WorldWideScience

Sample records for bangerter occlusion foils

  1. Foil bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elrod, David A.

    1993-11-01

    The rolling element bearings (REB's) which support many turbomachinery rotors offer high load capacity, low power requirements, and durability. Two disadvantages of REB's are: (1) rolling or sliding contact within the bearing has life-limiting consequences; and (2) REB's provide essentially no damping. The REB's in the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) turbopumps must sustain high static and dynamic loads, at high speeds, with a cryogenic fluid as lubricant and coolant. The pump end ball bearings limit the life of the SSME high pressure oxygen turbopump (HPOTP). Compliant foil bearing (CFB) manufacturers have proposed replacing turbopump REB's with CFB's CFB's work well in aircraft air cycle machines, auxiliary power units, and refrigeration compressors. In a CFB, the rotor only contracts the foil support structure during start up and shut down. CFB damping is higher than REB damping. However, the load capacity of the CFB is low, compared to a REB. Furthermore, little stiffness and damping data exists for the CFB. A rotordynamic analysis for turbomachinery critical speeds and stability requires the input of bearing stiffness and damping coefficients. The two basic types of CFB are the tension-dominated bearing and the bending-dominated bearing. Many investigators have analyzed and measured characteristics of tension-dominated foil bearings, which are applied principally in magnetic tape recording. The bending-dominated CFB is used more in rotating machinery. This report describes the first phase of a structural analysis of a bending-dominated, multileaf CFB. A brief discussion of CFB literature is followed by a description and results of the present analysis.

  2. Foil Face Seal Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson, John

    2009-01-01

    In the seal literature you can find many attempts by various researchers to adapt film riding seals to the gas turbine engine. None have been successful, potential distortion of the sealing faces is the primary reason. There is a film riding device that does accommodate distortion and is in service in aircraft applications, namely the foil bearing. More specifically a foil thrust bearing. These are not intended to be seals, and they do not accommodate large axial movement between shaft & static structure. By combining the 2 a unique type of face seal has been created. It functions like a normal face seal. The foil thrust bearing replaces the normal primary sealing surface. The compliance of the foil bearing allows the foils to track distortion of the mating seal ring. The foil seal has several perceived advantages over existing hydrodynamic designs, enumerated in the chart. Materials and design methodology needed for this application already exist. Also the load capacity requirements for the foil bearing are low since it only needs to support itself and overcome friction forces at the antirotation keys.

  3. VELO RF foil thinning

    CERN Document Server

    Van Dieten, Derk

    2013-01-01

    An overview of the project in thinning an aluminium foil for the VELO section of the LHCb experiment. The foil was to be thinned from 0.3 mm to 0.1 mm and this report describes the very first tests. Approximate etching was used and a vacuum test and metrology test was performed. The first results look promising as the piece remains vacuum tight after etching and the first metrology data shows a good etch with further development required

  4. Hydrogel based occlusion systems

    OpenAIRE

    Stam, F.A.; Jackson, N.; Dubruel, P.; Adesanya, K.; Embrechts, A.; Mendes, E.; Neves, H.P.; Herijgers, P.; Verbrugghe, Y.; Shacham, Y; Engel, L.; Krylov, V.

    2013-01-01

    A hydrogel based occlusion system, a method for occluding vessels, appendages or aneurysms, and a method for hydrogel synthesis are disclosed. The hydrogel based occlusion system includes a hydrogel having a shrunken and a swollen state and a delivery tool configured to deliver the hydrogel to a target occlusion location. The hydrogel is configured to permanently occlude the target occlusion location in the swollen state. The hydrogel may be an electro-activated hydrogel (EAH) which could be ...

  5. Do the physical properties of occlusal-indicating media affect muscle activity [EMG) during use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Stephanie E; Pain, Matthew T G; Presswood, Ron; Toy, Andy

    2009-06-01

    Four occlusal marking media (Parkell film, articulating silk, articulating paper and T-Scan foil) were tested to assess whether they affected neuromuscular function during occlusal marking events. Muscle activity of the anterior temporalis (TA) and superficial masseter (MS) muscles were obtained from surface EMG measurements during a slow closure to occlusion followed immediately by a forceful bite and a maximum clench onto each of the various occlusal indicating media. Muscle activity during the whole period of activation and immediately following onset were investigated. Significant differences in neuromuscular function between the occlusal marking media were observed, particularly between the Parkell film and articulating silk as opposed to the articulating paper and the T-Scan foil. The Parkell film and articulating silk gave neuromuscular function very similar to that of natural dentition occlusal contact, while the articulating paper and T-Scan foil showed similarities to occluding onto cotton rolls as previously reported (1). These results suggest that both the thickness and plasticity of the indicating media affect neuromuscular function during occlusion.

  6. Occlusion effects, Part II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mie Østergaard

    The present report studies the mechanism of the occlusion effect by means of literature studies, experiments and model estimates. A mathematical model of the occlusion effect is developed. The model includes the mechanical properties of the earmould and the airborne sound as well as the body...

  7. Retinal artery occlusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... artery occlusion; Branch retinal artery occlusion; CRAO; BRAO Images Retina References Sanborn GE, Magargal LE. Arterial obstructive disease ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics ... audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows rigorous standards of quality and accountability. A.D.A.M. is among ...

  8. Occlusion effects, Part I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mie Østergaard

    annoyances and the objective measurements were analysed. Persons suffering from tinnitus behaved differently than person without tinnitus. The latter group showed significant relations between the measured occlusion effect, hearing loss and the personal of occlusion. The actual sensation level is also...

  9. Hydrogel based occlusion systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, F.A.; Jackson, N.; Dubruel, P.; Adesanya, K.; Embrechts, A.; Mendes, E.; Neves, H.P.; Herijgers, P.; Verbrugghe, Y.; Shacham, Y.; Engel, L.; Krylov, V.

    2013-01-01

    A hydrogel based occlusion system, a method for occluding vessels, appendages or aneurysms, and a method for hydrogel synthesis are disclosed. The hydrogel based occlusion system includes a hydrogel having a shrunken and a swollen state and a delivery tool configured to deliver the hydrogel to a tar

  10. Shielding effect of foil covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For neutron spectrum determinations one often irradiates activation detectors in boxes of cadmium, or of another material. Several models for the neutron attenuation in such foil covers are being studied. Preliminary experience is presented. (author)

  11. An alternative treatment of occlusal wear: Cast metal occlusal surface

    OpenAIRE

    Sandeep Kumar; Aman Arora; Reena Yadav

    2012-01-01

    Acrylic resin denture teeth often exhibit rapid occlusal wear, which may lead to decrease in the chewing efficiency, loss of vertical dimension of occlusion, denture instability, temporomandibular joint disturbances, etc. There are various treatment options available like, use of highly cross linked acrylic teeth, amalgam or metal inserts on occlusal surface, use of composite, gold or metal occlusal surface, etc. Several articles have described methods to construct gold and metal occlusal sur...

  12. Carbon foils for space plasma instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegrini, F.; Ebert, R. W.; Funsten, H. O.

    2016-05-01

    Carbon foils have been successfully used for several decades in space plasma instruments to detect ions and neutral atoms. These instruments take advantage of two properties of the particle-foil interaction: charge conversion of neutral atoms and/or secondary electron emission. This interaction also creates several adverse effects for the projectile exiting the foil, such as angular scattering and energy straggling, which usually act to reduce the sensitivity and overall performance of an instrument. The magnitude of these effects mainly varies with the incident angle, energy, and mass of the incoming projectile and the foil thickness. In this paper, we describe these effects and the properties of the interaction. We also summarize results from recent studies with graphene foils, which can be made thinner than carbon foils due to their superior strength. Graphene foils may soon replace carbon foils in space plasma instruments and open new opportunities for space research in the future.

  13. Metal Foil Sandwiched Multiple Radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaka, E.; Hatori, M.

    1982-11-01

    A new method to obtain simultaneously two or three radiographs with a wide dynamic range was studied. This is to divide the transmitted X-ray energy spectra through a human body into lower and higher parts than K absorption edge by a metal foil (Pb, Ta, Gd) and give radiographs using two or three pairs of an one-side coated film and an intensifying screen. The backward film has the informations filtered by the metal foil. The forward film before the metal foil, if the film density is same, relatively contains the informations of lower parts of the transmitted X-ray spectra through a human body. Secondly, a metal foil can make shadows of thin parts and thick parts of a human body displace on high region of film, respectively and separatedly. These radiographs of thin parts were useful to be observed superposing two films with a wide dynamic range. As to thick parts it was useful to view two films hanging side by side. This technique was appreciated to be applied to the organs such as extremities, knee and elbow, head and neck, lung and etc.

  14. Application of an Active Foil Propeller

    OpenAIRE

    Borgen, Christian Thomas

    2010-01-01

    In this master thesis the author has investigated the potential benefits from an active foil propeller. Foils are mounted on the hull and take advantage of the heaving and pitching motion of the vessel travelling and produce thrust, similarly to the tail find of aquatic mammals. Active foil means that the angle of the foil has been controlled to constantly maximise the thrust.The author has investigated the potential fuel savings for three vessels, an offshore supply vessel, a coastal tanker ...

  15. Passive Thermal Management of Foil Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckner, Robert J. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Systems and methods for passive thermal management of foil bearing systems are disclosed herein. The flow of the hydrodynamic film across the surface of bearing compliant foils may be disrupted to provide passive cooling and to improve the performance and reliability of the foil bearing system.

  16. Retinal vein occlusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... decrease the risk of retinal vein occlusion. These measures include: Eating a low-fat diet Getting regular exercise Maintaining an ideal weight Not smoking Aspirin or other blood thinners may help prevent blockages in the other eye. Controlling diabetes may ...

  17. Characterization of the GEM foil materials

    CERN Document Server

    Benussi, L; Saviano, G; Muhammad, S; Piccolo, D; Raffone, G; Caponero, M; Passamonti, L; Pierluigi, D; Russo, A; Primavera, F; Cerbelli, S; Lalli, A; Valente, M; Ferrini, M; Teissandier, B; Taborelli, M; Parvis, M; Grassini, S; Tirilló, J; Sarasini, F; Franchi, A V

    2015-01-01

    Systematic studies on the GEM foil material are performed to measure the moisture diffusion rate and saturation level. These studies are important because the presence of this compound inside the detector's foil can possibly change its mechanical and electrical properties and, in such a way, the detector performance can be affected. To understand this phenomenon, a model is developed with COMSOL Multhiphysics v. 4.3, which described the adsorption and diffusion within the geometry of GEM foil, the concentration profiles and the time required to saturate the foil. The COMSOL model is verified by experimental observations on a GEM foil sample. This note will describe the model and its experimental verification results.

  18. Infrarenal Aortic Occlusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traverso, L. W.; Baker, J. D.; Dainko, E. A.; Machleder, H. I.

    1978-01-01

    Twenty-eight patients with total occlusion of the infrarenal aorta have been seen at the UCLA Hospitals in the past 11 years. Claudication was the presenting complaint in all but one patient, with one-third having ischemic rest pain. The average age of these patients was 54 years, and their histories revealed a surprising absence of myocardial infarction, stroke, or diabetes, although 40% had essential hypertension. Heavy tobacco use, however, was characteristic of the entire group. Arteriography proved valuable in identifying and characterizing the vascular abnormalities, but posed problems in technique and interpretation. Significant distal arterial disease was detected radiographically in only 21% of these patients. Operative correction of the aortic occlusion was performed on 26 patients, 18 by aortic bypass grafts and eight by aorto-iliac endarterectomy, with one early postoperative death. Although the thrombus extended to the renal artery origins in 77% of the cases, a well-designed technical approach did not require renal artery occlusion. Using serial creatinine determinations, one case of renal insufficiency was detected which was associated with prolonged postoperative hypotension. Although the extent of distal disease was more severe in those who underwent bypass, symptoms of claudication returned earlier and were more prominent in the endarterectomy group. This recurrence of systems was not favorably altered by sympathectomy performed concomitantly with the initial procedure. Even though this condition seems to pose difficult technical obstacles and has a poor prognosis, infrarenal aortic occlusion can be successfully treated by aortic bypass, with favorable long-term results, if particular attention is paid to elements of the preoperative evaluation and the intraoperative technical requirements peculiar to this relatively uncommon disease entity. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3. PMID:646479

  19. Left atrial appendage occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mirdamadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Left atrial appendage (LAA occlusion is a treatment strategy to prevent blood clot formation in atrial appendage. Although, LAA occlusion usually was done by catheter-based techniques, especially percutaneous trans-luminal mitral commissurotomy (PTMC, it can be done during closed and open mitral valve commissurotomy (CMVC, OMVC and mitral valve replacement (MVR too. Nowadays, PTMC is performed as an optimal management of severe mitral stenosis (MS and many patients currently are treated by PTMC instead of previous surgical methods. One of the most important contraindications of PTMC is presence of clot in LAA. So, each patient who suffers of severe MS is evaluated by Trans-Esophageal Echocardiogram to rule out thrombus in LAA before PTMC. At open heart surgery, replacement of the mitral valve was performed for 49-year-old woman. Also, left atrial appendage occlusion was done during surgery. Immediately after surgery, echocardiography demonstrates an echo imitated the presence of a thrombus in left atrial appendage area, although there was not any evidence of thrombus in pre-pump TEE. We can conclude from this case report that when we suspect of thrombus of left atrial, we should obtain exact history of previous surgery of mitral valve to avoid misdiagnosis clotted LAA, instead of obliterated LAA. Consequently, it can prevent additional evaluations and treatments such as oral anticoagulation and exclusion or postponing surgeries including PTMC.

  20. An alternative treatment of occlusal wear: cast metal occlusal surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Arora, Aman; Yadav, Reena

    2012-01-01

    Acrylic resin denture teeth often exhibit rapid occlusal wear, which may lead to decrease in the chewing efficiency, loss of vertical dimension of occlusion, denture instability, temporomandibular joint disturbances, etc. There are various treatment options available like, use of highly cross linked acrylic teeth, amalgam or metal inserts on occlusal surface, use of composite, gold or metal occlusal surface, etc. Several articles have described methods to construct gold and metal occlusal surfaces, however, these methods are time-consuming, expensive and requires many cumbersome steps. These methods also requires the patient to be without the prosthesis for the time during which the laboratory procedures are performed. This article presents a quick, simple and relatively inexpensive procedure for construction of metal occlusal surfaces on complete dentures. PMID:22945724

  1. An alternative treatment of occlusal wear: Cast metal occlusal surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acrylic resin denture teeth often exhibit rapid occlusal wear, which may lead to decrease in the chewing efficiency, loss of vertical dimension of occlusion, denture instability, temporomandibular joint disturbances, etc. There are various treatment options available like, use of highly cross linked acrylic teeth, amalgam or metal inserts on occlusal surface, use of composite, gold or metal occlusal surface, etc. Several articles have described methods to construct gold and metal occlusal surfaces, however, these methods are time-consuming, expensive and requires many cumbersome steps. These methods also requires the patient to be without the prosthesis for the time during which the laboratory procedures are performed. This article presents a quick, simple and relatively inexpensive procedure for construction of metal occlusal surfaces on complete dentures.

  2. Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulmonary vaso-occlusive disease ... common among children and young adults. As the disease gets worse, it causes narrowed pulmonary veins, pulmonary artery hypertension , and congestion and swelling ...

  3. The lingualized occlusion of complete denture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BEN Wei-hong; Eleni Roumanas

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews the literatures dealing with the lingualized occlusion of complete denture including the origin,development and research. Lingualized occlusion is a valuable concept because many advantages of anatomic and nonanatomic occlusions are retained,satisfactory occlusion is easily obtained,balanced occlusion can be accomplished.

  4. Nuclear Propulsion using Thin Foiled Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, H.

    1998-11-01

    A new way to produce plasma for nuclear propulsion is proposed. A thin foiled fuel can be used for converting fission energy to propulsion energy efficiently. The fission products coming out of the thin foil directly ionize the hydrogen molecules which are used for propulsion. Thus very small portion of fission energy deposited in the thin foil, and integrity of the thin foiled fuel can be maintained even in high nuclear power. Fuel material with large thermal fission cross-section is preferable to make thin foiled fuel and the heat deposition in the foil can be reduced. To get high power from the foiled fuel assembly, thermal neutrons which are created out from the assembly can be supplied, or the assembly itself can create the high intensity thermal neutrons by self-multiplication. A flexible design of a highly efficient nuclear propulsion system can be made. The thickness of the foil and the maintenance of the thermo-mechanical integrity can be determined from the fission cross-section and the slowing down power for fission products. The talk discusses the issues related to heat removal from the assembly.

  5. Dress Images on Gold-foil Figures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mannering, Ulla; Andersson Strand, Eva Birgitta

    2009-01-01

    From the Late Iron Age settlement Sorte Muld on Bornholm both gold foil figures with depictions of costumes and textile tools can tell about textile production.......From the Late Iron Age settlement Sorte Muld on Bornholm both gold foil figures with depictions of costumes and textile tools can tell about textile production....

  6. Circuit design on plastic foils

    CERN Document Server

    Raiteri, Daniele; Roermund, Arthur H M

    2015-01-01

    This book illustrates a variety of circuit designs on plastic foils and provides all the information needed to undertake successful designs in large-area electronics.  The authors demonstrate architectural, circuit, layout, and device solutions and explain the reasons and the creative process behind each. Readers will learn how to keep under control large-area technologies and achieve robust, reliable circuit designs that can face the challenges imposed by low-cost low-temperature high-throughput manufacturing.   • Discusses implications of problems associated with large-area electronics and compares them to standard silicon; • Provides the basis for understanding physics and modeling of disordered material; • Includes guidelines to quickly setup the basic CAD tools enabling efficient and reliable designs; • Illustrates practical solutions to cope with hard/soft faults, variability, mismatch, aging and bias stress at architecture, circuit, layout, and device levels.

  7. Hyaluronan-lecithin foils and their properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BiaIopiotrowicz, Tomasz [Department of Interfacial Phenomena, Faculty of Chemistry, Maria Curie-SkIodowska University, Maria Curie-SkIodowska Square 3, 20-031 Lublin (Poland); Janczuk, BronisIaw [Department of Interfacial Phenomena, Faculty of Chemistry, Maria Curie-SkIodowska University, Maria Curie-SkIodowska Square 3, 20-031 Lublin (Poland); Fiedorowicz, Maciej [Department of Chemistry, Agricultural University of Krakow, Mickiewicz Ave., 21, 31 120 Cracow (Poland); Khachatryan, Gohar [Department of Chemistry, Agricultural University of Krakow, Mickiewicz Ave., 21, 31 120 Cracow (Poland); Tomasik, Piotr [Department of Chemistry, Agricultural University of Krakow, Mickiewicz Ave., 21, 31 120 Cracow (Poland)]. E-mail: rrtomasi@cyf-kr.edu.pl; Bakos, Dusan [Faculty of Chemical and Food Technology, Slovak Technical University, Radlinskeho 9, 812 37 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2006-01-10

    Thin, elastic foils of good resistance to the air exposure, patented as wound healing aids, were prepared by evaporation of a blend of lecithin (L) and sodium hyaluronan (H) taken under varying proportions. The contact angle for water, glycerol, formamide, ethylene glycol and diiodomethane, was determined for these foils. The contact angle was correlated against the H:L foil composition. For all liquids but formamide the highest contact angle was noted for the H:L = 2:1 (g g{sup -1}) ratio. The contact angles provided estimation of the work of adhesion. At the same L:H ratio the work of adhesion was the lowest. It was suggested that lecithin cross-linked hyaluronan. Since the work of adhesion of the studied liquids was similar to that of diiodomethane, it could be concluded that almost all functional groups on the foil surface were completely blocked. Perhaps, at H:L = 2:1 (g g{sup -1}) a stoichiometric complex of hyaluronic acid with lecithin was formed, and polar functional groups from both reagents were involved. Foils seem to be electrostatic complexes of H with L. Foils with the H:L equal to 2:1 exhibited specific properties confirmed by the IR reflectance spectra of the foils. The thermogravimetry (TG/DTG) also revealed unique thermal behaviour confirming other specific properties of the foil of this composition. For the same ratio a thorough inspection of the scanning electron micrographs (SEM) revealed few irregularly distributed perforations of 1-2 {mu}m in diameter seen as black points, which can be recognized as pores. Properties of the foils determined in the contact angle measurements are nicely backed by the results from thermogravimetric and scanning electron microscopic studies.

  8. Tilted foils polarization at REX-ISOLDE

    CERN Document Server

    Tornqvist, H; Yordanov, D T; Imai, N; Heinz, A; Nilsson, T; Sotty, C; Hass, M; Georgiev, G; Johansson, H; Dhal, A; Stuchbery, A; Wenander, F; Hirayama, Y; Kusoglu, A; Balabanski, D

    2013-01-01

    The tilted-foils nuclear-spin polarization method has been evaluated using the REX-ISOLDE linear accelerator at the ISOLDE facility, CERN. A beam of Li-8 delivered with an energy of 300 keV/u traversed through one Mylar foil to degrade the beam energy to 200 keV/u and consequently through 10 thin diamond-like carbon foils to polarize the nuclear spin. The attained nuclear spin polarization of 3.6 +/- 0.3% was measured with a beta-NMR setup. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Analysis of Mechanical Properties for GEM Foil

    CERN Document Server

    Chin, Yuk Ming

    2016-01-01

    In view of new assembly technique of the GEM detector; in which three foils stack is stretched to get the uniform gaps among the foils. We studied the mechanical properties of the foil material. We conditioned the samples in different environments to make them extra dry and wet. As holes are the major source of the charge amplification their deformation can effect the detector performance. Therefore in our studies we also studied at which level of the stress the holes deformation is seen. These tensile and holes deformation studies can help to optimize the stress during detector assembly.

  10. Endograft Limb Occlusion in EVAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taudorf, M; Jensen, L P; Vogt, K C;

    2014-01-01

    occlusions were recorded and compared with a defined control group. Three different indices were used to describe the tortuosity of the iliac vessels based on preoperative CTA: pelvic artery index of tortuosity (PAI), common iliac artery index of tortuosity (CAI), and a visual description of vessel......, subsequently, duplex ultrasound imaging was performed. Patients with limb occlusions were identified. For each index patient, two controls were obtained, one immediately preceding and one following the index patient in the consecutive cohort of EVAR patients. METHODS: Demographics and CTA data on limb graft......% at 3 years. Logistic regression showed that iliac artery tortuosity (DIS) (p = .001) and body mass index (p = .007) had a significant impact on graft patency. CONCLUSION: A tortuous vessel on the preoperative CTA is associated with an increased risk of limb occlusion after EVAR. Adjunctive stenting...

  11. Additional security features for optically variable foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Allan C.; Russo, Frank

    1998-04-01

    For thousands of years, man has exploited the attraction and radiance of pure gold to adorn articles of great significance. Today, designers decorate packaging with metallic gold foils to maintain the prestige of luxury items such as perfumes, chocolates, wine and whisky, and to add visible appeal and value to wide range of products. However, today's products do not call for the hand beaten gold leaf of the Ancient Egyptians, instead a rapid production technology exists which makes use of accurately coated thin polymer films and vacuum deposited metallic layers. Stamping Foils Technology is highly versatile since several different layers may be combined into one product, each providing a different function. Not only can a foil bring visual appeal to an article, it can provide physical and chemical resistance properties and also protect an article from human forms of interference, such as counterfeiting, copying or tampering. Stamping foils have proved to be a highly effective vehicle for applying optical devices to items requiring this type of protection. Credit cards, bank notes, personal identification documents and more recently high value packaged items such as software and perfumes are protected by optically variable devices applied using stamping foil technology.

  12. Thrust augmentation in tandem flapping foils by foil-wake interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Erik; Lauder, George

    2006-11-01

    Propulsion by pitching and heaving airfoils and hydrofoils has been a focus of much research in the field of biologically inspired propulsion. Organisms that use this sort of propulsion are self-propelled, so it is difficult to use standard experimental metrics such as thrust and drag to characterize performance. We have constructed a flapping foil robot mounted in a flume on air-bearings that allows for the determination of self-propelled speed as a metric of performance. We have used a pair of these robots to examine the impact of an upstream flapping foil on a downstream flapping foil as might apply to tandem fins of a swimming organism or in-line swimming of schooling organisms. Self-propelled speed and a force transducer confirmed significant thrust augmentation for particular foil-to-foil spacings, phase differences, and flapping frequencies. Flow visualization shows the mechanism to be related to the effective angle of attack of the downstream foil due to the structure of the wake of the upstream foil. This confirms recent computational work and the hypotheses by early investigators of fish fluid dynamics.

  13. Compressor ported shroud for foil bearing cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elpern, David G.; McCabe, Niall; Gee, Mark

    2011-08-02

    A compressor ported shroud takes compressed air from the shroud of the compressor before it is completely compressed and delivers it to foil bearings. The compressed air has a lower pressure and temperature than compressed outlet air. The lower temperature of the air means that less air needs to be bled off from the compressor to cool the foil bearings. This increases the overall system efficiency due to the reduced mass flow requirements of the lower temperature air. By taking the air at a lower pressure, less work is lost compressing the bearing cooling air.

  14. Method of high-density foil fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blue, Craig A.; Sikka, Vinod K.; Ohriner, Evan K.

    2003-12-16

    A method for preparing flat foils having a high density includes the steps of mixing a powdered material with a binder to form a green sheet. The green sheet is exposed to a high intensity radiative source adapted to emit radiation of wavelengths corresponding to an absorption spectrum of the powdered material. The surface of the green sheet is heated while a lower sub-surface temperature is maintained. An apparatus for preparing a foil from a green sheet using a radiation source is also disclosed.

  15. Thermal characteristics of foils for an imaging bolometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IR imaging video bolometer is an imaging bolometer which provides the intensity and distribution of plasma radiation. The sensitivity of the IR imaging bolometer is dependent on the properties of the bolometer foil. An evaluation of the thermal characteristics of various materials and thicknesses of the bolometer foil provides information on the sensitivity which is useful to choose the best foil material. We irradiated foils of various materials and thicknesses with a He-Ne laser (wavelength 633 nm), and measured the change in temperature distribution with an IR camera. As for foil materials,W, Ta, Au and Pt were employed. The foils were blackened either on both sides or on one side by graphite. For the same material foil, the temperature rise in the singleside blackened foil was always greater than the double-side blackened foil. For the double blacken foil, Ta had the largest temperature rise among foils with the same thickness. Pt had the shortest time constant for the temperature rise/decayamong foils except Au. In consideration of the attenuation thickness versus photon energy of each material, the Pt foil was the most suitable for the bolometer among the evaluated materials. (author)

  16. Hydrogen and Palladium Foil: Two Classroom Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, Elsbeth; Mattson, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    In these two classroom demonstrations, students observe the reaction between H[subscript 2] gas and Pd foil. In the first demonstration, hydrogen and palladium combine within one minute at 1 atm and room temperature to yield the non-stoichiometric, interstitial hydride with formula close to the maximum known value, PdH[subscript 0.7]. In the…

  17. Segmented Foil SEM Grids at Fermilab

    CERN Document Server

    Kopp, Sacha E; Childress, Sam; Ford, R; Harris, Debbie; Indurthy, Dharmaraj; Kendziora, Cary; Moore, Craig D; Pavlovich, Zarko; Proga, Marek; Tassotto, Gianni; Zwaska, Robert M

    2005-01-01

    We present recent beam data from a new design of a profile monitor for proton beams at Fermilab. The monitors, consisting of grids of segmented Ti foils 5micrometers thick, are secondary-electron emission monitors (SEM's). We review data on the device's precision on beam centroid position, beam width, and on beam loss associated with the SEM material placed in the beam.

  18. 6Li foil thermal neutron detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ianakiev, Kiril D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, Martyn T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Favalli, Andrea [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chung, Kiwhan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Macarthur, Duncan W [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we report on the design of a multilayer thermal neutron detector based on {sup 6}Li reactive foil and thin film plastic scintillators. The {sup 6}Li foils have about twice the intrinsic efficiency of {sup 10}B films and about four times higher light output due to a unique combination of high energy of reaction particles, low self absorption, and low ionization density of tritons. The design configuration provides for double sided readout of the lithium foil resulting in a doubling of the efficiency relative to a classical reactive film detector and generating a pulse height distribution with a valley between neutron and gamma signals similar to {sup 3}He tubes. The tens of microns thickness of plastic scintillator limits the energy deposited by gamma rays, which provides the necessary neutron/gamma discrimination. We used MCNPX to model a multilayer Li foil detector design and compared it with the standard HLNCC-II (18 {sup 3}He tubes operated at 4 atm). The preliminary results of the {sup 6}Li configuration show higher efficiency and one third of the die-away time. These properties, combined with the very short dead time of the plastic scintillator, offer the potential of a very high performance detector.

  19. Vortex wakes of a flapping foil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnipper, Teis; Andersen, Anders Peter; Bohr, Tomas

    2009-01-01

    We present an experimental study of a symmetric foil performing pitching oscillations in a vertically flowing soap film. By varying the frequency and amplitude of the oscillation we visualize a variety of wakes with up to 46 vortices per oscillation period, including von Karman vortex street...

  20. The Fluid Foil: The Seventh Simple Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitts, Charles R.

    2012-01-01

    A simple machine does one of two things: create a mechanical advantage (lever) or change the direction of an applied force (pulley). Fluid foils are unique among simple machines because they not only change the direction of an applied force (wheel and axle); they convert fluid energy into mechanical energy (wind and Kaplan turbines) or vice versa,…

  1. Optofluidic dye laser in a foil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vannahme, Christoph; Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Mappes, Timo;

    2010-01-01

    First order distributed feedback optofluidic dye lasers embedded in a 350 mu m thick TOPAS (R) foil are demonstrated. They are designed in order to give high output pulse energies. Microfluidic channels and first order distributed feedback gratings are fabricated in parallel by thermal nanoimprint...

  2. Identification of dynamic properties of radial air-foil bearings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arora, V.; Hoogt, van der P.J.M.; Aarts, R.G.K.M.; Boer, de A.

    2010-01-01

    Air-foil bearings (AFBs) are self acting hydrodynamic bearings made from sheet metal foils comprised of at least two layers. The innermost ‘‘top foil’’ layer traps a gas pressure film that supports a load while the layer or layers underneath provide an elastic foundation. Air-foil bearings are curre

  3. Research and Development of GEM Foil at CIAE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Xiao-mei; ZHOU; Jing; HU; Shou-yang; SHAN; Chao; JIAN; Si-yu; YE; Li; BAI; Xin-zhan; ZHOU; Shu-hua

    2012-01-01

    <正>China Institute of Atomic Energy has signed the "License Agreement for Manufacturing and Commercialisation of Gem Foils and Gem Based Products Licensee" with CERN, and got the technical assistance from CERN. The base material of GEM foil is ultrathin, non-adhesive copper on polyimide substrate, which can be purchased from CERN and other companies. The manufacture of GEM foil is

  4. Tracking facial features with occlusions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MARKIN Evgeny; PRAKASH Edmond C.

    2006-01-01

    Facial expression recognition consists of determining what kind of emotional content is presented in a human face.The problem presents a complex area for exploration, since it encompasses face acquisition, facial feature tracking, facial expression classification. Facial feature tracking is of the most interest. Active Appearance Model (AAM) enables accurate tracking of facial features in real-time, but lacks occlusions and self-occlusions. In this paper we propose a solution to improve the accuracy of fitting technique. The idea is to include occluded images into AAM training data. We demonstrate the results by running ex periments using gradient descent algorithm for fitting the AAM. Our experiments show that using fitting algorithm with occluded training data improves the fitting quality of the algorithm.

  5. Cannabis, Collaterals, and Coronary Occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpa De Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 51-year-old gentleman, who regularly smoked cannabis, presented with chest pain and diaphoresis. He was haemodynamically stable. ECG showed ST depression, inferiorly, and 1 mm ST elevation in lead aVR. Emergent coronary angiography showed thrombotic occlusion of the left main coronary artery (LMCA, the dominant RCA provided Rentrop grade II collaterals to the LAD. The LMCA was successfully reopened by deployment of a bare-metal stent. Animal heart models suggest that endogenous cannibinoids may cause ischaemic preconditioning. This case suggests that the severity of ischaemia, and hence ECG changes and haemodynamic consequences following an acute occlusion of the LMCA, can be ameliorated by coronary collateralisation and possibly by preconditioning of the myocardium.

  6. Retinal vein occlusion: current treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattanzio, Rosangela; Torres Gimeno, Ana; Battaglia Parodi, Maurizio; Bandello, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Retinal vein occlusion (RVO) is a pathology noted for more than 150 years. Although a lot has been written on the matter, it is still a frequent condition with multifactorial etiopathogenesis with many unclear aspects. The RVO pathogenesis has varied systemic and local implications that make it difficult to elaborate treatment guidelines. The management of the patient with RVO is very complex and a multidisciplinary approach is required in order to identify and correct the associated risk factors. Laser therapy remains the gold standard in RVO, but only modest functional improvement has been shown in branch retinal occlusion forms. Multicenter studies of intravitreal drugs present them as an option to combine with laser. Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor, corticosteroids and sustained-release implants are the future weapons to stop disease progression and get a better visual outcome. Consequently, it is useful to clarify some aspects of the pathology that allow a better patient management. PMID:20938213

  7. Occlusal status among Yemeni children

    OpenAIRE

    Nabil M Al-Zubair; Ibrahim A Ghandour

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the occlusal status in schoolchildren in Yemen, and to compare the results with those of other studies. Materials and Methods: The sample for this epidemiological survey consisted of 3003 primary school students, half of whom were boys and the other half girls, aged 12 years. The subjects were randomly selected, and none had received previous orthodontic treatment. Variables examined included intra-arch irregularities and malalignment (crowd...

  8. Occlusal status among Yemeni children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil M Al-Zubair

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the occlusal status in schoolchildren in Yemen, and to compare the results with those of other studies. Materials and Methods: The sample for this epidemiological survey consisted of 3003 primary school students, half of whom were boys and the other half girls, aged 12 years. The subjects were randomly selected, and none had received previous orthodontic treatment. Variables examined included intra-arch irregularities and malalignment (crowding and spacing in the incisal segments of the arch and midline diastema and discrepancies in occlusal contact relationship (maxillary overjet, mandibular overjet, anterior openbite and antero-posterior molar relation. Results: The results showed that about 26.1% of the subjects were still in the late mixed dentition stage and 73.9% presented with a dentition in the early permanent stage. Normal overjet was found in 55% of the sample. Crowding was observed in 31.4% of the subjects and midline diastema in 14.2%. Conclusion: Occlusal status among Yemeni children was characterized by a relatively high frequency of dental crowding, as well as a relatively high frequency of anterior mandibular overjet (Class III malocclusions.

  9. Collodion-reinforcement and plasma-cleaning of target foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preparation of evaporated target foils can often be facilitated by use of collodion coatings either on the substrate sides or on the exterior surfaces of the foils. Later, such coatings must usually be removed. Cleaning of a foil is necessary if thin layers of adhesives have crept onto the foil. Removal and/or cleaning can often be done satisfactorily with an oxygen plasma. Apparatus and procedures used for this are described. Foils that were cleaned successfully, and some that were incompatible with the cleaning process are listed

  10. Advances in targetry with thin diamond-like carbon foils

    CERN Document Server

    Liechtenstein, V K; Olshanski, E D; Repnow, R; Levin, J; Hellborg, R; Persson, P; Schenkel, T

    2002-01-01

    Thin and stable diamond-like carbon (DLC) foils, which were fabricated at the Kurchatov Institute by sputter deposition, have proved recently to be advantageous for stripping and secondary electron timing of high energy heavy ions in a number of accelerator experiments. This resulted in expanding applications of these DLC foils which necessitated further development efforts directed toward the following applications of DLC targetry: (i) thin stripper foils for lower energy tandem accelerators, (ii) enlarged (up to 66 mm in diameter) stop foils for improved time-of-flight elastic recoil detection ion beam analysis, and (iii) ultra-thin (about 0.6 mu g/cm sup 2) DLC foils for some fundamental and applied physics experiments. Along with the fabrication of thin DLC stripper foils for tandem accelerators, much thicker (up to 200 mu g/cm sup 2) foils for post-stripping of heavy-ion beams in higher energy linacs, are within reach.

  11. Expectations for the Laguna foil implosion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Building on the results achieved in the Pioneer shot series, the Los Alamos Trailmaster project is embarking on the Laguna foil implosion experiments. In this series a Mark-IX helical generator will be coupled to an explosively formed fuse opening switch, a surface-tracking closing switch, and a vacuum power flow and load chamber. In this paper the system design will be discussed and results from zero-, one-, and two-dimensional MHD simulations will be presented. It is anticipated that the generator will provide more than 10 MA of which ∼5.5 MA will be switched to the 5-cm-radius, 2-cm-high, 250-nm-thick aluminum foil load. This should give rise to a 1 μs implosion with more than 100 kJ of kinetic energy

  12. Transport in a laser irradiated thin foil

    CERN Document Server

    Ruhl, H

    2001-01-01

    Three dimensional Particle-In-Cell simulations describing the interaction of a short intense laser pulse with thin foils are presented. It is observed that the laser generated electron current decays into magnetically isolated filaments. The filaments grow in scale and magnitude by reconnection. Two different laser wavelengths are considered. The spatial separation of the filaments varies for the two wavelengths. Many current filaments carry net electric currents exceeding the Alfven current considerably.

  13. Relativistic Electron Transport Through Carbon Foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seliger, M.; Takasi, K.; Reinhold, C. O.; Takabayashi, Y.; Ito, T.; Komaki, K.; Azuma, T.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yamazaki, Y.

    We present a theoretical study of convoy electron emission resulting from transmission of relativistic 390 MeV/amu Ar17+ ions through carbon foils of various thicknesses. Our approach is based on a Langevin equation describing the random walk of the electron initially bound to the argon nucleus and later in the continuum. The calculated spectra of ejected electrons in the forward direction exhibit clear signatures of multiple scattering and are found to be in good agreement with recent experimental data.

  14. Segmented foil SEM grids at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopp, S.; Indurthy, D.; Pavlovic, Z.; Proga, M.; Zwaska, R.; /Texas U.; Baller, B.; Childress, S.; Ford, R.; Harris, D.; Kendziora, C.; Moore, Craig D.; Tassotto, G.; /Fermilab

    2005-05-01

    We present recent beam data from a new design of a profile monitor for proton beams at Fermilab. The monitors, consisting of grids of segmented Ti foils 5{micro}m thick, are secondary-electron emission monitors (SEM's) We review data on the device's precision on beam centroid position, beam width, and on beam loss associated with the SEM material placed in the beam.

  15. Electrodeposition of Plutonium on Rhenium Foil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG; Jin-ling; YANG; Chun-li; DING; You-qian; SUN; Hong-qing

    2013-01-01

    Applying for LRIMS analysis,one of the main requirements is the production of an atomic beam(or molecular beam)with the atoms in one well defined state,i.e.,the ground state,and then the efficient excitation and ionization of the atoms.Therefore,the target nuclides must be transferred to the rhenium foil quantitatively.So the study on electrodeposistion was applied:first is the designation of electroplate

  16. Optical quality assurance of GEM foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis software was developed for the high aspect ratio optical scanning system in the Detector Laboratory of the University of Helsinki and the Helsinki Institute of Physics. The system is used e.g. in the quality assurance of the GEM-TPC detectors being developed for the beam diagnostics system of the SuperFRS at future FAIR facility. The software was tested by analyzing five CERN standard GEM foils scanned with the optical scanning system. The measurement uncertainty of the diameter of the GEM holes and the pitch of the hole pattern was found to be 0.5μm and 0.3μm, respectively. The software design and the performance are discussed. The correlation between the GEM hole size distribution and the corresponding gain variation was studied by comparing them against a detailed gain mapping of a foil and a set of six lower precision control measurements. It can be seen that a qualitative estimation of the behavior of the local variation in gain across the GEM foil can be made based on the measured sizes of the outer and inner holes

  17. Combined surface and volumetric occlusion shading

    KAUST Repository

    Schott, Matthias O.

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, a method for interactive direct volume rendering is proposed that computes ambient occlusion effects for visualizations that combine both volumetric and geometric primitives, specifically tube shaped geometric objects representing streamlines, magnetic field lines or DTI fiber tracts. The proposed algorithm extends the recently proposed Directional Occlusion Shading model to allow the rendering of those geometric shapes in combination with a context providing 3D volume, considering mutual occlusion between structures represented by a volume or geometry. © 2012 IEEE.

  18. Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion and Its Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Desmond; Archer

    1992-01-01

    The natural course of Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion is determined by the site and completeness of the occlusion, the integrity of arterial perfusion to the affected sector and the efficiency of the developing collateral circulation. Most patients with tributary vein occlusion have some capillary fall out and microvascular incompetence in the distribution of the affected retina and vision is significantly compromised in over 50% of patients who have either chronic macular oedema or ischemia involving the...

  19. Occlusion: A Contemporary Overview and Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racich, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Dental occlusal concepts have developed over time, essentially by trial and error. Most have stood the test of observation, and more recently science has verified some of the viewed occlusal successes. The purpose of this article is to examine and distill, in an evidence-based manner, the commonalities that allow practitioners of one occlusal philosophy or another to achieve consistent success. Medline and the Cochrane Collaboration were used to procure relevant articles. PMID:26509980

  20. Monitoring the degradation of partly decomposable plastic foils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rétháti Gabriella

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We have monitored the behaviour of different polyethylene foils including virgin medium density polyethylene (MDPE, MDPE containing pro-oxydative additives (238, 242 and MDPE with pro-oxydative additives and thermoplastic starch (297 in the soil for a period of one year. A foil based on a blend of polyester and polylactic acid (BASF Ecovio served as degradable control. The experiment was carried out by weekly measurements of conductivity and capacity of the soil, since the setup was analogous to a condenser, of which the insulating layer was the foil itself. The twelve replications allowed monthly sampling; the specimen taken out from the soil each month were tested visually for thickness, mechanical properties, morphological and structural changes, and molecular mass. Based on the obtained capacity values, we found that among the polyethylene foils, the one that contained thermoplastic starch extenuated the most. This foil had the greatest decrease in tensile strength and elongation at break due to the presence of thermoplastic starch. The starch can completely degrade in the soil; thus, the foil had cracks and pores. The polyethylene foils that contained pro-oxydant additives showed smaller external change compared to the virgin foil, since there was no available UV radiation and oxygen for their degradation. The smallest change occurred in the virgin polyethylene foil. Among the five examined samples, the commercially available BASF foil showed the largest extenuation and external change, and it deteriorated the most in the soil.

  1. Numerical simulation of bionic foils in tandem arrangement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Zhou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on the backgrounds of underwater propulsors with high hydrodynamic performance, the article focuses on the flapping foils in tandem arrangement and tries to formulate the physical mode and mathematical model of flapping propulsion. Using the commercial software Fluent, the governing equations are discretized by the finite volume method, and dynamic mesh method is adopted to solve the moving boundaries. In order to verify validity and feasibility of the method, hydrodynamic performance of single flapping foil is analyzed. The present results of single flapping foil compare well with those in experimental researches. After that, numerical simulations of flapping foils in tandem arrangement are conducted to reveal the energy absorption mechanisms. By extracting performance parameters and characteristics of the flow field, the interaction between upstream foil and downstream foil is analyzed. The results indicate that the vortices shedding from upstream foil have a significant effect on the hydrodynamic performance of downstream foil, and the downstream foil can use energy from the flow field to improve the hydrodynamic performance. Therefore, the hydrodynamic performance of the system can be improved by adjusting the locations of foils and motion parameters.

  2. Multiple-object tracking under occlusion conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Young-Kee; Ho, Yo-Sung

    2000-05-01

    This paper describes an algorithm for multiple object tracking that takes a new occlusion reasoning approach. In order to track individual objects under occlusion conditions, we design a 2D token-based tracking system using Kalman filtering. The proposed tracking system consists of two parts: object detection and tracking, and occlusion reasoning using feature matching. The object detection and tracking part finds moving objects from their background. For object detection, we develop an adaptive background update technique. By tracking individual objects with segmentation information, we generate motion trajectories. Computer simulation of the proposed scheme demonstrates its robustness to various occlusion conditions for several test sequences.

  3. Comparison of Au and Pt foils for an imaging bolometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The imaging bolometer is a fusion reactor relevant diagnostic for the measurement of radiated power. Essential to its ability to make accurate temporally and spatially resolved measurements of radiated power is the detailed calibration of the thin metal foil that converts the radiated power to infrared radiation measured by an infrared camera. The choice of the foil material is critical to optimizing the sensitivity of the imaging bolometer. Calibration of the foil provides information on the actual sensitivity of the foil which can help in selecting the best foil material. In this work thermal properties of the 0.63 micron thick Au and 0.87 micron thick Pt foils are investigated by heating the foils with a chopped 25 mW HeNe laser and observing the temperature change, ΔT, of the foil and the rise/decay times, τrise/decay, of the foil temperature. For a foil in which the cooling is dominated by diffusion, since the sensitivity of the foils is proportional to the ratio of the thermal diffusivity to the thermal conductivity of the foil, κ/k, which is proportional ΔT/τ, where τ is the average of the decay and rise times, we can compare the relative sensitivities of the foils by comparing these ratios for Pt and Au foils. The results surprisingly indicate that Pt is more than 9 times more sensitive than Au even though standard thermal properties indicate that Au should be 14% more sensitive than Pt. This inconsistency is largely due to a slightly smaller decay time, τ, which is inconsistent with a 5 times smaller κ, in the case of the Pt compared to Au. While the 5 -6 times larger temperature rise, ΔT, is somewhat consistent with 3.2 times smaller kt for the Pt foil compared to Au foil. This inconsistency in the thermal times, along with observed differences between the rise and decay times, indicate that the IR radiation is dominant over diffusion in the cooling of the foil. In that case the sensitivity should be evaluated by 1/k - ΔT which indicates that Pt

  4. Microfabricated Segmented-Involute-Foil Regenerator for Stirling Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mounir; Danila, Daniel; Simon, Terrence; Mantell, Susan; Sun, Liyong; Gedeon, David; Qiu, Songgang; Wood, Gary; Kelly, Kevin; McLean, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    An involute-foil regenerator was designed, microfabricated, and tested in an oscillating-flow test rig. The concept consists of stacked involute-foil nickel disks (see figure) microfabricated via a lithographic process. Test results yielded a performance of about twice that of the 90-percent random-fiber currently used in small Stirling converters. The segmented nature of the involute- foil in both the axial and radial directions increases the strength of the structure relative to wrapped foils. In addition, relative to random-fiber regenerators, the involute-foil has a reduced pressure drop, and is expected to be less susceptible to the release of metal fragments into the working space, thus increasing reliability. The prototype nickel involute-foil regenerator was adequate for testing in an engine with a 650 C hot-end temperature. This is lower than that required by larger engines, and high-temperature alloys are not suited for the lithographic microfabrication approach.

  5. Effects of Aluminum Foil Packaging on Elemental Analysis of Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Lyniece; Christensen, Angi M

    2016-03-01

    Burned skeletal material is often very fragile and at high risk for fragmentation during packaging and transportation. One method that has been suggested to protect bones in these cases is to carefully wrap them in aluminum foil. Traces of aluminum, however, are known to transfer from foil packaging materials to food products. If such transfer occurs between aluminum foil and bones, it could interfere with subsequent chemical, elemental and isotopic analyses, which are becoming more common in forensic anthropological investigations. This study examined aluminum levels in bones prior to and following the use of aluminum foil packaging and storage for a 6-week period. Results indicate no significant change in the detected levels of aluminum (p > 0.05), even when packaged in compromised foil and exposed to elevated temperatures. Aluminum foil can therefore continue to be recommended as a packaging medium without affecting subsequent chemical examinations. PMID:27404616

  6. Carbon stripper foils for high current heavy ion operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the proposed new heavy ion linac'at'GSI the installation of a carbon foil stripper section is under discussion. High duty factor as well as high current (but low duty factor) heavy ion beams were used for machine experiments. Long term tests were performed to check the carbon foil durability. Relevant beam parameters have been measured in three measurement campaigns. After beam testing stripper foils were analyzed with different offline methods. Additionally promising results of high current beam irradiation of rotating target wheels will be presented. In the transfer line to the SIS 18 the heavy ion beam is stripped to higher charge states in a thick carbon foil. The stripper foil is loaded with 3 % of the beam power. To avoid evaporation in a single beam pulse, the beam is rapidly swept over its width. Experiences collected during the last decade of foil stripper operation at GSI will be presented. (author)

  7. Preparation and Investigation of Diamond-like Carbon Stripper Foils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN; Qi-wen; DU; Ying-hui; ZHANG; Rong; XU; Guo-ji

    2013-01-01

    1 Preparation of DLC stripper foils For DLC stripper foils of about 5μg/cm2 thickness,the following methods were used.The DLC foils of about 4μg/cm2 thicknesses were produced by FCVA onto glass slides coated with betaine-saccharose as releasing agent,which was previously covered with the evaporated carbon layers of about 1μg/cm2

  8. Preparation of U-Shape Carbon Stripper Foil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Rong; FAN; Qi-wen; DU; Ying-hui

    2012-01-01

    <正>In an experiment for the Beijing Radioactive Ion-beam Facility, the self-supportting U-shape carbon foils are strongly required to serve as the stripper foils. The preparation procedures are as following. First, the carbon foils with thickness of about 60 μg/cm2 were deposited by the CAA (Controlled AC Arc-discharge) method onto the glass slides coated with betaine-saccharose as releasing agent. The parameters in preparation are listed in Table 1.

  9. Foil Diffuser Investigation with GEANT4

    CERN Document Server

    Fabritius, Joseph M; Walstrom, Peter

    2013-01-01

    An investigation into the appropriate materials for use as a diffuser foil in electron radiography was undertaken in GEANT4. Simulations were run using various refractory materials to determine a material of appropriate Z number such that energy loss is minimal. The plotted results of angular spread and energy spread are shown. It is concluded that higher Z number materials such as tungsten, tantalum, platinum or uranium could be used as diffuser materials. Also, an investigation into the handling of bremsstrahlung, multiple coulomb scattering, and ionization in GEANT4 was performed.

  10. The Los Alamos foil implosion project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of the Los Alamos foil implosion project is to produce an intense (>100 TW), multi-megajoule, laboratory soft x-ray source for material studies and fusion experiments. The concept involves the implosion of annular, current-carrying, cylindrical metallic plasmas via their self-magnetic forces. The project features inductive storage systems using both capacitor banks and high explosive-driven flux compression generators as prime energy sources. Fast opening switches are employed to shorten the electrical pulses. The program will be described and activities to date will be summarized

  11. The prevalence of questionable occlusal caries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makhija, Sonia K; Gilbert, Gregg H; Funkhouser, Ellen;

    2012-01-01

    Questionable occlusal caries (QOC) can be defined as clinically suspected caries with no cavitation or radiographic evidence of occlusal caries. To the authors' knowledge, no one has quantified the prevalence of QOC, so this quantification was the authors' objective in conducting this study...

  12. Characterization of U-Mo Foils for AFIP-7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Danny J.; Ermi, Ruby M.; Schemer-Kohrn, Alan L.; Overman, Nicole R.; Henager, Charles H.; Burkes, Douglas; Senor, David J.

    2012-11-07

    Twelve AFIP in-process foil samples, fabricated by either Y-12 or LANL, were shipped from LANL to PNNL for potential characterization using optical and scanning electron microscopy techniques. Of these twelve, nine different conditions were examined to one degree or another using both techniques. For this report a complete description of the results are provided for one archive foil from each source of material, and one unirradiated piece of a foil of each source that was irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor. Additional data from two other LANL conditions are summarized in very brief form in an appendix. The characterization revealed that all four characterized conditions contained a cold worked microstructure to different degrees. The Y-12 foils exhibited a higher degree of cold working compared to the LANL foils, as evidenced by the highly elongated and obscure U-Mo grain structure present in each foil. The longitudinal orientations for both of the Y-12 foils possesses a highly laminar appearance with such a distorted grain structure that it was very difficult to even offer a range of grain sizes. The U-Mo grain structure of the LANL foils, by comparison, consisted of a more easily discernible grain structure with a mix of equiaxed and elongated grains. Both materials have an inhomogenous grain structure in that all of the characterized foils possess abnormally coarse grains.

  13. Fast-Neutron Surveys Using Indium-Foil Activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Lloyd D.; Smith, Alan R.

    1958-08-13

    Activation of indium foils by thermal neutrons has been applied to measurement of fast-neutron fluxes. Foils are encased in paraffin spheres placed in cadmium boxes. The high-energy neutrons that penetrate the cadmium become thermal neutrons; the thermal-neutron flux is proportional to the incident fast-neutron flux over a range of about 20 kev to 20 Mev. The foils are removed from the boxes and counted on a methane-flow proportional counter. High instantaneous neutron fluxes are easily detected and counted by use of these foils. Many simultaneous measurements have been made easily by this method.

  14. Virtual occlusion in planning orthognathic surgical procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadjmi, N; Mollemans, W; Daelemans, A; Van Hemelen, G; Schutyser, F; Bergé, S

    2010-05-01

    Accurate preoperative planning is mandatory for orthognathic surgery. One of the most important aims of this planning process is obtaining good postoperative dental occlusion. Recently, 3D image-based planning systems have been introduced that enable a surgeon to define different osteotomy planes preoperatively and to assess the result of moving different bone fragments in a 3D virtual environment, even for soft tissue simulation of the face. Although the use of these systems is becoming more accepted in orthognathic surgery, few solutions have been proposed for determining optimal occlusion in the 3D planning process. In this study, a 3D virtual occlusion tool is presented that calculates a realistic interaction between upper and lower dentitions. It enables the surgeon to obtain an optimal and physically possible occlusion easily. A validation study, including 11 patient data sets, demonstrates that the differences between manually and virtually defined occlusions are small, therefore the presented system can be used in clinical practice.

  15. Actinide Foil Production for MPACT Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beller, Denis

    2012-10-30

    Sensitive fast-neutron detectors are required for use in lead slowing down spectrometry (LSDS), an active interrogation technique for used nuclear fuel assay for Materials Protection, Accounting, and Controls Technologies (MPACT). During the past several years UNLV sponsored a research project at RPI to investigate LSDS; began development of fission chamber detectors for use in LSDS experiments in collaboration with INL, LANL, and Oregon State U.; and participated in a LSDS experiment at LANL. In the LSDS technique, research has demonstrated that these fission chamber detectors must be sensitive to fission energy neutrons but insensitive to thermal-energy neutrons. Because most systems are highly sensitive to large thermal neutron populations due to the well-known large thermal cross section of 235U, even a miniscule amount of this isotope in a fission chamber will overwhelm the small population of higher-energy neutrons. Thus, fast-fission chamber detectors must be fabricated with highly depleted uranium (DU) or ultra-pure thorium (Th), which is about half as efficient as DU. Previous research conducted at RPI demonstrated that the required purity of DU for assay of used nuclear fuel using LSDS is less than 4 ppm 235U, material that until recently was not available in the U.S. In 2009 the PI purchased 3 grams of ultra-depleted uranium (uDU, 99.99998% 238U with just 0.2 ± 0.1 ppm 235U) from VNIIEF in Sarov, Russia. We received the material in the form of U3O8 powder in August of 2009, and verified its purity and depletion in a FY10 MPACT collaboration project. In addition, chemical processing for use in FC R&D was initiated, fission chamber detectors and a scanning alpha-particle spectrometer were developed, and foils were used in a preliminary LSDS experiment at a LANL/LANSCE in Sept. of 2010. The as-received U3O8 powder must be chemically processed to convert it to another chemical form while maintaining its purity, which then must be used to electro-deposit U

  16. Lithographic patterning of metals on flexible plastic foils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peter, M.; Furthner, F.; Deen, J.; Laat, W.J.M.de; Meinders, E.R.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper the challenges of patterning electrodes with separations in the micron and sub-micron range onto thin polyethylene naphthalate foils for use in biochips are discussed. It was found that it was necessary to improve the adhesion of the metal electrodes to the foil by using plasma treatme

  17. Numerical analysis of bump foil bearings without nominal radial clearance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhan-sheng; XU Huai-jin; ZHANG Guang-hui

    2008-01-01

    Bump foil bearings without nominal radial clearance were analyzed. An air film thickness model and a bearing theoretical analytical model were developed accounting for air compressibility and foil deformation. To analyze hydrodynamic characteristics of bump foil beatings with different operating eccentricities, the air film thickness equation and Reynolds equation were coupled through pressure and solved by Newton-Raphson Method(NRM) and Finite Difference Method (FDM). The characteristics of an bump foil bearing model were dis-cussed including load carrying capacity, film thickness and pressure distributions. The results of simulation show that bump foil beating without nominal radial clearance can provide better stability and greater load capaci-ty. This numerical analytical method also reveals a good convergence in numerical calculation.

  18. Freezing enhancement around a horizontal tube using copper foil disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, M.; Komatsu, Y.; Takahashi, Y.; Beer, H.

    2011-12-01

    Freezing of water saturated in circumferentially arranged copper foils around a cooling tube is studied experimentally and numerically. The copper foils need not to be welded to the cooling tube but are merely placed around the tube so that the freezing system is easily arranged. Copper foils greatly enhance freezing compared with that of a bare tube, even with a small copper volume fraction in the freezing system. Numerical calculations by means of a continuum model predict well freezing enhancement. The effect of the copper foils is also considered numerically for the melting process in order to compare with freezing. It is seen that copper foils contribute more to the melting enhancement than to the increase of the freezing rate.

  19. On the forced flow around a flapping foil

    CERN Document Server

    Mandujano, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    The two dimensional incompressible viscous flow past a flapping foil immersed in a uniform stream is studied numerically. Numerical simulations were performed using a Lattice-Boltzmann model for moderate Reynolds numbers. The computation of the hydrodynamic force on the foil is related to the the wake structure. In particular, when the foil's centre of mass is fixed in space, numerical results suggest a relation between drag coefficient behaviour and the flapping frequency which determines the transition from the von K\\'arm\\'an (vKm) to the inverted von K\\'arm\\'an wake. Beyond the inverted vKm transition the foil was released. Upstream swimming was observed at high enough flapping frequencies. Computed hydrodynamic forces suggest the propulsion mechanism for the swimming foil.

  20. Foil calibration for IR imaging bolometer by laser irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IR imaging video bolometer (IRVB) provides the power distribution of plasma radiation. The radiation distribution is obtained from the temperature distribution on the bolometer foil. It is necessary to calibrate between the temperature distribution and the incident radiation power on the bolometer foil. This paper describes a new calibration technique for the foil which we have developed. The bolometer foil was irradiated with a He-Ne laser and the temperature distribution was measured by an IR camera while changing the irradiation position. The temperature distribution measured was analyzed by the comparison with the results calculated by FEM. We repeated this comparison while changing the parameters such as effective foil thickness and effective emissivity in the calculation until the calculated distribution converged to the measured one. The temperature distribution calculated by the FEM agreed well with the measured one, so the calibration between the radiation power and the temperature profile can be suitably conducted by this technique. (author)

  1. Infrared imaging video bolometer with a double layer absorbing foil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The object of the present paper is an infrared video bolometer with a bolometer foil consisting of two layers: the first layer is constructed of radiation absorbing blocks and the second layer is a thermal isolating base. The absorbing blocks made of a material with a high photon attenuation coefficient (gold) were spatially separated from each other while the base should be made of a material having high tensile strength and low thermal conductance (stainless steel). Such a foil has been manufactured in St. Petersburg and calibrated in NIFS using a vacuum test chamber and a laser beam as an incident power source. A finite element method (FEM) code was applied to simulate the thermal response of the foil. Simulation results are in good agreement with the experimental calibration data. The temperature response of the double layer foil is a factor of two higher than that of a single foil IR video bolometer using the same absorber material and thickness. (author)

  2. Design considerations for foil windows for PET radioisotope targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the results of a study performed at SRL to develop analytical and computational techniques for optimizing the design of conduction-cooled foil windows for PET targets. Single foil conduction cooled windows have been found to be good target entrance windows for both low energy accelerators and medium energy cyclotrons. Detailed thermal analysis has given an approximate analytical expression for the maximum temperature reached in a foil window under conditions of realistic ion beam bombardment. The effects of 'hot spots' in the beam density profile were investigated. It was shown that a factor of two safety margin in window design should be adequate to compensate for any possible beam hot spots. In addition, the reduction of foil stress by slack mounting was verified by experiments. The properties of conventional and novel foil materials were investigated for use in conduction cooled windows. Novel foil materials include two-component Al/Ti and Al/Havar foil. Results on the testing of candidate foil materials for thermal conductivity and mechanical strength at elevated temperature were presented. Two optimum foil window geometries were analyzed: a high aspect ratio window and a multiply slotted window. The multiply slotted window combines the advantages of a high aspect ratio foil window with a circular beam strike and is a promising window design for both TCA and cyclotron targets. A multiply slotted window for a N2 gas target for 15O production was designed using the methodologies discussed above. This prototype target was successfully tested using the TCA beam at SRL. (author) 6 figs., 3 tabs., 10 refs

  3. Foil Gas Thrust Bearings for High-Speed Turbomachinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, Brian; DellaCorte, Christopher; Dykas, Brian

    2010-01-01

    A methodology has been developed for the design and construction of simple foil thrust bearings intended for parametric performance testing and low marginal costs, supporting continued development of oil-free turbomachinery. A bearing backing plate is first machined and surface-ground to produce flat and parallel faces. Partial-arc slots needed to retain the foil components are then machined into the plate by wire electrical discharge machining. Slot thicknesses achievable by a single wire pass are appropriate to accommodate the practical range of foil thicknesses, leaving a small clearance in this hinged joint to permit limited motion. The backing plate is constructed from a nickel-based superalloy (Inconel 718) to allow heat treatment of the entire assembled bearing, as well as to permit hightemperature operation. However, other dimensionally stable materials, such as precipitation-hardened stainless steel, can also be used for this component depending on application. The top and bump foil blanks are cut from stacks of annealed Inconel X-750 foil by the same EDM process. The bump foil has several azimuthal slits separating it into five individual bump strips. This configuration allows for variable bump spacing, which helps to accommodate the effects of the varying surface velocity, thermal crowning, centrifugal dishing, and misalignment. Rectangular tabs on the foil blanks fit into the backing plate slots. For this application, a rather traditional set of conventionally machined dies is selected, and bump foil blanks are pressed into the dies for forming. This arrangement produces a set of bump foil dies for foil thrust bearings that provide for relatively inexpensive fabrication of various bump configurations, and employing methods and features from the public domain.

  4. Quality Of Electrophotographic Prints On Foil Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozália Szentgyörgyvölgyi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Electrophotographic printing uses many types of substrates, our study focuses on plastic substrates. Six types ofregular and self-adhesive foil substrates were chosen to be printed using two electrophotographic presses: XeroxColour 1000 Press and Canon imagePress C7000VP. A test chart containing tone value scales and a set of samplesfor profiling was created, spectrophotomety and densitometry was applied to obtain the optical and colorimetricproperties of the substrates investigated. Xerox Color 1000 Press produced larger densities and tone value increaseon every type of substrate. The largest TVI values and reproducible colour gamut was observed on the smoothestfoil in case of both presses. Large colour differences were found between patches of full tone process colors on thedifferent substrates investigated.

  5. Bombarding insulating foils with highly energetic ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzanò, G.; de Filippo, E.; Hagmann, S.; Rothard, H.; Volant, C.

    Insulating (MYLAR), semi-insulating (MYLAR-Au) and conducting foils have been bombarded by very energetic 64 MeV u-1 78Kr32+ ions. The velocity spectra of fast electrons emitted in the backward and forward directions have been measured and analyzed as a function of the elapsed time in the run. A shift of binary encounter and convoy electrons emitted in the forward direction toward lower velocities has been observed with insulating targets. No such shift occurs with metallic targets. The surface potential evolves with time (i.e. ion fluence) both at forward and backward emission angle. It is shown that strong bulk charging of insulating targets leads to a positive potential as high as 9 kV before charge breakdown.

  6. High strain rate metalworking with vaporizing foil actuator: Control of flyer velocity by varying input energy and foil thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vivek, A., E-mail: vivek.4@osu.edu; Hansen, S. R.; Daehn, Glenn S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, 2041, College Road, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Electrically driven rapid vaporization of thin metallic foils can generate a high pressure which can be used to launch flyers at high velocities. Recently, vaporizing foil actuators have been applied toward a variety of impulse-based metal working operations. In order to exercise control over this useful tool, it is imperative that an understanding of the effect of characteristics of the foil actuator on its ability for mechanical impulse generation is developed. Here, foil actuators made out of 0.0508 mm, 0.0762 mm, and 0.127 mm thick AA1145 were used for launching AA2024-T3 sheets of thickness 0.508 mm toward a photonic Doppler velocimeter probe. Launch velocities ranging between 300 m/s and 1100 m/s were observed. In situ measurement of velocity, current, and voltage assisted in understanding the effect of burst current density and deposited electrical energy on average pressure and velocity with foil actuators of various thicknesses. For the pulse generator, geometry, and flyer used here, the 0.0762 mm thick foil was found to be optimal for launching flyers to high velocities over short distances. Experimenting with annealed foil actuators resulted in no change in the temporal evolution of flyer velocity as compared to foil actuators of full hard temper. A physics-based analytical model was developed and found to have reasonable agreement with experiment.

  7. High strain rate metalworking with vaporizing foil actuator: Control of flyer velocity by varying input energy and foil thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivek, A.; Hansen, S. R.; Daehn, Glenn S.

    2014-07-01

    Electrically driven rapid vaporization of thin metallic foils can generate a high pressure which can be used to launch flyers at high velocities. Recently, vaporizing foil actuators have been applied toward a variety of impulse-based metal working operations. In order to exercise control over this useful tool, it is imperative that an understanding of the effect of characteristics of the foil actuator on its ability for mechanical impulse generation is developed. Here, foil actuators made out of 0.0508 mm, 0.0762 mm, and 0.127 mm thick AA1145 were used for launching AA2024-T3 sheets of thickness 0.508 mm toward a photonic Doppler velocimeter probe. Launch velocities ranging between 300 m/s and 1100 m/s were observed. In situ measurement of velocity, current, and voltage assisted in understanding the effect of burst current density and deposited electrical energy on average pressure and velocity with foil actuators of various thicknesses. For the pulse generator, geometry, and flyer used here, the 0.0762 mm thick foil was found to be optimal for launching flyers to high velocities over short distances. Experimenting with annealed foil actuators resulted in no change in the temporal evolution of flyer velocity as compared to foil actuators of full hard temper. A physics-based analytical model was developed and found to have reasonable agreement with experiment.

  8. Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montani, David; Lau, Edmund M; Dorfmüller, Peter; Girerd, Barbara; Jaïs, Xavier; Savale, Laurent; Perros, Frederic; Nossent, Esther; Garcia, Gilles; Parent, Florence; Fadel, Elie; Soubrier, Florent; Sitbon, Olivier; Simonneau, Gérald; Humbert, Marc

    2016-05-01

    Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease (PVOD) is a rare form of pulmonary hypertension (PH) characterised by preferential remodelling of the pulmonary venules. In the current PH classification, PVOD and pulmonary capillary haemangiomatosis (PCH) are considered to be a common entity and represent varied expressions of the same disease. The recent discovery of biallelic mutations in the EIF2AK4 gene as the cause of heritable PVOD/PCH represents a major milestone in our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of PVOD. Although PVOD and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) share a similar clinical presentation, with features of severe precapillary PH, it is important to differentiate these two conditions as PVOD carries a worse prognosis and life-threatening pulmonary oedema may occur following the initiation of PAH therapy. An accurate diagnosis of PVOD based on noninvasive investigations is possible utilising oxygen parameters, low diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide and characteristic signs on high-resolution computed tomography of the chest. No evidence-based medical therapy exists for PVOD at present and lung transplantation remains the preferred definitive therapy for eligible patients. PMID:27009171

  9. Workflow Optimization in Vertebrobasilar Occlusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: In vertebrobasilar occlusion, rapid recanalization is the only substantial means to improve the prognosis. We introduced a standard operating procedure (SOP) for interventional therapy to analyze the effects on interdisciplinary time management. Methods: Intrahospital time periods between hospital admission and neuroradiological intervention were retrospectively analyzed, together with the patients’ outcome, before (n = 18) and after (n = 20) implementation of the SOP. Results: After implementation of the SOP, we observed statistically significant improvement of postinterventional patient neurological status (p = 0.017). In addition, we found a decrease of 5:33 h for the mean time period from hospital admission until neuroradiological intervention. The recanalization rate increased from 72.2% to 80% after implementation of the SOP. Conclusion: Our results underscore the relevance of SOP implementation and analysis of time management for clinical workflow optimization. Both may trigger awareness for the need of efficient interdisciplinary time management. This could be an explanation for the decreased time periods and improved postinterventional patient status after SOP implementation.

  10. Smile line and occlusion: An epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Harati

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: Within the limitations of such studies, it might be concluded that there is a significant and important relation between some occlusal parameters and smile design, which must be considered.

  11. Retinal Artery Occlusion Treatment with Hyperbaric Oxygen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harun Cakmak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Retinal artery occlusion is one of the vision-threating emergency situations in ophthalmology. In this paper, a case of retinal artery occlusion is presented. Fifty seven year- old female patient presented with a sudden onset visual loss in her left eye. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA levels were 1.0 and 0.7 in the right and left eye, respectiveley. Dilated fundus examination revealed no pathological finding in the right eye. Whereas calcified plaque was seen in upper arquat artery bifurcation in the left eye. Pallorness with retinal edema was seen in this arterial trace. Retinal artery occlusion was diagnosed and patient was referred for hyperbaric oxygen therapy. After a total of 20 sessions of hyperbaric oxygen therapy, the calcified plaques disappeared and her BCVA increased to 20/20. Hyperbaric oxygen treatment is vision-saving method which should be considered in retinal artery occlusion.

  12. Stent Graft in Managing Juxta-Renal Aortoiliac Occlusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endovascular procedures are frequently used as an alternative to surgical bypass in aortic and iliac occlusion. Stents have revolutionized the scope of such endovascular procedures, but there are few reports of stents or stent grafts in occlusive juxta-renal aortic occlusion. We present a case where such occlusion was managed by use of a stent graft with successful outcome

  13. Retinal vein occlusion in Benin City, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Uhumwangho, Odarosa M.; Darlingtess Oronsaye

    2016-01-01

    Background: Retinal vein occlusion (RVO) is the most common occlusive retinal vascular disorder and results in varying degrees of visual loss. Aim: To determine the pattern of presentation, risk factors, and treatment outcomes in a group of patients with RVO seen in a tertiary hospital in Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Medical records of patients who presented to the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria in whom a diagnosis of RVO was made over a 5 years period were revi...

  14. Current possibilities in occlusal caries management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrvoje Jurić

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is a multifactorial disease that affects most populations throughout the world and it is still the primary cause of oral pain and tooth loss. The occlusal surfaces of posterior teeth are the most vulnerable sites for dental caries due to their anatomy. Therefore, the aim of the following article is to summarize current knowledge on occlusal caries development and the possibilities of its prevention. Although the overall caries rate today has fallen for populations in industrialized countries, the rate of occlusal surface caries has not decreased. This may be explained with fact that topically applied fluorides and their mode of action prevent caries better on smooth than on occlusal surfaces. As we know, tooth decay of first permanent molars causes a great deal of different short and long term difficulties for patients. Therefore, there is a continuous need for implementation of programs for caries prevention in permanent teeth. Nowadays, we like to treat our patients by minimally invasive methods. A very important step in our effective preventive treatment is sealing pits and fissures as a cornerstone of occlusal caries management. Reliable assessment of caries activity is also very important for defining treatment needs and plans. A very important decision, which should be made during occlusal caries management, is the selection of restorative material according to the treatment plan. Conclusion. Current possibilities in occlusal caries prevention and management are very effective. Therefore, dentists today do not have any excuse for avoiding the philosophy of Minimally Invasive Dentistry, especially when we talk about caries management of occlusal surfaces in permanent molars.

  15. Branch retinal artery occlusion in Susac's syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Evangelista Marrocos de Aragão

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Susac's syndrome is a rare disease attribuited to a microangiopathy involving the arterioles of the cochlea, retina and brain. Encefalopathy, hearing loss, and visual deficits are the hallmarks of the disease. Visual loss is due to multiple, recurrent branch arterial retinal occlusions. We report a case of a 20-year-old women with Susac syndrome presented with peripheral vestibular syndrome, hearing loss, ataxia, vertigo, and vision loss due occlusion of the retinal branch artery.

  16. Epulis and pyogenic granuloma with occlusal interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widowati Witjaksono

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In dental clinic of Hospital University Science Malaysia (HUSM, there were cases with Localized Gingival Enlargement (LGE in the oral cavity with occlusal interference. In this study, three cases were observed. They were a 13 - year- old female with fibrous lge around 31 and 32 with occlusal interference in protrusive movement due to X bite, a 15 - year – old female with pyogenic granuloma near 11 & 21 with occlusal interference due to deep bite; and a 24 – year – old female who was eight months in pregnancy with pyogenic granuloma on the 34-35 and severe generalized pregnancy gingivitis with occlusal interference in centric occlusion and lateral movement. Clinical and histopathological diagnosis of the first case showed fibrous epulis, whereas the second and third cases disclosed pyogenic granuloma. Chronic trauma of the gingiva due to occlusal interference was assumed to be the cause of those LGE in case 1 and 2, while in case 3 poor oral hygiene and chronic trauma were assumed to be the etiologic factors.

  17. Producing Foils From Direct Cast Titanium Alloy Strip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, T. A.; Gaspar, T. A.; Sukonnik, I. M.; Semiatan, S. L.; Batawi, E.; Peters, J. A.; Fraser, H. L.

    1996-01-01

    This research was undertaken to demonstrate the feasibility of producing high-quality, thin-gage, titanium foil from direct cast titanium strip. Melt Overflow Rapid Solidification Technology (MORST) was used to cast several different titanium alloys into 500 microns thick strip, 10 cm wide and up to 3 m long. The strip was then either ground, hot pack rolled or cold rolled, as appropriate, into foil. Gamma titanium aluminide (TiAl) was cast and ground to approximately 100 microns thick foil and alpha-2 titanium aluminide (Ti3AI) was cast and hot pack rolled to approximately 70 microns thick foil. CP Ti, Ti6Al2Sn4Zr2Mo, and Ti22AI23Nb (Orthorhombic), were successfully cast and cold-rolled into good quality foil (less than 125 microns thick). The foils were generally fully dense with smooth surfaces, had fine, uniform microstructures, and demonstrated mechanical properties equivalent to conventionally produced titanium. By eliminating many manufacturing steps, this technology has the potential to produce thin gage, titanium foil with good engineering properties at significantly reduced cost relative to conventional ingot metallurgy processing.

  18. Compliant Foil Journal Bearing Performance at Alternate Pressures and Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckner, Robert J.; Puleo, Bernadette J.

    2008-01-01

    An experimental test program has been conducted to determine the highly loaded performance of current generation gas foil bearings at alternate pressures and temperatures. Typically foil bearing performance has been reported at temperatures relevant to turbomachinery applications but only at an ambient pressure of one atmosphere. This dearth of data at alternate pressures has motivated the current test program. Two facilities were used in the test program, the ambient pressure rig and the high pressure rig. The test program utilized a 35 mm diameter by 27 mm long foil journal bearing having an uncoated Inconel X-750 top foil running against a shaft with a PS304 coated journal. Load capacity tests were conducted at 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, and 21 krpm at temperatures from 25 to 500 C and at pressures from 0.1 to 2.5 atmospheres. Results show an increase in load capacity with increased ambient pressure and a reduction in load capacity with increased ambient temperature. Below one-half atmosphere of ambient pressure a dramatic loss of load capacity is experienced. Additional lightly loaded foil bearing performance in nitrogen at 25 C and up to 48 atmospheres of ambient pressure has also been reported. In the lightly loaded region of operation the power loss increases for increasing pressure at a fixed load. Knowledge of foil bearing performance at operating conditions found within potential machine applications will reduce program development risk of future foil bearing supported turbomachines.

  19. Retinal artery occlusions in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmasena, Aruna; Wallis, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to present a case of RAO in a 13 year old girl with a preceding history of hyperextension of the neck at her hairdressers for a long duration and use of her mobile phone handset resting it against the side of her neck presumably exerting some pressure on carotids during the same time. Materials and methods of this study was reported as case report and review of literature. A 13 year-old girl presented with the left supero-nasal scotoma due to an inferior temporal branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO). She underwent extensive investigations and no underlying cause was discovered. She gave a history of cervical extension over a long period of time while having the hair coloured twice in the preceding week. She also mentioned that she was using her mobile phone more or less continuously during both these occasions keeping it against her neck. Given the above history it is possible that the pressure on the ipsilateral carotid arteries or the prolong neck extension may have been responsible for the formation of a platelet embolus resulting in the BRAO. In conclusion, although cerebro-vascular accidents due to 'beauty parlor stroke syndrome' (JAMA 269:2085-2086, 1993) have been reported previously it has not been reported in children to our knowledge. On the other hand, 'beauty parlor stroke syndrome' occurs due to a dissection of the vertebral arteries or due to mechanical compression of the vertebral arteries during the prolonged hyperextension of the neck. The central retinal artery originates from the internal carotid circulation and it is highly unlikely for an embolus to enter the retinal circulation from the vertebral arteries. Therefore, the authors favour the possibility that the compulsive use of a mobile phone exerting pressure on the carotid arteries for a long time may have led to the formation of an embolus and subsequent RAO in this case.

  20. Elevated Temperature Tensile Tests on DU–10Mo Rolled Foils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulthess, Jason [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Tensile mechanical properties for uranium-10 wt.% molybdenum (U–10Mo) foils are required to support modeling and qualification of new monolithic fuel plate designs. It is expected that depleted uranium-10 wt% Mo (DU–10Mo) mechanical behavior is representative of the low enriched U–10Mo to be used in the actual fuel plates, therefore DU-10Mo was studied to simplify material processing, handling, and testing requirements. In this report, tensile testing of DU-10Mo fuel foils prepared using four different thermomechanical processing treatments were conducted to assess the impact of foil fabrication history on resultant tensile properties.

  1. Method of fabricating a uranium-bearing foil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooch, Jackie G.; DeMint, Amy L.

    2012-04-24

    Methods of fabricating a uranium-bearing foil are described. The foil may be substantially pure uranium, or may be a uranium alloy such as a uranium-molybdenum alloy. The method typically includes a series of hot rolling operations on a cast plate material to form a thin sheet. These hot rolling operations are typically performed using a process where each pass reduces the thickness of the plate by a substantially constant percentage. The sheet is typically then annealed and then cooled. The process typically concludes with a series of cold rolling passes where each pass reduces the thickness of the plate by a substantially constant thickness amount to form the foil.

  2. Tensile and Fatigue Properties of Free-Standing Cu Foils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Caiyun Dai; Xiaofei Zhu; Guangping Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Tensile and fatigue properties of free-standing as-rolled Cu foils were investigated by means of uniaxial tensile and dynamic bending tests. A special testing system was established to evaluate fatigue behavior of a mi-croscale material subjected to dynamic bending load. The experimental results show that the yield strength increases, but the fracture strain and fatigue resistance decrease with decreasing foil thickness. Deformation and fatigue damage behavior was characterized. The size effect on tensile and fatigue properties of the Cu foils are evaluated to get further understanding of the mechanical behavior of the micrometer-scale metallic materials.

  3. Synchronization and Phase Dynamics of Oscillating Foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Cyndee L.

    In this work, a two-dimensional model representing the vortices that animals produce, when they are ying/swimming, was constructed. A D{shaped cylinder and an oscillating airfoil were used to mimic these body{shed and wing{generated vortices, respectively. The parameters chosen are based on the Reynolds numbers similar to that which is observed in nature (˜10 4). In order to imitate the motion of ying/swimming, the entire system was suspended into a water channel from frictionless air{bearings. The position of the apparatus in the channel was regulated with a linear, closed loop PI controller. Thrust/drag forces were measured with strain gauges and particle image velocimetry (PIV) was used to examine the wake structure that develops. The Strouhal number of the oscillating airfoil was compared to the values observed in nature as the system transitions between the accelerated and steady states. The results suggest that self-regulation restricts the values of the Strouhal number to a certain range where no other external sensory input is necessary. As suggested by previous work, this self-regulation is a result of a limit cycle process that stems from nonlinear periodic oscillations. The limit cycles were used to examine the synchronous conditions due to the coupling of the foil and wake vortices. Noise is a factor that can mask details of the synchronization. In order to control its effect, we study the locking conditions using an analytic technique that only considers the phases. Our results show that the phase locking indices are dependent on the Strouhal value as it converges to a frequency locking ratio of ≃0:5. This indicates that synchronization occurs during cruising between the motion of the foil and the measured thrust/drag response of the uid forces. The results suggest that Strouhal number selection in steady forward natural swimming and ying is the result of a limit cycle process and not actively controlled by an organism. An implication of this is

  4. Stratification in Al and Cu foils exploded in vacuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baksht, R. B. [Institute of High Current Electronics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation); Electrical Discharge and Plasma Laboratory, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 6997801 (Israel); Rousskikh, A. G.; Zhigalin, A. S.; Artyomov, A. P. [Institute of High Current Electronics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation); Oreshkin, V. I. [Institute of High Current Electronics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-15

    An experiment with exploding foils was carried out at a current density of 0.7 × 10{sup 8} A/cm{sup 2} through the foil with a current density rise rate of about 10{sup 15} A/cm{sup 2} s. To record the strata arising during the foil explosions, a two-frame radiographic system was used that allowed tracing the dynamics of strata formation within one shot. The original striation wavelength was 20–26 μm. It was observed that as the energy deposition to a foil stopped, the striation wavelength increased at a rate of ∼(5–9) × 10{sup 3} cm/s. It is supposed that the most probable reason for the stratification is the thermal instability that develops due to an increase in the resistivity of the metal with temperature.

  5. Foil Gas Bearing Supported Quiet Fan for Spacecraft Ventilation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Developing a quiet fan for Environmental Control and Life Support systems to enhance the livable environment within the spacecraft has been a challenge. A Foil Gas...

  6. Design of foil implosion system for Pioneer I experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A foil implosion system is described that integrates an explosive flux-compression generator, a flat plate feed section with power conditioning switches, and a vacuum electrode region containing a cylindrical foil/plasma load. Power conditioning, obtained with an explosive-driven plasma compression opening switch and explosive-actuated closing switches, provides a submicrosecond multimegampere pulse for the implosion of an aluminum plasma. The flat plate section is configured for bidirectional feed to the coaxial vacuum electrodes. Important considerations in the design of the vacuum power flow region include gap failure, feed symmetry, and radial diagnostic access. The system presently accommodates a foil radius of 3 cm. Innovative foil insertion and clamping techniques are also described

  7. Decontamination with pasty pickling agents forming a strippable foil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the development of an in-situ decontamination procedure by applying onto the contaminated surface (in an one-step or multi-step process) pasty, chemically aggressive agents causing dilution and adsorption of the contaminant and then hardening to form a strippable foil. The use of such a foil will result in following advantages, with respect to usual techniques: - sensibly shorter operation duration resulting in lower personnel doses; - reduction of the arising secondary waste volume because there is no need for washing; the volume of the spent strippable foil is much smaller than currently used water volumes; - optimal conditioning of the radioactive waste due to its fixation in a solid (foil); - an accidental contamination in a controlled area can easily be fixed and covered avoiding its propagation

  8. Compliant Foil Journal Bearings - Investigation of Dynamic Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jon Steffen; Santos, Ilmar

    Through the past three decades gas bearings have found way into an increasing number of industrial applications within high speed rotating machinery. Especially the compliant foil type of bearings has gained large popularity. Much theoretical and experimental work has been conducted...... on the compliant foil bearings, and the understanding of their dynamic behaviour is growing. However, practical design involving these bearings are still associated with a large degree of trial and error. This study aims at establishing an accurate mathematical model, to calculate the pressure, film height...... and dynamic coefficients, of the compliant foil bearing together with an efficient solution method, which can be easily adopted and implemented by mechanical engineers. A theoretical model of a radial compliant foil bearing that incorporates compressibility of the lubricating gas and flexibility...

  9. Study of a gold-foil-based multisphere neutron spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z; Hutchinson, J D; Hertel, N E; Burgett, E; Howell, R M

    2008-01-01

    Multisphere neutron spectrometers with active thermal neutron detectors cannot be used in high-intensity radiation fields due to pulse pile-up and dead-time effects. Thus, a multisphere spectrometer using a passive detection system, specifically gold foils, has been investigated in this work. The responses of a gold-foil-based Bonner sphere neutron spectrometer were studied for two different gold-foil holder designs; an aluminium-polyethylene holder and a polyethylene holder. The responses of the two designs were calculated for four incident neutron beam directions, namely, parallel, perpendicular and at +/-45 degrees relative to the flat surface of the foil. It was found that the use of polyethylene holder resulted in a more isotropic response to neutrons for the four incident directions considered. The computed responses were verified by measuring the neutron spectrum of a 252Cf source with known strength.

  10. 21 CFR 189.301 - Tin-coated lead foil capsules for wine bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Tin-coated lead foil capsules for wine bottles. 189... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES PROHIBITED FROM USE IN HUMAN FOOD... lead foil capsules for wine bottles. (a) Tin-coated lead foil is composed of a lead foil coated on...

  11. Finite Element Modelling of Bends and Creases during Folding Ultra Thin Stainless Steel Foils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Datta, K.; Akagi, H.; Geijselaers, H.J.M.; Huetink, J.

    2003-01-01

    Finite Element Modelling of an ultra thin foil of SUS 304 stainless steel is carried out. These foils are 20 mm and below in thickness. The development of stresses and strains during folding of these foils is studied. The objective of this study is to induce qualities of paper in the foils of stainl

  12. Progression of Diabetic Capillary Occlusion: A Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Fu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An explanatory computational model is developed of the contiguous areas of retinal capillary loss which play a large role in diabetic maculapathy and diabetic retinal neovascularization. Strictly random leukocyte mediated capillary occlusion cannot explain the occurrence of large contiguous areas of retinal ischemia. Therefore occlusion of an individual capillary must increase the probability of occlusion of surrounding capillaries. A retinal perifoveal vascular sector as well as a peripheral retinal capillary network and a deleted hexagonal capillary network are modelled using Compucell3D. The perifoveal modelling produces a pattern of spreading capillary loss with associated macular edema. In the peripheral network, spreading ischemia results from the progressive loss of the ladder capillaries which connect peripheral arterioles and venules. System blood flow was elevated in the macular model before a later reduction in flow in cases with progression of capillary occlusions. Simulations differing only in initial vascular network structures but with identical dynamics for oxygen, growth factors and vascular occlusions, replicate key clinical observations of ischemia and macular edema in the posterior pole and ischemia in the retinal periphery. The simulation results also seem consistent with quantitative data on macular blood flow and qualitative data on venous oxygenation. One computational model applied to distinct capillary networks in different retinal regions yielded results comparable to clinical observations in those regions.

  13. A survey of occlusion detection method for visual object

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张世辉

    2016-01-01

    Occlusion problem is one of the challenging issues in vision field for a long time , and the occlu-sion phenomenon of visual object will be involved in many vision research fields .Once the occlusion occurs in a visual system , it will affect the effects of object recognition , tracking, observation and operation , so detecting occlusion autonomously should be one of the abilities for an intelligent vision system .The research on occlusion detection method for visual object has increasingly attracted atten-tions of scholars .First, the definition and classification of the occlusion problem are presented . Then, the characteristics and deficiencies of the occlusion detection methods based on the intensity image and the depth image are analyzed respectively , and the existing occlusion detection methods are compared.Finally, the problems of existing occlusion detection methods and possible research directions are pointed out .

  14. Analysis of the Caudal Vortices Evolvement around Flapping Foil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zhi-dong; Zhang Xiao-qing; Su Yu-min; Xu Yu-ru

    2005-01-01

    The viscous flow field around two-dimensional flapping (heaving and pitching) foils was numerically computed. The structural characteristics of caudal vortices were investigated and the contour curves at different phase angles were obtained.The relationships between the structural characteristics of the vortices and the force acting on the foil and between the widths of the caudal vortex street and of the caudal flow field were analyzed. A method to determine the shedding frequency of the vortices was proposed.

  15. Material Properties of Laser-Welded Thin Silicon Foils

    OpenAIRE

    Brabec, C.J.; Auer, R.; A. Bochmann; Christiansen, S.; Schmidt, M.; K. Cvecek; Voigt, M.; Hessmann, M. T.; Kunz, T.

    2013-01-01

    An extended monocrystalline silicon base foil offers a great opportunity to combine low-cost production with high efficiency silicon solar cells on a large scale. By overcoming the area restriction of ingot-based monocrystalline silicon wafer production, costs could be decreased to thin film solar cell range. The extended monocrystalline silicon base foil consists of several individual thin silicon wafers which are welded together. A comparison of three different approaches to weld 50 μm thin...

  16. Practical and research aspects of beam-foil spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of a heavy-ion accelerator to research in beam-foil spectroscopy requires certain capital equipment which is somewhat unorthodox when viewed from the standpoint of conventional, low-energy nuclear physics. It is necessary that people who wish to expand their accelerator work to include beam-foil studies understand the nature and cost of such major apparatus. We will survey the equipment needs, starting with the particle analyzer at the output of the accelerator and including the equipment used in a variety of beam-foil experiments. Electronic and computer devices will not be discussed since they are essentially identical with those employed in nuclear studies. Considerable attention will be given to optical spectrometers and spectographs including simple instruments which might be used by a laboratory just getting started in beam-foil research, or which has limited financial resources. Attention will be given to the production and use of the exciter foils. We will then discuss some typical beam-foil experiments having to do with the excitation, detection, and analysis of spectral lines from electronic levels in multiply-ionized atoms, and also with the measurement of the mean lives of such levels. Finally, we will review some of the special properties of the beam-foil light source as regards the population of the magnetic sub-states of a given level. Recent work on the character of the emitted light will be presented. That work will deal specifically with the origin of the polarization of the light. The relevant experiments involve varying the angle between the plane of the exciter foil and the particle velocity. (author)

  17. Carbon-Fiber/Epoxy Tube Lined With Aluminum Foil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernet, Nelson J.; Kerr, Gregory K.

    1995-01-01

    Carbon-fiber/epoxy composite tube lined with welded aluminum foil useful as part of lightweight heat pipe in which working fluid ammonia. Aluminum liner provides impermeability for vacuum seal, to contain ammonia in heat pipe, and to prevent flow of noncondensable gases into heat pipe. Similar composite-material tubes lined with foils also incorporated into radiators, single- and two-phase thermal buses, tanks for storage of cryogenic materials, and other plumbing required to be lightweight.

  18. Research and Development of Commercially Manufactured Large GEM Foils

    CERN Document Server

    Posik, M

    2014-01-01

    The recently completed Forward GEM Tracker (FGT) of the STAR experiment at RHIC took advantage of commercially produced GEM foils based on double-mask chemical etching techniques. With future experiments proposing detectors that utilize very large-area GEM foils, there is a need for commercially available GEM foils. Double-mask etching techniques pose a clear limitation in the maximum size. In contrast, single-mask techniques developed at CERN would allow one to overcome those limitations. We report on results obtained using 10 $\\times$ 10 cm$^2$ and 40$\\times$40 cm$^2$ GEM foils produced by Tech-Etch Inc. of Plymouth, MA, USA using single-mask techniques and thus the beginning for large GEM foil production on a commercial basis. A quality assurance procedure has been established through electrical and optical analyses via leakage current measurements and an automated high-resolution CCD scanner. The Tech-Etch foils show excellent electrical properties with leakage currents typically measured below 1 nA. The ...

  19. Propulsion of a flexible foil in a fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatraman, Kartik; Chaithanya, Ravi

    2008-11-01

    The dynamic properties such as time dependent pressure loading, free stream velocity, and local acceleration of the hydrofoil determine the instantaneous deformation of a flexible foil. The present work is concerned with the effect of structural dynamic terms and inertia loads on a flexible foil undergoing large amplitude rigid body harmonic wave-like motion in an unsteady potential flow. The hydrofoil structural dynamics is modeled as an Euler-Bernoulli beam finite element. The unsteady fluid dynamic force is evaluated using a numerical discrete vortex implementation of an unsteady incompressible potential flow model. The hydrofoil is fixed at its leading edge and it moves with velocity parallel to its length in the undeformed state. The propulsion of the hydro-elastic system is studied in terms of the mass ratio of the foil and the fluid, as well as its structural flexibility. It is shown that the thrust coefficient and propulsive efficiency of the flexible foil decreases with increase in structural flexibility. We made a comparison of the effect of structural flexibility on the thrust coefficient and propulsive efficiency considering models of the oscillating foil with inertia and without inertia effects present. Detailed parametric studies of the effect of different parameters on propulsion of the foil were made. Including inertia loads and structural dynamic terms significantly affect the propulsive efficiency and thrust coefficient.

  20. Globally shed wakes for three distinct retracting foil geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Stephanie; Triantafyllou, Michael

    2015-11-01

    In quickly retracting foils at an angle of attack, the boundary layer vorticity along with the added mass energy is immediately and globally shed from the body into the surrounding fluid. The deposited vorticity quickly reforms into lasting vortex structures, which could be used for purposes such as manipulating or exploiting the produced flow structures by additional bodies in the fluid. The globally shed wake thus entrains the added mass energy provided by the initially moving body, reflected by the value of the circulation left in the wake. In studying experimentally as well as numerically this phenomenon, we find that the three different tested geometries leave behind distinct wakes. Retracting a square-ended foil is undesirable because the deposited wake is complicated by three-dimensional ring vorticity effects. Retracting a tapered, streamlined-tipped foil is also undesirable because the shape-changing aspect of the foil geometry actually induces energy recovery back to the retracting foil, leaving a less energetic globally shed wake. Finally, a retracting hollow foil geometry avoids both of these detrimental effects, leaving relatively simple, yet energetic, vortex structures in the wake.

  1. Aluminum clad ferritic stainless steel foil for metallic catalytic converter substrate applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, C.S.; Pandey, A.; Jha, B.

    1996-09-01

    A roll bonding process was developed to produce Al clad ferritic stainless steel foil for the metallic catalytic converter substrate application. Clad foils with different chemistry were produced and their properties were evaluated. Heat treatment conditions for the homogenization of clad foils were identified. This article includes results from oxidation tests and mechanical tests on as-rolled and heat treated clad foil. Results from commercial ingot metallurgy foil were also included for comparison. The oxidation weight gain study indicates that the Al content in the foils is directly related to the usable life of the foil. However, rare earth addition is necessary to improve the oxidation resistance of this material for the high temperature applications by slowing down the weight gain kinetics and thus extend the usable life of foils. The heat treated clad foil also exhibit excellent tensile ductility when compared to the ingot metallurgy foil.

  2. Posterior circulation revascularization to manage vertebrobasilar occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHANG Yan-guo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective To discuss the technique and effect of posterior circulation revascularization to manage vertebrobasilar occlusion. Methods Nine patients with vertebrobasilar occlusion were treated by using occipital artery-posterior inferior cerebellar artery bypass, superficial temporal artery-superior cerebellar artery bypass, superficial temporal artery-posterior cerebral artery bypass and occipital artery-vertebral artery bypass with radial artery graft. Results Intraoperative indocyanine green angiography showed all the bypass arteries were patent. Postoperative DSA or CTA showed bypass arteries patent in 8 patients, among whom seven patients got obvious improvement on MR or CT perfusion. One patient died of heart failure on the 15th day postoperative. During the follow-up of eight patients, no stroke reoccurred, four patients got back to nearly normal life. Conclusion Most of the patients with vertebrobasilar occlusion could benefit from the posterior circulation revascularization, which should be confirmed by randomized controlled clinical trials in the future.

  3. Common Carotid Artery Occlusion: A Case Series

    OpenAIRE

    Zoltán Bajkó; Rodica Bălaşa; Anca Moţăţăianu; Smaranda Maier; Octavia Claudia Chebuţ; Szabolcs Szatmári

    2013-01-01

    Subjects and Methods. We analysed 5000 cerebrovascular ultrasound records. A total of 0.4% of the patients had common carotid artery occlusion (CCAO). Results. The mean age was 59.8 ± 14.2 years, and the male/female ratio was 2.33. The most frequent risk factors were hypertension, ischaemic heart disease, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, and smoking. Right-sided and left-sided CCAO occurred in 65% and 30% of the cases, respectively, and bilateral occlusion was detected in one case (5%). Paten...

  4. Metabolic syndrome and central retinal artery occlusion

    OpenAIRE

    Kosanović-Jaković Natalija; Petrović Lidija; Risimić Dijana; Milenković Svetislav; Matić Danica

    2005-01-01

    Background. The accumulation of risk factors for central retinal artery occlusion can be seen in a single person and might be explained by the metabolic syndrome. Case report. We presented the case of a 52-year-old man with no light perception in his right eye. The visual loss was monocular and painless, fundoscopy showed central retinal artery occlusion and the laboratory investigation showed the raised erythrocyte sedimentation rate of 105 mm/h and the raised C-reactive protein of 22 mg/l. ...

  5. Performance of Simple Gas Foil Thrust Bearings in Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckner, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Foil bearings are self-acting hydrodynamics devices used to support high speed rotating machinery. The advantages that they offer to process fluid lubricated machines include: high rotational speed capability, no auxiliary lubrication system, non-contacting high speed operation, and improved damping as compared to rigid hydrodynamic bearings. NASA has had a sporadic research program in this technology for almost 6 decades. Advances in the technology and understanding of foil journal bearings have enabled several new commercial products in recent years. These products include oil-free turbochargers for both heavy trucks and automobiles, high speed electric motors, microturbines for distributed power generation, and turbojet engines. However, the foil thrust bearing has not received a complimentary level of research and therefore has become the weak link of oil-free turbomachinery. In an effort to both provide machine designers with basic performance parameters and to elucidate the underlying physics of foil thrust bearings, NASA Glenn Research Center has completed an effort to experimentally measure the performance of simple gas foil thrust bearing in air. The database includes simple bump foil supported thrust bearings with full geometry and manufacturing techniques available to the user. Test conditions consist of air at ambient pressure and temperatures up to 500 C and rotational speeds to 55,000 rpm. A complete set of axial load, frictional torque, and rotational speed is presented for two different compliant sub-structures and inter-pad gaps. Data obtained from commercially available foil thrust bearings both with and without active cooling is presented for comparison. A significant observation made possible by this data set is the speed-load capacity characteristic of foil thrust bearings. Whereas for the foil journal bearing the load capacity increases linearly with rotational speed, the foil thrust bearing operates in the hydrodynamic high speed limit. In

  6. A Microfabricated Involute-Foil Regenerator for Stirling Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tew, Roy; Ibrahim, Mounir; Danila, Daniel; Simon, Terrence; Mantell, Susan; Sun, Liyong; Gedeon, David; Kelly, Kevin; McLean, Jeffrey; Qiu, Songgang

    2007-01-01

    A segmented involute-foil regenerator has been designed, microfabricated and tested in an oscillating-flow rig with excellent results. During the Phase I effort, several approximations of parallel-plate regenerator geometry were chosen as potential candidates for a new microfabrication concept. Potential manufacturers and processes were surveyed. The selected concept consisted of stacked segmented-involute-foil disks (or annular portions of disks), originally to be microfabricated from stainless-steel via the LiGA (lithography, electroplating, and molding) process and EDM. During Phase II, re-planning of the effort led to test plans based on nickel disks, microfabricated via the LiGA process, only. A stack of nickel segmented-involute-foil disks was tested in an oscillating-flow test rig. These test results yielded a performance figure of merit (roughly the ratio of heat transfer to pressure drop) of about twice that of the 90 percent random fiber currently used in small approx.100 W Stirling space-power convertors-in the Reynolds Number range of interest (50 to 100). A Phase III effort is now underway to fabricate and test a segmented-involute-foil regenerator in a Stirling convertor. Though funding limitations prevent optimization of the Stirling engine geometry for use with this regenerator, the Sage computer code will be used to help evaluate the engine test results. Previous Sage Stirling model projections have indicated that a segmented-involute-foil regenerator is capable of improving the performance of an optimized involute-foil engine by 6 to 9 percent; it is also anticipated that such involute-foil geometries will be more reliable and easier to manufacture with tight-tolerance characteristics, than random-fiber or wire-screen regenerators. Beyond the near-term Phase III regenerator fabrication and engine testing, other goals are (1) fabrication from a material suitable for high temperature Stirling operation (up to 850 C for current engines; up to 1200 C

  7. Occlusal Caries: Biological Approach for Its Diagnosis and Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christina Carvalho, Joana; Dige, Irene; Machiulskiene, Vita;

    2016-01-01

    process on occlusal surfaces. In addition, it considers the whole spectrum of the caries process on occlusal surfaces, ranging from the molecular ecology of occlusal biofilms to the management of deep occlusal caries lesions. Studies using molecular methods with focus on biofilms in relation to occlusal...... caries should explore the relationship between the function and the structural composition of these biofilms to understand the role of occlusal biofilms in caries development. State-of-the-art measures to evaluate risk for occlusal caries lesion activity, caries incidence, and progression should include...... the assessment of the occlusal biofilm and the stage of tooth eruption. Careful clinical examination of non-cavitated lesions, including assessment of the lesion activity status, remains the major tool to determine the immediate treatment need and to follow on the non-operative treatment outcome. Even medium...

  8. Genetics Home Reference: pulmonary veno-occlusive disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions pulmonary veno-occlusive disease pulmonary veno-occlusive disease Enable Javascript to view the ... Disease Control and Prevention: Pulmonary Hypertension Fact Sheet Disease InfoSearch: Pulmonary venoocclusive ... pulmonary venoocclusive disease Orphanet: Pulmonary ...

  9. Virtual occlusion in planning orthognathic surgical procedures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nadjmi, N.; Mollemans, W.; Daelemans, A.; Hemelen, G. Van; Schutyser, F.A.C.; Berge, S.J.

    2010-01-01

    Accurate preoperative planning is mandatory for orthognathic surgery. One of the most important aims of this planning process is obtaining good postoperative dental occlusion. Recently, 3D image-based planning systems have been introduced that enable a surgeon to define different osteotomy planes pr

  10. Virtual occlusal definition for orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X J; Li, Q Q; Zhang, Z; Li, T T; Xie, Z; Zhang, Y

    2016-03-01

    Computer-assisted surgical simulation is being used increasingly in orthognathic surgery. However, occlusal definition is still undertaken using model surgery with subsequent digitization via surface scanning or cone beam computed tomography. A software tool has been developed and a workflow set up in order to achieve a virtual occlusal definition. The results of a validation study carried out on 60 models of normal occlusion are presented. Inter- and intra-user correlation tests were used to investigate the reproducibility of the manual setting point procedure. The errors between the virtually set positions (test) and the digitized manually set positions (gold standard) were compared. The consistency in virtual set positions performed by three individual users was investigated by one way analysis of variance test. Inter- and intra-observer correlation coefficients for manual setting points were all greater than 0.95. Overall, the median error between the test and the gold standard positions was 1.06mm. Errors did not differ among teeth (F=0.371, P>0.05). The errors were not significantly different from 1mm (P>0.05). There were no significant differences in the errors made by the three independent users (P>0.05). In conclusion, this workflow for virtual occlusal definition was found to be reliable and accurate.

  11. Crossing Total Occlusions: Navigating Towards Recanalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Sakes (Aimée); E.S. Regar (Eveline); J. Dankelman (Jenny); P. Breedveld (Paul)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractChronic total occlusions (CTOs) represent the “last frontier” of percutaneous interventions. The main technical challenges lies in crossing the guidewire into the distal true lumen, which is primarily due to three problems: device buckling during initial puncture, inadequate visualizatio

  12. Crossing Total Occlusions: Navigating Towards Recanalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sakes, A.; Regar, E.; Dankelman, J; Breedveld, P.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic total occlusions (CTOs) represent the “last frontier” of percutaneous interventions. The main technical challenges lies in crossing the guidewire into the distal true lumen, which is primarily due to three problems: device buckling during initial puncture, inadequate visualization, and the i

  13. Cilioretinal artery occlusion following intranasal cocaine insufflations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaji Kannan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cocaine is used to produce a euphoric effect by abusers, who may be unaware of the devastating systemic and ocular side effects of this drug. We describe the first known case of cilioretinal artery occlusion after intranasal cocaine abuse.

  14. Class II malocclusion occlusal severity description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Janson

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: It is well known that the efficacy and the efficiency of a Class II malocclusion treatment are aspects closely related to the severity of the dental anteroposterior discrepancy. Even though, sample selection based on cephalometric variables without considering the severity of the occlusal anteroposterior discrepancy is still common in current papers. In some of them, when occlusal parameters are chosen, the severity is often neglected. The purpose of this study is to verify the importance given to the classification of Class II malocclusion, based on the criteria used for sample selection in a great number of papers published in the orthodontic journal with the highest impact factor. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A search was performed in PubMed database for full-text research papers referencing Class II malocclusion in the history of the American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (AJO-DO. RESULTS: A total of 359 papers were retrieved, among which only 72 (20.06% papers described the occlusal severity of the Class II malocclusion sample. In the other 287 (79.94% papers that did not specify the anteroposterior discrepancy severity, description was considered to be crucial in 159 (55.40% of them. CONCLUSIONS: Omission in describing the occlusal severity demands a cautious interpretation of 44.29% of the papers retrieved in this study.

  15. Clinical Practice Guidelines for intestinal occlusion.

    OpenAIRE

    Rudis Miguel Monzón Rodríguez; Carlos Jaime Geroy Gómez; Francisco García Valdéz; Jorge Luis Ulloa Capestany; Maribel Misas Menéndez

    2009-01-01

    Clinical Practice Guidelines for intestinal occlusion. This document includes the main aspects related with classification, physiopathology, clinical diagnosis, complementary examinations and therapy aimed at the post-operatory treatment. It includes assessment guidelines focused on the most important aspects to be accomplished.

  16. Virtual occlusal definition for orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X J; Li, Q Q; Zhang, Z; Li, T T; Xie, Z; Zhang, Y

    2016-03-01

    Computer-assisted surgical simulation is being used increasingly in orthognathic surgery. However, occlusal definition is still undertaken using model surgery with subsequent digitization via surface scanning or cone beam computed tomography. A software tool has been developed and a workflow set up in order to achieve a virtual occlusal definition. The results of a validation study carried out on 60 models of normal occlusion are presented. Inter- and intra-user correlation tests were used to investigate the reproducibility of the manual setting point procedure. The errors between the virtually set positions (test) and the digitized manually set positions (gold standard) were compared. The consistency in virtual set positions performed by three individual users was investigated by one way analysis of variance test. Inter- and intra-observer correlation coefficients for manual setting points were all greater than 0.95. Overall, the median error between the test and the gold standard positions was 1.06mm. Errors did not differ among teeth (F=0.371, P>0.05). The errors were not significantly different from 1mm (P>0.05). There were no significant differences in the errors made by the three independent users (P>0.05). In conclusion, this workflow for virtual occlusal definition was found to be reliable and accurate. PMID:26701322

  17. Different Occlusal Schemes in a Persistent Protruding Complete Denture Wearer

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Mayumi Iegami; Danilo de Melo Lopes; Atlas Edson Moleros Nakamae; Priscila Nakasone Uehara; Regina Tamaki

    2016-01-01

    Different types of artificial teeth and occlusal designs can be used in complete dentures. Bilateral balanced occlusion, lingualized occlusion, canine guidance, and monoplane are the main occlusal designs; however there is no agreement on which tooth arrangement is ideal for achieving success in complete dentures. This report presents an alternative for persistent involuntary protruding complete denture wearers through the use of artificial teeth with higher cusps. Due to an old and worn pair...

  18. Longitudinal occlusal changes from primary to permanent dentition in children with normal primary occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legovic, M; Mady, L

    1999-06-01

    This purpose of this research was to examine the stability of normal occlusion during the transition from primary to permanent dentition. The sample consisted of 128 children (83 boys and 45 girls) 4.5 to 5.5 years old with normal occlusion in the primary dentition. The subjects were reexamined at 12.5 to 13.5 years. None had received orthodontic treatment. Although all the subjects had normal occlusion in the primary dentition, 72.7% (73.5% boys and 71.1% girls) had developed anomalies following eruption of the permanent teeth. These anomalies included crowding, Class II Division 1 or Class II Division 2 malocclusion, mesial occlusion complex, lateral crossbite, anterior crossbite, premature tooth loss, openbite or other anomalies.

  19. Dosimetric response of united, commercially available CTA foils for sup 6 sup 0 Co gamma rays

    CERN Document Server

    Peimel-Stuglik, Z

    2001-01-01

    The usefulness of two kinds of untinted CTA foils: Fuji CTR-125 dosimetric foil and technical CTA-T foil, produced by 'Zaklady Chemiczne, 'Gorzow Wielkopolski' as support for light-sensitive layers of amateur photo-films, for sup 6 sup 0 Co gamma ray dosimetry was investigated. In spite of rather bad physical parameters of the technical foil (spread of foil thickness, high and different initial absorbance) the dosimetric response of both foils for sup 6 sup 0 Co gamma rays was similar. The CTA-T foil can be used for routine dosimetry providing that dosimetric signals have to be calculated exactly as recommended by the ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) standard, i.e. as the difference of absorbance of irradiated and (the same) non-irradiated foil. Any other approach may lead to high errors of dose evaluation. The last is true also for other CTA foils, especially after long self-life.

  20. Dosimetric response of united, commercially available CTA foils for 60Co gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The usefulness of two kinds of untinted CTA foils: Fuji CTR-125 dosimetric foil and technical CTA-T foil, produced by 'Zaklady Chemiczne, 'Gorzow Wielkopolski' as support for light-sensitive layers of amateur photo-films, for 60Co gamma ray dosimetry was investigated. In spite of rather bad physical parameters of the technical foil (spread of foil thickness, high and different initial absorbance) the dosimetric response of both foils for 60Co gamma rays was similar. The CTA-T foil can be used for routine dosimetry providing that dosimetric signals have to be calculated exactly as recommended by the ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) standard, i.e. as the difference of absorbance of irradiated and (the same) non-irradiated foil. Any other approach may lead to high errors of dose evaluation. The last is true also for other CTA foils, especially after long self-life. (author)

  1. Development of Tracking Detectors with industrially produced GEM Foils

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, F; Becker, U; Burns, L; Crary, D; Kearney, K; Keeler, G; Majka, R; Paton, K; Saini, G; Smirnov, N; Surrow, B; Woody, C

    2007-01-01

    The planned tracking upgrade of the STAR experiment at RHIC includes a large-area GEM tracker used to determine the charge sign of electrons and positrons produced from W+(-) decays. For such a large-scale project commercial availability of GEM foils is necessary. We report first results obtained with a triple GEM detector using GEM foils produced by Tech-Etch Inc. of Plymouth, MA, USA. Measurements of gain uniformity, long-term stability as well as measurements of the energy resolution for X-Rays are compared to results obtained with an identical detector using GEM foils produced at CERN. A quality assurance procedure based on optical tests using an automated high-resolution scanner has been established, allowing a study of the correlation of the observed behavior of the detector and the geometrical properties of the GEM foils. Detectors based on Tech-Etch and CERN produced foils both show good uniformity of the gain over the active area and stable gain after an initial charge-up period, making them well sui...

  2. Misalignment in Gas Foil Journal Bearings: An Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Samuel A.

    2008-01-01

    As gas foil journal bearings become more prevalent in production machines, such as small gas turbine propulsion systems and microturbines, system-level performance issues must be identified and quantified in order to provide for successful design practices. Several examples of system-level design parameters that are not fully understood in foil bearing systems are thermal management schemes, alignment requirements, balance requirements, thrust load balancing, and others. In order to address some of these deficiencies and begin to develop guidelines, this paper presents a preliminary experimental investigation of the misalignment tolerance of gas foil journal bearing systems. Using a notional gas foil bearing supported rotor and a laser-based shaft alignment system, increasing levels of misalignment are imparted to the bearing supports while monitoring temperature at the bearing edges. The amount of misalignment that induces bearing failure is identified and compared to other conventional bearing types such as cylindrical roller bearings and angular contact ball bearings. Additionally, the dynamic response of the rotor indicates that the gas foil bearing force coefficients may be affected by misalignment.

  3. Design and optimization of vertex detector foils by superplastic forming

    CERN Document Server

    Snippe, Quirin Hendrik Catherin; Meinders, V T

    2011-01-01

    The production of one of the parts in a particle detector, called the RF Foil, has been a very intensive process in the past. The design and production process, which had a trial and error character, led eventually to an RF Foil that met the most important requirement: a sufficient leak tightness value. Since these kinds of foils have to be produced in the future, it is desirable to shorten the development stage with a view to cost reduction. This research project investigates how this part can be optimized with respect to the radiation length. An important limiting factor within this optimization process is the leak tightness of the foil. The intended production method this research will investigate is superplastic forming (SPF). On the one hand, the goal is to use finite element calculations to predict the forming behavior. The leak tightness of the formed foil must also be predicted within these calculations. On the other hand, an optimization strategy is necessary to reduce the radiation length of the RF ...

  4. Foil dissociation of fast molecular ions into atomic excited states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The intensity and polarizations of light emitted from atomic excited states of dissociated molecular ions were measured. The dissociations are induced when fast molecular ions (50 to 500 keV/amu) are transmitted through thin carbon foils. A calculation of multiple scattering and the Coulomb explosion gives the average internuclear separation of the projectile at the foil surface. Experimentally, the foil thickness is varied to give varying internuclear separations at the foil surface and observe the consequent variation in light yield and optical polarization. Using HeH+ projectiles, factors of 1 to 5 enhancements of the light yields from n = 3, 13P,D states of He I and some He II and H I emissions were observed. The results can be explained in terms of molecular level crossings which provide mixings of the various final states during dissociation of the molecular ions at the exit surface. They suggest a short range surface interaction of the electron pick-up followed by a slow molecular dissociation. Alignment measurements confirm the essential features of the model. Observations of Lyman α emission after dissociation of H2+ amd H3+ show rapid variations in light yield for small internuclear separations at the foil surface

  5. Gas Foil Bearings for Space Propulsion Nuclear Electric Power Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Samuel A.; DellaCorte, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    The choice of power conversion technology is critical in directing the design of a space vehicle for the future NASA mission to Mars. One candidate design consists of a foil bearing supported turbo alternator driven by a helium-xenon gas mixture heated by a nuclear reactor. The system is a closed-loop, meaning there is a constant volume of process fluid that is sealed from the environment. Therefore, foil bearings are proposed due to their ability to use the process gas as a lubricant. As such, the rotor dynamics of a foil bearing supported rotor is an important factor in the eventual design. The current work describes a rotor dynamic analysis to assess the viability of such a system. A brief technology background, assumptions, analyses, and conclusions are discussed in this report. The results indicate that a foil bearing supported turbo alternator is possible, although more work will be needed to gain knowledge about foil bearing behavior in helium-xenon gas.

  6. An Experimental Study on Micro Clinching of Metal Foils with Cutting by Laser Shock Forming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Wang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a novel technique for joining similar and dissimilar metal foils, namely micro clinching with cutting by laser shock forming. A series of experiments were conducted to study the deformation behavior of single layer material, during which many important process parameters were determined. The process window of the 1060 pure aluminum foils and annealed copper foils produced by micro clinching with cutting was analyzed. Moreover, similar material combination (annealed copper foils and dissimilar material combination (1060 pure aluminum foils and 304 stainless steel foils were successfully achieved. The effect of laser energy on the interlock and minimum thickness of upper foils was investigated. In addition, the mechanical strength of different material combinations joined by micro clinching with cutting was measured in single lap shearing tests. According to the achieved results, this novel technique is more suitable for material combinations where the upper foil is thicker than lower foil. With the increase of laser energy, the interlock increased while the minimum thickness of upper foil decreased gradually. The shear strength of 1060 pure aluminum foils and 304 stainless steel foils combination was three times as large as that of 1060 pure aluminum foils and annealed copper foils combination.

  7. Flapping Instability of Two Tandem Flexible Foils in Uniform Axial Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurugubelli, Pardha Saradhi; Jaiman, Rajeev Kumar; Chua, Cassey

    2015-11-01

    We present a numerical analysis on the stability and coupled dynamics of two tandem flexible foils clamped at their leading edges in a uniform axial flow. The flexible foils considered for this study correspond to the fixed-point stable regime of the single flexible foil where the flexible foil aligns itself in the flow direction with no significant trailing edge oscillations. A high-order nonlinear coupled solver based on the variational formulation has been considered for analyzing the effects of gap between the foils on the stability and coupled behaviour of both the upstream and downstream foils. As a function of decreasing gap, it is observed that the tandem foil configuration is more prone to flapping instability than its single flexible foil counterpart. The evolution of the instability for the downstream foil shows two distinct dynamical scenarios: (i) only the downstream foil exhibits flapping motion and (ii) both the upstream and the downstream foils perform flapping. With the aid of a rigid foil in the upstream of a flexible foil, we further present a detailed analysis on the effects of the upstream wake and vortex shedding on the stability and flapping dynamics of the downstream foil.

  8. Nanowire LEDs grown directly on flexible metal foil

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Brelon J.; Sarwar, A. T. M. Golam; Myers, Roberto C.

    2016-04-01

    Using molecular beam epitaxy, self-assembled AlGaN nanowires are grown directly on Ta and Ti foils. Scanning electron microscopy shows that the nanowires are locally textured with the underlying metallic grains. Photoluminescence spectra of GaN nanowires grown on metal foils are comparable to GaN nanowires grown on single crystal Si wafers. Similarly, photoluminescence lifetimes do not vary significantly between these samples. Operational AlGaN light emitting diodes are grown directly on flexible Ta foil with an electroluminescence peak emission of ˜350 nm and a turn-on voltage of ˜5 V. These results pave the way for roll-to-roll manufacturing of solid state optoelectronics.

  9. Highly sensitive urea sensing with ion-irradiated polymer foils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, Dietmar, E-mail: fink@daad-alumni.de [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, P.O. Box 55-534, 09340 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Nuclear Physics Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Munoz Hernandez, Gerardo [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, P.O. Box 55-534, 09340 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Division de Ciencias Naturales e Ingenieria, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Cuajimalpa, Pedro Antonio de los Santos 84, Col. Sn. Miguel Chapultepec, C.P. 11850, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Alfonta, Lital, E-mail: alfontal@bgu.ac.il [Avram and Stella Goldstein-Goren Department of Biotechnology Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2012-02-15

    Recently we prepared urea-sensors by attaching urease to the inner walls of etched ion tracks within thin polymer foil. Here, alternative track-based sensor configurations are examined where the enzyme remained in solution. The conductivities of systems consisting of two parallel irradiated polymer foils and confining different urea/urease mixtures in between were examined. The correlations between conductivity and urea concentration differed strongly for foils with unetched and etched tracks, which points at different sensing mechanisms - tentatively attributed to the adsorption of enzymatic reaction products on the latent track entrances and to the enhanced conductivity of reaction product-filled etched tracks, respectively. All examined systems enable in principle, urea sensing. They point at the possibility of sensor cascade construction for more sensitive or selective sensor systems.

  10. Beam losses due to the foil scattering for CSNS/RCS

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Ming-Yang; Wang, Sheng; Xu, Shou-Yan

    2012-01-01

    For the Rapid Cycling Synchrotron of China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS/RCS), the stripping foil scattering generates the beam halo and gives rise to additional beam losses during the injection process. The interaction between the proton beam and the stripping foil was discussed and the foil scattering was studied. A simple model and the realistic situation of the foil scattering were considered. By using the codes ORBIT and FLUKA, the multi-turn phase space painting injection process with the stripping foil scattering for CSNS/RCS was simulated and the beam losses due to the foil scattering were obtained.

  11. Occlusion Handling in Videos Object Tracking: A Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, B. Y.; Liew, L. H.; Cheah, W. S.; Wang, Y. C.

    2014-02-01

    Object tracking in video has been an active research since for decades. This interest is motivated by numerous applications, such as surveillance, human-computer interaction, and sports event monitoring. Many challenges related to tracking objects still remain, this can arise due to abrupt object motion, changing appearance patterns of objects and the scene, non-rigid object structures and most significant are occlusion of tracked object be it object-to-object or object-to-scene occlusions. Generally, occlusion in object tracking occur under three situations: self-occlusion, inter-object occlusion by background scene structure. Self-occlusion occurs most frequently while tracking articulated objects when one part of the object occludes another. Inter-object occlusion occurs when two objects being tracked occlude each other whereas occlusion by the background occurs when a structure in the background occludes the tracked objects. Typically, tracking methods handle occlusion by modelling the object motion using linear and non-linear dynamic models. The derived models will be used to continuously predicting the object location when a tracked object is occluded until the object reappears. Example of these method are Kalman filtering and Particle filtering trackers. Researchers have also utilised other features to resolved occlusion, for example, silhouette projections, colour histogram and optical flow. We will present some result from a previously conducted experiment when tracking single object using Kalman filter, Particle filter and Mean Shift trackers under various occlusion situation in this paper. We will also review various other occlusion handling methods that involved using multiple cameras. In a nutshell, the goal of this paper is to discuss in detail the problem of occlusion in object tracking and review the state of the art occlusion handling methods, classify them into different categories, and identify new trends. Moreover, we discuss the important

  12. Occlusion Handling in Videos Object Tracking: A Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Object tracking in video has been an active research since for decades. This interest is motivated by numerous applications, such as surveillance, human-computer interaction, and sports event monitoring. Many challenges related to tracking objects still remain, this can arise due to abrupt object motion, changing appearance patterns of objects and the scene, non-rigid object structures and most significant are occlusion of tracked object be it object-to-object or object-to-scene occlusions. Generally, occlusion in object tracking occur under three situations: self-occlusion, inter-object occlusion by background scene structure. Self-occlusion occurs most frequently while tracking articulated objects when one part of the object occludes another. Inter-object occlusion occurs when two objects being tracked occlude each other whereas occlusion by the background occurs when a structure in the background occludes the tracked objects. Typically, tracking methods handle occlusion by modelling the object motion using linear and non-linear dynamic models. The derived models will be used to continuously predicting the object location when a tracked object is occluded until the object reappears. Example of these method are Kalman filtering and Particle filtering trackers. Researchers have also utilised other features to resolved occlusion, for example, silhouette projections, colour histogram and optical flow. We will present some result from a previously conducted experiment when tracking single object using Kalman filter, Particle filter and Mean Shift trackers under various occlusion situation in this paper. We will also review various other occlusion handling methods that involved using multiple cameras. In a nutshell, the goal of this paper is to discuss in detail the problem of occlusion in object tracking and review the state of the art occlusion handling methods, classify them into different categories, and identify new trends. Moreover, we discuss the important

  13. Fabrication of antiferroelectric PLZT films on metal foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrication of high-dielectric-strength antiferroelectric (AFE) films on metallic foils is technically important for advanced power electronics. To that end, we have deposited crack-free Pb0.92La0.08Zr0.95Ti0.05O3 (PLZT 8/95/5) films on nickel foils by chemical solution deposition. To eliminate the parasitic effect caused by the formation of a low-permittivity interfacial oxide, a conductive buffer layer of lanthanum nickel oxide (LNO) was coated by chemical solution deposition on the nickel foil before the deposition of PLZT. Use of the LNO buffer allowed high-quality film-on-foil capacitors to be processed in air. With the PLZT 8/95/5 deposited on LNO-buffered Ni foils, we observed field- and thermal-induced phase transformations of AFE to ferroelectric (FE). The AFE-to-FE phase transition field, EAF = 225 kV/cm, and the reverse phase transition field, EFA = 190 kV/cm, were measured at room temperature on a ∼1.15 μm-thick PLZT 8/95/5 film grown on LNO-buffered Ni foils. The relative permittivities of the AFE and FE states were ∼600 and ∼730, respectively, with dielectric loss ∼0.04 at room temperature. The Curie temperature was ∼210 deg. C. The thermal-induced transition of AFE-to-FE phase occurred at ∼175 deg. C. Breakdown field strength of 1.2 MV/cm was measured at room temperature

  14. Dental Occlusion Influences the Standing Balance on an Unstable Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julià-Sánchez, Sonia; Álvarez-Herms, Jesús; Gatterer, Hannes; Burtscher, Martin; Pagès, Teresa; Viscor, Ginés

    2015-10-01

    Contradictory results are still reported on the influence of dental occlusion on the balance control. We attempted to determine whether there are differences in balance between opposed dental occlusion (Intercuspal position (ICP)/"Cotton rolls" mandibular position [CR]) for two extreme levels of stability (stable/ unstable). Twenty-five subjects were monitored under both dental occlusion and level of stability conditions using an unstable platform Balance System SD. The resulting stability index suggests that body balance is significantly better when dental occlusion is set in CR (p crowding (p = .006), midline deviation (p dental occlusion for the balance control comes strongly into effect in unstable conditions. PMID:25674772

  15. Prediction of forming limit strains of thin foils using shim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Sanket Vivek; Bade, Rohit A.; Narasimhan, K.

    2013-12-01

    Thin foils of metallic alloys find utility in metallic thermal protection systems, such as honeycomb structures. Understanding the formability of these thin foils becomes imperative so as to design accurate tooling and also to ensure mechanical robustness of the honeycomb structures during service. It has been found that, obtaining the precise limit strains of these foils directly using the conventional limiting dome test tooling is difficult, because of the excessive draw in and wrinkling that occurs during the punch travel, resulting in erroneous measurement or prediction of limit strains. To address this issue, the blank over blank stacking methodology was developed, which helped keep the draw-in and wrinkling at negligible and thus acceptable levels. Although the blank over blank stacking methodology offers a way to predict and measure limit strains, the same may not be accurate enough due to the effect the substrate properties may impose on the thin foil. To avoid this effect, a different methodology has been proposed herein, which uses a shim stacked over the blank to avoid draw in of these foil blanks and thus help accurate clamping of the blank between the die and blank holder. It is thus understood that either a critical local or global increase in the thickness of the blank material in and around the draw bead is essential to obtain effective clamping of foil and to avoid draw-in and wrinkling. Although, miniaturized hemispherical dome tests may be beneficial for obtaining limit strains as far as foils are concerned, the methodologies proposed herein provide a route to obtaining the same using available equipment, thus saving resources and time involved in development of new miniaturized testing devices. The forming limit strains of thin foils of IN 718 (inconel) alloy having a thickness of 50μm, C263 (nimonic) alloy having a thickness of 100μm and CP Ti (commercially pure titanium) having a thickness of 200μm have been predicted using this methodology

  16. Method and apparatus for tensile testing of metal foil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, O. W. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A method for obtaining accurate and reproducible results in the tensile testing of metal foils in tensile testing machines is described. Before the test specimen are placed in the machine, foil side edges are worked until they are parallel and flaw free. The specimen are also aligned between and secured to grip end members. An aligning apparatus employed in the method is comprised of an alignment box with a longitudinal bottom wall and two upright side walls, first and second removable grip end members at each end of the box, and a means for securing the grip end members within the box.

  17. Preparation of the charge stripping foil in J-PARC RCS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the J-PARC 3-GeV Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS), the H-charge exchange injection scheme using striping foils is adopted. The 1st stripping foil is mounted on a C-shaped holder. One edge of the foil is supported by the holders and the other edge is sandwiched by 10 μm diameter SiC fibers. The holders with not only operation foil but also spare foils were stored on the holder storage rack. The 1st stripping foil is one of the key elements deciding the beam performance in the RCS. Thus the foil preparation is very important issue. The foil preparation includes many work process as follows: a foil separation from glass substrates, salvaging the foil from the water, foil annealing, SiC fibers glueing and foil mount on the holder, and foil holders storing in the holder storage rack. In order to improve its reproducibility and increase the efficiency of work, attachment devices or support jigs are developed. (author)

  18. Concepts of occlusion in prosthodontics: A literature review, part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangarajan, V.; Gajapathi, B.; Yogesh, P. B.; Ibrahim, M. Mohamed; Kumar, R. Ganesh; Karthik, Prasanna

    2015-01-01

    Occlusion and its relationship to the function of the stomatognathic system have been widely studied in dentistry since many decades. This series of articles describe about occlusion in the complete denture, fixed partial denture, and implants. Part I and II of this articles series describe concepts and philosophies of occlusion in complete denture. So far, available research has not concluded a superior tooth form or occlusal scheme to satisfy the requirements of completely edentulous patients with respect to comfort, mastication, phonetics, and esthetics. Since then, several balanced and nonbalanced articulation concepts were proposed in the literature. A balanced articulation appears to be most appropriate because of tooth contacts observed during nonfunctional activities of patients. This article discusses about evolution of different concepts of occlusion and occlusal schemes in complete denture occlusion. PMID:26929513

  19. RTSAH Traversal Order for Occlusion Rays

    KAUST Repository

    Ize, Thiago

    2011-04-01

    We accelerate the finding of occluders in tree based acceleration structures, such as a packetized BVH and a single ray kd-tree, by deriving the ray termination surface area heuristic (RTSAH) cost model for traversing an occlusion ray through a tree and then using the RTSAH to determine which child node a ray should traverse first instead of the traditional choice of traversing the near node before the far node. We further extend RTSAH to handle materials that attenuate light instead of fully occluding it, so that we can avoid superfluous intersections with partially transparent objects. For scenes with high occlusion, we substantially lower the number of traversal steps and intersection tests and achieve up to 2× speedups. © 2010 The Author(s).

  20. Handling Occlusions for Robust Augmented Reality Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maidi Madjid

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In Augmented Reality applications, the human perception is enhanced with computer-generated graphics. These graphics must be exactly registered to real objects in the scene and this requires an effective Augmented Reality system to track the user's viewpoint. In this paper, a robust tracking algorithm based on coded fiducials is presented. Square targets are identified and pose parameters are computed using a hybrid approach based on a direct method combined with the Kalman filter. An important factor for providing a robust Augmented Reality system is the correct handling of targets occlusions by real scene elements. To overcome tracking failure due to occlusions, we extend our method using an optical flow approach to track visible points and maintain virtual graphics overlaying when targets are not identified. Our proposed real-time algorithm is tested with different camera viewpoints under various image conditions and shows to be accurate and robust.

  1. Photoacoustic removal of occlusions from blood vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visuri, Steven R.; Da Silva, Luiz B.; Celliers, Peter M.; London, Richard A.; Maitland, IV, Duncan J.; Esch, Victor C.

    2002-01-01

    Partial or total occlusions of fluid passages within the human body are removed by positioning an array of optical fibers in the passage and directing treatment radiation pulses along the fibers, one at a time, to generate a shock wave and hydrodynamics flows that strike and emulsify the occlusions. A preferred application is the removal of blood clots (thrombin and embolic) from small cerebral vessels to reverse the effects of an ischemic stroke. The operating parameters and techniques are chosen to minimize the amount of heating of the fragile cerebral vessel walls occurring during this photo acoustic treatment. One such technique is the optical monitoring of the existence of hydrodynamics flow generating vapor bubbles when they are expected to occur and stopping the heat generating pulses propagated along an optical fiber that is not generating such bubbles.

  2. Nontraumatic vascular emergencies: imaging and intervention in acute venous occlusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haage, Patrick; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Technology Aachen, Pauwelsstrasse 30, 52057 Aachen (Germany); Krings, Timo [Department of Neuroradiology, University of Technology Aachen, Pauwelsstrasse 30, 52057 Aachen (Germany)

    2002-11-01

    Risk factors for acute venous occlusion range from prolonged immobilization to hypercoagulability syndromes, trauma, and malignancy. The aim of this review article is to illustrate the different imaging options for the diagnosis of acute venous occlusion and to assess the value of interventional strategies for venous thrombosis treatment in an emergency setting. First, diagnosis and treatment of the most common form of venous occlusion, at the level of the lower extremities, is presented, followed by pelvic vein and inferior vena cava occlusion, mesenteric venous thrombosis, upper extremity occlusion, acute cerebral vein thrombosis, and finally acute venous occlusion of hemodialysis access. In acute venous occlusion of the lower extremity phlebography is still the reference gold standard. Presently, duplex ultrasound with manual compression is the most sensitive and specific noninvasive test. Limitations of ultrasonography include isolated distal calf vein occlusion, obesity, and patients with lower extremity edema. If sonography is nondiagnostic, venography should be considered. Magnetic resonance venography can differentiate an acute occlusion from chronic thrombus, but because of its high cost and limited availability, it is not yet used for the routine diagnosis of lower extremity venous occlusion only. Regarding interventional treatment, catheter-directed thrombolysis can be applied to dissolve thrombus in charily selected patients with symptomatic occlusion and no contraindications to therapy. Acute occlusion of the pelvic veins and the inferior vena cava, often due to extension from the femoropopliteal system, represents a major risk for pulmonary embolism. Color flow Doppler imaging is often limited owing to obesity and bowel gas. Venography has long been considered the gold standard for identifying proximal venous occlusion. Both CT scanning and MR imaging, however, can even more accurately diagnose acute pelvis vein or inferior vena cava occlusion. MRI is

  3. Tracking multiple mice through severe occlusions

    OpenAIRE

    Branson, Kristin

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis, I address the problem of tracking multiple identical mice through severe occlusions from video of a side of their cage. A solution to this problem would greatly benefit medical research because of the key role animal testing plays in medical research. As the majority of visual tracking algorithms are intended for tracking people or cars, they are not directly applicable to the mouse tracking problem. Mice are extremely deformable, unconstrained three-dimensional objects. They ...

  4. Dental Occlusion and Ophthalmology: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchili, Nicola; Ortu, Eleonora; Pietropaoli, Davide; Cattaneo, Ruggero; Monaco, Annalisa

    2016-01-01

    Stomatognathic system is strictly correlated to other anatomical regions; many studies investigated relationship between temporomandibular joint and posture, several articles describe cranio-facial pain from dental causes, such as trigger points. Until now less interest has been given to connections between dental occlusion and ophthalmology, even if they are important and involving. Clinical experience in dental practice claims that mandibular latero-deviation is connected both to eye dominance and to defects of ocular convergence. The trigeminal nerve is the largest and most complex of the twelve cranial nerves. The trigeminal system represents the connection between somitic structures and those derived from the branchial arches, collecting the proprioception from both somitic structures and oculomotor muscles. The intermedius nucleus of the medulla is a small perihypoglossal brainstem nucleus, which acts to integrate information from the head and neck and relays it on to the nucleus of the solitary tract where autonomic responses are generated. This intriguing neurophysiological web led our research group to investigate anatomical and functional associations between dental occlusion and vision. In conclusion, nervous system and functional pathways strictly connect vision and dental occlusion, and in the future both dentists and oculists should be more and more aware of this correlation for a better diagnosis and therapy. PMID:27733873

  5. Laser photocoagulation for retinal vein occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Mirzabekova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Retinal vein occlusion (RVO is one of the leading causes of permanent vision loss. In adults, central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO occurs in 1.8% while branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO occurs in 0.2%. Treatment strategy and disease prognosis are determined by RVO type (ischemic/non-ischemic. Despite numerous studies and many current CRVO and BRVO treatment approaches, the management of these patients is still being debated. Intravitreal injections of steroids (triamcinolone acetate, dexamethasone and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF inhibitors (bevacizumab, ranibizumab were shown to be fairly effective. However, it is unclear whether anti-VEGF agents are reasonable in ischemic RVOs. Laser photocoagulation remains the only effective treatment of optic nerve head and/or retinal neovascularization. Laser photocoagulation is also indicated for the treatment of macular edema. Both threshold and sub-threshold photocoagulation may be performed. Photocoagulation performed with argon (514 nm, krypton (647 nm, or diode (810 nm laser for macular edema provides similar results (no significant differences. The treatment may be complex and include medication therapy and/or surgery. Medication therapy includes anti-aggregant agents and antioxidants, i.e., emoxypine which may be used in acute RVO as well as in post-thrombotic retinopathy. 

  6. Comparison of angiographic and clinical outcomes of coronary stenting of chronic total occlusions versus subtotal occlusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, I; Di Mario, C; Moses, J; Reimers, B; Di Francesco, L; Blengino, S; Colombo, A

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the short- and long-term outcome of patients undergoing coronary stenting for chronic total occlusions compared with a control patient population with nonocclusive stenoses. A total of 789 consecutive patients (1,043 lesions) underwent coronary stenting using a high-pressure stent optimization technique. The study population was divided into total occlusion group (94 consecutive patients [95 lesions] with chronic total occlusions) and subtotal occlusion group (695 consecutive patients [948 lesions] with nonocclusive stenoses). There was no difference in post-procedure angiographic minimum lumen diameter (3.13 +/- 0.48 vs 3.15 +/- 0.57 mm, p = 0.72) and minimum intrastent cross-sectional area by intravascular ultrasound (7.31 +/- 2.06 vs 7.64 +/- 2.53 mm2, p = 0.26) between the total and subtotal groups, respectively. Subacute thrombosis occurred in 2 patients (2.1%) in the total group compared with 9 patients (1.3%) in the subtotal group (p = 0.63). Angiographic restenosis occurred in 27% vs 22% (p = 0.40) and repeat angioplasty in 15% vs 13% (p = 0.62) in the total and subtotal groups, respectively. Thus, coronary stenting of chronic total occlusions after successful recanalization could be performed with a high success rate. In addition, the incidence of stent thrombosis, angiographic restenosis, and the need for target lesion revascularization is comparable to that of an unselected cohort of patients with nonocclusive stenoses.

  7. Numerical and experimental investigation of bump foil mechanical behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jon Steffen; Cerda Varela, Alejandro Javier; Santos, Ilmar

    2014-01-01

    , between two parallel surfaces, both statically and dynamically to obtain hysteresis curves. The theoretical analysis is based on a two dimensional quasi static FE model, including geometrical non-linearities and Coulomb friction in the contact points and neglects the foil mass. A method for implementing...

  8. Large deflection analysis of a tension-foil bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elrod, David A.

    1996-01-01

    The rolling element bearings (REB's) which support many turbomachinery rotors offer high load capacity, low power requirements, and durability. Two disadvantages of REB's are as follows: rolling or sliding contact within the bearing has life-limiting consequences; and REB's provide essentially no damping. The REB's in the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) turbopumps must sustain high static and dynamic loads, at high speeds, with a cryogenic fluid as lubricant and coolant. The pump end ball bearings limit the life of the SSME high pressure oxygen turbopump (HPOTP). Compliant foil bearing (CFB) manufacturers have proposed replacing turbopump REB's with CFB's. CFB's work well in aircraft air cycle machines, auxiliary power units, and refrigeration compressors. In a CFB, the rotor only contacts the foil support structure during start up and shut down. CFB damping is higher than REB damping. However, the load capacity of the CFB is low, compared to a REB. Furthermore, little stiffness and damping data exist for the CFB. A rotordynamic analysis for turbomachinery critical speeds and stability requires the input of bearing stiffness and damping coefficients. The two basic types of CFB are the tension-dominated bearing and the bending-dominated bearing. Many investigators have analyzed and measured characteristics of tension-dominated foil bearings, which are applied principally in magnetic tape recording. The bending-dominated CFB is used more in rotating machinery. Recently, a new tension-foil bearing configuration has been proposed for turbomachinery applications.

  9. Tribalism as a Foiled Factor of Africa Nation-Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okogu, J. O.; Umudjere, S. O.

    2016-01-01

    This paper tends to examine tribalism as a foiled factor on Africa nation-building and proffers useful tips to salvaging the Africa land from this deadly social problem. Africans in times past had suffered enormous attacks, injuries, losses, deaths, destruction of properties and human skills and ideas due to the presence of tribalistic views in…

  10. Modified Monkman-Grant relationship for austenitic stainless steel foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman Ali, Hassan; Tamin, Mohd Nasir

    2013-02-01

    Characteristics of creep deformation for austenitic stainless steel foils are examined using the modified Monkman-Grant equation. A series of creep tests are conducted on AISI 347 steel foils at 700 °C and different stress levels ranging from 54 to 221 MPa. Results showed that at lower stress levels below 110 MPa, the creep life parameters ɛ, ɛr, tr can be expressed using the modified Monkman-Grant equation with exponent m'= 0.513. This indicates significant deviation of the creep behavior from the first order reaction kinetics theory for creep (m' = 1.0). The true tertiary creep damage in AISI 347 steel foil begins after 65.9% of the creep life of the foil has elapsed at stress levels above 150 MPa. At this high stress levels, Monkman-Grant ductility factor λ' saturates to a value of 1.3 with dislocation-controlled deformation mechanisms operating. At low stress levels, λ' increases drastically (λ'=190 at 54 MPa) when slow diffusion-controlled creep is dominant.

  11. Transmission of fast H3+ molecules through thin carbon foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Observed for the first time is the transmission of H3+ molecules (2.4 MeV) through carbon foils (2 - 7μg/cm2). The thickness dependence of the yield follows a single decreasing exponential function with a unity coefficient which is expected for H3+ transmitted with their original electrons

  12. Material Properties of Laser-Welded Thin Silicon Foils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Hessmann

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An extended monocrystalline silicon base foil offers a great opportunity to combine low-cost production with high efficiency silicon solar cells on a large scale. By overcoming the area restriction of ingot-based monocrystalline silicon wafer production, costs could be decreased to thin film solar cell range. The extended monocrystalline silicon base foil consists of several individual thin silicon wafers which are welded together. A comparison of three different approaches to weld 50 μm thin silicon foils is investigated here: (1 laser spot welding with low constant feed speed, (2 laser line welding, and (3 keyhole welding. Cross-sections are prepared and analyzed by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD to reveal changes in the crystal structure at the welding side after laser irradiation. The treatment leads to the appearance of new grains and boundaries. The induced internal stress, using the three different laser welding processes, was investigated by micro-Raman analysis. We conclude that the keyhole welding process is the most favorable to produce thin silicon foils.

  13. The Visualization of Infrared Radiation Using Thermal Sensitive Foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochnícek, Zdenek

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a set of demonstration school experiments where infrared radiation is detected using thermal sensitive foils. The possibility of using standard glass lenses for infrared imaging is discussed in detail. It is shown that with optic components made from glass, infrared radiation up to 2.5 µm of wavelength can be detected. The…

  14. Secret in the Margins: Rutherford's Gold Foil Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Sevgi; Hanuscin, Deborah L.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe a lesson that uses the 5E Learning Cycle to help students not only understand the atomic model but also how Ernest Rutherford helped develop it. The lesson uses Rutherford's gold foil experiment to focus on three aspects of the nature of science: the empirical nature of science, the tentativeness of scientific…

  15. An 8b organic microprocessor on plastic foil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Myny, K.; Veenendaal, E. van; Gelinck, G.H.; Genoe, J.; Dehaene, W.; Heremans, P.

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a microprocessor made by organic thin-film transistors processed directly onto flexible plastic foil. This is a direct realization of a microprocessor by thin-film technology, i.e., without transfer, on plastic. It paves the way to equip mundane supports and objects with low-cost comput

  16. Absolute neutronic performance of SNS from gold foil application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The determination of absolute neutron fluxes by white beam activation of thick gold foils in conjuction with spectral analysis by time-of-flight monitors is described. A numerical integration procedure is presented and the method applied to determining the absolute performance of SNS from data obtained during the initial commissioning run in December 1984. (author)

  17. Fullurene-oxygen-iodine laser (FOIL): physical principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilov, Oleg B.; Belousova, Inna M.; Mak, Artur A.; Belousov, Vlidilen P.; Grenishin, A. S.; Kiselev, V. M.; Krys'ko, A. V.; Murav'eva, T. D.; Ponomarev, Alexander N.; Sosnov, Eugene N.

    2005-03-01

    The paper considers the physical principles of developing the fullerene - oxygen - iodine laser (FOIL) with optical (sunlight in particular) pumping. Kinetic scheme of such a laser is considered. It is shown that the utmost efficiency of FOIL may exceed 40% of the energy, absorbed by fullerenes. Presented are the experimental results of singlet oxygen generation in liquid media (solutions and suspensions) and in solid-state structures, containing either fullerenes or fullerene-like nanopartickles (FNP). In experiment was shown the possibility of the singlet oxygen transfer to the gaseous phase by means of organizing of the solution (suspension) the boiling as well as of the gasodynamic wave of desorption from the solid-state structures, containing fullerenes or FNP. We present the preliminary experimental results of pulsed generation in optically pumped FOIL with the use of primary photodissociation of iodide for preparation of the atomic iodine in the generation zone. In the experiments on FOIL generation was implemented the principle of spectral separation of optical pumping.

  18. Fullerene-oxygen-iodine laser (FOIL): physical principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilov, Oleg B.; Belousova, Inna M.; Mak, Artur A.; Belousov, Vlidilen P.; Grenishin, A. S.; Kiselev, V. M.; Krys'ko, A. V.; Murav'eva, T. D.; Ponomarev, Alexander N.; Sosnov, Eugene N.

    2004-09-01

    The paper considers the physical principles of developing the fullerene-oxygen-iodine laser (FOIL) with optical (sunlight in particular) pumping. Kinetic scheme of such a laser is considered. It is shown that the utmost efficiency of FOIL may exceed 40% of the energy, absorbed by fullerenes. Presented are the experimental results of singlet oxygen generation in liquid media (solutions and suspensions) and in solid-state structures, containing either fullerenes or fullerene-like nanoparticles (FNP). In experiment was shown the possibility of the singlet oxygen transfer to the gaseous phase by means of organizing of the solution (suspension) the boiling as well as of the gasodynamic wave of desorption from the solid-state structures, containing fullerenes or FNP. We present the preliminary experimental results of pulsed generation in optically pumped FOIL with the use of primary photodissociation of iodide for preparation of the atomic iodine in the generation zone. In the experiments on FOIL generation was implemented the principle of spectral separation of optical pumping.

  19. Effect of sheet thickness on deep drawing of metal foils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Marumo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The objective of the present work is to study the influence of sheet thickness on blank holding forceand limiting drawing ratio.Design/methodology/approach: Variation in blankholding force and limiting drawing ratio in deep drawing ofmetal foils were evaluated by calculation.Findings: The paper shows variation in the blankholding force required for the elimination of wrinkling and thelimiting drawing ratio with sheet thickness. The blankholding force required for the elimination of wrinklingincreased rapidly as the sheet thickness decreased. When the sheet thickness was very thin, the blankholdingforce was strongly influenced by the coefficient of friction. The limiting drawing ratio decreased as sheetthickness decreased and it decreased rapidly below 0.04 mm thickness. When the sheet thickness was very thin,the limiting drawing ratio was strongly influenced by the coefficient of friction.Research limitations/implications: The control of the loading path of blankholding force will be an effectiveway to prevent the formation of defects including fractures and wrinkles in deep drawing of metal foils.Practical implications: When deep drawing of metal foils is carried out, the control of loading path of blankholdingforce during deep drawing operation can be very effective for improving the limiting drawing ratio.Originality/value: The contribution of the conducted research is observed in a possible view of improvementof deep drawability of metal foils.

  20. Effect of Treatment Temperature on Iron Nitride Foils Irradiated with Nitrogen Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the effect of treatment temperature on the magnetic property of iron nitride foils irradiated with nitrogen plasma. The iron nitride foils irradiated with nitrogen plasma were composed of ε-Fe2~3N, γ′-Fe4N and γ nitrogen austenite in α-Fe of the matrix. The saturation magnetization of the iron nitride foils decreased with increasing the surface temperature. The coercive force of the iron nitride foils increased with increasing the surface temperature.

  1. Relationship of Occlusal Schemes with the Occurrence of Temporomandibular Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina H. Sugiaman

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Masticatory system is a complex functional unit of the body responsible for mastication, speech, and deglutition process. Temporomandibular disorders (TMD is used to describe all functional disturbances of the masticatory system. The etiology of TMD is multifactorial, such as occlusal disharmony and emotional stress. The relationship between occlusion and TMD has been highly debated in dentistry, one of the occlusal factors is the occlusal scheme. Occlusal schemes are defined as bilateral canine guidance, unilateral canine guidance, group function and balanced occlusion. However, studies about the relationship of occlusal schemes and the occurrence of the TMD are still limited and remained controversial. Objective: To investigate the relationship of occlusal schemes witht he occurrence of TMD. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Faculty of Dentistry, Uniiversitas Indonesia. A total of 127 students were included in this study. Subjects were examined based on Clinical Helkimo Index and divided into TMD and non-TMD groups. Subjects were categorized as non-TMD groups if the value of the clinical Helkimo index was 0 and as TMD group when the value ranged between 1-25. Results: Balanced occlusion schemes has a greater risk of TMD occurrence with odds ratio value 5.6 and 95% confidence interval 1.188 to 26.331 (p=0.021. Conclusion: Balanced occlusion has a significant relationship with the occurrence of TMD.

  2. Experimental and theoretical analysis of a rigid rotor supported by air foil bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jon Steffen; Hansen, Asger J. T.; Santos, Ilmar

    2015-01-01

    The popularity of compressors utilizing foil bearings is increasing. Their mechanical design is challenging, and an accurate prediction of the bearing coefficients is important. A mathematical model taking into account the foil structure, and the detailed geometry of a three pad foil bearing are ...

  3. Low-energy electron beams through ultra-thin foils, applications for electron microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Aken, R.H.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis has discussed two electron microscopy applications that make use of ultra-thin foils: the tunnel junction emitter and the low-energy foil corrector. Both applications have in common that the electron beam is sent through the thin foil at low energy. Part of the electrons will scatter in

  4. Occlusion and weight change in a patient after esophagectomy: success derived from restoration of occlusal support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Reiko; Soga, Yoshihiko; Minakuchi, Mami; Nawachi, Kumiko; Maruyama, Takayuki; Kuboki, Takuo; Morita, Manabu

    2013-01-01

    Occlusal support may be an important factor affecting nutritional support after major surgery. This report presents a patient who gained body weight after receiving a new prosthesis. The patient was an 82-year-old man with thoracic esophageal carcinoma. He did not have occlusal support because of multiple caries lesions. His body weight slowly increased after surgery, but almost stopped in the period of 54 to 68 days after surgery. After treatment with dentures (day 72 postsurgery), body weight gain was observed again, although his medical treatment had not changed. An appropriate prosthesis could contribute to perioperative nutrition support and may lead to earlier recovery after surgery. PMID:24179973

  5. Morphology and Magnetic Properties of Electrodeposited Iron and Nickel Based Alloy Foils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Zhan-cheng; LIU Mei-feng; SUN Chun-wen; LIU Yu-xing; LU Wei-chang

    2004-01-01

    An alternative to conventional process for the preparation of soft magnetic metal foils of Fe, Fe-Ni, Fe-Co and Fe-Ni-Co by electroforming was described. The microstructure and magnetic properties were observed. The results showed that the crystal size of the iron-based alloy foil is less than 10 μm, while that of nickel-based alloy foil is about 2 μm. Moreover, the electroformed Fe-Ni foil has better magnetic properties than the conventional milled permalloy 1J79 foil.

  6. Measurements of laser generated soft X-ray emission from irradiated gold foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J. S.; Frank, Y.; Raicher, E.; Fraenkel, M.; Keiter, P. A.; Klein, S. R.; Drake, R. P.; Shvarts, D.

    2016-11-01

    Soft x-ray emission from laser irradiated gold foils was measured at the Omega-60 laser system using the Dante photodiode array. The foils were heated with 2 kJ, 6 ns laser pulses and foil thicknesses were varied between 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 μm. Initial Dante analysis indicates peak emission temperatures of roughly 100 eV and 80 eV for the 0.5 μm and 1.0 μm thick foils, respectively, with little measurable emission from the 2.0 μm foils.

  7. Occlusal adjustment in the treatment of primary traumatic injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raulino Naves Borges

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A major concern in dentistry is the correct distribution of occlusal forces to promote balance among the elements of the stomatognathic system. Occlusal trauma may develop in situations where the magnitude of the load exerted by occlusion exceeds the ability of the periodontium surrounding the involved teeth to resist and distribute the resulting forces without moving. A 41-year-old female patient was referred to the Occlusion and Orofacial Pain Research Center at the School of Dentistry, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Brazil, with headache, temporomandibular joint pain, toothache, and bone resorption on the distal aspect of tooth #33. During clinical examination, a 2-mm difference between centric relation and habitual occlusion was detected, with interference between teeth #28 and #38, causing anterior projection of the mandible to the right. Probing depth of the lower canine was within normal limits, with a positive pulp vitality test. We concluded that pain and (grade II mobility in tooth #33 were caused by interference of third molars, which exerted a distal pressure on the lower canine, characterizing primary occlusal trauma. Occlusal adjustment by selective grinding was then indicated to eliminate premature contact. Ten sessions were required to obtain optimal occlusion. Three months after treatment, follow-up radiograph showed newly formed bone tissue between teeth #33 and #34, with absence of mobility and symptoms. The case reported here indicates that occlusal adjustment is recommended for the treatment of periodontal injuries caused by traumatic occlusion. The treatment allows the achievement of an optimal occlusion by directing occlusal forces to the long axis of the teeth.

  8. Occlusal adjustment in the treatment of secondary traumatic injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raulino Naves Borges

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The success of the rehabilitation treatment is associated with the relationship between occlusion and periodontal status. When occlusal loads exceed the ability of the periodontium to resist and distribute the resulting forces, injuries may develop, leading to failures in dental practice. A 35-year-old female patient presented at the Occlusion and Orofacial Pain Research Center at the School of Dentistry, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Brazil, complaining of pain and mobility in the maxillary central incisors and sensitivity in the mandibular left incisors and canine. Symptoms began after cast metal restoration was performed in tooth #27. Clinical examination revealed a signifi cant difference of 1 mm between centric relation and habitual occlusion, presence of a periodontal pocket 5 mm deep in the mesial aspect of tooth #11, and an increased vertical dimension of occlusion caused by occlusal interference between teeth #27 and #37. Radiographic examination detected vertical bone loss between teeth #21 and #11, on the mesial aspect of tooth #33 and between the lower incisors. The lower teeth also showed radiographic evidence of periapical lesions. Occlusal interference caused anterior projection of the mandible to the right, overloading the incisors. Treatment by occlusal adjustment was performed to promote an equal incidence of forces on all aspects of the teeth. Twelve sessions were required to achieve a balanced occlusion and restore the physiological vertical dimension of occlusion. Six months after treatment, there was radiographic evidence of newly formed bone tissue between teeth #11 and #21, regression of apical periodontitis in the lower teeth, and a decrease in mobility and all associated symptoms. Secondary traumatic injury may be responsible for changes in apical tooth structures. Occlusal adjustment may favor the direction of occlusal forces to the long axis of the teeth.

  9. Local Intra-Arterial Fibrinolysis in Acute Basilar Artery Occlusion

    OpenAIRE

    Enomoto, Y.; Yoshimura, S.; Kitajima, H.; Tamakawa, N.; Iwama, T

    2007-01-01

    Acute basilar artery (BA) occlusion is typically associated with poor outcome; however newer diagnostic and treatment modalities have the potential to improve prognosis. In this study, six patients with acute BA occlusion were followed and the effectiveness of local intra-arterial fibrinolysis (LIF) and subsequent percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) with a balloon catheter were assessed. Of the six patients with BA occlusion observed in this study, two had extended brain stem infarcti...

  10. Dual scattering foil design for poly-energetic electron beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kainz, K K; Antolak, J A; Almond, P R; Bloch, C D; Hogstrom, K R

    2005-03-01

    The laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) mechanism can accelerate electrons to energies within the 6-20 MeV range desired for therapy application. However, the energy spectrum of LWFA-generated electrons is broad, on the order of tens of MeV. Using existing laser technology, the therapeutic beam might require a significant energy spread to achieve clinically acceptable dose rates. The purpose of this work was to test the assumption that a scattering foil system designed for a mono-energetic beam would be suitable for a poly-energetic beam with a significant energy spread. Dual scattering foil systems were designed for mono-energetic beams using an existing analytical formalism based on Gaussian multiple-Coulomb scattering theory. The design criterion was to create a flat beam that would be suitable for fields up to 25 x 25 cm2 at 100 cm from the primary scattering foil. Radial planar fluence profiles for poly-energetic beams with energy spreads ranging from 0.5 MeV to 6.5 MeV were calculated using two methods: (a) analytically by summing beam profiles for a range of mono-energetic beams through the scattering foil system, and (b) by Monte Carlo using the EGS/BEAM code. The analytic calculations facilitated fine adjustments to the foil design, and the Monte Carlo calculations enabled us to verify the results of the analytic calculation and to determine the phase-space characteristics of the broadened beam. Results showed that the flatness of the scattered beam is fairly insensitive to the width of the input energy spectrum. Also, results showed that dose calculated by the analytical and Monte Carlo methods agreed very well in the central portion of the beam. Outside the useable field area, the differences between the analytical and Monte Carlo results were small but significant, possibly due to the small angle approximation. However, these did not affect the conclusion that a scattering foil system designed for a mono-energetic beam will be suitable for a poly

  11. Dual scattering foil design for poly-energetic electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) mechanism can accelerate electrons to energies within the 6-20 MeV range desired for therapy application. However, the energy spectrum of LWFA-generated electrons is broad, on the order of tens of MeV. Using existing laser technology, the therapeutic beam might require a significant energy spread to achieve clinically acceptable dose rates. The purpose of this work was to test the assumption that a scattering foil system designed for a mono-energetic beam would be suitable for a poly-energetic beam with a significant energy spread. Dual scattering foil systems were designed for mono-energetic beams using an existing analytical formalism based on Gaussian multiple-Coulomb scattering theory. The design criterion was to create a flat beam that would be suitable for fields up to 25 x 25 cm2 at 100 cm from the primary scattering foil. Radial planar fluence profiles for poly-energetic beams with energy spreads ranging from 0.5 MeV to 6.5 MeV were calculated using two methods: (a) analytically by summing beam profiles for a range of mono-energetic beams through the scattering foil system, and (b) by Monte Carlo using the EGS/BEAM code. The analytic calculations facilitated fine adjustments to the foil design, and the Monte Carlo calculations enabled us to verify the results of the analytic calculation and to determine the phase-space characteristics of the broadened beam. Results showed that the flatness of the scattered beam is fairly insensitive to the width of the input energy spectrum. Also, results showed that dose calculated by the analytical and Monte Carlo methods agreed very well in the central portion of the beam. Outside the useable field area, the differences between the analytical and Monte Carlo results were small but significant, possibly due to the small angle approximation. However, these did not affect the conclusion that a scattering foil system designed for a mono-energetic beam will be suitable for a poly

  12. Electro-oculogram of Retinal Vein Occlusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Twenty five cases, including 26 eyes with retinal vein occlusion (RVO) were examined by means of the electro-oculogram. The results showed that 23 of the 26 eyes suffering from RVO exhibited abnormalities of the electro-oculogram (EOG). The potential difference and Arden ratio in the RVO eyes were lower than those in the normal eyes (P<0.01). The more the visual acuity of ill eyes was decreased, the higher the abnormal rate of EOG in ill eyes was. 14 eyes had the visual acuity less than 0.1, whose EOGs ...

  13. Arterial gas occlusions in operating heat pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saaski, E. W.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of noncondensable gases on high performance arterial heat pipes has been investigated both analytically and experimentally. Models have been generated which characterize the dissolution of gases in condensate and the diffusional loss of dissolved gases from condensate in arterial flow. These processes, and others, have been used to postulate stability criteria for arterial heat pipes. Experimental observations of gas occlusions were made using a stainless steel heat pipe equipped with viewing ports, and the working fluids methanol and ammonia with the gas additives helium, argon, and xenon. Observations were related to gas transport models.

  14. Hydrocolloid occlusion for the treatment of neurovascular corns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Jelstrup; Beck, Jan Walther; Reumert, L N;

    1991-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the effect of hydrocolloid occlusion on neurovascular corns. The design was an observer-blinded, randomized, controlled study. Thirty consecutive patients participated in the trial. The patients received curettage alone or curettage with hydrocolloid...... occlusion. Six treatments were given over 12 weeks. A follow-up examination was performed 3 months after termination of the trial. Outcome measures were the size of the corns, a discomfort score, and an overall judgment of the trial. The results demonstrated no benefit of occlusion for symptoms or signs...... of neurovascular corns. The patients treated with occlusion were, however, generally more satisfied than the conventional group....

  15. Hydrodynamics in the wake of a pitching foil

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez-Prats, R

    2013-01-01

    The effect of flexibility on the hydrodynamic loads and on the flow structures generated on a rectangular foil when oscillating in pitch has been studied. Hydrodynamic loads were measured with a 6-axes balance, and the flow structures were investigated by using a Digital Particle Image Velocimetry (DPIV). It is known from nature's fin based propulsion mechanisms, that appendage stiffness plays an important role in their propulsive efficiency. We have studied four different stiffnesses, ranging from completely rigid to highly flexible. Optimal efficiency has been observed for an intermediate case. In this case, a moderately stronger trailing-edge vortex system takes place. A very high level of flexibility of the foil results in a reduction of efficiency.

  16. Wavelength shifting reflector foils for liquid Ar scintillation light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, Manuel [Physik Institut, Universitaet Zuerich (Switzerland); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    Liquid argon is used as a scintillator in several present and upcoming experiments. In Gerda it is used as a coolant, shielding and will be instrumented to become an active veto in Phase II. Its scintillation light has a wavelength of 128 nm, that gets absorbed by quartz. In order to measure the light using photo multiplier tubes (PMT) for cryogenic temperatures which have a quartz window, it is converted to longer wavelength by coated reflector foils. The conversion efficiency and stability of several such coatings was optimized using VM2000 and Tetratex separately as reflector foils. The efficiency has been measured in a liquid Ar set up build especially for this purpose. It employs a 3'' low radioactivity PMT of type R11065-10 from Hamamatsu, the favorite photo sensor candidate to be used in Gerda.

  17. Evolution of recrystallization textures in high voltage aluminum capacitor foils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘楚明; 张新明; 周鸿章; 陈志永; 邓运来; 周卓平

    2001-01-01

    The evolution of recrystallization textures in high voltage aluminum capacitor foils which are produced with a high level of cold reduction was tracked by analysis of microstructure and crystallographic texture. The results show that the deformation textures are mainly composed of S-orientation, Cu-orientation and a little Bs-orientation. During the low temperature stages of final annealing, the iron precipitates first along the sub-grain boundaries, and the Fe concentration in the matrix becomes low. Then, the cube grains nucleate preferably into the sub-grains. At high temperature stages, the cube nuclei can grow preferably because of their 40°〈111〉 orientation relationship to the S orientation, the main component of the rolling texture. Finally, the cube texture is sharply strong and the R orientation is very weak in the foils.

  18. Gaseous Electron Multiplier (GEM), foil holes deformation studies

    CERN Document Server

    Suhaj, Adam; CERN. Geneva. PH Department

    2015-01-01

    GEM detectors play an important role in the upcoming high-luminosity LHC upgrade in 2018 where they will be exposed to high doses of radiation in the muon endcap region. A series of tensile tests were performed on neutron irradiated and non-irradiated GEM foils where the shape of the holes was thoroughly examined. It was found that the GEM foil does not deform much at lower loads but the deformation gets exponentially bigger after applying more than a 60 N force. Both sets of samples behaved similarly at lower loads up to 40 N after which the holes of the irradiated samples started to deform more rapidly than the non-irradiated ones. The failure point of the non-irradiated samples occurred consistently at around 135 N while the irradiated samples experienced failure at around 85 N with two outliers failing at 120 and 135 N.

  19. Laser spot welding of cobalt-based amorphous metal foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results concerning weldability of amorphous alloy (VAC 6025F) in shape of foils and the quality of laser-spot welded joints are presented in this paper. The aim of the research was the production of a high quality welding joint, by preserving the amorphous structure. The quality of the joint was tested by shear strength analysis and microhardness measuring. The metallographic studies were made by using optical microscope and SEM. The results show that (1) overlapped Co based amorphous metals foils can be welded with high-quality by a pulsed Nd: YAG-Laser, but only within a very narrow laser parameter window; (2) the laser welded spots show comparably high strength as the basic material; (3) the structure of the welded spot remains amorphous, so that the same characteristics as the base material can be achieved. (author)

  20. PERFORMANCE OF LUBRICATING OIL FILM IN ALUMINIUM FOIL ROLLING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The surface of the aluminum foil rolled has been observed with microscope on the basis of industrial experiments, and the structure of the surface adsorption film has been analyzed by means of low angle X-ray diffraction. It is advanced that the lubrication in aluminum foil rolling is in the state of thin film lubrication, surface adsorption film is an ordered multi-layered molecule film with more than 7 layers; and the layers of the ordered molecule film is influenced by the concentration of the additive in certain range; the concentration of the additive in oil is the main factor affecting the stability of rolling, controling the concentration of the additive can control the ratio of fluid friction, boundary friction, and local holding-on in deformation zone,thus obtaining good rolling deformation conditions.

  1. Thrombogenicity tests on ar-irradiated polycarbonate foils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trindade, Gustavo F.; Rizzutto, Marcia A.; Silva, Tiago F.; Moro, Marcos V.; Added, Nemitala; Tabacniks, Manfredo H., E-mail: g.ferraz@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Delgado, Adriana O. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), Sorocaba, SP (Brazil); Cunha, Tatiana F. [Biosintesis P and D do Brasil, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Higa, Olga Z. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Biotecnologia

    2013-07-01

    Understanding polymer surface properties is extremely important for the most wide range of their applications, from basic coating to the most complex composites and biomaterials. Low energy ion beam irradiation of polymer can improve such surface properties. By modifying its surface biocompatibility, polymers are excellent candidates for biomaterials, due to its malleability and low weight, when compared to metals. In this work, we irradiated 30-μm Bisphenol-A Polycarbonate foils with 23-keV Argon ion beam at six different doses. Aluminium foils were simultaneously irradiated in order to measure the doses by Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy. The surface modifications after the argon ion beam irradiation were analyzed by water contact angle measurements and atomic force microscopy. Platelet adhesion tests were used in order to investigate thrombogenicity, showing a growing tendency with the irradiated Argon dose. (author)

  2. Temperature dependence of the beam-foil interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The beam energy dependence between 50 and 200 keV of the linear polarization fraction (M/I) of the 2s 1S--3p 1P, 5016 A transition in He I on temperature was measured. The thin carbon exciter foils were heated externally by nichrome resistance elements. The measurements of Hight et al. are duplicated; the energy and current dependences are the same for corresponding between beam heating and external heating. It was also observed that γ, the number of slow secondary electrons produced per incident ion, decreases with increasing foil temperature. These two effects, in conjunction, offer a plausible explanation for the variation of polarization with beam current density. 5 figures

  3. The electron capture of H+ ions in solid foils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨百方; 缪竞威; 师勉恭; 唐阿友; 杨朝文; 刘晓东

    2002-01-01

    The negative ion yields φ (H-)and the neutral atom yields φ (H) of 0.6, 0.9, 1.2, 1.6 and1.8 MeV H+ projectiles traversing various carbon foils have been measured. The experimental re-sults showed that neither φ (H-) nor φ (H) varies with the dwell time td at the same energy. φ (H) islarger than φ (H-) by about 3-4 orders of magnitude. The charge exchanging between H+ ionsand carbon foils was analyzed. It can be seen that the charge exchange is the most basic proc-ess.The experience formula of σc/σ/has been gotten.

  4. Tilted Foils Nuclear Spin Polarization at REX-ISOLDE

    CERN Document Server

    Törnqvist, Hans Toshihide

    2013-08-08

    This thesis will explain and summarize my work and involvement in experiments aimed at producing nuclear spin polarization of post-accelerated beams of ions with the tilted-foils technique at the REX-ISOLDE linear accelerator at CERN. Polarizing the nuclear spin of radioactive beams in particular may provide access to observables which may be difficult to obtain otherwise. Currently, the techniques commonly employed for nuclear spin polarization are restricted to specific nuclides and experimental measurement techniques. Tilted foils polarization may provide a new tool to extend the range of nuclides that can be polarized and the types of experiments that can be performed. The experiments rely not only on the production but also on the method to measure the degree of attained polarization. Two methods will be treated, based on particle scattering in Coulomb excitation that may be utilized for stable beams, and the $\\beta$-NMR that requires $\\beta$-decaying nuclei. The experimental setups and measurements will...

  5. Metabolic syndrome and central retinal artery occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosanović-Jaković Natalija

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The accumulation of risk factors for central retinal artery occlusion can be seen in a single person and might be explained by the metabolic syndrome. Case report. We presented the case of a 52-year-old man with no light perception in his right eye. The visual loss was monocular and painless, fundoscopy showed central retinal artery occlusion and the laboratory investigation showed the raised erythrocyte sedimentation rate of 105 mm/h and the raised C-reactive protein of 22 mg/l. Specific laboratory investigations and fluorescein angiography excluded the presence of vasculitis, collagen vascular diseases, hypercoagulable state and antiphospholipid syndrome. Conclusion. The patient met all the five of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP criteria for the metabolic syndrome: hypertension, abnormal lipid profile, abnormal glucose metabolism, obesity and hyperuricemia. Measurement of C-reactive protein is useful for the assessment of therapeutic systemic effect on any abnormality in the metabolic syndrome. Individual therapy for all risk factors in the metabolic syndrome is necessary to prevent complications such as cardiovascular, retinal vascular diseases and stroke.

  6. Effect of phototherapy with alumunium foil reflectors on neonatal hyperbilirubinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Ijong Dachlan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia (NH is one of the most common problems in neonates, but it can be treated with blue light phototherapy. Developing countries with limited medical equipment and funds have difficulty providing effective phototherapy to treat NH, leading to increased risk of bilirubin encephalopathy. Phototherapy with white reflecting curtains can decrease the duration of phototherapy needed to reduce bilirubin levels. Objective To compare the duration of phototherapy needed in neonates with NH who underwent phototherapy with and without aluminum foil reflectors. Methods This open clinical trial was conducted from July to August 2013 at Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital, Bandung, Indonesia. The inclusion criteria were term neonates with uncomplicated NH presenting in their first week of life. Subjects were randomized into two groups, those who received phototherapy with or without aluminum foil reflectors. Serum bilirubin is taken at 12th, 24th, 48th hours, then every 24 hours if needed until phototherapy can be stopped according to American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines. The outcome measured was the duration of phototherapy using survival analysis. The difference between the two groups was tested by Gehan method. Results Seventy newborns who fulfilled the inclusion criteria and had similar characteristics were randomized into two groups. The duration of phototherapy needed was significantly less in the group with aluminum foil reflectors than in the group without reflectors [72 vs. 96 hours, respectively, (P<0.01]. Conclusion The required duration of phototherapy with aluminum foil reflectors is significantly less than that of phototherapy without reflectors, in neonates with NH.

  7. Effect of phototherapy with alumunium foil reflectors on neonatal hyperbilirubinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Ijong Dachlan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia (NH is one of the most common problems in neonates, but it can be treated with blue light phototherapy. Developing countries with limited medical equipment and funds have difficulty providing effective phototherapy to treat NH, leading to increased risk of bilirubin encephalopathy. Phototherapy with white reflecting curtains can decrease the duration of phototherapy needed to reduce bilirubin levels. Objective To compare the duration of phototherapy needed in neonates with NH who underwent phototherapy with and without aluminum foil reflectors. Methods This open clinical trial was conducted from July to August 2013 at Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital, Bandung, Indonesia. The inclusion criteria were term neonates with uncomplicated NH presenting in their first week of life. Subjects were randomized into two groups, those who received phototherapy with or without aluminum foil reflectors. Serum bilirubin is taken at 12th, 24th, 48th hours, then every 24 hours if needed until phototherapy can be stopped according to American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines. The outcome measured was the duration of phototherapy using survival analysis. The difference between the two groups was tested by Gehan method. Results Seventy newborns who fulfilled the inclusion criteria and had similar characteristics were randomized into two groups. The duration of phototherapy needed was significantly less in the group with aluminum foil reflectors than in the group without reflectors [72 vs. 96 hours, respectively, (P<0.01]. Conclusion The required duration of phototherapy with aluminum foil reflectors is significantly less than that of phototherapy without reflectors, in neonates with NH. [Paediatr Indones. 2015;55:18-22.].

  8. Simulation of swift boron clusters traversing amorphous carbon foils

    OpenAIRE

    Heredia Ávalos, Santiago; Abril Sánchez, Isabel; Denton Zanello, Cristian D.; García Molina, Rafael

    2007-01-01

    We use a simulation code to study the interaction of swift boron clusters (Bn+, n=2–6, 14) with amorphous carbon foils. We analyze different aspects of this interaction, such as the evolution of the cluster structure inside the target, the energy and angle distributions at the detector or the stopping power ratio. Our simulation code follows in detail the motion of the cluster fragments through the target and in the vacuum until reaching a detector, taking into account the following interacti...

  9. Optical observations of molecular dissociation in thin foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have measured the intensity and polarizations of light emitted from atomic excited states of dissociated molecular ions. Using HeH+ projectiles, we have observed factors of 1 to 5 enhancements of the light from n=3, 13P,D states of He I and some He II and H I emissions. Observations of Lyman-α emission after dissociation of H2+ and H3+ show rapid variations in light yield for small internuclear separations at the foil surface

  10. Design of organic complementary circuits and systems on foil

    CERN Document Server

    Abdinia, Sahel; Cantatore, Eugenio

    2015-01-01

    This book describes new approaches to fabricate complementary organic electronics, and focuses on the design of circuits and practical systems created using these manufacturing approaches. The authors describe two state-of-the-art, complementary organic technologies, characteristics and modeling of their transistors and their capability to implement circuits and systems on foil. Readers will benefit from the valuable overview of the challenges and opportunities that these extremely innovative technologies provide. ·         Demonstrates first circuits implemented using specific complementary organic technologies, including first printed analog to digital converter, first dynamic logic on foil and largest complementary organic circuit ·         Includes step-by-step design from single transistor level to complete systems on foil ·         Provides a platform for comparing state-of-the-art complementary organic technologies and for comparing these with other similar technologies, spec...

  11. Element segregation on the surfaces of pure aluminum foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The surface segregation trend of trace elements in pure aluminum foils was investigated by density functional theory. The model of nine-layer Al(1 0 0) slab substituted partially by trace element atoms was proposed for calculating surface segregation energy. The calculating results show that (i) B, Mg, Si, Ga, Ge, Y, In, Sn, Sb, Pb and Bi exhibit negative segregation energy and possibly move to the surface, while Be, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Zr exhibit positive segregation energies and migrated into the bulk; (ii) the segregation energy was found to be related with the covalent radius, the relaxed position at the surface of the substituting atom and the surface energy; (iii) the segregation behavior of trace element generates lots of defects and dislocation, which can increase the initial pitting nucleation sites in the surface of aluminum foils; (iv) the impurity atom concentration was tested with Pb-doped surfaces, the calculated negative segregation energies in all coverage increases rapidly with the Pb coverage. These conclusions are helpful for designing of the chemical composition and to advance the tunnel etching of aluminum foils.

  12. Material Parameters for Creep Rupture of Austenitic Stainless Steel Foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, H.; Borhana, A.; Tamin, M. N.

    2014-08-01

    Creep rupture properties of austenitic stainless steel foil, 347SS, used in compact recuperators have been evaluated at 700 °C in the stress range of 54-221 MPa to establish the baseline behavior for its extended use. Creep curves of the foil show that the primary creep stage is brief and creep life is dominated by tertiary creep deformation with rupture lives in the range of 10-2000 h. Results are compared with properties of bulk specimens tested at 98 and 162 MPa. Thin foil 347SS specimens were found to have higher creep rates and higher rupture ductility than their bulk specimen counterparts. Power law relationship was obtained between the minimum creep rate and the applied stress with stress exponent value, n = 5.7. The value of the stress exponent is indicative of the rate-controlling deformation mechanism associated with dislocation creep. Nucleation of voids mainly occurred at second-phase particles (chromium-rich M23C6 carbides) that are present in the metal matrix by decohesion of the particle-matrix interface. The improvement in strength is attributed to the precipitation of fine niobium carbides in the matrix that act as obstacles to the movement of dislocations.

  13. Dental occlusion: modern concepts and their application in implant prosthodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Gunnar E

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this article was to review the literature on various aspects of occlusion related to implant prosthodontics, using PubMed and the Cochrane library. Even if the number of studies on implants and prosthodontics is very large, no randomized controlled trials or Cochrane reviews were found on the possible influence of occlusal design or characteristics of occlusion on treatment outcome. Therefore, studies and articles of a lower evidence level were accepted as the main part of the review. The widely spread opinion that implants are superior to natural teeth was refuted by two recent consensus conferences, which concluded that the long-term outcome of implant restorations is not better than that of natural teeth. No controlled studies on the optimal features of a harmonious natural and/or restored occlusion, including implant prostheses, were found. Nor was there any evidence that more sophisticated methods in jaw registration, e.g., using face-bows and adjustable articulators, compared with simpler methods, will yield better clinical prosthodontic results. This article discusses, among other things, concepts of occlusion of implant-supported restorations, occlusal material, cantilevers, and occlusal risk factors. Within the limitations of the review, it was concluded that many factors can influence implant failure and peri-implant bone loss but that little is known of the relative importance of such factors. Most probably, however, occlusal factors and details of occlusion are in general of minor importance for the outcome of implant restorations. Occlusion can be managed successfully by using simple methods for jaw registration and different occlusal concepts.

  14. Cognitive impairments in patients with cerebrovascular steno-occlusive disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石丹

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between cerebrovascular steno-occlusive disease and neuropsychological performance by cognitive function assessment. Methods Using a case-control study,45 patients with cerebrovascular steno-occlusive lesions (patient group) and 59 control subjects without cerebrovascular

  15. Dorzolamide increases retinal oxygen tension after branch retinal vein occlusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noergaard, Michael Hove; Bach-Holm, Daniella; Scherfig, Erik;

    2008-01-01

    To study the effect of dorzolamide on the preretinal oxygen tension (RPO(2)) in retinal areas affected by experimental branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) in pigs.......To study the effect of dorzolamide on the preretinal oxygen tension (RPO(2)) in retinal areas affected by experimental branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) in pigs....

  16. An adaptive occlusion culling algorithm for use in large ves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bormann, Karsten

    2000-01-01

    The Hierarchical Occlusion Map algorithm is combined with Frustum Slicing to give a simpler occlusion-culling algorithm that more adequately caters to large, open VEs. The algorithm adapts to the level of visual congestion and is well suited for use with large, complex models with long mean free...

  17. Vascular occlusion in cut rose flowers - a survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van W.G.

    1995-01-01

    The causes of low water uptake and water stress symptoms in cut rose flowers are briefly reviewed. Low water uptake is due to an occlusion, mainly located in the basal stem end. No evidence has been found for a reaction of the plant after cutting, in the formation of this occlusion. The blockage has

  18. Relationship between retinal vascular occlusions and incident cerebrovascular diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yue; Zhu, Wengen; Wang, Changyun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Several studies investigating the role of retinal vascular occlusions, on cerebrovascular diseases (CVD) have been reported, but the results are still inconsistent. We therefore sought to evaluate the relationship between retinal vascular occlusions and CVD. We systematically searched the Cochrane Library, PubMed, and ScienceDirect databases through January 31, 2016 for studies evaluating the effect of retinal vascular occlusions on the risk of CVD. Data were abstracted using predefined criteria, and then pooled by RevMan 5.3 software. A total of 9 retrospective studies were included in this meta-analysis. When compared with individuals without retinal vascular occlusions, both individuals with retinal artery occlusion (RAO) (odds ratio [OR] = 2.01, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.21–3.34; P = 0.005) and individuals with retinal vein occlusion (RVO) (OR = 1.37, 95% CI: 1.24–1.50; P < 0.00001) had higher risks of developing CVD. Additionally, both individuals with central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) (OR = 2.00, 95% CI: 1.12–3.56; P = 0.02) and branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO) (OR = 1.60, 95% CI: 1.03–1.48; P = 0.04) were significantly associated with increased risk of CVD. Published literatures support both RVO and RAO are associated with increased risks of CVD. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:27368050

  19. Effect of glove occlusion on the skin barrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiedemann, Daniel; Clausen, Maja Lisa; John, Swen Malthe;

    2016-01-01

    of this study is to review the literature on the effects of glove occlusion on skin barrier function. The PubMed database was searched up to 1 February 2015 for articles on the association between glove occlusion and skin barrier function, including human studies only and in English. Only experimental studies...

  20. Comorbidity in patients with branch retinal vein occlusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Mette; Linneberg, Allan; Rosenberg, Thomas;

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate comorbidity before and after the diagnosis of branch retinal vein occlusion to determine whether it is a consequence of arterial thickening and therefore could serve as a diagnostic marker for other comorbidities and to evaluate the risk factors for the development of such occlusion....

  1. Epidemiology of aortic disease - aneurysm, dissection, occlusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The physiological infrarenal aortic diameter varies between 12.4 mm in women an 27.6 mm in men. As defined, an aneurysmatic dilatation begins with 29 mm. According to that, 9% of all people above the age of 65 are affected by an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Compared with the female sex, the male sex predominates at a rate of about 5:1. The disease is predominant in men of the white race. In black men, black and white women the incidence of AAA is identical. 38 to 50 percent of the AAA patients (patients) suffer from hypertension, 33 to 60% from coronary, 28% from cerebrovascular and 25% from peripheral occlusive disease. The AAA expansion rate varies between 0.2 and 0.8 cm per year and is exponential from a diameter of 5 cm on. In autopsy studies, the rupture rates with AAA diameters of 7 cm were below 5%, 39% and 65%, respecitvely. 70% of the AAA patients do not die of a rupture, but of a cardiac disease. Serum markers, such as metalloproteinases and procollagen peptides are significantly increased in AAA patients. Thoraco-abdominal aneurysms (TAA) make up only 2 to 5% of all degenerative aneurysms. 20 to 30% of the TAA patients are also affected by an AAA. 80% of the TAA are degenerative, 15 to 20% are a consequence of the chronic dissection - including 5% of Marfan patients -, 2% occur in case of infections and 1 to 2% in case of aortitis. The TAA incidence in 100,000 person-years is 5.9% during a monitoring period of 30 years. In case of TAA, an operation is indicated with a maximum diameter of 5.5 to 6 cm and more and, in case of a Marfan's syndrome (incidence of 1:10,000), with a maximum diameter of 5.5 cm and more. With regard to aorto-iliac occlusive diseases, there are defined 3 types of distribution. Type I refers to the region of the bifurcation itself. Type II defines the diffuse aortoiliac spread of the disease. Type III designates multiple-level occlusions also beyond the inguinal ligament. Type I patients in most cases are female and more

  2. Clinical application of hepatic venous occlusion for hepatectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Ze-ya; YANG Yuan; ZHOU Wei-ping; LI Ai-jun; FU Si-yuan; WU Meng-chao

    2008-01-01

    Background Most liver resections require clamping of the hepatic pedicle (Pringle maneuver) to avoid excessive blood loss. But Pringle maneuver can not control backflow bleeding of hepatic vein, Resection of liver tumors involving hepatic veins may cause massive hemorrhage or air embolism from the injuries of the hepatic veins. Although total hepatic vascular exclusion can prevent bleeding of the hepatic veins effectively, it also may result in systemic hemodynamic disturbance because of the inferior vena cava being clamped. Hepatic venous occlusion, a new technique, can control the inflow and outflow of the liver without clamping the vena cava.Methods A total of 71 cases of liver tumors underwent resection with occlusion of more than one of the main hepatic veins. All tumors involved the second porta hepatis and at least one main hepatic vein. Ligation or occlusion with serrefines, tourniquets and auricular clamps were used in hepatic venous occlusion.Results Of the 71 patients, ligation of the hepatic veins was used in 28 cases, occlusion with a tourniquet in 26, and occlusion with a serrefine in 17. Right hepatic veins were occluded in 38 cases, both right and middle hepatic veins in 2,the common trunk of the left and middle hepatic veins in 24, branches of the left and middle hepatic veins in 2, and all three hepatic veins in 5. Thirty-five cases underwent hemihepatic vascular occlusion, 4 alternate hemihepatic vascular occlusion, 23 portal triad clamping plus selective hepatic vein occlusion, and 9 portal triad clamping plus total hepatic vein occlusion. The third porta hepatis was isolated in 26 cases. The amount of intraoperative blood loss averaged (540±283) (range 100 to 1000) ml in the group of total hemihepatic vascular occlusion and in the group of alternate hemihepatic vascular occlusion, (620±317) (range 200-6000) ml in the group of portal triad clamping plus selective or total hepatic vein occlusion. All tumors were completely removed

  3. The Electroretinogram in Patients with Retinal Vascular Occlusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shizhou Huang; Lezheng Wu; Taiqing Luo; De-Zheng Wu; Futian Jiang; Guangwei Luo; Juanmei Ma

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: to measure and analyze the electroretinogram (ERG) in patients with retinal vascular occlusion. Method: fifty-eight cases (59 eyes) of retinal vascular occlusion and the fellow eyes of 47 cases were tested with Ganzfeld ERG. The scotopic and photopic ERG, and oscillatory potentials were tested according to the ERG standard of ISCEV. Results: The abnormal rates of Ops and b wave were higher in retinal vascular occlusion. The abnormal ERG appeared mostly in CRVO among four types of retinal vascular occlusion. The comparisons of some amplitudes and latencies between the fellow eyes and the affected eyes showed statistically significant difference. Conclusion: The oscillatory potentials and b waves have important roles in evaluating the retinal function of patients with retinal vascular occlusions. There are some clinical significance for comparing ERG between the affected eye and the fellow eye. Eye Science 2001; 17: 50 ~ 53.

  4. Gastroesophageal reflux diagnosed by occlusal splint tintion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebrián-Carretero, José Luis; López-Arcas-Calleja, José María

    2006-01-01

    The gastroesophageal reflux (GER) disease is a very frequent digestive disorder, mainly characterised by the reflux of the gastric acidic content to the esophage in abnormal quantities. There are different situations that favour this situation but almost in all of them rely an incompetence of the esophagic sphincter. The clinical consequences are many, including oral manifestations. Among all of them the most frequent is the esophagitis followed by symptoms at the pharynx or larynx and finally, the oral cavity. At this level fundamentally we will find enamel and oral mucosa erosions. We report the case of a patient who was indirectly diagnosed of her esophague disease by the observation of the alterations in the occlusal splint induced by the gastric reflux. We review the literature concerning the above topic and its possible association with the miofascial syndrome.

  5. Local histograms and image occlusion models

    CERN Document Server

    Massar, Melody L; Fickus, Matthew; Kovacevic, Jelena

    2011-01-01

    The local histogram transform of an image is a data cube that consists of the histograms of the pixel values that lie within a fixed neighborhood of any given pixel location. Such transforms are useful in image processing applications such as classification and segmentation, especially when dealing with textures that can be distinguished by the distributions of their pixel intensities and colors. We, in particular, use them to identify and delineate biological tissues found in histology images obtained via digital microscopy. In this paper, we introduce a mathematical formalism that rigorously justifies the use of local histograms for such purposes. We begin by discussing how local histograms can be computed as systems of convolutions. We then introduce probabilistic image models that can emulate textures one routinely encounters in histology images. These models are rooted in the concept of image occlusion. A simple model may, for example, generate textures by randomly speckling opaque blobs of one color on ...

  6. Robust visual tracking with contiguous occlusion constraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pengcheng; Qian, Weixian; Chen, Qian

    2016-02-01

    Visual tracking plays a fundamental role in video surveillance, robot vision and many other computer vision applications. In this paper, a robust visual tracking method that is motivated by the regularized ℓ1 tracker is proposed. We focus on investigating the case that the object target is occluded. Generally, occlusion can be treated as some kind of contiguous outlier with the target object as background. However, the penalty function of the ℓ1 tracker is not robust for relatively dense error distributed in the contiguous regions. Thus, we exploit a nonconvex penalty function and MRFs for outlier modeling, which is more probable to detect the contiguous occluded regions and recover the target appearance. For long-term tracking, a particle filter framework along with a dynamic model update mechanism is developed. Both qualitative and quantitative evaluations demonstrate a robust and precise performance.

  7. Pathology of Coronary Chronic Total Occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichi Sakakura

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing need for percutaneous revascularization procedures of coronary Chronic Total Occlusion (CTO, because many patients with severe coronary artery disease have limited options for revascularization. Although the success rate of percutaneous revascularization of CTOs was unsatisfactory from the 1990s to the 2000s, recent technological advances in interventional strategies have improved the success rate to 85%. Detailed histological assessment of human autopsy studies of CTO has contributed significantly to the refinement in Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI techniques and device development. We have recently reported the pathological findings and characteristics of CTOs that occur in different clinical scenarios. In this review, we discuss the pathology of CTOs to facilitate greater understanding of revascularization strategies for CTOs.

  8. Acute aortic occlusion presenting as flaccid paraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilany, Ayman; Al-Hashel, Jasem Y; Rady, Azza

    2015-01-01

    A 67-year-old male known to be hypertensive and diabetic had a sudden onset of severe low back pain and flaccid paraplegia with no sensory level or bladder affection and the distal pulsations were felt. Acute compressive myelopathy was excluded by MRI of the dorsal and lumbar spines. The nerve conduction study and CSF analysis was suggestive of acute demyelinating polyneuropathy. The patient developed ischemic changes of the lower limb and CT angiography revealed severe stenosis of the abdominal aorta and both common iliac arteries. We emphasize the importance of including acute aortic occlusion in the differential diagnosis of acute flaccid paraplegia especially in the presence of severe back pain even if the distal pulsations were felt. PMID:25866688

  9. Retinal vein occlusion in Benin City, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odarosa M Uhumwangho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Retinal vein occlusion (RVO is the most common occlusive retinal vascular disorder and results in varying degrees of visual loss. Aim: To determine the pattern of presentation, risk factors, and treatment outcomes in a group of patients with RVO seen in a tertiary hospital in Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Medical records of patients who presented to the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria in whom a diagnosis of RVO was made over a 5 years period were reviewed. Data obtained were analyzed with the GraphPad Instat Software, Inc. version V2.05a program, San Diego, Califonia and a P < 0.05 considered significant. Results: There were 20 patients made of 14 (70.0% males and 6 (30.0% females with a mean age of 62.7 ± 10.4 years. There were 15 (68.2% eyes with central RVO, 3 (13.6% eyes with branch RVO, and 4 (18.2% eyes with hemi RVO. Bilateral involvement occurred in 2 (10.0% patients. Risk factors included hypertension 14 (70.0%, diabetes mellitus 9 (45.0%, and glaucoma 5 (22.7%. Multiple risk factors were present in 14 (70.0% patients. Complications included macula edema 15 (68.2%, retinal neovascularization 5 (22.7%, neovascular glaucoma 3 (13.6%, and vitreous hemorrhage 2 (9.1%. Eyes which had definitive treatment with intravitreal antivascular endothelial growth factors and laser photocoagulation for macula edema and retinal neovascularization, respectively, had better visual acuity compared to eyes which did not receive these treatment, P = 0.002. Conclusion: The incidence and visual loss that occurs from RVO can be reduced by modifying known risk factors and early institution of appropriate therapy for complications that occur.

  10. Coherent spatial and temporal occlusion generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein Gunnewiek, R.; Berretty, R.-P. M.; Barenbrug, B.; Magalhães, J. P.

    2009-02-01

    A vastly growing number of productions from the entertainment industry are aiming at 3D movie theatres. These productions use a two-view format, primarily intended for eye-wear assisted viewing in a well defined environment. To get this 3D content into the home environment, where a large variety of 3D viewing conditions exists (e.g different display sizes, display types, viewing distance), we need a flexible 3D format that can adjust the depth effect. Such a format is the image plus depth format in which a video frame is enriched with depth information of all pixels in the video. This format can be extended with an additional layer for occluded video and associated depth, that contains what is behind objects in the video. To produce 3D content in this extended format, one has to deduce what is behind objects. There are various axes along which this occluded data can be obtained. This paper presents a method to automatically detect and fill the occluded areas exploiting the temporal axis. To get visually pleasing results, it is of utmost importance to make the inpainting globally consistent. To do so, we start by analyzing data along the temporal axis and compute a confidence for each pixel. Then pixels from the future and the past that are not visible in the current frame are weighted and accumulated based on computed confidences. These results are then fed to a generic multi-source framework that computes the occlusion layer based on the available confidences and occlusion data.

  11. Thrombophilic screening in retinal artery occlusion patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Nagy

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Valeria Nagy1, Lili Takacs1, Zita Steiber1, György Pfliegler2, Andras Berta11Department of Ophthalmology, 2Division of Rare Diseases, University of Debrecen Medical and Health Science Center, Debrecen, HungaryBackground: Retinal artery occlusion (RAO is an ischemic vascular damage of the retina, which frequently leads to sudden, mostly irreversible loss of vision. In this study, blood thrombophilic factors as well as cardiovascular risk factors were investigated for their relevance to this pathology. Thrombophilic risk factors so far not evaluated were included in the study.Patients and methods: 28 RAO patients and 81 matched control subjects were examined. From blood samples, protein C, protein S, antithrombinopathy, and factor V (Leiden mutation (FV, factor II gene polymorphism, factor VIII C level, plasminogen activity, lipoprotein(a and fibrinogen levels, hyperhomocysteinemia and presence of anticardiolipin – antiphospholipid antibodies were investigated. Possibly relevant pathologies such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and ischemic heart disease were also registered. Statistical analysis by logistic regression was performed with 95% confidence intervals.Results: In the group of patients with RAO only the incidence of hypertension (OR: 3.33, 95% CI: 1.30–9.70, p = 0.014 as an average risk factor showed significant difference, but thrombophilic factors such as hyperfibrinogenemia (OR: 2.9, 95% CI: 1.29–6.57, p = 0.010 and the presence of FV (Leiden mutation (OR: 3.9, 95% CI: 1.43–10.96, p = 0.008 increased the chances of developing this disease.Conclusions: Our results support the assumption that thrombophilia may contribute to the development of RAO besides vascular damage due to the presence of cardiovascular risk factors. Further studies are needed, however, to justify the possible use of secondary prophylaxis in form of anticoagulant/antiplatelet therapy.Keywords: retinal arterial occlusion, risk factors, thrombophilia

  12. A Case of Incomplete Central Retinal Artery Occlusion Associated with Short Posterior Ciliary Artery Occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Makino

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To our knowledge, incomplete central retinal artery occlusion associated with short posterior ciliary artery occlusion is extremely rare. Herein, we describe a case of a 62-year-old man who was referred to our hospital with of transient blindness in his right eye. At initial examination, the patient’s best-corrected visual acuity was 18/20 in the right eye. Fundus examination showed multiple soft exudates around the optic disc and mild macular retinal edema in his right eye; however, a cherry red spot on the macula was not detected. Fluorescein angiography revealed delayed dye inflow into the nasal choroidal hemisphere that is supplied by the short posterior ciliary artery. The following day, the patient’s visual acuity improved to 20/20. Soft exudates around the optic disc increased during observation and gradually disappeared. His hemodynamic parameters revealed subclavian steal syndrome as examined by cervical ultrasonography and digital subtraction angiography. We speculate that his transient blindness was due to ophthalmic artery spasms. In this particular case, spasms of the ophthalmic artery and occlusion of the short posterior ciliary artery occurred simultaneously. As the short posterior ciliary artery branches from the ophthalmic artery, the anatomical location of the lesion might be near the branching of both arteries.

  13. Measurement of the radon diffusion through a nylon foil for different air humidities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dependency of the radon penetration through a nylon foil on air humidity was measured. Such information is needed for the tracking part of the SuperNEMO detector, which is planned to be shielded against radon by nylon foil and in which the air humidity is not negligible. The long term measurements of radon penetration through nylon foils for different air humidities were performed with the radon diffusion setup constructed at the IEAP, CTU in Prague. The setup consists of two stainless steel hemispheres with Si detector in each of them. Both hemispheres are separated by the tested foil. While the left hemisphere contains high Rn activity, the right part contains only activity caused by the radon penetration through the tested foil. Obtained results of this study with a nylon foil with the thickness of 50 µm are presented

  14. Measurement of the radon diffusion through a nylon foil for different air humidities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamedov, Fadahat; Štekl, Ivan; Smolek, Karel

    2015-08-01

    The dependency of the radon penetration through a nylon foil on air humidity was measured. Such information is needed for the tracking part of the SuperNEMO detector, which is planned to be shielded against radon by nylon foil and in which the air humidity is not negligible. The long term measurements of radon penetration through nylon foils for different air humidities were performed with the radon diffusion setup constructed at the IEAP, CTU in Prague. The setup consists of two stainless steel hemispheres with Si detector in each of them. Both hemispheres are separated by the tested foil. While the left hemisphere contains high Rn activity, the right part contains only activity caused by the radon penetration through the tested foil. Obtained results of this study with a nylon foil with the thickness of 50 µm are presented.

  15. Measurement of the radon diffusion through a nylon foil for different air humidities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamedov, Fadahat; Štekl, Ivan; Smolek, Karel [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Czech Technical University in Prague Horská 3a/22, 128 00 Praha 2 (Czech Republic)

    2015-08-17

    The dependency of the radon penetration through a nylon foil on air humidity was measured. Such information is needed for the tracking part of the SuperNEMO detector, which is planned to be shielded against radon by nylon foil and in which the air humidity is not negligible. The long term measurements of radon penetration through nylon foils for different air humidities were performed with the radon diffusion setup constructed at the IEAP, CTU in Prague. The setup consists of two stainless steel hemispheres with Si detector in each of them. Both hemispheres are separated by the tested foil. While the left hemisphere contains high Rn activity, the right part contains only activity caused by the radon penetration through the tested foil. Obtained results of this study with a nylon foil with the thickness of 50 µm are presented.

  16. Stabilizing effect of flexibility in the wake of a flapping foil

    CERN Document Server

    Marais, Catherine; Wesfreid, José Eduardo; Godoy-Diana, Ramiro

    2012-01-01

    The wake of a flexible foil undergoing pitching oscillations in a low-speed hydrodynamic tunnel is used to examine the effect of chord-wise foil flexibility in the dynamical features of flapping-based propulsion. We compare the regime transitions in the wake with respect to the case of a rigid foil and show that foil flexibility inhibits the symmetry breaking of the reverse B\\'enard-von K\\'arm\\'an wake reported in the literature. A momentum balance calculation shows the average thrust to be up to three times greater for the flexible foil than for the rigid foil. We explain both of these observations by analyzing the vortex dynamics in the very near wake.

  17. A generalized solution of elasto-aerodynamic lubrication for aerodynamic compliant foil bearings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU; Lie; QI; Shemiao; GENG; Haipeng

    2005-01-01

    Although aerodynamic compliant foil bearings are successfully applied in a number of turbo-machineries, theoretical researches on the modeling, performance prediction of compliant foil bearings and the dynamic analysis of the related rotor system seem still far behind the experimental investigation because of structural complexity of the foil bearings. A generalized solution of the elasto-aerodynamic lubrication is presented in this paper by introducing both static and dynamic deformations of foils and solving gas-lubricated Reynolds equations with deformation equations simultaneously. The solution can be used for the calculation of dynamic stiffness and damping, as well as the prediction of static performances of foil bearings. Systematical theories and methods are also presented for the purpose of the prediction of dynamic behavior of a rotor system equipped with foil bearings.

  18. Pu-ZR Alloy high-temperature activation-measurement foil

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCuaig, Franklin D.

    1977-08-02

    A nuclear reactor fuel alloy consists essentially of from slightly greater than 7 to about 4 w/o zirconium, balance plutonium, and is characterized in that the alloy is castable and is rollable to thin foils. A preferred embodiment of about 7 w/o zirconium, balance plutonium, has a melting point substantially above the melting point of plutonium, is rollable to foils as thin as 0.0005 inch thick, and is compatible with cladding material when repeatedly cycled to temperatures above 650.degree. C. Neutron flux densities across a reactor core can be determined with a high-temperature activation-measurement foil which consists of a fuel alloy foil core sandwiched and sealed between two cladding material jackets, the fuel alloy foil core being a 7 w/o zirconium, plutonium foil which is from 0.005 to 0.0005 inch thick.

  19. Pu-Zr alloy for high-temperature foil-type fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCuaig, Franklin D.

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear reactor fuel alloy consists essentially of from slightly greater than 7 to about 4 w/o zirconium, balance plutonium, and is characterized in that the alloy is castable and is rollable to thin foils. A preferred embodiment of about 7 w/o zirconium, balance plutonium, has a melting point substantially above the melting point of plutonium, is rollable to foils as thin as 0.0005 inch thick, and is compatible with cladding material when repeatedly cycled to temperatures above 650.degree. C. Neutron reflux densities across a reactor core can be determined with a high-temperature activation-measurement foil which consists of a fuel alloy foil core sandwiched and sealed between two cladding material jackets, the fuel alloy foil core being a 7 w/o zirconium, plutonium foil which is from 0.005 to 0.0005 inch thick.

  20. Control of Oscillating Foil for Propulsion of Biorobotic Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Singh

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper treats the question of control of a laterally and rotationally oscillating hydrofoil for the propulsion of biologically inspired robotic (biorobotic autonomous underwater vehicles (BAUVs. Sinusoidal oscillations of foils produce maneuvering and propulsive forces. The design is based on the internal model principle. Two springs are used to transmit forces from the actuators to the foil. Oscillating fins produce periodic forces, which can be used for fish-like propulsion and control of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs. The equations of motion of the foil include hydrodynamic lift and moment based on linear, unsteady, aerodynamic theory. A control law is derived for the lateral and rotational sinusoidal oscillation of the foil. In the closed-loop system, the lateral displacement and the rotational angle of the foil asymptotically follow sinusoidal trajectories of distinct frequencies and amplitudes independently. Simulation results are presented to show the trajectory tracking performance of the foil for different freestream velocities and sinusoidal command trajectories.

  1. Occlusal adjustment using the bite plate-induced occlusal position as a reference position for temporomandibular disorders: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Many researchers have not accepted the use of occlusal treatments for temporomandibular disorders (TMDs). However, a recent report described a discrepancy between the habitual occlusal position (HOP) and the bite plate-induced occlusal position (BPOP) and discussed the relation of this discrepancy to TMD. Therefore, the treatment outcome of evidence-based occlusal adjustments using the bite plate-induced occlusal position (BPOP) as a muscular reference position should be evaluated in patients with TMD. Methods The BPOP was defined as the position at which a patient voluntarily closed his or her mouth while sitting in an upright posture after wearing an anterior flat bite plate for 5 minutes and then removing the plate. Twenty-one patients with TMDs underwent occlusal adjustment using the BPOP. The occlusal adjustments were continued until bilateral occlusal contacts were obtained in the BPOP. The treatment outcomes were evaluated using the subjective dysfunction index (SDI) and the Helkimo Clinical Dysfunction Index (CDI) before and after the occlusal adjustments; the changes in these two indices between the first examination and a one-year follow-up examination were then analyzed. In addition, the difference between the HOP and the BPOP was three-dimensionally measured before and after the treatment. Results The percentage of symptom-free patients after treatment was 86% according to the SDI and 76% according to the CDI. The changes in the two indices after treatment were significant (p 0.1). Conclusion Although the results of the present study should be confirmed in other studies, a randomized clinical trial examining occlusal adjustments using the BPOP as a reference position appears to be warranted. PMID:20346167

  2. Occlusal adjustment using the bite plate-induced occlusal position as a reference position for temporomandibular disorders: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiwata Ichiro

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many researchers have not accepted the use of occlusal treatments for temporomandibular disorders (TMDs. However, a recent report described a discrepancy between the habitual occlusal position (HOP and the bite plate-induced occlusal position (BPOP and discussed the relation of this discrepancy to TMD. Therefore, the treatment outcome of evidence-based occlusal adjustments using the bite plate-induced occlusal position (BPOP as a muscular reference position should be evaluated in patients with TMD. Methods The BPOP was defined as the position at which a patient voluntarily closed his or her mouth while sitting in an upright posture after wearing an anterior flat bite plate for 5 minutes and then removing the plate. Twenty-one patients with TMDs underwent occlusal adjustment using the BPOP. The occlusal adjustments were continued until bilateral occlusal contacts were obtained in the BPOP. The treatment outcomes were evaluated using the subjective dysfunction index (SDI and the Helkimo Clinical Dysfunction Index (CDI before and after the occlusal adjustments; the changes in these two indices between the first examination and a one-year follow-up examination were then analyzed. In addition, the difference between the HOP and the BPOP was three-dimensionally measured before and after the treatment. Results The percentage of symptom-free patients after treatment was 86% according to the SDI and 76% according to the CDI. The changes in the two indices after treatment were significant (p 0.1. Conclusion Although the results of the present study should be confirmed in other studies, a randomized clinical trial examining occlusal adjustments using the BPOP as a reference position appears to be warranted.

  3. Report on Analysis of China’s Aluminum Foil Market in 2014

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    1.China’s domestic production of aluminum foil China is a big country in terms of aluminum foil production,as it owns the highest number of most advanced 2000mm grade foil rolling mills in the world,with about 35 sets(with production capacity of about 400,000 t/a),12more than the combined sum total of all other countries worldwide.According to Antaike’s data,in 2014 China’s

  4. Effect of cerium addition on microstructure and texture of aluminum foil for electrolytic capacitors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海燕; 李文学; 任慧平; 黄丽颖; 王向阳

    2010-01-01

    Anode foil of aluminum electrolytic capacitor,which requires large surface area for high capacitance,were prepared by rolling,annealing and electrochemical etching.Effects of cerium addition on the capacitance of aluminum electrolytic capacitors were investigated.Microstructure of the aluminum foil surface was observed by optical microscopy(OM) and scanning electron microscopy(SEM).Electron back scattered diffraction(EBSD) was also employed to reveal texture evolvement of cold-rolled aluminum foil after ann...

  5. A novel clear foil cushion construction incorporating an additional water layer

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Fei

    2011-01-01

    Pneumatic clear foil cushion systems, notably as ETFE foil cushions have been developed as an alternative technology to large-scale glass glazing systems for wide-span buildings. The systems display better thermal performance and have advantages of extremely low dead-weight constructions compared to conventional glazing systems, and thereby the increasing popularity of foil cushion cladding systems have been witnessed in the last decades. However due to their lightweight and thinness, the the...

  6. A comment on the average foil-hit number for a high-intensity proton ring

    CERN Document Server

    Yamane, I

    2002-01-01

    The minimum value of the average foil-hit number is derived for H sup - charge-exchange injection using a stripping foil, in which the H sup - beam is injected at a corner of the stripper foil and the cross-sectional area of the ring beam is increased as a function of time, kt sup 1 sup / sup n , where k and n are constants.

  7. X-Ray Measurements Of Total Reflectivity And Scattering From Au-Coated Foils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornstrup, Allan; Christensen, Finn Erland; Schnopper, H. W.

    1989-01-01

    We present X-ray measurements of total reflectivity and scattering from gold coated foils. The foils are two sorts of 0.3 mm thick dip-lacquered aluminum, 0.125 mm thick plastic (Upilex) and 0.5 mm thick dip-lacquered nickel. The analysis of the data show a high reflectivity for all but the plast...... foil, and only small microroughness (-10A at lengthscales below -0.1 micron), evidenced by low resolution scat-tering measurements....

  8. Experimental research of the fine foil explosion dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work is devoted to studying of substances properties at high specific deposit energy using double-frame pulsed backlighting system. The high specific deposit energy was reached at electrical conductor explosion (ECE). Fast mode of ECE was investigated. Fine foils of aluminum, copper, titanium and nickel were used as conductors. Experiments were carried out on the experimental complex consisting of three current generators. The first generator WEG-' was used for explosion of the fine conductors. This generator represents fast capacitor with capacity 250 nF, which was charged to voltage 10 to 30 kV. The investigated conductor was mounted in special holder and the foil contacts with the electrodes were soldered. Two other generators - radiographs XPG-1 and G2 with x-pinch load were used two frame X-ray backlighting imaging. The generators current pulses had amplitude 300 kA and rising time 180 ns with a low inductance load. Four crossed molybdenum wires with diameter of 25 μm were used to form an x-pinch. Using of the x-pinches soft x-ray radiation the images of exploded foil were registered with temporal resolution of 2 ns. The images were detected by a photo film located behind the filter. The x-ray imaging, together with the measurements of the current flowing through a conductor and voltage on the exploded conductor had allowed inferring of the energy deposited into the conductor, delay time of the bubbles formation relative to the moment of current- cutoff and the time dependence of the vapor bubbles quantity

  9. Polycarbosilazane passivation on graphite foil used as gasket seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasket seals are often used in industry and laboratories where a leak-proof installation is needed in order to avoid loss of products or dangerous materials. Many of products transported inside tubes are at relatively high temperatures excluding polymeric gaskets. In the same line, many of transported materials contain solvents which can attack polymer sealings, therefore limiting their use. An alternative is to use graphite joints as sealings. These joints are a sandwich of graphite foil and stainless steel mesh as forming core. The problem that raises using graphite in contact with steel is that at temperatures of about 500 °C an interdiffusion of carbon on the steel structure occurs which produces adhesion of the graphite gasket on the metallic flange. Therefore this adhesion increases the time to change each gasket, since rests of previously adhered graphite has to be removed from the flange. In order to avoid the adhesion of the graphite on the flange, polycarbosilazane precursor was used as protective finishing on the graphite foil surface. After thermal transformation of the polymer into the corresponding PDC finishing, it acts in two manners: It avoids the direct contact between the carbon and the steel and it allows the sealing of liquids and gases. Adhesion tests were done and showed that the foils passivated with PDCs did not adhere to the steel flange. Moreover, the production methods and products are compatible to industrial environment and processes. The results found here show that the time to change the gasket in industry can be clearly reduced by using the PDC finishing on graphite gasket

  10. Short-pulse high intensity laser thin foil interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audebert, Patrick

    2003-10-01

    The technology of ultrashort pulse laser generation has progressed to the point that optical pulses larger than 10 J, 300 fs duration or shorter are routinely produced. Such pulses can be focused to intensities exceeding 10^18 W/cm^2. With high contrast pulses, these focused intensities can be used to heat solid matter to high temperatures with minimal hydrodynamic expansion, producing an extremely high energy-density state of matter for a short period of time. This high density, high temperature plasma can be studied by x-ray spectroscopy. We have performed experiments on thin foils of different elements under well controlled conditions at the 100 Terawatt laser at LULI to study the characteristics X-ray emission of laser heated solids. To suppress the ASE effect, the laser was frequency doubled. S-polarized light with a peak intensity of 10^19W/cm^2 was used to minimize resonance absorption. To decrease the effect of longitudinal temperature gradients very thin (800 μ) aluminum foil targets were used. We have also studied the effect of radial gradient by limiting the measured x-ray emission zone using 50μ or 100μ pinhole on target. The spectra, in the range 7-8Å, were recorded using a conical crystal spectrometer coupled to a 800 fs resolution streak camera. A Fourier Domain Interferometry (FDI) of the back of the foil was also performed providing a measurement of the hydrodynamic expansion as function of time for each shot. To simulate the experiment, we used the 1D hydrodynamic code FILM with a given set of plasma parameter (ρ, Te) as initial conditions. The X-ray emission was calculated by post processing hydrodynamic results with a collisional-radiative model which uses super-configuration average atomic data. The simulation reproduces the main features of the experimental time resolved spectrum.

  11. Analysis of cartilage-polydioxanone foil composite grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, James H; Wong, Brian

    2013-12-01

    This study presents an analytical investigation into the mechanical behavior of a cartilage-polydioxanone (PDS) plate composite grafts. Numerical methods are used to provide a first-order, numerical model of the flexural stiffness of a cartilage-PDS graft. Flexural stiffness is a measure of resistance to bending and is inversely related to the amount of deformation a structure may experience when subjected to bending forces. The cartilage-PDS graft was modeled as a single composite beam. Using Bernoulli-Euler beam theory, a closed form equation for the theoretical flexural stiffness of the composite graft was developed. A parametric analysis was performed to see how the flexural properties of the composite model changed with varying thicknesses of PDS foil. The stiffness of the cartilage-PDS composite using 0.15-mm-thick PDS was four times higher than cartilage alone. The composite with a 0.5-mm-thick PDS graft was only 1.7 times stiffer than the composite with the 0.15-mm-thick PDS graft. Although a thicker graft material will yield higher flexural stiffness for the composite, the relationship between composite stiffness and PDS thickness is nonlinear. After a critical point, increments in graft thickness produce gradually smaller improvements in flexural stiffness. The small increase in stiffness when using the thicker PDS foils versus the 0.15 mm PDS foil may not be worth the potential complications (prolonged foreign body reaction, reduction in nutrient diffusion to cartilage) of using thicker artificial grafts. PMID:24327249

  12. Micro-forming of Al-Si foil

    OpenAIRE

    T. Haga; Inoue, K.; H. Watari

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: of this paper is as below. The investigation of the ability of the cold micro-forming of non-metallic glass was purpose. The grain of the rapidly solidified aluminium alloy became fine. The aluminium alloy foil with fine grain was used, and the investigation of the micro-formability of this alloy was investigated. Moreover, increase of the forming speed was investigated. The increase of the forming speed was purpose of this study, too.Design/methodology/approach: The nozzle pressing ...

  13. Microcutting and forming of thin aluminium foils for MEMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Christian Danvad; Mortensen, Dennis; Rombach, Pirmin;

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a simple procedure for simultaneous cutting and forming of thin Al foils for use in MEMS components. The procedure makes use of scaled down macroscopic sheet forming and cutting techniques by using a hydraulic press, a soft counterpart, and a microfabricated stamp tool...... lines. Using the procedure presented in this paper scaled to full 4-8 in. silicon wafer stamp tools, a fast and adequate method for high volume production of MEMS components is obtained. © 2011 American Society of Mechanical Engineers....

  14. Synthetic Graphene Grown by Chemical Vapor Deposition on Copper Foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ting Fung; Shen, Tian; Cao, Helin; Jauregui, Luis A.; Wu, Wei; Yu, Qingkai; Newell, David; Chen, Yong P.

    2013-04-01

    The discovery of graphene, a single layer of covalently bonded carbon atoms, has attracted intense interest. Initial studies using mechanically exfoliated graphene unveiled its remarkable electronic, mechanical and thermal properties. There has been a growing need and rapid development in large-area deposition of graphene film and its applications. Chemical vapor deposition on copper has emerged as one of the most promising methods in obtaining large-scale graphene films with quality comparable to exfoliated graphene. In this paper, we review the synthesis and characterizations of graphene grown on copper foil substrates by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition. We also discuss potential applications of such large-scale synthetic graphene.

  15. BEAM-FOIL SPECTROSCOPY OF CHLORINE AND SULFUR IONS

    OpenAIRE

    Frot, D.; Barchewitz, R.; Cukier, M.; Dei-Cas, R.; Bruneau, J

    1987-01-01

    We report on the measurement of spectra of highly stripped chlorine and sulfur ions in the energy ranges of, respectively, 2900 - 3500 eV and 2300 - 2600 eV. The spectra have been obtained after excitation of ions travelling through a thin carbon foil . X-rays emitted by the emerging beam are analyzed with a Johanntype bent crystal spectrometer. The observation angle with respect to the beam axis is 54°. The interpretation of the spectra is performed by comparing experimental results with Mul...

  16. Laser Proton acceleration from mass limited silicon foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeil, K.; Kraft, S.; Richter, T.; Metzkes, J.; Bussmann, M.; Schramm, U.; Sauerbrey, R.; Cowan, T. E.; Fuchs, J.; Buffechoux, S.

    2009-11-01

    We present recent studies on laser proton acceleration experiments using mass limited silicon targets. Small micro machined silicon foils with 2 μm thickness and 20x20 μm2 to 100x100μm2 size mounted on very tiny stalks were shot with the 100 TW LULI Laser (long pulse 150 fs) and with the new 150 TW DRACO Laser facility (short pulse 30 fs) of the Research Centre Dresden-Rossendorf. The experiments were carried out using high contrast levels. Proton spectra have been measured with magnetic spectrometers and radio chromic film stacks.

  17. Foil system fatigue load environments for commercial hydrofoil operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    The hydrofoil fatigue loads environment in the open sea is examined. The random nature of wave orbital velocities, periods and heights plus boat heading, speed and control system design are considered in the assessment of structural fatigue requirements. Major nonlinear load events such as hull slamming and foil unwetting are included in the fatigue environment. Full scale rough water load tests, field experience plus analytical loads work on the model 929 Jetfoil commercial hydrofoil are discussed. The problem of developing an overall sea environment for design is defined. State of the art analytical approaches are examined.

  18. Biomechanics of occlusion--implications for oral rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, C C

    2016-03-01

    The dental occlusion is an important aspect of clinical dentistry; there are diverse functional demands ranging from highly precise tooth contacts to large crushing forces. Further, there are dogmatic, passionate and often diverging views on the relationship between the dental occlusion and various diseases and disorders including temporomandibular disorders, non-carious cervical lesions and tooth movement. This study provides an overview of the biomechanics of the masticatory system in the context of the dental occlusion's role in function. It explores the adaptation and precision of dental occlusion, its role in bite force, jaw movement, masticatory performance and its influence on the oro-facial musculoskeletal system. Biomechanics helps us better understand the structure and function of biological systems and consequently an understanding of the forces on, and displacements of, the dental occlusion. Biomechanics provides insight into the relationships between the dentition, jaws, temporomandibular joints, and muscles. Direct measurements of tooth contacts and forces are difficult, and biomechanical models have been developed to better understand the relationship between the occlusion and function. Importantly, biomechanical research will provide knowledge to help correct clinical misperceptions and inform better patient care. The masticatory system demonstrates a remarkable ability to adapt to a changing biomechanical environment and changes to the dental occlusion or other components of the musculoskeletal system tend to be well tolerated. PMID:26371622

  19. Modeling self-occlusions in dynamic shape and appearance tracking

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yanchao

    2013-12-01

    We present a method to track the precise shape of a dynamic object in video. Joint dynamic shape and appearance models, in which a template of the object is propagated to match the object shape and radiance in the next frame, are advantageous over methods employing global image statistics in cases of complex object radiance and cluttered background. In cases of complex 3D object motion and relative viewpoint change, self-occlusions and disocclusions of the object are prominent, and current methods employing joint shape and appearance models are unable to accurately adapt to new shape and appearance information, leading to inaccurate shape detection. In this work, we model self-occlusions and dis-occlusions in a joint shape and appearance tracking framework. Experiments on video exhibiting occlusion/dis-occlusion, complex radiance and background show that occlusion/dis-occlusion modeling leads to superior shape accuracy compared to recent methods employing joint shape/appearance models or employing global statistics. © 2013 IEEE.

  20. Occlusion detection via structured sparse learning for robust object tracking

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Tianzhu

    2014-01-01

    Sparse representation based methods have recently drawn much attention in visual tracking due to good performance against illumination variation and occlusion. They assume the errors caused by image variations can be modeled as pixel-wise sparse. However, in many practical scenarios, these errors are not truly pixel-wise sparse but rather sparsely distributed in a structured way. In fact, pixels in error constitute contiguous regions within the object’s track. This is the case when significant occlusion occurs. To accommodate for nonsparse occlusion in a given frame, we assume that occlusion detected in previous frames can be propagated to the current one. This propagated information determines which pixels will contribute to the sparse representation of the current track. In other words, pixels that were detected as part of an occlusion in the previous frame will be removed from the target representation process. As such, this paper proposes a novel tracking algorithm that models and detects occlusion through structured sparse learning. We test our tracker on challenging benchmark sequences, such as sports videos, which involve heavy occlusion, drastic illumination changes, and large pose variations. Extensive experimental results show that our proposed tracker consistently outperforms the state-of-the-art trackers.

  1. Object tracking by occlusion detection via structured sparse learning

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Tianzhu

    2013-06-01

    Sparse representation based methods have recently drawn much attention in visual tracking due to good performance against illumination variation and occlusion. They assume the errors caused by image variations can be modeled as pixel-wise sparse. However, in many practical scenarios these errors are not truly pixel-wise sparse but rather sparsely distributed in a structured way. In fact, pixels in error constitute contiguous regions within the object\\'s track. This is the case when significant occlusion occurs. To accommodate for non-sparse occlusion in a given frame, we assume that occlusion detected in previous frames can be propagated to the current one. This propagated information determines which pixels will contribute to the sparse representation of the current track. In other words, pixels that were detected as part of an occlusion in the previous frame will be removed from the target representation process. As such, this paper proposes a novel tracking algorithm that models and detects occlusion through structured sparse learning. We test our tracker on challenging benchmark sequences, such as sports videos, which involve heavy occlusion, drastic illumination changes, and large pose variations. Experimental results show that our tracker consistently outperforms the state-of-the-art. © 2013 IEEE.

  2. Flexible foiled dielectrics: classification and analysis of ways for application and improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vorobyev A. V.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a classification of flexible foiled dielectrics of different types. A comparative analysis of the properties of dielectrics manufactured with the use of adhesives, as well as without them, is given. Methods for the preparation of flexible foiled non-adhesive dielectrics, materials of conductive layer and a dielectric base are considered. The technical characteristics of the various polymer films used as a dielectric base are given. The advantages of the polyimide films in comparison with other polymer films are shown. The most perspective option of manufacturing of non-adhesive foiled dielectrics based on polyimide obtained by applying of a polyimide lacquer on metal foil, the so-called lacquer-foil dielectrics, is highlighted. The technology of manufacturing of lacquer-foil dielectrics with higher quality characteristics is described. The polyimide base of dielectrics has better adhesion to the foil and guaranteed uniformity of degree of imidization of 95—100%. The technology developed has allowed to carry out serial production of materials for electronic equipment. Series of lacquer-foil dielectrics of different thicknesses of foil is manufactured: aluminum — 10, 14, 20, 25 and 30 µm, nickel — 7 µm and copper — 18, 35, 50 µm. These materials are used for the manufacturing of flexible polyimide carriers, stubs, microcables, membranes of acoustic transducers and thermistors.

  3. Goal-directed mechanisms that constrain retrieval predict subsequent memory for new "foil" information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelsang, David A; Bonnici, Heidi M; Bergström, Zara M; Ranganath, Charan; Simons, Jon S

    2016-08-01

    To remember a previous event, it is often helpful to use goal-directed control processes to constrain what comes to mind during retrieval. Behavioral studies have demonstrated that incidental learning of new "foil" words in a recognition test is superior if the participant is trying to remember studied items that were semantically encoded compared to items that were non-semantically encoded. Here, we applied subsequent memory analysis to fMRI data to understand the neural mechanisms underlying the "foil effect". Participants encoded information during deep semantic and shallow non-semantic tasks and were tested in a subsequent blocked memory task to examine how orienting retrieval towards different types of information influences the incidental encoding of new words presented as foils during the memory test phase. To assess memory for foils, participants performed a further surprise old/new recognition test involving foil words that were encountered during the previous memory test blocks as well as completely new words. Subsequent memory effects, distinguishing successful versus unsuccessful incidental encoding of foils, were observed in regions that included the left inferior frontal gyrus and posterior parietal cortex. The left inferior frontal gyrus exhibited disproportionately larger subsequent memory effects for semantic than non-semantic foils, and significant overlap in activity during semantic, but not non-semantic, initial encoding and foil encoding. The results suggest that orienting retrieval towards different types of foils involves re-implementing the neurocognitive processes that were involved during initial encoding. PMID:27431039

  4. Goal-directed mechanisms that constrain retrieval predict subsequent memory for new "foil" information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelsang, David A; Bonnici, Heidi M; Bergström, Zara M; Ranganath, Charan; Simons, Jon S

    2016-08-01

    To remember a previous event, it is often helpful to use goal-directed control processes to constrain what comes to mind during retrieval. Behavioral studies have demonstrated that incidental learning of new "foil" words in a recognition test is superior if the participant is trying to remember studied items that were semantically encoded compared to items that were non-semantically encoded. Here, we applied subsequent memory analysis to fMRI data to understand the neural mechanisms underlying the "foil effect". Participants encoded information during deep semantic and shallow non-semantic tasks and were tested in a subsequent blocked memory task to examine how orienting retrieval towards different types of information influences the incidental encoding of new words presented as foils during the memory test phase. To assess memory for foils, participants performed a further surprise old/new recognition test involving foil words that were encountered during the previous memory test blocks as well as completely new words. Subsequent memory effects, distinguishing successful versus unsuccessful incidental encoding of foils, were observed in regions that included the left inferior frontal gyrus and posterior parietal cortex. The left inferior frontal gyrus exhibited disproportionately larger subsequent memory effects for semantic than non-semantic foils, and significant overlap in activity during semantic, but not non-semantic, initial encoding and foil encoding. The results suggest that orienting retrieval towards different types of foils involves re-implementing the neurocognitive processes that were involved during initial encoding.

  5. Role of induced vortex interaction in a semi-active flapping foil based energy harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J.; Chen, Y. L.; Zhao, N.

    2015-09-01

    The role of induced vortex interaction in a semi-active flapping foil based energy harvester is numerically examined in this work. A NACA0015 airfoil, which acts as an energy harvester, is placed in a two-dimensional laminar flow. It performs an imposed pitching motion that subsequently leads to a plunging motion. Two auxiliary smaller foils, which rotate about their centers, are arranged above and below the flapping foil, respectively. As a consequence, the vortex interaction between the flapping foil and the rotating foil is induced. At a Reynolds number of 1100 and the position of the pitching axis at one-third chord, the effects of the distance between two auxiliary foils, the phase difference between the rotating motion and the pitching motion as well as the frequency of pitching motion on the power extraction performance are systematically investigated. It is found that compared to the single flapping foil, the efficiency improvement of overall power extraction for the flapping foil with two auxiliary foils can be achieved. Based on the numerical analysis, it is indicated that the enhanced power extraction, which is caused by the increased lift force, thanks to the induced vortex interaction, directly benefits the efficiency enhancement.

  6. [Intestinal occlusion and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagnitti, Franco

    2009-01-01

    Intestinal occlusion is defined as an independent predictive factor of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) which represents an independent predictor of mortality. Baggot in 1951 classified patients operated with intestinal occlusion as being at risk for IAH ("abdominal blow-out"), recommending them for open abdomen surgery proposed by Ogilvie. Abdominal surgery provokes IAH in 44.7% of cases with mortality which, in emergency, triples with respect to elective surgery (21.9% vs 6.8%). In particular, IAH is present in 61.2% of ileus and bowel distension and is responsible for 52% of mortality (54.8% in cases with intra-abdominal infection). These patients present with an increasing intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) which, over 20-25 mmHg, triggers an Abdominal Compartment Syndrome (ACS) with altered functions in some organs arriving at Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome (MODS). The intestine normally covers 58% of abdominal volume but when there is ileus distension, intestinal pneumatosis develops (third space) which can occupy up to 90% of the entire cavity. At this moment, Gastro Intestinal Failure (GIF) can appear, which is a specific independent risk factor of mortality, motor of "Organ Failure". The pathophysiological evolution has many factors in 45% of cases: intestinal pneumatosis is associated with mucosal and serous edema, capillary leakage with an increase in extra-cellular volume and peritoneal fluid collections (fourth space). The successive loss of the mucous barrier permits a bacterial translocation which includes bacteria, toxins, pro-inflammatory factors and oxygen free radicals facilitating the passage from an intra-abdominal to inter-systemic vicious cyrcle. IAH provokes the raising of the diaphragm, and vascular and visceral compressions which induce hypertension in the various spaces with compartmental characteristics. These trigger hypertension in the renal, hepatic, pelvic, thoracic, cardiac, intracranial, orbital and lower extremity areas, giving

  7. Personnel neutron dosimetry using electrochemically etched CR-39 foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A personnel neutron dosimetry system has been developed based on the electrochemical etching of CR-39 plastic at elevated temperatures. The doses obtained using this dosimeter system are more accurate than those obtained using other dosimetry systems, especially when varied neutron spectra are encountered. This Cr-39 dosimetry system does not have the severe energy dependence that exists with albedo neutron dosimeters or the fading and reading problems encountered with NTA film. The dosimetry system employs an electrochemical etch procedure that be used to process large numbers of Cr-39 dosimeters. The etch procedure is suitable for operations where the number of personnel requires that many CR-39 dosimeters be processed. Experience shows that one full-time technician can etch and evaluate 2000 foils per month. The energy response to neutrons is fairly flat from about 80 keV to 3.5 MeV, but drops by about a factor of three in the 13 to 16 MeV range. The sensitivity of the dosimetry system is about 7 tracks/cm2/mrem, with a background equivalent to about 8 mrem for new CR-39 foils. The limit of sensitivity is approximately 10 mrem. The dosimeter has a significant variation in directional dependence, dropping to about 20% at 900. This dosimeter has been used for personnel neutron dosimetry at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for more tha 18 months. 6 refs., 23 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Kinetics of the oxidation of Zn foils in air atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baca, R; Martinez, J [Centro de Investigacion de Dispositivos Semiconductores, BUAP, Puebla. C.P. 72570 (Mexico); Kryshtab, T [Departamento de Ciencias de Materiales, ESFM - IPN, Mexico D.F (Mexico); Juarez, G; Solache, H; Andraca, J; Garcia, O; Pena-Sierra, R, E-mail: rbaca02006@yahoo.com.mx

    2010-02-15

    The formation kinetics of ZnO thin films grown by oxidation of polycrystalline Zn foils in air atmosphere at temperatures below the melting point is reported. Previous to the oxidation process the Zn foils were polished to produce mirror-like finished surfaces. The growth rate of the ZnO films was monitored by ellipsometric measurements. The growth rate of the ZnO films under 100 nm follows a linear and parabolic behavior in accordance with previously reported studies. The thicknesses of the films strongly influence the appearance of the final produced ZnO surface. The ZnO films surfaces with thicknesses less than 100 nm resulted uniform with low rms roughness. However as the films become thicker the rms roughness increased and a uniform distribution of whiskers was observed. X-ray diffraction and photoluminescence (PL) studies were done on the ZnO films to find out their structural and optical characteristics. PL spectra on the films are composed by two main bands; a weak near-band gap in the ultraviolet region and a strong but well defined green band. A discussion is included on the origins of the observed PL spectra.

  9. A simple method for the measurement of reflective foil emissivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reflective metal foil is widely used to reduce radiative heat transfer within the roof space of buildings. Such foils are typically mass-produced by vapor-deposition of a thin metallic coating onto a variety of substrates, ranging from plastic-coated reinforced paper to 'bubble-wrap'. Although the emissivity of such surfaces is almost negligible in the thermal infrared, typically less than 0.03, an insufficiently thick metal coating, or organic contamination of the surface, can significantly increase this value. To ensure that the quality of the installed insulation is satisfactory, Australian building code AS/NZS 4201.5:1994 requires a practical agreed method for measurement of the emissivity, and the standard ASTM-E408 is implied. Unfortunately this standard is not a 'primary method' and requires the use of specified expensive apparatus and calibrated reference materials. At NMIA we have developed a simple primary technique, based on an apparatus to thermally modulate the sample and record the apparent modulation in infra-red radiance with commercially available radiation thermometers. The method achieves an absolute accuracy in the emissivity of approximately 0.004 (k=2). This paper theoretically analyses the equivalence between the thermal emissivity measured in this manner, the effective thermal emissivity in application, and the apparent emissivity measured in accordance with ASTM-E408

  10. A simple method for the measurement of reflective foil emissivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballico, M. J.; Ham, E. W. M. van der [National Measurement Institute, Lindfield, NSW 2070 (Australia)

    2013-09-11

    Reflective metal foil is widely used to reduce radiative heat transfer within the roof space of buildings. Such foils are typically mass-produced by vapor-deposition of a thin metallic coating onto a variety of substrates, ranging from plastic-coated reinforced paper to 'bubble-wrap'. Although the emissivity of such surfaces is almost negligible in the thermal infrared, typically less than 0.03, an insufficiently thick metal coating, or organic contamination of the surface, can significantly increase this value. To ensure that the quality of the installed insulation is satisfactory, Australian building code AS/NZS 4201.5:1994 requires a practical agreed method for measurement of the emissivity, and the standard ASTM-E408 is implied. Unfortunately this standard is not a 'primary method' and requires the use of specified expensive apparatus and calibrated reference materials. At NMIA we have developed a simple primary technique, based on an apparatus to thermally modulate the sample and record the apparent modulation in infra-red radiance with commercially available radiation thermometers. The method achieves an absolute accuracy in the emissivity of approximately 0.004 (k=2). This paper theoretically analyses the equivalence between the thermal emissivity measured in this manner, the effective thermal emissivity in application, and the apparent emissivity measured in accordance with ASTM-E408.

  11. Flexible foils with electrochromic coatings: science, technology and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper covers a number of aspects of a novel flexible electrochromic foil capable of varying its optical transmittance. The foil includes thin films of tungsten oxide and nickel oxide and an intervening polymer electrolyte serving as lamination material. Concerning scientific aspects, we discuss the prevalent defects in amorphous tungsten oxide and how they lead to a consistent picture of the optical properties of tungsten oxide films as a function of non-stoichiometry and ion intercalation. We also present a refined model for the coloration/bleaching due to proton extraction/insertion in surface sheaths of nano-crystallites of nickel oxide. We then turn to aspects of technology and treat ways to enhance the bleached-state transmittance by mixing the nickel oxide with another oxide having a wide band gap, pre-assembly charge insertion/extraction by facile gas treatments of the films and practical device manufacturing. The final part covers some applications with emphasis on architectural 'smart windows' capable of achieving improved indoor comfort together with significant energy savings due to lowered demands for space cooling. We also touch upon applications concerning eyewear

  12. Tilted Foils Nuclear Spin Polarization and Measurement with Coulomb Excitation

    CERN Document Server

    Törnqvist, Hans; Kowalska, M; Wenander, F

    2012-01-01

    Developing new experimental tools is essential to expand the possibilities of probing the structure of atomic nuclei. The better the currently known properties of nuclei can be manipulated, the more information can be extracted from data collected in nuclear reaction experiments. One property that has been controlled for many years is the nuclear spin, but this has only been viable for a certain set of isotopes with restrictions on for example specific atomic excitation schemes or half-lives. This thesis will provide details on an evaluation project using thin tilted foils after the REX-ISOLDE linac at the CERN-ISOLDE experimental facility, to polarize the spin of nuclei in-flight. The nuclear polarization is then measured with a technique based on Coulomb excitation, which is a flexible and readily available experimental method at ISOLDE with the MINIBALL spectrometer. The tilted foils technique may be beneficial to polarize the nuclear spin of short-lived radioactive beams that can be difficult by other mea...

  13. The correlation between wake transition and propulsive efficiency of a flapping foil: A numerical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jian; Sun, Liping; Teng, Lubao; Pan, Dingyi; Shao, Xueming

    2016-09-01

    We study numerically the propulsive wakes produced by a flapping foil. Both pure pitching and pure heaving motions are considered, respectively, at a fixed Reynolds number of Re = 1700. As the major innovation of this paper, we find an interesting coincidence that the efficiency maximum agrees well with the 2D-3D transition boundary, by plotting the contours of propulsive efficiency in the frequency-amplitude parametric space and comparing to the transition boundaries. Although there is a lack of direct 3D simulations, it is reasonable to conjecture that the propulsive efficiency increases with Strouhal number until the wake transits from a 2D state to a 3D state. By comparing between the pure pitching motion and the pure heaving motion, we find that the 2D-3D transition occurs earlier for the pure heaving foil than that of the pure pitching foil. Consequently, the efficiency for the pure heaving foil peaks more closely to the wake deflection boundary than that of the pure pitching foil. Furthermore, since we have drawn the maps on the same parametric space with the same Reynolds number, it is possible to make a direct comparison in the propulsive efficiency between a pure pitching foil and a pure heaving foil. We note that the maximum efficiency for a pure pitching foil is 15.6%, and that of a pure heaving foil is 17%, indicating that the pure heaving foil has a slightly better propulsive performance than that of the pure pitching foil for the currently studied Reynolds number.

  14. Bilateral Central Retinal Vein Occlusions Combined with Artery Occlusions in A Patient with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Wen; Xuemei Chen; Haitai Li; Ruiduan Liao; Dezheng Wu

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: This is the first report of a bilateral nonischemic central retinal vein occlusionscombined with artery occlusions in a patient with acquired immune deficiency syndrome(AIDS). Methods: Case report. Results: A 22-year-old Chinese(male) with a positive human immunodeficiency virus(HIV) infection developed bilateral nonischemic central retinal vein occlusions combinedwith artery occlusions and severe vision loss. The manifestations of the fundus andfluorescein angiography were similar in both eyes.Conclusion: This case report provides the evidences that central retinal vein and arteryocclusions are probably part of the spectrum of AIDS vascular diseases.

  15. Fetal MRI in experimental tracheal occlusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedegaertner, Ulrike [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistrasse 52, 20251 Hamburg (Germany)]. E-mail: wedegaer@uke.uni-hamburg.de; Schroeder, Hobe J. [Experimental Gynecology, Department of Obstetrics and Prenatal Medicine, Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Adam, Gerhard [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany)

    2006-02-15

    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is associated with a high mortality, which is mainly due to pulmonary hypoplasia and secondary pulmonary hypertension. In severely affected fetuses, tracheal occlusion (TO) is performed prenatally to reverse pulmonary hypoplasia, because TO leads to accelerated lung growth. Prenatal imaging is important to identify fetuses with pulmonary hypoplasia, to diagnose high-risk fetuses who would benefit from TO, and to monitor the effect of TO after surgery. In fetal imaging, ultrasound (US) is the method of choice, because it is widely available, less expensive, and less time-consuming to perform than magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, there are some limitations for US in the evaluation of CDH fetuses. In those cases, MRI is helpful because of a better tissue contrast between liver and lung, which enables evaluation of liver herniation for the diagnosis of a high-risk fetus. MRI provides the ability to determine absolute lung volumes to detect lung hypoplasia. In fetal sheep with normal and hyperplastic lungs after TO, lung growth was assessed on the basis of cross-sectional US measurements, after initial lung volume determination by MRI. To monitor fetal lung growth after prenatal TO, both MRI and US seem to be useful methods.

  16. Vertebrobasilar occlusions. Pathophysiology, diagnostics and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acute vertebrobasilar occlusions (VBO) are dramatic clinical events with a mortality of up to 90% under standard medical treatment. If VBO is suspected a diagnosis of the vessel status has to be achieved immediately. For this purpose CT/CTA and MRI/MRA are equivalent diagnostic tools in the emergency setting. In contrast to the anterior circulation, local endovascular treatment is the established therapy for the posterior circulation as an underlying arteriosclerotic stenosis remains in 50% of the cases after intravenous fibrinolysis. Nevertheless, systemic fibrinolysis is considered the preferred option in cases where a neurointerventional center cannot be reached within a reasonable time frame and the patient can subsequently be transported for local therapy of a residual stenosis in order to prevent reocclusion (''drip and ship''). Profound clinical and pathophysiological knowledge is the absolute prerequisite for the correct application of state-of-the-art neurointerventional therapy. This review paper focuses on the clinical and pathophysiological details that are crucial for decision-making. (orig.)

  17. Fetal MRI in experimental tracheal occlusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is associated with a high mortality, which is mainly due to pulmonary hypoplasia and secondary pulmonary hypertension. In severely affected fetuses, tracheal occlusion (TO) is performed prenatally to reverse pulmonary hypoplasia, because TO leads to accelerated lung growth. Prenatal imaging is important to identify fetuses with pulmonary hypoplasia, to diagnose high-risk fetuses who would benefit from TO, and to monitor the effect of TO after surgery. In fetal imaging, ultrasound (US) is the method of choice, because it is widely available, less expensive, and less time-consuming to perform than magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, there are some limitations for US in the evaluation of CDH fetuses. In those cases, MRI is helpful because of a better tissue contrast between liver and lung, which enables evaluation of liver herniation for the diagnosis of a high-risk fetus. MRI provides the ability to determine absolute lung volumes to detect lung hypoplasia. In fetal sheep with normal and hyperplastic lungs after TO, lung growth was assessed on the basis of cross-sectional US measurements, after initial lung volume determination by MRI. To monitor fetal lung growth after prenatal TO, both MRI and US seem to be useful methods

  18. Clinical trials in branch retinal vein occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tandava Krishnan Panakanti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO is the second most common retinal vascular disorder. The management of macular edema has changed considerably over time. The laser is considered the gold standard treatment for over two decades. However, visual recovery with laser is usually slow and incomplete. The advent of intravitreal agents, specifically anti-vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF have heralded a new era which promises rapid recovery of vision and quality of vision. Randomized clinical trials have reported optimal results with anti-VEGF agents (ranibizumab, bevacizumab, and aflibercept compared to laser therapy or steroids. However, nearly 50% of the patients require repeat intravitreal anti-VEGF therapy up to 4 years after initiating therapy to sustain the visual gains. The adverse events (systemic and ocular of these agents are minimal. Monotherapy with anti-VEGF agents have been found to provide better results than any combination with laser. This review article summarizes evidence from randomized controlled trials evaluating treatment options for the treatment of macular edema secondary to BRVO with a special focus on anti-VEGF therapy.

  19. Celiac artery stenosis/occlusion treated by interventional radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, Osamu [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Kumamoto University Graduate School of Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 1-1-1, Honjo Kumamoto 860-8505 (Japan)], E-mail: osamu-3643ik@do9.enjoy.ne.jp; Tamura, Yoshitaka; Nakasone, Yutaka; Yamashita, Yasuyuki [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Kumamoto University Graduate School of Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 1-1-1, Honjo Kumamoto 860-8505 (Japan)

    2009-08-15

    Severe stenosis/occlusion of the proximal celiac trunk due to median arcuate ligament compression (MALC), arteriosclerosis, pancreatitis, tumor invasion, and celiac axis agenesis has been reported. However, clinically significant ischemic bowel disease attributable to celiac axis stenosis/occlusion appears to be rare because the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) provides for rich collateral circulation. In patients with celiac axis stenosis/occlusion, the most important and frequently encountered collateral vessels from the SMA are the pancreaticoduodenal arcades. Patients with celiac artery stenosis/occlusion are treated by interventional radiology (IR) via dilation of the pancreaticoduodenal arcade. In patients with dilation of the pancreaticoduodenal arcade on SMA angiograms, IR through this artery may be successful. Here we provide several tips on surmounting these difficulties in IR including transcatheter arterial chemoembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma, an implantable port system for hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy to treat metastatic liver tumors, coil embolization of pancreaticoduodenal artery aneurysms, and arterial stimulation test with venous sampling for insulinomas.

  20. Celiac artery stenosis/occlusion treated by interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severe stenosis/occlusion of the proximal celiac trunk due to median arcuate ligament compression (MALC), arteriosclerosis, pancreatitis, tumor invasion, and celiac axis agenesis has been reported. However, clinically significant ischemic bowel disease attributable to celiac axis stenosis/occlusion appears to be rare because the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) provides for rich collateral circulation. In patients with celiac axis stenosis/occlusion, the most important and frequently encountered collateral vessels from the SMA are the pancreaticoduodenal arcades. Patients with celiac artery stenosis/occlusion are treated by interventional radiology (IR) via dilation of the pancreaticoduodenal arcade. In patients with dilation of the pancreaticoduodenal arcade on SMA angiograms, IR through this artery may be successful. Here we provide several tips on surmounting these difficulties in IR including transcatheter arterial chemoembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma, an implantable port system for hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy to treat metastatic liver tumors, coil embolization of pancreaticoduodenal artery aneurysms, and arterial stimulation test with venous sampling for insulinomas.

  1. Choice PTTM guidewire for recanalization of total occlusive coronary arteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUYANG Ping; HE Shi-hua; CHEN Wei-Kang; WOO Carrie

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the therapeutic effects of 0. 014″Choice PTTM wire in chronic total occlusion angioplasty. Methods: Balloon angioplasty was attempted in 25 arteries with chronic total occlusion,with the mean time of occlusion of 17±13 months (ranging from 2 to 84 months) and mean length of 14±6mm (ranging from 5 to 25 mm). The morphology of the lesions included bridging collaterals (4 cases), calcification (3 cases) and major side branch at the lesion (4 cases) . Choice PTTM wire was used electively in all the cases. Results: Lesion was crossed successfully in 92% (23/25) cases, without incidences of dissection of the coronary artery with subintimal entry. Balloon angioplasy and stenting (n=21) were performed with good immediate angiograghic results. Acute myocardial infarction or death occurred in none of the patients.Conclusion Successful recanalization of chronic coronary total occlusions using Choice PTTM wire can be achieved with good safety.

  2. Avoiding occlusal derangement in facial fractures: An evidence based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derick Mendonca

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Facial fractures with occlusal derangement describe any fracture which directly or indirectly affects the occlusal relationship. Such fractures include dento-alveolar fractures in the maxilla and mandible, midface fractures - Le fort I, II, III and mandible fractures of the symphysis, parasymphysis, body, angle, and condyle. In some of these fractures, the fracture line runs through the dento-alveolar component whereas in others the fracture line is remote from the occlusal plane nevertheless altering the occlusion. The complications that could ensue from the management of maxillofacial fractures are predominantly iatrogenic, and therefore can be avoided if adequate care is exercised by the operating surgeon. This paper does not emphasize on complications arising from any particular technique in the management of maxillofacial fractures but rather discusses complications in general, irrespective of the technique used.

  3. Image Based Solution to Occlusion Problem for Multiple Robots Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taj Mohammad Khan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In machine vision, occlusions problem is always a challenging issue in image based mapping and navigation tasks. This paper presents a multiple view vision based algorithm for the development of occlusion-free map of the indoor environment. The map is assumed to be utilized by the mobile robots within the workspace. It has wide range of applications, including mobile robot path planning and navigation, access control in restricted areas, and surveillance systems. We used wall mounted fixed camera system. After intensity adjustment and background subtraction of the synchronously captured images, the image registration was performed. We applied our algorithm on the registered images to resolve the occlusion problem. This technique works well even in the existence of total occlusion for a longer period.

  4. Height Gradient Approach for Occlusion Detection in Uav Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, H. C.; Habib, A. F.; Dal Poz, A. P.; Galo, M.

    2015-08-01

    The use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) significantly increased in the last years. It is used for several different applications, such as mapping, publicity, security, natural disasters assistance, environmental monitoring, 3D building model generation, cadastral survey, etc. The imagery obtained by this kind of system has a great potential. To use these images in true orthophoto generation projects related to urban scenes or areas where buildings are present, it is important to consider the occlusion caused by surface height variation, platform attitude, and perspective projection. Occlusions in UAV imagery are usually larger than in conventional airborne dataset due to the low-altitude and excessive change in orientation due to the low-weight and wind effects during the flight mission. Therefore, this paper presents a method for occlusion detection together with some obtained results for images acquired by a UAV platform. The proposed method shows potential in occlusion detection and true orthophoto generation.

  5. Different Occlusal Schemes in a Persistent Protruding Complete Denture Wearer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Mayumi Iegami

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Different types of artificial teeth and occlusal designs can be used in complete dentures. Bilateral balanced occlusion, lingualized occlusion, canine guidance, and monoplane are the main occlusal designs; however there is no agreement on which tooth arrangement is ideal for achieving success in complete dentures. This report presents an alternative for persistent involuntary protruding complete denture wearers through the use of artificial teeth with higher cusps. Due to an old and worn pair of complete dentures, the patient had the habit of protruding. New dentures were made with Biotone artificial teeth and in the trial session, the patient would still protrude. A new set was made with Premium artificial teeth, which present higher cusps. With these dentures, the involuntary protrusion did not occur. From the delivery to the follow-up sessions, the patient stopped protruding.

  6. Different Occlusal Schemes in a Persistent Protruding Complete Denture Wearer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iegami, Carolina Mayumi; Lopes, Danilo de Melo; Nakamae, Atlas Edson Moleros; Uehara, Priscila Nakasone; Tamaki, Regina

    2016-01-01

    Different types of artificial teeth and occlusal designs can be used in complete dentures. Bilateral balanced occlusion, lingualized occlusion, canine guidance, and monoplane are the main occlusal designs; however there is no agreement on which tooth arrangement is ideal for achieving success in complete dentures. This report presents an alternative for persistent involuntary protruding complete denture wearers through the use of artificial teeth with higher cusps. Due to an old and worn pair of complete dentures, the patient had the habit of protruding. New dentures were made with Biotone artificial teeth and in the trial session, the patient would still protrude. A new set was made with Premium artificial teeth, which present higher cusps. With these dentures, the involuntary protrusion did not occur. From the delivery to the follow-up sessions, the patient stopped protruding. PMID:27069698

  7. Occlusal accommodation and mouthguards for prevention of orofacial trauma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Geary, Julian Lindsay

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of two types of occlusal accommodation on the arch separation in centric and eccentric arch positions and to assess the opposing tooth contacts in professionally made, thermoformed sports mouthguards.

  8. Early rethrombosis in femoropopliteal occlusions treated with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, B; Meisner, S; Holstein, P;

    1990-01-01

    success as well as vascular patency were evaluated. The results were grouped into the following subsets: the indication for PTA, the severity of the vascular lesion, the crural run-off and the length of lesion. The results were in every respect poor with total occlusions when compared with stenoses....... This was explained by a high incidence (41%) of rethrombosis within hours of dilatation. Early rethrombosis was seen with all lengths of occlusion (1-27 cm) with no statistically significant difference from other subsets. This study concludes that conventional PTA in femoropopliteal occlusions should be reserved...... for cases of limb salvage, preferably in patients who are technically inoperable. We suggest a new technique of segmentally enclosed thrombolysis to prevent early rethrombosis after PTA in femoropopliteal occlusions....

  9. Occlusion-amblyopia following high dose oral levodopa combined with part time patching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihir Kothari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Part time occlusion therapy is not reported to cause occlusion (reverse amblyopia. However, when combined with high dose oral levodopa, an increase in the plasticity of the visual cortex can lead to occlusion amblyopia. In this case report, we describe a six year old child who developed occlusion amblyopia following part time patching combined with oral levodopa.

  10. Branch retinal vein occlusion associated with quetiapine fumarate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siang Lim

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To report a case of branch retinal vein occlusion in a young adult with bipolar mood disorder treated with quetiapine fumarate. Case Presentation A 29 years old gentleman who was taking quetiapine fumarate for 3 years for bipolar mood disorder, presented with sudden vision loss. He was found to have a superior temporal branch retinal vein occlusion associated with hypercholesterolemia. Conclusion Atypical antipsychotic drugs have metabolic side effects which require regular monitoring and prompt treatment.

  11. Trauma from occlusion — An orthodontist’s perspective

    OpenAIRE

    R. Saravanan; Babu, Prajeeth J.; Rajakumar, P.

    2010-01-01

    Orthodontic therapy has a big role in the treatment and prevention of malpositions. The signs and symptoms experienced by patients with occlusal trauma are mobility of teeth, temperomandibular joint pain, pain on mastication and periodontal disease. Early diagnosis, proper treatment plan and correction of malocclusion can lead to a successful outcome. Lack of awareness of orthodontic treatment in patients with occlusal trauma can even lead to loss of tooth structure.

  12. Influence of occlusal splint thickness on the position of mandible

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yong-jin; Nagashima T; Nokubi T

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the influence of occlusal splint thickness on mandibular movement. Methods: Stabilization occlusal splints of 3, 5 and 7 mm thickness were respectively used during clenching from light contact in intercuspal position and the movement of condyles and incisor point were recorded in 5 healthy subjects. Results:The condyles moved anteriorly and superiorly without wearing occlusal splint. When wearing the occlusal splints the condyles displaced anteriorly and inferiorly. The distance of displacement increased gradually with raising the thickness of splint, though the significant difference was just found in right condyle in superior- inferior movement. The condyles went again on a path of anterior and superior direction when subjects clenched from the displaced position. In right condyle the displacement was significantly greater at 7 mm splint than that at 3 mm splint both in anterior-posterior and inferior-superior direction, while in left condyle only in anterior-posterior direction. Meanwhile, the incisal point movement was larger at 7 mm splint than at 3 mm splint in inferior-superior direction. In tapping movement there were no significant differences in condyle movement between the different thickness of occlusal splint. However, the coefficient of variation in total cycle time was the greatest when wearing the splint of 7 mm. Conclusion: Occlusal splint of 7 mm has greater effect than that of 3 mm on condyle movement, but no obvious difference with occlusal splint of 5 mm. When occlusal splint of 7 mm is inserted, the stability of condyle might be influenced during tapping movement.

  13. Effect of Different Occlusion on Facial Expressions Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Ankita Vyas; Ramchand Hablani

    2014-01-01

    Occlusions around facial parts complicate the task of recognizing facial expressions from their facial images. We propose facial expressions recognition method based on local facial regions, which provides better recognition rate in the presence of facial occlusions. Proposed method uses Uniform Local Binary pattern as a feature extractor, which extract discriminative features from some important parts of facial image. Feature vectors are classified using simplest classifier th...

  14. Prevalence of Orthodontic Treatment Need and Occlusal Traits in Schoolchildren

    OpenAIRE

    Jamilian, Abdolreza; Darnahal, Alireza; Damani, Elnaz; Talaeipour, Maziar; Kamali, Zinat

    2014-01-01

    Background. Widespread use of the IOTN along with detailed study of occlusal traits is suitable for planning community dental health resources. Objectives. The aim of current study was to assess the need for orthodontic treatment among school children of Tehran by means of the Dental Health Component (DHC) of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN) and also to evaluate the occlusal traits of the subjects. Methods. 684 (343 boys and 341 girls) school children, 15 to 17 years of age, wer...

  15. Plain abdominal film and abdominal ultrasound in intestine occlusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plain film of the abdomen is widely used in the diagnostic evaluation of intestinal occlusion. Even though this technique can yield a panoramic and high-resolution view of gas-filled intestinal loops, several factors, such as type and duration of occlusion, neurovascular status of the intestine and general patient condition, may reduce the diagnostic specificy of the plain film relative to the organic or functional nature of the occlusion. From 1987 to 1989, fifty-four patients with intestinal occlusion were studied combining plain abdominal film with abdominal ultrasound (US). This was done in order to evaluate whether the additional information obtained from US could be of value in better determining the nature of the ileus. US evaluation was guided by the information already obtained from plain film which better demonstrates gas-filled loops. The results show that in all 27 cases of dynamic ileus (intestinal ischemia, acute appendicitis, acute cholecistis, acute pancreatitis or blunt abdominal trauma) US demonstrates: intestinal loops slightly increased in caliber, with liquid content, or loops containing rare hyperechoic particles, intestinal wall thickening and no peristalsis. In 27 cases of acute, chronic or complicated mechanical ileus (adhesions, internal hernia, intestinal neoplasm, peritoneal seedings) US shows: 1) in acute occlusion: hyperperistaltic intestinal loops containing inhomogeneous liquid; 2) in chronic occlusion: liquid content with a solid echigenic component; 3) in complicated occlusion: liquid stasis, frequent increase in wall thickness, moderate peritoneal effusion and inefficient peristalsis. In conclusion, based on the obtained data, the authors feel that the combination of plain abdominal film and abdominal US can be useful in the work-up of patient with intestinal occlusion. The information provided by US allows a better definition of the nature of the ileus

  16. Veno-occlusive disease of the colon - CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rademaker, J. [Department of Radiology I, Medical School Hannover (Germany)

    1998-10-01

    Venous occlusion is a rare cause of ischemic bowel disease and is usually brought about by thrombosis that may occur as a complication of systemic disorders like systemic lupus erythematosus, Behcet disease or Churg-Strauss syndrome. This report describes a patient with veno-occlusive disease of the colon caused by lymphocytic phlebitis. Typical CT findings included homogeneous bowel wall thickening and vascular engorgement. (orig.) (orig.) With 1 fig., 4 refs.

  17. Prefrontal Hemodynamic Changes Associated with Subjective Sense of Occlusal Discomfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumie Ono

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We used functional near-infrared spectroscopy to measure prefrontal brain activity accompanying the physical sensation of oral discomfort that arose when healthy young-adult volunteers performed a grinding motion with mild occlusal elevation (96 μm. We simultaneously evaluated various forms of occlusal discomfort using the visual analogue scale (VAS and hemodynamic responses to identify the specific prefrontal activity that occurs with increased occlusal discomfort. The Oxy-Hb responses of selected channels in the bilateral frontopolar and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices increased in participants who reported increased severity of occlusal discomfort, while they decreased in those who reported no change or decreased occlusal discomfort during grinding. Moreover, the cumulative values of Oxy-Hb response in some of these channels were statistically significant predictive factors for the VAS scores. A generalized linear model analysis of Oxy-Hb signals in a group of participants who reported increased discomfort further indicated significant cerebral activation in the right frontopolar and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices that overlapped with the results of correlation analyses. Our results suggest that the increased hemodynamic responses in the prefrontal area reflect the top-down control of attention and/or self-regulation against the uncomfortable somatosensory input, which could be a possible marker to detect the subjective sense of occlusal discomfort.

  18. Prism Foil from an LCD Monitor as a Tool for Teaching Introductory Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planinsic, Gorazd; Gojkosek, Mihael

    2011-01-01

    Transparent prism foil is part of a backlight system in LCD monitors that are widely used today. This paper describes the optical properties of the prism foil and several pedagogical applications suitable for undergraduate introductory physics level. Examples include experiments that employ refraction, total internal reflection, diffraction and…

  19. Effect of microstructure on specific capacitance of AA3003 aluminum alloy foils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新明; 靳丽; 肖亚庆; 蹇雄

    2003-01-01

    By means of OM, EDS, SEM and TEM, the effect of microstructures of AA3003 aluminum alloy foils on specific capacitance was investigated . The results show that the specific capacitance of the cathode aluminum foils depends on the microstructures of the foils, including intermetallic compound (Mn,Fe)Al6 and Al matrix, tangled dislocations in the regions adjacent to the intermetallic particles, and smaller and dispersed particles. Because the dislocation interaction with larger particles gives rise to high local lattice curvature in the matrix, which can be preferentially dissolved when etched, which results in serious remnant metal powders on the foil surface. Solid solution at 630 ℃, quenching in water and aging at 60 ℃ may increase the number of the second phase particles, and reduce the large particles, so that the capacitance of the cathode foils becomes higher and almost no powders remain on the surface of the foil. By means of aging after quenching, the precipitated particles and etch-pit density in the foil increase obviously, therefore the favourable microstructures can be produced to improve the specific capacitance of the foils.

  20. Current Situation and Development Tendency of China’s Electronic Copper Foil Industry-Part Ⅰ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>In 2011, in despite of production expansion slowdown of China’s electronic copper foil industry due to global economic downturn, European debt crisis and global inflation, China’s production capacity of copper foil rose through extensive construction of new and extension projects.

  1. On the preparation of self-supporting zinc target foils of separated isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the second report on the practical method of preparation of targets for nuclear experiments following the previous one (INS-TL-121 (in Japanese)). In this report, a method is described for the preparation of self-supporting zinc foils from ZnO. The thicknesses of target foils and their uniformity were measured with an α-ray thickness gauge. (auth.)

  2. Ultrasmooth metallic foils for growth of high quality graphene by chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procházka, Pavel; Mach, Jindřich; Bischoff, Dominik; Lišková, Zuzana; Dvořák, Petr; Vaňatka, Marek; Simonet, Pauline; Varlet, Anastasia; Hemzal, Dušan; Petrenec, Martin; Kalina, Lukáš; Bartošík, Miroslav; Ensslin, Klaus; Varga, Peter; Čechal, Jan; Šikola, Tomáš

    2014-05-01

    Synthesis of graphene by chemical vapor deposition is a promising route for manufacturing large-scale high-quality graphene for electronic applications. The quality of the employed substrates plays a crucial role, since the surface roughness and defects alter the graphene growth and cause difficulties in the subsequent graphene transfer. Here, we report on ultrasmooth high-purity copper foils prepared by sputter deposition of Cu thin film on a SiO2/Si template, and the subsequent peeling off of the metallic layer from the template. The surface displays a low level of oxidation and contamination, and the roughness of the foil surface is generally defined by the template, and was below 0.6 nm even on a large scale. The roughness and grain size increase occurred during both the annealing of the foils, and catalytic growth of graphene from methane (≈1000 °C), but on the large scale still remained far below the roughness typical for commercial foils. The micro-Raman spectroscopy and transport measurements proved the high quality of graphene grown on such foils, and the room temperature mobility of the graphene grown on the template stripped foil was three times higher compared to that of one grown on the commercial copper foil. The presented high-quality copper foils are expected to provide large-area substrates for the production of graphene suitable for electronic applications.

  3. Optimizing dc-resistance of a foil wounded toroidal inductor combining matlab and comsol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Henrik; Andersen, Thomas; Knott, Arnold;

    2013-01-01

    An optimization routine is presented to optimize the shape of a foil winding of a toroid inductor in terms of the DC resistance. MATLAB was used to define the geometry of the foil winding and COMSOL was used to import the geometry and create a 3D finite element model. The initial parameters...

  4. Foil Cooling for the Rep-Rated Electron Beam Pumped Electra Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, J. L.; Hegeler, F.; Wolford, M. F.; Abdel-Khalik, S.

    2005-10-01

    The Electra program at the Naval Research Laboratory is developing the science and technologies for implementation of krypton-fluoride (KrF) lasers in inertial fusion energy. Large aperture KrF lasers are pumped by electron beams which transit a foil separating the gas target at >=1 atm pressure from the vacuum diode. A fraction of the beam energy is deposited in the foil and thus long term (>=10^8 shots), rep-rated (5 Hz) operation requires active cooling of the foil to prevent thermal yield relaxation and cycling fatigue. This paper will report on experimental data and theoretical analysis of two diverse approaches to foil thermal management: convective and conductive cooling. Convective turbulent cooling has been operational on the Electra main amp through the use of oscillating louvers within a gas recirculator containing the pumped lasing region. At 5 Hz the foil temperature (Tf) can be maintained at ˜400 ^oC for a 1 mil SS foil. Conduction cooling provides the simplest configuration with only the need for water channels in the ribs of the hibachi. For a 1 mil Al foil, Tf is predicted to be ˜140 ^oC at 5 Hz. Comparison of experimental and theoretical results and advanced foil materials will be discussed.

  5. 75 FR 1596 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status, Reynolds Packaging LLC (Aluminum Foil Liner Stock...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ... Register (74 FR 14956, 4-2-2009) and the application has been processed pursuant to the FTZ Act and the... (Aluminum Foil Liner Stock), Louisville, Kentucky Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones... to the Board for authority to establish a special-purpose subzone at the aluminum foil liner...

  6. Identification of stiffness and damping characteristics of axial air-foil bearings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arora, Vikas; Hoogt, van der P.J.M.; Aarts, R.G.K.M.; Boer, de A.

    2011-01-01

    Air-foil bearings (AFBs) are self acting hydrodynamic bearings made from sheet metal foils comprised of at least two layers. The innermost “top foil” layer traps a gas pressure film that supports a load while the layer or layers underneath provide an elastic foundation. AFBs are currently used in ma

  7. X-ray scattering measurements from thin-foil x-ray mirrors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Erland; BYRNAK, BP; Hornstrup, Allan;

    1992-01-01

    Thin foil X-ray mirrors are to be used as the reflecting elements in the telescopes of the X-ray satellites Spectrum-X-Gamma (SRG) and ASTRO-D. High resolution X-ray scattering measurements from the Au coated and dip-lacquered Al foils are presented. These were obtained from SRG mirrors positione...

  8. Prism foil from an LCD monitor as a tool for teaching introductory optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transparent prism foil is part of a backlight system in LCD monitors that are widely used today. This paper describes the optical properties of the prism foil and several pedagogical applications suitable for undergraduate introductory physics level. Examples include experiments that employ refraction, total internal reflection, diffraction and image formation in a nontrivial way and are therefore particularly useful for active learning strategies.

  9. Bonding bare die LEDs on PET foils for lighting applications: Thermal design modeling and bonding experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ende, D.A. van den; Kusters, R.H.L.; Cauwe, M.; Waal, A. van der; Brand, J. van den

    2012-01-01

    Integration of LEDs on flexible foil substrates is of interest for flexible lighting applications and flexible photonic devices. A matrix of LEDs on a foil combined with a diffuser can be a potential alternative for flexible OLED lighting devices. Preferably, these LEDs are integrated in an unpackag

  10. Large area flexible lighting foils using distributed bare LED dies on polyester substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ende, D.A. van den; Kusters, R.H.L.; Cauwe, M.; Waal, A. van der; Brand, J. van den

    2013-01-01

    Integration of LEDs on flexible foil substrates is of interest for flexible lighting applications and for backlights for flexible displays. Such a large area lighting device can be made by integrating a matrix of closely spaced LEDs on a flexible foil substrate. Preferably, these LEDs are integrated

  11. Novel methodology to integrate ultra-thin chips on flexible foils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sridhar, A.; Cauwe, M.; Kusters, R.H.L.; Fledderus, H.; Brand, J. van den

    2012-01-01

    The placement and integration of ultra-thin chips (UTCs) on low-cost polymer foils is a key challenge in the realization of large-area flexible electronic products. Such products, are for cost reasons, preferably fabricated on low cost polyester foils like PET/PEN. A disadvantage of these materials

  12. Anodized aluminum foil coil with 538/sup 0/C capabilities. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, H.F.

    1980-11-01

    Solenoid coils were fabricated using barrier anodized aluminum foil as the insulated conductor. Barrier anodization provided a thin turn-to-turn insulation. To construct the coil, wire leads were laser welded to straps that were welded to the foil. The assembled coil was dip coated in Resin 100 for overall insulation.

  13. Flexible AMOLED display on polyethylene napthalate (PEN) foil with metal-oxide TFT backplane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tripathi, A.K.; Putten, B. van der; Steen, J.L. van der; Tempelaars, K.; Cobb, B.; Ameys, M.; Ke, T.H.; Myny, K.; Steudel, S.; Nag, M.; Schols, S.; Vicca, P.; Smout, S.; Genoe, J.; Heremans, P.; Yakimets, I.; Gelinck, G.H.

    2012-01-01

    We present a top emitting monochrome AMOLED display with 85dpi resolution using an amorphous Indium-Gallium-Zinc-Oxide (IGZO) TFT backplane on PEN-foil. Maximum processing temperature was limited to 150 °C in order to ensure an overlay accuracy < 3μm on PEN foil. The backplane process flow is based

  14. Lead foil in dental X-ray film: Backscattering rejection or image intensifier?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hönnicke, M.G., E-mail: marcelo.honnicke@unila.edu.br [Universidade Federal da Integração Latino-Americana, Foz do Iguaçu (Brazil); Delben, G.J. [Faculdade de Tecnologia Tupy, Curitiba (Brazil); Godoi, W.C. [Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná, Curitiba (Brazil); Swinka-Filho, V. [Instituto de Tecnologia para o Desenvolvimento – LACTEC, Curitiba (Brazil)

    2014-11-01

    Dental X-ray films are still largely used due to sterilization issues, simplicity and, mainly, economic reasons. These films almost always are double coated (double emulsion) and have a lead foil in contact with the film for X-ray backscattering rejection. Herein we explore the use of the lead foil as an image intensifier. In these studies, spatial resolution was investigated when images were acquired on the dental X-ray films with and without the lead foil. Also, the lead foil was subjected to atomic analysis (fluorescent measurements) and structure analysis (X-ray diffraction). We determined that the use of the lead foil reduces the exposure time, however, does not affect the spatial resolution on the acquired images. This suggests that the fluorescent radiation spread is smaller than the grain sizes of the dental X-ray films.

  15. The effects of injection beam parameters and foil scattering for CSNS/RCS

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Ming-Yang; Qiu, Jing; Wang, Na; Xu, Shou-Yan

    2012-01-01

    The China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) uses H- stripping and phase space painting method to fill large ring acceptance with the linac beam of small emittance. The dependence of the painting beam on the injection beam parameters was studied for the Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS) of CSNS. The injection processes for different momentum spread, rms emittance of the injection beam, injection beam matching were simulated, then the beam losses, 99% and rms emittances were obtained and the optimized ranges of injection beam parameters were given. The interaction between the H- beam and the stripping foil was studied and the foil scattering was simulated. Then, the stripping efficiency was calculated and the suitable thickness of the stripping foil was obtained. The energy deposition on the foil and the beam losses due to the foil scattering were also studied.

  16. Effects of injection beam parameters and foil scattering for CSNS/RCS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ming-Yang; Wang, Sheng; Qiu, Jing; Wang, Na; Xu, Shou-Yan

    2013-06-01

    The China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) uses H- stripping and phase space painting method to fill a large ring acceptance with a small emittance linac beam. The dependence of the painting beam on the injection beam parameters was studied for the Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS). The simulation study was done for injection with different momentum spreads, different rms emittances of the injection beam, and different matching conditions. Then, the beam loss, 99% and rms emittances were obtained, and the optimized injection beam parameters were given. The interaction between H- beam and stripping foil was studied, and the effect of foil scattering was simulated. The stripping efficiency was calculated and the suitable thickness of stripping foil was obtained. In addition, the energy deposition on the foil and the beam loss due to the foil scattering were also studied.

  17. Lead foil in dental X-ray film: Backscattering rejection or image intensifier?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dental X-ray films are still largely used due to sterilization issues, simplicity and, mainly, economic reasons. These films almost always are double coated (double emulsion) and have a lead foil in contact with the film for X-ray backscattering rejection. Herein we explore the use of the lead foil as an image intensifier. In these studies, spatial resolution was investigated when images were acquired on the dental X-ray films with and without the lead foil. Also, the lead foil was subjected to atomic analysis (fluorescent measurements) and structure analysis (X-ray diffraction). We determined that the use of the lead foil reduces the exposure time, however, does not affect the spatial resolution on the acquired images. This suggests that the fluorescent radiation spread is smaller than the grain sizes of the dental X-ray films

  18. Key techniques of automatic gauge control and profile control for aluminium strip and foil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Mou-wei; LIU Hong-fei; WANG Xiang-li; TONG Chao-nan; YIN Feng-fu; BIAN Xin-xiao; ZHANG Lei

    2006-01-01

    Such characteristics of aluminium strip and foil as soft and thin gauge make tension control one of the key techniques for automation gauge control(AGC). To avoid the disadvantage of traditional mathematical control method which is unfitful for nonlinear hysteresis, the technique for tension AGC fuzzy control was developed and thickness deviation more than 3% of product thickness was achieved consequently in 1 350 mm cold rolling mill of aluminium strip and foil. Additionally, because the gauge of aluminium strip and foil is thin, stage-cooling roll method becomes a key technique for profile control. So stage-cooling roll intelligent control method is developed and pre-coated aluminum foil with good profile less than 10 I (the relative differences in elongation of 0.01% ) is produced using the profile control system in 1 400 mm cold rolling mill of aluminium strip and foil.

  19. Zapora mrežničnih ven: Retinal vein occlusion:

    OpenAIRE

    Jaki, Polona; Mavri, Alenka; Štalc, Monika

    2011-01-01

    Retinal vein occlusion is a common disease, especially in the elderly, and is associated with significant visual morbidity, as a consequence of persistent macular oedema, macular ischemia, and in the advanced stages of the disease, due to retinal or iris neovascularisation with vitreal haemorrhages or neovascular glaucoma. There are two types of retinal vein occlusion with respect to the site of occlusion: branch retinal vein occlusion and central retinal vein occlusion. The obstruction is ma...

  20. Influence of balanced occlusion in complete dentures on the decrease in reduction of an edentulous ridge

    OpenAIRE

    Poštić Srđan D.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aim. Balanced occlusal arrangement of artificial teeth and balanced occlusion is a specific type of occlusion that preserves the stability of complete dentures. Balanced occlusion comprises realization of tooth contacts at the working side as well as at the balancing side, at the same time. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of balanced occlusal arrangement of artificial teeth on the decrease in reduction of edentulous alveolar ridge. Methods. A longitudinal st...

  1. Latin American Consensus on Retinal Vein Occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Rodriguez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of anti-VEGF agents has allowed unprecedented progress in the management and treatment of ophthalmologic conditions characterized by an increased vascular permeability and intraocular neovascularization. One of these conditions is retinal vein occlusion (RVO.  RVO is one of the most common causes of reduced vision due to retinal vascular disease. Without timely treatment, macular edema, macular ischemia, neovascularization and other potential sequelae of RVO can lead to photoreceptor cell death and consequently to irreversible vision loss.   Treatments for this indication that have been recently approved by several regulatory agencies throughout the world include: the VEGF inhibitor ranibizumab (Lucentis, Genentech, the VEGF and placental growth factor inhibitor aflibercept (Eylea, Regeneron Pharmaceuticals and Bayer HealthCare, and a slow release intravitreal implant of dexamethasone (Ozurdex, Allergan. In addition bevacizumab (Avastin, Genentech has been used extensively in an off-label manner.   These new treatments allow us to preserve vision for many RVO patients who could not have expected such favorable results just 5 or 6 years ago. However, not every treatment is effective for every patient, and whether one option is superior to another or a combination of options is superior to monotherapy, have yet to be definitively determined.   A growing body of literature with strong evidence supports the use of these new treatments. However, in several instances the literature is not conclusive to support unified management of RVO. This document is a summary analysis on RVO assembled by a group of specialists summoned by the Pan-American Vitreo-Retinal Society (SPRV to participate in this Latin American consensus.

  2. Guiding occlusal development with functional appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, I L

    1996-10-01

    considerable individual response to treatment, and that the occlusal correction occurred through a combination of skeletal and dentoalveolar changes.

  3. Simple production method for making 3 μg/cm2 cracked slacked carbon accelerator stripper foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple method for making thin 3 μg/cm2 carbon stripper foils for heavy ion bombardment and accelerator radiochronology is described along with a simple method for stripper foil thickness determination

  4. Secondary electron emission in antiproton—carbon-foil collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komaki, K.; Yamazaki, Y.; Kuroki, K.; Andersen, L. H.; Horsdal-Pedersen, E.; Hvelplund, P.; Knudsen, H.; Møller, S. P.; Uggerhøj, E.; Elsener, K.

    1991-04-01

    Energy spectra of electrons emitted in the forward direction by antiproton and proton bombardments on carbon foil targets were measured in the incident energy region from 500 to 750 keV. In the spectra for antiproton impact, no sharp anticusp, which is expected in place of the cusp in the case of the proton impact, is recognized and a small bump is found at 50 eV below the cusp energy. The spectral profile in the equivelocity region, including smearing out of the anticusp, together with the energy and intensity of the bump, is consistent with a theoretical prediction for wake-riding electrons based on the classical trajectory Monte Carlo method.

  5. Secondary electron emission in antiproton-carbon foil collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komaki, K.; Yamazaki, Y.; Kuroki, K. (Inst. of Physics, Coll. of Arts and Sciences, Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)); Andersen, L.H.; Horsdal-Pedersen, E.; Hvelplund, P.; Knudsen, H.; Moeller, S.P.; Uggerhoej, E. (Inst. of Physics, Univ. of Aarhus (Denmark)); Elsener, K. (CERN, Geneva (Switzerland))

    1991-04-01

    Energy spectra of electrons emitted in the forward direction by antiproton and proton bombardments on carbon foil targets were measured in the incident energy region from 500 to 750 keV. In the spectra for antiproton impact, no sharp anticusp, which is expected in place of the cusp in the case of the proton impact, is recognized and a small bump is found at 50 eV below the cusp energy. The spectral profile in the equivelocity region, including smearing out of the anticusp, together with the energy and intensity of the bump, is consistent with a theoretical prediction for wake-riding electrons based on the classical trajectory Monte Carlo method. (orig.).

  6. Underwater explosive welding of thin tungsten foils and copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manikandan, P., E-mail: manikandan_exp@yahoo.com [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Lee, J.O.; Mizumachi, K. [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Mori, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sojo University, 4-22-1 Ikeda, Kumamoto 860-0082 (Japan); Raghukandan, K. [Department of Manufacturing Engineering, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar, Cuddalore District, Tamilnadu 608 002 (India); Hokamoto, K. [Shock Wave and Condensed Matter Research Center, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: > Underwater explosive welding was used to clad tungsten and copper. > The preset inclination was varied and the microstructure was observed. > Microstructure reveals a clear wavy interface for higher preset inclination. > High pressure and high strain rate leads to plastic flow of tungsten. - Abstract: This study demonstrates the ability to clad pure tungsten foils on copper plate using underwater shock waves generated by the detonation of explosive. Microstructural characterization revealed that a higher preset inclination results in wavy morphology. Weld formed at lower inclination exhibit a planar interfacial layer comprising fine grained particles of both components. The plastic flow of tungsten is ascribed to the synergistic influence of high pressure and high strain rate at the collision point.

  7. Electron microscope observation of single - crystalline beryllium thin foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thin foils prepared from single crystalline beryllium simples deformed at room temperature, have been observed by transmission electron microscopy. The various deformation modes have been investigated separately, from their early stages and their characteristic dislocation configurations have been observed. Basal slip is characterized at is outset by the presence of numerous dipoles and elongated prismatic loops. More pronounced cold work leads to the formation of dislocation tangles and bundles which eventually give a cellular structure. Prismatic slip begins by the cross-slip of dislocations from the basal plane into the prismatic plane. A cellular structure is equally observed in heavily deformed samples. Sessile dislocations have been observed in twin boundaries; they are produced by reactions between slip dislocations and twin dislocations. Finally, the study of samples quenched from 1100 deg. C and annealed at 200 deg. C has shown that the observed loops lie in prismatic planes and have a Burgers vector b 1/3. (authors)

  8. New membranes obtained by grafted irradiated PVDF foils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzei, R. [Unidad de Actividades Tecnologicas y Agropecuarias, Laboratorio de Polimeros, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad Tecnologica Nacional Facultad Regional, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Garcia Bermudez, G. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Laboratorio Tandar, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad Nacional de General San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Camporotondi, D.E., E-mail: camporotondi@cae.cnea.gov.ar [Unidad de Actividades Tecnologicas y Agropecuarias, Laboratorio de Polimeros, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Arbeitman, C. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Laboratorio Tandar, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Buenos Aires (Argentina); and others

    2012-09-15

    The present work describes a new method to produce membranes of poly(Acrylic-acid-Xmonomer) using the grafting procedure. PVDF foils irradiated with Ar{sup +} beam with energies between 30 and 150 keV were employed as substratum. Different combinations of monomers in water solutions were used: acrylic acid (AAc); acrylic acid-glycidyl methacrylate (AAc-GMA); acrylic acid-styrene (AAc-S), acrylic acid-N-isopropyl acrylamide (AAc-NIPAAm) and acrylic acid-N-isopropyl acrylamide-glycidyl methacrylate (AAc-NIPAAm-GMA). A large percentage of grafting results for specific values of: ion fluence and energy, AAc and sulfuric acid concentration, and different substrata PVDF polymorphous (alpha or beta). At a particular time of the grafting process, the poly(AAc-Xmonomer) membranes detach from the substratum and continue their grafting in the solution. This method is useful to produce increased replicated membranes of the irradiated original surface.

  9. Flow structures in the wake of heaving and pitching foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najdzin, Derek; Pardo, Enrique; Leftwich, Megan C.; Bardet, Philippe M.

    2012-11-01

    A 10-bar mechanism drives a cambering hydrofoil in an oscillatory heaving and pitching motion that replicates the flapping motion of a dolphin tail. The mechanism sits on a force-balance with six strain gages that together measure the forces and moments experienced by the fin during an oscillation. Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence is used to image the flow structures created downstream of the cambering fin for a range of Reynolds and Strouhal numbers. The images are taken in the mid-plane, parallel to the bottom of the water tunnel. These results are compared to a rigid foil at matching conditions to investigate the role of camber changes during the flapping cycle.

  10. Transmission and Reflection of Neutrons Using Foil Activation Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new neutron irradiation facility has been designed, constructed .and located at the Experimental Nuclear Physics Department, NRC, AEA, cairo. The neutrons were obtained from CNIF2 (Second Cairo Neutron Irradiation Facility) that is based on one 241 Am-Be(α, n) isotopic neutron source with a present activity of about 175 GBq results in a neutron yield of about 1.04 x107 n/s. The geometrical arrangements of the facility consider the safety and protection rules aspects. MCNP5 code is used to estimate radiation doses and neutron fluxes. This new irradiation facility provides fast and epithermal neutrons that can be used in basic research and industrial applications. The aim of the present work is to study the characteristics of this new irradiation facility and to develop methods able to use fast and epithermal neutron in some different applications. Experimental measurements for the transmission and reflection of neutrons were carried out via a number of hydrogenous materials using the activation foil technique. A comparison of the experimental results with that calculated by using Monte Carlo simulation method is presented Using the neutron transmission technique in combination with foil activation method, our arrangement is used to measure the total neutron microscopic cross-sections for some compounds. The facility is calibrated and suitable to estimate the hydrogen content H (wt %) and the weight ratios C/H in hydrocarbon materials and was used to measure these ratios for some Egyptian crude oil samples. A brief overview of the neutron activation analysis methods for elemental concentrations in bulk samples in natural conditions is presented.

  11. Dental occlusion influences knee muscular performances in asymptomatic females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosdent, Stéphanie; O'Thanh, Roseline; Domken, Olivier; Lamy, Marc; Croisier, Jean-Louis

    2014-02-01

    Some authors claim that occlusal appliances can enhance athletic performance. Therefore, this study investigated the influence of dental occlusion on knee muscle strength performance. Twelve healthy female subjects (mean age, 24.1 ± 3.1 years) without temporomandibular joint dysfunction participated in this study. Isokinetic quadriceps and hamstring strength were assessed in relation to 3 randomized jaw conditions: mouth closed in maximum intercuspidation without splint, mouth closed on a balanced splint which optimized contact over the dental arch, mouth closed on a piece of resin of 1 mm which created an imbalanced occlusion. Tests were performed at 60 and 240°·s in concentric and 30°·s in eccentric exertions. Concentric performances did not show any significant difference between the 3 jaw conditions (p > 0.05). In contrast, in the eccentric trials related to quadriceps performance, significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) were observed between the resin condition and the 2 other modalities (without splint or with a balanced splint). The imbalanced occlusion created by the resin component corresponded to an average decrease of 9% in eccentric peak torque. The eccentric hamstring peak torques also showed a significant difference (p ≤ 0.05) between measurements with splint and with resin (7% decrease when occlusion was imbalanced). In conclusion, among asymptomatic females, artificial imbalanced occlusion induces immediate and significant alteration of knee eccentric muscle performances. Therefore, occlusion examination should be undertaken on a regular and frequent basis for high-level athletes. Moreover, for athletes using mouthguards, muscular performance assessments should be planned with and without the dental protection.

  12. Maintenance of radio-activated stripper foils in the 3 GeV RCS of J-PARC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the 3 GeV rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS) of the Japan proton accelerator research complex, we adopted the multi-turn charge exchange injection scheme using the stripper foils. After the fine beam tuning in the RCS, most of the beam losses occur at the foil only. However, the high residual doses were detected around the stripper foil, which cannot be explained by the direct scattering of the injected H- and circulating proton beams with the stripper foil. From the measurements and simulations, it is identified that secondary particles produced in the nuclear reactions with the foil had caused the high residual activity around there. The radio-activation of the foil itself and the high residual dose around the foil are intrinsic problems for all high power beam accelerators with stripping foil. A safe and efficient maintenance in the high radiation and narrow space in these accelerators is important. The foil maintenance under such an environment is required to keep staff radiation exposure as low as possible to reduce the risk of radioactive foil breakup or dispersion and to retrieve the foil without breaking for its analysis. We achieved a safe and efficient maintenance method to retrieve the radioactivated stripper foils. (author)

  13. Mechanism of vaso-occlusion in sickle cell anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Huan; Karniadakis, George

    2012-11-01

    Vaso-occlusion crisis is one of the key hallmark of sickle cell anemia. While early studies suggested that the crisis is caused by blockage of a single elongated cell, recent experimental investigations indicate that vaso-occlusion is a complex process triggered by adhesive interactions among different cell groups in multiple stages. Based on dissipative particle dynamics, a multi-scale model for the sickle red blood cells (SS-RBCs), accounting for diversity in both shapes and cell rigidities, is developed to investigate the mechanism of vaso-occlusion crisis. Using this model, the adhesive dynamics of single SS-RBC was investigated in arterioles. Simulation results indicate that the different cell groups (deformable SS2 RBCs, rigid SS4 RBCs, leukocytes, etc.) exhibit heterogeneous adhesive behavior due to the different cell morphologies and membrane rigidities. We further simulate the tube flow of SS-RBC suspensions with different cell fractions. The more adhesive SS2 cells interact with the vascular endothelium and further trap rigid SS4 cells, resulting in vaso-occlusion in vessels less than 15 μm . Under inflammation, adherent leukocytes may also trap SS4 cells, resulting in vaso-occlusion in even larger vessels. This work was supported by the NSF grant CBET-0852948 and the NIH grant R01HL094270.

  14. Occlusal Grinding Pattern during Sleep Bruxism and Temporomandibular Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeni Wijaya

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sleep Bruxism is a significant etiology of temporomandibular disorder (TMD and causes many dental or oral problems such as tooth wear or facet. There is no study analyzing the relationship between sleep bruxism and TMD. Objective: To investigate any relationship between occlusal grinding pattern during sleep bruxism and temporomandibular disorder. Methods: A cross-sectional study involving 30 sleep bruxism patients attended the Faculty Dentistry Universitas Indonesia Teaching Hospital (RSGMP FKG UI. Completion of 2 forms of ID-TMD index and questionnaire from American Academy of Sleep Medicine were done. BruxChecker was fabricated and used for two nights to record the occlusal grinding pattern. The occlusal grinding pattern was categorized into laterotrusive grinding (LG and mediotrusive side. Further divisons of LG were: incisor-canine (IC, incisor-caninepremolar (ICP and incisor-canine-premolar-molar (ICPM. Mediotrusive side was classified as mediotrusive contact (MC and mediotrusive grinding (MG. Results: It was found that occlusal grinding pattern in non-TMD subjects were IC+MC, in subjects with mild TMD were ICP+MG and in subjects with moderate TMD were ICP+MG and ICPM+MG. TMJ was more significantly affected by ICP and ICPM grinding pattern than that of IC. Conclusion: There was a significant relationship between occlusal grinding pattern during sleep bruxism and TMD.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v20i2.149

  15. Heat transfer measurements in fully turbulent flows: basic investigations with an advanced thin foil triple sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocikat, H.; Herwig, H.

    2008-07-01

    In a former article in this journal a double layer hot film with two 10 μm nickel foils, separated by a 25 μm polyimide foil was introduced as a multi-purpose sensor. Each foil can be operated as a (calibrated) temperature sensor in its passive mode by imposing an electric current small enough to avoid heating by dissipation of electrical energy. Alternatively, however, each foil can also serve as a heater in an active mode with electric currents high enough to cause Joule heating. This double foil sensor can be used as a conventional heat flux sensor in its passive mode when mounted on an externally heated surface. In fully turbulent flows it alternatively can be operated in an active mode on a cold, i.e. not externally heated surface. Then, by heating the upper foil, a local heat transfer is initiated from which the local heat transfer coefficient h can be determined, once the lower foil is heated to the same temperature as the upper one, thus acting as a counter-heater. For further investigations with respect to the underlying sensor concept a triple sensor has been built which consists of three double layer film sensors very close to each other. Various aspects of heat transfer measurements in active modes can be addressed by this sensor.

  16. An Assessment of Gas Foil Bearing Scalability and the Potential Benefits to Civilian Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckner, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past several years the term oil-free turbomachinery has been used to describe a rotor support system for high speed turbomachinery that does not require oil for lubrication, damping, or cooling. The foundation technology for oil-free turbomachinery is the compliant foil bearing. This technology can replace the conventional rolling element bearings found in current engines. Two major benefits are realized with this technology. The primary benefit is the elimination of the oil lubrication system, accessory gearbox, tower shaft, and one turbine frame. These components account for 8 to 13 percent of the turbofan engine weight. The second benefit that compliant foil bearings offer to turbofan engines is the capability to operate at higher rotational speeds and shaft diameters. While traditional rolling element bearings have diminished life, reliability, and load capacity with increasing speeds, the foil bearing has a load capacity proportional to speed. The traditional applications for foil bearings have been in small, lightweight machines. However, recent advancements in the design and manufacturing of foil bearings have increased their potential size. An analysis, grounded in experimentally proven operation, is performed to assess the scalability of the modern foil bearing. This analysis was coupled to the requirements of civilian turbofan engines. The application of the foil bearing to larger, high bypass ratio engines nominally at the 120 kN (approx.25000 lb) thrust class has been examined. The application of this advanced technology to this system was found to reduce mission fuel burn by 3.05 percent.

  17. DuraFoil{sup TM} ICR-a new material for catalytic converter substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukonnik, I.M.; Chang, S.; Jha, B. [Texas Instruments, Inc., Attleboro, MA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A new type of FeCrAl material for catalytic converter substrate applications, DuraFoil{sup TM} ICR, has been developed by solid state bonding of strip layers of steel and aluminum. Such clad material is further rolled to intermediate gauge and then subjected to a thermal in situ reaction to form a solid solution material. Such monolithic material is subsequently thermomechanically processed to foil gauges. The combination of roll bonding followed by thermo-mechanical processing to produce FeCrAl foil for metallic catalytic converter substrate offers many metallurgical and economic advantages over conventional ingot metallurgy practice. The fact that thermal diffusion was performed at the intermediate gauge prior to reaching the final foil thickness gives material properties for use in the wider design range of catalytic converters. In its simplest form, the requirements for a catalytic converter substrate (foil material) are dictated by four major factors: oxidation resistance; shape stability; formability (applicable ductility); and compatibility with typical substrate processing technologies such as brazing and washcoating. To this end, the microstructures, mechanical properties, chemical homogeneity, surface chemistry and morphology of two DuraFoil{sup TM} new grades foil materials, i.e., ICR-H (hard) and ICR-F (soft), were characterized. This study has shown those superior properties, desirable formability can be achieved from diffusion-made material. (orig.)

  18. Gas Electron Multiplier foil holes: a study of mechanical and deformation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benussi, L.; Bianco, S.; Saviano, G.; Muhammad, S.; Piccolo, D.; Suhaj, A.; Sharma, A.; Caponero, M.; Passamonti, L.; Pierluigi, D.; Russo, A.; Lalli, A.; Valente, M.; Ferrini, M.; Langeslag, S. A. E.; Sgobba, S.; Aviles, I.; Magnani, A.; Vai, I.

    2016-08-01

    The GEM detectors will be installed at the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment during Long Shutdown II of the LHC in 2018. The GEM foil is a basic part of the detector which consists of a composite material, i.e. polyimide coated with copper and perforated with a high density of micro holes. In this paper the results of the GEM foil material characterization are reported, and a campaign of tensile and holes deformation tests is performed. During the tests, the complex radiation environment at CMS is taken into account and samples are prepared accordingly to see the impacts of the radiation on the GEM foil, i.e. non-irradiated samples are used as the reference and compared with neutrons- and gamma- irradiated. These studies provide the information necessary to optimize the stress level without damaging the foil and holes during the detector assembly in which the GEM foils stack is stretched simultaneously to maintain the uniform gap among the foils in order to get the designed performance of the detector. Finally, an estimate of the Young's modulus of the GEM foil is provided by using the tensile test data.

  19. Improvement of the accuracy of the imaging bolometer foil laser calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An imaging bolometer with a single graphite-coated metal foil is a diagnostic tool for diagnosing plasma radiation from magnetic fusion plasmas. We could obtain the local foil properties (the thermal diffusivity, κ, and the product of the thermal conductivity, k, and the thickness, tf) of the metal imaging bolometer foil by analyzing the calibration data. For improving the IRVB a Tantalum (Ta) foil is offered due to strength, low neutron cross-section, and high sensitivity, however there is a large discrepancy between the value of the foil thickness from the experimental value and the nominal value. For calibrating of the foil the He-Ne laser beam is focused on 63 various locations which are determined by using the marks on the frame. The parameters of the foil are determined by comparing the measured thermal radiation data from an IR camera (FLIR/SC500) (60 Hz, 320x240 pixels, 7.5-13 μm) with the corresponding results of a finite element model. (author)

  20. Carbon/graphene foils: a critical subsystem for plasma instruments in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegrini, F.; Ebert, R. W.; Fuselier, S. A.; Bedworth, P.; Sinton, S.

    2015-12-01

    Thin carbon foils play a critical role in the time-of-flight (TOF) and charge conversion subsystems used in many of the plasma sensors developed for space. These instruments take advantage of properties of the particle-foil interaction: charge conversion of neutral atoms and/or secondary electron emission. This interaction also creates several adverse effects for the projectile exiting the foil, such as angular scattering and energy straggling, that usually act to reduce the sensitivity and overall performance of an instrument. The magnitude of these effects varies with the incident angle, energy, and mass of the incoming projectile and the foil thickness. The thinnest foils flown typically have a nominal thickness (as specified by the manufacturer) of ~0.5 - 1 µg cm-2. In this presentation, we will summarize several studies that have quantified the properties of ions exiting the thin carbon foil and discuss recent work on graphene foils, a promising new technology that may be capable of mitigating the undesirable effects associated with these interactions.

  1. Electroplating fission-recoil barriers onto LEU-metal foils for 99Mo-production targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electroplating experiments on uranium foil have been conducted in order to develop low-enriched uranium composite targets suitable for the production of 99Mo. Preparation of the foil surface prior to plating was found to play a key role in the quality of the resultant coating. A surface preparation procedure was developed that produces both zinc and nickel coatings with the desired level of coating adherence and coverage. Modifications of the existing plating processes now need investigation to improve to uniformity of the plating thickness, especially at the foil perimeter

  2. Formation and evolution of tweed structures on high-purity aluminum polycrystalline foils under cyclic tension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peculiarities of formation and evolution of tweed structures on the surface of high-purity aluminum polycrystalline foils under cyclic tension were studied using an atom force microscope and a white light interferometer. Tweed structures of micron and submicron sizes were found on the foils at different number of cycles. In the range of 42,000 < N < 95,000 cycles destruction of tweed patterns is observed, which leads to their disappearance from the surface of the foils. Formation of tweed structures of various scales is discussed in terms of the Grinfeld instability

  3. China-Kinwa’s Challenging the Annual Output of 15,600 tons of Copper Foils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The quality of China-Kinwa’s high quality copper foils has reached an international (Ja- pan,the United States) level among its com- petitors and is one of the best in the domestic market.It’s the only company in China which is able to produce 400 um super-thick copper foils for automobiles and one of the only two domestic companies,which are capable of pro- ducing ultra-thin double shiny sided copper foils for lithium-ion batteries.

  4. Development of Thick-foil and Fine-pitch GEMs with a Laser Etching Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Tamagawa, T.; Asami, F.; Abe, K.; Iwamoto, S.; Nakamura, S.; Hayato, A.; Iwahashi, T.; Konami, S.; Hamagaki, H.; Yamaguchi, Y. L.; Tawara, H.; Makishima, K.

    2009-01-01

    We have produced thick-foil and fine-pitch gas electron multipliers (GEMs) using a laser etching technique. To improve production yield we have employed a new material, Liquid Crystal Polymer, instead of polyimide as an insulator layer. The effective gain of the thick-foil GEM with a hole pitch of 140 um, a hole diameter of 70 um, and a thickness of 100 um reached a value of 10^4 at an applied voltage of 720 V. The measured effective gain of the thick-foil and fine-pitch GEM (80 um pitch, 40 ...

  5. X-ray measurements of total reflectivity and scattering from Au-coated foils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornstrup, Allan; Christensen, Finn Erland; Jespersen, Ellen;

    1990-01-01

    We present x-ray measurements of total reflectivity and scattering from gold-coated foils. The foils are two sorts of 0.3 mm thick dip-lacquered aluminum, 0.125 mm thick plastic (Upilex) and 0.5 mm thick dip-lacquered nickel. The analysis of the data shows a high reflectivity for all but the plas...... but the plastic foil, and only small microroughness (∼15 Å at length scales below ∼0.1 μm), evidenced by low resolution scattering measurements....

  6. Formation and evolution of tweed structures on high-purity aluminum polycrystalline foils under cyclic tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, P. V., E-mail: kpv@ispms.tsc.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Vlasov, I. V. [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); Sklyarova, E. A.; Smekalina, T. V. [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-27

    Peculiarities of formation and evolution of tweed structures on the surface of high-purity aluminum polycrystalline foils under cyclic tension were studied using an atom force microscope and a white light interferometer. Tweed structures of micron and submicron sizes were found on the foils at different number of cycles. In the range of 42,000 < N < 95,000 cycles destruction of tweed patterns is observed, which leads to their disappearance from the surface of the foils. Formation of tweed structures of various scales is discussed in terms of the Grinfeld instability.

  7. Formation and evolution of tweed structures on high-purity aluminum polycrystalline foils under cyclic tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, P. V.; Vlasov, I. V.; Sklyarova, E. A.; Smekalina, T. V.

    2015-10-01

    Peculiarities of formation and evolution of tweed structures on the surface of high-purity aluminum polycrystalline foils under cyclic tension were studied using an atom force microscope and a white light interferometer. Tweed structures of micron and submicron sizes were found on the foils at different number of cycles. In the range of 42,000 < N < 95,000 cycles destruction of tweed patterns is observed, which leads to their disappearance from the surface of the foils. Formation of tweed structures of various scales is discussed in terms of the Grinfeld instability.

  8. Large white organic light-emitting diode lighting panel on metal foils

    OpenAIRE

    Guaino, Philippe; Mazeri, Fabrizo; Hofmann, Michael; Birnstock, Jan; Avril, Ludovic; Viville, Pascal; Kanaan, Hani; Lazzaroni, Roberto; Loicq, Jerôme; Rotheudt, Frank; Pans, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Large-area top-emitting PIN structure (highly p- and n- type doped transport layers for electrons and holes and an undoped emitter layer)–organic light-emitting diode (OLED) on advanced metal foils were fabricated for lighting applications. ArcelorMittal has developed a new surface treatment on metal foils, suitable for roll-to-roll production and dedicated to large-area device integration. Both monochromatic and white devices are realized on advanced metal foils. Power efficiencies at 1000 c...

  9. Life cycle Analysis of Aluminum Foil Packaging Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sebaie, Olfat; Ahmed, Manal; Hussein, Ahmed; El Sharkawy, Fahmay; Samy, Manal

    2006-01-01

    A fundamental tent of life cycle analysis (LCA) is that every material product must become a waste. To choose the greener products, it is necessary to take into account their environmental impacts from cradle to grave. LCA is the tool used to measure environmental improvements. Aluminum (Al) is the third most common element found in the earth's crust, after oxygen and silicon. Al packaging foil was chosen as the material for the study with its life cycle perspective at Alexandria. The Al packaging produced from virgin and recycled Al was investigated through life cycle stages in these two production processes; primary and secondary. The aim of this study is to evaluate the environmental impact of aluminum packaging process by using life cycle analysis of its product from two different starting raw materials (virgin and recycled aluminum). The input and output materials, energy, water, natural gas consumptions, and solid waste uses in the foil industry had been analyzed in order to identify those with significant contribution to the total environmental impacts. From the survey done on the two life cycles, it was found that in environmental terms, the most important emissions from the primary process are the emission of CO(2) and perfluorocarbon (PFC) gases, which produce the greenhouse effect, and SO(2) as well as the emission of fluorides and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH compounds), which are toxic to humans and the environment. On over all material balance, it was found that the ingot shares by 45% of the feed to the casthouse furnaces at Egyptian Copper Work (ECW), net production of the casthouse is 43.76% and the yield of rotary dross furnace (RDF) is 28.8%. The net production of the foil unit represents 35% of the total input to the unit. By comparing the two life cycles, it is obvious that, for water consumption, 93.5% is used in the primary cycle, while 6.5% is used in the secondary cycle. For electricity consumption, 99.3% is used in the primary cycle

  10. Ambient Occlusion Effects for Combined Volumes and Tubular Geometry

    KAUST Repository

    Schott, M.

    2013-06-01

    This paper details a method for interactive direct volume rendering that computes ambient occlusion effects for visualizations that combine both volumetric and geometric primitives, specifically tube-shaped geometric objects representing streamlines, magnetic field lines or DTI fiber tracts. The algorithm extends the recently presented the directional occlusion shading model to allow the rendering of those geometric shapes in combination with a context providing 3D volume, considering mutual occlusion between structures represented by a volume or geometry. Stream tube geometries are computed using an effective spline-based interpolation and approximation scheme that avoids self-intersection and maintains coherent orientation of the stream tube segments to avoid surface deforming twists. Furthermore, strategies to reduce the geometric and specular aliasing of the stream tubes are discussed.

  11. New methodology for studying the structural ecology of occlusal caries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dige, Irene; Grønkjær, Lene; Nyvad, Bente

    Microbiological studies of occlusal dental biofilms have hitherto been hampered by inaccessibility to the sampling site and demolition of the original biofilm architecture. The aim of the present study was to explore the spatial distribution of bacterial taxa in vivo at various stages of occusal...... caries, applying a new methodology involving preparation of embedded hard dental tissue slices for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and confocal microscopy. 11 extracted teeth were included in the study and classified according to their occlusal caries status (active/inactive/sound; cavitated...... to histological features of lesion penetration. The sites showed distinct differences in the bacterial composition and fluorescence intensity between different ecological niches in occlusal caries. Biofilm observed along the entrance of fissures showed an inner layer of microorganisms organized in palisades often...

  12. Hierarchical Template Matching for Robust Visual Tracking with Severe Occlusions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lizuo Jin; Tirui Wu; Feng Liu; Gang Zeng

    2012-01-01

    To tackle the problem of severe occlusions in visual tracking, we propose a hierarchical template-matching method based on a layered appearance model. This model integrates holistic- and part-region matching in order to locate an object in a coarse-to-fine manner. Furthermore, in order to reduce ambiguity in object localization, only the discriminative parts of an object' s appearance template are chosen for similarity computing with respect to their cornerness measurements. The similarity between parts is computed in a layer-wise manner, and from this, occlusions can be evaluated. When the object is partly occluded, it can be located accurately by matching candidate regions with the appearance template. When it is completely occluded, its location can be predicted from its historical motion information using a Kalman filter. The proposed tracker is tested on several practical image sequences, and the experimental results show that it can consistently provide accurate object location for stable tracking, even for severe occlusions.

  13. The effects of naris occlusion on mouse nasal turbinate development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppola, David M; Craven, Brent A; Seeger, Johannes; Weiler, Elke

    2014-06-15

    Unilateral naris occlusion, a standard method for causing odor deprivation, also alters airflow on both sides of the nasal cavity. We reasoned that manipulating airflow by occlusion could affect nasal turbinate development given the ubiquitous role of environmental stimuli in ontogenesis. To test this hypothesis, newborn mice received unilateral occlusion or sham surgery and were allowed to reach adulthood. Morphological measurements were then made of paraffin sections of the whole nasal cavity. Occlusion significantly affected the size, shape and position of turbinates. In particular, the nasoturbinate, the focus of our quantitative analysis, had a more delicate appearance on the occluded side relative to the open side. Occlusion also caused an increase in the width of the dorsal meatus within the non-occluded and occluded nasal fossae, compared with controls, and the position of most turbinates was altered. These results suggest that a mechanical stimulus from respiratory airflow is necessary for the normal morphological development of turbinates. To explore this idea, we estimated the mechanical forces on turbinates caused by airflow during normal respiration that would be absent as a result of occlusion. Magnetic resonance imaging scans were used to construct a three-dimensional model of the mouse nasal cavity that provided the input for a computational fluid dynamics simulation of nasal airflow. The simulation revealed maximum shear stress values for the walls of turbinates in the 1 Pa range, a magnitude that causes remodeling in other biological tissues. These observations raise the intriguing possibility that nasal turbinates develop partly under the control of respiratory mechanical forces.

  14. Structure studies of carbon foils with the aim to improve the ability for heavy-ion stripping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slackened carbon stripper foils of 3 to 5 μg/cm2 produced by vacuum evaporation-condensation were graphitized by annealing at about 3300 K with a pulsed laser beam (1.06 μm). An average crystal size of 10 nm was measured by electron diffraction. The texture of the 002-plane is parallel to the surface of the foil as known from slightly annealed carbon foils. Radiation damages caused by high doses of heavy ions dramatically change the crystal structure. Electron diffraction patterns reveal newly formed graphite crystals with their 002-plane perpendicular to the texture. Compared to carbon foils of the same kind, but not graphitized, a lifetime prolongation of a factor of two was achieved for such foils tested in the terminal of the Munich MP tandem. The slope of the curve for heavy-ion transmission through carbon stripper foils varies for foils of the same kind and for different ion-beam conditions. (orig.)

  15. Mechanisms of Biliary Plastic Stent Occlusion and Efforts at Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Chang-Il; Lehman, Glen A

    2016-03-01

    Biliary stenting via endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography has greatly improved the quality of patient care over the last 30 years. Plastic stent occlusion limits the life span of such stents. Attempts to improve plastic stent patency duration have mostly failed. Metal stents (self-expandable metal stents [SEMSs]) have therefore replaced plastic stents, especially for malignant biliary strictures. SEMS are at least 10 times more expensive than plastic stents. In this focused review, we will discuss basic mechanisms of plastic stent occlusion, along with a systematic summary of previous efforts and related studies to improve stent patency and potential new techniques to overcome existing limitations. PMID:27000422

  16. Endovascular Sharp Recanalization for Calcified Femoropopliteal Artery Occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsuan-Li Huang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Endovascular intervention of peripheral chronic total occlusion (CTO is technically challenging and time consuming. Various techniques and devices are used to facilitate lesion crossing and improve the success rate of the procedure. However, these new devices are quite expensive and not readily available. We report 2 cases of peripheral CTO wherein the occlusions were successfully crossed by using stiff end of Terumo glidewire. This sharp recanalization may be a useful technique for the recanalization of calcified peripheral CTOs when conventional techniques fail and new devices are not readily available, but it is accompanied by the risk of distal atheroembolism.

  17. Scintigraphic patterns of veno-occlusive disease in liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstine, Hanna; Mor, Eytan; Ben Ari, Ziv; Belinki, Alexander; Hardoff, Ruth

    2004-05-01

    Venous vascular complications in liver transplant recipients are rare. Diagnosis is usually based on clinical criteria and typical findings on liver biopsy. The scintigraphic patterns of posttransplant liver veno-occlusive disease are described, and the value of follow-up studies is suggested. The authors present 2 patients who developed posttransplantation hepatic veno-occlusive disease. The first patient had a severe form of the disease and a fatal outcome. The second patient had a mild to moderate form of this disorder with complete resolution following treatment. PMID:15069326

  18. Silicon oxide permeation barrier coating of PET bottles and foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steves, Simon; Deilmann, Michael; Awakowicz, Peter

    2009-10-01

    Modern packaging materials such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET) have displaced established materials in many areas of food and beverage packaging. Plastic packing materials offer are various advantages concerning production and handling. PET bottles for instance are non-breakable and lightweight compared to glass and metal containers. However, PET offers poor barrier properties against gas permeation. Therefore, the shelf live of packaged food is reduced. Permeation of gases can be reduced by depositing transparent plasma polymerized silicon oxide (SiOx) barrier coatings. A microwave (2.45 GHz) driven low pressure plasma reactor is developed based on a modified Plasmaline antenna to treat PET foils or bottles. To increase the barrier properties of the coatings furthermore a RF substrate bias (13.56 MHz) is applied. The composition of the coatings is analyzed by means of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy regarding carbon and hydrogen content. Influence of gas phase composition and substrate bias on chemical composition of the coatings is discussed. A strong relation between barrier properties and film composition is found: good oxygen barriers are observed as carbon content is reduced and films become quartz-like. Regarding oxygen permeation a barrier improvement factor (BIF) of 70 is achieved.

  19. Optical characterization of polished Mo2C foil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Jacob; Geerts, W.; Bandyopadhyay, A.; Gutierrez; Radican, K.; Rivera, N.; Holland, P.; Givens, J.; Oyama, Ted

    2003-03-01

    Mo_2C has been in use by industry for a number of years, however its optical properties are previously uncharacterized with no reports of experimentally obtained values for the refraction index(n) and extinction coefficient(k). Toward the goal of identifying the values for these properties several tests are performed on a Molybdenum foil carburized in a stream of 20 molar CH4 in H2 at 1373K. The surface of the sample is polished to an optically flat finish using several diamond disks in an Allied High Tech polisher. X-ray data shows that the remaining surface material is Mo_2C. Ψ and Δ are measured with a Variable Angle Spectroscopic Ellipsometer from 190 to 1700nm. Then n, k, and reflectance are calculated using FilmWizard. The spectra for refraction, extinction, and reflectance of Mo_2C differ greatly from those reported for Mo. Generally they exhibit a quasi-linear character increasing with wavelength with structures in the red and blue parts of the spectra.

  20. Flexible supercapacitor electrodes with vertically aligned carbon nanotubes grown on aluminum foils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itir Bakis Dogru

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs grown on aluminum foils were used as flexible supercapacitor electrodes. Aluminum foils were used as readily available, cheap and conductive substrates, and VACNTs were grown directly on these foils through chemical vapor deposition (CVD method. Solution based ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP method was used for the deposition of the CNT catalyst. Direct growth of VACNTs on aluminum foils ruled out both the internal resistance of the supercapacitor electrodes and the charge transfer resistance between the electrode and electrolyte. A specific capacitance of 2.61 mF/cm2 at a scan rate of 800 mV/s was obtained from the fabricated electrodes, which is further improved through the bending cycles.

  1. Effect of Trace Sn on Pitting Behaviors of High Voltage Anode Aluminum Foil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingbo SONG; Weimin MAO; Hong YANG; Huiping FENG

    2008-01-01

    The effect of trace Sn on the pitting morphology of high voltage anode aluminum foils was investigated. The distributions of microelement Sn, Fe, Si, Cu and Mg in the surface layer of aluminum foils with different Sn content were determined by using a secondary ion mass spectrometer. It was found that the micro-alloyed Sn is enriched at the external surface. The mechanism of pitting behavior of trace Sn on aluminum surface is similar with that of lead. Enrichment of Sn in the surface layer provides large numbers of sites for initiation of pitting corrosion, while pitting sites appeared relatively inhomogenously in the foils without Sn. Sn, as an eco-friendly microelement, can be applied to replace Pb in improving the homogenous pitting behaviors of high voltage aluminum foils, in which the volume fraction of cube texture is not reduced.

  2. Self-propelled swimming of a flexible plunging foil near a solid wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Longzhen; He, Guowei; Zhang, Xing

    2016-01-01

    Numerical simulations are conducted to investigate the influences of a solid wall on the self-propelled swimming of a flexible plunging foil. It is found that the presence of a solid wall enhances the cruising speed, with the cost of increasing input power. Rigid foil can achieve high percentage increase in cruising speed when swimming near a solid wall, but the propulsive efficiency may be reduced. Foils with some flexibility can enjoy the enhancements in both cruising speed and propulsive efficiency. Another advantage of the flexible foils in near-wall swimming is that smaller averaged lateral forces are produced. The effects of wall confinement on the wake structure and the vortex dynamics are also studied in this paper. The results obtained in this study shed some light on the unsteady wall effect experienced by aquatic animals and also inform the design of bio-mimetic underwater vehicles which are capable of exploiting the wall effect. PMID:27377880

  3. LANL Experience Rolling Zr-Clad LEU-10Mo Foils for AFIP-7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammon, Duncan L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Clarke, Kester D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Alexander, David J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kennedy, Patrick K. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Edwards, Randall L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Duffield, Andrew N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dombrowski, David E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-05-29

    The cleaning, canning, rolling and final trimming of Low Enriched Uranium-10 wt. pct. Molybdenum (LEU-10Mo) foils for ATR (Advanced Test Reactor) fuel plates to be used in the AFIP-7 (ATR Full Size Plate In Center Flux Trap Position) experiments are summarized. Six Zr-clad foils were produced from two LEU-10Mo castings supplied to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) by Y-12 National Security Complex. Details of cleaning and canning procedures are provided. Hot- and cold-rolling results are presented, including rolling schedules, images of foils in-process, metallography and local compositions of regions of interest, and details of final foil dimensions and process yield. This report was compiled from the slides for the presentation of the same name given by Duncan Hammon on May 12, 2011 at the AFIP-7 Lessons Learned meeting in Salt Lake City, UT, with Los Alamos National Laboratory document number LA-UR 11-02898.

  4. Flexible supercapacitor electrodes with vertically aligned carbon nanotubes grown on aluminum foils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Itir Bakis Dogru; Mete Batuhan Durukan; Onur Turel; Husnu Emrah Unalan

    2016-01-01

    In this work, vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) grown on aluminum foils were used as flexible supercapacitor electrodes. Aluminum foils were used as readily available, cheap and conductive substrates, and VACNTs were grown directly on these foils through chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Solution based ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP) method was used for the deposition of the CNT catalyst. Direct growth of VACNTs on aluminum foils ruled out both the internal resistance of the su-percapacitor electrodes and the charge transfer resistance between the electrode and electrolyte. A specific capacitance of 2.61 mF/cm2 at a scan rate of 800 mV/s was obtained from the fabricated elec-trodes, which is further improved through the bending cycles.

  5. Polarization and collision-induced coherence in the beam-foil light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C. H.; Bashkin, S.; Church, D. A.

    1974-01-01

    Monatomic systems were excited by the beam-foil method in order to re-examine the possibility that a particular magnetic substate was preferentially populated. O II, Ar II and He I levels were used. The results reveal that: (1) with a tilted foil substantial polarization (up to 15%) may be achieved, (2) the polarization is due to the foil, (3) the foil induces coherence among Zeeman substates with the appearance of quantum beats among these substates and that their coherence is due to the externally applied magnetic field perpendicular to the beam direction, and (4) the angular momentum of the emitted photon is perpendicular to the ion velocity. The possibility for detecting separate effects of alignment and polarization is noted.

  6. Non-contact thickness measurement for ultra-thin metal foils with differential white light interferometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanli Du(杜艳丽); Huimin Yan(严惠民); Yong Wu(吴勇); Xiaoqiang Yao(姚晓强); Yongjun Nie(聂永军); Baixuan Shi(施柏煊)

    2004-01-01

    A new differential white light interference technique for the thickness measurements of metal foil is presented. In this work, the differential white light system consists of two Michelson interferometers in tandem,and the measured reflective surfaces are the corresponding surfaces of metal foil. Therefore, the measuring result is only relative to the thickness but not the position of metal foil. The method is non-contact and non-destructive, it has the advantages of high accuracy, fast detection, and compact structure. Theoretical analysis and preliminary experimental verifications have shown that the technique can be used to measure the thickness of foil in the range of 1 to 80 μm with accuracy better than 0.08 μm.

  7. Intense heavy ion beam-induced temperature effects in carbon-based stripper foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the future FAIR facility, reliably working solid carbon stripper foils are desired for providing intermediate charge states to SIS18. With the expected high beam intensities, the foils experience enhanced degradation and limited lifetime due to severe radiation damage, stress waves, and thermal effects. This work presents systematic measurements of the temperature of different carbon-based stripper foils (amorphous, diamond-like, and carbon-nanotube based) exposed to 4.8 MeV/u U, Bi, and Au beams of different pulse intensities. Thermal and spectroscopic analyses were performed by means of infrared thermography and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The resulting temperature depends on the foil thickness and strongly increases with increasing pulse intensity and repetition rate. (author)

  8. Structure and corrosion resistance of nickel foils deposited in a vertical gravity field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of vertical gravity fields on the structural characteristics of electrodeposited Ni foils were investigated in a centrifuge. Analysis by atomic force microscopy (AFM) shows that the surface roughness of Ni foils reduces from 37.6 nm to 8.1 nm with the increase of gravity coefficient (G) from 1 to 354. Furthermore, the roughness of Ni foils deposited at G = 62 evolves much more slowly than that deposited at G = 1. The study of the textural perfection by X-ray diffractiometry (XRD) reveals that the degree of (2 0 0) preferred orientation parallel to the substrate plane is lowered by the vertical gravity field. Randomly oriented deposits are obtained in the vertical gravity field while deposits with uniaxial texture are obtained in the natural gravity field. Due to these variations in the structure, the Ni foils obtained in the vertical gravity field exhibit improved corrosion resistance.

  9. Characterization and anticorrosion properties of carbon nanotubes directly synthesized on Ni foil using ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Namjo; Jwa, Eunjin; Kim, Chansoo; Hwang, Kyo Sik; Park, Soon-cheol; Jang, Moon Suk

    2016-07-01

    In this work, we describe the direct growth of carbon nanofilaments by the catalytic decomposition of ethanol on untreated polycrystalline Ni foil. Our work focuses on the effects of synthesis conditions on the growth of the carbon nanofilaments and their growth mechanism. Direct growth of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is more favorable on lower-purity Ni foil. The highest yield was obtained at approximately 750 °C. The average diameter of the CNTs was approximately 20-30 nm. Raman spectra revealed that the increase of H2 concentration in the carrier gas and synthesis temperature induced the growth of better-graphitized CNTs. Additionally, we investigated the anticorrosion properties of as-prepared products under simulated seawater conditions. The corrosion rate of the CNT/Ni foil system was maximally 50-60 times slower than that of the as-received Ni foil, indicating that the CNT coating may be a good candidate for corrosion inhibition.

  10. Method to Increase Performance of Foil Bearings Through Passive Thermal Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckner, Robert

    2013-01-01

    This invention is a new approach to designing foil bearings to increase their load capacity and improve their reliability through passive thermal management. In the present case, the bearing is designed in such a way as to prevent the carryover of lubricant from the exit of one sector to the inlet of the ensuing sector of the foil bearing. When such passive thermal management techniques are used, bearing load capacity is improved by multiples, and reliability is enhanced when compared to current foil bearings. This concept has recently been tested and validated, and shows that load capacity performance of foil bearings can be improved by a factor of two at relatively low speeds with potentially greater relative improvements at higher speeds. Such improvements in performance with respect to speed are typical of foil bearings. Additionally, operation of these newly conceived bearings shows much more reliability and repeatable performance. This trait can be exploited in machine design to enhance safety, reliability, and overall performance. Finally, lower frictional torque has been demonstrated when operating at lower (non-load capacity) loads, thus providing another improvement above the current state of the art. The objective of the invention is to incorporate features into a foil bearing that both enhance passive thermal management and temperature control, while at the same time improve the hydrodynamic (load capacity) performance of the foil bearing. Foil bearings are unique antifriction devices that can utilize the working fluid of a machine as a lubricant (typically air for turbines and motors, liquids for pumps), and as a coolant to remove excess energy due to frictional heating. The current state of the art of foil bearings utilizes forced cooling of the bearing and shaft, which represents poor efficiency and poor reliability. This invention embodies features that utilize the bearing geometry in such a manner as to both support load and provide an inherent and

  11. Conceptual Design and Feasibility of Foil Bearings for Rotorcraft Engines: Hot Core Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Samuel A.

    2007-01-01

    Recent developments in gas foil bearing technology have led to numerous advanced high-speed rotating system concepts, many of which have become either commercial products or experimental test articles. Examples include oil-free microturbines, motors, generators and turbochargers. The driving forces for integrating gas foil bearings into these high-speed systems are the benefits promised by removing the oil lubrication system. Elimination of the oil system leads to reduced emissions, increased reliability, and decreased maintenance costs. Another benefit is reduced power plant weight. For rotorcraft applications, this would be a major advantage, as every pound removed from the propulsion system results in a payload benefit.. Implementing foil gas bearings throughout a rotorcraft gas turbine engine is an important long-term goal that requires overcoming numerous technological hurdles. Adequate thrust bearing load capacity and potentially large gearbox applied radial loads are among them. However, by replacing the turbine end, or hot section, rolling element bearing with a gas foil bearing many of the above benefits can be realized. To this end, engine manufacturers are beginning to explore the possibilities of hot section gas foil bearings in propulsion engines. This overview presents a logical follow-on activity by analyzing a conceptual rotorcraft engine to determine the feasibility of a foil bearing supported core. Using a combination of rotordynamic analyses and a load capacity model, it is shown to be reasonable to consider a gas foil bearing core section. In addition, system level foil bearing testing capabilities at NASA Glenn Research Center are presented along with analysis work being conducted under NRA Cooperative Agreements.

  12. Bonding bare die LEDs on PET foils for lighting applications: thermal design modeling and bonding experiments

    OpenAIRE

    van den Ende, Daan; Kusters, Roel; Cauwe, Maarten; A de Waal; van den Brand, Jeroen

    2012-01-01

    Integration of LEDs on flexible foil substrates is of interest for flexible lighting applications and flexible photonic devices. A matrix of LEDs on a foil combined with a diffuser can be a potential alternative for flexible OLED lighting devices. Preferably, these LEDs are integrated in an unpackaged, bare die form as it reduces cost, footprint and thickness. As a substrate, preferably low cost materials like polyesters (PET) are being used, especially for large area devices. However, the us...

  13. Gas-Dynamic Foil Bearings Application in High-Speed Turbines

    OpenAIRE

    Giemza Bolesław; Nowiński Emil; Domański Marek

    2015-01-01

    Authors present the general characteristics of the gas-dynamic foil bearings in the paper. The short analysis of the application and possibilities of using gas-dynamic bearings in turbo machinery, especially in the aspect of aviation technology were described. Authors also pointed out possible directions of development and gas-dynamic foil bearings application in high-speed turbines, especially working in high temperature.

  14. A Blowdown Cryogenic Cavitation Tunnel and CFD Treatment for Flow Visualization around a Foil

    OpenAIRE

    伊藤,優; Ito, Yutaka; 沢崎, 和也; SAWASAKI, Kazuya; 谷, 直樹; Tani, Naoki; 長崎, 孝夫; NAGASAKI, TAKAO; 長島, 利夫; Nagashima, Toshio

    2005-01-01

    Cavitation is one of the major problems in the development of rocket engines. There have been fewexperimental studies to visualize cryogenic foil cavitation. Therefore a new cryogenic cavitation tunnel ofblowdown type was built. The foil shape is "piano-convex". This profile was chosen because of simplicity, butalso of being similar to the one for a rocket inducer impeller. Working fluids were water at room temperature,hot water and liquid nitrogen. In case of Angle of Attack (AOA)=8 °, perio...

  15. Preparation and investigation of diamond-like carbon stripper foils by filtered cathodic vacuum arc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Qiwen, E-mail: fanqiwen0926@163.com [Department of Nuclear Physics, China Institute of Atomic Energy, P.O. Box 275(62), Beijing 102413 (China); Du, Yinghui; Zhang, Rong; Xu, Guoji [Department of Nuclear Physics, China Institute of Atomic Energy, P.O. Box 275(62), Beijing 102413 (China)

    2013-04-21

    Thin diamond-like carbon (DLC) stripper foils ∼5μg/cm{sup 2} in thickness were produced and evaluated as heavy-ion strippers for the Beijing HI-13 Tandem Accelerator. The DLC layers ∼4μg/cm{sup 2} in thickness were produced by the filtered cathodic vacuum arc technology onto glass slides coated with betaine–saccharose as releasing agent, which were previously covered with evaporated carbon layers ∼1μg/cm{sup 2} in thickness by the controlled ac arc-discharge method. Irradiation lifetimes of the DLC stripper foils were tested using the heavy-ion beams at the terminal of the Beijing HI-13 Tandem Accelerator, and compared with those of the standard carbon stripper foils made by the combined dc and ac arc-discharge method. The measurements indicate that the DLC stripper foils outlast the standard combined dc and ac arc-discharge carbon stripper foils by a factor of at least 13 and 4 for the {sup 197}Au{sup −} (∼9MeV, ∼1μA) and {sup 63}Cu{sup −} (∼9MeV, ∼1μA) ion beams, respectively. The structure and properties of the DLC foils deposited onto silicon substrates by the filtered cathodic vacuum arc technology were also evaluated and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The scanning electron microscopy images show that the DLC foils contain hardly droplets through the double 90° filters. The X-ray photoelectron spectrum indicates that sp{sup 3} bonds of the DLC foils exceed 70%. The integral intensity ratio of the D peak to the G peak (I{sub D}/I{sub G}) measured by the Raman spectroscopy is 0.78.

  16. Coherence and its application in the beam-foil light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C. H.; Bashkin, S.

    1974-01-01

    The beam-foil light source is shown to be very useful in spectroscopic work. Not only the lifetimes of highly excited, multiply charged atoms can be measured in a straightforward way, but also the fine-structure and hyperfine-structure separations and the Lande factors can be obtained due to the fact that the coherent excitations are created in the impulsive beam-foil collision. The theories suggested to explain the origin of coherence are presently incomplete.

  17. A review of progress and challenges in flapping foil power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, John; Lai, Joseph C. S.; Platzer, Max F.

    2014-05-01

    Power may be extracted from a flowing fluid in a variety of ways. Turbines using one or more oscillating foils are under increasingly active investigation, as an alternative to rotary wind turbines and river, oceanic and tidal current water turbines, although industrial development is at a very nascent stage. Such flapping foil turbines promise some key potential advantages, including lower foil velocities (and hence lower noise and wildlife impact), and more effective small-scale and shallow water operation. The role of a number of parameters is investigated, including foil kinematics (modes, frequencies, amplitudes and time histories of motion), foil and system geometry (shape, configuration and structural flexibility), and flow physics effects (Reynolds number and turbulence, shear flows and ground effect). Details of the kinematics are shown to have the single largest influence on power output and efficiency (measured as the ratio of power output to that available and accessible in the fluid stream). The highest levels of power and efficiency are associated with very large foil pitch angles (upwards of 70°) and angles of attack (30-40°), such that the flow is massively separated for much of the flapping cycle, in contrast to rotary turbines which rely on attached flow over as much of the rotor disk as possible. This leads to leading edge vortices comparable in size to the foil chord, and the evolution and interaction of these vortices with the foil as it moves play a central role in determining performance. The other parameters also influence the vortex behaviour, but in general to a lesser degree. Numerous gaps in the research literature and outstanding issues are highlighted.

  18. Analysis of a flapping foil system for energy harvesting at low Reynolds number

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Hunkee

    2011-01-01

    The new type of power generation system which mimics the flapping motion of insects or fish has been studied in recent years. The biological flapping foil is capable of harvesting energy from incoming wind or current. A non- sinusoidal trajectory profile and linear shear inlet profile are proposed for the flapping foil in the energy harvesters instead of conventional sinusoidal plunging and pitching motions to get better energy harvesting performance. In this study we create a numerical model...

  19. Control of Oscillating Foil for Propulsion of Biorobotic Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV)

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, S. N.; Mani, S.

    2005-01-01

    The paper treats the question of control of a laterally and rotationally oscillating hydrofoil for the propulsion of biologically inspired robotic (biorobotic) autonomous underwater vehicles (BAUVs). Sinusoidal oscillations of foils produce maneuvering and propulsive forces. The design is based on the internal model principle. Two springs are used to transmit forces from the actuators to the foil. Oscillating fins produce periodic forces, which can be used for fish-like propulsion and control...

  20. Study of the strata formation during the explosion of foils in vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhigalin, A. S.; Rousskikh, A. G.; Oreshkin, V. I.; Chaikovsky, S. A.; Ratakhin, N. A.; Khishchenko, K. V.; Baksht, R. B.

    2015-11-01

    The formation of the strata during fast explosion of metal foils at current densities of 0.1 GA/cm2 has been studied experimentally. To observe the strata, the soft x-ray radiation generated by an X-pinch was used. The study of the process of stratification during the foil explosion was carried out with a setup consisting of three generators. One of the generators (WEG-2), was operated to initiate the explosion of the foils, while the others (XPG radiographs) were used for diagnostics. The generator WEG-2 has the capacitance of 250 nF, the charge voltage of 20 kV, and the current rate of 16 A/ns. The radiographs XPG have the capacitance of 1 μF, the charge voltage of 43 kV, the current of 300 kA, and the current rise time of 180 ns. X-pinch produced by four Mo wires was a load for the radiographs. The delay between the operation of the WEG-2 and XPG generators was set using a DPG trigger pulse generator. We performed the experiments with the Al and Cu foils. The length of foil was 2 cm, the foil width was 1 mm, and the foil thickness was 6 μm. It has been revealed that strata were formed early in the explosion, i.e. at the stage when the metal melted. Analysis of the experimental results suggests that the most probable reason for the stratification is the thermal instability developing because of the increase in resistivity of the foil metal with temperature.

  1. Simultaneous Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis of H and Other Elements in Foils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Xiu-Qin; ZHOU Ping; GUO Ji-Yu; ZHANG Xin; ZHAO Kui; NI Mei-Nan; SUI Li; MEI Jun-Ping; LIU Jian-Cheng

    2005-01-01

    @@ Hydrogen and other elements in SixNyHz foils have been simultaneously measured by using a single E(gas)- E(PSD) telescope and heavy 127I ion beam in elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA). Hydrogen is measuredin the non-coincidence spectrum of E(PSD), and other elements from the △E - E coincidence spectrum. Thecomposition and depth profiling of the foils are obtained from the simulated spectra.

  2. Mapping white matter diffusion and cerebrovascular reactivity in carotid occlusive disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conklin, J.; Fierstra, J.; Crawley, A. P.; Han, J. S.; Poublanc, J.; Silver, F. L.; Tymianski, M.; Fisher, J. A.; Mandell, D. M.; Mikulis, D. J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To characterize the relationship between cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) and white matter (WM) diffusion in patients with internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusive disease. Methods: In this exploratory observational study, 41 patients with severe stenosis or occlusion of the extracranial I

  3. Comparison of efficacy in crossing femoropopliteal artery occlusions with movable core and hydrophilic guidewires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, K H; Bülow, J; Holstein, P;

    1994-01-01

    Compare the recanalization rate of femoropopliteal occlusions between movable core wire guide (MG) and hydrophilic guidewire (HG).......Compare the recanalization rate of femoropopliteal occlusions between movable core wire guide (MG) and hydrophilic guidewire (HG)....

  4. Soft versus hard occlusal splint therapy in the management of temporomandibular disorders (TMDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameh A Seifeldin

    2015-10-01

    Conclusions: Both forms of occlusal splints (soft and hard improved TMJ symptoms in patients with MPD or ID of the TMJ. However, the soft occlusal splints exhibited superior results after 4 months of use.

  5. Isolated cilioretinal artery occlusion as an initial manifestation of polycythemia vera

    OpenAIRE

    Elasri Fouad; Souhail H; Reda K; Iferkhass S; Idrissi A; Naoumi A; Oubaaz A

    2010-01-01

    Isolated cilioretinal artery occlusion is a rarely reported initial manifestation of polycythemia vera. In this study, we reported a case of a 65-year-old man with polycythemia vera with cilioretinal artery occlusion as an initial manifestation.

  6. Flapping Dynamics of an Inverted Flexible Foil in a Uniform Axial Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurugubelli Venkata, Pardha Saradhi; Jaiman, Rajeev K.

    2014-11-01

    This work presents a numerical study on self-induced flapping dynamics of an inverted flexible foil in uniform flow. The inverted foil considered in this study is clamped at the trailing edge and the leading edge is allowed to oscillate. A high-order coupled FSI solver based on CFEI formulation has been used to present the flapping response results for a wide range of nondimensional bending rigidity using a fixed Reynolds number of 1000 and a mass-ratio of 0.1. As a function of bending rigidity four flapping regimes have been discovered: fixed point, inverted limit-cycle oscillation, deflected flapping, and flipped flapping. The inverted foil configuration undergoes flapping motion more readily and experiences very large amplitude oscillations than the conventional foil. A wide variety of vortex wakes with a maximum of 14 vortices per oscillation cycle have been observed. The inverted limit-cycle flapping generate novel 4P +6S (14 vortices) and 2P +6S (10 vortices) wakes. On the other hand, the flipped flapping regime is characterized by a von Kármán wake. We also observe that inverted foil can extract 1000 times more energy from the surrounding fluid compared to the conventional foil.

  7. PENGEMBANGAN FOIL NACA SERI 2412 SEBAGAI SISTEM PENYELAMAN MODEL KAPAL SELAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Munazid

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bentuk  foil menghasilkan gaya angkat (lift force ketika foil dilewati oleh aliran fluida  karena adanya pengaruh interaksi antara aliran fluida dengan permukaan foil yang mengakibatkan tekanan permukaan atas lebih kecil dari permukaan bawah. Bagaimana mengaplikasikan teori foil pada hydroplane kapal selam sebagai  system penyelaman, dengan membalik foil maka lift force tersebut menjadi gaya ke bawah, dengan demikian memungkinkan kapal selam dapat menyelam, melayang dan bermanouver di bawah air, seperti halnya gerak pesawat terbang yang terbang dan melayang dengan menggunakan sayap. Dilakukan penelitian dan pengamatan terhadap kemampuan penyelaman (diving plan dari foil NACA seri 2412 pada model kapal selam, dengan mencari nilai Cl (coefisien lift di Laboratorium, serta mendesain bentuk badan kapal selam dan analisa gaya-gaya yang bekerja pada model kapal selam, jumlah gaya-gaya yang bekerja keatas lebih rendah dari gaya-gaya ke bawah maka kapal selam mampu menyelam. Penerapan Hydroplane sebagai diving plane dapat diterapkan, kemampuan penyelaman dipengaruhi oleh sudut flip  Hydroplane dan kecepatan model, semakin besar kecepatan dan sudut flip maka semakin besar kedalaman penyelaman yang dapat dilakukan.

  8. Active-matrix organic light-emitting diode displays on flexible metal foil substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Ta-Ko

    This dissertation presents the research efforts that deal with the development of polysilicon thin film transistors (TFTs) on stainless-steel-foil substrates, the implementation of high-resolution flexible active-matrix backplanes, and the integration of the flexible polysilicon TFT backplanes with polymer light-emitting diodes. This research investigated the preparation of the steel foil substrates, the fabrication of flexible polysilicon TFT backplanes and polymer light emitting diodes (PLEDs), and the encapsulation of the flexible Active Matrix Polymer Light Emitting Diode displays. The first successful integration of polysilicon TFT backplane with PLEDs onto light-weight, robust, and flexible stainless-steel-foil substrates is presented. A top-emitting, monochrome active-matrix polymer light-emitting diode (AM-PLED) display, having the VGA (640x480) format and a 230 dpi resolution, is demonstrated for the first time on flexible stainless-steel-foil substrates. This work validates the compatibility of the polysilicon technology for high-resolution flexible AM-PLED displays. Furthermore, this work shows that a variety of other large-area microelectronics could also be implemented onto flexible metal foils, benefiting by the metal oil dimensional stability and ability to withstand high process temperature. In conclusion, the polysilicon TFT technology combining with metal-foil substrates opens up a new road for flexible displays as well as large-area flexible electronic applications.

  9. Stripper foil failure modes and cures at the Oak Ridge Spallation Neutron Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plum, M. A.; Cousineau, S. M.; Galambos, J.; Kim, S. H.; Ladd, P.; Luck, C. F.; Peters, C. C.; Polsky, Y.; Shaw, R. W.; Macek, R. J.; Raparia, D.

    2011-03-01

    The Oak Ridge Spallation Neutron Source comprises a 1 GeV, 1.5 MW linear accelerator followed by an accumulator ring and a liquid mercury target. To manage the beam loss caused by the H0 excited states created during the H- charge-exchange injection into the accumulator ring, the stripper foil is located inside one of the chicane dipoles. This has some interesting consequences that were not fully appreciated until the beam power reached about 840 kW. One consequence was sudden failure of the stripper foil system due to convoy electrons stripped from the incoming H- beam, which circled around to strike the foil bracket and cause bracket failure. Another consequence is that convoy electrons can reflect back up from the electron catcher and strike the foil and bracket. An additional contributor to foil system failure is vacuum breakdown due to the charge developed on the foil by secondary electron emission. In this paper we detail these and other interesting failure mechanisms and describe the improvements we have made to mitigate them.

  10. A suspended boron foil multi-wire proportional counter neutron detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Kyle A.; Edwards, Nathaniel S.; Hinson, Niklas J.; Wayant, Clayton D.; McGregor, Douglas S.

    2014-12-11

    Three natural boron foils, approximately 1.0 cm in diameter and 1.0 µm thick, were obtained from The Lebow Company and suspended in a multi-wire proportional counter. Suspending the B foils allowed the alpha particle and Li ion reaction products to escape simultaneously, one on each side of the foil, and be measured concurrently in the gas volume. The thermal neutron response pulse-height spectrum was obtained and two obvious peaks appear from the 94% and 6% branches of the {sup 10}B(n,α){sup 7}Li neutron reaction. Scanning electron microscope images were collected to obtain the exact B foil thicknesses and MCNP6 simulations were completed for those same B thicknesses. Pulse-height spectra obtained from the simulations were compared to experimental data and matched well. The theoretical intrinsic thermal–neutron detection efficiency for enriched {sup 10}B foils was calculated and is presented. Additionally, the intrinsic thermal neutron detection efficiency of the three natural B foils was calculated to be 3.2±0.2%.

  11. Deformation Behaviors of HIPped Foil Compared with Those of Sheet Titanium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelli, Michael G.

    1999-01-01

    Micromechanics-based modeling of composite material behaviors requires an accurate assessment of the constituent properties and behaviors. For the specific case of continuous-fiber-reinforced metal matrix composites (MMC's) manufactured from a foil/fiber/foil process, much emphasis has been placed on characterizing foil-based matrix materials that have been fabricated in the same way as the composite. Such materials are believed to yield mechanical properties and behaviors that are representative of the matrix constituent within the composite (in situ matrix). Therefore, these materials are desired for micromechanics modeling input. Unfortunately, such foils are extremely expensive to fabricate and procure because of the labor-intensive rolling process needed to produce them. As a potential solution to this problem that would maintain appropriately representative in situ properties, the matrix constituent could be characterized with sheet-based materials, which are considerably less expensive to manufacture than foils, are more readily procured, and result in fewer plies to obtain a desired panel thickness. The critical question is, however, does the consolidated sheet material exhibit the same properties and behaviors as do the consolidated foils? Researchers at NASA Lewis Research Center's Life Prediction Branch completed a detailed experimental investigation to answer this question for three titanium alloys commonly used in metal matrix composite form.

  12. Development of a twin-flapping-foils unit to generate hydroelectric power from a water current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiru, H.; Yoshitake, A.; Nishi, M.

    2014-03-01

    Most of the conventional hydraulic turbines have been used for those sites having the static head larger than around 1 m. To extensively utilize not only large hydro-power but small one, which is one of renewable energy resources, development of an energy conversion system being operable under an extremely low head stream is crucial. A twin-flapping-foils unit which works based on the lift acting on the flapping foils in a stream is proposed. The foils oscillate in the transverse direction of the flow due to the lift. The pitching motion of the foils is caused by their own transverse movement through the mechanism consisting of crankshafts and con-rods. In the unit, each foil is supported vertically with a shaft in a manner of a cantilever so that no other parts need to be submerged in a water current. An experimental model with symmetric foils of 100 mm chord and 300 mm span was designed to generate average power output of 10 W at a flow velocity of 1 m/s. Through the tests carried out in the circulating water channel, the performance of the unit was verified to satisfy the design specifications. Further, the demonstration tests by using an irrigation stream performed for over a half year clarified the performance equivalent to that in the in-door water channel and the durability to a certain extent, and showed the applicability to the practical use of lighting a LED street lamp during night even at this scale model.

  13. Development of a twin-flapping-foils unit to generate hydroelectric power from a water current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most of the conventional hydraulic turbines have been used for those sites having the static head larger than around 1 m. To extensively utilize not only large hydro-power but small one, which is one of renewable energy resources, development of an energy conversion system being operable under an extremely low head stream is crucial. A twin-flapping-foils unit which works based on the lift acting on the flapping foils in a stream is proposed. The foils oscillate in the transverse direction of the flow due to the lift. The pitching motion of the foils is caused by their own transverse movement through the mechanism consisting of crankshafts and con-rods. In the unit, each foil is supported vertically with a shaft in a manner of a cantilever so that no other parts need to be submerged in a water current. An experimental model with symmetric foils of 100 mm chord and 300 mm span was designed to generate average power output of 10 W at a flow velocity of 1 m/s. Through the tests carried out in the circulating water channel, the performance of the unit was verified to satisfy the design specifications. Further, the demonstration tests by using an irrigation stream performed for over a half year clarified the performance equivalent to that in the in-door water channel and the durability to a certain extent, and showed the applicability to the practical use of lighting a LED street lamp during night even at this scale model

  14. Gender influence on occlusal characteristics in the primary dentition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha Rani Yadav

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess and discuss the influence of gender on occlusal characteristics of primary dentition. Materials and Methods: In this study, cluster randomized sampling was done to select 4-6-year-old children from Government primary schools of Farukh Nagar block, Gurgaon, Haryana, India. Children were evaluated clinically for occlusal characteristics of primary dentition such as molar relation, Canine relation, overjet, overbite, openbite, scissors bite, and crossbite. Chi-square test was used to compare the occlusal characteristics of both genders. Results: Flush terminal plane, Class I Canine relation and both primate as well as developmental spaces were found to be prevalent in the study population, in percentages of 62.4%, 67.2%, and 37.6%, respectively. It was observed that females had more spacing, distal step molar relation and increased overjet as compared to males. Males had more Class II Canine relation, crowding, openbite, overbite, and incompetent lips as compared to females. Significant differences were found between males and females w.r.t various occlusal characteristics. Conclusion: Most of the children had gender influence on malocclusion, which indicates the need for early interception or correction of malocclusion traits based on the gender of the child.

  15. Non-occlusive mesenteric ischemia: etiology, diagnosis, and interventional therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trompeter, Markus; Brazda, Thurid; Remy, Christopher T.; Reimer, Peter [Department of Radiology, Staedtisches Klinikum Karlsruhe (Germany); Vestring, Thomas [Department of Radiology, Diakonie-Krankenhaus Rotenburg/Wuemme, Goettingen (Germany)

    2002-05-01

    Non-occlusive mesenteric ischemia (NOMI) compromises all forms of mesenteric ischemia with patent mesenteric arteries. It generally affects patients over 50 years of age suffering from myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, aortic insufficiency, renal or hepatic disease and patients following cardiac surgery. Non-occlusive disease accounts for 20-30% of all cases of acute mesenteric ischemia with a mortality rate of the order of 50%. Acute abdominal pain may be the only early presenting symptom of mesenteric ischemia. Non-invasive imaging modalities, such as CT, MRI, and ultrasound, are able to evaluate the aorta and the origins of splanchnic arteries. Despite the technical evolution of those methods, selective angiography of mesenteric arteries is still the gold standard in diagnosing peripheral splanchnic vessel disease. In early non-occlusive mesenteric ischemia, as opposed to occlusive disease, there is no surgical therapy. It is known that mesenteric vasospasm persists even after correction of the precipitating event. Vasospasm frequently responds to direct intra-arterial vasodilator therapy, which is the only treatment that has been shown to be effective. (orig.)

  16. Occlusal factors are not related to self-reported bruxism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Manfredini; C.M. Visscher; L. Guarda-Nardini; F. Lobbezoo

    2012-01-01

    AIMS: To estimate the contribution of various occlusal features of the natural dentition that may identify self-reported bruxers compared to nonbruxers. METHODS: Two age- and sex-matched groups of self-reported bruxers (n = 67) and self-reported nonbruxers (n = 75) took part in the study. For each p

  17. Non-occlusive mesenteric ischemia: etiology, diagnosis, and interventional therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-occlusive mesenteric ischemia (NOMI) compromises all forms of mesenteric ischemia with patent mesenteric arteries. It generally affects patients over 50 years of age suffering from myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, aortic insufficiency, renal or hepatic disease and patients following cardiac surgery. Non-occlusive disease accounts for 20-30% of all cases of acute mesenteric ischemia with a mortality rate of the order of 50%. Acute abdominal pain may be the only early presenting symptom of mesenteric ischemia. Non-invasive imaging modalities, such as CT, MRI, and ultrasound, are able to evaluate the aorta and the origins of splanchnic arteries. Despite the technical evolution of those methods, selective angiography of mesenteric arteries is still the gold standard in diagnosing peripheral splanchnic vessel disease. In early non-occlusive mesenteric ischemia, as opposed to occlusive disease, there is no surgical therapy. It is known that mesenteric vasospasm persists even after correction of the precipitating event. Vasospasm frequently responds to direct intra-arterial vasodilator therapy, which is the only treatment that has been shown to be effective. (orig.)

  18. Example-Based Human Pose Recovery under Predicted Partial Occlusions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poppe, Ronald; Babuska, Robert; Groen, Frans C A.

    2010-01-01

    For human pose recovery, the presence of occlusions due to objects or other persons in the scene remains a difficult problem to cope with. However, recent advances in the area of human detection allow for simultaneous segmentation of humans and the prediction of occluded regions. In this chapter, we

  19. Central retinal vein occlusion: A patient with systemic sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karadžić Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Scleroderma (systemic sclerosis is a severe chronic connective tissue disease, which results in involvement of numerous internal organs. Changes in the eye are the consequences of organ-specific manifestations of scleroderma or adverse effects of immunosuppressive treatment applied. Case report. We reported a 42-year-old woman with systemic sclerosis and acute deterioration of vision in the left eye, with visual acuity 0.9. After thorough clinical examination, including fluorescein angiography and optical coherence tomography, the diagnosis of nonischemic central retinal vein occlusion was made. Further biochemical, rheumatological and immunological investigation, apart from inactive systemic sclerosis, showed normal findings. Therefore, the cause of central retinal vein occlusion could only be attributed to the microvascular changes in systemic sclerosis. After three months, visual acuity deteriorated to 0.6 due to the development of cystoid macular edema. The patient received intravitreal injection of bevacizumab and after a single dose visual acuity improved to 0.9. After a 6- month follow-up, macular edema resolved and visual acuity stabilized. Conclusion. According to our knowledge and current data from the literature, central retinal vein occlusion is a rare vision threatening manifestation of scleroderma. There are only few published case reports on central vein occlusion in scleroderma patients. Examination of the ocular fundus is recommended for evaluation of vascular disease in patients with systemic sclerosis.

  20. Segmentally enclosed thrombolysis in percutaneous transluminal angioplasty for femoropopliteal occlusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, B; Tønnesen, K H; Nielsen, J D;

    1991-01-01

    Segmentally enclosed thrombolysis (SET) was performed immediately following 34 percutaneous transluminal angioplasties (PTAs) for femoropopliteal occlusions. The dilated segment was sealed off with a double balloon catheter, and recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) 1 mg/ml and heparin...

  1. Endovascular treatment for right subclavian artery occlusion: techniques and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the technique and result of endovascular treatment for right subclavian artery stenosis or occlusion. Methods: Seventeen patients [13 males, 4 females; (56 ± 11) years old] with right subclavian artery stenosis or occlusion were treated with endovascular surgery which included recanalization, balloon angioplasty and stenting via femoral or brachial artery route. Cerebral protection devices were used in 6 cases to avoid cerebral embolism. Results: Sixteen of the seventeen patients acquired successful recanalization in 8 cases with subclavian artery stenosis (100% technical success rate) and in other 8 cases with subclavian artery occlusion (88.9% technical success rate). Five cases were treated with balloon angioplasty, and 11 cases were treated with balloon angioplasty combined with stenting. Good patency was seen in the 16 cases immediately after the procedure. The cerebral protection devices prevented all the cases from cerebral embolism and were retrieved successfully. Sixteen cases were followed up from 1 to 66 months [mean (24 ± 18) months]. Restenosis was found in one case 10 months later and was successfully treated with re-PTA. One case with aortoarteritis died of cerebral infarction 18 months later. No symptom recurrence was found in other cases and ultrasound or CTA of followup showed excellent patency. Conclusions: Balloon angioplasty and stenting are safe and effective for the treatment of right subclavian artery occlusion. (authors)

  2. Central retinal artery occlusion: an unusual complication of snakebite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bhalla

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Snakebites are endemic in some parts of India, being associated with a number of complications. Ocular disturbances are rare, except for injury to the cornea or conjunctiva when the eye is directly exposed to the venom. In this work, we present a case of central retinal artery occlusion caused by snakebite.

  3. Pedestrian Counting with Occlusion Handling Using Stereo Thermal Cameras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Miklas Strøm; Dueholm, Jacob Velling; Gade, Rikke;

    2016-01-01

    for pedestrian counting based on clustering and tracking of the 3D point clouds. The method is tested on two five-minute video sequences captured at a public event with a moderate density of pedestrians and heavy occlusions. The counting performance is compared to the manually annotated ground truth and shows...

  4. Occlusal wear of provisional implant-supported restorations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santing, Hendrik J.; Kleverlaan, Cornelis J.; Werner, Arie; Feilzer, Albert J.; Raghoebar, Gerry M.; Meijer, Henny J. A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Implant-supported provisional restorations should be resistant to occlusal wear. PURPOSE: The purpose of this laboratory study was to evaluate three-body wear of three indirect laboratory composite resins, five chair side bis-acryl resin-based materials, and two chair side methacrylate-b

  5. Occlusal wear of provisional implant-supported restorations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. Santing; C.J. Kleverlaan; A. Werner; A.J. Feilzer; G.M. Raghoebar; H.J.A. Meijer

    2015-01-01

    Background Implant-supported provisional restorations should be resistant to occlusal wear. Purpose The purpose of this laboratory study was to evaluate three-body wear of three indirect laboratory composite resins, five chair side bis-acryl resin-based materials, and two chair side methacrylate-bas

  6. Left atrial appendage occlusion for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tzikas, Apostolos; Shakir, Samera; Gafoor, Sameer;

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the safety, feasibility, and efficacy of left atrial appendage occlusion (LAAO) with the AMPLATZER Cardiac Plug (ACP) for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Methods and results: Data from consecutive patients treated in 22 centres were collected...

  7. Performance characteristics of HBC stripper foils irradiated by 650 keV H− and high intensity DC ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newly developed Hybrid type Boron mixed Carbon (HBC) stripper foils are extensively used not only for the RCS of J-PARC and PSR of LANL, but also for other low energy, high intensity proton accelerators in medical applications. We had before tested HBC stripper foils with 3.2 MeV Ne+ and DC heavy ion beams. In order to further understand characteristics of HBC stripper foils, we measured the following parameters using the KEK-650 keV H− and light ion Cockcroft Walton DC accelerator: foil lifetime, thickness reduction, uniformity before and after beam irradiation, and foil deformation. Energy deposition in the present experiment was adjusted to a similar level to that of the HBC foil used in the RCS of J-PARC’. In addition, to understand the reason why the HBC stripper foils have high durability against high intensity beam irradiation, we investigated various physical properties, and compared them between the HBC foils and other tested carbon stripper foils. The sizes of the carbon particles in the HBC foil were found to play a vital role in the lifetime

  8. Fundus artery occlusion caused by cosmetic facial injections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Yanyun; Wang Wenying; Li Jipeng; Yu Yajie; Li Lin; Lu Ning

    2014-01-01

    Background With the increasing popularity of cosmetic facial filler injections in recent years,more and more associated complications have been reported.However,the causative surgical procedures and preventative measures have not been studied well up to now.The aim of this stady was to investigate the clinical characteristics and visual prognosis of fundus artery occlusion resulting from cosmetic facial filler injections.Methods Thirteen consecutive patients with fundus artery occlusion caused by facial filler injections were included.Main outcome measures were filler materials,injection sites,best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA),fundus fluorescein angiography,and associated ocular and systemic manifestations.Results Eleven patients had ophthalmic artery occlusion (OAO) and one patient each had central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) and anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION).Injected materials included autologous fat (seven cases),hyaluronic acid (five cases),and bone collagen (one case).Injection sites were the frontal area (five cases),periocular area (two cases),temple area (two cases),and nose area and nasal area (4 cases).Injected autologous fat was associated with worse final BCVA than hyaluronic acid.The BCVA of seven patients with autologous fat injection in frontal area and temple area was no light perception.Most of the patients with OAO had ocular pain,headache,ptosis,ophthalmoplegia,and no improvement in final BCVA.Conclusions Cosmetic facial injections can cause fundus artery occlusion.Autologous fat injection tends to be associated with painful blindness,ptosis,ophthalmoplegia,and poor visual outcomes.The prognosis is much worse with autologous fat injection than hyaluronic acid injection.

  9. The effect of prolonged monocular occlusion on latent nystagmus in the treatment of amblyopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. Simonsz (Huib)

    1989-01-01

    textabstractWe recorded eye movements in 5 patients with latent nystagmus (LN) before and after 2 days of occlusion of the better eye. The slow-phase speed of the nystagmus (SPS) was in general, before occlusion, lower when the better eye fixated but, after occlusion, lower when the worse eye fixate

  10. Evaluation of the occlusal contact of crowns fabricated with the bite impression method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Sachi; Okada, Daizo; Shin, Chiharu; Ogura, Reiko; Ikeda, Masaomi; Miura, Hiroyuki

    2013-09-30

    In prosthodontic treatment, reconstruction of a proper occlusal contact relationship is very important as well as reconstruction of a proper interproximal relationship and marginal fitness. Unfortunately, occlusal relationships are sometimes lost in the process of occlusal adjustment of crowns. The purpose of this study was to compare the occlusal contacts of single crown fabricated by two different types of impression techniques. Nine subjects, whose molars required treatment with crown restoration, were enrolled in this study. Full cast crowns were fabricated using two types of impression techniques: the conventional impression method (CIM) and the bite impression method (BIM). The occlusal contacts of crowns were precisely evaluated at the following stages: after occlusal adjustment on the articulator (Step 0), before occlusal adjustment in the mouth (Step 1), after occlusal adjustment at the intercuspal position (Step 2), and after occlusal adjustment during lateral and protrusive excursions (Step 3). The number of occlusal contacts of the crowns on the functional cusps fabricated with BIM was significantly greater than that with CIM after occlusal adjustment. For this reason, the crowns fabricated with BIM might have a more functionally desirable occlusal surface compared to the crowns fabricated with CIM.

  11. Digital Evaluation of Functional Occlusion Parameters and their Association with Temporomandibular Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Haralur, Satheesh B.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Dental researchers are contradictory in their opinion on the role of occlusion in TMD. Occlusal evaluation of both conventional and digital methods in TMD patients will provide the accurate information about the factors accountable for occlusal instability. Identifying the factors responsible will facilitate precise diagnosis and treatment for TMD.

  12. Micro-forming of Al-Si foil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Haga

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: of this paper is as below. The investigation of the ability of the cold micro-forming of non-metallic glass was purpose. The grain of the rapidly solidified aluminium alloy became fine. The aluminium alloy foil with fine grain was used, and the investigation of the micro-formability of this alloy was investigated. Moreover, increase of the forming speed was investigated. The increase of the forming speed was purpose of this study, too.Design/methodology/approach: The nozzle pressing melt spinning method was used to attain the rapid solidification of the non-metallic grass. The Al-14mass%Si, which is hyper eutectic but is close to eutectic, was used. The roll contact surface was formed by V-groove. The cold rolling was adopted for forming. The V-groove was machined at the roll surface. The micro-forming was operated at the cold work. Findings: Micro-forming of the crystal aluminium alloy was able by the cold work. The forming speed was 0.04S to form 10 μm height. The forming speed could be drastically increased. Research limitations/implications: The angle of the V-groove, which was used in the present study, was only 60 degrees. The effect of the groove angle on the protrusion-height was not clear. The used material was only the Al-14mass%Si. Relationship between the material and protrusion-height was not clear.Practical implications: The die for the micro-forming of the resin could be made from economy material by the conventional cold rolling process at short time. Therefore, the mass production of the economy die for resin may be obtained.Originality/value: The micro-forming of the rapidly solidified non-metallic glass by cold work was original.

  13. Lateral occlusion schemes in natural and minimally restored permanent dentition: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abduo, J; Tennant, M; McGeachie, J

    2013-10-01

    Clinicians commonly encounter the dilemma of which lateral occlusion schemes is most suitable for a specific patient. The aim of this review is to evaluate the prevalence of the lateral occlusion schemes that exist naturally. An electronic search was completed through PubMed (MEDLINE), Google Scholar and Cochrane Library. The search was confined to peer-reviewed studies published in English, up to April 2013. The literature search was supplemented by manual searching through the bibliography lists of the selected studies. The initial search retrieved a total of 575 studies. After applying the selection criteria, only 12 studies were suitable for inclusion. The Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) tools were utilised to appraise the quality of the studies. The prevalence of canine-guided, group function and balanced occlusions was reported. Overall, there was a clear variability between the studies. The prevalence of the lateral occlusion schemes appears to be influenced by the following factors: (i) the magnitude of excursion, (ii) an individual's age and (iii) the static occlusal relationship. During complete excursion, the canine-guided occlusion tends to be more frequently observed. After partial excursion, the most prevalent lateral occlusion schemes was group function occlusion. With ageing, the prevalence of canine-guided occlusion tends to be reduced and the prevalence of group function occlusion is increased. Dentition that is closer to Class II occlusion exhibits mainly canine-guided occlusion, while for Class III occlusion, group function occlusion is more prevalent. The studies revealed no relationship between the lateral occlusion schemes and TMD development.

  14. Prediction and characterization of heat-affected zone formation due to neighboring nickel-aluminum multilayer foil reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, David P. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hirschfeld, Deidre A. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hooper, Ryan J. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Manuel, Michelle V. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Reactive multilayer foils have the potential to be used as local high intensity heat sources for a variety of applications. Much of the past research effort concerning these materials have focused on understanding the structure-property relationships of the foils that govern the energy released during a reaction. To enhance the ability of researchers to more rapidly develop technologies based on reactive multilayer foils, a deeper and more predictive understanding of the relationship between the heat released from the foil and microstructural evolution in the neighboring materials is needed. This work describes the development of a numerical model for the purpose of evaluating new foil-substrate combinations for screening and optimization. The model is experimentally validated using a commercially available Ni-Al multilayer foils and different alloys.

  15. Measurement of thermal, epithermal and fast neutron flux in the IEA-R1 reactor by the foil activation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental and theoretical details of the foil activation method applied to neutrons flux measurements at the IEA-R1 reactor are presented. The thermal - and epithermal - neutron flux were determined form activation measurements of gold, cobalt and manganese foils; and for the fast neutron flux determination, aluminum, iron and nickel foils were used. The measurements of the activity induced in the metal foils were performed using a Ge-Li gamma spectrometry system. In each energy range of the reactor neutron spectrum, the agreement among the experimental flux values obtained using the three kind of materials, indicates the consistency of the theoretical approach and of the nuclear parameters selected. (Author)

  16. Spatial distribution of the neutron flux in the IEA-R1 reactor core obtained by means of foil activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A three-dimensional distribution of the neutron flux in IEA-R1 reactor, obtained by activating gold foils, is presented. The foils of diameter 8mm and thickness 0,013mm were mounted on lucite plates and located between the fuel element plates. Foil activities were measured using a 3x3 inches Nal(Tl) scintilation detector calibrated against a 4πβγ coincidence detector. Foil positions were chosen to minimize the errors of measurement; the overall estimated error on the measured flux is 5%. (Author)

  17. Energy Loss of High Intensity Focused Proton Beams Penetrating Metal Foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuffey, C.; Qiao, B.; Kim, J.; Beg, F. N.; Wei, M. S.; Evans, M.; Fitzsimmons, P.; Stephens, R. B.; Chen, S. N.; Fuchs, J.; Nilson, P. M.; Canning, D.; Mastrosimone, D.; Foord, M. E.

    2014-10-01

    Shortpulse-laser-driven intense ion beams are appealing for applications in probing and creating high energy density plasmas. Such a beam isochorically heats and rapidly ionizes any target it enters into warm dense matter with uncertain transport and stopping properties. Here we present experimental measurements taken with the 1.25 kJ, 10 ps OMEGA EP BL shortpulse laser of the proton and carbon spectra after passing through metal foils. The laser irradiated spherically curved C targets with intensity 4×1018 W/cm2, producing proton beams with 3 MeV slope temperature and a sharp low energy cutoff at 5 MeV which has not been observed on lower energy, shorter pulse intense lasers. The beam either diverged freely or was focused to estimated 1016 p +/cm2 ps by a surrounding structure before entering the metal foils (Al or Ag and a Cu tracer layer). The proton and ion spectra were altered by the foil depending on material and whether or not the beam was focused. Transverse proton radiography probed the target with ps temporal and 10 micron spatial resolution, indicating an electrostatic field on the foil may also have affected the beam. We present complementary particle-in-cell simulations of the beam generation and transport to the foils. This work was supported by the DOE/NNSA National Laser User Facility program, Contract DE-SC0001265.

  18. A New Analysis Tool Assessment for Rotordynamic Modeling of Gas Foil Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Samuel A.; SanAndres, Luis

    2010-01-01

    Gas foil bearings offer several advantages over traditional bearing types that make them attractive for use in high-speed turbomachinery. They can operate at very high temperatures, require no lubrication supply (oil pumps, seals, etc.), exhibit very long life with no maintenance, and once operating airborne, have very low power loss. The use of gas foil bearings in high-speed turbomachinery has been accelerating in recent years, although the pace has been slow. One of the contributing factors to the slow growth has been a lack of analysis tools, benchmarked to measurements, to predict gas foil bearing behavior in rotating machinery. To address this shortcoming, NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has supported the development of analytical tools to predict gas foil bearing performance. One of the codes has the capability to predict rotordynamic coefficients, power loss, film thickness, structural deformation, and more. The current paper presents an assessment of the predictive capability of the code, named XLGFBTH (Texas A&M University). A test rig at GRC is used as a simulated case study to compare rotordynamic analysis using output from the code to actual rotor response as measured in the test rig. The test rig rotor is supported on two gas foil journal bearings manufactured at GRC, with all pertinent geometry disclosed. The resulting comparison shows that the rotordynamic coefficients calculated using XLGFBTH represent the dynamics of the system reasonably well, especially as they pertain to predicting critical speeds.

  19. The Chevron Foil Thrust Bearing: Improved Performance Through Passive Thermal Management and Effective Lubricant Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckner, Robert

    2013-01-01

    An improved foil thrust bearing is described that eliminates or reduces the need for forced cooling of the bearing foils while at the same time improves the load capacity of the bearing, enhances damping, provides overload tolerance, and eliminates the high speed load capacity drop-off that plagues the current state of the art. The performance improvement demonstrated by the chevron foil thrust bearing stems from a novel trailing edge shape that splays the hot lubricant in the thin film radially, thus preventing hot lubricant carry-over into the ensuing bearing sector. Additionally, the chevron shaped trailing edge induces vortical mixing of the hot lubricant with the gas that is naturally resident within the inter-pad region of a foil thrust bearing. The elimination of hot gas carry-over in combination with the enhanced mixing has enabled a completely passive thermally managed foil bearing design. Laboratory testing at NASA has confirmed the original analysis and reduced this concept to practice.

  20. Visible light photoinactivation of bacteria by tungsten oxide nanostructures formed on a tungsten foil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghasempour, Fariba [Plasma Physics Research Centre, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, P.O. Box 147789-3855, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Azimirad, Rouhollah [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11155-9161, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Amini, Abbas [School of Computing, Engineering and Mathematics, University of Western Sydney, Kingswood, NSW 2751 (Australia); Akhavan, Omid, E-mail: oakhavan@sharif.edu [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11155-9161, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 14588-89694, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-05-30

    Highlights: • Synthesis of tungsten oxide nano/micro-structures on W foils using KOH as a catalyst. • Strong antibacterial activity of tungsten oxide nanorods under visible light irradiation. • Decrease in photoinactivation of bacteria on tungsten oxide nano/micro-rods doped by potassium. - Abstract: Antibacterial activity of tungsten oxide nanorods/microrods were studied against Escherichia coli bacteria under visible light irradiation and in dark. A two-step annealing process at temperatures up to 390 °C and 400–800 °C was applied to synthesize the tungsten oxide nanorods/microrods on tungsten foils using KOH as a catalyst. Annealing the foils at 400 °C in the presence of catalyst resulted in formation of tungsten oxide nanorods (with diameters of 50–90 nm and crystalline phase of WO{sub 3}) on surface of tungsten foils. By increasing the annealing temperature up to 800 °C, tungsten oxide microrods with K{sub 2}W{sub 6}O{sub 19} crystalline phase were formed on the foils. The WO{sub 3} nanorods showed a strong antibacterial property under visible light irradiation, corresponding to >92% bacterial inactivation within 24 h irradiation at room temperature, while the K{sub 2}W{sub 6}O{sub 19} microrods formed at 800 °C could inactivate only ∼45% of the bacteria at the same conditions.

  1. Protection of aluminium foil AA8021 by molybdate-based conversion coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chang-Sheng; Lv, Zhong-Fei; Zhu, Ye-Ling; Xu, Shi-Ai; Wang, Hong

    2014-01-01

    A quick method for surface treatment of aluminium foil with environment-friendly and effective molybdate-based coating was developed in this study. Aluminium foil samples were treated with molybdate-based solution. The microstructure and composition of the resulting molybdate-based conversion coatings were explored by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray photoelectric spectroscopy (XPS). We found that the molybdate-based conversion coating was composed mainly of MoO3, (MoO3)x(P2O5)y and Al2(MoO4)3 compounds. Furthermore, corrosion resistance of the treated aluminium foil was evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization. Our results show that all of the aluminium foils with molybdate-based conversion coatings have much better corrosion resistance than bare aluminium foil. Notably, the sample treated at 40 °C exhibited the best corrosion resistance. The new method is very suitable for continuous processing.

  2. Development of Thick-foil and Fine-pitch GEMs with a Laser Etching Technique

    CERN Document Server

    Tamagawa, T; Asami, F; Abe, K; Iwamoto, S; Nakamura, S; Hayato, A; Iwahashi, T; Konami, S; Hamagaki, H; Yamaguchi, Y L; Tawara, H; Makishima, K; 10.1016/j.nima.2009.07.014

    2009-01-01

    We have produced thick-foil and fine-pitch gas electron multipliers (GEMs) using a laser etching technique. To improve production yield we have employed a new material, Liquid Crystal Polymer, instead of polyimide as an insulator layer. The effective gain of the thick-foil GEM with a hole pitch of 140 um, a hole diameter of 70 um, and a thickness of 100 um reached a value of 10^4 at an applied voltage of 720 V. The measured effective gain of the thick-foil and fine-pitch GEM (80 um pitch, 40 um diameter, and 100 um thick) was similar to that of the thick-foil GEM. The gain stability was measured for the thick-foil and fine-pitch GEM, showing no significant increase or decrease as a function of elapsed time from applying the high voltage. The gain stability over 3 h of operation was about 0.5%. Gain mapping across the GEM showed a good uniformity with a standard deviation of about 4%. The distribution of hole diameters across the GEM was homogeneous with a standard deviation of about 3%. There was no clear cor...

  3. UV Ink-Jet printability and durability of stone and foil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeja Muck

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available he use of ultraviolet (UV printing technology has impacted printing industry in last years due to its applicability on many different »absorptive« as well as »non-absorptive« printing materials. The printability of building materials and recycled foils is relatively unknown. For primary building materials like stones, functionality can be explored with the use of UV printing technology; increased visual, informative effect or even “creative printing” of buildings. Also several aspects of recycled foils reusability as a printing material could be find (printed packaging material or also like secondary building materials. In the present study, printability of the stone and recycled foil and durability of UV prints was explored by means of macroscopically and microscopically characterization. Results indicate that higher print quality can be achieved on polished stone and on coated foil, which surfaces have higher smoothness. Durability of UV prints at freezing is higher at unpolished stone and coated foil that is at materials with the higher surface energy.

  4. Sheathotomy in complicated cases of branch retinal vein occlusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crafoord, S.; Karlsson, N.; Cour, M. la

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To report the clinical experience and results of using a microsurgical technique to decompress the arteriovenous connection in complicated branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) combined with haemorrhage, oedema an ischaemia. Methods: We carried out a retrospective, non-randomized, interve......Purpose: To report the clinical experience and results of using a microsurgical technique to decompress the arteriovenous connection in complicated branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) combined with haemorrhage, oedema an ischaemia. Methods: We carried out a retrospective, non......-randomized, interventional case study of the surgical sheathotomy decompression procedure. We enrolled 12 patients (seven women, five men; median age 64 years) with BRVO and decreased visual acuity (VA) caused by haemorrhage, oedema and ischaemia. The mean duration of thrombosis was 7 months (2-15 months). The patients were...

  5. Minor stroke and major vascular occlusion. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestroni, A; Mandelli, C; Zecca, B; Rossi, P; Isalberti, M; Manganaro, D; Guariglia, A; Torgano, G

    2006-07-01

    Occlusion of middle cerebral artery (MCA) is generally associated to severe stroke and poor prognosis; however a few patients with mild to moderate presentation and long-term reversibility of neurological deficits have been reported. A 66-year-old male presented with left-side weakness and dysarthria (NIHSS score 7), which progressively resolved within a few days; ischaemic lesion of the anterior arm of the right internal capsule was found at brain CT obtained 72 h after presentation. Transcranial Colour Doppler showed absence of flow of the right MCA. Cerebral angiography showed occlusion of the right MCA that was retrogradely revascularised by leptomeningeal collaterals. Non-invasive intracranial vascular examinations could identify major intracranial artery lesions in patients who present with mild to moderate stroke symptoms. These patients could be identified and followed to clarify their best treatment and prognosis.

  6. Comparative Analysis of Partial Occlusion Using Face Recognition Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.Nallammal

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparison of partial occlusion using face recognition techniques that gives in which technique produce better result for total success rate. The partial occlusion of face recognition is especially useful for people where part of their face is scarred and defect thus need to be covered. Hence, either top part/eye region or bottom part of face will be recognized respectively. The partial face information are tested with Principle Component Analysis (PCA, Non-negative matrix factorization (NMF, Local NMF (LNMF and Spatially Confined NMF (SFNMF. The comparative results show that the recognition rate of 95.17% with r = 80 by using SFNMF for bottom face region. On the other hand, eye region achieves 95.12% with r = 10 by using LNMF.

  7. Internal carotid pseudo-occlusion: early and late results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulli, R; Frosini, P; Gatti, M; Narcetti, S; Bernacchi, R; Pratesi, C

    1997-02-01

    Internal carotid pseudo-occlusion (ICP) is a pathology of difficult diagnostic evaluation and treatment in the group of extracranial carotid diseases. The authors report the results of 24 ICP(S) surgically treated in the last five years. No perioperative death was reported. The neurological morbility rate was as low as 4% (1/24), which is quite a good results for this high-risk pathology. Clinical and instrumental follow-up was performed (at 1-3-6-12-24 months from surgery). Six early asymptomatic thromboses (25%) were observed, and the remaining patients showed patent vessels and no symptoms at all. In conclusion surgical treatment of ICP is often able to prevent cerebral ischaemia, and the high rate of early occlusion should not limit surgical indication. PMID:9128116

  8. CABG surgery in a patient with left iliac artery occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar F. De La Peña Brush

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of an 82 years old male with Congestive Heart Failure (Left Ventricle Ejection Fraction: 20% and Acute Pulmonary Edema secondary to Acute Myocardial Infarction that required Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG surgery. Past Medical History included Aortoiliac Occlusive Ddisease with total occlusion of the Left Iliac Artery and collateral circulation to the left inferior limb through the Left Internal Mammary Artery (LIMA. CABG was perfomed without harvesting the LIMA due to high risk of leg ischemia. An attempt to revascularize the left limb previous to the cardiac surgery in other to do so. Would have been too risky in this case. After 2 months follow up, patient showed good clinical outcomes.

  9. Retinal vein occlusion in Saudi Arabia: possible role of dehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghadyan, A A

    1993-10-01

    The medical records of 90 patients with a clinical diagnosis of retinal vein occlusion (RVO) who were seen at two referral hospitals in Saudi Arabia were reviewed. Sixty-eight (75.6%) were men. Central RVO was present in 50 patients (55.6%); branch RVO, in 35 patients (38.9%); and hemiretinal occlusion, in five patients (5.6%). Arterial hypertension was present in 43 patients (47.8%); diabetes mellitus, in 28 patients (31%); and preexisting glaucoma, in 26 patients (28.9%). The date of onset of RVO was available in 61 patients. Eighteen attacks (29.5%) had occurred during the month of Ramadan. The Student's t test of paired samples indicated that the incidence of RVO during the month of Ramadan was significantly higher than that of the other months of the Gregorian year. These findings suggest that dehydration may play a role in the pathogenesis of RVO. PMID:8304694

  10. Vascular endothelial growth factor blocking agents in retinal vein occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Canning

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarises the current status of the use of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF blocking agents in retinal vein occlusion. There have been no randomised controlled trials comparing this treatment with the current standard treatment (largely laser so the lower grade evidence of single treatment case series and anecdotal reports are discussed. VEGF blockers are good at reducing macular oedema in the short term, do improve visual acuity in many cases, and do not seem to adversely affect the long term revascularisation that is necessary to overcome the vein occlusion. VEGF blocking agents are not used in isolation in this condition - they will remain an adjunct to systemic and other local treatments. The literature was reviewed in online searches of Embase and Ovid and the papers quoted are a representative sample of a larger body of publications.

  11. Full Body Pose Estimation During Occlusion using Multiple Cameras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fihl, Preben; Cosar, Serhan

    Automatic estimation of the human pose enables many interesting applications and has therefore achieved much attention in recent years. One of the most successful approaches for estimating unconstrained poses has been the pictorial structures framework. However, occlusions between interacting...... people is a very challenging problem for methods based on pictorials structure as for any other monocular pose estimation method. In this report we present work on a multi-view approach based on pictorial structures that integrate low level information from multiple calibrated cameras to improve the 2D...... pose estimates in each view. The proposed method in shown to work under heavy occlusions but does not improve the pose estimates in the non-occluded cases in it's current form....

  12. A rare case of branch retinal vein occlusion following Sirsasana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balamurugan, Anugraha; Srikanth, Krishnagopal

    2016-01-01

    Sirsasana is a type of headstand postural yoga in which the body is completely inverted. It is performed with or without wall support. In this position, the body is held upright supported by the forearms, while the crown of the head rests lightly on the floor. This is an advanced pose and should be attempted under the supervision of a qualified yoga instructor. The practice of Sirsasana is postulated to increase blood flow to the brain, improving memory, and other intellectual functions. It is also known to cause causes raised intraocular pressure, decompression retinopathy, glaucomatous visual field defects, central retinal vein occlusion, progression of glaucoma, optic neuropathy, and conjunctival varix thrombosis. We report a case of branch retinal vein occlusion following Sirsasana in a patient with systemic hypertension. PMID:27512326

  13. Ocular neovascularization in eyes with a central retinal artery occlusion or a branch retinal artery occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mason lll JO

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available John O Mason III,1,2 Shyam A Patel,1 Richard M Feist,1,2 Michael A Albert Jr,1,2 Carrie Huisingh,1 Gerald McGwin Jr,1,3 Martin L Thomley1,2 1Department of Ophthalmology, University of Alabama School of Medicine, Birmingham, AL, USA; 2Retina Consultants of Alabama, Callahan Eye Foundation Hospital, Birmingham, AL, USA; 3Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA Purpose: To investigate the ocular neovascularization (ONV rate in eyes with a branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO or a central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO, and to study factors that may influence the ONV rate secondary to CRAO.Methods: This was a retrospective case series of consecutive patients (286 total eyes: 83 CRAOs and 203 BRAOs who were diagnosed with a retinal artery occlusion from 1998 to 2013 at the Retina Consultants of Alabama and University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA. Generalized estimating equations were used to evaluate the association between hypothesized risk factors and ONV development.Results: Twelve (14.5% of the 83 eyes with a CRAO developed ONV. Eleven of 12 eyes (91.7% had iris neovascularization, ten of 12 eyes (83.3% had neovascular glaucoma, and two of 12 eyes (16.7% had neovascularization of the optic disc. The average time for ONV development secondary to CRAO was 30.7 days, ranging from the date of presentation to 137 days. Only two (<1.0% of the 203 eyes with a BRAO developed iris neovascularization. Diabetes mellitus type 2 was a risk factor for ONV development following a CRAO with an adjusted odds ratio of 5.2 (95% confidence interval: 1.4–19.8 (P=0.02.Conclusion: ONV is an important complication of CRAO and is a less-frequent complication of BRAO. Patients with a CRAO, especially those with diabetes mellitus type 2, should be closely monitored for the first 6 months for ONV. Keywords: neovascularization, neovascular glaucoma, retinal artery occlusion, central

  14. Sarcopenia: An emphasis on occlusion training and dietary protein

    OpenAIRE

    Loenneke, J P; Pujol, T J

    2011-01-01

    Demographics reveal that the world's population aged 60 years and older will triple from 600 million in 2000 to more 2 billion by the year 2050. To remain independent and healthy, an important factor to consider is the maintenance of skeletal muscle, as the elderly seem to become prone to a progressive loss of skeletal muscle with aging, termed sarcopenia. Interventions should focus on resistance training and optimal nutrition. Low intensity occlusion training may provide a mode of resistance...

  15. Occlusal Grinding Pattern during Sleep Bruxism and Temporomandibular Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Yeni Wijaya; Laura S. Himawan; Roselani W. Odang

    2013-01-01

    Sleep Bruxism is a significant etiology of temporomandibular disorder (TMD) and causes many dental or oral problems such as tooth wear or facet. There is no study analyzing the relationship between sleep bruxism and TMD. Objective: To investigate any relationship between occlusal grinding pattern during sleep bruxism and temporomandibular disorder. Methods: A cross-sectional study involving 30 sleep bruxism patients attended the Faculty Dentistry Universitas Indonesia Teaching Hospital (RSGMP...

  16. Acute occlusion of the left subclavian artery with artery dissection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Subclavian steal syndrome is cerebral or brain stem ischemia resulting from diversion of blood flow from the basilar artery to the subclavian artery, which is caused by occlusive disease of either the subclavian artery or the innominate artery before they branch off at the vertebral artery. In the patients with subclavian steal syndrome the subclavian artery is fed by retrograde flow from the vertebral artery via the carotids and the circle of Willis.

  17. Mechanisms of Biliary Plastic Stent Occlusion and Efforts at Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Chang-Il; Lehman, Glen A.

    2016-01-01

    Biliary stenting via endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography has greatly improved the quality of patient care over the last 30 years. Plastic stent occlusion limits the life span of such stents. Attempts to improve plastic stent patency duration have mostly failed. Metal stents (self-expandable metal stents [SEMSs]) have therefore replaced plastic stents, especially for malignant biliary strictures. SEMS are at least 10 times more expensive than plastic stents. In this focused review, ...

  18. The relationship of occlusal disharmonies and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dodić Slobodan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The influence of occlusal condition on the onset of temporomandibular disorder (TMD has been strongly debated for many years and is still the source of controversy. Until 1980s, the occlusal factors such as the presence of uncured malocclusions, discrepancies between intercuspal position (ICP and retruded contact position (RCP greater than two millimeters, occlusal abnormality, particularly mediotrusion and retrusion, and loss of posterior teeth were considered the primary causes of TMD. Objective: The objective of our study was to find correlation of occlusion disharmonies (difference between ICP and RCP and present sings and symptoms of TMD. Method: The study involved 60 subjects between 18 and 26 years of age who were divided in two groups. The study group consisted of 30 subjects between 18 and 26 years of age with sings and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD. TMD was confirmed according to Helkimo index. An average value of Helkimo index in this group was 1. The control group included 30 subjects between 20 and 25 years of age without TMD sings and symptoms. An average value of Helkimo index in this group was 0. The function analysis of cinematic centers position in RCP and ICP was performed in each subject using the computer pantograph Arcus-Digma (KaVo EWL GmbH, Leutkirch, Germany. Results: The results of our study showed that the translation tracing of cinematic points from RCP to ICP was significantly different in TMD subjects and asymptomatic group (p>0.16. In addition, the study revealed that 53.4 % of subjects with sings and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders had marked translation in the lower temporomandibular joint (0.61-1.2 mm what directed to intracapsular disorders. Conclusion: The results of our study suggested significant difference of RCP and ICP between subjects with sings and symptoms of the temporomandibular disorders and subjects without sings and symptoms.

  19. Consequences of retinal image clarity versus occlusion (absent) versus diffusion.

    OpenAIRE

    Jampolsky, A.

    1994-01-01

    A series of clinical questions and stated hypotheses suggested in the pre-1960s regarding the differences between stimuli of occlusion and diffusion are presented (Part I) and are answered and confirmed by a series of experiments and data in animals and humans. A diffusion stimulus is extremely destructive to development of the acuity system in an eye per se (as well as producing myopia), and a unilateral diffusion stimulus is also destructive to development of the binocular system. Real occl...

  20. Immediate Small Side Branch Occlusion after Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Ostovan

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Small side branches, albeit less important than their larger counterparts, have not yet received due attention in the literature. Nor has there ever been a comparison between drug-eluting stents and bare metal stents apropos side branch occlusion. The aim of this study was to compare the patency of small (≥0.5 and ≤1.5 mm in diameter side branches with respect to bare metal vs. drug-eluting stents immediately after their deployment.Methods: This prospective bi-center study, conducted between June 2005 and January 2007, enrolled 82 patients treated with ≥1 of two stents (TAXUSTM LiberteTM or LiberteTM. Side branches ≥0.5 and <1.5 mm in diameter arising from the main vessel at the lesion site were evaluated. Results: Thirty-eight patients were treated with 42 LiberteTM stents (58 side branches and forty-four patients with 50 TAXUSTM LiberteTM (102 side branches. The rate of small side branch occlusion was 35.3% (36 in the TAXUSTM LiberteTM group compared to 29.31% (15 in the LiberteTM group (P-value= 0.7. The presence of type 1 side branch morphology (Lefevre classification was the most powerful predictor of small side branch occlusion (P-value=0.03. Conclusion: This study shows that drug-eluting stents are not inferior to bare metal stents as regards small side branch occlusion during coronary stenting

  1. Light transmission and preference of eye patches for occlusion treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwan Heo

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate light transmission and preference for six eye patches for occlusion therapy. METHODS: Six patches were examined, including; Ortopad Fun Pack, Ortopad Flesh, Kawamoto A-1, Kawamoto A-2, 3M Opticlude, and Everade Eye Guard. The size and the presence of a light blocking pad of patches were investigated. The amount of light transmitted through the patches was evaluated, using a digital light meter and a model eye, in three different environments; indoors with fluorescent light, outdoors on a sunny day, and strong light from illuminator. After patching the normal eye, the flash visual evoked potential (VEP was measured. Thirty patients with amblyopia or horizontal strabismus, who received occlusion therapy as initial treatment, were included. After using all six patches, patients completed a 7-item questionnaire regarding the patch preference for size, color and shape, adhesive power, pain with removal, skin irritation after removing patch, parent's preference and overall opinion. RESULTS: All patches had a light-blocking pad, except the 3M Nexcare. Ortopad had the strongest light blocking power in the three environments, and the 3M Nexcare had the weakest power. In flash VEP, Ortopad and Kawamoto patches showed flat, but 3M Nexcare and Everade Eye Guard showed normal response. There were significant preferential differences among the patches in all the items of the questionnaire (P<0.05. In comparison between the patches respectively, 3M Nexcare received the lowest satisfaction in pain when removing a patch and skin irritation after removing a patch. Kawamoto A-2 received the lowest score in the overall satisfaction. CONCLUSIONS: We found differences in the light-blocking power and in the preference of the various patches for the occlusion treatment. This is a pilot study regarding only characteristics and preferences of patches. Further clinical studies regarding the relationship between characteristics or preferences of

  2. Major Artery Occlusion: a Rare Complication of Sickle Cell Disease

    OpenAIRE

    AGHA, Adnan; Al-Hakami, Mohammad; Shabbir, Ghulam

    2010-01-01

    Sickle cell disease is hereditary hemoglobinopathy which causes haemolytic anemia, vaso-occlusive crisis, ischemic injuries and many other morbidities like cerebral infarction. In this report, we describe a case of a young patient with sickle cell disease presenting with right-sided weakness and slurring of speech with examination confirming right-sided hemiparesis with motor aphasia. On further investigation, she was found to have frontotemporal infarction. On magnetic resonance imaging with...

  3. Major Artery Occlusion: a Rare Complication of Sickle Cell Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Adnan Agha

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: Sickle cell disease is hereditary hemoglobinopathy which causes haemolytic anemia, vaso-occlusive crisis, ischemic injuries and many other morbidities like cerebral infarction.  In this report, we describe a case of a young patient with sickle cell disease presenting with right-sided weakness and slurring of speech with examination confirming right-sided hemiparesis with motor aphasia. On further investigation, she was found to have frontotemporal infarction.  On magnetic resonance ...

  4. Incidence and Predictors of Radial Artery Occlusion Associated Transradial Catheterization

    OpenAIRE

    Tuncez, Abdullah; Kaya, Zeynettin; Aras, Dursun; Yıldız, Abdulkadir; Gül, Enes Elvin; Tekinalp, Mehmet; Karakaş, Mehmet Fatih; Kısacık, Halil Lütfü

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we sought to assess the incidence and predictors of radial artery occlusion (RAO), which is a significant complication of transradial cardiac catheterization. We prospectively evaluated the results of 106 patients who underwent coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) via the transradial approach (TRA). At the 3rd h of intervention, the radial artery was checked by palpation; color doppler ultrasonography was performed at the 24th h. Fluoroscopy duratio...

  5. Laparoscopic uterine artery occlusion combined with myomectomy for uterine myomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhongping; Yang, Weihong; Dai, Hong; Hu, Liping; Qu, Xiaoyan; Kang, Le

    2008-01-01

    We sought to evaluate the clinical feasibility and mid- to long-term effects of laparoscopic uterine artery occlusion before myomectomy in the treatment of uterine myomas. A total of 566 patients with uterine myoma were treated by laparoscopic uterine artery occlusion before myomectomy from October 2001 through July 2007. Mean blood loss was 88.2 +/- 52.7 mL (95% CI 82.7-93.8). The highest postoperative temperature was 37.8 +/- 0.3 degrees C, and the postoperative morbidity was 5.7% (32/566). Number of days to the return of bowel movement was 1.9 +/- 0.5d and in hospital stay after surgery was 7.7 +/- 2.5d. Complications included 2 instances of subcutaneous emphysema, 1 of vaginal bleeding, and 3 of mild intestinal obstruction. At a median of 26.3 months (range 6-69 months) of follow-up, the rate of myoma recurrence was 3.0% (15/517), uterus volume reduction was 48.9%, and correction of menstruation abnormality was 97.1% (502/517). Laparoscopic uterine artery occlusion before myomectomy can expand myomectomy indications with better results. PMID:18439509

  6. Subintimal angioplasty for femoro-popliteal occlusive disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markose, George; Miller, Fiona N A C; Bolia, Amman

    2010-11-01

    There has been a longstanding debate about the roles of surgical bypass graft, percutaneous transluminal angioplasty, subintimal angioplasty, and conservative management for femoro-popliteal occlusive disease. Subintimal angioplasty was first described in 1987 as a method of performing an endovascular arterial bypass. The subintimal space at the start of the occlusion is entered with a catheter and a wire loop is used to cross the occlusion and reenter the vessel lumen distally. In patients with critical limb ischemia, there is high quality evidence demonstrating that the limb salvage rate and amputation-free survival rates for surgery and endovascular treatment are similar, but surgery is more expensive than angioplasty in the short term. In patients with intermittent claudication, surgical bypass using an autologous saphenous vein graft is currently believed to be the gold standard, but this is increasingly questioned in the light of recent advances in endovascular techniques. Surgical bypass with vein graft offers a 2-year patency of 81%, compared with 67% for a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) graft and at best 67% for subintimal angioplasty. The better patency offered by surgery must be balanced against a higher morbidity and mortality. To conclude, subintimal angioplasty is an extremely valuable technique in the management of critical limb ischemia. Based on the evidence to date, this technique is likely to have an increasing role in the management of intermittent claudication over the coming years, particularly if the risk of general anaesthesia is high or there is no suitable vein.

  7. Occlusion-free Blood Flow Animation with Wall Thickness Visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawonn, Kai; Glaßer, Sylvia; Vilanova, Anna; Preim, Bernhard; Isenberg, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    We present the first visualization tool that combines pathlines from blood flow and wall thickness information. Our method uses illustrative techniques to provide occlusion-free visualization of the flow. We thus offer medical researchers an effective visual analysis tool for aneurysm treatment risk assessment. Such aneurysms bear a high risk of rupture and significant treatment-related risks. Therefore, to get a fully informed decision it is essential to both investigate the vessel morphology and the hemodynamic data. Ongoing research emphasizes the importance of analyzing the wall thickness in risk assessment. Our combination of blood flow visualization and wall thickness representation is a significant improvement for the exploration and analysis of aneurysms. As all presented information is spatially intertwined, occlusion problems occur. We solve these occlusion problems by dynamic cutaway surfaces. We combine this approach with a glyph-based blood flow representation and a visual mapping of wall thickness onto the vessel surface. We developed a GPU-based implementation of our visualizations which facilitates wall thickness analysis through real-time rendering and flexible interactive data exploration mechanisms. We designed our techniques in collaboration with domain experts, and we provide details about the evaluation of the technique and tool.

  8. Treatment of lower extremity arterial occlusive through retrograde access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of retrograde access for the interventional treatment of lower extremity arterial occlusive diseases when the occluded segment of lower extremity artery could not be reached through antegrade access. Methods: Twenty-seven cases (male 17, female 10; age range 32-89 years) were retrospectively investigated, including 18 with lower limb arteriosclerosis obliterans, 7 with diabetic foot and 2 with thromboangiitis obliterans. According to the Fontaine staging, 6 cases were classified as Fontaine Ⅱ, 11 were classified as Fontaine Ⅲ and 10 were classified as Fontaine Ⅳ. All cases underwent endovascular operation through antegrade access first with an attempt to cross the occlusive segment, but in vain. So retrograde access was tried via puncture of pedis dorsalis or posterior tibial artery or exposure of lateral branches of posterior tibial artery, peroneal artery or dorsal artery by open surgery,which followed by Percutaneous transluminal angiography and (or) stenting. Results: The operation through retrograde access was successful in all cases with obvious improvement of ischemic symptoms. Hematoma at the puncture site occurred in 3 patients, and paresthesia of toes occurred in 1 after dorsalis pedis arteriotomy. No severe perioperative complication occurred. The average ankle brachial index increased from 0.37 ± 0.11 preoperatively to 0.85 ± 0.12 postoperatively. Conclusions: Retrograde access could be used as an alternative strategy in lower extremity arterial occlusive diseases when the occluded segment could not reach through antegrade access. (authors)

  9. Comparative study to evaluate the accuracy of polyether occlusal bite registration material and occlusal registration wax as a guide for occlusal reduction during tooth preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niranjan Joshi

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to compare and evaluate the reliability of the most commonly used occlusal registration wax that with polyether bite registration material as a guide for occlusal reduction required during tooth preparations. Materials and Methods: For the purpose of this study, 25 abutment teeth requiring tooth preparation for fixed prosthesis were selected and tooth preparations carried out. Modeling wax strips of specific dimensions were placed onto the cast of prepared tooth, which was mounted on maximum intercuspation on the articulator and the articulator was closed. The thickness of the wax registration was measured at three zones namely two functional cusps and central fossa. Similar measurements were made using the polyether bite registration material and prosthesis at the same zones. The data was tabulated and was subjected to statistical analysis using anova test and Tukey honestly significant difference test. Results: The differences in thickness between wax record and prosthesis by 0.1346 mm, whereas the difference between polyether and prosthesis was 0.02 mm with a P value of 0.042, which is statistically significant. This means that the wax record was 8.25% larger than the prosthesis while polyether was just 1.27% larger than the prosthesis. Conclusion: The clinical significance of the above analysis is that Ramitec polyether bite registration material is most suitable material when compared with commonly used modeling wax during the tooth preparation.

  10. Effects of heat-treatment and hydrogen adsorption on Graphene grown on Cu foil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jongweon; Gao, Li; Tian, Jifa; Cao, Helin; Yu, Qingkai; Guest, Jeffrey; Chen, Yong; Guisinger, Nathan

    2011-03-01

    Graphene has recently been a subject of intense research efforts due to its remarkable physical properties as an ideal two-dimensional material. While numerous different methods for graphene synthesis are being explored, CVD-grown graphene on Cu foil presents the possibility of a large-scale and high-quality synthesis of graphene.[1] To improve the quality of graphene films on Cu foil prepared by CVD and better understand its microscopic growth, atomic-scale characterization becomes of great importance. We have investigated the effects of thermal annealing and hydrogen adsorption/desorption on ex-situ CVD-grown monolayer graphene on polycrystalline Cu foil at the atomic-scale using ultrahigh vacuum scanning tunneling microscopy, and we will report on these studies.

  11. Identification of Impact Craters in Foils from the Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroud, R. M.; Allen, C.; Bajt, S.; Bechtel, H. A.; Borg, J.; Brenker, F.; Bridges, J.; Brownlee, D. E.; Burchell, M.; Burghammer, M.; Butterworth, A. L.; Cloetens, P.; Davis, A. M.; Floss, C.; Flynn, G. J.; Frank, D.; Gainsforth, Z.; Gruen, E.; Heck, P. R.; Hillier, J. K.; Hoppe, P.; Howard, L.; Sandford, S. A.; Tsou, P.; Zolensky, M. E.

    2011-01-01

    The Stardust Interstellar Dust Collection tray provides the first opportunity for the direct laboratory-based measurement of contemporary interstellar dust. The total exposed surface of the tray was approximately 0.1 square meters, including 153 square centimeters of Al foil in addition to the silica aerogel tiles that are the primary collection medium. Preliminary examination of aerogel tiles has already revealed 16 tracks from particle impacts with an orientation consistent with an interstellar origin, and to date four of the particles associated with these tracks have a composition consistent with an extraterrestrial origin. Tentative identification of impact craters on three foil samples was also reported previously. Here we present the definitive identification of 20 impact craters on five foils.

  12. Measurement of XUV-absorption spectra of ZnS radiatively heated foils

    CERN Document Server

    Kontogiannopoulmos, Nikolaos; Thais, Frédéric; Chenais-Popovics, Claude; Sauvan, Pascal; Schott, R; Fölsner, Wolfgang; Arnault, Philippe; Poirier, Michel; Blenski, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Time-resolved absorption of zinc sulfide (ZnS) and aluminum in the XUV-range has been measured. Thin foils in conditions close to local thermodynamic equilibrium were heated by radiation from laser-irradiated gold spherical cavities. Analysis of the aluminum foil radiative hydrodynamic expansion, based on the detailed atomic calculations of its absorption spectra, showed that the cavity emitted flux that heated the absorption foils corresponds to a radiation temperature in the range 55 60 eV. Comparison of the ZnS absorption spectra with calculations based on a superconfiguration approach identified the presence of species Zn6+ - Zn8+ and S5+ - S6+. Based on the validation of the radiative source simulations, experimental spectra were then compared to calculations performed by post-processing the radiative hydrodynamic simulations of ZnS. Satisfying agreement is found when temperature gradients are accounted for.

  13. The development of uranium foil farication technology utilizing twin roll method for Mo-99 irradiation target

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, C K; Park, H D

    2002-01-01

    MDS Nordion in Canada, occupying about 75% of global supply of Mo-99 isotope, has provided the irradiation target of Mo-99 using the rod-type UAl sub x alloys with HEU(High Enrichment Uranium). ANL (Argonne National Laboratory) through co-operation with BATAN in Indonesia, leading RERTR (Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors) program substantially for nuclear non-proliferation, has designed and fabricated the annular cylinder of uranium targets, and successfully performed irradiation test, in order to develop the fabrication technology of fission Mo-99 using LEU(Low Enrichment Uranium). As the uranium foils could be fabricated in laboratory scale, not in commercialized scale by hot rolling method due to significant problems in foil quality, productivity and economic efficiency, attention has shifted to the development of new technology. Under these circumstances, the invention of uranium foil fabrication technology utilizing twin-roll casting method in KAERI is found to be able to fabricate LEU or...

  14. Demonstration of {sup 99}MO production using LEU metal-foil targets in the cintichem process.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandegrift, G. F.; Conner, C.; Hofman, G. L.; Snelgrove, J. L.; Mutalib, A.; Purwadi, B.; Adang, H. G.; Hotman, L.; Kadarisman, Sukmana, A.; Dicky, T. J.; Sriyono, Suripto, A.; Lutfi, D.; Amin; Basiran, A.; Gogo, A.; Sarwani; Taryo, T.

    1999-09-30

    In March and September 1999, demonstrations of the irradiation, disassembly, and processing of LEU metal foil targets were performed in the Indonesian BATAN PUSPIPTEK Facilities. These demonstrations showed that (1) irradiation and disassembly can be performed so that the uranium foil can be easily removed from the target body, and (2) with only minor changes to the current process, the LEU foil can produce yield and purity of the {sup 99}Mo product at least as great as that obtained with the HEU target. Further, because of these modifications, two hours are cut from the processing time, and the liquid waste volume is reduced. Results of these demonstrations will be presented along with conclusions and plans for future work.

  15. Effect of trace Sn on corrosion behaviors of high voltage anode aluminum foil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Jing-bo; MAO Wei-min; YANG Hong; FENG Hui-ping

    2008-01-01

    The cube texture and the surface corrosion structure of aluminum anode foil for high voltage electrolytic capacitor containing trace Sn were investigated based on quantitative texture analysis and microstructure observation under SEM. High volume fraction of cube texture over 95% and obviously higher specific capacity are obtained in the foils with less than 0.002% Sn. It is indicated that the corrosion behavior of trace Sn on aluminum surface is similar with that of Pb. Higher content of Sn over 0.002% reduces the cube texture component and therefore the specific capacity. Sn, as an eco-friendly microelement, can be applied to replace Pb in improving the homogenous pitting behaviors of high voltage aluminum foils.

  16. VO₂/Si-Al gel nanocomposite thermochromic smart foils: largely enhanced luminous transmittance and solar modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C; Cao, X; Kamyshny, A; Law, J Y; Magdassi, S; Long, Y

    2014-08-01

    VO2 nanoparticles with a dimension of approximately 20 nm were obtained by simple mechanical bead-milling method, which were well dispersed in transparent silica-alumina (Si-Al) gel matrix to form nanocomposites. The VO2/Si-Al gel thermochromic nanocomposite foils were fabricated with various VO2 solid contents and foil thickness. With 10% VO2 loading and 3 μm foil thickness, high luminous transmittance (T(lum(20°C))=63.7% and T(lum(90°C))=54.4%), and large solar modulation ability (ΔTsol=12%) can be obtained which surpasses the best reported results (nanoporous films:T(lum(20°C))=43.3%, T(lum(90°C))=39.9% and ΔTsol=14.1%). This current approach provided a simple and scalable preparation method with the best combined thermochromic performance. PMID:24360313

  17. The preparation of 248CmF 3 deposits on self-supported carbon foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, W. S.; Petek, M.; Zevenbergen, L. A.

    1987-06-01

    Another target preparative technique was recently added to the Isotope Research Materials Laboratory's (IRML) capabilities for custom target fabrication. In support of super-heavy-ion physics experiments, methods and equipment were developed for the preparation of 248CmF 3 deposits on carbon foils. The starting material was obtained as either a chloride or nitrate solution, converted to the flouride, and evaporated on carbon foil substrates. Deposits ranging from 40 to 570 μg/cm 2 were prepared as a 12-mm-diam spot on 45- to 60-μg/cm 2 self-supported carbon foils. The deposits were then overcoated with approximately 10 μg/cm 2 of carbon to minimize contamination problems during target handling. The high cost of 248Cm ($100/μg) and its limited availability were the key constraints in the development of preparative technology beyond the inherent radioactivity of 248Cm.

  18. Effects of rolling technical factors on microstructures and mechanical properties of aluminum foils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛大恒; 温勇明

    2003-01-01

    The effects of rolling driving methods and technical factors on the microstructures and mechanical properties of aluminum foils based on the industrial trials were studied by TEM, tensile test and texture analysis. The results show that there exist obvious dynamic recovery and primary location re-crystallization phenomena in the aluminum foils during high-speed rolling. Meanwhile the phenomena become more obvious as the rolling speed or the reduction increases, especially in the asymmetrical rolling process with single-roller driving, the dynamic primary location recrystallization is more likely to come into being. The effects of the dynamic recovery phenomena and the dynamic primary location recrystallization on the comprehensive final product ratio and the quality of aluminum foils were discussed.

  19. X-ray scattering measurements from thin-foil x-ray mirrors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Erland; BYRNAK, BP; Hornstrup, Allan;

    1992-01-01

    Thin foil X-ray mirrors are to be used as the reflecting elements in the telescopes of the X-ray satellites Spectrum-X-Gamma (SRG) and ASTRO-D. High resolution X-ray scattering measurements from the Au coated and dip-lacquered Al foils are presented. These were obtained from SRG mirrors positioned...... in a test quadrant of the telescope structure and from ASTRO-D foils held in a simple fixture. The X-ray data is compared with laser data and other surface structure data such as STM, atomic force microscopy (AFM), TEM, and electron micrography. The data obtained at Cu K-alpha(1), (8.05 keV) from all...

  20. A Blowdown Cryogenic Cavitation Tunnel and CFD Treatment for Flow Visualization around a Foil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yutaka ITO; Kazuya SAWASAKI; Naoki TANI; Takao NAGASAKI; Toshio NAGASHIMA

    2005-01-01

    Cavitation is one of the major problems in the development of rocket engines. There have been few experimental studies to visualize cryogenic foil cavitation. Therefore a new cryogenic cavitation tunnel of blowdown type was built. The foil shape is "plano-convex". This profile was chosen because of simplicity, but also of being similar to the one for a rocket inducer impeller. Working fluids were water at room temperature,hot water and liquid nitrogen. In case of Angle of Attack (AOA)=8°, periodical cavity departure was observed in the experiments of both water at 90℃ and nitrogen at -190℃ under the same velocity 10 m/sec and the same cavitation number 0.7. The frequencies were observed to be 110 and 90 Hz, respectively, and almost coincided with those of vortex shedding from the foil. Temperature depression due to the thermodynamic effect was confirmed in both experiment and simulation especially in the cryogenic cavitation.

  1. The Synthesis of Highly Aligned Cupric Oxide Nanowires by Heating Copper Foil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianbo Liang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the effects of grain size and orientation of copper substrates for the growth of cupric oxide nanowires by thermal oxidation method. Long, less-roughness, high-density, and aligned cupric oxide nanowires have been synthesized by heating (200 oriented copper foils with small grain size in air gas. Long and aligned nanowires of diameter around 80 nm can only be formed within a short temperature range from 400 to 700°C. On the other hand, uniform, smooth-surface, and aligned nanowires were not formed in the case of larger crystallite size of copper foils with (111 and (200 orientation. Smaller grain size of copper foil with (200 orientation is favorable for the growth of highly aligned, smooth surface, and larger-diameter nanowires by thermal oxidation method.

  2. Production and dynamics of positrons in ultrahigh intensity laser-foil interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Kostyukov, I Yu

    2016-01-01

    The electron-positron pair production accompanying interaction of a circularly polarized laser pulse with a foil is studied for laser intensities higher than $10^{24}$W cm$^{-2}$. The laser energy penetrates into the foil due to the effect of the relativistic hole-boring. It is demonstrated that the electron-positron plasma is produced as a result of quantum-electrodynamical cascading in the field of the incident and reflected laser light in front of the foil. The incident and reflected laser light makes up the circularly polarized standing wave in the reference frame of the hole-boring front and the pair density peaks near the nodes and antinodes of the wave. A model based on the particle dynamics with radiation reaction effect near the magnetic nodes is developed. The model predictions are verified by 3D PIC-MC simulations.

  3. Resonance effects of transition radiation emitted from thin foil stacks using electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awata, Takaaki; Yajima, Kazuaki; Tanaka, Takashi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering] [and others

    1997-03-01

    Transition Radiation(TR) X rays are expected to be a high brilliant X-ray source because the interference among TR X rays emitted from many thin foils placed periodically in vacuum can increase their intensity and make them quasi-monochromatic. In order to study the interference (resonance) effects of TR, we measured the energy spectra of TR for several sets of thin-foil stacks at various emission angles. It was found that the resonance effects of TR are classified into intrafoil and interfoil resonances and the intensity of TR X rays increases nonlinearly with increasing foil number, attributing to the interfoil resonance. It became evident that the brilliance of TR is as high as that of SR. (author)

  4. Creep Strength and Microstructure of Al20-25+Nb Alloy Sheets and Foils for Advanced Microturbine Recurperators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maziasz, Philip J [ORNL; Shingledecker, John P [ORNL; Evans, Neal D [ORNL; Yamamoto, Yukinori [ORNL; More, Karren Leslie [ORNL; Trejo, Rosa M [ORNL; Lara-Curzio, Edgar [ORNL

    2007-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and ATI Allegheny Ludlum worked together on a collaborative program for about two years to produce a wide range of commercial sheets and foils of the new AL20-25+Nb{trademark} (AL20-25+Nb) stainless alloy for advanced microturbine recuperator applications. There is a need for cost-effective sheets/foils with more performance and reliability at 650-750 C than 347 stainless steel, particularly for larger 200-250 kW microturbines. Phase 1 of this collaborative program produced the sheets and foils needed for manufacturing brazed plated-fin air cells, while Phase 2 provided foils for primary surface air cells, and did experiments on modified processing designed to change the microstructure of sheets and foils for improved creep-resistance. Phase 1 sheets and foils of AL20-25+Nb have much more creep-resistance than 347 steel at 700-750 C, and those foils are slightly stronger than HR120 and HR230. Results for Phase 2 showed nearly double the creep-rupture life of sheets at 750 C/100 MPa, and similar improvements in foils. Creep data show that Phase 2 foils of AL20-25+Nb alloy have creep resistance approaching that of alloy 625 foils. Testing at about 750 C in flowing turbine exhaust gas for 500 h in the ORNL Recuperator Test Facility shows that foils of AL20-25+Nb alloy have oxidation-resistance similar to HR120 alloy, and much better than 347 steel.

  5. MUPLEX: a compact multi-layered polymer foil collector for micrometeoroids and orbital debris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kearsley, A T; Graham, G A; Burchell, M J; Taylor, E A; Drolshagen, G; Chater, R J; McPhail, D

    2004-10-04

    Detailed studies of preserved hypervelocity impact residues on spacecraft multi-layer insulation foils have yielded important information about the flux of small particles from different sources in low-Earth orbit. We have extended our earlier research on impacts occurring in LEO to design and testing of a compact capture device. MULPEX (MUlti-Layer Polymer EXperiment) is simple, cheap to build, lightweight, of no power demand, easy to deploy, and optimized for the efficient collection of impact residue for analysis on return to Earth. The capture medium is a stack of very thin (8 micron and 40 micron) polyimide foils, supported on poly-tetrafluoroethylene sheet frames, surrounded by a protective aluminum casing. The uppermost foil has a very thin metallic coating for thermal protection and resistance to atomic oxygen and ultra-violet exposure. The casing provides a simple detachable interface for deployment on the spacecraft, facing into the desired direction for particle collection. On return to the laboratory, the stacked foils are separated for examination in a variable pressure scanning electron microscope, without need for surface coating. Analysis of impact residue is performed using energy dispersive X-ray spectrometers. Our laboratory experiments, utilizing buck-shot firings of analogues to micrometeoroids (35-38 micron olivine) and space debris (4 micron alumina and 1mm stainless steel) in a light gas gun, have shown that impact residue is abundant within the foil layers, and preserves a record of the impacting particle, whether of micrometer or millimeter dimensions. Penetrations of the top foil are easily recognized, and act as a proxy for dimensions of the penetrating particle. Impact may cause disruption and melting, but some residue retains sufficient crystallographic structure to show clear Raman lines, diagnostic of the original mineral.

  6. Measurement of short lifetimes in highly-charged ions using a two-foil target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, H.G.; Dunford, R.W.; Gemmell, D.S. [and others

    1995-08-01

    One of the frontiers in the study of the atomic physics of highly-charged ions is the measurement of lifetimes in the 100 fs to 10 ps regime. The standard technique for measuring lifetimes of states in highly-charged ions is the beam-foil time-of-flight method in which the intensity of an emission line is monitored as a function of the separation between the exciting foil and the portion of the beam being viewed by the detector. This method becomes increasingly difficult as the decay lengths of the states of interest become shorter. At a typical beam velocity of 10% of the speed of light, the beam travels 30 microns in a picosecond. The standard beam-foil time-of-flight method necessitates observation of the decay radiation within one or two decay lengths from the foil while preventing the detectors from observing the beam spot at the foil. For short-lived states this requires tight collimation of the detector with a resulting loss in solid angle. We are developing a method for measuring ultrashort atomic lifetimes utilizing a two-foil target. As a specific case to demonstrate the feasibility of our method, we are studying the decay of the 2 {sup 3}P{sub 2} level in helium-like Kr{sup 34+}. This level has a calculated lifetime of 9.5 ps which corresponds to a decay length of 380 {mu}m. For krypton, theory predicts that 90% of the 2 {sup 3}P{sub 2} states decay via M2 radiation to the ground state. A measurement of the lifetime of this state would contribute to an important current problem which concerns the understanding of atomic structure when both electron correlations and relativistic effects are simultaneously important.

  7. Characterization of a mid-sized Li foil multi-wire proportional counter neutron detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Kyle A., E-mail: knelson1@ksu.edu [S.M.A.R.T. Laboratory, Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States); Kusner, Michael R. [Saint-Gobain Crystals, Hiram, OH 44234 (United States); Montag, Benjamin W. [S.M.A.R.T. Laboratory, Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States); Mayhugh, Michael R. [Saint-Gobain Crystals, Hiram, OH 44234 (United States); Schmidt, Aaron J.; Wayant, Clayton D.; Shultis, J. Kenneth; Ugorowski, Philip B.; McGregor, Douglas S. [S.M.A.R.T. Laboratory, Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States)

    2014-10-21

    A 550 cm{sup 2} thermal neutron detector was constructed with five parallel sheets of 75 µm thick {sup 6}Li foil (95% enrichment) spaced 1.63 cm apart. Anode wire banks containing a plurality of anode wires were strung on both sides of each foil, six banks in total. The chamber was backfilled with P-10 proportional gas and over-pressured to 1.1, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.8 atm (111, 151, 202, and 284 kPa). The design was tailored to allow the products from the {sup 6}Li(n,t){sup 4}He reaction to escape both sides of the Li foil simultaneously, thereby, allowing for concurrent measurement in the proportional gas. The measured intrinsic thermal neutron detection efficiency of the detector with normal incident thermal neutrons to the foil sheets was 53.8±0.20%. When the detector was angled (55° from normal) such that a 0.5 cm diameter thermal neutron beam intersected all of the foil layers, the intrinsic thermal neutron detection efficiency increased to 58.6±0.21%. A {sup 252}Cf neutron source positioned at a distance of 2.0 m yielded an absolute neutron detection efficiency of 0.73 cps ng{sup −1}. The gamma-ray rejection ratio (GRR) was 7.67×10{sup –9} as measured from a {sup 60}Co source for an exposure rate of 40 mR hr{sup −1}. Theoretical pulse-height spectra obtained with MCNP6 agreed well with experimental data and allowed pulse-height spectra and discriminator settings to be energy-calibrated. These results demonstrate the potential for the Li foil multi-wire proportional counter (MWPC) as a viable {sup 3}He neutron detector replacement.

  8. Evaluation of occlusal factors in patients with temporomandibular joint disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Dória Costa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and the relation between the main occlusal factors and the temporomandibular disorder (TMD. METHODS: We analyzed 100 patients (50 diagnosed with TMD and 50 asymptomatic volunteers, control group through a questionnaire that classified TMD as absent, mild, moderate and severe. Then, an evaluation was made of intraoral occlusal factors: Absence of posterior teeth, wear facets, overjet, overbite, open bite, posterior crossbite, sagittal relationship (Class I, II and III, centric relation discrepancy for maximum intercuspation, anterior guidance and balancing occlusal interference. The c² examined the association between TMD and considered occlusal variables. RESULTS: The prevalence of studied occlusal factors was higher in patients with moderate and severe TMD. Statistically significant results were found on: Absence of five or more posterior teeth, overbite and overjet greater than 5 mm, edge-to-edge bite, posterior crossbite, Class II and III, the absence of effective anterior guide and balancing side interferences. CONCLUSIONS: Indeed, it is concluded that there is a relationship between TMD and occlusal factors, however it can not be told to what extent these factors are predisposing, precipitating or perpetuating the disease. Therefore, despite its multifactorial etiology, one can not neglect the occlusal analysis of these patients.OBJETIVO: o presente estudo teve como objetivo verificar a prevalência e relação dos principais fatores oclusais com a disfunção temporomandibular. MÉTODOS: foram analisados 100 pacientes (50 com diagnóstico de DTM e 50 voluntários assintomáticos, grupo controle através de um questionário para classificação do grau de DTM, em ausente, leve, moderada e severa. Em seguida, foi realizada uma avaliação intrabucal dos fatores oclusais ausência de dentes posteriores, facetas de desgaste, overjet, overbite, mordida aberta anterior, mordida

  9. Potentiality of the composite fulleren based carbon films as the stripper foils for tandem accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Vasin, A V; Rusavsky, A V; Totsky, Y I; Vishnevski, I N

    2001-01-01

    The problem of the radiation resistance of the carbon stripper foils is considered. The short review of the experimental data available in literature and original experimental results of the are presented. In the paper discussed is the possibility of composite fulleren based carbon films to be used for preparation of the stripper foils. Some technological methods for preparation of composite fulleren based carbon films are proposed. Raman scattering and atom force microscopy were used for investigation of the fulleren and composite films deposited by evaporation of the C sub 6 sub 0 fulleren powder.

  10. Influence of recrystallization annealing on the cube texture in high-purity aluminum foils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, X.M.; Tang, J.G.; Du, Y.X.; Zhou, Z.P.; Chen, Z.Y.; Liu, C.M. [Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South Univ., HN (China)

    2001-07-01

    The cube texture in high-purity aluminum foils under different annealing conditions was investigated by means of orientation distribution function (ODF) and microscopy. It was shown that low recrystallization temperature was favorable to the nucleation of cube orientation and to the growth of the cube nuclei, and that stronger cube texture was obtained by multistage annealing than by single one. The strongest cube texture in high purity aluminum foils annealed in two-stage in the vacuum was obtained. It demonstrated that the recrystallization behavior was controlled by the existing state of Fe in aluminum. A model of multistage annealing was proposed for development of strong cube texture with temperature. (orig.)

  11. Distribution of Microelements and Their Influence on the Corrosion Behavior of Aluminum Foil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weimin MAO; Heng JIANG; Ping YANG; Huiping FENG; Yongning YU

    2005-01-01

    The distribution of microelement Fe, Si, Cu and Mg in the surface layer of aluminum foil annealed at 300℃ and 500℃ were determined by secondary ion mass spectrometer. The corrosion structure produced by electrochemical etching was also observed. It was found that the Mg concentration at external surface was increased exponentially over the fourth degree and promoted by higher annealing temperature, which will increase the number of corrosion pits inside the large grains, and therefore the specific capacity of the foils for electrolytic capacitors. The similar effects of microelement Fe, Si and Cu were not so strong.

  12. Application of carbon stripping foil to HIRFL-CSR and measurement of charge state distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charged ions may be injected into the CSRm by means of the charge stripping injection or the multiple multi-turn injection. The charge state distribution of the ions passing through the carbon foil has great influence on the performance of the accelerator and thus plays a key role in the charge stripping injection. It's found that the charge state distribution is dependent on the thicknesses of the carbon foil and the energy of the ions. In present work, the carbon stripper was applied to HIRFL-CSR and the best optional charge state distribution was measured. (authors)

  13. Foil Blanking Mechanism Research Using Rubber Tool by Finite Element Simulation and Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang-Kai; Li, Xiao-Xing; Lang, Li-Hui; Xiao, Rui; Ge, Yu-Long

    2016-08-01

    For foil blanking process, the usage of flexible tool can effectively reduce the requirement of the manufacturing and assembling precision, compared with using conventional tool. However, the blanking mechanism using rubber tool is not clear. To investigate this question, the Finite Element (FE) model of rubber and process is established using ABAQUS package. The result of FE simulation affirm that the fracture emerges as a result of shear, not tensile. Then, for titanium foil with 0.08mm thickness, the cutting experiment is executed to verify the validity of blanking mechanism and FE simulation.

  14. Jiangxi Copper and Yates Joined Hands in High-Grade Copper Foil Project Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正> The construction of a large-scale copper foilproject recently started in the High-Tech De-velopment Zone of Nanchang,the capital ofJiangxi Province.This new copper foil factory,with a designed annual production capacity of6,000 tons of high-grade copper foil,is a jointventure project between Jiangxi Copper Group,the No.1 copper producer in China,and YatesInc.,a leading US copper product company andthe world’s first electrical circuit board maker.

  15. Shock-Accelerated Flying Foil Diagnostic with a Chirped Pulse Spectral Interferometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建平; 李儒新; 曾志男; 王兴涛; 程传福; 徐至展

    2003-01-01

    A shock-accelerated flying foil is diagnosed with a chirped pulse spectral interferometry. The shock is pumped by a 1.2ps chirped laser pulse with a power of~1014 W/cm2 at 785nm irradiating on a 500nm aluminium film and detected by a probe pulse split from the pump based on a Michelson spectral interferometry. A flying foil of~5.595×10-6 g in~400 μm diameter was accelerated to~165 nm away from the initial target rear surface at~1.83 km/s before ablation.

  16. Study on lift-up speed of aerodynamic compliant foil thrust bearings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The gas bearing is a newtype of bearing whichuses gas as thelubricant.Since they appearedin19thcentury,manyscholars researchedthembytheoreti-cal and experi mental methods.In order to i mprovethe capabilities of the gas bearing,manytypes of gasbearings of different structures were presented,forexample,tilting-pad gas bearing,spiral groove gasbearing,compliant foil gas bearing,andso on[1].Inthese types of gas bearings,the aerodynamic compli-ant foil bearings are more attractive and have beenwidely used in man...

  17. Multiple shock compression of diamond foils with a shaped laser pulse over 1 TPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments on shock compression of diamond foils with intense laser are reported. In order to explore high-pressure and low-temperature region of the carbon phase-diagram, we irradiate single-crystal (Type-Ib) crystal foils with a shaped (ramp) pulse at the pressure of over 1TPa. We observed time-resolved reflectivity from the rear surface of the diamond during the shock compression with velocity interferometer system for any reflector (VISAR). Simultaneous observation of optical measurements and x-ray diffraction has been tested. Preliminary results on decompression of the diamond crystal due to x-ray heating were observed

  18. The physical basis of the release curve for RIB foil targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both diffusion and effusion in radioactive ion beam foil targets can be described mathematically by Fick's Law of diffusion. An approximate solution to the equation with the appropriate boundary conditions is presented for the RIST geometry target. This solution is expressed in terms of the physical and geometrical properties of the target and ioniser: the diffusion constant of the foil material, the conductance and the dimensions of the target and ioniser. The results of fitting the equation to measured data are shown. The equation can be used to optimize the design of targets for different radioactive ion beams

  19. Quality assurance of GEM foils in the framework of the TPC upgrade in the ALICE experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Ozcelik, Melih Arslan

    2016-01-01

    In the framework of the TPC upgrade of the ALICE Experiment, new readout chambers will be installed during the LHC long shutdown 2, which is scheduled to start in July 2018. The current MWPCs (Multi Wire Proportional Chambers) will be replaced by readout chambers consisting of GEM (Gas Electron Multipliers) foils in order to meet the increasing readout rate requirements. QA (Quality Assurance) tests on the GEMs are performed to classify the foils. In this report we present the work done during the CERN Summer Student Programme 2016.

  20. A study of optimal handle shape and muscle strength distribution on lower arm when holding a foil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chih-Lin; Lin, Fang-Tsan; Li, Kai-Way; Jou, Yung-Tsan; Huang, Chuen-Der

    2009-04-01

    The strength of five working muscle groups of the lower arms of 8 male fencers, including adductor pollicis, extensor carpi radialis, flexor carpi radialis, extensor carpi ulnaris, and flexor carpi ulnaris, were examined during competition. Root mean square values of muscular electromyographic signals indicated that the shape of foil handles significantly influenced distribution of working strength of each muscle group. Use of the Pistol-Viscounti type of foil handle showed better distribution of strength among the 5 muscle groups than did other types of foils. Using the Pistol-Viscounti foil handle not only reduced muscular fatigue but also lessened cumulative trauma symptoms while holding a foil for a long duration. PMID:19544957

  1. Dynamic imaging and hydrodynamics study of high velocity, laser-accelerated thin foil targets using multiframe optical shadowgraphy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Tripathi; S Chaurasia; P Leshma; L J Dhareshwar

    2012-12-01

    The main aim of the study of thin target foil–laser interaction experiments is to understand the physics of hydrodynamics of the foil acceleration, which is highly relevant to inertial confinement fusion (ICF). This paper discusses a simple, inexpensive multiframe optical shadow-graphy diagnostics developed for dynamic imaging of high velocity laser-accelerated target foils of different thicknesses. The diagnostic has a spatial and temporal resolution of 12 m and 500 ps respectively in the measurements. The target velocity is in the range of 106 - 107 cm/s. Hydrodynamic efficiency of such targets was measured by energy balance experiments together with the measurement of kinetic energy of the laser-driven targets. Effect of target foil thickness on the hydrodynamics of aluminum foils was studied for determining the optimum conditions for obtaining a directed kinetic energy transfer of the accelerated foil. The diagnostics has also been successfully used to study ablatively accelerated targets of other novel materials.

  2. Optimal foil material and thickness for the charge stripping of heavy ions of around 100 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to seek an optimal charge stripping material and its thickness for the charge stripping of heavy ions of around 100 MeV, the transmission of highly charged ions after passage through charge stripping foils has been measured using 95 MeV Cl ions. Tested foils are Be and C foils of various thicknesses. As a result, Be foils with several tens of μg/cm2 are most efficient for the obtainment of highly charged ions whose charge states are higher than the most probable charge state. On the other hand, for the use of ions with the most probable charge state, there is no noticeable difference between the use of C and Be foils provided that their thicknesses are a few tends of μg/cm2. (orig.)

  3. Post-traumatic intraarterial thrombolytic treatment for acute occlusion of the extremities artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the clinical value of intraarterial thrombolytic therapy for acute arterial occlusion of the extremities artery after trauma. Methods: Six cases with acute arterial occlusion of the extremities after trauma underwent intraarterial thrombolytic therapy and the efficiency was analysed. Results: Digital Subtraction Angiograph (DSA)clearly displayed the location, extent and dimensions of the occlusive extremity arteries. All the occlusive arteries were recanalized with successful rate of 100%. 4 cases appeared to have ischemia-reperfusion injury after treatment, outcoming with recovery in one case by musculoaponeuratic splitting, and 3 cases through medication; and simultaneously the pulse of the occlusive arteries returned to normal and the local pains reduced or disapeared afterwards; without serious complications of necrosis, hemorrhage etc. Conclusions: The intraarterial thrombolytic treatment of acute arterial occlusion of the extremities after trauma is safe, effective, minimal invasive and less complication; providing the preparation for further stent placement. (authors)

  4. Computer-aided determination of occlusal contact points for dental 3-D CAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Tomoaki; Nakamura, Yasuo; Hayashi, Toyohiko; Kato, Kazumasa

    2006-05-01

    Present dental CAD systems enable us to design functional occlusal tooth surfaces which harmonize with the patient's stomatognathic function. In order to avoid occlusal interferences during tooth excursions, currently available systems usually use the patient's functional occlusal impressions for the design of occlusal contact points. Previous interfere-free design, however, has been done on a trial-and-error basis by using visual inspection. To improve this time-consuming procedure, this paper proposes a computer-aided system for assisting in the determination of the occlusal contact points by visualizing the appropriate regions of the opposing surface. The system can designate such regions from data of the opposing occlusal surfaces and their relative movements can be simulated by using a virtual articulator. Experiments for designing the crown of a lower first molar demonstrated that all contact points selected within the designated regions completely satisfied the required contact or separation during tooth excursions, confirming the effectiveness of our computer-aided procedure.

  5. Basilar artery occlusion: Prognostic signs of severity on computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poletti, Pierre-Alexandre, E-mail: pierre-alexandre.poletti@hcuge.ch [Service of Radiology, University Hospital of Geneva (Switzerland); Pereira, Vitor Mendes [Service of Neuroradiology, University Hospital of Geneva, 4 rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil, 1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Department of Medical Imaging, University of Toronto (Canada); Department of Surgery, University of Toronto (Canada); Lovblad, Karl-Olof [Service of Neuroradiology, University Hospital of Geneva, 4 rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil, 1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Canel, Lucie [Service of Radiology, University Hospital of Geneva (Switzerland); Sztajzel, Roman [Service of Neurology, University Hospital of Geneva, 4 rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil, 1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Becker, Minerva [Service of Radiology, University Hospital of Geneva (Switzerland); Perneger, Thomas [Division of Clinical Epidemiology, University Hospital of Geneva, 4 rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil, 1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Platon, Alexandra [Service of Radiology, University Hospital of Geneva (Switzerland)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • The main CT signs associated with basilar artery occlusion were analyzed. • CT sign of acute ischemic lesion is significantly associated with a bad outcome. • The site of the basilar artery occlusion is not associated to the patients’ outcome. - Abstract: Purpose: To determine the computed tomography (CT) signs that are predictive of the clinical outcome of basilar artery occlusion (BAO). Materials and methods: The study population consisted in 37 patients (14 women, 23 men, mean age: 63 years), admitted with onset of neurological deficit, starting 1–72 h prior to admission, who were diagnosed with BAO on the basis of a CT examination with intravenous contrast agent. The following signs were collected on CT scans performed on admission: clot density on noncontrast images, clot length, and clot location, as well as the presence of acute ischemic lesions. The results were compared against the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score of patients at 3 months, favorable clinical outcome being defined as a mRS score ≤3. Results: The clinical outcome was favorable in 13 (35%) of the 37 patients and unfavorable in 24 (65%). Signs of acute ischemia were visible in 13 of the 24 patients with unfavorable outcome but in none of the 13 patients with favorable outcome (p < 0.001). None of the other CT signs analyzed were significantly correlated with clinical prognosis. Conclusion: Of all the CT signs analyzed, only the presence of signs of acute ischemia on the admission CT of patients with BAO was associated with poor prognosis.

  6. EVALUATION OF THE BRAIN TOLERANCE TO CAROTID ARTERY OCCLUSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective To establish an objective criterion for assessing brain tolerance to carotid artery occlusion. Methods Endovascular trial balloon occlusion of carotid artery (TBO) in combination with sin- gle-photon emission computed tomography ( SPECT ) , transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD) and carotid artery stump pressure ( SP ) measurement was performed routinely for those patients who might have carotid artery manipulated or permanently occluded. Results Out of the 10 cases, one failed the TBO, though an angiographically adequate collateral circulation was observed. The patient's SP and relative symmetry (rS) of SPECT imaging were 51mmHg and 86 %. The remaining cases showed negative TBOs. After carotid occlusions, their mean velocity of ipsilateral middle cerebral artery decreased ( 16.3 ± 6.9 )% . The mean rS was ( 98.0 ± 2.4)% (92.7%~101.3%). The mean SP was ( 64.5+13.0)mmHg [(72.3±11.3)% of baseline, range 32 ~ 83mmHg ] . For one subject, the ICA was occluded spontaneously in the test. A reversal internal carotid artery ( ICA ) flow was noted in 3 patients with balloon inflated in the common carotid artery ( CCA ). When the CCA was occluded, the system blood pressure and heart rate increased apparently. However, this phe- nomenon did not occur when the ballon was inflated in the ICA. Conclusion With this TBO technique, clinically silent areas of decreased perfusion might be detected. We suggest it be a routine examination prior to carotid manipulations.

  7. Acute multivessel coronary artery occlusion: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gan Feng

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In terms of clinical and angiographic findings, multiple simultaneous coronary occlusions in acute myocardial infarction are infrequent, and the mechanism of the occlusions is unclear. Case presentation We herein report a rare case of two simultaneously occluded coronary arteries, one of which subsequently underwent spontaneous lysis. An 88-year-old man had a 3-hour attack of acute crushing retrosternal chest pain. His first electrocardiogram showed ST-segment elevation in the inferior (II, III, and aVF and anterior (V3–V6 leads. His second electrocardiogram in the cardiac care unit showed ST-segment elevation in the inferior leads but ST-segment depression in the anterior leads. Emergency coronary angiography revealed that the right coronary artery was acutely and totally occluded at the midportion and that the proximal and midportion of the left anterior descending coronary artery had an acute thrombus. According to his electrocardiogram and coronary angiography findings, we inferred that the right coronary artery and left anterior descending coronary artery first totally occluded simultaneously, and then the thrombus in the left anterior descending coronary artery spontaneously underwent partial lysis. Therefore, intervention of the right coronary artery was performed followed by injection of glycoprotein IIB-IIIA inhibitor into the left anterior descending coronary artery. He had an uneventful hospital course and was discharged home 10 days later. Conclusion Because patients with multivessel coronary artery occlusion are often in serious condition, abnormal electrocardiographic results must be identified and affected vessel should be opened timely and efficiently to save the myocardium and reduce complications such as congestive heart failure.

  8. Basilar artery occlusion: Prognostic signs of severity on computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The main CT signs associated with basilar artery occlusion were analyzed. • CT sign of acute ischemic lesion is significantly associated with a bad outcome. • The site of the basilar artery occlusion is not associated to the patients’ outcome. - Abstract: Purpose: To determine the computed tomography (CT) signs that are predictive of the clinical outcome of basilar artery occlusion (BAO). Materials and methods: The study population consisted in 37 patients (14 women, 23 men, mean age: 63 years), admitted with onset of neurological deficit, starting 1–72 h prior to admission, who were diagnosed with BAO on the basis of a CT examination with intravenous contrast agent. The following signs were collected on CT scans performed on admission: clot density on noncontrast images, clot length, and clot location, as well as the presence of acute ischemic lesions. The results were compared against the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score of patients at 3 months, favorable clinical outcome being defined as a mRS score ≤3. Results: The clinical outcome was favorable in 13 (35%) of the 37 patients and unfavorable in 24 (65%). Signs of acute ischemia were visible in 13 of the 24 patients with unfavorable outcome but in none of the 13 patients with favorable outcome (p < 0.001). None of the other CT signs analyzed were significantly correlated with clinical prognosis. Conclusion: Of all the CT signs analyzed, only the presence of signs of acute ischemia on the admission CT of patients with BAO was associated with poor prognosis

  9. Oral contraceptive pills: A risk factor for retinal vascular occlusion in in-vitro fertilization patients

    OpenAIRE

    Rohina S Aggarwal; Mishra, Vineet V; Somesh V Aggarwal

    2013-01-01

    Retinal vascular occlusion is the most common cause of retinopathy leading to severe visual loss in all age groups. Central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) is usually seen in older age group and is often associated with systemic vascular diseases. Although the exact cause and effect relationship has not been proven, central retinal vein occlusion has been associated with various systemic pathological conditions, hence a direct review of systems toward the various systemic and local factors pred...

  10. CDS/CUINSE/sub 2/ solar cells with titanium foil substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dursch, H.W.

    1987-10-27

    A solar cell is described comprising polycrystalline thin film photoactive layers of CuInSe/sub 2/ and (Cd,Zn)S a 2-5 mil titanium foil substrate, and a base contact between the photoactive layers and the substrate, wherein the cell has a specific power in excess of about 350 watts/kg.

  11. Study on the measurement technique of Fe foil's activated γ spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article it is comparatively systematically studied on the related measurement technique of Fe foil's activated γ spectrum and resolving-spectrum under specifical conditions, including high-threshold-energy detectors, self-absorption, self-shielding and perturbation and so on. The experimental results and the calculated results with MCNP code are analyzed and also discussed. (authors)

  12. (001) Oriented piezoelectric films prepared by chemical solution deposition on Ni foils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeo, Hong Goo, E-mail: hxy162@psu.edu; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan [Materials Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)

    2014-07-07

    Flexible metal foil substrates are useful in some microelectromechanical systems applications including wearable piezoelectric sensors or energy harvesters based on Pb(Zr,Ti)O₃ (PZT) thin films. Full utilization of the potential of piezoelectrics on metal foils requires control of the film crystallographic texture. In this study, (001) oriented PZT thin films were grown by chemical solution deposition (CSD) on Ni foil and Si substrates. Ni foils were passivated using HfO₂ grown by atomic layer deposition in order to suppress substrate oxidation during subsequent thermal treatment. To obtain the desired orientation of PZT film, strongly (100) oriented LaNiO₃ films were integrated by CSD on the HfO₂ coated substrates. A high level of (001) LaNiO₃ and PZT film orientation were confirmed by X-ray diffraction patterns. Before poling, the low field dielectric permittivity and loss tangents of (001) oriented PZT films on Ni are near 780 and 0.04 at 1 kHz; the permittivity drops significantly on poling due to in-plane to out-of-plane domain switching. (001) oriented PZT film on Ni displayed a well-saturated hysteresis loop with a large remanent polarization ~36 μC/cm², while (100) oriented PZT on Si showed slanted P-E hysteresis loops with much lower remanent polarizations. The |e{sub 31,f}| piezoelectric coefficient was around 10.6 C/m² for hot-poled (001) oriented PZT film on Ni.

  13. Electrochemical behavior of aluminum foil in 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafiuoroborate ionic liquids electrolytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Chengxin; YANG Li; WANG Baofeng; ZHANG Zhengxi; LI Nan

    2006-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) foil is widely used as a current collector in lithium ion batteries, EDLCs and other electrochemical devices, and its electrochemical behavior in electrolytes has great effect on the cycle performances and safety of the electrochemical devices. In this work, corrosion behavior of Al foil in 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ionic liquids and its electrolytes containing LiTFSI as salt were studied using cyclic voltammogram method. It was found that a passive film was firmly formed on the surface of Al foil after the anodic polarization in BMI-BF4 compared to those in EMI-BF4 and PMI-BF4.In addition, anodic polarization research showed that the passive film on Al surface in BMI-TFSI did not well exist. A good passive film formed on the surface of Al foil in BMI-BF4 was not broken down until the potential was up to 94.58 V. Moreover, EDX and XPS analysis showed that F and O exist on the Al surface after the anodic polarization in BMI-BF4, which indicated that a passive film like AIF3 and Al2O3 may be formed on its surface.

  14. Thinning procedures and strains in the zones near crack tips of thin foils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红旗; 陈奇志; 褚武扬

    1999-01-01

    Thinning procedures were observed by TEM in 310 stainless steel and pure aluminum. Foils thinned through shearing of mode Ⅲ crack or through tearing of mode I crack. Using micro-beam electron diffraction, the strains in the areas right ahead of crack tips of pure aluminum and TiAI alloy were measured to be 0.05 or more.

  15. Conformable wearable systems comprising organic electronics on foil for well being and healthcare (presentation video)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kok, Margreet M.

    2014-10-01

    Integration of electronics into materials and objects that have not been functionalized with electronics before, open up extensive possibilities to support mankind. By adding intelligence and/or operating power to materials in close skin contact like clothing, furniture or bandages the health of people can be monitored or even improved. Foil based electronics are interesting components to be integrated as they are thin, large area and cost effective available components Our developed technology of printed electronic structures to which components are reliably bonded, fulfills the promise. We have integrated these components into textiles and built wearable encapsulated products with foil based electronics. Foil components with organic and inorganic LEDs are interconnected and laminated onto electronic textiles by using conductive adhesives to bond the contact pads of the component to conductive yarns in the textile. Modelling and reliability testing under dynamic circumstances provided important insights in order to optimise the technology. The design of the interconnection and choice of conductive adhesive / underfill and lamination contributed to the durability of the system. Transition zones from laminated foil to textile are engineered to withstand dynamic use. As an example of a product, we have realized an electronic wristband that is encapsulated in rubber and has a number of sensor functionalities integrated on stretchable electronic circuits based on Cu and Ag. The encapsulation with silicone or polyurethanes was performed such, that charging and sensor/skin contacts are possible while simultaneously protecting the electronics from mechanical and environmental stresses.

  16. Effects study on the thermal stresses in a LEU metal foil annular target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of fission gas pressure, uranium swelling and thermal contact conductance on the thermal–mechanical behavior of an annular target containing a low-enriched uranium foil (LEU) encapsulated in a nickel foil have been presented in this paper. The draw-plug assembly method is simulated to obtain the residual stresses, which are applied to the irradiation model as initial inputs, and the integrated assembly-irradiation process is simulated as an axisymmetric problem using the commercial finite element code Abaqus FEA. Parametric studies were performed on the LEU heat generation rate and the results indicate satisfactory irradiation performance of the annular target. The temperature and stress margins have been provided along with a discussion of the results. - Highlights: • Analyzed the thermal stresses in a low-enriched uranium foil based annular target. • Included fission gas, uranium swelling, and thermal contact conductance effects. • Worst case scenarios for temperature and stresses were found to be different. • Sensitivity studies on the foil heat generation rates were performed. • Temperature and stress were found to be within acceptable limits

  17. EBSD analysis of plastic deformation of copper foils by flexible pad laser shock forming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagarajan, Balasubramanian; Castagne, Sylvie [Nanyang Technological University, SIMTech-NTU Joint Laboratory (Precision Machining), Singapore (Singapore); Nanyang Technological University, School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Singapore (Singapore); Wang, Zhongke; Zheng, H.Y. [Nanyang Technological University, SIMTech-NTU Joint Laboratory (Precision Machining), Singapore (Singapore); Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology, Machining Technology Group, Singapore (Singapore)

    2015-11-15

    Flexible pad laser shock forming (FPLSF) is a new mold-free microforming process that induces high-strain-rate plastic deformation in thin metallic foils using laser-induced shock pressure and a hyperelastic flexible pad. This paper studies the plastic deformation behavior of copper foils formed through FPLSF by investigating surface hardness and microstructure. The microstructure of the foil surface before and after FPLSF is analyzed by electron backscatter diffraction technique using grain size distribution and grain boundary misorientation angle as analysis parameters. The surface hardness of the craters experienced a significant improvement after FPLSF; the top crater surface being harder than the bottom surface. The microstructure of the copper foil surface after FPLSF was found to be dominated by grain elongation, along with minor occurrences of subgrain formation, grain refinement, and high dislocation density regions. The results indicate that the prominent plastic deformation mechanism in FPLSF is strain hardening behavior rather than the typical adiabatic softening effect known to be occurring at high-strain-rates for processes such as electromagnetic forming, explosive forming, and laser shock forming. This significant difference in FPLSF is attributed to the concurrent reduction in plastic strain, strain rate, and the inertia effects, resulting from the FPLSF process configuration. Correspondingly, different deformation behaviors are experienced at top and bottom surfaces of the deformation craters, inducing the change in surface hardness and microstructure profiles. (orig.)

  18. Soft-lithographic patterning of room termperature-sintering Ag Nanoparticles on foil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moonen, Pieter F.; Bat, Erhan; Voorthuijzen, W. Pim; Huskens, Jurriaan

    2013-01-01

    Room temperature-sintering, poly(acrylic acid)-capped silver nanoparticles (Ag-PAA NPs) were used in a wide range of nanofabrication methods to form metallic silver microstructures on flexible poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrates. Silver wires on top of PET foil were patterned by micromoldi

  19. Soft-lithographic patterning of room temperaturesintering Ag nanoparticles on foil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moonen,P.F.; Bat,E.; Voorthuijzen, W.P.; Huskens, J.

    2013-01-01

    Room temperature-sintering, poly(acrylic acid)-capped silver nanoparticles (Ag-PAA NPs) were used in a wide range of nanofabrication methods to form metallic silver microstructures on flexible poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrates. Silver wires on top of PET foil were patterned by micromoldi

  20. Influence of oxygen on nitrogen-doped carbon nanofiber growth directly on nichrome foil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwakarma, Riteshkumar; Shinde, Sachin M.; Saufi Rosmi, Mohamad; Takahashi, Chisato; Papon, Remi; Mahyavanshi, Rakesh D.; Ishii, Yosuke; Kawasaki, Shinji; Kalita, Golap; Tanemura, Masaki

    2016-09-01

    The synthesis of various nitrogen-doped (N-doped) carbon nanostructures has been significantly explored as an alternative material for energy storage and metal-free catalytic applications. Here, we reveal a direct growth technique of N-doped carbon nanofibers (CNFs) on flexible nichrome (NiCr) foil using melamine as a solid precursor. Highly reactive Cr plays a critical role in the nanofiber growth process on the metal alloy foil in an atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) process. Oxidation of Cr occurs in the presence of oxygen impurities, where Ni nanoparticles are formed on the surface and assist the growth of nanofibers. Energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDXS) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) clearly show the transformation process of the NiCr foil surface with annealing in the presence of oxygen impurities. The structural change of NiCr foil assists one-dimensional (1D) CNF growth, rather than the lateral two-dimensional (2D) growth. The incorporation of distinctive graphitic and pyridinic nitrogen in the graphene lattice are observed in the synthesized nanofiber, owing to better nitrogen solubility. Our finding shows an effective approach for the synthesis of highly N-doped carbon nanostructures directly on Cr-based metal alloys for various applications.