WorldWideScience

Sample records for bangkok treaty

  1. Bangkok

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribeiro, Gustavo

    2002-01-01

    This paper looks at the meeting between formal and informal urban developments in Bangkok, as a space where new forms of urbanism are emerging.......This paper looks at the meeting between formal and informal urban developments in Bangkok, as a space where new forms of urbanism are emerging....

  2. Treaty Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canty, M.; Lingenfelder, I.; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg;

    2009-01-01

    This volume provides the reader with an overview of the state-of-the-art Earth Observation (EO) related research that deals with national and international security. An interdisciplinary approach was adopted in this book in order to provide the reader with a broad understanding on the uses...... of remote sensing technologies. The book therefore comprises management aspects (issues and priorities of security research, crisis response), applied methodologies and process chains (treaty monitoring, estimation of population densities and characteristics, border permeability models, damage assessment......, as well as project managers and decision makers working in the field of security having an interest in technical solutions. The integrative use of many figures and sample images are ideal in enabling the non-technical reader to grasp quickly the modern technologies that are being researched in the area...

  3. A Treaty for Europe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The European Union will return to center stage with the enforcement of the Lisbon Treaty As the Lisbon Treaty entered into force on December 1, the world is waiting to see the changes it will bring to the European Union (EU). The Lisbon Treaty came into being based on the treaty establishing a constitution for Europe-more commonly referred to as the European Constitution.

  4. Reading Bangkok, Ross King

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Baffie

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cet ouvrage est un essai de compréhension globale de la capitale thaïlandaise. À ce titre, il doit être salué car il a peu d’équivalent. L’ouvrage que l’anthropologue australien Marc Askew a publié en 2002 sur Bangkok – probablement le plus abouti sur cette ville – était, lui, davantage une réunion de monographies (Askew 2002, Baffie 2007. Néanmoins, il faut bien avouer que ce livre déçoit alors qu’il est loin d’être franchement raté et apporte même des idées intéressantes. Mais comment ne p...

  5. Ocean Dumping: International Treaties

    Science.gov (United States)

    The London Convention and London Protocol are global treaties to protect the marine environment from pollution caused by the ocean dumping of wastes. The Marine, Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act implements the requirements of the LC.

  6. Bangkok: Anatomy of a traffic disaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poboon, C.; Kenworthy, J.; Barter, P.

    1995-12-31

    Traditional urban and transport policy which relies on road-base planning has been proven inadequate for tackling Bangkok`s traffic chaos. After employing such policy for more than three decades Bangkok traffic has become a disaster and the city has become notorious world-wide for its traffic congestion and air pollution. The simplistic application of theses largely American models took little consideration if any of the walking city and transit city structure of Bangkok. The policies recommended by the authors rely on the awareness of Bangkok`s unique characteristics and also encompass social and environmental aspects. The worldwide comparison has contributed substantially to more insight in selecting the appropriate measures for Bangkok. The introduction of a mass rapid transit system, water transport improvement, control of car use, provision of infrastructure for walking and cycling, improvement in paratransit together with transit-oriented land use development are believed to be able to work effectively in Bangkok. Nevertheless, institutional improvement including public participation is very necessary to achieve these urban planning and transport strategies. With the combination of these sustainable urban and transport policies, it is possible for Bangkok to be converted into a city for people again, though it will take probably 10 to 20 years or more for substantial improvements.

  7. Fatal melioidosis in goats in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonpitak, Walaiporn; Sornklien, Chulabha; Chawanit, Mongkol; Pavasutthipaisit, Suvarin; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Hantrakun, Viriya; Amornchai, Premjit; Thaipadungpanit, Janjira; Day, Nicholas P J; Yingst, Samuel; Peacock, Sharon J; Limmathurotsakul, Direk

    2014-08-01

    Bangkok, Thailand, is a city considered to be at low risk for melioidosis. We describe 10 goats that died of melioidosis in Bangkok. Half of them were born and reared in the city. Multilocus sequence typing ruled out an outbreak. This finding challenges the assumption that melioidosis is rarely acquired in central Thailand.

  8. Anthropogenic effects on subsurface temperature in Bangkok

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, M.

    2006-09-01

    Subsurface temperatures in Bangkok, where population and density increase rapidly, were analyzed to evaluate the effects of surface warming due to urbanization. The magnitude of surface warming evaluated from subsurface temperature in Bangkok was 1.7°C which agreed with meteorological data during the last 50 years. The depth apart from steady thermal gradient, which shows an indicator of the magnitude of surface warming due to additional heat from urbanization, was deeper at the center of the city than in the suburb areas of Bangkok. In order to separate surface warming effects into global warming effect and urbanization effect, analyses of subsurface temperature have been done depending on the distance from the city center. The results show that the expansion of urbanization in Bangkok reaches up to 80 km from the city center.

  9. Waterways of Bangkok: Memory and Landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Hurley, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This is an ethnography of the Chao Phraya River in Bangkok, Thailand. It is about life along the river and its canals, the culture of water in a modern metropolis. More broadly, this is a study of the relationship between memory and landscape. Waterways, at the time of writing, are still an important part of Bangkok's urban infrastructure. I use waterways to explore collective memory. What meanings are found in waterways? How do waterways connect people and places? How do waterways connect pa...

  10. Ottawa to Bangkok: changing health promotion discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Christine

    2007-03-01

    The discourse of the 2005 Bangkok Charter for Health Promotion in a Globalized World represents a radical departure from that of the Ottawa Charter that, in 1986, staked a place for the health promotion field in mainstream public health. Via a critical analysis of the discourse in these two Charters, this paper illustrates a shift from a 'new social movements' discourse of ecosocial justice in Ottawa to a 'new capitalist' discourse of law and economics in Bangkok. The Bangkok Charter's content may identify 'actions, commitments and pledges required to address the determinants of health in a globalized world through health promotion', but this paper shows how its discourse works to naturalize and perpetuate many of detrimental determinants associated with 'globalization'.

  11. Bangkok--a city ready to burst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuntawiroon, N; Samootsakorn, P

    1984-05-01

    The population of Bangkok accounts for 11% of the total population of Thailand and the population density in 1981 was 3399/sq km, 6 times as much as the next densest province. The proportion of urban population to the total population rose from 10.3% in 1950 to 16.3% in 1970 and 16.5% in 1980. There are many factors contributing to this uncontrolled growth of Bangkok at the expense of the rest of the country. The city is located in the middle of the region, is in a prime agricultural area, is near the mouth of a river which is widely used for transportation, and was politically a choice spot. Historically, all government agencies have been located in Bangkok and the majority of tax collected all over the country goes to the city where it is allocated by the central government for spending in the national budget. Communication systems are also centered there, as is the only significant international airport. In 1980 the Bangkok gross product was valued at about 35.2% of the total gross domestic product of Thailand that year. Average personal income is about 2.5 times higher than the rest of the country. The city has better social, health, and educational amenities which contribute signficantly to migration. Yet the city is so big that some symptoms of inefficiency are beginning to surface such as traffic congestion, housing shortages, and slums, inadequate water supply and poor sanitation, defective telephone service, air pollution, water pollution, noise pollution, and deficient garbage collection. All of these problems are interrelated. If a great deal of funding is spent on the quality of life in Bangkok, and migration continues unabated, it would probably be better to deliberately accelerate the decay of Bangkok until the quality of life is so low that people will start to move out willingly, putting an end to the parasitic role of this prime city that is so harmful to the development endeavor.

  12. Principles of the Antarctic Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candidi, M.

    The operation of any base or expedition to Antarctica is regulated by the mutual agreement among nations in the “Antarctic Treaty”. This treaty deals with the major aspects of life in Antarctica and its main principles and provisions are described in what follows.

  13. Specialized Rules of Treaty Interpretation: International Organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brölmann, C.; Hollis, D.B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses treaty interpretation in the context of international organizations, with particular attention to interpreting the founding or constitutive treaties of organizations. That not all interpretive rules are the same for all treaties is a well-tried proposition (see e.g. Arnold McNai

  14. An American in Bangkok: Reconsidering Pedagogical Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knee, Adam

    1999-01-01

    Describes an English instructor's experiences teaching at a private, English-language university in Bangkok, Thailand. Illustrates the difficulties the author faced in dealing with differences in cultures and learning styles and indicates the generative potential of such difficulties. Notes that the instructor's solution was to use a combination…

  15. Prevalence of hyperuricemia in Bangkok population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uaratanawong, Somchai; Suraamornkul, S; Angkeaw, S; Uaratanawong, R

    2011-07-01

    To investigate the prevalence of hyperuricemia in general Thai population and to evaluate its association with metabolic syndrome. A total of 1,945 subjects who sought for routine annual health checkup in our hospital from 1 October 2009 to 31 March 2010 were enrolled into the study. Inclusion criteria were healthy individuals, aged ≥35 years old, and lived in Bangkok for over 10 years. Data of general health status, age, gender, history of alcoholic consumption, body weight, height, and waist circumference were obtained by an interview-structured questionnaire. Fasting blood sample was collected from each subject early in the morning for uric acid, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and glucose levels. The prevalence of hyperuricemia in our study population was 24.4%, being significantly more common in men than women (59% vs. 11%, p Bangkok population in our study. This disorder is frequently associated with metabolic syndrome.

  16. Menopausal symptoms among Thai women in Bangkok.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukwatana, P; Meekhangvan, J; Tamrongterakul, T; Tanapat, Y; Asavarait, S; Boonjitrpimon, P

    1991-09-01

    A random probability cluster area sampling of 614 women living in Bangkok was conducted to determine the prevalence of abnormal symptoms related to the menopause. Women interviewed were aged 40 and above currently registered as living in the Bangkok Metropolitan area. Sixty-nine percent of the women interviewed experienced abnormal symptoms. Eighty-two percent of those with abnormal symptoms reported having hot flushes. Palpitation, increased heat intolerance and emotional liability were common symptoms. Minor abnormalities included insomnia, weakness, anxiety and urinary symptoms. Changes related to sexual function were difficult to elicit due to cultural limitations. Economic and cultural factors might play important roles in the way these women perceived symptoms related to the menopause and sought medical assistance.

  17. Nutrition and the environmental situation in Bangkok.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migasena, P; Choopanya, K

    1992-01-01

    Bangkok, the capital of Thailand, is a large city of about six million people. According to the rapid growth of economy, Bangkok faces to the problems of urbanization and industrialization. Non-communicable disease such as cardiovascular diseases, cancers are the leading causes of death. There is a trend of increasing air pollution in the congested areas and industrialized zones, with the increase over the ambient air quality standard involving suspended particulate matter. Other public health problems include the sanitation of restaurants, the quality of drinking water and coloring agents in food, drug addiction especially in young males. Poor hygiene in drug injection is one of the major causes of HIV transmission. AIDS, originally our imported disease, needs urgent prevention by health education and counseling. Improvements in government and non-government health care resources are still needed. A good cooperative city health plan serves a practical purpose, especially for the solution of the air and water pollution in Bangkok. However, pilot operational research on nutrition, health and environment in relation to city health planning needs to be discussed further for more effective implementation.

  18. Bangkok and its air pollution problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panich, S.

    1995-12-31

    Bangkok is the city on a former river delta and is a very flat area. The topography is unremarkable but being only a few kilometers (about 20) from the sea in the Gulf of Bangkok, the City experiences the sea breeze every afternoon and evening. The natural phenomenon is caused by the uplifting of hot air from the sun-baked ground and heat generation in the city, to be replaced by the cooler air from the sea, which is to the south. During the nighttime the sea breeze ceases to operate as the ground temperature cools down. The late night and early morning is characterized by the calm or no wind. With 2.1 million vehicles, the city has a serious problem of carbon monoxide from the gasoline vehicles stuck in the traffic on start and stop cycles, while particulate matter is the result of diesel vehicles. Hydrocarbons mainly result from two-stroke motorcycles and tuk-tuk (three-wheeled) taxis. Air pollution in Bangkok and major cities of Thailand is the result of emissions from gasoline, diesel, and LPG fueled vehicles, which contribute to the observed levels of carbon monoxide, lead, particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone and hydrocarbons. The industrial activities contribute smaller share due to tall stacks and more efficient combusting processes and pollution control.

  19. The Cross-Referenced Patent Cooperation Treaty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Cees

    2016-01-01

    The Cross-Referenced Patent Cooperation Treaty covers the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) and the Regulations under the PCT. The large number of references in the articles and rules makes the PCT difficult to read. The idea behind the book is to add cross-references to the articles and rules,

  20. International Computer Conferencing for Professional Development: The Bangkok Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Terry; Mason, Robin

    1993-01-01

    Describes the Bangkok Project, a successful application of electronic mail and computer conferencing networks to support professional development in the field of distance education. The development of the computer conference to supplement a face-to-face conference in Bangkok is explained, and conference format and nature of interactions are…

  1. Analysis of the Interactions between Treaties

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    arrangements governing 15 Tabla . Key v#rlflcadoi provisions - CWC. PROVISIONS CWC Initial inspection ON-SITE INSPECTION Routine irispection REGIME Challenge...Article XII ). In addition, the Treaty can be amended through the provisions stated in 44 Table 6. Key verificaden provisions - BWC. PROVISIONS CWC...TLI. Article XII of the Treaty outlines the use of NTM in very general terms. No restrictions are placed on the allowed equipment, except that

  2. National treatment in emerging market investment treaties

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, D A

    2013-01-01

    This article considers the national treatment standard in international investment agreements as implemented by emerging market countries. It briefly explains the nature and purpose of the standard and how it has been examined by international investment tribunals. Specific examples of national treatment provisions in emerging market international investment treaties as well as WTO instruments are discussed, focusing the scope and limitations to this standard commonly provided in treaty pract...

  3. Attributes Determining Condominium Prices in Bangkok (in Thai)

    OpenAIRE

    Kiriya Kulkolkarn; Chotiwut Laophairoj

    2012-01-01

    The housing market, particularly the condominium sector in Bangkok has been rapidly expanding. In this paper, the hedonic price model is used to analyze the housing attributes that determine the price of condominiums in Bangkok. The Box-Cox technique is used to find an appropriate functional form of the model. The data of condominium prices and 20 attributes of 146 condominium units were collected from 42 sales offices during 1-31 January 2011. The results indicate that the attributes determi...

  4. Organic food provision strategies of a niche market in Bangkok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kantamaturapoj, K.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Any increase in the level of sustainable food consumption in Bangkok requires both providers and consumers to change their behavior and strategies in a more sustainable direction. This paper focuses on provider’s side and examines the strategies that food providers in Bangkok use to reach the Thai consumers with their sustainable food offers. This paper looks at the “niche” specialized shops which are the first group of organic food provider and currently provide organic food to consumers in Bangkok. A focus group discussion was organized with representatives of the specialized shops in order to discuss and to assess a number of different strategies that could be applied when trying to sell organic food to consumers in Bangkok. The study found that the specialized shops in Bangkok are “small, specialized and beautiful”. The specialized shops in Bangkok form the “Green Market Network” to work together and empower individual shop owners. The major tasks of the network are to procure sufficient sustainable food from reliable sources for the individual shops, to improve their businesses by learning from each other’s experiences and to expand the market for their products. The specialized shops are not so much focused on certification but, instead rely on trust. The specialized shops communicate with consumers in an informal and friendly way, talking directly to them in the shop and organizing activities with them.

  5. Why START. [Strategic Arms Reduction Talks treaty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendelsohn, J.

    1991-04-01

    Barring some major unexpected downturn in US-Soviet relations, it seems likely that the long-awaited Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (START) treaty will be signed sometime in 1991. Under negotiation for the past nine years, public acceptance and Senate approval of a START treaty will be facilitated by the generally less confrontational East-West relationship which has evolved over that time, by the growing constraints on the US defense budget, and by the obvious merits of the treaty itself. Not only will the nearly complete START treaty be an extremely useful and powerful arms control agreement, it is also decidedly advantageous to US security interests. First and foremost, a START treaty will cap and reduce the steady buildup of nuclear weapons that has characterized the last 30 years of the US-Soviet strategic relationship. As a result of the basic outline originally agreed to at the Reykjavik summit, START will take a 25 to 35 percent bite out of existing nuclear arsenals, impose approximately a 50 percent cut in overall Soviet ballistic missile warheads and throw-weight (lifting power or payload capacity), and produce an exact 50 percent cut in Soviet SS-18 missiles.

  6. Assessing Proposals for New Global Health Treaties: An Analytic Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Steven J; Røttingen, John-Arne; Frenk, Julio

    2015-08-01

    We have presented an analytic framework and 4 criteria for assessing when global health treaties have reasonable prospects of yielding net positive effects. First, there must be a significant transnational dimension to the problem being addressed. Second, the goals should justify the coercive nature of treaties. Third, proposed global health treaties should have a reasonable chance of achieving benefits. Fourth, treaties should be the best commitment mechanism among the many competing alternatives. Applying this analytic framework to 9 recent calls for new global health treaties revealed that none fully meet the 4 criteria. Efforts aiming to better use or revise existing international instruments may be more productive than is advocating new treaties.

  7. Changes in residential, occupational and gender structure of the greater Bangkok in the globalization process

    OpenAIRE

    Satoshi Nakagawa

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated recent changes in migration and population structure of the Greater Bangkok considering the impact of economic globalization. The spatial policy of the Thai government has lead newer investments for manufacturing to locate away from Bangkok Metropolis and thereby the industrial structure of Bangkok Metropolis has gradually turned into service-dominated, while the region surrounding Bangkok Metropolis has attracted factories mainly owned by foreign capital. Light indust...

  8. Driver exposure to particulate matter in Bangkok.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinsart, W; Kaewmanee, C; Inoue, M; Hara, K; Hasegawa, S; Karita, K; Tamura, K; Yano, E

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters > or = 2.5 microm (PM2.5) and 2.5-10 microm (PM10-2.5) exposure levels of drivers and to analyze the proportion of elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) in PM2.5 in Bangkok, Thailand. Four bus routes were selected. Measurements were conducted over 10 days in August (rainy season) 2008 and 8 days in January (dry season) 2009. The mean PM2.5 exposure level of the Tuk-tuk drivers was 86 microg/m3 in August and 198 microg/m3 in January. The mean for the non-air-conditioned bus drivers was 63 microg/m3 in August and 125 microg/m3 in January. The PM2.5 and PM10-2.5 exposure levels of the drivers in January were approximately twice as high as those in August. The proportion of total carbon (TC) in PM2.5 to the PM2.5 level in August (0.97 +/- 0.28 microg/m3) was higher than in January (0.65 +/- 0.13 microg/m3). The proportion of OC in the TC of the PM2.5 in August (0.51 +/- 0.08 microg/m3) was similar to that in January (0.65 +/- 0.07 microg/m3). The TC exposure by PM25 in January (81 +/- 30 microg/m3) remained higher than in August (56-21 microg/m3). The mean level of OC in the PM2.5 was 29 +/- 13 microg/m3 in August and 50 +/- 24 microg/m3 in January. In conclusion, the PM exposure level in Bangkok drivers was higher than that in the general environment, which was already high, and it varied with the seasons and vehicle type. This study also demonstrated that the major component of the PM was carbon, likely derived from vehicles.

  9. Influenza vaccination among the elderly in Bangkok.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plasai, Valaikanya; Lertmaharit, Somrat; Viputsiri, Ong-Arj; Pongpanich, Sathirakorn; Panichpathompong, Usa; Tarnmaneewongse, Veerachai; Baron-Papillon, Florence; Cheunkitmongkol, Sunate

    2006-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of influenza vaccinations among the elderly in Bangkok in reducing influenza-like illness (ILI) and influenza-related complications. Using a non-randomized, controlled, prospective methodology, healthy, active people aged 60 years or more, living in the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (BMA) area, were studied. The two study cohorts comprised 519 persons in the vaccinated group and 520 in the non-vaccinated group. The outcome under study was influenza-like illness (ILI), as reported by the study volunteers. The two groups were comparable for most socio-demographic characteristics, except for gender, level of education, marital status, and smoking habit. The age range was 60-88 years (mean: 68 years). Females outnumbered males in both groups, with ratio of female to male of 2.6:1 and 1.9:1 in the vaccinated and non-vaccinated groups, respectively. The top three co-morbidities among these groups were hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and heart disease, in that order. Only 1% of the volunteers reported lung disease as co-morbidity. During the 12-month study period, a total of 107 volunteers reported ILI in both groups, with 38 persons in the vaccinated group and 69 persons in the non-vaccinated group. There were 46 ILI episodes in the vaccinated group, and 86 in the non-vaccinated group, for a total of 132 episodes. The incidence rates rates of influenza in this population, therefore, were 8.9% for the vaccinated and 16.9% for the non-vaccinated groups; with a reduction in the rate of reported ILI and doctor visits of 8%. Vaccine effectiveness was rated at 47.6%, crude risk ratio at 1.9 (1.33-2.75), and adjusted risk ratio at 1.92 (95% CI: 1.25-2.95), after adjustment for gender, marital status, education, and smoking habit. No complications due to ILI were observed in this population during the study period. Hospitalizations during this period were due to non-ILI related causes, such as cancer and accident.

  10. The Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty in Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Kelsey

    2017-01-01

    The 1968 Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) is the cornerstone of multilateral efforts to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and promote efforts toward complete disarmament. In the grand bargain of the NPT, states foreswore pursuit of nuclear weapons in exchange for access to nuclear technology and limited nuclear arsenals to the five states (China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom and the United States) that tested such weapons before the NPT's conception. Now in its seventh decade, the NPT regime is embraced by the vast majority of the world's nations and is viewed as a critical element of international security. However, despite past successes in halting efforts in several states to pursue nuclear weapons, near universal adherence, and only one withdrawal (North Korea), the NPT regime is at a critical crossroads. The treaty has proven unable to adapt to new challenges, such as emerging technologies that threaten operational strategic realities, the devolution of state authority to non-state actors and institutions, and growing dissatisfaction with slow pace of nuclear disarmament. Additionally, the treaty leaves open critical questions, including whether or not state parties have the `right' to pursue technologies that allow for domestic production of fuels for nuclear reactors and if modernization programs for nuclear warheads are inconsistent with the treaty. If these questions remain unresolved, the international community will find itself ill prepared to confront emerging proliferation challenges and the NPT, the linchpin of international nonproliferation and disarmament efforts, may begin to erode.

  11. Mutagenicities of Bangkok and Tokyo river waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusamran, W R; Wakabayashi, K; Oguri, A; Tepsuwan, A; Nagao, M; Sugimura, T

    1994-11-01

    Samples of water from the Chao Phraya river and some connected canals in Bangkok, Thailand, and from the Sumida and Ara rivers in Tokyo, Japan, were tested for mutagenicity using blue rayon to adsorb the mutagens. The samples from the Chao Phraya river and connected canals at sites located 50-150 km from the river mouth taken in May 1993 showed a mutagenicity of 87-1213 revertants per 0.05 g blue rayon extract towards S. typhimurium YG1024 in the presence of S9 mix. Samples from most sites taken in December 1993, which follows the rainy season, showed a lower mutagenicity than those taken in May, possibly due to dilution by the larger volume of water in the river and canals in December. Water samples from the Sumida river were collected in July 1993 and February 1994, and those from the Ara river in January 1994. Mutagenicity of samples from all sites of the Sumida and Ara rivers, which were located 2-30 and 2-20 km, respectively, from the river mouth was also clearly detected in the presence of S9 mix and did not differ much, being 155-748 revertants of YG1024 per 0.05 g blue rayon extract. These results demonstrated that the water in all three rivers contained some frameshift mutagens.

  12. Emerging market for sustainable food in Bangkok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Oosterveer

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available More and more food is traded all over the world, changing the general pattern of food production and consumption dramatically. This transformation includes increasing consumer demand for safe and environmentally friendly produced food. Food is no longer produced only by farmers in the vicinity where consumers can easily observe how they produce their food. Nowadays, food can be produced in Asia and presented on a supermarket’s shelf in Europe, this unknown origin makes consumers more concerned about the safety of their food. Food scandals such as mad cow disease, bird flu, and GMOs make consumers concerned, uncertain and worried about their food. In response to these concerns, modern retailers in many countries improve their sustainable development policy and actively increase the provision of sustainable food. As a newly industrialized country in Southeast Asia, Thailand can be expected to witness a similar increasing domestic demand for sustainable food products, particularly in its urban areas. The general patterns of global change affect Thailand as well, but the specific processes of change differ due to specific conditions of urban Thailand. This paper analyzes the process of change towards sustainable food provision in Bangkok by investigating how consumers and the system of provision interact in retail outlets.

  13. Homelessness among the Elderly in Bangkok Metropolitan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viwatpanich, Kanvee

    2015-03-01

    The combination between quantitative and qualitative research, "Homelessness among the Elderly in Bangkok Metropolitan" aimed to study causes of homelessness, patterns of living, problems, health status, social and health needs. Purposive sampling of 60 older homeless people could be divided into two groups; temporary and permanent homeless. Causes of homelessness were health problems, money problems, family background, emotional management, cultural sensitivities, limitation of extended family, financial management, political control, and domestic violence. Their living problems included:financial insecurity, police suppression, social and medical services, attacks from the young generations, sexual harassment, stealing, and social hierarchy of homelessness. 63.3% reported having hearing problems and a peptic ulcer before becoming homeless. These evolved into musculo-skeletal problems, accident-injuries, and skin diseases. 95% performed ADL/IADLs independently, 78.3% were depressed, 5% diagnosed with severe stress depression. 70% rated themselves happier than the rest ofthe population, and 75% were identified as having normal cognition. 58.3% had a good relationship with a religious network, 55% still had some contacts with theirfamily members. More than 90% indicated that they were satisfied, could sustainin a life on the street, were happy with theirfreedom, liked being close to green areas, learned about human life,fulfilled the dhamma, and felt close to the king.

  14. Canine parasitic zoonoses in Bangkok temples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inpankaew, Tawin; Traub, Rebecca; Thompson, R C Andrew; Sukthana, Yaowalark

    2007-03-01

    Fecal samples were collected from 204 humans and 229 dogs from 20 different temples in Bangkok, as well as communities in the surrounding temple ground areas. Human and dog stool samples were examined for intestinal parasites including Giardia using zinc sulfate flotation and microscopy. Hookworms were the most common parasite in dogs (58.1%) followed by Trichuris (20.5%), Isospora (10%), Giardia (7.9%), Toxocara (7.4%), Dipylidium caninum (4.4%) and Spirometra (3.1%). Blastocystis hominis (5.9%) was the most common parasite in humans followed by hookworms (3.4%), Giardia (2.5%), Strongyloides (2%) and Cryptosporidium (1.5%). All samples microscopy-positive for Giardia were genotyped. The majority of Giardia isolated from the dog population was placed in Assemblage A, followed by Assemblages D, B and C, respectively, while human isolates were placed in Assemblages A and B. Therefore, dogs in temple communities posed a potential zoonotic risk to humans for transmission of hookworms, Giardia (especially Assemblage A genotypes) and Toxocara canis.

  15. 22 CFR 120.31 - North Atlantic Treaty Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false North Atlantic Treaty Organization. 120.31 Section 120.31 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.31 North Atlantic Treaty Organization. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)...

  16. 78 FR 21787 - Changes To Implement the Patent Law Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... and 3 Changes To Implement the Patent Law Treaty; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78, No... and Trademark Office 37 CFR Parts 1 and 3 RIN 0651-AC85 Changes To Implement the Patent Law Treaty.... SUMMARY: The Patent Law Treaties Implementation Act of 2012 (PLTIA) amends the patent laws to...

  17. Towards A Business and Human Rights Treaty

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Si

    2015-01-01

    Business enterprises can contribute to the realization of human rights in many instances. However, they may also cause adverse effect on the enjoyment of human rights. The increasing disclosure of business involvement in human rights abuses can be dated back to decades ago. Despite the failed attempts to regulate business enterprises with respect to human rights via a binding approach, a proposal on a business and human rights treaty by some states, typically represented by Ecuador, has reope...

  18. Treaty to Curb Mercury Pollution Adopted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-10-01

    The international Minamata Convention on Mercury to protect human health and the environment from anthropogenic emissions and releases of mercury and mercury compounds was formally adopted at a 10 October meeting in Minamata, Japan. The legally binding treaty, currently signed by 92 countries, comes 57 years after the government of Japan officially acknowledged, in 1956, the existence of Minamata disease, which was caused by eating seafood contaminated with methylmercury compounds discharged into Minamata Bay in southern Japan.

  19. Sustainable Markets Investment Briefings: Investment Treaties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotula, Lorenzo

    2007-08-15

    This is the second of a series of briefings which discuss the sustainable development issues raised by legal arrangements for the protection of foreign investment. The briefings are based on legal research by IIED and its partners. The goal is to provide accessible but accurate information for human rights, development and environmental organisations working on issues raised by foreign investment in low- and middle-income countries. Briefing 2 explains how investment treaties between states work to protect and promote foreign investment.

  20. Antarctic Treaty Summit: Washington, DC (2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkman, P. A.; Young, O. R.

    2005-12-01

    Advancement in Earth system science and international cooperation have been intertwined with the International Polar Years since 1882. In particular, the 3rd International Polar Year (which was convened as the International Geophysical Year from 1 July 1957 through 31 December 1958) specifically demonstrates the role of science in international policy: Acknowledging the substantial contributions to scientific knowledge resulting from international cooperation in scientific investigation in Antarctica; Convinced that the establishment of a firm foundation for the continuation and development of such cooperation on the basis of freedom of scientific investigation in Antarctica as applied during the International Geophysical Year accords with the interests of science and the progress of all mankind; Preamble, 1959 Antarctic Treaty To commemorate the 50th anniversary of the 1959 Antarctic Treaty and to explore the complexities of the science-policy relationship through the lens of a well-constrained case study, an international and interdisciplinary Antarctic Treaty Summit is being planned for 2009 in Washington, DC in conjunction with the International Polar Year 2007-08 (http://www.ipy.org).

  1. Influential sources affecting Bangkok adolescent body image perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thianthai, Chulanee

    2006-01-01

    The study of body image-related problems in non-Western countries is still very limited. Thus, this study aims to identify the main influential sources and show how they affect the body image perceptions of Bangkok adolescents. The researcher recruited 400 Thai male and female adolescents in Bangkok, attending high school to freshmen level, ranging from 16-19 years, to participate in this study. Survey questionnaires were distributed to every student and follow-up interviews conducted with 40 students. The findings showed that there are eight main influential sources respectively ranked from the most influential to the least influential: magazines, television, peer group, familial, fashion trend, the opposite gender, self-realization and health knowledge. Similar to those studies conducted in Western countries, more than half of the total percentage was the influence of mass media and peer groups. Bangkok adolescents also internalized Western ideal beauty through these mass media channels. Alike studies conducted in the West, there was similarities in the process of how these influential sources affect Bangkok adolescent body image perception, with the exception of familial source. In conclusion, taking the approach of identifying the main influential sources and understanding how they affect adolescent body image perceptions can help prevent adolescents from having unhealthy views and taking risky measures toward their bodies. More studies conducted in non-Western countries are needed in order to build a cultural sensitive program, catered to the body image problems occurring in adolescents within that particular society.

  2. Bangkok's Linguistic Landscapes: Environmental Print, Codemixing and Language Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, Thom

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the linguistic landscapes of 15 Bangkok neighbourhoods to explore questions of language contact, language mixing and language dominance. It provides a linguistic framework for analysis of types of codemixing. It highlights the importance and influence of English as a global language. It examines the signs from government…

  3. North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the United States, and International Legitimacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    8. 42Following the signing of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919, the Albanian State was created but with only one-half of the Albanian population...NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION, THE UNITED STATES, AND INTERNATIONAL LEGITIMACY A Monograph by MAJ Mark Van Gelder...North Atlantic Treaty Organization, The United States, and International Legitimacy 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  4. Antarctic Treaty Summit to Focus on Global Science Policy Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkman, Paul Arthur; Walton, David W. H.; Weiler, C. Susan

    2008-10-01

    The Antarctic Treaty Summit, which will coincide with the fiftieth anniversary of the treaty's signing, will be held at the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History, in Washington, D. C., from 30 November to 3 December 2009. The summit will provide an open international forum for scientists, legislators, lawyers, administrators, educators, students, corporate executives, historians, and other members of global civil society to explore science policy achievements from the first 50 years of the Antarctic Treaty. In addition, the summit will complement official government celebrations of the Antarctic Treaty anniversary that do not include public participation.

  5. Innovation in Justice and Security by Treaty of Lisbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myzafer ELEZI

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Lisbon Treaty is a legal package which includes previous treaties, starting from the year 1957, following the Treaty of Rome and the Treaty of Nice in 2001, summarized in a single text that introduces a number of changes of the way how the European Union works, in order to make it more efficient for its citizens. This Treaty converts the European Union for the first time in a single entity, unifying pillars of its activities which are as follows: the European Communities, Common Foreign and Security Policy, and Judicial Cooperation in Criminal Matters, which so far only the European Communities had the status of judicial person. It modifies the Treaty of European Union, created by the European Union and the Treaty created by the European Community, which is in power, but do not replace them. The new Treaty gives the EU the legal framework, and necessary tools to face the future challenges and to respond to its citizen’s perspectives. The Conference will introduce all the innovations that the Treaty of Lisbon brings not only in the field of security and foreign policy of the EU, but also in those related to police and judicial cooperation regarding criminal matters.

  6. Flooded: an auto-ethnography of the 2011 Bangkok flood

    OpenAIRE

    Erik Cohen

    2012-01-01

    "In this personal account I report my perceptions, experiences, and conduct during the 2011 Bangkok flood, in which my home and neighbourhood have been badly inundated and damaged. Therefore, I draw on auto-ethnography as an increasingly popular, though controversial qualitative methodology in social sciences. Though personal, the account has some broader implications, deriving primarily from the examination of the relationship between my perceptions and conduct in the disaster and my life ex...

  7. Statistical downscaling rainfall using artificial neural network: significantly wetter Bangkok?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Minh Tue; Aribarg, Thannob; Supratid, Siriporn; Raghavan, Srivatsan V.; Liong, Shie-Yui

    2016-11-01

    Artificial neural network (ANN) is an established technique with a flexible mathematical structure that is capable of identifying complex nonlinear relationships between input and output data. The present study utilizes ANN as a method of statistically downscaling global climate models (GCMs) during the rainy season at meteorological site locations in Bangkok, Thailand. The study illustrates the applications of the feed forward back propagation using large-scale predictor variables derived from both the ERA-Interim reanalyses data and present day/future GCM data. The predictors are first selected over different grid boxes surrounding Bangkok region and then screened by using principal component analysis (PCA) to filter the best correlated predictors for ANN training. The reanalyses downscaled results of the present day climate show good agreement against station precipitation with a correlation coefficient of 0.8 and a Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency of 0.65. The final downscaled results for four GCMs show an increasing trend of precipitation for rainy season over Bangkok by the end of the twenty-first century. The extreme values of precipitation determined using statistical indices show strong increases of wetness. These findings will be useful for policy makers in pondering adaptation measures due to flooding such as whether the current drainage network system is sufficient to meet the changing climate and to plan for a range of related adaptation/mitigation measures.

  8. Tax treaties in sub-Saharan Africa: a critical review

    OpenAIRE

    Hearson, Martin

    2015-01-01

    There is growing attention on the question of tax treaties signed by developing countries. To investigate this apparent shift in opinion among policymakers, and to see what lessons can be drawn by other developing countries, Tax Justice Network Africa (TJN-A) commissioned this study of current policy towards tax treaties in Uganda and Zambia, two countries that appear to be questioning past decisions.

  9. Why we should let the Lisbon treaty rest in peace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beach, Derek

    2008-01-01

    Should the Irish be forced to vote again on the recently rejected Lisbon Treaty in a second referendum? The diplomatic signals coming from Brussels suggest that the Irish will be asked to solve the problem themselves using the Danish/Irish model of sending the same treaty with some clarifications...

  10. 32 CFR 1630.46 - Class 4-T: Treaty alien.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Class 4-T: Treaty alien. 1630.46 Section 1630.46 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM CLASSIFICATION RULES § 1630.46 Class 4-T: Treaty alien. In Class 4-T shall be placed any registrant who is an alien...

  11. 50 CFR 300.95 - Treaty Indian fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Treaty Indian fisheries. 300.95 Section 300.95 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Fraser River Sockeye and Pink Salmon Fisheries § 300.95 Treaty Indian fisheries. (a) Any...

  12. The INF Treaty Compliance Disputes and Its Future Implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang; Yimin; Wu; Jun

    2015-01-01

    The Treaty on Intermediate Range Nuclear Forces(simplified as the INF Treaty)was signed by the United States and the former Soviet Union on December 8,1987 and formally entered into force as of June 1,1988 in the wake of exchanging the instruments of ratification.By comprehensively banning the ground-launched missiles range from 500-5500km possessed by both countries,the INF Treaty for the first time in history achieved the substantial reduction of both countries’nuclear arsenals and introduced the on-site inspection,on which the verification regime in future nuclear disarmament treaties like START I,START II as well as New START are built.Those features of the treaty provide historic implications for its contribution to both strategic stability and international security.

  13. The Role of science in treaty verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavron, A. I. (Avigdor I.)

    2004-01-01

    Technologically advanced nations are currently applying more science to treaty verification than ever before. Satellites gather a multitude of information relating to proliferation concerns using thermal imaging analysis, nuclear radiation measurements, and optical and radio frequency signals detection. Ground stations gather complementary signals such as seismic events and radioactive emissions. Export controls in many countries attempt to intercept materials and technical means that could be used for nuclear proliferation. Never the less, we have witnessed a plethora of nuclear proliferation episodes, that were undetected (or were belatedly detected) by these technologies - the Indian nuclear tests in 1998, the Libyan nuclear buildup, the Iranian enrichment program and the North Korea nuclear weapons program are some prime examples. In this talk we will discuss some of the technologies used for proliferation detection. In particular, we will note some of the issues relating to nuclear materials control agreements that epitomize political difficulties as they impact the implementation of science and technology.

  14. Mycobacterium other than tubercle bacilli in various environments in Bangkok.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imwidthaya, P; Suthiravitayavaniz, K; Phongpanich, S

    1989-06-01

    This research was designed to isolate Mycobacterium other than tubercle bacilli in various environments in the Bangkok area, in 1987. The results were as follows, one hundred samples of soil yielded 1 Mycobacterium gordonae, 2 M. chelonei, 57 M. fortuitum, 1 Nocardia asteroides, one hundred samples of natural water from the Chao Phraya River and the canals of Chao Phraya River yielded 2 M. chelonei, 18 M. fortuitum, 1 N. asteroides and 1 N. brasiliensis, thirty samples of tap water yielded 3 M. gordonae. But thirty samples of water from swimming pools were negative for Mycobacterium.

  15. Bangkok 2004. Sex workers and law reform in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnott, Jayne

    2004-12-01

    The Sisonke movement in South Africa aims to galvanize sex workers to fight for equal rights and for improvements in their living and working conditions. This article, based on Jayne Arnott's presentation to a plenary session at the XV International AIDS Conference in Bangkok on 14 July 2004, outlines the legislation that governs the sex trade in South Africa; reviews related legal and policy developments since the end of apartheid in 1994; describes the present environment; and outlines the contribution that sex workers themselves are making to the fight for reform.

  16. Treaties and individuals: of beneficiaries, duty-bearers, users, and participants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plakokefalos, I.

    2014-01-01

    This contribution explores the role of individuals in the law of treaties. Individuals besides being beneficiaries or duty bearers under treaty regimes (something evident in human rights treaties and international criminal law treaties) have slowly started to play other roles as well. In some instan

  17. The European Union’s Reform Process: The Libson Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-22

    uncertainty that followed the rejection of the constitutional treaty. German Chancellor Angela Merkel made reviving the stalled reform process one of her...actor. The Convention began work in March 2002 under the leadership of former French President Valéry Giscard d’Estaing and finalized a 240-page...key priorities, seeking a new treaty deal that would institute crucial reforms. Analysts say that Merkel received a key assist with the May 2007

  18. Impact of Lisbon Treaty on European Union's Future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bi Siwei

    2010-01-01

    @@ Introduction The"Lisbon Treaty"was approved and signed by the European Union's heads of state on December13th,2007 and then handed over to the various E.U.members for ratification.In January 2009,the"Lisbon Treaty"entered into force,despite the many political and economic difficulties in the ratification process that all member countries were experiencing.

  19. Increased health risk in Bangkok children exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from traffic-related sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuntawiroon, Jantamas; Mahidol, Chulabhorn; Navasumrit, Panida; Autrup, Herman; Ruchirawat, Mathuros

    2007-04-01

    The aim of this study is to assess potential health risk of exposure to particle-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in children living in a megacity with traffic congestion such as Bangkok. The study population comprised 184 Thai schoolboys (aged 8-13 years) attending schools adjacent to high-density traffic areas in Bangkok and schools located in the provincial area of Chonburi. The ambient concentration of total PAHs at roadsides in proximity to the Bangkok schools was 30-fold greater than at roadsides in proximity to the provincial schools (30.39 +/- 5.80 versus 1.50 +/- 0.28 ng/m(3); P Bangkok schoolchildren were 3.5-fold higher than in provincial schoolchildren (4.13 +/- 0.21 versus 1.18 +/- 0.09 ng/m(3); P Bangkok schoolchildren. Bulky carcinogen-DNA adduct levels in peripheral lymphocytes were also significantly higher (0.45 +/- 0.03 versus 0.09 +/- 0.00 adducts/10(8) nt; P Bangkok schoolchildren (P Bangkok schoolchildren exposed to a high level of genotoxic PAHs in ambient air may be more vulnerable to the health impacts associated with the exposure to genotoxic pollutants than children in provincial areas and may have increased health risks for the development of certain diseases such as cancer.

  20. Committees and groups related to the EURATOM treaty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcus, F.R. [comp.] [Nordic Nuclear Safety Research, Roskilde (Denmark)

    1997-09-01

    The EURATOM Treaty has not been modified since its creation (Rome, 25 March 1957) but has simply been adapted to take account of the fusion of the executive bodies of the three original European Treaties and the enlargement with new Member States. The EURATOM Treaty is in existence simultaneously with the 1992 Maastricht Treaty. No changes in the EURATOM Treaty that influence the practical working conditions were brought about in the 1997 intergovernmental conference. This edition of the survey of groups related to the EURATOM Treaty is an update of earlier versions issued in Danish language. It is sponsored by the Nordic Committee for Nuclear Safety Research (NKS) in conjunction with the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI). The main purpose is to informally provide those circles in the Nordic countries who want to get acquainted with the groups involved in work related to EURATOM with a simplified overview. The present edition is not different from earlier issues in that it contains an outline without the intent to go into details, and without the ambition to be complete. It thus does not represent an official picture of the committees and groups. Nor should it be seen as an organisation chart of related Commission services. The information is mostly based on personal contacts with persons having knowledge from work with the groups in question. The author would be grateful for corrections and suggestions in order to improve the picture given. 15 figs.

  1. Insecticide susceptibility of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti (L.) in Metropolitan Bangkok.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komalamisra, Narumon; Srisawat, Raweewan; Phanbhuwong, Theerawit; Oatwaree, Sompis

    2011-07-01

    Mosquito larvae were collected from the houses of dengue infected patients in Bangkok, Thailand from 55 sites (36 out of the 50 districts of Metropolitan Bangkok). Aedes aegypti larvae were tested against temephos using WHO bioassay techniques. Adult mosquitoes were tested for susceptibility to permethrin, deltamethrin, cyfluthrin, malathion and DDT using WHO diagnostic doses. Most of the larvae tested were susceptible to temephos. Only few specimens were resistant to temephos. Most adult mosquitoes were highly susceptible to malathion. Deltamethrin resistance was seen in 6 districts of Bangkok. Variable levels of susceptibility were seen with cyfluthrin. Most of the specimens showed resistance to permethrin and all specimens were resistant to DDT.

  2. An Assessment of Ecosystem Services Provided by Street Trees in Bangkok, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    SOONSAWAD, NATTHANIJ

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on the analysis of ecosystem services provided by green spaces in Bangkok, Thailand, as a potential tool to address urban and environmental problems there. The analyses are divided into two parts for achieving two objectives, 1) estimating the magnitude of ecosystem services provided by public street trees, and 2) examining the relationship between stable isotopic data of tree leaves and the environmental quality of Bangkok's streets. The findings could be used to identify ...

  3. Changes in residential, occupational and gender structure of the greater Bangkok in the globalization process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Nakagawa

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated recent changes in migration and population structure of the GreaterBangkok considering the impact of economic globalization. The spatial policy of the Thaigovernment has lead newer investments for manufacturing to locate away from BangkokMetropolis and thereby the industrial structure of Bangkok Metropolis has gradually turnedinto service-dominated, while the region surrounding Bangkok Metropolis has attractedfactories mainly owned by foreign capital. Light industry and electronics industry are concentratedin the adjacent provinces to Bangkok Metropolis and the heavy and petrochemicalindustry tends to be located in the outer zone of the surrounding region. The service sectorand light industry as well as electronics industry prefer female workers and Bangkok metropolisand the adjoining provinces have become female-dominated population structurewhile male workers tend to gather in the outer zone attracted by heavy and petrochemicalindustry. It is possible to mention accordingly that the unbalanced spatial distribution of sexstructure of population which might cause changes in the norm to the family formation infuture is one of the consequences of economic globalization of Thailand, which the investmentpromotion policy of the government did not assume.

  4. Changes in residential, occupational and gender structure of the greater Bangkok in the globalization process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Nakagawa

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated recent changes in migration and population structure of the Greater Bangkok considering the impact of economic globalization. The spatial policy of the Thai government has lead newer investments for manufacturing to locate away from Bangkok Metropolis and thereby the industrial structure of Bangkok Metropolis has gradually turned into service-dominated, while the region surrounding Bangkok Metropolis has attracted factories mainly owned by foreign capital. Light industry and electronics industry are con-centrated in the adjacent provinces to Bangkok Metropolis and the heavy and petrochemical industry tends to be located in the outer zone of the surrounding region. The service sector and light industry as well as electronics industry prefer female workers and Bangkok met-ropolis and the adjoining provinces have become female-dominated population structure while male workers tend to gather in the outer zone attracted by heavy and petrochemical industry. It is possible to mention accordingly that the unbalanced spatial distribution of sex structure of population which might cause changes in the norm to the family formation in future is one of the consequences of economic globalization of Thailand, which the inves-tment promotion policy of the government did not assume.

  5. Solid waste scavenger community: an investigation in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kungskulniti, N; Pulket, C; Miller, F D; Smith, K R

    1991-01-01

    A solid waste scavenger community at On-Nooch dump site in Bangkok was investigated. The purpose was to identify the dimensions of the public health risk to this group of people and their community due to exposure to hazardous conditions from waste materials. A cross-sectional descriptive study utilizing field surveys and measurements was performed. The demographic, socioeconomic, health related and environmental characteristics of this community were examined. Health complaints and injuries were inventoried among scavengers. Prevalence of childhood respiratory illness was high especially in those households where smoking was present. Intestinal helminthic and protozoan infection in children were detected. Six individuals with possible HIV infection and a number of Hepatitis B anti-genemia were found among male respondents. An appreciable proportion of respondents fell below normal when tested for lung function. Air pollution measurements showed acceptable ambient air levels except for particulate matters. Water quality was low for both potable and nonpotable water.

  6. Atmospheric aerosol layers over Bangkok Metropolitan Region from CALIPSO observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridhikitti, Arika

    2013-06-01

    Previous studies suggested that aerosol optical depth (AOD) from the Earth Observing System satellite retrievals could be used for inference of ground-level air quality in various locations. This application may be appropriate if pollution in elevated atmospheric layers is insignificant. This study investigated the significance of elevated air pollution layers over the Bangkok Metropolitan Region (BMR) from all available aerosol layer scenes taken from Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) for years 2007 to 2011. The results show that biomass burning smoke layers alone were the most frequently observed. The smoke layers accounted for high AOD variations and increased AOD levels. In the dry seasons, the smoke layers alone with high AOD levels were likely brought to the BMR via northeasterly to easterly prevailing winds and found at altitudes above the typical BMR mixing heights of approximately 0.7 to 1.5 km. The smoke should be attributed to biomass burning emissions outside the BMR.

  7. Yannawa wastewater treatment plant (Bangkok, Thailand): design, construction and operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkwood, S

    2004-01-01

    Yannawa Wastewater Treatment plant (Phase 1) serves a population equivalent of 500,000 and is located on a restricted site within the city of Bangkok, Thailand. Secondary treatment is based on the CASS sequencing batch reactor (SBR) process and the plant is one of the largest multi-storey SBRs in the world. The limitation of available site area, the ground conditions and the characteristics of the wastewater to be treated set a series of challenges for the designers, contractors and commissioning and operational staff. This paper briefly describes the collection system, the process selection and the treatment streams of the wastewater treatment plant. The SBR secondary treatment plant is described in more detail. The problems that arose during commissioning and operation and the solutions made possible by the use of an SBR type of process are discussed. Details of plant performance during performance testing and during the first three years of plant operation are provided.

  8. Control and adherence: living with diabetes in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naemiratch, Bhensri; Manderson, Lenore

    2006-09-01

    Diabetes is managed via a regimen of control. Physicians advise adults living with type 2 diabetes to control blood sugar levels by controlling diet, maintaining regular exercise, and complying with medication. The extent to which individuals are able to adhere to such recommendations varies. In this article, we explore lay perceptions of diabetes and its control, drawing on data from an ethnographic study conducted in Bangkok, Thailand. Between August 2001 and February 2003 the first author spent time with twelve man and women living with type 2 diabetes, their spouses, children and health providers. An additional 21 people were interviewed to extend the data and test for generalisibility. It was found that individual explanations of control, and adherence or resistance to medical advice, are interpreted and adapted in ways consistent with Buddhist philosophy and Thai norms that govern everyday life. Notions of moderation and cultural values of being and behaving, and ideals of interaction, provide a philosophical basis and practical guidelines for control.

  9. Flooded: An Auto-Ethnography of the 2011 Bangkok Flood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Cohen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this personal account I report my perceptions, experiences, and conduct during the 2011 Bangkok flood, in which my home and neighbourhood have been badly inundated and damaged. Therefore, I draw on auto-ethnography as an increasingly popular, though controversial qualitative methodology in social sciences. Though personal, the account has some broader implications, deriving primarily from the examination of the relationship between my perceptions and conduct in the disaster and my life experiences and present social position, as set against the perceptions and conduct of my Thai wife, our neighbours, and the broader community. The contrast throws some light on an aspect of Thai culture rarely discussed in the literature: the Thai response to disaster. ----- In dieser persönlichen Darstellung berichte ich über meine Wahrnehmungen, Erfahrungen und mein Verhalten während der Überschwemmungen 2011 in Bangkok, in denen mein Heim und die Nachbarschaft überschwemmt und schwer beschädigt wurden. In diesem Zusammenhang stütze ich mich auf die Autoethnografie als zunehmend populäre, wenn auch umstrittene qualitative Methode in der sozialwissenschaftlichen Forschung. Trotz des persönlichen Zugangs einer Autoethnografie lässt diese breitere Schlussfolgerungen zu, die sich hauptsächlich aus der Betrachtung der Beziehung zwi- schen meinen Wahrnehmungen und Verhalten während der Katastrophe sowie meinen persönlichen Erfahrungen und meiner sozialen Stellung im Gegensatz zu den Wahrnehmungen und Verhalten meiner thailändischen Ehefrau, unserer Nachbarn und der Community ableiten lassen. Dieser Kontrast wirft Licht auf einen bisher in der Literatur wenig diskutierten Aspekt der thailändischen Kultur: der thailändischen Antwort auf Katastrophen.

  10. Mutagenicity of the drinking water supply in Bangkok.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusamran, Wannee R; Tanthasri, Nopsarun; Meesiripan, Nuntana; Tepsuwan, Anong

    2003-01-01

    Seventeen samples of tap water in Bangkok and 2 neighboring provinces were collected in winter and summer, concentrated and tested for mutagenic activity using the Ames Salmonella mutagenesis assay. Preliminary results demonstrated that concentrated tap water exhibited clear mutagenicity towards S. typhimurium TA100 and YG1029, but not towards TA98 and YG1024, in the absence of S9 mix, and the addition of S9 mix markedly decreased the mutagenicity to both tester strains. Amberlite( ) XAD-2 resin, but not blue rayon, was able to adsorb mutagens from water at pH 2. Our data clearly demonstrated that all tap water samples prepared by chlorination of Chao Phraya River water were mutagenic to strain TA100 without S9 mix, inducing 3,351 + 741 and 2,216 + 770 revertants/l, in winter and summer, respectively. On the other hand, however, tap water samples prepared from ground water were not mutagenic. Furthermore, it was found that boiling for only 5 min and filtration through home purifying system containing activated charcoal and mixed resin units were very effective to abolish the mutagenicity of water. Storage of water also significantly decreased the mutagenicity, however, it took 2-3 weeks to totally abolish it. Additionally, we also found 1 out of 6 brands of commercially available bottled drinking water to be mutagenic, with about 26 % of the average mutagenicity of tap water. The results in the present study clearly demonstrated that chlorinated tap water in Bangkok and neighboring provinces contain direct-acting mutagens causing capable of causing base-pair substitution. Boiling and filtration of tap water through home purifying systems may be the most effective means to abolish the mutagenicity. Some brands of commercial bottled waters may also contain mutagens which may be derived from tap water.

  11. Particulate air pollution and daily mortality in Bangkok

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajanapoom, Nitaya

    1999-10-01

    This study was designed to assess the association between PM10 and visibility, and to determine whether the variations in daily mortality were associated with fluctuations in daily PM10 and visibility levels, in Bangkok during 1992-1997. Mortality data were extracted from death certificates, provided by the Bureau of Registration Administration. PM10 data were obtained from three monitoring stations operated by the Pollution Control Department, and visibility data were obtained from two monitoring stations operated by the Department of Meteorology. PM10 was regressed on visibility using multiple regression. Inverse and significant association was found between PM10 and visibility, after controlling for relative humidity, minimum temperature, and winter indicator variable. Positive association was found between total mortality and PM10, in Poisson regression model while controlling for long-term trends, season, and variations in weather. Five-day moving average of PM10 was significantly and most strongly associated with total mortality from non-external causes; a 2.3% (95% CI = 1.3, 3.3) increase in mortality was estimated for one interquartile range (30 μg/m3) increase in PM10. When PM10 was replaced with visibility, a 1.3% (95% CI = 0.4, 2.3) increase in mortality was estimated for one interquartile range (1.5 km) decrease in visibility. Lagged effects up to three day lags prior to death with similar patterns were observed for both PM10 and visibility. The findings suggest the possibility of using visibility as a surrogate for fine particulate matter. This approach is feasible because visibility data are usually routinely recorded at airports throughout the world. On the other hand, given the large number of population living in Bangkok, the small but significant percent excess deaths attributable to airborne particle exposure is an important public health concern.

  12. Conceptualising Commom Commercial Policy Treaty revision: explaining stagnancy and dynamics from the Amsterdam IGC to the Treaty of Lisbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Niemann

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to explain the varying, and sometimes intriguing, outcomes of the past three revisions of the Treaty concerning the Community’s Common Commercial Policy (CCP. The analysis particularly focuses on the development of competence and decision rules, i.e. the process of (further supranationalisation, of the CCP. Subjecting the external trade policy outcomes of the Treaties of Amsterdam, Nice and Lisbon to causal analysis, the paper argues that stagnancy and change across cases can be explained by four factors: (i functional pressures; (ii the role of supranational institutions; (iii socialisation, deliberation and learning processes; and (iv countervailing forces.

  13. North-South FDI and Bilateral Investment Treaties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falvey, R.; Foster-McGregor, N.

    2015-01-01

    Bilateral Investment Treaties (BITs) have become increasingly popular as a means of encouraging FDI from developed to developing countries. We adopt a matched difference-in-difference estimation to deal with the problem of endogeneity when estimating the effects of BITs on inward FDI. Our results in

  14. Overview of Major Issues of Tax Treaties Law in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedri Peci

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to analyze and find out the major issue of tax treaties law in Kosovo. In this analysis we have used the research method of case study. The results of research show that the legal framework for the elimination of double taxation, after 1999, initially started its establishment journey from the United Nations Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK. Taking into consideration the specifications of the political status, the process for the establishment of the unilateral and bilateral legal framework has been made with mistakes, slow and with delays. Following its declaration of independence, Kosovo has paid greater attention to tax treaties. Although double taxation relief in Kosovo may be obtained either unilaterally or under a tax treaty, there remains a lot of work to be done for the completion of the necessary framework for elimination of double taxation. The double taxation relief provided by a tax treaty prevails over the domestic relief. The study is of particular relevance to scholars, tax practitioners, expatriates who work and invest in Kosovo, etc

  15. Leadership in politics and science within the Antarctic Treaty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Dudeney

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available For over 50 years the Antarctic has been governed through the Antarctic Treaty, an international agreement now between 49 nations of whom 28 Consultative Parties (CPs undertake the management role. Ostensibly, these Parties have qualified for their position on scientific grounds, though diplomacy also plays a major role. This paper uses counts of policy papers and science publications to assess the political and scientific outputs of all CPs over the last 18 years. We show that a subset of the original 12 Treaty signatories, consisting of the seven claimant nations, the USA and Russia, not only set the political agenda for the continent but also provide most of the science, with those CPs producing the most science generally having the greatest political influence. None of the later signatories to the Treaty appear to play a major role in managing Antarctica compared with this group, with half of all CPs collectively producing only 7% of the policy papers. Although acceptance as a CP requires demonstration of a substantial scientific programme, the Treaty has no formal mechanism to review whether a CP continues to meet this criterion. As a first step to addressing this deficiency, we encourage the CPs collectively to resolve to hold regular international peer reviews of their individual science programmes and to make the results available to the other CPs.

  16. Tracing the Origins of the Netherlands’ Tax Treaty Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Evers (Maikel)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis contribution identifies the main determinants and key persons that constituted the tax treaty policy of the Netherlands. This policy is rooted in the political chess games in 19th century mainland Europe. In this century, European states gained experience in negotiating trade and ta

  17. Bounded Rationality and the Diffusion of Modern Investment Treaties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard Poulsen, Lauge

    2014-01-01

    insights on cognitive heuristics. In line with recent work on policy diffusion, it suggests that a bounded rationality framework has considerable potential to explain why, and how, developing countries have adopted modern investment treaties. To illustrate the potential of this approach, the case of South...

  18. Indian Policy of John Adams Administration: Treaties with the Indians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelin Timur V.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author examines the treaties that were concluded with the Native Americans in the period of John Adams presidency. Treaties with the Natives can be a good source for the study of the US Indian policy. They help to understand the character of Indian-white relations, the attitudes of Federal authorities towards certain Indian nation, the actual problems of the Frontier and so on. Unfortunately the policy of the second President of the USA toward the Native Americans is investigated not so good as the policy of other Presidents of Early American Republic. The study of the treaties helps to know more about John Adams Indian policy. In the years of his presidency only few agreements were signed with the Native American tribes. These were the Mohawk, the Seneca, the Oneida of the Iroquois Nation and the Cherokee. The procedure of Indian-white agreements was well developed until 1797 year. And John Adams administration did not explore something new in this question. The second President of the United States adopted the George Washington’s principals of dealing with the Natives. But in fact he had to consider the internal and external situation in the country. The treaties with the Indians, concluded by the administration of John Adams did not become a bright episode of American history. However they helped to reduce tensions in US-Indian relations.

  19. Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty: Background and Current Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    Offer Tools for Nuclear Testing—and Solving Nuclear Mysteries ,” Washington Post, November 1, 2011, p. 1. Horovitz, Liviu, “A Detour Strategy for the...Today, October 2009, pp. 46-52. Kimball, Daryl, “Reconsidering the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty: Sorting Fact from Fiction ,” Arms Control Association

  20. The Arms Trade Treaty Opens New Possibilities at the UN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Scales Avery

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available On 2 April, 2013, the Arms Trade Treaty, which had been blocked for ten years in the consensus-bound Conference on Disarmament in Geneva, was put directly before the United Nations General Assembly, and was passed by a massive majority. This historic victory opens new possibilities for progress on other seemingly intractable issues. In particular, it gives hope that a Nuclear Weapons Convention might be adopted by a direct vote on the floor of the General Assembly. The adoption of the NWC, even if achieved against the bitter opposition of the nuclear weapon states, would make it clear that the world’s peoples consider the threat of an all-destroying thermonuclear war to be completely unacceptable.Other precedents can be found in the International Criminal Court and the Ottawa Land Mine Treaty, both of which were adopted despite the vehement opposition of militarily powerful states. The Arms Trade Treaty, the ICC and the Land Mine Treaty all represent great steps forward. Although they may function imperfectly because of powerful opposition, they make the question of legality clear. In time, world public opinion will force aggressor states to follow international law.

  1. 50 CFR 660.324 - Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries. 660.324 Section 660.324 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West...

  2. 50 CFR 660.50 - Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries. 660.50 Section 660.50 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West...

  3. 28 CFR 2.68 - Prisoners transferred pursuant to treaty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... RECOMMITMENT OF PRISONERS, YOUTH OFFENDERS, AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS Transfer Treaty Prisoners and Parolees § 2... a release date determination by the Commission after considering the applicable sentencing... required to serve a period of supervised release pursuant to section 5D1.2 of the sentencing...

  4. Maliseet and Micmac Rights and Treaties in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buesing, Gregory

    Written for purposes of furthering aid to the Association of Aroostook Indian (AAI) in procuring Maliseet and Micmac American Indian rights, this essay provides historical documentation of U.S. treaties verifying Native American rights. This essay asserts that although about 4,000 Micmacs and Maliseets live in New England (1,000 in Maine), they…

  5. Mainstreaming Investment Treaty Jurisprudence: The Contribution of Investment Treaty Tribunals to the Consolidation and Development of General International Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schill, S.W.B.; Tvede, K.R.

    2015-01-01

    The use of internal and external precedent has been studied in relation to numerous international courts and tribunals. The participation of investment treaty tribunals in judicial dialogues or judicial cross-fertilization, by contrast, has remained underexplored. The present article closes this gap

  6. Nitrogen Removal Efficiency at Centralized Domestic Wastewater Treatment Plants in Bangkok, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongsak Noophan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, influents and effluents from centralized domestic wastewater treatment systems in Bangkok (Rattanakosin, Dindaeng, Chongnonsi, Nongkhaem, and Jatujak were randomly collected in order to measure organic nitrogen plus ammonium-nitrogen (total Kjeldahl nitrogen, total organic carbon, total suspended solids, and total volatile suspended solids by using Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater 1998. Characteristics of influent and effluent (primary data of the centralized domestic wastewater treatment system from the Drainage and Sewerage Department of Bangkok Metropolitan Administration were used to analyze efficiency of systems. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH was used to identify specific nitrifying bacteria (ammonium oxidizing bacteria specific for Nitrosomonas spp. and nitrite oxidizing bacteria specific for Nitrobacter spp. and Nitrospira spp.. Although Nitrosomonas spp. and Nitrobacter spp. were found, Nitrospira spp. was most prevalent in the aeration tank of centralized wastewater treatment systems. Almost all of the centralized domestic wastewater treatment plants in Bangkok are designed for activated sludge type biological nutrient removal (BNR. However, low efficiency nitrogen removal was found at centralized wastewater treatment plants in Bangkok. Influent ratio of TOC:N at centralized treatment plant is less than 2.5. Centralized wastewater treatment systems have not always been used suitability and used successfully in some areas of Bangkok Thailand.

  7. 77 FR 40329 - U.S. Renewable Energy Trade Mission Philippines and Thailand, Manila, Philippines and Bangkok...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-09

    ... International Trade Administration U.S. Renewable Energy Trade Mission Philippines and Thailand, Manila... USFCS staff in Manila and USFCS staff in Bangkok is organizing a Renewable Energy Trade Mission to Manila, Philippines and Bangkok, Thailand, September 17-20, 2012. The Renewable Energy Trade Mission...

  8. The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, the relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Thomas, Jr.

    2014-05-01

    The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) is the most important international security arrangement that we have that is protecting the world community and this has been true for many years. But it did not happen by accident, it is a strategic bargain in which 184 states gave up the right forever to acquire the most powerful weapon ever created in exchange for a commitment from the five states allowed to keep nuclear weapons under the NPT (U.S., U.K., Russia, France and China), to share peaceful nuclear technology and to engage in disarmament negotiations aimed at the ultimate elimination of their nuclear stockpiles. The most important part of this is the comprehensive nuclear test ban (CTBT); the thinking by the 184 NPT non-nuclear weapon states was and is that they understand that the elimination of nuclear weapon stockpiles is a long way off, but at least the NPT nuclear weapon states could stop testing the weapons. The CTBT has been ratified by 161 states but by its terms it can only come into force if 44 nuclear potential states ratify; 36 have of the 44 have ratified it, the remaining eight include the United States and seven others, most of whom are in effect waiting for the United States. No state has tested a nuclear weapon-except for complete outlier North Korea-in 15 years. There appears to be no chance that the U.S. Senate will approve the CTBT for ratification in the foreseeable future, but the NPT may not survive without it. Perhaps it is time to consider an interim measure, for the UN Security Council to declare that any future nuclear weapon test any time, anywhere is a "threat to peace and security", in effect a violation of international law, which in today's world it clearly would be.

  9. Evaluation of bangkok sewage sludge for possible agricultural use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasda, Nuanjun; Panichsakpatana, Supamard; Limtong, Pitayakon; Oliver, Robert; Montange, Denis

    2006-04-01

    Bangkok (Thailand) covers more than 1500 km2 and has 10 million inhabitants. The disposal of wastewater is creating huge problems of pollution. The estimated amount of sewage sludge was estimated to be around 108 tonnes dry matter (DM) per day in 2005. In order to find a lasting way of disposal for this sewage sludge, the suitability of the sludge produced from three waste-water treatment plants for use as fertilizing material was investigated. Monthly samplings and analysis of sewage sludge from each plant showed that the composition of sludge varied according to the area of collection and period of sampling, and there was no link to rainfall cycle. Plant nutrient content was high (i.e. total N from 19 to 38 g kg(-1) DM) whereas organic matter content was low. The concentrations of heavy metals varied between sludge samples, and were sometimes higher than the E.U. or U.S. regulations for sewage sludge use in agriculture. Faecal coliforms were present in the sludge from one of the plants, indicating a possible contamination by night soil. In order to decrease this potentially pathogenic population the sewage sludge should be heated by composting. As the C/N ratio of sewage sludge was low (around 6) some organic by-products with high carbon content could be added as structural material to enhance the composting.

  10. Complex genetic structure of the rabies virus in Bangkok and its surrounding provinces, Thailand: implications for canine rabies control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumlertdacha, Boonlert; Wacharapluesadee, Supaporn; Denduangboripant, Jessada; Ruankaew, Nipada; Hoonsuwan, Wirongrong; Puanghat, Apirom; Sakarasaeranee, Plyyonk; Briggs, Deborrah; Hemachudha, Thiravat

    2006-03-01

    Dog vaccination and population management have been suggested as priorities in attempts at disease control in canine rabies-endemic countries. Budget limitations and the complexity of social, cultural and religious variables have complicated progress in the developing world. In Bangkok, Thailand, an intensive canine vaccination and sterilization programme has been in place since November 2002. Our objective was to determine if the rabies virus could be mapped according to its genetic variations and geographical location on the small localized scale of Bangkok and its surrounding provinces. Phylogenetic characterization of 69 samples from Bangkok and five neighbouring and two remote provinces, by limited sequence analysis of the rabies virus nucleoprotein gene, distinguished six different clades. Rabies viruses of four clades were intermixed in Bangkok and in the surrounding highly populated regions whereas the other two clades were confined to rural and less populated provinces. Such a complex pattern of gene flow, particularly in Bangkok, may affect the outcome of canine control programmes.

  11. Proposal for revisions of the United Nations Moon Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Vera; Abreu, Neyda; Fritz, J.; Knapmeyer, Martin; Smeenk, Lisa; Ten Kate, Inge; Trüninger, Monica

    During this new 2010-decade, it will be imperative to reconsider the effectiveness of the current United Nations (U.N.) Moon Treaty (c.1979). Amendments are necessary to underline the mandatory human stewardship of this fragile planetary body of our Solar System, indispensible to life on Earth. After the very successful Apollo and Luna missions to the Moon (ending in 1976), which brought a wide array of data (samples, surface and orbital experiments), the Moon lost its exploratory attraction in favor of other programs, such as the International Space Station and potential human exploration of Mars. However, since the mid-90's, the enthusiasm for the Moon has been revived, which resulted in several space agencies worldwide (NASA, ESA, ISRO, JAXA, and the Chinese Space Agency) having made great efforts to re-start ex-ploratory and scientific campaigns even though budgetary changes may delay the process. As a result, a wide array of peoples and their interests are put together in each mission planned to reach the Moon (e.g., orbiters and landers). Up to now, mission plans focus on technical requirements and the desires of scientists and engineers, but hardly any other aspects. Field specialists on issues regarding the social, economic, political, cultural, ethical and environmen-tal impacts of Moon exploration and colonization have had little to no involvement in current and past lunar missions. However, these fields would provide different and essential points of view regarding the planning of lunar missions. Moreover, recent documents written by the scientific community, such as "The Scientific Context for Exploration of the Moon: Final Re-port" Committee on the Scientific Context for Exploration of the Moon, National Research Council (2007), or the recent (summer 2009) White Papers for the National Research Council Planetary Science Decadal Survey 2011-2020, do not seem to leave space for a multidisciplinary approach regarding the future lunar exploration either

  12. Bangkok as a magnet for rural labour: changing conditions, 1900-1970.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyyanont, P

    1998-06-01

    This article describes labor force shifts, in Thailand, from rural areas to Bangkok during 1900-1970 and is a revision of a chapter from a doctoral thesis. Urban growth of Bangkok occurred primarily after World War II. Pre-war wages in rural areas were higher than coolie wages in Bangkok. Opportunity costs of changing occupations were high. Chinese immigration was the key to development of non-farm occupations. The Chinese from Siam were drawn to higher wages in Bangkok than were possible in South China ports. After the war, the Lewis-Fei and Ranis migration model fits a pattern of migration that adjusts the disequilibrium between urban and rural markets. There are shifts from low productivity rural sectors to urban high productivity sectors. Capital investment in commerce and industry raised urban labor productivity. The wage data suggest a growing gap between urban and rural sectors postwar. Rail travel during the 1950s brought higher wages for the unskilled in railroad construction. There was high agricultural productivity relative to labor input due to availability of land. Underpopulation meant little unemployment. After 1950, conditions changed. The population growth rate increased. More in rural areas lived below the poverty line. Low rice productivity constrained rural wages and incomes during the 1950s and 1960s. The more favored commercial crops needed less labor. Chinese immigration declined, and demand for labor increased in urban areas. Low urban wages due to cheap labor stimulated profits and growth. Major roads connected Bangkok to the south and the north. Bangkok was viewed as a magical and desirable place.

  13. THE TREATY BETWEEN SHADLASH (SUMU-NUMHIM) AND NERIBTUM (HAMMI-DUSHUR)~1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Following the recent publication and critical discussion of several treaties of the Old Babylonian period, the attention of Old Babylonian studies has been drawn to treaty texts. The earliest published treaty document from Mesopotamia, to my knowledge, is a treaty between the city of Shadlash and the city of Neribtum, dated to the beginning of the Old Babylonian dynasty, published and translated by S. Greengus in Old Babylonian Tablets from Ischchali and Vicinity, 1979 (hereafter, Greengus). In what follows I present a further reading of the tablet with critical notes and a detailed discussion of its contents, in order to attract more attention to this laconic, difficult (because of its incomplete context), and interesting text. Unlike later treaties between two kings, this treaty was made between two cities, although the rulers of the cities are also mentioned in the treaty.

  14. Leptospira species in floodwater during the 2011 floods in the Bangkok Metropolitan Region, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaipadungpanit, Janjira; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Chantratita, Narisara; Yimsamran, Surapon; Amornchai, Premjit; Boonsilp, Siriphan; Maneeboonyang, Wanchai; Tharnpoophasiam, Prapin; Saiprom, Natnaree; Mahakunkijcharoen, Yuvadee; Day, Nicholas P J; Singhasivanon, Pratap; Peacock, Sharon J; Limmathurotsakul, Direk

    2013-10-01

    Floodwater samples (N = 110) collected during the 2011 Bangkok floods were tested for Leptospira using culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR); 65 samples were PCR-positive for putatively non-pathogenic Leptospira species, 1 sample contained a putatively pathogenic Leptospira, and 6 samples contained Leptospira clustering phylogenetically with the intermediate group. The low prevalence of pathogenic and intermediate Leptospira in floodwater was consistent with the low number of human leptospirosis cases reported to the Bureau of Epidemiology in Thailand. This study provides baseline information on environmental Leptospira in Bangkok together with a set of laboratory tests that could be readily deployed in the event of future flooding.

  15. Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty: Background and Current Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    09/205_119828.html; and Foster Klug and Matthew Pennington, “Photos Show NKorea Nuclear Readiness,” Associated Press/ ABC News, December 28, 2012, http...the CTBT, lack of Chinese ratification, U.S. efforts to seek renegotiation of the ABM Treaty, and efforts to ban nuclear weapons in the Middle East led...Readiness,” Associated Press/ ABC News, December 28, 2012, http://abcnews.go.com/International/wireStory/ap- exclusive-photos-show-nkorea-nuclear

  16. The New START Treaty: Central Limits and Key Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-27

    concerned with choking off avenues for potential evasion schemes than they were with fostering continued cooperation and openness between the two sides...Congress, House Armed Services, Strategic Forces, President Obama’s Fiscal 2011 Budget Request for the (continued...) The New START Treaty...states that “the Secretary of Defense may only use funds authorized to be appropriated by this Act or otherwise made available for fiscal year 2014 to

  17. Arms Control and Nonproliferation: A Catalog of Treaties and Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    Biological Research and Production Centers (BRPCs) that have the capability to produce biological weapons. Through the Biosecurity and Biosafety program, the...nuclear materials began in 1994. In a parallel effort that sought to reduce delays in these projects, experts from the U.S. nuclear laboratories ...near universality —only India, Pakistan, Israel, and North Korea are now outside the treaty. In signing the NPT, non-nuclear weapon states (NNWS

  18. Analyses on the Possible Brexit through the Lisbon Treaty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria Teodora Andronic

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Europe is facing a social crisis like never before, and this comes just after an economical one. The huge flow of migrants that started crossing into Europe at the end of 2015 was just the straw that broke the camel for Great Britain, because the Brits were threatening to leave the EU for some time. Prime Minister David Cameron has warned his European counterparts that his country might leave if his demands are not met. He clearly affirmed that he wants to stay in the EU, but under different rules. He negotiated a package of reforms, demanding concessions from a frightened Brussels, that has seen almost inevitable the change in some EU treaty terms. The PM used the 2011 European Union Act at the negotiations, document which requires any EU treaty that passes new powers to Brussels to be put to an internal British referendum. On June 23rd there is set a referendum on the country’s membership to the EU. But this amount of uncertainty led to the fall of the pound (reaching its lowest level since 2009, to fear for the investors and furious debates between the political parties. We shall further analyze the Lisbon Treaty, in order to better understand the legislation behind this European-wide tension, and to explain the implications of such an event.

  19. EU Enlargement Law: History and Recent Developments: Treaty Custom Concubinage?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitry Kochenov

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available This note provides a detailed account of the development of the EU enlargement law. Based on the material provided by the latest enlargement round, it outlines the main set of enlargement principles, criteria and procedural tools employed by the Union in the process, also making a sketch of the actual chronology of enlargement events. Based on the analysis of the legal regulation of five rounds of enlargement and making parallels with the notion of customary law as understood in public international law, it argues that the Union enlargements have always enjoyed a dual regulation: by written (mostly Treaty based and also by customary enlargement law. The existence of customary law explains the consistency of enlargement regulation throughout all the rounds of this process, notwithstanding the stage of the Treaty reform in force at the time of every particular accession. The minimal amendments introduced into the enlargement article by the Treaty Establishing a Constitution for Europe (Art. I-58 suggest that the future enlargements are likely to be building on the body of customary law in force to date. The process of gradual incorporation of customary law into the written law of the EU is also likely to continue.

  20. Experience of Thai women in Bangkok with Norplant-2 implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chompootaweep, S; Kochagarn, E; Tang-Usaha, J; Theppitaksak, B; Dusitsin, N

    1998-10-01

    A prospective study of the Norplant-2 contraceptive subdermal implant system was conducted in Bangkok, Thailand. The objective of the study was to evaluate the efficacy, adverse effects, and overall acceptability of Norplant-2 implants. A total of 140 women were enrolled in a 3-year clinical trial. The mean age was 29 years. Of all the acceptors, 70% had completed primary school. The continuation rates at years 1, 2, and 3 were, respectively, 94%, 89%, and 83%. No accidental pregnancies occurred throughout the 3 years of use in this study. Personal reasons were the leading cause for termination of Norplant-2 implant use. The 3-year cumulative termination rate for personal reasons was 7.2%. These personal reasons were divorce, husband having vasectomy, and moving away from the study area. The other leading cause for termination was medical reasons; acne, headache, and pain at the implant site were the complaints. The termination rate for medical reasons in year 3 of the study was 4.6%. Prolonged menstrual flow was the other main reason for termination. The 3-year cumulative termination rate for menstrual irregularities was 3.8%. In this study, the cumulative termination for planned pregnancy at the end of the year 3 was only 1.6%. The incidence of difficult removals was 8%. Breakage of the rods on removal was encountered in the majority of these cases. The study findings presented suggest that the Norplant-2 implants are highly effective with high continuation rates. The Norplant-2 system could become another choice of long acting reversible contraception for Thai women.

  1. Overdose experiences among injection drug users in Bangkok, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wood Evan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although previous studies have identified high levels of drug-related harm in Thailand, little is known about illicit drug overdose experiences among Thai drug users. We sought to investigate non-fatal overdose experiences and responses to overdose among a community-recruited sample of injection drug users (IDU in Bangkok, Thailand. Methods Data for these analyses came from IDU participating in the Mit Sampan Community Research Project. The primary outcome of interest was a self-reported history of non-fatal overdose. We calculated the prevalence of past overdose and estimated its relationship with individual, drug-using, social, and structural factors using multivariate logistic regression. We also assessed the prevalence of ever witnessing an overdose and patterns of response to overdose. Results These analyses included 252 individuals; their median age was 36.5 years (IQR: 29.0 - 44.0 and 66 (26.2% were female. A history of non-fatal overdose was reported by 75 (29.8% participants. In a multivariate model, reporting a history of overdose was independently associated with a history of incarceration (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] = 3.83, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.52 - 9.65, p = 0.004 and reporting use of drugs in combination (AOR = 2.48, 95% CI: 1.16 - 5.33, p = 0.019. A majority (67.9% reported a history of witnessing an overdose; most reported responding to the most recent overdose using first aid (79.5%. Conclusions Experiencing and witnessing an overdose were common in this sample of Thai IDU. These findings support the need for increased provision of evidence-based responses to overdose including peer-based overdose interventions.

  2. Clinical features of gastrointestinal salmonellosis in children in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vithayasai, Niyada; Rampengan, Novie Homenta; Hattasingh, Weerawan; Jennuvat, Siriluck; Sirivichayakul, Chukiat

    2011-07-01

    This retrospective descriptive study was conducted at Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health (QSNICH), Bangkok, Thailand to describe the clinical features of gastrointestinal salmonellosis in children. The medical records of 134 patients admitted to QSNICH in 2009 who had a positive stool culture for Salmonella spp were reviewed. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, treatment, culture and antimicrobial sensitivity data were collected and analyzed. The mean age of the patients was 22.9 months (range 0.5 to 158 months); 76.9% were < 2 years old. The male to female ratio was 1.5:1. Salmonella B was most commonly found serogroup (47%). The common clinical manifestations included diarrhea (99.3%), fever (93.3%), dehydration (64.9%) and nausea/vomiting (48.5%). Most of the Salmonella isolates were sensitive to a fluoroquinolone and many were sensitive to Cotrimoxazole, but few were sensitive to ampicillin. There were no significant differences in the clinical manifestations and drug sensitivities of the different Salmonella serogroups, except convulsions were more common in Salmonella E infected patients (p = 0.04) and more Salmonella C isolates were sensitive to ampicillin (p = 0.04). There was no significant correlation between clinical course and antimicrobial treatment, except the duration of diarrhea was significantly longer in patients who received antimicrobial treatment (mean 6.1, SD 4.7 days vs mean 4.2, SD 2.1 days) (p = 0.03). Three patients had Salmonella bacteremia. Three patients died but not directly due to Salmonella infection.

  3. Measuring readiness for sustainable transformation: an application of integral theory in the suburbs of Bangkok

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panthasen, T.; Santisan, A.; Lambregts, B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a pilot study into the readiness of a local community to engage in an environmental transformation process. It uses elements of Sufficiency Economy and Integral Theory to explore to what extent a suburban Bangkok community is ready to adopt biological wastewater tr

  4. The Readiness of English Communication Skills of Tourism Employees in Bangkok for Entering the ASEAN Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuosuwan, Bavornluck

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research was to study the readiness of English communication skills of tourism employees in Bangkok for entering the ASEAN community. The scope of this research included the employees from 26 tourism companies. A sample group was determined by utilizing multiple-stage sampling. At least three samples were collected from each…

  5. Developmentally Appropriate Practice in Early Elementary Grade Schools in Bangkok, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saifah, Yotsawee

    2012-01-01

    The purposes of this study were (a) to examine early elementary grade teachers' developmentally appropriate beliefs and their teaching practices in public schools in Bangkok, (b) to explore the functioning of developmentally appropriate practice in the two chosen early elementary schools, and (c) to determine the factors that influence the…

  6. Considering the Continuing Development of Inclusive Teachers: A Case Study from Bangkok, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the barriers to and opportunities for supporting the development of inclusive teachers, based on a case study describing two schools in Bangkok, Thailand. Data were collected between 2003 and 2009 using an ethnographic approach whereby the author positioned as a consultant-researcher visited and worked alongside teachers in…

  7. Implementation of Health Promotion in the Older Adults in Bangkok, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assantachai, Prasert; Bunnag, Chaweewan; Piya-Anant, Manee; Thamlikitkul, Visanu

    2006-01-01

    Effective strategies that bring health promotion messages to older adults in a developing country are needed. To evaluate the impact of various education media upon changes in knowledge and health behavior, a double-blind, randomized controlled trial was conducted involving 1,268 older adults in a southwest Bangkok suburb. Group teaching…

  8. Assessment of potential cancer risk in children exposed to urban air pollution in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruchirawat, Mathuros; Settachan, Daam; Navasumrit, Panida; Tuntawiroon, Jantamas; Autrup, Herman

    2007-02-05

    Urban air pollution resulting from traffic is a major problem in many cities in Asia, including Bangkok, Thailand. This pollution originates mainly from incomplete fossil fuel combustion, e.g. transportation, and the composition of which is very complex. Some of the compounds are carcinogenic in experimental animals and in man. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and benzene are among the major carcinogenic compounds found in urban air pollution from motor vehicle emissions. In major cities in Asia, the levels of PAHs and benzene are relatively high compared with those in Europe or in the United States and thus people are exposed to higher levels. Biomarkers of exposure and early biological effects have been used to study the potential health effects of exposure to PAHs and benzene in air pollution in school children attending schools in inner-city Bangkok compared to those attending schools in rural areas. Bangkok school children are exposed to total PAHs at levels 3.5-fold higher than those in the rural area. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene, a metabolite of PAH, was also significantly higher, while PAH-DNA adducts in lymphocytes were five-fold higher in Bangkok school children than rural school children. Benzene exposure in Bangkok school children was approximately two-fold higher than in rural school children. This is in agreement with the levels of biomarkers of internal benzene dose, i.e. blood benzene and urinary t,t-muconic acid. The potential health risks from exposure to genotoxic substances were assessed through DNA-damage levels and DNA repair capacity. DNA strand breaks were significantly higher, whereas DNA repair capacity was significantly reduced in Bangkok children. Genetic polymorphisms have been detected in glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs) and cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes involved in the metabolism of benzene and PAHs, but these polymorphisms had no significant effects on the biomarkers of PAH exposure. Our results indicate that children living

  9. Columbia River Treaty 2014/2024 Review • Phase 1 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-07-01

    Under the Columbia River Treaty (Treaty or CRT) of 1964, Canada and the United States (U.S.) jointly regulate and manage the Columbia River as it flows from British Columbia into the U.S. The Treaty has provided substantial flood control and power generation benefits to both nations. The Treaty established Canadian and U.S. Entities as implementing agents for each government. British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority (BC Hydro) was designated as the Canadian Entity. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) Administrator and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) Division Engineer, Northwestern Division, were designated as the U.S. Entity. The Canadian and U.S. Entities are empowered by their respective governments with broad discretion to implement the existing Columbia River Treaty. They are not, however, authorized to terminate, renegotiate, or otherwise modify the Treaty. In the U.S., authority over international treaties rests with the President, assisted in foreign relations and international negotiations by the Department of State and subject in certain cases to the advice and consent of the U.S. Senate. In Canada, international treaties are within the prerogative of the executive branch of the federal government. Under current policy, treaties are tabled in the House of Commons, and are subject to a waiting period before the executive branch brings the treaty into effect. In the case of the Columbia River Treaty, Canada has assigned certain rights and obligations relating to the Treaty to British Columbia pursuant to the Canada-B.C. Agreement. The Phase 1 report is provided to those respective governmental bodies to support possible independent and/or joint decisions that may be made with respect to the future of the Treaty. The Treaty contains two important provisions that take effect on and after September 16, 2024, that could impact the current power and flood control benefits: 1. Canadian flood control obligations automatically change from a pre

  10. Transport growth in Bangkok: Energy, environment, and traffic congestion. Workshop proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philpott, J. [Asia Regional Office, Bangkok (Thailand)

    1995-07-01

    Bangkok, the capital of Thailand, is a physically and economically complexcity with a complicated transport system. With daily traffic congestion averaging 16 hours, the air quality is such that to breathe street level pollution for 8 eight hours is roughly equivalent to smoking nine cigarettes per day. Estimates suggest idling traffic costs up to $1.6 billion annually. Energy use within the transport sector is on a steady rise with an estimated increase in 11 years of two and one half times. Severe health impacts have begun to effect many residents - young children and the elderly being particularly vulnerable. Bangkok`s air quality and congestion problems are far from hopeless. Great potential exists for Bangkok to remedy its transport-related problems. The city has many necessary characteristics that allow an efficient, economical system of transport. For example, its high density level makes the city a prime candidate for an efficient system of mass transit and the multitude and close proximity of shops, street vendors, restaurants, and residential areas is highly conducive to walking and cycling. Technical knowledge and capacity to devise and implement innovative policies and projects to address air quality and congestion problems is plentiful. There is also consensus among Bangkokians that something needs to be done immediately to clear the air and the roads. However, little has been done. This report proposes a new approach to transport planning for Bangkok that integrates consideration of ecological, social, and financial viability in the process of making decisions regarding managing existing infrastructure and investments in new infrastructure. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  11. The Hidden World of Multilateralism? Treaty Commitments of Newly Democratized States in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Milewicz, Karolina; Elsig, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    Why do new EU democracies engage in multilateralism? The dominant explanation proposes that new democracies use international treaties to lock in domestic reforms. This article offers a novel explanation as to why new EU democracies participate in multilateral treaties. We argue that ratifying a treaty serves three external signaling purposes (addressing recognition concerns; increasing strategic autonomy, and pleasing the EU). We test our argument through a mix of quantitative and qualitativ...

  12. The Colombian-United States Free Trade Treaty: A Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA)

    OpenAIRE

    Cristian A Yepes

    2014-01-01

    "Free trade treaties are generally centered on defining some game rules to achieve commercial exchange. In this article, the contents of the text of the free trade treaty between Colombia and the United States are discussed using a critical discourse analysis, which will help to identify the power relationships in this discourse in the context of Colombian company management. The particularities of the free trade treaty are also analyzed from a linguistic point of view, and taking into accoun...

  13. Citizen participation and the Lisbon Treaty : A legal perspective

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    How to "bring the [European] Union closer to its citizens" is a vexed and vital problem of European integration. Article 11 TEU on participatory democracy, recently introduced by the Lisbon Treaty, is meant to be part of the solution. The EU Economic and Social Committee has gone so far as to define this provision "a milestone on the road to a people's Europe that is real and feasible". This appears to be an overly optimistic assessment - partly because art. 11 relies heavily on the involv...

  14. The frequency rate of Toxocara species contamination in soil samples from public yards in a urban area "Payathai", Bangkok, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Wiwanitkit Viroj; Waenlor Weerachit

    2004-01-01

    Toxocara species are most common roundworms of Canidae and Felidae. Human toxocariasis develops by ingesting of embryonated eggs in contaminated soil. There is no previous report of Toxocara contamination in the soil samples from the public areas in Bangkok. For this reason our study have been carried out to examine the frequency of Toxocara eggs in public yards in Bangkok, Thailand. A total of 175 sand and clay samples were collected and examined for parasite eggs. According to this study, T...

  15. The Amsterdam Process: A Structurationist Perspective on EU Treaty Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Christiansen

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Intergovernmental Conferences are generally seen as key events in the design of the European Union. This paper challenges this traditional view. Arguing that treaty reform should be regarded as a continuous process rather than a series of events, the paper develops a procedural understanding of constitutional change based on structuration theory. In such a perspective, analytical attention is re-directed from the political limelight of largely ceremonial events to the more obscure 'valleys' the periods between the IGC summits in which the more momentous developments of European integration occur. The study of past instances of constitutional change as well as an analysis of the IGC leading to the Amsterdam Treaty demonstrate the significance of a wider set of actors and of the structural environment: the trajectory of past decisions, the multilateral generation of reform agendas, the institutionalised patterns of negotiation and decision-making and the constitutionalisation of the EU order. This severely limits the ability of national governments to negotiate on the basis of 'national interests' and thus dissolves one of the cornerstones of intergovernmentalism the over-arching significance of IGCs.

  16. Delegation, Agency and Agenda Setting in the Treaty of Amsterdam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. Pollack

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies a principal-agent model of delegation, agency and agenda setting to the 1996 intergovernmental conference and the Treaty of Amsterdam, in order to understand both the delegation of powers to supranational organizations in the new Treaty, and the efforts of such organizations to set the agenda for the conference. At Amsterdam, the member governments of the European Union delegated new powers to the Commission, the Court of Justice, and especially the European Parliament; these new powers, however, are carefully hedged with elaborate mechanisms to control, if not eliminate, supranational autonomy in the future. In the intergovernmental conference, moreover, the EUs supranational organizations attempted to influence the outcome of the negotiations as informal agenda setters, but they were limited in their ability to do so by the information-rich content of the IGC. However, while the influence of the Commission, Court and Parliament was indeed limited in the intergovernmental conference and at Amsterdam, we should beware of generalizing from IGCs to the day-to-day workings of EU politics, where the powers of the supranational organizations are far greater than in any intergovernmental conference.

  17. China's Case Against the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty: Rationality and Morality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Geoffrey

    1986-01-01

    China and other major Third World nations have refused to sign the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). While this position appears morally unjustified and even irrational, their claim that the treaty is discriminatory merits serious attention. Only if certain aspects of this claim are accepted by the nuclear weapons signatories, does a moral…

  18. The Paradoxes of Colonial Reparation: Foreclosing memory and the 2008 Italy-Libya Friendship Treaty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Cesari, C.

    2012-01-01

    This article explores a paradox relating to the highly contested project of compensating for mass crimes perpetrated during the colonial period. It analyses the only postcolonial reparation treaty to be signed to date: the Italy-Libya Friendship Treaty of 2008. While all other former colonial powers

  19. 50 CFR 300.102 - Relationship to other treaties, conventions, laws, and regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... implements the Antarctic Treaty Agreed Measures for the Conservation of Antarctic Fauna and Flora (12 U.S.T... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Relationship to other treaties... RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Antarctic Marine Living Resources §...

  20. Negotiating History: Crown Apologies in New Zealand’s Historical Treaty of Waitangi Settlements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen Hickey

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available New Zealand has been undertaking a process of negotiating and settling the historical Treaty of Waitangi grievances of the indigenous Maori population since the 1990s. This article outlines the development of the Treaty settlement process and the role of the Crown’s apology to Maori claimant groups in the reconciliation process.

  1. Report on the 2016 conference Tax Treaty Case Law Around the Globe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hulten, Mart; Jallai, Ave-Geidi

    2016-01-01

    Each year the international conference Tax Treaty Case Law Around the Globe provides a forum to discuss with outstanding experts of the relevant jurisdictions the most important and interesting tax treaty cases which recently have been decided all over the world. This article provides a report on th

  2. The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty: Regulating Nuclear Weapons around the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Tiffany Willey

    2010-01-01

    In May 2010, scientists, national security experts, and state delegates from nations around the world will convene in New York for the 2010 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Review Conference. They will review current guidelines for nuclear testing and possession of nuclear weapons in accordance with the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty of 1968,…

  3. 75 FR 34439 - Defense Science Board Task Force on Nuclear Treaty Monitoring and Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Defense Science Board Task Force on Nuclear Treaty Monitoring and Verification... Science Board Task Force on Nuclear Treaty Monitoring and Verification will meet in closed session on...

  4. 75 FR 43943 - Defense Science Board; Task Force on Nuclear Treaty Monitoring and Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Defense Science Board; Task Force on Nuclear Treaty Monitoring and Verification... Science Board Task Force on Nuclear Treaty Monitoring and Verification will meet in closed...

  5. Role of sustainable development in Bilateral Investment Treaties : Recent trends and developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levashova, Y.

    2011-01-01

    In the last decade, international investment law has undergone an explosive growth, which is characterized by the proliferation of Bilateral Investment Treaties (BITs) and a growing number of investment-treaty arbitrations. The effect of BITs on developing countries (host states) can be far-reaching

  6. Rough Journal Page Documenting Ratification and Final Page of the Treaty of Paris, 1783

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Lee Ann

    2008-01-01

    The 1783 Treaty of Paris formally ended the American Revolution and established the United States as an independent and sovereign nation. In words reminiscent of those in the resolution presented by Richard Henry Lee to Congress in June 1776, and later included in the Declaration of Independence, Article I of the treaty stated that the king now…

  7. 77 FR 22221 - Security Zones; North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Summit, Chicago, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zones; North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO... NATO Summit and associated events, which will be held in Chicago from May 16, 2012, through May 24... notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) entitled Security Zones; G8/North Atlantic Treaty Organization...

  8. 48 CFR 225.871 - North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) cooperative projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) cooperative projects. 225.871 Section 225.871 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Other International Agreements and Coordination 225.871 North Atlantic Treaty Organization...

  9. Identification of volatile organic compounds in suburban Bangkok, Thailand and their potential for ozone formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suthawaree, Jeeranut; Tajima, Yosuke; Khunchornyakong, Alisa; Kato, Shungo; Sharp, Alice; Kajii, Yoshizumi

    2012-02-01

    Measurement of Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) was carried out in suburban Bangkok during July 2-8, 2008. Analysis was performed using GC-FID and GC-MS. High mixing ratios of VOCs detected during the morning and evening are most likely due to vehicular emissions. Averaged VOC mixing ratios revealed distinct difference between mixing ratios of weekdays and weekend, which the latter were found to be lower. The most abundance species were propane and toluene. Ratios of benzene over toluene suggested that additional toluene mixing ratios was owing to industrial emission, which was particularly larger during weekdays. Comparison between C2Cl4 and CH3Cl mixing ratios obtained for suburban Tokyo reveal a relatively lower influence of biomass burning than suburban Bangkok. Elucidating by Ozone Formation Potential, toluene was found to contribute the most to O3 production followed by ethylene, m-,p-xylene, and propylene.

  10. Spirituality within the family and the prevention of health risk behavior among adolescents in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamratrithirong, Aphichat; Miller, Brenda A; Byrnes, Hilary F; Rhucharoenpornpanich, Orratai; Cupp, Pamela K; Rosati, Michael J; Fongkaew, Warunee; Atwood, Katharine A; Chookhare, Warunee

    2010-11-01

    This study investigates the influences of a family's spiritual beliefs and practices on substance use and sexual risk behaviors among young adolescents 13-14 years old in Bangkok, Thailand. Independent predictor variables are the parents' and teens' spiritual beliefs and practices in Buddhism and parental monitoring behaviors. The study uses data from the 2007 Baseline Survey of the Thai Family Matters Project, which adapted a U.S. based family prevention program for Thai culture. A representative sample of 420 pairs of parents and teens from the Bangkok metropolitan area was recruited to participate in the study. Structural equation models indicate that positive direct and indirect associations of the spirituality of parents and teens within a family and the prevention of adolescent risk behaviors are significant and consistent.

  11. Spirituality within the Family and the Prevention of Health Risk Behavior among Adolescents in Bangkok, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamratrithirong, Aphichat; Miller, Brenda A; Byrnes, Hilary F; Rhucharoenpornpanich, Orratai; Cupp, Pamela K; Rosati, Michael J; Fongkaew, Warunee; Atwood, Katharine A; Chookhare, Warunee

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the influences of a family's spiritual beliefs and practices on substance use and sexual risk behaviors among young adolescents 13 to 14 years old in Bangkok, Thailand. Independent predictor variables are the parents' and teens' spiritual beliefs and practices in Buddhism and parental monitoring behaviors. The study uses data from the 2007 Baseline Survey of the Thai Family Matters Project, which adapted a U.S. based family prevention program for Thai culture. A representative sample of 420 pairs of parents and teens from the Bangkok metropolitan area was recruited to participate in the study. Structural equation models indicate that positive direct and indirect associations of the spirituality of parents and teens within a family and the prevention of adolescent risk behaviors are significant and consistent. PMID:20926170

  12. Development of Science Web-Based Curriculum for Elementary School: Pratchatorn School, Bangkok

    OpenAIRE

    Khuntalee Boriraksontikul; Sitthikorn Sumalee; Wiparat Sangchan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research were to develop and evaluate science web-based curriculum for elementary school: Pratchatorn School, Bangkok. Research for Development method was applied in this study which consisted of 4 stages: preparation of science web-based curriculum development ; science web-based curriculum development ; science web-based curriculum evaluation and teachers development for science web-based unit plans design. The population was science teachers who have taug...

  13. The Influence of Rapid Transit Systems on Condominium Prices in Bangkok : A Hedonic price model approach

    OpenAIRE

    Thamrongsrisook, Chuti

    2011-01-01

    Rapid transit systems often create city developments and raise the property values. Basically, residential property price is characterised by number of characteristics including the transportations attributes. Empirical studies have drawn impacts of transportation in different ways. This thesis studies the hedonic price model to better understand the influence of mass rapid transit systems on the prices of condominium in Bangkok. The research question is "How the accessibility of rapid transi...

  14. Cutaneous blastomycosis and dermatophytic pseudomycetoma in a Persian cat from Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duangkaew, Lerpen; Larsuprom, Lawan; Kasondorkbua, Chaiyan; Chen, Charles; Chindamporn, Ariya

    2017-03-01

    This is a case report of concurrent of blastomycosis and pseudomycetoma in a 3 year-old Persian cat from Bangkok, Thailand. Histopathology from antemortem and postmortem samples revealed blastomycosis and dermatophyte pseudomycetoma. The PCR analysis of the formalin-embedded tissue of antemortem sample confirmed that blastomycosis was caused by Blastomyces dermatitidis. Dermatophyte infection was caused by Microsporum canis. According to the author's knowledge, this is the first case of Blastomyces dermatitidis and dermatophyte pseudomycetoma in South-East Asia.

  15. Sixth Conference on China-ASEAN People-to-People Friendship Organizations Held in Bangkok

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>With the theme of "Opportunities and Challenges of China-ASEAN Friendly Cooperation", the Sixth Conference on China-ASEAN People-to-People Friendship Organizations organized by the Thai-Chinese Friendship Association was held in Bangkok August 18 and 19. A delegation of China-ASEAN Association led by its president Gu Xiulian joined about 200 representatives from friendship-with-China organizations in 10 ASEAN countries.

  16. Land Subsidence in and around Bangkok area using ALOS/PALSAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, A.; Mio, A.; Saito, Y.

    2012-12-01

    The metropolitan area of Bangkok, Thailand, has been subsided during the past decades. To effectively monitor, assess, and manage this ground deformation on various time scales and over broad areas, understanding these processes is of critical importance. This ground deformation has been monitored using leveling surveys since 1978 and InSAR (Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar) analysis. These results show that the Bangkok metropolitan city is subsiding with a rate of -20 mm/year in recent years, due to the law limiting groundwater pumping since the late 1980s, although in 1981 the highest subsidence rate up to 120 mm/year had been recorded in the eastern area [Phien-wej et al., 2006]. However, these studies were focused in the Bangkok metropolitan city using C-band satellites images. In this study, we applied the method of measuring long-term land subsidence by Differential InSAR and InSAR time series analysis using ALOS (Advanced Land Observing Satellite) PALSAR (Phased Array type L-band SAR) data acquired between 2007 and 2010 to investigate ground deformation in and around Bangkok area. The ground deformation were detected both near the Chao Phraya river and the Tha Chin river, which is a distributary of the Chao Phraya river and flows westerly from the Chao Phraya through the central plains of Thailand until it mouths into the Gulf of Thailand. We compared our results with previous leveling and InSAR studies to find an overall consistency in the deformation estimates. The deformation rates have been monitored, with velocity a maximum rate of about -20 mm/year, and showed consistent with previous studies (e.g., Aobpaet et al., 2009). These results verify the validity of the method and data used.

  17. Field Experiments of PV-Thermal Collectors for Residential Application in Bangkok

    OpenAIRE

    Atsushi Akisawa; Yuki Ueda; Pongpith Tuenpusa; Thipjak Nualboonrueng

    2012-01-01

    This study presents experimental results on Photovoltaic-thermal (PVT) solar systems, the commercial photovoltaic (PV) panels used as solar absorbers in PVT collectors, which are amorphous and multi-crystalline silicon. Testing was done with outdoor experiments in the climate of Bangkok corresponding to energy consumption behavior of medium size Thai families. The experimental results show that the thermal recovery of amorphous silicon PVT collector is almost the same as that of multi-crystal...

  18. The characteristics of agricultural practices in Bang Kachao area, the Bangkok metropolitan fringe

    OpenAIRE

    Khaokhrueamuang, Amnaj

    2014-01-01

    Bang Kachao area, a conserved green zone in the southern part of Bangkok, has been recently well-known asone of the tourist destinations for rural tourism at a short distance to the city, which are mostly based on thetourism resources generated from agriculture. The present study, therefore, discusses agritourism that shouldbe mainly facilitated in four agricultural systems: traditional mixed orchards, monoculture, integratedfarming, and agroforestry. These systems have applied “sufficiency e...

  19. Evaluating accessibility to Bangkok Metro Systems using multi-dimensional criteria across user groups

    OpenAIRE

    Duangporn Prasertsubpakij; Vilas Nitivattananon

    2012-01-01

    Metro systems act as fast and efficient transport systems for many modern metropolises; however, enhancing higher usage of such systems often conflicts with providing suitable accessibility options. The traditional approach of metro accessibility studies seems to be an ineffective measure to gage sustainable access in which the equal rights of all users are taken into account. Bangkok Metropolitan Region (BMR) transportation has increasingly relied on the role of two mass rapid transport syst...

  20. Urban Forms and Civic Space in Nineteenth to Early Twentieth Century Bangkok and Rangoon

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Elizabeth Howard; Osiri, Navanath

    2013-01-01

    Buddhist spaces in Bangkok and Rangoon both had long common traditions prior to nineteenth and early twentieth-century colonial incursions. Top–down central city planning with European designs transformed both cities. While Siamese kings personally initiated civic change that began to widen economic and social interaction of different classes, British models segregated European, Burmese, Indian, and Chinese populations to exacerbate social differences. In addition, the Siamese rulers maintain...

  1. Occupational Change and Upward Mobility of Low-Income Residents in Bangkok

    OpenAIRE

    ENDO, Tamaki

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the occupational changes and upward mobility of urban low-income residents in Bangkok, using macro and micro data including field survey. In traditional theory, the image of upward mobility tends to be linear; that is, it assumes movement from the Informal Economy to the Formal Economy, from informal to modern sectors. However, analysis shows that the actual pattern of occupational paths and people’s perceptions of upward mobility is different from the assumptions found in...

  2. Hematocrit levels as cardiovascular risk among taxi drivers in Bangkok, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    ISHIMARU, Tomohiro; ARPHORN, Sara; JIRAPONGSUWAN, Ann

    2016-01-01

    In Thailand, taxi drivers employed in the informal sector often experience hazardous working conditions. Previous studies revealed that elevated Hematocrit (HCT) is a predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. This study assessed factors associated with HCT in taxi drivers to predict their occupational CVD risk factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 298 male taxi drivers who joined a health check-up campaign in Bangkok, Thailand. HCT and body mass index were retrieved from par...

  3. Bangkok to Sendai and Beyond: Implications for Disaster Risk Reduction in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Chatterjee, Ranit; Shiwaku, Koichi; Das Gupta, Rajarshi; Nakano, Genta; Shaw, Rajib

    2015-01-01

    The recently concluded World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction (WCDRR) in Sendai, Japan and the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030 (SFDRR) have set renewed priorities for disaster risk reduction (DRR) for the next 15 years. Due to Asia’s high exposure to natural hazards, the implications of the new SFDRR have major significance for the future development of the region. The 6th Asian Ministerial Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction (AMCDRR), held in Bangkok in 2014, wa...

  4. The spatial distribution of green spaces in the urban fringe of Bangkok.

    OpenAIRE

    Hara, Yuji; Yokota, Shigehiro; Murakami, Akinobu; Takeuchi, Kazuhiko

    2004-01-01

    Urban green spaces with a wide variety of functions to ameliorate the urban environment have been decreased and fragmented in the urban fringe areas of Southeast Asian cities. In order to elaborate practical and efficient plans to conserve urban green spaces, and to monitor them continuously. From this view point, we inspected green cover, land-use and landholding, and their correlations in the urban fringe of Bangkok using GIS. As a result, the following four facts are revealed. First, urban...

  5. Spirituality within the Family and the Prevention of Health Risk Behavior among Adolescents in Bangkok, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Chamratrithirong, Aphichat; Miller, Brenda A.; Byrnes, Hilary F.; Rhucharoenpornpanich, Orratai; CUPP, PAMELA K.; Rosati, Michael J.; Fongkaew, Warunee; Atwood, Katharine A.; Chookhare, Warunee

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the influences of a family's spiritual beliefs and practices on substance use and sexual risk behaviors among young adolescents 13 to 14 years old in Bangkok, Thailand. Independent predictor variables are the parents' and teens' spiritual beliefs and practices in Buddhism and parental monitoring behaviors. The study uses data from the 2007 Baseline Survey of the Thai Family Matters Project, which adapted a U.S. based family prevention program for Thai culture. A repres...

  6. Leptospira Species in Floodwater during the 2011 Floods in the Bangkok Metropolitan Region, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Thaipadungpanit, Janjira; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Chantratita, Narisara; Yimsamran, Surapon; Amornchai, Premjit; Boonsilp, Siriphan; Maneeboonyang, Wanchai; Tharnpoophasiam, Prapin; Saiprom, Natnaree; Mahakunkijcharoen, Yuvadee; Nicholas P J Day; Singhasivanon, Pratap; Peacock, Sharon J; Limmathurotsakul,Direk

    2013-01-01

    Floodwater samples (N = 110) collected during the 2011 Bangkok floods were tested for Leptospira using culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR); 65 samples were PCR-positive for putatively non-pathogenic Leptospira species, 1 sample contained a putatively pathogenic Leptospira, and 6 samples contained Leptospira clustering phylogenetically with the intermediate group. The low prevalence of pathogenic and intermediate Leptospira in floodwater was consistent with the low number of human lept...

  7. Optimal imaging for treaty verification FY2014 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilton, Nathan R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Johnson, William C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Brubaker, Erik M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Kupinski, Matthew Alan [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); MacGahan, Christopher Jonathan [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2014-10-01

    FY2014 technical report of our project funded by DNN R&D that leverages advanced inference methods developed for medical and adaptive imaging to address arms control applications. We seek a method to acquire and analyze imaging data of declared treaty-accountable items without creating an image of those objects or otherwise storing or revealing any classified information. Such a method would avoid the use of classified-information barriers. We present our progress on FY2014 tasks defined in our life-cycle plan. We also describe some future work that is part of the continuation of this project in FY2015 and beyond as part of a venture that joins ours with a related PNNL project.

  8. Insolvency probability in reinsurance treaty: a case study in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansar Asnawi Ahmad Anuar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In developing countries such as Malaysia, the availability of reinsurance arrangements provides several advantages to the primary insurers such as keeping their risk exposures at prudent levels by having their large risk exposures reinsured by another company, meeting client requests for larger insurance coverage by having their limited financial sources supported by another company, and acquiring underwriting skills, experience and ability of handling complex claims by depending on another company for such services. This paper aims to model insurance claims and assess the insolvency probability of reinsurance treaties. Claims data was obtained from one of the leading insurers in Malaysia and R programming with actuar package is used to compute the probability of insolvency.

  9. Epidemiology of pediculosis capitis among schoolchildren in the eastern area of Bangkok, Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Watcharawit Rassami; Mayura Soonwera

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of infestation with head lice in primary schoolchildren in the eastern area of Bangkok, Thailand. Methods: The present study was to determine the head lice infestation (Pediculosis) levels in primary schoolchildren, during May, 2011 to July, 2011, A total of 3 747 schoolchildren aged 5-12 years old from 12 selected primary school of Ladkrabang district, the eastern area of Bangkok were examined for head lice. Pediculosis was defined as the presence of at least on living adult, nymph and viable egg. Results: The overall head lice infestation rate was 23.32% and infestation rate was higher in girls (47.12%) than in boys (0%). The infestation rate among schoolchildren varied from 12.62% to 29.76%. The infestation rate among girls varied from 26.07% (12 years old group) to 55.89% (8 years old group). Conclusions:Pediculosis is a common public health problem affecting primary schoolchildren in eastern area of Bangkok and those levels are epidemic importance.

  10. Meteorological factors affecting lower tropospheric ozone mixing ratios in Bangkok, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjai, S.; Buntoung, S.; Nunez, M.; Chiwpreecha, K.; Pattarapanitchai, S.

    2016-09-01

    This paper examines the influence of meteorological conditions in ozone mixing ratio measured at the Thai Meteorological Department (TMD) in Bangkok, Thailand. In addition to surface wind speed and direction, surface ozone concentrations, ozonesondes and CALIPSO Lidar images were collected during the study period extending from 01/01/2014 to 30/04/2015. Surface ozone concentrations show a strong seasonality, with maximum in the dry months of December to April and minimum during the wet southwest (SW) monsoon period extending from May to October. High ozone concentrations are related to biomass burning in the northeast highland regions of the country and neighboring Myanmar and southern China. These precursors travel in a southerly direction towards Bangkok in a well-defined aerosol layer which may be at ground level or at elevated heights. The growth of the daytime mixed layer scavenges some of the upper level aerosols, although local maxima in ozone concentrations at 1-2 km are a frequent feature at Bangkok. There is an evidence of fumigation in the Gulf of Thailand and a return flow via the southerly sea breezes.

  11. An artificial neural network model for rainfall forecasting in Bangkok, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Q. Hung

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new approach using an Artificial Neural Network technique to improve rainfall forecast performance. A real world case study was set up in Bangkok; 4 years of hourly data from 75 rain gauge stations in the area were used to develop the ANN model. The developed ANN model is being applied for real time rainfall forecasting and flood management in Bangkok, Thailand. Aimed at providing forecasts in a near real time schedule, different network types were tested with different kinds of input information. Preliminary tests showed that a generalized feedforward ANN model using hyperbolic tangent transfer function achieved the best generalization of rainfall. Especially, the use of a combination of meteorological parameters (relative humidity, air pressure, wet bulb temperature and cloudiness, the rainfall at the point of forecasting and rainfall at the surrounding stations, as an input data, advanced ANN model to apply with continuous data containing rainy and non-rainy period, allowed model to issue forecast at any moment. Additionally, forecasts by ANN model were compared to the convenient approach namely simple persistent method. Results show that ANN forecasts have superiority over the ones obtained by the persistent model. Rainfall forecasts for Bangkok from 1 to 3 h ahead were highly satisfactory. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the most important input parameter besides rainfall itself is the wet bulb temperature in forecasting rainfall.

  12. Detection of Babesia vogeli in stray cats of metropolitan Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simking, Patcharathorn; Wongnakphet, Sirichai; Stich, Roger W; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn

    2010-10-11

    The combination of a rapidly growing stray animal population and the lack of animal control in Bangkok has resulted in a unique opportunity to evaluate the potential role of companion animals as sentinels and reservoirs of infectious diseases, including several of those caused by vector-borne parasites. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with the distribution of Babesia species infections among stray cats in Bangkok. Blood samples were collected from 1490 stray cats residing in 140 monasteries of 50 metropolitan districts of Bangkok, and assayed with light microscopy and PCR for evidence of Babesia spp. Pear-shaped merozoites were observed microscopically from two (0.13%) of these cats, while a nested 18S rDNA-based PCR assay detected babesial infections in 21 (1.4%) of the cats tested. The prevalence of infection was significantly different between sexes (ppopulations in Thailand, and suggest that the presence of pet companion animals could be a risk factor for exposure of stray cats to vector-borne parasites.

  13. Leaves of orange jasmine (Murraya paniculata) as indicators of airborne heavy metal in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titseesang, Teerawet; Wood, Timothy; Panich, Noppaporn

    2008-10-01

    Orange jasmine (Murraya paniculata) leaves were collected from three different sites in the area of Bangkok and in a remote area as a control site. The leaf samples were digested and the concentrations of Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Ni, Cr, and Zn were then quantified by using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). All three Bangkok sites were polluted with heavy metals compared with the background site. Fe was found as the highest mean concentration of the metals studied, while Pb was the lowest. There was a high correlation coefficient between metals Cu-Mn, Cu-Zn, Cu-Pb, and Mn-Zn. However, Fe was not correlated with other metals. There was no significant difference in Pb between sites. The significant difference in other metals found in the study could be attributed to different anthropogenic activities between sites. The principal-component analysis (PCA) identified two factors according to the sources of metals making up the anthropogenic (traffic) and natural (soil) sources. Traffic emission was found to be the main source of metal pollution in the atmosphere of Bangkok.

  14. Analysis of potential energy saving strategies in a Bangkok school building. With CD-ROM; Analyse von Energieeinsparpotentialen am Beispiel einer Schule in Bangkok

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temming, H.V.

    2000-05-01

    In cooperation with the Gesellschaft fuer technische Zusammenarbeit GTZ, a school building in Thailand was selected for an analysis of potentials for energy saving. The selected school was the New International School of Thailand (NIST) in Bangkok. Energy-relevant data were acquired by measurements, and solutions for more efficient energy supply were developed. Recommendations were made on this basis. This dissertation is also available on CD-ROM. [German] In Zusammenarbeit mit der Gesellschaft fuer technische Zusammenarbeit GTZ wurde als Beispielobjekt eine thailaendische Schule, die New International School of Thailand (NIST) in Bangkok ausgewaehlt. An diesem Objekt wurden die verschiedenen energetischen Messungen durchgefuehrt. Diese wurden bedarfsgerecht ausgewertet. Auf der Basis der Ergebnisse wurden Loesungsmoeglichkeiten fuer eine effizientere Energieversorgung der Schule konstruiert und diese Alternativen wie oben beschrieben bewertet, woraus sich entsprechende Empfehlungen ergeben. Der Aufbau dieser Arbeit stellt sich nun folgendermassen dar: Nachdem in einem ersten Schritt die fuer diesen Kontext wichtigsten Parameter Thailands und des Untersuchungsobjektes dargestellt werden, schliesst sich hieran die Vorstellung verschiedener technische Alternativen zur Erzeugung von Kaelte an, da hier ein Fokus fuer moegliche Energieeinsparungen gesetzt wird. Anschliessend werden einige in der Arbeit verwandte Berechnungsverfahren fuer energetische oder wirtschaftliche Zuammenhaenge sowie eine ausfuehrliche Beschreibung der energetischen 1st-Situation des Untersuchungsobjektes dargestellt. Darauf aufbauend folgt nun die Vorstellung der verschiedenen Energieeinsparpotentiale durch technische und verhaltensinduzierte Optimierungsmassnahmen. Diese Arbeit endet mit der Bewertung aller aufgedeckten Potentiale und einem Gesamtfazit aus der Untersuchung. (Diese Diplomarbeit liegt auch in Form einer CD-ROM vor.) (orig./AKF)

  15. Non-occupational lead and cadmium exposure of adult women in Bangkok, Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z.-W.; Shimbo, S. [Department of Food and Nutrition, Kyoto Women' s University, Kyoto (Japan); Watanabe, T. [Miyagi University of Education, Sendai (Japan); Srianujata, S. [Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand); Banjong, O.; Chitchumroonchokchai, C. [Institute of Nutrition, Mahidol University, Salaya, Phuthamonthon, Nakhonpathom (Thailand); Nakatsuka, H.; Matsuda-Inoguchi, N. [Miyagi University, Taiwa-cho (Japan); Higashikawa, K.; Ikeda, M. [Kyoto Industrial Health Association, Kyoto (Japan)

    1999-02-02

    This survey was conducted to examine the extent of the exposure of Bangkok citizens to lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd), and to evaluate the role of rice as the source of these heavy metals. In practice, 52 non-smoking adult women in an institution in the vicinity of Bangkok, volunteered to offer blood, spot urine, boiled rice and 24-h total food duplicate samples. Samples were wet-ashed, and then analyzed for Pb and Cd by ICP-MS. Geometric means for the levels in blood (Pb-B and Cd-B) and urine (Pb-U and Cd-U as corrected for creatinine concentration), and also for dietary intake (Pb-F and Cd-F) were 32.3 {mu}g/l for Pb-B, 0.41 {mu}g/l for Cd-B, 2.06 {mu}g/g creatinine for Pb-U, 1.40 {mu}g/g creatinine for Cd-U, 15.1 {mu}g/day for Pb-F and 7.1 {mu}g/day for Cd-F. Rice contributed 30% and 4% of dietary Cd and Pb burden, respectively. When compared with the counterpart values obtained in four neighboring cities in southeast Asia (i.e. Nanning, Tainan, Manila, and Kuala Lumpur), dietary Pb burden of the women in Bangkok was middle in the order among the values for the five cities. Pb level in the blood was the lowest of the levels among the five cities and Pb in urine was also among the low group. This apparent discrepancy in the order between Pb-B (i.e. the fifth) and Pb-F (the third) might be attributable to recent reduction of Pb levels in the atmosphere in Bangkok. Regarding Cd exposure, Cd levels in blood and urine as well as dietary Cd burden of Bangkok women were either the lowest or the next lowest among those in the five cities. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  16. The Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    The Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean, known as the Treaty of Tlatelolco, seeks to establish a nuclear-weapon-free zone (NWFZ) that will extend from the US-Mexican border to Antarctica`s territorial boundaries, including large areas of open ocean. Under the treaty, signatory states pledge not to test, use, produce, manufacture or acquire nuclear weapons; to use nuclear materials and facilities {open_quotes}exclusively for peaceful purposes;{close_quotes} and not to permit the stationing or development of nuclear weapons on their territories.

  17. Amendments to the Tlatelolco treaty 1990-1992: a demonstration of international collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vez, L.; Anaya, R. [Instituto Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Mexico City (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    The amendments to the Tlatelolco treaty made between 1990-1992, had a major impact on its full enforcement. The paper will analyze the different process for its achievement and their consequences. The first and second amendments were made with the intention of including the Caribbean Countries within the geographical scope of the Treaty; and the third and most important one dealt with the adaptation of the control system foreseen in the Tlatelolco Treaty, to permit the integration of Argentina, Brazil and Chile to it. This work also quotes some facts that implied international collaboration in achieving the complete military denuclearization of Latin America and the Caribbean. (author). 25 refs.

  18. Mine seismicity and the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiappetta, F. [Blasting Analysis International, Allentown, PA (United States); Heuze, F.; Walter, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Hopler, R. [Powderman Consulting Inc., Oxford, MD (United States); Hsu, V. [Air Force Technical Applications Center, Patrick AFB, FL (United States); Martin, B. [Thunder Basin Coal Co., Wright, WY (United States); Pearson, C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Stump, B. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States); Zipf, K. [Univ. of New South Wales (Australia)

    1998-12-09

    Surface and underground mining operations generate seismic ground motions which are created by chemical explosions and ground failures. It may come as a surprise to some that the ground failures (coal bumps, first caves, pillar collapses, rockbursts, etc.) can send signals whose magnitudes are as strong or stronger than those from any mining blast. A verification system that includes seismic, infrasound, hydroacoustic and radionuclide sensors is being completed as part of the CTBT. The largest mine blasts and ground failures will be detected by this system and must be identified as distinct from signals generated by small nuclear explosions. Seismologists will analyze the seismic records and presumably should be able to separate them into earthquake-like and non earthquake-like categories, using a variety of so-called seismic discriminants. Non-earthquake essentially means explosion- or implosion-like. Such signals can be generated not only by mine blasts but also by a variety of ground failures. Because it is known that single-fired chemical explosions and nuclear explosion signals of the same yield give very similar seismic records, the non-earthquake signals will be of concern to the Treaty verification community. The magnitude of the mine-related events is in the range of seismicity created by smaller nuclear explosions or decoupled tests, which are of particular concern under the Treaty. It is conceivable that legitimate mining blasts or some mine-induced ground failures could occasionally be questioned. Information such as shot time, location and design parameters may be all that is necessary to resolve the event identity. In rare instances where the legitimate origin of the event could not be resolved by a consultation and clarification procedure, it might trigger on On-Site Inspection (OSI). Because there is uncertainty in the precise location of seismic event as determined by the International Monitoring System (IMS), the OSI can cover an area of up to 1

  19. Will the Constitutional Treaty Contribute to the Legitimacy of the European Union?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Wolf

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The article explores whether the Constitutional Treaty may provide more legitimacy for governance in the European Union. After presenting a list of normative criteria, relevant parts of the Constitutional Treaty are summarised and evaluated. It is concluded that the Constitutional Treaty's 'added value' is rather small: the document does not make the complicated nature of Union powers and Union decision-making visible and understandable to the public; the vertical and horizontal checks on the use of Union power are suboptimal; the EU's weak 'input legitimacy' is not strengthened. On the other side, the Constitutional Treaty might provide for a better protection of fundamental rights at the supranational level. Hence, as regards enhanced legitimacy, the overall picture, albeit somewhat daunting, is not altogether bleak.

  20. Exposure to genotoxins present in ambient air in Bangkok, Thailand - particle associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruchirawat, Mathuros; Mahidol, Chulabhorn; Tangjarukij, Chanthana

    2002-01-01

    Exposure to genotoxic compounds in ambient air has been studied in Bangkok, Thailand, by analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) associated with particles and using different biomarkers of exposure. Eighty-nine male, non-smoking Royal Thai police officers were investigated. The police...... of individual PAHs or total PAH. Our data show, that people in Bangkok, who spend most of the day outside air-conditioned offices, are exposed to high levels of genotoxic PAHs. However, for people who spend their working day in offices, the exposure is similar to people living in other metropolitan areas....

  1. Écrire Bangkok: La ville dans la nouvelle contemporaine en Thaïlande, Louise Pichard-Bertaux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ward Keeler

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In Verdi’s mid-19th century opera, “La Traviata,” Violetta refers to “questo popoloso deserto che appellano Parigi.” The 20th century caused fiction writers throughout Southeast Asia to echo her sentiments, as government and commerce, or just bright lights and brighter dreams, drew huge numbers of people to such rapidly growing cities as Jakarta, Rangoon, and Bangkok. Louise Pichard-Bertaux has decided to address two immense and somewhat intractable topics—the city of Bangkok, and the endless...

  2. Ecosystem Services and Potential Utilization of of Urban Typha angustifolia Wetlands of across Metropolitan Bangkok, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sritrairat, S.

    2014-12-01

    Over half the world's 7.2 billion population are living in urban habitats. While these cities only occupy 2% of the world's surface, the ecological footprint by these cities combined is far greater than that of the other 98% of the world. Bangkok, Thailand has experienced this rapid urbanization that has resulted in various environmental problems, including pollution, land subsidence, and flooding. Major flooding in 2011 has raised awareness about the importance of restoring ecosystem services in urban space to cope up with the forecasted extreme climatic conditions. Finding localized flooding, carbon and pollution mitigation methods will be important to cities. Upland reforestration has been proposed as a way to decrease these anthropogenic and climate change impacts. However, there is also a large area of wetlands in Bangkok with possibly high ecosystem services that have not been quantified. This study measure above ground and below ground carbon accumulation in wide-spread Typha angustifolia wetlands as an untapped source of ecosystem services that are worth projected. These wetlands are typically viewed as wasteland and are not being protected. We examined carbon and heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cu) pools in 7 wetlands across Bangkok with various environmental settings--from industrialized zone, to residential area, farms, and protected urban green space. The results indicate recent peat accumulation layer by these wetlands at high rate. Heavy concentration are found near contaminant source such as industries and farms. Combined with their ability to buffer storms and being habitats for wildlife, these wetlands have important values in increasing ecosystem services in urban space and should be considered for protection.

  3. Temporal and spatial distribution of particulate carcinogens and mutagens in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongpiachan, Siwatt; Choochuay, C; Hattayanone, M; Kositanont, C

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the level of genotoxicity over Bangkok atmosphere, PM10 samples were collected at the Klongchan Housing Authority (KHA), Nonsree High School (NHS), Watsing High School (WHS), Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT), Chokchai 4 Police Station (CPS), Dindaeng Housing Authority (DHA) and Badindecha High School (BHS). For all monitoring stations, each sample covered a period of 24 hours taken at a normal weekday every month from January-December 2006 forming a database of 84 individual air samples (i.e. 12?7=84). Atmospheric concentrations of low molecular weight PAHs (i.e. phenanthrene, anthracene, pyrene and fluoranthene) were measured in PM10 at seven observatory sites operated by the pollution control department of Thailand (PCD). The mutagenicity of extracts of the samples was compared in Salmonella according to standard Ames test method. The dependence of the effects on sampling time and on sampling location was investigated with the aid of a calculation of mutagenic index (MI). This MI was used to estimate the increase in mutagenicity above background levels (i.e. negative control) at the seven monitoring sites in urban area of Bangkok due to anthropogenic emissions within that area. Applications of the AMES method showed that the average MI of PM10 collected at all sampling sites were 1.37±0.10 (TA98; +S9), 1.24±0.08 (TA98; -S9), 1.45±0.10 (TA100; +S9) and 1.30±0.09 (TA100; -S9) with relatively less variations. Analytical results reconfirm that the particulate PAH concentrations measured at PCD air quality monitoring stations are moderately low in comparison with previous results observed in other countries. In addition, the concept of incremental lifetime particulate matter exposure (ILPE) was employed to investigate the potential risks of exposure to particulate PAHs in Bangkok atmosphere.

  4. Transport and its energy-related air pollution problems in Bangkok

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boontherawara, N.; Panich, S.; Phiu-Nual, K.

    1995-12-31

    Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) is a major pollutant, followed by carbon monoxide and lead, as the ambient levels of these pollutants all exceed international standards such as those laid down by the World Health Organization (WHO). In order to meet these standards, it is necessary to reduce the emissions of these pollutants by 84.9%, 47.3%, and 13.0% respectively. Ambient air quality in Bangkok will continue to deteriorate to an unacceptable level by the year 2000, if no action is taken over and above implementation of already approved projects (including mass transit projects). Carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions could be reduced by 28 and 22% respectively, with the implementation of Reasonable Technology Measures used to control vehicle emissions alone. These measures include inspection and maintenance programs. Their success is dependent on effective quality control and on the application of stringent standards. However, these measures would have little impact in reducing the emissions of SPM. It can therefore be concluded that Reasonable Technology Measures will be insufficient to address Bangkok`s air pollution problems, without complementary measures to reduce traffic congestion. Implementation of the traffic measures outlined under the Demand-Management Policy Scenario alone will reduce CO and HC emissions by up to 45%. These measures serve to reduce traffic congestion and increase the average travel speed. However, in order to improve air quality to internationally acceptable levels, traffic measures must be implemented in conjunction with the Reasonable Technology Scenario. This will provide an additional reduction of CO and HC emissions by 45%.

  5. Experiences with policing among people who inject drugs in Bangkok, Thailand: a qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanna Hayashi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite Thailand's commitment to treating people who use drugs as "patients" not "criminals," Thai authorities continue to emphasize criminal law enforcement for drug control. In 2003, Thailand's drug war received international criticism due to extensive human rights violations. However, few studies have since investigated the impact of policing on drug-using populations. Therefore, we sought to examine experiences with policing among people who inject drugs (PWID in Bangkok, Thailand, between 2008 and 2012. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Between July 2011 and June 2012, semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with 42 community-recruited PWID participating in the Mitsampan Community Research Project in Bangkok. Interviews explored PWID's encounters with police during the past three years. Audio-recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim, and a thematic analysis was conducted to document the character of PWID's experiences with police. Respondents indicated that policing activities had noticeably intensified since rapid urine toxicology screening became available to police. Respondents reported various forms of police misconduct, including false accusations, coercion of confessions, excessive use of force, and extortion of money. However, respondents were reluctant to report misconduct to the authorities in the face of social and structural barriers to seeking justice. Respondents' strategies to avoid police impeded access to health care and facilitated transitions towards the misuse of prescribed pharmaceuticals. The study's limitations relate to the transferability of the findings, including the potential biases associated with the small convenience sample. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that policing in Bangkok has involved injustices, human rights abuses, and corruption, and policing practices in this setting appeared to have increased PWID's vulnerability to poor health through various pathways. Novel to this study are

  6. HIV-infected women delivering without antenatal care in a large Bangkok hospital, 1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennetts, A; Inneam, B; Krajangthong, R; Bhengsri, S; Jetsawang, B; Siriwasin, W; Simond, R J; Shaffer, N

    2000-03-01

    The aim was to estimate the proportion of HIV-infected women giving birth at a large Bangkok hospital who had not received antenatal care (ANC) and to identify predictors of not receiving ANC. At Rajavithi Hospital, Bangkok, women with ANC are routinely tested for HIV at their first antenatal visit; women without ANC are routinely tested at delivery. Hospital staff interview all HIV-infected women and record sociodemographic and HIV risk factor information in a delivery room log book. We abstracted and analyzed data recorded in this log book for all HIV-infected women who gave birth at Rajavithi Hospital in 1997. Of 303 HIV-infected women who gave birth, 75% had received ANC at Rajavithi Hospital, 10% had received ANC at other locations, and 15% had not received ANC. On multivariate analysis, HIV-infected women who had received ANC were more likely to work or have partners who worked in construction (25% vs 11%; adjusted odds ratio [AOR]; 2.6; p = 0.03) or have a history of injection drug use (4% vs 0.4%; AOR = 20.8; p = 0.02) than those who had not received ANC, but were less likely to report their current partner as a risk factor for acquiring HIV infection (22% vs. 40%; AOR = 0.4; p = 0.05). Because a substantial number of HIV-infected women give birth in this large Bangkok hospital without receiving ANC, interventions are needed to increase the number of HIV-infected women who receive ANC and to prevent perinatal HIV transmission from HIV-infected pregnant women who have not received ANC.

  7. CIVIL LIABILITY FOR NUCLEAR DAMAGE: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF INTERNATIONAL TREATIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Rimšaitė

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available It was widely accepted that nuclear damage might be extensive and spread to other countries. International civil liability for nuclear damage is embodied by two major instruments: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA 1963 Vienna Convention on Civil liability for Nuclear Damage and Paris Convention of 1960 on third party liability (OECD with its amending protocols. Major problem arises because of lack of coherence and for this reason supplementary conventions and protocols has been adopted but sufficient results has not been achieved. International treaties on civil liability for nuclear damage are mostly based upon principles of operator’s exclusive, channeling, strict liability for nuclear damage, mandatory financial coverage, compensation without discrimination. These principles set ground for the appropriate compensation standard thus minimizing the difficulty level of complicated legal cross-actions and identifies certain subjects in individual cases who are liable also allows a concentration of the insurance capacity. Although Conventions sets similar principles, Europe remains in two different liability regimes which cover differences of liability amounts, scope of application, rules of jurisdiction conflicts. Problem of legal coherence at European Union level also arises because Member States are either parties to the Paris Convention or Vienna Convention at different speeds. This research paper provides an in-depth analysis of international legal framework development and impetus to create trans-boundary compensation mechanisms thus to foster development of European Union nuclear energy market and to provide higher protection for victims inside and outside the country where the incident has occurred. Purpose – provide comparative analysis of international treaties which regulate civil liability for nuclear damage in the context of European Union nuclear energy market development. Design/methodology - paper is based on document

  8. Occupational Exposure of Gasoline Station Workers to BTEX Compounds in Bangkok, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Nopparatbundit

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gasoline station workers are exposed to volatile organic compounds such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX. Objectives: To determine the level of exposure to BTEX compounds among gasoline station workers and measure the roadside concentrations of these compounds in the inner and outer areas of Bangkok, Thailand.Methods: 49 workers at 6 gasoline stations in the inner and outer areas of Bangkok participated in this study. Samples of ambient air were collected from the area near gas pumps at each station and at the roadside in front of the gas stations by charcoal tubes. All samples were analyzed for BTEX compounds by gas chromatography-flame ionized detector (GC-FID.Results: The mean BTEX concentration in gas stations was slightly higher than that of the roadside; there was no significant difference in the concentration between inner and outer areas. The mean lifetime cancer risks for workers exposed to benzene and ethylbenzene for 30 years were estimated at 1.75×10–4 and 9.55×10–7. The estimated hazard quotients for BTEX compounds were 0.600, 0.008, 0.007 and 0.002, respectively. The most prevalent symptoms of workers were headache (61%, fatigue (29% and throat irritation (11%, respectively. Exposure to benzene and toluene was significantly associated with fatigue (p<0.05.Conclusion: Exposure to BTEX compounds would increase the risk of cancer in gasoline station workers. Exposure to benzene and toluene may cause fatigue.

  9. Clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes among patients with tuberculosis in Bangkok and Nonthaburi, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manosuthi, Weerawat; Kawkitinarong, Kamon; Suwanpimolkul, Gompol; Chokbumrungsuk, Channarong; Jirawattanapisal, Thidaporn; Ruxrungtham, Kiat; Akksilp, Somsak

    2012-11-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a public health problem in many large cities. We retrospectively studied the clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of patients with active TB at 6 hospitals in Bangkok and Nonthaburi, Thailand during 2008-2009. Eight hundred thirteen patients were included in the study. The mean age of subjects +/- SD was 41 +/- 14 years and mean body weight +/- SD was 53 +/- 11 kilograms. The three leading co-morbid conditions were HIV infection (40%), diabetes (6%) and chronic liver disease (2%). Two-thirds of subjects had isolated pulmonary TB. Isoniazid, rifampicin and multi-drug resistance were seen in 13, 7 and 5%, respectively. After 1 year, 52% were cured or completed treatment, 19% transferred out, 12% defaulted, 9% were still on-going TB treatment, 7% had died and 1% had failed treatment. Survival rates at 2, 6 and 12 months were 93, 85 and 81% among HIV seropositive subjects; 96, 94 and 92% among HIV seronegative subjects and 98, 97 and 97% among subjects with unknown HIV status (p Bangkok, Thailand.

  10. Economic costs incurred by households in the 2011 Greater Bangkok flood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabangchang, Orapan; Allaire, Maura; Leangcharoen, Prinyarat; Jarungrattanapong, Rawadee; Whittington, Dale

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the first comprehensive estimates of the economic costs experienced by households in the 2011 Greater Bangkok flood. More generally, it contributes to the literature by presenting the first estimates of flood costs based on primary data collected from respondents of flooded homes using in-person interviews. Two rounds of interviews were conducted with 469 households in three of the most heavily affected districts of greater Bangkok. The estimates of economic costs include preventative costs, ex post losses, compensation received, and any new income generated during the flood. Median household economic costs were US3089, equivalent to about half of annual household expenditures (mean costs were US5261). Perhaps surprisingly given the depth and duration of the flood, most houses incurred little structural damage (although furniture, appliances, and cars were damaged). Median economic costs to poor and nonpoor households were similar as a percentage of annual household expenditures (53% and 48%, respectively). Compensation payments received from government did little to reduce the total economic losses of the vast majority of households. Two flood-related deaths were reported in our sample—both in low-income neighborhoods. Overall, ex post damage was the largest component of flood costs (66% of total). These findings are new, important inputs for the evaluation of flood control mitigation and preventive measures that are now under consideration by the Government of Thailand. The paper also illustrates how detailed microeconomic data on household costs can be collected and summarized for policy purposes.

  11. Environmental Screening for the Scedosporium apiospermum Species Complex in Public Parks in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luplertlop, Natthanej; Pumeesat, Potjaman; Muangkaew, Watcharamat; Wongsuk, Thanwa; Alastruey-Izquierdo, Ana

    2016-01-01

    The Scedosporium apiospermum species complex, comprising filamentous fungal species S. apiospermum sensu stricto, S. boydii, S. aurantiacum, S. dehoogii and S. minutispora, are important pathogens that cause a wide variety of infections. Although some species (S. boydii and S. apiospermum) have been isolated from patients in Thailand, no environmental surveys of these fungi have been performed in Thailand or surrounding countries. In this study, we isolated and identified species of these fungi from 68 soil and 16 water samples randomly collected from 10 parks in Bangkok. After filtration and subsequent inoculation of samples on Scedo-Select III medium, colony morphological examinations and microscopic observations were performed. Scedosporium species were isolated from soil in 8 of the 10 parks, but were only detected in one water sample. Colony morphologies of isolates from 41 of 68 soil samples (60.29%) and 1 of 15 water samples (6.67%) were consistent with that of the S. apiospermum species complex. Each morphological type was selected for species identification based on DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the β-tubulin gene. Three species of the S. apiospermum species complex were identified: S. apiospermum (71 isolates), S. aurantiacum (6 isolates) and S. dehoogii (5 isolates). In addition, 16 sequences could not be assigned to an exact Scedosporium species. According to our environmental survey, the S. apiospermum species complex is widespread in soil in Bangkok, Thailand.

  12. Prospecting for groundwater discharge in the canals of Bangkok via natural radon and thoron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanyotha, Supitcha; Kranrod, Chutima; Burnett, William C.; Lane-Smith, Derek; Simko, Jesse

    2014-11-01

    We conducted surveys of several canals in Bangkok, Thailand using continuous measurements of naturally occurring 222Rn ("radon") and 220Rn ("thoron"). Shallow groundwater seeping into these canals is an important pathway for contamination of surface waters. Radon, with a half-life (3.82 days) shorter than the suspected flushing time of the canals, is widely distributed throughout the waterway. It can thus be used to estimate discharge via a mass balance approach but cannot specify precisely where the discharge is occurring. Thoron, on the other hand, with its rapid decay (56 s half-life) will only occur very close to points of entry. Thus, if one detects thoron in the environment, there must be a source nearby - a good 'prospecting' tool. We found thoron spikes in Klong Bangkok Noi during a survey in August 2009. We repeated the same survey route in June 2013 and found essentially the same pattern of high thoron peaks (indicating points of discharge) adjacent to several temples along the canal. The connection to temples is thought to be a consequence of these structures being built on relatively higher ground and having sandy substrates.

  13. An artificial neural network model for rainfall forecasting in Bangkok, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Q. Hung

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study developed an artificial neural network (ANN model to overcome the difficulties in training the ANN models with continuous data consisting of rainy and non-rainy days. Among the six models analyzed the ANN model which used generalized feedforward type network and a hyperbolic tangent function and a combination of meteorological parameters (relative humidity, air pressure, wet bulb temperature and cloudiness, and the rainfall at the point of forecasting and rainfall at the surrounding stations, as an input for training of the model was found most satisfactory in forecasting rainfall in Bangkok, Thailand. The developed ANN model was applied to derive rainfall forecast from 1 to 6 h ahead at 75 rain gauge stations in the study area as forecast point from the data of 3 consecutive years (1997–1999. Results were highly satisfactory for rainfall forecast 1 to 3 h ahead. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the most important input parameter beside rainfall itself is the wet bulb temperature in forecasting rainfall. Based on these results, it is recommended that the developed ANN model can be used for real-time rainfall forecasting and flood management in Bangkok, Thailand.

  14. Synchrony of Dengue Incidence in Ho Chi Minh City and Bangkok

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isabel, Rodriguez-Barraquer; In-Kyu, Yoon; Chau, Nguyen Van Vinh; Hung, Nguyen Thanh; Tuan, Ha Manh; Lan, Phan Trong; Willis, Bridget; Nisalak, Ananda; Kalayanarooj, Siripen; Cummings, Derek A. T.; Simmons, Cameron P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Ho Chi Minh City and Bangkok are highly dengue endemic. The extent to which disease patterns are attributable to local versus regional dynamics remains unclear. To address this gap we compared key transmission parameters across the locations. Methods and Principal Findings We used 2003–2009 age-stratified case data to inform catalytic transmission models. Further, we compared the spatial clustering of serotypes within each city. We found that annual case numbers were highly consistent across the two cities (correlation of 0.77, 95% CI: 0.74–0.79) as was the annual force of infection (correlation of 0.57, 95% CI: 0.46–0.68). Serotypes were less similar with serotype-specific correlations ranging from 0.65 for DENV1 to -0.14 for DENV4. Significant spatial clustering of serotypes was observed in HCMC at distances <500m, similar to previous observations from Bangkok. Discussions Dengue dynamics are comparable across these two hubs. Low correlation in serotype distribution suggests that similar built environments, vector populations and climate, rather than viral flow drives these observations. PMID:28033384

  15. Influence of driving cycles on exhaust emissions and fuel consumption of gasoline passenger car in Bangkok

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NUTRAMON Tamsanya; SUPACHART Chungpaibulpatana

    2009-01-01

    The influence of different driving cycles on their exhaust emissions and fuel consumption rate of gasoline passenger car was investigated in Bangkok based on the actual measurements obtained from a test vehicle driving on a standard chassis dynamometer. A newly established Bangkok driving cycle (BDC) and the European driving cycle (EDC) which is presently adopted as the legislative cycle for testing automobiles registered in Thailand were used. The newly developed BDC is constructed using the driving characteristic data obtained from the real on-road driving tests along selected traffic routes. A method for selecting appropriate road routes for real driving tests is also introduced. Variations of keyed driving parameters of BDC with different driving cycles were discussed. The results showed that the HC and CO emission factors of BDC are almost two and four times greater than those of EDC, respectively. Although the difference in the NOx emission factor is small, the value from BDC is still greater than that of EDC by 10%. Under BDC, the test vehicle consumes fuel about 25% more than it does under EDC. All these differences are mainly attributed to the greater proportion of idle periods and higher fluctuations of vehicle speed in the BDC cycle. This result indicated that the exhausted emissions and fuel consumption of vehicles obtained from tests under the legislative modal-type driving cycle (EDC) are significantly different from those actually produced under real traffic conditions especially during peak periods.

  16. Socioeconomic inequality and road traffic accidents in Thailand: comparing cases treated in government hospitals inside and outside of Bangkok.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongchaitrakul, Teerachai; Juntakarn, Chantip; Prasartritha, Thavat

    2012-05-01

    The study aims to report annual demographic characteristics and to compare the differences of socioeconomic inequality, type of motor vehicles, and seating relating to major bone injuries among hospitals in and outside Bangkok. Six public hospitals in Bangkok and six regional hospitals in the provinces were studied over a one year period (2008-2009). There were 3,650 cases: 3,596 injured patients and 54 deaths. Patients with a lower education level accounted for the largest number of cases, both in the provinces (46.3%) and Bangkok (17.1%). Their incomes were less than THB 10,000/yearly. Total number of motorcycle cases (3,360) was higher (11.6:1) than 290 cases of motor vehicles. Pickup cars were used more commonly. Riding a motorcycle was likely to be fatal. The front seat was the most common involvement. Passengers occupying the middle and rear seat of the motorcycle were involved in 16.0% and 1.0% cases, respectively. Long bone and joints were the most common injuries. The results strongly confirmed the striking contribution of motorcycles and pickups to road traffic accidents. People with a low educational level, in conjunction with low income, and in areas outside of Bangkok were more at risk. Specific education on road safety should be delivered, preferably in primary schools.

  17. A Cross-Sectional Study of Career Aspirations in Thai Children in an International School in Bangkok

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDevitt, Teresa M.; Hess, Chelsie A.; Leesatayakun, Mantmart; Sheehan, Eugene P.; Kaufeld, Kimberly A.

    2013-01-01

    This investigation employed exploratory methods to examine career aspirations in 141 students in Grades 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 from an international school in Bangkok. Students specified the jobs that they were most likely to pursue as adults, rated the importance of potential influences in making career decisions, and drew a picture of themselves in…

  18. Chronic nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia due to glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency: report of two families with novel mutations causing G6PD Bangkok and G6PD Bangkok Noi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanphaichitr, Voravarn S; Hirono, Akira; Pung-amritt, Parichat; Treesucon, Ajjima; Wanachiwanawin, Wanchai

    2011-07-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is one of the most common hereditary enzymopathies worldwide. Mostly G6PD deficient cases are asymptomatic though they may have the risk of neonatal jaundice (NNJ) and acute intravascular hemolysis during oxidative stress. Chronic nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia (CNSHA) due to G6PD deficiency is rare. In Thailand, one case was reported 40 years ago and by biochemical study this G6PD was reported to be a new variant G6PD Bangkok. We, herein, report two families with CNSHA due to G6PD deficiency. In the first family, we have been following up the clinical course of the patient with G6PD Bangkok. In addition to chronic hemolysis, he had three acute hemolytic episodes requiring blood transfusions during childhood period. Multiple gallstones were detected at the age of 27. His two daughters who inherited G6PD Bangkok from him and G6PD Vanua Lava from his wife are asymptomatic. Both of them had NNJ and persistent evidences of compensated hemolysis. Molecular analysis revealed a novel missense mutation 825 G→C predicting 275 Lys→Asn causing G6PD Bangkok. In the second family, two male siblings are affected. They had NNJ and several hemolytic episodes which required blood transfusions. On follow-up they have been diagnosed with chronic hemolysis as evidenced by reticulocytosis and indirect hyperbilirubinemia. Molecular analysis revealed combined missense mutations in exons 12 and 13. The first mutation was 1376 G→T predicting 459 Arg→Leu (known as G6PD Canton) and the second one was 1502 T→G predicting 501 Phe→Cys. We designated the resulting novel G6PD variant, G6PD Bangkok Noi.

  19. Part 3. Estimating the effects of air pollution on mortality in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vichit-Vadakan, Nuntavarn; Vajanapoom, Nitaya; Ostro, Bart

    2010-11-01

    While the effects of particulate matter (PM*) on mortality have been well documented in North America and Western Europe, considerably less is known about its effects in developing countries in Asia. Existing air pollution data in Bangkok, Thailand, indicate that airborne concentrations of PM Bangkok. It is important, therefore, to determine whether the effects of PM10 on mortality occurring in this large metropolitan area are similar to those in Western cities. The quality and completeness of Bangkok mortality data have been recently enhanced by the completion of a few mortality studies and through input from monitors currently measuring daily PM10 in Bangkok. In this analysis, we examined the effects of PM10 and several gaseous pollutants on daily mortality for the years 1999 through 2003. Our results suggest strong associations between several different mortality outcomes and levels of PM10 and several of the gaseous pollutants, including nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitric oxide (NO), and ozone (O3). In many cases, the effect estimates were higher than the approximately 6% per 10 microg/m3 typically reported in Western industrialized nations-based on reviews by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) (Anderson et al. 2004). For example, the excess risk (ER) for mortality due to all natural causes was 1.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.8 to 1.7), with higher ERs for cardiovascular and respiratory mortality of 1.9% (95% CI, 0.8 to 3.0) and 1.0% (95% CI, -0.4 to 2.4), respectively. Of particular note, for this warm, tropical city of approximately 6 to 10 million people, is that there is no covariation between pollution and cold weather, with its associated adverse health problems. Multiday averages of PM10 generated even higher effect estimates. Our analysis of age- and disease-specific mortality indicated elevated ERs for young children, especially infants with respiratory illnesses, children less than 5 years of

  20. Measurement of genotoxic air pollutant exposures in street vendors and school children in and near Bangkok.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruchirawat, Mathuros; Navasumrit, Panida; Settachan, Daam; Tuntaviroon, Jantamas; Buthbumrung, Nantaporn; Sharma, Suman

    2005-08-07

    The effects of air pollution on human health are a great concern, particularly in big cities with severe traffic problems such as Bangkok, Thailand. In this study, exposure to genotoxic compounds in ambient air was studied by analysis of particle-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and benzene through direct measurement of concentrations in air as well as through the use of different biomarkers of exposure: urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) for PAHs and urinary t,t-muconic acid (t,t-MA) for benzene. The study was conducted in various susceptible groups of the population with different occupations in 5 traffic-congested areas of Bangkok, as well as in primary school children. The level of total PAHs on the main roads at various sites ranged from 7.10 to 83.04 ng/m(3), while benzene levels ranged from 16.35 to 49.25 ppb. In contrast, ambient levels in nearby temples, the control sites, ranged from 1.67 to 3.04 ng/m(3) total PAHs and 10.16 to 16.25 ppb benzene. Street vendors selling clothes were exposed to 16.07 +/- 1.64 ng/m(3) total PAHs and 21.97 +/- 1.50 ppb benzene, levels higher than in monks and nuns residing in nearby temples (5.34 +/- 0.65 ng/m(3) total PAHs and 13.69 +/- 0.77 ppb benzene). Grilled-meat vendors in the same area were exposed to both total PAHs and benzene at even higher levels, possibly due to additional formation of PAHs during the grilling of meat (34.27 +/- 7.02 ng/m(3) total PAHs; 27.49 +/- 2.72 ppb benzene). At the end of the workday, urinary 1-OHP levels in street vendors (0.12 and 0.15 micromol/mol creatinine in clothes and grilled-meat vendors, respectively) were significantly higher than in controls (0.04 micromol/mol creatinine; P Bangkok were exposed to total PAHs and benzene at levels of 6.70 +/- 0.47 ng/m(3) and 4.71 +/- 0.25 ppb, respectively, higher than those to which children living outside the city were exposed (1.25 +/- 0.24 ng/m(3) total PAHs; 2.10 +/- 0.16 ppb benzene). At the end of the school day, levels of

  1. The Non-Proliferation Treaty increases security; Pysyvae ydinsulkusopimus lisaeae kansainvaelistae vakautta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahiluoto, K.

    1995-12-31

    Extension of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty indefinitely was a historic decision. The Treaty is the most extensive international agreement on security policy to date; now its obligations have become a permanent part of international justice. Moreover, the NPT represents a political and moral obligation. Through the NPT, the international community has made a permanent commitment to restrict the proliferation of nuclear weapons. Increasing pressures will be applied to the few countries still outside the NPT, making it more likely that these countries will eventually change their views. The likelihood of regional bans on nuclear weapons in the Middle East and in Asia, too, will increase. The Treaty promotes the establishment of new nuclear-free zones. The nuclear-free zone in Latin America - the countries covered by the Tlatelolco Treaty - is already very close to its full implementation. Finland is firmly committed to the obligations of the Non-Proliferation Treaty. The NPT Conference of 1995 was among the first international meetings in which Finland participated, and took an active role, as a Member State of the European Union. (orig.).

  2. Treaties to avoid international double income taxation and their relation with investments involving Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jônatas de Pessoa Alburquerque Martins

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available To fight against fiscal evasion and facilitate the investment flow, the countries close agreements to go against double income taxation. This study aims to investigate the impact of the treaties to avoid double income taxation on the direct foreign investment relations of Brazil. The analysis included 162 countries and jurisdictions with which investments transactions were closed that originated or were received in Brazil, between 2005 and 2011. The panel data analysis technique was applied through the selection of six independent variables, in order to verify the behavior of the double taxation treaties in view of the investments. Through the estimated model, it was verified that these treaties had a positive and statistically significant impact – when compared to earlier studies – on the direct foreign investment volume. When dividing the sample between the investments received and made in Brazil, a greater increase was identified in the direct foreign investments received (130.1% than in the investments made (76.9%, although this was the variable with the second largest positive impact in the model. In conclusion, exclusively in the Brazilian context, the international double income taxation is a relevant factor in the investment decision, as the presence of treaties to guarantee the investors in the receipt of revenues without double taxation substantially increases the investment flow. This study differs from earlier research by the sample that only contains treaties in force in Brazil.

  3. The impact of a national program to eliminate lymphatic filariasis in selected Myanmar immigrant communities in Bangkok and Ranong Province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satimai, Wichai; Jiraamonnimit, C; Thammapalo, S; Choochote, W; Luenee, P; Boitano, J J; Wongkamchai, S

    2011-09-01

    Some immigrants from Myanmar to Thailand have brought Wuchereria bancrofti infections with them, causing a community health problem for Thai citizens. The seroprevalence of bancroftian filariasis was detected in 438 and 512 Myanmar immigrants residing in Bangkok and Ranong Provinces, respectively, along with 81 Thai citizens living in Bangkok. The immunochromatograpy card test was positive in 5 Myanmar immigrants living in Bangkok and 1 living in Ranong for a prevalence of 0.63%. Antifilarial IgG4 antibodies were found in 21 Myanmar immigrants living in Bangkok and 14 living in Ranong for a prevalence of 3.68%. None of the samples from Thai citizens were positive with either test. These prevalence rates are lower than those observed between 2001 and 2005. The Thai mass drug administration program to eliminate lymphatic filariasis among Myanmar immigrants appears to be a successful public health strategy.

  4. Surface displacement and hydraulic connectivity in Bangkok plain inferred from persistent scatterer interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishitsuka, K.; Fukushima, Y.; Tsuji, T.; Yamada, Y.; Matsuoka, T.

    2013-12-01

    Land subsidence induced by the compaction of overdrafted aquifer systems have occurred in a lot of cities all over the world and have induced severe damage to buildings and infrastructures. In recent decades, some cities have taken measures to mitigate severe ground subsidence caused by groundwater extraction by, for instance, implementing artificial water injection schemes or regulating groundwater pumping, and surface rebound in these regions has been reported. Previously, SAR interferometry and persistent scatterer interferometry (PSI) has been successfully used as a monitoring tool for the uplifting event and we can also use the data to infer the extension of unrecognized fault and geological boundary as well as the elastic property of the aquifer. In this study, we first estimated recent ground displacement by using PSI analysis of ALOS/PALSAR images obtained during November 2007 and December 2010, focusing on the Bangkok, the capital city of Thailand. In this region, ground subsidence due to excessive groundwater pumping had been reported previously, however, we detected ground uplift from 0.5 to 3.0 cm during ALOS observation period. The estimated displacement time-series are consistent with those obtained from surface settlement measurement points in monitoring wells. Since groundwater usage has decreased in Bangkok due to the regulation of groundwater pumping, and groundwater level at productive aquifer has been rising at the estimated uplift area after the regulation, this uplift can be attributed to the increase in the hydraulic head due to the preceding depression in pore pressure. And then, we estimated the lateral connectivity of aquifer as well as the aquifer elastic properties using a temporal model. We considered seasonal factor by a sinusoidal function with a period of one year, and the non-seasonal factor by an exponential function. As a result, we found that non-seasonal uplift occurred uniformly over the whole area at the rate of 0.5-1.5 cm

  5. Criminal law policy of Latvia in the context of European Union: The treaty of Lisbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilks A.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of the content of EU Treaty of Lisbon, which deals with ensurance of freedom, security and justice in the joint European space. The Treaty of Lisbon describes the attempts of the European Union to ensure a high security level to prevent and fight crime, rasism and xenophobia, to develop particular measures of coordination and cooperation between police and judicial authorities and other competent authorities for their further development, as well as for the mutual recognition of judgements in criminal matters. Correspondingly, the implementation of the requirements of the Treaty of Lisbon identifies the need to form an adequate national criminal law policy in our country as well.

  6. Landform transformation on the urban fringe of Bangkok: the need to review land-use planning processes with consideration of the flow of fill materials to developing areas

    OpenAIRE

    Hara, Y.; Thaitakoo, D.; Takeuchi,K.

    2008-01-01

    For large Asian cities situated on deltaic lowlands, landform transformation is essential for both agrarian and urban development. Understanding landform transformation processes and patterns is important for landscape planning in areas of mixed urban–rural land use on the periphery of these cities. We examined landform transformation processes and patterns in Bangkok at three scales: (1) meso-scale quantitative landform analysis on the urban fringe of Bangkok using aerial photograph interpre...

  7. Tax Treaty Treatment of Dividend Related Payments under Share Loan Agreements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyppel, Katja Joo

    2014-01-01

    The article analyses some of the qualification and allocation challenges that dividend related payments under share loan agreements give rise to for tax treaty purposes. The analysis is based on constructed scenarios illustrating how inconsistent domestic allocation of the dividend related payments...... give rise to qualification and allocation conflicts for tax treaty purposes in cross-border situations. The main challenges concern to what extent dividend related payments may be covered by the term “dividends” in article 10 of the OECD double tax convention and to what extent the lender in a share...

  8. Lisbon Treaty – EU Sustainable Reform? The “Against” Arguments…

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Through this paper, I intend to analyze the European Union in the post adoption of the Treaty of Lisbon era, from a realistic perspective, which would put in the foreground concrete problems faced these days by this “unidentified political object1″, with the hope that the recognition of these weaknesses will lead to solutions for the Union to emerge stronger. Regarding this, I will argue that the Lisbon Treaty was not able to provide the long awaited reform of the enlarged Union. In the first...

  9. Radionuclide observables during the Integrated Field Exercise of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnett, Jonathan L.; Miley, Harry S.; Milbrath, Brian D.

    2016-03-01

    In 2014 the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) undertook the Integrated Field Exercise (IFE) in Jordan. The exercise consisted of a simulated 0.5 – 2 kT underground explosion triggering an On-site Inspection (OSI) to search for evidence of a Treaty violation. This research evaluates two of the OSI techniques, including laboratory-based gamma-spectrometry of soil samples and in situ gamma-spectrometry for 17 particulate radionuclides indicative of nuclear weapon tests. The detection sensitivity is evaluated using real IFE and model data. It indicates that higher sensitivity laboratory measurements are the optimum technique during the IFE and OSI timeframes.

  10. Identification of Blastocystis subtype 1 variants in the Home for Girls, Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thathaisong, Umaporn; Siripattanapipong, Suradej; Mungthin, Mathirut; Pipatsatitpong, Duangnate; Tan-ariya, Peerapan; Naaglor, Tawee; Leelayoova, Saovanee

    2013-02-01

    A cross-sectional study of Blastocystis infection was conducted to evaluate the prevalence, risk factors, and subtypes of Blastocystis at the Home for Girls, Bangkok, Thailand in November 2008. Of 370 stool samples, 118 (31.9%) were infected with Blastocystis. Genotypic characterization of Blastocystis was performed by polymerase chain reaction and sequence analysis of the partial small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene. Subtype 1 was the most predominant (94.8%), followed by subtype 6 (3.5%) and subtype 2 (1.7%). Sequence analyses revealed nucleotide polymorphisms for Blastocystis subtype 1, which were described as subtype 1/variant 1, subtype 1/variant 2. Blastocystis subtype 1/variant 1 was the most predominant infection occurring in almost every house. The results showed that subtype analysis of Blastocystis was useful for molecular epidemiological study.

  11. HIV risk behavior among HIV-infected men who have sex with men in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirivongrangson, Pachara; Lolekha, Rangsima; Charoenwatanachokchai, Angkana; Siangphoe, Umaporn; Fox, Kimberley K; Jirarojwattana, Naiyana; Bollen, Liesbeth; Yenyarsan, Naruemon; Lokpichat, Somchai; Suksripanich, Orapin; McConnell, Michelle

    2012-04-01

    We assessed prevalence of sexually transmitted infection (STIs), sexual risk behaviors, and factors associated with risk behaviors among HIV-infected MSM attending a public STI clinic serving MSM in Bangkok, Thailand. Between October 2005-October 2007, 154 HIV-infected MSM attending the clinic were interviewed about sexual risk behaviors and evaluated for STIs. Patients were examined for genital ulcers and had serologic testing for syphilis and PCR testing for chlamydia and gonorrhea. Results showed that sexual intercourse in the last 3 months was reported by 131 men. Of these, 32% reported anal sex without a condom. STIs were diagnosed in 41%. Factors associated with having sex without a condom were having a steady male partner, having a female partner and awareness of HIV status <1 month. Sexual risk behaviors and STIs were common among HIV-infected MSM in this study. This highlights the need for increased HIV prevention strategies for HIV-infected MSM.

  12. In-vehicle carbon dioxide concentration in commuting cars in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luangprasert, Maytat; Vasithamrong, Chainarin; Pongratananukul, Suphasit; Chantranuwathana, Sunhapos; Pumrin, Suree; De Silva, I P D

    2016-12-14

    It is known that in-vehicle carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration tends to increase due to occupant exhalation when the HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning) air is in recirculation mode. Field experiments were conducted to measure CO2 concentration during typical commute in Bangkok, Thailand. The measured concentrations agreed with the concentration predicted using first-order mass balance equation, in both recirculating and outside air modes. The long-term transient decay of the concentration when the vehicle was parked and the HVAC system was turned off was also studied. This decay was found to follow Fickian diffusion process. The paper also provides useful operational details of the automotive HVAC system and fresh air ventilation exchange between cabin interior and exterior.

  13. Infrasound and seismic detections associated with the 7 September 2015 Bangkok fireball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caudron, Corentin; Taisne, Benoit; Perttu, Anna; Garcés, Milton; Silber, Elizabeth A.; Mialle, Pierrick

    2016-12-01

    A bright fireball was reported at 01:43:35 UTC on September 7, 2015 at a height of ˜30 km above 14.5°N, 98.9°E near Bangkok, Thailand. It had a TNT yield equivalent of 3.9 kilotons (kt), making it the largest fireball detected in South-East Asia since the ˜50 kt 2009 Sumatra bolide. Infrasonic signals were observed at four infrasound arrays that are part of the International Monitoring System (IMS) and one infrasound array located in Singapore. Acoustic bearings and event origin times inferred from array processing are consistent with the eyewitness accounts. A seismic signal associated with this event was also likely recorded at station SRDT, in Thailand. An acoustic energy equivalent of 1.15 ± 0.24 kt is derived from the Singaporean acoustic data using the period of the peak energy.

  14. Enterobiasis in primary schools in Bang Khun Thian District, Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changsap, B; Nithikathkul, C; Boontan, P; Wannapinyosheep, S; Vongvanich, N; Poister, C

    2002-01-01

    A study of enterobiasis and its correlation with various factors that could potentially influence the rate of infection was conducted among 3,621 primary school children (five to ten years old), drawn from sixteen schools in Bang Khun Thian District, Bangkok. Diagnosis was by the transparent tape swab technique, which was used to recover Enterobius vermicularis eggs from the perianal region. The transparent tape swabs were then placed on slides for examination by light microscopy. The average rate of infection for the group was 21.57%. No statistically significant differences were found between the male and female children. The younger children had a higher rate of infection. Subjects from schools located in industrial and metropolitan areas showed slightly higher rates of infection than those from agricultural areas. Data from the questionnaires in the study indicated that factors such as parental socio-economic status (occupational, income and education) and the children's personal hygiene contributed to the varying rates of infection.

  15. Seasonal and diurnal variations of black carbon and organic carbon aerosols in Bangkok

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, L. K.; Kondo, Y.; Miyazaki, Y.; Pongkiatkul, Prapat; Kim Oanh, N. T.

    2011-08-01

    Measurements of black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC) were conducted in Bangkok during 2007-2008. Annual trends of BC and OC show strong seasonality with lower and higher concentrations during wet and dry seasons, respectively. Flow of cleaner air, wet removal, and negligible biomass burning resulted in the lowest concentrations of aerosols in the wet season. In addition to anthropogenic sources, long-range transport and biomass burning caused higher concentrations in the dry and hot seasons, respectively. Despite extensive biomass burning in the hot season, moderate levels of aerosols were due to the mixing with air masses from the Pacific Ocean. Diurnal distributions exhibit peaks during rush hour marked by minima in the OC/BC ratio and stagnant wind flow. The lowest concentrations in the afternoon hours could be due to deeper planetary boundary layer and reduced traffic. Overall, the concentrations of both BC and OC decrease with the increase in wind speed. The weekend effects, due to reduced emission during weekends, in the concentrations of both BC and OC were significant. Therefore, stricter abatement in vehicular emissions could substantially reduce pollution. A slope of ΔBC/ΔCO of 9.8 ngm-3 ppbv-1 for the wet season represents the emission ratio from vehicular sources. The highest of ΔOC/ΔBC (3 μg μg-1) in the hot season was due to the predominant influence of biomass burning and significant formation of secondary OC. The levels of BC and OC in Bangkok fall within the ranges of their concentrations measured in the major cities of East Asia.

  16. Quantification of phosphorus flows throughout the consumption system of Bangkok Metropolis, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thitanuwat, Bussarakam; Polprasert, Chongchin; Englande, Andrew J

    2016-01-15

    Due to unequal distribution of the world's Phosphorus (P) sources for fertilizer production, an evaluation of P flows throughout the consumption system of a city is needed. The prime objective of this paper is to assess and prioritize P recovery options as to bring about, as much as possible, a close-looped P-for-food system. Using the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (BMA) as a case study, the aim of this work is to quantify the potential mass flow of P for four major types of urban wastes: domestic wastewater (DWW), septage sludge (SS), food waste (FW) and green garbage (GB) and to determine the recoverable stock of P available. The consumption of food and supplements such as cleansing products and fertilizer is estimated at a rate of 1146.4 g P·cap(-1)·year(-1). P contained in wastes being discarded from its average 7.9 million population plus 33.8 million Bangkok-visiting tourists per annum is determined to be 8.01 kt P annually. Only 4% of the above quantity is recycled and used internally for cultivating plants grown in public parks. An annual amount of 7.68 kt P was found to be disposed of in landfills (6.23 kt P) and in the river systems (1.45 kt P). From the findings of this study, therefore, it is recommended that P recovery efforts from BMA's urban wastes should be focused on wastes enrouted to landfills since these constitute 81% of P discarded. As a consequence, solid waste combustion coupled with energy recovery from P-binding organics may be an appropriate means of P recovery. This technology has the potential to reduce waste volume, generate electricity, and produce P-containing ash that can be used for further application on farm lands.

  17. Phylodynamics of HIV-1 from a phase III AIDS vaccine trial in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Pérez-Losada

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 2003, a phase III placebo-controlled trial (VAX003 was completed in Bangkok, Thailand. Of the 2,546 individuals enrolled in the trial based on high risk for infection through injection drug use (IDU, we obtained clinical samples and HIV-1 sequence data (envelope glycoprotein gene gp120 from 215 individuals who became infected during the trial. Here, we used these data in combination with other publicly available gp120 sequences to perform a molecular surveillance and phylodynamic analysis of HIV-1 in Thailand. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: Phylogenetic and population genetic estimators were used to assess HIV-1 gp120 diversity as a function of vaccination treatment, viral load (VL and CD4(+ counts, to identify transmission clusters and to investigate the timescale and demographics of HIV-1 in Thailand. Three HIV-1 subtypes were identified: CRF01_AE (85% of the infections, subtype B (13% and CRF15_AE (2%. The Bangkok IDU cohort showed more gp120 diversity than other Asian IDU cohorts and similar diversity to that observed in sexually infected individuals. Moreover, significant differences (P<0.02 in genetic diversity were observed in CRF01_AE IDU with different VL and CD4(+ counts. No phylogenetic structure was detected regarding any of the epidemiological and clinical factors tested, although high proportions (35% to 50% of early infections fell into clusters, which suggests that transmission chains associated with acute infection play a key role on HIV-1 spread among IDU. CRF01_AE was estimated to have emerged in Thailand in 1984.5 (1983-1986, 3-6 years before the first recognition of symptomatic patients (1989. The relative genetic diversity of the HIV-1 population has remained high despite decreasing prevalence rates since the mid 1990s. CONCLUSIONS: Our study and recent epidemiological reports indicate that HIV-1 is still a major threat in Thailand and suggest that HIV awareness and prevention needs to be strengthened to avoid

  18. The Black Box of the Nice Treaty Negotiations: The influence of the Dutch cabinet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Luitwieler (Sander)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis study applies a relational influence approach to analyse the European Union (EU) Nice Treaty negotiation process (2000) and explain its outcome, focusing on the influence of the Dutch cabinet in the context of the other participating actors (14 member states, the European Commissio

  19. European Union representation at the United Nations : towards more coherence after the Treaty of Lisbon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, Xi

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation explores the effects of the Treaty of Lisbon (ToL) on the coherence of the external representation of the European Union (EU) in the field of Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) at two main UN bodies, i.e., the UN General Assembly (UNGA) and the Security Council (UNSC). It th

  20. "Treaties with American Indians: An Encyclopedia of Rights, Conflicts, and Sovereignty"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Karla

    2009-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the three-volume reference set, "Treaties with American Indians: An Encyclopedia of Rights, Conflicts, and Sovereignty" published by ABC-CLIO. This reference work is edited by Donald Fixico, Arizona State University, and dedicated to the people of his tribes: (1) Shawnee; (2) Sac and Fox; (3) Seminole; and (4)…

  1. The Colombian-United States Free Trade Treaty: A Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian A. Yepes

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available "Free trade treaties are generally centered on defining some game rules to achieve commercial exchange. In this article, the contents of the text of the free trade treaty between Colombia and the United States are discussed using a critical discourse analysis, which will help to identify the power relationships in this discourse in the context of Colombian company management. The particularities of the free trade treaty are also analyzed from a linguistic point of view, and taking into account the variables such as access of goods into the market, customs procedures, business defense, public contracting, intellectual property rights, job-related and environmental issues. The results are associated with an analysis process of the discursive content of free trade treaties at three levels: grammar of the text, pragmatics of the text, and at a psychosocial level to understand the role that the discourse plays in the interpretation and reproduction of the social domination, with the aim that it may serve as an orientation for the management of Colombian export companies."

  2. Woodrow Wilson and the U.S. Ratification of the Treaty of Versailles. Lesson Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyne, John; Sesso, Gloria

    1995-01-01

    Presents a high school lesson plan on the struggle over ratification of the Treaty of Versailles and U.S. participation in the League of Nations. Includes a timeline of events, four primary source documents, and biographical portraits of two opposing senators. Provides student objectives and step-by-step instructional procedures. (CFR)

  3. The Reichwehr, the Rocket and the Versailles Treaty - A Popular Myth Reexamined

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, M. J.

    This article seeks to demonstrate that, contrary to a well-entrenched myth, the failure of the Versailles Treaty to ban military uses of the rocket had little or no importance to the decision of the German Reichswehr to start work in the technology in 1929/30.

  4. Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty research and development: plans and accomplishments ...from signature to entry into force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-06-01

    This brochure describes the high-priority R&D that is being pursued in the DOE Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) R&D Program and how it will support effective CTBT monitoring. Monitoring challenges, sensor systems, signal analysis, resolution of ambiguities, and the timeline for CTBT history and program milestones are covered.

  5. Protocols, treaties, and action: the 'climate change process' viewed through gender spectacles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skutsch, Margaret M.; Masika, Rachel

    2002-01-01

    This paper starts by assessing the extent to which gender considerations have been taken into account in the international processes concerning the development of climate change policy. Finding that there has been very little attention to gender issues, neither in the protocols and treaties nor in t

  6. 77 FR 25892 - Security Zones; North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Summit, Chicago, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ... No. USCG-2012-0052] RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zones; North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Summit... River during the NATO Summit. This statement is incorrect. The Coast Guard received one comment. DATES... explained that it expects the NATO conference to have [[Page 25893

  7. The Possibilities for Reconciliation through Difficult Dialogues: Treaty Education as Peacebuilding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupper, Jennifer Anne

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the ongoing effects of colonialism on Aboriginal peoples in Canada and how these might be revealed and disrupted through particular curricular initiatives, informed by understandings of critical peacebuilding education. One such initiative, treaty education, has the potential to disturb dominant national narratives in…

  8. From Paris to Dublin: Domestic Politics and the Treaty of Lisbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Carbone

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the domestic politics of treaty reform in the European Union, from the failed referendum on the Constitutional Treaty held in France in May 2005 to the failed referendum on the Treaty of Lisbon held in Ireland in June 2008. A meticulous examination of the national level, it is argued here, helps us to better understand the European level and why some Member States manage to influence outcomes more than it would be expected. In particular, this article looks at the role played by actors beyond national governments, the impact of the political system and the general context on preference formation and inter-state bargaining, and the use that national negotiators made of ratification hurdles to receive extra concessions. More generally, by looking at the preparatory, negotiation and ratification process of the Treaty of Lisbon, this article aims to make a contribution to an emerging literature, which argues that we can no longer explain the evolution of the European Union without understanding the increased politicisation of the European project.

  9. The European Courts and the Law of Treaties: The Continuing Story

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijper, P.J.; Cannizzaro, E.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter presents a critical analysis of the case law of the European Court of Justice and of the General Court relating to the application of the international law of treaties. It covers the some forty cases in which the Courts have referred explicitly to the Vienna Convention on the Law of Tre

  10. Mark Twain, “The Treaty with China,” and the Chinese Connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Zehr

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available For today’s reader of Twain, the chronological appearance of “The Treaty with China” in August of 1868 may seem an anomalous entry in his bibliography, published at a time when his growing reputation is still primarily dependent on his ability to elicit a laugh or, for the more sophisticated reader, a knowing snicker. However, issues of race, class, and politics are not absent from his journalistic work prior to August 1868. Nothing in Twain’s writing prior to 1868, however, which had limited circulation, would have prepared the contemporary reader for the strong, unequivocal sympathies expressed toward the Chinese immigrants in “The Treaty with China.” For this reason alone, a closer analysis of “The Treaty” is warranted, providing prescient evidence regarding the political basis of Twain’s oeuvre at this embryonic stage of his career as a public figure. Many Twain scholars, largely through the brilliant analysis in Philip Foner’s 1958 work, Mark Twain: Social Critic, are already aware of the existence of “The Treaty with China,” even if they have never seen the text, but it has otherwise suffered from undeserved neglect, primarily because it has not been widely available to scholars since its 1868 publication, except for those with access to adequate microfilm resource libraries. This lacuna in Twain studies, at least, is now remedied with this reappearance of the entire text of “The Treaty with China.”

  11. [Evaluation of HbA1c using different methods in haemoglobin variant, Hb J-Bangkok].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawaragi, Wakana; Shibuya, Hitoshi; Yasuda, Keiko; Suzuki, Haruki; Shimizu, Chikara; Matsuno, Kazuhiko

    2009-05-01

    A 31-year-old Japanese man with haemoglobin variant, Hb J-Bangkok [beta56 (D7) Gly-->Asp], was found by discrepant values between HbA1c and glycated-albumin. We measured HbA1c using three different methods, HPLC, enzyme assay and turbidimetric immunoassay. HbA1c value measured by HPLC was much lower than those by others. Furthermore, we estimated calculated glyco-haemoglobin value measured by high-resolution HPLC, revealing that HbA1c values measured by enzyme assay and turbidimetric immunoassay were comparable with calculated value. When measuring HbA1c value in haemoglobin variant, Hb J Bangkok, enzyme assay and turbidimetric immunoassay are useful methods.

  12. The frequency rate of Toxocara species contamination in soil samples from public yards in a urban area "Payathai", Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj; Waenlor, Weerachit

    2004-01-01

    Toxocara species are most common roundworms of Canidae and Felidae. Human toxocariasis develops by ingesting of embryonated eggs in contaminated soil. There is no previous report of Toxocara contamination in the soil samples from the public areas in Bangkok. For this reason our study have been carried out to examine the frequency of Toxocara eggs in public yards in Bangkok, Thailand. A total of 175 sand and clay samples were collected and examined for parasite eggs. According to this study, Toxocara eggs were detected from 10 (5.71%) of 175 soil samples. The high rate of contamination in this study implies the importance of the control of this possible zoonotic disease: control of abandon of dogs and cats, is still necessary.

  13. The frequency rate of Toxocara species contamination in soil samples from public yards in a urban area "Payathai", Bangkok, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwanitkit Viroj

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxocara species are most common roundworms of Canidae and Felidae. Human toxocariasis develops by ingesting of embryonated eggs in contaminated soil. There is no previous report of Toxocara contamination in the soil samples from the public areas in Bangkok. For this reason our study have been carried out to examine the frequency of Toxocara eggs in public yards in Bangkok, Thailand. A total of 175 sand and clay samples were collected and examined for parasite eggs. According to this study, Toxocara eggs were detected from 10 (5.71% of 175 soil samples. The high rate of contamination in this study implies the importance of the control of this possible zoonotic disease: control of abandon of dogs and cats, is still necessary.

  14. Fossil mollusc-faunas: Their bearing on the Holocene evolution of the Lower Central Plain of Bangkok (Thailand)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negri, Mauro Pietro

    2009-08-01

    In this work, fossil molluscan assemblages are analyzed in order to reconstruct the evolution of the Northern Gulf of Thailand during the Holocene. The marine sediments (Bangkok Clay Formation) of the Lower Central Plain of Bangkok and the coastal plain of Phetchaburi were sampled at 16 localities, obtaining fossil shells and mangrove peat whose 14C ages range from 9000 to 2000 CYBP. A statistical treatment of abundance data returned four major groups, namely the Dendostrea rosacea association (intertidal mud), the Corbula fortisulcata- Mactra luzonica association (shallow infralittoral sandy mud), the Nuculana mauritiana- Timoclea scabra association (infralittoral sand spit) and the Timoclea scabra- Arcopagia pudica association (infralittoral mud). The data allowed both a stratigraphic correlation along two transects covering all of the Holocene basin and the creation of digitalized maps showing the presumable extension of the Thai paleogulf around the apex of Flandrian transgression event (about 5500 CYBP).

  15. Neglected Canals: Deterioration of Indigenous Irrigation System by Urbanization in the West Peri-Urban Area of Bangkok Metropolitan Region

    OpenAIRE

    Yuji Hara; Makoto Yokohari; Vudipong Davivongs

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the deterioration of indigenous irrigation system traditionally developed in the past to serve the peri-urban agricultural lands that have been affected by rapid urbanization in the Bangkok Metropolitan Region. The study is based on data collection from mapping, field survey and interview analyses and identifies current canal deteriorating conditions in four categories: filled, covered, narrowed and shallow, and normal. The findings reveal that different types of canal de...

  16. Development of food establishments to ensure compliance with food safety standard Pom Prap Sattru Phai District, Bangkok

    OpenAIRE

    Chawsithiwong; Dendara

    2014-01-01

    Objectives of this survey research were: 1to determine compliance with food safety standard of food establishments in the Pom Prap Sattru Phai District, Bangkok 2) to analyze the factors associated with compliance with food safety and 3) to investigate problems, obstacles and guidelines for the development of food establishments in the studied area. Data Collection by a questionnaire of 120 samples from a population of 168 between April –June,2013 was accomplished. The computer statistical an...

  17. Mapping and modeling the urban landscape in Bangkok, Thailand: Physical-spectral-spatial relations of population-environmental interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yang

    This research focuses on the application of remote sensing, geographic information systems, statistical modeling, and spatial analysis to examine the dynamics of urban land cover, urban structure, and population-environment interactions in Bangkok, Thailand, with an emphasis on rural-to-urban migration from rural Nang Rong District, Northeast Thailand to the primate city of Bangkok. The dissertation consists of four main sections: (1) development of remote sensing image classification and change-detection methods for characterizing imperviousness for Bangkok, Thailand from 1993-2002; (2) development of 3-D urban mapping methods, using high spatial resolution IKONOS satellite images, to assess high-rises and other urban structures; (3) assessment of urban spatial structure from 2-D and 3-D perspectives; and (4) an analysis of the spatial clustering of migrants from Nang Rong District in Bangkok and the neighborhood environments of migrants' locations. Techniques are developed to improve the accuracy of the neural network classification approach for the analysis of remote sensing data, with an emphasis on the spectral unmixing problem. The 3-D building heights are derived using the shadow information on the high-resolution IKONOS image. The results from the 2-D and 3-D mapping are further examined to assess urban structure and urban feature identification. This research contributes to image processing of remotely-sensed images and urban studies. The rural-urban migration process and migrants' settlement patterns are examined using spatial statistics, GIS, and remote sensing perspectives. The results show that migrants' spatial clustering in urban space is associated with the source village and a number of socio-demographic variables. In addition, the migrants' neighborhood environments in urban setting are modeled using a set of geographic and socio-demographic variables, and the results are scale-dependent.

  18. Traveler's Diarrhea in Foreign Travelers in Southeast Asia: A Cross-Sectional Survey Study in Bangkok, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Kittitrakul, Chatporn; Lawpoolsri, Saranath; Kusolsuk, Teera; Olanwijitwong, Jutarmas; Tangkanakul, Waraluk; Piyaphanee, Watcharapong

    2015-01-01

    The effect of origin and destination country on traveler's diarrhea incidence rates in Southeast Asia is poorly understood, and research generally only addresses diarrhea in travelers from the developed world. This study evaluated the attack rate and effects of traveler's diarrhea by origin and destination and analyzed key risk factors. A self-administered questionnaire was provided to foreign travelers departing Southeast Asia from Suvarnabhumi Airport, Bangkok, Thailand. It evaluated travel...

  19. High-Resolution Fast-Neutron Spectrometry for Arms Control and Treaty Verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David L. Chichester; James T. Johnson; Edward H. Seabury

    2012-07-01

    Many nondestructive nuclear analysis techniques have been developed to support the measurement needs of arms control and treaty verification, including gross photon and neutron counting, low- and high-resolution gamma spectrometry, time-correlated neutron measurements, and photon and neutron imaging. One notable measurement technique that has not been extensively studied to date for these applications is high-resolution fast-neutron spectrometry (HRFNS). Applied for arms control and treaty verification, HRFNS has the potential to serve as a complimentary measurement approach to these other techniques by providing a means to either qualitatively or quantitatively determine the composition and thickness of non-nuclear materials surrounding neutron-emitting materials. The technique uses the normally-occurring neutrons present in arms control and treaty verification objects of interest as an internal source of neutrons for performing active-interrogation transmission measurements. Most low-Z nuclei of interest for arms control and treaty verification, including 9Be, 12C, 14N, and 16O, possess fast-neutron resonance features in their absorption cross sections in the 0.5- to 5-MeV energy range. Measuring the selective removal of source neutrons over this energy range, assuming for example a fission-spectrum starting distribution, may be used to estimate the stoichiometric composition of intervening materials between the neutron source and detector. At a simpler level, determination of the emitted fast-neutron spectrum may be used for fingerprinting 'known' assemblies for later use in template-matching tests. As with photon spectrometry, automated analysis of fast-neutron spectra may be performed to support decision making and reporting systems protected behind information barriers. This paper will report recent work at Idaho National Laboratory to explore the feasibility of using HRFNS for arms control and treaty verification applications, including simulations

  20. Suitable Assimilation Model of Culture, Beliefs and Rites Concerning Deities of Buddhism and Hindu-Brahmanism for Peace of Thai Society in Bangkok and Circumferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phra M.K. Kaewchaiya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: At present, Thai society widely assimilates culture, beliefs and rites concerning deities of Buddhism and Hindu-Brahmanism by worshipping the deity images at the temples or the abodes of gods in Bangkok and circumferences. A typical worship is to pray the deity for help. As a matter of fact, people should help themselves first and use a prayer as willpower. The purpose of this research were these; (1 to investigate the background of culture, belief and rites concerning deities of Buddhism and Hindu-Brahmanism in Bangkok and circumferences, (2 to investigate the current situations of the assimilation of culture, beliefs and rites concerning deities of Buddhism and Hindu-Brahmanism in Bangkok and circumferences and (3 to determine a suitable assimilation model of culture beliefs and rite concerning deities of Buddhism and Hindu-Brahmanism for peace of Thai society in Bangkok and circumferences. Approach: A qualitative research was used for this research. Research areas were these: (1 Yannawa Temple, Yannawa sub district, Sathon district, Bangkok, (2 Lum Charoen Satta Temple, Yannawa sub district, Sathon district, Bangkok, (3 Brahma House at the Erawan Hotel, Lum Phini sub district, Pathumwan district , Bangkok, (4 Phai Lom Temple, Phra Pathom Chedi, Muang district, Nakhon Pathom Province, (5 Sisa Thong Temple, Sisa Thong sub district, Nakhon Chaisi, Nakhon Pathom Province, (6 Phra Sri Maha Uma Thewi Temple, Silom sub district, Bangkok district, Bangkok, (7 Visanu temple, Thung Wat Don sub district, Sathon district, Bangkok, (8 Thep Nimit Temple, Khok Phaed sub district, Nong Chok district, Bangkok, (9 Brahman Temple, Sao Chingcha sub district, Phra Nakhon district, Bangkok and (10 Ganesha House at Ratchada crossroads, Huay Khwang district, Bangkok. Deity worships have been held at these areas for a long time and a lot of people have participated in these worships. A population was the people who lived in 9 districts. A sample

  1. Evaluation of treated sewage reuse potential and membrane-based water reuse technology for the Bangkok Metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiemchaisri, Chart; Chiemchaisri, Wilai; Prasertkulsak, Sirilak; Hamjinda, Nutta Sangnarin; Kootatep, Thammarat; Itonaga, Takanori; Yamamoto, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Only 3.4% of total water use in the Bangkok Metropolitan area is reused treated sewage. This study anticipates that further treated-sewage reuse in industrial sectors, commercial buildings and public parks, in addition to present in-plant and street cleaning purposes, would increase total water reuse to about 10%. New water reuse technologies using membrane bioreactor (MBR) and microfiltration (MF) as tertiary treatment were implemented to assess their potential for their application in the Bangkok Metropolitan area. The MBR was applied to the treatment of raw sewage in a central treatment plant of the Bangkok Metropolitan area. The MF membrane was used for polishing the effluent of the treatment plant. The results show the quality of treated water from MBR and tertiary MF treatment could meet stringent water reuse quality standard in terms of biochemical oxygen demand, suspended solids and biological parameters. Constant permeate flux of the membrane was achieved over long-term operation, during which inorganic fouling was observed. This is due to the fact that incoming sewage contains a considerable amount of inorganic constituents contributed from storm water and street inlet in the combined sewerage systems. The total cost of the MBR for sewage treatment and production of reuse water is estimated to be about USD1.10/m3.

  2. Serological survey of viral hepatitis A, B, and C at Thai Central Region and Bangkok: a population base study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratanasuwan, Winai; Sonji, Areeua; Tiengrim, Surapee; Techasathit, Wichai; Suwanagool, Surapol

    2004-06-01

    Hepatitis A, B, and C are important viral hepatitis infections in the Thai population. Hepatitis B vaccination was included in the Thai Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) 10 years ago. In addition, the seroprevalence of hepatitis A has significantly changed in the last two decades. This study was done to evaluate current risk groups for hepatitis A and B infections and identify the magnitude of hepatitis C infection in the general population of Bangkok and six provinces in the Central Region of Thailand, during the period October 2000 to January 2002. This study revealed that the prevalence of anti-HAV in people younger than 25 years was low but very high in people older than 25 years. The prevalence of anti-HAV was 1.95% in Bangkok and 12.7% in other provinces in people younger than 25 years (pBangkok and 88.2% in other provinces among people older than 25 years. Therefore, people who are older than 25 years should have a blood test for anti-HAV before getting a hepatitis A vaccination. Approximately 80% of people who are not covered by hepatitis B vaccination from EPI are at risk of hepatitis B infection and its complications. This group of people should receive hepatitis B vaccination. For hepatitis C, the prevalence is lower than 2% across age groups and areas. Therefore, current good primary prevention via blood donor screening and health education must be maintained.

  3. Introduction of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) and preparatory activities for its entry into force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tani, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Mutsu Establishment, Mutsu, Aomori (Japan)

    2001-03-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) is a very important treaty, not only for Japan but also for the world, because it prohibits any nuclear weapon test explosion or any other nuclear explosion anywhere in the world. The treaty however will not enter into force until it has been signed and ratified by all the 44 states listed in Annex 2 to the treaty. Many efforts to facilitate the treaty's early entry into force are being done by many countries and many international organizations. As one of result of these efforts, a Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization had be established at a meeting of State Signatories on 19 November 1996, and the Commission started activities to establish global verification regime of the treaty and to prepare for its entry into force. Under the CTBT activities, the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) is expected to play an important role as supporter for the Japanese Government, especially in a field of an International Monitoring System (IMS). However, there is no appropriate guide book on the CTBT for JAERI staff at present. This report provides some introduction of the CTBT regime and preparatory activities for its entry into force. Only open source information is used for making the report. If anyone need more detail information, it should be asked to contact competent authorities. (author)

  4. Hydrodynamic modelling and global datasets: Flow connectivity and SRTM data, a Bangkok case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigg, M. A.; Bates, P. B.; Michaelides, K.

    2012-04-01

    The rise in the global interconnected manufacturing supply chains requires an understanding and consistent quantification of flood risk at a global scale. Flood risk is often better quantified (or at least more precisely defined) in regions where there has been an investment in comprehensive topographical data collection such as LiDAR coupled with detailed hydrodynamic modelling. Yet in regions where these data and modelling are unavailable, the implications of flooding and the knock on effects for global industries can be dramatic, as evidenced by the recent floods in Bangkok, Thailand. There is a growing momentum in terms of global modelling initiatives to address this lack of a consistent understanding of flood risk and they will rely heavily on the application of available global datasets relevant to hydrodynamic modelling, such as Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data and its derivatives. These global datasets bring opportunities to apply consistent methodologies on an automated basis in all regions, while the use of coarser scale datasets also brings many challenges such as sub-grid process representation and downscaled hydrology data from global climate models. There are significant opportunities for hydrological science in helping define new, realistic and physically based methodologies that can be applied globally as well as the possibility of gaining new insights into flood risk through analysis of the many large datasets that will be derived from this work. We use Bangkok as a case study to explore some of the issues related to using these available global datasets for hydrodynamic modelling, with particular focus on using SRTM data to represent topography. Research has shown that flow connectivity on the floodplain is an important component in the dynamics of flood flows on to and off the floodplain, and indeed within different areas of the floodplain. A lack of representation of flow connectivity, often due to data resolution limitations, means

  5. Characterization of black carbon at roadside sites and along vehicle roadways in the Bangkok Metropolitan Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Nguyen Tri Quang; Lee, Seung-Bok; Hang, Nguyen Thanh; Kongpran, Jira; Kim Oanh, Nguyen Thi; Shim, Shang-Gyoo; Bae, Gwi-Nam

    2014-08-01

    To understand the seasonality of concentrations of traffic-related black carbon (BC) in a megacity, BC concentrations in fine particles were monitored at the roadside and on roads during both the wet and dry seasons of 2010 in the city center of Bangkok, Thailand. The BC concentration measured every 2 min by an aethalometer at the Dingdaeng roadside in the dry season was 17.9 ± 6.6 μg m-3, which was 1.6-fold higher than the value (11.5 ± 2.7 μg m-3) during the wet season. This seasonal difference could not be explained by washout by rain but was instead due to more frequent upwind conditions caused by a prevailing wind direction from the monitoring site toward the road in the wet season. When the prevailing wind direction was from the road, the average BC concentration at the roadside increased up to 30 μg m-3 during both seasons. In contrast, when the wind direction was from the site to the road, the BC concentration was reduced to the level of urban background concentrations measured inside Lumphini Park and the Dusit Zoo of Bangkok. Roadside BC concentrations were strongly correlated with NOx concentrations and elemental carbon (EC) concentrations measured in 24-h PM2.5 filter samples. Both relationships exhibited linear determination coefficients of more than 0.80, implying that NOx can be used as an indicator and an alternative for traffic-related BC at this roadside site when real-time BC monitors are not available. The average on-road BC concentration (25.5 μg m-3) was similar to the average at the roadside under downwind conditions (25.5 μg m-3) from morning to evening only. In contrast, the latter value was 1.7-fold higher than the daily average at the roadside (14.7 μg m-3) and 7.3-fold higher than the urban background level during the daytime (3.5 μg m-3). The results of this study suggest that residents who live next to major roads, pedestrians at the roadside, and drivers on the roads experience a high risk of exposure to severe levels of

  6. The Lisbon Treaty and the New Dimensions of the Principles of Proportionality and Subsidiarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilica NEGRUT

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The general objective of the paper was constituted on an extremely present subject of real interest. Using the content analysis thorough a descriptive documentary research this study aims atidentifying the new dimensions of the principles of proportionality and subsidiarity after the Lisbon Treaty. For this end, an analysis of the specific objectives was performed: the concept ofproportionality, the evolution of subsidiarity and the new valences of the two principles in the framework of the modifications introduces by the adoption of the Lisbon Treaty. We assert thus thatin virtue of these modifications, the application of the principles of proportionality and subsidiarity has the purpose of maintaining the institutional balance, as the subsidiarity establishes which of the competencies belongs to the state or community institutions and the proportionality indicates the dimensions of applying the legislative measures.

  7. Evaluation of removal efficiency of human antibiotics in wastewater treatment plants in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinthuchai, Donwichai; Boontanon, Suwanna Kitpati; Boontanon, Narin; Polprasert, Chongrak

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the antibiotic concentration at each stage of treatment and to evaluate the removal efficiency of antibiotics in different types of secondary and advanced treatment, as well as the effects of the location of their discharge points on the occurrence of antibiotics in surface water. Eight target antibiotics and four hospital wastewater treatment plants in Bangkok with different conventional and advanced treatment options were investigated. Antibiotics were extracted by solid phase extraction and analysed by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The antibiotic with the highest concentration at influent was cefazolin at 13,166 ng/L, while the antibiotic with the highest concentration at effluent was sulfamethoxazole at 1,499 ng/L. The removal efficiency of antibiotics from lowest to highest was sulfamethoxazole, piperacillin, clarithromycin, metronidazole, dicloxacillin, ciprofloxacin, cefazolin, and cefalexin. The adopted conventional treatment systems could not completely remove all antibiotics from wastewater. However, using advanced treatments or disinfection units such as chlorination and UV could increase the antibiotic removal efficiency. Chlorination was more effective than UV, ciprofloxacin and sulfamethoxazole concentration fluctuated during the treatment process, and sulfamethoxazole was the most difficult to remove. Both these antibiotics should be studied further regarding their contamination in sludge and suitable treatment options for their removal.

  8. Climate-relevant properties of diesel particulate emissions: results from a piggyback study in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, R; Winijkul, Ekbordin; Bond, Tami C; Thiansathit, Worrarat; Oanh, Nguyen Thi Kim; Paw-armart, Ittipol; Duleep, K G

    2009-06-01

    A "piggyback" approach is used to characterize aerosol emissions to obtain input for large-scale models of atmospheric transport. Particulate and gaseous emissions from diesel trucks, light-duty vehicles, and buses were measured by the Bangkok Pollution Control Department as part of the Developing Integrated Emissions Strategies for Existing Land Transport (DIESEL) project. We added filter-based measurements of carbonaceous composition, particulate light absorption, and water uptake. For 88 "normal" diesel vehicles (PM emission rate < 4.7 g/kg), our best estimate of the average PM2.5 emission rate is 2.2 +/- 0.5 g/kg, whereas for 15 high emitters, it is 8.4 +/- 1.9 g/kg. The effect of Euro standards on PM emission rates was apparent for heavy-duty vehicles, but not for light-duty vehicles. Carbonaceous composition appears relatively consistent, with particulate (artifact-corrected) OC at 17 +/- 1% and EC at 40 +/- 8% of PM for 103 pickups, vans, heavy-duty trucks and buses. The median absorption cross-section for EC is 10.5 m2/g at 532 nm. The history of average emission rate and chemical composition during the project suggests that about 25 vehicles can provide a regional PM emission rate for normal vehicles. Other studies such as remote sensing measurements will be required to estimate the important contribution of high-emitting vehicles.

  9. Effects of 10% biofuel substitution on ground level ozone formation in Bangkok, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milt, Austin; Milano, Aaron; Garivait, Savitri; Kamens, Richard

    2009-12-01

    The Thai Government's search for alternatives to imported petroleum led to the consideration of mandating 10% biofuel blends (biodiesel and gasohol) by 2012. Concerns over the effects of biofuel combustion on ground level ozone formation in relation to their conventional counterparts need addressing. Ozone formation in Bangkok is explored using a trajectory box model. The model is compared against O 3, NO, and NO 2 time concentration data from air monitoring stations operated by the Thai Pollution Control Department. Four high ozone days in 2006 were selected for modeling. Both the traditional trajectory approach and a citywide average approach were used. The model performs well with both approaches but slightly better with the citywide average. Highly uncertain and missing data are derived within realistic bounds using a genetic algorithm optimization. It was found that 10% biofuel substitution will lead to as much as a 16 ppb peak O 3 increase on these four days compared to a 48 ppb increase due to the predicted vehicle fleet size increase between 2006 and 2012. The approach also suggests that when detailed meteorological data is not available to run three dimensional airshed models, and if the air is stagnant or predominately remains over an urban area during the day, that a simple low cost trajectory analysis of O 3 formation may be applicable.

  10. Forty Years of Dengue Surveillance at a Tertiary Pediatric Hospital in Bangkok, Thailand, 1973-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisalak, Ananda; Clapham, Hannah E; Kalayanarooj, Siripen; Klungthong, Chonticha; Thaisomboonsuk, Butsaya; Fernandez, Stefan; Reiser, Julia; Srikiatkhachorn, Anon; Macareo, Louis R; Lessler, Justin T; Cummings, Derek A T; Yoon, In-Kyu

    2016-06-01

    Long-term observational studies can provide valuable insights into overall dengue epidemiology. Here, we present analysis of dengue cases at a pediatric hospital in Bangkok, Thailand, during a 40-year period from 1973 to 2012. Data were analyzed from 25,715 hospitalized patients with laboratory-confirmed dengue virus (DENV) infection. Several long-term trends in dengue disease were identified including an increase in mean age of hospitalized cases from an average of 7-8 years, an increase after 1990 in the proportion of post-primary cases for DENV-1 and DENV-3, and a decrease in the proportion of dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome cases in primary and post-primary cases over time. Exploratory mechanistic analysis of these observed trends considered changes in diagnostic methods, demography, force of infection, and Japanese encephalitis vaccination as possible explanations. Thailand is an important setting for studying DENV transmission as it has a "mature" dengue epidemiology with a strong surveillance system in place since the early 1970s. We characterized changes in dengue epidemiology over four decades, and possible impact of demographic and other changes in the human population. These results may inform other countries where similar changes in transmission and population demographics may now or may soon be occurring.

  11. Factors associated with methadone treatment among injection drug users in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbairn, Nadia; Hayashi, Kanna; Kaplan, Karyn; Suwannawong, Paisan; Qi, Jiezhi; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas

    2012-07-01

    Little is known about the characteristics of injection drug users (IDU) who take methadone treatment in Thailand. We examined prevalence and correlates of methadone treatment among a community-recruited sample of IDU in Bangkok, Thailand. Among 273 participants, 143 (52.4%) reported accessing methadone treatment within the previous 6 months. Older age (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.90, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.10-3.30) and more than weekly midazolam injection (AOR = 1.85, 95% CI = 1.04-3.29) were positively associated, whereas alcohol use (AOR = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.18-0.63) and noninjection methamphetamine use (AOR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.29-0.85) were negatively associated with methadone treatment. In subanalyses, 98.6% of IDU on methadone continued to inject drugs, and the most common reason for stopping methadone was becoming incarcerated (49%). Evidence-based addiction treatment in the form of methadone maintenance therapy, with attention paid to concomitant midazolam injection in this setting, should be implemented.

  12. Occurrence and susceptibilities to disinfectants of Cryptococcus neoformans in fecal droppings from pigeons in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krangvichain, Prathomporn; Niyomtham, Waree; Prapasarakul, Nuvee

    2016-03-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic pathogenic yeast that causes meningoencephalitis and deep skin dermatitis in humans and animals. A hygienic strategy using disinfectants on environmental samples can reduce the risk to the public. The objectives were to survey the distribution of C. neoformans in pigeon fecal droppings collected in 11 districts in Bangkok during 2011-2012 and to evaluate the efficacy of three commercial disinfectant products (based on potassium monopersulfate, sodium hypochlorite and quaternary ammonium compounds, respectively). These were evaluated against pure C. neoformans and yeasts resuspended in sterile pigeon feces using the dilution-neutralization method [Europäische NORM (EN) 1656]. In total, 18 of 164 (11%) samples were positive for C. neoformans. These came from only three of the 11 districts, with a prevalence of between 13-56%. Using multiplex PCR, serotype A was the sole group found. For all disinfectants, C. neoformans mixed in feces was tolerated at a higher dose and time exposure than pure isolates. The most effective disinfectant in this study was a 0.12% quaternary ammonium compound that could rapidly eradicate the yeasts mixed in feces. This finding highlights the occurrence and distribution of C. neoformans in the capital city of Thailand and the need to prolong the duration of exposure to disinfectants with pigeon feces.

  13. Perception of tourists regarding the smoke-free policy at Suvarnabhumi International Airport, Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirichotiratana, Nithat; Yogi, Subash; Prutipinyo, Chardsumon

    2013-08-30

    This study was conducted during February-March 2012 to determine the perception and support regarding smoke-free policy among tourists at Suvarnabhumi International Airport, Bangkok, Thailand. In this cross-sectional study, 200 tourists (n = 200) were enrolled by convenience sampling and interviewed by structured questionnaire. Descriptive statistics, chi-square, and multinomial logistic regression were adopted in the study. Results revealed that half (50%) of the tourists were current smokers and 55% had visited Thailand twice or more. Three quarter (76%) of tourists indicated that they would visit Thailand again even if it had a 100% smoke-free regulation. Almost all (99%) of the tourists had supported for the smoke-free policy (partial ban and total ban), and current smokers had higher percentage of support than non-smokers. Two factors, current smoking status and knowledge level, were significantly associated with perception level. After analysis with Multinomial Logistic Regression, it was found that perception, country group, and presence of designated smoking room (DSR) were associated with smoke-free policy. Recommendation is that, at institution level effective monitoring system is needed at the airport. At policy level, the recommendation is that effective comprehensive policy needed to be emphasized to ensure smoke-free airport environment.

  14. Perception of Tourists Regarding the Smoke-Free Policy at Suvarnabhumi International Airport, Bangkok, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subash Yogi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted during February-March 2012 to determine the perception and support regarding smoke-free policy among tourists at Suvarnabhumi International Airport, Bangkok, Thailand. In this cross-sectional study, 200 tourists (n = 200 were enrolled by convenience sampling and interviewed by structured questionnaire. Descriptive statistics, chi-square, and multinomial logistic regression were adopted in the study. Results revealed that half (50% of the tourists were current smokers and 55% had visited Thailand twice or more. Three quarter (76% of tourists indicated that they would visit Thailand again even if it had a 100% smoke-free regulation. Almost all (99% of the tourists had supported for the smoke-free policy (partial ban and total ban, and current smokers had higher percentage of support than non-smokers. Two factors, current smoking status and knowledge level, were significantly associated with perception level. After analysis with Multinomial Logistic Regression, it was found that perception, country group, and presence of designated smoking room (DSR were associated with smoke-free policy. Recommendation is that, at institution level effective monitoring system is needed at the airport. At policy level, the recommendation is that effective comprehensive policy needed to be emphasized to ensure smoke-free airport environment.

  15. Adherence and Risk Behaviour in Patients with HIV Infection Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy in Bangkok.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Amanda; Kerr, Stephen; Honeybrook, Adam; Cooper, David A; Avihingsanon, Anchalee; Duncombe, Chris; Phanuphak, Praphan; Ruxrungtham, Kiat; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Kaldor, John

    2012-01-01

    It could be postulated that due to lifestyle factors, patients with poor antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence may also have risky sexual behaviour potentially leading to HIV transmission. There are limited data regarding unprotected sex risk and ART adherence in resource limited settings and our study set out to investigate these in an HIV clinic in Bangkok. Patients completed an anonymous questionnaire regarding their relationship details, ART adherence, sexual behaviour, alcohol and drug use and HIV transmission beliefs. Laboratory findings and medical history were also collected. Unprotected sex risk (USR) was defined as inconsistent condom use with a partner of negative or unknown HIV status. Five hundred and twelve patients completed the questionnaire. Fifty seven per cent of patients reported having taken ARV >95% of the time in the last month and 58% had been sexually active in the previous 30 days. Only 27 patients (5%) were classified as having USR in our cohort. Multivariate analysis showed USR was associated with female gender (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.2-7.0, p0.02) but not with adherence, age, type or number of partners, recreational drug or alcohol use nor beliefs about HIV transmission whilst taking ART. Levels of USR in this resource limited setting were reassuringly low and not associated with poor ART adherence; as all USR patients had undetectable viral loads onward HIV transmission risk is likely to be low but not negligible. Nonetheless condom negotiation techniques, particularly in women, may be useful in this group.

  16. Information Seeking Behaviour of Faculty Members of Rajabhat Universities in Bangkok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neela J. Deshpande

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reports the results of a study of the information seeking behaviour of faculty members of Rajabhat Universities in Bangkok, Thailand. Data were collected by using a questionnaire from seven faculties in Rajabhat Universities. Results show that most of respondents (forty one percent stated their method of seeking information by consulting a knowledgeable person in the field. Two hundred and thirteen respondents (82 percent seek information for preparing lectures. Fifty-four percent of faculty members access more documents was references from a book. It is revealed that most of the faculty members (57 percent used textbooks. Seventy four percent of respondents read information materials in Thai and twenty four percent read materials in English. The Internet had been almost universally adopted; they trace materials from the library via the Internet. Google.com was used for searching information by respondents. They use frequently e-mail for communication. It is found that 42 percent of respondents use the ERIC (Education Resources Information Centre database. The majority of respondents faced the common problem while seeking information i.e. unavailability of information.

  17. Hematocrit levels as cardiovascular risk among taxi drivers in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimaru, Tomohiro; Arphorn, Sara; Jirapongsuwan, Ann

    2016-10-08

    In Thailand, taxi drivers employed in the informal sector often experience hazardous working conditions. Previous studies revealed that elevated Hematocrit (HCT) is a predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. This study assessed factors associated with HCT in taxi drivers to predict their occupational CVD risk factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 298 male taxi drivers who joined a health check-up campaign in Bangkok, Thailand. HCT and body mass index were retrieved from participant health check-up files. Self-administered questionnaires assessed demographics, driving mileage, working hours, and lifestyle. Statistical associations were analyzed using stepwise linear regression. Our results showed that obesity (p=0.007), daily alcohol drinking (p=0.003), and current or past smoking (p=0.016) were associated with higher HCT levels. While working hours were not directly associated with HCT levels in the current study, the effect on overworking is statistically arguable because most participants worked substantially longer hours. Our findings suggest that taxi drivers' CVD risk may be increased by their unhealthy work styles. Initiatives to improve general working conditions for taxi drivers should take into account health promotion and CVD prevention. The policy of providing periodic health check-ups is important to make workers in the informal sector aware of their health status.

  18. Characterization of yellow and colorless decorative glasses from the Temple of the Emerald Buddha, Bangkok, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klysubun, Wantana; Ravel, Bruce; Klysubun, Prapong; Sombunchoo, Panidtha; Deenan, Weeraya

    2013-06-01

    Yellow and colorless ancient glasses, which were once used to decorate the Temple of the Emerald Buddha, Bangkok, Thailand, around 150 years ago, are studied to unravel the long-lost glass-making recipes and manufacturing techniques. Analyses of chemical compositions, using synchrotron x-ray fluorescence (SRXRF), indicate that the Thai ancient glasses are soda lime silica glasses (60 % SiO2; 10 % Na2O; 10 % CaO) bearing lead oxide between 2-16 %. Iron (1.5-9.4 % Fe2O3) and manganese (1.7 % MnO) are present in larger abundance than the other 3 d transition metals detected (0.04-0.2 %). K-edge x-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) and extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) provide conclusive evidence on the oxidation states of Fe being 3+ and Mn being 2+ and on short-length tetrahedral structures around the cations. This suggests that iron is used as a yellow colorant with manganese as a decolorant. L 3-edge XANES results reveal the oxidation states of lead as 2+. The results from this work provide information crucial for replicating these decorative glasses for the future restoration of the Temple of the Emerald Buddha.

  19. The Association Between Weapon Carrying and Health Risk Behaviors Among Adolescent Students in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiphoklang, On-Anong; Wongboonsin, Kua; Wongboonsin, Patcharawalai; Perngparn, Usaneya; Cottler, Linda B

    2015-07-30

    Carrying weapons is a significant social and public health problem worldwide, especially among adolescents. The present study examined the association between weapon carrying and related risk behaviors among Thai adolescents. A cross-sectional study of 2,588 high school and vocational school students aged 11 to 19 years from 26 schools in Bangkok, Thailand, was conducted in 2014. This study found that 7.8% of youth reported having carried a weapon in the past 12 months. The high prevalence of weapon carrying was reported by male students, and males were more likely to have reported carrying a weapon than females. The association between weapon carrying and the health risk behaviors like drinking, smoking, any drug use, and physical fighting were significant with higher odds of weapon carrying in all models. Among males, weapon carrying was related to drinking and smoking, any drug use, physical fighting, and school type. Among females, suicidal thoughts were significantly related along with drinking and smoking, any drug use, and physical fighting. Having a mother who used substances was significant only among females. These data could be used for further interventions about weapon carrying to reduce violence.

  20. Maternal return to paid work and breastfeeding practices in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikawa, Tomomi; Pavadhgul, Patcharanee; Chongsuwat, Rewadee; Sawasdivorn, Siraporn; Boonshuyar, Chaweewon

    2015-03-01

    This study explored the association between mothers' work-related factors and breastfeeding practices in Bangkok, Thailand. Data were collected from 84 working mothers with a child aged 6 to 24 months who visited the breastfeeding mobile clinic at a nursery goods exhibition. Thai interviewers collected data using a structured questionnaire. Analysis of the data showed that exclusive breastfeeding for 3 months was 78.6%, and for 6 months it was 38.1%. Mothers who returned to work 3 months or more after giving birth exclusively breastfed more than the mothers who returned to work in less than 3 months (crude odds ratio [OR] = 4.26, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.39-13.05; adjusted OR = 4.15, 95% CI = 1.15-14.95). Moreover, mothers who worked at self-employed or family-owned businesses and some mothers working at private companies showed tendencies of returning to work in less than 3 months. Results suggest that longer maternity leave would help extend the duration of exclusive breastfeeding. In addition, the improvement of a breastfeeding supportive environment in the workplace would be valuable and may be an effective means to improve breastfeeding practices and infant health.

  1. Natural surface rebound of the Bangkok plain and aquifer characterization by persistent scatterer interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishitsuka, Kazuya; Fukushima, Yo; Tsuji, Takeshi; Yamada, Yasuhiro; Matsuoka, Toshifumi; Giao, Pham Huy

    2014-04-01

    estimated recent surface displacements around Bangkok by means of persistent scatterer interferometry with ALOS/PALSAR images acquired from November 2007 to December 2010. Land subsidence due to excessive groundwater pumping has been reported in this region. However, we detected ground surface uplift around the mega-city, along with seasonal surface displacement, with high spatial resolution. We then discriminated long-term natural rebound and seasonal displacement by fitting exponential and sinusoidal functions to displacement time-series, and mapped their spatial distributions. This mapping allowed us to infer that the second and third shallowest aquifers are laterally continuous, whereas the shallowest aquifer has lateral discontinuities. The temporal decay rate of the long-term rebound might reflect spatial changes of the Chao Phraya River watershed or the magnitude of the preceding groundwater extraction. We demonstrated that our method of decomposing the displacement time series into different spatial and temporal patterns is useful for understanding aquifer connectivity and the elastic response pattern in an aquifer system.

  2. Underground sources of nutrient contamination to surface waters in Bangkok, Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnett, William C. [Department of Oceanography, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL USA (United States); Chanyotha, Supitcha, E-mail: supitcha.c@chula.ac.th [Department of Nuclear Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Wattayakorn, Gullaya [Department of Marine Science, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Taniguchi, Makoto; Umezawa, Yu; Ishitobi, Tomotoshi [Research Institute for Humanity and Nature, 335 Takashima-cho, Kamigyo-ku, Kyoto 602-0878 (Japan)

    2009-04-15

    Radon-222 is very concentrated in groundwater relative to surface waters and thus serves as an effective groundwater discharge tracer. We observed spikes in radon data from an earlier (2004) survey of the Chao Phraya River that appeared to correspond to locations where major canals ('klongs') enter the river. We returned in 2006 and conducted more detailed surveys along some of the main klongs on the western (Thonburi) side of the Chao Phraya to evaluate this possibility. Our results show that both radon and conductivity are enriched in some areas of the klongs with 3 apparent 'end-members,' two of which are likely related to groundwater seepage. Furthermore, nutrient analyses conducted during a time-series experiment at a site of suspected high discharge (Wat Intharam, Klong Bangkok Yai) showed that dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and phosphate correlated significantly to the groundwater tracer, radon. Rough estimates of the nutrient fluxes in this area are orders of magnitude higher than those measured in coastal settings and may represent a significant fraction of the riverine flux. It thus appears very likely that seepage of shallow groundwater is an important pathway for nutrient contamination of the klongs, and thus to the river, and ultimately to the Gulf of Thailand.

  3. Underground sources of nutrient contamination to surface waters in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, William C; Chanyotha, Supitcha; Wattayakorn, Gullaya; Taniguchi, Makoto; Umezawa, Yu; Ishitobi, Tomotoshi

    2009-04-15

    Radon-222 is very concentrated in groundwater relative to surface waters and thus serves as an effective groundwater discharge tracer. We observed spikes in radon data from an earlier (2004) survey of the Chao Phraya River that appeared to correspond to locations where major canals ("klongs") enter the river. We returned in 2006 and conducted more detailed surveys along some of the main klongs on the western (Thonburi) side of the Chao Phraya to evaluate this possibility. Our results show that both radon and conductivity are enriched in some areas of the klongs with 3 apparent "end-members," two of which are likely related to groundwater seepage. Furthermore, nutrient analyses conducted during a time-series experiment at a site of suspected high discharge (Wat Intharam, Klong Bangkok Yai) showed that dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and phosphate correlated significantly to the groundwater tracer, radon. Rough estimates of the nutrient fluxes in this area are orders of magnitude higher than those measured in coastal settings and may represent a significant fraction of the riverine flux. It thus appears very likely that seepage of shallow groundwater is an important pathway for nutrient contamination of the klongs, and thus to the river, and ultimately to the Gulf of Thailand.

  4. Field Experiments of PV-Thermal Collectors for Residential Application in Bangkok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Akisawa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study presents experimental results on Photovoltaic-thermal (PVT solar systems, the commercial photovoltaic (PV panels used as solar absorbers in PVT collectors, which are amorphous and multi-crystalline silicon. Testing was done with outdoor experiments in the climate of Bangkok corresponding to energy consumption behavior of medium size Thai families. The experimental results show that the thermal recovery of amorphous silicon PVT collector is almost the same as that of multi-crystalline silicon PVT collectors while electricity generation of multi crystalline silicon PVT is 1.2 times as much as that of amorphous silicon PVT. The maximum of heat gain from the PVT systems were obtained in March in summer. It was found that PVT collectors of unit area annually produced 1.1 × 103 kWh/m2 .year of heat and 55–83 kWh/m2.year of electricity, respectively. The results show that annual average solar factor of hot water supply is 0.45 for unit collector area. Economical evaluation based on energy costs in Thailand was conducted, which estimated the payback time would be 7 and 14 years for a-Si PVT and mc-Si PV, respectively.

  5. Changing Media Ecologies in Thailand: Women's Online Participation in the 2013/2014 Bangkok Protests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Guntarik

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally marginalized groups now have more access to new and unconventional means to participate in politics, transforming the media ecologies of existing political environments. Contemporary feminist scholarship has centered on how women use new media technologies to serve political agendas. However, this literature focuses predominately on women in the West, while women in developing countries, or Asia more generally, have been largely excluded from analysis. This article aims to fill in this gap by examining Thai women’s online activities during the 2013/2014 Bangkok political protests. Specifically, we ask how the rise of social and digital media has altered what it means to participate politically in the context of Thai women’s present-day political experience. To answer this question we looked at how women resorted to various digital and social media to discuss women’s rights and political issues, including Yingluck Shinawatra’s political leadership as Thailand’s first female prime minister (2011-2014. Moving beyond traditional notions of participation, we argue that there is a need to recognize the emerging dynamics of women’s online engagement in the political landscape of Thailand. In the context of a totalitarian state, speaking out against the ruling authority online embodies an additional layer of citizen resistance, a feature of digital life that is often taken for granted in Western democracies.

  6. Assessment of a potential agricultural application of Bangkok-digested sewage sludge and finished compost products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreesai, Siranee; Peapueng, Panadda; Tippayamongkonkun, Taninporn; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong

    2013-09-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the levels of plant nutrients, heavy metals, parasites and fecal coliform bacteria in Bangkok-produced sewage sludge and finished compost products for potential agricultural application, as well as to compare the quality of compost under different composting conditions. The results indicated that digested sewage sludge had high fertilizing values for organic matter (19.01 ± 0.09%), total nitrogen (2.17 ± 0.07%), total phosphorus (2.06 ± 0.06%) and total potassium (1.16 ± 0.22%), but it was contaminated with human pathogens, including fecal coliform bacteria, viable helminthes egg and active forms of parasite cysts. Thus, fresh sewage sludge should not be disposed on land unless it has undergone pathogen reduction. It is proven that the quality of the sludge mixed with grass clippings at a ratio of 6:1 volume/volume after having passed a windrow composting process for 8 weeks can be classified as class A biosolids as the levels of remaining fecal coliforms were safety utilization.

  7. War, Trade and Desire: Urban Design and the Counter Public Spheres of Bangkok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian McGrath

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses an emergent public sphere in Bangkok in order to reveal the gap between ideals of public space as representation of power, nationhood, and modernity, versus its social production in everyday political struggles. The setting for political demonstrations recently shifted from royalist-nationalist Ratchadamnoen Avenue to the Ratchaprasong intersection, the heart of Bangkok’s shopping district. Ratchadamnoen, formerly a stage-set for royalist and nationalist pomp, has been continuously occupied for political uprisings.In contrast, as the political base of protest in Thailand widened, the glittering shopping malls at Ratchaprasong became a new site of protest, fuelled by urban and rural working poor who sensed they could not afford to partake in Bangkok’s phantasmagorical splendours. The paper argues that in following Bangkok’s historical cycles of blood and massacre in the street lies the possibility of finding new forms of urban design and a public sphere not yet imagined in the West.

  8. Characterization of airborne particulates in Bangkok urban area by neutron activation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouchpramool, S; Sumitra, T; Leenanuphunt, V

    1999-01-01

    Samples of airborne particulates were collected in a residential area and in an area near a busy highway in Bangkok during the period from January 1997 to May 1998. A stacked filter system was used for the former site and a Partisol 2000 was used for the latter site. Both 2.5 microns and 10-micron particulates were collected every week. The total suspended particulate matters were also collected at the latter site. The samples were analyzed by neutron activation analysis utilizing neutron flux from a 2-MW TRIGA MARK III research reactor. The elements most frequently detected in the airborne particulates were Al, As, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, I, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Th, Ti, V, and Zn. The enrichment factor and factor analysis were used to investigate trends, sources, and origin of the atmospheric aerosols. Anthropogenic elements in road dust, construction dust, motor vehicles emission, and other combustion components were identified. A comparative study of data between both sites was performed and it was found that the mass concentration in the area close to the highway was about three times higher than in the residential area.

  9. Characterization and source identification of trace metals in airborne particulates of Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rungratanaubon, Thitima; Wangwongwatana, Supat; Panich, Noppaporn

    2008-10-01

    Airborne particulate samples were collected in Bangkok, Thailand, using high-volume air samplers from March 2006 to March 2007. The sampling sites were the Huay-Khwang Community Housing (HCH) and the Ratburana Post Office (RPO), represented as residential and industrial areas, respectively. The samples collected were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) for elemental analysis. The study reveals that total suspended particulate (TSP) concentrations are higher in the RPO (144.47 microg/m(3)) than at the HCH (110.93 microg/m(3)) site. The results also indicate that most of the metals were highest in winter and lowest in the rainy season. Na, Al, K, and Fe are the elements mostly found in the study. High-correlation coefficients of Al-K, K-Zn, and Al-Zn are observed at the HCH (R=-0.99, -0.97, and -0.97) and the RPO (R=-0.94, -0.92, and -0.83), respectively. Most of the measured metallic elements show weak correlation with meteorological parameters. Principal component analysis (PCA) indicates that soil, construction, vehicular emission, and biomass burning are the major pollutant sources of both sampling site. The HCH site is influenced by the domestic activities like vehicular emission, construction, and biomass burning. The sources of airborne metals found in the RPO come from both domestic and industrial activities.

  10. Prevalence of ocular demodicosis among patients at Tertiary Care Center, Bangkok, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasetsuwan, Ngamjit; Kositphipat, Kitchaporn; Busayarat, Mathu; Threekhan, Pawanrat; Preativatanyou, Kanok; Phumee, Atchara; Siriyasatien, Padet

    2017-01-01

    AIM To determine the prevalence of ocular demodicosis by both microscopic examination and molecular detection among patients at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Thai Red Cross Society, Bangkok. METHODS One hundred individuals were enrolled in the study and were divided into five age groups. The meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) score and qualities of cylindrical dandruff (CD) were also determined. Demodex mite infestations of eyelash samples were screened by both microscopic examination and semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). RESULTS The prevalence of ocular demodicosis as determined by microscopic examination was 42% [Demodex folliculorum (D. folliculorum) 41% and Demodex brevis (D. brevis) 1%]. Among patients who had ocular Demodex infestation, 69% have CD and had an average MGD score of 4; in patients without demodicosis, 15.5% had CD and had an average MGD score of 4.12. Prevalence of ocular demodicosis as determined by semi-nested PCR was 79% (D. folliculorum 78% and D. brevis 1%). CONCLUSION This is the first report on the prevalence of ocular demodicosis in Thailand. Patients with CD also had Demodex mites present. Semi-nested PCR is better than microscopy for Demodex infestation detection. An extensive survey with more representative samples is required to determine the prevalence in the country. PMID:28149788

  11. Development of Science Web-Based Curriculum for Elementary School: Pratchatorn School, Bangkok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuntalee Boriraksontikul

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research were to develop and evaluate science web-based curriculum for elementary school: Pratchatorn School, Bangkok. Research for Development method was applied in this study which consisted of 4 stages: preparation of science web-based curriculum development ; science web-based curriculum development ; science web-based curriculum evaluation and teachers development for science web-based unit plans design. The population was science teachers who have taught in 2014 academic year. The instrument used in this study were 1 the evaluation form for web-based curriculum and web-based unit plans. 2 the interview form for interview teachers’ opinion on web-based curriculum. lastly 3 the questionnaire of elementary students’ opinion on web-based curriculum. The results of this study were 1 Pratchatorn School had science web-based curriculum for elementary students with interesting units’ names. The units’ names reflect the focus and goals of learning. The learning activities were well organized according to the units design in a sequential manner for the website resource and science web-based curriculum for elementary school was evaluated as being a good quality. 2 Science web-based unit plans were also evaluated as being a good quality. 3 Teachers understood the science web-based curriculum development process and thaught about science web-based curriculum enhancing students’ learning. And 4 students’ opinion on web-based curriculum were as being a excellence quality.

  12. Factors influencing wastewater management performance: case study of housing estates in suburban Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujaritpong, Sarunya; Nitivattananon, Vilas

    2009-01-01

    As population densities have risen and settlements become increasingly crowded, wastewater effluent volumes have, not unexpectedly, also risen. The adverse impacts of effluent from housing estates (HEs) in suburban areas of Thailand, served by local wastewater management (WWM) systems, are of particular concern. Because of this problem, which reflects the poor performance of WWM systems, it has become increasingly important that the pivotal factors that hinder WWM improvements be identified and effective solutions be proposed and implemented. The goal of the research described in this paper was to determine the critical factors influencing WWM performance at HEs in suburban Bangkok, using multiple regression analysis. Three significant factors encompassing financial, social, institutional and general aspects were identified for each type of WWM system (community centralized and onsite). For the community centralized system, the key factors were house price, type of organization managing the HE, and the attitudes of the organization. For onsite systems, the three factors were total number of house units, direct experience with water pollution and percentage of occupied houses. These findings reflect the importance of having a WWM that employs an integrated approach rather than focusing on specific aspects in isolation from other factors. WWM performance could be improved if significant factors indicating high priority concerns were to be identified and properly applied. Addressing the priority concerns could, consequently, contribute to the development of appropriate environmental management measures, plans, and policies related to HE WWM.

  13. Sexual behavior of foreign backpackers in the Khao San Road area, Bangkok.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaehler, Nils; Piyaphanee, Watcharapong; Kittitrakul, Chatporn; Kyi, Ye Paing; Adhikari, Bipin; Sibunruang, Suda; Jearraksuwan, Suwimol; Tangpukdee, Noppadon; Silachamroon, Udomsak; Tantawichien, Terapong

    2013-07-04

    Travelers play a role in the spread of sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV because of having unprotected sex. We studied the incidence of casual sex among foreign backpack tourists in the Khao San Road area of Bangkok, Thailand. We also evaluated their attitudes about sexual health and their actual practices. A cross sectional study was conducted using a self-administered, anonymous questionnaire. The target population was backpackers aged > or =18 years, from Europe, North America and Australia. In total, 415 questionnaires were filled out and analyzed. Sixty-four percent of participants were male, the overall median age was 27 years and the mean duration of stay was 14.6 days. One hundred seven respondents (25%) had casual sex while staying in Thailand; of these, 55% always used condoms. The selection of sex partner influenced the use of condoms. The highest rate of condom use was among backpackers who had sex with sex workers (63%), while those who had sex with their travel partners had the lowest rate of condom use (35.6%). One-fourth of backpackers in our study had casual sex during their trip. Their attitudes towards safe sex practices were not ideal. Methods to change attitudes and behavior about unprotected sex need to be explored in this population.

  14. Building Customers’ Re-Patronage Intention through Service Quality of Community Mall in Bangkok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supeecha Panichpathom

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The main goal of the article is to propose a new framework exhibiting relationship between tangible dimension and all other intangible dimensions of SERVQUAL used to analyse the relation to re-patronage intention. Research Design & Methods: Hypothesised relationships were tested on data which was collected in Bangkok area using a survey questionnaire. Final sample consisted of 225 respondents, frequent visitors of community malls. The data was analysed using exploratory factor analysis as well as simple and multiple regression analysis. The six constructs, studied in this paper, were examined for differences in means across all demographic variables by employing analysis of variance or ANOVA. Findings: The results exposed that tangible dimension had significant correlation to reliability, empathy, responsiveness and assurance dimensions consecutively. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that re-patronage intention was explained by empathy, responsiveness and assurance dimensions, not reliability dimension. The ANOVA tests showed no significant differences in means of general data and all other constructs. Implications & Recommendations: To make shoppers to come back to the malls, managers should recognize the important role of tangible items as an antecedent to intangible items. Retail developers could devote more efforts to maximize the attractiveness of tangible elements and identify the weak areas of service quality by examining the multi-item constructs used to measure service quality. Contribution & Value Added: This study proposed and tested a modified conceptual model adapted from that proposed by Reimer and Kuehn (2005.

  15. Policy issues facing the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty and prospects for the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeney, J.

    1999-04-01

    This report is divided into the following 5 sections: (1) Background; (2) Major Issues Facing Ratification of CTBT; (3) Current Status on CTBT Ratification; (4) Status of CTBT Signatories and Ratifiers; and (5) CTBT Activities Not Prohibited. The major issues facing ratification of CTBT discussed here are: impact on CTBT of START II and ABM ratification; impact of India and Pakistan nuclear tests; CTBT entry into force; and establishment of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organization.

  16. Surface coatings as xenon diffusion barriers on plastic scintillators : Improving Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty verification

    OpenAIRE

    Bläckberg, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    This thesis investigates the ability of transparent surface coatings to reduce xenon diffusion into plastic scintillators. The motivation for the work is improved radioxenon monitoring equipment, used with in the framework of the verification regime of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. A large part of the equipment used in this context incorporates plastic scintillators which are in direct contact with the radioactive gas to be detected. One problem with such setup is that radioxenon...

  17. U.S. Accession to ASEAN’s Treaty of Amity and Cooperation (TAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-05

    of deforestation . U.S. relations with Malaysia , another core majority-Muslim ASEAN member, also have global and regional importance because of...Darussalam, Burma (Myanmar), Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia , Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam. 2 Treaty of Amity and Cooperation...or to what extent U.S. participation would be resisted by EAS members, particularly China and Malaysia , which in the past have voiced reservations

  18. Standardizacija materijalnih sredstava u Severnoatlantskom savezu / Materiel standardization in North Atlantic Treaty Organisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Glišić

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available U radu je prikazan proces standardizacije materijalnih sredstava u Severnoatlantskom savezu kroz sagledavanje njegovog mesta i uloge u okviru zajedničke standardizacije, koja se realizuje radi dostizanja interoperabilnosti između vojnih snaga zemalja uključenih u evroatlantske integracije. / This paper presents a process of materiel standardization in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization through analysis of its place and role in common standardization process that should achieve interoperability between allied forces.

  19. Mark Twain, “The Treaty with China,” and the Chinese Connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Zehr

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available

    For today’s reader of Twain, the chronological appearance of “The Treaty with China” in August of 1868 may seem an anomalous entry in his bibliography, published at a time when his growing reputation is still primarily dependent on his ability to elicit a laugh or, for the more sophisticated reader, a knowing snicker. However, issues of race, class, and politics are not absent from his journalistic work prior to August 1868. Nothing in Twain’s writing prior to 1868, however, which had limited circulation, would have prepared the contemporary reader for the strong, unequivocal sympathies expressed toward the Chinese immigrants in “The Treaty with China.” For this reason alone, a closer analysis of “The Treaty” is warranted, providing prescient evidence regarding the political basis of Twain’s oeuvre at this embryonic stage of his career as a public figure. Many Twain scholars, largely through the brilliant analysis in Philip Foner’s 1958 work, Mark Twain: Social Critic, are already aware of the existence of “The Treaty with China,” even if they have never seen the text, but it has otherwise suffered from undeserved neglect, primarily because it has not been widely available to scholars since its 1868 publication, except for those with access to adequate microfilm resource libraries. This lacuna in Twain studies, at least, is now remedied with this reappearance of the entire text of “The Treaty with China.”

  20. Diffusion of innovations theory applied to global tobacco control treaty ratification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Thomas W; Dyal, Stephanie R; Chu, Kar-Hai; Wipfli, Heather; Fujimoto, Kayo

    2015-11-01

    This study applies diffusion of innovations theory to understand network influences on country ratification of an international health treaty, the Framework Convention for Tobacco Control (FCTC). From 2003 to 2014 approximately 90% of United Nations member countries ratified the FCTC. We hypothesized that communication between tobacco control advocates on GLOBALink, a 7000-member online communication forum in existence from 1992 to 2012, would be associated with the timing of treaty ratification. We further hypothesized dynamic network influences such that external influence decreased over time, internal influence increased over time, and the role of opinion leader countries varied over time. In addition we develop two concepts: Susceptibility and influence that uncover the micro-level dynamics of network influence. Statistical analyses lend support to the influence of co-subscriptions on GLOBALink providing a conduit for inter-country influences on treaty ratification and some support for the dynamic hypotheses. Analyses of susceptibility and infection indicated particularly influential countries. These results have implications for the study of policy diffusion as well as dynamic models of behavior change.

  1. Treaty-Port English in Nineteenth-Century Shanghai: Speakers, Voices, and Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Si

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the introduction of English to the treaty port of Shanghai and the speech communities that developed there as a result. English became a sociocultural phenomenon rather than an academic subject when it entered Shanghai in the 1840s, gradually generating various social activities of local Chinese people who lived in the treaty port. Ordinary people picked up a rudimentary knowledge of English along trading streets and through glossary references, and went to private schools to improve their linguistic skills. They used English to communicate with foreigners and as a means to explore a foreign presence dominated by Western material culture. Although those who learned English gained small-scale social mobility in the late nineteenth century, the images of English-speaking Chinese were repeatedly criticized by the literati and official scholars. This paper explores Westerners’ travel accounts, as well as various sources written by the new elite Chinese, including official records and vernacular poems, to demonstrate how English language acquisition brought changes to local people’s daily lives. I argue that treaty-port English in nineteenth-century Shanghai was not only a linguistic medium but, more importantly, a cultural agent of urban transformation. It gradually molded a new linguistic landscape, which at the same time contributed to the shaping of modern Shanghai culture.

  2. Preparation for the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Extension Conference in 1995. Workshop summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chrzanowski, P.L.

    1993-05-07

    About 30 specialists in non-proliferation participated in a workshop to explore ideas for US Government preparatory steps leading to the 1995 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) Extension Conference. To that end, workshop sessions were devoted to reviewing the lessons learned from previous Review Conferences, discussing the threats to the non-proliferation regime together with ways of preserving and strengthening it, and examining the management of international nuclear commerce. A fundamental premise shared by workshop participants was that extension of the NPT is immensely important to international security. The importance of stemming proliferation and, more specifically, extending the Treaty, is growing as a result of the significant changes in the world. If the conferees of the Extension Conference decide on no extension or extension for a short limited duration, some technically advanced states that have foregone development of nuclear weapons may begin to rethink their options. Also, other arms control measures, such as the Chemical Weapons Convention, could start to unravel. The US must provide strong international leadership to ensure that the Extension Conference is a success, resulting in Treaty extension, perhaps through successive terms, into the indefinite future. Workshop participants were struck by the urgent need for the US to take organizational steps so that it is highly effective in its advance preparations for the Extension Conference. Moreover, the Extension Conference provides both a challenge and an opportunity to mold a cohesive set of US policy actions to define the future role of nuclear weapons and combat their proliferation.

  3. EU Enlargement Law: History and Recent Developments: Treaty – Custom Concubinage?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kochenov

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available This note provides a detailed account of the development of the EU enlargement law. Based on the material provided by the latest enlargement round, it outlines the main set of enlargement principles, criteria and procedural tools employed by the Union in the process, also making a sketch of the actual chronology of enlargement events. Based on the analysis of the legal regulation of five rounds of enlargement and making parallels with the notion of customary law as understood in public international law, it argues that the Union enlargements have always enjoyed a dual regulation: by written (mostly Treaty based and also by customary enlargement law. The existence of customary law explains the consistency of enlargement regulation throughout all the rounds of this process, notwithstanding the stage of the Treaty reform in force at the time of every particular accession. The minimal amendments introduced into the enlargement article by the Treaty Establishing a Constitution for Europe (Art. I-58 suggest that the future enlargements are likely to be building on the body of customary law in force to date. The process of gradual incorporation of customary law into the written law of the EU is also likely to continue.

  4. Reconnaissance Mapu-Che of Chile: Treaty versus Constitution, History versus Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartolomé CLAVERO SALVADOR

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The compromise acquired since 1991 by successive Chilean governments to recognise indigenous presence in the organization of the State at a constitutional level has revealed the mutual academic and legal ignorance in relation to the evidence for Mapu-Che recognition. This work revisits the historical and legal relationship between the Chilean and the Mapu State, which until the Chilean conquest of the Mapu in the 1880s was carried out through Treaties and Parliaments that implied a mutual recognition of both identities in an international sphere. Study commissions official reports and pleas for truth for a new treaty, first by the United Nations, and later by the Republic of Chile noted the evidence of the constitutional and international significance of the Treaties, but Chile has since transformed its peculiar form of constitutional recognition of the indigenous presence into a display of national unity. This cover-up stems both from the desire to maintain an exclusive Constitution, and the certainty that any other form of recognition would lead to a reconsideration of the roots of the constitutional foundations of the Republic of Chile.

  5. Why nafta failed and what's needed to protect workers' health and safety in international trade treaties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Garrett

    2005-01-01

    Labor standards, including occupational health and safety regulations and enforcement, are being subjected to intense downward pressures as a result of fundamental shifts in the global economy. The 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) was the first trade treaty that attempted to promote and protect workplace health and safety through a "labor side agreement." NAFTA failed to protect workers' health and safety due to the weaknesses of the side agreement's text; the political and diplomatic considerations limiting its implementation; and the failure to recognize and address the economic context, and political consequences of this context, in which the agreement was implemented. Subsequent trade treaties, both bilateral and regional, have not overcome the weaknesses of NAFTA. The treaty components needed to protect workers' health in future trade agreements are: 1) a minimum floor of occupational health and safety regulations; 2) an "upward harmonization" of regulatory standards and actual practice; 3) inclusion of employers so that they have formal responsibility and liability for violations of the standards; 4) effective enforcement of national regulations and international standards; 5) transparency and public participation; and 6) recognition of disparate economic conditions among trading partners and provision of financial and technical assistance to overcome economic disincentives and lack of resources. Also required are continued actions by non-governmental actors, including the workers themselves and civil society organizations.

  6. The competences of European Union institutions in the trade policy (Lisbon Treaty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareta Timbur

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The European Union is the best known at the world’s leading trade power and the common trade policy is the core of EU external relations. The events of the last years and the extension of the EU to 27 member proved that the functioning system could no longer continue and was requiring a new institutional framework. The Lisbon Treaty was the right solution. It purposes are to bring changes for the citizens, institutions, external relations foe the consolidation of democracy in EU. This paper attempts to provide an overview of the major revisions introduced by the Treaty of Lisbon regarding the trade policy. Also, it analyses the extension and clarification of EU competence, the greater role of the European Parliament and the inclusion of investment policy in trade policy, the voting rules in trade area and the international negotiation of trade agreements. The study describes, as well, the impact of Lisbon Treaty implementation on the MS which are independent nations, but without power of decision in the common trade policy.

  7. Recent HIV Testing Among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men in Bangkok and Chiang Mai: HIV Testing and Prevention Strategies Must Be Enhanced in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Lisa G; Steinhaus, Mara C; Sass, Justine; Sirinirund, Petchsri; Lee, Catherine; Benjarattanaporn, Patchara; Gass, Robert

    2016-09-01

    HIV infection among men who have sex with men, particularly in Thai urban settings and among younger cohorts, is escalating. HIV testing and counseling (HTC) are important for prevention and obtaining treatment and care. We examine data from a 2013 survey of males, 15-24 years, reporting past-year sex with a male and living in Bangkok or Chiang Mai. Almost three quarters of young MSM (YMSM) in Bangkok and only 27 % in Chiang Mai had an HIV test in the previous year. Associations for HIV testing varied between cities, although having employment increased the odds of HIV testing for both cities. In Bangkok, family knowledge of same sex attraction and talking to parents/guardians about HIV/AIDS had higher odds of HIV testing. Expanded HTC coverage is needed for YMSM in Chiang Mai. All health centers providing HTC, including those targeting MSM, need to address the specific needs of younger cohorts.

  8. The Lisbon Treaty and the Police and Justice Cooperation: Special Emphasis to the European Public Prosecutor's Office

    OpenAIRE

    Josifovic, Ivica

    2016-01-01

    Criminal law at the European Union level has traditionally been dealt through the concept of intergovernmental cooperation and gains its legal designation in the Maastricht Treaty, as part of the Justice and Home Affairs. The Amsterdam Treaty created the Area of Freedom, Security and Justice, but the Tampere Council and the Hague Programme took the notion of European criminal law through the process of mutual recognition. This paper is two-fold. First, the purpose of this paper is to prese...

  9. The China-Canada Bilateral Investment Treaty after Its Signatures:A Comment Based on International Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kong Qingjiang

    2014-01-01

    As a result of the long-haul efforts, a bilateral invest-ment treaty was signed by China and Canada. Due to the inability to com-plete its domestic ratification procedure on the Canadian part, the treaty, which is supposed to facilitate the investment relationship between the two countries, is pending for its due effect. Contrary to the general expectation of Chinese scholars, prospective investors and possibly Chinese officials in-volved, there emerged arguments in Canada that the treaty warrants closer scrutiny . A brief legal analysis of the article shows that the investment trea-ty not only is not so distinguishable from other bilateral investment agree-ments but lags behind the investment chapter of the NAFTA to which Cana-da is a party for years. A further look at the critiques pinpoints that the ar-guments are unwarranted and many of them are either derivative from mis-understanding of the treaty or due to political bias. The article further ar-gues that, in accordance with both the customary rules of international law on signed but unratified treaties’ legal effect, as evidenced by Article 18 of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, and the discourses of the publicists in this regard, Canada shall refrain from taking measures against Chinese investors which contravene the aims and purpose of the BIT as the Chinese signatory is waiting for the BIT being given its due force.

  10. Coastal vulnerability to typhoon inundation in the Bay of Bangkok, Thailand? Evidence from carbonate boulder deposits on Ko Larn island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, James P.; Jankaew, Kruawun; Dunne, Kieran

    2015-11-01

    At the head of the Gulf of Thailand, the subsiding Chao Phraya delta and adjacent low-lying coastlines surrounding the Bay of Bangkok are at risk of coastal flooding. Although a significant marine inundation event has not been experienced in historical times, this work identifies coastal depositional evidence for high-energy waves in the past. On Ko Larn island in eastern Bay of Bangkok, numerous coastal carbonate boulders (CCBs) were discovered at elevations up to 4+ m above sea level, the largest weighing over 1.3 tonnes. For the majority of CCBs, their karstified appearance bears testimony to long periods of immobility since original deposition, whilst their geomorphic settings on coastal slopes of coarse blocky talus is helpful in recognising lifting (saltation) as the probable mode of wave transport. In the absence of local tsunamigenic potential, these CCBs are considered to be prehistoric typhoon deposits, presumably sourced from fringing coral reefs by high-energy wave action. Application of existing hydrodynamic flow transport equations reveals that 4.7 m/s and 7.1 m/s are the minimum flow velocities required to transport 50% and 100% of the measured CCBs, respectively. Such values are consistent with cyclone-impacted coastlines studied elsewhere in the tropical Asia-Pacific region. Overall, the evidence of elevated carbonate boulder deposits on Ko Larn implies that typhoons before the modern record may have entered the Bay of Bangkok. The recurrence of a similar event in future would have the potential to cause damaging marine inundation on surrounding low-lying coastlines.

  11. Major pharmaceutical residues in wastewater treatment plants and receiving waters in Bangkok, Thailand, and associated ecological risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, S; Jindal, R; Kho, Y L; Eo, S; Choi, K

    2013-04-01

    Pharmaceuticals have been frequently detected in aquatic environment worldwide and suspected for potential ecological consequences. However, occurrences, sources and potential risks of pharmaceutical residues have rarely been investigated in Bangkok, Thailand, one of most densely populated cities in the world. We collected water samples from five wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), six canals, and in mainstream Chao Phraya River of Bangkok, in three sampling events representing different seasonal flow conditions, i.e., June and September 2011 and January 2012. Fourteen major pharmaceuticals including acetaminophen, acetylsalicylic acid, atenolol, caffeine, ciprofloxacin, diclofenac, ibuprofen, mefenamic acid, naproxen, roxithromycin, sulfamethazine, sulfamethoxazole, sulfathiazole and trimethoprim were analyzed. Levels of pharmaceutical residues in WWTP influents on average were the highest for acetylsalicylic acid (4700 ng L(-1)), followed by caffeine (2250 ng L(-1)) and ibuprofen (702 ng L(-1)). In effluents, the concentration of caffeine was the highest (307 ng L(-1)), followed by acetylsalicylic acid (261 ng L(-1)) and mefenamic acid (251 ng L(-1)). In surface water, acetylsalicylic acid showed the highest levels (on average 1360 ng L(-1) in canals and 313 ng L(-1) in the river). Removal efficiencies of WWTPs for roxithromycin, sulfamethoxazole and sulfamethazine were determined negligible. For several compounds, the concentrations in ambient water were higher than those detected in the effluents, implying contribution of the WWTPs to be negligible. Hazard quotients estimated for acetylsalicylic acid, ciprofloxacin, diclofenac and mefenamic acid in most of the canals and that of ciprofloxacin in the river, were greater than or close to 1, suggesting potential ecological risks. Ecological implications of the pharmaceutical residues in Bangkok waterway warrant further investigation.

  12. AEON eco-store principles for the creation of energy efficient and sustainable policies in Bangkok retailer industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanida, Nao (UNEP-Tongji Inst. for environment and sustainable development, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji Univ., Shanghai (China))

    2009-07-01

    Retailers in Bangkok, Thailand, are rapidly developing and have started to consume more and more energy and resources, pioneering retailering in other developing countries in South East Asia. Some of the biggest chain retailers in Bangkok are now trying to implement environmental management into their business in order to attract green-minded customers. However, most retailers are not willing to take steps at the cost of losing their economic benefits. This paper focuses on environmental management aiming to ensure triple benefits (minimizing resource use, economic benefits, and the abatement of CO{sub 2} emissions) based on the management system by AEON, which is one of the biggest Japanese retailers. AEON is known as the pioneer of eco-store and is also expanding its economic benefit simultaneously. The paper highlights the fact that one needs to have a longer term view instead of focusing on first-cost only (though it may be difficult to convince people to adopt life-cycle analysis when one is not sure about what the distant future holds for us). In this context, the paper will demonstrate the need for policy changes at the macro level to send the right signal to the concerned stakeholders in the country (as has been shown by the example of Thailand's creation of an Energy Conservation Fund which has allowed 'Revolving Fund' to lend money at a preferential interest rate to those who are willing to implement energy saving technologies), and how the AEON eco-store principles can be developed into a suitable practice for the situation of Bangkok.

  13. The Study of Equilibrium factor between Radon-222 and its Daughters in Bangkok Atmosphere by Gamma-ray Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rujiwarodom, Rachanee

    2010-05-01

    To study the Equilibrium between radon-222 and its daughters in Bangkok atmosphere by Gamma-ray spectrometry, air sample were collected on 48 activated charcoal canister and 360 glass fiber filters by using a high volume jet-air sampler during December 2007 to November 2008.The Spectra of gamma-ray were measured by using a HPGe (Hyper Pure Germanium Detector). In the condition of secular equilibrium obtaining between Radon-222 and its decay products, radon-222 on activated charcoal canister and its daughters on glass fiber filters collected in the same time interval were calculated. The equilibrium factor (F) in the open air had a value of 0.38 at the minimum ,and 0.75 at the maximum. The average value of equilibrium factor (F) was 0.56±0.12. Based on the results, F had variations with a maximum value in the night to the early morning and decreased in the afternoon. In addition, F was higher in the winter than in the summer. This finding corresponds with the properties of the Earth atmosphere. The equilibrium factor (F) also depended on the concentration of dust in the atmosphere. People living in Bangkok were exposed to average value of 30 Bq/m3 of Radon-222 in the atmosphere. The equilibrium factor (0.56±0.12) and the average value of Radon-222 showed that people were exposed to alpha energy from radon-222 and its daughters decay at 0.005 WL(Working Level) which is lower than the safety standard at 0.02 WL. Keywords: Radon, Radon daughters , equilibrium factor, Gamma -ray spectrum analysis ,Bangkok ,Thailand

  14. Photochemical smog pollution in the Bangkok Metropolitan Region of Thailand in relation to O 3 precursor concentrations and meteorological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, B.-N.; Kim Oanh, N. T.

    Analysis of photochemical pollution was done using the available 5-yr monitoring data (1996-2000) from 11 monitoring stations in Bangkok and 5 stations in other surrounding provinces, i.e. the Bangkok Metropolitan Region (BMR). Status and trend of O 3 as well as the monthly and diurnal variations were analyzed in relation to the local meteorological conditions as well as the regional transport of pollutants associated with the monsoon. The O 3 in Bangkok was found to be typical for the polluted urban areas with a lower concentration in the city center, especially at curbside stations, and higher concentration at the downwind locations. O 3 pollution was highest in 1997 with the maximum hourly average of 370 ppbv and the total hours exceeding the national hourly O 3 standard (100 ppbv) of 314 h, which is most likely related to the strong El Niño and the forest fire in Southeast Asia in this year. Meteorology-unadjusted trend shows a slight increase in O 3 from 1998 to 2000. Local emission and photochemistry are mainly responsible for O 3 episodes in the BMR. Seasonal fluctuations of O 3, however, were found to relate to the regional transport associated with the Asian monsoon. Highest O 3 pollution was found in the period from January to April (winter and local summer) and lowest during mid-rainy season, August. The O 3 increase isopleth diagram was constructed which shows that O 3 production in BMR is effective when the NO x/NMHC ratio is in the range of 0.04-0.15 with optimum ratio of around 0.07. Seasonal variations in NO x/NMHC ratios are consistent with the O 3 variations, i.e., optimum in summer (0.07), followed by winter (0.05), and the lowest in rainy season (0.03).

  15. Assessment Of A Groundwater Flow Model Of The Bangkok Basin, Thailand, Using Carbon-14-Based Ages And Paleohydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Ward E.; Buapeng, Somkid

    1996-04-01

    A study was undertaken to understand the groundwater flow conditions in the Bangkok Basin, Thailand, by comparing 14C-based and simulated groundwater ages. 14C measurements were made on about 50 water samples taken from wells throughout the basin. Simulated ages were obtained using 1) backward-pathline tracking based on the well locations, and 2) results from a three-dimensional groundwater flow model. Comparisons of ages at these locations reveal a large difference between 14C-based ages and ages predicted by the steady-state groundwater flow model. Mainly, 14C and 13C analyses indicate that groundwater in the Bangkok area is about 20,000 years old, whereas steady-state flow and transport simulations imply that groundwater in the Bangkok area is 50,000-100,000 years old. One potential reason for the discrepancy between simulated and 14C-based ages is the assumption in the model of steady-state flow. Groundwater velocities were probably greater in the region before about 10,000 years ago, during the last glacial maximum, because of the lower position of sea level and the absence of the surficial Bangkok Clay. Paleoflow conditions were estimated and then incorporated into a second set of simulations. The new assumption was that current steady-state flow conditions existed for the last 8,000 years but were preceded by steady-state conditions representative of flow during the last glacial maximum. This "transient" paleohydrologic simulation yielded a mean simulated age that more closely agrees with the mean 14C-based age, especially if the 14C-based age corrected for diffusion into clay layers. Although the uncertainties in both the simulated and 14C-based ages are nontrivial, the magnitude of the improved match in the mean age using a paleohydrologic simulation instead of a steady-state simulation suggests that flow conditions in the basin have changed significantly over the last 10,000-20,000 years. Given that the valid age range of 14C-dating methods and the timing

  16. Social and cultural contexts of HIV risk behaviors among Thai female sex workers in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Tooru; Iwamoto, Mariko; Sakata, Maria; Perngparn, Usaneya; Areesantichai, Chitlada

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the number of indirect female sex workers (FSWs) who work at bars/clubs and massage parlors is substantially increasing in Thailand; however, there are huge gaps in knowledge about HIV risk behaviors among indirect FSWs. This study aimed to describe and understand HIV risk behaviors among Thai FSWs in Bangkok in relation to sociocultural factors and work environment (e.g., bars/clubs, massage parlors, brothels, and street). Based on venue-based purposive sampling methods, Thai FSWs were recruited for qualitative interviews (n=50) and survey interviews (n=205). Based on mixed methods, the study revealed that HIV risk and substance use behaviors among FSWs significantly differed depending on work venues, although there were no significant differences between work venues on some key risk behaviors (e.g., inconsistent condom use with primary partners and customers; willingness to engage in unsafe sex with customers). A multiple linear regression analysis revealed that FSWs who had used illicit drugs, were young, had low levels of self-esteem, or reported STIs had frequently engaged in unprotected vaginal sex with customers. Also, FSWs who worked at bars/clubs, were young, had higher income, or reported STIs had frequently engaged in sex with customers under the influence of alcohol. Qualitative interviews illustrated FSWs' alcohol and drug use due to their stressful life (e.g., long working hours and a large number of customers) and easy access to alcohol and drugs. FSWs had shown inaccurate knowledge about HIV prevention methods and engaged in risky behaviors, such as washing vagina with water or toothpaste after having had sex with customers. The HIV prevention strategies in Thailand need to be re-structured through implementing evidence-based HIV prevention intervention programs for FSWs, which must address sociocultural factors (e.g., self-esteem) and alcohol and drug use specific to work venues.

  17. Assessment of selected metals in the ambient air PM10 in urban sites of Bangkok (Thailand).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongpiachan, Siwatt; Iijima, Akihiro

    2016-02-01

    Estimating the atmospheric concentrations of PM10-bounded selected metals in urban air is crucial for evaluating adverse health impacts. In the current study, a combination of measurements and multivariate statistical tools was used to investigate the influence of anthropogenic activities on variations in the contents of 18 metals (i.e., Al, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd, Sb, Ba, La, Ce and Pb) in ambient air. The concentrations of PM10-bounded metals were measured simultaneously at eight air quality observatory sites during a half-year period at heavily trafficked roads and in urban residential zones in Bangkok, Thailand. Although the daily average concentrations of Al, V, Cr, Mn and Fe were almost equivalent to those of other urban cities around the world, the contents of the majority of the selected metals were much lower than the existing ambient air quality guidelines and standard limit values. The sequence of average values of selected metals followed the order of Al > Fe > Zn > Cu > Pb > Mn > Ba > V > Sb > Ni > As > Cr > Cd > Se > Ce > La > Co > Sc. The probability distribution function (PDF) plots showed sharp symmetrical bell-shaped curves in V and Cr, indicating that crustal emissions are the predominant sources of these two elements in PM10. The comparatively low coefficients of divergence (COD) that were found in the majority of samples highlight that site-specific effects are of minor importance. A principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that 37.74, 13.51 and 11.32 % of the total variances represent crustal emissions, vehicular exhausts and the wear and tear of brakes and tires, respectively.

  18. Factors affecting decision making of low-income young women with unplanned pregnancies in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naravage, Wanapa; Vichit-Vadakan, Nuntavarn; Sakulbumrungsil, Rungpetch C; Van der Putten, Marc

    2005-05-01

    Unplanned pregnancy is one of the most difficult life experiences for young women. Women are often confused and seek help and support. When the problem occurs, a woman has three choices: parenting the baby, planning for adoption, or terminating the pregnancy. Choosing one of these three options is often difficult. This study aimed to identify the factors (variables) influencing women's decision making when choosing the options available to them. The study was conducted in five shelters and low-income communities in the Bangkok area. Data were collected for five months, November 2003 to March 2004. Young women, age 13-24, who experienced an unplanned pregnancy at least once, or currently experiencing an unplanned pregnancy, were recruited into the study. One hundred and twenty volunteer cases were recruited. Discriminant analysis was used to determine the factors that affecting the choices of young women with unplanned pregnancies. There were 6 potential influencing variables, in three broad categories of factors that influenced their choices. In this study, the influencing factors from the personal history variables were, age of the most recent unplanned pregnancy. The individual psychosocial variables were: attitude towards unplanned pregnancy, attitude towards contraception, and making a decision without consultation. The relationship variables were: relationship with partner, and consulting partner when having a problem. The results from discriminant analysis yielded 68.3% predictive accuracy. This result was satisfactory compared with a 33% chance of accuracy (classified as chance alone would yield a 33% accuracy). Knowing the influencing factors for the choices of young women with unplanned pregnancies allows us to understand the women's decisions and their utilization of services with some degree of confidence. The program managers or implementers should do as much as possible to support the decision making process in these young women in order to provide

  19. Evaluating accessibility to Bangkok Metro Systems using multi-dimensional criteria across user groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duangporn Prasertsubpakij

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Metro systems act as fast and efficient transport systems for many modern metropolises; however, enhancing higher usage of such systems often conflicts with providing suitable accessibility options. The traditional approach of metro accessibility studies seems to be an ineffective measure to gage sustainable access in which the equal rights of all users are taken into account. Bangkok Metropolitan Region (BMR transportation has increasingly relied on the role of two mass rapid transport systems publicly called “BTS Skytrain” and “MRT Subway”, due to limited availability of land and massive road congestion; however, access to such transit arguably treats some vulnerable groups, especially women, the elderly and disabled people unfairly. This study constructs a multi-dimensional assessment of accessibility considerations to scrutinize how user groups access metro services based on BMR empirical case. 600 individual passengers at various stations were asked to rate the questionnaire that simultaneously considers accessibility aspects of spatial, feeder connectivity, temporal, comfort/safety, psychosocial and other dimensions. It was interestingly found by user disaggregated accessibility model that the lower the accessibility perceptions—related uncomfortable and unsafe environment conditions, the greater the equitable access to services, as illustrated by MRT — Hua Lumphong and MRT — Petchaburi stations. The study suggests that, to balance the access priorities of groups on services, policy actions should emphasize acceptably safe access for individuals, cost efficient feeder services connecting the metro lines, socioeconomic influences and time allocation. Insightful discussions on integrated approach balancing different dimensions of accessibility and recommendations would contribute to accessibility-based knowledge and potential propensity to use the public transits towards transport sustainability.

  20. Benzene and lead exposure assessment among occupational bus drivers in Bangkok traffic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHING TET LEONG; PREECHA LAORTANAKUL

    2004-01-01

    Four environmental and biological monitoring sites were strategically established to evaluate benzene and lead exposure assessment at various traffic zones of Bangkok Metropolitan Region(BMR). Biological measurement of 48 non air-conditioned, male bus drivers was carried to study the relationship between individual exposure levels and exposure biomarkers. The study group was further subdivided into four age groups( 16-25, 26-35, 36-45 and 46-55 years old) to monitor the age-related exposure effects. A total of 12unexposed persons were deliberately chosen as the control group. Measurement of unmetobolized benzene in blood and analysis of urinary tt-Muconic acid urine and urinary creatinine are recommended as biomarkers of benzene exposure. Measurement of lead in blood and urine is also recommended for the biological monitoring of lead exposure.During the monitoring period, benzene and lead levels at Yaowarat Road was C6H6: 42.46 + 3.88 μg/m3 , Pb: 0.29 + 0.03 μg/m3 and decreased to C6 H6: 33.5 ± 1.35 μg/m3 , Pb: O. 13 + 0.01 μg/m3 at Phahonyothin Road. Significant difference was established between the nonsmoking exposed group and nonsmoking control group for blood benzene concentrations ( P < 0.001, two-tailed, Mann-Whiteney U test). Strong correlations were also found between trans-trans-Muconic acid concentrations in post shift samples and atmospheric benzene concentrations. Similarly, good correlation between all of biomarkers and lead level in air is established from automobile emissions.The analysis revealed that among the occupational population in the urban sites, the driver groups were found to have the highest risk of benzene and lead exposures derived from automobile emission.

  1. Lisbon Treaty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ylber Sela

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The desire to belong in a individual culture means to possess a clear vision for the world, a road map that guides its followers towards the proper understanding of the planet’s past present and future. An established mythology of apparent national identities in the Balkans is somewhat unnaturally reinforced to justify conflicts between religious and ethnic groups, caused as a result of the national identities intertwined among themselves, an element essentially more influential than existence of national identities. For centuries Christians and Muslims in the Balkans have been living in peace, however a few Balkan Societies continue to use violence, national extremism, xenophobia as well as a contemporary practice to solve their problems. A legitimate question can be raised in relation to how common is religious influence used to cause violent and armed conflicts as compared to violence originating from ethnic cleansing, control over territory, political ideology and regional hegemony?

  2. Commuter exposure to black carbon, carbon monoxide, and noise in the mass transport khlong boats of Bangkok, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, A. D.; Velasco, E.; Ho, K. J.

    2013-12-01

    Khlong (canal) boats are a unique mass transport alternative in the congested city of Bangkok. Canals and rivers provide exclusive transit-ways for reducing the commuting time of thousands of city residents daily. However, as a consequence of the service characteristics and boats design and state of repair, they can represent a potential public health risk and an important source of black carbon and greenhouse gases. This work quantifies commuter exposure to black carbon, CO and noise when waiting for and travelling in these diesel fueled boats. Exposure to toxic pollutants and acute noise is similar or worse than for other transportation modes. Mean black carbon concentrations observed at one busy pier and along the main canal were much higher than ambient concentrations at sites impacted by vehicular traffic. Concentrations of CO were similar to those reported for roadside areas of Bangkok. The equivalent continuous sound levels registered at the landing pier were similar to those reported for roadsides, but values recorded inside the boats were significantly higher. We believe that the boat service is a viable alternative mode of mass transport, but public safety could be improved to provide a high quality service, comparable to modern rail systems or emerging bus rapid transit systems. These investments would also contribute to reduce the emission of black carbon and other greenhouse and toxic pollutants.

  3. Longitudinal analysis of key HIV-risk behavior patterns and predictors in men who have sex with men, Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtz, Timothy H; Pattanasin, Sarika; Chonwattana, Wannee; Tongtoyai, Jaray; Chaikummao, Supaporn; Varangrat, Anchalee; Mock, Philip A

    2015-02-01

    The HIV incidence among Thai men who have sex with men (MSM) enrolled in the Bangkok MSM Cohort Study (BMCS) has remained high since its inception in 2006. The purpose of this BMCS analysis was to determine: (1) changes in three HIV-risk behaviors (unprotected anal intercourse (UAI), recreational drug use, and multiple sexual partners i.e., more than four male/transgender partner) over time; and (2) factors associated with each one separately. Thai MSM aged 18 years or older and living in Bangkok were eligible to participate in the BMCS. At each follow-up visit, participants were asked to report their sexual and drug behaviors in the previous 4 months. We conducted a longitudinal analysis using generalized estimating equations logistic regression that included 1,569 MSM who were enrolled from 2006 to 2010 and contributed at least one follow-up visit. For each four-month visit increase, we found a 2, 1, and 1 % decrease in odds for reported UAI, recreational drug use, and multiple sexual partners, respectively. We found significant predictors associated with three HIV-risk behaviors such as binge drinking, participation in group sex, and use of erectile dysfunction drugs. The statistically significant decrease in odds of HIV-risk behaviors among the participants is encouraging; however, continued vigilance is required to address the factors associated with HIV-risk behaviors through currently available interventions reaching MSM.

  4. The study of yellow robe manufacturing knowledge for fair-trade community business in Bangkok and the perimeter

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    Phramaha Rattana Hongintra

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was aimed 1 to study the background and the wisdom of three garments worn by Buddhist monks in Bangkok and the perimeter; 2 to study the present situation and problems with the production of three garments worn by Buddhist monks in Bangkok and the perimeter; 3 to investigate local business guidelines for the production of three garments worn by Buddhist monks. Data were collected by documentary research and field study. Collected data were validated using triangulation techniques and analyzed by descriptive analysis. The results show that the three garments worn by Buddhist monks were only produced in the past out of necessity. These days, the yellow robe has been developed to include patterns and fabrics that enhance daintiness and functionality. The researchers found that local businesses creating yellow robes suffer from a lack of knowledge inheritance, business capital and proper marketing support. Solving these problems requires cooperation between business owners and religious school, providing opportunity for knowledge exchange and marketing networks. The development of yellow robe production as a fair trade community business requires improved design knowledge and familiarity with religious rules concerning clothes. Moreover, the manufacturers need to improve product packaging to be more suitable and modern. In conclusion, the existence of traditional knowledge concerning clerical robe production depends on the cooperation of community members and the development of production capacity, for example packaging design, product quality and uniqueness.

  5. HIV and syphilis infection among men who have sex with men--Bangkok, Thailand, 2005-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-28

    Although efforts to control the heterosexual human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic in Thailand had shown success by the late 1990s, HIV continued to spread in other risk groups, including men who have sex with men (MSM). In 2003, the Thailand Ministry of Public Health-U.S. CDC Collaboration (TUC) started surveillance among MSM in Bangkok, finding an HIV prevalence of 17.3%. By 2005, HIV prevalence in this group had risen to 28.3% and has since stabilized at around 30%. To obtain additional information about HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevalence and incidence in a clinic-based population of MSM, TUC, in collaboration with the Thai Red Cross AIDS Research Center, analyzed data collected at the Silom Community Clinic (SCC), an HIV and STI testing center targeting MSM. This report describes trends in HIV and syphilis prevalence and incidence seen among SCC MSM clients during 2005-2011. At first clinic visit, the prevalence of HIV infection among 4,762 clients was 28.3% and of syphilis (all stages) was 9.8%. Among those returning for HIV or syphilis testing before the end of 2011, the incidence of HIV infection was 6.3 per 100 person-years (PY) and 3.6 per 100 PY for syphilis. These results show ongoing epidemics of HIV and syphilis infection in MSM in Bangkok, underscoring the urgent need for preventive interventions to reduce the spread of HIV and STI in this population.

  6. Demonstration of “substantial research activity” to acquire consultative status under the Antarctic Treaty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D. Gray

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Antarctic Treaty Consultative Parties are entitled to participate in consensus-based governance of the continent through the annual Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meetings. To acquire consultative status, an interested Party must demonstrate “substantial research activity,” but no agreed mechanism exists to determine whether a Party has fulfilled this criterion. Parties have generally demonstrated substantial research activity with the construction of a research station, as suggested within the Treaty itself. However, this largely demonstrates logistical capacity, rather than research activity, and often results in major and persistent impacts on Antarctic terrestrial environments. Our study found that national investment in Antarctic infrastructure, estimated by the number of bed spaces at stations, was not a reliable indicator of scientific output. Therefore, we investigated metrics to evaluate research activity directly, and identified both the overall number of Antarctic papers and the proportion of national scientific output these represented as meaningful metrics. Such metrics could (1 demonstrate a nation's level of research activity in Antarctica or (2 help Consultative Parties assess the level of research activity undertaken by a Party seeking to acquire consultative status. Our data showed that, even without land-based Antarctic infrastructure, Canada, Denmark and Switzerland may have reasonable grounds to demonstrate “substantial research activity” on a level comparable with existing Consultative Parties. The use of these metrics may help dispel any perceived requirement for the establishment of a research station to reach consultative status, by putting a greater emphasis on generation of scientific research outputs rather than construction of Antarctic infrastructure.

  7. The most-favoured-nation clause in tax treaties: tool for potential reduction of withholding income tax applicable to Chile and Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Renée Antonieta Villagra Cayamana; Jorge Antonio Villagra Cayamana

    2013-01-01

    Tax treaties to avoid the double taxation signed by a country have consequences for the future, but they can also modify the terms of treaties that are already in force, in case these contain most-favoured-nation clauses. In this line, taxpayers and companies, particularly, as well as the Tax Administration must be alert, regarding topotential modifications of the terms of the Peruvian tax treaties already in force; mainly about the withholding tax rate applied to royalties in the Convention ...

  8. Selected Examples of LDRD Projects Supporting Test Ban Treaty Verification and Nonproliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Al-Ayat, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Walter, W. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-02-23

    The Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program at the DOE National Laboratories was established to ensure the scientific and technical vitality of these institutions and to enhance the their ability to respond to evolving missions and anticipate national needs. LDRD allows the Laboratory directors to invest a percentage of their total annual budget in cutting-edge research and development projects within their mission areas. We highlight a selected set of LDRD-funded projects, in chronological order, that have helped provide capabilities, people and infrastructure that contributed greatly to our ability to respond to technical challenges in support of test ban treaty verification and nonproliferation.

  9. Analysis and models of bilateral investment treaties using a social networks approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saban, Daniela; Bonomo, Flavia; Stier-Moses, Nicolás E.

    2010-09-01

    Bilateral investment treaties (BITs) are agreements between two countries for the reciprocal encouragement, promotion and protection of investments in each other’s territories by companies based in either country. Germany and Pakistan signed the first BIT in 1959 and since then, BITs are one of the most popular and widespread form of international agreement. In this work we study the proliferation of BITs using a social networks approach. We propose a network growth model that dynamically replicates the empirical topological characteristics of the BIT network.

  10. Education as a right in international treatie: A reading from inclusive education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Montanchez Torres

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a theoretical review of education as a right, in international treaties and the evolution of the concept of inclusive education from a diverse multi and intercultural perspective. This article is part of a doctoral thesis from Valencia, Spain, researched in Ecuador. Inclusive education proposes quality education for everyone, demanding a response from competent institutions to develop a tolerant culture to difference in defense of human rights and equal opportunity. This essay facilitates guidelines that develop and support the construction of inclusive classrooms by education professionals at a primary school level as well as at a university level.

  11. Extradition To and From the United States: Overview of the Law and Recent Treaties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    UNITED STATES LAW AND PRACTICE (BASSIOUNI) 1-7 (5th ed. 2007); ABBELL & RISTAU, supra footnote 3, at 3-11. 5 Ramses II of Egypt and the Hittite...Ramesses II , §§11-14, transliteration and translation in, S. Langdon & Alan H. Gardiner, The Treaty of Alliance Between Hattusili, King of the...Hittites, and the Pharaoh Ramesses II of Egypt, 6 JOURNAL OF EGYPTIAN ARCHAEOLOGY 179, 192-94 (1920). Until fairly recently, nations seem have been happily

  12. The Energy Charter Treaty and settlement of disputes – current challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana-Gabriela Iacob

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Energy Charter Treaty (the “ECT” is a multilateral agreement aiming to promote energy cooperation and security. This paper focuses on the provisions of the ECT governing the protection of foreign investments and the settlement of disputes between investors and host states. In particular, this paper analyses the recent developments and challenges in the field of dispute settlement under the ECT, such as the increase in arbitrations, the withdrawal of Italy from the ECT, as well as the interplay between EU law and the ECT.

  13. EFA Mid-Decade Assessment Meeting Report. Annual EFA Coordinators Meeting/EFA Mid-Decade Assessment Planning Meeting (7th, Bangkok, Thailand, October 24-29, 2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Ko-Chih

    2006-01-01

    Six Education For All (EFA) goals were agreed to in the World Education Forum in Dakar, Senegal in 2000. Since then, UNESCO Bangkok, UNICEF and the Regional Thematic Working Group on EFA have been jointly assisting countries in conducting assessment of progress and gaps towards the EFA goals and mid-term review of policies and reforms. In October…

  14. A Cross-cultural Analytical Framework for Territorial Development Policies: The Application to Flood Risk Management Policies in the Bangkok Metropolitan Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rongwinriyaphanich, S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the application of a proposed analytical framework that takes cultural dimensions as main parameters to explain territorial development processes. It is illustrated through the analysis of flood risk management in two case study areas in the Bangkok Metropolitan Region. It aims t

  15. Asian Resources for a Population Library Information Network; Report of a Working Meeting (Bangkok, Thailand, September 13-15, 1973). Asian Population Studies Series No. 19/A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok (Thailand).

    A working meeting in Bangkok, Thailand, September 13-15, 1973, was called to consider three main topics: (1) the current status of exchange of information on population and family planning; (2) the feasibility of establishing national and regional networks for collection and dissemination of information on population and family planning; and (3)…

  16. Report of the Expert Group Meeting on Population and Development Planning (Bangkok, 5-11 July 1977). Asian Population Studies Series No. 39.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok (Thailand).

    A group of experts on population and development planning met in Bangkok, Thailand in July, 1977. The meeting was organized by the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific. This report is the result of background papers used at the conference, reactions to the papers, and further writing. The purpose of the meeting…

  17. Oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and azaarenes in urban soils: a comparison of a tropical city (Bangkok) with two temperate cities (Bratislava and Gothenburg).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandowe, Benjamin A Musa; Lueso, María Gómez; Wilcke, Wolfgang

    2014-07-01

    Environmental conditions in the tropics favor the formation of polar polycyclic aromatic compound (polar PACs, such as oxygenated PAHs [OPAHs] and azaarenes [AZAs]), but little is known about these hazardous compounds in tropical soils. The objectives of this work were to determine (i) the level of contamination of soils (0-5 and 5-10 cm layers) from the tropical metropolis of Bangkok (Thailand) with OPAHs and AZAs and (ii) the influence of urban emission sources and soil properties on the distribution of PACs. We hypothesized that the higher solar insolation and microbial activity in the tropics than in the temperate zone will lead to enhanced secondary formation of OPAHs. Hence, OPAH to related parent-PAH ratios will be higher in the tropical soils of Bangkok than in temperate soils of Bratislava and Gothenburg. The concentrations of ∑15OPAHs (range: 12-269 ng g(-1)) and ∑4AZAs (0.1-31 ng g(-1)) measured in soils of Bangkok were lower than those in several cities of the industrialized temperate zone. The ∑15OPAHs (r=0.86, pBangkok were mostly higher than those of Bratislava and Gothenburg (e.g. 9-fluorenone/fluorene concentration ratio was 12.2 ± 6.7, 5.6 ± 2.4, and 0.7 ± 02 in Bangkok, Bratislava and Gothenburg soils, respectively) supporting the view that tropical environmental conditions and higher microbial activity likely lead to higher OPAH to parent-PAH ratios in tropical than in temperate soils.

  18. PREVALENCE AND FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH MULTIDRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS AT SIRIRAJ HOSPITAL, BANGKOK, THAILAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jitmuang, Anupop; Munjit, Parnwad; Foongladda, Suporn

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) at Siriraj Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand. We conducted a retrospective unmatched case-control study of patients clinically diagnosed and microbiologically confirmed to have tuber- culosis (TB) at Siriraj Hospital from 2010 to 2012. Patient characteristics, clinical data, microbiological findings, outcomes and drug susceptibilities were recorded. A total of 188 subjects were included in the study; 52.1% (98) were males; the mean age was 48.9 years. Subjects were categorized into one of two groups, as follows: non-MDR-TB (141 patients) and MDR-TB (47 patients). The prevalence of MDR- TB was 2.6%. Co-morbidities of study subjects included diabetes mellitus (16.5%), HIV infection (16%) and cancer (5.9%). One hundred thirty-one patients (69.7%) had pulmonary TB. Factors significantly associated with MDR-TB were age < 65 years (OR = 6.94; 95% CI: 1.02-45.49; p = 0.048), history of TB (OR = 51.86; 95% CI: 12.35-217.79; p < 0.001), HIV co-infection (OR = 3.83; 95% CI: 1.02-14.38; p = 0.047) and alcohol consumption (OR = 3.90; 95% CI: 1.03-14.72; p = 0.045). Of the 146 patients for whom a clinical outcome was available, 51 (34.9%) had an unfavorable outcome. Poor compliance (OR = 13.51; 95% CI: 3.97-45.45; p < 0.001) and previous history of TB (OR = 8.16; 95% CI: 1.76-37.73; p = 0.007) were associated with an unfavorable outcome. MDR-TB was significantly associated with: patients aged < 65 years, those with a previous history of TB, those with HIV co-infection and those who drank alcohol. These factors should be kept in mind when treating TB patients at Siriraj Hospital, Thailand.

  19. Incarceration experiences among a community-recruited sample of injection drug users in Bangkok, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Calvin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 2003 Thailand has waged an aggressive "war on drugs" campaign focused on arresting and incarcerating suspected drug users and dealers. However, little is known about incarceration experiences among IDU in the wake of the recent war on drugs. Therefore, we sought to examine incarceration experiences among IDU in Bangkok, Thailand. Methods We examined the prevalence of incarceration among community-recruited IDU participating in the Mitsampan Community Research Project. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with a self-reported history of incarceration. We also examined the prevalence of injection drug use and syringe sharing within prisons. Results 252 IDU were recruited in August 2008; 66 (26.2% were female and the median age was 36.5 years. In total, 197 (78.2% participants reported a history of incarceration. In multivariate analyses, reporting a history of incarceration was associated with a history of compulsory drug treatment (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 4.93; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.95 - 12.48, non-fatal overdose (AOR = 3.69; 95%CI: 1.45 - 9.39, syringe sharing (AOR = 2.20; 95%CI: 1.12 - 4.32, and female gender (AOR = 0.41; 95%CI: 0.20 - 0.82. Among those who reported a history of incarceration, 59 (29.9% reported injection drug use in prison, and 48 (81.4% of these individuals reported sharing syringes in prison. Incarceration was not associated with the number of injections performed in the previous week (p = 0.202. Conclusion Over three-quarters of the IDU participating in this study reported a history of incarceration, and 30% of these individuals reported injection drug use within prison. Further, an alarmingly high level of syringe sharing within prison was reported, and incarceration was not associated with reductions in drug use. These findings provide further evidence of the need for community diversion strategies, as well as harm reduction programs, in Thai

  20. The Street Vendors of Bangkok: Alternatives to Indoor Retailers at a Time of Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Walsh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: During an economic crisis, consumers will use different techniques to make their money go as far as possible: More carefully comparing prices at point of sale locations, bringing out the coins they previously left unused in saving banks, switching to lower cost options and choosing to shop in less convenient locations in order to find discounts. One such option is to use street vendors rather than regular indoor retailers. Street vendors can provide cheaper goods because, in many cases, they do not need to pay for electricity or water bills and their rental costs can be much lower. Further, vendors themselves may be more willing to enter into haggling negotiations and offer cash discounts to well-known or regular customers. However, it would be wrong to assume that all street vendors are the same in terms of character or that they operate according to the same business model. Approach: This is a case study based principally on secondary sources and recapitulating primary research reported previously. Results: Research among street vendors in several locations reveal a wide variety of experiences, ability to provide value added goods and services and intentions and ambitions for the business concerned. While the majority of vendors have quite low levels of ambition, earn minimum wages or less and have little concept of marketing or adding value to products, there are other vendors who have organized their own international supply chains, contract manufactured their own branded goods and franchise stalls throughout the city of Bangkok. In some cases, therefore, street vending should be encouraged because it can offer a route out of the informal economy and into the formal economy for people who might not otherwise be able to achieve regular employment. Vendors also offer, in some cases, good quality alternatives to indoor retailers and help keep prices as a whole down. Conclusion/Recommendations: This case study addressed the

  1. International investment agreements and public health: neutralizing a threat through treaty drafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercurio, Bryan

    2014-07-01

    The high profile investment claims filed by Philip Morris challenging Uruguayan and Australian measures that restrict advertising and logos on tobacco packaging awakened the public health community to the existence and potential detrimental impact of international investment agreements (IIAs). More recently, Eli Lilly challenged Canada's invalidation of a pharmaceutical patent under an IIA. All of the cases claim that the intellectual property rights of the investor were infringed. As a result of these cases, many commentators and activists view IIAs as a threat to public health and have lobbied against their inclusion in ongoing trade negotiations. This article does not argue against IIAs. Instead, it seeks to demonstrate how more sophisticated treaty drafting can neutralize the threat to public health. In this regard, the article seeks to engage members of the public health community as campaigners not against IIAs but as advocates of better treaty drafting to ensure that IIAs do not infringe upon the right of a nation to take non-discriminatory measures for the promotion and protection of the health of their populations.

  2. Phase II: Field Detector Development For Undeclared/Declared Nuclear Testing For Treaty Verfiation Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kriz, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hunter, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Riley, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-02

    Radioactive xenon isotopes are a critical part of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) for the detection or confirmation of nuclear weapons tests as well as on-site treaty verification monitoring. On-site monitoring is not currently conducted because there are no commercially available small/robust field detector devices to measure the radioactive xenon isotopes. Xenon is an ideal signature to detect clandestine nuclear events since they are difficult to contain and can diffuse and migrate through soils due to their inert nature. There are four key radioxenon isotopes used in monitoring: 135Xe (9 hour half-life), 133mXe (2 day half-life), 133Xe (5 day half-life) and 131mXe (12 day half-life) that decay through beta emission and gamma emission. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is a leader in the field of gas collections and has developed highly selective molecular sieves that allow for the collection of xenon gas directly from air. Phase I assessed the development of a small, robust beta-gamma coincidence counting system, that combines collection and in situ detection methodologies. Phase II of the project began development of the custom electronics enabling 2D beta-gamma coincidence analysis in a field portable system. This will be a significant advancement for field detection/quantification of short-lived xenon isotopes that would not survive transport time for laboratory analysis.

  3. Linear models to perform treaty verification tasks for enhanced information security

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGahan, Christopher J.; Kupinski, Matthew A.; Brubaker, Erik M.; Hilton, Nathan R.; Marleau, Peter A.

    2017-02-01

    Linear mathematical models were applied to binary-discrimination tasks relevant to arms control verification measurements in which a host party wishes to convince a monitoring party that an item is or is not treaty accountable. These models process data in list-mode format and can compensate for the presence of variability in the source, such as uncertain object orientation and location. The Hotelling observer applies an optimal set of weights to binned detector data, yielding a test statistic that is thresholded to make a decision. The channelized Hotelling observer applies a channelizing matrix to the vectorized data, resulting in a lower dimensional vector available to the monitor to make decisions. We demonstrate how incorporating additional terms in this channelizing-matrix optimization offers benefits for treaty verification. We present two methods to increase shared information and trust between the host and monitor. The first method penalizes individual channel performance in order to maximize the information available to the monitor while maintaining optimal performance. Second, we present a method that penalizes predefined sensitive information while maintaining the capability to discriminate between binary choices. Data used in this study was generated using Monte Carlo simulations for fission neutrons, accomplished with the GEANT4 toolkit. Custom models for plutonium inspection objects were measured in simulation by a radiation imaging system. Model performance was evaluated and presented using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve.

  4. Much Ado About Nothing? National Legislatures in the EU Constitutional Treaty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raunio

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the impact of the EU's new Constitutional Treaty on the parliaments of its member states, with specific focus on access to information and on monitoring compliance with the subsidiarity principle. The main argument of the article is that while the Constitutional Treaty will strengthen the position of the national legislatures in the EU policy process, this empowerment does not constitute a major departure from the present situation. National parliaments will have better access to EU documents, and these information rights improve the capacity of national parliaments to control their governments. National parliaments will also gain a collective role in overseeing the implementation of the subsidiarity principle, but the effects of this mechanism will probably remain modest. While national MPs have thus stronger constitutional rights to control their governments, the increased use of the open method of coordination and other forms of intergovernmental policy coordination at least partially undermine these positive developments. The article concludes by proposing a set of reforms that would enable national legislatures to make a stronger impact on EU politics.

  5. Sandia technology. Volume 13, number 2 Special issue : verification of arms control treaties.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-03-01

    Nuclear deterrence, a cornerstone of US national security policy, has helped prevent global conflict for over 40 years. The DOE and DoD share responsibility for this vital part of national security. The US will continue to rely on nuclear deterrence for the foreseeable future. In the late 1950s, Sandia developed satellite-borne nuclear burst detection systems to support the treaty banning atmospheric nuclear tests. This activity has continued to expand and diversify. When the Non-Proliferation Treaty was ratified in 1970, we began to develop technologies to protect nuclear materials from falling into unauthorized hands. This program grew and now includes systems for monitoring the movement and storage of nuclear materials, detecting tampering, and transmiting sensitive data securely. In the late 1970s, negotiations to further limit underground nuclear testing were being actively pursued. In less than 18 months, we fielded the National Seismic Station, an unattended observatory for in-country monitoring of nuclear tests. In the mid-l980s, arms-control interest shifted to facility monitoring and on-site inspection. Our Technical On-site Inspection Facility is the national test bed for perimeter and portal monitoring technology and the prototype for the inspection portal that was recently installed in the USSR under the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces accord. The articles in the special issue of Sundiu Technology describe some of our current contributions to verification technology. This work supports the US policy to seek realistic arms control agreements while maintaining our national security.

  6. 1944 Water Treaty Between Mexico and the United States: Present Situation and Future Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anabel Sánchez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Historically and culturally, water has always been considered to be a critical issue in Mexico- USA agenda. Along the 3 140-km border between Mexico and the United States, there is intense competition over the adequate availability of water. Water uses in urban border areas have continued to increase exponentially due to steadily increasing levels of population growth. Rapid industrialisation and urbanisation have resulted in more intensive patterns of water consumption and use. Agricultural water demands continue to be high. Mexico and the United States have established institutions and agreements to manage and protect rivers in the border region. The Treaty between Mexico and the United States for the Utilisation of Waters of the Colorado and Tijuana Rivers and of the Rio Grande was signed in 1944. With the turn of the century, the growing urban centers along the Rio Grande (Rio Bravo, where the river becomes the international boundary, started increasingly to depend on groundwater. This situation was not specifically addressed in the 1944 Treaty, especially as groundwater use at that time was not so significant.

  7. Modeling Noble Gas Transport and Detection for The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yunwei; Carrigan, Charles R.

    2014-03-01

    Detonation gases released by an underground nuclear test include trace amounts of 133Xe and 37Ar. In the context of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, On Site Inspection Protocol, such gases released from or sampled at the soil surface could be used to indicate the occurrence of an explosion in violation of the treaty. To better estimate the levels of detectability from an underground nuclear test (UNE), we developed mathematical models to evaluate the processes of 133Xe and 37Ar transport in fractured rock. Two models are developed respectively for representing thermal and isothermal transport. When the thermal process becomes minor under the condition of low temperature and low liquid saturation, the subsurface system is described using an isothermal and single-gas-phase transport model and barometric pumping becomes the major driving force to deliver 133Xe and 37Ar to the ground surface. A thermal test is simulated using a nonisothermal and two-phase transport model. In the model, steam production and bubble expansion are the major processes driving noble gas components to ground surface. After the temperature in the chimney drops below boiling, barometric pumping takes over the role as the major transport process.

  8. Potential Benefits of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization to Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Amponsah

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The National Data Centers established around the globe with the support of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization are used to monitor and manage its data, to control and ultimately eliminate nuclear weapon test explosions. The National Data Center in Ghana was established in February, 2010 at the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. The Center is mandated to collate seismic, radionuclide, infrasound and hydroacoustic data for monitoring nuclear test explosions for global peace. The data are obtained from our neighboring country Cote d’Ivoire and the International Data Center in Austria. The objectives of the Data Center include the following: receive and use data from the International Monitoring System (IMS stations and products derived from the IMS from the International Data Center for verification and compliance of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty and for earthquake hazard studies. From 2010 to date local seismic events from the Center are catalogued for earthquake hazard studies in the country. The data are also made available to our stakeholders for earthquake disaster risk reduction. The benefits of the National Data Center to Ghana are numerous. Apart from the data for seismic hazard studies, it can also provide data for research in fisheries, for the study of the crustal structure among others. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.67.1.5402

  9. Potential Benefits of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization to Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Amponsah

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The National Data Centers established around the globe with the support of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization are used to monitor and manage its data, to control and ultimately eliminate nuclear weapon test explosions. The National Data Center in Ghana was established in February, 2010 at the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. The Center is mandated to collate seismic, radionuclide, infrasound and hydroacoustic data for monitoring nuclear test explosions for global peace. The data are obtained from our neighboring country Cote d’Ivoire and the International Data Center in Austria. The objectives of the Data Center include the following: receive and use data from the International Monitoring System (IMS stations and products derived from the IMS from the International Data Center for verification and compliance of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty and for earthquake hazard studies. From 2010 to date local seismic events from the Center are catalogued for earthquake hazard studies in the country. The data are also made available to our stakeholders for earthquake disaster risk reduction. The benefits of the National Data Center to Ghana are numerous. Apart from the data for seismic hazard studies, it can also provide data for research in fisheries, for the study of the crustal structure among others.

  10. The European Union’s external trade policy after the Treaty of Lisbon: a neo-gramscian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilko Ihor

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies neo-Gramscian theory to analyze the European Union’s external trade policy after the ratification of the Treaty of Lisbon in 2009. It argues that despite the claim that procedural and institutional changes which took place as a result of the ratification of the Treaty serve the general interest of the EU citizens, they were in fact orchestrated by the European transnational capitalist class and serve primarily interests of this group. Paper starts by outlining key institutional and procedural changes introduced by the Treaty of Lisbon, briefly outlining their implications for the EU. Further on, rationale for these changes is explained by focusing on socio-economic developments that took place in the EU during the past couple of decades. After outlining how the current hegemonic bloc was established, paper proceeds with explaining why the implemented changes were so important for the dominant in the EU social forces.

  11. Global Health Security Demands a Strong International Health Regulations Treaty and Leadership From a Highly Resourced World Health Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkle, Frederick M

    2015-10-01

    If the Ebola tragedy of West Africa has taught us anything, it should be that the 2005 International Health Regulations (IHR) Treaty, which gave unprecedented authority to the World Health Organization (WHO) to provide global public health security during public health emergencies of international concern, has fallen severely short of its original goal. After encouraging successes with the 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) pandemic, the intent of the legally binding Treaty to improve the capacity of all countries to detect, assess, notify, and respond to public health threats has shamefully lapsed. Despite the granting of 2-year extensions in 2012 to countries to meet core surveillance and response requirements, less than 20% of countries have complied. Today it is not realistic to expect that these gaps will be solved or narrowed in the foreseeable future by the IHR or the WHO alone under current provisions. The unfortunate failures that culminated in an inadequate response to the Ebola epidemic in West Africa are multifactorial, including funding, staffing, and poor leadership decisions, but all are reversible. A rush by the Global Health Security Agenda partners to fill critical gaps in administrative and operational areas has been crucial in the short term, but questions remain as to the real priorities of the G20 as time elapses and critical gaps in public health protections and infrastructure take precedence over the economic and security needs of the developed world. The response from the Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network and foreign medical teams to Ebola proved indispensable to global health security, but both deserve stronger strategic capacity support and institutional status under the WHO leadership granted by the IHR Treaty. Treaties are the most successful means the world has in preventing, preparing for, and controlling epidemics in an increasingly globalized world. Other options are not sustainable. Given the gravity of ongoing

  12. 10th Signing Anniversary of Sino-Russian Good-Neighborly Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation Celebrated

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>July 15, 2011 marked the 10th anniversary of the signing of the Sino-Russian Good-Neighborly Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation, an epoch-making document in bilateral relations. The Treaty focuses on the concept of peace and development and creates a legal framework the common aspiration of "always treating each other as friends and never as enemies". It decides the policy that the two countries should resolutely support each other and unswervingly expand pragmatic cooperation in all fields for long-term development of the relationship in the 21st century.

  13. L’habitat spontané comme un outil de développement urbain. Le cas de Bangkok Spontaneous Housing as a Tool for Urban Development, the Case of Bangkok

    OpenAIRE

    Fanny Gerbeaud

    2011-01-01

    En Thaïlande, les ensembles d’habitat spontané s’étendent à toute la capitale, malgré des politiques publiques qui visent à les contrer. Ce sont aujourd’hui de véritables morceaux de ville qui dynamisent l’espace urbain, car étroitement liés à l’identité et à l’histoire de la ville. L’opposition entre habitat spontané et « logement formel », fréquente tant dans les productions scientifiques que dans les représentations, mérite donc d���être interrogée à Bangkok. À partir d’une analyse spatial...

  14. The United Nations Declaration of the Rights of the Child (1959): Genesis, Transformation and Dissemination of a Treaty (Re)Constituting a Transnational Cause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, Zoe

    2015-01-01

    Over the course of the 20th century, the social and legal status of the child evolved considerably. One remarkable illustration of this process can be seen by tracing the evolution of specific international treaties on the rights of the child. Although developments in national legislation inspired the authors of these treaties, it was through…

  15. ‘Company’ and ‘Shares’ Under the 2016 India-Mauritius Protocol and The U.N. Model Treaty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanghavi, Dhruv

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the meaning of ‘‘company’’ and ‘‘shares’’ in the new protocol to the India-Mauritius tax treaty and the U.N. model treaty and how the interpretation of those terms could affect the taxation of capital gains.

  16. Prevalence of Bartonella species, hemoplasmas, and Rickettsia felis DNA in blood and fleas of cats in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assarasakorn, S; Veir, J K; Hawley, J R; Brewer, M M; Morris, A K; Hill, A E; Lappin, M R

    2012-12-01

    Flea infestations are common in Thailand, but little is known about the flea-borne infections. Fifty flea pools and 153 blood samples were collected from client-owned cats between June and August 2009 from veterinary hospitals in Bangkok, Thailand. Total DNA was extracted from all samples, and then assessed by conventional PCR assays. The prevalence rates of Bartonella spp. in blood and flea samples were 17% and 32%, respectively, with DNA of Bartonella henselae and Bartonella clarridgeiae being amplified most commonly. Bartonella koehlerae DNA was amplified for the first time in Thailand. Hemoplasma DNA was amplified from 23% and 34% of blood samples and flea pools, respectively, with 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum' and Mycoplasma haemofelis being detected most frequently. All samples were negative for Rickettsia felis. Prevalence rate of B. henselae DNA was increased 6.9 times in cats with flea infestation. Cats administered flea control products were 4.2 times less likely to be Bartonella-infected.

  17. Hypoplastic model for simulation of compressibility characteristics of cement-admixed Bangkok soft clay at high water content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattonjai, Piyachat

    2016-06-01

    The developed hypoplastic model for simulation of compressibility characteristics of cement-admixed Bangkok soft clay at high water content was proposed in this paper. By using unique equation, the model is able to predict the relationship between void ratio and vertical effective stress of different water and cement content of soil cement. For practically convenient utilization and understanding, the parameters of Q1 which represented to initial cement bonding of soil (the initial value of structure tensor at time = 0) and C2 which effected to the model stiffness on isotropic consolidation direction, at 45° for loading and 225° for unloading of stress response envelope, were proposed as the function of cement and water content by comparing with dry weight of soil. By numerical integration that satisfied one-dimensional settlement, the simulation results were directly compared with fifteen experimental results to verify the accuracy of the proposed model.

  18. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Blastocystis Infection Among Children and Caregivers in a Child Care Center, Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipatsatitpong, Duangnate; Leelayoova, Saovanee; Mungthin, Mathirut; Aunpad, Ratchaneewan; Naaglor, Tawee; Rangsin, Ram

    2015-08-01

    In September 2009, a cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate parasitic infections in a child care center in Khlong Toei, Bangkok, Thailand. Of 503 children and staff members, 258 (51.3%) stool samples and questionnaires were obtained. The most common parasitic infection was Blastocystis sp. (13.6%). Blastocystis sp. subtype 3 was predominantly found (80.0%), followed by subtypes 2 (12.0%) and 1 (8.0%). The prevalence of Blastocystis infection varied among different age groups. The prevalence of Blastocystis infection in non-HIV-infected children aged < 10 and 10-19 years were 14.5% and 10.3%, respectively, which were not significantly different. All 31 HIV-infected children were not infected with Blastocystis sp. The most likely reason could be the result of properly using prevention measures for this specific group.

  19. A STUDY ON A COOPERATIVE RELATIONSHIP TO THE IMPROVEMENT OF THE REGIONAL FIRE FIGHTING VALIDITY -Case Study in Bangkok, Thailand-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sripramai, Keerati; Oikawa, Yasushi; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Katada, Toshitaka

    Generally, in order to improve some regional fire fighting validity, indispensable strategies are not only a reinforcement of the governmental fire fighting ability, but also a strengthening of the cooperative relationship between governmental and non-governmental fire fighting ability. However, for practical purposes, the effective strategy should be different depending on the actual situationin the subject area. So, in this study, we grasp the actual state and background of the problems that need to be solved for the improvement of the regional fire fighting validity in Bangkok as a case study, and examine the appropriate solution focusing on the relationship between official and voluntary fire fighting. Through some practicable activities such as interviews, investigati ons, and making the regional fire fighting validity map, it became clear that the problems of uncooperative relationship and the lack of trust between stakeholders should be solved first and foremost.

  20. Don Muang IAP, Bangkok, Thailand. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-04-02

    00,10 10. 0.09, M0.±0.1k., 0..D.’ 0 J AQf 100 98,4100, 00.0100. 100.01001 00. 100,0100,0100, 100.0 00,0 00,o000.0100.0 2: 0 so .00100 1 100,1000 20...SUMMARYOP SURFACE WEATHER OSEAYATM BANGKOK THAILAND/DON WUANG IAP W8ANO 41001 N 13 55 E 100 36 ELEV 33 FT VTOD WMOE 46436 PARTS A-F POR FROM HOURLY OBS JAN...LOCATION STION FROM TO STATIONIrr) BAROMETER DAY 0I Don uang Apt, Thailand /TAF Jan 54 Dee 63 N 13 55 E 100 36 33 39 Ft 24 LOCATION CHANACTEI LOCATION

  1. EFFECTIVENESS OF AN ORAL HYGIENE EDUCATION PROGRAM COMBINED WITH FLUORIDE MOUTHRINSE AMONG VISUALLY IMPAIRED STUDENTS IN BANGKOK, THAILAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunakul, Malee; Asvanund, Yuwadee; Tantakul, Apirat; Mitrakul, Kemthong; Srisatjaluk, Ratchapin; Vongsavan, Kutkao

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of oral hygiene education kits (OHE kits) and 0.05% sodium fluoride mouth rinse among visually impaired students (VIS) in Bangkok, Thailand. Seventy-five VIS aged 10-12 years were included in the study and examined for plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI) and mutans streptococci (MS) salivary levels at baseline and after intervention. The subjects were then randomly divided into three groups. Group 1 received OHE kits and 0.05% NaF mouth rinse and brushing instructions. Group 2 received only the OHE kits and brushing instructions. Group 3 (control) received only brushing instructions. PI, GI and MS levels, were reassessed 3 months after intervention. Pre- and post-intervention evaluation data were compared with the Wilcoxon match-pairs test (p index and lower number of MS than control group.

  2. Vitamin B12, folic acid, ferritin and haematological variables among Thai construction site workers in urban Bangkok.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tungtrongchitr, R; Pongpaew, P; Phonrat, B; Chanjanakitskul, S; Paksanont, S; Migasena, P; Schelp, F P

    1995-01-01

    Serum vitamin B12, folic acid, ferritin and haematological variables were investigated in eighty-seven male and nineteen female construction site workers in Bangkok. Haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit and MCHC were found to be higher in male than in female workers. Serum ferritin was slightly higher in males than in females. Serum B12 was found to be higher in male than in female workers and serum folic acid level were significantly higher in female than in male workers. Vitamin B12 deficiency was found in 2.3 per cent and folic acid deficiency in 6.9 per cent of the male workers. Serum vitamin B12 and folic acid levels were normal for female workers. The adequate serum levels of vitamin B12 and folic acid might be the result of the habit of the workers to consume tonic drinks which contain glucose, caffeine, and vitamins especially vitamins B6, and B12.

  3. L’habitat spontané comme un outil de développement urbain. Le cas de Bangkok

    OpenAIRE

    Gerbeaud, Fanny

    2012-01-01

    En Thaïlande, les ensembles d’habitat spontané s’étendent à toute la capitale, malgré des politiques publiques qui visent à les contrer. Ce sont aujourd’hui de véritables morceaux de ville qui dynamisent l’espace urbain, car étroitement liés à l’identité et à l’histoire de la ville. L’opposition entre habitat spontané et « logement formel », fréquente tant dans les productions scientifiques que dans les représentations, mérite donc d’être interrogée à Bangkok. À partir d’une analyse spatiale ...

  4. Evaluating occupational health nursing units in Bangkok textile factories: exploring the world through international occupational health programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silpasuwan, Pimpan; Viwatwongkasem, Chukiat; Phalee, Piangjai; Kalampakorn, Surintorn

    2006-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the service quality of nursing units in Bangkok textile factories. Descriptive survey research was combined with a qualitative design using participative observation. The sample consisted of factory managers, nurses, and employees. Data were collected between November 2001 and February 2002 using questionnaires, observation, in-depth interviews, and focus groups. Nurses' education levels and quality of design and arrangement of nursing units explained 15.7% of the variance in service quality. Furthermore, qualitative data supported clients' satisfaction with service quality, except for the tangibility of the service. These findings suggest that the quality of nursing service units could be improved by management's attention to unit design, arrangement of nursing units, and nurses' education levels. Hiring registered nurses and restructuring nursing units are recommended.

  5. Price Elasticity of Demand and Capacity-Restraint Transit Fare Strategy: A Case Study of Bangkok Mass Transit System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ackchai Sirikijpanichkul

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic congestion is a chronic problem of Bangkok. Similar to other metropolises, the city perpetually seeks for alternatives to road travel. Mass rapid transit seems to be the only way out that is expected to mitigate traffic congestion in the city. However, without common fare system, travelers need to pay an initial entrance fee every time they enter each transit system. This excess cost tapers the demand and affects the efficient use of the system. This research investigates the influence of fare price on transit use which is measured by price elasticity of demand and proposes the optimum fare price if the common fare is used. The analysis is based on the findings from the stated preference survey techniques. Finally, the conclusion on fare level that encourage more patronage, maintain service quality and operator revenue is addressed.

  6. Performance of the BACTEC MGIT 960 compared with solid media for detection of Mycobacterium in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srisuwanvilai, La-Ong; Monkongdee, Patama; Podewils, Laura Jean; Ngamlert, Keerataya; Pobkeeree, Vallerut; Puripokai, Panitchaya; Kanjanamongkolsiri, Photjanart; Subhachaturas, Wonchat; Akarasewi, Pasakorn; Wells, Charles D; Tappero, Jordan W; Varma, Jay K

    2008-08-01

    Controlled trials have demonstrated that liquid media culture (LMC) is superior to solid media culture for diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), but there is limited evidence about its performance in resource-limited settings. We evaluated the performance of LMC in a demonstration project in Bangkok, Thailand. Sputum specimens from persons with suspected or clinically diagnosed tuberculosis were inoculated in parallel on solid (Lowenstein-Jensen [LJ]) and liquid (mycobacterial growth indicator tube [MGIT 960]) media. Biochemical tests identified isolates as MTB or nontuberculosis mycobacteria (NTM). Of 2566 specimens received from October 2004 to September 2006, 1355 (53%) were culture positive by MGIT compared with 1013 (39%) by LJ. Median time to growth for MGIT was significantly less than LJ: 11 versus 27 days. Of 1417 isolates detected by at least 1 media, 1255 (86%) were identified as MTB and 162 (11%) NTM. MGIT improved speed and sensitivity of MTB isolation and drug susceptibility testing, regardless of HIV status.

  7. Erratum to "Effects of intensive urbanization on the intrusion of shallow groundwater into deep groundwater: examples from Bangkok and Jakarta".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onodera, Shin-ichi; Saito, Mitsuyo; Sawano, Misa; Hosono, Takahiro; Taniguchi, Makoto; Shimada, Jun; Umezawa, Yu; Lubis, Rachmat Fajar; Buapeng, Somkid; Delinom, Robert

    2009-04-15

    Asian megacities have severe pollution problems in both coastal and urban areas. In addition, the groundwater potential has decreased and land subsidence has occurred because of intensive groundwater pumping in urban areas. To prevent the adverse effects of urbanization on groundwater quality, it is necessary to confirm the changes in groundwater flow and contaminant transport caused by urbanization. We examined the effects of urbanization on contaminant transport in groundwater. The research areas were located around Bangkok, Thailand, and Jakarta, Indonesia, cities with populations of approximately 8 and 12 million, respectively. Each metropolitan city is located on a river delta and is adjacent to a bay. We measured the water level and collected water samples at boreholes at multiple depths (100 to 200 m) in 2004 and 2006 in Bangkok and Jakarta, respectively. The current hydraulic potential is below sea level in both cities because of prior excess abstraction of groundwater. As a result, the direction of groundwater flow is now downward in the coastal area. The Cl- concentration and delta18O distributions in groundwater suggest that the decline in hydraulic potential has caused the intrusion of seawater and shallow groundwater into deep groundwater. Concentrations of Mn and NO3--N in groundwater suggest the intrusion of these contaminants from shallow to deep aquifers with downward groundwater flow and implies an accumulation of contaminants in deep aquifers. Therefore, it is important to recognize the possibility of future contaminant transport with the discharge of deep groundwater into the sea after the recovery of groundwater potential in the coastal areas.

  8. Effects of intensive urbanization on the intrusion of shallow groundwater into deep groundwater: examples from Bangkok and Jakarta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onodera, Shin-ichi; Saito, Mitsuyo; Sawano, Misa; Hosono, Takahiro; Taniguchi, Makoto; Shimada, Jun; Umezawa, Yu; Lubis, Rachmat Fajar; Buapeng, Somkid; Delinom, Robert

    2008-10-15

    Asian megacities have severe pollution problems in both coastal and urban areas. In addition, the groundwater potential has decreased and land subsidence has occurred because of intensive groundwater pumping in urban areas. To prevent the adverse effects of urbanization on groundwater quality, it is necessary to confirm the changes in groundwater flow and contaminant transport caused by urbanization. We examined the effects of urbanization on contaminant transport in groundwater. The research areas were located around Bangkok, Thailand, and Jakarta, Indonesia, cities with populations of approximately 8 and 12 million, respectively. Each metropolitan city is located on a river delta and is adjacent to a bay. We measured the water level and collected water samples at boreholes at multiple depths (100 to 200 m) in 2004 and 2006 in Bangkok and Jakarta, respectively. The current hydraulic potential is below sea level in both cities because of prior excess abstraction of groundwater. As a result, the direction of groundwater flow is now downward in the coastal area. The Cl(-) concentration and delta(18)O distributions in groundwater suggest that the decline in hydraulic potential has caused the intrusion of seawater and shallow groundwater into deep groundwater. Concentrations of Mn and NO3(-)-N in groundwater suggest the intrusion of these contaminants from shallow to deep aquifers with downward groundwater flow and implies an accumulation of contaminants in deep aquifers. Therefore, it is important to recognize the possibility of future contaminant transport with the discharge of deep groundwater into the sea after the recovery of groundwater potential in the coastal areas.

  9. Application of microtremor array measurements to delineate S-wave velocity structures in Bangkok Basin, central Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, K.; Pananont, P.; Wongpanit, T.; Habangkham, S.

    2014-12-01

    The Bangkok Basin, located in the lower part of the Chao Phraya River Basin in central Thailand contains very thick sediment and are often affected by the large distant earthquakes due to local site amplification. Shear wave velocities (Vs) measurements have been performed at five sites in the Bangkok Basin (Figure 1) by a two-station spatial autocorrelation method (2ST-SPAC) using long-period accelerometers. Receiver separation varied from 5 to 2,100m and maximum separation (array size) varied from 1,800 to 2,100 m. In each separation, 10 to 90 minutes ambient noise was recorded with sampling interval of 10 ms. Due to the security concern, data acquisition was performed in the day-time and in relatively quiet places such as in parks or less densely residential areas. A spatial autocorrelation was used for calculating phase velocity and clear dispersion curves were obtained in frequency range from about 0.3 to 10 Hz. Minimum frequency and corresponding maximum wavelength ranged from 0.32 to 0.48 Hz and about 2,180 to 5,140 m, depending on the site. An inversion consisting of a least squares method and a Genetic Algorithm was used to estimate Vs profiles from the dispersion curves to a depth of about 1,000 to 2,500 m depending on the sites. Figure 2 shows comparison of Vs profiles obtained by the inversion. We can see that a low velocity layer with Vs lower than 400 m/s exists between depths of 0 to 200 m at all sites. Intermediate bedrock with Vs higher than 1,000 m/s exists between depths of 240 to 1,250 m. Deepest bedrock with Vs higher than 2,000 m/s seems to exist at a depth of at least 1,600 m.

  10. Evolutionary relationship of 5’-untranslated regions among Thai dengue-3 viruses, Bangkok isolates, during 24 year-evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Watcharee Attatippaholkun; Panyupa Pankhong; Ananda Nisalak; Siripen Kalayanarooj

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To study evolutionary relationship of the 5’untranslated regions (5’UTRs) in low passage dengue3 viruses (DEN3) isolated from hospitalized children with different clinical manifestations in Bangkok during 24 year-evolution (1977-2000) comparing to the DEN3 prototype (H87).Methods:The 5’UTRs of these Thai DEN3 and the H87 prototype were amplified by RT-PCR and sequenced. Their multiple sequence alignments were done by Codon Code Aligner v 4.0.4 software and their RNA secondary structures were predicted by MFOLD software. Replication of five Thai DEN3 candidates comparing to the H87 prototype were done in human (HepG2) and the mosquito (C6/36) cell lines.Results:Among these Thai DEN3, the completely identical sequences of their first 89 nucleotides, their high-order secondary structure of 5’UTRs and three SNPs including the predominant C90T, and two minor SNPs including A109G and A112G were found. The C90T of Thai DEN3, Bangkok isolates was shown predominantly before 1977. Five Thai DEN3 candidates with the predominant C90T were shown to replicate in human (HepG2) and the mosquito (C6/36) cell lines better than the H87 prototype. However, their highly conserved sequences as well as SNPs of the 5’UTR did not appear to correlate with their disease severity in human.Conclusions:Our findings highlighted evolutionary relationship of the completely identical 89 nucleotide sequence, the high-order secondary structure and the predominant C90T of the 5’UTR of these Thai DEN3 during 24 year-evolution further suggesting to be their genetic markers and magic targets for future research on antiviral therapy as well as vaccine approaches of Thai DEN3.

  11. Climate co-benefits of energy recovery from landfill gas in developing Asian cities: a case study in Bangkok.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menikpura, S N M; Sang-Arun, Janya; Bengtsson, Magnus

    2013-10-01

    Landfilling is the most common and cost-effective waste disposal method, and it is widely applied throughout the world. In developing countries in Asia there is currently a trend towards constructing sanitary landfills with gas recovery systems, not only as a solution to the waste problem and the associated local environmental pollution, but also to generate revenues through carbon markets and from the sale of electricity. This article presents a quantitative assessment of climate co-benefits from landfill gas (LFG) to energy projects, based on the case of Bangkok Metropolitan Administration, Thailand. Life cycle assessment was used for estimating net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, considering the whole lifespan of the landfill. The assessment found that the total GHG mitigation of the Bangkok project would be 471,763 tonnes (t) of carbon dioxide (CO(2))-equivalents (eq) over its 10-year LFG recovery period.This amount is equivalent to only 12% of the methane (CH(4)) generated over the whole lifespan of the landfill. An alternative scenario was devised to analyse possible improvement options for GHG mitigation through LFG-to-energy recovery projects. This scenario assumes that LFG recovery would commence in the second year of landfill operation and gas extraction continues throughout the 20-year peak production period. In this scenario, GHG mitigation potential amounted to 1,639,450 tCO(2)-eq during the 20-year project period, which is equivalent to 43% of the CH(4) generated throughout the life cycle. The results indicate that with careful planning, there is a high potential for improving the efficiency of existing LFG recovery projects which would enhance climate co-benefits, as well as economic benefits. However, the study also shows that even improved gas recovery systems have fairly low recovery rates and, in consequence, that emissions of GHG from such landfills sites are still considerable.

  12. The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty and Its Relevance for the Global Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dáša ADAŠKOVÁ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT is one of important international nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament measures. One of its pillars is the verification mechanism that has been built as an international system of nuclear testing detection to enable the control of observance of the obligations anchored in the CTBT. Despite the great relevance to the global non-proliferation and disarmament efforts, the CTBT is still not in force. The main aim of the article is to summarize the importance of the CTBT and its entry into force not only from the international relations perspective but also from the perspective of the technical implementation of the monitoring system.

  13. Inverse transport for the verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-P. Issartel

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available An international monitoring system is being built as a verification tool for the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. Forty stations will measure on a worldwide daily basis the concentration of radioactive noble gases. The paper introduces, by handling preliminary real data, a new approach of backtracking for the identification of sources of passive tracers after positive measurements. When several measurements are available the ambiguity about possible sources is reduced significantly. The approach is validated against ETEX data. A distinction is made between adjoint and inverse transport shown to be, indeed, different though equivalent ideas. As an interesting side result it is shown that, in the passive tracer dispersion equation, the diffusion stemming from a time symmetric turbulence is necessarily a self-adjoint operator, a result easily verified for the usual gradient closure, but more general.

  14. Automated granularity to integrate digital information: the "Antarctic Treaty Searchable Database" case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Arthur Berkman

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Access to information is necessary, but not sufficient in our digital era. The challenge is to objectively integrate digital resources based on user-defined objectives for the purpose of discovering information relationships that facilitate interpretations and decision making. The Antarctic Treaty Searchable Database (http://aspire.nvi.net, which is in its sixth edition, provides an example of digital integration based on the automated generation of information granules that can be dynamically combined to reveal objective relationships within and between digital information resources. This case study further demonstrates that automated granularity and dynamic integration can be accomplished simply by utilizing the inherent structure of the digital information resources. Such information integration is relevant to library and archival programs that require long-term preservation of authentic digital resources.

  15. CRITERIA FOR SELECTION OF THE REINSURANCE COVERAGE FOR EXCESS OF LOSS TREATY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Veretnov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Optimal reinsurance coverage, selected by the cedent, influenced by a number of internal, external, objective and subjective factors. Their accounting or ignoring depends on the individual conditions of the insurer, knowledge of the specific risk profiles of professional experience and decision-makers about the forms and methods of reinsurance coverage. Justified the selection criteria of reinsurance protection for the treaty excess of loss. Using these criteria makes it possible not only to optimize the reinsurance protection, but also to ensure a balance of interests in the long-term relationship of the cedent company and the reinsurer. The article also provides examples of how classes of insurance is advisable to use the obligatory contract portfolio sexcess of loss.

  16. Comprehensive test ban treaty international monitoring system security threats and proposed security attributes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draelos, T.J.; Craft, R.L.

    1996-03-01

    To monitor compliance with a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), a sensing network, referred to as the International Monitoring System (IMS), is being deployed. Success of the IMS depends on both its ability to preform its function and the international community`s confidence in the system. To ensure these goals, steps must be taken to secure the system against attacks that would undermine it; however, it is not clear that consensus exists with respect to the security requirements that should be levied on the IMS design. In addition, CTBT has not clearly articulated what threats it wishes to address. This paper proposes four system-level threats that should drive IMS design considerations, identifies potential threat agents, and collects into one place the security requirements that have been suggested by various elements of the IMS community. For each such requirement, issues associated with the requirement are identified and rationale for the requirement is discussed.

  17. Civil society under the Treaty of Lisbon: relationship between national public benefit organizations and European Union policy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteegh, L.C.R.M.

    2011-01-01

    The active involvement of European citizens became a new form of democracy in the Treaty of Lisbon of 2009 by the introduction of a whole new chapter dedicated to this purpose. There is an article that obligates the Commission to give serious consideration to the demands of one million citizens from

  18. Hydrological assessment of the 1973 treaty on the transboundary Helmand River, using the SWAT model and a global climate database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hajihosseini, H.; Hajihosseini, M.; Morid, S.; Delavar, M.; Booij, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    Exploitation of the water resources of the Helmand River has been challenging for Iran and Afghanistan. Debates on this issue finally led to a treaty in 1973 between the two countries, in which a total amount of 26 m3/s water from the Helmand River should be delivered to Iran in a normal (or an abov

  19. 8 CFR 319.5 - Public international organizations in which the U.S. participates by treaty or statute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public international organizations in which... UNITED STATES CITIZENS § 319.5 Public international organizations in which the U.S. participates by treaty or statute. Organizations designated by the President as international organizations pursuant...

  20. Affect of Arab News: Post-treaty Portrayal of Egypt and Israel in the Mass Media of Three Arab Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Anne Messerly

    A study of 4,692 news stories from Egyptian, Algerian, and Tunisian electronic and print news media was conducted to see how state-controlled media reflected government policy changes following the Egyptian-Israeli peace treaty and the subsequent diplomatic break between Egypt and Arab League nations. The study found that the three controlled…

  1. Rethinking & Recasting Bilateral Investment Treaties as Integrative Tools for Sustainable Development: The Kenyan Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faith Simiyu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development is a fundamental principle of International Law. It is closely related to and [should be] a core objective of any international treaty seeking to addressdevelopmental concerns. Curiously, however, a critical review of [legal] literature reveals seemingly little attention given to the actual assessment of ‘how and to what extent’ existing Bilateral Investment Treaties (BITs have integrated sustainable developmental concerns. This is particularly in relation to BITs involving developing countries in Africa such as Kenya. Accordingly, taking Kenya as an illustrative case, this study makes a critical assessment of the BITs concluded between Kenya, the Netherlands, Britain, and Germany; with a view to establishing how and to what extent the said BITs haveintegrated sustainable development.  The study argues that most (if not all BITs remain silent on sustainable development. Further, the methods of integrating sustainable development are premised on placing host state obligations to protect investors and their investments. In doing so, the implied assumption is that protection will attract foreign investment necessary for financing sustainable development. Nevertheless, as the paperhighlights, difficulties have arisen in measuring how revenue generated from foreign investment has contributed to the sustainable development due to the unpredictablepatterns of revenue inflow from foreign. This in turn creates difficulties in using the said revenue when planning for long-term sustainable yields in development. Accordingly, the paper urges a collectively rethinking of the usage of BITs as a tool for sustainable development involving, states taking deliberate steps to recast BITs to ensure that the process of negotiation of BITs, the structure that emanates from the negotiation and theimplementation of the BITs; explicitly seek to integrate sustainable development. This necessarily involves placing obligations on both state and

  2. Impacts of international trade, services and investment treaties on alcohol regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieshaber-Otto, J; Sinclair, S; Schacter, N

    2000-12-01

    There is an underlying incompatibility between government efforts to minimize the harm associated with alcohol, particularly by regulating its supply, and international commercial treaties that promote the freer flow of goods, services and investment. These treaties have already forced changes to many government measures affecting alcohol availability and control, primarily by constraining the activities of government alcohol monopolies and by altering taxation regimes. The North American Free Trade Agreement and the World Trade Organization agreements open new avenues for challenges against alcohol control measures. Some of these agreements extend beyond trade, border measures and differential taxation and allow challenges that intrude into areas of non-discriminatory domestic regulation affecting market access, intellectual property, investment and services. Effective protection from these agreements for vital public health measures has rarely been obtained, although it is increasingly essential. The WTO "services" agreement, basically unknown to the public, is currently being re-negotiated and poses the gravest new challenge to policies designed to influence patterns of alcohol use and minimize alcohol-related harm. In future, these international agreements will probably affect adversely those alcohol approaches considered to be the most effective or promising. These include: maintaining effective state monopolies, restricting the number and locations of retail outlets, taxing and regulating beverages according to alcohol strength, restricting commercial advertising, and maintaining and enhancing public alcohol education and treatment programs. These effects can, in turn, be expected to increase the availability and access to alcohol, to lower alcohol taxes, and to increase advertising and promotion, resulting in increased alcohol consumption and associated health problems. Until more balanced international rules are developed, the challenge facing alcohol

  3. Quality Evaluation of Mobile Networks Using VoIP Applications: A Case Study with Skype and LINE based-on Stationary Tests in Bangkok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongpisit Wuttidittachotti

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the performance evaluation of 3G mobile networks for one kind of multimedia application called Voice over IP (VoIP within Bangkok, the capital city of Thailand, using Line and Skype, two popular VoIP applications. This study used evaluation of voice quality provided by both applications. The tests have been conducted using stationary scenarios over 5 major 3G mobile networks, served by 5 operators, within 14 universities in the inner city of Bangkok in order to gather data of degraded speech files. Then, the data was measured using Perceptual Evaluation of Speech Quality (PESQ to find Mean Opinion Score (MOS before analyzing with ANOVA and T-test, which are statistical tools, so that the discussion and conclusion can be eventually derived.

  4. Adaptation Strategies to Address Coastal Erosion/Flooding: A Case Study of the Communities in Bang Khun Thian District, Bangkok, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Rawadee Jarungrattanapong; Areeya Manasboonphemphool

    2009-01-01

    Coastal erosion is a serious problem in Thailand nowadays. The impacts of coastal erosion on the flat and low-lying Gulf area are expected to be high. The sediment supply to the coasts in the Upper Gulf of Thailand, including Bang Khun Thian district in Bangkok, has been decreasing because of dam constructions, combined with relative sealevel rise (subsidence) due to excessive ground water extraction. The loss of coastal land significantly affects the livelihood of the local people. At presen...

  5. Suitable Assimilation Model of Culture, Beliefs and Rites Concerning Deities of Buddhism and Hindu-Brahmanism for Peace of Thai Society in Bangkok and Circumferences

    OpenAIRE

    Phra M.K. Kaewchaiya; Suoneth Photisan; Makhawin Purisuttamo

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: At present, Thai society widely assimilates culture, beliefs and rites concerning deities of Buddhism and Hindu-Brahmanism by worshipping the deity images at the temples or the abodes of gods in Bangkok and circumferences. A typical worship is to pray the deity for help. As a matter of fact, people should help themselves first and use a prayer as willpower. The purpose of this research were these; (1) to investigate the background of culture, belief and rites concerning dei...

  6. 16S ribosomal RNA gene-based phylogenetic analysis of abundant bacteria in river, canal and potable water in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Nobuyasu; Nishiguchi, Takahiro; Utrarachkij, Fuangfa; Suthienkul, Orasa; Nasu, Masao

    2013-01-01

    In Southeast Asian countries, industrialization and urbanization is occurring rapidly, and water pollution in rivers and canals poses serious problems in some areas, especially in cities. Excess inflow of domestic, agricultural, and industrial wastewater to freshwater environments disturbs the aquatic microbial ecosystem, which can further pollute water by inhibiting biodegradation of pollutants. Therefore, monitoring of microbes in freshwater environment is important to identify changes in indigenous microbial populations and to estimate the influence of wastewater inflows on them. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis is suitable for monitoring changes in microbial communities caused by human activities, but this method can be difficult in eutrophic freshwater samples that contain PCR inhibitors. In this study, we optimized DNA extraction procedures and PCR conditions for DGGE analysis of bacterial populations in freshwater samples (canal, river, and tap water) collected in Bangkok, Thailand. A simple freeze-thaw procedure was effective for extracting DNA from bacterial cells in the samples, and LA Taq with added bovine serum albumin provided the best PCR amplification. The PCR-DGGE approach revealed that the most common bacteria in freshwater samples belonged to Gammaproteobacteria, while a Gram-positive bacterium was present at Bangkok Noi Canal. Temporally and spatially continuous analyses of bacterial populations in Bangkok canals and rivers by PCR-DGGE approach should be useful to recognize disturbances of microbial ecosystems caused by excess inflows of wastewater.

  7. The Conclusion of the Roman-Gothic Peace Treaty in 382

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Cedilnik

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Seeking to call attention to the possibilities raised by the available sources but so far left unexamined, the author indicates some possible interpretations, which, however, can be proved with no more certainty than the prevailing view. Assuming that they might be correct, the course of events which led to the peace treaty of 382 may be summarised as follows. After the crushing defeat suffered by the Roman army in the Battle of Adrianople on August 9th, 378, Emperor Gratian attempted to stem the hostile rampages of the Goths, Huns, and Alans by offering them a truce in the same year. Since he was unsuccessful, the appointment of Theodosius as the new Emperor in the eastern part of the Roman Empire implied that the latter, at the head of a reorganised eastern army, would bear the main burden and responsibility in the Gothic war. In keeping with this plan, Illyricum, previously annexed to the West in its entirety, was divided into the western and eastern parts. The eastern part with the dioceses of Dacia and Macedonia, perceived as more prone to invasions by the Goths and their associates, the Huns and Alans, was annexed to Theodosius’ East, while the western part remained subject to the western administrative structures. If the campaigns of Theodosius’ army proved successful, the West was presumably no longer expected to come under attack, so the troops stationed there were, in the unlikely event of an attack, meant to stop the enemy’s progress only if Theodosius’ army should fail to carry out its basic plan. Since the year 379 was marked by Roman successes, owing to the disorganised warfare of the enemy troops, the attack of Alatheus and Saphrax’ group on Pannonia in the spring of 380 came as a surprise, probably no longer seriously contemplated. The surprise may have been still enhanced if the members of the triethnic group did not invade Pannonia from the south, across the Sava River, as might have been expected from their sojourn

  8. 条约保留程序问题研究%Research on the problems in the process of rule of law program Chinese reservations to treaties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄萃芸

    2015-01-01

    条约保留是条约法理论和实践中最为复杂的问题. 条约保留的 《实践指南》 对于条约保留制度的发展意义重大, 并且仍在不断地发扬光大. 在国际法中, 条约保留有其存在的法理基础, 条约保留的提出程序在条约法公约和 《实践指南》 中有严格规定, 并不断顺应形势要求发展壮大. 中国在大力推进法治进程中, 应主动消除条约保留实践中的不足, 积极践行条约保留制度的新发展.%Reservations to treaties is a complex problem to the theory and practice of the law of treaties . The practice of reservations to treaties "guide" for the system of reservations to treaties and the development of great significance , and still continue to carry forward .In international law , Reservations to treaties is a legal basis for its existence the proposed treaty reservation procedures in the Convention on the law of treaties and the"guide"in the practice of strict requirements , and constantly adapt to the situation requirement develop-ment.China should take the initiative to eliminate the problems in practice of reservations to treaties in vigor-ously promoting the rule of law in the process ,, the new development of practicing the system of reservations to treaties.

  9. Mapping and Imaging Methodologies within the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty's On-Site Inspection Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, W.; Sussman, A. J.; Kelley, R. E.; Wohletz, K. H.; Schultz-Fellenz, E. S.

    2013-12-01

    On-site inspection (OSI) is the final verification measure of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). OSIs rely heavily on geologic and geophysical investigations. The objective is to apply methods that are effective, efficient and minimally intrusive. We present a general overview of the OSI as provisioned in the CTBT, specifying the allowed techniques and the timeline for their application. A CTBT OSI relies on many geological, geophysical and radiological methods. The search area for an OSI is mostly defined by uncertainty in the location of a suspect event detected by the International Monitoring System (IMS) and reported through the International Data Center and can be as large as 1000 km2. Thus OSI methods are fundamentally divided into general survey methods that narrow the search area and more focused, detailed survey methods to look for evidence of a potential underground explosion and try to find its location within an area of several km2. The purpose and goal of a CTBT OSI, as specified in the Article IV of the Treaty, is 'to clarify whether a nuclear explosion has been carried out in violation of the Treaty' and to 'gather any facts which might assist in identifying any possible violator.' Through the use of visual, geophysical, and radiological techniques, OSIs can detect and characterize anomalies and artifacts related to the event that triggered the inspection. In the context of an OSI, an 'observable' is a physical property that is important to recognize and document because of its relevance to the purpose of the inspection. Potential observables include: (1) visual observables such as ground/environmental disturbances and manmade features, (2) geophysical techniques that provide measurements of altered and damaged ground and buried artifacts, and (3) radiological measurements on samples. Information provided in this presentation comes from observations associated with historical testing activities that were not intended to go undetected

  10. Nuclear disarmament. Options for the coming non-proliferation treaty surveillance cycle; Nukleare Abruestung. Optionen fuer den kommenden Ueberpruefungszyklus des NVV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Harald

    2011-07-01

    The report is aimed on the nuclear disarmament discussion with respect to the disagreement of nuclear weapon states and those without nuclear weapons, esp. the non-aligned movement (NAM) concerning the non-proliferation treaty. The report covers the following issues: The role of the non-proliferation treaty, nuclear disarmament in the last surveillance conference 2010, the different disarmament philosophies, the possibilities of bridging the disagreement, further disarmament options for the future non-proliferation treaty surveillance cycle, German options for the future surveillance cycle.

  11. 浅谈南极条约体系中的国际条约在中国的适用%On the Domestic Application of International Treaties of Antarctic Treaty System in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭鹏

    2016-01-01

    南极由于其独特的地理位置和重要的战略地位,已经成为各国间综合国力比拼、政治博弈、进行国家战略扩张、展现科研能力的重要"舞台".以《南极条约》为核心的南极条约体系,经过 50多年的发展和完善,形成了重要的国际法体系,受到缔约国的尊重和认可.各缔约国政府主要通过制定国内法来执行与南极有关的条约的规定.中国作为《南极条约》的缔约国以及南极条约体系下各类条约的重要成员国,在南极条约地区积极开展各项科研活动,发挥了重要的作用.文章简要概述了国际条约在我国国内适用的方式,结合我国对加入的相关南极条约的国内立法现状,分析目前南极条约适用的法律法规存在的问题,并给出完善国际条约适用体系的建议.%Due to its unique geographical location and important strategical status,the Antarctica has be-come a significant "stage",on which various countries compete for their overall national strength,to show scientific research abilities,and to expand their political influences.The Antarctic Treaty and relat-ed agreements,collectively known as the Antarctic Treaty System (ATS),regulate international relations with respect to Antarctica.ATS has been developed more than 50 years and its main objective is to en-sure the interests of all humankind that Antarctica shall be used exclusively for peaceful purposes and be-come the scene or object of international discord.China has played an important role as a party member under the ATS.How to make the Antarctic Treaties effective in domestic legal system,it requires to es-tablish a perfect treaty -application system.The paper summarized the theory of the treaty application, combined with the practice status of treaties application in China,particularly focused on the Antarctic Treaties.It also introduced the administrative litigation of the ATS application system in China and ana-lyzed the problems of the

  12. The Implications of International Treaty Arbitration for International Commercial Arbitration and the Reform of International Treaty Arbitration%投资条约仲裁对“国际商事仲裁”之借鉴与改革

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁杜娟

    2012-01-01

    Investment treaty arbitration has been established based on international commercial arbitration, reflecting not only the basic features of international commercial arbitration in provisions, but also the value orientation of international commercial arbitration in practice. Investment treaty arbitration differs from international commercial arbitration inparticipants in a dispute, dispute issues and the basis of the jurisdiction of arbitral tribunal. In order to avoid the conflict between investment treaty arbitration and international commercial arbitration, some international organizations and countries begin the efforts to reform investment treaty arbitration, which could be regarded as the development of international commercial arbitration.%投资条约仲裁是以国际商事仲裁为模板建立的,其不仅在具体规则中体现了“国际商事仲裁”的基本特性,同时其实践中无不体现“国际商事仲裁”的价值取向。投资条约仲裁在争端主体、争议事项、仲裁庭管辖权之基础等多方面存在特殊性。为避免投资条约仲裁与国际商事仲裁“秘密性”等原则相冲突,一些国际组织和国家开始了改革投资条约仲裁的努力,这些努力可以视为对国际商事仲裁的发展起来。

  13. China, Japan, and the United States in World War II: The Relinquishment of Unequal Treaties in 1943

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Ma

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to examine how the United States transformed its foreign policy to promote China as an “equal state” in international politics during World War II, with focus on the process of the American relinquishment of its unequal treaties with China in 1943. In particular, it concentrates on analyzing the conflicts between the United States and Japan in the process of relinquishment. By examining the rivalry between the United States and Japan in the social warfare – propaganda – we can see that the relinquishment of the unequal treaties in 1943 not only marked a historical turning point in America’s China policy, but also had a great impact on the transformation of East Asian politics in World War II and its influence in the world politics.

  14. Measurement of 37Ar to support technology for On-Site Inspection under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-BanTreaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalseth, C. E.; Day, A. R.; Haas, D. A.; Hoppe, E. W.; Hyronimus, B. J.; Keillor, M. E.; Mace, E. K.; Orrell, J. L.; Seifert, A.; Woods, V. T.

    2011-10-01

    On-Site Inspection (OSI) is a key component of the verification regime for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Measurements of radionuclide isotopes created by an underground nuclear explosion are a valuable signature of a Treaty violation. Argon-37 is produced by neutron interaction with calcium in soil, 40Ca( n, α) 37Ar. For OSI, the 35-day half-life of 37Ar provides both high specific activity and sufficient time for completion of an inspection before decay limits sensitivity. This paper presents a low-background internal-source gas proportional counter with an 37Ar measurement sensitivity level equivalent to 45 mBq/SCM in wholeair.

  15. Measurement of 37Ar to support technology for On-site Inspection under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty

    CERN Document Server

    Aalseth, C E; Haas, D A; Hoppe, E W; Hyronimus, B J; Keillor, M E; Mace, E K; Orrell, J L; Seifert, A; Woods, V T

    2010-01-01

    On-Site Inspection (OSI) is a key component of the verification regime for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Measurements of radionuclide isotopes created by an underground nuclear explosion are a valuable signature of a Treaty violation. Argon-37 is produced from neutron interaction with calcium in soil, 40Ca(n,{\\alpha})37Ar. For OSI, the 35-day half-life of 37Ar provides both high specific activity and sufficient time for completion of an inspection before decay limits sensitivity. This paper presents a low-background internal-source gas proportional counter with an 37Ar measurement sensitivity level equivalent to 45.1 mBq/SCM in whole air.

  16. Machine learning for radioxenon event classification for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stocki, Trevor J., E-mail: trevor_stocki@hc-sc.gc.c [Radiation Protection Bureau, 775 Brookfield Road, A.L. 6302D1, Ottawa, ON, K1A 1C1 (Canada); Li, Guichong; Japkowicz, Nathalie [School of Information Technology and Engineering, University of Ottawa, 800 King Edward Avenue, Ottawa, ON, K1N 6N5 (Canada); Ungar, R. Kurt [Radiation Protection Bureau, 775 Brookfield Road, A.L. 6302D1, Ottawa, ON, K1A 1C1 (Canada)

    2010-01-15

    A method of weapon detection for the Comprehensive nuclear-Test-Ban-Treaty (CTBT) consists of monitoring the amount of radioxenon in the atmosphere by measuring and sampling the activity concentration of {sup 131m}Xe, {sup 133}Xe, {sup 133m}Xe, and {sup 135}Xe by radionuclide monitoring. Several explosion samples were simulated based on real data since the measured data of this type is quite rare. These data sets consisted of different circumstances of a nuclear explosion, and are used as training data sets to establish an effective classification model employing state-of-the-art technologies in machine learning. A study was conducted involving classic induction algorithms in machine learning including Naive Bayes, Neural Networks, Decision Trees, k-Nearest Neighbors, and Support Vector Machines, that revealed that they can successfully be used in this practical application. In particular, our studies show that many induction algorithms in machine learning outperform a simple linear discriminator when a signal is found in a high radioxenon background environment.

  17. Machine Learning and Data Mining for Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, S; Vaidya, S

    2009-07-30

    The Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) is gaining renewed attention in light of growing worldwide interest in mitigating risks of nuclear weapons proliferation and testing. Since the International Monitoring System (IMS) installed the first suite of sensors in the late 1990's, the IMS network has steadily progressed, providing valuable support for event diagnostics. This progress was highlighted at the recent International Scientific Studies (ISS) Conference in Vienna in June 2009, where scientists and domain experts met with policy makers to assess the current status of the CTBT Verification System. A strategic theme within the ISS Conference centered on exploring opportunities for further enhancing the detection and localization accuracy of low magnitude events by drawing upon modern tools and techniques for machine learning and large-scale data analysis. Several promising approaches for data exploitation were presented at the Conference. These are summarized in a companion report. In this paper, we introduce essential concepts in machine learning and assess techniques which could provide both incremental and comprehensive value for event discrimination by increasing the accuracy of the final data product, refining On-Site-Inspection (OSI) conclusions, and potentially reducing the cost of future network operations.

  18. Cosmic veto gamma-spectrometry for Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnett, J.L., E-mail: jonathan.burnett@awe.co.uk; Davies, A.V.

    2014-05-21

    The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) is supported by a global network of monitoring stations that perform high-resolution gamma-spectrometry on air filter samples for the identification of 85 radionuclides. At the UK CTBT Radionuclide Laboratory (GBL15), a novel cosmic veto gamma-spectrometer has been developed to improve the sensitivity of station measurements, providing a mean background reduction of 80.8% with mean MDA improvements of 45.6%. The CTBT laboratory requirement for a {sup 140}Ba MDA is achievable after 1.5 days counting compared to 5–7 days using conventional systems. The system consists of plastic scintillation plates that detect coincident cosmic-ray interactions within an HPGe gamma-spectrometer using the Canberra Lynx{sup TM} multi-channel analyser. The detector is remotely configurable using a TCP/IP interface and requires no dedicated coincidence electronics. It would be especially useful in preventing false-positives at remote station locations (e.g. Halley, Antarctica) where sample transfer to certified laboratories is logistically difficult. The improved sensitivity has been demonstrated for a CTBT air filter sample collected after the Fukushima incident.

  19. Pipeline Implementation of Real Time Event Cross Correlation for Nuclear Treaty Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junek, W. N.; Wehlen, J. A., III

    2014-12-01

    The United States National Data Center (US NDC) is responsible for monitoring international compliance to nuclear test ban treaties. This mission is performed through real time acquisition, processing, and evaluation of data acquired by a global network of seismic, hydroacoustic, and infrasonic sensors. Automatic and human reviewed event solutions are stored in a data warehouse which contains over 15 years of alphanumeric information and waveform data. A significant effort is underway to employ the data warehouse in real time processing to improve the quality of automatic event solutions, reduce analyst burden, and supply decision makers with information regarding relevant historic events. To this end, the US NDC processing pipeline has been modified to automatically recognize events built in the past. Event similarity information and the most relevant historic solution are passed to the human analyst to assist their evaluation of automatically formed events. This is achieved through real time cross correlation of selected seismograms from automatically formed events against those stored in the data warehouse. Historic events used in correlation analysis are selected based on a set of user defined parameters, which are tuned to maintain pipeline timeliness requirements. Software architecture and database infrastructure were modified using a multithreaded design for increased processing speed, database connection pools for parallel queries, and Oracle spatial indexing to enhance query efficiency. This functionality allows the human analyst to spend more time studying anomalous events and less time rebuilding routine events.

  20. Deconstructing national leadership: politicians' accounts of electoral success and failure in the Irish Lisbon Treaty referenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Michele; Stevenson, Clifford

    2013-03-01

    The Self Categorization approach to national leadership proposes that leaders rhetorically construct national identity as essentialized and inevitable in order to consensualize and mobilize the population. In contrast, discursive studies have demonstrated how national politicians flexibly construct the nation to manage their own accountability in local interactions, though this in turn has neglected broader leadership processes. The present paper brings both approaches together to examine how and when national politicians construct versions of national identity in order to account for their failure as well as success in mobilizing the electorate. Eight semi-structured conversational style interviews were conducted with a strategic sample of eight leading Irish politicians on the subject of the 2008/2009 Irish Lisbon Treaty referenda. Using a Critical Discourse Psychology approach, the hegemonic repertoire of the 'settled will' of the informed and consensualized Irish nation was identified across all interviews. Politicians either endorsed the 'settled will' repertoire as evidence of their successful leadership, or rejected the repertoire by denying the rationality or unity of the populace to account for their failure. Our results suggest national identity is only constructed as essentialized and inevitable to the extent that it serves a strategic political purpose.

  1. Research of Nasosinusitis in Internal Classic and Treaties of Cold-Attack%鼻渊溯源

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐秋玲; 刘涛

    2011-01-01

    时代,人们认为变应性鼻炎与肺、肾、胆、手足阳明经、足太阳膀胱经关系密切,为其后的治疗奠定了坚实的理论基础.认为鼻塞、鼻鸣、鼻干等症状与太阳经病、阳明经病及寒湿之邪有关,并提出相应治法,为变应性鼻炎的治疗提供可靠依据.%People in the period of Internal Classic had known the there were a close relation between nasosinusitis and lung, kidney, gallbladder, hand and foot Yang Ming meridian and foot Tai Yang bladder meridian, which built a theory base for the therapy of allergic rhitinis. Treaties of Cold-Attack thought the syndromes of nasal obstruction and dryness were related to Tai Yang meridian disease, Yang Ming meridian disease and the evil of cold and dampness, and brought out the responding therapy methods, which provided depending proof for the therapy of allergic rhitinis.

  2. Association of Sanitary Conditions and Bacteriological Quality of Tube Ice in Ice Plants in Metropolitan Bangkok, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kraichat Tantrakarnapa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation aimed at studying the correlation between ice plant sanitary conditions and bacteriological quality of ice. The sanitary conditions in accordance with GMP regulations, the bacteriological quality of tube ice, and the processing water in 20 plants in Bangkok were studied. A modified inspection form from the Office of Food and Drug Administration was used for sanitary condition surveys. Ice and processing water samples were collected 2 times per plant with 3 samples each time. All 120 samples were analyzed for bacteriological quality by means of Standard Plate Count technique (Pour plate method and Most Probable Number technique (MPN method. The results indicated that forty percent (8 Tube plants failed and the remaining passed sanitary condition criteria. 23% of Tube Ice samples were acceptable in the standard permission level in terms of Total coliform bacteria and Fecal coliform bacteria. All Tube Ice plant processing water samples were acceptable in comparison with the standard permission level. Ice plant sanitary conditions were significantly correlated to bacteriological quality of the ice (p<0.05. Ice plant manufacturers should develop and implement Sanitary Standard and Operational Procedures (S.S.O.P. in accordance with all GMP requirements to improve Ice plant sanitary conditions.

  3. Green residues from Bangkok green space for renewable energy recovery, phosphorus recycling and greenhouse gases emission reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thitanuwat, Bussarakam; Polprasert, Chongchin; Englande, Andrew J

    2017-03-01

    Effective ways to integrate human life quality, environmental pollution mitigation and efficient waste management strategies are becoming a crisis challenge for sustainable urban development. The aims of this study are: (1) to evaluate and recommend an optimum Urban Green Space (UGS) area for the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (BMA); and (2) to quantify potential renewable resources including electricity generation and potential nutrient recovery from generated ash. Green House Gases (GHGs) emissions from the management of Green Residues (GR) produced in a recommended UGS expansion are estimated and compared with those from the existing BMA waste management practice. Results obtained from this study indicate that an increase in UGS from its current 2.02% to 22.4% of the BMA urban area is recommended. This optimum value is primarily due to the area needed as living space for its population. At this scale, GR produced of about 334kt·y(-1) may be used to generate electricity at the rate of 206GWh·y(-1) by employing incineration technology. Additionally, instead of going to landfill, phosphorus (P) contained in the ash of 1077 t P·y(-1) could be recovered to produce P fertilizer to be recycled for agricultural cultivation. Income earned from selling these products is found to offset all of the operational cost of the proposed GR management methodology itself plus 7% of the cost of BMA's Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) operations. About 70% of the current GHGs emission may be reduced based on incineration simulation.

  4. Impacts of housing development on nutrients flow along canals in a peri-urban area of Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, R; Hara, Y; Sekiyama, M; Hiramatsu, A

    2010-01-01

    Change of nutrients load and flow according to land-use change induced by housing development was investigated in Bang Yai, Nonthaburi, Thailand, which located in the peri-urban area of Bangkok. Each house in the newly developed residential community was regulated to be equipped with a septic tank to collect night soil. However, greywater and leachate from the septic tank was collected by a community sewage system and discharged into the canals with insufficient treatment, while the canals still function as infrastructure for irrigation and transportation. In the study area, built-up area became 1.4 times and agricultural fields decreased by 13% from 2003 until 2007. Total nutrients load to the canals was increased by 25% as nitrogen and 14% as phosphorus according to the increase of built-up area. Net nutrients load from agricultural fields was largely set off when we evaluated nutrients inflow from the canals to the agricultural field through irrigation. Consequently, nutrients load from domestic wastewater accounted most of net nutrients load into the canal.

  5. Molecular characterization of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in contaminated chicken meat sold at supermarkets in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaisatit, Chaiyaporn; Tribuddharat, Chanwit; Pulsrikarn, Chaiwat; Dejsirilert, Surang

    2012-01-01

    We assessed contamination by antibiotic-resistant bacteria in chicken meat obtained from supermarkets in Bangkok, Thailand. The prevalence of Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli was 18.7% (14/75) and 53% (106/200), respectively. Most probable number (MPN) analysis showed that 56.7% of the samples (34/60) were in violation of the limit of allowable coliform bacteria in chicken meat, for which the maximum is 46,000 MPN/g. Multidrug-resistant phenotypes of both S. enterica and E. coli were found. The presence of class 1 integrons was demonstrated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and dot-blot hybridization. PCR showed that class 1 integrons were present in 42.9% (6/14) and 37.7% (40/106) of S. enterica and E. coli isolates, respectively. Resistance genes identified in this study were aadA2, aadA4, aadA22, and aadA23 (for aminoglycoside resistance); dfrA5 (for trimethoprim resistance), and lnuF (for lincosamide resistance). Four S. enterica isolates underwent multilocus sequence typing and the results were sequence type (ST) 50, ST 96, ST 1543, and ST 1549, which matched well with strains from many countries and reflected an international spread. Our study revealed that class 1 integrons have spread into community sources and might play an important role in horizontal antibiotic resistance gene transfer.

  6. Do Thai parents really know about the sexual risk taking of their children? A qualitative study in Bangkok.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fongkaew, Warunee; Cupp, Pamela K; Miller, Brenda A; Atwood, Katherine A; Chamratrithirong, Apichat; Rhucharoenpornpanich, Orratai; Rosati, Michael J; Chookhare, Warunee; Byrnes, Hilary F

    2012-09-01

    This qualitative study explores the perceptions of parents and adolescents toward sexual risk-taking behaviors. In-depth interviews were conducted with 30 parents and 30 adolescents (aged 13-14 years) in Bangkok, and were analyzed by using coding and thematic analysis. The results showed that although parents generally believed that Thai teens begin to have sex at an early age and engage in sexual risk-taking behaviors, they trusted that their teens would follow parental guidance and rules and not engage in sexual activity at this age. Most of the Thai teens reported that their parents were not really aware of their sexual behaviors because of their tendency to keep their sexual stories secret for fear of being scolded, blamed, and punished. The teens also reported that they wanted their parents to listen, give them warmth and more freedom, and be more in touch with their activities. Parents expressed their need for knowledge and skills so that they could help guide their adolescent children to avoid sexual risk-taking behaviors. A family intervention specifically aimed at empowering Thai urban parents is needed.

  7. Traveler's Diarrhea in Foreign Travelers in Southeast Asia: A Cross-Sectional Survey Study in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittitrakul, Chatporn; Lawpoolsri, Saranath; Kusolsuk, Teera; Olanwijitwong, Jutarmas; Tangkanakul, Waraluk; Piyaphanee, Watcharapong

    2015-09-01

    The effect of origin and destination country on traveler's diarrhea incidence rates in Southeast Asia is poorly understood, and research generally only addresses diarrhea in travelers from the developed world. This study evaluated the attack rate and effects of traveler's diarrhea by origin and destination and analyzed key risk factors. A self-administered questionnaire was provided to foreign travelers departing Southeast Asia from Suvarnabhumi Airport, Bangkok, Thailand. It evaluated traveler demographics, relevant knowledge and practices, experiences of diarrhea, and the details and consequences of each diarrheal episode. A total of 7,963 questionnaires were completed between April 2010 and July 2011. Respondents were 56% male (mean age 35) with a mean and median duration of stay of 28 days and 10 days, respectively. Most respondents were from Europe (36.8%) or East Asia (33.4%). The attack rate of traveler's diarrhea was 16.1%, with an incidence rate of 32.05 per 100 person months. Travelers' origin and destination countries significantly related to diarrhea risk. Oceanians had the highest risk (32.9%) and East Asians the lowest (2.6%). Vietnam and Indonesia were the highest risk destinations (19.3%). Other significant factors were youth, trip duration, number of countries visited, and frequently drinking beverages with ice.

  8. Determining an influencing area affecting walking speed on footpath: A case study of a footpath in CBD Bangkok, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipakornkiat, Chalat; Limanond, Thirayoot; Kim, Hyunmyung

    2012-11-01

    Intuitively, the crowd density in front of a pedestrian will affect his walking speed along a footpath. Nevertheless, the size of the influencing area affecting walking speed has rarely been scrutinized in the past. This study attempts to determine the distance in front of pedestrians that principally affects their walking speed under normal conditions, using a case study of a footpath in Bangkok. We recorded pedestrian activities along a test section of 20 m, with an effective walking width of 2.45 m in the morning and at noon. The morning dataset was extracted for analyzing various influencing distances, ranging from 1 to 20 m in front of the pedestrian. The bi-directional walking speed-pedestrian density models were developed, for each tested distance, using linear regression analysis. It was found that an influencing length in the range of 5-8 m yields the highest correlation coefficients. In the case of high density conditions, the walking speed of the equally-split flow (50:50) was found to be higher than other proportional flow analyzed. The finding has useful implications on the improvement of the walking simulations in mesoscopic models.

  9. A system dynamics model to evaluate effects of source separation of municipal solid waste management: A case of Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukholthaman, Pitchayanin; Sharp, Alice

    2016-06-01

    Municipal solid waste has been considered as one of the most immediate and serious problems confronting urban government in most developing and transitional economies. Providing solid waste performance highly depends on the effectiveness of waste collection and transportation process. Generally, this process involves a large amount of expenditures and has very complex and dynamic operational problems. Source separation has a major impact on effectiveness of waste management system as it causes significant changes in quantity and quality of waste reaching final disposal. To evaluate the impact of effective source separation on waste collection and transportation, this study adopts a decision support tool to comprehend cause-and-effect interactions of different variables in waste management system. A system dynamics model that envisages the relationships of source separation and effectiveness of waste management in Bangkok, Thailand is presented. Influential factors that affect waste separation attitudes are addressed; and the result of change in perception on waste separation is explained. The impacts of different separation rates on effectiveness of provided collection service are compared in six scenarios. 'Scenario 5' gives the most promising opportunities as 40% of residents are willing to conduct organic and recyclable waste separation. The results show that better service of waste collection and transportation, less monthly expense, extended landfill life, and satisfactory efficiency of the provided service at 60.48% will be achieved at the end of the simulation period. Implications of how to get public involved and conducted source separation are proposed.

  10. Declining trend in transmitted drug resistance detected in a prospective cohort study of acute HIV infection in Bangkok, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Donn J; Crowell, Trevor A; Sirivichayakul, Sunee; Pinyakorn, Suteeraporn; Kroon, Eugene; Benjapornpong, Khunthalee; Intasan, Jintana; Trichavaroj, Rapee; Tovanabutra, Sodsai; Robb, Merlin; Phanuphak, Praphan; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Phanuphak, Nittaya

    2016-01-01

    Introduction As availability of antiretroviral therapy expands in developing countries, the risk for transmission of drug-resistant HIV also increases. Patients with acute HIV infection (AHI) provide an opportunity for real-time monitoring of transmitted drug resistance (TDR). SEARCH 010/RV 254 study is a prospective, longitudinal study of AHI. This analysis was performed to characterize changes in TDR over time in persons enrolled in the AHI cohort. Methods Genotype testing for TDR mutations was performed on 229 subjects enrolled from 2009 to 2014. Results The cohort was predominantly male (95%) and men who have sex with men (92%). TDR prevalence was 7.0%, declining from 12.5% in 2009–2010 to 4.8% in 2013–2014 (p=0.08). By drug class, resistance prevalence was 3.6% for proteases inhibitors, 2.6% for nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors and 2.2% for non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. The greatest decline in prevalence was seen in the non-nucleoside reverses transcriptase inhibitors, from 9.4% in 2009–2010 to 0.7% in 2013–2014 (p=0.005). Conclusions TDR appears to be declining among individuals with AHI in Bangkok and in 2013 to 2014 met the World Health Organization definition for low prevalence. Continued surveillance is necessary to determine if this trend persists. PMID:27802846

  11. The traffic crisis and a tale of two cities: Traffic and air quality in Bangkok and Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pendakur, V.S.; Badami, M.G.

    1995-12-31

    This paper focuses on congestion management techniques, traffic congestion levels and air quality. By using data from Bangkok and Mexico City, it illustrates the need for drastic changes in transportation policy tools and techniques for congestion management and for improving environmental quality. New approaches to investment and regulatory policy analysis and implementation are suggested. This requires the inclusion of all costs and benefits (economic and ecological) in the policy matrix so that investment and regulatory policies act in unison. Megacities are dominant in social, political and economic terms. 30 to 60% of national GDP is typically produced in these cities. Their human and motor vehicle populations have been doubling every 15-20 and 6-10 years respectively. They also have the most severe traffic congestion and air quality problems. They have the nation`s highest incidence of poverty and absolute poverty. Large portions of their populations endure severely unhealthy housing and sanitation conditions. Following are important characteristics of urban transportation systems in the megacities: the city centres are heavily congested with motorized traffic; traffic crawl rates vary from 2 to 10 km/hr; car and motorcycle ownership are increasing at annual rates of 10-12% and 15-20% respectively; significant air pollution with no relief in sight; TDM strategies are primarily creating new supply of road capacity; fairly high transit trips with substantial transit investments; weak air pollution monitoring and enforcement; and fairly cheap fuel and high costs of vehicles.

  12. Neglected Canals: Deterioration of Indigenous Irrigation System by Urbanization in the West Peri-Urban Area of Bangkok Metropolitan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Hara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the deterioration of indigenous irrigation system traditionally developed in the past to serve the peri-urban agricultural lands that have been affected by rapid urbanization in the Bangkok Metropolitan Region. The study is based on data collection from mapping, field survey and interview analyses and identifies current canal deteriorating conditions in four categories: filled, covered, narrowed and shallow, and normal. The findings reveal that different types of canal deteriorations are associated with their private ownership. A typology of land configurations of urban and non-urban land uses along private canals is pointed out in order to understand their relation with canal deterioration types. Caused by urbanization, the degradation of the existing canal networks has provoked conflicts between local farmers and new proprietors, especially real estate developers. Such canal deterioration essentially reduces their ability to convey a water supply to feed agricultural lands, consequently leading to the discontinuation of land use for agriculture and its eventual transformation into urban developments.

  13. The development of a handbook from heritable literature for desirable characteristics among Thai youths in schools in Bangkok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mali Mokaramanee

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was deigned to develop a teacher’s handbook for desirable characteristic creation from heritable literature for Thai youth in schools in Bangkok. The conceptual framework was developed by analyzing four pieces of heritable literature: Ramayana (King Rama I Issue, I-nao (King Rama II Issue, Khun Chang – Khun Phan (National Library Issue and Phra Aphai Mani (Sunthorn Phu Issue. The research results found that there are nine current problems that need to be overcome in order to develop desirable characteristics for youths in schools. There are additionally eight desirable characteristics that need to be developed among youths, based on the statement of the Office of the Basic Education Commission. The investigation found that families, social media, community and religious leaders and schools all have an important role in promoting or creating desirable characteristics for youths. The content analysis found that all but one piece of heritable literature analysed contained content according to the eight desirable characteristics for youths. The handbook developed from the four pieces of heritable literature could be divided into four books for each piece of literature, which can be used as classroom teaching materials to create desirable characteristics for youths.

  14. Sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in street dust in a tropical Asian mega-city, Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonyatumanond, Ruchaya; Murakami, Michio; Wattayakorn, Gullaya; Togo, Ayako; Takada, Hideshige

    2007-10-01

    We collected samples of roadside air, automobile exhaust soot, tires, asphalt, and used engine oil in a tropical Asian mega-city, Bangkok, Thailand, and analyzed them for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and hopanes. The concentrations and compositions of PAHs and hopanes were utilized to identify the sources of PAHs in street dust, in which high concentrations of PAHs were reported in our previous study. Weight-based concentrations of total PAHs had the following order: gasoline-powered vehicle soot (2600+/-2900 microg/g; n=4)>diesel-powered vehicle soot (115+/-245 microg/g; n=7) approximately roadside aerosols (101+/-35 microg/g; n=5) approximately used engine oil (97+/-65 microg/g; n=4) approximately tire wear particles (82+/-41 microg/g; n=5)>asphalt (2.3+/-1.6 microg/g; n=3)>street dust (1.1+/-0.8 microg/g; n=10). In cluster analysis, all the source materials fell into different clusters from that in which street dust fell, indicating that multiple source materials contribute to PAHs in the street dust. Multiple regression analysis of PAH profiles and diagnostics of hopane compositions identified tire debris as the major contributor of PAHs to street dust, followed by diesel vehicle exhaust.

  15. Unexpectedly high HIV prevalence among female sex workers in Bangkok, Thailand in a respondent-driven sampling survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manopaiboon, C; Prybylski, D; Subhachaturas, W; Tanpradech, S; Suksripanich, O; Siangphoe, U; Johnston, L G; Akarasewi, P; Anand, A; Fox, K K; Whitehead, S J

    2013-01-01

    The pattern of sex work in Thailand has shifted substantially over the last two decades from direct commercial establishments to indirect venues and non-venue-based settings. This respondent-driven sampling survey was conducted in Bangkok in 2007 among female sex workers (FSW) in non-venue-based settings to pilot a new approach to surveillance among this hidden population. Fifteen initial participants recruited 707 consenting participants who completed a behavioural questionnaire, and provided oral fluid for HIV testing, and urine for sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing. Overall HIV prevalence was 20.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 16.3-24.7). Three-quarters of women were street-based (75.8%, 95% CI 69.9-81.1) who had an especially high HIV prevalence (22.7%, 95% CI 18.2-28.4); about 10 times higher than that found in routine sentinel surveillance among venue-based FSW (2.5%). STI prevalence (Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae) was 8.7% (95% CI 6.4-10.8) and 1.0% (95% CI 0.2-1.9), respectively. Lower price per sex act and a current STI infection were independently associated with HIV infection (P < 0.05). High HIV prevalence found among FSW participating in the survey, particularly non-venue-based FSW, identifies need for further prevention efforts. In addition, it identifies a higher-risk segment of FSW not reached through routine sentinel surveillance but accessible through this survey method.

  16. HIV DNA and Dementia in Treatment-Naïve HIV-1-Infected Individuals in Bangkok, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Shiramizu, Silvia Ratto-Kim , Pasiri Sithinamsuwan, Samart Nidhinandana, Sataporn Thitivichianlert, George Watt, Mark deSouza, Thippawan Chuenchitra, Suchitra Sukwit, Suwicha Chitpatima, Kevin Robertson, Robert Paul, Cecilia Shikuma, Victor Valcour

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available High HIV-1 DNA (HIV DNA levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC correlate with HIV-1-associated dementia (HAD in patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART. If this relationship also exists among HAART-naïve patients, then HIV DNA may be implicated in the pathogenesis of HAD. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between HIV DNA and cognition in subjects naïve to HAART in a neuro AIDS cohort in Bangkok, Thailand. Subjects with and without HAD were recruited and matched for age, gender, education, and CD4 cell count. PBMC and cellular subsets were analyzed for HIV DNA using real-time PCR. The median log10 HIV DNA copies per 106 PBMC for subjects with HAD (n=15 was 4.27, which was higher than that found in subjects without dementia (ND; n=15, 2.28, p<0.001. This finding was unchanged in a multivariate model adjusting for plasma HIV-1 RNA levels. From a small subset of individuals, in which adequate number of cells were available, more HIV DNA was in monocytes/macrophages from those with HAD compared to those with ND. These results are consistent with a previous report among HAART-experienced subjects, thus further implicating HIV DNA in the pathogenesis of HAD.

  17. Unwanted pregnancy: it's existing solutions from the perspective of young adults in Bangkok and the Abortion Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajayyothin, P; Dhamprapha, R

    1996-01-01

    727 students of 15 to 24 years old in Bangkok were randomly selected to study their opinion towards existing solutions for unwanted pregnancy and the conformity or controversy of their suggested solutions to Thai Abortion Law. The SPSS/PC package program was used for data analysis. The results show that more than 80 percent of the youth in this study do not prefer the abortion method, despite it's being vastly used as a mean of solving the problem and that the abortion must be done under the Thai Criminal Law section 305 (1) and (2). Otherwise, it might be reasonable for some critical medical conditions such as high risk pregnancy or anti HIV+ve. Hence, it is confirmed that the youth opinion towards abortion agree with the law almost completely except for the aspects of the baby's health and genetic diseases. With regard to better solutions of unwanted pregnancy, Thai young adults strongly recommend resolutions of allowing progress of pregnancy on the basis of kindliness and understanding of human-being in crisis with warm support from within and outside the families. Besides, strengthening of virtue of Thai culture along with sufficient sex education for young generation are also needed.

  18. The Need to Update Policies for Science, Exploration, Use and Protection in Outer Space: Learning from Experiences of the Antarctic Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Race, Margaret; Sterns, Patricia; Tennen, Leslie

    The Outer Space Treaty and its planetary protection provisions have served the science and space communities for over four decades in protecting planetary environments from biolog-ical contamination. However, the increasing pace of planned robotic and human missions, combined with our changed understanding of habitability and planetary environments, bring new challenges to environmental stewardship beyond Earth. This presentation reviews current environmental and planetary protection policies under the Outer Space Treaty and identifies specific gaps that could be problematic for the scientific community in the years and decades ahead. A comparison of the Antarctic Treaty and the Outer Space Treaty is also useful to identify important similarities and differences in approaches to environmental protection and management. Since both treaties aim to safeguard resources for humankind and ensure peace-ful scientific exploration and cooperation, it is instructive to analyze how each Treaty and its policies have been revised over time in response to various challenges— scientific, environmen-tal, commercial and otherwise. This comparison suggests that the space science community should become proactively involved in addressing issues of preservation, protection, and use of planetary environments, whether for science exploration or other activities. Perhaps the time has come to re-evaluate our piecemeal approach to planetary management, and undertake coordinated, international planning to develop a comprehensive framework for environmental management and decision making, one that applies to all types of human activities —not just scientific.

  19. The Fiscal Governance Treaty - the Recent Act in the European Play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica SUSANU

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The new paradigm that affects the current doctrine is particularly focused on building a strong community and it is also motivated by the intention of saving the Lisbon Treaty with its establishing the European Constitution. In the series of the numerous leading up steps required to achieve this goal, approaches the studies on the concept of sovereignty are necessary for clarification, given that in this way only the Union can be setup as a person - on the one hand, and - on the other hand, this is the basis of ensuring coherence between European political order and sovereignty / autonomy of national institutions. Bitter experiences of radical nationalism which culminated in the disasters of the Second World War led to the conceptual reconfiguration of the sovereignty, gradually replaced with a new expression, the super nationalism. Moreover, in order to hindering the possible future recurrence and the temptation to concentrate all the available powers at certain national governments’ disposal only, a comprehensive course of division of sovereignty was designed, as an optimal strategic alternative in ensuring the durability and sustainability of the European federalist model. In terms of economic integration and trade globalization, the taxation of a state has a rapid impact on another state, so that the rapprochement of the global tax policy, as well as the need to harmonize tax systems across countries are increasingly spoken about. Although that these measures can upset all tax systems deeply changing the approaches regarding both fiscal and political states’ sovereignty, in the current situation, such an unforeseen development is inherent. Therefore, each step meant to approach the full integration of the community raises special efforts for consensus actions and strongly motivated as well, by a very special interest at the highest level of the macroeconomic and political decision.

  20. L’habitat spontané comme un outil de développement urbain. Le cas de Bangkok Spontaneous Housing as a Tool for Urban Development, the Case of Bangkok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Gerbeaud

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available En Thaïlande, les ensembles d’habitat spontané s’étendent à toute la capitale, malgré des politiques publiques qui visent à les contrer. Ce sont aujourd’hui de véritables morceaux de ville qui dynamisent l’espace urbain, car étroitement liés à l’identité et à l’histoire de la ville. L’opposition entre habitat spontané et « logement formel », fréquente tant dans les productions scientifiques que dans les représentations, mérite donc d���être interrogée à Bangkok. À partir d’une analyse spatiale et architecturale, nous avons abordé l’habitat spontané comme une manière de fabriquer la ville centrée sur l’appropriation : au moins sous trois formes (habitat spontané pur, ancien, greffé, il assure par sa flexibilité la continuité du tissu urbain et s’y assimile progressivement. Si pour les autorités locales les communautés de bidonvilles demeurent un signe de sous-développement, certains architectes et acteurs y voient une source d’inspiration ainsi qu’un patrimoine populaire à préserver. Une métropolisation accrue et la mondialisation des échanges économiques, culturels, politiques, amènent de nouvelles modalités de négociation de l’espace urbain qui redéfinissent le statut de l’habitat spontané. Avec l’apparition de nouvelles professions (architecte des communautés et orientations dans la manière de concevoir des projets urbains (processus participatif notamment, l’habitat spontané s’affirme peu à peu comme un outil de développement de la capitale.In Thailand, despite some public policies, spontaneous settlements spread all over the city. Closely related to the city’s history and identity they are nowadays real dynamic neighbourhoods. The opposition between spontaneous housing and “formal housing”, common in both the scientific publications and representations, is yet to be questioned in Bangkok. Through an architectural and spatial analysis, we

  1. Population genetic data on loci LDLR, GYPA, HBGG, D7S8 and GC in the Bangkok population compared with rural Thais from Trat province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueblinvong, T; Sirisup, N; Anomasiri, W; Kongsrisook, U; Sueblinvong, T

    1999-08-01

    Prior to the introduction of any DNA marker as a tool for person identification and paternity test in certain ethnic groups, a population genetic database should be constructed. Using multiplex primers in single tube polymerase chain amplification, 5 loci of unrelated genes in the PM Amplitype kit (Perkin Elmer) were studied in two Thai population groups: 228 DNA samples were extracted from blood collected at the Borai rural area in Trat province; another 123 DNA samples were collected at the outpatient clinic, Department of Forensic Medicine, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Bangkok. Analysis of alleles and genotypes was performed after reversed dot blot hybridization of PCR products to allelic sequence specific probes immobilized on the membrane strip followed by nonradioisotopic detection according to the manufacturer's protocol. Population genetic statistic parameters including discrimination power (DP), the probability of matching (PM), power of exclusion for trio (PE trio) and typical paternity index (PI typical) were computed. Both Thai population groups showed no significant deviation from the Hardy Weinberg Expectation (HWE). The combined DP of all 5 loci in the PM Amplitype markers was 0.993636 for rural Thais and 0.994409 for Thais from Bangkok. The combined PM for rural Thais and those living in Bangkok was 0.006364 and 0.005591, respectively. The combined PE trio was 0.696825 and 0.698875 in both Thai population groups and the combined PI typical values were < 1.0. In conclusion, person identification using PM Amplitype DNA markers was efficient and satisfactory within certain limits. Hence, the application of PM Amplitype DNA markers for paternity tests should be cautiously considered and applied in combination with other parameters.

  2. Collective empowerment while creating knowledge: a description of a community-based participatory research project with drug users in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Kanna; Fairbairn, Nadia; Suwannawong, Paisan; Kaplan, Karyn; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas

    2012-04-01

    In light of growing concerns regarding the ongoing drug war in Thailand and a lack of support for people who inject drugs in this setting, in 2008, we undertook a community-based participatory research project involving a community of active drug users at a peer-run drop-in center in Bangkok. This case study describes a unique research partnership developed between academic and active drug users and demonstrates that participatory approaches can help empower this vulnerable population while generating valid research. Further research is needed to explore ways of optimizing community-based participatory research methods when applied to drug-using populations.

  3. THE TERMS OF INHERITANCE LAW IN RUSSIA-BYZANTIUM TREATIES AND RUSSKAYA PRAVDA: THE PROBLEMS OF FUNCTIONAL SEMANTICS AND DERIVATION RELATIONS

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    Kirzhaeva Vera Petrovna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the functional-and-semantic and derivational relations of the inheritance law terms in the Russia-Byzantium treaties and in Russkaya Pravda Legal Code as well as in the wide-spread Church Slavonic law regulators that appeared in Rus after adoption of Christianity. The research results attest that the inheritance law terminology in treaties includes designation of inheritance, will and heirs. There is a special term chast ('part' that denotes a share of inheritance in the Russkaya Pravda and Church Slavonic legal texts. However, chast as a 'part' (share is a characteristic of the Russkaya Pravda legal texts only. In Church Slavonic it is used in treaties for nominating the property in general. A similar lack of strict distribution between inheritance law terms zadnitsa and dom, presented in Old Russian texts, was noted in Church Slavonic treaties. Various derivatives of the root *rÌd- are used to denote the will in all texts under analysis; the terms pisati employed only in treaties and church law regulators to denote a written will or procedures of its preparation. The derivatives of the root *bliz- nominate the heirs in both text systems. A loan translation of the terminological word group malye / milye blizhnie / blizhiki dated to the year 911 is not viewed as a translators' experiment with the Greek terms, because it reflects a steady lexical distribution of adjectives malye / milye and the terms of relations in the Russian language. The results of the study testify some inheritance law terms correlation between Russia-Byzantium treaties, Russkaya Pravda and Church Slavonic legal texts, their translation in the treaties was not entirely artificial. The Church Slavonic and Old Russian terminological systems were open to these interferences in some ways.

  4. HIV-related risk behaviors among kathoey (male-to-female transgender) sex workers in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Tooru; Iwamoto, Mariko; Perngparn, Usaneya; Areesantichai, Chitlada; Kamitani, Emiko; Sakata, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Based on combined methods, this study investigated substance use and HIV risk behaviors among kathoey sex workers (KSWs) in Bangkok, Thailand. The study found that only half of the KSW participants reported having been tested for HIV, and that except for one participant, all others had not seen health care providers in the past 12 months. About one third of the participants reported having engaged in unprotected anal sex with customers in the past six months. Almost all participants reported alcohol use, as well as having had sex with customers under the influence of alcohol. The prevalence of marijuana and ecstasy use in the past 12 months was high (32 and 36%, respectively); as was for ketamine (20%) and non-injecting methamphetamine (yaba) use (10%). A multiple regression analysis showed that the participants who were post-operative status, had used illicit drugs, or had been abused by their father and brothers were less likely to use condoms for anal sex with customers. Three quarters of the participants sent money to their families and 35% of the participants expressed their willingness to engage in unsafe sex when customers offer extra money. The qualitative interviews revealed that many identified as girl or kathoey in early age and had been exposed to transphobia and violence from father and brothers. Some reported support for gender transition from their mothers. More than half of the participants currently had difficulties in living as kathoey, such as challenges in the job market and relationship with family members. Family obligation for sending money and the Buddhist concept of karma were discussed in relation to risk behaviors among KSWs. The study provided implications for facilitating HIV testing and developing future HIV prevention intervention programs for KSWs in Thailand.

  5. Psychosocial factors influencing preferences for food and nutritional supplements among people living with HIV in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodas-Moya, Santiago; Pengnonyang, Supabhorn; Kodish, Stephen; de Pee, Saskia; Phanuphak, Praphan

    2017-01-01

    Malnutrition and HIV are often coincident and may lead to wasting, a strong predictor of mortality. However; ready to use therapeutic foods (RUTF) are showing promising results in restoring the nutritional status of adult people living with HIV (PLHIV) in resource constrained settings but, its acceptability seems low. This study aimed to identify the psychosocial factors influencing general preferences for food and responses to five potential nutritional supplements to guide the development of novel products to treat malnutrition among PLHIV. This is a qualitative research based on Grounded Theory. In-depth interviews (IDIs) with a triangulation of data from different participants (i.e. PLHIV and Peer Counselors (PCs) were used as methods for data collection. During February-March 2013, 27 IDIs were conducted in the Anonymous Clinic of the Thai Red Cross and AIDS Research Center in Bangkok, Thailand. Five themes emerged: 1) local food culture is an important motive underlying the nutritional supplements choice by PLHIV; 2) food and drinks should have self-perceptible positive impact on health status and should be perceived convenient; 3) a soft and easy to swallow texture, softer scents and flavors are the major sensory characteristics guiding food and beverages choice; 4) food packaging characteristics affect nutritional supplement preference; 5) PCs may support nutritional supplement consumption. Similar findings emerged among PLHIV and PCs. This study highlights the need to develop a nutritional supplement considering the Thai culture and PLHIV's sensory preferences. A slightly thick liquid supplement, packed in small containers may be well-accepted. A combination of sensory studies and formative research should accompany the development of an alternative nutritional supplement for PLHIV. Results of this study might be transferable to similar sociocultural contexts.

  6. TOWARDS FULFILLMENT OF FUNDAMENTAL RULES OF HUMANITARIAN LAW IN THE CONTEXT OF THE NUCLEAR NON-PROLIFERATION TREATY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    s. Bagheri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT is an international treaty that should be implemented during both peace and wartime. However, the obligations included in the treaty are dependent upon states' attitudes regarding other issues. Non-use of nuclear weapons is directly related to negotiations done for the purpose of non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, non-production or accumulation by other means and disarmament. In our day, prevention of the proliferation of nuclear weapons has been one of the issues of international law.The present study is of crucial significance due to its endeavor to clarify the general principles of Humanitarian Law in a relationship to the threat of nuclear weapons' up to now, a special norm; significantly limiting or completely prohibiting the use of nuclear weapons, has not been accepted in international law. However, customary international humanitarian law regarding the use of nuclear weapons holds great value because of its purpose in eliminating nuclear weapons as a means of war through ascertaining their non-use and also appeasing the importance of nuclear ascendancy. In this respect, the NPT regime and its relationship with international humanitarian law will be discussed. Firstly, the NPT background, formation, main objectives and principles will be analyzed. In order to evaluate the relationship between the NPT and humanitarian law, the humanitarian obligations in general, humanitarian obligations in the context of the NPT and fulfillmen t of these obligations under the NPT should be studied. One of the main parts of the study is nuclear disarmament obligation included in the NPT. In this section, nuclear disarmament obligation in the context of the NPT and the legal framework of possible, general and comprehensive disarmament will be examined.

  7. ''Brexit means Brexit''. Also a British withdrawal of the EURATOM treaty?; ''Brexit means Brexit''. Exit auch fuer den EURATOM-Vertrag?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldmann, Ulrike

    2016-08-15

    In a referendum on 23 June 2016, 51.9 % of the British voters decided to leave the EU. The question did not include explicitly the exit from the EURATOM Treaty (EAV). Since the 2009 Lisbon Treaty the Euratom Community is a supranational organisation of the new EU. This raises the question whether the exit of Britain from the EU also means an exit from the Euratom treaty.

  8. The International Data Centre of the comprehensive nuclear-test-ban treaty: vision and progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bratt, S.R. [Vienna International Centre, Vienna (Austria). Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization

    2001-05-01

    The mission of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty International Data Centre (IDC) is to: (a) acquire data over a Global Communications Infrastructure from a global network of 337 facilities of the International Monitoring Systems (IMS), (b) to process and analyze these data, and (c) to provide the IMS data, IDC products and services to Member States. In effect, the IDC symbolizes a new brand of arms control for the information age, leveraging Internet communications, knowledge-based data fusion, graphical decision support systems and Web-based user interfaces to achieve its mission. During 2000, the IDC was disseminating products based on data from about 90 seismic, hydroacoustic, infrasound and radionuclide stations of the future network. The number of events in the reviewed seismo-acoustic bulletins ranged from 40 to 360 each day. On average, some 200 radionuclide spectra were processed and analysed each month. Users from 45 Member States received an average of close to 18,000 data and product deliveries per month from the IDC. As the IDC continues to prepare for entry-into-force of the CTBT, it will continue to integrate the state-of-the-art in science and technology in order to meet the demands of the increasing volume of new types of IMS data, expanded IDC services, and a growing base of users. (orig.) [German] Die Aufgaben des Internationalen Datenzentrums (IDC) fuer das Umfassende Verbot fuer Nuklearversuche (UVNV) sind die folgenden : (a) Sammeln der Daten vom globalen Netzwerk mit 337 Einrichtungen des Internationalen Ueberwachungssystems (IMS) ueber eine globale Kommunikationsinfrastruktur, (b) Verarbeitung und Analyse dieser Daten, und (c) Versorgung der Mitgliedsstaaten mit diesen IMS Daten sowie mit IDC Produkten und Diensten. Das IDC symbolisiert damit eine neuen Typ der Ruestungskontrolle im Informationszeitalter und stuetzt sich dabei auf Internet Kommunikation, wissensbasierte Datenfusion, graphische Systeme zur Entscheidungshilfe sowie Web

  9. EXAMINING THE ROLE AND RESEARCH CHALLENGES OF SOCIAL MEDIA AS A TOOL FOR NONPROLIFERATION AND ARMS CONTROL TREATY VERIFICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, Michael J.; Cramer, Nicholas O.; Benz, Jacob M.; Gastelum, Zoe N.; Kreyling, Sean J.; West, Curtis L.

    2014-05-13

    Traditional arms control treaty verification activities typically involve a combination of technical measurements via physical and chemical sensors, state declarations, political agreements, and on-site inspections involving international subject matter experts. However, the ubiquity of the internet, and the electronic sharing of data that it enables, has made available a wealth of open source information with the potential to benefit verification efforts. Open source information is already being used by organizations such as the International Atomic Energy Agency to support the verification of state-declared information, prepare inspectors for in-field activities, and to maintain situational awareness . The recent explosion in social media use has opened new doors to exploring the attitudes, moods, and activities around a given topic. Social media platforms, such as Twitter, Facebook, and YouTube, offer an opportunity for individuals, as well as institutions, to participate in a global conversation at minimal cost. Social media data can also provide a more data-rich environment, with text data being augmented with images, videos, and location data. The research described in this paper investigates the utility of applying social media signatures as potential arms control and nonproliferation treaty verification tools and technologies, as determined through a series of case studies. The treaty relevant events that these case studies touch upon include detection of undeclared facilities or activities, determination of unknown events recorded by the International Monitoring System (IMS), and the global media response to the occurrence of an Indian missile launch. The case studies examine how social media can be used to fill an information gap and provide additional confidence to a verification activity. The case studies represent, either directly or through a proxy, instances where social media information may be available that could potentially augment the evaluation

  10. The most-favoured-nation clause in tax treaties: tool for potential reduction of withholding income tax applicable to Chile and Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renée Antonieta Villagra Cayamana

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Tax treaties to avoid the double taxation signed by a country have consequences for the future, but they can also modify the terms of treaties that are already in force, in case these contain most-favoured-nation clauses. In this line, taxpayers and companies, particularly, as well as the Tax Administration must be alert, regarding topotential modifications of the terms of the Peruvian tax treaties already in force; mainly about the withholding tax rate applied to royalties in the Convention subscribed with Chile and the withholding tax rates applied to dividends, interests and royalties in the Convention subscribed with Canada, taking into account that both of the mentioned tax treaties contain most-favoured-nation clauses for those kind of income. The Ministry of Economy, as the entity in charge of negotiations of the bilateral conventions, according to Law Decree 25883, has the responsibility of negotiating future treaties with full knowledge that the terms to be included could also cause the effect to decrease the withholding tax rates of the income tax in respect to conventions already in effect, as a consequence of the most-favoured-nation clause they contain.

  11. Modeling Urban Expansion in Bangkok Metropolitan Region Using Demographic–Economic Data through Cellular Automata-Markov Chain and Multi-Layer Perceptron-Markov Chain Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chudech Losiri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Urban expansion is considered as one of the most important problems in several developing countries. Bangkok Metropolitan Region (BMR is the urbanized and agglomerated area of Bangkok Metropolis (BM and its vicinity, which confronts the expansion problem from the center of the city. Landsat images of 1988, 1993, 1998, 2003, 2008, and 2011 were used to detect the land use and land cover (LULC changes. The demographic and economic data together with corresponding maps were used to determine the driving factors for land conversions. This study applied Cellular Automata-Markov Chain (CA-MC and Multi-Layer Perceptron-Markov Chain (MLP-MC to model LULC and urban expansions. The performance of the CA-MC and MLP-MC yielded more than 90% overall accuracy to predict the LULC, especially the MLP-MC method. Further, the annual population and economic growth rates were considered to produce the land demand for the LULC in 2014 and 2035 using the statistical extrapolation and system dynamics (SD. It was evident that the simulated map in 2014 resulting from the SD yielded the highest accuracy. Therefore, this study applied the SD method to generate the land demand for simulating LULC in 2035. The outcome showed that urban occupied the land around a half of the BMR.

  12. Prevalence of Treponema pallidum seropositivity and herpes simplex virus type 2 infection in a cohort of men who have sex with men, Bangkok, Thailand, 2006-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtz, T H; Thienkrua, W; McNicholl, J M; Wimonsate, W; Chaikummao, S; Chonwattana, W; Wasinrapee, P; Varangrat, A; Mock, P A; Sirivongrangson, P; van Griensven, F

    2012-06-01

    We report prevalence of Treponema pallidum (TP) seropositivity and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection and risk factors associated with their prevalence in a cohort of men who have sex with men (MSM) in Bangkok, Thailand. Between April 2006 and March 2010 we enrolled Thai MSM into a cohort study based at the Silom Community Clinic, with baseline behavioural data and laboratory testing for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Logistic regression was used to analyse risk factors associated with the prevalence of TP seropositivity and HSV-2 infection. From a total of 1544 enrolled men (mean age 26 years) TP, HSV-2 and HIV seropositive rates were 4.4%, 20.7% and 21.6%, respectively. After multivariable analysis, participating in group sex, reporting paying for sex, reporting sex with a casual partner in a park and being HSV-2 seropositive were associated with TP prevalence. Age ≥30 years, having less than a high school education, past use of recreational drugs, meeting casual sexual partners at a public venue (sauna) and TP seropositivity were associated with HSV-2 infection. The significant baseline prevalence of TP seropositivity and HSV-2 infection in this cohort demonstrates the need for screening and treatment of these STIs and targeted prevention interventions in Thai MSM in Bangkok.

  13. Variation in Day-of-Week and Seasonal Concentrations of Atmospheric PM2.5-Bound Metals and Associated Health Risks in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongpiachan, Siwatt; Liu, Suixin; Huang, Rujin; Zhao, Zhuzi; Palakun, Jittree; Kositanont, Charnwit; Cao, Junji

    2017-04-01

    While effective analytical techniques to promote the long-term intensive monitoring campaign of particulate heavy metals have been well established, efforts to interpret these toxic chemical contents into policy are lagging behind. In order to ameliorate the interpretation of evidence into policies, environmental scientists and public health practitioners need innovative methods to emphasize messages concerning adverse health effects to state and local policymakers. In this study, three different types of health risk assessment models categorized by exposure pathways. Namely, ingestion, dermal contact, and inhalation were quantitatively evaluated using intensive monitoring data of 51 PM2.5-bound metals that were collected on three consecutive days, from 17 November 2010 to 30 April 2011 in the heart of Bangkok. Although different exposure pathways possess different magnitudes of risk for each PM2.5-bound metal, it can be concluded that ingestion of dust causes more extensive risk to residents compared with inhalation and dermal contact. The investigation of enrichment factors reveals the overwhelming influences of vehicular exhausts on 44 selected metal concentrations in Bangkok. These findings are in agreement with previous studies that highlight the role of public transportation and urban planning in air pollution control.

  14. Education For All: A Committment and an Opportunity. National EFA Coordinators Meeting under the Sub-Regional EFA Forum for East and Southeast Asia Final Report (2nd, Bangkok, Thailand, December 10-12, 2001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.

    The working group of Sub-Regional Forum (SRF) and the Thematic Working Group (TWG) on Education for All (EFA) organized the second meeting of the SRF for East and Southeast Asia and the National EFA Coordinators in Bangkok, Thailand December 10-12, 2001. The meeting offered an opportunity for EFA coordinators to reflect on the outcomes of the EFA…

  15. Role of Surveys and Studies for Family Planning Programme Management and Development. Report of a Regional Seminar (Bangkok, Thailand, January 28 - February 9, 1974). Asian Population Studies Series No. 24.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok (Thailand).

    This report details the proceedings of a regional seminar held in Bangkok, Thailand in January 1974. This seminar, the eighth meeting in a series of meetings or regional seminars on various aspects of family planning programs, identified and discussed the issues involved in the utilization of research findings for program management. A set of…

  16. European Union’s integration issues after the rejection of the Constitutional Treaty. A Neo-Gramscian anaylsis (I

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    Anca Mădălina BONCILĂ

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Through this paper we have tried to question the reality of EU’ s integration and to identify the factors that shaped it. The complexity of this process led to multiple perspectives of analyzing it. We believe that Neo- Gramscian theory of European integration, although not so well-known, can be considered the most appropriate methodological support in explaining the events that have redefined the European integration: the rejection of the Constitutional Treaty, the financial crisis and the emergence of the Lisbon Treaty. We started from the assumption that the EU has obvious neo-liberal connotations, which led to the emergence of functional obstacles difficult to overcome, especially when it comes to the social dimension of the EU. Therefore, we divided the work into two basic parts, the first explains the methodology used, the main concepts, what neo-liberalism is and which are the EU’ s neo-liberal expressions and in the second part we focused on the social dimension of the EU, talking about the lack of substance that we found in the rhetoric of Fundamental Rights. Using the trade unions we have exemplified the inability of the EU to cope with social challenges, especially since there are forms of skepticism focused strictly on social discontent. The conclusions confirm that the Neo-Gramscian theory is the most suitable methodological support in an attempt to capture the nuances of EU’ s neo-liberal expressions.

  17. The Effects Of The Yenikoy Treaty On The Armenians And The Russian-Armenian Collaboration In World War I

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    Nejla

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available After the Ottoman Empire lost the first Balkan war, its situation changed drastically. All the weaknesses of the army and the administration came into notice. The issue of the Armenian reforms resulted in the interfering of the Great Powers in the empire’s internal affairs. With the Yenikoy treaty signed between Russia and the Ottoman Empire on February 9th, 1914, the reform demands of the Armenians were met. After that treaty, though, it had been observed that the Armenians started losing allegiance to the state and began arming themselves. Moreover, the Russian pressure on the Ottoman Empire also increased. After the bursting out of the World War I, Armenians thought that they could gain independence from the state with the help of Russia and the other Allied Powers. Therefore, Armenian National Delegacy started recruiting Armenian volunteers to fight in the Russian army. These volunteers were organized as separate units by the Russians. Their duties were to conduct intelligence duties for the Russians and opening the frontiers for the Russian army by performing guerilla wars. Armenians successfully conducted their duties, which resulted in the retreatment of the Turkish army from lots of places, even including Van. However, the Turkish army also put some effort in band activities. In this study, both the effects of Russia and the other Allied Powers on the Armenians and their standpoints towards the Ottoman Empire will be investigated.

  18. Proceedings of the 21st Seismic Research Symposium: Technologies for Monitoring The Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, N. Jill [Editor

    1999-09-21

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 21st Seismic Research Symposium: Technologies for Monitoring The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, held 21-24 September 1999 in Las Vegas, Nevada. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Department of Defense (DoD), the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  19. Coastal Flood Risks in the Bangkok Metropolitan Region, Thailand: Combined Impacts of Land Subsidence, Sea Level Rise and Storm Surge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duangyiwa, C.; Yu, D.; Wilby, R.; Aobpaet, A.

    2015-12-01

    Due to the fast-changing climatic and anthropogenic conditions at coastal regions, many coastal mega-cities are becoming increasingly vulnerable to internal and external risks. The risk is particularly high for low-lying coastal cities in developing nations, with Southeast Asia recognized as a hotspot of vulnerability due to the increasing population density, rapid change of natural landscape associated with urbanization and intensified hydrological and atmospheric conditions at the coastal front in an uncertain climate future. The Bangkok Metropolitan Region is one of the largest coastal megacities in Southeast Asia that are challenged by the potential impacts due to climate change and anthropological variability in the coming decades. Climate-related risks in this region are associated with its relatively low-lying nature of the terrain and adjacency to the coast. Coastal inundation due to high tides from the sea occurs annually in the area close to the seashore. This is set to increase given a projected rising sea level and the sinking landscape due to groundwater extraction and urbanization. The aim of this research is, therefore, to evaluate the vulnerability of the city to sea level rise, land subsidence and storm surge. Distributed land subsidence rate, projected sea level rise and existing structural features such as flood defences are taken into account. The 2011 flood in Thailand is used as a baseline event. Scenarios were designed with projections of land subsidence and sea level rise to 2050s, 2080s, and 2100s. A two-dimensional flood inundation model (FloodMap, Yu and Lane 2006) is used to derive inundation depth and velocity associated with each scenario. The impacts of coastal flood risk on critical infrastructures (e.g. power supply, transportation network, rescue centers, hospitals, schools and key government buildings) are evaluated (e.g. Figure 1). Results suggest progressively increase but non-linear risks of coastal flooding to key coastal

  20. Risk Behaviors, Occupational Risk and Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B and A Infections among Public Cleansing Workers of Bangkok Metropolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pipat Luksamijarulkul

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Public cleansing workers, especially public garbage collectors are probably at risk for hepatitis B virus (HBV and/or hepatitis A virus (HAV infections. This study was designed to assess risky behaviors, occupational risk and seroprevalence of HBV and HAV infections in this group.Methods: 354 public cleansing workers of Bangkok Metropolis (185 cleaners and 169 garbage collectors were randomly selected by multi-stage sampling. The subjects were interviewed and their blood pecimens were collected to investigate HBV seromarkers (HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HBc and anti-HAV by voluntary participation.Results: Out of 354 workers, 22.6% had tattoos, 15.8% had a history of regular alcohol consumption, and 6.8% had a history of extramarital sex without using condoms in a previous year. Public garbage collectors had relatively higher percentage than public cleaners. Also, public garbage collectors had significantly higher percentage of occupational risks including a history of contact with blood, a history of contact with used condom, syringe or needle, and a history of needle stick or sharp puncture than public cleaners (P= 0.0018, 0.0067 & 0.0012, respectively. Results from blood screening revealed 49.4% of HBV seropositivity, 5.9% of HBsAg, 37.3% of anti-HBs, 6.2% of anti-HBc only, and 85% of anti-HAV antibody. Public garbage collectors had significantly higher HBV seropositivity than public cleaners (P=0.0058, while there was no statistical significance in anti-HAV positivity between groups. Risk factors for HBV seropositiveness after multivariate analysis were occupation (adjusted OR=1.76, P=0.0027, a history of contact with used condom, syringe or needle (adjusted OR=3.02, P<0.0001, and a history of needle stick or sharp puncture (adjusted OR=4.21, P<0.0001.Conclusions: This study supported public cleansing workers; especially public garbage collectors were at risk for HBV and/or HAV infections. The risk reduction programs

  1. Interest in the ‘Test and Treat’ strategy for HIV prevention among men who have sex with men living in Bangkok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Teeratakulpisarn

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The current HIV epidemic in Thailand is primarily driven by new cases among men who have sex with men (MSM. HPTN052 study demonstrated 96% efficacy of immediate antiretroviral therapy (ART to reduce HIV transmission among serodiscordant heterosexual couples. As a result, universal HIV testing and immediate ART has emerged as a strategy to reduce HIV transmission in certain at-risk populations. The acceptability of this strategy, however, is unknown in MSM. Methods: From August 2011-March 2012, we conducted a cross-sectional study using self-administered questionnaires to assess attitudes towards universal HIV testing and immediate ART among MSM VCT clients in Bangkok. Participants were asked to complete the questionnaires prior to and after knowing their HIV status. The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand. Results: Of 342 MSM, the median age (IQR was 26 (22–31 years, and 34.2% had bachelor's degree or higher. Previous HIV testing was reported by 69.9%, 35.2% of which had HIV testing annually. The most common reasons for previous HIV testing included perceived risk behaviors (63.6%, annual health checkup (26.4%, and partner's request (13.8%. Prior to receiving pre-test counseling, 74.4% expressed interest to get regular HIV testing. Health benefits from testing (59.6%, free testing (36.5%, and speedy service (35.7% were the most common persuasive reasons to come for regular HIV testing. Longevity (73.1% and prevention of HIV transmission to others (58.4% were reasons for interest in immediate ART (if tested positive program while costs (37.0% and life-long burden (36.7% were cited as main barriers. Among MSM who tested HIV-positive (n=45, 13.2%, the interest to participate in immediate ART program was very high both before and after knowing their HIV status (86.7% vs 93.3%, p=0.371. Among HIV-negative MSM, the interest to participate in regular

  2. Assessing the co-benefits of greenhouse gas reduction: Health benefits of particulate matter related inspection and maintenance programs in Bangkok, Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ying, E-mail: liying@email.unc.edu [Department of Public Policy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Crawford-Brown, Douglas J. [Cambridge Centre for Climate Change Mitigation Research, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2011-04-15

    Since the 1990s, the capital city of Thailand, Bangkok has been suffering from severe ambient particulate matter (PM) pollution mainly attributable to its wide use of diesel-fueled vehicles and motorcycles with poor emission performance. While the Thai government strives to reduce emissions from transportation through enforcing policy measures, the link between specific control policies and associated health impacts is inadequately studied. This link is especially important in exploring the co-benefits of greenhouse gas emissions reductions, which often brings reduction in other pollutants such as PM. This paper quantifies the health benefits potentially achieved by the new PM-related I/M programs targeting all diesel vehicles and motorcycles in the Bangkok Metropolitan Area (BMA). The benefits are estimated by using a framework that integrates policy scenario development, exposure assessment, exposure-response assessment and economic valuation. The results indicate that the total health damage due to the year 2000 PM emissions from vehicles in the BMA was equivalent to 2.4% of Thailand's GDP. Under the business-as-usual (BAU) scenario, total vehicular PM emissions in the BMA will increase considerably over time due to the rapid growth in vehicle population, even if the fleet average emission rates are projected to decrease over time as the result of participation of Thailand in post-Copenhagen climate change strategies. By 2015, the total health damage is estimated to increase by 2.5 times relative to the year 2000. However, control policies targeting PM emissions from automobiles, such as the PM-oriented I/M programs, could yield substantial health benefits relative to the BAU scenario, and serve as co-benefits of greenhouse gas control strategies. Despite uncertainty associated with the key assumptions used to estimate benefits, we find that with a high level confidence, the I/M programs will produce health benefits whose economic impacts considerably

  3. ESO Delegation to Visit Chile: the Chile-Eso Treaty and Paranal

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    The ESO Council, in its extraordinary session on 28 April 1994, among other matters discussed the relations with the Republic of Chile and the situation around Paranal mountain [1], the designated site for the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT). Council decided to send a high ranking delegation to Santiago de Chile to discuss with Chilean authorities the pending problems, including the finalisation of the new Treaty between the Republic of Chile and ESO and the legal aspects of the Paranal location. The ESO delegation will consist of Dr. Peter Creola (President of ESO Council), Dr. Catherine Cesarsky (Vice-President of ESO Council), Dr. Henrik Grage (Former Vice-President of ESO Council) and Professor Riccardo Giacconi (ESO Director General), the latter accompanied by his advisers. The delegation will arrive in Chile during the second half of May 1994. The ESO delegation will meet with the Chilean Minister of Foreign Affairs, Mr. Carlos Figueroa, and the Secretary of State in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Mr. Jose Miguel Insulza. Other meetings at high level are being planned. The delegation will report about these discussions to the ESO Council during its ordinary session on 7 - 8 June 1994. FOUR PARANAL PHOTOS AVAILABLE A series of four photos which show the current status of the work at Paranal has been prepared. Photographic colour prints for use by the media can be requested from the ESO Information and Photographic Service (please remember to indicate the identification numbers). [1] See ESO Press Release 07/94 of 21 April 1994. PHOTO CAPTIONS ESO PR PHOTO 08/94-1: CERRO PARANAL This aerial photo of the Paranal mountain, the designated site for the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT), was obtained on 22 March 1994. Paranal is situated in the driest part of the Chilean Atacama desert, approx. 130 km south of the city of Antofagasta, and about 12 km from the Pacific Ocean. In this view towards the West, the ocean is seen in the background. The altitude is 2650 metres

  4. A Discussion of Procedures and Equipment for the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty On-Site Inspection Environmental Sampling and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wogman, Ned A.; Milbrath, Brian D.; Payne, Rosara F.; Seifert, Carolyn E.; Friese, Judah I.; Miley, Harry S.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Hanlen, Richard C.; Onishi, Yasuo; Hayes, James C.; Wigmosta, Mark S.

    2011-02-01

    This paper is intended to serve as a scientific basis to start discussions of the available environmental sampling techniques and equipment that have been used in the past that could be considered for use within the context of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) on-site inspections (OSI). This work contains information on the techniques, equipment, costs, and some operational procedures associated with environmental sampling that have actually been used in the past by the United States for the detection of nuclear explosions. This paper also includes a discussion of issues, recommendations, and questions needing further study within the context of the sampling and analysis of aquatic materials, atmospheric gases, atmospheric particulates, vegetation, sediments and soils, fauna, and drill-back materials.

  5. OSIRIS—Gamma-ray spectroscopy software for on-site inspections under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caffrey, A.J., E-mail: Gus.Caffrey@inl.gov [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bowyer, T.W. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Egger, A.E. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hall, J.C. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Kelly, S.M.; Krebs, K.M. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kreek, S.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Jordan, D.V.; Milbrath, B.D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Padgett, S.W. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Wharton, C.J. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wimer, N.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-06-01

    We have designed and tested software for the acquisition and analysis of high-resolution gamma-ray spectra during on-site inspections under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The On-Site Inspection RadioIsotopic Spectroscopy—OSIRIS—software filters the spectral data to display only radioisotopic information relevant to CTBT on-site inspections, e.g.,{sup 131}I. A set of over 100 fission-product spectra was employed for OSIRIS testing. These spectra were measured where possible, or generated by modeling. The test spectral compositions include non-nuclear-explosion scenarios, e.g., a severe nuclear reactor accident, and nuclear-explosion scenarios such as a vented underground nuclear test. Comparing its computer-based analyses to expert visual analyses of the test spectra, OSIRIS correctly identifies CTBT-relevant fission product isotopes at the 95% level or better.

  6. Ecohydrology from Concepts to On-ground Actions: Report of Special Side Event on Ecohydrology-An Interdisciplinary Challenge, January 5-7, 2009 in Bangkok, Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Demin; Shahbaz KHAN

    2009-01-01

    International Hydrological Programme Ⅶ (IHP-Ⅶ) directs the research objectives of hydrologists all over the world from 2008 to 2013. As a key programme contributed to the IHP Ⅶ, UNESCO's Ecohydrology Programme (EHP) has evolved into a trans-disciplinary scientific programme to analyze dynamic relationships between hydrological, social and ecological systems. Twenty international experts from 12 countries were invited by UNESCO to attend the side event on "Ecohydrology--An Interdisciplinary Challenge" in Bangkok, Thailand. It aimed to synthesize knowledge gaps for addressing issues related to critical water systems. This event focused on how better knowledge of the interrelationships between the hydrological cycle, livelihoods and ecosystems could be contributed to more cost-effective and environmental-friendly management. The five themes of the event with 20 keynote lectures were given as fellows.

  7. Examining the Sociocultural Context of HIV-related Risk Behaviors Among Kathoey (Male-to-female Transgender Women) Sex Workers in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Tooru; Cruz, Taylor; Iwamoto, Mariko; Trocki, Karen; Perngparn, Usaneya; Areesantichai, Chitlada; Suzuki, Sachiko; Roberts, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Kathoey (male-to-female transgender) sex workers (KSW) in Thailand are at high risk for sexually transmitted infections; however, few qualitative studies have been conducted to understand the sociocultural context of engaging in HIV risk behaviors. A total of 24 participants were purposively sampled in Bangkok based on KSW work venues and substance use. Results revealed the importance of participants' understanding of the self in relation to establishing economic independence through sex work, which could then be used to re-establish support from family, who often have not accepted a son's gender transition. Participants linked being kathoey to a belief in fate but did not view engagement in sex work in the same way. Different sex work venues exposed KSW to different risky situations. HIV prevention programs for kathoey must address the importance of economic security and its relation to social support and gender transition within a cultural- and work-environment-specific framework.

  8. FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH EXTENDED SPECTRUM β-LACTAMASE PRODUCING ESCHERICHIA COLI IN COMMUNITY-ACQUIRED URINARY TRACT INFECTION AT HOSPITAL EMERGENCY DEPARTMENT, BANGKOK, THAILAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savatmorigkorngul, Sorravit; Poowarattanawiwit, Pongsuree; Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak; Sittichanbuncha, Yuwares

    2016-03-01

    Urinary tract infection or UTI is most commonly caused by Escherichia coli. This study investigated the prevalence of and risk factors for extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing (ESBL) E. coli in community-acquired UTI presenting at the Emergency Department, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand. A retrospective review was conducted over a one-year period (2014) of case histories of patients over 15 years of age diagnosed with (n = 159) and without culture-positive (n = 249) ESBL E. coli. Backward stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed four independent risk factors for UTI caused by ESBL E. coli, namely, urinary catheter use, previous UTI in which ESBL E. coli was present, and previous use of antibiotics cephalosporin and penicillin. This information should be useful in devising future public health prevention and control programs for ESBL E. coli-associated community-acquired UTI.

  9. French and German students at CERN in the framework of 50th anniversary of the franco-german Treaty - Microcosm garden BEBC

    CERN Multimedia

    Anna Pantelia

    2013-01-01

    To mark the 50th anniversary of the Elysée Treaty between France and Germany, which established a basis for cooperation between the two countries in order to set the seal on a lasting peace, secondary school pupils came to CERN to research the Franco-German relationship.

  10. Rights and the Role of Family Engagement in Child Welfare: An International Treaties Perspective on Families' Rights, Parents' Rights, and Children's Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzer, Gertrud; Gran, Brian

    2011-01-01

    According to international human rights treaties, what rights do family members, parents, and children have in family engagement in child welfare decision-making? A sociolegal analytical approach produces a typology of rights, then applies the typology to eight countries' approaches to family engagement to show that strong bundles of rights are…

  11. Use of Geophysical and Remote Sensing Techniques During the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organization's Integrated Field Exercise 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labak, Peter; Sussman, Aviva; Rowlands, Aled; Chiappini, Massimo; Malich, Gregor; MacLeod, Gordon; Sankey, Peter; Sweeney, Jerry; Tuckwell, George

    2016-04-01

    The Integrated Field Exercise of 2014 (IFE14) was a field event held in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (with concurrent activities in Austria) that tested the operational and technical capabilities of a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty's (CTBT) on-site inspection (OSI). During an OSI, up to 40 inspectors search a 1000km2 inspection area for evidence of a nuclear explosion. Over 250 experts from ~50 countries were involved in IFE14 (the largest simulation of an OSI to date) and worked from a number of different directions, such as the Exercise Management and Control Teams to execute the scenario in which the exercise was played, to those participants performing as members of the Inspection Team (IT). One of the main objectives of IFE14 was to test Treaty allowed inspection techniques, including a number of geophysical and remote sensing methods. In order to develop a scenario in which the simulated exercise could be carried out, a number of physical features in the IFE14 inspection area were designed and engineered by the Scenario Task Force Group (STF) that the IT could detect by applying the geophysical and remote sensing inspection technologies, as well as other techniques allowed by the CTBT. For example, in preparation for IFE14, the STF modeled a seismic triggering event that was provided to the IT to prompt them to detect and localize aftershocks in the vicinity of a possible explosion. Similarly, the STF planted shallow targets such as borehole casings and pipes for detection by other geophysical methods. In addition, airborne technologies, which included multi-spectral imaging, were deployed such that the IT could identify freshly exposed surfaces, imported materials and other areas that had been subject to modification. This presentation will introduce the CTBT and OSI, explain the IFE14 in terms of goals specific to geophysical and remote sensing methods, and show how both the preparation for and execution of IFE14 meet those goals.

  12. THE ROLE AND RATIONALE OF THE NUCLEAR NON-PROLIFERATION TREATY IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom COPPEN

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Much has been written about perceived weaknesses of the NPT and the challenges it has been facing over the last decades. Analysing the most important provisions of the NPT, this article demonstrates how the treaty has managed to maintain its central role in the non-proliferation regime since its conclusion, and how it retains enough flexibility within its review mechanism and its managerial approach to supervision to keep this position for the decades to come. The theoretical framework of the article is formed by theory of arms control law, relevant features of which are: a large influence of politics and national interests of states on the rule of law; its flexible yet treaty-based nature; and the distinctive role of supervision in order to ensure compliance with primary rules. The article analyses key NPT provisions. Based on Article VIII, the NPT Review Conferences have both an important political and legal function. They are the NPT’s mechanism for review, implementation and supervision; in legal terms, they enable the evolution of the NPT based on subsequent agreement and practice. The NPT articles on non-proliferation and disarmament illustrate how the NPT has evolved to close off loopholes (Articles I and II and retains its flexibility whilst providing a global platform for negotiations on nuclear disarmament (Article VI. Article III evolved and must be understood to oblige NPT states to sign an Additional Protocol (AP with the IAEA. Article IV sets the parameters for the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, but leaves room for negotiation and conflict. The supervision of the NPT, illustrated by the case of Iran, is a complicated process involving international organisations such as the IAEA and the UNSC; while these may play important roles, however, the enforcement of the NPT is ultimately left to the NPT states themselves.

  13. WE ARE ALL HERE TO STAY? INDIGENEITY, MIGRATION, AND ‘DECOLONIZING’ THE TREATY RIGHT TO BE HERE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amar Bhatia

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article examines issues of transnational migration in the settler-colonial context of Canada.  First, I review some of the recent debates about foregrounding Indigeneity and decolonization in anti-racist thought and work, especially in relation to critical and anti-racist approaches to migration.  The article then moves from this debate to the question of ‘our right to be here’, the relationship of this right to the treaties, and how migrant rights and treaty relations perspectives might interact in a context that must be informed by Indigenous laws and legal traditions.   Le présent article se penche sur les questions liées à la migration transnationale dans le contexte du colonialisme de peuplement du Canada. Premièrement, j’examine certains des débats récents sur le traitement prioritaire de l’indigénéité et de la décolonisation dans la pensée antiraciste et les travaux de lutte contre le racisme, notamment par rapport aux approches critiques et antiracistes à la migration. L’article aborde ensuite la question de « notre droit d’être ici », la relation entre ce droit et les traités, ainsi que la façon dont les perspectives sur les droits des migrants et les rapports fondés sur des traités pourraient interagir dans un contexte éclairé par des lois et des traditions juridiques indigènes.

  14. Loss to follow-up and bias assessment among a cohort of Thai men who have sex with men in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattanasin, Sarika; Wimonsate, Wipas; Chonwattana, Wannee; Tongtoyai, Jaray; Chaikummao, Supaporn; Sriporn, Anuwat; Sukwicha, Wichuda; Mock, Philip A; Holtz, Timothy H

    2016-03-01

    Minimising loss to follow-up is essential to obtain unbiased results. This study aimed to assess factors associated with loss to follow-up and effects on biasing exposure-outcome associations in a cohort of men who have sex with men in Bangkok. We enrolled sexually-active Thai men who have sex with men, at least 18 years old, in a study with four-monthly follow-up visits. At each visit, men answered HIV risk behaviour questions using audio computer-assisted self-interview. Logistic regression was used to evaluate factors associated with loss to follow-up and bias between exposures and prevalent HIV infection were estimated using adjusted relative odds ratios. From 2006 to 2010, we enrolled 1744 men who have sex with men; as of April, 2014, 1256 (72%) had completed at least the month-36 visit; loss to follow-up was 9.6%. Factors independently associated with loss to follow-up were age (18-21 years), education (primary level or less, secondary or vocational education), living outside Bangkok and vicinity, sexual orientation (bisexual, heterosexual), previous HIV testing, HIV infection, and behaviour in the past 4 months (recreational drug use, reporting group sex). An effect of loss to follow-up on factors of prevalent HIV infection was found by sexual orientation (transgender) and unprotected anal intercourse (receptive/insertive). These findings highlight the need to strengthen post-HIV test counselling. Directed counselling for HIV care should be given to young men who have sex with men and recreational drug users.

  15. Assessing the co-benefits of greenhouse gas reduction: health benefits of particulate matter related inspection and maintenance programs in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Crawford-Brown, Douglas J

    2011-04-15

    Since the 1990s, the capital city of Thailand, Bangkok has been suffering from severe ambient particulate matter (PM) pollution mainly attributable to its wide use of diesel-fueled vehicles and motorcycles with poor emission performance. While the Thai government strives to reduce emissions from transportation through enforcing policy measures, the link between specific control policies and associated health impacts is inadequately studied. This link is especially important in exploring the co-benefits of greenhouse gas emissions reductions, which often brings reduction in other pollutants such as PM. This paper quantifies the health benefits potentially achieved by the new PM-related I/M programs targeting all diesel vehicles and motorcycles in the Bangkok Metropolitan Area (BMA). The benefits are estimated by using a framework that integrates policy scenario development, exposure assessment, exposure-response assessment and economic valuation. The results indicate that the total health damage due to the year 2000 PM emissions from vehicles in the BMA was equivalent to 2.4% of Thailand's GDP. Under the business-as-usual (BAU) scenario, total vehicular PM emissions in the BMA will increase considerably over time due to the rapid growth in vehicle population, even if the fleet average emission rates are projected to decrease over time as the result of participation of Thailand in post-Copenhagen climate change strategies. By 2015, the total health damage is estimated to increase by 2.5 times relative to the year 2000. However, control policies targeting PM emissions from automobiles, such as the PM-oriented I/M programs, could yield substantial health benefits relative to the BAU scenario, and serve as co-benefits of greenhouse gas control strategies. Despite uncertainty associated with the key assumptions used to estimate benefits, we find that with a high level confidence, the I/M programs will produce health benefits whose economic impacts considerably outweigh

  16. Co-existence of major and minor viral populations from two different origins in patients secondarily infected with dengue virus serotype 2 in Bangkok.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puiprom, Orapim; Yamashita, Akifumi; Sasayama, Mikiko; Limkittikul, Kriengsak; Boonha, Khwanchit; Jittmitraphap, Akanitt; Leaungwutiwong, Pornsawan; Kurosu, Takeshi; Ramasoota, Pongrama; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi

    2011-09-16

    Generally, RNA viruses exhibit significant genetic diversity that sometimes effect viral fitness in infected hosts and probably also pathogenesis. Dengue viruses (DENVs) consist of four antigenically distinct serotypes. All the serotypes of DENV can cause mild to severe dengue illnesses. In this study, we examined the sequence variation of DENV in plasma obtained from four patients living in Bangkok who had been secondarily infected with serotype 2 (DENV-2) in 2010. The plasma-derived RNA was directly subjected to reverse transcriptase (RT)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) at a region including most of domain III of the envelope (E) protein gene, and the PCR products obtained were subjected to clonal sequencing. Using 19-20 clones sequenced from each patient (78 total) plus 601 corresponding sequences from a public database, phylogenetic analysis revealed that the nucleic acid sequences fell into two clusters with clearly different origins. Interestingly, all patients gave sequences indicating that they carried viral populations containing 2, 3 or 5 genetic variants that consisted of one major variant plus one or more minor variants. Three patients showed a major variant from one cluster plus one or more minor components from the other while one showed major and minor variants from a single cluster. Thus, it can be concluded that DENV belonging to two different genetic lineages were co-circulated in Bangkok in 2010. For these two genotype clusters there was also a clear difference in H or Y at the deduced amino acid position 346 (i.e. H346Y) that was consistent for our sequences and 601 sequences from the public database. Thus, one among the mixed viral genotypes introduced into human individuals seems to be variably selected as the predominant component of the carried viral population, and it is possible that the dynamics of this process could influence virus evolution and disease severity.

  17. Hepatitis A and hepatitis B infection prevalence and associated risk factors in men who have sex with men, Bangkok, 2006-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkins, Robert W; Chonwattana, Wannee; Holtz, Timothy H; Wasinrapee, Punneeporn; Chaikummao, Supaporn; Varangrat, Anchalee; Tongtoyai, Jaray; Mock, Philip A; Curlin, Marcel E; Sirivongrangson, Pachara; van Griensven, Frits; McNicholl, Janet M

    2013-09-01

    Despite the availability of safe and effective vaccines, little is known about prevalence and risk factors for hepatitis A (HAV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection among Thai men who have sex with men. The prevalence of HAV and HBV infection among men who have sex with men cohort in Bangkok was assessed. Baseline blood specimens were drawn and demographic and behavioral data were collected. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to analyze risk factors for prevalent HAV and HBV infection. One thousand two hundred ninety-nine Thai men who have sex with men 18 years and older were enrolled. Among those with results, 349/1,291 (27.0%) had evidence of past or current hepatitis A infection. Of the 1,117 (86.5%) men with unambiguous HBV test results, 442 (39.6%) had serologic evidence of past/current infection, 103 (9.2%) were immune due to hepatitis B vaccination, 572 (51.2%) had no evidence of immunological exposure to HBV or vaccine. Of those with past/current HBV infection, 130 (29.4%) were HIV positive. Age >35 years was independently associated with both HAV and HBV infection. University education was protective against both HAV and HBV infection. Increased alcohol consumption, number of lifetime male sexual partners ≥10, and prevalent HIV infection were also independently associated with HBV infection. The prevalence of past/current HAV and HBV infection was high in Bangkok men who have sex with men. Age-cohorts with a higher prevalence of hepatitis B vaccine induced immunity may be expected in the future. Hepatitis A and B vaccination is recommended.

  18. Differences Between Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) with Low CD4 Cell Counts at Their First HIV Test and MSM with Higher CD4 Counts in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapsirisavat, Vorapot; Phanuphak, Nittaya; Sophonphan, Jiratchaya; Egan, James E; Langevattana, Kamonthip; Avihingsanon, Anchalee; Friedman, M Reuel; Stall, Ron

    2016-12-01

    Although HIV prevalence remains high among Bangkok's MSM early HIV testing as an entry point to ART has not been successfully implemented among in this population. Men who present late for initial HIV testing are a particular concern in the context of the Bangkok HIV epidemic, in that if long-term positives have had condomless sex during the time that they remained untreated they are likely to have been efficient transmitters of infection, to say nothing of the implications for their own health. A sequential sample of MSM who tested HIV positive, and CD4 counts, was taken at the Thai Red Cross Anonymous Clinic and two drop-in centers in Bangkok. Inclusion criteria were MSM aged >18 years, having not tested HIV positive earlier, who reported ≥1 of the following in the previous 6 months: condomless sex with a male, being a sex worker, or having a sexual transmitted infection (STI) diagnosis. Analysis was conducted by distinguishing between three groups of CD4 counts: 500 cells/μ to identify the social and behavioral characteristics of the men who presented late for HIV testing. Median CD4 was 325 cells/μ(n = 95). MSM with initial CD4Bangkok. These barriers may work to keep men from finding out their positive HIV status in a timely manner. Thai MSM need to be made aware of the current availability of friendly HIV testing and ART services, and public health programs need to work to change their perceptions regarding ART itself. These same types of strategies might also work to destigmatize HIV and MSM within Thai society as a whole.

  19. PROFILE: Environmental Impact Assessment Under the National Environmental Policy Act and the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensminger; McCold; Webb

    1999-07-01

    / Antarctica has been set aside by the international community for protection as a natural reserve and a place for scientific research. Through the Antarctic Treaty of 1961, the signing nations agreed to cooperate in protecting the antarctic environment, in conducting scientific studies, and in abstaining from the exercise of territorial claims. The 1991 signing of the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty (Protocol) by representatives of the 26 nations comprising the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Parties (Parties) significantly strengthened environmental protection measures for the continent. The Protocol required ratification by each of the governments individually prior to official implementation. The US government ratified the Protocol by passage of the Antarctic Science, Tourism, and Conservation Act of 1997. Japan completed the process by ratifying the Protocol on December 15, 1997. US government actions undertaken in Antarctica are subject to the requirements of both the Protocol and the US National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). There are differences in the scope and intent of the Protocol and NEPA; however, both require environmental impact assessment (EIA) as part of the planning process for proposed actions that have the potential for environmental impacts. In this paper we describe the two instruments and highlight key similarities and differences with particular attention to EIA. Through this comparison of the EIA requirements of NEPA and the Protocol, we show how the requirements of each can be used in concert to provide enhanced environmental protection for the antarctic environment. NEPA applies only to actions of the US government; therefore, because NEPA includes certain desirable attributes that have been refined and clarified through numerous court cases, and because the Protocol is just entering implementation internationally, some recommendations are made for strengthening the procedural requirements of the Protocol

  20. Psychosocial and Behavioral Characteristics of High-Risk Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) of Unknown HIV Positive Serostatus in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapsirisavat, Vorapot; Phanuphak, Nittaya; Keadpudsa, Siriwan; Egan, James E; Pussadee, Kanitta; Klaytong, Preeyarach; Reuel Friedman, M; van Griensven, Frits; Stall, Ron

    2016-12-01

    HIV prevalence remains high in men who have sex with men (MSM) in Bangkok. Even though resources for HIV testing and treatment are available for all, a large proportion of MSM still do not get HIV tested. We studied high risk MSM who are unaware of their HIV status to help maximize effectiveness of our resources. Convenience sampling was conducted among MSM who came for HIV testing at the Thai Red Cross Anonymous Clinic and two popular drop-in centers in Bangkok. Inclusion criteria were MSM aged >18 years, have not been tested positive for HIV, who reported ≥1 of the following in the previous 6 months: condomless sex with a male, being a sex worker, or having a sexual transmitted infection diagnosis. Audio-Computer-Assisted Self-Interview was used to assess psychosocial profile, sexual risks, and HIV testing patterns prior to being informed of their HIV positive status. Among 499 high-risk MSM enrolled, the median age was 24.8 years and 112 (22 %) tested HIV-positive. Among the HIV-positive participants, 92 % self-identified as gay (versus bisexual), 39 % attained a bachelors degree or higher, 65 % had monthly income 10,000-29,999 baht ($280-830 USD), 10 % had vaginal or anal sex with a woman in the past 12 months, 39 % had condomless receptive sex with men and 21 % went to Lat Phrao to find a sexual partner. Compared to HIV negative MSM, HIV-positive MSM had less HIV testing: 31 % had ever been tested for HIV, 12 % had been tested in the past 6 months; but were more likely to guess correctly their positive status (31 %). Regarding psychosocial variables among HIV-positive MSM, 7 % had regular methamphetamine use in the past 3 months, 10 % had >2 sources of discrimination, and 8 % had >2 sources of discrimination due to being MSM. In multivariable model, age2 sources of discrimination because of being MSM, did not get HIV test in past 6 months, and guess of positive HIV were significantly associated with HIV positive status. Young MSM with

  1. Lessons learned from the first U.S./Russian Federation joint tabletop exercise to prepare for conducting on-site inspections under the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filarowski, C; Gough, R; Hawkins, W; Knowles, S; Kreek, S; MacLeod, G; Rockett, P; Smith, A; Sweeney, J; Wild, J; Wohletz, K

    1999-03-24

    A U.S./Russian Federation Joint Tabletop Exercise took place in Snezhinsk, Russia, from 19 to 24 October 1998, whose objectives were the following: (1) To simulate the actions of the Inspection Team (IT), including interactions with the inspected State Party (ISP), in order to examine different ways the United States and Russian Federation (RF) approach inspections and develop appropriate recommendations for the international community. (2) To identify ambiguities and contradictions in the interpretation of Treaty and Protocol provisions that might become apparent in the course of an inspection and that need clarification in connection with the development of Operational Manuals and on-site inspection (OSI) infrastructure. (3) To confirm the efficacy of using bilateral tabletop exercises to assist in developing an effective Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) verification regime. (4) To identify strong and weak points in the preparation and implementation methods of such exercises for the purpose of further improving possible future exercises.

  2. Public Access to Documents after the entry into force of the Amsterdam Treaty: Much Ado About Nothing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulf Öberg

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a trend towards recognising a general principle of public access to documents held by public authorities, both in national and in Community law. Once such a fundamental principle of Community law is established, the exceptions to public access to documents laid down in the internal rules of the institutions must not be construed or interpreted in a manner which will render it impossible to attain the objective of openness. To this effect, and in the light of the increasing but still marginal judicial review of the institutions refusals of access to documents, the European Ombudsman's inquires into public access to documents and his decisions on individual complaints of maladministration have provided an efficient and cost-effective recourse for European citizens. However, the entry into force of the Amsterdam Treaty and the subsequent adoption of secondary legislation is unlikely to resolve all the inadequacies of the current public access regime in Community law. This calls for a uniform interpretation of the law on public access to documents in the Community legal order.

  3. The Rights of Foreign Investors Over Land According to Investment Protection Treaties: a View from Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás M. Perrone

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last ten years foreign investment in agriculture has increased notably in Latin America. Foreign investors, as much private as state, are interested in agricultural production, either for an expected benefit, or to assure the food supply. This increase in investment can be positive for the countries of the region. Nevertheless, in order to carry out this determination it is necessary to understand, among other things, the legal effects of these investment flows. This work maintains that the property rights acquired by foreign investors over the land and their agricultural undertakings may be different from the rights of national investors. This is because of foreign investment protection treaties. The strengthening of the rights of foreign investors affects the relationship between these investors and the receiving state. This article analyzes the effects of the rights of foreign investors in relation to five categories of state initiatives. Specifically, they are 1 the right to export production or the cost of exportation in the face of commercial and taxation measures; the right to continue a project in the face of changes within the regulatory paradigm; 3 the right to continue a project in the face of political change or new social preferences; 4 the right to receive better compensation in the face of agricultural reforms or programmes of historical reparation; 5 the right to maintain the business plan in the face of a food crisis.

  4. Cross-Border Cooperation in the Context of Romania’s Accession to the Treaty of Prüm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minodora Ioana BĂLAN-RUSU

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The conducted research aims at critically examining the provisions of the Prüm Treaty, and therefore the proposal for the adoption of new provisions that would contribute to the improvement of the legislation in the field and increase the police and judicial cooperation. This paper is a continuation of previous research on topics related to judicial cooperation in criminal matters in the European Union. The conclusions and findings highlight the utility of the European legislative act in this area and the need to supplement it with new provisions in order to broaden the jurisdiction of officials of another State on the territory of the host State in joint actions, in order to prevent and combat the cross-border criminality, particularly terrorism. The paper can be helpful to both theoreticians and practitioners, and to all who wish to improve their knowledge in this highly complex domain. The essential contribution of this study refers to the critical examination and the proposals for supplementing and amending the European and internal legislation in this area.

  5. Toward a treaty on safety and cost-effectiveness of pharmaceuticals and medical devices: enhancing an endangered global public good

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faunce Thomas

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract • Expert evaluations of the safety, efficacy and cost-effectiveness of pharmaceutical and medical devices, prior to marketing approval or reimbursement listing, collectively represent a globally important public good. The scientific processes involved play a major role in protecting the public from product risks such as unintended or adverse events, sub-standard production and unnecessary burdens on individual and governmental healthcare budgets. • Most States now have an increasing policy interest in this area, though institutional arrangements, particularly in the area of cost-effectiveness analysis of medical devices, are not uniformly advanced and are fragile in the face of opposing multinational industry pressure to recoup investment and maintain profit margins. • This paper examines the possibility, in this context, of States commencing negotiations toward bilateral trade agreement provisions, and ultimately perhaps a multilateral Treaty, on safety, efficacy and cost-effectiveness analysis of pharmaceuticals and medical devices. Such obligations may robustly facilitate a conceptually interlinked, but endangered, global public good, without compromising the capacity of intellectual property laws to facilitate local product innovations.

  6. Uncertainty quantification for discrimination of nuclear events as violations of the comprehensive nuclear-test-ban treaty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Jamison; Sun, Yunwei; Carrigan, Charles

    2016-05-01

    Enforcement of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) will involve monitoring for radiologic indicators of underground nuclear explosions (UNEs). A UNE produces a variety of radioisotopes which then decay through connected radionuclide chains. A particular species of interest is xenon, namely the four isotopes (131m)Xe, (133m)Xe, (133)Xe, and (135)Xe. Due to their half lives, some of these isotopes can exist in the subsurface for more than 100 days. This convenient timescale, combined with modern detection capabilities, makes the xenon family a desirable candidate for UNE detection. Ratios of these isotopes as a function of time have been studied in the past for distinguishing nuclear explosions from civilian nuclear applications. However, the initial yields from UNEs have been treated as fixed values. In reality, these independent yields are uncertain to a large degree. This study quantifies the uncertainty in xenon ratios as a result of these uncertain initial conditions to better bound the values that xenon ratios can assume. We have successfully used a combination of analytical and sampling based statistical methods to reliably bound xenon isotopic ratios. We have also conducted a sensitivity analysis and found that xenon isotopic ratios are primarily sensitive to only a few of many uncertain initial conditions.

  7. An Introduction to Singapore Treaty on the Law of Trademarks%商标法新加坡条约述评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹锋林

    2006-01-01

    @@ 一、引言 今年3月,世界知识产权组织(WIPO)在新加坡主持外交会议缔结了《商标法新加坡条约》(The Singapore Treaty on the Law of Tradenarks).这是进入2l世纪以来世界知识产权组织主持缔结的第一个知识产权条约.

  8. Estimation of gas-particle partitioning coefficients (Kp) of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in carbonaceous aerosols collected at Chiang-Mai, Bangkok and Hat-Yai, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongpiachan, Siwatt; Ho, Kin Fai; Cao, Junji

    2013-01-01

    To assess environmental contamination with carcinogens, carbonaceous compounds, water-soluble ionic species and trace gaseous species were identified and quantified every three hours for three days at three different atmospheric layers at the heart of Chiang-Mai, Bangkok and Hat-Yai from December 2006 to February 2007. A DRI Model 2001 Thermal/Optical Carbon Analyzer with the IMPROVE thermal/optical reflectance (TOR) protocol was used to quantify the organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) contents in PM10. Diurnal and vertical variability was also carefully investigated. In general, OC and EC mass concentration showed the highest values at the monitoring period of 21.00-00.00 as consequences of human activities at night bazaar coupled with reduction of mixing layer, decreased wind speed and termination of photolysis at nighttime. Morning peaks of carbonaceous compounds were observed during the sampling period of 06:00-09:00, emphasizing the main contribution of traffic emission in the three cities. The estimation of incremental lifetime particulate matter exposure (ILPE) raises concern of high risk of carbonaceous accumulation over workers and residents living close to the observatory sites. The average values of incremental lifetime particulate matter exposure (ILPE) of total carbon at Baiyoke Suit Hotel and Baiyoke Sky Hotel are approximately ten times higher than those air samples collected at Prince of Songkla University Hat-Yai campus corpse incinerator and fish-can manufacturing factory but only slightly higher than those of rice straw burning in Songkla province. This indicates a high risk of developing lung cancer and other respiratory diseases across workers and residents living in high buildings located in Pratunam area. Using knowledge of carbonaceous fractions in PM10, one can estimate the gas-particle partitioning of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Dachs-Eisenreich model highlights the crucial role of adsorption in gas

  9. Comparison of GPS-TEC measurements with IRI-2007 and IRI-2012 modeled TEC at an equatorial latitude station, Bangkok, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunpold, Sanit; Tripathi, Nitin K.; Rajesh Chowdhary, V.; Raju, Durairaju Kumaran

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents the first vertical total electron content (VTEC) data derived from a dual-frequency GPS receiver installed at the Asian Institute of Technology in Bangkok, as part of project SCINDA (Scintillation Network and Decision Aid) with a magnetic dip latitude of 14°N, The diurnal, monthly, and seasonal variation in TEC, measured between August 2010 and July 2012, was compared with values derived from two International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) models: the IRI-2007 and the recently released IRI-2012. The highest diurnal TEC always occurred between 08:00 and 12:00 Universal Time (UT). The diurnal pattern of GPS-TEC reached its maximum values during equinoctial months (March, April, September, and October) and minimum values during solstice months (June, July, December, and January), which can be attributed to the solar extreme ultra-violet ionization coupled with the upward vertical E×B drift. The modeled TEC was underestimated in 2010 and 2011 and overestimated in 2012, especially with the IRI-2007 model. The measured values were better correlated with the IRI-2012 model, especially in 2012. However, neither of the IRI models responded to geomagnetic activity, despite the selection of the “storm” option, generally showing a smooth curve and underestimating TEC during a storm. To verify this phenomenon, the impacts of geomagnetic storms were considered.

  10. Assessing Child Maltreatment in Children Born to Mothers Who Used Methamphetamine during Pregnancy at Siriraj Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patcharoros, Nontima; Chulakadabba, Sudsabuy; Na Manorom, Nattawadee; Boon-Yasidhi, Vitharon

    2014-01-01

    Studies on maltreatment of children born to methamphetamine abusing mothers are lacking. This cross-sectional study examined child maltreatment among children born at Siriraj Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand, to mothers who used methamphetamines during pregnancy. During the study period between July 2011 and January 2012, 34 caretakers of these children were interviewed using the ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tool-Parent Version (ICAST-P) to assess their disciplinary actions. The associations between child's and caretaker's characteristics and child maltreatment behaviors were analyzed. More than 90% of caretakers were female with age ranging from 18 to 35 years and about 60% were biological mothers. The children's age ranged from 1 to 9 years. Disciplinary acts and child rearing practices that were considered to be child maltreatment behaviors were reported as follows: psychological discipline 82.4%, physical discipline 79.4%, and neglect 29.4%. No associations between the child's or the caretaker's characteristics and child maltreatment behaviors were found. In conclusion, child maltreatment behaviors were frequent in caretakers of children born to mothers who used methamphetamine during pregnancy. Supervision on child rearing and careful monitoring are needed for this population.

  11. Heavy metal contamination characteristic of soil in WEEE (waste electrical and electronic equipment) dismantling community: a case study of Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damrongsiri, Seelawut; Vassanadumrongdee, Sujitra; Tanwattana, Puntita

    2016-09-01

    Sue Yai Utit is an old community located in Bangkok, Thailand which dismantles waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). The surface soil samples at the dismantling site were contaminated with copper (Cu), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and nickel (Ni) higher than Dutch Standards, especially around the WEEE dumps. Residual fractions of Cu, Pb, Zn, and Ni in coarse soil particles were greater than in finer soil. However, those metals bonded to Fe-Mn oxides were considerably greater in fine soil particles. The distribution of Zn in the mobile fraction and a higher concentration in finer soil particles indicated its readily leachable character. The concentration of Cu, Pb, and Ni in both fine and coarse soil particles was mostly not significantly different. The fractionation of heavy metals at this dismantling site was comparable to the background. The contamination characteristics differed from pollution by other sources, which generally demonstrated the magnification of the non-residual fraction. A distribution pathway was proposed whereby contamination began by the deposition of WEEE scrap directly onto the soil surface as a source of heavy metal. This then accumulated, corroded, and was released via natural processes, becoming redistributed among the soil material. Therefore, the concentrations of both the residual and non-residual fractions of heavy metals in WEEE-contaminated soil increased.

  12. Substance abuse in early adolescents and HIV preventive behaviors: findings from a school-based cross-sectional survey for the period from 2009 to 2013, Bangkok Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thepthien, B; Altaf, L; Chuchareon, P; Srivanichakron, S

    2016-10-01

    This study is first of its kind in Bangkok, and is a five-year (2009-2013) cross-sectional web-based survey to examine HIV preventive behaviors related to substance abuse among adolescents (N = 16,913). The questionnaire was self-administered. Logistic regression was used to analyze the data. The relationship between different types of substance abuse with risky and preventive behaviors was assessed. Male participants reported more substance abuse as compared to females. The risk behaviors observed among the substance abusers include increased sexual experience, multiple sex partners, no use of condoms, and injection drug use. The preventive behaviors include having a high self-risk assessment, going for HIV testing (highest in methamphetamine users), and screening for sexually transmitted infection. Logistic regression suggests that risky behaviors (e.g., sexual experience, injection drug use) are more common in substance abusers. Adolescents are clearly at a high risk. Behavioral preventive measures are needed to reduce or delay premature substance exposure to prevent a wide range of health problems and risks such as HIV and AIDS, injection drug use and unprotected sex.

  13. Occurrence of the - -(SEA), - -(THAI) and - -(FIL) α-Thalassemia-1 Carriers from a 7-Year Study at Ramathibodi Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongjantharasatien, Kobkorn; Banyatsuppasin, Wansa; Pounsawat, Sonnarong; Jindadamrongwech, Sumalee

    2016-08-01

    α-Thalassemia (α-thal) is one of the most common genetic diseases in Thailand. Homozygosity of α-thal-1 (- -/- -) and compound heterozygosity of α-thal-1/α-thal-2 (- -/-α) leads to Hb Bart's (γ4) hydrops fetalis and Hb H (β4) disease, respectively. In order to better control and provide prevention of α-thal disease, the prevalence of α-thal-1 carriers and the types of genotypes in the Thai population should be known. A 7-year retrospective study, employing multiplex gap-polymerase chain reaction (gap-PCR) of 31,632 blood samples from Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, revealed an α-thal-1 carrier rate of 14.40% with the - -(SEA) (NG_000006.1: g.26264_45564del19301), - -(THAI) (NG_000006.1: g.10664_44164del33501) and - -(FIL) (NG_000006.1: g.11684_43534del31851) genotypes, constituting frequencies of 14.21, 0.18 and 0.01%, respectively. Although the - -(FIL) genotype is rare in the Thailand, its detection should be included in future α-thal screening programs.

  14. THE EFFECT OF INTERNET USING BEHAVIORS UPON THE PHYSICAL AND MENTAL HEALTH OF THAI CHILDREN AND YOUTHS: CASE STUDY IN BANGKOK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ujsara Prasertsin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research was to study the behavior of children and youth related to using the internet. The sample consisted of 1,584 children and youths in Bangkok. The Canonical Correlation Analysis statistics method was applied to analyze the data. The research results revealed that using the internet for entertainment purposes exerted good effects on mental health at 0.52%; meanwhile, it negatively affected mental health at 6251%. Using the internet for education and business displayed effects on physical health only at 650%. In the second part of the research, section one used in-depth interviews with five children and youths, and section two used a personal interview of four executives and experts specifically chosen. From all of the research results, the children and the majority of youths derived more benefits than bad effects. However, using too much internet either positively or negatively would cause some physical and mental health effects. Recommended internet media controls include the following: 1 the government must be part in blocking improper internet and promoting the good internet media; 2 the communities must take part in monitoring bad internet media, both content and images; 3 parents and families must take care and keep an eye on their children; and 4 the mass communication organizations must promote good media and screen the bad media sites.

  15. Psychosocial health conditions and HIV prevalence and incidence in a cohort of men who have sex with men in Bangkok, Thailand: evidence of a syndemic effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadamuz, T E; McCarthy, K; Wimonsate, W; Thienkrua, W; Varangrat, A; Chaikummao, S; Sangiamkittikul, A; Stall, R D; van Griensven, F

    2014-11-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) in Bangkok may experience multiple psychosocial health conditions, such as substance use, suicidality, and a history of sexual abuse. These factors may contribute to HIV vulnerability in a syndemic way. A syndemic is defined as a number of synergistically interacting health conditions producing excess disease in a population. The objective of this study is to examine whether psychosocial health conditions among MSM have a syndemic association with HIV prevalence and HIV incidence. To do this, we evaluated psychosocial health conditions and their associations with unprotected sex, HIV prevalence and HIV incidence in a cohort of Thai MSM (N = 1,292). There was a positive and significant association between the number of psychosocial health conditions and increased levels of unprotected sex and HIV prevalence at study baseline. The number of psychosocial health conditions at baseline was also associated with increased HIV incidence during follow-up (no conditions, HIV incidence = 15.3 %; one to three conditions, 23.7 %; four to five conditions, 33.2 %). The number of psychosocial health conditions was positively associated with HIV risk behavior and HIV prevalence and incidence. Prevention efforts among MSM need to address the existence of multiple psychosocial health conditions and their synergy to effectively decrease the spread of HIV infection.

  16. A retrospective study of the clinical hematology and the serum biochemistry tests made on canine dirofilariasis cases in an animal hospital population in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwetpathomwat, Anuchai; Kaewthamasorn, Morakot; Tiawsirisup, Sonthaya; Techangamsuwan, Somporn; Suvarnvibhaja, Siram

    2007-06-01

    Heartworm disease, caused by the filarial nematode, Dirofilaria immitis, is a major, potentially life-threatening disease of dogs, with worldwide distribution and global significance. It is not only of veterinary importance but it also has zoonotic potential in many regions. It is considered as an endemic disease in Thailand, although clinical data about the disease is rarely reported. The objectives of this study were to characterize the clinical hematology and the biochemistry of canine dirofilariasis cases admitted to Chulalongkorn University, Small Animal Teaching Hospital in Bangkok, Thailand, from 2001-2003. All hematology and serum biochemistry parameter interpretations were based on reference values. A total of 1023 dogs were evaluated in this study. Dogs were divided into three groups based on their heartworm classification (microfilaremic, occult and negative). The major hematological findings in microfilaremic dogs were a mild to moderate anemia, mild to severe thrombocytopenia, marked leukocytosis, moderate to marked neutrophilia, eosinophilia and monocytosis. The most common serum biochemical abnormalities in microfilaremic dogs included increased alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase with a mean+/-SD of 311+/-299, 82+/-76 and 50+/-38 IU/L, respectively. It is likely that this parasitic infection led to the impairment of the hematological and biochemical status of the infected dogs. We believe that investigation of these laboratory based parameters, when associated with the clinical signs, is a very important approach to be considered in the routine clinical follow up, as well as being important for therapeutic evaluations.

  17. The formation of a social Hispanic Atlantic space and the integration of merchant communities following the Treaties of Utrecht

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crespo Solana, Ana

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Current research into Spanish commercial expansion in the Americas has recently turned to a new consideration of space as a historical category. In fact, when the interconnecting processes are analysed, one of the most striking phenomena is the actual “production of the space” in which a wide variety of exchanges took place. This production/creation of space becomes obvious in Spanish colonial commerce. This article discusses the theoretical framework for this spatial perspective, and analyses the impact that this construction of space on the organization of routes and on network formation, as well as its evolution within the institutional context following the Treaties of Utrecht.La formación del espacio social hispano-atlántico y la integración de las comunidades mercantiles después de los tratados de Utrecht.- Los estudios sobre la expansión comercial española en América han virado recientemente hacia una importante reconsideración del espacio como categoría histórica. De hecho, uno de los fenómenos más interesantes de analizar en los procesos de interconexión global es la “producción de espacio” en el que se producen los intercambios de todo tipo. Esta producción de espacio es evidente en el caso del comercio colonial español. En este artículo se explicará el marco teórico de esta perspectiva espacial y se analizará el impacto de esta construcción de espacio en la organización de las rutas y en la formación de redes así como su evolución en el marco institucional después de los tratados de Utrecht.

  18. A treaty on the cutoff of fissile material for nuclear weapons - What to cover? How to verify?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaper, A. [Peace Research Inst., Frankfurt (Germany)

    1998-07-01

    Since 1946, a cutoff has been proposed. In 1993, the topic was placed on the agenda of the CD. The establishment of an Ad Hoc Committee in the CD with a mandate to negotiate a fissile material cutoff treaty struggled with difficulties for more than a year. The central dispute was whether the mandate should refer to existing un-safeguarded stockpiles. The underlying conflict of the CTBT negotiations can be summarized as nuclear disarmament versus nuclear nonproliferation The same conflict is now blocking progress with FMCT negotiations in the CD. At the center of technical proliferation concerns is direct use material that can be used for nuclear warheads without any further enrichment or reprocessing. Those materials are plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU). A broader category of materials is defined as all those containing any fissile isotopes, called special fissionable materials. In order ta verify that no direct use materials are abused for military purposes, also special fissionable materials must be controlled. An even broader category is simply called nuclear materials. Pu and HEU can be distinguished into the following categories of utilisation: 1. military direct use material in operational nuclear weapons and their logistics pipeline, 2. military direct use material held in reserve for military purposes, in assembled weapons or in other forms, 3. military direct use material withdrawn from dismantled weapons, 4. military direct use material considered excess and designated for transfer into civilian use, 5. military direct use material considered excess and declared for transfer into civilian use, 6. direct use material currently in reactors or their logistics pipelines and storages, and 7. irradiated Pu and HEU in spent fuel from reactors, or in vitrified form for final disposal. Large quantities of materials are neither inside weapons nor declared excess. So far, there are no legal obligations for NWS for limitations, declarations, or

  19. International Non-governmental Organizations: Legitimate Actors in the System of Climate Change Treaties%论气候变化条约体系中国际非政府组织的地位

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝雅烨子

    2012-01-01

    International non-governmental organizations(NGOs) have always played an important role in the development of climate change treaties.However,the current climate change treaties do not stipulate the status of NGOs through norms,which causes NGOs can only make influence informally.The author,beginning with the interpretation of relevant treaties,considers the status of NGOs in the future climate change treaties constructively on the basis of the existing international practice.Conclusively,the author suggests that the activities of NGOs should be put within the regulation of climate change treaties,while the climate change treaties should provide access for NGOs to participate in decision-making process and strengthen the function of NOGs in the dispute settlement concerning climate change treaties.%国际非政府组织一直以来对气候变化条约体系的发展都起着重要的推动作用,然而目前的气候变化条约却并没有明确规范非政府组织的地位,致使非政府组织只能通过非正式的活动发挥影响。文章从条约解释的角度出发,结合已有的国际实践,对未来的气候变化条约中非政府组织的地位进行建构性的探讨,认为应当将非政府组织的活动纳入气候变化条约体系的规范中,为它们提供参与决策的渠道,并且加强非政府组织在气候变化条约争端解决中的作用。

  20. Tighten The Treaty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Accusations of nuclear weapon developments in Iran and North Korea have refocused world attention on the simmering issue. In an analysis of the situation, Zhang Liangui, a professor with the Party School of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, comments that the international community should intensify the current anti-nuclear proliferation system to control the development of nuclear weapons before it is too late.

  1. 主权视野下的教育国际条约分析%Analysis of International Treaties on Education from a Perspective of Sovereignty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    栗晓红

    2014-01-01

    With the increase of international education activities ,international treaties on education have been devel-oped as a contractual arrangement ,which not only provides a platform for these activities but help them to be carried out orderly .The signing of those treaties at the same time means some transfers of education sovereignty between sig -natory countries .This paper reviews the international treaties on education signed by China and analyzes the implicit transfers of education sovereignty hidden behide them .It points out as follows the characteristics of which China transfers part of its education sovereignty:mutual and equal ,flexible and manipulable ,ownership of final discretion by sovereign states .%教育国际条约伴随着日益增多的跨国教育活动而出现,是为这些活动建立平台并促使它们有序开展的一套国家间的契约安排,它的签署意味着缔约国之间教育主权的部分让渡。梳理我国签订的教育国际条约的内容和种类,对其中暗含的教育主权让渡情况进行分析,指出当前我国的教育主权让渡具有以下特点:相互性和平等性;较大的弹性和可操作性;主权国家拥有最终的裁量权。

  2. Historical Survey of Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty%《不扩散核武器条约》的历史审视

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费赫夫

    2012-01-01

    Although Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty is a product of power politics, it objectively plays an active role in the prevention of nuclear proliferation. As the foundation stone of nuclear non-proliferation regime, the treaty has experienced a lot of severe tests and nowadays is facing many challenges, which will have a bright future. In order to achieve the goal of Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, nuclear disarmament and the right of non-nuclear states to peacefully use nuclear energy should be paid more attention in the future. Only in this way can the glorious desire of nuclear-free world be realized.%《不扩散核武器条约》虽然是强权政治的产物,但它在客观上为防止核扩散起着积极作用,是核不扩散体制的基石。该条约经历了许多严峻的考验,当今也面临不少的挑战,不扩散核武器条约的未来还是美好的。为了实现不扩散核武器条约的目标,今后更应关注核裁军和无核国家和平利用核能的权利。只有这样,无核世界的美好愿望才能实现。

  3. International challenge to predict the impact of radioxenon releases from medical isotope production on a comprehensive nuclear test ban treaty sampling station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslinger, Paul W; Bowyer, Ted W; Achim, Pascal; Chai, Tianfeng; Deconninck, Benoit; Freeman, Katie; Generoso, Sylvia; Hayes, Philip; Heidmann, Verena; Hoffman, Ian; Kijima, Yuichi; Krysta, Monika; Malo, Alain; Maurer, Christian; Ngan, Fantine; Robins, Peter; Ross, J Ole; Saunier, Olivier; Schlosser, Clemens; Schöppner, Michael; Schrom, Brian T; Seibert, Petra; Stein, Ariel F; Ungar, Kurt; Yi, Jing

    2016-06-01

    The International Monitoring System (IMS) is part of the verification regime for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban-Treaty Organization (CTBTO). At entry-into-force, half of the 80 radionuclide stations will be able to measure concentrations of several radioactive xenon isotopes produced in nuclear explosions, and then the full network may be populated with xenon monitoring afterward. An understanding of natural and man-made radionuclide backgrounds can be used in accordance with the provisions of the treaty (such as event screening criteria in Annex 2 to the Protocol of the Treaty) for the effective implementation of the verification regime. Fission-based production of (99)Mo for medical purposes also generates nuisance radioxenon isotopes that are usually vented to the atmosphere. One of the ways to account for the effect emissions from medical isotope production has on radionuclide samples from the IMS is to use stack monitoring data, if they are available, and atmospheric transport modeling. Recently, individuals from seven nations participated in a challenge exercise that used atmospheric transport modeling to predict the time-history of (133)Xe concentration measurements at the IMS radionuclide station in Germany using stack monitoring data from a medical isotope production facility in Belgium. Participants received only stack monitoring data and used the atmospheric transport model and meteorological data of their choice. Some of the models predicted the highest measured concentrations quite well. A model comparison rank and ensemble analysis suggests that combining multiple models may provide more accurate predicted concentrations than any single model. None of the submissions based only on the stack monitoring data predicted the small measured concentrations very well. Modeling of sources by other nuclear facilities with smaller releases than medical isotope production facilities may be important in understanding how to discriminate those releases from

  4. International treaties. United Nations, mutual assistance pacts, human rights, sea-, air- and space law, environmental law, peace law, German reunification, conventions of war. As of March 1, 1991. 5. rev. ed. Voelkerrechtliche Vertraege. Vereinte Nationen, Beistandspakte, Menschenrechte, See-, Luft- und Weltraumrecht, Umweltrecht, Kriegsverhuetungsrecht, Deutsche Einheit, Kriegsrecht. Stand 1. Maerz 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randelzhofer, A. (ed.)

    1991-01-01

    The 5th edition of this book dating from 1 March 1991 takes into account German unification; the previous treaties and legal documents are out of date in this regard. The book is divided into: international organizations; mutual assistance, friendship and partnership treaties; diplomacy, international treaties; human rights; international sea, air and space law; environmental law; settlement of disputes, measures for peace, disarmament; German unification; conventions of war. (HSCH).

  5. Serological survey of Toxoplasma gondii, Dirofilaria immitis, Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) and Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) infections in pet cats in Bangkok and vicinities, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhumavasi, Woraporn; Bellosa, Mary L; Lucio-Forster, Araceli; Liotta, Janice L; Lee, Alice C Y; Pornmingmas, Pitcha; Chungpivat, Sudchit; Mohammed, Hussni O; Lorentzen, Leif; Dubey, J P; Bowman, Dwight D

    2012-08-13

    The seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii, Dirofilaria immitis (heartworm), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infections was examined using serum or plasma samples from 746 pet cats collected between May and July 2009 from clinics and hospitals located in and around Bangkok, Thailand. The samples were tested for heartworm, FIV, and FeLV using a commercial ELISA. Of the 746 samples, 4.6% (34/746) were positive for heartworm antigen, 24.5% (183/746) had circulating FeLV antigen, and 20.1% (150/746) had antibodies against FIV. In addition, the first 348 submitted samples were tested for T. gondii antibodies using a modified agglutination test (MAT, cut off 1:25); 10.1% (35/348) were seropositive. Of the 348 cats sampled for all four pathogens, 11, 10, and 1 were positive for T. gondii antibodies and FIV antibodies, FeLV antigen, or D. immitis antigen, respectively. Of the 35 T. gondii-seropositive cats, 42.9% (15/35) were co-infected with at least one of the other three pathogens. The presence of antibodies to FIV was significantly associated with both age and gender, while FeLV antigen presence was only associated with age. In the case of FIV, males were twice as likely to be infected as females, and cats over 10 years of age were 13.5 times more likely to be infected than cats less than 1 year of age. FeLV antigen was more common in younger cats, with cats over 10 years of age being 10 times less likely to be FeLV positive than cats under 1 year of age. This is the first survey for these four pathogens affecting feline health in Thailand.

  6. Retrospective Analysis of Corticosteroid Treatment in Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and/or Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis over a Period of 10 Years in Vajira Hospital, Navamindradhiraj University, Bangkok.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roongpisuthipong, Wanjarus; Prompongsa, Sirikarn; Klangjareonchai, Theerawut

    2014-01-01

    Background. Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and/or toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) are uncommon and life-threatening drug reaction associated with a high morbidity and mortality. Objective. We studied SJS and/or TEN by conducting a retrospective analysis of 87 patients treated during a 10-year period. Methods. We conducted a retrospective review of the records of all patients with a diagnosis of SJS and/or TEN based on clinical features and histological confirmation of SJS and/or TEN was not available at the Department of Medicine, Vajira hospital, Bangkok, Thailand. The data were collected from two groups from 2003 to 2007 and 2008 to 2012. Results. A total of 87 cases of SJS and/or TEN were found, comprising 44 males and 43 females whose mean age was 46.5 years. The average length of stay was 17 days. Antibiotics, anticonvulsants, and allopurinol were the major culprit drugs in both groups. The mean SCORTEN on admission was 2.1 in first the group while 1.7 in second the group. From 2008 to 2012, thirty-nine patients (76.5%) were treated with corticosteroids while only eight patients (22.2%) were treated between 2003 and 2007. The mortality rate declined from 25% from the first group to 13.7% in the second group. Complications between first and second groups had no significant differences. Conclusions. Short-term corticosteroids may contribute to a reduced mortality rate in SJS and/or TEN without increasing secondary infection. Further well-designed studies are required to compare the effect of corticosteroids treatment for SJS and/or TEN.

  7. Entrance and exit wounds of high velocity bullet: An autopsy analysis in the event of dispersing the mass rally in Bangkok Thailand, May 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peonim, Vichan; Srisont, Smith; Udnoon, Jitta; Wongwichai, Sompong; Thapon, Arisa; Worasuwannarak, Wisarn

    2016-11-01

    Fatal mass casualties by high velocity bullets (HVBs) are rare events in peaceful countries. This study presents 27 forensic autopsy cases with 32 shots fired by 5.56×45mm. HVB (M-16 rifle bullets) during the dispersing the mass rally in Bangkok Thailand, May 2010. It was found that twenty-three (71.88%) typical entrance HVB wounds had round sizes less than the bullet diameters. Most entrance wounds had microtears but no collar abrasion since a HVB has a small streamlined spitzer tip and full metal jacket. For exit wounds, there were various sizes and shapes depending on which section of wound ballistics presented when the bullet exited the body. If a bullet exited in the section of temporally cavity formation, there would be a large size exit wound in accordance with the degree of bullet yaw. This is different from civilian bullets whereby the shape looks like a cylindrical round nose and at low velocity that causes entrance wounds with a similar size to the bullet diameter and is usually round or oval shape with collar abrasion. The temporary cavity is not as large as in a HVB so exit wounds are not quite as large and present a ragged border compared to a HVB. We also reported 9 out of 32 shots (28.13%) of atypical entrance wounds that had various characteristics depending on site of injury and destabilization of bullets. These findings may be helpful to forensic pathologists and to give physicians, who need to diagnose HVB wounds, more confidence.

  8. Characterization of gaseous pollutants and PM2.5 at fixed roadsides and along vehicle traveling routes in Bangkok Metropolitan Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim Oanh, N. T.; Kongpran, J.; Hang, N. T.; Parkpian, P.; Hung, N. T. Q.; Lee, S.-B.; Bae, G.-N.

    2013-10-01

    Traffic is a major source of air pollution in urban areas of developing countries that leads to high exposure risk of urban dwellers. This study comparatively investigated levels of fine particles (PM2.5), SO2, NO2, and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes) at fixed roadsides and on traveling routes in congested urban and less congested suburban areas of Bangkok in 2010. The roadside air quality monitoring was done at two opposite sites across the selected roads. The traffic counting was made simultaneously in these roads and hourly flows of 8 different vehicle types were determined. Roadside PM2.5 levels during dry season were high in both the city center and suburban area, significantly above the wet season, with 65-75% measurements exceeded 24 h Thailand ambient air quality standard of 50 μg m-3. Oppositely, roadside BTEX levels measured in the city center during wet season were higher than dry season and well above those in suburban area. Diurnal variations and the results of SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) analysis showed associations between roadside pollutants levels and hourly traffic flows. The differences in pollution levels between 2 monitoring sites across a road were explained by road configurations and prevalent wind directions. On-route pollution levels were measured simultaneously both inside and outside selected vehicles (van, pickup), and on motorcycle. The on-route PM2.5 levels along the urban route were higher during the dry season than wet season. PM2.5 levels inside the vehicles were lower than outside whereas the opposite was observed for BTEX. BTEX were higher on more congested urban sub-routes with lower vehicle speeds. Higher pollution levels suggest a high risk of exposure.

  9. Epidemiological, Clinical and Virological Characteristics of Influenza B Virus from Patients at the Hospital Tertiary Care Units in Bangkok during 2011-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horthongkham, Navin; Athipanyasilp, Niracha; Pattama, Archiraya; Kaewnapan, Bualan; Sornprasert, Suthatta; Srisurapanont, Surangrat; Kantakamalakul, Wannee; Amaranond, Palanee; Sutthent, Ruengpung

    2016-01-01

    Influenza B virus, which causes acute respiratory infections, has increased in prevalence in recent years. Based on the nucleotide sequence of the hemagglutinin (HA) gene, influenza B virus can be divided into two lineages, Victoria and Yamagata, that co-circulate during the influenza season. However, analysis of the potential association between the clinical and virological characteristic and the lineage of influenza B viruses isolated in Thailand was lacking. To investigate influenza B virus genetically and determine its neuraminidase (NA) inhibitor susceptibility phenotype, a total of 6920 nasopharyngeal-wash samples were collected from patients with influenza-like illness between the years 2011 and 2014 and were screened for influenza B virus by real-time PCR. Of these samples, 3.1% (216/6920) were confirmed to contain influenza B viruses, and 110 of these influenza viruses were randomly selected for nucleotide sequence analysis of the HA and NA genes. Phylogenetic analysis of the HA sequences showed clustering into various clades: Yamagata clade 3 (11/110, 10%), Yamagata clade 2 (71/110, 64.5%), and Victoria clade 1 (28/110, 25.5%). The analysis of clinical characteristic demonstrated that the Victoria lineage was significantly associated with the duration of hospitalization, number of deceased cases, pneumonia, secondary bacterial infection and underlying disease. When combined with phylogenetic analysis of the NA sequences, four samples showed viruses with reassortant sequences between the Victoria and Yamagata lineages. Statistical analysis of the clinical outcomes and demographic data for the reassortant strains did not differ from those of the other strains in circulation. Oseltamivir-resistant influenza B viruses were not detected. Our findings indicated the co-circulation of the Victoria and Yamagata lineages over the past four cold seasons in Bangkok. We also demonstrated differences in the clinical symptoms between these lineages.

  10. Molecular genetic characterization of rabies virus glycoprotein gene sequences from rabid dogs in Bangkok and neighboring provinces in Thailand, 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjathummarak, Surachet; Fa-Ngoen, Chanon; Pipattanaboon, Chonlatip; Boonha, Khwanchit; Ramasoota, Pongrama; Pitaksajjakul, Pannamthip

    2016-05-01

    Because of its association with dogs, rabies virus (RABV) is still endemic in Thailand, where it is a serious public health problem. The genetic characterization of RABV in Thailand is limited. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the molecular epidemiology and genetic diversity of RABV in the endemic area. Viral RNA from 48 brain specimens from rabid dogs, collected in Bangkok and seven neighboring provinces in 2013-2014, was extracted and sequenced. The complete rabies glycoprotein (G) gene sequences (1575 nt) were aligned, and a phylogenetic analysis was performed using the maximum-likelihood method. All of the Thai rabies virus isolates belonged to lyssavirus genotype 1 and clustered in the same lineage as isolates from South East Asia (SEA) and China. The Thai rabies virus isolates formed two distinct clades, THA-1 and THA-2. Clade THA-1 was the predominant clade and could be divided into two subclades, THA-1A and THA-1B. Clade THA-2 was closely associated with human Thai isolates collected in a previous study. The overall mean rate of evolution based on the G gene was approximately 1.56 × 10(-4) substitutions/site/year. The genetic identities among the isolates from Thailand and other SEA countries were >88.4 % at the nucleotide sequence level and 95 % at the amino acid sequence level. The deduced amino acid sequences of the G proteins of the RABV isolates were compared. A single amino acid change (N194T) in subclade THA-1A distinguished the Thai RABV isolates from other RABV isolates. Our results suggest that these Thai dog RABV isolates share a common ancestor with the RABV isolates circulating in the endemic regions of SEA countries and China. Furthermore, there were strong genetic relationship to RABV from Cambodia, Vietnam and Laos. These data extend our understanding of the relatedness and genetic variation of RABV in Thailand.

  11. Utilising an LC-MS/MS-based multi-biomarker approach to assess mycotoxin exposure in the Bangkok metropolitan area and surrounding provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warth, Benedikt; Petchkongkaew, Awanwee; Sulyok, Michael; Krska, Rudolf

    2014-01-01

    Human exposures to mycotoxins through dietary intake are a major health hazard and may result in various pathophysiological effects. Although Thailand is a country at increased risk due to its climatic conditions, no comprehensive dataset is available to perform proper exposure assessment of its population with regard to mycotoxins. Therefore, this pilot study was conducted to investigate and evaluate the exposure levels of major mycotoxins (aflatoxin B₁, ochratoxin A, fumonisins, zearalenone and trichothecenes). Sixty first-morning urine samples were collected from healthy volunteers who live in the Bangkok metropolitan area and surrounding provinces (Pathumthani, Nonthaburi, Samutprakarn and Samutsakorn). Urine samples were analysed by a LC-MS/MS-based multi-biomarker method following a so-called 'dilute and shoot' approach. Results generally indicated low mycotoxin exposures in most individuals through the determination of the four biomarkers that were detected in urine samples, i.e. aflatoxin M₁, ochratoxin A (OTA), as well as the deoxynivalenol (DON) metabolites DON-3-glucuronide and DON-15-glucuronide in 10 of 60 individuals. The maximum concentrations were used to estimate the daily intake confirming that none of the individuals exceeded the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of DON (maximum 26% of TDI) or OTA (maximum 22% of TDI). However, the maximum exposure of aflatoxin B₁, estimated to be 0.91 µg (kg bw)⁻¹ day⁻¹, should raise some concerns and suggests further studies utilising a more sensitive method. Low exposure to Fusarium toxins was also confirmed by the absence of zearalenone, α-zearalanol, β-zearalanol and zearalenone-14-glucuronide as well as T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, nivalenol and free DON. This is the first multi-mycotoxin biomarker study performed in Southeast Asia.

  12. Inhalation exposure and health risk levels to BTEX and carbonyl compounds of traffic policeman working in the inner city of Bangkok, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanjanasiranont, Navaporn; Prueksasit, Tassanee; Morknoy, Daisy

    2017-03-01

    Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) and carbonyl compounds (CCs) are recognized traffic-related air pollutants in urban environments and are the focus of this study. In Bangkok, the BTEX and CC concentrations in both ambient air and personal exposure samples were studied during two periods (April-May and August-September 2014) at four different sampling sites around the Pathumwan District (three intersections and one T-junction). Traffic policemen, representing the high-exposure group for these toxic air pollutants, were observed, and the health risk to these workers was evaluated. Toluene was the predominant aromatic compound in the ambient and personal exposure samples. The maximum average ambient concentration of BTEX was 2968.96 μg/m3. Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were the most abundant CCs at all of the sampling sites, with the greatest mean concentrations of these substances being 21.50 μg/m3 and 64.82 μg/m3, respectively. In the personal exposure samples, the highest levels of BTEX, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde concentrations were 2231.85 μg/m3, 10.61 μg/m3, and 16.03 μg/m3, respectively. In terms of risk assessment, benzene posed the greatest cancer risk (at the 95% CI), followed by toluene, acetaldehyde and formaldehyde (1.15E-02, 5.14E-03, 2.84E-04, and 2.52E-04, respectively). Three risk factors were investigated to reduce the total cancer risk levels: reducing the chemical concentration, exposure time and exposure duration. The use of a mask (chemical concentration) was the best way to reduce the risk to traffic police. However, the risk value of benzene (average 1.57E-05) was still higher than an acceptable value when using a mask.

  13. EPIDEMIOLOGY AND CONTROL OF THE FIRST REPORTED VANCOMYCIN-RESISTANT ENTEROCOCCUS OUTBREAK AT A TERTIARY-CARE HOSPITAL IN BANGKOK, THAILAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chotiprasitsakul, Darunee; Santanirand, Pitak; Thitichai, Phantanee; Rotjanapan, Porpon; Watcharananan, Siriorn; Siriarayapon, Potjaman; Chaihongsa, Narong; Sirichot, Suntariya; Chitasombat, Maria; Chantharit, Prawat; Malathum, Kumthorn

    2016-05-01

    This retrospective study described the first reported vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) outbreak from June 2013 through January 2014 at a tertiary-care hospital in Bangkok, Thailand. After the index case was detected in an 18-bed medical intermediate care unit, a number of interventions was implemented, including targeted active surveillance for VRE, strict contact precautions, enhanced standard precautions, dedicated units for VRE cases, extensive cleaning of the environment and the restricted use of antibiotics. VRE isolates were evaluated by polymerase chain reaction and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) testing. A prevalence case-control study was conducted. Among 3,699 culture samples from 2,671 patients screened, 74 patients (2.8%) had VRE. The positivity rate declined from 15.1% during week 1 to 8.2% during week 2 and then 1.4% during week 3. By weeks 4-9, the prevalences were 0-2.7%. However, the prevalence rose to 9.4% during week 10 and then subsequently declined. All VRE isolates were Enterococcus faecium and had the vanA gene. RAPD analysis revealed a single predominant clone. Multivariate analysis showed mechanical ventilation for ≥ 7 days was a predictive factor for VRE colonization [odds ratio (OR) 11.47; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.75-75.35; p = 0.011]. This experience demonstrates VRE can easily spread and result in an outbreak in multiple-bed units. Active surveillance, early infection control interventions and rapid patient cohorting were important tools for control of this outbreak. Patients requiring mechanical ventilator for ≥ 7 days were at higher risk for VRE acquisition.

  14. Microbial Contamination on Used Surgical Masks among Hospital Personnel and Microbial Air Quality in their Working Wards: A Hospital in Bangkok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pipat Luksamijarulkul

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the relationship of bacterial and fungal contamination on used surgical masks worn by the hospital personnel and microbial air quality in their working wards. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of 230 used surgical masks collected from 214 hospital personnel, and 215 indoor air samples collected from their working wards to culture for bacterial and fungal counts. This study was carried out at the hospital in Bangkok. Group or genus of isolated bacteria and fungi were preliminarily identified by Gram’s stain and lacto-phenol cotton blue. Data were analyzed using paired t-test and Pearson’s correlation coefficient at the significant level of p<0.050. Results: Means and standard deviation of bacterial and fungal contamination on inside area of the used masks were 47 ± 56 and 15 ± 9 cfu/ml/piece, and on outside area were 166 ± 199 and 34 ± 18 cfu/ml/piece, respectively, p<0.001. The bacterial and fungal contamination on used masks from hospital personnel working in the male and female medical wards and out-patient department, as well as the bacterial and fungal counts of the indoor air sample collected from the same area were relatively higher than the other wards. The predominant isolated bacteria and fungi contaminated on inside and outside areas of the used masks and air samples were similar (Staphylococcus spp. and Aspergillus spp.; respectively. For its relationship, results found that bacterial and fungal counts in air samples showed significantly positive correlation with the bacterial contamination load on outside area of the used masks, r=0.16, p=0.018 and r=0.21, p=0.003, respectively. Conclusion: High bacterial contamination on outside area of the used masks was demonstrated, and it showed a significant correlation with microbial air quality of working wards.

  15. Influence of Dimensions of UHMW-PE Protuberances on Sliding Resistance and Normal Adhesion of Bangkok Clay Soil to Biomimetic Plates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P. Soni; V. M. Salokhe

    2006-01-01

    A number of investigations into application of polymers for macro-morphological modification of tool surface have been carried out. These researches, with extensive stress on convex or domed protuberations as one of the widely used construction units, have tried to harness benefits from using polymers in agriculture. Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMW-PE)has proved an emerging polymer in its application to reduce soil adhesion. This research was conducted to study the effect of shape (flat, semi-spherical, semi-oblate, semi short-prolate and semi long-prolate) and dimensions (base diameter and dome height) on sliding resistance and normal adhesion of biomimetic plates. To incorporate both shape and size, a dimensionless ratio of height to diameter (HDR) was introduced to characterize the effect of construction unit's physique. Experiments were conducted in Bangkok clay soil with dry (19.8% d.b.), sticky (36.9% d.b.) and flooded (60.1% d.b.) soil conditions respectively. Soil at sticky limit exhibited the highest sliding resistance (77.8 N) and normal adhesion (3 kPa to 7 kPa), whereas these values were 61.7 N and <0.2 kPa in dry, and 53.7 N and 0.5 kPa to 1.5 kPa in flooded soil conditions. Protuberances with HDR ≤ 0.5 lowered sliding resistance by 10% - 30% and the same reduced normal adhesion by 10% - 60%. The amount of reduction in both sliding resistance and normal adhesion was higher in flooded soil. Lighter normal loads obviously produced lesser resistance and adhesion.

  16. 鼎革与延续:北京政府“修约外交”与南京国民政府“改定新约运动”之比较∗%Change and Continue:Comparing the Beijing Government’ s Treaty-diplomacy and the Nanjing Government’ s Treaty Renegoitaiotn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪富忠; 汪丽媛

    2015-01-01

    南京国民政府的“改订新约运动”是北京政府修约外交的继承和发展,二者在修约方针、修约方式、修约内容等方面均有相当的继承和延续,政权鼎革并没有完全取代其外交的内在延续,二者在中国废除不平等条约的历史进程中均做出了自身独特的贡献。%The the Nanjing Government’ s Treaty Renegotiation Movement carried on and developed the Beijing Government’ s Treaty⁃diplomacy in ways of treaty guidelines, form and content. Although the change of regime continued the diplomacy policy, both regimes made contributions to the historical process of the abolition of unequal treaties in China.

  17. The Global Diffusion of Societal Verification Tools: A Quantitative Assessment of the Public’s Ability to Engage Nonproliferation Treaty Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayre, Amanda M.; Kreyling, Sean J.; West, Curtis L.

    2015-07-11

    The spread of nuclear and dual-use technologies and the need for more robust, effective and efficient nonproliferation and arms control treaties has led to an increasing need for innovative verification approaches and technologies. This need, paired with advancements in online computing, mobile devices, commercially available satellite imagery and the evolution of online social networks, has led to a resurgence of the concept of societal verification for arms control and nonproliferation treaties. In the event a country accepts its citizens’ assistance in supporting transparency, confidence-building and societal verification, the host government will need a population that is willing and able to participate. While scholarly interest in societal verification continues to grow, social scientific research on the topic is lacking. The aim of this paper is to begin the process of understanding public societal verification capabilities, extend the availability of quantitative research on societal verification and set in motion complementary research to increase the breadth and depth of knowledge on this topic. This paper presents a potential framework and outlines a research roadmap for the development of such a societal verification capability index.

  18. Proceedings of the Symposium on the Non-Proliferation Experiment: Results and Implications for Test Ban Treaties, Rockville, Maryland, April 19-21, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denny, Marvin D

    1994-01-01

    To address a critical verification issue for the current Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and for a possible future Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), the Department of Energy sought to measure certain differences between an underground nuclear test and a chemical test in the same geology, so that other explosions could be identified. This was done in a field experiment code-named the NonProliferation Experiment (NPE).This comprehensive experiment was designed to determine the signatures of chemical explosions for a broad range of phenomena for comparison with those of previous nuclear tests. If significant differences can be measured, then these measures can be used to discriminate between the two types of explosions. In addition, when these differences are understood, large chemical explosions can be used to seismically calibrate regions to discriminate earthquakes from explosions. Toward this end, on-site and off-site measurements of transient phenomena were made, and on-site measurements of residual effects are in progress.Perhaps the most striking result was that the source function for the chemical explosion was identical to that of a nuclear one of about twice the yield. These proceedings provide more detailed results of the experiment.

  19. The use of depleted uranium ammunition under contemporary international law: is there a need for a treaty-based ban on DU weapons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrmann, Robin

    2010-01-01

    This article examines whether the use of Depleted Uranium (DU) munitions can be considered illegal under current public international law. The analysis covers the law of arms control and focuses in particular on international humanitarian law. The article argues that DU ammunition cannot be addressed adequately under existing treaty based weapon bans, such as the Chemical Weapons Convention, due to the fact that DU does not meet the criteria required to trigger the applicability of those treaties. Furthermore, it is argued that continuing uncertainties regarding the effects of DU munitions impedes a reliable review of the legality of their use under various principles of international law, including the prohibition on employing indiscriminate weapons; the prohibition on weapons that are intended, or may be expected, to cause widespread, long-term and severe damage to the natural environment; and the prohibition on causing unnecessary suffering or superfluous injury. All of these principles require complete knowledge of the effects of the weapon in question. Nevertheless, the author argues that the same uncertainty places restrictions on the use of DU under the precautionary principle. The paper concludes with an examination of whether or not there is a need for--and if so whether there is a possibility of achieving--a Convention that comprehensively outlaws the use, transfer and stockpiling of DU weapons, as proposed by some non-governmental organisations (NGOs).

  20. The protection of personal data in the fight against terrorism New perspectives of PNR European Union instruments in the light of the Treaty of Lisbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Nino

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the protection of personal data in the European Union in the context of the fight against international terrorism taking into account the new European Union architecture provided for by the Treaty of Lisbon. After having delineated the European legal background concerning the right to privacy, the author examines the Passenger Name Records (PNR Agreements concluded by the European Union with the United States, Canada and Australia. A further object of analysis is the 2007 proposal for a Council Framework Decision on the use of PNR data for law enforcement purposes, which is aimed at creating an autonomous PNR system in the European Union. The author considers that these instruments are likely to violate rights and fundamental freedoms of individuals, in particular the right to privacy. This is also due to the architecture of the European Union, whose structure is incapable of adequately and completely protecting the right to personal data protection. As a consequence, the author proposes solutions to modify PNR instruments, especially in light of the future changes that the Treaty of Lisbon will make to the structure of the European Union.

  1. Considerations about the origin of a true historiografy: the Treaty of Methuen (1703, the destruction of manufacturing production in Portugal, and the gold of Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascieduc.v34i2.17014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sezinando Luiz Menezes

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In the mid-eighteenth century flourished in Portugal a concern among the ‘estrangeirados’ about the causes of ‘atraso’ of the kingdom and ways to get his ‘regeneração’. The illustration starts then a Portuguese tradition, the predominant form, but not unanimous, gave the Methuen Treaty (or Treaty of cloths and Wine, 1703, the source of the problems of not development of the Lusitanian manufacturing and appropriation of the gold produced Brazil. This work has as main objective to reflect on the construction of this school and explaining their persistence in the history taught in Brazil.  

  2. About the treaty of complete nuclear test ban: the USA between unilateralism and multilateralism; A propos du traite sur l'interdiction complete des essais nucleaires: les Etats-Unis entre l'unilateralisme et le multilateralisme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sur, S. [Universite Pantheon-Assas, 75 - Paris (France); Centre Thucydide, Analyse et Recherche en Relations Internationales, 75 - Paris (France)

    2000-07-01

    This article analyses the possible reasons that have led the US Senate to reject the treaty of comprehensive nuclear test ban. Even if this decision did not retained the attention of the international public opinion, it appears as surprising because the USA have worked a lot for the elaboration of this treaty and were considered as the main beneficiaries of it. Three interpretations are proposed by the author: some purely internal disputes inside Clinton's administration, a real will of the USA to abandon the arms control policy, or an intermediate attitude which allows the USA to act on different levels and to get rid of common rules. (J.S.)

  3. Evaluation of virus removal efficiency of coagulation-sedimentation and rapid sand filtration processes in a drinking water treatment plant in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asami, Tatsuya; Katayama, Hiroyuki; Torrey, Jason Robert; Visvanathan, Chettiyappan; Furumai, Hiroaki

    2016-09-15

    In order to properly assess and manage the risk of infection by enteric viruses in tap water, virus removal efficiency should be evaluated quantitatively for individual processes in actual drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs); however, there have been only a few studies due to technical difficulties in quantifying low virus concentration in water samples. In this study, the removal efficiency of indigenous viruses was evaluated for coagulation-sedimentation (CS) and rapid sand filtration (RSF) processes in a DWTP in Bangkok, Thailand by measuring the concentration of viruses before and after treatment processes using real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Water samples were collected and concentrated from raw source water, after CS, and after RSF, and inhibitory substances in water samples were reduced by use of a hydrophobic resin (DAX-8). Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) and JC polyomavirus (JC PyV) were found to be highly prevalent in raw waters, with concentrations of 10(2.88 ± 0.35) and 10(3.06 ± 0.42) copies/L (geometric mean ± S.D.), respectively. Step-wise removal efficiencies were calculated for individual processes, with some variation observed between wet and dry seasons. During the wet season, PMMoV was removed less by CS and more by RSF on average (0.40 log10 vs 1.26 log10, respectively), while the reverse was true for JC PyV (1.91 log10 vs 0.49 log10, respectively). Both viruses were removed similarly during the dry season, with CS removing the most virus (PMMoV, 1.61 log10 and 0.78 log10; JC PyV, 1.70 log10, and 0.59 log10; CS and RSF, respectively). These differences between seasons were potentially due to variations in raw water quality and the characteristics of the viruses themselves. These results suggest that PMMoV and JC PyV, which are more prevalent in environmental waters than the other enteric viruses evaluated in this study, could be useful in determining viral fate for the risk management of viruses in water treatment

  4. Rapid Detection of Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter lari in Fresh Chicken Meat and By-Products in Bangkok, Thailand, Using Modified Multiplex PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiyudthong, S; Phusri, K; Buates, S

    2015-07-01

    A multiplex PCR assay for simultaneous detection and differentiation of Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter lari was developed and validated to assess the occurrence of these bacteria in fresh chicken meat and by-products in Bangkok, Thailand, by using a new combination of four previously published PCR primers for C. jejuni, C. coli, C. lari, and a universal 16S rDNA gene as an internal control. The specificity was determined by using 13 strains of other bacteria. With pure culture DNA, the detection limit was 0.017 ng/PCR for C. jejuni and C. coli and was 0.016 ng/PCR for C. lari. It can detect 10 CFU of C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. lari in 2 g of chicken meat within a 16-h enrichment time. Our multiplex PCR assay was applied for identification of Campylobacter spp. in 122 supermarket samples and 108 fresh market samples. Of the 230 samples evaluated by multiplex PCR, 54.0, 3.3, and 10.7% of supermarket samples were positive for C. jejuni, C. coli, and mixed C. jejuni and C. coli, respectively, and 56.5 and 33.3% of fresh market samples were positive for C. jejuni and mixed C. jejuni and C. coli, respectively. No sample was positive for C. lari. Fresh market samples had significantly higher C. jejuni and C. coli contamination than those from supermarkets (relative risk: 1.3; P = 0.0001). Compared with the culture method (a gold standard), the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and diagnostic accuracy of multiplex PCR were 97.7, 86.8, 96.1, 92.0, and 95.2%, respectively. No significant difference was observed between results from two methods (P = 0.55). Therefore, the established multiplex PCR was not only rapid and easy to perform but had a high sensitivity and specificity to distinguish between C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. lari, even in samples containing mixed contamination. Our study indicated that fresh chicken meat and by-products from fresh markets were significantly less hygienic than those

  5. Serotype-specific differences in the risk of dengue hemorrhagic fever: an analysis of data collected in Bangkok, Thailand from 1994 to 2006.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica R Fried

    Full Text Available It is unclear whether dengue serotypes differ in their propensity to cause severe disease. We analyzed differences in serotype-specific disease severity in children presenting for medical attention in Bangkok, Thailand.Prospective studies were conducted from 1994 to 2006. Univariate and multivariate logistic and multinomial logistic regressions were used to determine if dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF and signs of severe clinical disease (pleural effusion, ascites, thrombocytopenia, hemoconcentration were associated with serotype. Crude and adjusted odds ratios were calculated. There were 162 (36% cases with DENV-1, 102 (23% with DENV-2, 123 (27% with DENV-3, and 64 (14% with DENV-4. There was no significant difference in the rates of DHF by serotype: DENV-2 (43%, DENV-3 (39%, DENV-1 (34%, DENV-4 (31%. DENV-2 was significantly associated with increased odds of DHF grade I compared to DF (OR 2.9 95% CI 1.1, 8.0, when using DENV-1 as the reference. Though not statistically significant, DENV-2 had an increased odds of total DHF and DHF grades II, III, and IV. Secondary serologic response was significantly associated with DHF (OR 6.2 and increased when considering more severe grades of DHF. DENV-2 (9% and -4 (3% were significantly less often associated with primary disease than DENV-1 (28% and -3 (33%. Restricting analysis to secondary cases, we found DENV-2 and DENV-3 to be twice as likely to result in DHF as DEN-4 (p = 0.05. Comparing study years, we found the rate of DHF to be significantly less in 1999, 2000, 2004, and 2005 than in 1994, the study year with the highest percentage of DHF cases, even when controlling for other variables.As in other studies, we find secondary disease to be strongly associated with DHF and with more severe grades of DHF. DENV-2 appears to be marginally associated with more severe dengue disease as evidenced by a significant association with DHF grade I when compared to DENV-1. In addition, we found non

  6. The rejection of the comprehensive nuclear test ban treaty by the US Senate: a reverse for the nuclear arms control?; Le rejet du traite d'interdiction complete des essais nucleaires par le Senat Americain: un revers pour l'arms control nucleaire?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sitt, B. [Universite de Marne la Vallee, 77 (France)

    2000-07-01

    On October 13, 1999, after a hasty debate, the US Senate rejected the comprehensive nuclear test ban treaty (CTBT) signed 3 years ago. This article analyses this event with respect to the US domestic context (discussions at the Senate, reaction of the Presidency) and with respect to the international context (international reactions, future of the treaty, consequences on arms control policy). (J.S.)

  7. "Working the system"--British American tobacco's influence on the European union treaty and its implications for policy: an analysis of internal tobacco industry documents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine E Smith

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Impact assessment (IA of all major European Union (EU policies is now mandatory. The form of IA used has been criticised for favouring corporate interests by overemphasising economic impacts and failing to adequately assess health impacts. Our study sought to assess how, why, and in what ways corporations, and particularly the tobacco industry, influenced the EU's approach to IA. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In order to identify whether industry played a role in promoting this system of IA within the EU, we analysed internal documents from British American Tobacco (BAT that were disclosed following a series of litigation cases in the United States. We combined this analysis with one of related literature and interviews with key informants. Our analysis demonstrates that from 1995 onwards BAT actively worked with other corporate actors to successfully promote a business-oriented form of IA that favoured large corporations. It appears that BAT favoured this form of IA because it could advance the company's European interests by establishing ground rules for policymaking that would: (i provide an economic framework for evaluating all policy decisions, implicitly prioritising costs to businesses; (ii secure early corporate involvement in policy discussions; (iii bestow the corporate sector with a long-term advantage over other actors by increasing policymakers' dependence on information they supplied; and (iv provide businesses with a persuasive means of challenging potential and existing legislation. The data reveal that an ensuing lobbying campaign, largely driven by BAT, helped secure binding changes to the EU Treaty via the Treaty of Amsterdam that required EU policymakers to minimise legislative burdens on businesses. Efforts subsequently focused on ensuring that these Treaty changes were translated into the application of a business orientated form of IA (cost-benefit analysis [CBA] within EU policymaking procedures. Both the tobacco and

  8. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military. August 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    the 1995 Treaty of Bangkok (for Southeast Asia), and the 2006 Treaty of Semipalatinsk (for Central Asia). Military Implications: The Pelindaba...Climate Change (UNFCCC). Among other things, the UN estimates didn‟t include key sectors such as energy, manufacturing, tourism , and natural ecosystems...by 2020. However, average cuts promised so far by the rich total just 10% to16%. The next negotiations will be held in Bangkok , Thailand from

  9. Multiphase, multicomponent flow and transport models for Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty monitoring and nuclear waste disposal applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Amy

    Open challenges remain in using numerical models of subsurface flow and transport systems to make useful predictions related to nuclear waste storage and nonproliferation. The work presented here addresses the sensitivity of model results to unknown parameters, states, and processes, particularly uncertainties related to incorporating previously unrepresented processes (e.g., explosion-induced fracturing, hydrous mineral dehydration) into a subsurface flow and transport numerical simulator. The Finite Element Heat and Mass (FEHM) transfer code is used for all numerical models in this research. An experimental campaign intended to validate the predictive capability of numerical models that include the strongly coupled thermal, hydrological, and chemical processes in bedded salt is also presented. Underground nuclear explosions (UNEs) produce radionuclide gases that may seep to the surface over weeks to months. The estimated timing of gas arrival at the surface may be used to deploy personnel and equipment to the site of a suspected UNE, if allowed under the terms of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty. A model was developed using FEHM that considers barometrically pumped gas transport through a simplified fractured medium and was used to quantify the impact of uncertainties in hydrologic parameters (fracture aperture, matrix permeability, porosity, and saturation) and season of detonation on the timing of gas breakthrough. Numerical sensitivity analyses were performed for the case of a 1 kt UNE at a 400 m burial depth. Gas arrival time was found to be most affected by matrix permeability and fracture aperture. Gases having higher diffusivity were more sensitive to uncertainty in the rock properties. The effect of seasonality in the barometric pressure forcing was found to be important, with detonations in March the least likely to be detectable based on barometric data for Rainier Mesa, Nevada. Monte Carlo modeling was also used to predict the window of

  10. HIV serostatus disclosure is not associated with safer sexual behavior among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM and their partners at risk for infection in Bangkok, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwards-Jackson Nneka

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between HIV serostatus disclosure and sexual risk behavior is inconsistent across studies. As men who have sex with men (MSM are emerging as the key affected population in Bangkok, Thailand with reported HIV prevalence of 30%, we assessed whether HIV disclosure is associated with protected sex in this population. Methods A risk behavior questionnaire was administered using Audio Computer-Assisted Self-Interviewing (ACASI to determine whether HIV serostatus disclosure was associated with protected sex in 200 HIV-positive MSM in Bangkok. HIV serostatus disclosure to the most recent sexual partner prior to or at the time of the sexual encounter was assessed. Protected sex was defined as insertive or receptive anal intercourse with a condom at the most recent sexual encounter. Results The mean age was 30.2 years, CD4 was 353 cells/mm3, and one-third was on antiretroviral therapy. At the most recent sexual encounter, HIV serostatus disclosure rate was low (26%; 60.5% of subjects had not discussed their serostatus at all, while 5.5% had not revealed their true serostatus. Seventeen percent reported unprotected anal intercourse and about half had sex with their primary partners. The serostatus of the most recent sexual partner was HIV-positive in 19.2%, HIV-negative in 26.4%, and unknown in 54.4% of subjects. There was no association between disclosure and protected sex, with 41 of 48 (85.4% disclosers and 104 of 126 (82.5% of non-disclosers reported protected sex (p = .65. Subjects with HIV-positive partners were less likely to report protected sex overall (20 of 33, 60.6% compared to those with HIV negative (82 of 96, 85.4% or unknown (41 of 45, 91.1% partners (p = .001. Age (27-32 years vs. ≤26 years, p = .008, primary partner status (p Conclusion Rates of HIV disclosure to sexual partners by HIV-positive MSM in Bangkok are low. Despite low rates of HIV serostatus disclosure, most HIV-positive MSM

  11. Implementing nuclear non-proliferation in Finland. Regulatory control, international cooperation and the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. Annual report 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okko, O. (ed.)

    2012-07-01

    The regulatory control of nuclear materials (i.e. nuclear safeguards) is a prerequisite for the peaceful use of nuclear energy in Finland. Safeguards are required for Finland to comply with international agreements on nuclear non-proliferation - mainly the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). This regulatory control is exercised by the Nuclear Materials Section of the Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK). The results of STUK's nuclear safeguards inspection activities in 2011 continued to demonstrate that the Finnish licence holders take good care of their nuclear materials. There were no indications of undeclared nuclear materials or activities and the inspected materials and activities were in accordance with the licence holders' declarations.

  12. European Criminal Law a! er the Lisbon Treaty, or Europeanization of European law, under the co-responsibility of the Member States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Riza

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Same as EU Law, that presents a new area of law and that it is still in progress, the EU Criminal Law is developing. The development of EU criminal law, of course, is dictated by the development of European Law itself, or the EU itself. Depending on it, the EU will be a supranational structure, or will undergo changes and become a Federal State, or another unified form. Taking into consideration the importance of this area of law, which is created for cooperation among states to combat organized crime, and especially terrorism, we can have a Criminal Code European and a European code of Criminal Procedure certainly in the near future, namely, a codification of European criminal field. This paper aims to discuss the development of European criminal law, until the Treaty of Lisbon.

  13. El TLT (Trademark Law Treaty y los retos para la superintendencia de industria y comercio como oficina nacional de propiedad industrial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Carolina Corcione Morales

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available La Superintendencia de Industria y Comercio, como Oficina Nacional de Propiedad Industrial, se enfrentará a un nuevo sistema de registro de marcas una vez sea incorporado a nuestro ordenamiento el Tratado sobre Derecho de Marcas – TLT (Trademark Law Treaty. Los retos procesales que se avecinan al introducirse el registro multiclase en el actual sistema colombiano, ameritan un análisis detenido del contenido del tratado y de las medidas que el gobierno colombiano deberá adoptar para garantizar una implementación exitosa del instrumento internacional. La entrada en vigencia del TLT, si bien no implica un reto que obligue replantear las fuentes y principios del derecho de la propiedad industrial, es un desafío de índole procesal que hace necesario adecuar el actual funcionamiento de la Superintendencia de Industria y Comercio, a nivel humano y tecnológico.

  14. El TLT (Trademark Law Treaty y los retos para la Superintendencia de Industria y Comercio como Oficina Nacional de Propiedad Industrial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Carolina Corcione Morales

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available La Superintendencia de Industria y Comercio, como Oficina Nacional de Propiedad Industrial, se enfrentará a un nuevo sistema de registro de marcas una vez sea incorporado a nuestro ordenamiento el Tratado sobre Derecho de Marcas (Trademark Law Treaty –tlt–. Los retos procesales que se avecinan al introducirse el registro multiclase en el actual sistema colombiano ameritan un análisis detenido del contenido del tratado y de las medidas que el gobierno colombiano deberá adoptar para garantizar una implementación exitosa del instrumento internacional. La entrada en vigencia del tlt, si bien no implica un reto que obligue a replantear las fuentes y principios del derecho de la propiedad industrial, es un desafío de índole procesal que hace necesario adecuar el actual funcionamiento de la Superintendencia de Industria y Comercio a los aspectos humano y tecnológico.

  15. A treaty more alarming than efficient. The dismantled warheads will not be destroyed. Danger; Un traite plus inquietant qu'efficace. Les ogives demantelees ne seront pas detruites. Risque

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riche, P.; Despic-Popovic, H.; Nougayrede, N

    2002-07-01

    This political analysis presents the new treaty of nuclear weapons dismantling between Russia and Usa. In fact the warheads will not be completely dismantling but only stocked, leading to a possible recovery by terrorists. It underlines the real interests of this agreement which are more economic than peaceful. (A.L.B.)

  16. Environmental Protection as an Obstacle to Free Movement of Goods: Realist Jurisprudence in Articles 28 and 30 of the e.c. Treaty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Engle

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Free trade and environmental protection are two norms that sometimes collide. The resolution of colliding norms can occur either using a formalist “descriptive” analysis, or using a “prescriptive” approach of legal realism. It may seem intuitive to imagine realism and formalism as mutually exclusive. However, this dualism is not entirely accurate. The realist-formalist dualism is unsatisfying because legal realism critiques the capricious nature of formalism only to replace it with likewise capricious methods of legal decision-making. Further, courts sometimes act as realists and at other times as formalists. Finally, many methods of legal interpretation may be considered either “formalist” or “realist.” This paper examines the conflict between free trade and environmental protection in E.C. law. It uses Articles 28 and 30 of the E.C. Treaty as a foil with which to draw out the distinctions and limits of both realism and formalism. A formal analysis of Articles 28 and 30 of the E.C. Treaty reveals a series of cases that struggle first to define waste as wares and then to determine the limitations that the free movement of goods imposes on environmental standards and vice versa. However, this unsatisfying formal analysis is not the only possible interpretation of the case law arising out of Articles 28 and 30. An analysis based on legal realism is also possible but not entirely satisfying. This paper concludes that the realist-formalist dualism, though tenable, does not solve the problem of capricious legal power.

  17. La irrupción de los nuevos modos de hacer radio FM para jóvenes en la Argentina, desde mediados de los años ochenta : Caso Radio Bangkok, emitido por FM Rock & Pop

    OpenAIRE

    Manzi, Federico; Vigliano, Pablo

    2006-01-01

    Mitad Argentina, mitad la republica de Bangkok, de esa mezcla radial entre realidad y la ficción Lalo Mir y compañía gestaron uno de los programas radiales humorísticos más innovadores de la historia de la radio. Corrían los tiempos de la primavera democrática en la Argentina, Daniel Grinbank dirigía la FM Rock & Pop y confió en Lalo para la conducción de un simple programa de discos. Era el furor de pasar música las 24hs del día, un concepto original en los tiempos de la primavera democrá...

  18. Subtypes and Risk Behaviors Among Incident HIV Cases in the Bangkok Men Who Have Sex with Men Cohort Study, Thailand, 2006-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Caitlin R; Holtz, Timothy H; Leelawiwat, Wanna; Mock, Philip A; Chonwattana, Wannee; Wimonsate, Wipas; Varangrat, Anchalee; Thienkrua, Warunee; Rose, Charles; Chitwarakorn, Anupong; Curlin, Marcel E

    2017-01-27

    HIV-1 incidence and prevalence remain high among men who have sex with men (MSM), and transgender women (TGW), in Thailand. To examine the link between epidemiologic factors and HIV-1 subtype transmission among Thai MSM, we compared covariates of infection with HIV CRF01_AE and other HIV strains among participants in the Bangkok MSM Cohort Study (BMCS). The BMCS was an observational cohort study of Thai MSM and TGW with up to 60 months of follow-up at 4 monthly intervals. Participants underwent HIV/sexually transmitted infections testing and provided behavioral data at each visit. Infecting viral strain was characterized by gene sequencing and/or multiregion hybridization assay. We correlated behavioral/clinical variables with infecting strain using Cox proportional hazards. Among a total of 1372 HIV seronegative enrolled participants with 4,192 person-years of follow-up, we identified 215 seroconverters between April 2006 and December 2014, with 177 infected with CRF01_AE and 38 with non-CRF01_AE subtype. Age 18-21 years (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] 2.2, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.4-3.5), age 22-29 (AHR 1.6, 95% CI: 1.1-2.3), living alone (AHR 1.5, 95% CI: 1.1-2.1), drug use (AHR 2.2, 95% CI: 1.4-3.5), intermittent condom use (AHR 1.7, 95% CI: 1.3-2.3), any receptive anal intercourse (AHR 1.7, 95% CI: 1.2-2.4), group sex (AHR 1.5, 95% CI: 1.1-2.2), anti-herpes simplex virus type 1 (AHR 1.5, 95% CI: 1.1-2.1), and Treponema pallidum antibody positivity (AHR 2.5, 95% CI: 1.4-4.4) were associated with CRF01_AE infection. Age 18-21 years (AHR 5.1, 95% CI: 1.6-16.5), age 22-29 (AHR 3.6, 95% CI: 1.3-10.4), drug use (AHR 3.1, 95% CI: 1.3-7.5), group sex (AHR 2.4, 95% CI: 1.1-5.0), and hepatitis B virus surface antigen (AHR 3.6, 95% CI: 1.3-10.2) were associated with non-CRF01_AE infection. We observed several significant biological and behavioral correlates of infection with CRF01_AE and other HIV strains among Thai MSM. Divergence in correlates by strain may

  19. Globaalne peastsoojenemine : Bangkok / Mai Loog

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Loog, Mai, 1960-

    2006-01-01

    Dan Browni samanimelise romaani järgi valminud põnevusfilm "Da Vinci kood" : režissöör Ron Howard : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2006. Tais lisati filmi algusse ja lõppu hoiatavad teated, et tegemist on väljamõeldisega

  20. Lessons learned from the first US/Russian Federation joint tabletop exercise to prepare for conducting on-site inspections under the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filarowski, C; Kreek, S; Smith, A; Sweeney, J; Wild, J; Gough, R; Rockett, P; MacLeod, G; Hawkins, W; Wohletz, K; Knowles, S

    1999-03-24

    A U.S./Russian Federation Joint Tabletop Exercise took place in Snezhinsk, Russia, from 19 to 24 October 1998 whose objectives were to examine the functioning of an Inspection Team (IT) in a given scenario, to evaluate the strategies and techniques employed by the IT, to identify ambiguous interpretations of treaty provisions that needed clarification, and to confirm the overall utility of tabletop exercises to assist in developing an effective Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) verification regime. To achieve these objectives, the United States and Russian Federation (RF) agreed that two exercises would be conducted. The first would be developed by the RF, who would act as controller and as the inspected State Party (ISP), while the United States would play the role of the IT. The roles would be reversed in the second exercise; the United States would develop the scenario and play the ISP, while the RF would play the IT. A joint control team, comprised of members of both the U.S. and RF control teams, agreed on a number of ground rules for the two exercises and established a joint Evaluation Team to evaluate both of the exercises against the stated objectives. To meet time limitations, the scope of this joint exercise needed to be limited. The joint control team decided that each of the two exercises would not go beyond the first 25 days of an on-site inspection (OSI) and that the focus would be on examining the decision-making of the IT as it utilized the various technologies to clarify whether a nuclear test explosion had taken place. Hence, issues such as logistics, restricted access, and activities prior to Point of Entry (POE) would be played only to the extent needed to provide for a realistic context for the exercises' focus on inspection procedures, sensor deployments, and data interpretation. Each of the exercises began at the POE and proceeded with several iterations of negotiations between the IT and ISP, instrument deployments, and data

  1. Selected Legal Challenges Relating to the Military use of Outer Space, with Specific Reference to Article IV of the Outer Space Treaty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anél Ferreira-Snyman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the end of the Second World War the potential use of outer space for military purposes persisted to be intrinsically linked to the development of space technology and space flight. The launch of the first artificial satellite, Sputnik 1, by the USSR in 1957 made Western states realise that a surprise attack from space was a real possibility, resulting in the so-called "space-race" between the USA and the USSR. During the Cold War space activities were intrinsically linked to the political objectives, priorities and national security concerns of the USA and the Soviet Union. After the Cold War the political relevance and benefits of space continued to be recognised by states. In view of the recent emergence of new major space powers such as China, the focus has again shifted to the military use of outer space and the potential that a state with advanced space technology may use it for military purposes in order to dominate other states. Article IV of the Outer Space Treaty prohibits the installation of nuclear weapons and weapons of mass destruction in outer space and determines that the moon and other celestial bodies shall be used for peaceful purposes only. Due to the dual-use character of many space assets, the distinction between military and non-military uses of outer space is becoming increasingly blurred. This article discusses a number of legal challenges presented by article IV of the Outer Space Treaty, relating specifically to the term peaceful, the distinction between the terms militarisation and weaponisation and the nature of a space weapon. It is concluded that article IV is in many respects outdated and that it cannot address the current legal issues relating to the military use of outer space. The legal vacuum in this area may have grave consequences not only for maintaining peace and security in outer space, but also on earth. Consequently, an international dialogue on the military uses of outer space should be

  2. O treaty-making power na Constituição brasileira de 1988: uma análise comparativa do poder de celebrar tratados à luz da dinâmica das relações internacionais

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    Valerio de Oliveira Mazzuoli

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo estudar o modo pelo qual a Constituição brasileira de 1988 disciplina a competência dos poderes constituídos para a celebração de tratados. Buscou-se analisar, dessa forma, o relacionamento dos poderes Legislativo e Executivo no que tange ao procedimento de celebração de tratados internacionais.The present work aimed at studying the model in which the 1988 Brazilian Constitution deals with the competence of constituted powers for the celebration of treaties. It was analyzed, this way, the Legislative and Executive relationship powers as to the proceedings for the celebration of international treaties.

  3. Proceedings of the 22nd Annual DoD/DOE Seismic Research Symposium: Planning for Verification of and Compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, James W., LTC [Editor

    2000-09-15

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 22nd Annual DoD/DOE Seismic Research Symposium: Planning for Verification of and Compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), held 13-15 September 2000 in New Orleans, Louisiana. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Department of Defense (DoD), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Defense Special Weapons Agency (DSWA), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  4. History and public opinion: the historical profession and the French-Dutch rejection of the EU Constitutional Treaty. De Arena. Debat over Europa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wintle

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available ‘History and public opinion: the historical profession and the French-Dutch rejection of the EU Constitutional Treaty’In May-June 2005, the French and then the Dutch rejected the EU Constitutional Treaty. Were those events significant for the Dutch historical profession? Not very much: student demand for courses on Europe is booming and trade books on European history continue to sell well. However, the referenda do remind us of some opportunities for historians. This article argues that they should, more than ever, continue to lay bare the ‘historical’ nonsense that many politicians spout. In due course, historians will provide clear evidence about the reasons for the negative votes. They can also assist clarity of thinking by pointing out the anomaly of comparing the modern EU with nation states formed in the nineteenth century, and by insisting that there are many Europes, not just one. Historians should be sparing with declarations of what European identity is: Europe is, and always has been, in the eye of the beholder.

  5. Tratados internacionais em matéria tributária e sua relação com o direito interno no Brasil The impact of the international treaties on tax law on the Brazilian law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Mathias Alves Pinto

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo apresentar os principais aspectos a respeito do tratamento oferecido aos tratados internacionais em matéria tributária no ordenamento jurídico brasileiro. Para tal, o artigo analisa as características desses tratados enquanto fonte de direito internacional, seu posicionamento hierárquico perante a constituição federal e legislação infraconstitucional, bem como a jurisprudência mais relevante a respeito da matéria. Ao final, pretende-se demonstrar que, nos casos específicos sobre os quais tais instrumentos versarem, estes prevalecem sobre o ordenamento interno em razão do princípio da autolimitação da soberania no tocante à imposição tributária.The following article presents the main aspects of the interaction between tax treaties and national law within the brazilian legal system. The article analyses the characteristics of such treaties as sources of international law, their hierarchy before the constitution and legislation, as well as the relevant jurisprudence on the subject. The article aims at demonstrating that, regarding the specific situations addressed in its body, the tax treaty takes precedence over the national law, based on the principle of selflimitation of taxation power.

  6. Enrichment and bioavailability of heavy metals in sediments of the Bangkok Bay%曼谷湾沉积物重金属元素的富集效应与生物有效性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔淑卿; 石学法; 高晶晶; 朱爱美; Narumol Kornkanitnan; 胡利民; 张杨硕

    2015-01-01

    2010年在曼谷湾(泰国湾北部)及其北部主要河口(湄干河、拉塞河、湄南河和邦巴功河)采集了46个表层沉积物样品,分析了样品中重金属元素(Cd、Co、Cu、Pb、Zn)的含量水平,并用Al均一化数据,获得消除了粒度效应的重金属地球化学特征.利用1mol/L的HCl对该区沉积物进行了处理,通过分析沉积物重金属在酸溶相和残渣相的分布,揭示其生物有效性.结果表明,曼谷湾周边河流沉积物中重金属元素含量明显高于曼谷湾;曼谷湾沉积物中重金属(Co、Cu、Pb、Zn)从北向南随着离岸距离的增加而增加,Cd没有明显分布规律;地累积指数显示Cd和Pb存在显著的地球化学富集特征.Cd和Pb在酸溶相中的比例相对较高,表明其生物有效性较高,易引发二次污染.%Forty-six surface sediment samples were collected from the Bangkok Bay (Upper/Northern Gulf of Thailand) and adjacent river-mouths (Mae Klong River, Tha Chin River, Chao Phraya River, and Bang Pakong River) in 2010. The geochemical characteristics of heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cu, Pb and Zn) were studied using Al as a reference element to normalize the grain-size effect. The biological availability was assessed based on heavy metal concentrations in acid-soluble and residual fractions after the bulk sediment samples were pretreated with 1mol/L HCl. The results showed that the concentrations of heavy metals in sediments of the river-mouths were higher than that of the Bangkok Bay. The concentrations of heavy metals increased in a seaward direction from north to south except Cd and geo-accumulation index indicates that Cd and Pb were significantly enriched in the sediments. Higher concentrations of Cd and Pb in the soluble fractions showed strong bioavailability which may easily cause secondary pollution.

  7. On The Beijing Treaty on Audiovisual Performances and the Upgrading of China's Copyright Law%论《视听表演北京条约》及我国著作权法的完善

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘强; 黄亮

    2014-01-01

    《北京条约》是在国际条约体系存在缺陷、利益的平衡与博弈以及传播技术迅速变革的背景下诞生的。该条约在妥善处理与其他条约关系的同时,在表演者权利的客体、内容、适用领域、转让方式和保护期限等五个方面进行了发展和完善,形成了自己的制度优势。我国《著作权法》与《北京条约》相协调,应合理界定表演者概念、暂不规定表演者出租权、申请保留广播和向公众传播的权利、合理规定权利转让方式,以期更好地与国际接轨,有效地保护视听表演者的权利。%The Beijing Treaty on Audiovisual Performances is concluded in the background of the defects of international treaty system, the balance and game of interests and the rapid progress of transmission technology.The treaty deals with the relationship with other treaties reasonably, and develops and improves five aspects of audiovisual performers'rights:the objects, contents, field of ap-plication, transfer means, and term of protection, which form its institutional advantage.China's Copyright Law should be harmonized with the treaty, define the term of audiovisual performers reasonably, not stipulate performre s'er ntla rights temporarily, apply for keeping the rights of broadcasting and public transmission, regulate the ways ofr ight transfer carefully, in order to be geared to international conventions, and protect the rights of audiovisual performers effectively.

  8. 我国尚未缔结的实体私法条约适用问题研究%On the Application of Substantive Treaty of Private Law which Has Not Been Concluded in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙建

    2014-01-01

    The implemented judicial interpretation of China's Supreme Court in 2013 clearly defined that the court in China may determine the rights and obligations between the parties based on the content of interna-tional treaties which has not been in force in China. Therefore it broadens the scope of applicable law of Chi-na's foreign-related civil and commercial cases. However, it lacks of clear definitions in such perspectives as special status of the treaty that China has not yet concluded in the application of law, selective ways of the ap-plication of the treaty that China has not yet concluded, whether the application of the treaty China has not yet concluded should be limited to"invoking"or"contract territory"and whether the bilateral or non-openness treaty could be applied between the other countries or not. Now the research of the departments of theory and practice on these issues is not deep enough. The in-depth research and analysis on these issues are beneficial to further improve the China's application of law in the theory and practice of foreign-related civil relations.%2013年实施的我国最高人民法院的司法解释明确规定,我国法院对当事人之间的权利义务可以依据尚未对我国生效的国际条约予以确定,从而拓宽了我国涉外民商事案件适用法律的范围。然而,该司法解释对我国尚未缔结的条约在法律适用中具有的特殊地位、选择适用我国尚未缔结条约的方式、适用我国尚未缔结的条约是否限于“援引”与“合同领域”和他国之间的双边或非开放性条约可否适用等问题缺乏明确规定,我国的理论与实务部门对这些问题的研究尚不够深入,深入分析研究上述问题有益于进一步完善我国涉外民事关系法律适用法的理论与实践。

  9. EL TRATADO DE TAPIHUE ENTRE CIERTOS LINAJES MAPUCHES Y EL GOBIERNO DE CHILE [1825] THE TREATY OF TAPIHUE BETWEEN CERTAIN MAPUCHES LINEAGES AND THE GOVERNMENT OF CHILE (1825

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Téllez L

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El documento reproducido es una copia fotográfica del único texto impreso del Tratado de Tapihue, suscrito el 7 de enero de 1825, por el coronel del ejército patriota y comandante en jefe de la Alta Frontera, Pedro Barnechea, en representación del gobierno de Chile, y el cacique principal de la alianza "llanista", Juan Mariluán; el primero de varios acuerdos de paz llevados a cabo entre la república y las diversas parcialidades mapuches, tras la Independencia. Si bien el contenido del tratado ha sido muy difundido últimamente, nunca se había efectuado una reprografía visual del impreso original, tras su publicación, por orden del Congreso Nacional, en los talleres de la Imprenta Nacional, de Santiago de Chile. Se trata, por consiguiente, de una imagen fidedigna de la versión "oficial" patrocinada por el poder legislativo chileno. Va precedido de una presentación que ilustra al lector sobre los antecedentes que rodearon su edición, redescubrimiento y análisis técnico. Asimismo, se brindan comentarios pertinentes a los alcances jurídicos, antropológicos y políticos de su contenido. Se formula una especial reflexión en torno al estatus político adquirido por el territorio de la Araucanía, uno de los ejes temáticos de este trabajo, derivado de un proyecto Fondecyt relativo al devenir de la sociedad en los orígenes de la república.The document reproduced here is a photographic copy ofthe only printed version of the Tapihue Treaty, signed on January 7, 1825, by the patriot army colonel and commander in chiefofthe High Frontier, Pedro Barnechea, representing the Government ofChile and the principal chiefofthe alliance "llanista" Juan Mariluán,. It was the first ofseveral peace agreement sheld between the republic and the various lineages Mapuche groups after independence. While the content of the treaty has circulated before, a visual reproduction of the original form after being published by order ofCongress, in the workshops

  10. Illicit drugs in the midst of Colombia’s armed conflict and within it’s peace treaties: past, present and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Stella Baracaldo Méndez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Colombia’s recent history has been marked by violence, mainly due to the fact that the country’s political and economic power is held in the hands of less than 20% of thepopulation, as well as the issues resulting from the presence of the “Lords of War” and their ties with drug-trafficking.Cocaine processing for export was a business promoted by United States citizens during the seventies and it represented the largest “illegal economic bonanza” experienced inthe country to date. However, this “white gold” can also be considered the “root cause of a long series of deep permanent conflicts embedded in the country’s social and political processes that one way or the other have managed to shake the foundations of our society as well as that of the institutional apparatus which governs it” (Camacho Guizado,1988. Drug trafficking has been very profitable for many –members of the guerrilla, paramilitary, mafia groups, U.S. mercenaries – but it’s also left behind a numerous trail ofvictims that never received any kind of compensation, as well as many an unpunished criminal.During 2015, Colombia has vigorously pursued signing a peace treaty after which illicit drugs will become a matter for the health authorities, and more than likely, a discussion concerning legalization.Revista Policía y Seguridad Pública 5(1 2015: 301-352

  11. Characterization of Xe-133 global atmospheric background: Implications for the International Monitoring System of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achim, Pascal; Generoso, Sylvia; Morin, Mireille; Gross, Philippe; Le Petit, Gilbert; Moulin, Christophe

    2016-05-01

    Monitoring atmospheric concentrations of radioxenons is relevant to provide evidence of atmospheric or underground nuclear weapon tests. However, when the design of the International Monitoring Network (IMS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) was set up, the impact of industrial releases was not perceived. It is now well known that industrial radioxenon signature can interfere with that of nuclear tests. Therefore, there is a crucial need to characterize atmospheric distributions of radioxenons from industrial sources—the so-called atmospheric background—in the frame of the CTBT. Two years of Xe-133 atmospheric background have been simulated using 2013 and 2014 meteorological data together with the most comprehensive emission inventory of radiopharmaceutical facilities and nuclear power plants to date. Annual average simulated activity concentrations vary from 0.01 mBq/m3 up to above 5 mBq/m3 nearby major sources. Average measured and simulated concentrations agree on most of the IMS stations, which indicates that the main sources during the time frame are properly captured. Xe-133 atmospheric background simulated at IMS stations turn out to be a complex combination of sources. Stations most impacted are in Europe and North America and can potentially detect Xe-133 every day. Predicted occurrences of detections of atmospheric Xe-133 show seasonal variations, more accentuated in the Northern Hemisphere, where the maximum occurs in winter. To our knowledge, this study presents the first global maps of Xe-133 atmospheric background from industrial sources based on two years of simulation and is a first attempt to analyze its composition in terms of origin at IMS stations.

  12. Reviewing the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    several examples. At a fuel fabrication plant at Tokai-mura in Japan making mixed-oxide ( MOX ) fuel out of powdered uranium and nuclear weapons... MOX scrap in Japan where at least one bomb’s worth of weapons-usable plutonium went missing and another accounting discrepancy at a Japanese repro...mixed oxide fuels or MOX ) do not fare as well. Here, Dr. Cochran points out that it would take no more than a week and possibly as little as a few

  13. International challenge to predict the impact of radioxenon releases from medical isotope production on a comprehensive nuclear test ban treaty sampling station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eslinger, Paul W.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Achim, Pascal; Chai, Tianfeng; Deconninck, Benoit; Freeman, Katie; Generoso, Sylvia; Hayes, Philip; Heidmann, Verena; Hoffman, Ian; Kijima, Yuichi; Krysta, Monika; Malo, Alain; Maurer, Christian; Ngan, Fantine; Robins, Peter; Ross, J. Ole; Saunier, Olivier; Schlosser, Clemens; Schöppner, Michael; Schrom, Brian T.; Seibert, Petra; Stein, Ariel F.; Ungar, Kurt; Yi, Jing

    2016-06-01

    Abstract The International Monitoring System (IMS) is part of the verification regime for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban-Treaty Organization (CTBTO). At entry-into-force, half of the 80 radionuclide stations will be able to measure concentrations of several radioactive xenon isotopes produced in nuclear explosions, and then the full network may be populated with xenon monitoring afterward (Bowyer et al., 2013). Fission-based production of 99Mo for medical purposes also releases radioxenon isotopes to the atmosphere (Saey, 2009). One of the ways to mitigate the effect of emissions from medical isotope production is the use of stack monitoring data, if it were available, so that the effect of radioactive xenon emissions could be subtracted from the effect from a presumed nuclear explosion, when detected at an IMS station location. To date, no studies have addressed the impacts the time resolution or data accuracy of stack monitoring data have on predicted concentrations at an IMS station location. Recently, participants from seven nations used atmospheric transport modeling to predict the time-history of 133Xe concentration measurements at an IMS station in Germany using stack monitoring data from a medical isotope production facility in Belgium. Participants received only stack monitoring data and used the atmospheric transport model and meteorological data of their choice. Some of the models predicted the highest measured concentrations quite well (a high composite statistical model comparison rank or a small mean square error with the measured values). The results suggest release data on a 15 min time spacing is best. The model comparison rank and ensemble analysis suggests that combining multiple models may provide more accurate predicted concentrations than any single model. Further research is needed to identify optimal methods for selecting ensemble members and those methods may depend on the specific transport problem. None of the submissions based only

  14. The Intersection of Environmental Variability, Policy, and Human Values: International Treaties, Yukon River Salmon, and Food Security in a Changing Arctic (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, S.; Loring, P. A.; Murray, M. S.

    2009-12-01

    2009 was a particularly devastating year for rural communities of the Yukon River in Alaska. For a number of reasons, including annual variability in Chinook and Chum salmon runs, imperfect monitoring and information, “best practices” management decisions by regulatory agencies, and international treaty obligations related to conservation and total allowable catch allocation, the smokehouses and freezers of many Alaska Native families, particularly those in up-river communities in the Yukon Flats region, are empty; a problem that has prompted Alaska’s Governor Sean Parnell to ask the US Federal Government to declare a disaster. However, depending on whom you ask, this year’s management of these resources, which provide food security and enable self-reliance in rural communities, may be evaluated as a failure or as a success. How can we reconcile an institutional assessment that claims success as defined in terms of internationally-agreed upon conservation and escapement goals, with the negative economic and health impacts on communities? We use this case to illustrate how the whole Yukon River watershed and drainage, including Alaska and Canada, provides an elegant, geographic context for the discussion and analysis of the human dimensions of environmental change and regional sustainability. Policymakers have arguably gone to great lengths to reconcile competing ‘uses’ of the Yukon River, including commercial and subsistence uses as well as conservation goals, but while managers continue to strive to be ‘adaptive learners’ in their approach to balancing these goals, the impacts on rural communities are immediate and cumulative, synergistic, temporally and spatially scaled, and directly related to rural livelihoods, community health, well-being and sustainability. The cost of this ‘adaptive’ process may be too high, both for the ecosystem and for the people who live there. Are we asking too much of the Yukon River? Are we asking too much of the

  15. 22 CFR 41.51 - Treaty trader, treaty investor, or treaty alien in a specialty occupation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... monetary value. Although the monetary value of the trade item being exchanged is a relevant consideration... great authority to determine policy of and direction for the enterprise. (ii) A position primarily of... total cost of either purchasing an established enterprise or creating the type of enterprise...

  16. FACTORS INFLUENCING CUSTOMER BEHAVIOR-BASED CRM PERFORMANCE OF AIS IN BANGKOK%影响曼谷AIS公司基于客户行为的CRM效能的几个因子

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林海

    2012-01-01

    关系营销对很多公司来说都是新理念。在很多国家,关系型的交换已取代交易型的交换成为规范。本文主要是测试一个客户关系管理模型,通过研究下列影响曼谷AIS公司基于客户行为的CRM效能的几个因子及它们之间的相互关系来进行,这几个因子分别是:服务质量,客户价值,客户满意度,以及品牌忠诚度。研究表明AIS公司应该致力于改进其服务质量中的移情性维度。同时,AIS如欲在将来市场成功,则应该增加其功能价值,并减少客户付出感知。%Relationship marketing has emerged as a big new idea for many companies. Relational, as opposed to transactional exchange is the norm in many countries. The primary objective of this study is to test an integrated model for the customer relationship management performance by studying the following factors' effects on customer behavior-based CRM performance of AIS in Bangkok and their interrelationships: service quality, customer value, customer satisfaction, and brand loyalty. The finding sug- gests that AIS should focus on improving its service quality dimension of empathy. Meanwhile, AIS should also increase functional value and reduce customer perceived sacrifice if it's going to succeed in the future market.

  17. Southeast Asia: The Third Front in the Long War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-04

    of 2002 (a significant blow to the tourism industry). Another Friend of Our Enemy: The Abu Sayyaf Group The Filipino Muslim population...Treaty. 41 From 1921 through World War II, Bangkok began a series of reforms in an effort to integrate Muslims into greater Thailand. Separatist...historical study kept these sometimes-brutal attempts by Bangkok to destroy local religion, culture, and language at the forefront with many Muslims in the

  18. The Reasons and Historical Influence of the Signature of the US-Philippine Common Defense Treaty%《美菲共同防御条约》签订的原因及其历史影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晶

    2016-01-01

    The signature of The US-Philippine Common Defense Treaty has profound historical reasons.They include the geo-strategic demands of the US in preventing communism from spreading in the cold war era,Philippine's dependence on the U. S.in its economy rebuilding and security defense and the deep-rooted influence of the US on Philippine.The signing of the treaty has produced far-reaching historical influence too.Firstly,it symbolizes the formal establishment of the US-Philippine military ally.Secondly,the pact also provides convenience for the US to interfere in Asian Pacific affairs and the South China Sea disputes.Thirdly,the existence of the US-Philippine Common Defense Treaty and the support from the US enable Philip-pine to try to internationalize and complicate the South China Sea disputes,which will bring about more difficulties to China in its settlement of the disputes.%《美菲共同防御条约》的签订有着深刻的历史原因。冷战时期美国抗衡共产主义扩张的地缘战略需要、菲律宾国家经济的重建和安全防卫上对美国的依赖以及美国对菲律宾根深蒂固的影响共同促成了条约的签订。《美菲共同防御条约》的签订标志着美菲军事同盟关系的正式确立;条约也为此后美国随时插手亚太地区事务及南海争议问题提供了便利;条约的存在及美国的大力支持使菲律宾竭力促使南海争议问题的国际化、复杂化,同时也加大了我国解决南海争议问题的难度。

  19. Influenza vaccine effectiveness in the tropics: moderate protection in a case test-negative analysis of a hospital-based surveillance population in Bangkok between August 2009 and January 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Jens W; Simasathien, Sriluck; Watanaveeradej, Veerachai; Bhoomiboonchoo, Piraya; Fernandez, Stefan; Jarman, Richard G; Klungthong, Chonticha; Gibbons, Robert V; Kerdpanich, Phirangkool; Piboonbanakit, Danaband; Chirabandhu, Tundorn; Yoon, In-Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Influenza in the tropics occurs year round with peaks that correspond variably to temperate regions. However, data on influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) in the tropics is sparse. We report on the effectiveness of influenza vaccine to prevent medically attended laboratory confirmed influenza from sentinel surveillance conducted at a Thai military medical facility in Bangkok, Thailand from August 2009 to January 2013. Patients ≥6 months old presenting with influenza-like illness underwent combined nasal/throat swabs which were tested by influenza RT-PCR. A case test-negative study design was used to evaluate VE. Of 2999 samples available for analysis,1059 (35.3%) were PCR-positive (cases) and 1940 (64.6%) were PCR-negative (test-negative controls). Five hundred and seven (16.9%) of these patients reported being vaccinated within the previous 12 months. Periods of high and low influenza activity were defined based on publicly available Thai Ministry of Public Health data. Overall VE adjusted for age and epiweek was found to be 50.1% (95%CI: 35.0, 61.9%). The May to April adjusted VE for year 2010, 2011 and 2012 was 57.7% (95%CI: 33.7, 73.8%), 57.1% (95% CI: 35.2, 68.3%) and 37.6% (95% CI: 3.5, 62.9%).During high influenza activity in years with the same vaccine formulation, the adjusted VE was 54.9% (95%CI: 38.9, 66.9%). VE appeared to be much higher during high versus low influenza activity periods. The adjusted point estimate for VE was highest in the 18-49 year age group (76.6%) followed by 6-23 months (58.1%) and 2-17 years (52.5%). Adjusted estimates were not done for those ≥50 years of age due to small numbers. VE in patients with underlying disease was 75.5% compared to 48.0% in those without. Our findings demonstrate moderate protection by influenza vaccination and support the utility of influenza vaccination in the tropics including in very young children and those with underlying disease.

  20. Information Extraction of the Flooded Area in Bangkok Based on the MODIS Data%基于 MODIS 数据的曼谷洪水淹没区信息提取

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘继亚; 王金亮

    2015-01-01

    选取2011年夏秋季3个时期的 MODIS 图像数据,通过方法比选,选取单波段阈值法对泰国开展了洪水淹没区洪灾监测研究。结果表明:①单波段阈值法比多光谱混合分析法更适用于曼谷洪水淹没区水体信息提取。②曼谷洪水于2011年9月下旬明显爆发,淹没区面积逐渐扩大,尤其以市中心湄南河周围最为明显;10月下旬达到高峰,淹没面积达到最大,全市各地区均陷入洪水灾害中;11月下旬水势退去,淹没面积逐渐变小。提出了须进一步研究解决的问题。%Flood disaster causes one of the world's greatest lossesin all natural disasters.When the flood disaster oc-curs,extracting water body informationquickly and accurately couldidentify the scope of the flood to provide a scien-tific basisfor disaster relief and post -disaster reconstruction.The MODIS image data in three time periods of the summer and fall of 2011 were selected.A single band threshold method and multi spectral mixture analysis method were applied to conduct the flood monitoring research.The results showed thata single band threshold was more suitable for information extraction than spectral mixture analysis method.The flood in 2011 in Bangkok occurred in late September.The submerged area expanded gradually,especially aroundthe center of the Chao Phraya River. The flooded area reached the maximum when the flooding was at the peak in the late October.The flood receded until the late November.Then,the flooded area gradually became smaller.