practice. Receipt of a pre-travel vaccine was reported by 100 (12% respondents. Significant factors associated with seeking pre-travel health advice from a health professional differed by region of residence. Asian travelers were less likely to report seeking pre-travel health advice and uptake of pre-travel vaccines than Australian or other Western travelers. Migrant Australians were less likely to report

  18. The most-favoured-nation clause in tax treaties: tool for potential reduction of withholding income tax applicable to Chile and Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Renée Antonieta Villagra Cayamana; Jorge Antonio Villagra Cayamana

    2013-01-01

    Tax treaties to avoid the double taxation signed by a country have consequences for the future, but they can also modify the terms of treaties that are already in force, in case these contain most-favoured-nation clauses. In this line, taxpayers and companies, particularly, as well as the Tax Administration must be alert, regarding topotential modifications of the terms of the Peruvian tax treaties already in force; mainly about the withholding tax rate applied to royalties in the Convention ...

  19. Ad hoc algorithms and methodologies for the radionuclide CTBT treaty verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The 'Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization' is the international organization establishing the global verification system under the CTBT, which bans all nuclear weapon test explosion or any other nuclear explosion. The verification system includes the International Monitoring System (IMS), a global network of 321 monitoring stations (radionuclide technologies: particulate and noble gases; waveform technologies: seismic, hydro acoustic and infrasound), a communications infrastructure, an International Data Centre (hereinafter referred to as the IDC) and the capability to carry out on-site inspections. To verify the treaty, the radionuclide monitoring needs to review data coming daily from 80 particulate and 40 noble gas stations. The big amount of data to review and the specific and sensitive task in the treaty verification led to the development of new methods and algorithms to help the human analysis reducing the reviewing time and enhancing the quality of the results. Specific science for gamma spectroscopy has been involved and applied in ad hoc algorithms to make the automatic screening faster, consistent and scientific sound, moreover a set of special tools have been provided to the analysts to review and correct identify the daily findings. A whole package containing all those needs and algorithms has been developed at the CTBTO and is called Simulated Assisted Interactive Nuclide-review Tool (SAINT). The two major peculiarities of the SAINT are: A total new approach of gamma peak finding that enhances drastically the capability to detect very small signals. The usage of Monte Carlo simulated spectra for the correct Nuclide Identification A good spectrum baseline calculation is essential for the application of these ad-hoc calculations. The algorithm named 'lawnmower' has been developed at the IDC. (author)

  20. Western Europe and the future of the nuclear non-proliferation treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty is the single most important agreement in the history of nuclear arms-control. In force since 1970, it contains a clear call for ''effective measures of nuclear disarmament'', backed by the signatures of three-quarters of the world's states. It also testifies to a widespread desire to prevent the appearance of new nuclear-weapon states. Today a handful of countries are ''on the threshold'' of such a capability; but they have so far held back from signing - and subsequently violating -the NPT. Regional security in several areas of serious political tension depends on the strengthening of their fragile restraint. Finally, the NPT is the fountainhead of rules for the transfer - and the non-transfer - of nuclear technology. It has led to the creation of international safeguards for the peaceful use of nuclear energy; and through them, a precedent for on-the-spot verification of the renunciation of nuclear weapons, recently adapted in the INF Treaty. In 1995 conference must be held in Geneva to decide ''whether the Treaty shall continue in force indefinitely, or shall be extended for an additional fixed period''. Western Europe has a major stake in the future of the NPT. It has a strong security interest in preventing a nuclear arms-race in the Middle East, as well as - for the sake of its diplomatic and trading relationschips - in areas such as South Asia, southern Africa, and Latin America. In the wake of Chernobyl, and with overcapacity in many European nuclear industries, major powers are competing for a shrinking share of the international nuclear-energy market. The NPT remains a vital means of moderating that competition. Finally, with radical change under way in eastern Europe, and plans for a single EC market by 1993, the stage is set for Western Europe to play a much more co-ordinated and vigorous role in global affairs. (editors)

  1. Treaty Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canty, M.; Jasani, B.; Lingenfelder, I.;

    2009-01-01

    This volume provides the reader with an overview of the state-of-the-art Earth Observation (EO) related research that deals with national and international security. An interdisciplinary approach was adopted in this book in order to provide the reader with a broad understanding on the uses......, as well as project managers and decision makers working in the field of security having an interest in technical solutions. The integrative use of many figures and sample images are ideal in enabling the non-technical reader to grasp quickly the modern technologies that are being researched in the area...

  2. Lisbon Treaty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ylber Sela

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The desire to belong in a individual culture means to possess a clear vision for the world, a road map that guides its followers towards the proper understanding of the planet’s past present and future. An established mythology of apparent national identities in the Balkans is somewhat unnaturally reinforced to justify conflicts between religious and ethnic groups, caused as a result of the national identities intertwined among themselves, an element essentially more influential than existence of national identities. For centuries Christians and Muslims in the Balkans have been living in peace, however a few Balkan Societies continue to use violence, national extremism, xenophobia as well as a contemporary practice to solve their problems. A legitimate question can be raised in relation to how common is religious influence used to cause violent and armed conflicts as compared to violence originating from ethnic cleansing, control over territory, political ideology and regional hegemony?

  3. Statements commemorating the twentieth anniversary of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document reproduces the following statements commemorating the twentieth anniversary of the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons: Statement by the Secretary-General of the United Nations, statements on behalf of the depository Governments and statements on behalf of other Governments (Australia, Bangladesh, Canada, Costa Rica, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Egypt, Federal Republic of Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Japan, Liechtenstein, Mexico, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Solomon Islands, Spain, Sri Lanka, Switzerland, Thailand, Trinidad and Tobago, Western Samoa and Nordic Countries - Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden)

  4. The treaty for the prohibition of nuclear weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The text of the statement, made by Ambassador Carlos Portales Cifuentes, Director General for Foreign Policy of the Ministry of External Relations of Chile, during the VIII. Special Session of the General Conference of the Agency for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean (OPANAL) on the occasion of Chile's becoming a Contracting Party to the Tlatelolco Treaty, is being circulated for the information of all Member States of the Agency at the request of the Alternate to the Resident Representative of Chile

  5. Selected Examples of LDRD Projects Supporting Test Ban Treaty Verification and Nonproliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Al-Ayat, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Walter, W. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-02-23

    The Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program at the DOE National Laboratories was established to ensure the scientific and technical vitality of these institutions and to enhance the their ability to respond to evolving missions and anticipate national needs. LDRD allows the Laboratory directors to invest a percentage of their total annual budget in cutting-edge research and development projects within their mission areas. We highlight a selected set of LDRD-funded projects, in chronological order, that have helped provide capabilities, people and infrastructure that contributed greatly to our ability to respond to technical challenges in support of test ban treaty verification and nonproliferation.

  6. The Energy Charter Treaty and settlement of disputes – current challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana-Gabriela Iacob

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Energy Charter Treaty (the “ECT” is a multilateral agreement aiming to promote energy cooperation and security. This paper focuses on the provisions of the ECT governing the protection of foreign investments and the settlement of disputes between investors and host states. In particular, this paper analyses the recent developments and challenges in the field of dispute settlement under the ECT, such as the increase in arbitrations, the withdrawal of Italy from the ECT, as well as the interplay between EU law and the ECT.

  7. Adjoint backtracking for the verification of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-P. Issartel

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available An international monitoring system is being built as a verification tool for the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. Forty stations will measure on a worldwide daily basis the concentration of radioactive noble gases. The paper introduces, by handling preliminary real data, a new approach of backtracking for the identification of sources after positive measurements. When several measurements are available the ambiguity about possible sources is reduced significantly. As an interesting side result it is shown that diffusion in the passive tracer dispersion equation is necessarily a self-adjoint operator.

  8. Analysis and models of bilateral investment treaties using a social networks approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saban, Daniela; Bonomo, Flavia; Stier-Moses, Nicolás E.

    2010-09-01

    Bilateral investment treaties (BITs) are agreements between two countries for the reciprocal encouragement, promotion and protection of investments in each other’s territories by companies based in either country. Germany and Pakistan signed the first BIT in 1959 and since then, BITs are one of the most popular and widespread form of international agreement. In this work we study the proliferation of BITs using a social networks approach. We propose a network growth model that dynamically replicates the empirical topological characteristics of the BIT network.

  9. Neglected Canals: Deterioration of Indigenous Irrigation System by Urbanization in the West Peri-Urban Area of Bangkok Metropolitan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Hara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the deterioration of indigenous irrigation system traditionally developed in the past to serve the peri-urban agricultural lands that have been affected by rapid urbanization in the Bangkok Metropolitan Region. The study is based on data collection from mapping, field survey and interview analyses and identifies current canal deteriorating conditions in four categories: filled, covered, narrowed and shallow, and normal. The findings reveal that different types of canal deteriorations are associated with their private ownership. A typology of land configurations of urban and non-urban land uses along private canals is pointed out in order to understand their relation with canal deterioration types. Caused by urbanization, the degradation of the existing canal networks has provoked conflicts between local farmers and new proprietors, especially real estate developers. Such canal deterioration essentially reduces their ability to convey a water supply to feed agricultural lands, consequently leading to the discontinuation of land use for agriculture and its eventual transformation into urban developments.

  10. A system dynamics model to evaluate effects of source separation of municipal solid waste management: A case of Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukholthaman, Pitchayanin; Sharp, Alice

    2016-06-01

    Municipal solid waste has been considered as one of the most immediate and serious problems confronting urban government in most developing and transitional economies. Providing solid waste performance highly depends on the effectiveness of waste collection and transportation process. Generally, this process involves a large amount of expenditures and has very complex and dynamic operational problems. Source separation has a major impact on effectiveness of waste management system as it causes significant changes in quantity and quality of waste reaching final disposal. To evaluate the impact of effective source separation on waste collection and transportation, this study adopts a decision support tool to comprehend cause-and-effect interactions of different variables in waste management system. A system dynamics model that envisages the relationships of source separation and effectiveness of waste management in Bangkok, Thailand is presented. Influential factors that affect waste separation attitudes are addressed; and the result of change in perception on waste separation is explained. The impacts of different separation rates on effectiveness of provided collection service are compared in six scenarios. 'Scenario 5' gives the most promising opportunities as 40% of residents are willing to conduct organic and recyclable waste separation. The results show that better service of waste collection and transportation, less monthly expense, extended landfill life, and satisfactory efficiency of the provided service at 60.48% will be achieved at the end of the simulation period. Implications of how to get public involved and conducted source separation are proposed. PMID:27026497

  11. Determining an influencing area affecting walking speed on footpath: A case study of a footpath in CBD Bangkok, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipakornkiat, Chalat; Limanond, Thirayoot; Kim, Hyunmyung

    2012-11-01

    Intuitively, the crowd density in front of a pedestrian will affect his walking speed along a footpath. Nevertheless, the size of the influencing area affecting walking speed has rarely been scrutinized in the past. This study attempts to determine the distance in front of pedestrians that principally affects their walking speed under normal conditions, using a case study of a footpath in Bangkok. We recorded pedestrian activities along a test section of 20 m, with an effective walking width of 2.45 m in the morning and at noon. The morning dataset was extracted for analyzing various influencing distances, ranging from 1 to 20 m in front of the pedestrian. The bi-directional walking speed-pedestrian density models were developed, for each tested distance, using linear regression analysis. It was found that an influencing length in the range of 5-8 m yields the highest correlation coefficients. In the case of high density conditions, the walking speed of the equally-split flow (50:50) was found to be higher than other proportional flow analyzed. The finding has useful implications on the improvement of the walking simulations in mesoscopic models.

  12. Factors associated with caretaker's readiness for disclosure of HIV diagnosis to HIV-infected children in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punpanich, W; Lolekha, R; Chokephaibulkit, K; Naiwatanakul, T; Leowsrisook, P; Boon-Yasidhi, V

    2014-11-01

    To determine factors associated with caretaker's readiness to disclose an HIV diagnosis to their child, a prospective study was conducted among caretakers of HIV-infected children aged seven to 16 years who were receiving care at two paediatric HIV treatment centres in Bangkok. Caretakers were offered readiness preparation counselling and their perceptions on disclosure were assessed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Among caretakers who had participated in the readiness preparation process for at least one year, 71% (195/273) were ready for disclosure. Using logistic regression analysis, we found that child's age of nine years or older, child's severe immunosuppression, caretakers having prior discussion with their child about the illness, caretaker's perception that their child had the ability to understand the HIV diagnosis and to keep it secret, and caretaker's opinion that the proper age for disclosure is between seven and 12 years old were associated with caretaker's readiness for disclosure. These determinants may be useful for guiding disclosure readiness preparation counselling.

  13. Traveler's Diarrhea in Foreign Travelers in Southeast Asia: A Cross-Sectional Survey Study in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittitrakul, Chatporn; Lawpoolsri, Saranath; Kusolsuk, Teera; Olanwijitwong, Jutarmas; Tangkanakul, Waraluk; Piyaphanee, Watcharapong

    2015-09-01

    The effect of origin and destination country on traveler's diarrhea incidence rates in Southeast Asia is poorly understood, and research generally only addresses diarrhea in travelers from the developed world. This study evaluated the attack rate and effects of traveler's diarrhea by origin and destination and analyzed key risk factors. A self-administered questionnaire was provided to foreign travelers departing Southeast Asia from Suvarnabhumi Airport, Bangkok, Thailand. It evaluated traveler demographics, relevant knowledge and practices, experiences of diarrhea, and the details and consequences of each diarrheal episode. A total of 7,963 questionnaires were completed between April 2010 and July 2011. Respondents were 56% male (mean age 35) with a mean and median duration of stay of 28 days and 10 days, respectively. Most respondents were from Europe (36.8%) or East Asia (33.4%). The attack rate of traveler's diarrhea was 16.1%, with an incidence rate of 32.05 per 100 person months. Travelers' origin and destination countries significantly related to diarrhea risk. Oceanians had the highest risk (32.9%) and East Asians the lowest (2.6%). Vietnam and Indonesia were the highest risk destinations (19.3%). Other significant factors were youth, trip duration, number of countries visited, and frequently drinking beverages with ice.

  14. SEROTYPES AND ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE OF SALMONELLA ENTERICA ISOLATED FROM PORK, CHICKEN MEAT AND LETTUCE, BANGKOK AND CENTRAL THAILAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niyomdecha, Nattamon; Mungkornkaew, Narissara; Samosornsuk, Worada

    2016-01-01

    Food of animal origins, particularly pork and chicken meat, has long been recognized as major sources of human salmonellosis. There have been recent reports of human salmonellosis outbreaks due to consumption of leafy green vegetables such as lettuce. In this study, 120 (40 pork, 40 chicken meat and 40 lettuce) samples were randomly collected from retail markets in Bangkok and central Thailand during June to August 2015 for Salmonella serotype identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Salmonella was found in 82%, 62% and 20% of pork, chicken meat and lettuce samples, respectively. The top 5 most common Salmonella serotypes were Panama (15%), Schwarzengrund (12%), Rissen, Anatum, and Stanley (11% each), Albany (9%), and Indiana (8%). A high percentage of Salmonella isolated from food of animal origin were resistant to multiple antimicrobial drugs, including ampicillin, chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, and tetracycline. From antibiogram pattern analysis, the most common serotypes constituted isolates that were multidrug resistant. The study indicates that Salmonella was still present in various kinds of food and that certain serotypes have become predominant, a phenomenon not previously reported in Thailand.

  15. AMBIENT PM₁₀ AND PM₂.₅ CONCENTRATIONS AT DIFFERENT HIGH TRAFFIC-RELATED STREET CONFIGURATIONS IN BANGKOK, THAILAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahanavin, Narut; Tantrakarnapa, Kraichat; Prueksasit, Tassanee

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated the potential exposure levels of PM₁₀ and PM₂.₅ at two different road configuration sites in Bangkok, Thailand: covered and open roadside areas. One hundred samples were collected together with the meteorological data: temperature, relative humidity, wind speeds, and solar radiation. Spearman rank correlation was used to analyze the relationships between these factors, and PM₁₀ and PM₂.₅ levels at different roadside areas. The PM₁₀ and PM₂.₅ levels at the covered area were 1.72 and 1.60 times more than those levels at open area were. The mean levels were found to be 154.59 and 94.42 µg/m³ at the covered areas, and 89.43 and 58.69 µg/m³ at the open areas. These results suggested that a higher potential risk for workers, such as street vendors, was the exposure to particulate matters at the covered areas compared to open areas. Wind speeds and relative humidity were significantly negative-related influencing factors on PM₁₀ and PM₂.₅ levels at the open area, but not significantly related for the covered areas.

  16. Declining trend in transmitted drug resistance detected in a prospective cohort study of acute HIV infection in Bangkok, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Donn J; Crowell, Trevor A; Sirivichayakul, Sunee; Pinyakorn, Suteeraporn; Kroon, Eugene; Benjapornpong, Khunthalee; Intasan, Jintana; Trichavaroj, Rapee; Tovanabutra, Sodsai; Robb, Merlin; Phanuphak, Praphan; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Phanuphak, Nittaya

    2016-01-01

    Introduction As availability of antiretroviral therapy expands in developing countries, the risk for transmission of drug-resistant HIV also increases. Patients with acute HIV infection (AHI) provide an opportunity for real-time monitoring of transmitted drug resistance (TDR). SEARCH 010/RV 254 study is a prospective, longitudinal study of AHI. This analysis was performed to characterize changes in TDR over time in persons enrolled in the AHI cohort. Methods Genotype testing for TDR mutations was performed on 229 subjects enrolled from 2009 to 2014. Results The cohort was predominantly male (95%) and men who have sex with men (92%). TDR prevalence was 7.0%, declining from 12.5% in 2009–2010 to 4.8% in 2013–2014 (p=0.08). By drug class, resistance prevalence was 3.6% for proteases inhibitors, 2.6% for nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors and 2.2% for non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. The greatest decline in prevalence was seen in the non-nucleoside reverses transcriptase inhibitors, from 9.4% in 2009–2010 to 0.7% in 2013–2014 (p=0.005). Conclusions TDR appears to be declining among individuals with AHI in Bangkok and in 2013 to 2014 met the World Health Organization definition for low prevalence. Continued surveillance is necessary to determine if this trend persists. PMID:27802846

  17. HIV risk behaviours and situations as perceived by Thai adolescent daughters and their mothers in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasamimari, A; Dancy, B; Smith, J

    2008-02-01

    The proportion of Thai women infected with HIV is rising. More than 60% of the estimated 70,000 young adults from ages 15 to 24 years who are infected with HIV are females. Furthermore, the ratio of adolescent females aged 15 to 19 years who are infected with HIV is twice that of adolescent males in the same age group (Thai Ministry of Public Health, 2005). A cross-sectional descriptive study identified the specific behaviours and situations placing Thai adolescent females at risk from HIV as perceived by Thai adolescent females aged between 12 and 14 years from public middle schools in Bangkok, Thailand and their mothers. Data were obtained from a demographic questionnaire and four different focus groups (n=40); two focus groups with Thai adolescents (n=20) and two focus groups with their mothers (n=20). Content analysis suggested that the behaviours considered most likely to result in HIV infection of Thai adolescent females were having sex without protection and drug use, and the most likely situations placing them at HIV risk were pubs/bars and boyfriends' or friends' houses when there is no parental or adult supervision. The mothers and daughters reported that HIV/AIDS-prevention programmes should provide education about the causes and dangers of sexually transmitted infections, including HIV/AIDS and prevention strategies. These data laid the foundation for the development of a culturally relevant HIV risk-reduction programme for Thai adolescent females. PMID:18293126

  18. The traffic crisis and a tale of two cities: Traffic and air quality in Bangkok and Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pendakur, V.S.; Badami, M.G.

    1995-12-31

    This paper focuses on congestion management techniques, traffic congestion levels and air quality. By using data from Bangkok and Mexico City, it illustrates the need for drastic changes in transportation policy tools and techniques for congestion management and for improving environmental quality. New approaches to investment and regulatory policy analysis and implementation are suggested. This requires the inclusion of all costs and benefits (economic and ecological) in the policy matrix so that investment and regulatory policies act in unison. Megacities are dominant in social, political and economic terms. 30 to 60% of national GDP is typically produced in these cities. Their human and motor vehicle populations have been doubling every 15-20 and 6-10 years respectively. They also have the most severe traffic congestion and air quality problems. They have the nation`s highest incidence of poverty and absolute poverty. Large portions of their populations endure severely unhealthy housing and sanitation conditions. Following are important characteristics of urban transportation systems in the megacities: the city centres are heavily congested with motorized traffic; traffic crawl rates vary from 2 to 10 km/hr; car and motorcycle ownership are increasing at annual rates of 10-12% and 15-20% respectively; significant air pollution with no relief in sight; TDM strategies are primarily creating new supply of road capacity; fairly high transit trips with substantial transit investments; weak air pollution monitoring and enforcement; and fairly cheap fuel and high costs of vehicles.

  19. Sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in street dust in a tropical Asian mega-city, Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonyatumanond, Ruchaya; Murakami, Michio; Wattayakorn, Gullaya; Togo, Ayako; Takada, Hideshige

    2007-10-01

    We collected samples of roadside air, automobile exhaust soot, tires, asphalt, and used engine oil in a tropical Asian mega-city, Bangkok, Thailand, and analyzed them for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and hopanes. The concentrations and compositions of PAHs and hopanes were utilized to identify the sources of PAHs in street dust, in which high concentrations of PAHs were reported in our previous study. Weight-based concentrations of total PAHs had the following order: gasoline-powered vehicle soot (2600+/-2900 microg/g; n=4)>diesel-powered vehicle soot (115+/-245 microg/g; n=7) approximately roadside aerosols (101+/-35 microg/g; n=5) approximately used engine oil (97+/-65 microg/g; n=4) approximately tire wear particles (82+/-41 microg/g; n=5)>asphalt (2.3+/-1.6 microg/g; n=3)>street dust (1.1+/-0.8 microg/g; n=10). In cluster analysis, all the source materials fell into different clusters from that in which street dust fell, indicating that multiple source materials contribute to PAHs in the street dust. Multiple regression analysis of PAH profiles and diagnostics of hopane compositions identified tire debris as the major contributor of PAHs to street dust, followed by diesel vehicle exhaust.

  20. AMBIENT PM₁₀ AND PM₂.₅ CONCENTRATIONS AT DIFFERENT HIGH TRAFFIC-RELATED STREET CONFIGURATIONS IN BANGKOK, THAILAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahanavin, Narut; Tantrakarnapa, Kraichat; Prueksasit, Tassanee

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated the potential exposure levels of PM₁₀ and PM₂.₅ at two different road configuration sites in Bangkok, Thailand: covered and open roadside areas. One hundred samples were collected together with the meteorological data: temperature, relative humidity, wind speeds, and solar radiation. Spearman rank correlation was used to analyze the relationships between these factors, and PM₁₀ and PM₂.₅ levels at different roadside areas. The PM₁₀ and PM₂.₅ levels at the covered area were 1.72 and 1.60 times more than those levels at open area were. The mean levels were found to be 154.59 and 94.42 µg/m³ at the covered areas, and 89.43 and 58.69 µg/m³ at the open areas. These results suggested that a higher potential risk for workers, such as street vendors, was the exposure to particulate matters at the covered areas compared to open areas. Wind speeds and relative humidity were significantly negative-related influencing factors on PM₁₀ and PM₂.₅ levels at the open area, but not significantly related for the covered areas. PMID:27405137

  1. Unwanted pregnancy: it's existing solutions from the perspective of young adults in Bangkok and the Abortion Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajayyothin, P; Dhamprapha, R

    1996-01-01

    727 students of 15 to 24 years old in Bangkok were randomly selected to study their opinion towards existing solutions for unwanted pregnancy and the conformity or controversy of their suggested solutions to Thai Abortion Law. The SPSS/PC package program was used for data analysis. The results show that more than 80 percent of the youth in this study do not prefer the abortion method, despite it's being vastly used as a mean of solving the problem and that the abortion must be done under the Thai Criminal Law section 305 (1) and (2). Otherwise, it might be reasonable for some critical medical conditions such as high risk pregnancy or anti HIV+ve. Hence, it is confirmed that the youth opinion towards abortion agree with the law almost completely except for the aspects of the baby's health and genetic diseases. With regard to better solutions of unwanted pregnancy, Thai young adults strongly recommend resolutions of allowing progress of pregnancy on the basis of kindliness and understanding of human-being in crisis with warm support from within and outside the families. Besides, strengthening of virtue of Thai culture along with sufficient sex education for young generation are also needed.

  2. HIV DNA and Dementia in Treatment-Naïve HIV-1-Infected Individuals in Bangkok, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Shiramizu, Silvia Ratto-Kim , Pasiri Sithinamsuwan, Samart Nidhinandana, Sataporn Thitivichianlert, George Watt, Mark deSouza, Thippawan Chuenchitra, Suchitra Sukwit, Suwicha Chitpatima, Kevin Robertson, Robert Paul, Cecilia Shikuma, Victor Valcour

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available High HIV-1 DNA (HIV DNA levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC correlate with HIV-1-associated dementia (HAD in patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART. If this relationship also exists among HAART-naïve patients, then HIV DNA may be implicated in the pathogenesis of HAD. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between HIV DNA and cognition in subjects naïve to HAART in a neuro AIDS cohort in Bangkok, Thailand. Subjects with and without HAD were recruited and matched for age, gender, education, and CD4 cell count. PBMC and cellular subsets were analyzed for HIV DNA using real-time PCR. The median log10 HIV DNA copies per 106 PBMC for subjects with HAD (n=15 was 4.27, which was higher than that found in subjects without dementia (ND; n=15, 2.28, p<0.001. This finding was unchanged in a multivariate model adjusting for plasma HIV-1 RNA levels. From a small subset of individuals, in which adequate number of cells were available, more HIV DNA was in monocytes/macrophages from those with HAD compared to those with ND. These results are consistent with a previous report among HAART-experienced subjects, thus further implicating HIV DNA in the pathogenesis of HAD.

  3. Association of Sanitary Conditions and Bacteriological Quality of Tube Ice in Ice Plants in Metropolitan Bangkok, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kraichat Tantrakarnapa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation aimed at studying the correlation between ice plant sanitary conditions and bacteriological quality of ice. The sanitary conditions in accordance with GMP regulations, the bacteriological quality of tube ice, and the processing water in 20 plants in Bangkok were studied. A modified inspection form from the Office of Food and Drug Administration was used for sanitary condition surveys. Ice and processing water samples were collected 2 times per plant with 3 samples each time. All 120 samples were analyzed for bacteriological quality by means of Standard Plate Count technique (Pour plate method and Most Probable Number technique (MPN method. The results indicated that forty percent (8 Tube plants failed and the remaining passed sanitary condition criteria. 23% of Tube Ice samples were acceptable in the standard permission level in terms of Total coliform bacteria and Fecal coliform bacteria. All Tube Ice plant processing water samples were acceptable in comparison with the standard permission level. Ice plant sanitary conditions were significantly correlated to bacteriological quality of the ice (p<0.05. Ice plant manufacturers should develop and implement Sanitary Standard and Operational Procedures (S.S.O.P. in accordance with all GMP requirements to improve Ice plant sanitary conditions.

  4. Prohibiting and Preventing Nuclear Explosions: Background Information for Parliamentarians on the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The object and purpose of the CTBT is to ban comprehensively nuclear weapon test explosions and any other nuclear explosion in any environment in an effectively verifiable manner. The CTBT aims at eliminating nuclear weapons by constraining the development and qualitative improvement of new or more advanced nuclear weapons. It plays a crucial role in the prevention of nuclear proliferation and in nuclear disarmament, thus contributing to a safer and more secure world. When the Treaty enters into force it will establish a treaty-implementing body (the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO)), including an on-site inspection mechanism and confidence-building measures as well as an International Monitoring System (IMS) and International Data Centre (IDC). The IMS and IDC are already being created and are being provisionally operated during the preparatory phase by the Preparatory Commission for the CTBTO and its Provisional Technical Secretariat in Vienna. Seismic, hydroacoustic, infrasound and radionuclide data are collected through the stations of the IMS and transmitted to Member States via the IDC. The IDC also processes the raw data received from the stations to derive objective products and services which will support the Treaty verification responsibilities. If the collected and analysed data indicate an ambiguous event, States may address concerns about possible noncompliance with the Treaty through a consultation and clarification process after it enters into force and may request an on-site inspection by the CTBTO.

  5. The European Union’s external trade policy after the Treaty of Lisbon: a neo-gramscian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilko Ihor

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies neo-Gramscian theory to analyze the European Union’s external trade policy after the ratification of the Treaty of Lisbon in 2009. It argues that despite the claim that procedural and institutional changes which took place as a result of the ratification of the Treaty serve the general interest of the EU citizens, they were in fact orchestrated by the European transnational capitalist class and serve primarily interests of this group. Paper starts by outlining key institutional and procedural changes introduced by the Treaty of Lisbon, briefly outlining their implications for the EU. Further on, rationale for these changes is explained by focusing on socio-economic developments that took place in the EU during the past couple of decades. After outlining how the current hegemonic bloc was established, paper proceeds with explaining why the implemented changes were so important for the dominant in the EU social forces.

  6. Social and Environmental Protection in Bilateral Investment Treaties: Foreign Investors’ Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ajisatria Suleiman

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The limit of host states’ right to regulate foreign investment within their jurisdiction has been the main, yet unresolved issues in international investment law. This makes it more difficult, given the global structure of investment law that consists of networks of Bilateral Investment Treaties (BITs. This article will not deal with the question of optimal structure of regulatory discretion under BITs which is still debatable among scholars. The central agenda of this article is to address the precondition for an efficient outcome to materialize within the complex web of BITs already signed among states. It is even more complex to be concluded. This issue is due to the absence of international coordinating institution, letting alone that of global supranational authority. This is different from the case of domestic regulatory takings which “simply” requires the correct information and measure from the benevolent government, that means, the existence of an efficient provision, if any, will not necessarily result in an efficient outcome. The main research question addressed in the article is: under what condition a capital exporting state could introduce higher flexibility for regulating public interest in an investment treaty negotiation? The article offer the answer on issue linkage between the level of protection under BIT, the degree of openness of access to domestic legal and regulatory making of the host state, and the foreign investor’s capabilities to deal with the trade-off. Ceteris paribus, the linkage enables a set of feasible Pareto improving deals out of BIT negotiation

  7. Potential Benefits of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization to Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Amponsah

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The National Data Centers established around the globe with the support of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization are used to monitor and manage its data, to control and ultimately eliminate nuclear weapon test explosions. The National Data Center in Ghana was established in February, 2010 at the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. The Center is mandated to collate seismic, radionuclide, infrasound and hydroacoustic data for monitoring nuclear test explosions for global peace. The data are obtained from our neighboring country Cote d’Ivoire and the International Data Center in Austria. The objectives of the Data Center include the following: receive and use data from the International Monitoring System (IMS stations and products derived from the IMS from the International Data Center for verification and compliance of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty and for earthquake hazard studies. From 2010 to date local seismic events from the Center are catalogued for earthquake hazard studies in the country. The data are also made available to our stakeholders for earthquake disaster risk reduction. The benefits of the National Data Center to Ghana are numerous. Apart from the data for seismic hazard studies, it can also provide data for research in fisheries, for the study of the crustal structure among others. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.67.1.5402

  8. Potential Benefits of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization to Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Amponsah

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The National Data Centers established around the globe with the support of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization are used to monitor and manage its data, to control and ultimately eliminate nuclear weapon test explosions. The National Data Center in Ghana was established in February, 2010 at the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. The Center is mandated to collate seismic, radionuclide, infrasound and hydroacoustic data for monitoring nuclear test explosions for global peace. The data are obtained from our neighboring country Cote d’Ivoire and the International Data Center in Austria. The objectives of the Data Center include the following: receive and use data from the International Monitoring System (IMS stations and products derived from the IMS from the International Data Center for verification and compliance of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty and for earthquake hazard studies. From 2010 to date local seismic events from the Center are catalogued for earthquake hazard studies in the country. The data are also made available to our stakeholders for earthquake disaster risk reduction. The benefits of the National Data Center to Ghana are numerous. Apart from the data for seismic hazard studies, it can also provide data for research in fisheries, for the study of the crustal structure among others.

  9. 1944 Water Treaty Between Mexico and the United States: Present Situation and Future Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anabel Sánchez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Historically and culturally, water has always been considered to be a critical issue in Mexico- USA agenda. Along the 3 140-km border between Mexico and the United States, there is intense competition over the adequate availability of water. Water uses in urban border areas have continued to increase exponentially due to steadily increasing levels of population growth. Rapid industrialisation and urbanisation have resulted in more intensive patterns of water consumption and use. Agricultural water demands continue to be high. Mexico and the United States have established institutions and agreements to manage and protect rivers in the border region. The Treaty between Mexico and the United States for the Utilisation of Waters of the Colorado and Tijuana Rivers and of the Rio Grande was signed in 1944. With the turn of the century, the growing urban centers along the Rio Grande (Rio Bravo, where the river becomes the international boundary, started increasingly to depend on groundwater. This situation was not specifically addressed in the 1944 Treaty, especially as groundwater use at that time was not so significant.

  10. Sandia technology. Volume 13, number 2 Special issue : verification of arms control treaties.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-03-01

    Nuclear deterrence, a cornerstone of US national security policy, has helped prevent global conflict for over 40 years. The DOE and DoD share responsibility for this vital part of national security. The US will continue to rely on nuclear deterrence for the foreseeable future. In the late 1950s, Sandia developed satellite-borne nuclear burst detection systems to support the treaty banning atmospheric nuclear tests. This activity has continued to expand and diversify. When the Non-Proliferation Treaty was ratified in 1970, we began to develop technologies to protect nuclear materials from falling into unauthorized hands. This program grew and now includes systems for monitoring the movement and storage of nuclear materials, detecting tampering, and transmiting sensitive data securely. In the late 1970s, negotiations to further limit underground nuclear testing were being actively pursued. In less than 18 months, we fielded the National Seismic Station, an unattended observatory for in-country monitoring of nuclear tests. In the mid-l980s, arms-control interest shifted to facility monitoring and on-site inspection. Our Technical On-site Inspection Facility is the national test bed for perimeter and portal monitoring technology and the prototype for the inspection portal that was recently installed in the USSR under the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces accord. The articles in the special issue of Sundiu Technology describe some of our current contributions to verification technology. This work supports the US policy to seek realistic arms control agreements while maintaining our national security.

  11. International investment agreements and public health: neutralizing a threat through treaty drafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercurio, Bryan

    2014-07-01

    The high profile investment claims filed by Philip Morris challenging Uruguayan and Australian measures that restrict advertising and logos on tobacco packaging awakened the public health community to the existence and potential detrimental impact of international investment agreements (IIAs). More recently, Eli Lilly challenged Canada's invalidation of a pharmaceutical patent under an IIA. All of the cases claim that the intellectual property rights of the investor were infringed. As a result of these cases, many commentators and activists view IIAs as a threat to public health and have lobbied against their inclusion in ongoing trade negotiations. This article does not argue against IIAs. Instead, it seeks to demonstrate how more sophisticated treaty drafting can neutralize the threat to public health. In this regard, the article seeks to engage members of the public health community as campaigners not against IIAs but as advocates of better treaty drafting to ensure that IIAs do not infringe upon the right of a nation to take non-discriminatory measures for the promotion and protection of the health of their populations.

  12. Opportunities and challenges for a sustainable energy policy in SE Europe: SE European Energy Community Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy demand continues to increase in turn raising concerns about energy supply. In this paper, the author has tried to systematize the role of the energy sector in South Eastern (SE) Europe in the context of the European energy policy process. This should make the energy sector in SE Europe more visible and open to substantial activities and appropriate funding. This is important to assure its full alignment with the European energy policy process, and in so doing, make it less fragile. According to the SE European Energy Community Treaty, parties to the Treaty are obliged to implement reforms in the energy and environmental sector in accordance with the European Union's respective policy. This paper raises awareness of the environmental requirements that have been set, of renewable energy and its implementation, at the same time pointing out that the response in SE Europe has been at a low level. It is believed that this paper could draw attention to the existing problems and could contribute to the establishment of a common integrated energy market in SE Europe and the EU. (author)

  13. Phase II: Field Detector Development For Undeclared/Declared Nuclear Testing For Treaty Verfiation Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kriz, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hunter, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Riley, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-02

    Radioactive xenon isotopes are a critical part of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) for the detection or confirmation of nuclear weapons tests as well as on-site treaty verification monitoring. On-site monitoring is not currently conducted because there are no commercially available small/robust field detector devices to measure the radioactive xenon isotopes. Xenon is an ideal signature to detect clandestine nuclear events since they are difficult to contain and can diffuse and migrate through soils due to their inert nature. There are four key radioxenon isotopes used in monitoring: 135Xe (9 hour half-life), 133mXe (2 day half-life), 133Xe (5 day half-life) and 131mXe (12 day half-life) that decay through beta emission and gamma emission. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is a leader in the field of gas collections and has developed highly selective molecular sieves that allow for the collection of xenon gas directly from air. Phase I assessed the development of a small, robust beta-gamma coincidence counting system, that combines collection and in situ detection methodologies. Phase II of the project began development of the custom electronics enabling 2D beta-gamma coincidence analysis in a field portable system. This will be a significant advancement for field detection/quantification of short-lived xenon isotopes that would not survive transport time for laboratory analysis.

  14. Objectives and Activities. Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Treaty provides for a comprehensive global verification regime, which consists of an International Monitoring System (IMS), consultation and clarification procedures, provisions for requesting on-site inspections, and confidence-building measures. The present verification regime is the result of many years of negotiations led by an international Group of Scientific Experts (GSE) at the Conference on Disarmament in Geneva to ensure that non-compliance with the provisions of the Treaty can be detected in a timely manner. The 337 IMS monitoring facilities (170 seismic, 11 hydroacoustic, 60 infrasound, 80 radionuclide stations and 16 radionuclide laboratories) are located all over the world including in some of the most remote regions such as the Arctic and Antarctica. The seismic, hydroacoustic, infrasound and radionuclide monitoring technologies are designed to register sound and energy vibrations underground, in the sea and in the air, and to detect radionuclides released into the atmosphere. IMS data is collected and transmitted via the state-of-the-art, satellite-based Global Communications Infrastructure (GCI) to the International Data Centre (IDC) at the Commission's headquarters in Vienna. Here the data are processed and, together with IDC products such as Reviewed Event Bulletins and other event screening services, released to Member States for final analysis.

  15. International investment agreements and public health: neutralizing a threat through treaty drafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercurio, Bryan

    2014-07-01

    The high profile investment claims filed by Philip Morris challenging Uruguayan and Australian measures that restrict advertising and logos on tobacco packaging awakened the public health community to the existence and potential detrimental impact of international investment agreements (IIAs). More recently, Eli Lilly challenged Canada's invalidation of a pharmaceutical patent under an IIA. All of the cases claim that the intellectual property rights of the investor were infringed. As a result of these cases, many commentators and activists view IIAs as a threat to public health and have lobbied against their inclusion in ongoing trade negotiations. This article does not argue against IIAs. Instead, it seeks to demonstrate how more sophisticated treaty drafting can neutralize the threat to public health. In this regard, the article seeks to engage members of the public health community as campaigners not against IIAs but as advocates of better treaty drafting to ensure that IIAs do not infringe upon the right of a nation to take non-discriminatory measures for the promotion and protection of the health of their populations. PMID:25110377

  16. L’habitat spontané comme un outil de développement urbain. Le cas de Bangkok Spontaneous Housing as a Tool for Urban Development, the Case of Bangkok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Gerbeaud

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available En Thaïlande, les ensembles d’habitat spontané s’étendent à toute la capitale, malgré des politiques publiques qui visent à les contrer. Ce sont aujourd’hui de véritables morceaux de ville qui dynamisent l’espace urbain, car étroitement liés à l’identité et à l’histoire de la ville. L’opposition entre habitat spontané et « logement formel », fréquente tant dans les productions scientifiques que dans les représentations, mérite donc d���être interrogée à Bangkok. À partir d’une analyse spatiale et architecturale, nous avons abordé l’habitat spontané comme une manière de fabriquer la ville centrée sur l’appropriation : au moins sous trois formes (habitat spontané pur, ancien, greffé, il assure par sa flexibilité la continuité du tissu urbain et s’y assimile progressivement. Si pour les autorités locales les communautés de bidonvilles demeurent un signe de sous-développement, certains architectes et acteurs y voient une source d’inspiration ainsi qu’un patrimoine populaire à préserver. Une métropolisation accrue et la mondialisation des échanges économiques, culturels, politiques, amènent de nouvelles modalités de négociation de l’espace urbain qui redéfinissent le statut de l’habitat spontané. Avec l’apparition de nouvelles professions (architecte des communautés et orientations dans la manière de concevoir des projets urbains (processus participatif notamment, l’habitat spontané s’affirme peu à peu comme un outil de développement de la capitale.In Thailand, despite some public policies, spontaneous settlements spread all over the city. Closely related to the city’s history and identity they are nowadays real dynamic neighbourhoods. The opposition between spontaneous housing and “formal housing”, common in both the scientific publications and representations, is yet to be questioned in Bangkok. Through an architectural and spatial analysis, we

  17. Global Health Security Demands a Strong International Health Regulations Treaty and Leadership From a Highly Resourced World Health Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkle, Frederick M

    2015-10-01

    If the Ebola tragedy of West Africa has taught us anything, it should be that the 2005 International Health Regulations (IHR) Treaty, which gave unprecedented authority to the World Health Organization (WHO) to provide global public health security during public health emergencies of international concern, has fallen severely short of its original goal. After encouraging successes with the 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) pandemic, the intent of the legally binding Treaty to improve the capacity of all countries to detect, assess, notify, and respond to public health threats has shamefully lapsed. Despite the granting of 2-year extensions in 2012 to countries to meet core surveillance and response requirements, less than 20% of countries have complied. Today it is not realistic to expect that these gaps will be solved or narrowed in the foreseeable future by the IHR or the WHO alone under current provisions. The unfortunate failures that culminated in an inadequate response to the Ebola epidemic in West Africa are multifactorial, including funding, staffing, and poor leadership decisions, but all are reversible. A rush by the Global Health Security Agenda partners to fill critical gaps in administrative and operational areas has been crucial in the short term, but questions remain as to the real priorities of the G20 as time elapses and critical gaps in public health protections and infrastructure take precedence over the economic and security needs of the developed world. The response from the Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network and foreign medical teams to Ebola proved indispensable to global health security, but both deserve stronger strategic capacity support and institutional status under the WHO leadership granted by the IHR Treaty. Treaties are the most successful means the world has in preventing, preparing for, and controlling epidemics in an increasingly globalized world. Other options are not sustainable. Given the gravity of ongoing

  18. Global Health Security Demands a Strong International Health Regulations Treaty and Leadership From a Highly Resourced World Health Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkle, Frederick M

    2015-10-01

    If the Ebola tragedy of West Africa has taught us anything, it should be that the 2005 International Health Regulations (IHR) Treaty, which gave unprecedented authority to the World Health Organization (WHO) to provide global public health security during public health emergencies of international concern, has fallen severely short of its original goal. After encouraging successes with the 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) pandemic, the intent of the legally binding Treaty to improve the capacity of all countries to detect, assess, notify, and respond to public health threats has shamefully lapsed. Despite the granting of 2-year extensions in 2012 to countries to meet core surveillance and response requirements, less than 20% of countries have complied. Today it is not realistic to expect that these gaps will be solved or narrowed in the foreseeable future by the IHR or the WHO alone under current provisions. The unfortunate failures that culminated in an inadequate response to the Ebola epidemic in West Africa are multifactorial, including funding, staffing, and poor leadership decisions, but all are reversible. A rush by the Global Health Security Agenda partners to fill critical gaps in administrative and operational areas has been crucial in the short term, but questions remain as to the real priorities of the G20 as time elapses and critical gaps in public health protections and infrastructure take precedence over the economic and security needs of the developed world. The response from the Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network and foreign medical teams to Ebola proved indispensable to global health security, but both deserve stronger strategic capacity support and institutional status under the WHO leadership granted by the IHR Treaty. Treaties are the most successful means the world has in preventing, preparing for, and controlling epidemics in an increasingly globalized world. Other options are not sustainable. Given the gravity of ongoing

  19. 10th Signing Anniversary of Sino-Russian Good-Neighborly Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation Celebrated

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>July 15, 2011 marked the 10th anniversary of the signing of the Sino-Russian Good-Neighborly Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation, an epoch-making document in bilateral relations. The Treaty focuses on the concept of peace and development and creates a legal framework the common aspiration of "always treating each other as friends and never as enemies". It decides the policy that the two countries should resolutely support each other and unswervingly expand pragmatic cooperation in all fields for long-term development of the relationship in the 21st century.

  20. Sex frequency and sex planning among men who have sex with men in Bangkok, Thailand: implications for pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis against HIV infection

    OpenAIRE

    van Griensven Frits; Thienkrua Warunee; Sukwicha Wichuda; Wimonsate Wipas; Chaikummao Supaporn; Varangrat Anchalee; Mock Philip A

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Daily HIV antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is being evaluated in clinical trials among men who have sex with men (MSM). However, daily PrEP may not be congruent with sexual exposure profiles of MSM. Here, we investigate sex frequency and sex planning to identify and inform appropriate PrEP strategies for MSM. Methods We evaluated sex frequency and sex planning in a cohort of HIV-negative MSM in Bangkok, Thailand. Chi-squared test was used to compare reports o...

  1. Challenges to Slovakia and Poland health policy decisions: use of investment treaties to claim compensation for reversal of privatisation/liberalisation policies

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, David

    2010-01-01

    Investment treaties, and possibly the EU Treaty itself, are being used by multinational companies Penta and Eureko to try and force the Slovak government to pay compensation for reversing health privatisation and liberalisation policies. Similar action has been used against the Polish government by Eureko to win compensation worth nearly 2 billion Euros and a policy commitment to further privatisation.

  2. The United Nations Declaration of the Rights of the Child (1959): Genesis, Transformation and Dissemination of a Treaty (Re)Constituting a Transnational Cause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, Zoe

    2015-01-01

    Over the course of the 20th century, the social and legal status of the child evolved considerably. One remarkable illustration of this process can be seen by tracing the evolution of specific international treaties on the rights of the child. Although developments in national legislation inspired the authors of these treaties, it was through…

  3. Epidemiological survey of mental disorders and knowledge attitude practice upon mental health among people in Bangkok Metropolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavichachart, N; Intoh, P; Thavichachart, T; Meksupa, O; Tangwongchai, S; Sughondhabirom, A; Worakul, P

    2001-06-01

    To find the prevalence of 8 mental disorders and study knowledge, attitude, practice (KAP) upon mental health among people in Bangkok Metropolis a cross sectional, descriptive community survey was conducted. Two thousand, nine hundred and forty eight samples aged 15-60 years were selected by a multistage simple random sampling technique. Data collection was made by qualified interviewers who had experience in mental health care and had been trained to use the questionaires. The questionaires had been modified from DSM-IV and CIDI that had been tested for good validity and reliability. The survey methodology was divided into 2 stages, screening and diagnosis. The results showed that the life time prevalence of mental disorders were; schizophrenia (1.3%), mood disorders; manic episode (9.3%), major depressive episode (19.9%), dysthymia (1%), anxiety disorders (10.2%), mental retardation (1.8%), epilepsy (1.3%), suicidal idea (7.1%), drug and substances use disorders (11.2%), and alcohol use disorders (18.4%). Knowledge score was good, attitude was fairly good, practice was still weak in promotion and prevention aspects. As such, this study was used as a pattern to conduct a national survey in 14 provinces all over Thailand and the results are being summarized. The information is similar to the Global Burden of Diseases. We produced a national training program on "Detection and Management of Depression" for Primary Care Physicians that was, a 2 days' workshop. Other national programs promoting prevention and control have also been set up. PMID:11529323

  4. Unexpectedly high HIV prevalence among female sex workers in Bangkok, Thailand in a respondent-driven sampling survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manopaiboon, C; Prybylski, D; Subhachaturas, W; Tanpradech, S; Suksripanich, O; Siangphoe, U; Johnston, L G; Akarasewi, P; Anand, A; Fox, K K; Whitehead, S J

    2016-01-01

    Summary The pattern of sex work in Thailand has shifted substantially over the last two decades from direct commercial establishments to indirect venues and non-venue-based settings. This respondent-driven sampling survey was conducted in Bangkok in 2007 among female sex workers (FSW) in non-venue-based settings to pilot a new approach to surveillance among this hidden population. Fifteen initial participants recruited 707 consenting participants who completed a behavioural questionnaire, and provided oral fluid for HIV testing, and urine for sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing. Overall HIV prevalence was 20.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 16.3–24.7). Three-quarters of women were street-based (75.8%, 95% CI 69.9–81.1) who had an especially high HIV prevalence (22.7%, 95% CI 18.2–28.4); about 10 times higher than that found in routine sentinel surveillance among venue-based FSW (2.5%). STI prevalence (Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae) was 8.7% (95% CI 6.4–10.8) and 1.0% (95% CI 0.2–1.9), respectively. Lower price per sex act and a current STI infection were independently associated with HIV infection (P < 0.05). High HIV prevalence found among FSW participating in the survey, particularly non-venue-based FSW, identifies need for further prevention efforts. In addition, it identifies a higher-risk segment of FSW not reached through routine sentinel surveillance but accessible through this survey method. PMID:23512512

  5. Scoping study of SNM detection and indentification for adjunct on-site treaty monitoring. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the fall of the Soviet Union, political pressure to negotiate meaningful nuclear arms agreements with Russia and the former soviet republics has increased. Anticipating the monitoring requirements of a future treaty for the decommissioning and disassembly of nuclear warheads presents opportunities to review existing monitoring technologies and to explore new methods to detect and analyze intrinsic radiation. Fully instrumented radiation-detection systems with a range of monitoring capabilities are available, but special-purpose instruments will still need to be developed to match increasing demands for high-confidence, low-intrusion monitoring in a specific scenario. As a guide to present capabilities in monitoring technologies, we have categorized their relevant attributes to detect and identify special nuclear material based on levels of confidence, intrusiveness, vulnerability, and other critical concerns. To add additional flexibility, we review emerging technologies and estimate the development time to bring them to operational status

  6. Inverse transport for the verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-P. Issartel

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available An international monitoring system is being built as a verification tool for the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. Forty stations will measure on a worldwide daily basis the concentration of radioactive noble gases. The paper introduces, by handling preliminary real data, a new approach of backtracking for the identification of sources of passive tracers after positive measurements. When several measurements are available the ambiguity about possible sources is reduced significantly. The approach is validated against ETEX data. A distinction is made between adjoint and inverse transport shown to be, indeed, different though equivalent ideas. As an interesting side result it is shown that, in the passive tracer dispersion equation, the diffusion stemming from a time symmetric turbulence is necessarily a self-adjoint operator, a result easily verified for the usual gradient closure, but more general.

  7. CRITERIA FOR SELECTION OF THE REINSURANCE COVERAGE FOR EXCESS OF LOSS TREATY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Veretnov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Optimal reinsurance coverage, selected by the cedent, influenced by a number of internal, external, objective and subjective factors. Their accounting or ignoring depends on the individual conditions of the insurer, knowledge of the specific risk profiles of professional experience and decision-makers about the forms and methods of reinsurance coverage. Justified the selection criteria of reinsurance protection for the treaty excess of loss. Using these criteria makes it possible not only to optimize the reinsurance protection, but also to ensure a balance of interests in the long-term relationship of the cedent company and the reinsurer. The article also provides examples of how classes of insurance is advisable to use the obligatory contract portfolio sexcess of loss.

  8. The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty and Its Relevance for the Global Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dáša ADAŠKOVÁ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT is one of important international nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament measures. One of its pillars is the verification mechanism that has been built as an international system of nuclear testing detection to enable the control of observance of the obligations anchored in the CTBT. Despite the great relevance to the global non-proliferation and disarmament efforts, the CTBT is still not in force. The main aim of the article is to summarize the importance of the CTBT and its entry into force not only from the international relations perspective but also from the perspective of the technical implementation of the monitoring system.

  9. Comprehensive test ban treaty international monitoring system security threats and proposed security attributes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draelos, T.J.; Craft, R.L.

    1996-03-01

    To monitor compliance with a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), a sensing network, referred to as the International Monitoring System (IMS), is being deployed. Success of the IMS depends on both its ability to preform its function and the international community`s confidence in the system. To ensure these goals, steps must be taken to secure the system against attacks that would undermine it; however, it is not clear that consensus exists with respect to the security requirements that should be levied on the IMS design. In addition, CTBT has not clearly articulated what threats it wishes to address. This paper proposes four system-level threats that should drive IMS design considerations, identifies potential threat agents, and collects into one place the security requirements that have been suggested by various elements of the IMS community. For each such requirement, issues associated with the requirement are identified and rationale for the requirement is discussed.

  10. Civil society under the Treaty of Lisbon: relationship between national public benefit organizations and European Union policy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.C.R.M. Versteegh

    2011-01-01

    The active involvement of European citizens became a new form of democracy in the Treaty of Lisbon of 2009 by the introduction of a whole new chapter dedicated to this purpose. There is an article that obligates the Commission to give serious consideration to the demands of one million citizens from

  11. 8 CFR 319.5 - Public international organizations in which the U.S. participates by treaty or statute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public international organizations in which... UNITED STATES CITIZENS § 319.5 Public international organizations in which the U.S. participates by treaty or statute. Organizations designated by the President as international organizations pursuant...

  12. Annual Report of the Columbia River Treaty, Canadian and United States Entities, 1 October 1993--30 September 1994.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Columbia River Treaty Operating Committee; B.C. Hydro; United States. Bonneville Power Administration

    1994-11-01

    The report describes the operation of Mica, Arrow, Duncan, and Libby reservoirs for the 1994 Water Year, 1 Oct 1993 through 30 Sept 1994, with additional information covering the reservoir system operating year, 1 August 1993 through 31 July 1994. The report is divided into: introduction, treaty organization, operating arrangements, weather and streamflow, reservoir operation, and power and flood control accomplishments.

  13. Modeling Urban Expansion in Bangkok Metropolitan Region Using Demographic–Economic Data through Cellular Automata-Markov Chain and Multi-Layer Perceptron-Markov Chain Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chudech Losiri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Urban expansion is considered as one of the most important problems in several developing countries. Bangkok Metropolitan Region (BMR is the urbanized and agglomerated area of Bangkok Metropolis (BM and its vicinity, which confronts the expansion problem from the center of the city. Landsat images of 1988, 1993, 1998, 2003, 2008, and 2011 were used to detect the land use and land cover (LULC changes. The demographic and economic data together with corresponding maps were used to determine the driving factors for land conversions. This study applied Cellular Automata-Markov Chain (CA-MC and Multi-Layer Perceptron-Markov Chain (MLP-MC to model LULC and urban expansions. The performance of the CA-MC and MLP-MC yielded more than 90% overall accuracy to predict the LULC, especially the MLP-MC method. Further, the annual population and economic growth rates were considered to produce the land demand for the LULC in 2014 and 2035 using the statistical extrapolation and system dynamics (SD. It was evident that the simulated map in 2014 resulting from the SD yielded the highest accuracy. Therefore, this study applied the SD method to generate the land demand for simulating LULC in 2035. The outcome showed that urban occupied the land around a half of the BMR.

  14. Coastal Flood Risks in the Bangkok Metropolitan Region, Thailand: Combined Impacts of Land Subsidence, Sea Level Rise and Storm Surge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duangyiwa, C.; Yu, D.; Wilby, R.; Aobpaet, A.

    2015-12-01

    Due to the fast-changing climatic and anthropogenic conditions at coastal regions, many coastal mega-cities are becoming increasingly vulnerable to internal and external risks. The risk is particularly high for low-lying coastal cities in developing nations, with Southeast Asia recognized as a hotspot of vulnerability due to the increasing population density, rapid change of natural landscape associated with urbanization and intensified hydrological and atmospheric conditions at the coastal front in an uncertain climate future. The Bangkok Metropolitan Region is one of the largest coastal megacities in Southeast Asia that are challenged by the potential impacts due to climate change and anthropological variability in the coming decades. Climate-related risks in this region are associated with its relatively low-lying nature of the terrain and adjacency to the coast. Coastal inundation due to high tides from the sea occurs annually in the area close to the seashore. This is set to increase given a projected rising sea level and the sinking landscape due to groundwater extraction and urbanization. The aim of this research is, therefore, to evaluate the vulnerability of the city to sea level rise, land subsidence and storm surge. Distributed land subsidence rate, projected sea level rise and existing structural features such as flood defences are taken into account. The 2011 flood in Thailand is used as a baseline event. Scenarios were designed with projections of land subsidence and sea level rise to 2050s, 2080s, and 2100s. A two-dimensional flood inundation model (FloodMap, Yu and Lane 2006) is used to derive inundation depth and velocity associated with each scenario. The impacts of coastal flood risk on critical infrastructures (e.g. power supply, transportation network, rescue centers, hospitals, schools and key government buildings) are evaluated (e.g. Figure 1). Results suggest progressively increase but non-linear risks of coastal flooding to key coastal

  15. Risk Behaviors, Occupational Risk and Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B and A Infections among Public Cleansing Workers of Bangkok Metropolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pipat Luksamijarulkul

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Public cleansing workers, especially public garbage collectors are probably at risk for hepatitis B virus (HBV and/or hepatitis A virus (HAV infections. This study was designed to assess risky behaviors, occupational risk and seroprevalence of HBV and HAV infections in this group.Methods: 354 public cleansing workers of Bangkok Metropolis (185 cleaners and 169 garbage collectors were randomly selected by multi-stage sampling. The subjects were interviewed and their blood pecimens were collected to investigate HBV seromarkers (HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HBc and anti-HAV by voluntary participation.Results: Out of 354 workers, 22.6% had tattoos, 15.8% had a history of regular alcohol consumption, and 6.8% had a history of extramarital sex without using condoms in a previous year. Public garbage collectors had relatively higher percentage than public cleaners. Also, public garbage collectors had significantly higher percentage of occupational risks including a history of contact with blood, a history of contact with used condom, syringe or needle, and a history of needle stick or sharp puncture than public cleaners (P= 0.0018, 0.0067 & 0.0012, respectively. Results from blood screening revealed 49.4% of HBV seropositivity, 5.9% of HBsAg, 37.3% of anti-HBs, 6.2% of anti-HBc only, and 85% of anti-HAV antibody. Public garbage collectors had significantly higher HBV seropositivity than public cleaners (P=0.0058, while there was no statistical significance in anti-HAV positivity between groups. Risk factors for HBV seropositiveness after multivariate analysis were occupation (adjusted OR=1.76, P=0.0027, a history of contact with used condom, syringe or needle (adjusted OR=3.02, P<0.0001, and a history of needle stick or sharp puncture (adjusted OR=4.21, P<0.0001.Conclusions: This study supported public cleansing workers; especially public garbage collectors were at risk for HBV and/or HAV infections. The risk reduction programs

  16. Nuclear disarmament. Options for the coming non-proliferation treaty surveillance cycle; Nukleare Abruestung. Optionen fuer den kommenden Ueberpruefungszyklus des NVV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Harald

    2011-07-01

    The report is aimed on the nuclear disarmament discussion with respect to the disagreement of nuclear weapon states and those without nuclear weapons, esp. the non-aligned movement (NAM) concerning the non-proliferation treaty. The report covers the following issues: The role of the non-proliferation treaty, nuclear disarmament in the last surveillance conference 2010, the different disarmament philosophies, the possibilities of bridging the disagreement, further disarmament options for the future non-proliferation treaty surveillance cycle, German options for the future surveillance cycle.

  17. Between Shadow and Light: The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons Forty Years On

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NPT was negotiated during the Cold War period to prevent the emergence of new nuclear players by distinguishing between 'nuclear-weapon states' (NWS) which had carried out nuclear testing before 1 January 1967, that is the United States, Russia, the United Kingdom, France and China, and 'non-nuclear-weapon states' (NNWS). Under the NPT, the two groups of states commit to comply with a series of commitments formulated around 'three pillars': 1 - Non-proliferation: the NWSs undertake under Article I not to transfer nuclear weapons or control over such weapons and not in any way to assist, encourage or induce any NNWS to acquire them, while the NNWSs are bound under Article II to neither develop or acquire nuclear weapons or 'other nuclear explosive devices' nor to receive any assistance in that connection. 2 - Peaceful use of nuclear energy: Article IV guarantees the 'inalienable right' to 'develop research, production and use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes without discrimination'. 3 - Nuclear disarmament: each state party to the treaty undertakes under Article VI 'to pursue negotiations in good faith on effective measures relating to cessation of the nuclear arms race at an early date and to nuclear disarmament'. The treaty entered in force in March 1970 and has since become universal, with 189 states parties in May 2010. At five-year intervals, parties to the treaty convene review conferences in order to review the operation of the treaty, Article VIII(3). The 1975, 1985 and 2000 review conferences culminated in the adoption of a final declaration and the 1995 review conference decided to extend the treaty indefinitely. The preparatory committee (PrepCom) for the 2010 review conference, which met from April 2007 to May 2009, did not adopt any recommendations, in absence of a consensus on essential issues concerning the operation of the treaty. Hence the importance of this 8. review conference of the parties held in New York from 3 to 28 May 2010 in a

  18. Mapping and Imaging Methodologies within the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty's On-Site Inspection Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, W.; Sussman, A. J.; Kelley, R. E.; Wohletz, K. H.; Schultz-Fellenz, E. S.

    2013-12-01

    On-site inspection (OSI) is the final verification measure of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). OSIs rely heavily on geologic and geophysical investigations. The objective is to apply methods that are effective, efficient and minimally intrusive. We present a general overview of the OSI as provisioned in the CTBT, specifying the allowed techniques and the timeline for their application. A CTBT OSI relies on many geological, geophysical and radiological methods. The search area for an OSI is mostly defined by uncertainty in the location of a suspect event detected by the International Monitoring System (IMS) and reported through the International Data Center and can be as large as 1000 km2. Thus OSI methods are fundamentally divided into general survey methods that narrow the search area and more focused, detailed survey methods to look for evidence of a potential underground explosion and try to find its location within an area of several km2. The purpose and goal of a CTBT OSI, as specified in the Article IV of the Treaty, is 'to clarify whether a nuclear explosion has been carried out in violation of the Treaty' and to 'gather any facts which might assist in identifying any possible violator.' Through the use of visual, geophysical, and radiological techniques, OSIs can detect and characterize anomalies and artifacts related to the event that triggered the inspection. In the context of an OSI, an 'observable' is a physical property that is important to recognize and document because of its relevance to the purpose of the inspection. Potential observables include: (1) visual observables such as ground/environmental disturbances and manmade features, (2) geophysical techniques that provide measurements of altered and damaged ground and buried artifacts, and (3) radiological measurements on samples. Information provided in this presentation comes from observations associated with historical testing activities that were not intended to go undetected

  19. 浅谈南极条约体系中的国际条约在中国的适用%On the Domestic Application of International Treaties of Antarctic Treaty System in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭鹏

    2016-01-01

    南极由于其独特的地理位置和重要的战略地位,已经成为各国间综合国力比拼、政治博弈、进行国家战略扩张、展现科研能力的重要"舞台".以《南极条约》为核心的南极条约体系,经过 50多年的发展和完善,形成了重要的国际法体系,受到缔约国的尊重和认可.各缔约国政府主要通过制定国内法来执行与南极有关的条约的规定.中国作为《南极条约》的缔约国以及南极条约体系下各类条约的重要成员国,在南极条约地区积极开展各项科研活动,发挥了重要的作用.文章简要概述了国际条约在我国国内适用的方式,结合我国对加入的相关南极条约的国内立法现状,分析目前南极条约适用的法律法规存在的问题,并给出完善国际条约适用体系的建议.%Due to its unique geographical location and important strategical status,the Antarctica has be-come a significant "stage",on which various countries compete for their overall national strength,to show scientific research abilities,and to expand their political influences.The Antarctic Treaty and relat-ed agreements,collectively known as the Antarctic Treaty System (ATS),regulate international relations with respect to Antarctica.ATS has been developed more than 50 years and its main objective is to en-sure the interests of all humankind that Antarctica shall be used exclusively for peaceful purposes and be-come the scene or object of international discord.China has played an important role as a party member under the ATS.How to make the Antarctic Treaties effective in domestic legal system,it requires to es-tablish a perfect treaty -application system.The paper summarized the theory of the treaty application, combined with the practice status of treaties application in China,particularly focused on the Antarctic Treaties.It also introduced the administrative litigation of the ATS application system in China and ana-lyzed the problems of the

  20. The Implications of International Treaty Arbitration for International Commercial Arbitration and the Reform of International Treaty Arbitration%投资条约仲裁对“国际商事仲裁”之借鉴与改革

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁杜娟

    2012-01-01

    Investment treaty arbitration has been established based on international commercial arbitration, reflecting not only the basic features of international commercial arbitration in provisions, but also the value orientation of international commercial arbitration in practice. Investment treaty arbitration differs from international commercial arbitration inparticipants in a dispute, dispute issues and the basis of the jurisdiction of arbitral tribunal. In order to avoid the conflict between investment treaty arbitration and international commercial arbitration, some international organizations and countries begin the efforts to reform investment treaty arbitration, which could be regarded as the development of international commercial arbitration.%投资条约仲裁是以国际商事仲裁为模板建立的,其不仅在具体规则中体现了“国际商事仲裁”的基本特性,同时其实践中无不体现“国际商事仲裁”的价值取向。投资条约仲裁在争端主体、争议事项、仲裁庭管辖权之基础等多方面存在特殊性。为避免投资条约仲裁与国际商事仲裁“秘密性”等原则相冲突,一些国际组织和国家开始了改革投资条约仲裁的努力,这些努力可以视为对国际商事仲裁的发展起来。

  1. Interest in the ‘Test and Treat’ strategy for HIV prevention among men who have sex with men living in Bangkok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Teeratakulpisarn

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The current HIV epidemic in Thailand is primarily driven by new cases among men who have sex with men (MSM. HPTN052 study demonstrated 96% efficacy of immediate antiretroviral therapy (ART to reduce HIV transmission among serodiscordant heterosexual couples. As a result, universal HIV testing and immediate ART has emerged as a strategy to reduce HIV transmission in certain at-risk populations. The acceptability of this strategy, however, is unknown in MSM. Methods: From August 2011-March 2012, we conducted a cross-sectional study using self-administered questionnaires to assess attitudes towards universal HIV testing and immediate ART among MSM VCT clients in Bangkok. Participants were asked to complete the questionnaires prior to and after knowing their HIV status. The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand. Results: Of 342 MSM, the median age (IQR was 26 (22–31 years, and 34.2% had bachelor's degree or higher. Previous HIV testing was reported by 69.9%, 35.2% of which had HIV testing annually. The most common reasons for previous HIV testing included perceived risk behaviors (63.6%, annual health checkup (26.4%, and partner's request (13.8%. Prior to receiving pre-test counseling, 74.4% expressed interest to get regular HIV testing. Health benefits from testing (59.6%, free testing (36.5%, and speedy service (35.7% were the most common persuasive reasons to come for regular HIV testing. Longevity (73.1% and prevention of HIV transmission to others (58.4% were reasons for interest in immediate ART (if tested positive program while costs (37.0% and life-long burden (36.7% were cited as main barriers. Among MSM who tested HIV-positive (n=45, 13.2%, the interest to participate in immediate ART program was very high both before and after knowing their HIV status (86.7% vs 93.3%, p=0.371. Among HIV-negative MSM, the interest to participate in regular

  2. Risk behaviors and risk factors for HIV infection among participants in the Bangkok tenofovir study, an HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis trial among people who inject drugs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Martin

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: HIV spread rapidly among people who inject drugs in Bangkok in the late 1980s. In recent years, changes in drug use and HIV-associated risk behaviors have been reported. We examined data from the Bangkok Tenofovir Study, an HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis trial conducted among people who inject drugs, to assess participant risk behavior and drug use, and to identify risk factors for HIV infection. METHODS: The Bangkok Tenofovir Study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. HIV status was assessed monthly and risk behavior every 3 months. We used generalized estimating equations logistic regression to model trends of injecting, needle sharing, drugs injected, incarceration, and sexual activity reported at follow-up visits; and proportional hazards models to evaluate demographic characteristics, sexual activities, incarceration, drug injection practices, and drugs injected during follow-up as predictors of HIV infection. RESULTS: The proportion of participants injecting drugs, sharing needles, and reporting sex with more than one partner declined during follow-up (p<0.001. Among participants who reported injecting at enrollment, 801 (53.2% injected methamphetamine, 559 (37.1% midazolam, and 527 (35.0% heroin. In multivariable analysis, young age (i.e., 20-29 years (p = 0.02, sharing needles (p<0.001, and incarceration in prison (p = 0.002 were associated with incident HIV infection. Participants reporting sex with an opposite sex partner, live-in partner, casual partner, or men reporting sex with male partners were not at a significantly higher risk of HIV infection compared to those who did not report these behaviors. CONCLUSION: Reports of HIV-associated risk behavior declined significantly during the trial. Young age, needle sharing, and incarceration were independently associated with HIV infection. Sexual activity was not associated with HIV infection, suggesting that the reduction in HIV incidence among

  3. Evaluation of the International Monitoring System and International Data Centre of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluation and quality assurance activities of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) are reviewed with special emphasis on radionuclide technologies. The CTBTO carries out detailed evaluation in all fields of technical verification of the Treaty. The goal is to provide States Signatories with confidence in the quality of data from the International Monitoring System and data products of the International Data Centre. The largest technical evaluation effort has been the quality assessment of the operational software. About 1.3 million lines of source code and scripts were checked. Software characteristics, such as maintainability, were assessed using automated tool-based techniques and improvements were suggested. Specific to radionuclide technologies, several methods have been developed to cope with the large amounts of spectra produced each day by 80 radionuclide monitoring stations around the world. Some of the key evaluation results, such as the peak detection capability of the operational software are presented in detail. (orig.)

  4. Measurement of 37Ar to support technology for On-site Inspection under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty

    CERN Document Server

    Aalseth, C E; Haas, D A; Hoppe, E W; Hyronimus, B J; Keillor, M E; Mace, E K; Orrell, J L; Seifert, A; Woods, V T

    2010-01-01

    On-Site Inspection (OSI) is a key component of the verification regime for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Measurements of radionuclide isotopes created by an underground nuclear explosion are a valuable signature of a Treaty violation. Argon-37 is produced from neutron interaction with calcium in soil, 40Ca(n,{\\alpha})37Ar. For OSI, the 35-day half-life of 37Ar provides both high specific activity and sufficient time for completion of an inspection before decay limits sensitivity. This paper presents a low-background internal-source gas proportional counter with an 37Ar measurement sensitivity level equivalent to 45.1 mBq/SCM in whole air.

  5. China, Japan, and the United States in World War II: The Relinquishment of Unequal Treaties in 1943

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Ma

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to examine how the United States transformed its foreign policy to promote China as an “equal state” in international politics during World War II, with focus on the process of the American relinquishment of its unequal treaties with China in 1943. In particular, it concentrates on analyzing the conflicts between the United States and Japan in the process of relinquishment. By examining the rivalry between the United States and Japan in the social warfare – propaganda – we can see that the relinquishment of the unequal treaties in 1943 not only marked a historical turning point in America’s China policy, but also had a great impact on the transformation of East Asian politics in World War II and its influence in the world politics.

  6. Politics of motherhood: the case of Women Strike for Peace and the test ban treaty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swerdlow, A.G.

    1984-01-01

    This dissertation is a narrative history and organizational study of the formative years of Women Strike for Peace (1961-1963) and its campaign for a nuclear test ban treaty. WSP, a grass roots, participatory movement of American Women, was born on November 1, 1961 when an estimated 50,000 women in 60 communities across the nation walked out of their kitchens and off their jobs in a one day protest against Russian and American nuclear policies. In the process of transforming this one day strike into a national woman's movement, WSP developed a feminine political style characterized by an anti-heirarchical, anti-organizational format, simple, womanly rhetoric, and spontaneous, innovative national and international direct action. At a time when foreign policy dissenters were dismissed by the press and the public either as commies or kooks, the image that WSP projected to respectable middle-class, middle-aged peace mothers wearing white gloves and flowered hats while picketing the White House to save their children from nuclear holocaust caught the favorable attention of large sections of the media, the public, and even the President. Through an investigation of the program, internal debates, rhetoric, organizational structure, and tactics of WSP, along with the backgrounds of its leaders and members, this study uncovers the political and gender consciousness of the women who joined the movement.

  7. Deconstructing national leadership: politicians' accounts of electoral success and failure in the Irish Lisbon Treaty referenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Michele; Stevenson, Clifford

    2013-03-01

    The Self Categorization approach to national leadership proposes that leaders rhetorically construct national identity as essentialized and inevitable in order to consensualize and mobilize the population. In contrast, discursive studies have demonstrated how national politicians flexibly construct the nation to manage their own accountability in local interactions, though this in turn has neglected broader leadership processes. The present paper brings both approaches together to examine how and when national politicians construct versions of national identity in order to account for their failure as well as success in mobilizing the electorate. Eight semi-structured conversational style interviews were conducted with a strategic sample of eight leading Irish politicians on the subject of the 2008/2009 Irish Lisbon Treaty referenda. Using a Critical Discourse Psychology approach, the hegemonic repertoire of the 'settled will' of the informed and consensualized Irish nation was identified across all interviews. Politicians either endorsed the 'settled will' repertoire as evidence of their successful leadership, or rejected the repertoire by denying the rationality or unity of the populace to account for their failure. Our results suggest national identity is only constructed as essentialized and inevitable to the extent that it serves a strategic political purpose.

  8. THE ROLE OF SADC INSTITUTIONS IN IMPLEMENTING SADC TREATY PROVISIONS DEALING WITH REGIONAL INTEGRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amos Saurombe

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Without some level of institutionalisation or other means of enforcement, national commitment to regional trade integration is bound to face some challenges. Accordingly, transnational trade is obviously inhibited when the validity and enforcement of contracts, obligation and rules cannot be guaranteed beyond the term of office of an administration. Thus Member States' commitment to the work of institutions within a regional economic community like SADC is critical for the full implementation of the SADC Treaty and its Protocols. The Protocol on Trade has been hailed as the most important for integration in SADC. This paper will indicate that institutions are essential drivers of organisations and their role in regional integration is therefore very important. However under the current legal and institutional framework, the SADC regional integration agenda faces major challenges of implementation. SADC institutions are not capable of completely fulfilling their legal obligations, although in some instances the lack of fulfilment was clearly a result of the legal instruments themselves being incomplete and needing further reform.

  9. The Dynamics of Treaty Change – Measuring the Distribution of Power in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Biesenbender

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Analysing the distribution of power among political actors is at the heart of political science. I propose a way of analysing changes to the institutional equilibrium of the EU institutions as well as changes in the relationship between the supranational level and the member states from a historical perspective. At the core of the paper is a new dataset that allows us to trace changes to the EU treaties from 1958 to date. The findings are largely in line with what we know from the existing literature: Supranational actors, namely the European Parliament and the Commission have gained power, while the intergovernmental mode of decision-making has subsequently become more limited, thereby weakening the Council. Additionally, the expanding number of policy areas has strengthened the supranational level. The specific contribution of this paper is the transparent and replicable way in which I am able to reveal and map these changes. The dataset could function as a starting point for both qualitative and quantitative studies of European Integration. The dataset is available from the author upon request and will be made public on his website in due time.

  10. Treaty-Making in the European Union: Bargaining, Issue Linkages, and Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Mateo

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available A comparison of the results of the six most recent Intergovernmental Conferences (IGCs in the European Union (EU indicates that member governments' success in achieving substantial compromises based on issue linkages differs across cases. An examination of supranational and intergovernmental bargaining theory shows that both fail to provide a satisfactory explanation for this variation. Instead, we argue that the problem that all participants to a negotiation have an incentive to maximise individual rather than overall gains often leads to efficiency losses. In IGCs, EU member states established two procedures to surmount this problem: a preparatory phase precedes the actual negotiations, and the Council presidency acts as a mediator in the negotiations. Lack of time for preparation, a biased presidency, or external shocks that reduce the capacity of the presidency to guide the negotiations, however, can cause efficiency losses in IGCs since under these conditions the two procedures fall short of facilitating bargaining efficiency. In an empirical analysis of all IGCs from the Single European Act to the Constitutional Treaty, we find support for our argument.

  11. Deconstructing national leadership: politicians' accounts of electoral success and failure in the Irish Lisbon Treaty referenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Michele; Stevenson, Clifford

    2013-03-01

    The Self Categorization approach to national leadership proposes that leaders rhetorically construct national identity as essentialized and inevitable in order to consensualize and mobilize the population. In contrast, discursive studies have demonstrated how national politicians flexibly construct the nation to manage their own accountability in local interactions, though this in turn has neglected broader leadership processes. The present paper brings both approaches together to examine how and when national politicians construct versions of national identity in order to account for their failure as well as success in mobilizing the electorate. Eight semi-structured conversational style interviews were conducted with a strategic sample of eight leading Irish politicians on the subject of the 2008/2009 Irish Lisbon Treaty referenda. Using a Critical Discourse Psychology approach, the hegemonic repertoire of the 'settled will' of the informed and consensualized Irish nation was identified across all interviews. Politicians either endorsed the 'settled will' repertoire as evidence of their successful leadership, or rejected the repertoire by denying the rationality or unity of the populace to account for their failure. Our results suggest national identity is only constructed as essentialized and inevitable to the extent that it serves a strategic political purpose. PMID:21988737

  12. The International Data Centre of the comprehensive nuclear-test-ban treaty: vision and progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mission of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty International Data Centre (IDC) is to: (a) acquire data over a Global Communications Infrastructure from a global network of 337 facilities of the International Monitoring Systems (IMS), (b) to process and analyze these data, and (c) to provide the IMS data, IDC products and services to Member States. In effect, the IDC symbolizes a new brand of arms control for the information age, leveraging Internet communications, knowledge-based data fusion, graphical decision support systems and Web-based user interfaces to achieve its mission. During 2000, the IDC was disseminating products based on data from about 90 seismic, hydroacoustic, infrasound and radionuclide stations of the future network. The number of events in the reviewed seismo-acoustic bulletins ranged from 40 to 360 each day. On average, some 200 radionuclide spectra were processed and analysed each month. Users from 45 Member States received an average of close to 18,000 data and product deliveries per month from the IDC. As the IDC continues to prepare for entry-into-force of the CTBT, it will continue to integrate the state-of-the-art in science and technology in order to meet the demands of the increasing volume of new types of IMS data, expanded IDC services, and a growing base of users. (orig.)

  13. Cosmic veto gamma-spectrometry for Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnett, J.L., E-mail: jonathan.burnett@awe.co.uk; Davies, A.V.

    2014-05-21

    The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) is supported by a global network of monitoring stations that perform high-resolution gamma-spectrometry on air filter samples for the identification of 85 radionuclides. At the UK CTBT Radionuclide Laboratory (GBL15), a novel cosmic veto gamma-spectrometer has been developed to improve the sensitivity of station measurements, providing a mean background reduction of 80.8% with mean MDA improvements of 45.6%. The CTBT laboratory requirement for a {sup 140}Ba MDA is achievable after 1.5 days counting compared to 5–7 days using conventional systems. The system consists of plastic scintillation plates that detect coincident cosmic-ray interactions within an HPGe gamma-spectrometer using the Canberra Lynx{sup TM} multi-channel analyser. The detector is remotely configurable using a TCP/IP interface and requires no dedicated coincidence electronics. It would be especially useful in preventing false-positives at remote station locations (e.g. Halley, Antarctica) where sample transfer to certified laboratories is logistically difficult. The improved sensitivity has been demonstrated for a CTBT air filter sample collected after the Fukushima incident.

  14. Research of Nasosinusitis in Internal Classic and Treaties of Cold-Attack%鼻渊溯源

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐秋玲; 刘涛

    2011-01-01

    时代,人们认为变应性鼻炎与肺、肾、胆、手足阳明经、足太阳膀胱经关系密切,为其后的治疗奠定了坚实的理论基础.认为鼻塞、鼻鸣、鼻干等症状与太阳经病、阳明经病及寒湿之邪有关,并提出相应治法,为变应性鼻炎的治疗提供可靠依据.%People in the period of Internal Classic had known the there were a close relation between nasosinusitis and lung, kidney, gallbladder, hand and foot Yang Ming meridian and foot Tai Yang bladder meridian, which built a theory base for the therapy of allergic rhitinis. Treaties of Cold-Attack thought the syndromes of nasal obstruction and dryness were related to Tai Yang meridian disease, Yang Ming meridian disease and the evil of cold and dampness, and brought out the responding therapy methods, which provided depending proof for the therapy of allergic rhitinis.

  15. Politics of motherhood: the case of Women Strike for Peace and the test ban treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This dissertation is a narrative history and organizational study of the formative years of Women Strike for Peace (1961-1963) and its campaign for a nuclear test ban treaty. WSP, a grass roots, participatory movement of American Women, was born on November 1, 1961 when an estimated 50,000 women in 60 communities across the nation walked out of their kitchens and off their jobs in a one day protest against Russian and American nuclear policies. In the process of transforming this one day strike into a national woman's movement, WSP developed a feminine political style characterized by an anti-heirarchical, anti-organizational format, simple, womanly rhetoric, and spontaneous, innovative national and international direct action. At a time when foreign policy dissenters were dismissed by the press and the public either as commies or kooks, the image that WSP projected to respectable middle-class, middle-aged peace mothers wearing white gloves and flowered hats while picketing the White House to save their children from nuclear holocaust caught the favorable attention of large sections of the media, the public, and even the President. Through an investigation of the program, internal debates, rhetoric, organizational structure, and tactics of WSP, along with the backgrounds of its leaders and members, this study uncovers the political and gender consciousness of the women who joined the movement

  16. Explaining Political Party Performance in European Communication: A Qualitative Comparative Analysis of Party Political Cueing in domestic EU Treaty Ratification.

    OpenAIRE

    Packham, Kathrin

    2009-01-01

    Political parties messages or cues constitute important factors shaping public attitudes not only on domestic matters but also on issues of European integration and constitutionalisation. The question explored in the book is, how national political parties communication matters for European integration. The study aims at providing explanations for the politicisation of European contentious politics here EU treaty ratification by analysing patterns of variation in political parties public comm...

  17. The proposed Fissile Material Cutoff Treaty (FMCT) and its potential impact on U.S. Navy nuclear propulsion programs

    OpenAIRE

    Burgess, Marion

    2010-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis examines the problems that United States Navy nuclear propulsion programs might encounter if the United States agreed to sign a version of the proposed Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty (FMCT) affecting the production of nuclear reactor fuel. The ultimate purpose of the FMCT is to contribute to the fulfillment of the goal of nuclear disarmament by terminating the production of plutonium and highly enriched uranium for we...

  18. Relationships between Investor-State Arbitration and Local Remedy Procedures in Bilateral Investment Treaties/Economic Partnership Agreements (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    Abe, Yoshinori

    2007-01-01

    In this paper I closely scrutinize the legal relationships between investment arbitration and local remedy procedures in the global "network" of bilateral investment treaties (BITs) and free trade agreements (FTAs)/economic partnership agreements (EPAs), examining the desirable ways in which the two relationships should be regulated. When investors refer disputes to investment arbitration (procedures for international arbitration between investors and states) they are not required to exhaust ...

  19. Protection of the Investor's Legitimate Expectations: Intersection of a treaty obligation and a general principle of law (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    HAMAMOTO Shotaro

    2014-01-01

    In treaty-based investment arbitration, tribunals quite often render their awards referring to the protection of the investor's legitimate expectations. A number of tribunals deal with this issue in the context of the application of the fair and equitable treatment clause and argue that the clause is (not) violated because the investor's legitimate expectations are (not) frustrated. Tribunals consider that such expectations are generated by conducts (or omissions) by the host State when the i...

  20. Assessing the validity of reservations to international human rights treaties through the lens of the International Court of Justice

    OpenAIRE

    Zyberi, G.

    2008-01-01

    This article looks at the issue of the validity of reservations to international human rights treaties through the lens of the International Court of Justice (ICJ or Court). A broader perspective is created by comparing the respective positions adopted by other international bodies, such as the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR), the Human Rights Committee (HRC), and the International Law Commission (ILC or Commission). In its 1951 advisory opinion in the Reservations to the Genocide Conv...

  1. The Text of the Agreement between Iraq and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The text of the Agreement between Iraq and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members

  2. Statement by the Iraqi Ministry of Foreign Affairs on the twentieth anniversary of Iraq's ratification of the treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons (NPT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document reproduces the full text of the statement made by the Iraqi Ministry of Foreign Affairs on the twentieth anniversary of Iraq's ratification of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

  3. The Text of the Agreement between Iran and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The text of the agreement between Iran and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members

  4. Yakama Indian Nation Treaty rights and development of cleanup standards for D and D and ER actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Yakama Indian Nation (YIN) is a sovereign government located in the Northwestern United States. In 1855, the US government recognized Yakama Nation dominion on 12.2 million acres of land, or more than one-quarter of present-day Washington State. In the Treaty of 1855 between US and Yakama representatives, the YIN ceded control on 10.8 million acres of its ancestral land to the US government, but retained certain perpetual rights to that land. The Hanford Nuclear Site is located on Yakama ceded land, upon which the YIN retains rights to fish, hunt, gather roots and berries, and to pasture horses and cattle. The YIN has been recognized by the US Department of Energy as having regulatory authority concerning Hanford operations. This authority requires incorporation of YIN Treaty rights in the development of environmental cleanup standards for D and D and ER actions. The legal and policy framework upon which YIN environmental protection standards are based includes protection of the health, safety and well-being of YIN Tribal members, protection of the environment necessary to support Treaty protected resources, and preservation of the culture which sustains the unique YIN lifestyle and religion. The basis for Yakama cleanup standards will address risk, environmental, and cultural factors. It is recognized that the unique Yakama lifestyle and diet create specific exposure pathways for hazardous and radioactive materials which are not routinely factored into risk models used to calculate doses

  5. Examining the Sociocultural Context of HIV-related Risk Behaviors Among Kathoey (Male-to-female Transgender Women) Sex Workers in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Tooru; Cruz, Taylor; Iwamoto, Mariko; Trocki, Karen; Perngparn, Usaneya; Areesantichai, Chitlada; Suzuki, Sachiko; Roberts, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Kathoey (male-to-female transgender) sex workers (KSW) in Thailand are at high risk for sexually transmitted infections; however, few qualitative studies have been conducted to understand the sociocultural context of engaging in HIV risk behaviors. A total of 24 participants were purposively sampled in Bangkok based on KSW work venues and substance use. Results revealed the importance of participants' understanding of the self in relation to establishing economic independence through sex work, which could then be used to re-establish support from family, who often have not accepted a son's gender transition. Participants linked being kathoey to a belief in fate but did not view engagement in sex work in the same way. Different sex work venues exposed KSW to different risky situations. HIV prevention programs for kathoey must address the importance of economic security and its relation to social support and gender transition within a cultural- and work-environment-specific framework. PMID:26856798

  6. Examining the Sociocultural Context of HIV-related Risk Behaviors Among Kathoey (Male-to-female Transgender Women) Sex Workers in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Tooru; Cruz, Taylor; Iwamoto, Mariko; Trocki, Karen; Perngparn, Usaneya; Areesantichai, Chitlada; Suzuki, Sachiko; Roberts, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Kathoey (male-to-female transgender) sex workers (KSW) in Thailand are at high risk for sexually transmitted infections; however, few qualitative studies have been conducted to understand the sociocultural context of engaging in HIV risk behaviors. A total of 24 participants were purposively sampled in Bangkok based on KSW work venues and substance use. Results revealed the importance of participants' understanding of the self in relation to establishing economic independence through sex work, which could then be used to re-establish support from family, who often have not accepted a son's gender transition. Participants linked being kathoey to a belief in fate but did not view engagement in sex work in the same way. Different sex work venues exposed KSW to different risky situations. HIV prevention programs for kathoey must address the importance of economic security and its relation to social support and gender transition within a cultural- and work-environment-specific framework.

  7. Ecohydrology from Concepts to On-ground Actions: Report of Special Side Event on Ecohydrology-An Interdisciplinary Challenge, January 5-7, 2009 in Bangkok, Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Demin; Shahbaz KHAN

    2009-01-01

    International Hydrological Programme Ⅶ (IHP-Ⅶ) directs the research objectives of hydrologists all over the world from 2008 to 2013. As a key programme contributed to the IHP Ⅶ, UNESCO's Ecohydrology Programme (EHP) has evolved into a trans-disciplinary scientific programme to analyze dynamic relationships between hydrological, social and ecological systems. Twenty international experts from 12 countries were invited by UNESCO to attend the side event on "Ecohydrology--An Interdisciplinary Challenge" in Bangkok, Thailand. It aimed to synthesize knowledge gaps for addressing issues related to critical water systems. This event focused on how better knowledge of the interrelationships between the hydrological cycle, livelihoods and ecosystems could be contributed to more cost-effective and environmental-friendly management. The five themes of the event with 20 keynote lectures were given as fellows.

  8. FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH EXTENDED SPECTRUM β-LACTAMASE PRODUCING ESCHERICHIA COLI IN COMMUNITY-ACQUIRED URINARY TRACT INFECTION AT HOSPITAL EMERGENCY DEPARTMENT, BANGKOK, THAILAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savatmorigkorngul, Sorravit; Poowarattanawiwit, Pongsuree; Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak; Sittichanbuncha, Yuwares

    2016-03-01

    Urinary tract infection or UTI is most commonly caused by Escherichia coli. This study investigated the prevalence of and risk factors for extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing (ESBL) E. coli in community-acquired UTI presenting at the Emergency Department, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand. A retrospective review was conducted over a one-year period (2014) of case histories of patients over 15 years of age diagnosed with (n = 159) and without culture-positive (n = 249) ESBL E. coli. Backward stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed four independent risk factors for UTI caused by ESBL E. coli, namely, urinary catheter use, previous UTI in which ESBL E. coli was present, and previous use of antibiotics cephalosporin and penicillin. This information should be useful in devising future public health prevention and control programs for ESBL E. coli-associated community-acquired UTI.

  9. Protocol Additional to the agreement between the Republic of El Salvador and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of El Salvador and the International Atomic Energy Agency in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in the Annex to this document for the information of all Members. The Additional Protocol was approved by the Board of Governors on 23 September 2002. It was signed on 5 September 2003. Pursuant to Article 17 of the Additional Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on 24 May 2004, the date on which Agency received from El Salvador written notification that El Salvador's statutory and/or constitutional requirements for entry into force had been met

  10. Loss to follow-up and bias assessment among a cohort of Thai men who have sex with men in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattanasin, Sarika; Wimonsate, Wipas; Chonwattana, Wannee; Tongtoyai, Jaray; Chaikummao, Supaporn; Sriporn, Anuwat; Sukwicha, Wichuda; Mock, Philip A; Holtz, Timothy H

    2016-03-01

    Minimising loss to follow-up is essential to obtain unbiased results. This study aimed to assess factors associated with loss to follow-up and effects on biasing exposure-outcome associations in a cohort of men who have sex with men in Bangkok. We enrolled sexually-active Thai men who have sex with men, at least 18 years old, in a study with four-monthly follow-up visits. At each visit, men answered HIV risk behaviour questions using audio computer-assisted self-interview. Logistic regression was used to evaluate factors associated with loss to follow-up and bias between exposures and prevalent HIV infection were estimated using adjusted relative odds ratios. From 2006 to 2010, we enrolled 1744 men who have sex with men; as of April, 2014, 1256 (72%) had completed at least the month-36 visit; loss to follow-up was 9.6%. Factors independently associated with loss to follow-up were age (18-21 years), education (primary level or less, secondary or vocational education), living outside Bangkok and vicinity, sexual orientation (bisexual, heterosexual), previous HIV testing, HIV infection, and behaviour in the past 4 months (recreational drug use, reporting group sex). An effect of loss to follow-up on factors of prevalent HIV infection was found by sexual orientation (transgender) and unprotected anal intercourse (receptive/insertive). These findings highlight the need to strengthen post-HIV test counselling. Directed counselling for HIV care should be given to young men who have sex with men and recreational drug users.

  11. Monitoring and assessment of daily exposure of roadside workers to traffic noise levels in an Asian city: a case study of Bangkok streets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Shing Tet; Laortanakul, Preecha

    2003-06-01

    Four noise monitoring sites were strategically established to evaluate average noise level and audiometric assessment at various traffic zones of Bangkok Metropolitan Region (BMR). During the monitoring period, noise levels were found to be 72.8-83.0 dBA during day time and 59.5-74.5 dBA during night time. The finding also indicated that traffic noise levels depend on distance from roadside, diurnal variation and character of the traffic and street configuration. Audiometric measurement of 4000 persons was carried by four major hospitals in Bangkok to study the relationship between traffic noise exposure of groups of people working in the streets and hearing loss. Four different categories of occupational people, i.e., drivers, street vendors, traffic officers and dwellers were selected and were further classified into age groups (16-25, 26-35, 36-45 and 46-55 years old) to monitor the traffic noise induced hearing loss throughout their everyday lives. The control group was deliberately chosen to screen out the effects of traffic noise. According to the audiometric investigation, it was revealed that hearing capacity of the daily noise exposure groups living in the three urban sites (Yaowarat Road, Din Daeng Road and Ratchaprarop Road) were noticeably poorer than those who were living in suburban site (Phahonyothin Road). It was noted that the mean hearing threshold level (HTL) of the 16-25 years old groups were found to have better hearing capacity than those older adults of 46-55 years old. In particular the mean HTL dropped at the frequency of 4000 Hz. Among the occupational population who were living in the urban monitoring sites, the driver groups were found to have the highest risk of traffic noise induced hearing loss. PMID:12807257

  12. Loss to follow-up and bias assessment among a cohort of Thai men who have sex with men in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattanasin, Sarika; Wimonsate, Wipas; Chonwattana, Wannee; Tongtoyai, Jaray; Chaikummao, Supaporn; Sriporn, Anuwat; Sukwicha, Wichuda; Mock, Philip A; Holtz, Timothy H

    2016-03-01

    Minimising loss to follow-up is essential to obtain unbiased results. This study aimed to assess factors associated with loss to follow-up and effects on biasing exposure-outcome associations in a cohort of men who have sex with men in Bangkok. We enrolled sexually-active Thai men who have sex with men, at least 18 years old, in a study with four-monthly follow-up visits. At each visit, men answered HIV risk behaviour questions using audio computer-assisted self-interview. Logistic regression was used to evaluate factors associated with loss to follow-up and bias between exposures and prevalent HIV infection were estimated using adjusted relative odds ratios. From 2006 to 2010, we enrolled 1744 men who have sex with men; as of April, 2014, 1256 (72%) had completed at least the month-36 visit; loss to follow-up was 9.6%. Factors independently associated with loss to follow-up were age (18-21 years), education (primary level or less, secondary or vocational education), living outside Bangkok and vicinity, sexual orientation (bisexual, heterosexual), previous HIV testing, HIV infection, and behaviour in the past 4 months (recreational drug use, reporting group sex). An effect of loss to follow-up on factors of prevalent HIV infection was found by sexual orientation (transgender) and unprotected anal intercourse (receptive/insertive). These findings highlight the need to strengthen post-HIV test counselling. Directed counselling for HIV care should be given to young men who have sex with men and recreational drug users. PMID:25792548

  13. The Need to Update Policies for Science, Exploration, Use and Protection in Outer Space: Learning from Experiences of the Antarctic Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Race, Margaret; Sterns, Patricia; Tennen, Leslie

    The Outer Space Treaty and its planetary protection provisions have served the science and space communities for over four decades in protecting planetary environments from biolog-ical contamination. However, the increasing pace of planned robotic and human missions, combined with our changed understanding of habitability and planetary environments, bring new challenges to environmental stewardship beyond Earth. This presentation reviews current environmental and planetary protection policies under the Outer Space Treaty and identifies specific gaps that could be problematic for the scientific community in the years and decades ahead. A comparison of the Antarctic Treaty and the Outer Space Treaty is also useful to identify important similarities and differences in approaches to environmental protection and management. Since both treaties aim to safeguard resources for humankind and ensure peace-ful scientific exploration and cooperation, it is instructive to analyze how each Treaty and its policies have been revised over time in response to various challenges— scientific, environmen-tal, commercial and otherwise. This comparison suggests that the space science community should become proactively involved in addressing issues of preservation, protection, and use of planetary environments, whether for science exploration or other activities. Perhaps the time has come to re-evaluate our piecemeal approach to planetary management, and undertake coordinated, international planning to develop a comprehensive framework for environmental management and decision making, one that applies to all types of human activities —not just scientific.

  14. The Fiscal Governance Treaty - the Recent Act in the European Play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica SUSANU

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The new paradigm that affects the current doctrine is particularly focused on building a strong community and it is also motivated by the intention of saving the Lisbon Treaty with its establishing the European Constitution. In the series of the numerous leading up steps required to achieve this goal, approaches the studies on the concept of sovereignty are necessary for clarification, given that in this way only the Union can be setup as a person - on the one hand, and - on the other hand, this is the basis of ensuring coherence between European political order and sovereignty / autonomy of national institutions. Bitter experiences of radical nationalism which culminated in the disasters of the Second World War led to the conceptual reconfiguration of the sovereignty, gradually replaced with a new expression, the super nationalism. Moreover, in order to hindering the possible future recurrence and the temptation to concentrate all the available powers at certain national governments’ disposal only, a comprehensive course of division of sovereignty was designed, as an optimal strategic alternative in ensuring the durability and sustainability of the European federalist model. In terms of economic integration and trade globalization, the taxation of a state has a rapid impact on another state, so that the rapprochement of the global tax policy, as well as the need to harmonize tax systems across countries are increasingly spoken about. Although that these measures can upset all tax systems deeply changing the approaches regarding both fiscal and political states’ sovereignty, in the current situation, such an unforeseen development is inherent. Therefore, each step meant to approach the full integration of the community raises special efforts for consensus actions and strongly motivated as well, by a very special interest at the highest level of the macroeconomic and political decision.

  15. Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty research and development FY95-96 program plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1994-11-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for the United States Government`s (USG) research and development (R&D) functions for monitoring nuclear explosions in the context of a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). This responsibility includes the November 1993 transfer of the Department of Defense`s (DoD) CTBT R&D responsibility to DOE. The DOE research program builds on the broad base of USG expertise developed historically and includes R&D for detecting, locating, identifying, and characterizing nuclear explosions in all environments. The Office of Research and Development (NN-20), within the Department of Energy`s Office of Nonproliferation and National Security, formulates and executes the efforts necessary to meet the Department`s responsibilities. The following DOE laboratories as a team will support NN-20 in implementing the program plan: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratories. DOE has committed to a cooperative program that draws upon the core competencies of the national laboratories and upon the strengths of other government agencies and the private sector (academia and industry). The integration of resources under a common direction will allow the program to be flexible and responsive to changing technical and policy requirements while maximizing the effectiveness of funding appropriations. DOE will develop and demonstrate appropriate technologies, algorithms, procedures, and integrated systems in a cost-effective and timely manner. The program comprises seismic, radionuclide, hydroacoustic, and infrasound monitoring; on-site inspection; space-based monitoring; and automated data processing elements.

  16. Geophysics, Remote Sensing, and the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) Integrated Field Exercise 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, A. J.; Macleod, G.; Labak, P.; Malich, G.; Rowlands, A. P.; Craven, J.; Sweeney, J. J.; Chiappini, M.; Tuckwell, G.; Sankey, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Integrated Field Exercise of 2014 (IFE14) was an event held in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (with concurrent activities in Austria) that tested the operational and technical capabilities of an on-site inspection (OSI) within the CTBT verification regime. During an OSI, up to 40 international inspectors will search an area for evidence of a nuclear explosion. Over 250 experts from ~50 countries were involved in IFE14 (the largest simulation of a real OSI to date) and worked from a number of different directions, such as the Exercise Management and Control Teams (which executed the scenario in which the exercise was played) and those participants performing as members of the Inspection Team (IT). One of the main objectives of IFE14 was to test and integrate Treaty allowed inspection techniques, including a number of geophysical and remote sensing methods. In order to develop a scenario in which the simulated exercise could be carried out, suites of physical features in the IFE14 inspection area were designed and engineered by the Scenario Task Force (STF) that the IT could detect by applying the geophysical and remote sensing inspection technologies, in addition to other techniques allowed by the CTBT. For example, in preparation for IFE14, the STF modeled a seismic triggering event that was provided to the IT to prompt them to detect and localize aftershocks in the vicinity of a possible explosion. Similarly, the STF planted shallow targets such as borehole casings and pipes for detection using other geophysical methods. In addition, airborne technologies, which included multi-spectral imaging, were deployed such that the IT could identify freshly exposed surfaces, imported materials, and other areas that had been subject to modification. This presentation will introduce the CTBT and OSI, explain the IFE14 in terms of the goals specific to geophysical and remote sensing methods, and show how both the preparation for and execution of IFE14 meet those goals.

  17. Treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons. 2005 review conference of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, 2 May 2005, United Nations, New York, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The core of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons can be summed up in two words: 'Security' and 'Development'. While the States Party to this Treaty hold differing priorities and views, I trust that all share these two goals: development for all through advanced technology; and security for all by reducing - and ultimately eliminating - the nuclear threat. These shared goals were the foundation on which the international community, in 1970, built this landmark Treaty. They agreed to work towards a world free of nuclear weapons. They agreed, while working towards this goal, to prevent the acquisition of nuclear weapons by additional States. And they agreed to make the peaceful applications of nuclear energy available to all. Folded together, these agreements, these commitments, are mutually reinforcing. They are as valid today as when they were first made - and even more urgent. What should be all too evident is that, if we cannot work together, each acknowledging the development priorities and security concerns of the other, then the result of this Conference will be inaction. In five years, since the 2000 NPT Review Conference the world has changed. Our fears of a deadly nuclear detonation, whatever the cause, have been reawakened. These realities have heightened the awareness of vulnerabilities in the NPT regime. The Treaty has served us well for 35 years. But unless we regard it as part of a living, dynamic regime - capable of evolving to match changing realities, it will fade into irrelevance and leave us vulnerable and unprotected. The expectations from this Conference are to: re-affirm the goals established in 1970; strengthen the IAEA's verification authority; control over proliferation sensitive parts of the nuclear fuel cycle (activities that involve uranium enrichment and plutonium separation); secure and control nuclear material; show the world that our commitment to nuclear disarmament is firm; back the verification efforts by an

  18. EXAMINING THE ROLE AND RESEARCH CHALLENGES OF SOCIAL MEDIA AS A TOOL FOR NONPROLIFERATION AND ARMS CONTROL TREATY VERIFICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, Michael J.; Cramer, Nicholas O.; Benz, Jacob M.; Gastelum, Zoe N.; Kreyling, Sean J.; West, Curtis L.

    2014-05-13

    Traditional arms control treaty verification activities typically involve a combination of technical measurements via physical and chemical sensors, state declarations, political agreements, and on-site inspections involving international subject matter experts. However, the ubiquity of the internet, and the electronic sharing of data that it enables, has made available a wealth of open source information with the potential to benefit verification efforts. Open source information is already being used by organizations such as the International Atomic Energy Agency to support the verification of state-declared information, prepare inspectors for in-field activities, and to maintain situational awareness . The recent explosion in social media use has opened new doors to exploring the attitudes, moods, and activities around a given topic. Social media platforms, such as Twitter, Facebook, and YouTube, offer an opportunity for individuals, as well as institutions, to participate in a global conversation at minimal cost. Social media data can also provide a more data-rich environment, with text data being augmented with images, videos, and location data. The research described in this paper investigates the utility of applying social media signatures as potential arms control and nonproliferation treaty verification tools and technologies, as determined through a series of case studies. The treaty relevant events that these case studies touch upon include detection of undeclared facilities or activities, determination of unknown events recorded by the International Monitoring System (IMS), and the global media response to the occurrence of an Indian missile launch. The case studies examine how social media can be used to fill an information gap and provide additional confidence to a verification activity. The case studies represent, either directly or through a proxy, instances where social media information may be available that could potentially augment the evaluation

  19. The radionuclide monitoring system of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organisation: from sample to product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radionuclide monitoring network is one of the four technical components of the compliance-verification system associated with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Concentrations of radionuclides in the air are monitored at 80 stations worldwide from which spectral and counting data, together with meteorological and state-of-health data, are transmitted through a Global Communication Infrastructure to the Provisional Technical Secretariat in Vienna where the data are analyzed and reported as bulletins for States Parties. Support is provided by 16 Radionuclide Laboratories, which conduct sample analyses if necessary. (orig.)

  20. Impact of North Atlantic Treaty Organization Policies and Procedures on Combined Medical Operations: Food and Water Safety and Veterinary Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Timothy H; Chevalier, Nicole A; Scher, Gregory R; Burke, Ronald L

    2016-01-01

    Effective multilateral military operations such as those conducted by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) require close cooperation and standardization between member nations to ensure interoperability. Failure to standardize policies, procedures, and doctrine prior to the commencement of military operations will result in critical interoperability gaps, which jeopardize the health of NATO forces and mission success. To prevent these gaps from occurring, US forces must be actively involved with NATO standardization efforts such as the Committee of the Chiefs of Medical Services to ensure US interests are properly represented when NATO standards are developed and US doctrine and procedures will meet the established NATO requirements. PMID:27215889

  1. Agreement between the Republic of Panama and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America. An agreement by exchange of letters of 6 November 1995 and 17 November 2003 with the Republic of Panama in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The text of the Exchange of Letters is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. This Exchange of Letters constitutes an agreement confirming that: the Safeguards Agreement of 23 March 1984, concluded between the Republic of Panama and the IAEA, pursuant to the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean (the Tlatelolco Treaty), also satisfies the obligation of Panama under Article III of the Treaty on the Non- Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) to conclude a safeguards agreement with the IAEA; the safeguards set forth in the Safeguards Agreement shall also apply, as regards Panama, in connection with the NPT; the provisions of the Safeguards Agreement shall apply as long as Panama is party to the NPT or the Tlatelolco Treaty or both. The agreement reflected in the Exchange of Letters was approved by the Board of Governors on 20 November 2003, and pursuant to its terms, entered into force on that date

  2. The most-favoured-nation clause in tax treaties: tool for potential reduction of withholding income tax applicable to Chile and Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renée Antonieta Villagra Cayamana

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Tax treaties to avoid the double taxation signed by a country have consequences for the future, but they can also modify the terms of treaties that are already in force, in case these contain most-favoured-nation clauses. In this line, taxpayers and companies, particularly, as well as the Tax Administration must be alert, regarding topotential modifications of the terms of the Peruvian tax treaties already in force; mainly about the withholding tax rate applied to royalties in the Convention subscribed with Chile and the withholding tax rates applied to dividends, interests and royalties in the Convention subscribed with Canada, taking into account that both of the mentioned tax treaties contain most-favoured-nation clauses for those kind of income. The Ministry of Economy, as the entity in charge of negotiations of the bilateral conventions, according to Law Decree 25883, has the responsibility of negotiating future treaties with full knowledge that the terms to be included could also cause the effect to decrease the withholding tax rates of the income tax in respect to conventions already in effect, as a consequence of the most-favoured-nation clause they contain.

  3. Agreement of 2 October 1974 between Ecuador and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. An agreement by Exchange of Letters with Ecuador to amend the Protocol to the Safeguards Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The text of the Exchange of Letters, constituting an agreement to amend the Protocol to the Agreement of 2 October 1974 between the Republic of Ecuador and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, is reproduced in this document for the information of all Member States of the Agency

  4. Agreement between the Dominican Republic and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. An agreement by Exchange of Letters with the Dominican Republic to amend the Protocol to the Safeguards Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The text of the Exchange of Letters, constituting an agreement to amend the Protocol to the Agreement between the Dominican Government and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, is reproduced in this document for the information of all Member States of the Agency

  5. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Nicaragua and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Nicaragua and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for teh Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in the Annex to this document for the information of all Members. The Additional Protocol was approved by the Board of Governors on 12 June 2002

  6. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Dominican Republic and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Dominican Republic and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Additional Protocol on 23 November 2006. It was signed in Vienna on 20 September 2007

  7. Agreement of 9 September 1996 between Antigua and Barbuda and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. An Agreement by Exchange of Letters with Antigua and Barbuda to amend the Protocol to the Safeguards Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The text of the Exchange of Letters, constituting an agreement to amend the Protocol to the Agreement between the Antigua and Barbuda and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, is reproduced in this document for the information of all Member States of the Agency

  8. The energy title in the Lisbon Treaty. Old wine in new bottles; Der Energietitel im Vertrag von Lissabon. Alter Wein in neuen Schlaeuchen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papenkort, Katja [Bundesministerium des Innern, Berlin (Germany); Wellershoff, Jan-Kristof [Sozietaet Gleiss Lutz, Muenchen (Germany)

    2010-03-15

    Article 194 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union establishes the first ever explicit title of competence in the history of European community law authorising the promulgation of measures in the energy sector. Since the expiry of the ECSC Treaty, and with the exception of the regulations contained in the Euroatom Treaty, there has been no competence title authorising the European Union to enact regulations in the area of energy policy. Although such measures were taken nonetheless, they were enacted by the European Community on the basis of various unspecific competence titles. This gave currency to the expression of ''patchwork competence'' in regard to Europe's authority in the energy sector. This article analyses the new title of competence, marking it off against other regulations relating to the energy sector.

  9. Proceedings of the 21st Seismic Research Symposium: Technologies for Monitoring The Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, N. Jill [Editor

    1999-09-21

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 21st Seismic Research Symposium: Technologies for Monitoring The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, held 21-24 September 1999 in Las Vegas, Nevada. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Department of Defense (DoD), the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  10. European Union’s integration issues after the rejection of the Constitutional Treaty. A Neo-Gramscian anaylsis (I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Mădălina BONCILĂ

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Through this paper we have tried to question the reality of EU’ s integration and to identify the factors that shaped it. The complexity of this process led to multiple perspectives of analyzing it. We believe that Neo- Gramscian theory of European integration, although not so well-known, can be considered the most appropriate methodological support in explaining the events that have redefined the European integration: the rejection of the Constitutional Treaty, the financial crisis and the emergence of the Lisbon Treaty. We started from the assumption that the EU has obvious neo-liberal connotations, which led to the emergence of functional obstacles difficult to overcome, especially when it comes to the social dimension of the EU. Therefore, we divided the work into two basic parts, the first explains the methodology used, the main concepts, what neo-liberalism is and which are the EU’ s neo-liberal expressions and in the second part we focused on the social dimension of the EU, talking about the lack of substance that we found in the rhetoric of Fundamental Rights. Using the trade unions we have exemplified the inability of the EU to cope with social challenges, especially since there are forms of skepticism focused strictly on social discontent. The conclusions confirm that the Neo-Gramscian theory is the most suitable methodological support in an attempt to capture the nuances of EU’ s neo-liberal expressions.

  11. The Effects Of The Yenikoy Treaty On The Armenians And The Russian-Armenian Collaboration In World War I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nejla

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available After the Ottoman Empire lost the first Balkan war, its situation changed drastically. All the weaknesses of the army and the administration came into notice. The issue of the Armenian reforms resulted in the interfering of the Great Powers in the empire’s internal affairs. With the Yenikoy treaty signed between Russia and the Ottoman Empire on February 9th, 1914, the reform demands of the Armenians were met. After that treaty, though, it had been observed that the Armenians started losing allegiance to the state and began arming themselves. Moreover, the Russian pressure on the Ottoman Empire also increased. After the bursting out of the World War I, Armenians thought that they could gain independence from the state with the help of Russia and the other Allied Powers. Therefore, Armenian National Delegacy started recruiting Armenian volunteers to fight in the Russian army. These volunteers were organized as separate units by the Russians. Their duties were to conduct intelligence duties for the Russians and opening the frontiers for the Russian army by performing guerilla wars. Armenians successfully conducted their duties, which resulted in the retreatment of the Turkish army from lots of places, even including Van. However, the Turkish army also put some effort in band activities. In this study, both the effects of Russia and the other Allied Powers on the Armenians and their standpoints towards the Ottoman Empire will be investigated.

  12. Occurrence of the - -(SEA), - -(THAI) and - -(FIL) α-Thalassemia-1 Carriers from a 7-Year Study at Ramathibodi Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongjantharasatien, Kobkorn; Banyatsuppasin, Wansa; Pounsawat, Sonnarong; Jindadamrongwech, Sumalee

    2016-08-01

    α-Thalassemia (α-thal) is one of the most common genetic diseases in Thailand. Homozygosity of α-thal-1 (- -/- -) and compound heterozygosity of α-thal-1/α-thal-2 (- -/-α) leads to Hb Bart's (γ4) hydrops fetalis and Hb H (β4) disease, respectively. In order to better control and provide prevention of α-thal disease, the prevalence of α-thal-1 carriers and the types of genotypes in the Thai population should be known. A 7-year retrospective study, employing multiplex gap-polymerase chain reaction (gap-PCR) of 31,632 blood samples from Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, revealed an α-thal-1 carrier rate of 14.40% with the - -(SEA) (NG_000006.1: g.26264_45564del19301), - -(THAI) (NG_000006.1: g.10664_44164del33501) and - -(FIL) (NG_000006.1: g.11684_43534del31851) genotypes, constituting frequencies of 14.21, 0.18 and 0.01%, respectively. Although the - -(FIL) genotype is rare in the Thailand, its detection should be included in future α-thal screening programs.

  13. Comparison of GPS-TEC measurements with IRI-2007 and IRI-2012 modeled TEC at an equatorial latitude station, Bangkok, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunpold, Sanit; Tripathi, Nitin K.; Rajesh Chowdhary, V.; Raju, Durairaju Kumaran

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents the first vertical total electron content (VTEC) data derived from a dual-frequency GPS receiver installed at the Asian Institute of Technology in Bangkok, as part of project SCINDA (Scintillation Network and Decision Aid) with a magnetic dip latitude of 14°N, The diurnal, monthly, and seasonal variation in TEC, measured between August 2010 and July 2012, was compared with values derived from two International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) models: the IRI-2007 and the recently released IRI-2012. The highest diurnal TEC always occurred between 08:00 and 12:00 Universal Time (UT). The diurnal pattern of GPS-TEC reached its maximum values during equinoctial months (March, April, September, and October) and minimum values during solstice months (June, July, December, and January), which can be attributed to the solar extreme ultra-violet ionization coupled with the upward vertical E×B drift. The modeled TEC was underestimated in 2010 and 2011 and overestimated in 2012, especially with the IRI-2007 model. The measured values were better correlated with the IRI-2012 model, especially in 2012. However, neither of the IRI models responded to geomagnetic activity, despite the selection of the “storm” option, generally showing a smooth curve and underestimating TEC during a storm. To verify this phenomenon, the impacts of geomagnetic storms were considered.

  14. Heavy metal contamination characteristic of soil in WEEE (waste electrical and electronic equipment) dismantling community: a case study of Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damrongsiri, Seelawut; Vassanadumrongdee, Sujitra; Tanwattana, Puntita

    2016-09-01

    Sue Yai Utit is an old community located in Bangkok, Thailand which dismantles waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). The surface soil samples at the dismantling site were contaminated with copper (Cu), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and nickel (Ni) higher than Dutch Standards, especially around the WEEE dumps. Residual fractions of Cu, Pb, Zn, and Ni in coarse soil particles were greater than in finer soil. However, those metals bonded to Fe-Mn oxides were considerably greater in fine soil particles. The distribution of Zn in the mobile fraction and a higher concentration in finer soil particles indicated its readily leachable character. The concentration of Cu, Pb, and Ni in both fine and coarse soil particles was mostly not significantly different. The fractionation of heavy metals at this dismantling site was comparable to the background. The contamination characteristics differed from pollution by other sources, which generally demonstrated the magnification of the non-residual fraction. A distribution pathway was proposed whereby contamination began by the deposition of WEEE scrap directly onto the soil surface as a source of heavy metal. This then accumulated, corroded, and was released via natural processes, becoming redistributed among the soil material. Therefore, the concentrations of both the residual and non-residual fractions of heavy metals in WEEE-contaminated soil increased.

  15. Pilot-scale experiment of down-flow hanging sponge for direct treatment of low-strength municipal wastewater in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onodera, Takashi; Yoochatchaval, Wilasinee; Sumino, Haruhiko; Mizuochi, Motoyuki; Okadera, Tomohiro; Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Banjongproo, Pathan; Syutsubo, Kazuaki

    2014-11-01

    A pilot-scale experiment of a down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) reactor for treatment of low-strength municipal wastewater was conducted over 1 year in Bangkok, Thailand, to establish an appropriate method for treatment under tropical climate conditions. Municipal wastewater with an average BOD of 19 mg/L was fed directly into the DHS reactor. Superior effluent quality (5.1 ± 3.4 mg/L TSS, 21.1 ± 9.0 mg/L COD, 2.8 ± 1.4 mg/L BOD, and 4.1 ± 1.0 mg/L TN) was achieved at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 1 h under an average temperature of 30 °C. The DHS reactor reached an actual HRT of 19.0 min, indicating good contact efficiency between wastewater and retained sludge. The DHS reactor retained dense sludge at 15.3-26.4 g VSS/L based on the sponge media volume. The sludge activity in terms of specific oxygen uptake rate was good. Excess sludge was produced as 0.051 g TSS/g COD removed (0.11 g TSS/g BOD removed), and a good SVI of 28 mL/g was observed. The sufficient performance was attributed to dense sludge with high activity, regardless of the low-strength wastewater. Overall, the DHS was advantageous owing to its simple operation, lack of operational problems, and low power consumption.

  16. Occurrence of the - -(SEA), - -(THAI) and - -(FIL) α-Thalassemia-1 Carriers from a 7-Year Study at Ramathibodi Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongjantharasatien, Kobkorn; Banyatsuppasin, Wansa; Pounsawat, Sonnarong; Jindadamrongwech, Sumalee

    2016-08-01

    α-Thalassemia (α-thal) is one of the most common genetic diseases in Thailand. Homozygosity of α-thal-1 (- -/- -) and compound heterozygosity of α-thal-1/α-thal-2 (- -/-α) leads to Hb Bart's (γ4) hydrops fetalis and Hb H (β4) disease, respectively. In order to better control and provide prevention of α-thal disease, the prevalence of α-thal-1 carriers and the types of genotypes in the Thai population should be known. A 7-year retrospective study, employing multiplex gap-polymerase chain reaction (gap-PCR) of 31,632 blood samples from Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, revealed an α-thal-1 carrier rate of 14.40% with the - -(SEA) (NG_000006.1: g.26264_45564del19301), - -(THAI) (NG_000006.1: g.10664_44164del33501) and - -(FIL) (NG_000006.1: g.11684_43534del31851) genotypes, constituting frequencies of 14.21, 0.18 and 0.01%, respectively. Although the - -(FIL) genotype is rare in the Thailand, its detection should be included in future α-thal screening programs. PMID:27492767

  17. THE EFFECT OF INTERNET USING BEHAVIORS UPON THE PHYSICAL AND MENTAL HEALTH OF THAI CHILDREN AND YOUTHS: CASE STUDY IN BANGKOK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ujsara Prasertsin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research was to study the behavior of children and youth related to using the internet. The sample consisted of 1,584 children and youths in Bangkok. The Canonical Correlation Analysis statistics method was applied to analyze the data. The research results revealed that using the internet for entertainment purposes exerted good effects on mental health at 0.52%; meanwhile, it negatively affected mental health at 6251%. Using the internet for education and business displayed effects on physical health only at 650%. In the second part of the research, section one used in-depth interviews with five children and youths, and section two used a personal interview of four executives and experts specifically chosen. From all of the research results, the children and the majority of youths derived more benefits than bad effects. However, using too much internet either positively or negatively would cause some physical and mental health effects. Recommended internet media controls include the following: 1 the government must be part in blocking improper internet and promoting the good internet media; 2 the communities must take part in monitoring bad internet media, both content and images; 3 parents and families must take care and keep an eye on their children; and 4 the mass communication organizations must promote good media and screen the bad media sites.

  18. Substance abuse in early adolescents and HIV preventive behaviors: findings from a school-based cross-sectional survey for the period from 2009 to 2013, Bangkok Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thepthien, B; Altaf, L; Chuchareon, P; Srivanichakron, S

    2016-10-01

    This study is first of its kind in Bangkok, and is a five-year (2009-2013) cross-sectional web-based survey to examine HIV preventive behaviors related to substance abuse among adolescents (N = 16,913). The questionnaire was self-administered. Logistic regression was used to analyze the data. The relationship between different types of substance abuse with risky and preventive behaviors was assessed. Male participants reported more substance abuse as compared to females. The risk behaviors observed among the substance abusers include increased sexual experience, multiple sex partners, no use of condoms, and injection drug use. The preventive behaviors include having a high self-risk assessment, going for HIV testing (highest in methamphetamine users), and screening for sexually transmitted infection. Logistic regression suggests that risky behaviors (e.g., sexual experience, injection drug use) are more common in substance abusers. Adolescents are clearly at a high risk. Behavioral preventive measures are needed to reduce or delay premature substance exposure to prevent a wide range of health problems and risks such as HIV and AIDS, injection drug use and unprotected sex. PMID:27120264

  19. ESO Delegation to Visit Chile: the Chile-Eso Treaty and Paranal

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    The ESO Council, in its extraordinary session on 28 April 1994, among other matters discussed the relations with the Republic of Chile and the situation around Paranal mountain [1], the designated site for the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT). Council decided to send a high ranking delegation to Santiago de Chile to discuss with Chilean authorities the pending problems, including the finalisation of the new Treaty between the Republic of Chile and ESO and the legal aspects of the Paranal location. The ESO delegation will consist of Dr. Peter Creola (President of ESO Council), Dr. Catherine Cesarsky (Vice-President of ESO Council), Dr. Henrik Grage (Former Vice-President of ESO Council) and Professor Riccardo Giacconi (ESO Director General), the latter accompanied by his advisers. The delegation will arrive in Chile during the second half of May 1994. The ESO delegation will meet with the Chilean Minister of Foreign Affairs, Mr. Carlos Figueroa, and the Secretary of State in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Mr. Jose Miguel Insulza. Other meetings at high level are being planned. The delegation will report about these discussions to the ESO Council during its ordinary session on 7 - 8 June 1994. FOUR PARANAL PHOTOS AVAILABLE A series of four photos which show the current status of the work at Paranal has been prepared. Photographic colour prints for use by the media can be requested from the ESO Information and Photographic Service (please remember to indicate the identification numbers). [1] See ESO Press Release 07/94 of 21 April 1994. PHOTO CAPTIONS ESO PR PHOTO 08/94-1: CERRO PARANAL This aerial photo of the Paranal mountain, the designated site for the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT), was obtained on 22 March 1994. Paranal is situated in the driest part of the Chilean Atacama desert, approx. 130 km south of the city of Antofagasta, and about 12 km from the Pacific Ocean. In this view towards the West, the ocean is seen in the background. The altitude is 2650 metres

  20. OSIRIS—Gamma-ray spectroscopy software for on-site inspections under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caffrey, A.J., E-mail: Gus.Caffrey@inl.gov [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bowyer, T.W. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Egger, A.E. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hall, J.C. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Kelly, S.M.; Krebs, K.M. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kreek, S.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Jordan, D.V.; Milbrath, B.D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Padgett, S.W. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Wharton, C.J. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wimer, N.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-06-01

    We have designed and tested software for the acquisition and analysis of high-resolution gamma-ray spectra during on-site inspections under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The On-Site Inspection RadioIsotopic Spectroscopy—OSIRIS—software filters the spectral data to display only radioisotopic information relevant to CTBT on-site inspections, e.g.,{sup 131}I. A set of over 100 fission-product spectra was employed for OSIRIS testing. These spectra were measured where possible, or generated by modeling. The test spectral compositions include non-nuclear-explosion scenarios, e.g., a severe nuclear reactor accident, and nuclear-explosion scenarios such as a vented underground nuclear test. Comparing its computer-based analyses to expert visual analyses of the test spectra, OSIRIS correctly identifies CTBT-relevant fission product isotopes at the 95% level or better.

  1. OSIRIS—Gamma-ray spectroscopy software for on-site inspections under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have designed and tested software for the acquisition and analysis of high-resolution gamma-ray spectra during on-site inspections under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The On-Site Inspection RadioIsotopic Spectroscopy—OSIRIS—software filters the spectral data to display only radioisotopic information relevant to CTBT on-site inspections, e.g.,131I. A set of over 100 fission-product spectra was employed for OSIRIS testing. These spectra were measured where possible, or generated by modeling. The test spectral compositions include non-nuclear-explosion scenarios, e.g., a severe nuclear reactor accident, and nuclear-explosion scenarios such as a vented underground nuclear test. Comparing its computer-based analyses to expert visual analyses of the test spectra, OSIRIS correctly identifies CTBT-relevant fission product isotopes at the 95% level or better

  2. Identifying, Visualizing, and Fusing Social Media Data to Support Nonproliferation and Arms Control Treaty Verification: Preliminary Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gastelum, Zoe N.; Cramer, Nicholas O.; Benz, Jacob M.; Kreyling, Sean J.; Henry, Michael J.; Corley, Courtney D.; Whattam, Kevin M.

    2013-07-11

    While international nonproliferation and arms control verification capabilities have their foundations in physical and chemical sensors, state declarations, and on-site inspections, verification experts are beginning to consider the importance of open source data to complement and support traditional means of verification. One of those new, and increasingly expanding, sources of open source information is social media, which can be ingested and understood through social media analytics (SMA). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is conducting research to further our ability to identify, visualize, and fuse social media data to support nonproliferation and arms control treaty verification efforts. This paper will describe our preliminary research to examine social media signatures of nonproliferation or arms control proxy events. We will describe the development of our preliminary nonproliferation and arms control proxy events, outline our initial findings, and propose ideas for future work.

  3. Subcritical tests - nuclear weapon testing under the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty; Subkritiske tester - kjernevaapentesting under avtalen om fullstendig proevestans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeibraaten, S

    1998-10-01

    The report discusses possible nuclear weapons related experiments and whether these are permitted under the 1996 Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). The term ''subcritical experiments'' as used in the United States includes experiments in which one studies fissile materials (so far only plutonium) under extreme conditions generated by conventional high explosives, and in which a self-sustained chain reaction never develops in the fissile material. The known facts about the American subcritical experiments are presented. There is very little reason to doubt that these experiments were indeed subcritical and therefore permitted under the CTBT. Little is known about the Russian efforts that are being made on subcritical experiments.

  4. A Critical Analysis of the new Typology of Acts in the Draft Treaty Establishing a Constitution for Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herwig C. H. Hofmann

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available This article describes and critically analyses the proposed new typology of acts in the draft treaty establishing a constitution for Europe and its implications for the EU legal system. It comments on the categories of act on the three levels of constitutional law, legislation and implementation. It highlights the importance of the correlation between the catalogue of fundamental rights on one hand and the definition of legislation on the other, which will reform the relation between legislative and executive powers in the Union. The article also uncovers several shortcomings in the proposed typology of acts including the problematic relation between delegated regulations and implementing regulations as well as the lack of adjustment of the proposed system of legal acts to the special nature of the EU.

  5. A Discussion of Procedures and Equipment for the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty On-Site Inspection Environmental Sampling and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wogman, Ned A.; Milbrath, Brian D.; Payne, Rosara F.; Seifert, Carolyn E.; Friese, Judah I.; Miley, Harry S.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Hanlen, Richard C.; Onishi, Yasuo; Hayes, James C.; Wigmosta, Mark S.

    2011-02-01

    This paper is intended to serve as a scientific basis to start discussions of the available environmental sampling techniques and equipment that have been used in the past that could be considered for use within the context of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) on-site inspections (OSI). This work contains information on the techniques, equipment, costs, and some operational procedures associated with environmental sampling that have actually been used in the past by the United States for the detection of nuclear explosions. This paper also includes a discussion of issues, recommendations, and questions needing further study within the context of the sampling and analysis of aquatic materials, atmospheric gases, atmospheric particulates, vegetation, sediments and soils, fauna, and drill-back materials.

  6. The Text of the Agreement between Ireland and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The text of the Agreement and of the two Protocols thereto, between Ireland and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members

  7. The Text of the Agreement between Nepal and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The text of the Agreement and of the Protocol thereto, between Nepal and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members

  8. Rights and the Role of Family Engagement in Child Welfare: An International Treaties Perspective on Families' Rights, Parents' Rights, and Children's Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzer, Gertrud; Gran, Brian

    2011-01-01

    According to international human rights treaties, what rights do family members, parents, and children have in family engagement in child welfare decision-making? A sociolegal analytical approach produces a typology of rights, then applies the typology to eight countries' approaches to family engagement to show that strong bundles of rights are…

  9. The Structure and Content of Agreements between the Agency and States required in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Board of Governors has requested the Director General to use the material reproduced in this booklet as the basis for negotiating safeguards agreements between the Agency and non-nuclear-weapon States party to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

  10. French and German students at CERN in the framework of 50th anniversary of the franco-german Treaty - Microcosm garden BEBC

    CERN Multimedia

    Anna Pantelia

    2013-01-01

    To mark the 50th anniversary of the Elysée Treaty between France and Germany, which established a basis for cooperation between the two countries in order to set the seal on a lasting peace, secondary school pupils came to CERN to research the Franco-German relationship.

  11. The Non-Proliferation Treaty of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) and the insertion of the Brazilian State in its regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The issue of nuclear weapons continues to appear as a focal point of International Relations. The efforts and concrete actions on disarmament, non-proliferation, and nuclear arms control are still issues that generate recurring tensions between States. However, in Brazil, there is little analysis of an academic nature about these issues and, with respect to current and prospective position of the Brazilian State in the Nuclear Weapons Non- Proliferation Regime, studies and analysis are even more scarce, or incipient. The present dissertation has as its object of study to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), the Regime arisen from NPT, and the Brazilian State insertion process in this Regime. Therefore our research work is structured in three areas: the first one is about the role of nuclear weapons in States security perception, the second is about NPT and its Regime, the third runs over the insertion of the Brazilian state in this regime. So, in summary, the research performed included the reasons that make a State to develop nuclear weapons, the NPT genesis and evolution of the perception of the meaning of that Treaty by the States, and the process and the degree of insertion of Brazil in the Nuclear Weapons Non- Proliferation Regime. The inquiry sought to place this object of study in the broader debate on Foreign Relations, based on the approaches of the discipline devoted to the question of managing the security of States, id est, the two approaches that constitute the mainstream of the discipline: the perspective theoretical liberal (and neoliberal variants) and realistic thinking (and neo-realist). Thus, we have used different theoretical lenses, which we think necessary for understanding the specific parts and causal connections between these parts of a complex issue. (author)

  12. Use of Geophysical and Remote Sensing Techniques During the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organization's Integrated Field Exercise 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labak, Peter; Sussman, Aviva; Rowlands, Aled; Chiappini, Massimo; Malich, Gregor; MacLeod, Gordon; Sankey, Peter; Sweeney, Jerry; Tuckwell, George

    2016-04-01

    The Integrated Field Exercise of 2014 (IFE14) was a field event held in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (with concurrent activities in Austria) that tested the operational and technical capabilities of a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty's (CTBT) on-site inspection (OSI). During an OSI, up to 40 inspectors search a 1000km2 inspection area for evidence of a nuclear explosion. Over 250 experts from ~50 countries were involved in IFE14 (the largest simulation of an OSI to date) and worked from a number of different directions, such as the Exercise Management and Control Teams to execute the scenario in which the exercise was played, to those participants performing as members of the Inspection Team (IT). One of the main objectives of IFE14 was to test Treaty allowed inspection techniques, including a number of geophysical and remote sensing methods. In order to develop a scenario in which the simulated exercise could be carried out, a number of physical features in the IFE14 inspection area were designed and engineered by the Scenario Task Force Group (STF) that the IT could detect by applying the geophysical and remote sensing inspection technologies, as well as other techniques allowed by the CTBT. For example, in preparation for IFE14, the STF modeled a seismic triggering event that was provided to the IT to prompt them to detect and localize aftershocks in the vicinity of a possible explosion. Similarly, the STF planted shallow targets such as borehole casings and pipes for detection by other geophysical methods. In addition, airborne technologies, which included multi-spectral imaging, were deployed such that the IT could identify freshly exposed surfaces, imported materials and other areas that had been subject to modification. This presentation will introduce the CTBT and OSI, explain the IFE14 in terms of goals specific to geophysical and remote sensing methods, and show how both the preparation for and execution of IFE14 meet those goals.

  13. THE ROLE AND RATIONALE OF THE NUCLEAR NON-PROLIFERATION TREATY IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom COPPEN

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Much has been written about perceived weaknesses of the NPT and the challenges it has been facing over the last decades. Analysing the most important provisions of the NPT, this article demonstrates how the treaty has managed to maintain its central role in the non-proliferation regime since its conclusion, and how it retains enough flexibility within its review mechanism and its managerial approach to supervision to keep this position for the decades to come. The theoretical framework of the article is formed by theory of arms control law, relevant features of which are: a large influence of politics and national interests of states on the rule of law; its flexible yet treaty-based nature; and the distinctive role of supervision in order to ensure compliance with primary rules. The article analyses key NPT provisions. Based on Article VIII, the NPT Review Conferences have both an important political and legal function. They are the NPT’s mechanism for review, implementation and supervision; in legal terms, they enable the evolution of the NPT based on subsequent agreement and practice. The NPT articles on non-proliferation and disarmament illustrate how the NPT has evolved to close off loopholes (Articles I and II and retains its flexibility whilst providing a global platform for negotiations on nuclear disarmament (Article VI. Article III evolved and must be understood to oblige NPT states to sign an Additional Protocol (AP with the IAEA. Article IV sets the parameters for the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, but leaves room for negotiation and conflict. The supervision of the NPT, illustrated by the case of Iran, is a complicated process involving international organisations such as the IAEA and the UNSC; while these may play important roles, however, the enforcement of the NPT is ultimately left to the NPT states themselves.

  14. Climate change projections for lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) recruitment in the 1836 Treaty Waters of the Upper Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Abigail J.; Taylor, William W.; Beard, T. Douglas; Lofgren, Brent M.

    2015-01-01

    Lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) is an ecologically, culturally, and economically important species in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Lake whitefish have been a staple food source for thousands of years and, since 1980, have supported the most economically valuable (annual catch value ≈ US$16.6 million) and productive (annual harvest ≈ 7 million kg) commercial fishery in the upper Great Lakes (Lakes Huron, Michigan, and Superior). Climate changes, specifically changes in temperature, wind, and ice cover, are expected to impact the ecology, production dynamics, and value of this fishery, because the success of recruitment to the fishery has been linked with these climatic factors. We used linear regression to determine the relationship between fall and spring air temperature indices, fall wind speed, winter ice cover, and lake whitefish recruitment in 13 management units located in the 1836 Treaty Waters of the Upper Great Lakes ceded by the Ottawa and Chippewa nations, a culturally and commercially important region for the lake whitefish fishery. In eight of 13 management units evaluated, models with climate variables explained significantly more variation in recruitment than models with only the stock-recruitment relationship, using corrected Akaike’s Information Criterion comparisons (ΔAICc > 3). Isolating the climate-recruitment relationship and projecting recruitment with the Coupled Hydrosphere-Atmosphere Research Model (CHARM) indicated the potential for increased lake whitefish recruitment in the majority of the 1836 Treaty Waters management units, given projected changes in climate. These results can inform adaptive management strategies by providing anticipated implications of climate on lake whitefish recruitment.

  15. Characterization of gaseous pollutants and PM2.5 at fixed roadsides and along vehicle traveling routes in Bangkok Metropolitan Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim Oanh, N. T.; Kongpran, J.; Hang, N. T.; Parkpian, P.; Hung, N. T. Q.; Lee, S.-B.; Bae, G.-N.

    2013-10-01

    Traffic is a major source of air pollution in urban areas of developing countries that leads to high exposure risk of urban dwellers. This study comparatively investigated levels of fine particles (PM2.5), SO2, NO2, and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes) at fixed roadsides and on traveling routes in congested urban and less congested suburban areas of Bangkok in 2010. The roadside air quality monitoring was done at two opposite sites across the selected roads. The traffic counting was made simultaneously in these roads and hourly flows of 8 different vehicle types were determined. Roadside PM2.5 levels during dry season were high in both the city center and suburban area, significantly above the wet season, with 65-75% measurements exceeded 24 h Thailand ambient air quality standard of 50 μg m-3. Oppositely, roadside BTEX levels measured in the city center during wet season were higher than dry season and well above those in suburban area. Diurnal variations and the results of SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) analysis showed associations between roadside pollutants levels and hourly traffic flows. The differences in pollution levels between 2 monitoring sites across a road were explained by road configurations and prevalent wind directions. On-route pollution levels were measured simultaneously both inside and outside selected vehicles (van, pickup), and on motorcycle. The on-route PM2.5 levels along the urban route were higher during the dry season than wet season. PM2.5 levels inside the vehicles were lower than outside whereas the opposite was observed for BTEX. BTEX were higher on more congested urban sub-routes with lower vehicle speeds. Higher pollution levels suggest a high risk of exposure.

  16. Molecular genetic characterization of rabies virus glycoprotein gene sequences from rabid dogs in Bangkok and neighboring provinces in Thailand, 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjathummarak, Surachet; Fa-Ngoen, Chanon; Pipattanaboon, Chonlatip; Boonha, Khwanchit; Ramasoota, Pongrama; Pitaksajjakul, Pannamthip

    2016-05-01

    Because of its association with dogs, rabies virus (RABV) is still endemic in Thailand, where it is a serious public health problem. The genetic characterization of RABV in Thailand is limited. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the molecular epidemiology and genetic diversity of RABV in the endemic area. Viral RNA from 48 brain specimens from rabid dogs, collected in Bangkok and seven neighboring provinces in 2013-2014, was extracted and sequenced. The complete rabies glycoprotein (G) gene sequences (1575 nt) were aligned, and a phylogenetic analysis was performed using the maximum-likelihood method. All of the Thai rabies virus isolates belonged to lyssavirus genotype 1 and clustered in the same lineage as isolates from South East Asia (SEA) and China. The Thai rabies virus isolates formed two distinct clades, THA-1 and THA-2. Clade THA-1 was the predominant clade and could be divided into two subclades, THA-1A and THA-1B. Clade THA-2 was closely associated with human Thai isolates collected in a previous study. The overall mean rate of evolution based on the G gene was approximately 1.56 × 10(-4) substitutions/site/year. The genetic identities among the isolates from Thailand and other SEA countries were >88.4 % at the nucleotide sequence level and 95 % at the amino acid sequence level. The deduced amino acid sequences of the G proteins of the RABV isolates were compared. A single amino acid change (N194T) in subclade THA-1A distinguished the Thai RABV isolates from other RABV isolates. Our results suggest that these Thai dog RABV isolates share a common ancestor with the RABV isolates circulating in the endemic regions of SEA countries and China. Furthermore, there were strong genetic relationship to RABV from Cambodia, Vietnam and Laos. These data extend our understanding of the relatedness and genetic variation of RABV in Thailand.

  17. EPIDEMIOLOGY AND CONTROL OF THE FIRST REPORTED VANCOMYCIN-RESISTANT ENTEROCOCCUS OUTBREAK AT A TERTIARY-CARE HOSPITAL IN BANGKOK, THAILAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chotiprasitsakul, Darunee; Santanirand, Pitak; Thitichai, Phantanee; Rotjanapan, Porpon; Watcharananan, Siriorn; Siriarayapon, Potjaman; Chaihongsa, Narong; Sirichot, Suntariya; Chitasombat, Maria; Chantharit, Prawat; Malathum, Kumthorn

    2016-05-01

    This retrospective study described the first reported vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) outbreak from June 2013 through January 2014 at a tertiary-care hospital in Bangkok, Thailand. After the index case was detected in an 18-bed medical intermediate care unit, a number of interventions was implemented, including targeted active surveillance for VRE, strict contact precautions, enhanced standard precautions, dedicated units for VRE cases, extensive cleaning of the environment and the restricted use of antibiotics. VRE isolates were evaluated by polymerase chain reaction and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) testing. A prevalence case-control study was conducted. Among 3,699 culture samples from 2,671 patients screened, 74 patients (2.8%) had VRE. The positivity rate declined from 15.1% during week 1 to 8.2% during week 2 and then 1.4% during week 3. By weeks 4-9, the prevalences were 0-2.7%. However, the prevalence rose to 9.4% during week 10 and then subsequently declined. All VRE isolates were Enterococcus faecium and had the vanA gene. RAPD analysis revealed a single predominant clone. Multivariate analysis showed mechanical ventilation for ≥ 7 days was a predictive factor for VRE colonization [odds ratio (OR) 11.47; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.75-75.35; p = 0.011]. This experience demonstrates VRE can easily spread and result in an outbreak in multiple-bed units. Active surveillance, early infection control interventions and rapid patient cohorting were important tools for control of this outbreak. Patients requiring mechanical ventilator for ≥ 7 days were at higher risk for VRE acquisition.

  18. Microbial Contamination on Used Surgical Masks among Hospital Personnel and Microbial Air Quality in their Working Wards: A Hospital in Bangkok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pipat Luksamijarulkul

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the relationship of bacterial and fungal contamination on used surgical masks worn by the hospital personnel and microbial air quality in their working wards. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of 230 used surgical masks collected from 214 hospital personnel, and 215 indoor air samples collected from their working wards to culture for bacterial and fungal counts. This study was carried out at the hospital in Bangkok. Group or genus of isolated bacteria and fungi were preliminarily identified by Gram’s stain and lacto-phenol cotton blue. Data were analyzed using paired t-test and Pearson’s correlation coefficient at the significant level of p<0.050. Results: Means and standard deviation of bacterial and fungal contamination on inside area of the used masks were 47 ± 56 and 15 ± 9 cfu/ml/piece, and on outside area were 166 ± 199 and 34 ± 18 cfu/ml/piece, respectively, p<0.001. The bacterial and fungal contamination on used masks from hospital personnel working in the male and female medical wards and out-patient department, as well as the bacterial and fungal counts of the indoor air sample collected from the same area were relatively higher than the other wards. The predominant isolated bacteria and fungi contaminated on inside and outside areas of the used masks and air samples were similar (Staphylococcus spp. and Aspergillus spp.; respectively. For its relationship, results found that bacterial and fungal counts in air samples showed significantly positive correlation with the bacterial contamination load on outside area of the used masks, r=0.16, p=0.018 and r=0.21, p=0.003, respectively. Conclusion: High bacterial contamination on outside area of the used masks was demonstrated, and it showed a significant correlation with microbial air quality of working wards.

  19. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Costa Rica and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Costa Rica and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Additional Protocol on 29 November 2001. It was signed in in San Jose, Costa Rica on 12 December 2001

  20. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between Antigua and Barbuda and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between Antigua and Barbuda and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Additional Protocol on 10 September 2013. It was signed on 30 October 2013 in St. John's, Antigua and Barbuda, and on 15 November 2013 in Vienna, Austria

  1. PROFILE: Environmental Impact Assessment Under the National Environmental Policy Act and the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensminger; McCold; Webb

    1999-07-01

    / Antarctica has been set aside by the international community for protection as a natural reserve and a place for scientific research. Through the Antarctic Treaty of 1961, the signing nations agreed to cooperate in protecting the antarctic environment, in conducting scientific studies, and in abstaining from the exercise of territorial claims. The 1991 signing of the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty (Protocol) by representatives of the 26 nations comprising the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Parties (Parties) significantly strengthened environmental protection measures for the continent. The Protocol required ratification by each of the governments individually prior to official implementation. The US government ratified the Protocol by passage of the Antarctic Science, Tourism, and Conservation Act of 1997. Japan completed the process by ratifying the Protocol on December 15, 1997. US government actions undertaken in Antarctica are subject to the requirements of both the Protocol and the US National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). There are differences in the scope and intent of the Protocol and NEPA; however, both require environmental impact assessment (EIA) as part of the planning process for proposed actions that have the potential for environmental impacts. In this paper we describe the two instruments and highlight key similarities and differences with particular attention to EIA. Through this comparison of the EIA requirements of NEPA and the Protocol, we show how the requirements of each can be used in concert to provide enhanced environmental protection for the antarctic environment. NEPA applies only to actions of the US government; therefore, because NEPA includes certain desirable attributes that have been refined and clarified through numerous court cases, and because the Protocol is just entering implementation internationally, some recommendations are made for strengthening the procedural requirements of the Protocol

  2. Agreement between the Republic of Chile and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean. Agreement by exchange of letters of 6 November 1995 and 25 June 1996 with the Republic of Chile in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document reproduces the Agreement by exchange of letters with the Republic of Chile on Safeguards Agreement of 5 April 1995 concluded between Chile and the IAEA, in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) and the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean (the Tlatelolco Treaty). The Agreement was approved by the Board of Governors on 9 September 1996. The texts of letters of 6 November 1995 and 25 June 1996 are also included

  3. Lessons learned from the first U.S./Russian Federation joint tabletop exercise to prepare for conducting on-site inspections under the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filarowski, C; Gough, R; Hawkins, W; Knowles, S; Kreek, S; MacLeod, G; Rockett, P; Smith, A; Sweeney, J; Wild, J; Wohletz, K

    1999-03-24

    A U.S./Russian Federation Joint Tabletop Exercise took place in Snezhinsk, Russia, from 19 to 24 October 1998, whose objectives were the following: (1) To simulate the actions of the Inspection Team (IT), including interactions with the inspected State Party (ISP), in order to examine different ways the United States and Russian Federation (RF) approach inspections and develop appropriate recommendations for the international community. (2) To identify ambiguities and contradictions in the interpretation of Treaty and Protocol provisions that might become apparent in the course of an inspection and that need clarification in connection with the development of Operational Manuals and on-site inspection (OSI) infrastructure. (3) To confirm the efficacy of using bilateral tabletop exercises to assist in developing an effective Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) verification regime. (4) To identify strong and weak points in the preparation and implementation methods of such exercises for the purpose of further improving possible future exercises.

  4. Evaluation of virus removal efficiency of coagulation-sedimentation and rapid sand filtration processes in a drinking water treatment plant in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asami, Tatsuya; Katayama, Hiroyuki; Torrey, Jason Robert; Visvanathan, Chettiyappan; Furumai, Hiroaki

    2016-09-15

    In order to properly assess and manage the risk of infection by enteric viruses in tap water, virus removal efficiency should be evaluated quantitatively for individual processes in actual drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs); however, there have been only a few studies due to technical difficulties in quantifying low virus concentration in water samples. In this study, the removal efficiency of indigenous viruses was evaluated for coagulation-sedimentation (CS) and rapid sand filtration (RSF) processes in a DWTP in Bangkok, Thailand by measuring the concentration of viruses before and after treatment processes using real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Water samples were collected and concentrated from raw source water, after CS, and after RSF, and inhibitory substances in water samples were reduced by use of a hydrophobic resin (DAX-8). Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) and JC polyomavirus (JC PyV) were found to be highly prevalent in raw waters, with concentrations of 10(2.88 ± 0.35) and 10(3.06 ± 0.42) copies/L (geometric mean ± S.D.), respectively. Step-wise removal efficiencies were calculated for individual processes, with some variation observed between wet and dry seasons. During the wet season, PMMoV was removed less by CS and more by RSF on average (0.40 log10 vs 1.26 log10, respectively), while the reverse was true for JC PyV (1.91 log10 vs 0.49 log10, respectively). Both viruses were removed similarly during the dry season, with CS removing the most virus (PMMoV, 1.61 log10 and 0.78 log10; JC PyV, 1.70 log10, and 0.59 log10; CS and RSF, respectively). These differences between seasons were potentially due to variations in raw water quality and the characteristics of the viruses themselves. These results suggest that PMMoV and JC PyV, which are more prevalent in environmental waters than the other enteric viruses evaluated in this study, could be useful in determining viral fate for the risk management of viruses in water treatment

  5. Evaluation of virus removal efficiency of coagulation-sedimentation and rapid sand filtration processes in a drinking water treatment plant in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asami, Tatsuya; Katayama, Hiroyuki; Torrey, Jason Robert; Visvanathan, Chettiyappan; Furumai, Hiroaki

    2016-09-15

    In order to properly assess and manage the risk of infection by enteric viruses in tap water, virus removal efficiency should be evaluated quantitatively for individual processes in actual drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs); however, there have been only a few studies due to technical difficulties in quantifying low virus concentration in water samples. In this study, the removal efficiency of indigenous viruses was evaluated for coagulation-sedimentation (CS) and rapid sand filtration (RSF) processes in a DWTP in Bangkok, Thailand by measuring the concentration of viruses before and after treatment processes using real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Water samples were collected and concentrated from raw source water, after CS, and after RSF, and inhibitory substances in water samples were reduced by use of a hydrophobic resin (DAX-8). Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) and JC polyomavirus (JC PyV) were found to be highly prevalent in raw waters, with concentrations of 10(2.88 ± 0.35) and 10(3.06 ± 0.42) copies/L (geometric mean ± S.D.), respectively. Step-wise removal efficiencies were calculated for individual processes, with some variation observed between wet and dry seasons. During the wet season, PMMoV was removed less by CS and more by RSF on average (0.40 log10 vs 1.26 log10, respectively), while the reverse was true for JC PyV (1.91 log10 vs 0.49 log10, respectively). Both viruses were removed similarly during the dry season, with CS removing the most virus (PMMoV, 1.61 log10 and 0.78 log10; JC PyV, 1.70 log10, and 0.59 log10; CS and RSF, respectively). These differences between seasons were potentially due to variations in raw water quality and the characteristics of the viruses themselves. These results suggest that PMMoV and JC PyV, which are more prevalent in environmental waters than the other enteric viruses evaluated in this study, could be useful in determining viral fate for the risk management of viruses in water treatment

  6. Rapid Detection of Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter lari in Fresh Chicken Meat and By-Products in Bangkok, Thailand, Using Modified Multiplex PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiyudthong, S; Phusri, K; Buates, S

    2015-07-01

    A multiplex PCR assay for simultaneous detection and differentiation of Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter lari was developed and validated to assess the occurrence of these bacteria in fresh chicken meat and by-products in Bangkok, Thailand, by using a new combination of four previously published PCR primers for C. jejuni, C. coli, C. lari, and a universal 16S rDNA gene as an internal control. The specificity was determined by using 13 strains of other bacteria. With pure culture DNA, the detection limit was 0.017 ng/PCR for C. jejuni and C. coli and was 0.016 ng/PCR for C. lari. It can detect 10 CFU of C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. lari in 2 g of chicken meat within a 16-h enrichment time. Our multiplex PCR assay was applied for identification of Campylobacter spp. in 122 supermarket samples and 108 fresh market samples. Of the 230 samples evaluated by multiplex PCR, 54.0, 3.3, and 10.7% of supermarket samples were positive for C. jejuni, C. coli, and mixed C. jejuni and C. coli, respectively, and 56.5 and 33.3% of fresh market samples were positive for C. jejuni and mixed C. jejuni and C. coli, respectively. No sample was positive for C. lari. Fresh market samples had significantly higher C. jejuni and C. coli contamination than those from supermarkets (relative risk: 1.3; P = 0.0001). Compared with the culture method (a gold standard), the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and diagnostic accuracy of multiplex PCR were 97.7, 86.8, 96.1, 92.0, and 95.2%, respectively. No significant difference was observed between results from two methods (P = 0.55). Therefore, the established multiplex PCR was not only rapid and easy to perform but had a high sensitivity and specificity to distinguish between C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. lari, even in samples containing mixed contamination. Our study indicated that fresh chicken meat and by-products from fresh markets were significantly less hygienic than those

  7. Cult of deterrence: A moral and strategic critique of the anti-ballistic missile treaty. Master`s thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pringle, C.S.

    1997-12-30

    Ballistic missile defense is the morally and strategically superior alternative to the current system of deterrence, provided that it is responsibly implemented. Analysis of the Just War Criteria and the utilitarian justifications of deterrence present a moral obligation to pursue the alternative strategy of missile defense as a means of defending the United States. However, the Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty does not allow earnest pursuit of this alternative, despite recent efforts to exploit its loopholes and broaden its meaning beyond any reasonable limit. Moreover, deterrence can no longer provide the guarantee of security that it did during the Cold War. Offense-Defense Theory shows that revisionist states are not subject to the same calculations of effective deterrence that the Soviet Union was during that period. This strategic analysis underlies the moral evaluations and further supports missile defense. The cult of deterrence is presented as an explanation for the failure to adapt national security policy to the new international structure, as European powers failed to perceive the offense-defense balance prior to World War I. The ABM regime threatens to reproduce those same mistakes with even greater consequences.

  8. Development of an Advanced Ceramic Seal for Maintaining Continuity of Knowledge in Treaty Verification and Safeguards Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandia National Laboratories and the Savannah River National Laboratory are collaborating on research and development of technologies for an advanced capability prototype tamper-indicating device known as the Ceramic Seal. Advanced capabilities include multiple levels of tamper indication such as a frangible seal body, surface coatings, and an active detection of seal status; and unique identification via electronics as well as non-reproducible surface features. The innovation of the Ceramic Seal is the inclusion of multiple advanced capabilities in a volume comparable to the ubiquitous metal cup seal. Our advanced capability small volume seal has application in treaty verification and safeguards regimes for maintaining continuity of knowledge. Once attached to a monitored item, the seal's identity and status can be verified in-situ rather than requiring removal and analysis at an inspectorate location. The Ceramic Seal has evolved from a first generation prototype constructed of alumina to a second generation prototype manufactured from low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC). LTCC allows integration of passive electronic components into the seal construction material. Vulnerability reviews have been conducted periodically throughout the project and results used to guide the design. This paper will describe the capabilities of the current generation Ceramic Seal. Keywords: Tamper-indicating devices; seals; Containment and Surveillance

  9. Toward a treaty on safety and cost-effectiveness of pharmaceuticals and medical devices: enhancing an endangered global public good

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faunce Thomas

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract • Expert evaluations of the safety, efficacy and cost-effectiveness of pharmaceutical and medical devices, prior to marketing approval or reimbursement listing, collectively represent a globally important public good. The scientific processes involved play a major role in protecting the public from product risks such as unintended or adverse events, sub-standard production and unnecessary burdens on individual and governmental healthcare budgets. • Most States now have an increasing policy interest in this area, though institutional arrangements, particularly in the area of cost-effectiveness analysis of medical devices, are not uniformly advanced and are fragile in the face of opposing multinational industry pressure to recoup investment and maintain profit margins. • This paper examines the possibility, in this context, of States commencing negotiations toward bilateral trade agreement provisions, and ultimately perhaps a multilateral Treaty, on safety, efficacy and cost-effectiveness analysis of pharmaceuticals and medical devices. Such obligations may robustly facilitate a conceptually interlinked, but endangered, global public good, without compromising the capacity of intellectual property laws to facilitate local product innovations.

  10. Cross-Border Cooperation in the Context of Romania’s Accession to the Treaty of Prüm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minodora Ioana BĂLAN-RUSU

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The conducted research aims at critically examining the provisions of the Prüm Treaty, and therefore the proposal for the adoption of new provisions that would contribute to the improvement of the legislation in the field and increase the police and judicial cooperation. This paper is a continuation of previous research on topics related to judicial cooperation in criminal matters in the European Union. The conclusions and findings highlight the utility of the European legislative act in this area and the need to supplement it with new provisions in order to broaden the jurisdiction of officials of another State on the territory of the host State in joint actions, in order to prevent and combat the cross-border criminality, particularly terrorism. The paper can be helpful to both theoreticians and practitioners, and to all who wish to improve their knowledge in this highly complex domain. The essential contribution of this study refers to the critical examination and the proposals for supplementing and amending the European and internal legislation in this area.

  11. Ready to Secede to the Ottoman Empire: Habsburg Hungary after the Vasvár Peace Treaty (1664-1674

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg B. Michels

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the period following the 1664 Vásvár Peace Treaty, which ended four years of warfare between the Ottoman and Habsburg Empires, large segments of the Hungarian noble elite seriously considered switching their allegiance from Vienna to Istanbul. This essay explores some of the reasons for this dramatic but little studied chapter in Hungarian history. At the center of the analysis are the secret instructions to an emissary who was to negotiate with Grand Vezir Ahmed Köpülü the conditions for Royal Hungary’s secession to the Ottomans. This article examines the historical circumstances under which these instructions originated and argues that the initiative came primarily from Hungarian Protestant nobles who sought the sultan’s protection to guarantee the survival of their religion which had come under threat by a brutal Habsburg-sponsored Counter-Reformation campaign. The evidence presented here sheds light on the emergence of close personal relations between Hungarian Protestant nobles and Ottoman powerbrokers, which was a crucial precondition for the Lutheran magnate Imre Thököly’s success in gaining control over large parts of Habsburg Hungary with Ottoman support during the early 1680s.

  12. The Text of the Agreement between Ireland and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In accordance with Protocol Number II to the Agreement of 29 February 1972 between Ireland and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, this Agreement has been replaced by the Agreement of 5 April 1973 between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency, which entered into force on 21 February 1977

  13. Communication received from the Resident Representative of the Russian Federation to the Agency concerning a statement of the Collective Security Treaty Organisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Agency has received a communication dated 30 August 2005 from the Resident Representative of the Russian Federation, attaching a statement by the heads of State of Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, the Russian Federation and Tajikistan adopted at the Moscow session of the Collective Security Council of the Collective Security Treaty Organization on 23 June 2005. The communication from the Russian Federation and, as requested therein, its attachment, are herewith circulated for the information of Member States

  14. The Text of the Agreement of 2 December 1977 between Ethiopia and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Non-Proliferation Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The text of the Agreement of 2 December 1977 and of the Protocol thereto between Ethiopia and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement entered into force, pursuant to Article 24, on 2 December 1977. The Protocol entered into force on the same date, pursuant to Article II thereof.

  15. An Introduction to Singapore Treaty on the Law of Trademarks%商标法新加坡条约述评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹锋林

    2006-01-01

    @@ 一、引言 今年3月,世界知识产权组织(WIPO)在新加坡主持外交会议缔结了《商标法新加坡条约》(The Singapore Treaty on the Law of Tradenarks).这是进入2l世纪以来世界知识产权组织主持缔结的第一个知识产权条约.

  16. The Text of the Agreement of 18 October 1977 between Singapore and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Non-Proliferation Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The text of the Agreement of 18 October 1977, and of the Protocol thereto, between Singapore and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement entered into force, pursuant to Article 24, on 18 October 1977. The Protocol entered into force on the same date, pursuant to Article II thereof.

  17. Beyond France's 2005 Referendum on the European Constitutional Treaty : Second-Order Model, Anti-Establishment Attitudes and the End of the Alternative European Utopia

    OpenAIRE

    Ivaldi, Gilles

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview and characterisation of the rejection of the European Constitutional Treaty by a majority of voters in France's referendum held on 29 May 2005. Whilst pointing to the salience of political discontent with the incumbent right-wing government and some elements of the longstanding crisis in French national party politics, the analysis places the emphasis on the central role played by social issues in the referendum, the transposition at the Eur...

  18. The text of the Agreement of 14 July 1980 between Indonesia and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The full text of the agreement between Indonesia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons is presented

  19. Bill on the treaty of 7 June 1988 between the Federal Republic of Germany and the Kingdom of the Netherlands on mutual assistance in case of emergencies or serious accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Expenses to be paid by the Federal Republic of Germany fall on 1. the respective Land in cases to which article 3 sec. 1 sub-sec. a of the treaty applies. The legal provisions of the Land concerning liability for costs on its territory remain unaffected. 2. The Federation in cases to which article 3 sec. 1 sub-sec. b of the treaty applies. Expenses to be paid by the Federal Republic of Germany pursuant to article 9 are allocated depending on whether the respective remedial measure falls into the scope of duties of the Federation or the Laender. Intrastate distribution of competence between the Federation and the Laender remains unaffected by the treaty. The text of the treaty is printed in both languages. (orig./HP)

  20. Ethical principles in international nuclear trade and the role of international treaties and agreements in their implementation. Reflections on the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growing importance of nuclear energy (on the threshold of the twenty-first century) and of its ethical uses is considered, including major political events in recent years, their social and economic consequences in the world scene. International Nuclear Law is seen as the most adequate instrument to promote the ethical uses of nuclear energy on a worldwide basis, so that mankind can benefit safely and properly and improving their living conditions in general. Problems associated with access to nuclear technology, plants, equipments and materials are addressed. Basic principles of international agreements ruling nuclear trade, ethical aspects are also covered. The different markets involved in international nuclear trade and their specific requirements are described. Certain international treaties on the peaceful uses of nuclear energy are discussed such as the Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Tlatelolco Treaty as are international conventions on matters related to the use of nuclear energy, such as the environment and protection of personnel. The author concludes by debating whether ethical uses of nuclear energy are a possible reality or merely utopia. Prospects on the future of international nuclear trade are considered. (author)

  1. Innovative approaches For enhancing the flow of funds into the Benefit Sharing Fund of the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture: an evaluation of options

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasan, Chittur S.

    2014-01-01

    This report assesses the implications and revenue-generating potential of options for reform of the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture in the context of the structure of the global seed industry and the emerging landscape of plant variety innovation for different crops. The implementation of these options would require modifications of Treaty and provisions of the Standard Material Transfer Agreements to alter the nature of payment obligations related to ...

  2. Agreement between the Republic of Colombia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean. An agreement by exchange of letters of 5 February and 5 April 2001 with the Republic of Colombia in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The text of the Exchange of Letters is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. This Exchange of Letters constitutes an agreement confirming that: - the Safeguards Agreement of 22 December 1982, concluded between the Republic of Colombia and the IAEA, pursuant to the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean (the Tlatelolco Treaty), also satisfies the obligation of Colombia under Article III of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) to conclude a safeguards agreement with the IAEA; the safeguards set forth in the Safeguards Agreement shall also apply, as regards Colombia, in connection with the NPT; the provisions of the Safeguards Agreement shall apply as long as Colombia is party to the NPT or the Tlatelolco Treaty or both

  3. Feasibility study on using fast calorimetry technique to measure a mass attribute as part of a treaty verification regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The attribute measurement technique provides a method for determining whether or not an item containing special nuclear material (SNM) possesses attributes that fall within an agreed upon range of values. One potential attribute is whether the mass of an SNM item is larger than some threshold value that has been negotiated as part of a nonproliferation treaty. While the historical focus on measuring mass attributes has been on using neutron measurements, calorimetry measurements may be a viable alternative for measuring mass attributes for plutonium-bearing items. Traditionally, calorimetry measurements have provided a highly precise and accurate determination of the thermal power that is being generated by an item. In order to achieve this high level of precision and accuracy, the item must reach thermal equilibrium inside the calorimeter prior to determining the thermal power of the item. Because the approach to thermal equilibrium is exponential in nature, a large portion of the time spent approaching equilibrium is spent with the measurement being within ∼10% of its final equilibrium value inside the calorimeter. Since a mass attribute measurement only needs to positively determine if the mass of a given SNM item is greater than a threshold value, performing a short calorimetry measurement to determine how the system is approaching thermal equilibrium may provide sufficient information to determine if an item has a larger mass than the agreed upon threshold. In previous research into a fast calorimetry attribute technique, a two-dimensional heat flow model of a calorimeter was used to investigate the possibility of determining a mass attribute for plutonium-bearing items using this technique. While the results of this study looked favorable for developing a fast calorimetry attribute technique, additional work was needed to determine the accuracy of the model used to make the calculations. In this paper, the results from the current work investigating the

  4. Feasibility study on using fast calorimetry technique to measure a mass attribute as part of a treaty verification regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauck, Danielle K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bracken, David S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mac Arthur, Duncan W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Santi, Peter A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Thron, Jonathan [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    The attribute measurement technique provides a method for determining whether or not an item containing special nuclear material (SNM) possesses attributes that fall within an agreed upon range of values. One potential attribute is whether the mass of an SNM item is larger than some threshold value that has been negotiated as part of a nonproliferation treaty. While the historical focus on measuring mass attributes has been on using neutron measurements, calorimetry measurements may be a viable alternative for measuring mass attributes for plutonium-bearing items. Traditionally, calorimetry measurements have provided a highly precise and accurate determination of the thermal power that is being generated by an item. In order to achieve this high level of precision and accuracy, the item must reach thermal equilibrium inside the calorimeter prior to determining the thermal power of the item. Because the approach to thermal equilibrium is exponential in nature, a large portion of the time spent approaching equilibrium is spent with the measurement being within {approx}10% of its final equilibrium value inside the calorimeter. Since a mass attribute measurement only needs to positively determine if the mass of a given SNM item is greater than a threshold value, performing a short calorimetry measurement to determine how the system is approaching thermal equilibrium may provide sufficient information to determine if an item has a larger mass than the agreed upon threshold. In previous research into a fast calorimetry attribute technique, a two-dimensional heat flow model of a calorimeter was used to investigate the possibility of determining a mass attribute for plutonium-bearing items using this technique. While the results of this study looked favorable for developing a fast calorimetry attribute technique, additional work was needed to determine the accuracy of the model used to make the calculations. In this paper, the results from the current work investigating

  5. The formation of a social Hispanic Atlantic space and the integration of merchant communities following the Treaties of Utrecht

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crespo Solana, Ana

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Current research into Spanish commercial expansion in the Americas has recently turned to a new consideration of space as a historical category. In fact, when the interconnecting processes are analysed, one of the most striking phenomena is the actual “production of the space” in which a wide variety of exchanges took place. This production/creation of space becomes obvious in Spanish colonial commerce. This article discusses the theoretical framework for this spatial perspective, and analyses the impact that this construction of space on the organization of routes and on network formation, as well as its evolution within the institutional context following the Treaties of Utrecht.La formación del espacio social hispano-atlántico y la integración de las comunidades mercantiles después de los tratados de Utrecht.- Los estudios sobre la expansión comercial española en América han virado recientemente hacia una importante reconsideración del espacio como categoría histórica. De hecho, uno de los fenómenos más interesantes de analizar en los procesos de interconexión global es la “producción de espacio” en el que se producen los intercambios de todo tipo. Esta producción de espacio es evidente en el caso del comercio colonial español. En este artículo se explicará el marco teórico de esta perspectiva espacial y se analizará el impacto de esta construcción de espacio en la organización de las rutas y en la formación de redes así como su evolución en el marco institucional después de los tratados de Utrecht.

  6. A treaty on the cutoff of fissile material for nuclear weapons - What to cover? How to verify?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1946, a cutoff has been proposed. In 1993, the topic was placed on the agenda of the CD. The establishment of an Ad Hoc Committee in the CD with a mandate to negotiate a fissile material cutoff treaty struggled with difficulties for more than a year. The central dispute was whether the mandate should refer to existing un-safeguarded stockpiles. The underlying conflict of the CTBT negotiations can be summarized as nuclear disarmament versus nuclear nonproliferation The same conflict is now blocking progress with FMCT negotiations in the CD. At the center of technical proliferation concerns is direct use material that can be used for nuclear warheads without any further enrichment or reprocessing. Those materials are plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU). A broader category of materials is defined as all those containing any fissile isotopes, called special fissionable materials. In order ta verify that no direct use materials are abused for military purposes, also special fissionable materials must be controlled. An even broader category is simply called nuclear materials. Pu and HEU can be distinguished into the following categories of utilisation: 1. military direct use material in operational nuclear weapons and their logistics pipeline, 2. military direct use material held in reserve for military purposes, in assembled weapons or in other forms, 3. military direct use material withdrawn from dismantled weapons, 4. military direct use material considered excess and designated for transfer into civilian use, 5. military direct use material considered excess and declared for transfer into civilian use, 6. direct use material currently in reactors or their logistics pipelines and storages, and 7. irradiated Pu and HEU in spent fuel from reactors, or in vitrified form for final disposal. Large quantities of materials are neither inside weapons nor declared excess. So far, there are no legal obligations for NWS for limitations, declarations, or

  7. A treaty on the cutoff of fissile material for nuclear weapons - What to cover? How to verify?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaper, A. [Peace Research Inst., Frankfurt (Germany)

    1998-07-01

    Since 1946, a cutoff has been proposed. In 1993, the topic was placed on the agenda of the CD. The establishment of an Ad Hoc Committee in the CD with a mandate to negotiate a fissile material cutoff treaty struggled with difficulties for more than a year. The central dispute was whether the mandate should refer to existing un-safeguarded stockpiles. The underlying conflict of the CTBT negotiations can be summarized as nuclear disarmament versus nuclear nonproliferation The same conflict is now blocking progress with FMCT negotiations in the CD. At the center of technical proliferation concerns is direct use material that can be used for nuclear warheads without any further enrichment or reprocessing. Those materials are plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU). A broader category of materials is defined as all those containing any fissile isotopes, called special fissionable materials. In order ta verify that no direct use materials are abused for military purposes, also special fissionable materials must be controlled. An even broader category is simply called nuclear materials. Pu and HEU can be distinguished into the following categories of utilisation: 1. military direct use material in operational nuclear weapons and their logistics pipeline, 2. military direct use material held in reserve for military purposes, in assembled weapons or in other forms, 3. military direct use material withdrawn from dismantled weapons, 4. military direct use material considered excess and designated for transfer into civilian use, 5. military direct use material considered excess and declared for transfer into civilian use, 6. direct use material currently in reactors or their logistics pipelines and storages, and 7. irradiated Pu and HEU in spent fuel from reactors, or in vitrified form for final disposal. Large quantities of materials are neither inside weapons nor declared excess. So far, there are no legal obligations for NWS for limitations, declarations, or

  8. Globaalne peastsoojenemine : Bangkok / Mai Loog

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Loog, Mai, 1960-

    2006-01-01

    Dan Browni samanimelise romaani järgi valminud põnevusfilm "Da Vinci kood" : režissöör Ron Howard : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2006. Tais lisati filmi algusse ja lõppu hoiatavad teated, et tegemist on väljamõeldisega

  9. International treaties. United Nations, mutual assistance pacts, human rights, sea-, air- and space law, environmental law, peace law, German reunification, conventions of war. As of March 1, 1991. 5. rev. ed. Voelkerrechtliche Vertraege. Vereinte Nationen, Beistandspakte, Menschenrechte, See-, Luft- und Weltraumrecht, Umweltrecht, Kriegsverhuetungsrecht, Deutsche Einheit, Kriegsrecht. Stand 1. Maerz 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randelzhofer, A. (ed.)

    1991-01-01

    The 5th edition of this book dating from 1 March 1991 takes into account German unification; the previous treaties and legal documents are out of date in this regard. The book is divided into: international organizations; mutual assistance, friendship and partnership treaties; diplomacy, international treaties; human rights; international sea, air and space law; environmental law; settlement of disputes, measures for peace, disarmament; German unification; conventions of war. (HSCH).

  10. 主权视野下的教育国际条约分析%Analysis of International Treaties on Education from a Perspective of Sovereignty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    栗晓红

    2014-01-01

    With the increase of international education activities ,international treaties on education have been devel-oped as a contractual arrangement ,which not only provides a platform for these activities but help them to be carried out orderly .The signing of those treaties at the same time means some transfers of education sovereignty between sig -natory countries .This paper reviews the international treaties on education signed by China and analyzes the implicit transfers of education sovereignty hidden behide them .It points out as follows the characteristics of which China transfers part of its education sovereignty:mutual and equal ,flexible and manipulable ,ownership of final discretion by sovereign states .%教育国际条约伴随着日益增多的跨国教育活动而出现,是为这些活动建立平台并促使它们有序开展的一套国家间的契约安排,它的签署意味着缔约国之间教育主权的部分让渡。梳理我国签订的教育国际条约的内容和种类,对其中暗含的教育主权让渡情况进行分析,指出当前我国的教育主权让渡具有以下特点:相互性和平等性;较大的弹性和可操作性;主权国家拥有最终的裁量权。

  11. Historical Survey of Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty%《不扩散核武器条约》的历史审视

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费赫夫

    2012-01-01

    Although Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty is a product of power politics, it objectively plays an active role in the prevention of nuclear proliferation. As the foundation stone of nuclear non-proliferation regime, the treaty has experienced a lot of severe tests and nowadays is facing many challenges, which will have a bright future. In order to achieve the goal of Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, nuclear disarmament and the right of non-nuclear states to peacefully use nuclear energy should be paid more attention in the future. Only in this way can the glorious desire of nuclear-free world be realized.%《不扩散核武器条约》虽然是强权政治的产物,但它在客观上为防止核扩散起着积极作用,是核不扩散体制的基石。该条约经历了许多严峻的考验,当今也面临不少的挑战,不扩散核武器条约的未来还是美好的。为了实现不扩散核武器条约的目标,今后更应关注核裁军和无核国家和平利用核能的权利。只有这样,无核世界的美好愿望才能实现。

  12. Agreement between the Republic of Cuba and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The text of the Agreement between the Republic of Cuba and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in the Annex to this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement was approved by the Board of Governors on 9 September 2003. It was signed on 18 September 2003. Pursuant to Article 25 of the Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on 3 June 2004, the date on which the Agency received from Cuba written notification that Cuba's statutory and/or constitutional requirements for entry into force had been met

  13. Agreement of 23 August 1974 between the Republic of Bolivia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The text of the Agreement (and the Protocol thereto) between the Republic of Bolivia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 25 September 1973. It was signed in Vienna on 30 April 1974 and in La Paz on 23 August 1974. The Agreement entered into force, pursuant to Article 24, on 6 February 1995. The Protocol entered into force on the same day, pursuant to Article II

  14. Protocol Additional to the agreement between the Republic of Paraguay and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Paraguay and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in the Annex to this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Additional Protocol on 12 June 2002. Pursuant to Article 17 of the Additional Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on 15 September 2004, the date on which the Agency received from Paraguay written notification that Paraguay's statutory and/or constitutional requirements for entry into force had been met

  15. Protocol Additional to the agreement between the Republic of Nicaragua and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the treaty for the prohibition of nuclear weapons in Latin America and the treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Nicaragua and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in the Annex to this document for the information of all Members. The Additional Protocol was approved by the Board of Governors on 12 June 2002. Pursuant to Article 17 of the Additional Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on 18 February 2005, the date on which the Agency received from Nicaragua written notification that Nicaragua's statutory and/or constitutional requirements for entry into force had been met

  16. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Cuba and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Cuba and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in the Annex to this document for the information of all Members. The Additional Protocol was approved by the Board of Governors on 9 September 2003. It was signed on 18 September 2003. Pursuant to Article 17 of the Additional Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on 3 June 2004, the date on which the Agency received from Cuba written notification that Cuba's statutory and/or constitutional requirements for entry into force had been met

  17. Tighten The Treaty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Accusations of nuclear weapon developments in Iran and North Korea have refocused world attention on the simmering issue. In an analysis of the situation, Zhang Liangui, a professor with the Party School of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, comments that the international community should intensify the current anti-nuclear proliferation system to control the development of nuclear weapons before it is too late.

  18. Nuclear-weapon-free zones: Pursuing security, region by region. Conference of States Parties and Signatories of treaties that establish nuclear-weapon-free zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of nuclear-weapon-free zones, over the past four decades, is a testament to what nations can do, region by region, to achieve common security objectives. In fact, when considering the history of nuclear non-proliferation efforts, it might be said that here in Mexico City is where it all began. The 1967 Treaty of Tlatelolco was the first multilateral treaty to establish a region free of nuclear weapons and a requirement for comprehensive IAEA safeguards for its parties - and clearly gave impetus to the conclusion of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Nuclear-weapon-free zones provide tangible security benefits. They help to reassure the larger international community of the peaceful nuclear intentions of countries in these regions. They provide their members with security assurances against the use, or threat of use, of nuclear weapons by a nuclear-weapon State. They include control mechanisms for dealing with non-compliance in a regional setting. And in all cases, they prohibit the development, stationing or testing of nuclear weapons in their respective regions. An important benefit of these zones is that they open a forum for expanded regional dialogue on issues of security. Because the causes of insecurity vary from region to region, security solutions do not come in a 'one-size-fits-all' package. It is for this reason that regional dialogues, as we see in the nuclear-weapon-free zones, are so beneficial. It is clear that such treaties, and such security dialogues, would be invaluable in other areas of the world, such as the Middle East and the Korean Peninsula. Since the end of the Cold War, the international security landscape has undergone dramatic changes. For example, the rise in terrorism, the discovery of clandestine nuclear programmes, and the emergence of covert nuclear procurement networks have heightened our awareness of vulnerabilities in the nuclear non-proliferation regime. This statement focuses on two issues

  19. 鼎革与延续:北京政府“修约外交”与南京国民政府“改定新约运动”之比较∗%Change and Continue:Comparing the Beijing Government’ s Treaty-diplomacy and the Nanjing Government’ s Treaty Renegoitaiotn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪富忠; 汪丽媛

    2015-01-01

    南京国民政府的“改订新约运动”是北京政府修约外交的继承和发展,二者在修约方针、修约方式、修约内容等方面均有相当的继承和延续,政权鼎革并没有完全取代其外交的内在延续,二者在中国废除不平等条约的历史进程中均做出了自身独特的贡献。%The the Nanjing Government’ s Treaty Renegotiation Movement carried on and developed the Beijing Government’ s Treaty⁃diplomacy in ways of treaty guidelines, form and content. Although the change of regime continued the diplomacy policy, both regimes made contributions to the historical process of the abolition of unequal treaties in China.

  20. Proceedings of the Symposium on the Non-Proliferation Experiment: Results and Implications for Test Ban Treaties, Rockville, Maryland, April 19-21, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denny, Marvin D

    1994-01-01

    To address a critical verification issue for the current Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and for a possible future Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), the Department of Energy sought to measure certain differences between an underground nuclear test and a chemical test in the same geology, so that other explosions could be identified. This was done in a field experiment code-named the NonProliferation Experiment (NPE).This comprehensive experiment was designed to determine the signatures of chemical explosions for a broad range of phenomena for comparison with those of previous nuclear tests. If significant differences can be measured, then these measures can be used to discriminate between the two types of explosions. In addition, when these differences are understood, large chemical explosions can be used to seismically calibrate regions to discriminate earthquakes from explosions. Toward this end, on-site and off-site measurements of transient phenomena were made, and on-site measurements of residual effects are in progress.Perhaps the most striking result was that the source function for the chemical explosion was identical to that of a nuclear one of about twice the yield. These proceedings provide more detailed results of the experiment.

  1. THE ACTIVITIES OF THE STATE APPARATUS OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION IN THE SPHERE OF DEVELOPMENT OF MILITARY COOPERATION WITHIN THE COLLECTIVE SECURITY TREATY ORGANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Mikhailovich Gontar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the conditions existing on the territory of post-Soviet realities, solution of the task of ensuring independence, territorial integrity and sovereignty is impossible without the adequate security component. The Collective Security Treaty was signed on May 15, 1992 within the frame of the CIS to join the armed forces of the State parties, which were integral parts of the military potential of the Soviet Union. Having inherited the major part of military units and military infrastructure of the former Soviet Union, Russia had a significant impact on the development of military cooperation of the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO.The author gives the definition of military cooperation of the CSTO, highlights its main components and the necessity of their development, the order of the development of the main directions in military cooperation, the role of the Russian leadership in their formation.The study characterizes the work of the State apparatus of the Russian Federation carried out for the development of military cooperation of the CSTO, notes the main difficulties arising in the process of formation and development of the main directions of military cooperation. The study indicates the influence of the foreign policies of the CSTO member-states on the intensity of military cooperation. The conclusion highlights the role and place of military cooperation as one of the directions in interaction between the CSTO member-countries, the work of the State apparatus of the Russian Federation on its development, and outlines the main directions of further development.

  2. The use of depleted uranium ammunition under contemporary international law: is there a need for a treaty-based ban on DU weapons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrmann, Robin

    2010-01-01

    This article examines whether the use of Depleted Uranium (DU) munitions can be considered illegal under current public international law. The analysis covers the law of arms control and focuses in particular on international humanitarian law. The article argues that DU ammunition cannot be addressed adequately under existing treaty based weapon bans, such as the Chemical Weapons Convention, due to the fact that DU does not meet the criteria required to trigger the applicability of those treaties. Furthermore, it is argued that continuing uncertainties regarding the effects of DU munitions impedes a reliable review of the legality of their use under various principles of international law, including the prohibition on employing indiscriminate weapons; the prohibition on weapons that are intended, or may be expected, to cause widespread, long-term and severe damage to the natural environment; and the prohibition on causing unnecessary suffering or superfluous injury. All of these principles require complete knowledge of the effects of the weapon in question. Nevertheless, the author argues that the same uncertainty places restrictions on the use of DU under the precautionary principle. The paper concludes with an examination of whether or not there is a need for--and if so whether there is a possibility of achieving--a Convention that comprehensively outlaws the use, transfer and stockpiling of DU weapons, as proposed by some non-governmental organisations (NGOs).

  3. The protection of personal data in the fight against terrorism New perspectives of PNR European Union instruments in the light of the Treaty of Lisbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Nino

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the protection of personal data in the European Union in the context of the fight against international terrorism taking into account the new European Union architecture provided for by the Treaty of Lisbon. After having delineated the European legal background concerning the right to privacy, the author examines the Passenger Name Records (PNR Agreements concluded by the European Union with the United States, Canada and Australia. A further object of analysis is the 2007 proposal for a Council Framework Decision on the use of PNR data for law enforcement purposes, which is aimed at creating an autonomous PNR system in the European Union. The author considers that these instruments are likely to violate rights and fundamental freedoms of individuals, in particular the right to privacy. This is also due to the architecture of the European Union, whose structure is incapable of adequately and completely protecting the right to personal data protection. As a consequence, the author proposes solutions to modify PNR instruments, especially in light of the future changes that the Treaty of Lisbon will make to the structure of the European Union.

  4. The Global Diffusion of Societal Verification Tools: A Quantitative Assessment of the Public’s Ability to Engage Nonproliferation Treaty Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayre, Amanda M.; Kreyling, Sean J.; West, Curtis L.

    2015-07-11

    The spread of nuclear and dual-use technologies and the need for more robust, effective and efficient nonproliferation and arms control treaties has led to an increasing need for innovative verification approaches and technologies. This need, paired with advancements in online computing, mobile devices, commercially available satellite imagery and the evolution of online social networks, has led to a resurgence of the concept of societal verification for arms control and nonproliferation treaties. In the event a country accepts its citizens’ assistance in supporting transparency, confidence-building and societal verification, the host government will need a population that is willing and able to participate. While scholarly interest in societal verification continues to grow, social scientific research on the topic is lacking. The aim of this paper is to begin the process of understanding public societal verification capabilities, extend the availability of quantitative research on societal verification and set in motion complementary research to increase the breadth and depth of knowledge on this topic. This paper presents a potential framework and outlines a research roadmap for the development of such a societal verification capability index.

  5. THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT BEFORE THE 2014-2019 PARLIAMENTARY TERM IN THE LIGHT OF INNOVATIONS AND CHANGES INTRODUCED BY THE LISBON TREATY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan VĂTĂMAN

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Viewed through the prism of its historical evolution, the European Parliament has seen an original evolutionary process during which underwent a series of successive modifications of its competences and composition, at the same time with increasing of democratic legitimacy. Legitimated by direct universal suffrage, the European Parliament has gradually strengthened its position within the Community institutional system through a series of treaties, evolving from a purely advisory body, in an institution that plays an active role in drafting legislation, having, also budgetary powers and exercising democratic control over all institutions. Given the international context marked by the consequences of the monetary, financial, economic and social crisis, many Europeans have become more interested in European affairs and want the European Parliament to play a more important role in the future life of the European Union. For this reason, the European elections of 22-25 May 2014 are very important, a vote in the European elections is every citizen's chance to influence the shape of the Parliament and the future political course of the European Union. Therefore, this study seeks to highlight the importance of the 2014 European elections, especially these elections will be different due to the major new developments introduced by the Lisbon Treaty which granted the European Parliament a number of important new powers.

  6. Problems of Translation of Provisions of International Treaties Illustrated by The Example of Article 6 of the European Convention for Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wrońska Iwona

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject of these reflections is the analysis of issues concerning language translation of the treaty and connotations connected therewith of the meaning of legal regulations. As an example here one can cite Article 6 of the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms of 1950, prepared in the two official languages of the Council of Europe, i.e. English and French. The problems of interpretation of Article 6, which regulates the right to a fair trial, resulted from the official translation of the term “prawo do sprawiedliwego procesu sądowego” (the right to a just trial. This triggered a quite widespread discussion in the Polish doctrine as to whether the English term “fair” should be translated as “sprawiedliwy”. Moreover, on the basis of a translation so constructed other proposals of the concept in Article 6 appeared in the literature on the subject, such as “uczciwy” (honest, “słuszny” (right or “praworządny” (lawful trial. The article presents the argumentation of Polish lawyers on adopting the aforementioned terms, demonstrating how the language used in translation of the treaty may affect the accurate understanding of legal terminology.

  7. Communication dated 11 September 2006 from the Permanent Mission of the Republic of Kazakhstan regarding the Treaty on a Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone in Central Asia signed on 8 September 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Secretariat has received a Note Verbale, dated 11 September 2006, from the Permanent Mission of the Republic of Kazakhstan to the IAEA regarding the Treaty on a Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone in Central Asia signed on 8 September 2006 in Semipalatinsk by the leaders of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. The Note Verbale and, as requested therein, the enclosed information regarding the Treaty on a Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone in Central Asia, is reproduced herewith for the information of Member States

  8. About the treaty of complete nuclear test ban: the USA between unilateralism and multilateralism; A propos du traite sur l'interdiction complete des essais nucleaires: les Etats-Unis entre l'unilateralisme et le multilateralisme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sur, S. [Universite Pantheon-Assas, 75 - Paris (France); Centre Thucydide, Analyse et Recherche en Relations Internationales, 75 - Paris (France)

    2000-07-01

    This article analyses the possible reasons that have led the US Senate to reject the treaty of comprehensive nuclear test ban. Even if this decision did not retained the attention of the international public opinion, it appears as surprising because the USA have worked a lot for the elaboration of this treaty and were considered as the main beneficiaries of it. Three interpretations are proposed by the author: some purely internal disputes inside Clinton's administration, a real will of the USA to abandon the arms control policy, or an intermediate attitude which allows the USA to act on different levels and to get rid of common rules. (J.S.)

  9. The rejection of the comprehensive nuclear test ban treaty by the US Senate: a reverse for the nuclear arms control?; Le rejet du traite d'interdiction complete des essais nucleaires par le Senat Americain: un revers pour l'arms control nucleaire?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sitt, B. [Universite de Marne la Vallee, 77 (France)

    2000-07-01

    On October 13, 1999, after a hasty debate, the US Senate rejected the comprehensive nuclear test ban treaty (CTBT) signed 3 years ago. This article analyses this event with respect to the US domestic context (discussions at the Senate, reaction of the Presidency) and with respect to the international context (international reactions, future of the treaty, consequences on arms control policy). (J.S.)

  10. Multiphase, multicomponent flow and transport models for Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty monitoring and nuclear waste disposal applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Amy

    Open challenges remain in using numerical models of subsurface flow and transport systems to make useful predictions related to nuclear waste storage and nonproliferation. The work presented here addresses the sensitivity of model results to unknown parameters, states, and processes, particularly uncertainties related to incorporating previously unrepresented processes (e.g., explosion-induced fracturing, hydrous mineral dehydration) into a subsurface flow and transport numerical simulator. The Finite Element Heat and Mass (FEHM) transfer code is used for all numerical models in this research. An experimental campaign intended to validate the predictive capability of numerical models that include the strongly coupled thermal, hydrological, and chemical processes in bedded salt is also presented. Underground nuclear explosions (UNEs) produce radionuclide gases that may seep to the surface over weeks to months. The estimated timing of gas arrival at the surface may be used to deploy personnel and equipment to the site of a suspected UNE, if allowed under the terms of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty. A model was developed using FEHM that considers barometrically pumped gas transport through a simplified fractured medium and was used to quantify the impact of uncertainties in hydrologic parameters (fracture aperture, matrix permeability, porosity, and saturation) and season of detonation on the timing of gas breakthrough. Numerical sensitivity analyses were performed for the case of a 1 kt UNE at a 400 m burial depth. Gas arrival time was found to be most affected by matrix permeability and fracture aperture. Gases having higher diffusivity were more sensitive to uncertainty in the rock properties. The effect of seasonality in the barometric pressure forcing was found to be important, with detonations in March the least likely to be detectable based on barometric data for Rainier Mesa, Nevada. Monte Carlo modeling was also used to predict the window of

  11. Implementing nuclear non-proliferation in Finland. Regulatory control, international cooperation and the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. Annual report 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okko, O. (ed.)

    2012-07-01

    The regulatory control of nuclear materials (i.e. nuclear safeguards) is a prerequisite for the peaceful use of nuclear energy in Finland. Safeguards are required for Finland to comply with international agreements on nuclear non-proliferation - mainly the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). This regulatory control is exercised by the Nuclear Materials Section of the Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK). The results of STUK's nuclear safeguards inspection activities in 2011 continued to demonstrate that the Finnish licence holders take good care of their nuclear materials. There were no indications of undeclared nuclear materials or activities and the inspected materials and activities were in accordance with the licence holders' declarations.

  12. El TLT (Trademark Law Treaty y los retos para la Superintendencia de Industria y Comercio como Oficina Nacional de Propiedad Industrial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Carolina Corcione Morales

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available La Superintendencia de Industria y Comercio, como Oficina Nacional de Propiedad Industrial, se enfrentará a un nuevo sistema de registro de marcas una vez sea incorporado a nuestro ordenamiento el Tratado sobre Derecho de Marcas (Trademark Law Treaty –tlt–. Los retos procesales que se avecinan al introducirse el registro multiclase en el actual sistema colombiano ameritan un análisis detenido del contenido del tratado y de las medidas que el gobierno colombiano deberá adoptar para garantizar una implementación exitosa del instrumento internacional. La entrada en vigencia del tlt, si bien no implica un reto que obligue a replantear las fuentes y principios del derecho de la propiedad industrial, es un desafío de índole procesal que hace necesario adecuar el actual funcionamiento de la Superintendencia de Industria y Comercio a los aspectos humano y tecnológico.

  13. El TLT (Trademark Law Treaty y los retos para la superintendencia de industria y comercio como oficina nacional de propiedad industrial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Carolina Corcione Morales

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available La Superintendencia de Industria y Comercio, como Oficina Nacional de Propiedad Industrial, se enfrentará a un nuevo sistema de registro de marcas una vez sea incorporado a nuestro ordenamiento el Tratado sobre Derecho de Marcas – TLT (Trademark Law Treaty. Los retos procesales que se avecinan al introducirse el registro multiclase en el actual sistema colombiano, ameritan un análisis detenido del contenido del tratado y de las medidas que el gobierno colombiano deberá adoptar para garantizar una implementación exitosa del instrumento internacional. La entrada en vigencia del TLT, si bien no implica un reto que obligue replantear las fuentes y principios del derecho de la propiedad industrial, es un desafío de índole procesal que hace necesario adecuar el actual funcionamiento de la Superintendencia de Industria y Comercio, a nivel humano y tecnológico.

  14. A treaty more alarming than efficient. The dismantled warheads will not be destroyed. Danger; Un traite plus inquietant qu'efficace. Les ogives demantelees ne seront pas detruites. Risque

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riche, P.; Despic-Popovic, H.; Nougayrede, N

    2002-07-01

    This political analysis presents the new treaty of nuclear weapons dismantling between Russia and Usa. In fact the warheads will not be completely dismantling but only stocked, leading to a possible recovery by terrorists. It underlines the real interests of this agreement which are more economic than peaceful. (A.L.B.)

  15. The text of the agreement of 5 December 1974 between Jordan and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document reproduces the text of the Agreement of 5 December 1974, and the Protocol thereto, between Jordan and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. The Agreement entered into force on 21 February 1978

  16. Agreement between the Government of Belize and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document reproduces the text of an agreement by exchange of letters with Belize in connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean. The agreement was approved by the Board of Governors on 18 March 1997 and entered into force on that date

  17. The Text of the Agreement between New Zealand and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The text of the Agreement and of the Protocol thereto, between New Zealand and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members

  18. Environmental Protection as an Obstacle to Free Movement of Goods: Realist Jurisprudence in Articles 28 and 30 of the e.c. Treaty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Engle

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Free trade and environmental protection are two norms that sometimes collide. The resolution of colliding norms can occur either using a formalist “descriptive” analysis, or using a “prescriptive” approach of legal realism. It may seem intuitive to imagine realism and formalism as mutually exclusive. However, this dualism is not entirely accurate. The realist-formalist dualism is unsatisfying because legal realism critiques the capricious nature of formalism only to replace it with likewise capricious methods of legal decision-making. Further, courts sometimes act as realists and at other times as formalists. Finally, many methods of legal interpretation may be considered either “formalist” or “realist.” This paper examines the conflict between free trade and environmental protection in E.C. law. It uses Articles 28 and 30 of the E.C. Treaty as a foil with which to draw out the distinctions and limits of both realism and formalism. A formal analysis of Articles 28 and 30 of the E.C. Treaty reveals a series of cases that struggle first to define waste as wares and then to determine the limitations that the free movement of goods imposes on environmental standards and vice versa. However, this unsatisfying formal analysis is not the only possible interpretation of the case law arising out of Articles 28 and 30. An analysis based on legal realism is also possible but not entirely satisfying. This paper concludes that the realist-formalist dualism, though tenable, does not solve the problem of capricious legal power.

  19. Lessons learned from the first US/Russian Federation joint tabletop exercise to prepare for conducting on-site inspections under the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filarowski, C; Kreek, S; Smith, A; Sweeney, J; Wild, J; Gough, R; Rockett, P; MacLeod, G; Hawkins, W; Wohletz, K; Knowles, S

    1999-03-24

    A U.S./Russian Federation Joint Tabletop Exercise took place in Snezhinsk, Russia, from 19 to 24 October 1998 whose objectives were to examine the functioning of an Inspection Team (IT) in a given scenario, to evaluate the strategies and techniques employed by the IT, to identify ambiguous interpretations of treaty provisions that needed clarification, and to confirm the overall utility of tabletop exercises to assist in developing an effective Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) verification regime. To achieve these objectives, the United States and Russian Federation (RF) agreed that two exercises would be conducted. The first would be developed by the RF, who would act as controller and as the inspected State Party (ISP), while the United States would play the role of the IT. The roles would be reversed in the second exercise; the United States would develop the scenario and play the ISP, while the RF would play the IT. A joint control team, comprised of members of both the U.S. and RF control teams, agreed on a number of ground rules for the two exercises and established a joint Evaluation Team to evaluate both of the exercises against the stated objectives. To meet time limitations, the scope of this joint exercise needed to be limited. The joint control team decided that each of the two exercises would not go beyond the first 25 days of an on-site inspection (OSI) and that the focus would be on examining the decision-making of the IT as it utilized the various technologies to clarify whether a nuclear test explosion had taken place. Hence, issues such as logistics, restricted access, and activities prior to Point of Entry (POE) would be played only to the extent needed to provide for a realistic context for the exercises' focus on inspection procedures, sensor deployments, and data interpretation. Each of the exercises began at the POE and proceeded with several iterations of negotiations between the IT and ISP, instrument deployments, and data

  20. FACTORS INFLUENCING CUSTOMER BEHAVIOR-BASED CRM PERFORMANCE OF AIS IN BANGKOK%影响曼谷AIS公司基于客户行为的CRM效能的几个因子

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林海

    2012-01-01

    关系营销对很多公司来说都是新理念。在很多国家,关系型的交换已取代交易型的交换成为规范。本文主要是测试一个客户关系管理模型,通过研究下列影响曼谷AIS公司基于客户行为的CRM效能的几个因子及它们之间的相互关系来进行,这几个因子分别是:服务质量,客户价值,客户满意度,以及品牌忠诚度。研究表明AIS公司应该致力于改进其服务质量中的移情性维度。同时,AIS如欲在将来市场成功,则应该增加其功能价值,并减少客户付出感知。%Relationship marketing has emerged as a big new idea for many companies. Relational, as opposed to transactional exchange is the norm in many countries. The primary objective of this study is to test an integrated model for the customer relationship management performance by studying the following factors' effects on customer behavior-based CRM performance of AIS in Bangkok and their interrelationships: service quality, customer value, customer satisfaction, and brand loyalty. The finding sug- gests that AIS should focus on improving its service quality dimension of empathy. Meanwhile, AIS should also increase functional value and reduce customer perceived sacrifice if it's going to succeed in the future market.