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  1. The coupled social-hydrology of Bangalore city, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muddu, S.; Mehta, V. K.; Malghan, D.; Kemp-Benedict, E.

    2012-12-01

    India's 370 million urban population exceeds the total population of all countries except China. Water supply has not kept up with increasing urban demand. As utilities reach farther out to increase extraction and supply, and private self-supply from groundwater increases apace , there is no doubt that local water balances are dramatically impacted. Despite this, very little research has emerged on the modified water balance in urban India, which is essential to understanding sustainability of the resource base. This paper, taking Bangalore city as a case study, illustrates the possible impacts of domestic water supply and consumption. Spatial patterns in population growth and current piped water supply from the utility were developed from utility and municipal data. GIS analysis shows the spatial mismatch between the growth of the city and the piped water supply. In the past decade, Bangalore's population grew by almost 3 million people, with most of the additions in the outer areas where piped water supply infrastructure is most inadequate. In these areas, which account for large parts of the city with hundreds of thousands of residents, piped water supply is below 40 lpcd (liters per capita per day). Residents in these areas rely largely on groundwater from tankers and private borewells. Estimates of self-supply from groundwater were derived, which were then used with lumped and distributed simulations of groundwater balances. Lumped model results show that a severe lack of systematic data on actual groundwater extraction drives large uncertainty in the magnitude of net recharge change on a city-wide scale. Despite this uncertainty, the direction of net groundwater recharge is negative. Artificial recharge from leaking pipes and return flows exceed natural rainfall recharge by two-fold; however, private groundwater pumping is the largest component of the groundwater balance, leading to an overall groundwater overdraft estimate of 130%. Distributed groundwater

  2. Seismic microzonation of Bangalore, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Anbazhagan; T G Sitharam

    2008-11-01

    In the present study, an attempt has been made to evaluate the seismic hazard considering local site effects by carrying out detailed geotechnical and geophysical site characterization in Bangalore, India to develop microzonation maps. An area of 220 km2, encompassing Bangalore Mahanagara Palike (BMP) has been chosen as the study area. Seismic hazard analysis and microzonation of Bangalore are addressed in three parts: in the first part, estimation of seismic hazard is done using seismotectonic and geological information. Second part deals with site characterization using geotechnical and shallow geophysical techniques. In the last part, local site effects are assessed by carrying out one-dimensional (1-D) ground response analysis (using the program SHAKE 2000) using both standard penetration test (SPT) data and shear wave velocity data from multichannel analysis of surface wave (MASW) survey. Further, field experiments using microtremor studies have also been carried out for evaluation of predominant frequency of the soil columns. The same has been assessed using 1-D ground response analysis and compared with microtremor results. Further, the Seed and Idriss simplified approach has been adopted to evaluate the soil liquefaction susceptibility and liquefaction resistance assessment. Microzonation maps have been prepared with a scale of 1:20,000. The detailed methodology, along with experimental details, collated data, results and maps are presented in this paper.

  3. Work, Stress, and Diurnal Bruxism: A Pilot Study among Information Technology Professionals in Bangalore City, India

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    S. K. Rao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed the prevalence of diurnal bruxism among information technology (IT professionals and explored plausible predictors associated with the parafunctional habit. A cross-sectional study was designed and IT professionals were invited to participate. The inclusion criteria composed of participants in service for at least one year, having natural dentition, no history of cervical or facial injury and not undergoing orthodontic therapy. The participants (N=147 were interviewed by a trained interviewer to record information. A pre-tested questionnaire that included questions related to work, stress symptoms and diurnal bruxism was completed by each participant. The prevalence of self-reported diurnal bruxism was 59%. Bivariate analyses revealed that work (<0.05 and work experience (<0.05 were significantly associated with self-reported diurnal bruxism. In the binary logistic regression analysis stress (Odds Ratio [OR] =5.9, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 2.6–13.3 was identified to be a strong predictor of diurnal bruxism. Professionals with 11 or more years of experience were less likely to report diurnal bruxism (OR=0.04, 95% CI 0.00–0.43 than those with 1 to 5 years of work experience. The study revealed that stress and less work experience were associated with diurnal bruxism among IT professionals in Bangalore city.

  4. Staff′s attitude regarding hospital waste management in the dental college hospitals of Bangalore city, India

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    Sushma Rudraswamy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Growing urbanization has led to several changes in the healthcare sector. While on one hand, access to healthcare services are being provided to the community, thereby resulting in better health for all, improper management of biomedical waste emanating from these healthcare establishments has also given rise to many environmental and health problems (Acharya 2003. Although awareness in this issue has increased considerably over the last few years, sensitivity to this problem has been limited. Most hospitals are not actively involved in addressing this problem. Materials and methods : The present study was conducted to assess the attitude of waste management among staff of dental hospitals in Bangalore city, by issuing a pre-tested structured questionnaire. Results : While 82.6% of attenders said that it is necessary to segregate waste into different categories at the point of origin, 61.5% of auxiliaries strongly disagreed that segregation of waste at source increases the risk of injury to waste handlers. As many as 33.5% of dentists strongly disagreed that segregation of waste at source increases the risk of injury to waste handlers and 53.6% agreed that segregation of waste at source does not increase the risk of injury to waste handlers. Conclusion : The findings of this study suggest that the staff had good attitude towards waste management among.

  5. Improving Oral Hygiene in Institutionalised Elderly by Educating Their Caretakers in Bangalore City, India: a Randomised Control Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanagar, Sanjeev; Naganandini, S.; Tuteja, Jaspreet Singh; Naik, Sachin; Satish, G.; Divya, K.T.

    2015-01-01

    Background The population of older people, as well as the number of dependent older people, is steadily increasing; those unable to live independently at home are being cared for in a range of settings. Practical training for nurses and auxiliary care staff has frequently been recommended as a way of improving oral health care for functionally dependent elderly. The aim was improve oral hygiene in institutionalized elderly in Bangalore city by educating their caregivers. Methods The study is a cluster randomized intervention trial with an elderly home as unit of randomization in which 7 out of 65 elderly homes were selected. Oral health knowledge of caregivers was assessed using a pre-tested pro forma and later oral-health education was provided to the caregivers of the study group. Oral hygiene status of elderly residents was assessed by levels of debris, plaque of dentate and denture plaque, and denture stomatitis of denture wearing residents, respectively. Oral-health education to the caregivers of control group was given at the end of six months Results There was significant improvement in oral-health knowledge of caregivers from the baseline and also a significant reduction of plaque score from baseline score of 3.17 ± 0.40 to 1.57 ± 0.35 post-intervention (p denture plaque score 3.15 ± 0.47 to 1.21 ± 0.27 (p denture stomatitis score 1.43 ± 0.68 to 0.29 ± 0.53 (p < .001). Conclusions The result of the present study showed that there was a significant improvement in the oral-health knowledge among the caregivers and oral-hygiene status of the elderly residents. PMID:26495047

  6. Improving Oral Hygiene in Institutionalised Elderly by Educating Their Caretakers in Bangalore City, India: a Randomised Control Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanagar, Sanjeev; Naganandini, S.; Tuteja, Jaspreet Singh; Naik, Sachin; Satish, G.; Divya, K.T.

    2015-01-01

    Background The population of older people, as well as the number of dependent older people, is steadily increasing; those unable to live independently at home are being cared for in a range of settings. Practical training for nurses and auxiliary care staff has frequently been recommended as a way of improving oral health care for functionally dependent elderly. The aim was improve oral hygiene in institutionalized elderly in Bangalore city by educating their caregivers. Methods The study is a cluster randomized intervention trial with an elderly home as unit of randomization in which 7 out of 65 elderly homes were selected. Oral health knowledge of caregivers was assessed using a pre-tested pro forma and later oral-health education was provided to the caregivers of the study group. Oral hygiene status of elderly residents was assessed by levels of debris, plaque of dentate and denture plaque, and denture stomatitis of denture wearing residents, respectively. Oral-health education to the caregivers of control group was given at the end of six months Results There was significant improvement in oral-health knowledge of caregivers from the baseline and also a significant reduction of plaque score from baseline score of 3.17 ± 0.40 to 1.57 ± 0.35 post-intervention (p < .001), debris score 2.87 ± 0.22 to 1.49 ± 0.34 (p < .001), denture plaque score 3.15 ± 0.47 to 1.21 ± 0.27 (p < .001), and denture stomatitis score 1.43 ± 0.68 to 0.29 ± 0.53 (p < .001). Conclusions The result of the present study showed that there was a significant improvement in the oral-health knowledge among the caregivers and oral-hygiene status of the elderly residents. PMID:26495047

  7. Globalization and Urban Growth: Evidence for Bangalore (India)

    OpenAIRE

    Narayana, Muttur Ranganathan

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims at economic analysis of globalization and urban growth of Bangalore (capital of Karnataka State, and globally known as Silicon Valley of India, IT Hub of Asia, and IT Capital of India) in South India. It offers new insights and evidence for information and communication technology (ICT) sector as a major source for selective globalization and urban growth. Estimated combined contribution of ICT manufacturing and services to Bangalore's economic growth is compared with regional...

  8. "Globalization and Urban Growth: Evidence for Bangalore (India)"

    OpenAIRE

    Muttur Ranganathan Narayana

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims at economic analysis of globalization and urban growth of Bangalore (capital of Karnataka State, and globally known as Silicon Valley of India, IT Hub of Asia, and IT Capital of India) in South India. It offers new insights and evidence for information and communication technology (ICT) sector as a major source for selective globalization and urban growth. Estimated combined contribution of ICT manufacturing and services to Bangalore's economic growth is compared with regional...

  9. Specters of Waste in India's "Silicon Valley": The Underside of Bangalore's Hi-Tech Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanareddy, Rajyashree

    2011-01-01

    The southern Indian city of Bangalore is extolled as India's "Silicon Valley," emerging over the past decade as a premier site for capital flows into India's Information Technology (IT) sector. In the dominant narrative of globalization Bangalore is lauded as an aspiring "global city" that attracts sizeable quantities…

  10. Sector, globalization and urban economic growth: Evidence from Bangalore (India)

    OpenAIRE

    M. R. Narayana

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims at economic analysis of economic globalization and urban growth of Bangalore, the Silicon Valley of India, as they are related to ICT sector. Overall analyses offer new insights and evidences for ICT sector as a major contributor for degree of economic globalization and urban economic growth, mainly driven by ICT services. Bangalore's performance is remarkable compared to all-India level and OECD averages. These results offer empirical justification for continuing with and str...

  11. Reconciling Dichotomous Demands: Telemarketing Agents in Bangalore and Mumbai, India

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    Noronha, Ernesto; D'Cruz, Premilla

    2007-01-01

    Though outsourcing has created enormous employment potential in India's information technology enabled services/business process outsourcing (ITES/BPO) sector, the implications for employees remain to be understood. The present paper describes employee experiences in telemarketing outbound call centers in Bangalore and Mumbai, India. Following van…

  12. Web-Based Urban Metabolic Mapping for Bangalore, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, V. K.; Kemp-Benedict, E.; Wang, G.; Malghan, D.

    2012-12-01

    Cities are like living entities, needing a continuous throughput of resources and energy for survival and growth, creating waste in the process. This paper documents the Bangalore Urban Mapping Project: an initiative that uses this metabolic concept [1],[2]. to inform comprehensive planning in the rapidly growing software capital of Bangalore city in India. Focusing on demographic growth, and water supply and consumption in its first phase, a web-based geo-portal has been developed for two purposes - interactive information communication and delivery, and online planning in the water supply sector. The application, titled Bangalore Urban Mapping Project (BUMP) is built on a free and open source web GIS stack consisting of a Postgis database, PHP, OpenLayers, and Apache Web Server deployed on a 64-bit Ubuntu Linux server platform. The interactive planning portion of the application allows BUMP users to build, run and visualize demographic growth, water supply, and growth scenarios on the browser. Application logic is written in PHP to connect the many components of the interactive application, which is available on the BUMP website (http://www.seimapping.org/bump/index.php). It relies on AJAX to fetch layer data from the server and render the layer using OpenLayers on the fly. This allows users to view multiple layers at the same time without refreshing the page. Data is packed in GeoJSON format and is compressed to reduce traffic. The information communication portion of the application provides thematic representation of each of twenty different map layers, graphical and tabular summaries of demographic and water data that are presented dynamically using Javascript libraries including the Google Chart API. The application also uses other common Javascript libraries/plug-ins, like jQuery, jQuery UI, qTip, to ease the development and to ensure cross-browser compatibility. The planning portion of the platform allows the user to interact with a scenario explorer

  13. Tropospheric ozone (TOR) trend over three major inland Indian cities: Delhi, Hyderabad and Bangalore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Pavan S.; Ghude, Sachin D.; Bortoli, D.

    2010-10-01

    An analysis of tropospheric column ozone using the NASA Langley TOR data during 1979-2005 has been done to investigate the trend over major Indian cities Delhi, Hyderabad and Bangalore. India was under social democratic-based policies before 1990s. Economic Liberalization began in nineties which lead to a significant growth in industrial, energy and transport sectors in major cities. Our analysis shows that there is a systematic increase in the number of months with higher tropospheric ozone values after 1990. A comparison of TOR climatology before and after 1990 over these cities shows evidence of increase in the tropospheric ozone after 1990. Trend obtained from the model shows significant change during monsoon over Delhi and during pre-monsoon and post-monsoon over Hyderabad and Bangalore. The present analysis using TOR technique demonstrates the TOR potential to detect changes in tropospheric ozone over large cities which are impacted by large anthropogenic pollution.

  14. Indian National Conference on Hemoglobinopathies, 17-18 May 2013, Bangalore - India

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    Editors: Karuna Rameshkumar

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This abstract book contains some abstracts presented at the Indian National Conference on Hemoglobinopathies, 17-18 May 2013, Bangalore - IndiaOrganized by Departments of Clinical Pathology, Paediatrics & Haematology St. John’s National Academy of Health Sciences Bangalore - India

  15. Globalization and ICT clusters in Bangalore (India) and Nanjing

    OpenAIRE

    Dijk, Meine Pieter

    2008-01-01

    textabstractIn this chapter the effects of globalization on two information and communication technology (ICT) clusters, one in China and the other in India, will be discussed and an effort will be made to analyse how these clusters changed these cities. Globalization had different effects in China and India. However, the underlying issue in this chapter is what explains the differences in the competitiveness of enterprises in ICT clusters in a Chinese and an Indian city in the global economy...

  16. 77 FR 31581 - U.S. Architecture Services Trade Mission to India; Chennai, Kolkata and Bangalore, India; October...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-29

    ... International Trade Administration U.S. Architecture Services Trade Mission to India; Chennai, Kolkata and Bangalore, India; October 15-19, 2012 AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce... Architects ( http://www.aia.org/ ), is organizing an Architecture Services Trade Mission to India...

  17. Globalization and ICT clusters in Bangalore (India) and Nanjing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. van Dijk (Meine Pieter)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractIn this chapter the effects of globalization on two information and communication technology (ICT) clusters, one in China and the other in India, will be discussed and an effort will be made to analyse how these clusters changed these cities. Globalization had different effects in China

  18. Government Policies with respect to an Information Technology Cluster in Bangalore, India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. van Dijk (Meine Pieter)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe southern states in India have developed a strong reputation as a source of software development services, with Bangalore, the capital of Karnataka, having the strongest reputation of all. This article focuses on the following issue: what determines the competitiveness of an informati

  19. The Church of Deaf Sociality: Deaf Churchgoing Practices and "Sign Bread and Butter" in Bangalore, India

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    Friedner, Michele

    2014-01-01

    This article ethnographically analyzes the practices of deaf young adults in Bangalore, India. As sign language is not used by families, schools, or other institutions, the church is a crucial educational space. Churchgoing provides deaf young adults with opportunities to orient themselves toward other deaf young adults, to develop new ideas of…

  20. Uptake of Elements From Aerosols by Humans ~ A Case Study From Delhi & Bangalore Cities

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    Anand, S.; Yadav, S.; Jain, V. K.

    2006-05-01

    Aerosol research has gained tremendous importance globally due to the cumulative effects of increasing industrialization and urbanization on aerosol production which can have an alarming impact on the climate of the planet as well as the health of its inhabitants. Therefore, there is an increasing need to study aerosols for all of their physicochemical and biological aspects on both local and global scales. World over extensive research has gone into studying the physical and the chemical aspects of aerosols. However, little information is yet available on the health impacts of aerosols particularly in the Asian context. Here we report uptake of various elements that are concentrated in aerosols by the human body in Delhi and Bangalore cities and their possible health effects. In many urban areas, for example in Delhi, inhalable fractions of aerosols are known to have high concentrations of elements such as Cu, Zn, Pb, Ba, Ni and Cr (Yadav and Rajamani 2004). Also aerosols in the North West part of India seem to be particularly enriched in these elements. If so, there is a high possibility of these elements getting into the human system either directly or indirectly through water and food. To determine the concentrations of these elements that are present in significant concentrations in the inhalable fractions of aerosols, human hair and blood samples are used as proxies. Both these regions have contrasting geographic and climatic conditions. Delhi (altitude : 213-305m above MSL) located on the fringes of the Thar desert which supplies considerable amount of dust, is semi-arid with annual rainfall of 60-80 cms & temperatures varying between 1° - 45°. Bangalore (altitude of 900m above MSL) receives a high annual rainfall of 80-100 cms and being located on the fringes of tropical forests of the Sahyadri Mountains (Western Ghats) receives little crustal contribution to the aerosols. Samples from least polluted mountainous areas of Himalayas (Gangothri) and Sahyadri

  1. Seasonal prevalence of different species of Culicoides in Bangalore rural and urban districts of South India

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    M. Archana

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was undertaken to know the seasonal prevalence of different species of Culicoides in Bangalore rural and urban districts of South India. Materials and Methods: The flies were collected with UV-light traps (Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute. ARC. LNR ?? during rainy season (south west monsoon: June, July, August and September: North West monsoon: October, November and December, winter season (January, February and summer season (March, April and May in eleven different farms of cattle, buffalo, sheep and goats in Bangalore rural and urban districts. Results: From a total of 83, 629 number of Culicoides midges collected, 77906 (93.16% were female and 5723 (6.84% were males. In rainy season a total of 48,318 (57.77%, winter season 18,592 (22.23% and summer season 16719 (19.99% were reported. Conclusion: In rainy season, highest numbers of Culicoides were found whereas least in summer.

  2. Clinico-epidemiological profile of tobacco users attending a tobacco cessation clinic in a teaching hospital in Bangalore city

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    George D′Souza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tobacco-attributable mortality in India is estimated to be at least 10%. Tobacco cessation is more likely to avert millions of deaths before 2050 than prevention of tobacco use initiation. Objective: To describe the clinico-epidemiological profile of attendees of a tobacco cessation clinic in a teaching hospital in Bangalore city. Materials and Methods: A descriptive study of 189 attendees seen over 2 years in the Tobacco Cessation Clinic of a tertiary-care teaching hospital in Bangalore, with information on socio demographic characteristics, tobacco-use details, nicotine dependence, family/medical history, past quit attempts, baseline stage-of-change, and treatment initiated. Results: Only 5% were ′walk-in′ patients; 98% of attendees were smokers; 97% were males. The mean (±SD age of attendees was 48.0 (±14.0 years. Most participants were married (88%, and predominantly urban (69%. About 62% had completed at least 8 years of schooling. Two-thirds of smokers reported high levels of nicotine dependence (Fagerström score >5/10. About 43% of patients had attempted quitting earlier. Four-fifths (79% of tobacco-users reported a family member using tobacco. Commonly documented comorbidities included: Chronic respiratory disease (44%, hypertension (23%, diabetes (12%, tuberculosis (9%, myocardial infarction (2%, stroke (1%, sexual dysfunction (1% and cancer (0.5%. About 52% reported concomitant alcohol use. At baseline, patients′ motivational stage was: Precontemplation (14%, contemplation (48%, preparation/action (37% and maintenance (1%. Treatment modalities started were: Counseling alone (41%, nicotine replacement therapy alone (NRT (34%, medication alone (13%, and NRT+medication (12%. Conclusions: This is the first study of the baseline profile of patients attending a tobacco cessation clinic located within a chest medicine department in India. Important determinants of outcome have been captured for follow-up and prospective

  3. Maternal and child health care in an underprivileged area of Bangalore city: Identifying the gaps in the continuum of care

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    Avita R Johnson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background With over 100 million Indians living in urban slums and high child mortality among low-­‐income groups, focusing on maternal and child health (MCH among urban underprivileged is vital, if India is to achieve the fourth and fifth Millennium Development goals. Objectives To identify the gaps in the MCH Continuum of care, by assessing coverage and quality of Maternal and Child Health Services in an urban underprivileged area of Bangalore City. Methods A survey was conducted in an urban slum of Bangalore City, using systematic random sampling. A total of 178 subjects were interviewed with a pre-­‐tested questionnaire. 88 were mothers who delivered in the last one year (to assess maternal care services, and 90 were mothers of a child aged 12-­‐23 months (to assess immunization coverage. Breastfeeding practices and care during childhood illness were documented in both groups. Results Though institutional delivery rate was 97.7%, only 34.1% mothers had received full antenatal care. The quality of antenatal and postnatal services was poor, practices like prelacteal feeds and delayed initiation of breastfeeding were common. Less than 40 % of children were exclusively breastfed for at least 6 months. Only 53% of children aged 12-­‐23 months were fully immunised. Primary immunisation drop-­‐out rates were high. Mothers’ knowledge regarding vaccines was poor. Children with diarrhea received less fluids and food and only 61% received ORS. Conclusion This study identified the following gaps in the MCH Continuum of Care-­‐ lack of IFA consumption, poor quality of antenatal and postnatal care, high immunisation dropout rates, erroneous breastfeeding practices and inadequate care during diarrhoea. Further research may identify potential solutions to bridging these gaps in MCH care.

  4. Population dynamics of some coccids (Coccoidea: Hemiptera) infesting sandal (Santalum album) in Bangalore, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramachandran Sundararaj; Raja Muthukrishnan

    2011-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the population dynamics of four important coccids viz., Aonidiella orientalis (Newstead), Ceroplastes actiniformis Green, Cardiococcus bivalvata (Green) and Parasaissetia nigra (Nietner) infesting sandal in Bangalore, India. Meteorological data viz., monthly mean maximum and minimum temperatures,morning and evening relative humidity and total rainfall were also collected during the experimental period for statistical analysis to ascertain their influence on the population of ceccids. The results show that all the four coccids are infesting sandal throughout the year. Maximum temperature exhibited significantly negative correlation with the population dynamics of A.orientalis, while other weather parameters did not show much influence on its incidence. In case of C. bivalvata, minimum temperature and morning relative humidity exhibited significant positive correlation with its population dynamics while other weather parameters had less significant effect on its population dynamics. For C.actiniformis and P. nigra, none of the weather factors seem to have influence on their incidences.

  5. Studies on contaminant transport at an industrial waste dumpsite of Bangalore, India

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    Zulfiqar Ahmed Mohammed Nazeer

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Industrialization and urbanization has produced various types of wastes that sometimes are dumped in low-lying areas without proper treatment and engineering controls. Bangalore district has more than 60 illegal dumpsites consisting of either municipal or industrial waste. Government records indicate that more than 1,500 industries are working at various industrial areas and other locations around the city. In the present study an attempt has been made to characterize the Bommasandra industrial area dump site located at the south of Bangalore. This dump site is 15 to 20 years old and spreads on an area of 12.7 acres. Around 60 to 70 industries of all nature are located around this dump site. A large number of soil samples were collected and after site characterization of soil properties, an attempt has been made to predict the transport behavior of selected chemical species using available mathematical models and a program based on MATLAB- 7 to study the migration properties of these selected chemical species as a function of time. Also a model provided by USEPA DRASTIC has been used. The DRASTIC Index found for this dumpsite was 146; therefore, one can conclude that the studied dumpsite is moderately vulnerable to pollutants. The migrating behavior of cations such as sodium, calcium and anions such as sulphate, chloride were considered. It was observed that cations are better retarded in comparison to anions. This was attributed to exchangeable chemical reactions.

  6. Burnout and Work Engagement Among Dental Practitioners in Bangalore City: A Cross-Sectional Study

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    Mallaiah, Pramila; Krishnamurthy, Archana; Sangha, Ranganath

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Burnout is a job-related stress reaction; a potential hazard for personal, professional lives of dentists. Work Engagement (WE) is the antithesis of Burnout and they can co-exist. Aim This study was taken up to know the prevalence of Burnout and WE among dentists in Bangalore, India. Matreials and Methods In a cross-sectional study, all (n=116) dentists practicing in Bangalore East Zone were randomly selected. A structured, self-administered questionnaire revealing dentists’ demographics, practice characteristics, Burnout level [6-item from Maslach Burnout Inventory] and WE [4-item from Utrecht Work Engagement Scale] was used. Ethical clearance and informed consent was obtained. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 15.0. Results With a response rate of 58.6%, high burnout was seen in 5.15% dentists. Personal Accomplishment was significantly associated with dentists in older age-group (p=0.002), married (p=0.014), MDS qualified (p=0.038), having long working hours (p=0.009) with assistants (p=0.024), more years into practice (0.007), travelling more distance from residence (p=0.021). Significance was also seen for dedication among dentists with assistants (p=0.006), emotional exhaustion among dentist with long working hours (p=0.009), and driving own vehicle (p=0.028). Finally absorption was found significant in dentists practicing solo. Conclusion Higher WE were found but still burnout persisted. Thus, burnout and WE were found to co-exist. PMID:27042589

  7. Out-of-pocket healthcare payments on chronic conditions impoverish urban poor in Bangalore, India

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    Bhojani Upendra

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The burden of chronic conditions is on the rise in India, necessitating long-term support from healthcare services. Healthcare, in India, is primarily financed through out-of-pocket payments by households. Considering scarce evidence available from India, our study investigates whether and how out-of-pocket payments for outpatient care affect individuals with chronic conditions. Methods A large census covering 9299 households was conducted in Bangalore, India. Of these, 3202 households that reported presence of chronic condition were further analysed. Data was collected using a structured household-level questionnaire. Out-of-pocket payments, catastrophic healthcare expenditure, and the resultant impoverishment were measured using a standard technique. Results The response rate for the census was 98.5%. Overall, 69.6% (95%CI=68.0-71.2 of households made out-of-pocket payments for outpatient care spending a median of 3.2% (95%CI=3.0-3.4 of their total income. Overall, 16% (95%CI=14.8-17.3 of households suffered financial catastrophe by spending more than 10% of household income on outpatient care. Occurrence and intensity of financial catastrophe were inequitably high among poor. Low household income, use of referral hospitals as place for consultation, and small household size were associated with a greater likelihood of incurring financial catastrophe. The out-of-pocket spending on chronic conditions doubled the number of people living below the poverty line in one month, with further deepening of their poverty. In order to cope, households borrowed money (4.2% instances, and sold or mortgaged their assets (0.4% instances. Conclusions This study provides evidence from India that the out-of-pocket payment for chronic conditions, even for outpatient care, pushes people into poverty. Our findings suggest that improving availability of affordable medications and diagnostics for chronic conditions, as well as strengthening the

  8. Antimicrobial Sensitivity Pattern of Microorganisms Isolated from Vaginal Infections at a Tertiary Hospital in Bangalore, India

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    Nagalakshmi Narayana-Swamy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The vagina contains dozens of microbiological species in variable quantities and is, therefore, considered a complex environment. Among the microorganisms, bacteria have important repercussions on women’s health. The present study was conducted especially to elucidate this type of vaginal isolates and their sensitivity towards currently used antibiotics. Methods: This was a retrospective study conducted at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Sapthagiri Hospital, Bangalore, India from January 2012 to December 2013. All symptomatic women who had a high vaginal swab taken for culture and sensitivity testing were included in this study. Antibiotic susceptibility was tested using disc diffusion method (modified Kirby-Bauer method. The antibiotic sensitivity patterns of isolated microorganisms were studied. Results: Out of 200 patients, 95% had positive vaginal cultures. Fifteen types of microorganisms were isolated. The highest frequency of infection was observed at the age of 20-30 years, followed by 41-50 years and 31-40 years, and a low frequency of infection was observed above 50 years of age. The most prevalent pathogen was Escherichia coli, followed by Streptococcus agalactiae and diphtheroids with equal incidence. Among the antibiotics tested, isolated pathogens were completely resistant to nalidixic acid and highly sensitive to meropenem and imepenem. Conclusion: The high prevalence of gynaecological infections demands that patients with symptoms undergo thorough investigation with cultures and sensitivity essays. Changes in treatment protocols are required to treat vaginal infections effectively.

  9. Patterns of Insect Abundance and Distribution in Urban Domestic Gardens in Bangalore, India

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    Madhumitha Jaganmohan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Domestic gardens may play a vital role in supporting urban insect biodiversity, despite their small size. This paper assesses the abundance, diversity and distribution of insects in urban domestic gardens in the tropics, through a study in the rapidly expanding Indian city of Bangalore. Fifty domestic gardens were studied using a combination of light traps and pitfall traps. We recorded a large number of insects, 2,185 insects from 10 orders, of which ants, bugs, beetles and flies were the most common. We found 25 species of trees (from 160 individuals and 117 species of herbs and shrubs in the 50 sampled domestic gardens. The number of insect orders encountered was significantly related to the number of tree and herb/shrub species. Garden management practices also influenced the abundance and richness of insect orders. Thus, greater numbers of insects were observed in gardens with a greater proportion of bare soil relative to grass area and with less intensive weeding practices. More insect orders were encountered in gardens with a composting pit. Insect numbers were significantly reduced in gardens subjected to pesticide application. Most residents avoided application of pesticides and herbicides, citing health concerns.

  10. A population-based case-control investigation on cancers of the oral cavity in Bangalore, India.

    OpenAIRE

    Nandakumar, A.; Thimmasetty, K. T.; Sreeramareddy, N. M.; Venugopal, T. C.; Rajanna,; Vinutha, A. T.; Srinivas,; Bhargava, M K

    1990-01-01

    A case-control study on cancers of the oral cavity was conducted by utilising data from the population based cancer registry. Bangalore, India. Three hundred and forty-eight cases of cancers of the oral cavity (excluding base tongue) were age and sex matched with controls from the same residential area but with no evidence of cancer. The relative risk due to pan tobacco chewing was elevated in both males and females, being appreciably higher in the latter (relative risk 25.3%; 95% confidence ...

  11. Consumer views of community pharmacy services in Bangalore city, India

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    Jayaprakash G

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The opinion about pharmacy services was studied using an instrument which measured satisfaction with pharmacy services. The main focus of the instrument was to assess patients’ opinion and expectation of the present pharmacy services. Method: The instrument contained 20 items, which were grouped based on their similarity into eight dimensions, namely, General satisfaction, Interpersonal Skill, Evaluation, Gathering non-medical information, Trust, Helping Patients, Explanation, and Finance. Chance random sampling was done and the participants were the general public above the age of 18 years. The main outcome measure was to study participants’ opinion regarding the current and desired pharmacy services. Descriptive statistics are presented for the satisfaction dimension score. The level of satisfaction with the different dimensions was compared across the different demographic characteristics.Result: The study results revealed significant difference in the General satisfaction and Interpersonal skill amongst the gender. Significant difference was seen in the Helping patients, Evaluation and Explanation skill among the various age groups. Education background showed significant difference in evaluation, Gathering-non-medical information, Helping patients and Explanation skills of the pharmacist. There was an overall satisfaction dimension score of 56.83% in the current practice and 68.83% in the desired practice. Conclusion: Awareness about pharmacy service continuing education programme for practicing pharmacist will heighten the pharmacy profession in our country.

  12. Consumer views of community pharmacy services in Bangalore city, India

    OpenAIRE

    Jayaprakash G; Rajan ML; Shivam P

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The opinion about pharmacy services was studied using an instrument which measured satisfaction with pharmacy services. The main focus of the instrument was to assess patients’ opinion and expectation of the present pharmacy services. Method: The instrument contained 20 items, which were grouped based on their similarity into eight dimensions, namely, General satisfaction, Interpersonal Skill, Evaluation, Gathering non-medical information, Trust, Helping Patients, Explanation, and ...

  13. A cumulative analysis of odontogenic cysts from major dental institutions of Bangalore city: A study of 252 cases

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    Prashanth Ramachandra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of this study was to perform a cumulative analysis of odontogenic cysts obtained from the data of major dental institutions of Bangalore city, as well as to evaluate their distribution during a 5-year period and compare the results with other international studies. Materials and Methods: Data for the study were obtained from the reports of patients diagnosed with odontogenic cysts between 2005 and 2010 from different dental institutions of Bangalore. Case records of patients that fit the histological classification of the World Health Organization (WHO (2005 were included in the study and the following variables were analyzed: age, gender, anatomic location, and histological type. Results: In a total of 252 cyst specimens diagnosed, 79.76% were odontogenic cysts and 20.24% were nonodontogenic cysts. Among the odontogenic cysts most frequent lesions were radicular cysts (50.25%, followed by keratocysts (27.36% and dentigerous cysts (22.39%. Conclusions: Our study provides a cumulative data of odontogenic cysts in the population of Bangalore city. The results of our study showed a similar frequency of odontogenic cysts as compared to other populations of the world, with radicular cyst being identified as the most frequent odontogenic cyst. Keratocyst was the second most common cyst followed by dentigerous cyst.

  14. Selection and screening of microbial consortia for efficient and ecofriendly degradation of plastic garbage collected from urban and rural areas of Bangalore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skariyachan, Sinosh; Megha, M; Kini, Meghna Niranjan; Mukund, Kamath Manali; Rizvi, Alya; Vasist, Kiran

    2015-01-01

    Industrialization and urbanization have led to massive accumulation of plastic garbage all over India. The persistence of plastic in soil and aquatic environment has become ecological threat to the metropolitan city such as Bangalore, India. Present study investigates an ecofriendly, efficient and cost-effective approach for plastic waste management by the screening of novel microbial consortia which are capable of degrading plastic polymers. Plastic-contaminated soil and water samples were collected from six hot spots of urban and rural areas of Bangalore. The plastic-degrading bacteria were enriched, and degradation ability was determined by zone of clearance method. The percentage of polymer degradation was initially monitored by weight loss method, and the main isolates were characterized by standard microbiology protocols. These isolates were used to form microbial consortia, and the degradation efficiency of the consortia was compared with individual isolate and known strains obtained from the Microbial Type Culture Collection (MTCC) and Gene Bank, India. One of the main enzymes responsible for polymer degradation was identified, and the biodegradation mechanism was hypothesized by bioinformatics studies. From this study, it is evident that the bacteria utilized the plastic polymer as a sole source of carbon and showed 20-50% weight reduction over a period of 120 days. The two main bacteria responsible for the degradation were microbiologically characterized to be Pseudomonas spp. These bacteria could grow optimally at 37 °C in pH 9.0 and showed 35-40% of plastic weight reduction over 120 days. These isolates were showed better degradation ability than known strains from MTCC. The current study further revealed that the microbial consortia formulated by combining Psuedomonas spp. showed 40 plastic weight reduction over a period of 90 days. Further, extracellular lipase, one of the main enzymes responsible for polymer degradation, was identified. The

  15. Influence of additives on the retention of metal ions in a soil of Bangalore, India

    OpenAIRE

    Dr Maya Naik; Syed Tanveeruddin; Syed Abu Sayeed Mohammed

    2009-01-01

    Liners play an important role in minimizing migration of contaminants and are frequently constructed with natural materials serving as the primary barrier to contain chemicals and potentially harmful pollutants from municipal toxic waste leachates. To improve the performance of liners, additives like lime and cement at low percentages were added to Red Soil of Bangalore. Heavy metals like hexavalent chromium, copper and zinc and alkali metals like sodium and potassium were taken as contaminan...

  16. A Comparative Study on causes of corrosion of steel reinforcement in RC structures at Bangalore, India and Kigali, Rwanda

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    Abaho G

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Premature failure of reinforced concrete structures occurs primarily due to early corrosion of steel reinforcement. This paper intends to uplift the awareness of people about the role of structure maintenance to prevent or control corrosion in steel reinforced concrete structures. Some data collected using a designed questionnaire were distributed in Bangalore, India and Kigali, Rwanda, about corrosion of steel reinforcement which actually motivated this research. The research finds that without corrosion in steel reinforced concrete structures is just a matter of time. However corrosion map for Kigali is not available. Hence the survey has been conducted in Rwanda. Based on survey corrosion map will be prepared so that vulnerable areas for corrosion can be identified. This map will enable for protective design of structures against corrosion. The new steel RC structures corrosion monitoring systems should be incorporated for future less costly, timely maintenance for their reliable service life.

  17. Evaluation of groundwater quality in and around Peenya industrial area of Bangalore, South India using GIS techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pius, Anitha; Jerome, Charmaine; Sharma, Nagaraja

    2012-07-01

    Groundwater resource forms a significant component of the urban water supply. Declining groundwater levels in Bangalore Urban District is generally due to continuous overexploitation during the last two decades or more. There is a tremendous increase in demand in the city for good quality groundwater resource. The present study monitors the groundwater quality using geographic information system (GIS) techniques for a part of Bangalore metropolis. Thematic maps for the study area are prepared by visual interpretation of SOI toposheets on 1:50,000 scale using MapInfo software. Physicochemical analysis data of the groundwater samples collected at predetermined locations form the attribute database for the study, based on which spatial distribution maps of major water quality parameters are prepared using MapInfo GIS software. Water quality index was then calculated by considering the following water quality parameters--pH, total dissolved solids, total hardness, calcium hardness, magnesium hardness, alkalinity, chloride, nitrate and sulphate to find the suitability of water for drinking purpose. The water quality index for these samples ranged from 49 to 502. The high value of water quality index reveals that most of the study area is highly contaminated due to excessive concentration of one or more water quality parameters and that the groundwater needs pretreatment before consumption.

  18. Prevalence of different species of Culicoides in Bangalore rural and urban districts of South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archana, M; D'Souza, Placid E; Renuka Prasad, C; Byregowda, S M

    2016-09-01

    A study was conducted to observe the prevalence of Culicoides a biting midge, important pest and prime vector for various viruses, protozoa and filarid worms. In the vicinity of 11 different farms of cattle, buffalo, sheep and goats in Bangalore rural and urban districts the flies were collected by using UV traps (Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute. ARC. LNR) connected with suction fan for the period of 1 year (2012-2013). Around 83,629 Culicoides were collected of which 77,906 (93.16 %) were female and 5,723 (6.84 %) were males and 40,120 (47.97 %) of C. imicola, 39,366 (47.07 %) C. oxystoma, 2,504 (2.99 %) C. actoni, 1,145 (1.37 %) C. peregrinus, 145 (0.17 %) C. huffi, 120 (0.16 %) C. innoxius, 90 (0.11 %) C. palpifer, 67 (0.08 %) C. anopheles, 37 (0.04 %) C. circumscriptus and 25 (0.03 %) were C. arakawae. It was observed that C. imicola and C. oxystoma were the most predominant species prevalent in Bangalore rural and urban districts of Karnataka. PMID:27605753

  19. Determinants of domestic violence among women attending an Human Immunodeficiency Virus voluntary counseling and testing center in Bangalore, India

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    Chandrasekaran Varalakshmi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Context: Violence against women is a global phenomenon that cuts across all social and economic classes. Aims:This study was designed to measure the prevalence and correlates of domestic violence (DV among women seeking services at a voluntary counseling and testing (VCT center in Bangalore, India. Settings and Designs: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among women visiting an human immunodeficiency virus (HIV VCT center in Bangalore, between September and November 2005. Materials and Methods:An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect information about violence and other variables. Statistical Analysis Used:Univariable associations with DV were made using Pearson Chi-squared test for categorical variables and Student t-test or the Mann-Whitney test for continuous variables. Results:0 Forty-two percent of respondents reported DV, including physical abuse (29%, psychological abuse (69% and sexual abuse (1%. Among the women who reported violence of any kind, 67% also reported that they were HIV seropositive. The most common reasons reported for DV included financial problems (38%, husband′s alcohol use (29% and woman′s HIV status (18%. Older women (P < 0.001 and those with low income levels were the most likely to have experienced DV (P = 0.02. Other factors included husband′s education, HIV seropositivity and alcohol or tobacco use (P < 0.001. Conclusion: This study found DV levels comparable to other studies from around the world. The findings highlight the need for additional training among health care providers in VCT centers in screening for DV, detection of signs of physical abuse and provisions and referrals for women suffering from domestic partner violence.

  20. Visitor Report Bangalore: A Europeans impressions on healthcare and Philips research in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, M.

    2011-01-01

    India is a country that defies generalization. It is so big, so diverse and so overwhelming that it’s easy to come back with one’s preconceptions simply confirmed. You think of India as an awakening giantwith world-beating companies? India hosts scores of futuristic technology parks with new skyscra

  1. A population-based case-control investigation on cancers of the oral cavity in Bangalore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandakumar, A; Thimmasetty, K T; Sreeramareddy, N M; Venugopal, T C; Rajanna; Vinutha, A T; Srinivas; Bhargava, M K

    1990-11-01

    A case-control study on cancers of the oral cavity was conducted by utilising data from the population based cancer registry. Bangalore, India. Three hundred and forty-eight cases of cancers of the oral cavity (excluding base tongue) were age and sex matched with controls from the same residential area but with no evidence of cancer. The relative risk due to pan tobacco chewing was elevated in both males and females, being appreciably higher in the latter (relative risk 25.3%; 95% confidence interval 11.2-57.3). A statistically significant (linear test for trend P less than 0.001) dose response based on years, times per day and period of time chewed was seen. Any smoking (cigarette or bidi or both) had only slightly elevated risk of developing oral cancer, whereas a history of alcohol drinking or inhalation of snuff did not influence the risk. A new finding of our study was the markedly elevated risk of oral cancer in persons consuming ragi (Eleusine coracana, family graminae) in comparison to those not consuming ragi as staple cereal in their diet. There also appeared to be some interaction between ragi consumption and tobacco chewing with substantially higher relative risks in those who pursued both habits compared to those who gave a history of either.

  2. Influence of additives on the retention of metal ions in a soil of Bangalore, India

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    Dr Maya Naik

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Liners play an important role in minimizing migration of contaminants and are frequently constructed with natural materials serving as the primary barrier to contain chemicals and potentially harmful pollutants from municipal toxic waste leachates. To improve the performance of liners, additives like lime and cement at low percentages were added to Red Soil of Bangalore. Heavy metals like hexavalent chromium, copper and zinc and alkali metals like sodium and potassium were taken as contaminants. Batch leaching tests on 50 samples were performed according to ASTM D 3987 – 85 for soil and soil mixtures with contaminants. The heavy metals were potentiometrically monitored using ion selective mercury and platinum electrodes. The alkali metals were determined using a Flame Photometry. It has been observed that the retention of heavy metals elements followed the order copper> zinc>chromium over a period of 7 to 28 days. Chromium, zinc and copper attained equilibrium in this period as confirmed based on conductivity and pH data. Cement and lime had significant effect on copper and zinc. Specific adsorption of Cu onto CaCO3 surfaces may control Cu concentration in solution. Zn adsorption increases with pH; Zinc hydrolysed at pH > 7.7 and these hydrolyzed species are strongly adsorbed to soil surfaces. Cr was retained only by 50% and additives did not have much effect as it is subjected to nonspecific adsorption (temporary. Cr was found to be highly mobile in alkaline soils. It was observed that the retention of alkali metals follows the order: K > Na. Cement and lime had positive effect on the retention of Na and K. Sodium ion retarded immediately due to the removal of exchangeable cations, whereas potassium retarded more than sodium due to the lower hydrated radius of potassium. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM characterization tests were performed to understand the soil mineral structure. Regular porous, sponge like, particles were detected in

  3. Indian Monsoon controlling the effect of anthropogenic emission on the seasonal variation of air-CO2 over Bangalore, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, T.; Ghosh, P.

    2012-12-01

    India is one of prime emitting country of green house gases identified by the International Energy Agency and the major contribution comes from energy sectors specifically from coal based power plants. Biomass burning is another source of CO2 for the tropical country and more frequencies of burning are observed during the dry seasons. Indian region experiences seasonal reversal of the wind pattern associated with monsoon circulations. The monsoon rainfall promotes green cover and uptake of CO2 from atmosphere. The study of atmospheric CO2 composition can provide important information on the temporal variability of anthropogenic emission as well as the biosphere response. In this context, urban locations being hot spots of anthropogenic emission are more suitable for air-CO2 monitoring. We are monitoring mixing ratio and carbon isotopic ratio (δ13C) of atmospheric CO2 for last three years from Bangalore (BLR), an urban station in Southern India. Region experiences four distinct seasons i.e. dry hot summer (March-May), southwest monsoon (SWM) (June-September), post monsoon (October-November) and winter (December-February). Air samples were collected from the campus of IISc, Bangalore (12° 58‧ N, 77° 38‧ E, masl= 920 m) using an experimental set up calibrated with respect to internationally accepted JRAS Reference material. The external precision for the measurement of mixing ratio and δ13C are ±2μmol.mol-1 and ±0.02‰ respectively based on repeat analysis of JRAS mixture. The seasonal variation of both CO2 mixing ratio and δ13C of air CO2 is observed from BLR station where the amplitude of signal is found to be lower in 2011 which was a La Nina year (compared to 2009, 2010). The δ13C of CO2 is maximum (-8‰) in October and it slowly decreases during dry summer months and reaches its minima (-9‰) in April, May. Subsequently, it increases slowly with the advancement of the SWM months prior to reaching maxima again during the month of October. During

  4. Assessment of screening practices for gestational hyperglycaemia in public health facilities: a descriptive study in Bangalore, India

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    Giridhara R. Babu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Screening and timely treatment of gestational hyperglycaemia (GH is proved to be beneficial and improves maternal and foetal health outcomes. To understand screening practices, we explored the knowledge and perceptions of doctors working in public health facilities in Bangalore, India. We also studied participation factors by examining whether undergoing glucose estimation tests affects morning sickness in pregnant women. Design and Methods. We aimed to understand the screening practices and knowledge of doctors. A semi-structured questionnaire was self-administered by the 50 participant doctors, selected from the sampling frame comprising of all the doctors working in public health facilities. We included 105 pregnant women for baseline assessment, in whom a well-structured questionnaire was used. Results. We reported that gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM screening was done in nearly all the health centres (96%. However, only 12% of the doctors could provide all components of GDM diagnosis and management correctly and 46% would diagnose by using a random blood glucose test. A majority (92% of the doctors had poor knowledge (68% about the cut-off values of glucose tests. More than 80% of pregnant women experienced some discomfort mostly due to rapid ingestion glucose in short span of time. Conclusions. Our study established that screening for GH is done in most public health facilities. Nonetheless, knowledge of doctors on the glucose tests and their interpretation needs improvement. Re-orientation trainings of the doctors can improve their knowledge and thereby can efficiently screen for GH. Further, adequate planning prior to the tests can aid successful completion of them.

  5. Reduction in STIs in an empowerment intervention programme for female sex workers in Bangalore, India: the Pragati programme

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    Dennis Souverein

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: The Pragati programme is an on-going empowerment programme for female sex workers (FSWs working and living in Bangalore, India. Pragati aims to reduce transmission of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs among FSWs. This study describes the STI incidence rate, contact rate, and condom use during follow-up years. Design: Between April 2005 and November 2010, 20,330 FSWs participated in the programme. Outcome measures were programme exposure (number of contacts per person-year, STI incidence rate, and condom use. All analyses were stratified by year of follow-up. STIs were diagnosed by syndromic case management in either programme or referral clinics. We restricted our analyses to the period between April 2005 and July 2008 (when the majority of STIs were diagnosed in programme clinics, in order to minimise the possible influence of differences in STI diagnosis between clinic types. Results: Results showed a significant increase of programme exposure (p-value for trend < 0.001 and a significant decrease in the STI incidence rate (p-value for trend < 0.001 over the follow-up time (between April 2005 and July 2008. Reported condom use at last paid sex increased from 77.6% in year 1 to 100% in year 4 of follow-up (p-value for trend < 0.001. Conclusion: Our data seem to suggest that the Pragati programme had a positive effect on the STI incidence rate and condom use, possibly as a result of increased programme exposure. We recommend for future studies to invest more in the study design, type of data collection, and recording mechanisms before starting with an intervention. Incorporation of empowerment strategies as an approach in HIV prevention programmes can have a beneficial effect on the lives and livelihoods of FSWs.

  6. (Not) Talking About Sex: Couple Reports of Sexual Discussion and Expression in Bangalore, India

    OpenAIRE

    McDougall, Janna; Edmeades, Jeffrey; Krishnan, Suneeta

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent marriage is common in India, placing young women at risk of HIV, early pregnancy, and poor birth outcomes. Young women’s capacity to express their sexual desires is central to negotiating safe and mutually consensual sexuality. Men too play an important role in shaping women’s sexual and reproductive health outcomes, but little research has examined how men influence women’s sexual expression. Using paired husband and wife data, this paper reports on a preliminary investigation int...

  7. Applying the social-ecological system framework to the diagnosis of urban lake commons in Bangalore, India

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    Harini Nagendra

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The south Indian city of Bangalore provides a challenging yet representative context within which to examine issues of governance of urban social-ecological commons. The city was once famous for its numerous large water bodies, which have witnessed tremendous encroachment and pollution in recent years. These water bodies, called tanks or lakes, were typically managed by adjacent village communities but are now administered by a number of government departments involved with aspects of lake management, with multiple overlapping jurisdictions. The public's perceptions of lakes has also changed with urbanization, transitioning from community spaces valued for water and cultural services to urban recreational spaces used largely by joggers and walkers. We focus on a set of seven lakes located in the urbanizing peripheral areas of southeast Bangalore. Some water bodies have been restored and managed effectively by newly forged collaborations between citizens and local government. Others are extremely polluted, and some have completely dried up and have been encroached. We use a social-ecological system (SES framework to investigate why some locations have been successful in negotiating changes in governance from community-based systems to state management following urbanization, whereas other lakes have deteriorated. We use seven second-tier SES variables that were associated with self-organization in previous research: size of resource system, number of actors, leadership, social capital, importance of resource, existence of operational-choice rules, and existence of informal mechanisms for monitoring. We also include three third-tier variables previously identified as important in urban lake commons in Bangalore: scale and type of pre-existing pollution, exclusion of socioeconomic groups from the planning process, and networking with government organizations. We use this subset of 10 variables to examine social outcomes of the lakes, which we

  8. Oral Hygiene Status of Institutionalised Dependent Elderly in India – a Cross-Sectional Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Khanagar, Sanjeev; Naganandini, S.; Rajanna, Vasuda; Naik, Sachin; Rao, Rekha; Madhuniranjanswamy, M S

    2015-01-01

    Background/Introduction For various reasons, the care demand from elderly people is low and difficult to determine, whereas their oral hygiene status would need urgent care. Objective To assess the oral hygiene status of institutionalized dependent elderly in Bangalore City, India. Methods A cross-sectional study of 322 dependent elderly patients was conducted at seven elderly homes of Bangalore City, India. The oral hygiene status recorded includes dental and prosthetic hygiene. Results The ...

  9. Self-assessed and clinically diagnosed periodontal health status among patients visiting the outpatient department of a dental school in Bangalore, India

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    Nagarajan Sripriya

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of the present cross-sectional study was to assess the extent of agreement between clinical and self-assessed periodontal health status among patients visiting the outpatient department of M.S. Ramaiah Dental College, Bangalore, India. Materials and Methods: The study population included 216 patients aged between 20 and 44 years who attended the outpatient department of the M.S. Ramaiah Dental College, Bangalore. The study population was subjected to a self-administered questionnaire (questions regarding bleeding gums, deposits on teeth, receding gums, swelling of gums, loose teeth, which was followed by periodontal examination. The clinical examination included an assessment of the periodontal condition, using the criteria of Loe and Silness Gingival Index, the Community Periodontal Index, and Mobility, respectively. Conclusion: The present study showed that the perceived periodontal health status was low and the discrepancy between the subjectively and objectively assessed needs was very distinct. The awareness of the periodontal problems has been reported to increase with increasing severity of the disease due to the destructive changes that set in.

  10. Analysis of Heavy Metals Concentration in Soil and Litchens from Various Localities of Hosur Road, Bangalore, India

    OpenAIRE

    Abida Begum; M. Ramaiah; Harikrishna; Irfanulla Khan; K. Veena

    2009-01-01

    Assessment of heavy metal content in litchens and soil samples from various localities of Hosur Road, Bangalore south was undertaken. Topsoil samples (0-10 cm) were taken at various locations, the metals analysed were Cr, Pb, Fe, Zn, Ni and Cu. The geoaccumulation index of these metals in the soils under study residential areas indicated that they are uncontaminated with Ni, Zn, and Fe and moderately contaminated with Cr and Pb. In Industrial areas and traffic junctions the concentration of F...

  11. Rock Bands/Rock Brands: Mediation and Musical Performance in Post-liberalization Bangalore

    OpenAIRE

    Coventry, Chloe Louise

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation, based on twelve months of ethnographic research in Bangalore, India, examines the city's six decades-old rock music culture, a rapidly professionalizing musical genre that has been largely overlooked in studies of Indian popular music. Though historically an English-language genre, contemporary Indian rock is performed in myriad regional languages and comprises heavy metal, indie, folk rock, cover songs and a variety of other styles. Observing its predication on the histori...

  12. Community prevalence of methicillin and vancomycin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in and around Bangalore, southern India Prevalência de Staphylococcus aureus resistente à meticilina e à vancomicina em comunidade no entorno de Bangalore, Índia do Sul

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    Rajendra Goud

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Staphylococcus aureus is a known colonizer in humans and has been implicated in community acquired soft tissue infections. However emergence of methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA has aroused great concern worldwide. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of MRSA in the community of Bangalore, southern India. METHODS: Swabs were collected from anterior nares, forearm, dorsum and palm of the hands of 1,000 healthy individuals residing in and around Bangalore, belonging to different socioeconomic strata and age groups. RESULTS: Analysis verified that 22.5% and 16.6% of the individuals presented Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA, respectively, at any of the three sites. Vancomycin resistance was observed in 1.4% of the S. aureus isolates, which was confirmed by detection of the vanA gene. It was interesting to note that 58.8% of the children in the age group 1-5 years-old presented MRSA, the highest percentage compared to other age groups of 40 (11% years-old and 20-40 (9.9% years-old. Among the population of various socioeconomic strata, maximum MRSA colonization was observed among doctors (22.2%, followed by upper economic class (18.8%, lower economic class (17.7%, apparently healthy hospital in-patients (16.5%, nurses (16% and middle economic class (12.5%. Most of the MRSA isolates were capsular polysaccharide antigen type 8 (57.1%. CONCLUSIONS: There is a need for continuous surveillance and monitoring of the presence of MRSA in the community and a clearer understanding of the dynamics of the spread of MRSA will assist in controlling its dissemination.INTRODUÇÃO: O Staphylococcus aureus é conhecido por ser um colonizador em humanos sendo implicado em infecções comunitárias dos tecidos moles. Contudo, a resistência à meticilina e emergência de S. aureus meticilina resistentes (MRSA têm despertado preocupação em todo o mundo. O presente estudo visa encontrar a prevalência de MRSA na comunidade de Bangalore, sul da

  13. Epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus in Bangalore, India: emergence of the ST217 clone and high rate of resistance to erythromycin and ciprofloxacin in the community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchiat, C.; El-Zeenni, N.; Chakrakodi, B.; Nagaraj, S.; Arakere, G.; Etienne, J.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of Staphylococcus aureus (SA) and the circulating clones in Bangalore, India. Susceptibility testing was performed for all cases of SA infections in a tertiary-care hospital. Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL) encoding genes were detected, and sequence type and spa type were determined. Out of the 92 collected strains, 52.2% were methicillin-resistant SA (MRSA), isolated from community-acquired (CA) infections in 60.4% and hospital-acquired (HA) infections in 39.6%. S. aureus isolates were also highly resistant to erythromycin (54.3%) and ciprofloxacin (70.6%) in methicillin-susceptible SA (MSSA) and MRSA, as well as in CA and HA infections. MRSA were found to be significantly more resistant to gentamicin (p <0.001), cotrimoxazole (p <0.001) and ciprofloxacin (p 0.001) than MSSA, but no significant difference was observed between CA- and HA-SA. ST217 appeared as a new emerging and prevalent clone, but ST772 remained the predominant clone, all being PVL-positive isolates. Our study points out the high prevalence of MRSA, even in the community, and the worrying increase of resistance to ciprofloxacin and erythromycin among CA-MSSA. Emergence of clone ST217 is reported for the first time in India. PMID:26110062

  14. A comparative study of two mouthrinses on plaque and gingivitis in school children in the age group of 13-16 years in Bangalore city

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    Jayaprakash K

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Research and clinical evidence indicate that most forms of plaque associated periodontal disease start as inflammatory lesions of the gingiva which if left untreated, may progress and eventually involve and compromise the entire periodontal attachment apparatus of the affected teeth. A study was conducted to assess the effect of a mouthrinse containing chlorhexidine and sodium fluoride on plaque accumulation and gingivitis in comparison with a chlorhexidine mouthrinse alone in a group of school children aged 13-16 years in Bangalore city. This combination alongwith the well established effect of fluoride in the prevention of caries presents an important contribution to dental public health. The results suggest that the chlorhexidine-sodium fluoride mouthrinse potentially possesses a significant effect on inhibition of plaque accumulation and gingivitis. This combination along with the well-established effect of fluoride in the prevention of caries, presents an important contribution to dental public health.

  15. Prevalence and severity of periodontal disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus (non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patients in Bangalore city: An epidemiological study

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    S M Apoorva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Our objective was to study the prevalence and severity of periodontal disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM patients in Bangalore city. Materials and Methods : Four hundred and eight type 2 DM patients (Study Group and 100 non-diabetic patients (Control Group among the age group of 35-75 years were included in the study. The study group was divided based on Glycated hemoglobin levels into well, moderately and poorly controlled. Relevant information regarding age, oral hygiene habits and personal habits was obtained from the patients. Diabetic status and mode of anti-diabetic therapy of the study group was obtained from the hospital records with consent from the patient. Community periodontal index (CPI was used to assess the periodontal status. The results were statistically evaluated. Results : The mean CPI score and the number of missing teeth was higher in diabetics compared with non-diabetics, and was statistically significant ( P=0.000, indicating that prevalence and extent of periodontal disease was more frequent and more severe in diabetic patients. The risk factors like Glycated hemoglobin, duration of diabetes, fasting blood sugar, personal habits and oral hygiene habits showed a positive correlation with periodontal destruction, whereas mode of anti-diabetic therapy showed a negative correlation according to the multiple regression analysis. The odds ratio of a diabetic showing periodontal destruction in comparison with a non-diabetic was 1.97, 2.10 and 2.42 in well, moderately and poorly controlled diabetics, respectively. Conclusion : Our study has made an attempt to determine the association between type 2 DM (NIDDM and periodontal disease in Bangalore city. It was found that type 2 DM (non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus [NIDDM] subjects manifested relatively higher prevalence and severity of periodontal disease as compared with non-diabetics.

  16. Oral health-related KAP among 11- to 12-year-old school children in a government-aided missionary school of Bangalore city

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    Harikiran A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To organize community-oriented oral health promotion programs systematic analysis of the oral health situation would be needed, including information on oral health knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP toward oral health among 11 to 12-year-old school children in a government-aided missionary school of Bangalore city. Materials and Methods: The study group comprised of 212 children (Male: 108; Female; 104 who were in the age group of 11-12 years studying in a government-aided missionary school of Bangalore city. Data on oral health KAP were collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire. Statistical significance was determined by Chi-square test. Results: This survey found that only 38.5% of the children brush their teeth two or more times a day. Pain and discomfort from teeth (35.1% were common while dental visits were infrequent. Fear of the dentist was the main cause of irregular visit in 46.1% of study participants. High proportion of study participants reported having hidden sugar at least once a day: soft drinks (32.1%, milk with sugar (65.9%, and tea with sugar (56.1%. It was found that 5.4% and 3.9% of study participants smoke and chew tobacco, respectively. Conclusion: Results of this study suggest that oral health KAP of study participants are poor and needs to be improved. Systematic community-oriented oral health promotion programs are needed to improve oral health KAP of school children.

  17. Energy efficiency benchmarks and the performance of LEED rated buildings for Information Technology facilities in Bangalore, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabapathy, Ashwin; Ragavan, Santhosh K.V.; Vijendra, Mahima; Nataraja, Anjana G. [Enzen Global Solutions Pvt Ltd, 90, Hosur Road, Madiwala, Bangalore 560 068 (India)

    2010-11-15

    This paper provides a summary of an energy benchmarking study that uses performance data of a sample of Information Technology facilities in Bangalore. Information provided by the sample of occupiers was used to develop an Energy Performance Index (EPI) and an Annual Average hourly Energy Performance Index (AAhEPI), which takes into account the variations in operation hours and days for these facilities. The EPI and AAhEPI were modelled to identify the factors that influence energy efficiency. Employment density, size of facility, operating hours per week, type of chiller and age of facility were found to be significant factors in regression models with EPI and AAhEPI as dependent variables. Employment density, size of facility and operating hours per week were standardised and used in a separate regression analysis. Parameter estimates from this regression were used to normalize the EPI and AAhEPI for variance in the independent variables. Three benchmark ranges - the bottom third, middle third and top third - were developed for the two normalised indices. The normalised EPI and AAhEPI of LEED rated building, which were also part of the sample, indicate that, on average, LEED rated buildings outperform the other buildings. (author)

  18. Work, Stress, and Diurnal Bruxism: A Pilot Study among Information Technology Professionals in Bangalore City, India

    OpenAIRE

    David, J.; Bhat, M.; Rao, S. K.

    2011-01-01

    The study assessed the prevalence of diurnal bruxism among information technology (IT) professionals and explored plausible predictors associated with the parafunctional habit. A cross-sectional study was designed and IT professionals were invited to participate. The inclusion criteria composed of participants in service for at least one year, having natural dentition, no history of cervical or facial injury and not undergoing orthodontic therapy. The participants ( N = 1 4 7 ) were interview...

  19. Brief Communication: Economic Comparison of Opportunistic Infection Management With Antiretroviral Treatment in People Living With HIV/AIDS Presenting at an NGO Clinic in Bangalore, India

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    John KR

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Context Highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART usage in India is escalating. With the government of India launching the free HAART rollout as part of the "3 by 5" initiative, many people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA have been able to gain access to HAART medications. Currently, the national HAART centers are located in a few district hospitals (in the high- and medium-prevalence states and have very stringent criteria for enrolling PLHA. Patients who do not fit these criteria or patients who are too ill to undergo the prolonged wait at the government hospitals avail themselves of nongovernment organization (NGO services in order to take HAART medications. In addition, the government program has not yet started providing second-line HAART (protease inhibitors. Hence, even with the free HAART rollout, NGOs with the expertise to provide HAART continue to look for funding opportunities and other innovative ways of making HAART available to PLHA. Currently, no study from Indian NGOs has compared the direct and indirect costs of solely managing opportunistic infections (OIs vs HAART. Objective Compare direct medical costs (DMC and nonmedical costs (NMC with 2005 values accrued by the NGO and PLHA, respectively, for either HAART or exclusive OI management. Study design Retrospective case study comparison. Setting Low-cost community care and support center - Freedom Foundation (NGO, Bangalore, south India. Patients Retrospective analysis data on PLHA accessing treatment at Freedom Foundation between January 1, 2003 and January 1, 2005. The HAART arm included case records of PLHA who initiated HAART at the center, had frequent follow-up, and were between 18 and 55 years of age. The OI arm included records of PLHA who were also frequently followed up, who were in the same age range, who had CD4+ cell counts Results At 2005 costs, the median DMC plus NMC in the OI group was 21,335 Indian rupees (Rs (mean Rs 24,277/- per patient per year (pppy

  20. Reproductive tract infections among women in a peri-urban under privileged area in Bangalore, India: Knowledge, prevalence, and treatment seeking behavior

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    Shailendra K.B. Hegde

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Globally, reproductive tract infections (RTIs are a major cause of acute and chronic illness with severe consequences. Women are at a greater risk than men and are less likely to seek treatment because of the associated stigma. Objectives: To assess the knowledge and estimate the prevalence of RTIs, and treatment seeking behavior regarding RTI. Materials and Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was done in a peri-urban underprivileged area, in Bangalore where all ever-married women in the reproductive age group were interviewed using a pre-structured and pre-tested schedule by female medical doctors in the privacy of their homes. Results and Discussion: Of the 179 women who participated in the study, 47.5% were in the age group of 25 to 34 years with the mean age being 29.84 years (±7.92. The mean knowledge score was found to be 3.78 (±2.3 and the maximum score was found to be 10, which indicated poor knowledge regarding RTIs which was similar to other studies done elsewhere. The prevalence of RTI was found to be 26.8%, while the period prevalence of RTI for the last 1 year was 39.1%, and 60% of these women sought some form of treatment. Other studies have reported prevalence ranging from 21.9% to 92% in India. The age-specific prevalence was highest in the 15 to 19 years age group (30%, with most common symptom being white discharge per vagina (43.7%. Conclusions: Knowledge regarding RTI was poor while the prevalence of RTI was high (26.8% and the treatment-seeking behavior was inadequate.

  1. A qualitative study of factors affecting mental health amongst low-income working mothers in Bangalore, India

    OpenAIRE

    Travasso, Sandra Mary; Rajaraman, Divya; Heymann, Sally Jody

    2014-01-01

    Background Low-income urban working mothers face many challenges in their domestic, environmental, and working conditions that may affect their mental health. In India, a high prevalence of mental health disorders has been recorded in young women, but there has been little research to examine the factors that affect their mental health at home and work. Methods Through a primarily qualitative approach, we studied the relationship between work, caring for family, spousal support, stress relief...

  2. Prevalence of hypothyroidism in adults: An epidemiological study in eight cities of India

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    Ambika Gopalakrishnan Unnikrishnan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypothyroidism is believed to be a common health issue in India, as it is worldwide. However, there is a paucity of data on the prevalence of hypothyroidism in adult population of India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional, multi-centre, epidemiological study was conducted in eight major cities (Bangalore, Chennai, Delhi, Goa, Mumbai, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad and Kolkata of India to study the prevalence of hypothyroidism among adult population. Thyroid abnormalities were diagnosed on the basis of laboratory results (serum FT3, FT4 and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone [TSH]. Patients with history of hypothyroidism and receiving levothyroxine therapy or those with serum free T4 5.50 μU/ml, were categorized as hypothyroid. The prevalence of self reported and undetected hypothyroidism, and anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO antibody positivity was assessed. Results: A total of 5376 adult male or non-pregnant female participants ³18 years of age were enrolled, of which 5360 (mean age: 46 ± 14.68 years; 53.70% females were evaluated. The overall prevalence of hypothyroidism was 10.95% (n = 587, 95% CI, 10.11-11.78 of which 7.48% (n = 401 patients self reported the condition, whereas 3.47% (n = 186 were previously undetected. Inland cities showed a higher prevalence of hypothyroidism as compared to coastal cities. A significantly higher ( P 5.50 μIU/ml. Anti - TPO antibodies suggesting autoimmunity were detected in 21.85% (n = 1171 patients. Conclusion: The prevalence of hypothyroidism was high, affecting approximately one in 10 adults in the study population. Female gender and older age were found to have significant association with hypothyroidism. Subclinical hypothyroidism and anti-TPO antibody positivity were the other common observations.

  3. Evaluation of Cold Chain Practices in Urban Health Centers of a Metro City in India

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    Lalitha Krishnappa, Arvind B Anniappan, Narayana H Voderhobli, Shantha Kumar Krishna, Sudarshana Yathiraj, Pruthvish Sreekantaiah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: National Family Health Survey report (NFHS-3 reports revealed that immunization coverage in India among children between 12-23 months was low at 43.5%. In lieu of strengthening Routine Immu-nization (RI, Government of Karnataka undertook state-wide training of Medical officers and Health workers on RI with concurrent efforts of strengthening cold chain system in health centers. With this background, this study was undertaken to assess the cold chain practices in urban health centers of Bangalore city. Methodology: This Cross-sectional study was conducted during Octo-ber-December 2008 in three-zones of Bruhat Bangalore Mahanagara Palike (BBMP covering 35 units. Physical verification of the available cold chain equipments was done using predesigned pretested checklist and face to face interview of cold chain handlers was employed. Results: Of 35 centers, 33(94% and 32(91% of them had atleast one functional Ice-lined refrigerator(ILR and one deep freezer(DF respectively. Good storage code practice was practiced in 12 out of 33 ILRs. Functional thermometer was available in 31(91% ILRs of which 23(74% had temperature in the recommend range. With respect to knowledge of cold chain handlers on RI, 86% were trained on RI and their overall knowledge regarding cold chain practices was satisfactory except for knowledge on temperature in DF and on conditioning of ice-packs. Conclusion: Availability of cold chain equipments has improved and Cold storage practice was good/fair in most of the centers. Knowledge of cold chain handlers was low with respect to select cold chain practices.

  4. Diurnal and seasonal variation of mixing ratio and δ¹³C of air CO₂ observed at an urban station Bangalore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Tania; Ghosh, Prosenjit

    2015-02-01

    We present here observations on diurnal and seasonal variation of mixing ratio and δ(13)C of air CO2, from an urban station-Bangalore (BLR), India, monitored between October 2008 and December 2011. On a diurnal scale, higher mixing ratio with depleted δ(13)C of air CO2 was found for the samples collected during early morning compared to the samples collected during late afternoon. On a seasonal scale, mixing ratio was found to be higher for dry summer months (April-May) and lower for southwest monsoon months (June-July). The maximum enrichment in δ(13)C of air CO2 (-8.04 ± 0.02‰) was seen in October, then δ(13)C started depleting and maximum depletion (-9.31 ± 0.07‰) was observed during dry summer months. Immediately after that an increasing trend in δ(13)C was monitored coincidental with the advancement of southwest monsoon months and maximum enrichment was seen again in October. Although a similar pattern in seasonal variation was observed for the three consecutive years, the dry summer months of 2011 captured distinctly lower amplitude in both the mixing ratio and δ(13)C of air CO2 compared to the dry summer months of 2009 and 2010. This was explained with reduced biomass burning and increased productivity associated with prominent La Nina condition. While compared with the observations from the nearest coastal and open ocean stations-Cabo de Rama (CRI) and Seychelles (SEY), BLR being located within an urban region captured higher amplitude of seasonal variation. The average δ(13)C value of the end member source CO2 was identified based on both diurnal and seasonal scale variation. The δ(13)C value of source CO2 (-24.9 ± 3‰) determined based on diurnal variation was found to differ drastically from the source value (-14.6 ± 0.7‰) identified based on seasonal scale variation. The source CO2 identified based on diurnal variation incorporated both early morning and late afternoon sample; whereas, the source CO2 identified based

  5. Potential impact of pre-exposure prophylaxis for female sex workers and men who have sex with men in Bangalore, India: a mathematical modelling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Kate M; Prudden, Holly J; Washington, Reynold; Isac, Shajy; Rajaram, Subramanian P; Foss, Anna M; Terris-Prestholt, Fern; Boily, Marie-Claude; Vickerman, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In Bangalore, new HIV infections of female sex workers and men who have sex with men continue to occur, despite high condom use. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has high anti-HIV efficacy for men who have sex with men. PrEP demonstration projects are underway amongst Indian female sex workers. We estimated the impact and efficiency of prioritizing PrEP to female sex workers and/or men who have sex with men in Bangalore. Methods A mathematical model of HIV transmission and treatment for female sex workers, clients, men who have sex with men and low-risk groups was parameterized and fitted to Bangalore data. The proportion of transmission attributable (population attributable fraction) to commercial sex and sex between men was calculated. PrEP impact (infections averted, life-years gained) and efficiency (life-years gained/infections averted per 100 person-years on PrEP) were estimated for different levels of PrEP adherence, coverage and prioritization strategies (female sex workers, high-risk men who have sex with men, both female sex workers and high-risk men who have sex with men, or female sex workers with lower condom use), under current conditions and in a scenario with lower baseline condom use amongst key populations. Results Population attributable fractions for commercial sex and sex between men have declined over time, and they are predicted to account for 19% of all new infections between 2016 and 2025. PrEP could prevent a substantial proportion of infections amongst female sex workers and men who have sex with men in this setting (23%/27% over 5/10 years, with 60% coverage and 50% adherence), which could avert 2.9%/4.3% of infections over 5/10 years in the whole Bangalore population. Impact and efficiency in the whole population was greater if female sex workers were prioritized. Efficiency increased, but impact decreased, if only female sex workers with lower condom use were given PrEP. Greater impact and efficiency was predicted for the

  6. Bangalore @ night: Indian IT professionals and the global clock ticking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Baas

    2009-01-01

    This article deals with the question of what the night means to IT (information technology) professionals working in the Indian IT industry in Bangalore. In particular, it argues that the way IT work gets done (in India) demands a type of flexibility of an IT worker that‘forces’ him to rethink perce

  7. Socio-Demographic Correlates of Subjective Well-Being in Urban India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Jyotsna; Murthy, Pratima; Philip, Mariamma; Mehrotra, Seema; Thennarasu, K.; John, John P.; Girish, N.; Thippeswamy, V.; Isaac, Mohan

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to explore subjective well-being (SWB) in an urban Indian sample. Adults (n = 1099) belonging to two wards in the city of Bangalore in South India, responded to a study-specific questionnaire. This paper is based on data generated as part of an ongoing larger study looking at correlates of SWB. Almost equal number of men and women…

  8. Bangalore, ville des nouvelles technologies

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    Clarisse Didelon

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Bangalore est devenue la Silicon Valley de l’Inde. Une partie de ses habitants y vit à l’occidentale mais le reste de la population souffre de la croissance spectaculaire de la ville. Face à l’insuffisance des infrastructures, Bangalore devient de moins en moins attractive pour les entreprises internationales.

  9. 75 FR 62916 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “India's Fabled City: The...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``India's Fabled City: The Art of... ``India's Fabled City: The Art of Courtly Lucknow,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition...

  10. Brief Communication: Economic Comparison of Opportunistic Infection Management With Antiretroviral Treatment in People Living With HIV/AIDS Presenting at an NGO Clinic in Bangalore, India

    OpenAIRE

    John KR; Rajagopalan Nirmala; Madhuri Nirmala

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Context Highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) usage in India is escalating. With the government of India launching the free HAART rollout as part of the "3 by 5" initiative, many people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) have been able to gain access to HAART medications. Currently, the national HAART centers are located in a few district hospitals (in the high- and medium-prevalence states) and have very stringent criteria for enrolling PLHA. Patients who do not fit these criteria...

  11. Seismic vulnerability and risk assessment of Kolkata City, India

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    S. K. Nath

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The city of Kolkata is one of the most urbanized and densely populated regions in the world, which is a major industrial and commercial hub of the Eastern and Northeastern region of India. In order to classify the seismic risk zones of Kolkata we used seismic hazard exposures on the vulnerability components namely, landuse/landcover, population density, building typology, age and height. We microzoned seismic hazard of the City by integrating seismological, geological and geotechnical themes in GIS which in turn is integrated with the vulnerability components in a logic-tree framework to estimate both the socio-economic and structural risk of the City. In both the risk maps, three broad zones have been demarcated as "severe", "high" and "moderate". There had also been a risk-free zone in the City. The damage distribution in the City due to the 1934 Bihar-Nepal Earthquake of Mw 8.1 well matches with the risk regime. The design horizontal seismic coefficients for the City have been worked out for all the predominant periods which indicate suitability of "A", "B" and "C" type of structures. The cumulative damage probabilities in terms of "slight", "moderate", "extensive" and "complete" have also been assessed for the significant four model building types viz. RM2L, RM2M, URML and URMM for each structural seismic risk zone in the City. Both the Seismic Hazard and Risk maps are expected to play vital roles in the earthquake inflicted disaster mitigation and management of the city of Kolkata.

  12. Chemical composition of runoff water in Raipur city, central India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambade, Balram

    2015-03-01

    Runoff water is an important transporting medium for various pollutants from land to surface water. Several mobiles and stationary sources such as vehicles, steel cement and thermal power plants, cooking, street, construction debris, etc. are emitting effluents in the environment of the central India. The rain runoff water washes out the air as well as land pollutants and flushes out into water bodies. Therefore, rain runoff water pollution in most urbanized and industrialized city of central India, i.e., Raipur during rainy season (May-September 2012) is analyzed statistically using cluster and principal component analysis to assess sources. The cluster analysis grouped runoff water samples into two clusters based on the similarity of runoff water quality characteristics of the total variance. The factor analysis differentiated the diffused sources of runoff water contaminants. The enrichment factors and runoff fluxes of the contaminants are discussed.

  13. Indoor air quality due to secondhand smoke: Signals from selected hospitality locations in rural and urban areas of Bangalore and Dharwad districts in Karnataka, India

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    Mark J Travers

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoke has compounds that are known as human carcinogens. With every breath of secondhand smoke we inhale thousands of chemicals. The Government of India in the interest of public health has enacted the Cigarette and Other Tobacco Products Act (COTPA, 2003, which bans smoking in all the public places including hotels and restaurants. The purpose of this study was to observe and record air pollution in smoke free and smoke observed locations and thereby find out whether the owners/managers of hotels, restaurants, and bars comply with rules of COTPA. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the study were to measure and compare the level of particulate air pollution from secondhand smoke (PM2.5 in smoking and nonsmoking venues. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted from September 2009 to March 2010 in Karnataka, India following a nonrandom sample of 79 locations, which included restaurants, bars, cafes, hotels, and tea stalls in two districts. The concentration of PM2.5was measured using a TSI SidePak AM510 Personal Aerosol Monitor. RESULTS: In Karnataka out of the 79 hospitality locations, smoking was observed in 58% places and only 28% had displayed the required “No Smoking” signage. Places where indoor smoking was observed had high levels of air pollution with average 135 PM2.5, which were 3.1 times higher than the average 43 PM2.5in smoke-free locations and 14 times higher than the World Health Organization (WHO target air quality guideline for PM2.5. The average PM2.5levels in different locations ranged from 11 to 417 μg/m3 and was lower in the case of apparently compliant designated smoking area (DSR. CONCLUSIONS: The patrons and the workers in the hospitality sector continue to be exposed to secondhand smoke despite the enactment of COTPA, which bans smoking in public places. This situation demands stringent measures for effective implementation of the Smoke Free Act and negative response to smoking among civil society.

  14. Oral Hygiene Status of Institutionalised Dependent Elderly in India – a Cross-Sectional Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanagar, Sanjeev; Naganandini, S.; Rajanna, Vasuda; Naik, Sachin; Rao, Rekha; Madhuniranjanswamy, M S

    2015-01-01

    Background/Introduction For various reasons, the care demand from elderly people is low and difficult to determine, whereas their oral hygiene status would need urgent care. Objective To assess the oral hygiene status of institutionalized dependent elderly in Bangalore City, India. Methods A cross-sectional study of 322 dependent elderly patients was conducted at seven elderly homes of Bangalore City, India. The oral hygiene status recorded includes dental and prosthetic hygiene. Results The mean Debris Index and Plaque Index scores of dentate elderly were 2.87±0.22 and 3.17±0.40, respectively, the mean Denture Plaque and Denture Stomatitis scores were 3.15±0.47 and 1.43±0.68, respectively. Conclusion The dental hygiene was inadequate. This study emphasizes the care demand and the need for help in oral hygiene procedures for the dependent institutionalized elderly. PMID:26180560

  15. Oral findings of Down syndrome children in Chennai city, India

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    Asokan Sharath

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To assess the common oral findings and anomalies of Down syndrome (DS children in Chennai city, India. Materials and Methods: Among the 130 DS children examined, 102 children aged 15 years and below were included in the study. There were 57 male children and 45 female children in the total study sample. A specially prepared case record was used to record the following findings in each child: a brief family and personal history; anomalies of soft tissues, teeth, occlusion, and temporomandibular joint. Age wise and sex wise comparisons of the findings were done. Results: About 97 children (95% had the habit of regular tooth brushing. Everted lower lip (66%, retained primary teeth (31%, and midface deficiency (76% were the most commonly seen soft tissue, dental, and occlusion anomalies, respectively. Conclusions: Midface deficiency was the most common orofacial anomaly seen in these children, followed by everted lower lip and retained primary teeth. Almost all the children had a regular tooth brushing habit. All the children examined were offered free dental treatment in our dental college.

  16. Vegetation in Bangalore's Slums: Composition, Species Distribution, Density, Diversity, and History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, Divya; Nagendra, Harini; Manthey, Michael

    2015-06-01

    There is widespread acknowledgement of the need for biodiversity and greening to be part of urban sustainability efforts. Yet we know little about greenery in the context of urban poverty, particularly in slums, which constitute a significant challenge for inclusive development in many rapidly growing cities. We assessed the composition, density, diversity, and species distribution of vegetation in 44 slums of Bangalore, India, comparing these to published studies on vegetation diversity in other land-use categories. Most trees were native to the region, as compared to other land-use categories such as parks and streets which are dominated by introduced species. Of the most frequently encountered tree species, Moringa oleifera and Cocos nucifera are important for food, while Ficus religiosa plays a critical cultural and religious role. Tree density and diversity were much lower in slums compared to richer residential neighborhoods. There are also differences in species preferences, with most plant (herb, shrub and vines) species in slums having economic, food, medicinal, or cultural use, while the species planted in richer residential areas are largely ornamental. Historic development has had an impact on species distribution, with older slums having larger sized tree species, while recent slums were dominated by smaller sized tree species with greater economic and food use. Extensive focus on planting trees and plant species with utility value is required in these congested neighborhoods, to provide livelihood support.

  17. Connecting High School and University Teachers in National and International Contexts: Perspectives from the 2012 Bangalore Workshop of the AAG-CGGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Pratyusha; Pawson, Eric; Akhter, Majed; Palmer, David; Mervine, Valerie M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the Center for Global Geography Education teaching workshop held in Bangalore, India, in March 2012 which served as a collaborative forum linking geography teachers in secondary and higher education in the USA and India. It considers the inclusion of the Advanced Placement Human Geography teachers from the USA and the…

  18. Offshore outsourcing and innovation capabilities in the supply base:Evidence from software firms in Bangalore

    OpenAIRE

    Lema, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    This paper contributes to the growing body of literature concerned with the global redistribution of innovative capacity towards the emerging economies. It does so by asking whether Indian software firms have developed significant innovation capabilities. It draws on evidence from ten software service suppliers in Bangalore (India) and the examination of key change events within these firms. The study finds evidence of deepened capabilities for significant – ‘problem framing’ – innovation in ...

  19. Three-Dimensional Site Characterization Model of Bangalore Using Support Vector Machine

    OpenAIRE

    Samui, Pijush

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of site characterization is the prediction of in situ soil properties at any half-space point at a site based on limited tests. In this study, the Support Vector Machine (SVM) has been used to develop a three dimensional site characterization model for Bangalore, India based on large amount of Standard Penetration Test. SVM is a novel type of learning machine based on statistical learning theory, uses regression technique by introducing ε-insensitive loss function. The data...

  20. Innovations in nutrition education and global health: the Bangalore Boston nutrition collaborative

    OpenAIRE

    Kuriyan, Rebecca; Griffiths, Jeffrey K; Finkelstein, Julia L.; Thomas, Tinku; Raj, Tony; Bosch, Ronald J.; Kurpad, Anura V; Duggan, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Background: India has a wide range of nutrition and health problems which require professionals with appropriate skills, knowledge and trans-disciplinary collaborative abilities to influence policy making at the national and global level. Methods: The Bangalore Boston Nutrition Collaborative (BBNC) was established as collaboration between St. John’s Research Institute (SJRI), Harvard School of Public Health and Tufts University, with a focus on nutrition research and training. The goals of th...

  1. URBAN SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT OF GUWAHATI CITY IN NORTH-EAST INDIA

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    Prasanta Kumar Pradhan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years municipal solid waste (MSW management has been one of the most environmental concerns for all urban areas of India. Most of the urban centers have neither adequate land nor any facility for MSW disposal. In view of scarcity of lands for making landfill sites, solid wastes can be used for energy recovery resulting in volume reduction, thus requires less area for its disposal. Guwahati is one such city of North-East India, having the potential to recover the energy from solid wastes and at the same time the waste management system of the city can be improved. This paper attempts to characterize the urban solid waste of the city as well as its energy potential for various uses. Results showed that the average generation rate of MSW was 0.7 kg/capita/day and the city has the potential to generate the power of 30 MW from the solid waste.

  2. Sonic drifting: sound, city and psychogeography

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    Budhaditya Chattopadhyay

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Studying and perceiving an emerging city by listening to its sounds might be phenomenologically reductive in approach, but it can lead to a framework for understanding the fabric of the urban environment through artistic practice. This paper describes a sound work, Elegy for Bangalore, and examines its artistic processes in order to shed light on the methodologies for listening to an expanding city by engaging with multilayered urban contexts and, subsequently, evoking the psychogeography of the city through sound-based artistic practice. The paper further investigates the project’s approach, development and method to speculate on present urban conditions in countries like India experiencing rapid growth. Devising the unfolding auditory situation of an Indian city in corresponding acts of drifting, listening, recording and composing, this paper examines the processes of perceiving an apparently chaotic and disorganised urban environment with its multisensory complexity.

  3. Growth Pattern of Cities in India: Application of Statistical Models

    OpenAIRE

    Halingali, B. I.; Kadi, A. S.

    2010-01-01

    AbstractSeveral probabilistic and deterministic (including economic) models have beenproposed to predict the growth and pattern of distribution of cities by theirpopulation size. Among them Pareto family of distributions have shown aremarkable empirical regularity and the city size distribution in many countriesis well approximated by these distributions. However, these models are useful tostudy the distribution of larger size cities satisfying certain regularityconditions. In the Indian cont...

  4. What makes cities more competitive ? spatial determinants of entrepreneurship in India

    OpenAIRE

    Ghani, Ejaz; Kerr, William R.; O'Connell, Stephen D.

    2012-01-01

    Policy makers in both developed and developing countries want to make cities more competitive, attract entreprepreneurs, boost economic growth, and promote job creation. The authors examine the spatial location of entrepreneurs in India in manufacturing and services sectors, as well as in the formal and informal sectors, in 630 districts spread across 35 states/union territories. They quan...

  5. Secondhand smoke in public places: Can Bangalore metropolitan transport corporation be a role model for effective implementation of cigarette and other tobacco products Act, 2003?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N S Nayak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The Indian government enacted ′The cigarettes and other tobacco products act, 2003′ (COTPA, which prohibits smoking in public places. Aim : To validate the efficacy of the Act of 2003, enacted by the Government of India, to prevent secondhand smoking in public places. Settings and Design : The study is based on a non-random sample survey of 2,600 bus passengers carried out in the premises of three mega public road transport organizations in Karnataka state, India, in June 2007. Methods and Material : The information was gathered through administration of structured schedules. A sample of 1,000 each for the terminus of Bangalore Metropolitan Transport Corporation (BMTC and Karnataka State Road Transport Corporation (KSRTC in Bangalore and, 600 for North West Karnataka Road Transport Corporation (NWKRTC in Hubli-Dharwad city was distributed proportionately according to the number of platforms in each terminus. Statistical Analysis Used : Simple Averages. Results : There is some reduction in smoking in general as perceived by 69% of the passengers as compared to the scenario a year before the enactment of COTPA. The observed smoking is lower in the bus premises of BMTC where there is strict regulation, and higher in the bus premises of NWKRTC, which has not taken any regulatory measures. Conclusions : Knowing smoking is banned in public places can itself create awareness depending on the coverage extended by media and implementing an agency to reach the public. The implementation of an act depends on the willingness of stakeholders to act upon it. The implementation of COTPA as done by BMTC could well become a role model for replication elsewhere, if BMTC can strive harder to accomplish a 100% smoke-free zone.

  6. Investigation of tuberculosis clusters in Dehradun city of India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Neeraj Tiwari; Vineeta Kandpal; Ajoy Tewari; KRam Mohan Rao; Tolia VS

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the presence of statistically significant geographical clusters of tuberculosis (TB) using Geographical Information System and spatial scan statistics in Dehradun, India. Methods:The spatial scan statistic implemented with a software program, SaTScan v6.1, was used to test the presence of statistically significant spatial clusters of TB and to identify their approximate locations (P< 0.05 for primary clusters and P<0.1 for secondary clusters). Geographical Information System was used for geographical analysis. Results: Significant high rate spatial clusters were identified in seven wards of the Dehradun Municipal area. Conclusions:There is sufficient evidence about the existence of statistically significant TB clusters in seven wards of Dehradun, India. The purely spatial scan statistics methodology used in this study has a potential use in surveillance of TB for detecting the true clusters of the disease.

  7. URBAN SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT OF GUWAHATI CITY IN NORTH-EAST INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Prasanta Kumar Pradhan; C.r.mohanty; A. K. Swar; Mohapatra, P.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years municipal solid waste (MSW) management has been one of the most environmental concerns for all urban areas of India. Most of the urban centers have neither adequate land nor any facility for MSW disposal. In view of scarcity of lands for making landfill sites, solid wastes can be used for energy recovery resulting in volume reduction, thus requires less area for its disposal. Guwahati is one such city of North-East India, having the potential to recover the energy from solid w...

  8. Geospatial Information from Satellite Imagery for Geovisualisation of Smart Cities in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, M.

    2016-06-01

    In the recent past, there have been large emphasis on extraction of geospatial information from satellite imagery. The Geospatial information are being processed through geospatial technologies which are playing important roles in developing of smart cities, particularly in developing countries of the world like India. The study is based on the latest geospatial satellite imagery available for the multi-date, multi-stage, multi-sensor, and multi-resolution. In addition to this, the latest geospatial technologies have been used for digital image processing of remote sensing satellite imagery and the latest geographic information systems as 3-D GeoVisualisation, geospatial digital mapping and geospatial analysis for developing of smart cities in India. The Geospatial information obtained from RS and GPS systems have complex structure involving space, time and presentation. Such information helps in 3-Dimensional digital modelling for smart cities which involves of spatial and non-spatial information integration for geographic visualisation of smart cites in context to the real world. In other words, the geospatial database provides platform for the information visualisation which is also known as geovisualisation. So, as a result there have been an increasing research interest which are being directed to geospatial analysis, digital mapping, geovisualisation, monitoring and developing of smart cities using geospatial technologies. However, the present research has made an attempt for development of cities in real world scenario particulary to help local, regional and state level planners and policy makers to better understand and address issues attributed to cities using the geospatial information from satellite imagery for geovisualisation of Smart Cities in emerging and developing country, India.

  9. GEOSPATIAL INFORMATION FROM SATELLITE IMAGERY FOR GEOVISUALISATION OF SMART CITIES IN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mohan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the recent past, there have been large emphasis on extraction of geospatial information from satellite imagery. The Geospatial information are being processed through geospatial technologies which are playing important roles in developing of smart cities, particularly in developing countries of the world like India. The study is based on the latest geospatial satellite imagery available for the multi-date, multi-stage, multi-sensor, and multi-resolution. In addition to this, the latest geospatial technologies have been used for digital image processing of remote sensing satellite imagery and the latest geographic information systems as 3-D GeoVisualisation, geospatial digital mapping and geospatial analysis for developing of smart cities in India. The Geospatial information obtained from RS and GPS systems have complex structure involving space, time and presentation. Such information helps in 3-Dimensional digital modelling for smart cities which involves of spatial and non-spatial information integration for geographic visualisation of smart cites in context to the real world. In other words, the geospatial database provides platform for the information visualisation which is also known as geovisualisation. So, as a result there have been an increasing research interest which are being directed to geospatial analysis, digital mapping, geovisualisation, monitoring and developing of smart cities using geospatial technologies. However, the present research has made an attempt for development of cities in real world scenario particulary to help local, regional and state level planners and policy makers to better understand and address issues attributed to cities using the geospatial information from satellite imagery for geovisualisation of Smart Cities in emerging and developing country, India.

  10. Growth Pattern of Cities in India: Application of Statistical Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halingali, B. I.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractSeveral probabilistic and deterministic (including economic models have beenproposed to predict the growth and pattern of distribution of cities by theirpopulation size. Among them Pareto family of distributions have shown aremarkable empirical regularity and the city size distribution in many countriesis well approximated by these distributions. However, these models are useful tostudy the distribution of larger size cities satisfying certain regularityconditions. In the Indian context Pareto distribution fits well only to thedistribution of cities with a population size of million plus. No such exercise hasbeen made for other cities populated less than a million. In the present paper,an attempt has been made to characterize cities of all sizes through appropriatemodels applied to predict the growth pattern of cities in Indian context.RésuméPlusieurs modèles probabilistes et déterministes (y compris économique ont étéproposés pour prédire la croissance et le schéma de la distribution des villespar la taille de leur population. Parmi ces modèles, les distributions de Paretoont démontré une régularité empirique remarquable, et la distribution par tailledes villes de nombreux pays est bien approximée par ces distributions.Cependant, ces modèles s’avèrent utiles quand il s’agit de l'étude de ladistribution des plus grandes villes qui satisfont certaines conditions derégularité. Il en est de même dans le contexte de l’Inde, où la distribution dePareto ne fonctionne bien que pour la distribution des villes comprenant unepopulation d’un million ou plus. Aucun exercice de ce genre n’a été entrepritpour d’autres villes avec des populations de moins d'un million. Dans cetarticle, nous avons tenté de caractériser des villes de toutes tailles à l’aide del’application de modèles appropriés pour prédire le schéma de croissance desvilles dans le contexte de l'Inde.

  11. Sustainability of Smart Cities under Climate Variability and Climate Change in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, R.; Mishra, V.

    2015-12-01

    India has experienced a rapid urbanization during the past few decades. On the other hand, many parts of the country witnessed significant changes in mean and extreme climate related to precipitation and temperature. Here we analysed urban residence using the remotely sensed data considering the susceptibility of Indian cities to droughts and heat waves. We selected recently announced 100 urban areas that are planned to be developed as smart cities in future. Gridded precipitation data were used to compute SPEI values for frequency and ascertain the extent of droughts in the cities. The heat wave analysis was done in two phases. First phase included analysis using Heat Wave Magnitude Index (HWMI) to determine the intensity of such extreme events. In the second phase, Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect across different ecological configuration was studied for the cities. Land Surface Temperature (LST), urban extent map from MODIS and land-cover maps were used to study the UHI effect. For this, the urban extents were divided into urban core and sub-urban zones based on built up regions in the cities. The urban to rural temperature difference is analysed considering the ecological configuration in the region. The selected cities were categorised based on the biome features surrounding them. The results suggest aggravated condition in the urban space in India with reference to extreme events. For instance, extreme heat waves have substantially increased in India during the last few decades. In many urban areas, the UHI effect contributed a significant warming due to increased urbanization. We estimated projected changes in droughts and heat waves in the selected urban areas using the dynamically downscaled data from the region climate models. Our results suggest that a majority of urban areas are projected to face an elevated risk of temperature related extremes and issues of water sustainability in the coming decades.

  12. Evaluation of Liquefaction Return Period for Bangalore Based on Standard Penetration Test Data: Performance Based Approach

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    K. S. Vipin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The conventional liquefaction evaluation is based on a deterministic approach. However in this method the uncertainty in the earthquake loading is not properly taken into account. However recent research in this field indicates that this uncertainty in the earthquake loading has to be considered in the liquefaction potential evaluation. Moreover the evaluation of liquefaction return period is not possible in the conventional deterministic methods. This study explained the methods for evaluating the probability of liquefaction and the return period of liquefaction based on probabilistic approach. Approach: In this study the geotechnical data was collected from 450 bore holes in Bangalore, India, covering an area of 220 km2. The seismic hazard analysis for the study area is carried out using Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA and the peak acceleration at ground surface was evaluated for site class-D after considering local site effects. For assessment of site class, shear wave velocity profiles in the city had been obtained using Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW survey. Based on this data the probabilistic liquefaction analysis was done to evaluate the probability of liquefaction in the study area. Based on the performance based approach the liquefaction return period for the study area was also evaluated. Results: The results showed the variation of liquefaction susceptibility for the study area. The corrected standard penetration values required to prevent the liquefaction for return periods of 475 and 2500 years were also presented here. Conclusion/Recommendations: The spatial variation of probability of liquefaction and the factor of safety against liquefaction evaluated using the two methods match well for the study area.

  13. STATUS OF HEAVY METALS DISTRIBUTION IN MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE IN TIRUCHIRAPPALLI CITY, INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    A. Noorjahan; S. Dhanakumar; R. Mohanraj; M. Ravichandran

    2012-01-01

    Urbanization and rapid growth of population in India has led to drastic increase in municipal solid waste. Unscientific disposal of municipal solid waste is one of the main reasons attributed for environmental degradation. The present work concentrates on municipal solid waste management in Tiruchirappalli City which comprises of four zones namely Srirangam, Goldenrock, Araiyamangalam and Abishekapuram. This study also attempted to assess the physical composition, characteristics and the heav...

  14. Conceptualizing Sustainable Transportation for City of Pune, India.

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    B.H. Sutara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pune the second largest city of Maharashtra state of Indian union is witnessing large scale urban sprawl and its negative ramifications in last couple of decades. Urban sprawl is defined as dispersed and discontinuous suburban land development associated with low population densities and high auto dependence. This phenomenon is adversely affecting sustainability of the city because of its negative environmental, social and economic impacts. It saps local resources, destroys open space and farmland, and increases the energy consumption of mobility by promoting long travel distances. Another problem is high levels of traffic congestion and harmful emissions causing environmental pollution. There is a plethora of research that sought to address the issue of urban sustainability and combat sprawl; little has been done on developing analytical tools that could be used to assess the future of urban sustainability for Indian cities and for Pune in particular. This paper explores that how particular land use development patterns or the expansion of the current urban transportation infrastructure are likely to impact urban sustainability.

  15. Determination of atmospheric heavy metals using two lichen species in Katni and Rewa cities, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, Rajesh; Mishra, G K; Mohabe, S; Upreti, Dalip K; Nayaka, S

    2011-03-01

    A biomonitoring study was conducted to assess the levels of atmospheric heavy metal pollution in Katni and Rewa cities of Madhya Pradesh, state in central India. The Pyxine cocoes and Phaeophyscia hispidula, two epiphytic foliose lichen were used as bioindicators in the present study and seven metals (As, Al, Cd, Cr, Fe, Zn, Pb) were analyzed in naturally growing thallus. The concentrations of these metals was observed to be in higher range as maximum values of Al, Cd, Cr and Zn were reported from the lichen samples from Rewa city which was 561.8 +/- 2.4, 6.8 +/- 0.8, 35.2 +/- 1.4, 214.6 +/- 2.0 microg g(-1) dry weight respectively. Whereas As, Fe and Pb were reported maximum in the lichen samples collected from Katni city areas with 33.4 +/- 0.05, 689.4 +/- 2.6, 13.3 +/- 0.5 microg g(-1) dry weight respectively. However the accumulation of Cd and Pb from both the cities are more or less similar in concentration. The selectivity sequence of metals were Fe>Al>Zn>As>Cr>Pb>Cd in Katni city, and Al>Fe>Zn>Cr>As>Pb>Cd in Rewa city. The findings of this study indicates that extent of heavy metal pollution in the atmosphere of the two cities which may lead to adverse health affects. PMID:21882655

  16. STUDY OF AQUATIC ANGIOSPERMIC PLANTS OF ANAND CITY, GUJARAT, INDIA

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    K. R. PATEL1 AND N. K. PATEL2

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the taxonomic study of Aquatic Angiosperms growing throughout the Anand city. The plants are listed along with their brief taxonomic account of each species with current nomenclature, vernacular name, family and uses. The  collected plants are systematically observed during present work, During my study I observed various aquatic angiospermic plants such as   Ceratophyllum demersum, Colocasia esculenta, Eichhornia crassipes, Ipomoea aquatica, Nymphoides indicum, Ludwigia repens, Polygonum orientale, Typha elephantina, Lemna perpusilla, Spirodella polyrrhiza, Xanthium indicum, Phyllanthus reticulatus, Cynodon dactylon, Hydrilla verticillata were very common. Whereas Nymphaea nouchali, Polygonum barbatum, Scirpus articulatus were very rare in the study area.

  17. Tobacco use among school children in Chennai city, India

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    Madan Kumar P

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available AIMS: The present study was done to build a database on prevalence of tobacco use among students of grade 8 to 10 in Chennai city, for the purpose of advocacy of tobacco control and planning tobacco control interventions and evaluation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A two-stage stratified probability sample of students in grades 8-10 corresponding to 13 to 15 years of age were selected from private/government aided private schools and purely government aided corporation schools. Data was collected by a pretested, closed-ended self-administered questionnaire. RESULTS: A total of 1255 students participated in this survey. Among them 64.4 boys and 35.6% were girls. Ever tobacco use was reported by 37.6% of the students (41.6 males and 30.2% females. Current users of tobacco (any products were reported by 41.1% of the students. Prevalence was more among boy students (46.3% when compared to that of girl students (31.6%. There existed no significant difference between current users of tobacco based on the zones of the school. Tobacco users prevalence was found more in corporation schools when compared to that of private schools. Parental and friends tobacco use was reported more often by tobacco users compared to never users. Purchasing tobacco products in a store was reported by 82.5% and almost no one was refused because of age. Almost everyone reported watching a lot of cigarette advertisements on TV, whereas about half reported watching advertisements on other medias like outdoor hoardings (45.7%, newspapers (65.3% and social events (67.4%. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that among the 13 to 15-year old school going children (corresponding to grades 8 to 10 in Chennai city, the current tobacco use is high.

  18. Girl prostitution in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, K K

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the nature, magnitude, causes, and consequences of female child prostitution in India and offers measures for control and prevention of girl prostitution. Data are obtained from the 6-city study of prostitution and the author's own research. An estimated 85% of all prostitutes in Calcutta and Delhi entered the work at an early age. The numbers are rising. The promotion of tourism is linked with prostitution. Girl prostitutes are primarily located in low-middle income areas and business districts and are known by officials. Brothel keepers regularly recruit young girls. An estimated 33% of prostitutes are young girls. In Bangalore, Calcutta, Delhi, and Hyderabad, there are an estimated 10,000 girl prostitutes. UNICEF estimates about 300,000 child prostitutes. Girl prostitutes are grouped as common prostitutes, singers and dancers, call girls, religious prostitutes or devdasi, and caged brothel prostitutes. Religious prostitutes are mainly found in the South. Caged ones are found in Bombay. A little over 50% of prostitutes come from other countries, such as Nepal and Bangladesh. The girls tend to come from urban slums and poor rural areas. High prostitute supply regions include Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and West Bengel states. About 85% are Hindus, and about 66% are from scheduled castes and tribes. Bangalore and Bombay have a higher proportion of girl prostitutes. The causes of prostitution include ill treatment by parents, bad company, family prostitutes, social customs, inability to arrange marriage, lack of sex education, media, prior incest and rape, early marriage and desertion, lack of recreational facilities, ignorance, and acceptance of prostitution. Economic causes include poverty and economic distress. Psychological causes include desire for physical pleasure, greed, and dejection. Most enter involuntarily. A brief profile is given of the life of a prostitute. PMID:12158002

  19. Rethinking urban space in cities - A study of parks in Hyderabad, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrinagesh, B.; Markandey, Kalpana

    2016-06-01

    Urban areas being economically diversified attract large streams of migrants making for a burgeoning population. This is more prevalent in the developing countries. The concomitants of this are high density, heavy traffic movement and increased pollution levels. To reduce the stressful life of city dwellers it is important to have open spaces, where one can pursue leisure time activities a few removes from clutter. A public space is a space that is generally open and accessible to people. Roads, public parks, libraries etc, are typically considered public space. The term ‘public space’ is also often misconstrued to mean other things such as ‘gathering place’, which is an element of the larger concept of social space. Hyderabad, the historical city is the capital of Telangana, India and extends from longitude 78o23’ to 78o33’E and latitude of 17o17’ to 17o31’N. It is the second largest city in terms of area and fifth largest in terms of population. It is one of the fastest growing cities in India. There is a huge influx of people from other states in search of better opportunities. The main objectives of the study are; to study the sprawl and changing demographic structure of the city of Hyderabad, to study the accessibility of parks, to study the need for the emergence of a local public sphere. The data base will be mainly on secondary data collected from various government sources. A primary survey will be conducted based on a structured questionnaire. GIS and other mapping techniques will be applied to analyse the data.

  20. Prevalence of dental fluorosis among school children residing in Kanpur City, Uttar Pradesh, India

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    Ashish Bhalla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective was to find the prevalence of dental fluorosis among school children residing in Kanpur city, Uttar Pradesh India. Materials and Methods: A total of 1343 school children, residing in the city since childhood and consuming the groundwater, in the age group of 7-17 years was selected from various schools. Schools were selected from all four directions of the city. Children were categorized in five age groups and were examined for dental fluorosis. Dean′s criteria for assessment of dental fluorosis were used, and observations were recorded on a study specific performa. Results: Among the 1343 children examined, 243 (18% were found to be having dental fluorosis, among which number of males (131 was more than females (112. Among the different grades of fluorosis observed, mild dental fluorosis was observed in most of the cases (158. It was observed that the southern part of the city had a maximum number of cases of dental fluorosis. Conclusion: It was evident from the results that the city had a good number of cases of dental fluorosis and that the groundwater in certain areas had more than normal quantity of fluoride. Since this study was the first attempt in this area, more studies can be undertaken to substantiate our findings.

  1. STATUS OF HEAVY METALS DISTRIBUTION IN MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE IN TIRUCHIRAPPALLI CITY, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Noorjahan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization and rapid growth of population in India has led to drastic increase in municipal solid waste. Unscientific disposal of municipal solid waste is one of the main reasons attributed for environmental degradation. The present work concentrates on municipal solid waste management in Tiruchirappalli City which comprises of four zones namely Srirangam, Goldenrock, Araiyamangalam and Abishekapuram. This study also attempted to assess the physical composition, characteristics and the heavy metals content in municipal solid waste. It can be observed that the bio-degradable fraction of municipal solid waste is found to be 74 percent of the total solid waste generated from the city. Hence composting could be the best option for the treatment of municipal solid waste.

  2. Physico-chemical characteristics of groundwater in and around Surat City (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raval, Viral H; Malik, G M

    2010-10-01

    Groundwater samples were collected from different locations of Surat city, Gujarat (India). These samples from 32 locations of Surat city were analysed for their physico-chemical characteristics involving pH, colour, odour, hardness, chloride, alkalinity, COD, sulfate, TDS, SS, iron, Cu, boron, chromium, temperature and Langelier Saturation Index. On comparing the results against drinking water quality standards laid by Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) and World Health Organization (WHO), it is found that most of the water samples are non-potable. Most of the samples indicated Total Alkalinity, Hardness, Chloride and TDS values much higher than the permissible level stipulated by ICMR and WHO. Even at some places Langelier Saturation Index values found higher too. The high values of these parameters may have health implications and therefore these need attention.

  3. Prevalence of hypothyroidism in pregnancy: An epidemiological study from 11 cities in 9 states of India

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    Dinesh Kumar Dhanwal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A previous hospital based study from Delhi revealed a high prevalence of hypothyroidism in pregnant women. Several other studies with small sample size also indicate a rising trend of prevalence of hypothyroidism during pregnancy in India. Objective: To assess prevalence of hypothyroidism in pregnant women from various states/cities across India. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional multicenter study conducted at Allahabad (Uttar Pradesh, Bengaluru (Karnataka, Chennai (Tamil Nadu, Kolkata (West Bengal, Hyderabad (Telangana, Nasik (Maharashtra, Rohtak (Haryana, Pune (Maharashtra, New Delhi (Delhi, Srinagar (Kashmir, and Vizag (Andhra Pradesh enrolling 2599 pregnant women. Estimation of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, free T4, and antithyroid peroxidase (TPO antibodies was carried out using Roche modular kit using ECLIA technology in a central laboratory. Results: We found in our study population that 13.13% of pregnant women have hypothyroidism (n = 388, using a cutoff TSH level of 4.5 μIU/ml. This prevalence was much higher using the American Thyroid Association criteria. Anti-TPO antibodies were positive in 20.74% of all pregnant women (n = 613, whereas 40% (n = 155 of hypothyroid pregnant women were positive for anti-TPO antibodies. Conclusion: This study concludes that there is a high prevalence of hypothyroidism (13.13%, majority being subclinical in pregnant women during the first trimester from India and universal screening of hypothyroidism may be desirable in our country.

  4. Victims of stalking in India: A study of girl college students in Tirunelveli City

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    Jaishankar Karuppannan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The word 'stalking' was not commonly known in India, until Priyadharshini Mattoo's case (1996 hit the headlines. Eve teasing, a colloquial word for gender harassment is popularly known and Tamil Nadu Prohibition of Eve-Teasing Act, 1998 on that was developed after the brutal killing of a girl named Sarika Shah in Chennai. Though, stalking is there in the past, it was not acknowledged with this terminology and it was always merged with Eve teasing. On the other hand, stalking is much graver than Eve teasing and it is an obsessive behaviour. After the Matoo's case, the Indian Criminal Justice System awoke and the National Commission for Women is ready with a draft Bill (Sexual Assault Prevention Bill to make the Indian Penal Code more effective against the menace of stalkers. Research studies related to stalking in India are sparse and there is a need to study this phenomenon in depth. This paper presents some results from a study of stalking victims among Girl College students at Tirunelveli City, Tamil Nadu, India. In-depth questionnaire data are drawn on to investigate the course and nature of prolonged stalking in 150 self-defined victims. Findings indicate a pattern of repeated intrusions, the stalking harassment methods, lack of reporting behaviour, and effects of stalking on the victims.

  5. Urban Risk Reduction Through Effective Disaster Management Plan-A Case Study Of Shimla City Himachal Pradesh India

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    Bhavna Karki

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract By 2050 70 of the worlds population will live in urban areas. In India the urban population has increased from 217 million to 377 million in last two decades .With increasing population the associated risk and vulnerability has also increased. As cities continue to grow there is increased pressure on resources exposure of lives livelihoods and economic social and environmental assets to risk is set to increase exponentially. Recognised as one of the best cities for public services and one of the oldest Municipal Corporation in India Shimla city is situated at the traverse spur of the Central Himalayas at 31004 N to 31010 N latitude and 77005 E to 77015 E longitude at an altitude of 2397.59 m metres amsl. This paper aims at underlying the role of Shimla Municipal Corporation SMC as local government in managing disasters in the city along with effective planning and risk assessments.

  6. 75 FR 33763 - Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... International Trade Administration Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India AGENCY: International Trade... Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India (New Delhi, Mumbai and Bangalore), November 15-19, 2010. Led.... The cosmetics/beauty industry is one of the booming retail sectors in India with very strong...

  7. 75 FR 21595 - Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... International Trade Administration Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India AGENCY: International Trade... Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India (New Delhi, Mumbai and Bangalore), November 15-19, 2010. Led... Indian market. The cosmetics/ beauty industry is one of the booming retail sectors in India with...

  8. Dental Prosthetic Status and Prosthetic Needs of Institutionalised Elderly Population in Oldage Homes of Jabalpur City, Madhya Pradesh, India

    OpenAIRE

    Deogade, Suryakant C.; Vinay, S.; Naidu, Sonal

    2012-01-01

    Oral disorders are cumulative throughout life and hence unfavourable outcomes are likely to be greatest among the elderly. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among institutionalized geriatric population in old-age homes of Jabalpur city, Madhya Pradesh, to assess their prosthetic status and prosthetic needs. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in all the four old-age homes of Jabalpur city, Madhya Pradesh state, India. All residents aged 60 years and above formed the study p...

  9. PEDESTRIAN RESPONSE TO ROAD TRAFFIC NOISE FOR MEDIUM SIZE CITY IN INDIA

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    Pritikana Das

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Level of vehicular noise pollution is one of the major factors to choose pedestrian mode of transportation among other modes of transportation. Transportation systems and their related outcomes are responsible for ensuring safe travel options, including walking people of all ages and different abilities. This study will provide an opportunity to quantify the environmental impact in terms of noise level for future development and planning of pedestrian infrastructure in India. It will also help in modal shifting towards walking, improvements in energy efficiency, and the impact of specific contaminants on health. Exposure of high noise level can cause annoyance and severe stress on auditory and nervous system of pedestrians. Most of the Indian cities have noise level above than acceptable limits because of rapid urbanization with increasing number of vehicular traffic. The objective of this study is to study response of pedestrians towards noise pollution in Roorkee at different locations based on different land use. Roorkee is a medium size city with a population of 2.73 lakhs (Roorkee Metropolitan areas, 2011 census, situated in Uttarakhand, India. It is a city with large number of educational institutions and sizable numbers of student population. Noise level study has been carried out at ten locations on NH-58 near Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee. Noise data was collected at an interval of 30 seconds. Design implications for future improvement of pedestrian infrastructure have been presented in this paper considering traffic noise as an environmental factor. It is expected that the study outcome shall be useful in understanding positive effect of low traffic noise encouraging increased usage of pedestrian facilities within urban transport network.

  10. Deterministic Seismic Hazard Assessment at Bed Rock Level: Case Study for the City of Bhubaneswar, India

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    Sukanti Rout

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study an updated deterministic seismic hazard contour map of Bhubaneswar (20°12'0"N to 20°23'0"N latitude and 85°44'0"E to 85° 54'0"E longitude one of the major city of India with tourist importance, has been prepared in the form of spectral acceleration values. For assessing the seismic hazard, the study area has been divided into small grids of size 30˝×30˝ (approximately 1.0 km×1.0 km, and the hazard parameters in terms of spectral acceleration at bedrock level, PGA are calculated as the center of each of these grid cells by considering the regional Seismo-tectonic activity within 400 km radius around the city center. The maximum credible earthquake in terms of moment magnitude of 7.2 has been used for calculation of hazard parameter, results in PGA value of 0.017g towards the northeast side of the city and the corresponding maximum spectral acceleration as 0.0501g for a predominant period of 0.05s at bedrock level.

  11. A STUDY OF IMPACT OF DETERMINANTS OF PATIENTS AND HEALTH SYSTEM DELAY ON TUBERCULOSIS DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT IN BANGALORE

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    Jagadish Siddalinga Devaru

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Setting: TU/DMCs of Bangalore city. India. All new sputum positive patients registered to the selected TU/DMCs were interviewed. A total of 468 patients aged above 20 years were enrolled. The study period was from January to June 2009. Objectives: To track the delay in diagnosis and treatment of patients reporting to tuberculosis units and microscopy centers. Design: A cross sectional study. TU/DMCs were randomly selected. A pretested questionnaire was administered to collect data. Results: The study population had 326 (69.7% males. The mean age of study population was 38.5 years. 74.4% were married, 20.7% were illiterates, 27.8% were daily wagers, 10.5% were unemployed. The median and mean total delays from development of cough to diagnosis were 41 days and 36.04 days; the median and mean patient delay was 24 days and 20.7 days, and health system delay was 18 and 15.31 days respectively. There was a significant difference among the different age group of patients with older people having longer patient delay (p<0.0001. Lower income, illiteracy, unemployment, showed significant association with patients delay (p<0.0001. Alcohol intake and smoking habit among the male patients had significant association for longer patient delay (p=0.00004. Health seeking behavior like self medication, also had longer patient delay. Other socio demographic factors had no significant influence on the patient delay. Longer health system delay was found among patients who visited general practitioners and Ayurvedic medicine. Conclusion: More specific and effective health education of the general public on tuberculosis and seeking of appropriate medical consultation are likely to improve case detection.

  12. Current status of Marsh Crocodiles Crocodylus palustris (Reptilia: Crocodylidae in Vishwamitri River, Vadodara City, Gujarat, India

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    R. Vyas

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Data presented here is based on a three year study (2008-2010 on a population of Mugger Crocodylus palustris inhabiting Vishwamitri River near Vadodara City, Gujarat State, India. In total, 155 Muggers were counted in the 25km river stretch during 2010. In all, 40 burrows were observed along the river bank, and the same were clumped in certain sections of the river. Muggers fed eight species of birds, and domestic livestock in addition to scavenging. Eight instances of human-crocodile conflicts were observed including four human causalities. A total 90 Muggers were rescued from the urban areas and the same were relocated elsewhere in the river system. Various types of threats to Mugger were also noticed including habitat loss, alteration and soil erosion and mortality due to rail traffic. The present study suggests further research to propose strategies to conserve this population.

  13. Assessment and quantification of plastics waste generation in major 60 cities of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalini, R; Srinivasulu, B; Shit, Subhas C; Nigam, Suneel Kumar; Akolkar, A B; Dwivedfi, R K

    2013-04-01

    Polymers or plastics materials registered rapid growth in 1970s, 1980s and 1990s at the rate of 2-2.5 times the GDP growth in India. The demand for plastic raw material got more than doubled from 3.3 Million Metric Ton to 6.8 Million Metric Tons in 2010 attributed mainly to rapid urbanization, spread of retail chains, plastics based packaging from grocery to food and vegetable products to cosmetics and consumer items. Plastics packages have its merits over many of conventional materials in the related sector but unless they are collected back effectively after their use to go into recycling process, they become an eyesore in the stream of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) due to high visibility. As the synthetic and conventional plastics are non-biodegradable in nature, these remain in the dump yards/ landfills for several years, if not collected properly. Due to non- biodegradability, plastics waste remains in the environment for several years, if not collected and disposing plastics wastes at landfills are unsafe since toxic chemicals leach out into the soil and as they contaminate soil and underground water quality. The municipal solid waste also increasing day-by-day due to the inefficient source collection, segregation and transmission of plastics waste for recycling and reusing. In order to find out the realistic plastics waste generation, a study on assessment and quantification of plastics waste has been carried out by CPCB in collaboration with CIPET on selected 60 major cities of India. PMID:25508322

  14. Municipal Solid Waste Management and its Energy Potential in Roorkee City, Uttarakhand, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Tabish; Kulkarni, Kishore

    2016-03-01

    Energy plays a vital role in the development of any country. With rapid economic growth and multifold urbanization, India faces the problem of municipal solid waste management and disposal. This problem can be mitigate through adoption of environment friendly technologies for treatment and processing of waste before it is disposed off. Currently, urban and industrial wastes throughout India receive partial treatment before its final disposal, except in few exceptional cases. This practice leads to severe environmental pollution problems including major threat to human health. There is an absolute need to provide adequate waste collection and treatment before its disposal. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) is getting importance in recent years. The MSW management involves collection, transportation, handling and conversion to energy by biological and thermal routes. Based on the energy potential available, the energy conversion through biogas production using available waste is being carried out. Waste-to-energy is now a clean, renewable, sustainable source of energy. The estimation of energy content of MSW in Roorkee city is discussed in this paper. Furthermore this paper also takes into account the benefits of carbon credits.

  15. Environmental lead levels in a coastal city of India: The lead burden continues

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    Prashant Vishwanath

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urbanization, rapid industrialization, increased vehicular traffic, and consequent increase in the use of petroleum fuels in India are constantly emitting lead along with other pollutants into the environment. Apart from atmospheric lead, this element is the most widely used in everyday life. Although infants and children are the most susceptible to the effects of lead, adults are also affected to varying degrees and it had ranked as one of the most serious environmental threats to human health. Hence, we must understand the benefits of preventing lead exposure as it reduces treatment costs, increases productivity in industry, and also reduces infant mortality. These are good enough reasons for a nation wide program to prevent lead poisoning. Objectives: In the view of elevated blood lead levels (BLL in majority of the school children in the city of Mangalore, we aimed to identify the potential sources of lead in the environment which would have probably caused the elevated BLL. Materials and Methods: More than 600 readings were taken throughout the city of Mangalore using X-ray fluorimeter. Results: Our results showed that there were elevated levels of lead in the environment surrounding the battery repair shops, battery recyclers, automotive workshops, and tyre retreaders, but interestingly, the soil around the petrol bunks did not show elevated levels of lead. Among the paints, the yellow paint showed high levels of lead. Conclusion: Similar surveys would be useful elsewhere in India and in other developing countries in order to identify the potential sources of lead and to prevent lead poisoning.

  16. Transnational Support of Asian Indian Elderly in India: Examining Patterns of Exchanges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalavar, Jyotsna M; Zarit, Steven H; Ferraccio, Brian J

    2015-01-01

    Using a mixed methods approach, the provision of support exchanges between family members across national borders was examined. Specifically, this project examined transnational support among Asian Indian elderly residing in India whose children resided outside India. Seventy adults participated in this project in the cities of Bangalore and Mumbai. Individuals participated in either a focus group meeting or completed a survey to examine their transnational family support experiences. Most seniors were educated, of middle-income category or higher, socially active, enjoyed good health, and were not keen to live in multigeneration households. Survey findings suggest that transnational care is reciprocal in nature and that communication technology has enhanced intergenerational contact. The older adults' report of support exchanges provided and received between generations showed significant differences on certain types of support. Undoubtedly, in today's rapidly growing global economy, a great deal of emotional support, communication, and exchanges takes place between adults and their elderly parents across national borders. PMID:26363157

  17. Urban Infrastructure Financing and Delivery in India and China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Darshini Mahadevia

    2006-01-01

    This comparison is not restricted to Mumbai and Shanghai but also to Bangalore and Hangzhou, Delhi and Beijing and so on. The Chinese and Indian economies are expected to be the growth engines of the global economy. In this process cities are expected to play an important role, through their transformation into "World Class" cities, a term now doing rounds in the policy circles in Mumbai, to be achieved through massive infrastructure investments made in them. In China, this has been possible because of the decentralized administrative and fiscal system in China. In contrast, in India, the system of urban infrastructure is currently evolving and making a transition from a centralized to a decentralized system. This paper: (i) compares the Chinese and Indian financial systems to explain differences in the quantum of funds available in cities in both countries; (ii) looks at urban responsibility allocations in terms of institutions; and (iii) compares capital investments made by one city each in the two countries, in Beijing (China) and in Mumbai (India).

  18. ASSESSMENT OF SO2 CONCENTRATION IN AMBIENT AIR AND ITS IMPACT ON HUMAN HEALTH IN THE CITY OF GWALIOR, INDIA

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    Ishfaq Ahmad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Gwalior is a historical and major city in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. It is located south of Delhi the capital city of India, and 423 kilometers north of Bhopal, the state capital. Gwalior is being called as The Heart of Incredible India. Gwalior is surrounded by industrial and commercial zones of neighboring districts (Malanpur – Bhind, Banmor – Morena on all three main directions. Rapid increase in urbanization with vehicle congestion has increased enormously on the roads of Gwalior city. As a result of this, gaseous pollutants (SOx, NOx and Respirable and suspended particulate matter pollutants are continuously increasing in the ambient air of Gwalior city. Levels of SO2 were monitored at 4 locations of Gwalior city by using high volume air sampler (Envirotech APM 415 and 411. The average ambient air concentration of SO2 was found below the permissible limits of NAAQS of CPCB at all the sites. Comparatively somewhat higher concentration of SO2 was observed during these months. A health survey was also carried out which demonstrated that symptoms were developed such as sneezing, sore throat, shortness of breath, wheezing, chest tightness, skin irritation, nausea etc. In this study, an exposure–response assessment (aged 10 to 60 years was carried out related to health problems due to vehicular pollution between the months of November-2013 to May-2014 (winter. The main objectives of this study are to investigate the state of vehicular emission in Gwalior and to investigate the impact of vehicular emission on people.

  19. Measuring socio-economic inequality: From dwellers' perspective within Bangalore urban agglomeration

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    Keya Chakraborty

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Planners and researchers have realized that larger regional framework of urban areas are significant in assessing various inequality aspects in a developing country like India. The framework consists of heterogeneity in spatial and demographic aspects and in quality of socio-economic development levels as well. Against this background, the present paper has proposed a methodological framework to assess socio-economic inequality within Bangalore Urban Agglomeration (BUA as governed by the composite set of Human Development Index (HDI based indicators. Assessments are based on local data of dwellers' preferences on the indicators. On the whole, this paper has tried to establish the significance of application of HDI based indicators in an assessment of socio-economic inequality within BUA. Consequently, the paper has arrived at the need for improvement of comprehensive HDI governed basic public services, amenities, and advanced facilities, across all trans-urban-area levels to ensure a holistic development within BUA.

  20. Lead isotopic fingerprinting of aerosols to characterize the sources of atmospheric lead in an industrial city of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Indra S.; Bizimis, Michael; Tripathi, Sachchida Nand; Paul, Debajyoti

    2016-03-01

    Anthropogenic Pb in the environment is primarily sourced from combustion of fossil fuel and high-temperature industries such as smelters. Identifying the sources and pathways of anthropogenic Pb in the environment is important because Pb toxicity is known to have adverse effects on human health. Pb pollution sources for America, Europe, and China are well documented. However, sources of atmospheric Pb are unknown in India, particularly after leaded gasoline was phased out in 2000. India has a developing economy with a rapidly emerging automobile and high temperature industry, and anthropogenic Pb emission is expected to rise in the next decade. In this study, we report on the Pb-isotope compositions and trace metal ratios of airborne particulates collected in Kanpur, a large city in northern part of India. The study shows that the PM10 aerosols had elevated concentration of Cd, Pb, Zn, As, and Cu in the Kanpur area, however their concentrations are well below the United States Environmental Protection Agency chronic exposure limit. Lead isotopic and trace metal data reveal industrial emission as the plausible source of anthropogenic Pb in the atmosphere in Kanpur. However, Pb isotopic compositions of potential source end-members are required to fully evaluate Pb contamination in India over time. This is the first study that characterizes the isotopic composition of atmospheric Pb in an Indian city after leaded gasoline was phased out by 2000.

  1. Community-based control of Aedes aegypti by adoption of eco-health methods in Chennai City, India

    OpenAIRE

    Arunachalam, Natarajan; Tyagi, Brij Kishore; Samuel, Miriam; R. Krishnamoorthi; R.Manavalan; Tewari, Satish Chandra; Ashokkumar, V; Kroeger, Axel; Sommerfeld, Johannes; Petzold, Max

    2012-01-01

    Background Dengue is highly endemic in Chennai city, South India, in spite of continuous vector control efforts. This intervention study was aimed at establishing the efficacy as well as the favouring and limiting factors relating to a community-based environmental intervention package to control the dengue vector Aedes aegypti. Methods A cluster randomized controlled trial was designed to measure the outcome of a new vector control package and process analysis; different data collection tool...

  2. Antibiotic Prescribing Habits of Dental Surgeons in Hyderabad City, India, for Pulpal and Periapical Pathologies: A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    K. Pavan Kumar; Mamta Kaushik; P. Udaya Kumar; M. Shilpa Reddy; Neha Prashar

    2013-01-01

    Aim. To determine the antibiotic prescribing habits for pulpal and periapical pathology among dentists in Hyderabad city, India. Methodology. A total of 246 questionnaires were distributed to all the dentists registered with the local dental branch. Demographic details and questions regarding type and dosage of antibiotics prescribed for allergic and nonallergic patients were recorded. Inferential statistics were performed, and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results. The r...

  3. Comparative assessment of Oral Hygiene and Periodontal status among children who have Poliomyelitis at Udaipur city, Rajasthan, India

    OpenAIRE

    Tak, Mridula; Nagarajappa, Ramesh; Sharda, Archana; Asawa, Kailash; Tak, Aniruddh; Jalihal, Sagar

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess and compare the oral hygiene and periodontal status among children with Poliomyelitis having upper limb disability, lower limb disability and both upper and lower disability at Udaipur city, Rajasthan, India. Study design: Total sample comprised of 344 Poliomyelitis children (upper limb disability: 33.4%; lower limb disability: 33.7%; both upper and lower limb disability: 32.9%) in the age group of 12-15 years. Clinical examination included recording Simplified O...

  4. Comparative assessment of Oral Hygiene and Periodontal status among children who have Poliomyelitis at Udaipur city, Rajasthan, India

    OpenAIRE

    Tak, Mridula; Nagarajappa, Ramesh; Sharda, Archana; Asawa, Kailash; Tak, Aniruddh; Jalihal, Sagar

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess and compare the oral hygiene and periodontal status among children with Poliomyelitis having upper limb disability, lower limb disability and both upper and lower disability at Udaipur city, Rajasthan, India. Study design: Total sample comprised of 344 Poliomyelitis children (upper limb disability: 33.4%; lower limb disability: 33.7%; both upper and lower limb disability: 32.9%) in the age group of 12-15 years. Clinical examination included recording Simplified Oral Hygie...

  5. A mark-resight survey method to estimate the roaming dog population in three cities in Rajasthan, India

    OpenAIRE

    Singh Baldev; Jaisinghani Rajan; Wright Rachel; Reece John F; Hiby Lex R; Hiby Elly F

    2011-01-01

    1. Abstract Background Dog population management is required in many locations to minimise the risks dog populations may pose to human health and to alleviate animal welfare problems. In many cities in India, Animal Birth Control (ABC) projects have been adopted to provide population management. Measuring the impact of such projects requires assessment of dog population size among other relevant indicators. Methods This paper describes a simple mark-resight survey methodology that can be used...

  6. Exodus to cities and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, K

    1990-08-15

    Concerns about deterioration of the quality of life in mega-cities in India, thought to be due to in-migration, are shown to be misplaced in this essay. Not only is the deterioration due merely to rising expectations, but its causes are problems on a national level. It is true that population growth in the 12 largest cities in India, 3.35%, is more rapid than growth rates in the country as a whole, 2.22%. Bangalore is growing the fastest, 5.68% annually, but generally Indian cities are growing less rapidly that many other Asian cities, e.g. Dacca, 7.37%. Urbanization to the extent of 60.70% of the population is in fact necessary for development. The primary reason for in-migration is employment for men, and marriage accompanying employed husbands for women. Contrary to common opinion, the educational status of in- migrants is higher than that of the region, and female literacy is higher in cities than in the rest of the state, e.g., 61% for Bombay, vs. 35% in Maharashtra State. The occupational status is frequently high: production, transport equipment operator, laborer, professional, technical executive managerial, sales and service. Furthermore, as urbanization proceeds, construction laborers and service workers are in demand. Quality of life defined by infant and maternal mortality is higher in cities than in the surrounding rural area. This quality of life is the reason why people migrate to the city. Unfortunately, frustrations are also rising as expectations for improved housing, water, air, transportation and consumer-durables rise faster than they can be supplied. PMID:12343049

  7. 'Mafias' in the Waterscape: Urban Informality and Everyday Public Authority in Bangalore

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    Malini Ranganathan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the phenomenon of Bangaloreʼs urban 'water mafias', operators who extract and deliver groundwater to scores of informal residential areas in Indian cities. The term 'mafia' here is treated as a semantic area of situated meanings and cultural interpretations that needs to be historicised and prised open in order to better understand how the urban waterscape is produced and inhabited. It situates the provenance and workings of mafias within wider debates on urban informality, state formation, and urban infrastructure and space. Rather than seeing mafias as filling a gap where government water supply has failed, as mainstream narratives suggest, the paper argues that mafias must be seen as formative of the post-colonial state. It further suggests that the specific form of public authority exercised by water mafias explains the production of informality in Bangaloreʼs waterscape. Based on ethnographic research in 2007-2009, the paper characterises the everyday authority wielded by mafias along three main registers: (i the ability of mafias to make and break discursive and material boundaries between the formal and informal, public and private, and state and society, (ii the varied nature of mafiasʼ political practices, ranging from exploitation to electoral lobbying to social protection to the provision of welfare, and iii mafiasʼ complicity in both water and land regimes in a neo-liberalised urban political economy.

  8. Three new species of Kerria (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Tachardiidae) from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Ayashaa; Ramamurthy, V V; Sharma, K K; Mohanasundaram, A; Vidyarthi, A S; Ramani, R

    2013-11-07

    Three new species of Kerria Targioni-Tozzetti from India, namely Kerria pennyae Ahmad & Ramamurthy sp. nov. on Schleichera oleosa from Orissa, Kerria dubeyi Ahmad & Ramamurthy sp. nov. on Ficus bengalensis from Bangalore and Kerria varshneyi Ahmad & Ramamurthy sp. nov. on Ziziphus mauritiana from Punjab are described and illustrated, and a key is provided to species of Kerria known from India.

  9. India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-01

    In this discussion of India attention is directed to the following: the people; geography; history; government; political conditions; the economy; foreign relations (Pakistan and Bangladesh, China, and the Soviet Union); defense; and the relations between the US and India. In 1983 India's population was estimated at 746 million with an annual growth rate of 2.24%. The infant mortality rate was estimated at 116/1000 in 1984 with a life expectancy of 54.9 years. Although India occupies only 2.4% of the world's land area, it supports nearly 15% of the world's population. 2 major ethnic strains predominate in India: the Aryan in the north and the Dravidian in the south, although the lines between them are blurred. India dominates the South Asian subcontinent geographically. The people of India have had a continuous civilization since about 2500 B.C., when the inhabitants of the Indus River Valley developed an urban culture based on commerce, trade, and, to a lesser degree, agriculture. This civilization declined about 1500 B.C. and Aryan tribes originating in central Asia absorbed parts of its culture as they spread out over the South Asian subcontinent. During the next few centuries, India flourished under several successive empires. The 1st British outpost in South Asia was established in 1619 at Surat on the northwestern coast of India. The British gradually expanded their influence until, by the 1850s, they controlled almost the entire area of present-day India. Independence was attained on August 15, 1947, and India became a dominion within the Commonwealth of Nations with Jawaharlal Nehru as prime minister. According to its constitution, India is a "sovereign socialist secular democratic republic." Like the US, India has a federal form of government, but the central government in India has greater power in relation to its states, and government is patterned after the British parliamentary system. The Congress Party has ruled India since independence with the

  10. India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-01

    In this discussion of India attention is directed to the following: the people; geography; history; government; political conditions; the economy; foreign relations (Pakistan and Bangladesh, China, and the Soviet Union); defense; and the relations between the US and India. In 1983 India's population was estimated at 746 million with an annual growth rate of 2.24%. The infant mortality rate was estimated at 116/1000 in 1984 with a life expectancy of 54.9 years. Although India occupies only 2.4% of the world's land area, it supports nearly 15% of the world's population. 2 major ethnic strains predominate in India: the Aryan in the north and the Dravidian in the south, although the lines between them are blurred. India dominates the South Asian subcontinent geographically. The people of India have had a continuous civilization since about 2500 B.C., when the inhabitants of the Indus River Valley developed an urban culture based on commerce, trade, and, to a lesser degree, agriculture. This civilization declined about 1500 B.C. and Aryan tribes originating in central Asia absorbed parts of its culture as they spread out over the South Asian subcontinent. During the next few centuries, India flourished under several successive empires. The 1st British outpost in South Asia was established in 1619 at Surat on the northwestern coast of India. The British gradually expanded their influence until, by the 1850s, they controlled almost the entire area of present-day India. Independence was attained on August 15, 1947, and India became a dominion within the Commonwealth of Nations with Jawaharlal Nehru as prime minister. According to its constitution, India is a "sovereign socialist secular democratic republic." Like the US, India has a federal form of government, but the central government in India has greater power in relation to its states, and government is patterned after the British parliamentary system. The Congress Party has ruled India since independence with the

  11. PATRIMONIAL CITIES: PAST AND PRESENT: LA HABANA AND CARTAGENA DE INDIAS

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    Nelson Melero Lazo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Hispanic presence in Cuba and Colombia, established social, cultural, architectural and urban codes that will prevail in the material and spiritual production of both peoples, easily in and Cartagena de Indias. Values and cultural significance of these within the Caribbean and Latin American area, and the and work made in them, determined that they were included in the World Heritage List; Havana in 1982, and Cartagena in 1984.  With different strategies and policies in their areas of historical value have been conducting rescue projects and revalorization. In this paper some of the last actions performed in the historic centers of Havana and Cartagena, which currently are at different stages are shown, works completed, in progress , final design, study, etc. centers are witness and document of the past and cultural part of the urban frame of the city, is a living, dynamic, changing entity, projecting into the future effectively, combine the solution of current problems and prospects, is the challenge that we must take with creativity, without losing its essence and authenticity

  12. Tobacco smoking patterns, awareness and expenditure: a cross-sectional overview from Surat City, India

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    Rajkumar Bansal

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As smoking is a major risk factor in India, the objective of present study was to assess smoking patterns, expenditure and awareness amongst smokers and to examine factors associated with the severity of smoking in Surat city.METHODS: Community-based cross-sectional study was conducted with the use of pre-structured questionnaire tool targeting 281 current smokers in the slums of 20 Urban Health Centers. Smokers were categorized based on pack-years, which means the number of packs smoked per day multiplied by the duration of smoking (mild 15, and based on the number of cigarette/bidis smoked per day without the duration component (mild 0.05. With the influence of friends (50%, about 60% smokers engage into this habit before the age of 20 years. Though only 20% of current smokers were not aware of the consequences of active smoking, more than 50% did not know about the same for passive smoking. The lowest socioeconomic class spends 44% of their income on tobacco products compared to 7% in the highest class.CONCLUSION: The study provides insights for information, education and counseling (IEC activities which should take into account health impact of bidi smoking, low awareness of health impact of passive smoking, and higher percentage of total monthly expenditure on tobacco among low-income household resulting in crowding out of expenditures on other needs.

  13. Awareness of Consumer Protection Act among Doctors in Udaipur City, India

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    K. Singh

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the awareness of provisions of consumer protection act among dental and medical professionals in Udaipur city, Rajasthan, India.Materials and Methods: In a cross sectional study, a total of 448 professionals (253 males, 195 females belonging to dental (222 and medical (226 categories were surveyed using a self administered structured questionnaire. The questionnaire comprised of 22questions about the awareness of consumer protection art (CPA and whether these professionals were following the recommendations of CPA. The student’s t-test, ANOVA test,and Scheffe’s test were used as tests of significance.Results: The awareness scores were significantly higher for medical professionals compared with those of dental professionals. Similarly, postgraduates showed more awareness in both the professions and it was found that private practitioners significantly have more awareness than the academic sector.Conclusion: Though medical professionals have more awareness of CPA compared to dental professionals, considering the present scenario, better knowledge of CPA is necessary for both professionals in order to be on the safer side.

  14. Emission inventory of evaporative emissions of VOCs in four metro cities in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Anjali; née Som Majumdar, Dipanjali

    2010-01-01

    High concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in ambient air of urban areas stress the need for the control of VOC emissions due to the toxic and carcinogenic nature of many VOCs commonly encountered in urban air. Emission inventories are an essential tool in the management of local air quality, which provide a listing of sources of air pollutant emissions within a specific area over a specified period of time. This study intended to provide a level IV emission inventory as par the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) definition for evaporative VOC emissions in the metro cities of India namely Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, and Kolkata. The vehicular evaporative emissions are found to be the largest contributor to the total evaporative emissions of hydrocarbons followed by evaporative losses related to petrol loading and unloading activities. Besides vehicle-related activities, other major sources contributing to evaporative emissions of hydrocarbons are surface coating, dry cleaning, graphical art applications, printing (newspaper and computer), and the use of consumer products. Various specific preventive measures are also recommended for reducing the emissions. PMID:19093218

  15. Mental Health Status among Married Working Women Residing in Bhubaneswar City, India: A Psychosocial Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansuman Panigrahi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mental health is a major public health concern worldwide. This study aimed to assess the mental health status and its correlates among married working women residing in Bhubaneswar city of Odisha, India. A cross-sectional study was undertaken in 240 households involving 240 married working women following a multistage cluster random sampling design. Using the predesigned, pretested interview schedule and self-reporting questionnaire, all relevant information was collected. Our study revealed that 32.9% of study respondents had poor mental health and only about 10% of these women had sought any kind of mental health services. Logistic regression analysis showed that 3 predictors such as favourable attitude of colleagues, sharing their own problems with husband, and spending time for yoga/meditation/exercise had significant positive impact on the mental health status of married working women. A preventive program regarding various aspects of mental health for married working women at workplace as well as community level could be a useful strategy in reducing this public health problem.

  16. Policy Preferences about Managed Aquifer Recharge for Securing Sustainable Water Supply to Chennai City, India

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    Norbert Brunner

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to bring out the policy changes with respect to managed aquifer recharge (focusing on infiltration ponds, which in the view of relevant stakeholders may ease the problem of groundwater depletion in the context of Chennai City; Tamil Nadu; India. Groundwater is needed for the drinking water security of Chennai and overexploitation has resulted in depletion and seawater intrusion. Current policies at the municipal; state and national level all support recharge of groundwater and rainwater harvesting to counter groundwater depletion. However, despite such favorable policies, the legal framework and the administrative praxis do not support systematic approaches towards managed aquifer recharge in the periphery of Chennai. The present study confirms this, considering the mandates of governmental key-actors and a survey of the preferences and motives of stakeholder representatives. There are about 25 stakeholder groups with interests in groundwater issues, but they lack a common vision. For example, conflicting interest of stakeholders may hinder implementation of certain types of managed aquifer recharge methods. To overcome this problem, most stakeholders support the idea to establish an authority in the state for licensing groundwater extraction and overseeing managed aquifer recharge.

  17. Preconditions for market solution to urban water scarcity: Empirical results from Hyderabad City, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleth, R. Maria; Dinar, Ariel

    2001-01-01

    Utilizing both primary and secondary information pertaining to the water sector of Hyderabad City, India, this paper (1) evaluates the economics of various technically feasible supply augmentations options; (2) estimates the group-specific water demand and consumption response functions under alternative pricing behaviors; (3) calculates the net willingness to pay (NWTP, considered to be the value of raw water at source) of different user groups as derived from their respective price elasticities; (4) shows how inadequate the NWTP is to justify most supply augmentation options including intersectoral water transfers under the existing water rate structure; (5) argues that the economic and institutional conditions internal to urban water sector cannot justify an externally imposed water transfers, whether market-based or otherwise, as long as the water rate structure is inefficient and regressive; and (6) concludes by underlining the central role that the pricing option, both the level and structure, plays not only in activating a number of nonprice options but also in generating incentives for the emergence of new and the consolidation of existing institutional conditions needed to support economically rooted water transfers and conservation initiatives.

  18. Cytoskeletal Pathologies of Age-Related Diseases between Elderly Sri Lankan (Colombo) and Indian (Bangalore) Brain Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesinghe, Printha; Shankar, S K; Chickabasaviah, Yasha T; Gorrie, Catherine; Amaratunga, Dhammika; Hulathduwa, Sanjayah; Kumara, K Sunil; Samarasinghe, Kamani; Suh, Yoo Hun; Steinbusch, H W; De Silva, K Ranil D

    2016-01-01

    Within South Asia, Sri Lanka represents fastest aging with 13% of the population was aged over 60's in 2011, whereas in India it was 8%. Majority of the Sri Lankan population based genetic studies have confirmed their origin on Indian mainland. As there were inadequate data on aging cytoskeletal pathologies of these two nations with their close genetic affiliations, we performed a comparison on their elderly. Autopsy brain samples of 50 individuals from Colombo, Sri Lanka (mean age 72.1 yrs ± 7.8, mean ± S.D.) and 42 individuals from Bangalore, India (mean age 65.9 yrs ± 9.3) were screened for neurodegenerative pathologies using immunohistochemical techniques. A total of 79 cases with incomplete clinical history (Colombo- 47 and Bangalore- 32) were subjected to statistical analysis and 13 cases, clinically diagnosed with dementia and/or Parkinsonism disorders were excluded. As per National Institute on Aging- Alzheimer's Association guidelines, between Colombo and Bangalore samples, Alzheimer's disease neuropathologic change for intermediate/ high level was 4.25% vs. 3.12% and low level was 19.15% vs. 15.62% respectively. Pathologies associated with Parkinsonism including brainstem predominant Lewy bodies- 6.4% and probable progressive supra nuclear palsy- 2.13% were found solely in Colombo samples. Alzheimer related pathologies were not different among elders, however, in Colombo males, neurofibrillary tangle grade was significantly higher in the region of hippocampus (odds ratio = 1.46, 95% confidence interval = 0.07-0.7) and at risk in midbrain substantia nigra (p = 0.075). Other age-related pathologies including spongiform changes (p Colombo samples. Taken together, aging cytoskeletal pathologies are comparatively higher in elderly Sri Lankans and this might be due to their genetic, dietary and/ or environmental variations.

  19. Being a 'Modern Indian' in an Offshore Centre in Bangalore

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gertsen, Martine Cardel; Zølner, Mette

    2014-01-01

    to an esteemed organisation) as well as internal self–enhancement (feeling important within the organisation). The corporate culture is made sense of in the local Indian context and shaped by their particular characteristics as members of Bangalore's international workforce. We argue that understanding...

  20. Primary Education for All in the City of Mumbai, India: The Challenge Set by Local Actors. School Mapping and Local-Level Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juneja, Nalini

    This book discusses primary education of the poor in the city of Mumbai, India. It focuses on the city of Mumbai itself and the poor who live in it, answering questions such as What makes the city the way it is? What does it mean to be poor in Mumbai? and How does the poverty of the poor in Mumbai affect their chances of receiving a basic…

  1. Assessment of Water Quality of Lakes for Drinking and Irrigation Purposes in Raipur City, Chhattisgarh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumant Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Lake water is an important source for drinking, domestic and irrigation purposes in rural and urban India. The present study aims at evaluating the water quality of various lakes in Raipur city, Chhatisgarh. There existed 154 lakes in the city but it shrinked to 85 in number due to encroachment or drying up of lakes. Twenty seven prominent lakes are selected to study and evaluate the water quality for drinking and irrigation purposes. The water samples were collected and analysed for pH, Turbidity, Electrical Conductivity (EC, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS, Alkalinity, Hardness, Sodium(Na+ , Potassium(K+ , Calcium(Ca2+ , Magnesium(Mg2+ , Bicarbonate(HCO3- , Sulphate (SO4 2- , Nitrate (NO3 − ,Phosphate(PO4 3- Fluoride(F- , Chloride (Cl− , Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD, Dissolved Oxygen (DO, Total Coliform (TC and Fecal Coliform (FC. There are variations for pH (6.59-8.29, EC (382-2330μS/cm, Turbidity (1-232 NTU, TDS (244-1491 mg/L, Alkalinity (120-600 mg/L, Hardness (66-330mg/L, Na+ (37-430 mg/L, K+ (8- 253 mg/L, Ca2+ (9-90 mg/L, Mg2+ (3-26 mg/L, SO4 2- (5-200 mg/L, NO3 - (0-19 mg/L, PO4 3- (0.19-5.3 mg/L, F -( 0.18-1.41 mg/L and Cl- (46-388 mg/L, DO(1-8.6 mg/L, BOD (0.1-11.3 mg/L, COD (8-118 mg/L, Total Coliform( 15-3600 MPN/100ml and Fecal Coliform (4-240 MPN/100 ml. The results have been compared with the drinking water standard prescribed by Bureau of Indian Standard (BIS. All the physiochemical parameters are within the prescribed limit except turbidity, fecal & total coliform. The Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR and salinity hazards are studied to classify the water for irrigation uses. It is found that lake water is suitable for irrigation purposes.

  2. Methane Production Quantification and Energy Estimation for Bangalore Municipal Solid Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A.; Dand, R.; Lakshmikanthan, P.; Babu, G. L. Sivakumar

    2014-01-01

    Landfills are considered as cornerstone of solid waste management. Landfill gas (LFG) and leachate are principal outputs from landfills. Methane, occupying significant volume of landfill gas, has considerable potential as a source of energy replacing enormous amounts of fossil fuels currently in use. Gas extraction and utilization systems need to be designed and implemented in order to exploit this resource. Assessment of economic viability of these systems necessitates estimation of gas released and its energy potential. Gas quantification and energy estimation for municipal solid waste (MSW) of Bangalore city was carried out using five independent methodologies. A small scale experiment was conducted to monitor the gas generation and the results were compared and analysed. Results show that significant energy can be harnessed from the MSW if requisite LFG management systems are installed. The use of methane as an energy source maximizes the extraction of useful resources from landfills, minimizes the global warming and offsets significant amount of fossil fuels.

  3. Environmental sanitation and health facilities in schools of an urban city of south India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Environmental sanitation and health facilities in schools are an important public health issue. Aims : To assess the school environment, sanitation and health related facilities and to compare the availability of these facilities between government, aided and private schools. Materials and Methods : This cross sectional study was done in 30 schools in Mangalore city of south India in February 2010. Results : Out of the 30 schools surveyed, four were government, 12 were aided and 14 were private schools. Overcrowding was seen in one third of schools. The recommended minus desks was lacking in 23(76.7% and chairs with back rest was lacking in 11(36.7% schools. More than a quarter of schools had no drinking water purification facility. Water storage units were not cleaned periodically in 6(20% schools. Quarter of all government schools and half of all aided schools had no dining hall for serving mid-day meals. Toilets were not adequate in 10(33.3% and it was not separated for boys and girls in 8(26.7% schools. Four of the surveyed schools had no medical examination of students and in 13(43.3% schools daily morning inspection by teachers was not done. Hardly few schools had staff trained to deal with medical emergencies and in counselling activities. None of the schools had an immunization register. Although the performance scores between the types of schools did not differ significantly, the combined performance of only private schools were found to be satisfactory. Conclusion : A good number of schools in this urban area were found to be falling short of several essential requirements regarding sanitation and health facilities which needs to be rectified.

  4. Ground water quality in environmentally degraded localities of Panipat city, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishnoi, Mukul; Malik, Ravinder

    2008-11-01

    Asystematic physico-chemical analysis of the groundwater at 41 different locations in Panipat city (Haryana), India has been taken up to evaluate its suitabilityfor domestic purposes. The data revealed considerable variations in the water samples with respect to chemical composition. For the analyzed water samples pH, EC, TDS, TA, TH, Na+, K+, Ca2+, HCO3-, Cl-, SO4(2-) and F(-) varied from 6.6-7.5, 0.09-3.28 mmhoS cm(-1), 700-2100 mg l(-1), 245-1054 mg l(-1) (as CaCO3), 153-520 mg l(-1) (as CaCO3), 57-560 mg l(-1), 5-22 mg l(-1), 36-95 mg l(-1), 298-1285 mg l(-1), 60-311 mgl(-1), 17-786 mg l(-1), 0.24-9.27 mg l(-1) respectively. All samples have high concentration of dissolved salts and all the samples were hard to very hard. Correlation coefficient "r" analysis has been worked out among different water quality parameters. The study shows a positive and significant, correlation of electrical conductivity with total dissolved salts (r = 0.979), total hardness (r = 0.507), sulphate (r = 0.453), total alkalinity (r = 0.725). Total hardness is positively and significantly correlated with magnesium (r = 0.833) and sulphate (r = 0.687). Where as total alkalinity was found to be positively and significantly correlated with bicarbonate (r = 0.992). Fluoride was higher than permissible limits in most of the samples.

  5. Perception of care and barriers to treatment in individuals with diabetic retinopathy in India: 11-city 9-state study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajan Shukla

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetic retinopathy is a leading cause of visual impairment. Low awareness about the disease and inequitable distribution of care are major challenges in India. Objectives: Assess perception of care and challenges faced in availing care among diabetics. Materials and Methods: The cross-sectional, hospital based survey was conducted in eleven cities. In each city, public and private providers of eye-care were identified. Both multispecialty and standalone facilities were included. Specially designed semi-open ended questionnaires were administered to the clients. Results: 376 diabetics were interviewed in the eye clinics, of whom 62.8% (236 were selected from facilities in cities with a population of 7 million or more. The mean duration of known diabetes was 11.1 (±7.7 years. Half the respondents understood the meaning of adequate glycemic control and 45% reported that they had visual loss when they first presented to an eye facility. Facilities in smaller cities and those with higher educational status were found to be statistically significant predictors of self-reported good/adequate control of diabetes. The correct awareness of glycemic control was significantly high among attending privately-funded facilities and higher educational status. Self-monitoring of glycemic status at home was significantly associated with respondents from larger cities, privately-funded facilities, those who were better educated and reported longer duration of diabetes. Duration of diabetes (41%, poor glycemic control (39.4% and age (20.7% were identified as the leading causes of DR. The commonest challenges faced were lifestyle/behavior related. Conclusions: The findings have significant implications for the organization of diabetes services in India.

  6. A mark-resight survey method to estimate the roaming dog population in three cities in Rajasthan, India

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    Singh Baldev

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available 1. Abstract Background Dog population management is required in many locations to minimise the risks dog populations may pose to human health and to alleviate animal welfare problems. In many cities in India, Animal Birth Control (ABC projects have been adopted to provide population management. Measuring the impact of such projects requires assessment of dog population size among other relevant indicators. Methods This paper describes a simple mark-resight survey methodology that can be used with little investment of resources to monitor the number of roaming dogs in areas that are currently subject to ABC, provided the numbers, dates and locations of the dogs released following the intervention are reliably recorded. We illustrate the method by estimating roaming dog numbers in three cities in Rajasthan, India: Jaipur, Jodhpur and Jaisalmer. In each city the dog populations were either currently subject to ABC or had been very recently subject to such an intervention and hence a known number of dogs had been permanently marked with an ear-notch to identify them as having been operated. We conducted street surveys to record the current percentage of dogs in each city that are ear-notched and used an estimate for the annual survival of ear-notched dogs to calculate the current size of each marked population. Results Dividing the size of the marked population by the fraction of the dogs that are ear-notched we estimated the number of roaming dogs to be 36,580 in Jaipur, 24,853 in Jodhpur and 2,962 in Jaisalmer. Conclusions The mark-resight survey methodology described here is a simple way of providing population estimates for cities with current or recent ABC programmes that include visible marking of dogs. Repeating such surveys on a regular basis will further allow for evaluation of ABC programme impact on population size and reproduction in the remaining unsterilised dog population.

  7. Energy Costs of Urban Water Supply Systems: Evidence from India (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malghan, D.; Mehta, V. K.; Goswami, R.

    2013-12-01

    For the first time in human history more people around the globe now live in urban centres rather than in rural settings. Although India's urban population proportion at 31% is still below the global average, it has been urbanizing rapidly. The population growth rate in urban India is more than two-and-half times that of rural India. The current Indian urban population, of over 370 million people, exceeds that of the total population of every other country on the planet with the exception of China. Supplying water to India's burgeoning urban agglomerations poses a challenge in terms of social equity, biophysical sustainability, and economic efficiency. A typical Indian city relies on both surface and ground water sources. Several Indian cities import surface water from distances that now exceed a hundred kilometres and across gradients of up to three thousand metres. While the depleting groundwater levels as a result of rapidly growing demand from urban India is at least anecdotally understood even when reliable estimates are not available, the energy costs of supplying water to urban India has thus far not received academic or policy attention it deserves. We develop a simple framework to integrate distributed groundwater models with water consumption data to estimate the energy and emissions associated with supplying water to urban centres. We assemble a unique data set from seventy five of the largest urban agglomerations in India and derive estimated values of energy consumption and carbon emissions associated with water provision in urban India. Our analysis shows that in every major city, the energy cost associated with long distance import of surface water significantly exceeds groundwater extraction. However, with rapidly depleting groundwater levels, we estimate inflection points for select cities when energy costs of groundwater extraction will exceed energy required to import surface water into the city. In addition to the national snapshot, we also

  8. Shaping Future Green Cities: LEDs Technology adoption as an option for India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singh, R.; Kroesen, J.O.

    2010-01-01

    The sustainable development in developing and newly industrialising countries (China, India, South Africa, and Brazil) is central issue for policy makers, decision makers, academic, and planners. The attainment of sustainability has become a challenge for rapidly urbanising India. The paper focuses

  9. Assessment of effectiveness of smoking cessation intervention among male prisoners in India: A randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Naik, Sachin; Khanagar, Sanjeev; Kumar, Amit; Ramachandra, Sujith; Vadavadagi, Sunil V.; Dhananjaya, Kiran Murthy

    2014-01-01

    Background: Tobacco smoking is an integral part of prison life and an established part of the culture. Little attention has been paid to prevention of smoking in prison. Approximately 70–80% of prisoners have been identified as current smokers. Aim: To assess the effectiveness of smoking cessation intervention among male prisoners at Central Jail, Bangalore city. Aim: To assess the effectiveness of smoking cessation intervention among male prisoners at Central Jail, Bangalore city. Materials ...

  10. Perceptions and practices related to diabetes reported by persons with diabetes attending diabetic care clinics: The India 11-city 9-state study

    OpenAIRE

    Murthy V. S. Gudlavalleti; Raghupathy Anchala; Aashrai Sai Venkat Gudlavalleti; Srikrishna S Ramachandra; Rajan Shukla; Jotheeswaran, A. T.; R Giridhara Babu; Vivek Singh; Komal Allagh; Jayanti Sagar; Souvik Bandyopadhyay; Gilbert, Clare E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: India has the second largest population of persons with diabetes and a significant proportion has poor glycemic control and inadequate awareness of management of diabetes. Objectives: Determine the level of awareness regarding management of diabetes and its complications and diabetic care practices in India. Methods: The cross-sectional, hospital-based survey was conducted in 11 cities where public and private providers of diabetic care were identified. At each diabetic care facil...

  11. India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-01

    In 1988, India's population stood at 817 million, 25% of which was concentrated in urban areas. The annual rate of population growth is 2.01%. Life expectancy is currently 56 years, and infant mortality is 90/1000 live births. Education is compulsory to the age of 14 years, but the adult literacy rate is only 36%. Of the work force of 300 million, 70% are engaged in agriculture, 19% are in industry and commerce, 8% work in the services and government sector, and 3% are employed in transport and communications. India's gross national product currently stands at US$246 billion, with a real growth rate of 1.8% and a per capita income of $313. Although India is a federal republic, its central government has greater power in relation to its states than is the case in the US and there is a parliamentary system. Nonetheless, some states have been revitalizing traditional village councils and introducing grassroots democracy at the village level. A relatively sophisticated industrial base and pool of skilled labor have emerged since India achieved independence, although agriculture remains the crucial economic sector. There was a surge in agricultural production in the late 1960s and early 1970s as a result of the "green revolution" that made India largely self-sufficient in grain production through the use of hybrid seeds, irrigation, and fertilizer. However, failed monsoons and severe drought conditions have created fluctuations in the output of the agricultural sector in recent years. Gradual deregulation of industry and trade is providing increased incentives for foreign trade, and the Indian Government is encouraging collaborations that involve the transfer of high technology. PMID:12177992

  12. MILLION BOOK UNIVERSAL DIGITAL LIBRARY PROJECTS: INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    WAGHMODE, S. S.

    2009-01-01

    Digital Library of India is a digital library of books, which is free-to-read, searchable, predominantly in India languages, available to everyone over the Internet. Very soon it is expected that this portal would provide a gateway to Indian Digital Libraries in Science, Arts, Culture, Music, Movies, Traditional Medicine, Palm Leaves and many more. This project is collaboration between Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, Universities and Carnegie Mellon University under MILLION BOOK UNIVE...

  13. Situational analysis of services for diabetes and diabetic retinopathy and evaluation of programs for the detection and treatment of diabetic retinopathy in India: Methods for the India 11-city 9-state study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. S. Murthy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetic retinopathy (DR is a leading cause of visual impairment in India. Available evidence shows that there are more than 60 million persons with diabetes in India and that the number will increase to more than a 100 million by 2030. There is a paucity of data on the perceptions and practices of persons with diabetes and the available infrastructure and uptake of services for DR in India. Objectives: Assess perception of care and challenges faced in availing eye care services among persons with diabetics and generate evidence on available human resources, infrastructure, and service utilization for DR in India. Methods: The cross-sectional, hospital-based survey was conducted in eleven cities across 9 States in India. In each city, public and private providers of eye-care were identified. Both multispecialty and standalone facilities were included. Specially designed semi-open ended questionnaires were administered to the clients. Semi-structured interviews were administered to the service providers (both diabetic care physicians and eye care teams and observational checklists were used to record findings of the assessment of facilities conducted by a dedicated team of research staff. Results: A total of 859 units were included in this study. This included 86 eye care and 73 diabetic care facilities, 376 persons with diabetes interviewed in the eye clinics and 288 persons with diabetes interviewed in the diabetic care facilities. Conclusions: The findings will have significant implications for the organization of services for persons with diabetes in India.

  14. 75 FR 74001 - Application Deadline Extended; Secretarial Business India High Technology Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... International Trade Administration Mission Statement Application Deadline Extended; Secretarial Business India... Bangalore, India, February 6-11, 2011. The overall focus of the trip will be commercial opportunities for U..., December 3, 2010. Applications should be submitted to the Office of Business Liaison at...

  15. Crime Analysis Using Geoinformatics Technique and Hotspot Detection for Akola City, Maharashtra State, India

    OpenAIRE

    Khadri; S.F.R; Chaitanya Pande; Kanak Moharir

    2013-01-01

    The need of effective utilization geoinformatics technique has been providing city safety kind with tools to analyze and interpret such relations through GIS software. Recently, there has been increase in crimes of various types in Akola city. To prepare Maps offer crime analysis and graphic representations of crime-related issues. An understanding of where crimes occur can improve attempts to fight crime. The present study identified various crime patterns in Akola city and covers aspect of ...

  16. Interpersonal relationships of elderly in selected old age homes in urban India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duvvuru Jamuna

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Never before have there been so many old people in India. According the 2001 Census of India data, the projected figure for 2031 is 179 million seniors. Dual-career families, changing values, and nuclear family dynamics have altered the social landscape of India. An emerging phenomenon in urban India is the emergence of “pay and stay” homes as a late life living arrangement for middle and higher-income groups. This study focused on selected ‘pay and stay’ homes in the four cities of Hyderabad, Bangalore, Chennai, and Tiruvananthapuram. Personal interviews were conducted with 150 seniors to understand the relocation experience, the extent and nature of self-reported social networks, and evaluation by seniors of this late life arrangement. Majority of respondents were female (65%. More than half of the respondents (58% reported being currently widowed. Results show that childlessness and strained intergenerational relationships were important considerations in the decision to relocate. Majority of the seniors had never conceived that they would be spending their autumn years away from family. Occupants frequently conceived of their living space as their “home.” Living amidst non-family members, the reported network sizes were small. The absence of family members was frequently cited as a source of dissatisfaction when evaluating these homes.

  17. Soil concentrations, occurrence, sources and estimation of air-soil exchange of polychlorinated biphenyls in Indian cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Paromita; Zhang, Gan; Li, Jun; Selvaraj, Sakthivel; Breivik, Knut; Jones, Kevin C

    2016-08-15

    Past studies have shown potentially increasing levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the Indian environment. This is the first attempt to investigate the occurrence of PCBs in surface soil and estimate diffusive air-soil exchange, both on a regional scale as well as at local level within the metropolitan environment of India. From the north, New Delhi and Agra, east, Kolkata, west, Mumbai and Goa and Chennai and Bangalore in the southern India were selected for this study. 33 PCB congeners were quantified in surface soil and possible sources were derived using positive matrix factorization model. Net flux directions of PCBs were estimated in seven major metropolitan cities of India along urban-suburban-rural transects. Mean Σ33PCBs concentration in soil (12ng/g dry weight) was nearly twice the concentration found in global background soil, but in line with findings from Pakistan and urban sites of China. Higher abundance of the heavier congeners (6CB-8CB) was prevalent mostly in the urban centers. Cities like Chennai, Mumbai and Kolkata with evidence of ongoing PCB sources did not show significant correlation with soil organic carbon (SOC). This study provides evidence that soil is acting as sink for heavy weight PCB congeners and source for lighter congeners. Atmospheric transport is presumably a controlling factor for occurrence of PCBs in less polluted sites of India. PMID:27136304

  18. Temporal and spatial assemblages of invasive birds occupying the urban landscape and its gradient in a southern city of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjula Menon

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Common birds play an important role in regulating the functioning of urban ecosystems. Typically, a few common species have become invasive species threatening biodiversity worldwide. Our understanding of the dynamics of invasive birds in an Indian context is still in its infancy. Hence, we studied the gradual adaptation of invasive birds to novel habitats and their dispersal dynamics in a southern city of India. We tested the prediction that urban matrix are increasingly composed of invasive generalist species. The results illustrate the dominance of invasive species such as Corvus splendens, Acridotheres tristis, Acridotheres livia, and Milvus migrans in the urban environment. The significant abundance of C. splendens exhibited urbanization-induced homogenization. The land-use pattern showed more inclination toward the urban structures than the vegetative attributes. Specialist groups from the frugivore guild were found to decline from the urban environment, which may shed light on the ecological factors that constrain their distribution.

  19. The effect of aerosol optical depth on rainfall with reference to meteorology over metro cities in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunaseelan, Indira; Bhaskar, B Vijay; Muthuchelian, K

    2014-01-01

    Rainfall is a key link in the global water cycle and a proxy for changing climate; therefore, proper assessment of the urban environment's impact on rainfall will be increasingly important in ongoing climate diagnostics and prediction. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements on the monsoon seasons of the years 2008 to 2010 were made over four metro regional hotspots in India. The highest average of AOD was in the months of June and July for the four cities during 3 years and lowest was in September. Comparing the four regions, Kolkata was in the peak of aerosol contamination and Chennai was in least. Pearson correlation was made between AOD with climatic parameters. Some changes in the parameters were found during drought year. Temperature, cloud parameters, and humidity play an important role for the drought conditions. The role of aerosols, meteorological parameters, and their impacts towards the precipitation during the monsoon was studied.

  20. An Urban-Spatial Analysis of the Women in the Informal Sectors of Greater Guwahati City of Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zona Bhuyan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects the use of urban space by women in urban informal sectors in the city of Guwahati located in North East India. The population influx from across the borders in the aftermath of the partition has huge implications both on polity and on economy of the northeastern states in general and Assam in particular.  Importantly, the urban informal sectors have a sizeable share in terms of its significant contributions towards Gross Domestic Product (GDP as well as generation of employment opportunities largely. Using a feminist perspective, the research is an attempt to investigate the engagement of women in the informal sector in greater Guwahati. Research findings reveal that the occupations of the women workers are location-specific, that is, the manufacturing sectors (textiles, food preparation, printing and skilled service are mainly home/shop based production (fixed locations whereas the service sectors (leisure, caring, elementary construction, elementary sales and cleaning occupation operate at variable locations (construction sites, street pavements, marketplaces and other various locations. Further analysis shows that the informal sector is highly demand dependent and such demands are in the central business areas of the city, therefore informal sector services (skilled services and elementary services are found to be located in and around the central areas of Guwahati city. Women operators in the informal sector are attracted to the central business district because of the many advantages that it enjoys relative to other parts of a city. The paper concludes by calling on policy makers and physical planning agencies to evolve more pragmatic strategies for urban development matters in order that urban informal sector activities can be integrated into urban development plans. Finally, further research is called for on how urban planners could redesign the urban space with appropriate consideration of the informal sector

  1. Universities, regional innovation systems and the Bangalore experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vang, Jan; Coenen, Lars; Chaminade, Christina;

    2007-01-01

    requirements. Drawing on a non-deterministic evolutionary perspective, it makes an empirical analysis of the role played by universities and publicly funded research organizations in initiating, sustaining and deepening Bangalore's regional innovation system for the IT-service and software industry.......This paper takes stock with one-size-fits-all models on the role of universities in regional innovation systems in Asia. It proposes a contextual and evolutionary perspective which focuses on the match between the specific competences and capabilities of the universities and the firms' particular...

  2. Prevalence of tobacco use in urban, semi urban and rural areas in and around Chennai City, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolappan Chockalingam

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tobacco use leads to many health complications and is a risk factor for the occurrence of cardio vascular diseases, lung and oral cancers, chronic bronchitis etc. Almost 6 million people die from tobacco-related causes every year. This study was conducted to measure the prevalence of tobacco use in three different areas around Chennai city, south India. METHODS: A survey of 7510 individuals aged > = 15 years was undertaken covering Chennai city (urban, Ambattur (semi-urban and Sriperumbudur (rural taluk. Details on tobacco use were collected using a questionnaire adapted from both Global Youth Tobacco Survey and Global Adults Tobacco Survey. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of tobacco use was significantly higher in the rural (23.7% compared to semi-urban (20.9% and urban (19.4% areas (P value <0.001 Tobacco smoking prevalence was 14.3%, 13.9% and 12.4% in rural, semi-urban and urban areas respectively. The corresponding values for smokeless tobacco use were 9.5%, 7.0% and 7.0% respectively. Logistic regression analysis showed that the odds of using tobacco (with smoke or smokeless forms was significantly higher among males, older individuals, alcoholics, in rural areas and slum localities. Behavioural pattern analysis of current tobacco users led to three groups (1 those who were not reached by family or friends to advice on harmful effects (2 those who were well aware of harmful effects of tobacco and even want to quit and (3 those are exposed to second hand/passive smoking at home and outside. CONCLUSIONS: Tobacco use prevalence was significantly higher in rural areas, slum dwellers, males and older age groups in this region of south India. Women used mainly smokeless tobacco. Tobacco control programmes need to develop strategies to address the different subgroups among tobacco users. Public health facilities need to expand smoking cessation counseling services as well as provide pharmacotherapy where necessary.

  3. Investigation of Toxic Heavy Metals in Drinking Water of Agra City, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Susan Verghese

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Water quality of Agra city is impaired by the presence of large number of industries in the city. From the observed data it is found that drinking water of Agra city is contaminated with toxic heavy metals like chromium, copper, cadmium, lead, and nickel. Among all these heavy metals, chromium is found to be in comparatively large amounts because most of the leather industries located in Agra city adopt chrome tanning procedure as their basic step for dehairing and dehiding. Presence of high concentration of chromium and other heavy metals in drinking water pose deleterious effects on the health of human beings therefore it becomes necessary to employ certain technological methods to keep the concentration of such toxic heavy metals within their desirable limits.

  4. Status Of Physico-Chemical Parameter Of Ground Water Of Gorakhpur City U.P. India

    OpenAIRE

    Priyanka Chaudhary; Kalawati Shukla; Jitendra kumar

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The ground water is most prime water which has multipurpose use ranging from drinking to industrial and agricultural uses. The continuously increase in the level of pollution of water is a serious problem. The city of Gorakhpur is not untouched with this serious issue .The pollution level of the major water sources in and around the city is increase rapidly. The main objective of the present study is to study the variation of ground water quality in Gorakhpur district by collecting ...

  5. Assessment of pack animal welfare in and around Bareilly city of India

    OpenAIRE

    Probhakar Biswas; Triveni Dutt; Patel, M.; Reena Kamal; P. K. Bharti; Subhasish Sahu

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To assess the welfare of pack animal: Pony, Horse, Mule and Donkey in and around Bareilly city. Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out in Bareilly city and Izatnagar area of Bareilly district of Uttar Pradesh in the year 2009. Representative sample of 100 pack animal owners were selected to get the information regarding various social, personal and economic attributes of the pack animal. Further during interviewing different health and behavior pattern of animals was ke...

  6. Positioning Generation Y for Effective Mobile Communication: The case of three cities in India

    OpenAIRE

    Varsha Jain; Saumya Pant

    2015-01-01

    India is the second largest mobile phone market after China in terms of number of handsets sold also, usage has increased exponentially in the country. Indian mobile users have high disposable income and young consumers known as Generation Y primarily uses the phone and are very tech-savvy. Using the theory of reasoned action, which suggests that individual attitude and subjective norms and related to behaviour. We have developed three research questions pertaining to characteristics of Gener...

  7. What are we drinking? Assessment of water quality in an urban city of Punjab, India

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Amanjot K.; Gupta, Vikram Kumar; Sharma, Bhuvan; Singla, Bhavna; Kaur, Paramjeet; Walia, Geeta

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Ground water is the ultimate and most suitable fresh water resource for human consumption in the urban areas of India. Studies regarding ground water quality have shown that the higher rate of exploration as compared to the rate of recharging, inappropriate dumping of solid, as well as liquid waste, lack of strict enforcement of law has led to the deterioration of ground water quality. The present study was thus, carried out to evaluate physicochemical, as well as a microbiologi...

  8. Hepatitis B vaccination status among healthcare workers in a tertiary care hospital in Haldwani City of Nainital, Uttarakhand, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhash Chandra Joshi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Healthcare workers (HCWs have a high risk of hepatitis B virus (HBV infection. The prevalence of HBV among HCWs in hospitals in developing countries is high. However, the vaccination status of these workers in hospitals in Haldwani city is not well documented. Objectives: The aim was to assess the hepatitis B vaccination status among HCWs in a tertiary care hospital in Haldwani city of Nainital, Uttarakhand, India. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 367 HCWs were randomly selected. Information pertaining to demographic and vaccination status was collected by interviewing them with the help of predesigned and pretested interview schedule. Result: The overall proportions of complete, incomplete and unvaccinated respondents with hepatitis B vaccine were 48.5%, 21.8%, and 29.7% respectively. In relation to designation of respondents, 35 (53.8%, 65 (77.4%, 61 (51.7%, 12 (40.0% and 5 (7.2% of respondents who were residents, interns, nurses, technicians and nursing attendants respectively had received Hepatitis B vaccination as against those who had partially received and not received vaccination and this differences were statistically significant. The most common reason for acceptance of vaccine was protection against Hepatitis-B infection (39.9% and the commonest reason for not getting vaccinated was negligence (43.1% Conclusion: These results conclude that because of low immunization coverage, HCWs are at greater risk of getting Hepatitis B infection at the hospital.

  9. Assessment of oral mucosal lesions among eunuchs residing in Bhopal city, Madhya Pradesh, India: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilesh Arjun Torwane

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present cross-sectional study following the STROBE guidelines was conducted to assess the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions among males, females, and eunuchs residing in Bhopal city, Madhya Pradesh India. Materials and Methods: Based on convenient non-probability snowball sampling technique, all the self-identified eunuchs residing in the city of Bhopal who were present at the time of examination and who fulfilled the selection criteria were examined. A cross section of the general population (males and females residing in the same locality where these eunuchs live was also examined. The World Health Organization (WHO oral health assessment proforma (1997 was used to collect the information on oral mucosal lesions. All the obtained data were analyzed by using a Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20. Results: Overall prevalence of oral mucosal lesions was 127 (19.9% among the study subjects. Fifty-nine (28.5% eunuchs, 56 (25.7% males, and 12 (5.6% females were observed to have some oral mucosal lesions. Oral submucous fibrosis (6.4%, leukoplakia (5.5%, and traumatic ulceration (4.2% were the major oral mucosal conditions observed. Conclusion: The information presented in this study adds to our understanding of the common oral mucosal lesions occurring in the eunuch population. Efforts to increase patient awareness of the oral effects of tobacco use and to eliminate the habit are needed to improve the oral and general health of eunuchs.

  10. Comparative evaluation of leachate pollution index of MSW landfill site of Kolkata with other metropolitan cities of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motling, Sanjay; Dutta, Amit; Mukherjee, S N; Kumar, Sunil

    2013-07-01

    The uncontrolled tipping of mixed urban solid waste in landfill site causes serious negative impacts on the environment. The major issue in this context is the generation of leachate which possesses potential of polluting freshwater ecosystem including groundwater besides associated health hazards and depletion of soil fertility. In this context, a pseudo computation quantitative tool, known as leachate pollution index (LPI), has been developed by some researchers for scaling pollution potential of landfill site owing to emergence of leachate. This paper. deals with the assessment of leachate quality of existing landfill site of Kolkata situated at Dhapa waste dumping ground through evaluation of the LPI from experimental analysis of leachate. The leachate was collected from this site in different seasons. 18 parameters were tested with real leachate samples in the Environmental Engineering Laboratory of Civil Engineering Department of Jadavpur University Kolkata. The results exhibited a very high value of organic pollutants in the leachate with COD as 21,129 mg/L and also values of TDS, Fe2+, Cr, Zn, chloride and ammonical nitrogen. The LPI value of Kolkata landfill site at Dhapa was estimated and also compared with leachate quality data of other metropolitan cities viz. Mumbai, Delhi, Chennai as available in literatures. It is found that LPI of the Kolkata landfill site is highest compared to all other landfill sites of other metropolitan cities in India. PMID:25509951

  11. Geomorphic processes in the vicinity of the Venkatapur river mouth, central west coast of India: Implications for estuarine sedimentation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nayak, S.R.; Hegde, V.S.; Shalini, G.; Rajawat, A.S.; Girish, K.H.; Jayakumar, S.; Suryanarayana, A.

    {{ { Ministry of Earth Sciences Government of India New Delhi 110003, India { S.D.M. College of Engineering and Technology Dharwad 580002, India 1 Global Academy of Technology Rajarjeshwari Nagar Bangalore 560098, India {{ Space Application Centre Ahmedbad... and create management problems, especially when sediment influx is modified by damming of rivers (cf. Bittencourt et al., 2007) or if current pattern is modified by construction activities in the mouth region (cf. Abadie et al., 2008). Sedimentation...

  12. Insect faunal diversity of Salt Lake City – an urbanized area adjacent to Kolkata, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallab Maity

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Salt Lake City or Bidhannagar, a part of East Kolkata Wetland, is an advanced township adjacent to Kolkata. A total of 266 insect species of 206 genera under 74 families belonging to the eleven order are reported in this communication. Of them, Lepidoptera shared maximum species (73 species, followed by Odonata (46 species, Diptera (44 species, Coleoptera (42 species, Hemiptera (25 species, Hymenoptera (17 species, Orthoptera (10 species and Blattaria (06 species. The orders Ephemeroptera, Dermaptera and Mantodea shared single species respectively. Present work is the baseline data of insect faunal diversity of Salt Lake City, an urbanized area in the vicinity of Kolkata, West Bengal.

  13. Occurrence and sources of selected organochlorine pesticides in the soil of seven major Indian cities: Assessment of air–soil exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    India is an agricultural country and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) accounts for nearly three fourth of the annual pesticide consumption. Selected OCPs were therefore quantified in 81 soil samples along urban–suburban–rural transect from New Delhi and Agra in the north, Kolkata in the east, Mumbai and Goa in the west and Chennai and Bangalore in the southern part of India. ΣOCPs ranges from 2 to 410 ng/g dry weight (Mean, 35) with dominance of endosulfan sulfate in the rural sites. Urban centers and suburbs reflects OCP usage for vector control. Lower winter temperature in New Delhi favored site-specific deposition of most OCPs in soil. Volatilization of OCPs from soil occurred in the Indian cities having higher ambient temperature. Due to the compounded impact of past and ongoing usage of selected OCPs like DDT, a sporadic cycle of emission and re-emission from Indian soil is expected to continue for many more years to come. - Highlights: • Quantification of selected OCPs in the surface soil of seven major cities located in Northern, Eastern, Western and Southern part of India. • Occurrence and Source apportionment of selected OCPs. • Assessment of air–soil exchange for selected OCPs. - Soil, organochlorine pesticides, Distribution, India, Sources, fugacity fractions

  14. Victims of stalking in India: A study of girl college students in Tirunelveli City

    OpenAIRE

    Jaishankar Karuppannan; Kosalai Puthisigamani

    2007-01-01

    The word 'stalking' was not commonly known in India, until Priyadharshini Mattoo's case (1996) hit the headlines. Eve teasing, a colloquial word for gender harassment is popularly known and Tamil Nadu Prohibition of Eve-Teasing Act, 1998 on that was developed after the brutal killing of a girl named Sarika Shah in Chennai. Though, stalking is there in the past, it was not acknowledged with this terminology and it was always merged with Eve teasing. On the other hand, stalking is much graver t...

  15. Mobile phones: the next step towards healthcare delivery in rural India?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherwin I DeSouza

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Given the ubiquity of mobile phones, their use to support healthcare in the Indian context is inevitable. It is however necessary to assess end-user perceptions regarding mobile health interventions especially in the rural Indian context prior to its use in healthcare. This would contextualize the use of mobile phone communication for health to 70% of the country's population that resides in rural India. OBJECTIVES: To explore the acceptability of delivering healthcare interventions through mobile phones among users in a village in rural Bangalore. METHODS: This was an exploratory study of 488 mobile phone users, residing in a village, near Bangalore city, Karnataka, South India. A pretested, translated, interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to obtain data on mobile phone usage patterns and acceptability of the mobile phone, as a tool for health-related communication. The data is described using basic statistical measures. RESULTS: The primary use of mobile phones was to make or receive phone calls (100%. Text messaging (SMS was used by only 70 (14% of the respondents. Most of the respondents, 484 (99%, were willing to receive health-related information on their mobile phones and did not consider receiving such information, an intrusion into their personal life. While receiving reminders for drug adherence was acceptable to most 479 (98% of our respondents, 424 (89% preferred voice calls alone to other forms of communication. Nearly all were willing to use their mobile phones to communicate with health personnel in emergencies and 367 (75% were willing to consult a doctor via the phone in an acute illness. Factors such as sex, English literacy, employment status, and presence of chronic disease affected preferences regarding mode and content of communication. CONCLUSION: The mobile phone, as a tool for receiving health information and supporting healthcare through mHealth interventions was acceptable in the rural Indian

  16. Linking resilience and green growth: how green business can contribute to more resilient cities in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    U. Mans

    2011-01-01

    In the face of a growing sustainability challenge, cities are becoming increasingly important actors. Municipal leaders are stepping up their efforts to adapt to the consequences of climate change and to mitigate the future impacts of greenhouse gas emissions. Becoming more resilient has become a ke

  17. Statistical Analysis of Ground Water Quality in Rural Areas of Uttar Pradesh City, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita Sood

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The importance of groundwater for the existence of human society cannot be exaggerated. Groundwater is the major source of water in both rural and urban India.Duringlast decade, it was observed that ground water get polluted drastically and hence, resulted into many water borne diseases which is a cause of many health hazards. In this paper an attempt has been made to test groundwater quality of different villages of Uttar Pradesh, India on the basis of thirteen parameters like pH, total dissolved solids, conductivity, total hardness, biological oxygen demand etc. The results obtained were compared with the BIS (IS 10500:1991 Permissible Standards for drinking water. Normal Distribution analysis was applied to describe various characteristics of the samples collected and Correlation Analysiswas done on the samples which measured the strength of association between twowaterparameters.On the basis of results obtained from analytical and statistical analysis, it was revealed that all the water sources chosen for study are not suitable for the utilization of water.

  18. The normal range of body mass index with high body fat percentage among male residents of Lucknow city in north India

    OpenAIRE

    Kesavachandran, Chandrasekharan Nair; Bihari, Vipin; Mathur, Neeraj

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Several studies have raised the suspicion that the body mass index (BMI) cut-off for overweight as defined by the WHO may not adequately reflect the actual overweight status. The present study looked at the relationship between BMI and body fat per cent (BF %) / health risks (hypertension and type 2 diabetes) in male residents of Lucknow city, north India to evaluate the validity of BMI cut-off points for overweight. Methods: One thousand one hundred and eleven male v...

  19. Isolation of pathogenic Escherichia coli from buffalo meat sold in Parbhani city, Maharashtra, India

    OpenAIRE

    M. S. Vaidya; N. M. Markandeya; R. N. Waghamare; C. S. Shekh; V. V. Deshmukh

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Isolation, characterization, in-vitro pathogenicity and antibiogram study of E.coli from buffalo meat sold in Parbhani city. Materials and Methods: Meat samples were collected from buffalo immediately after slaughter. Isolation, identification and enumeration of E. coli were done by following standard methods and protocols. Hemolysin test and Congo red binding assay were used to study in-vitro pathogenicity of E. coli isolates. Disc diffusion method was used to study antibiogram of patho...

  20. Status of forensic odontology in metro and in tier 2 city in urban India

    OpenAIRE

    Parul Khare; Shaleen Chandra; Vineet Raj; Poonam Verma; Subha, G.; Abhishek Khare

    2013-01-01

    Dentist can play a significant role in identifying the victims or perpetrators of crime as well as in disasters. Knowledge about the various aspects of forensic science as well as dental and related evidences can help a dental practitioner in assisting the civil agencies in such cases. Aim: To evaluate the awareness and knowledge of forensic odontology among dentists in a metropolitan and a tier 2 city. Materials and Methods: Seven hundred and seventy four dentists were included in this surve...

  1. Threat of land subsidence in and around Kolkata City and East Kolkata Wetlands, West Bengal, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Sahu; P K Sikdar

    2011-06-01

    This paper attempts to estimate the possible rate of land subsidence of Kolkata City including Salt Lake City and the adjoining East Kolkata Wetlands located at the lower part of the deltaic alluvial plain of South Bengal basin. Demand of groundwater for drinking, agricultural and industrial purposes has increased due to rapid urbanization. The subsurface geology consists of Quaternary sediments comprising a succession of clay, silty clay and sand of various grades. Groundwater occurs mostly under confined condition except in those places where the top aquitard has been obliterated due to the scouring action of past channels. Currently, the piezometric head shows a falling trend and it may be accelerated due to further over-withdrawal of groundwater resulting in land subsidence. The estimated mean land subsidence rate is 13.53 mm/year and for 1 m drop in the piezometric head, the mean subsidence is 3.28 cm. The surface expression of the estimated land subsidence is however, cryptic because of a time lag between the settlement of the thick low-permeable aquitard at the top and its surface expression. Therefore, groundwater of the cities and wetland areas should be developed cautiously based on the groundwater potential to minimize the threat of land subsidence.

  2. Classification of LULC Change Detection using Remotely Sensed Data for Coimbatore City, Tamilnadu, India

    CERN Document Server

    Babykalpana, Y

    2010-01-01

    Maps are used to describe far-off places . It is an aid for navigation and military strategies. Mapping of the lands are important and the mapping work is based on (i). Natural resource management & development (ii). Information technology ,(iii). Environmental development ,(iv). Facility management and (v). e-governance. The Landuse / Landcover system espoused by almost all Organisations and scientists, engineers and remote sensing community who are involved in mapping of earth surface features, is a system which is derived from the united States Geological Survey (USGS) LULC classification system. The application of RS and GIS involves influential of homogeneous zones, drift analysis of land use integration of new area changes or change detection etc.,National Remote Sensing Agency(NRSA) Govt. of India has devised a generalized LULC classification system respect to the Indian conditions based on the various categories of Earth surface features , resolution of available satellite data, capabilities of se...

  3. Assessment of Ground Water Quality in Rajajinagar of Bangalore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alimuddin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Water borne diseases continue to be a dominant cause of water borne morbidities and mortality all over the world. Hence, drinking water needs to be protected from pollution and biological contamination. Ground water samples were collected from ten different sampling point in Rajajinagar area of Bangalore and analysed for water quality parameters viz. pH , total alkalinity, chloride, total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, dissolved oxygen, BOD, COD and total hardness. The pH value of the study area ranges between 7.3 to 8.4 indicating that ground water is slightly alkaline. The total alkalinity are varied in the range from 122 to 282 mg/l which is well within the limit prescribed by BIS. The TDS value found from 397 to 546 mg/l. The values of hardness of water ranges from 125 to 267 mg/l which is within the prescribed limit as per BIS.

  4. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in bovines in Bangalore district, Karnataka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna Murthy, C M; Souza, Placid E D'

    2016-09-01

    The study was undertaken to know the current status of prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites of cattle and buffaloes in Bangalore, Karnataka. An overall prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites among cattle (75.2 %) and buffalos (76.8 %) was determined by coprological examination. The gastrointestinal parasites detected in cattle and buffalo were Strongyle (39.8 and 29.1 %), followed by Amphistome (24.4 and 23.1 %), Moniezia spp. (5.3 and 5.9 %), Fasciola spp. (4.1 and 15.6 %), Trichuris spp. (1.4 and 2.9 %), Buxtonella spp. (36.6 and 37.3 %) and Eimeria spp. (26.7 and 29.8 %) respectively. The percentage prevalence of mixed helminth and protozoan infections was 20.2 and 26.1 % in cattle and buffaloes, respectively. PMID:27605757

  5. Dental prosthetic status and prosthetic needs of institutionalised elderly population in oldage homes of jabalpur city, madhya pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deogade, Suryakant C; Vinay, S; Naidu, Sonal

    2013-12-01

    Oral disorders are cumulative throughout life and hence unfavourable outcomes are likely to be greatest among the elderly. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among institutionalized geriatric population in old-age homes of Jabalpur city, Madhya Pradesh, to assess their prosthetic status and prosthetic needs. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in all the four old-age homes of Jabalpur city, Madhya Pradesh state, India. All residents aged 60 years and above formed the study population. The recording of prosthetic status and prosthetic needs was carried out according to the World Health Organisation (WHO) Oral Health Assessment Form (1997). A total of 224 individuals were included in the study of which 123 were females and 101 were males. Seventy five percent of the females and 55 % of the males had no prostheses in their upper arch and 61 % of the females and 76 % of the males had no prostheses in their lower arch. More number of males presented with 'Bridges' in their upper arch when compared to females (P value = 0.006). Highest prosthetic need in males was multi-unit prosthesis (42 % in upper arch and 41 % in lower arch) whereas, females' required full prosthesis (39 % in both the upper arch and lower arches). Ageing presents some formidable challenges, particularly with the institutionalised. This study clearly demonstrates a high insufficiency of prosthetic care among the institutionalized elderly population. Any preparation towards the provision of oral health care should not be limited to treatment alone but, more importantly focus on empowering this elderly community with information and education programmes. PMID:24431796

  6. Dental prosthetic status and prosthetic needs of institutionalised elderly population in oldage homes of jabalpur city, madhya pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deogade, Suryakant C; Vinay, S; Naidu, Sonal

    2013-12-01

    Oral disorders are cumulative throughout life and hence unfavourable outcomes are likely to be greatest among the elderly. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among institutionalized geriatric population in old-age homes of Jabalpur city, Madhya Pradesh, to assess their prosthetic status and prosthetic needs. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in all the four old-age homes of Jabalpur city, Madhya Pradesh state, India. All residents aged 60 years and above formed the study population. The recording of prosthetic status and prosthetic needs was carried out according to the World Health Organisation (WHO) Oral Health Assessment Form (1997). A total of 224 individuals were included in the study of which 123 were females and 101 were males. Seventy five percent of the females and 55 % of the males had no prostheses in their upper arch and 61 % of the females and 76 % of the males had no prostheses in their lower arch. More number of males presented with 'Bridges' in their upper arch when compared to females (P value = 0.006). Highest prosthetic need in males was multi-unit prosthesis (42 % in upper arch and 41 % in lower arch) whereas, females' required full prosthesis (39 % in both the upper arch and lower arches). Ageing presents some formidable challenges, particularly with the institutionalised. This study clearly demonstrates a high insufficiency of prosthetic care among the institutionalized elderly population. Any preparation towards the provision of oral health care should not be limited to treatment alone but, more importantly focus on empowering this elderly community with information and education programmes.

  7. Studies on assessment of traffic noise level in Aurangabad city, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhosale, B J; Late, Amul; Nalawade, P M; Chavan, S P; Mule, M B

    2010-01-01

    With the rapid rate of urbanization of Aurangabad city due to the expanding industrialization, the problem of noise pollution has become a concern for urban dwellers and government authority too. Noise pollution due to vehicular traffic is one of the growing environmental problems of urban centers. The study deals with the assessment of traffic noise levels in Aurangabad city. With respect to the total number of vehicles passing the road in unit time, which was surveyed by direct count method, six different sites from Aurangabad city, viz., Nagar Naka, Kranti Chowk, CIDCO bus stand, Railway station area, Dhoot Hospital and Baba petrol pump were selected to study the vehicular noise level. Noise measurements were carried out at these six locations on both working day and holiday during the peak traffic hours, i.e. 8:00 a.m. - 11:a.m., 1:00 p.m. - 4:00 p.m. and 5:00 p.m. - 8:00 p.m., in the morning, afternoon and evening sessions, respectively, after 5 minutes time interval. The noise level was monitored using noise level meter. The results obtained from this investigation showed that the Nagar Naka, Kranti chowk and CIDCO bus stand area have dense traffic zones when compared with the Railway station area, Dhoot Hospital and Baba petrol pump. The minimum and the maximum noise levels are 74 and 86 dB, respectively, on working day and 70 and 81 dB, respectively, on holiday. The measured noise level values exceed the prescribed noise level. PMID:20603577

  8. Studies on assessment of traffic noise level in Aurangabad city, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B J Bhosale

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid rate of urbanization of Aurangabad city due to the expanding industrialization, the problem of noise pollution has become a concern for urban dwellers and government authority too. Noise pollution due to vehicular traffic is one of the growing environmental problems of urban centers. The study deals with the assessment of traffic noise levels in Aurangabad city. With respect to the total number of vehicles passing the road in unit time, which was surveyed by direct count method, six different sites from Aurangabad city, viz., Nagar Naka, Kranti Chowk, CIDCO bus stand, Railway station area, Dhoot Hospital and Baba petrol pump were selected to study the vehicular noise level. Noise measurements were carried out at these six locations on both working day and holiday during the peak traffic hours, i.e. 8:00 a.m. - 11:a.m., 1:00 p.m. - 4:00 p.m. and 5:00 p.m. - 8:00 p.m., in the morning, afternoon and evening sessions, respectively, after 5 minutes time interval. The noise level was monitored using noise level meter. The results obtained from this investigation showed that the Nagar Naka, Kranti chowk and CIDCO bus stand area have dense traffic zones when compared with the Railway station area, Dhoot Hospital and Baba petrol pump. The minimum and the maximum noise levels are 74 and 86 dB, respectively, on working day and 70 and 81 dB, respectively, on holiday. The measured noise level values exceed the prescribed noise level.

  9. Influence of epicentral distance on local seismic response in Kolkata City, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    William K Mohanty; Akhilesh K Verma; Franco Vaccari; Giuliano F Panza

    2013-04-01

    The influence of source and epicentral distance on the local seismic response in the Kolkata city is investigated by computing the seismic ground motion along 2-D geological cross-sections in the Kolkata city for the earthquake that occurred on 12 June 1897 ( = 8.1; focal mechanism: dip = 57°, strike = 110° and rake = 76°; focal depth = 9 km) in Shillong plateau. For the estimation of ground motion parameters, a hybrid technique is used, which is the combination of modal summation and finite difference method. This technique allows the estimation of site specific ground motion for various events located at different distances from Kolkata city, taking into account simultaneously the position and geometry of the seismic source, the mechanical properties of the propagation medium and the geotechnical properties of the site. The epicenter of the Shillong earthquake is about 460 km away from Kolkata. The estimated peak ground acceleration (PGA) varies in the range of 0.11–0.18 g and this range corresponds to the intensity of IX to X on the Mercalli-Cancani-Sieberg (MCS) scale and VIII on the Modified Mercalli (MM) scale. The maximum amplification in terms of response spectral ratio (RSR) varies from 10 to 12 in the frequency range 1.0–1.5 Hz. These amplifications occur in correspondence to low-velocity shallow, loose soil deposit. The comparison of these results with earlier ones obtained considering the Calcutta earthquake that occurred on 15 April 1964 ( = 6.5; focal mechanism: dip = 32°, strike = 232° and rake = 56°; focal depth = 36 km) shows that the source parameters (magnitude and focal mechanism) and epicentral distance play an important role on site response but the variation in the frequency of the peak values (RSR) is negligible. The obtained results match with observed reported intensities in Kolkata region.

  10. Prevalence of root caries among elders living in residential homes of Bengaluru city, India

    OpenAIRE

    Kumara-Raja, Balasubramanian; Radha, Gubbihal

    2016-01-01

    Background Among the various oral ailments which have been observed in elderly, root caries is a significant one. Tooth loss is chief oral health-related negative variable to the quality of life in elderly and root caries is the major cause of tooth loss in them. It has been reported about a third of older population bears most of the root caries burden, so the present study aimed to assess the prevalence of root caries among older individuals residing in residential homes of Bengaluru city I...

  11. Heavy metal accumulation in lichens growing in north side of Lucknow city, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Shalini; Upreti, D K; Sharma, Neeta

    2007-01-01

    Accumulation of Pb, Fe, Cr, Zn, Cd, Ni, Cu and Hg metals in six common lichen species growing on Mangifera indica trees in mango orchard surrounding the north side of the Lucknow city, were analyzed. The study revealed the higher concentration of Pb (3.3 - 15.6 microgg(-1)), Cr (25.6 - 137.5 microgg(-1)), Zn (49.4 - 219.7 microgg(-1)), Cu (10.2 - 66.6 microgg(-1)) and Fe (1748 - 19374 microgg(-1)). PMID:17717985

  12. Antibiotic Prescribing Habits of Dental Surgeons in Hyderabad City, India, for Pulpal and Periapical Pathologies: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Pavan Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To determine the antibiotic prescribing habits for pulpal and periapical pathology among dentists in Hyderabad city, India. Methodology. A total of 246 questionnaires were distributed to all the dentists registered with the local dental branch. Demographic details and questions regarding type and dosage of antibiotics prescribed for allergic and nonallergic patients were recorded. Inferential statistics were performed, and P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results. The response rate for the study was 87.8%. Around 148 (68.5% of respondents regularly prescribed antibiotics for endodontic management. The first antibiotic of choice for patients with no history of medical allergies was a combination of amoxicillin and metronidazole, followed by amoxicillin alone (29.1%. The first antibiotic of choice in case of allergy to penicillin was erythromycin. Necrotic pulp with acute apical periodontitis with swelling and moderate/severe preoperative symptom was the condition most commonly identified for antibiotic therapy (92.1%. Conclusion. The present study reveals that the overall antibiotic prescribing practices among this group of dentists were quite high, and there is a need for more educational initiatives to rationalize the use of antibiotics in dentistry.

  13. Spatial-Temporal Analysis of Residential Burglary Repeat Victimization: Case Study of Chennai City Promoters Apartments, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Vijaya Kumar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important roles of government is to protect its citizens from crime and unsafe situations.The use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS to understand spatial and temporal patterns of crime offences has become more prevalent in recent years; GIS help to optimize effectiveness in the reduction of crime & to increase the safety of residents. Important process offered through GIS is the identification of hot spots, or locations with a high crime rates. The identification of hot spots in time may even be very important; help in better understanding of crime pattern to create a crime reduction plan & allowing for the strategic deployment of resources sometimes & places when they can make the greatest difference.Spatial-Temporal information analysis plays a central role in lots of security-related applications. This study carried out to inquire in to and evaluate the effectiveness of associating spatial and temporal factors for repeated events in residential housebreaking. To demonstrate the application of spatial statistics, this approach can be a viable analysis alternative in security informatics. In this paper used Chennai City Promoters Apartments in India as a case study.

  14. Passive monitoring of atmospheric heavy metals in a historical city of central India by Lepraria lobificans Nyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, Rajesh; Upreti, D K; Dwivedi, S K

    2010-07-01

    Using an organism living in situ for monitoring is referred as passive monitoring. Lepraria lobificans Nyl., a leprose lichen growing naturally on monuments and buildings in the city Mandav in central India is used for passive monitoring of atmospheric metals. Seven metals (Cd, Cr, Ni, Al, Fe, Cu, and Zn) were analyzed. Samples collected from road site exhibit the maximum concentration of Fe, Cd, Cr, Ni, and Zn. Iron exhibit maximum accumulation both in lichen thallus and the substratum with mean values of 2,195.63 microg g(-1) dry weight. As compared with other growth form of lichens, L. lobificans exhibits the higher accumulation of Fe than foliose and fruticose lichens. On the basis of these results, it can be hypothesized that L. lobificans is an excellent accumulator of different metals. The statistical analysis applied to the element concentration between the metals as well as between the sites by analysis of variance found the difference to be significant at 1% and 5%, respectively. Student-Newman-Keuls test also shows significant difference for iron between the different metals. PMID:19496009

  15. Lead poisoning in pregnant women who used Ayurvedic medications from India--New York City, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    Lead poisoning still occurs in the United States despite extensive prevention efforts and strict regulations. Exposure to lead can damage the brain, kidneys, and nervous and reproductive systems. Fetal exposure to lead can adversely affect neurodevelopment, decrease fetal growth, and increase the risk for premature birth and miscarriage. During 2011-2012, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) investigated six cases of lead poisoning associated with the use of 10 oral Ayurvedic medications made in India. All six cases were in foreign-born pregnant women assessed for lead exposure risk by health-care providers during prenatal visits, as required by New York state law. Their blood lead levels (BLLs) ranged from 16 to 64 µg/dL. Lead concentrations of the medications were as high as 2.4%; several medications also contained mercury or arsenic, which also can have adverse health effects. DOHMH distributed information about the medications to health-care providers, product manufacturers, and government agencies in the United States and abroad, via postal and electronic mail. DOHMH also ordered a local business selling contaminated products to cease sales. Health-care providers should ask patients, especially foreign-born or pregnant patients, about any use of foreign health products, supplements, and remedies such as Ayurvedic medications. Public health professionals should consider these types of products when investigating heavy metal exposures and raise awareness among health-care providers and the public regarding the health risks posed by such products.

  16. Lead poisoning in pregnant women who used Ayurvedic medications from India--New York City, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    Lead poisoning still occurs in the United States despite extensive prevention efforts and strict regulations. Exposure to lead can damage the brain, kidneys, and nervous and reproductive systems. Fetal exposure to lead can adversely affect neurodevelopment, decrease fetal growth, and increase the risk for premature birth and miscarriage. During 2011-2012, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) investigated six cases of lead poisoning associated with the use of 10 oral Ayurvedic medications made in India. All six cases were in foreign-born pregnant women assessed for lead exposure risk by health-care providers during prenatal visits, as required by New York state law. Their blood lead levels (BLLs) ranged from 16 to 64 µg/dL. Lead concentrations of the medications were as high as 2.4%; several medications also contained mercury or arsenic, which also can have adverse health effects. DOHMH distributed information about the medications to health-care providers, product manufacturers, and government agencies in the United States and abroad, via postal and electronic mail. DOHMH also ordered a local business selling contaminated products to cease sales. Health-care providers should ask patients, especially foreign-born or pregnant patients, about any use of foreign health products, supplements, and remedies such as Ayurvedic medications. Public health professionals should consider these types of products when investigating heavy metal exposures and raise awareness among health-care providers and the public regarding the health risks posed by such products. PMID:22914225

  17. Allocation of solid waste collection bins and route optimisation using geographical information system: A case study of Dhanbad City, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, D; Samadder, S R

    2016-07-01

    Collection of municipal solid waste is one of the most important elements of municipal waste management and requires maximum fund allocated for waste management. The cost of collection and transportation can be reduced in comparison with the present scenario if the solid waste collection bins are located at suitable places so that the collection routes become minimum. This study presents a suitable solid waste collection bin allocation method at appropriate places with uniform distance and easily accessible location so that the collection vehicle routes become minimum for the city Dhanbad, India. The network analyst tool set available in ArcGIS was used to find the optimised route for solid waste collection considering all the required parameters for solid waste collection efficiently. These parameters include the positions of solid waste collection bins, the road network, the population density, waste collection schedules, truck capacities and their characteristics. The present study also demonstrates the significant cost reductions that can be obtained compared with the current practices in the study area. The vehicle routing problem solver tool of ArcGIS was used to identify the cost-effective scenario for waste collection, to estimate its running costs and to simulate its application considering both travel time and travel distance simultaneously.

  18. Allocation of solid waste collection bins and route optimisation using geographical information system: A case study of Dhanbad City, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, D; Samadder, S R

    2016-07-01

    Collection of municipal solid waste is one of the most important elements of municipal waste management and requires maximum fund allocated for waste management. The cost of collection and transportation can be reduced in comparison with the present scenario if the solid waste collection bins are located at suitable places so that the collection routes become minimum. This study presents a suitable solid waste collection bin allocation method at appropriate places with uniform distance and easily accessible location so that the collection vehicle routes become minimum for the city Dhanbad, India. The network analyst tool set available in ArcGIS was used to find the optimised route for solid waste collection considering all the required parameters for solid waste collection efficiently. These parameters include the positions of solid waste collection bins, the road network, the population density, waste collection schedules, truck capacities and their characteristics. The present study also demonstrates the significant cost reductions that can be obtained compared with the current practices in the study area. The vehicle routing problem solver tool of ArcGIS was used to identify the cost-effective scenario for waste collection, to estimate its running costs and to simulate its application considering both travel time and travel distance simultaneously. PMID:27207771

  19. Gene diversity for haptoglobin and transferrin classical markers among Hindu and Muslim populations of Aligarh City, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ara, G; Siddique, Y H; Afzal, M

    2011-06-01

    The present paper reports the distribution of serum protein markers viz. haptoglobin and transferrin in two major groups of Aligarh city of North India. In present study we have undertaken a survey of 538 individuals belonging to eight different populations, four from the Hindu community i.e. Brahmin, Bania, Rajput and Jatav, and the rest four among the Muslim community i.e. Syed, Sheikh, Pathan and Ansari. The heterozygosity ranged from 0.2939 (Ansari) to 0.4873 (Brahmin) for haptoglobin and from 0.000 (Rajput) to 0.1498 (Pathan) for transferrin. The values of D(ST) are 0.4122 and 0.4406, and that of G(ST) are 0.5059 and 0.9726 for haptoglobin and transferrin markers respectively. Through F(ST) test, it has been concluded that there is a high genetic differentiation of populations within Hindu and Muslim groups, though there is absence of any significant differences between these groups.

  20. Determination of some carcinogenic PAHs with toxic equivalency factor along roadside soil within a fast developing northern city of India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vaneet Kumar; N C Kothiyal; Saruchi; R Mehra; A Parkash; R R Sinha; S K Tayagi; R Gaba

    2014-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to ascertain contamination levels, distribution behaviour and PAHs exposure during summer, winter and autumn during 2011–2012 in one of the developing cities of northern India. Average PAHs concentration was found to be 18.17, 4.04 and 16.38 g g−1, whereas, concentration of 16 individual PAHs was found to vary between 0.02 and 200.23, 0.008 and 28.4 g g−1, and 0.01 and 252.55 g g−1 during summer, winter and autumn seasons, respectively. The average concentration of low and high carcinogenic PAHs during summer, winter and autumn was found to be 5.1 and 31.29, 2.1 and 6.4, 4.74 and 35.08 g g−1 at most intercepts. The average ratio of low to high carcinogenic PAHs was found to be 1:6, 1:3, 1:7.6 during summer, winter and autumn, respectively. Five ringed PAHs were found in higher concentration in all seasons. Dib(ah)A and B(a)P were the two individual PAHs found in highest concentration during summer, winter and autumn seasons. Two tailed T-test was applied for authenticity of the results. Toxic equivalency factor of B(a)P and Dib(ah)A was maximum as compared to other PAHs. The study could be of great significance for the planners while considering environmental remedial measures.

  1. Sources and characteristics of carbonaceous aerosols at Agra "World heritage site" and Delhi "capital city of India".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipal, A S; Tiwari, S; Satsangi, P G; Taneja, Ajay; Bisht, D S; Srivastava, A K; Srivastava, M K

    2014-01-01

    Agra, one of the oldest cities "World Heritage site", and Delhi, the capital city of India are both located in the border of Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) and heavily loaded with atmospheric aerosols due to tourist place, anthropogenic activities, and its topography, respectively. Therefore, there is need for monitoring of atmospheric aerosols to perceive the scenario and effects of particles over northern part of India. The present study was carried out at Agra (AGR) as well as Delhi (DEL) during winter period from November 2011 to February 2012 of fine particulate (PM₂.₅: d < 2.5 μm) as well as associated carbonaceous aerosols. PM₂.₅ was collected at both places using medium volume air sampler (offline measurement) and analyzed for organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC). Also, simultaneously, black carbon (BC) was measured (online) at DEL. The average mass concentration of PM₂.₅ was 165.42 ± 119.46 μg m(-3) at AGR while at DEL it was 211.67 ± 41.94 μg m(-3) which is ~27% higher at DEL than AGR whereas the BC mass concentration was 10.60 μg m(-3). The PM₂.₅ was substantially higher than the annual standard stipulated by central pollution control board and United States Environmental Protection Agency standards. The average concentrations of OC and EC were 69.96 ± 34.42 and 9.53 ± 7.27 μm m(-3), respectively. Total carbon (TC) was 79.01 ± 38.98 μg m(-3) at AGR, while it was 50.11 ± 11.93 (OC), 10.67 ± 3.56 μg m(-3) (EC), and 60.78 ± 14.56 μg m(-3) (TC) at DEL. The OC/EC ratio was 13.75 at (AGR) and 5.45 at (DEL). The higher OC/EC ratio at Agra indicates that the formation of secondary organic aerosol which emitted from variable primary sources. Significant correlation between PM₂.₅ and its carbonaceous species were observed indicating similarity in sources at both sites. The average concentrations of secondary organic carbon (SOC) and primary organic carbon (POC) at AGR were 48.16 and 26

  2. A review on salt lake city, Kolkata, India: Master planning and realization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tošković Dobrivoje

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivation for construction of Salt Lake City comes from the circumstances characterizing life in Calcutta known by its social, political and cultural activities. Among many problems, the City was faced with poverty and overcrowding. West Bengal Government realized that serious steps have to be taken to resolve the situation. One of the biggest actions of the Government was creation of so called 'NEDECO' Plan for reclamation certain area of the Salted Lakes, followed by the tender for urban planning. The enterprise for water ways Ivan Milutinović was considered the most convenient for both: reclamation and planning. The Conceptualization covers the Main Aims and interests forming plan basis where three factors were selected: urban character, new vs old town, inhabitants and town growth. Follows Existing Land Use Pattern of the Municipal Area. The realization of the Salt Lake Master Plan, as a part of the Municipal Area, is shown through an Overview of Achieved Infrastructure covering Roads, Water Supply, Sewerage, Area Level Storm Water Drainage, Solid Waste Management and, finally, through the Other Municipal Services, such as: Administrative Infrastructure, Health Infrastructure, Greeneries, Water bodies, Socio-Cultural Infrastructure. .

  3. Status Of Physico-Chemical Parameter Of Ground Water Of Gorakhpur City U.P. India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Chaudhary

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The ground water is most prime water which has multipurpose use ranging from drinking to industrial and agricultural uses. The continuously increase in the level of pollution of water is a serious problem. The city of Gorakhpur is not untouched with this serious issue .The pollution level of the major water sources in and around the city is increase rapidly. The main objective of the present study is to study the variation of ground water quality in Gorakhpur district by collecting 20 samples of water from hand pump from 20 locations well distributed with in Gorakhpur district were analyzed for different parameters such as pH electric conductivity chloride total free chlorine hardness fluoride nitrate iron Turbidity potassium. Groundwater is polluted from seepage pits refuse dumps septic tanks barnyards manures transport accident and different pollutant. Important sources of ground water pollution are sewage is dumped in shallow soak pits. It gives rise to cholera hepatitis dysenteries etc. especially in areas with high water table.

  4. Correlation among carbon, nitrogen, sulphur and physiological parameters of Rinodina sophodes found at Kanpur city, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satya; Upreti, D K

    2009-09-30

    Accumulation of carbon, nitrogen and sulphur content in Rinodina sophodes, crustose poleotolerent lichen growing naturally in and around six sites of Kanpur city was estimated, and their influence on the photosynthetic pigments of the lichen was studied. Maximum carbon concentration was recorded at highly polluted area while higher accumulation of nitrogen was recorded near village in outskirt of the city having higher ammonia emission. The concentration of sulphur was not detected in most of the sites except a single site where it had a quite lower value (0.22%). Photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a and b) increased parallel to the level of traffic density. Multiple correlation analysis revealed that chlorophyll a had highly significant correlation (1%) with chlorophyll b (r=0.9986) and total chlorophyll (r=0.9307). Carbon is directly correlated with nitrogen (r=0.3035), sulphur (r=0.1743) and chlorophyll degradation (r=0.2685) while negatively correlated with chlorophyll a (-0.3323), chlorophyll b (r=-0.3429) and total chlorophyll (r=-0.0824). Nitrogen showed negative correlation between all photosynthetic pigments and chlorophyll degradation, while in case of sulphur, it was high positive correlation at 1% with chlorophyll degradation (0.9445). PMID:19520501

  5. Awareness and perception regarding eye donation in students of a nursing college in Bangalore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Anita

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Corneal diseases constitute a significant cause of visual impairment and blindness in the developing world. The number of corneal transplants done is far less than the actual requirement in India. This is largely due to the inadequate number of corneas collected. Well-informed nursing students could be expected to influence eye donation rates. Aims: To assess the awareness and perception of 188 first- and second-year nursing students towards eye donation in Bangalore. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional study design. Materials and Methods: A pretested, semi-structured questionnaire. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were analyzed using the Epi-Info software package, Version 6.04. Results: The majority (96.8% of students knew that eyes can be donated after death but only 38.2% knew that the ideal time of donation was within 6 hours of death. Most participants (85.1% were either willing or had already donated their eyes. Nobility in the act of eye donation was the main motivational force for eye donation according to 85.6% of students. Perceived reasons for not pledging eyes by the students were: the unacceptable idea of separating the eyes from the body (67.9%, lack of awareness (42.8%, objection by family members (28.5%, and unsuitability to donate because of health problem (10.7%. Conclusion: This study revealed that nursing students were well aware of eye donations and most of them were inclined to sign-up for eye donation. The perceived reasons for not donating eyes need to be considered while creating awareness about eye donation in the community. The nursing students could be actively involved as volunteers in eye donation campaigns and they can act as counsellors for eye donors. They can also contribute by participating in creating awareness and motivating people to become eye donors.

  6. Determination of environmental radioactivity (238U, 232Th and 40K) and indoor natural background radiation level in Chennai city (Tamilnadu State), India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babai, K S; Poongothai, S; Punniyakotti, J

    2013-01-01

    An extensive study on the determination of the natural radioactivity ((238)U, (232)Th and (40)K) levels in soil samples of Chennai city, India has been undertaken and the results of the same are compared with the levels reported in other Indian cities as well as other parts of the world. The radioactivity content in the soil samples, the absorbed dose rate, annual effective dose equivalent, radium equivalent activity, internal and external hazard indices were calculated and compared with UNSCEAR 2000 recommended values. In addition to the above, mapping of indoor natural background gamma radiation levels has been made using thermo luminescent dosemeters throughout Chennai city and the same are reported. PMID:22847868

  7. Determinants of overweight and obesity in affluent adolescent in Surat city, South Gujarat region, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagdish P Goyal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Obesity is a major global burden. Low levels of physical activity, TV watching, and dietary pattern are modifiable risk factors for overweight and obesity in adolescent. Objective : The objective of this study was to determine risk factors for overweight and obesity among affluent adolescent, in Surat city in south Gujarat. Design : Cross sectional from July 2009 to April 2010. Setting : Two private schools with tuition fees more than Rs. 2000 per month, were selected randomly using a random table. Participants : The participants were adolescents, 12 to 15 years of age. Data collection : Pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire was used to elicit the information about dietary history and physical activity. Measurement : Height and weight was measured and BMI was calculated. Overweight and obesity were assessed by BMI for age. Student who had BMI for age >85 th and 95 th percentile of reference population were classified as obese (IAP Growth Monitoring Guidelines for Children from Birth to 18 Year. Result : The overall prevalence of obesity and overweight was 6.55% and 13.9% (boys: 6.7% and 15.1%; girls 6.4% and 13.35%. Final model of multiple logistic regression analysis showed that important determinants of overweight and obesity were low levels of physical activity, watching television or playing computer games, and consuming junk foods, snacks and carbonated drinks. Conclusion : The magnitude of obesity and overweight among affluent adolescent of Surat city was found to be 6.55% and 13.9%, respectively. Low level of physical activity, watching TV or playing computer games, and dietary pattern predisposed the adolescent to overweight/obesity.

  8. Isolation of pathogenic Escherichia coli from buffalo meat sold in Parbhani city, Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Vaidya

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Isolation, characterization, in-vitro pathogenicity and antibiogram study of E.coli from buffalo meat sold in Parbhani city. Materials and Methods: Meat samples were collected from buffalo immediately after slaughter. Isolation, identification and enumeration of E. coli were done by following standard methods and protocols. Hemolysin test and Congo red binding assay were used to study in-vitro pathogenicity of E. coli isolates. Disc diffusion method was used to study antibiogram of pathogenic E. coli isolates. Results: A total of 250 buffalo meat samples were collected and processed. A total of 22 (8.80 percent E. coli isolates were isolated with average differential count of 1.231 ± 0.136 log cfu/g on EMB agar. All the E. coli isolates were confirmed by 10 Grams staining, biochemical reactions and sugar fermentation and motility tests. A total of 9 (3.6 percent E. coli isolates were found to be pathogenic by in-vitro pathogenicity testing. Antibiogram studies of pathogenic E. coli isolates showed that all 9 isolates were sensitive to gentamycin (20 ± 1.49 mm while 7 isolate showed resistance to enrofloxacin (18.22 ± 3.58 mm and tetracycline (11.44 ± 2.04 mm. Conclusion: Buffalo meat sold in Parbhani city is an important source of E. coli infection to human population. A total of 9 pathogenic E. coli were isolated from buffalo meat immediately after slaughter. All isolates were characterized and confirmed pathogenic by in-vitro pathogenicity tests. Antibiogram studies of all isolates revealed sensitivity to gentamicin and resistance to tetracycline and enrofloxacin. [Vet World 2013; 6(5.000: 277-279

  9. Antibacterial activity of actinomycetes isolated from different soil samples of Sheopur (A city of central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hotam S Chaudhary

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the present study was isolation, purification, and characterization of actinomycetes from soil samples, having antimicrobial activity against 12 selected pathogenic strains. Soils samples were taken from different niche habitats of Sheopur district, Madhya Pradesh, India. These samples were serially diluted and plated on actinomycete isolation agar media. Potential colonies were screened, purified, and stored in glycerol stock. Isolates were morphologically and biochemically characterized. These isolates were subjected to extraction for production of the antibacterial compound. Antibacterial activity and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC of the purified extract of isolates were evaluated. Totally 31 actinomycete isolates were tested for antagonistic activity against 12 pathogenic microorganisms. Isolates AS14, AS27, and AS28 were highly active, while AS1 showed less activity against the pathogenic microorganisms. Isolate AS7 exhibited the highest antagonistic activity against Bacillus cereus (24 mm and AS16 showed the highest activity against Enterococcus faecalis (21 mm. MIC was also determined for actinomycete isolates against all the tested microorganisms. MIC of actinomycete isolates was found to be 2.5 mg/ml against Shigella dysenteriae, Vancomycin-resistant enterococci, and Klebsiella pneumoniae, and was 1.25 mg/ml for Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus xylosus, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, and Staphylococcus aureus. All actinomycetes isolates showed antibacterial activity against S. aureus, while they showed less activity against S. dysenteriae. These isolates had antibacterial activity and could be used in the development of new antibiotics for pharmaceutical or agricultural purposes.

  10. Urban land use and geohazards in the Itanagar Capital city, Arunachal Pradesh, India: Need for geoethics in urban disaster resilience governance in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharjee, Swapna

    2013-04-01

    The capital city, Itanagar, Arunachal Pradesh, India is exposed to the multiple geohazards as the city is located in the region which experiences extreme physical phenomenon due to changing climate in the tectonically active North-Eastern Himalayas. The geohazards in Itanagar includes landslides, floods, soil erosion and earthquakes. The high decadal growth rate of 111.36% in 1991-2001 census has brought in many challenges with respect to the capital city developmental planning. Due to rapid and haphazard growth in urban land use the people residing in the city are gradually becoming more vulnerable to the geohazards in the past decades. The city condition at present has raised issues of grave concern related to effective hazard management. It is observed that geoscientific approach is violated at many places in the urban developmental activities along the central spine, the National Highway-52A of the capital city. There is an urgent need of geoscientists to apprise the urban populace about land suitability and stability in terms of rock types, soil, slope, geomorphology, groundwater condition etc. and the vulnerability of the existing urban land use to landslides, flood, soil erosion and earthquakes. In this paper major issue, critical issues and elements at risk are discussed in the context of ethics in geohazard management and developmental planning for urban disaster resilience governance in a changing climate.

  11. Assessment of pack animal welfare in and around Bareilly city of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Probhakar Biswas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the welfare of pack animal: Pony, Horse, Mule and Donkey in and around Bareilly city. Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out in Bareilly city and Izatnagar area of Bareilly district of Uttar Pradesh in the year 2009. Representative sample of 100 pack animal owners were selected to get the information regarding various social, personal and economic attributes of the pack animal. Further during interviewing different health and behavior pattern of animals was keenly examined. Analysis has been done as per standard procedures. Results: Most of the pack animal owners (98% were aware of the freedom from hunger and thirst. Majority of respondents (96, 93, 81 & 85 percent were aware of freedom from injury and disease, pain and discomfort, to express normal behavior and adequate space and freedom from fear and distress. Respondents (85% believed that they themselves were responsible for the welfare of the animals. Most of the owners (48.8% employed their animals for work for 9-10 hrs with rest (96.5% in between work and most (88.3% indulged into beating to compel the animals to work. All pregnant animals were put to work in the first two trimesters of pregnancy. Upon physical examination, pack animals showed abnormality in eyes (49%, abnormality in gait (40% and limb deformity (39%. Most animals (75% had tether lesions and 34 percent animals avoided or were aggressive to observer. Majority (74.1% of the owners housed their animals in a part of their own residence with improper drainage and cleaning. Most of the owners (82% consulted Veterinary doctors for treatment and believed in allopathic medicine (57%. Vaccination was not carried out on most (96% of the animals. All the animals were feed green fodder but practice of supplementation of minerals to animals was only among 11 percent owners. Conclusions: Present findings provide baseline information on welfare activities followed by pack animal owners and status of pack

  12. IMPACT OF LEATHER PROCESSING INDUSTRIES ON CHROMIUM CONCENTRATION IN GROUNDWATER SOUTH OF CHENNAI CITY, INDIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elango, L.; Brindha, K.; G. Rajesh, V.

    2009-12-01

    The groundwater quality is under threat due to disposal of effluents from a number of industries. Poor practice of treatment of wastes from tanning industries or leather processing industries lead to pollution of groundwater. This study was carried out with the objective of assessing the impact of tanneries on groundwater quality in Chromepet area which is a part of the metropolitan area of Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. This area serves as the home town for a number of small and large scale tanning industries. People in certain parts of this area depend on the groundwater for their domestic needs as there is no piped drinking water supply system. Topographically this region is generally flat with gentle slope towards east and north east. The charnockite rocks occur as basement at the depth of about 15m from the surface of this area. Weathered charnockite rock occurs at the depth from 7m to 15m from the ground surface. The upper layer consists of loamy soil. Groundwater occurs in the unconfined condition at a depth from 0.5m to 5m. Thirty six groundwater samples were collected during March 2008 and the groundwater samples were analysed for their heavy metal (chromium) content using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) recommended the maximum permissible limit of chromium in drinking water as 0.05 mg/l. Considering this, it was found that 86% of the groundwater samples possessed concentration of chromium above the maximum permissible limit recommended by BIS. The tanneries use chrome sulphate to strengthen the leather and make it water repellent. The excess of chromium gets washed off and remains in the wastewater. This wastewater is disposed into open uncovered drains either untreated or after partial treatment. Thus the chromium leaches through the soil and reaches the groundwater table. Apart from this, there is also huge quantity of solid waste resulting from the hides and skins which are dumped off without suitable treatment. The

  13. A study on physicochemical parameters of an aquaculture body in Mysore city, Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachidanandamurthy, K L; Yajurvedi, H N

    2006-10-01

    Monthly changes in water quality parameters (physicochemical) of a rain fed lake (Bilikere) in Mysore city, were investigated for two calendar years (2002 and 2003) to assess the suitability of this lake for pisciculture. Although there were monthly fluctuations in water temperature, total suspended solids (TSS), dissolved oxygen (DO), nitrite and ammonia, they were within the desirable limits. On the other hand, total alkalinity and hydrogen sulphide throughout the study period and pH for a major part, were higher than the desirable limits. Other parameters viz; turbidity, biological oxygen demand (BOD), phosphate, and nitrate in a few months were higher than the desirable limits for waters used for fish culture. The high levels of these factors are due to the entry of agricultural run off and occasional flow of sewage into the lake. In addition dense algal growth was noticed at times of the year which is caused by surge in nutrients level whenever there was a rainfall. Since, the lake has a great aquacultural potential, it is suggested that control of nutrient load that enters the lake occasionally, might help the lake to continue its mesotrophic status.

  14. Home Care Services and Acceptability of Home Care Services in Metro Cities of India

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    Kumar Anil, Shah Vinesh, Varambally KVM, Jeremiah MS, Chaudhari Vipul P

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To find out the perception of people in terms of merits and acceptability of home care services. Methods: A sample of 400 households and 400 experts was covered in four metropolitan (Metro cities viz. Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata and Chennai. It involved the study of perceptions and acceptability of Home Care Services. The data was collected using a self-administered questionnaire given to both the experts and the households. The sampling for the study on home care services was done through Convenience Sampling Method. The basic statistical calculations were worked out performed using SPSS version 15. Results: The households who had filled the questionnaire were of an average age 40-49 years (66 % and 34 % of them were above the age of 60 years. 59% of the households were females. About 87 % of the households had health insurance. 94.50 % of households opined that doctors don‘t spend sufficient time with them to explain the progress and condition of the patient. Almost all (99.75% households said that home care services were more comfortable and provided a particularly familiar environment. About 98.50 % of experts viewed that home care services could provide better and emotional support to patients which helps them to recover faster. Conclusion: Home Care Services are advantageous and beneficial to people in urban parts since it brings sizeable beneficial impact over hospital care. However, Home Care Service cannot be a complete alternative to hospital care.

  15. Atmospheric deposition of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) in Varanasi City, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rajesh Kumar; Agrawal, Madhoolika; Marshall, Fiona M

    2008-07-01

    Rapid growth in urbanization and industrialization in developing countries may significantly contribute in heavy metal contamination of vegetables through atmospheric depositions. In the present study, an assessment was made to investigate the spatial and seasonal variations in deposition rates of heavy metals and its contribution to contamination of palak (Beta vulgaris). Samples of bulk atmospheric deposits and Beta vulgaris for analysis of Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb were collected from different sampling locations differing in traffic density and land use patterns. The results showed that the sampling locations situated in industrial or commercial areas with heavy traffic load showed significantly elevated levels of Cu, Zn and Cd deposition rate as compared to those situated in residential areas with low traffic load. The deposition rates of Cu, Zn and Cd were significantly higher in summer and winter as compared to rainy season, however, Pb deposition rate was significantly higher in rainy and summer seasons as compared to winter season. Atmospheric depositions have significantly elevated the levels of heavy metals in B. vulgaris collected during evening as compared to those collected in morning hours. The study further showed that local population has maximum exposure to Cd contamination through consumption of B. vulgaris. The present study clearly points out the urban and industrial activities of a city have potential to elevate the levels of heavy metals in the atmospheric deposits, which may consequently contaminate the food chain and thus posing health risk to the local population. PMID:17879134

  16. Prevalence of smokeless tobacco use among school going adolescent students of Raipur city Chhattisgarh state, India

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    Neha Shrivastava

    2015-04-01

    Methods: Study design: Cross-sectional, Study area: 16 selected high schools of Raipur city, in which 12 were government schools and 4 private schools. Study subjects: 1006 high-school students, Sampling technique: Two stage cluster sampling according to probability proportional to size, Study tool: Predesigned pretested questionnaire. Statistical analysis: Data was entered in Microsoft excel sheet and analyzed in Epi info 7 software. Results: The mean age of students in the study was 15 years. The prevalence of smokeless tobacco consumption was 10%. Majority male 80.9% were users, mean age of initiation was 13 years (SD 7.07, Peer pressure (76% was the reason for initiation. Pocket money 57.1% found to be the major source of purchasing. Strong association of family member tobacco use and promotional advertisement were found. Conclusion: Study reflects smokeless tobacco use was prevalent among adolescent students and there is a need for targeted interventions to reduce the risk and deleterious consequences. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(4.000: 921-924

  17. Analysis of Groundwater Quality of Aligarh City, (India: Using Water Quality Index.

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    Khwaja M. Anwar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Water is essential for all living organisms for their existence and metabolic process. Unethical human intervention in natural system and over exploitation of groundwater resources induces degradation of its quality. In many instances groundwater is used directly for drinking as well as for other purposes, hence the evaluation of groundwater quality is extremely important. The present study is aimed to analyze the underground water quality at Aligarh. In this study 80 water samples were collected from 40 places and analyzed for 14 water quality parameters for pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons (2012. The water quality index of these samples ranges from 18.92 to 74.67 pre-monsoon and 16.82 to 70.34 during post-monsoon. The study reveals that 50 % of the area under study falls in moderately polluted category. The ground water of Aligarh city needs some treatment before consumption and it also needs to be protected from contamination.

  18. Neighbourhood fluorosis in people residing in the vicinity of superphosphate fertilizer plants near Udaipur city of Rajasthan (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choubisa, Shanti Lal; Choubisa, Darshana

    2015-08-01

    Chronic industrial fluoride toxicosis in the forms of dental, skeletal and non-skeletal fluorosis was investigated in 162 villagers (94 males and 78 females) above 15 years of age living in the vicinity of superphosphate fertilizer plants located approximately 12 km south of Udaipur city of Rajasthan, India. Out of these villagers, 90 (55.5%) and 29 (18.0%) were found to be afflicted with mild to severe dental and skeletal fluorosis, respectively. Dental fluorosis characterized with light to deep-brownish bilaterally striated horizontal lines, pits or patches and fine dots or granules was noted on incisor teeth of villagers. Irregular wearing, excessive corrosions (abrasions), dark-brownish pigmentation of exposed cementum and dentine material, diastem as between teeth, pronounced loss of tooth supporting bone with recession and bulging of gingiva (gum) were also present in subjects of older age group (>55 years). Among 29 (18.0%) individuals, mild to moderate manifestations of skeletal fluorosis such as crippling, kyphosis, invalidism and genu-varum syndrome were found. In these fluorotic subjects pain/rigidity in major joints viz. neck, back, hip, knee and shoulder was also found. None of the fluorotic subjects showed evidence of genu-valgum syndrome. Other signs of chronic industrial fluoride intoxication in soft tissues (non-skeletal fluorosis) included colic, intermittent diarrhoea or constipation, bloating, polyuria and polydipsia. These findings indicate that surrounding environment of superphosphate fertilizer plants is contaminated with fluoride emission, which in turn is causing diverse ill health effects in humans which are discussed. PMID:26160742

  19. Determination of some carcinogenic PAHs with toxic equivalency factor along roadside soil within a fast developing northern city of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A. Vaneet; Kothiyal, N. C.; Kumari, Saruchi; Mehra, R.; Parkash, A.; Sinha, R. R.; Tayagi, S. K.; Gaba, R.

    2014-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to ascertain contamination levels, distribution behaviour and PAHs exposure during summer, winter and autumn during 2011-2012 in one of the developing cities of northern India. Average PAHs concentration was found to be 18.17, 4.04 and 16.38 μg g -1, whereas, concentration of 16 individual PAHs was found to vary between 0.02 and 200.23, 0.008 and 28.4 μg g -1, and 0.01 and 252.55 μg g -1 during summer, winter and autumn seasons, respectively. The average concentration of low and high carcinogenic PAHs during summer, winter and autumn was found to be 5.1 and 31.29, 2.1 and 6.4, 4.74 and 35.08 μg g -1 at most intercepts. The average ratio of low to high carcinogenic PAHs was found to be 1:6, 1:3, 1:7.6 during summer, winter and autumn, respectively. Five ringed PAHs were found in higher concentration in all seasons. Dib(ah)A and B(a)P were the two individual PAHs found in highest concentration during summer, winter and autumn seasons. Two tailed T-test was applied for authenticity of the results. Toxic equivalency factor of B(a)P and Dib(ah)A was maximum as compared to other PAHs. The study could be of great significance for the planners while considering environmental remedial measures.

  20. Hydro-chemical Survey and Quantifying Spatial Variations of Groundwater Quality in Dwarka, Sub-city of Delhi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, Kishan Singh; Tripathi, Vinod Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Hydrological and geological aspect of the region play vital role for water resources utilization and development. Protection and management of groundwater resources are possible with the study of spatio-temporal water quality parameters. The study was undertaken to assess the deterioration in groundwater quality, through systematic sampling during post monsoon seasons of the year 2008 by collecting water samples from thirty bore wells located in Dwarka, sub-city of Delhi, India. The average concentrations of groundwater quality parameters namely Calcium (Ca2+), Magnesium (Mg2+), Nitrate (NO3 -), Chloride (Cl-), sulphate (SO4 2-), total hardness (TH), total dissolved solids (TDS), and electrical conductivity were 300, 178, 26.5, 301, 103, 483, 1042 mg/l and 1909 μS/cm respectively. Estimated physico-chemical parameters revealed that 7 % of the groundwater samples shown nitrate concentrations higher than safe limit prescribed by World Health Organization (WHO). Groundwater quality the in study region was poor due to come out result that NO3 - concentration exceeding the threshold value of 50 mg/l, and main cause is disposal of sewage and animal wastes to Najafgarh drain. Dominant cations are Mg2+, Ca2+ and anions are SO4 2- and Cl-. The abundance of the major ions in groundwater is in the order: Ca2+ > Mg2+ and Cl- > SO4 2- > NO3. TH have strong correlation with Ca2+ (r = 0.81), Mg2+ (r = 0.82), Cl- (r = 0.86) but poor correlation with TDS (r = 0.52). Knowledge of correlation values between water quality parameters is helpful to take decision of appropriate management strategy for controlling groundwater pollution.

  1. Fluoride content in bottled drinking waters, carbonated soft drinks and fruit juices in Davangere city, India

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    Thippeswamy H

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The regular ingestion of fluoride lowers the prevalence of dental caries. The total daily intake of fluoride for optimal dental health should be 0.05-0.07 mg fluoride/kg body weight and to avoid the risk of dental fluorosis, the daily intake should not exceed a daily level of 0.10 mg fluoride/kg body weight. The main source of fluoride is from drinking water and other beverages. As in other countries, consumption of bottled water, juices and carbonated beverages has increased in our country. Objective: To analyze the fluoride content in bottled water, juices and carbonated soft drinks that were commonly available in Davangere city. Materials and Methods: Three samples of 10 commercially available brands of bottled drinking water, 12 fruit juices and 12 carbonated soft drinks were purchased. Bottled water and carbonated soft drinks were stored at a cold place until fluoride analysis was performed and a clear juice was prepared using different fruits without the addition of water. Then, the fluoride analysis was performed. Results: The mean and standard deviation of fluoride content of bottled water, fruit juices and carbonated soft drinks were measured, which were found to be 0.20 mg (±0.19 F/L, 0.29 mg (±0.06 F/L and 0.22 mg (±0.05 F/L, respectively. Conclusion: In viewing the results of the present study, it can be concluded that regulation of the optimal range of fluoride in bottled drinking water, carbonated soft drinks and fruit juices should be drawn for the Indian scenario.

  2. Model cities: argumentation, institutions and urban development since 1880

    OpenAIRE

    Kennedy, Sean Michael

    2014-01-01

    Bangalore, Barcelona and Singapore are just three of the many “model cities” identified in urban studies. Such model cities constitute a phenomenon which has received little critical attention in urban studies, though there has been much progress in the related fields of urban policy mobilities, comparative urbanism and global urbanism. This thesis builds upon these contributions whilst concentrating specifically on the model city. It defines three core characteristics of grounded model citie...

  3. Where Do Female Sex Workers Seek HIV and Reproductive Health Care and What Motivates These Choices? A Survey in 4 Cities in India, Kenya, Mozambique and South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafort, Yves; Greener, Ross; Roy, Anuradha; Greener, Letitia; Ombidi, Wilkister; Lessitala, Faustino; Haghparast-Bidgoli, Hassan; Beksinska, Mags; Gichangi, Peter; Reza-Paul, Sushena; Smit, Jenni A.; Chersich, Matthew; Delva, Wim

    2016-01-01

    Background A baseline cross-sectional survey among female sex workers (FSWs) was conducted in four cities within the context of an implementation research project aiming to improve FSWs’ access to HIV, and sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services. The survey measured where FSWs seek HIV/SRH care and what motivates their choice. Methods Using respondent-driven sampling (RDS), FWSs were recruited in Durban, South Africa (n = 400), Tete, Mozambique (n = 308), Mombasa, Kenya (n = 400) and Mysore, India (n = 458) and interviewed. RDS-adjusted proportions were estimated by non-parametric bootstrapping, and compared across cities using post-hoc pairwise comparison tests. Results Across cities, FSWs most commonly sought care for the majority of HIV/SRH services at public health facilities, most especially in Durban (ranging from 65% for condoms to 97% for HIV care). Services specifically targeting FSWs only had a high coverage in Mysore for STI care (89%) and HIV testing (79%). Private-for-profit clinics were important providers in Mombasa (ranging from 17% for STI care and HIV testing to 43% for HIV care), but not in the other cities. The most important reason for the choice of care provider in Durban and Mombasa was proximity, in Tete ‘where they always go’, and in Mysore cost of care. Where available, clinics specifically targeting FSWs were more often chosen because of shorter waiting times, perceived higher quality of care, more privacy and friendlier personnel. Conclusion The place where care is sought for HIV/SRH services differs substantially between cities. Targeted services have limited coverage in the African cities compared to Mysore. Convenience appears more important for choosing the place of care than aspects of quality of care. The best model to improve access, linking targeted interventions with general health services, will need to be tailored to the specific context of each city. PMID:27494412

  4. Aeroallergen sensitivity among patients suffering from bronchial asthma in Bangalore

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    Giriyanna Gowda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Asthma is a serious public health problem throughout the world and its prevalence has increased in last 2-3 decades. Allergens are one of the many factors which trigger an attack of asthma. Skin prick test is useful in identifying the offending allergen in bronchial asthma. Aim: To identify the possible offending allergens in patients of bronchial asthma. Materials and Methods: The study was a descriptive study conducted at allergy center, Kempegowda Institute of Medical Sciences Hospital and Research Center, Bangalore from January to December 2011. Skin prick test was done in 139 patients suffering from bronchial asthma using 49 allergens extracts. Statistical Analysis: Frequency, proportions, Chi-square test, odds ratio, and 95% confidence interval was used. Results: Out of 139 patients who underwent the skin prick tests, 40% (56 were males and 60% (83 were females. Majority, that is, 60% were in the age group of 21-40 years. Forty-three percent (60 had family history of asthma/atopy, 80% (111 had allergic rhinitis, 24% (34 had chronic urticaria, and 24% (33 had allergic conjunctivitis. Out of 139 patients, 100 (71.94% were sensitive for one or more allergens. The common offending allergens found in the study were dust mites (Dermatophagoides farinae and D. pteronyssinus (DF and DP - 49.28%, dusts - 7.2%, pollens - 6.77%, insects - 6.62%, fungi - 4.53%, and epithelia - 1.92%. Conclusion: The most common allergens in bronchial asthma were dust mites followed by dusts and pollens. Identifying possible allergens in asthma patients help in allergen avoidance and immunotherapy in these patients.

  5. Dense and expanding: Urban development and land markets in Chennai, India

    OpenAIRE

    Dowall, David E.; Monkkonen, Paavo

    2007-01-01

    There is growing research literature on urban land and housing markets in India. Over the past five years, detailed studies have been carried out on urban land market dynamics in Mumbai, Bangalore and Delhi. Taken together, these studies provide detailed assessments of urban land development in India, and explore the various effects of urban planning and development control regulation on the spatial development of India’s leading urban regions. This paper adds to this discussion by providing ...

  6. Masking Identity: The French HeadScarf Controversy via-a-vis Children's Rehabilitation Homes in Bangalore

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    Simi Rose George

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The growing frequency of terrorist attacks and sporadic acts of violence based on religious and cultural differences point towards the need to rethink policies adopted by multicultural societies towards integrating diverse communities into the national fabric. Indeed, creating a sense of belonging amongst individuals from different cultures has always been a challenge for multicultural societies. In order to achieve this end, many European countries have sought to erase makers of cultural identity from the public domain. For instance, in a recent move, France has banned the use of all religious symbols in schools. Field research in two childrens’ rehabilitation homes in Bangalore suggests that efforts to create homogeneity exist at the microcosmic level, parallel to forces seeking to mask identity at the level of the nation-state. Does the policy of masking differences in identity, which is at work in different ways in both India and France, meet the challenge of forging a sense of belonging in multicultural societies? Is it an effective means of ensuring the peaceful co-existence of distinct cultural groups within a nation-state? Theories of cultural pluralism and assimilationist liberalism answer these questions in divergent ways. This paper seeks to analyze the process of masking identity and to evaluate its impact within this theoretical framework.

  7. Self-medication patterns and drug use behavior in housewives belonging to the middle income group in a city in northern India

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    Jyoti Kaushal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective was to assess the self-medication patterns and drug use behavior in housewives belonging to the middle income group in a city of Haryana State in Northern India. Materials and Methods: A detailed questionnaire designed to assess the self-medication patterns and drug use behavior and interview technique was used to elicit the requisite information. One hundred housewives of the middle income group were interviewed in Rohtak. Results: Most of the housewives were in the habit of keeping the medicines though only 73% of them were in the habit of using it without any prescription. Also it was seen that those housewives who were taking self-medication were better educated than those not indulged in self-medication. All of them were using allopathic drugs on a regular basis while other modes of medications were less used. The self-medication was most commonly based on the previous prescriptions issued by the doctors followed by the suggestions from friends, advertisement on the television, and newspapers. For most of them the reasons for self-medication were financial restraints and lack of time to go to the medical practitioner. Conclusions: The study delineates the difference in the self-medication patterns and drug use behavior in housewives in a city of Northern India. The results emphasize the need for comprehensive measures for intervention strategies to promote rational drug therapy by improving prescribing patterns and influencing self-medication.

  8. Factors influencing caries status and treatment needs among pregnant women attending a maternity hospital in Udaipur city, India

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Santhosh; Tadakamadla, Jyothi; Tibdewal, Harish; Duraiswamy, Prabu; Kulkarni, Suhas

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate the prevalence and severity of dental caries along with the treatment needs; to determine the factors that influence dental caries status among pregnant women attending a district maternity hospital in Udaipur, India. Study design: Study sample comprised of 206 pregnant women attending a district maternity hospital in Udaipur, India. Clinical data were collected on dental caries by DMFT and treatment needs as described in World Health Organization Dentition status and ...

  9. Compliance monitoring of prohibition of smoking (under section-4 of COTPA at a tertiary health-care institution in a smoke-free city of India

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    Jaya Prasad Tripathy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: India enacted a comprehensive tobacco control law known as cigarettes and other tobacco products act (COTPA in 2003. However, enforcement of the provisions under the law is still a matter of concern. Compliance survey is an effective tool to measure the status of implementation of the law at various public places. Smoke-free hospital campus demonstrates commitment to good health and sends a pro-healthy signal to the community. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the compliance to the prohibition of smoking at public places (under section-4 of COTPA in a tertiary health-care institution in a smoke-free city of India. Materials and Methods: An observational cross-sectional study was conducted at 40 different venues within a tertiary health-care institution in a smoke-free city of India. These places were observed for certain parameters of assessment by a structured checklist, which included evidence of active smoking, evidence of recent smoking, display of signages, presence of smoking aids, cigarette butts and bidi ends. Results: Overall compliance rate for section-4 of COTPA was found to be mere 23%. Evidence of active smoking was observed in 21 (52.5% venues. Signages were seen at only 8 places (20%. Butt ends and other smoking aids were seen in 37 (92.5% and 26 (65% places respectively. Conclusion: These dismal findings suggest non-compliance to the provisions under COTPA, which calls for a sensitization workshop and advocacy for all the stakeholders.

  10. Sustainable Decentralized Model For Solid Waste Management In Urban India

    OpenAIRE

    T. Subramani; R. Umarani

    2014-01-01

    This paper attempts to assess the various factors that govern the sustenance of a decentralized Solid waste management system in urban India. Towards this end, two decentralized composting facilities (One operational and the other closed) were studied both of which were started at the same time in Bangalore. The parameters covered under the study were the technology and the technical expertise, Managerial influence, economic viability, community support including the socio- ec...

  11. Importance of Technological Innovation for SME Growth - Evidence from India

    OpenAIRE

    M H Bala Subrahmanya; Mathirajan, M; Krishnaswamy, K.N.

    2010-01-01

    This paper probes the drivers, dimensions, achievements, and outcomes of technological innovations carried out by SMEs in the auto components, electronics, and machine tool sectors of Bangalore in India. Further, it ascertains the growth rates of innovative SMEs vis-à-vis non-innovative SMEs in terms of sales turnover, employment, and investment. Thereafter, it probes the relationship between innovation and growth of SMEs by (i) estimating a correlation between innovation sales and sales grow...

  12. Awareness and perception regarding health insurance in Bangalore rural population

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    Suwarna Madhukumar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Awareness and perception regarding health insurance was still very preliminary. Although health insurance is not a new concept and people are also getting familiar with it, yet this awareness has not reached to the level of subscription of health insurance products. Insurance as not been able to make inroads in the rural areas because of key reasons such as high cost of delivery and low awareness among the rural population about insurance products. There is a felt need to provide financial protection to rural families for the treatment of major ailments, requiring hospitalization and surgery. The present study is an effort in the area of health insurance to assess the individuals’ awareness level and willingness to join and pay for it. The present study is an effort to examine what are the reasons behind those who have not in favour of subscription. Methods: Nandagudi a village in Bangalore rural district was selected because the Rural Health Training Centre of MVJ Medical College & RH is located. The houses were listed and by using systematic random sampling every 2nd house was included in the study. 331 houses were interviewed. The interview was taken either from the head of the family or the family member who takes financial decisions in the house. Data was collected and analysed. Findings were described in terms of proportions and percentages. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS statistical package. Results: In our study population majority were males (94.9%, Hindus (60%, literate (85%,and manual workers (79.5%.Only one third of the houses were aware of health insurance but only 22% had health insurance coverage. The coverage was not for all family members. The subscription depended on education, socio–economic status, type of family. The willingness to pay a premium was Rs 500 per year in 31% of the families. It was observed that the main barriers for the subscription of health insurance were low income or uncertainty

  13. Perceptions and practices related to diabetes reported by persons with diabetes attending diabetic care clinics: The India 11-city 9-state study

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    Murthy V. S. Gudlavalleti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: India has the second largest population of persons with diabetes and a significant proportion has poor glycemic control and inadequate awareness of management of diabetes. Objectives: Determine the level of awareness regarding management of diabetes and its complications and diabetic care practices in India. Methods: The cross-sectional, hospital-based survey was conducted in 11 cities where public and private providers of diabetic care were identified. At each diabetic care facility, 4–6 persons with diabetes were administered a structured questionnaire in the local language. Results: Two hundred and eighty-five persons with diabetes were interviewed. The mean duration since diagnosis of diabetes was 8.1 years (standard deviation ± 7.3. Half of the participants reported a family history of diabetes and 41.7% were hypertensive. Almost 62.1% stated that they received information on diabetes and its management through interpersonal channels. Family history (36.1%, increasing age (25.3%, and stress (22.8% were the commonest causes of diabetes reported. Only 29.1% stated that they monitored their blood sugar levels at home using a glucometer. The commonest challenges reported in managing diabetes were dietary modifications (67.4%, compliance with medicines (20.5%, and cost of medicines (17.9%. Around 76.5% were aware of complications of diabetes. Kidney failure (79.8%, blindness/vision loss (79.3%, and heart attack (56.4% were the commonest complications mentioned. Almost 67.7% of the respondents stated that they had had an eye examination earlier. Conclusions: The findings have significant implications for the organization of diabetes services in India for early detection and management of complications, including eye complications.

  14. A STUDY ON AWARENESS ABOUT HIV/AIDS AMO NG FIRST YEAR MEDICAL STUDENTS OF BANGALORE MEDICAL COLLEGE AND RESEARCH INSTITUTE

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    Shivaraj

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: HIV/AIDS epidemic is one of the challenges in public health in India. Young people are more vulnerable for getting in contact with the disease. Medical students during their tenure of student life can play a pivotal role in knowledge transmission about th e disease to the general public. This study was conducted at Bangalore Medical College and Research Institute to find out the awareness of HIV/AIDS among first year medical students. METHODOLOGY: A Cross sectional study was done among 250 MBBS students of Bangalore Medical College and Research Institute during the academic year of 2012 - 2013 . The information was collected from them within 2 - 3 weeks of admission to the course using pre - tested semi structured questionnaire. RESULTS: The mean age of the study population was 18 ( + 1 years. Males comprised 64% and females comprised 36% of respondents. 29% of them were from rural background and 67% from Urban. 97% of the participants know that HIV causative agent is virus. 49% of them said it is contagious , 42% of them said non - contagious and 8.9% say they don’t know. They had adequate knowledge about modes of transmission of HIV/AIDS was through blood transfusion , unsterilized instrument , and mother to child transmission. But regarding sexual transmission among tw o HIV infected person , 40% of them said it is safe . 92% of them felt HIV can be prevented by taking proper precautions. 94% of them got the information from mass media especially from TV. 55% of them received formal sex education in Schools and Colleges. CONCLUSION: Young medical students can be used as a resource persons for educating the youth at the community level.

  15. PREVALENCE OF HIV AMONG TUBERCULOSIS PATIENTS AT TERTIARY CARE REFERRAL HOSPITAL IN BANGALORE RURAL, SOUTH INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Parimala

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis and HIV infection together form a very grave public health hazard. Detection of HIV infection among TB patients offers the opportunity to deliver prompt HIV care, such as cotrimoxazole prophylaxis and antiretroviral treatment, which can reduce suffering and death. AIM: To know the sociodemograhic profile and prevalence of HIV among in newly diagnosed, untreated TB patients at tertiary care hospital in a rural area. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prosp...

  16. PROFILE OF HUMAN RABIES CASES ADMITTED AT EPIDEMIC DISEASES HOSPITAL, BANGALORE, INDIA

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    Mahendra

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The present study was carried out with the following objectives 1. To describe the socio demographic profile of human rabies cases 2. To describe the pattern of clinical presentation 3. To assess the quality of data in the case record forms of the human rabies cases TYPE OF STUDY: Case Record Analysis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Case records of suspect human rabies cases. Data analyzed using proportions. STUDY PERIOD: April 2009 to March 2012. RESULTS: 75 suspected human rabies cases were admitted to the epidemic diseases hospital during the study period. 64 (85.33% of the cases were from the state of Karnataka, 11 (14.67% were from Andhra Pradesh and Tamilnadu. 61 (81.33% were males. 17 (22.67% were children aged ≤ 15 years. 44 (58.67% of the cases were from rural areas. In 71 (94.67% of the victims, the exposure was to dogs. Mean duration of time since bite to seeking admission was 118 days. Category of the wound was documented for 43 (57.33% of the 75 cases. Of these, 40 (93.02% had category III exposure. 61 (81.33% of the case records had data regarding wound toilet and only 12 (19.68% of the victims had performed wound toilet. Only 1 (1.47% of the victims had received rabies immunoglobulin, but had not completed the scheduled vaccination regimen. 43 (67.19% had not received any post exposure prophylaxis. Clinical signs and symptoms of rabies had been entered in 68 (90.67% of the case records, and all had hydrophobia. CONCLUSION: Most of the suspected human rabies cases admitted had not received post exposure prophylaxis or had received incomplete post exposure prophylaxis. The data entered into the case record forms of the patients was mostly incomplete.

  17. Meditation, Rangoli, and Eating on the Floor: Practices from an Urban Preschool in Bangalore, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adair, Jennifer Keys; Bhaskaran, Lilly

    2010-01-01

    Young children benefit from learning about and experiencing cultural and ethnic diversity. Early childhood practitioners often strive to diversify the curriculum by including children's cultural traditions, holidays, or foods. Yet, one knows that young children need more than a celebration or a circle time story about a place or people to feel…

  18. Prevalence of diabetes and pre-diabetes and assessments of their risk factors in urban slums of Bangalore

    OpenAIRE

    Dasappa, Hemavathi; Fathima, Farah Naaz; Prabhakar, Rugmani; Sarin, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Background: To determine the prevalence of diabetes and pre-diabetes and to assess the risk factors associated with diabetes and pre-diabetes in the urban slums of Bangalore. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in four slums of Bangalore in the age group of 35 years and above comprising of total 2013 subjects. Risk factors like age, sex, family history, behavior, physical activity, BMI, waist hip ration, diet habits were assessed to find their association with diabete...

  19. Emissions Inventory of Anthropogenic PM2.5 and PM10 in Mega city, Delhi, India for Air Quality Forecasting during CWG- 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, S.; Beig, G.; Schultz, M.; Parkhi, N.; Stein, O.

    2012-04-01

    The mega city of Delhi is the second largest urban agglomeration in India with 16.7 mio. inhabitants. Delhi has the highest per capita power consumption of electricity in India and the demand has risen by more than 50% during the last decade. Emissions from commercial, power, domestic and industrial sectors have strongly increased causing more and more environmental problems due to air pollution and its adverse impacts on human health. Particulate matter (PM) of size less than 2.5-micron (PM2.5) and 10 micron (PM10) have emerged as primary pollutants of concern due to their adverse impact on human health. As part of the System of Air quality Forecasting and Research (SAFAR) project developed for air quality forecasting during the Commonwealth Games (CWG) - 2010, a high resolution Emission Inventory (EI) of PM10 and PM2.5 has been developed for the metropolitan city Delhi for the year 2010. The comprehensive inventory involves detailed activity data and has been developed for a domain of 70km×65km with a 1.67km×1.67km resolution covering Delhi and its surrounding region (i.e. National Capital Region (NCR)). In creating this inventory, Geographical Information System (GIS) based techniques were used for the first time in India. The major sectors considered are, transport, thermal power plants, industries, residential and commercial cooking along with windblown road dust which is found to play a major role for the megacity environment. Extensive surveys were conducted among the Delhi slum dwellers (Jhuggi) in order to obtain more robust estimates for the activity data related to domestic cooking and heating. Total emissions of PM10 and PM2.5 including wind blown dust over the study area are found to be 236 Gg/yr and 94 Gg/yr respectively. About half of the PM10 emissions stem from windblown road dust. The new emission inventory has been used for regional air quality forecasts in the Delhi region during the Commonwealth games (SAFAR project), and they will soon be

  20. Home deliveries in Chandigarh, the beautiful city of India: a tug of war between culture and science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyashree, Kathiresan; Gupta, Madhu; Kathirvel, Soundappan; Singh, Amarjeet

    2013-01-01

    There have been various commitments made in the international front to reduce maternal mortality ratio, and India has set its target at <100 maternal deaths/100,000 live-births. One of the strategies is to have 80% of the deliveries take place at healthcare institutions. However, health-related behaviour and decision-making is affected by many factors beyond the availability of health services. We report the case of a fourth gravida, belonging to the Sansi tribe, with son-preference in urban northern India, who delivered her fourth female child at home. We attempt to understand beliefs, norms and practices involved in deciding place of delivery in the context of theory of reasoned action and health belief model so that cultural appropriateness can be ensured in healthcare delivery. The study emphasises that there is need for improvement in cultural appropriateness of healthcare services delivered to the community. PMID:23365161

  1. Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Residential Soils and their Health Risk and Hazard in an Industrial City in India

    OpenAIRE

    Bhupander Kumar; Virendra Kumar Verma; Satish Kumar Singh; Sanjay Kumar; Chandra Shekhar Sharma; Akolkar, Avinash B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have never been produced in India, but were used in industrial applications. PCBs have been detected in environmental samples since 1966, and their sources in soils come from depositions of industrial applications, incinerators and biomass combustions. PCBs adsorb to soil particles and persist for long time due to their properties. Their close proximity may also lead to human exposure through ingestion, inhalation, dermal contact, and may exert neur...

  2. Profile of Substance Use among Patients Attending De-Addiction Centres in a Coastal City of Southern India

    OpenAIRE

    Nithin Kumar; Tanuj Kanchan; Bhaskaran Unnikrishnan; Rekha Thapar; Prasanna Mithra; Vaman Kulkarni; Mohan Kumar Papanna; Ramesh Holla; Saran Sarathy

    2013-01-01

    Drug dependence is still to be recognized in developing countries as a significant public health problem and literature on the magnitude of this problem is limited. The present research was planned to study the socio-demographic profile and the reasons for substance use among patients admitted at De-addiction centres in Mangalore, India. In this cross-sectional study, all the patients admitted at the De-addiction centres during the study period were interviewed. The data was analyzed and the ...

  3. Self-Reported Physical Activity and its Correlates among Adult Women in the Expanded Part of Thiruvananthapuram City, India

    OpenAIRE

    Elezebeth Mathews; Michael Pratt; Vinoda Thulaseedharan Jissa; Kavumpurathu Raman Thankappan

    2015-01-01

    Data on correlates of physical activity (PA) are limited in India. This study estimated the prevalence and correlates of PA among women. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 1303 women (mean age 45 years) selected by multistage cluster sampling. Information was collected using a pretested interview schedule. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the correlates of PA. Self-reported moderate or high level PA prevalence was 73.4% [95% confidence interval (CI); 7...

  4. Prevalence of obesity and overweight among school children of Pune city, Maharashtra, India: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Ghonge

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: High prevalence of obesity and overweight in school children indicate an urgent need to increase awareness via education and motivation of all stakeholders. This will go a long way in preventing childhood obesity and thus ultimately stemming the rising tide of non-communicable diseases such as diabetes and cardio vascular disease in India. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(12.000: 3599-3603

  5. Secondary X-Ray Environment in the Lower Atmosphere of the Earth during Monsoon Season over Udaipur City (India) in July-September 2006

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.N.A.Jaaffrey; Shubhra Tiwari

    2009-01-01

    We present a study on the secondary x-rays of energy band 2-100 keY emitted by the intruded principal pollutant components (gases and minerals) brought up in the lower atmosphere by dust storms,monsoon drift and the gravitational pull on meteoritic showers.On the ground we employed a 1.5 × 1 inch2 NaI crystal in a scintillation detector,suitable for the energy range 2-100 keV of secondary x-rays,providing better energy resolution than a larger sized crystal.In order to eliminate the radioactive background of the Earth,the detector was well shielded on all sides with the help of the lead (Pb) container,except with a.smail open window at the top to permit only vertically incident secondary radiation.The results from the data analysis obtained during the monsoon over Udalpur city (India) during the period from July to September (2006) have revealed a linear correlation between dust storm cure monsoon clouds and observed luminosities of secondary x-ray radiation from intruded pollutants.We found intense flux of secondary x-rays from the intruded pollutants when heavy dust and monsoon clouds were brought up by dust storms and monsoon drift in the lower atmosphere over Udalpur city as compared to normal days.Thus,secondary x-rays in the environment provide a tool for investigation of local intrusive pollutant components in the lower atmosphere.

  6. A Study to Take Account of Scientific Management of Waste Generated During Patient Care by General Practitioners in Mumbai City, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shishir Basarkar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available It has been mentioned that scientific management of waste generated during patient care is essential as well as a legal liability of the generator. Unfortunately, complacency and inadequate knowledge followed by practice for waste disposal leads to various kinds of community and individual health and environment issues which are detrimental to the human life. The present study is aimed to take an account of scientific knowledge and it’s practical applicability of BMW among the general practitioners of Mumbai city in India. In the present study general practitioners in Mumbai city were visited and interviewed personally and also administered questionnaire in order to analyse biomedical waste management by general practitioners. 37 (30.8% belongs to age group 14-50 years followed by 30-40 years (30%. The percentage of male (64.1% is more than female (35.8% practitioners. The qualification ranged from BHMS, BAMS, MBBS to MD of which majority ware medical graduates (40.8%. 66.6% practitioners had average while only 23.3% has good knowledge about proper waste management. Maximum concern was shown towards the safety where it scored 80% followed by waste generation (62%, definition (51%, transportation (46%, Colour coding (34%. The study brought out the facts that the deficiency of knowledge and practices of waste management were the main reason for non scientific management of waste generated by general practitioners thus exposing self as well as community at large to health and environment hazards.

  7. PREVALENCE OF ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO ABUSE AMONG THE ELDERLY IN A RURAL AREA OF BANGALORE: A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY

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    Swathi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The population of elderly persons in India is the second largest in the world and is steadily growing. Although alcohol and tobacco problems are often under reported, their use remains common among older persons. Cessation of their use can reduce the incidence of cardio-vascular, pulmonary or malignant diseases, and prevent substance-induced problems.1 OBJECTIVES The study was conducted to assess the prevalence of alcohol and tobacco usage in the elderly in few villages of Bangalore Urban District. METHODS A Study was conducted over the period of 2 months in the calendar year 2014 on a sample of 295 people belonging to 14 villages under two sub centers. Data was collected using pretested structured questionnaires (CAGE, SMAST-G, AUDIT and Fagerstroms. The collected data was analysed. Our inclusion criteria >60 years, exclusion criteria were elders with cognitive defects and sensorineural deafness and bed ridden patients. RESULTS Among 295 subjects, 28.84 % of them used alcohol, 6.5% of females used alcohol. 15.5% of males of 33.3% of females out of them were found to be dependent on alcohol. 47.13% of males used tobacco and 47.11% of females used tobacco or tobacco products. Reasons for usage were to forget their problems or losses or due to loneliness. Many of them skipped meals, had tremors or sustained injuries to themselves or others because of their drinking. CONCLUSION Prevalence of alcohol use was 18.3% and that of alcohol dependence 15.5%. Prevalence of tobacco usage was 47.11%, prevalence of high dependency tobacco was 22%.

  8. Leachate Characterization and Assessment of Ground Water Pollution near MSW Dumpsite of Mavallipura, Bangalore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Venkata Ramaiah,

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Leachate and groundwater samples were collected from municipal solid waste dumpsite of Mavallipura which comes under Bruhat Bangalore Mahanagara Palike Bangalore. An attempt has been made to characterize contaminated dumpsite and its adjacent area to study the possible impact of leachate percolation on groundwater quality. Characterization of various physico chemical parameters was carried out on selected ground water samples as well as leachate obtained from the dump site. It has been observed that, in the ground water the concentrations of various parameters such as Ca2+, Mg2+, NO3 - , TDS, TA are on the higher side than the prescribed limits. The result shows that the leachate analyzed for various parameters are also on the higher side. This study reveals that the most of the parameters are exceeding their acceptable limit and hence significant impact on the surrounding soil and ground water quality.

  9. Biomonitoring of pollen grains of a river bank suburban city, Konnagar, Calcutta, India, and its link and impact on local people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita Ghosal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objectives. Pollen grains released by plants are dispersed into the air and can become trapped in human nasal mucosa, causing immediate release of allergens triggering severe Type 1 hypersensitivity reactions in susceptible allergic patients. Recent epidemiologic data show that 11–12% of people suffer from this type of disorders in India. Hence, it is important to examine whether pollen grains have a role in dissipating respiratory problems, including allergy and astma, in a subtropical suburban city. Materials and methods. Meteorological data were collected for a period of two years, together with aerobiological sampling with a Burkard sampler. A pollen calendar was prepared for the city. A health survey and the hospitalization rate of local people for the above problems were documented following statistical analysis between pollen counts and the data from the two above-mentioned sources. Skin Prick Test and Indirect ELISA were performer for the identification of allergenic pollen grains. Results. Bio-monitoring results showed that a total of 36 species of pollen grains were located in the air of the study area, where their presence is controlled by many important meteorological parameters proved from SPSS statistical analysis and by their blooming periods. Statistical analysis showed that there is a high positive correlation of monthly pollen counts with the data from the survey and hospital. Biochemical tests revealed the allergic nature of pollen grains of many local species found in the sampler. Conclusions. Bio-monitoring, together with statistical and biochemical results, leave no doubt about the role of pollen as a bio-pollutant. General knowledge about pollen allergy and specific allergenic pollen grains of a particular locality could be a good step towards better health for the cosmopolitan suburban city.

  10. EFFECTIVENESS OF THE BANGALORE UNIVERSITY B.ED CURRICULUM IN DEVELOPING PROPER ATTITUDE TOWARDS TEACHING PROFESSION

    OpenAIRE

    N.N.Prahallada

    2016-01-01

    The present study explored the variables that contribute to the effectiveness of teachers training program in Bangalore University for the education sector. A sample of 52 students were selected which included both male and female teacher trainees of B.E.S B.Ed. College; with the help of a research questionnaire their response was recorded. This study determined that their effectiveness could have been increased if rigorous training need analysis had been done. The study also finds that facto...

  11. Recontextualization of the Corporate Values of a Danish MNC in a Subsidiary in Bangalore

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gertsen, Martine Cardel; Zølner, Mette

    2012-01-01

    in Bangalore. The authors show how these values take on new meanings when interpreted by local employees. On the one hand, their understandings are shaped by the prevailing meaning system, including leadership ideals, and on the other hand, by their resources and strategies. To further their understanding...... of the recontextualization, the authors point to a need to go beyond the system of signification shared within a national culture and include social agency, of which they conceive in Bourdieusian terms....

  12. Relationship of Perceived Stress and Dental Caries among Pre University Students in Bangalore City

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Meena; Singh, Amitoch; Sharma, Ankur

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Stress can increase the susceptibility to dental caries by four possible mechanisms. Studies show that adolescents tend to more likely develop negative body image, disturbed eating behaviours and high levels of stress. Students report stress, taking and studying for exams being the greatest source of academic stress due to competition and the large amount of content in less time.

  13. Feeding and oral hygiene habits of children attending daycare centres in Bangalore and their caretakers oral health knowledge, attitude and practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Vinay

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Caretakers in day-care centers play a significant role in imparting good oral hygiene practices and also extend a working relationship with parents with regard to their children′s oral health. As a result of this, caregiver′s dental knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and practices affect the child′s oral condition. Settings and Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study involved caretakers working in day-care centers of Bangalore. Fifty-two day-care centers were randomly selected from the different zones of Bangalore city, from which 246 caretakers provided consent for participation. Materials and Methods: A comprehensive, closed-ended, self-administered questionnaire was employed which was designed to collect the sociodemographic details and to evaluate the oral health knowledge, attitudes, practice of caretakers. The institutional review committee approved the study. Data were entered using SPSS 13.01. Results: Seventy-nine percent of the subjects had good knowledge of child′s tooth eruption time, clinical presentation of dental caries and the role of fluoride in caries prevention. Yet, half of the subjects found routine dental examination after all the milk teeth have erupted in the oral cavity insignificant and 41% strongly agreed that dentist should be consulted only when the child has a toothache. In spite of the good knowledge, 77% preferred to use pacifier dipped in honey/sugar if the children acted troublesome. Analogous to this, 45% gave milk/juice with sugar before the child′s nap time. Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that caretaker′s attitude toward oral health care needs is far from acceptable standards to mirror any positive impact on the children.

  14. An Assesment of Groundwater Quality Index in Bommasandra Area,Bengaluru city,Karnataka State,India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivaprasad H

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater is a natural resource for drinking water .In addition to the population growth, urbanization and industrialization also extend the demand of water. Providing safe drinking water supply to the ever growing urban and sub-urban population is going to be a challenge to the civil authorities, city planners, policy makers and environmentalists. Groundwater is a major source of drinking water in both urban and rural areas of Bommasandra. Bommasandra city is rapidly raising population, changing lifestyle and intense competition among users- agriculture, industry and domestic sectors is driving the groundwater table lower. Besides, discharge of untreated wastewater through bores and leachate from unscientific disposal of solid wastes also contaminate groundwater, thereby reducing quality of fresh water resources.

  15. Isolation and characterization of bacteria from canine respiratory diseases in and around Hyderabad city, Andhra Pradesh, India

    OpenAIRE

    S. Ayodhya; D. S. Tirumala Rao; Y. Narsimha Reddy; N. Syam Sundar; V Girish Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To identify the organisms causing respiratory diseases in dogs that belongs to areas in and around Hyderabad city.Materials and Methods: Nasal samples were collected using sterile swabs from the canine clinical cases that were presented with the history of respiratory diseases at the University administered Veterinary Hospital, Bhoiguda, Secunderabad and Campus Veterinary Hospital, College of Veterinary Science, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad over a period of 26 months i.e., from October 2008 ...

  16. SCREENING FOR BLOOD SUGAR LEVELS AMONG YOUNG ADULT MALES ATTENDING MEDICINE OPD AT MIMSH, MANDYA CITY, KARNA TAKA, INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Ramakrishna; Poornima; Shivakumar

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The number of young adults seeking care for diabete s related complications has been constantly on the rise in our hospitals. This f act prompted us to take up this study. OBJECTIVE: To screen all the young males aged between 20- 30 y ears attending medicine OPD at MIMSH, Mandya City, for blood sugar levels. METHODOLOGY: A descriptive study of 6 months duration was taken up at Medical C ollege Hospital MIMS, Mandya. All the...

  17. Polychlorinated biphenyls in residential soils and their health risk and hazard in an industrial city in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhupander Kumar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs have never been produced in India, but were used in industrial applications. PCBs have been detected in environmental samples since 1966, and their sources in soils come from depositions of industrial applications, incinerators and biomass combustions. PCBs adsorb to soil particles and persist for long time due to their properties. Their close proximity may also lead to human exposure through ingestion, inhalation, dermal contact, and may exert neurotoxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic health effects. Design and Methods. Residential soil from Korba, India, was extracted using pressurized liquid extraction procedure, cleaned on modified silica and quantified for PCBs. Soil ingestion was considered as the main exposure pathways of life-long intake of PCBs. Human health risk in terms of life time average daily dose, incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR and non-cancer hazard quotient (HQ were estimated using established guidelines. Results. The estimated average ILCR from non dioxin like PCBs for human adults and children was 3.1×10−8 and 1.1×10−7, respectively. ILCR from dioxin like PCBs for human adults and children was 3.1×10−6 and 1.1×10−5, respectively. The HQ for PCBs was 6.3×10−4 and 2.2×10−3, respectively for human adults and children. Study observed that ILCR from non dioxin like PCBs was lower than acceptable guideline range of 10−6-10−4, and ILCR from dioxin like PCBs was within the limit. HQ was lower than safe limit of 1. Conclusions. Study concluded that human population residing in Korba had low health risk due to PCBs in residential soils.

  18. Faith, Trust and the Perinatal Healthcare Maze in Urban India

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    S. Raman

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available How women access and utilise health services through pregnancy, childbirth and infancy needs to be understood if we are to improve the delivery of and access to appropriate healthcare. Drawing on ethnographic observations of clinic encounters and in-depth interviews with women in Bangalore, South India, this paper reports on the complexities of negotiating healthcare throughout the perinatal continuum in urban India. Key themes identified include faith and trust in health services, confusion over right to healthcare; and the contested nature of choice for women. What is revealed is a socially restrictive framework that results in choices that seem arbitrary, irrational and self-defeating; poor women being particularly vulnerable. Given the current policy support for public-private-partnerships in reproductive healthcare delivery in India, both public and private health services need to move substantially to achieve true partnership and provide care that is respectful and valued by women and children in urban India.

  19. Affective journeys: the emotional structuring of medical tourism in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Harris

    2011-04-01

    This paper examines the grid of sentiment that structures medical travel to India. In contrast to studies that render emotion as ancillary, the paper argues that affect is fundamental to medical travel's ability to ease the linked somatic, emotional, financial, and political injuries of being ill 'back home'. The ethnographic approach follows the scenes of medical travel within the Indian corporate hospital room, based on observations and interviews among foreign patients, caregivers, and hospital staff in Mumbai, New Delhi, Chennai, and Bangalore. Foreign patients conveyed diverse sentiments about their journey to India ranging from betrayal to gratitude, and their expressions of risk, healthcare costs, and cultural difference help sustain India's popularity as a medical travel destination. However, although the affective dimensions of medical travel promise a remedy for foreign patients, they also reveal the fault lines of market medicine in India.

  20. Adoption of Open Business Models in the West and Innovation in India's Software Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Lema, Rasmus

    2010-01-01

    Over the last three decades, outsourcing has had a big influence on the international division of labour. It is clear that it has been a major reason for the enormous build-up of production capabilities in the developing world, in particular in the export platforms of Asia. However, the influence of outsourcing on innovation capabilities is less clear. Recent literature shows that innovation capabilities have emerged in the software cluster of Bangalore in India. This report asks whether and ...

  1. A mental health training program for community health workers in India: impact on knowledge and attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Armstrong Gregory; Kermode Michelle; Raja Shoba; Suja Sujatha; Chandra Prabha; Jorm Anthony F

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Unmet needs for mental health treatment in low income countries are pervasive. If mental health is to be effectively integrated into primary health care in low income countries like India then grass-roots workers need to acquire relevant knowledge and skills to be able to recognise, refer and support people experiencing mental disorders in their own communities. This study aims to provide a mental health training intervention to community health workers in Bangalore Rural ...

  2. A mental health training program for community health workers in India: impact on knowledge and attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Armstrong, Gregory; Kermode, Michelle; RAJA, SHOBA; Suja, Sujatha; CHANDRA, PRABHA; Jorm, Anthony F

    2011-01-01

    Background Unmet needs for mental health treatment in low income countries are pervasive. If mental health is to be effectively integrated into primary health care in low income countries like India then grass-roots workers need to acquire relevant knowledge and skills to be able to recognise, refer and support people experiencing mental disorders in their own communities. This study aims to provide a mental health training intervention to community health workers in Bangalore Rural District,...

  3. Charecterisation and Modelling Urbanisation Pattern in Sillicon Valley of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aithal, B. H.

    2015-12-01

    Urbanisation and Urban sprawl has led to environmental problems and large losses of arable land in India. In this study, we characterise pattern of urban growth and model urban sprawl by means of a combination of remote sensing, geographical information system, spatial metrics and CA based modelling. This analysis uses time-series data to explore and derive the potential political-socio-economic- land based driving forces behind urbanisation and urban sprawl, and spatial models in different scenarios to explore the spatio-temporal interactions and development. The study area applied is Greater Bangalore, for the period from 1973 to 2015. Further water bodies depletion, vegetation depletion, tree cover were also analysed to obtain specific region based results effecting global climate and regional balance. Agents were integrated successfully into modelling aspects to understand and foresee the landscape pattern change in urban morphology. The results reveal built-up paved surfaces has expanded towards the outskirts and have expanded into the buffer regions around the city. Population growth, economic, industrial developments in the city core and transportation development are still the main causes of urban sprawl in the region. Agent based model are considered to be to the traditional models. Agent Based modelling approach as seen in this paper clearly shown its effectiveness in capturing the micro dynamics and influence in its neighbourhood mapping. Greenhouse gas emission inventory has shown important aspects such as domestic sector to be one of the major impact categories in the region. Further tree cover reduced drastically and is evident from the statistics and determines that if city is in verge of creating a chaos in terms of human health and desertification. Study concludes that integration of remote sensing, GIS, and agent based modelling offers an excellent opportunity to explore the spatio-temporal variation and visulaisation of sprawling metropolitan

  4. The linkages of anthropogenic emissions and meteorology in the rapid increase of particulate matter at a foothill city in the Arawali range of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Ravi; Beig, G.; Jaaffrey, S. N. A.

    2014-03-01

    The city of Udaipur (24.58°N, 73.68°E) in the province of Rajasthan in the Western part of India has a special significance as it is surrounded by the Arawali mountain ranges on one side and desert on the other side. It is located around the foothills of the rocky Arawali range. It is on the world map due to its tourist attraction. The changing pattern in particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10) during the past three years indicates an alarming increasing trend, posing a threat to its environment & tourism sector which regulates its economy to a period during the monsoon and distribution of particulate matter is found to be governed by the meteorology and changes the trend. The level of PM10, which was already above the threshold level in 2010, further increased in 2012. The trend is found to be rapid during the months of October & November where an increase by 37% is observed in 3 years. The level of PM2.5, which is the most hazardous for respiratory system diseases, has now started to cross the ambient air quality standards set by the World Health Organization. The impact is significant during winter when the inversion layer is down due to colder temperature and foreign tourists are a peak giving rise an increased morbidity rate. The linkages of local weather with an anthropogenically induced trend and long range transport of pollutants have been outlined.

  5. Evaluation of physico-chemical characteristics of groundwater of Company Bagh pumping station and its six distribution points in old Jammu City, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khajuria, Meenakshi; Dutta, S P S

    2011-10-01

    To assess water quality of Company Bagh pumping station and its six distribution points, viz. Parade Ground, Mohalla Paharian, Purani Mandi, Malhotrian Street, Raghunathpura and Hari Market in old Jammu city of India, water parameters viz. temperature, turbidity, pH, electrical conductivity, free carbon dioxide, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, bicarbonate, chloride, calcium, magnesium, total hardness, sodium, potassium, sulphate, silicate, nitrate, phosphate, iron, copper, zinc, lead and chromium were analyzed during the years 2000-2001/2001-2002. There was alteration in water quality parameters in the distribution system caused by entry of sewage, soil, etc. through dislocation, cracks, valve regulators/turncock, defective joints, breakage, etc. in the pipes through crossing and deposits of biofilms inside the pipes, dead ends and their degradation through microbes. Comparison of water quality with National and International Standards revealed that all the parameters were within permissible limits of drinking water standards. Water Quality Index (WQI) of various physico-chemical parameters revealed that the water of Company Bagh pumping station and its six distribution points was fit for human consumption as it was found under the category of good (WQI < 50). PMID:23505827

  6. Monitoring of Lead (Pb) Pollution in Soils and Plants Irrigated with Untreated Sewage Water in Some Industrialized Cities of Punjab, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikka, R; Nayyar, V K

    2016-04-01

    Soil and plant samples were collected from sewage and tubewell irrigated sites from three industrially different cities of Punjab (India) viz. Ludhiana, Jalandhar and Malerkotla. The extent of lead (Pb) pollution was assessed with respect to background concentration of tubewell irrigation. In sewage irrigated surface soil layer (0-15 cm), the extent of Pb accumulation was 4.61, 4.20 and 2.26 times higher than those receiving tubewell irrigation sites in Ludhiana, Jalandhar and Malerkotla, respectively. Multiple regression analysis showed that soil pH, organic carbon, calcium carbonate and clay were significant soil parameters explaining the variation in available soil Pb. The mean Pb content in plants receiving sewage irrigation was 4.56, 5.48 and 2.72 times higher than tubewell irrigation in Ludhiana, Jalandhar and Malerkotla, respectively. The content of Pb in plants receiving sewage irrigation revealed that, assuming a weekly consumption of 500-1000 g of vegetables grown on sewage irrigated soils by an adult of 70 kg body weight, the Pb intake may far exceed the World Health Organization proposed tolerable weekly intake of Pb.

  7. Prevalence of anterior dental trauma and its associated factors among children aged 3-5 years in Jaipur City, India – A cross sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalissery, Vemina P.; Marwah, Nikhil; Jafer, Mohammed; Chalisserry, Elna P.; Bhatt, Tanmay; Anil, Sukumaran

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To study the prevalence of anterior dental trauma and its associated factors among 800 preschool children aged 3 to 5 years in Jaipur City, Rajasthan, India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among children aged 3-5 years, who were enrolled in various private and public schools in Jaipur. Parents were asked to fill a form addressing socio-demographic data and clinical examinations were performed by a single dentist. Traumatic dental injuries (TDI) were assessed and recorded based on Andreasen's classification. Associated factors such as sex, socioeconomic status (SES), and the type of injury were also analyzed. The data were analyzed statistically using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software (version 20). Results: An overall 10.2% prevalence of TDI was observed among the study population. TDI were reported to be more among male children (11.87%) compared to female children (8.14%). Enamel fractures (69%) were the most prevalent type of anterior dental trauma. Upper central incisors were the most frequently affected. The SES of the parents had little influence on the prevalence of TDI. Conclusions: The prevalence rate of dental trauma among children aged 3-5 years was 10.2%. Associated factors, such as SES, were observed to be not significantly correlated to dental trauma among the studied preschoolers. PMID:27195225

  8. Isolation and characterization of bacteria from canine respiratory diseases in and around Hyderabad city, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ayodhya

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To identify the organisms causing respiratory diseases in dogs that belongs to areas in and around Hyderabad city.Materials and Methods: Nasal samples were collected using sterile swabs from the canine clinical cases that were presented with the history of respiratory diseases at the University administered Veterinary Hospital, Bhoiguda, Secunderabad and Campus Veterinary Hospital, College of Veterinary Science, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad over a period of 26 months i.e., from October 2008 to November 2010. Clinical signs included coughing, nasal discharge, sneezing, difficulty in breathing, fever, loss of appetite and lethargic behavior. Nasal swabs were immediately transferred, aseptically, into a nutrient broth and were subjected to various cultural tests and microscopic examination. Results: Out of 90 nasal samples, different species of bacteria were isolated. Results from our bacterial culture, microscopic and biochemical studies of the nasal discharges collected from dogs suffering with respiratory diseases revealed various bacteria such as E. coli, Klebsiella spp, Streptococci spp.Staphylococci and mixed infections.Conclusion: This study revealed that the bacteria such as E. coli, Klebsiella spp, Streptococci spp. Staphylococci and mixed infections are the common causative agents that lead to respiratory diseases in dogs belonging to areas in and around Hyderabad city.

  9. Earthquake hazard in northeast India – A seismic microzonation approach with typical case studies from Sikkim Himalaya and Guwahati city

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sankar Kumar Nath; Kiran Kumar Singh Thingbaijam; Abhishek Raj

    2008-11-01

    A comprehensive analytical as well as numerical treatment of seismological, geological, geomorphological and geotechnical concepts has been implemented through microzonation projects in the northeast Indian provinces of Sikkim Himalaya and Guwahati city, representing cases of contrasting geological backgrounds – a hilly terrain and a predominantly alluvial basin respectively. The estimated maximum earthquakes in the underlying seismic source zones, demarcated in the broad northeast Indian region, implicates scenario earthquakes of 8.3 and 8.7 to the respective study regions for deterministic seismic hazard assessments. The microzonation approach as undertaken in the present analyses involves multi-criteria seismic hazard evaluation through thematic integration of contributing factors. The geomorphological themes for Sikkim Himalaya include surface geology, soil cover, slope, rock outcrop and landslide integrated to achieve geological hazard distribution. Seismological themes, namely surface consistent peak ground acceleration and predominant frequency were, thereafter, overlaid on and added with the geological hazard distribution to obtain the seismic hazard microzonation map of the Sikkim Himalaya. On the other hand, the microzonation study of Guwahati city accounts for eight themes – geological and geomorphological, basement or bedrock, landuse, landslide, factor of safety for soil stability, shear wave velocity, predominant frequency, and surface consistent peak ground acceleration. The five broad qualitative hazard classifications – `low’, `moderate’, `high’, `moderate high’ and `very high’ could be applied in both the cases, albeit with different implications to peak ground acceleration variations. These developed hazard maps offer better representation of the local specific seismic hazard variation in the terrain.

  10. CLINICOPATHOLOGICAL STUDY OF CERVICAL TUBERCULAR LYMPHADENOPATHY AT KIMS HOSPITAL BANGALORE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreenidhi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Tuberculosis is one of the major public health problems in India and most of the other d eveloping countries. It is an ancient disease which continues to haunt even we step into the next millennium. Tuberculosis is most common cause of death world over. The deadly synergy between Mycobacterium tuberculosis and AIDS has resulted in resurgence o f tuberculosis world over. Tuberculosis is still considered a social disease; it reflects the standard of living in the community. In the past tuberculosis had a distinct mortality, presently the mortality is decreasing in our country due to implementation of Directly Observed Treatment Short course (DOTS strategy under RNTCP by WHO. Cervical lymphadenopathy caused by many conditions, both infective and noninfective. Out of these, tuberculosis contributes for most of the cases; hence, to tackle the commone st cause the present study was undertaken. METHODS: The prospective study population consisted of patients above 18 years are clinically diagnosed as cervical tubercular lymphadenitis. A proforma drafted for study these patients was used. Patients was exam ined systematically giving due importance to local examination. After clinical diagnosis, further investigations were done for the confirmation of diagnosis. Treatment instituted appropriately and follow up done. RESULTS: Majority of cases in the study who were diagnosed clinically as cervical tubercular lymphadenitis were confirmed as tubercular by FNAC. Histopathological examination was done for a cases wherever FNAC was inconclusive. Presence of constitutional symptoms had limited significance. Cervical lymph nodes group of Level - V was most commonly affected. Variable results were noted among the groups of lesion, with regard to characteristics like size, number, laterality, levels, mobility, matting, Caseation etc. FNAC by virtue of it being inexpensive, easy to perform and quick in getting a results, is one of

  11. Oral health status and treatment needs among 12- and 15-year-old government and private school children in Shimla city, Himachal Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shailee, Fotedar; Girish, M. Sogi; Kapil, R. Sharma; Nidhi, Pruthi

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the dental caries, periodontal health, and malocclusion of school children aged 12 and 15 years in Shimla city and to compare them in government and private schools. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study of 12- and 15-year-old children in government and private schools was conducted in Shimla city, Himachal Pradesh, India. A sample of 1011 school children (both males and females) was selected by a two-stage cluster sampling method. Clinical recordings of dental caries and malocclusion were done according to World Health Organization diagnostic criteria 1997. Periodontal health was assessed by Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs index. The data collected was analyzed by SPSS package 13. The statistical tests used were t-test and Chi-square tests. Results: The prevalence of dental caries was 32.6% and 42.2% at 12 and 15 years, respectively. At the12 years of age, the mean decayed, missing, filled teeth was 0.62 ± 1.42 and it was 1.06 ± 2.93 at 15 years of age. Females had higher level of caries than males at both the ages. At both ages, mean of decayed teeth was statistically higher in government schools as compared with private schools. Children in government schools had significantly less number of mean filled teeth at both ages as compared with private schools. The healthy component of gingiva was present in higher percentage of children in private schools as compared with government schools at both the age groups. The prevalence of malocclusion among the 12- year-old (58.1%) was more as compared with that among the 15-year-old (53.5%). Conclusion: The caries experience of 12- and 15-year-old children was low but the prevalence of gingivitis and malocclusion was quite high. Effective oral health promotion strategies need to be implemented to improve the oral health of school children further in Shimla city. PMID:24478980

  12. Study on validity of a rapid diagnostic test kit versus light microscopy for malaria diagnosis in Ahmedabad city, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, S; Puwar, B; Patel, V; Bhatt, G; Kulkarni, S; Fancy, M

    2014-05-01

    Light microscopy of blood smears for diagnosis of malaria in the field has several limitations, notably delays in diagnosis. This study in Ahmedabad in Gujarat State, India, evaluated the diagnostic performance of a rapid diagnostic test for malaria (SD Bioline Malaria Ag P.f/Pan) versus blood smear examination as the gold standard. All fever cases presenting at 13 urban health centres were subjected to rapid diagnostic testing and thick and thin blood smears. A total of 677 cases with fever were examined; 135 (20.0%) tested positive by rapid diagnostic test and 86 (12.7%) by blood smear. The sensitivity of the rapid diagnostic test for malaria was 98.8%, specificity was 91.5%, positive predictive value 63.0% and negative predictive value 99.8%. For detection of Plasmodium falciparum the sensitivity of rapid diagnostic test was 100% and specificity was 97.3%. The results show the acceptability of the rapid test as an alternative to light microscopy in the field setting.

  13. Profile of substance use among patients attending De-addiction centres in a coastal city of southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Nithin; Kanchan, Tanuj; Unnikrishnan, Bhaskaran; Thapar, Rekha; Mithra, Prasanna; Kulkarni, Vaman; Papanna, Mohan Kumar; Holla, Ramesh; Sarathy, Saran

    2013-01-01

    Drug dependence is still to be recognized in developing countries as a significant public health problem and literature on the magnitude of this problem is limited. The present research was planned to study the socio-demographic profile and the reasons for substance use among patients admitted at De-addiction centres in Mangalore, India. In this cross-sectional study, all the patients admitted at the De-addiction centres during the study period were interviewed. The data was analyzed and the results obtained were expressed in proportions. A total of 83 patients were included in the study, all of whom were males. A positive family history of substance use was evident in 63% of the respondents. The mean age of the study participants was 41.9 (SD±11.2) years and the mean age for starting substance use was 20.9 (SD±7.7) years. The most common substance used was alcohol (95.2%). Majority of the subjects (56.6%) cited peer pressure as a reason for initiating substance use. Our findings suggest that the initiation of substance use occurs during late teenage years and mostly due to peer pressure. Our observations point towards the vulnerability of younger age towards substance use and hence, it is proposed that the preventive health policies in this regard should be targeted specifically during teenage years. PMID:23469075

  14. Profile of substance use among patients attending De-addiction centres in a coastal city of southern India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nithin Kumar

    Full Text Available Drug dependence is still to be recognized in developing countries as a significant public health problem and literature on the magnitude of this problem is limited. The present research was planned to study the socio-demographic profile and the reasons for substance use among patients admitted at De-addiction centres in Mangalore, India. In this cross-sectional study, all the patients admitted at the De-addiction centres during the study period were interviewed. The data was analyzed and the results obtained were expressed in proportions. A total of 83 patients were included in the study, all of whom were males. A positive family history of substance use was evident in 63% of the respondents. The mean age of the study participants was 41.9 (SD±11.2 years and the mean age for starting substance use was 20.9 (SD±7.7 years. The most common substance used was alcohol (95.2%. Majority of the subjects (56.6% cited peer pressure as a reason for initiating substance use. Our findings suggest that the initiation of substance use occurs during late teenage years and mostly due to peer pressure. Our observations point towards the vulnerability of younger age towards substance use and hence, it is proposed that the preventive health policies in this regard should be targeted specifically during teenage years.

  15. Prevalence and Assessment of Clinical Management of Sexually Transmitted Infections among Female Sex Workers in Two Cities of India

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    A. Das

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Control of sexually transmitted infections (STIs among female sex workers (FSWs is an important strategy to reduce HIV transmission. A study was conducted to determine the prevalence and assess the current clinical management of STIs in India. Methods. FSWs attending three clinics for regular checkups or symptoms were screened for study eligibility. A behavioral questionnaire was administered, clinical examination performed, and laboratory samples collected. Results. 417 study participants reported a mean number of 4.9 (SD 3.5 commercial clients in the last week. 14.6% reported anal sex in the last three months. Consistent condom use with commercial and regular partners was 70.1% and 17.5%, respectively. The prevalence of gonorrhea was 14.1%, chlamydia 16.1%, and trichomoniasis 31.1% with a third of all infections being asymptomatic. Syphilis seropositivity was 10.1%. Conclusions. At study sites, presumptive treatment for gonorrhea, chlamydia, and syphilis screening should continue. Presumptive treatment for trichomoniasis should be considered. Consistent condom use and partner treatment need to be reemphasized.

  16. Main determinants of preschool education in the industrial and the bay location of Cartagena of Indias City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mabel Escorcia Muñoz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The pre-school education corresponds to the education offered to the boys and to the girls with fewer ages to five years, for their integral development in the biological, cognitive, psychomotor, socio-emotional and spiritual aspects, with pedagogic and recreate socialization experiences. The children who join to first of primary the industrial locality and of the bay, present academic differences depending on the establishments where they did their pre-school one. The study was to compare the community education project in Children's Homes ICBF with the educational plan of the school officials of the Ministry of Education in the Industrial locality and bay in Cartagena de Indias. The determinants found to affect the academic development of children who enter elementary school, were the nutrition, health, emotional, social and pedagogical conditions necessary and sufficient infrastructure. Preschool education in the psychological development of the child is important and essential, the interaction of family and community, the activities within the institution, where the stimuli help shape values for their integral development. 

  17. Keeping Our Cities Clean: Urban Solid Waste Management in Karnataka

    OpenAIRE

    Madhushree Sekher

    2004-01-01

    This paper broadly examines the process of municipal waste management in our cities, focusing on the situation in Karnataka. The paper is reflective in nature, drawing on a case study of solid waste management process in Bangalore. It highlights the characteristic of municipal waste generated, the management practices involved and the stakeholders in the refuse collection and disposal services, and thereupon attempts to identify future interventions to strengthen the delivery of public munici...

  18. Climate Change Studies over Bangalore using Multi-source Remote Sensing Data and GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    B, S.; Gouda, K. C.; Laxmikantha, B. P.; Bhat, N.

    2014-12-01

    Urbanization is a form of metropolitan growth that is a response to often bewildering sets of economic, social, and political forces and to the physical geography of an area. Some of the causes of the sprawl include - population growth, economy, patterns of infrastructure initiatives like the construction of roads and the provision of infrastructure using public money encouraging development. The direct implication of such urban sprawl is the change in land use and land cover of the region. In this study the long term climate data from multiple sources like NCEP reanalysis, IMD observations and various satellite derived products from MAIRS, IMD, ERSL and TRMM are considered and analyzed using the developed algorithms for the better understanding of the variability in the climate parameters over Bangalore. These products are further mathematically analyzed to arrive at desired results by extracting land surface temperature (LST), Potential evapo-transmission (PET), Rainfall, Humidity etc. Various satellites products are derived from NASA (National Aeronautics Space Agency), Indian meteorological satellites and global satellites are helpful in massive study of urban issues at global and regional scale. Climate change analysis is well studied by using either single source data such as Temperature or Rainfall from IMD (Indian Meteorological Department) or combined data products available as in case of MAIRS (Monsoon Asia Integrated Regional Scale) program to get rainfall at regional scale. Finally all the above said parameters are normalized and analyzed with the help of various open source available software's for pre and post processing our requirements to obtain desired results. A sample of analysis i.e. the Inter annual variability of annual averaged Temperature over Bangalore is presented in figure 1, which clearly shows the rising trend of the temperature (0.06oC/year). Also the Land use and land cover (LULC) analysis over Bangalore, Day light hours from

  19. Studies on radiation dose due to radioactive elements present in ground water and soil samples around Mysore city, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrashekara, M S; Veda, S M; Paramesh, L

    2012-04-01

    A systematic study of the ground water and soil samples collected from different locations around Mysore city (12(°)N and 76(°)E) has been carried out. (226)Ra activity concentration in water samples varies from 0.28 to 189 mBq l(-1) with a geometric mean (GM) of 4.75 mBq l(-1) and (222)Rn concentration in ground water varies from 4.25 to 435 Bq l(-1) with a GM of 25.9 Bq l(-1). The GM of inhalation and ingestion doses due to (222)Rn in water is 65.2 and 5.43, µSv y(-1), respectively. The measured GM gamma dose rate in air is 85.4 nGy h(-1) and absorbed dose rate estimated from the measured activity of radionuclides is 92.6 nGy h(-1). PMID:21764808

  20. Deterioration in Drinking Water Resources and Relative Health Hazards in Bikaner city, Rajasthan, India: A physicochemical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogita yadav

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Various kind of human development is resulting in different kind of pollution to the water resources . Monitoring of Drinking water quality and its serious analysis is very significant relative to access the human health hazards. This paper is an attempt for the same purpose . The sample were collected from main areas of the Bikaner City and were analysed for the desired physiochemical parameters applying the internationally valid standard methods. Results were compared with the international standards. It was found that drinking water quality is very poor leading to very dangerous health hazards as the most of the samples were not found to be fit on international drinking water standards. This study suggests a need to revise a more advance drinking water resources development and public health awareness policy and in depth research.

  1. Determination of 210Po in leafy vegetables and annual effective dose assessment to the inhabitants of Mumbai city, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present study deals with the measurement of activity concentration of 210Po in leafy vegetable of Mumbai city and corresponding ingestion dose assessment to the population. 210Po activity levels ranged from 44.5-183.3 with an average value of 81.8 mBq/kg. Minimum activity of 210Po was found in shepu and maximum in methi. The concentration reported here is slightly more than the UNSCEAR value. The estimated total effective dose was found to vary from 0.3 - 1.4 with an average value of 0.6 μSv/y, which is about 1% of global average total ingestion dose due to 210Po. (author)

  2. Pattern of tobacco use among primary school teachers in Belgaum city, India – A Cross Sectional Study

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    Prashant Savadi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The consumption of tobacco related products by the school teachers is a bad habit because it sends a wrong signal to young minds of students. It is injurious to health and is a waste of money and also is a wrong role model for the students.Objectives To find out the prevalence of pattern of tobacco use among primary school teachers in Belgaum city and to determine the factors influencing the use of tobacco among primary school teachers.Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using random sampling technique among 400 teachers aged 21 to 60 years from 78 primary schools in Belgaum city during March to December 2009.Results Overall, prevalence of any form of tobacco use among primary school teachers was 14.50%. Only male teachers 46.03% used tobacco. 37.93% were using smoking type of tobacco, 46.56% used smokeless & 15.51%were using both types of tobacco products. Most of the users initiated tobacco use by 16 to 20 years of age. A substantial number of teachers initiated tobacco use for fun, imitation and peer pressure. 58.33% of the teachers were using tobacco due to un-satisfaction from profession, 37.50% due to family problems.Conclusion High proportion of male teachers used tobacco than female teachers, because of social norm. Almost all the teachers consciously avoided tobacco use in school premises. Students will be encouraged to start using tobacco, if they observe use of tobacco products by teachers who are the role models for students. It was concluded that it would be beneficial to conduct educational programs and seminars encouraging tobacco cessation to this professional group, along with school children.

  3. Application of sensory and microbial analysis to assess quality of fish in Siliguri city of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Prithwiraj; Roy, Rudra Prasad; Barat, S

    2010-09-01

    Sensory and certain microbial analyses were applied to assess the quality of raw fish sold at a market in Siliguri cityof West Bengal, India. In regular surveys undertaken during June to August 2008, a particular fish species was randomly selected, its source was noted and a sensory analysis, the quality index method (QIM) was applied to assess its quality Raw fish samples were also collected and a small quantity (about 1 g) of scales oran upper layer of the skin surface (forscale-less fish samples), gill, liverand a portion of gut with gut-contents were aseptically removed for enumeration of the total aerobic heterotrophic bacteria, Aeromonas spp., Pseudomonas spp., Salmonella spp. and coliform counts. Oreochromis mossambicus and Tenulosa ilisha recorded significantly higher QIM scores, compared to other species (pspp., Salmonella spp. and total coliforms were recorded from all the studied species while Pseudomonas spp. was isolated from only seven species. Among the tissues examined, the lowest counts of total heterotrophic bacteria, Aeromonas spp., Pseudomonas spp., Salmonella spp. and total coliforms were recorded from the skin in every fish species. Highest counts of pathogenic bacteria (except Pseudomonas spp.) were recorded in Tenulosa ilisha for all the tissues except liver. Since fish are properly cooked in Bengali households, the risk of disease from fish consumption is relatively less. However, some tribes residing in the region are known to consume undercooked fish and proper cooking methods should be followed in view of the present findings to avoid health risks. Besides, utmost care should be taken while handling fish. PMID:21387907

  4. A study on seroprevalence of hepatotropic viruses among HIV-positive individuals attending the integrated counselling and testing centre (ICTC in Mayo hospital of Nagpur city, Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita Sherwani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infection with human immunodeficiency virus type-1 and its end stage, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is the major public health challenge of modern time. A variety of exogenously acquired infectious agents appear to influence the pace of HIV replication, the destruction of CD4+ T cells, and HIV transmission to infants and sexual partners. More persistent elevations in plasma HIV levels have been seen in patients with chronic infections (such as those with tuberculosis and herpes and hepatitis viruses, and such co-infected patients have a more rapid loss of CD4+ T cells and an increased rate of progression to AIDS and death. Within India, variable co-infection rates have been reported from region to region. With the above background, the present study was undertaken to study the seroprevalence of hepatotropic viruses (Hepatitis B virus and Hepatitis C virus in HIV-positive individuals attending the Integrated Counselling and Testing Centre (ICTC in Mayo hospital of Nagpur city, Maharashtra, India. Methods: The current prospective study was conducted in the department of microbiology, Indira Gandhi government medical college and Mayo general hospital, Nagpur (Maharashtra from August 2005 to August 2007. All the patients attending ICTC were included in the study. 300 HIV negative matched controls were also included in the study. All the individuals who were positive for HIV infection were selected for this study and further tested for the presence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg and anti-HCV antibodies. Data was compiled in MS excel. Then it was analyzed using online statistical calculator and chi square test were applied with value of P <0.05 was considered statistically significant for interpretation of finding. Results: Maximum numbers of HIV positive patients (38.8% were in age group of 31-40 years. Present study showed male preponderance in HIV positive patients. Males showed a slightly high seroprevalence of HBsAg (9

  5. Severity of dental trauma and its associated factors in 11-16 years old school children in Davangere city, India

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    M Kirthiga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dental trauma till date has been one of the most common injuries affecting school children. Aim: The aim was to evaluate the prevalence and associated factors on dental trauma in 11-16 year old school going children of Davangere city. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 2000 school children who were randomly selected. A questionnaire was given to the children that included personal demographic details, place and cause of injury. Ellis and Davis classification was used to record traumatic dental injury. The values were subjected to Chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results: The prevalence of dental trauma was found to be 10.6%. Chi-square test showed significant results obtained with respect to all the variables-age, gender, type of school, profile, and overjet. Most commonly affected teeth were maxillary central incisor (79.6%. Conclusion: The prevalence of dental trauma was found to be comparable when compared to various studies done all over the world.

  6. Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) analysis of ancient potteries in and around Arcot city, Tamilnadu, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical composition of ancient pottery can shed light into provenance of raw materials for ceramic production and determine the technological processes related to pottery manufacture. The determination of the chemical composition of pottery is a means of exploring its origin and relevant issues. Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) was used to determine the major and trace element composition of ancient potteries recovered in and around Arcot city, Vellore dist, Tamilnadu. Fourteen (14) elements namely Si, Al, Ca, Fe, K, Ti, Cu, Zn, Pb, La, Co, V, Cd and Cr have been quantified. The experimental procedure adopted for elemental analysis was standardised. The results of the standard analysis show good agreement. From the analysis, it is found that pottery composition depends both in the clay source and in the recipe used to prepare the clay paste.The variation of chemical composition of potsherds may imply pottery from different production sites or reflect the natural inhomogeneity of local clay deposits and the application of different manufacture processes in local workshops. (author)

  7. Socio-hydrology of the Thippagondanahalli catchment in India - from common property to open-access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, V.; Thomas, B.; Lele, S.

    2014-12-01

    Developing countries face difficult challenge as they must adapt to an uncertain climate future even as land use, demography and the composition of their economies are rapidly changing. Achieving a secure water future requires making reliable predictions of water cycle dynamics in future years. This necessitates understanding societal feedbacks and predicting how these will change in the future. We explore this "Predictions Under Change" problem in the Thippagondanahalli (TG Halli) catchment of the Arkavathy Basin in South India. Here, river flows have declined sharply over the last thirty years. The TG Halli Reservoir that once supplied 148 MLD to Bangalore city only yields 30 MLD today. Our analyses suggest that these declines cannot be attributed to climatic factors; groundwater depletion is probably the major cause. We analysed the interlinked human and hydrologic factors and feedbacks between them that have resulted in the present situation using extensive primary data, including weather stations, stream gaging, soil moisture sensing, household surveys, oral histories, interviews, and secondary data including census data, crop reports, satellite imagery and historical hydro-climatic data. Our analysis suggests that several factors have contributed to a continuous shift from surface to groundwater in the TG Halli catchment. First, cheap borewell technology has made groundwater more accessible. Second, as demand for high-value produce from the city and wealth increased, farmers became increasingly willing to invest in risky borewell drilling. Third, differences in governance in groundwater (open access) versus surface water (community managed tanks) hastened the break-down of community managed water systems allowing unchecked exploitation of groundwater. Finally, the political economy of water spurred groundwater development through provision of free electricity and "watershed development" programmes.

  8. Proportion of depression and its determinants among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in various tertiary care hospitals in Mangalore city of South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Depression is found to be common among patients with diabetes and it is associated with poor outcomes in disease control. This study was carried out to find out the proportion and determinants associated with depression among patients with established type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM in various tertiary care hospitals in Mangalore city of south India. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in one government and three private tertiary care hospitals in Mangalore in December 2010. All consenting patients with confirmed diagnosis of T2DM were interviewed and screened for depression by administering the 9-item PRIME-MD Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9. Results: Of the 230 T2DM patients, 119 (51.7% were males. The mean age of all participants was 53.61 ± 10.7 years. The median duration of T2DM was found to be 12.1 ± 7.35 years. Among the participants, 71 (30.9% met the criteria for moderate depression, 33 (14.3% for severe depression, and the remaining 126 (54.8% had no clinically significant depression. Only 26 (11.3% patients were already aware that they were depressed, of whom just 3 had taken medical consultation. Among the risk factors, depression was found to be significantly associated with older age, female gender, low socioeconomic status, unskilled and retired employment status, having complications due to T2DM or comorbidities like hypertension and coronary artery disease, being overweight and being on insulin syringe injections. Conclusion: This study found a high proportion of depression among patients with T2DM. Therefore the care of individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM should include the screening and possible treatment of depression in order to achieve and sustain treatment goals.

  9. A hydrogeochemical study of rain water to characterize the source of atmospheric pollutants at Jodhpur - desert city of India (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was undertaken has been conducted to determined the physical parameters and chemical species in the first precipitants of the season at desert city of Jodhpur to understand firstly, the degree of pollutants in the atmosphere and secondly to identity the minerals/pollutants of the atmosphere to characterize its possible source of origin. The precipitate samples for cations and other physical and chemical parameters by standard analytical methods. The results obtained on turbidity, conductivity, total dissolved solids and the ratio of total dissolved solids and conductivity, show a moderate degree of pollutants at all the four sites, A, B, C and D but slightly higher at C and D sites. The concentration of various water-soluble chemical species present in the precipitates, specially a balance between acidic and basic constituents decides its pH value. Hydrogen ions are mainly responsible for acidification of rain waters and are derived chiefly from oxidation of SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub 2/ to from H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and HNO/sub 3/ respectively. Hence a correlation study carried out between H/sup */and SO/sub 4//sup --/, NO/sub 3/ and Cl. Result shows no strong correlation between H/sup +/ and Cl/up -/. A group of strongly corrected elements Cl, Na/sup +/,K/sup +/ and Mg/sup ++/ were observed representing a similar source of their origin. The atmospheric desert dust components chiefly consist of quartz, mica flakes, clays like illite, kaolinite etc., and especially clays, may neutralize the acidity of precipitates via H/sup +/ exchange. Some minerals like Halite, Gypsum, Dolomite, Calcite may get slightly dissolved in the rainwater to replace H/sup +/ ions and so, impart alkalinity. Thus, it is logical to believe that the cations may have been derived originally from some of the geological source. Some rations like Cl/Na, Mg/Na, Ca/Na are known to have been used in characterization of the source. As expected in the atmosphere of desert city, like Jodhpur, the solid

  10. Detection of Salmonella spp. from chevon, mutton and its environment in retail meat shops in Anand city (Gujarat, India

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    P. P. Makwana

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was (i To attempt isolation and identification of Salmonella species from samples. (ii Serotyping of Salmonella isolates. (iii Detection of virulence factor associated genes by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Materials and Methods: A total of 284 samples comprised of chevon and mutton (112 samples each as well as 60 samples (20 each of retail meat shops environment samples viz. Butchers’ hands, knives and log swabs were collected from the retail meat shops in and around Anand City under aseptic precautions. Rappaport-vassiliadis soy bean meal broth and tetrathionate broth was used for the enrichment of all the samples and inoculation was done on brilliant green agar and xylose lysine deoxycholate agar. This was followed by the confirmation of isolates using biochemical tests. For the serotyping, isolates were sent to the National Salmonella and Escherichia Centre, Central Research Institute, Kasauli, Himachal Pradesh. Detection of virulence genes was performed by PCR technique using previously reported primer. Result: Of 284 meats and retail meat shops environment samples, 13 (4.58% samples were found positive for Salmonella. It was interesting to know that incidence of Salmonella was more in mutton (6.25% than chevon (3.57%. In case of meat shop environmental samples 1 (5.00% sample observed positive for Salmonella separately among the butchers’ hands and knives swabs (Each of 20 samples examined. Out of 13, eleven isolates detected as Salmonella Typhimurium, whereas only two isolates were detected as Salmonella Enteritidis. All Salmonella isolates possess invA and stn genes, whereas nine isolates had a presence of spvR gene while only five of the isolates revealed the presence of spvC gene as shown by in vitro detection of virulence genes by PCR. Conclusion: Therefore, might be suggested that the good hygiene practices and effective control measures should be taken to encourage clean meat production with

  11. Thomson Reuters innovation award research brief: the use of patent analytics in measuring innovation in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stembridge, Bob

    2009-09-01

    There are six different factors that can be used to assess the inventiveness of an organization and to determine how efficiently they apply invention resources to innovate effectively. This research briefing describes the techniques used to measure certain aspects of patenting activity by Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) headquartered in India. The techniques are used to identify the most innovative SMEs in India in order to determine the winners of the Innovation Award 2009 from Thomson Reuters, awarded at InfoVision 2009 in Bangalore.

  12. Variability in optical properties of atmospheric aerosols and their frequency distribution over a mega city "New Delhi," India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, S; Tiwari, Suresh; Hopke, P K; Attri, S D; Soni, V K; Singh, Abhay Kumar

    2016-05-01

    The role of atmospheric aerosols in climate and climate change is one of the largest uncertainties in understanding the present climate and in capability to predict future climate change. Due to this, the study of optical properties of atmospheric aerosols over a mega city "New Delhi" which is highly polluted and populated were conducted for two years long to see the aerosol loading and its seasonal variability using sun/sky radiometer data. Relatively higher mean aerosol optical depth (AOD) (0.90 ± 0.38) at 500 nm and associated Angstrom exponent (AE) (0.82 ± 0.35) for a pair of wavelength 400-870 nm is observed during the study period indicating highly turbid atmosphere throughout the year. Maximum AOD value is observed in the months of June and November while minimum is in transition months March and September. Apart from this, highest value of AOD (AE) value is observed in the post-monsoon [1.00 ± 0.42 (1.02 ± 0.16)] season followed by the winter [0.95 ± 0.36 (1.02 ± 0.20)] attributed to significance contribution of urban as well as biomass/crop residue burning aerosol which is further confirmed by aerosol type discrimination based on AOD vs AE. During the pre-monsoon season, mostly dust and mixed types aerosols are dominated. AODs value at shorter wavelength observed maximum in June and November while at longer wavelength maximum AOD is observed in June only. For the better understanding of seasonal aerosol modification process, the aerosol curvature effect is studied which show a strong seasonal dependency under a high turbid atmosphere, which are mainly associated with various emission sources. Five days air mass back trajectories were computed. They suggest different patterns of particle transport during the different seasons. Results suggest that mixtures of aerosols are present in the urban environment, which affect the regional air quality as well as climate. The present study will be very much useful to the modeler for

  13. Diurnal variations of 218Po, 214Pb, and 214Po and their effect on atmospheric electrical conductivity in the lower atmosphere at Mysore city, Karnataka State, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The short-lived radon daughters (218Po, 214Pb, 214Bi and 214Po) are natural tracers in the troposphere, in particular near the ground surface. They are electrically charged particles and are chemically reactive. As soon as they are formed they get attached to the aerosol particles of the atmosphere. The behavior of radon daughters is similar to that of aerosols with respect to their growth, transport and removal processes in the atmosphere. The electrical conductivity of the atmosphere is mainly due to the presence of highly mobile ions. Galactic cosmic rays are the main source of ionization in the planetary boundary layer; however, near the surface of the earth, ions are produced mainly by decays of natural radioactive gases emanating from the soil surface and by radiations emitted directly from the surface. Hence the electrical conductivity of air near the surface of the earth is mainly due to radiations emitted by 222Rn, 218Po, 214Pb, 214Bi and 214Po, and depends on aerosol concentrations and meteorological parameters. In the present work the diurnal and seasonal variations of radon and its progeny concentrations are studied using Low Level Radon Detection System and Airflow Meter respectively. Atmospheric electrical conductivity of both positive and negative polarities is measured using a Gerdien Condenser. All the measurements were carried out simultaneously at one location in Mysore city (12°N, 76°E), India. The diurnal variation of atmospheric electrical conductivity was found to be similar to that of ion pair production rate estimated from radon and its progeny concentrations with a maximum in the early morning hours and minimum during day time. The annual average concentrations of 222Rn, 218Po, 214Pb, and 214Po at the study location were found to be 21.46, 10.88, 1.78 and 1.80 Bq m−3 respectively. The annual average values of positive and negative atmospheric electrical conductivity were found to be 18.1 and 16.6 f S m−1 respectively. The radon and

  14. Diurnal variations of (218)Po, (214)Pb, and (214)Po and their effect on atmospheric electrical conductivity in the lower atmosphere at Mysore city, Karnataka State, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruthvi Rani, K S; Paramesh, L; Chandrashekara, M S

    2014-12-01

    The short-lived radon daughters ((218)Po, (214)Pb, (214)Bi and (214)Po) are natural tracers in the troposphere, in particular near the ground surface. They are electrically charged particles and are chemically reactive. As soon as they are formed they get attached to the aerosol particles of the atmosphere. The behavior of radon daughters is similar to that of aerosols with respect to their growth, transport and removal processes in the atmosphere. The electrical conductivity of the atmosphere is mainly due to the presence of highly mobile ions. Galactic cosmic rays are the main source of ionization in the planetary boundary layer; however, near the surface of the earth, ions are produced mainly by decays of natural radioactive gases emanating from the soil surface and by radiations emitted directly from the surface. Hence the electrical conductivity of air near the surface of the earth is mainly due to radiations emitted by (222)Rn, (218)Po, (214)Pb, (214)Bi and (214)Po, and depends on aerosol concentrations and meteorological parameters. In the present work the diurnal and seasonal variations of radon and its progeny concentrations are studied using Low Level Radon Detection System and Airflow Meter respectively. Atmospheric electrical conductivity of both positive and negative polarities is measured using a Gerdien Condenser. All the measurements were carried out simultaneously at one location in Mysore city (12°N, 76°E), India. The diurnal variation of atmospheric electrical conductivity was found to be similar to that of ion pair production rate estimated from radon and its progeny concentrations with a maximum in the early morning hours and minimum during day time. The annual average concentrations of (222)Rn, (218)Po, (214)Pb, and (214)Po at the study location were found to be 21.46, 10.88, 1.78 and 1.80 Bq m(-3) respectively. The annual average values of positive and negative atmospheric electrical conductivity were found to be 18.1 and 16.6 f S m(-1

  15. Spatial Magnetic Analysis of Dusts from Sealed Urban Surfaces for Estimation of Particulate Matter Accumulation in the Mega-city of Mumbai, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathani, B.; Blaha, U.; Das, P. K.; Kannan, D.

    2011-12-01

    perpendicular to a busy inner city road in Mumbai, revealing MS values of ~650×10^-5 SI near the road and background values of ~500×10^-5 SI at a distance of ~10 m. Comparison of curbside MS values in Mumbai (India) and Tübingen (Germany) reveals similarities on the roadside accumulation patterns, at the same time showing significant differences in absolute MS values. The differences go along with different MS background values due to different geological settings, while climatic zones and different standards in road traffic play an additional role. In general, curbside zones seem to pose higher health risk to humans due to increased exposition to harmful dust particles from combustion processes, anthropogenic as well as natural dusts as seen from the roadside deposits. Test measurements with a quartz sand collector, at the curbside of a low traffic road nearby dust producing quarries in Navi Mumbai, reveal that moving vehicles re-suspend significant amounts of dusts, causing significant increase of MS rapidly.

  16. India's "Democracy"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Dao: After independence, India basically inherited the political system set up by British colonial rule. After half century's transformation, a "democratic" political system with "India's characteristics" has gradually taken shape in India.

  17. Is Urban Economic Growth Inclusive in India?

    OpenAIRE

    Tripathi, Sabyasachi

    2013-01-01

    This paper measures the overall inclusive growth of a city by considering changing trends in the key economic variables based on ‘Borda ranking’ and establishes a relationship between city economic growth and overall city inclusive growth. By using data of 52 large cities in India, this paper finds that higher urban economic growth is associated with an increase in urban inequality, a reduction in urban poverty, and a lower level of overall inclusive growth of a city.

  18. City of One Thousand Temples

    OpenAIRE

    Stein, Emma Natalya

    2015-01-01

    A Network of Hearsay in South India Although the South Indian city of Kanchipuram is popularly known as the City of One Thousand Temples, there is no existing prescribed circuit, and no comprehensive temple listing or map to guide visitors.* Rather, the thousands of pilgrims who flood the city daily usually only know about the five most famous temples. Scattered street signs throughout the busy city point the way to these sprawling monuments, which are always crowded and especially ...

  19. Oral health knowledge, practice, oral hygiene status, and dental caries prevalence among visually impaired children in Bangalore

    OpenAIRE

    S T Prashanth; Sudhanshu Bhatnagar; Usha Mohan Das; H Gopu

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Visually impaired children daily face challenges for bearing their everyday skills. Maintenance of proper oral hygiene is one among them. Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the oral health knowledge, practice, oral hygiene status, and dental caries prevalence among visually impaired children in Bangalore. Materials and Methods: A total of 85 children were asked verbally a questionnaire regarding the frequency of brushing, cleaning tools, use of dentifrice, knowledge about t...

  20. PROFILE OF CLIENTS ATTENDING INTEGRATED COUNSELING & TESTING CENTRE, IN RAJARAJESWARI MEDICAL COLLEGE & HOSPITAL IN BANGALORE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashikala

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An integrated counseling and testing centre is a place where a person is counseled and tested for HIV, on his own free will or as advised by a medical provider. The main functions of an ICTC include: Early detection of HIV, Provision of basic information on modes of transmission and prevention of HIV/AIDS for promoting behavioral change and reducing vulnerability, link people with other HIV prevention, care and treatment services. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the basic Clients statistics of ICTC in Rajarajeswari Medical College & Hospital for the year 2013. MATERIAL & METHODS: This study is based on the Record review & Inter – viewing of Patients attending ICTC in Rajarajeswari Medical College & Hospital in Bangalore. Statistical test includes univariate analysis & chi – square test. RESULTS: This study depicts the role of ICTC - Integrated Counseling & Testing Centre& its Implementation in a Medical College under Public Private Partnership. The brief details of Clients attending ICTC are reflected here. Among the total patients (7855 in a year, referred to ICTC, 1.3% (100 are HIV Positive. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that Sexual mode of Transmission & Lower Socio – economic Status, Agriculturists, predominate among HIV Positives

  1. Medication adherence, work performance and self-esteem among psychiatric patients attending psychosocial rehabilitation services at Bangalore, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sailaxmi Gandhi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Work benefits mental health in innumerable ways. Vocational rehabilitation can enhance self-esteem. Medication adherence can improve work performance and thereby the individuals′ self-esteem. Aim: To test the hypothesis that there would be a significant correlation between medication adherence, work performance and self-esteem. Setting and Design: A quantitative, descriptive correlational research design was adopted to invite patients attending psychiatric rehabilitation services to participate in the research. Material and Methods: Data was collected from a convenience sample of 60 subjects using the ′Medication Adherence Rating scale′, ′Griffiths work behaviour scale′ and the ′Rosenberg′s Self-esteem scale′. Statistical analysis used: Analysis was done using spss18 with descriptive statistics, Pearsons correlation coefficient and multiple regression analysis. Results: There were 36 males and 24 females who participated in this study. The subjects had good mean medication adherence of 8.4 ± 1.5 with median of 9.00, high mean self-esteem of 17.65 ± 2.97 with median of 18.0 and good mean work performance of 88.62 ± 22.56 with median of 93.0. Although weak and not significant, there was a positive correlation (r = 0.22, P = 0.103 between medication adherence and work performance; positive correlation between (r = 0.25, P = 0.067 medication adherence and self-esteem; positive correlation between (r = 0.136, P = 0.299 work performance and self-esteem. Multiple regression analysis showed no significant predictors for medication adherence, work performance and self-esteem among patients with psychiatric illness. Conclusions: Medication monitoring and strengthening of work habit can improve self-esteem thereby, strengthening hope of recovery from illness.

  2. Medication Adherence, Work Performance and Self-Esteem among Psychiatric Patients Attending Psychosocial Rehabilitation Services at Bangalore, India

    OpenAIRE

    Sailaxmi Gandhi; Rajitha Pavalur; Sivakumar Thanapal; Nirmala B Parathasarathy; Geetha Desai; Poornima Bhola; Mariamma Philip; Chaturvedi, Santosh K.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Work benefits mental health in innumerable ways. Vocational rehabilitation can enhance self-esteem. Medication adherence can improve work performance and thereby the individuals′ self-esteem. Aim: To test the hypothesis that there would be a significant correlation between medication adherence, work performance and self-esteem. Setting and Design: A quantitative, descriptive correlational research design was adopted to invite patients attending psychiatric rehabilitation services to ...

  3. The contribution of space observations to water resources management; Proceedings of the Symposium, Bangalore, India, May 29-June 9, 1979

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomonson, V. V. (Editor); Bhavsar, P. D.

    1980-01-01

    The symposium focused on hydrology, soil moisture estimation and ground water exploration, wetlands monitoring and water quality estimation, hydrometeorology, snow and ice monitoring, and evapotranspiration estimation. Other problems discussed include surface water and flood mapping, watershed runoff estimation and prediction, and new space systems contributing to water resources management.

  4. Knowledge and attitude towards family planning practices among non-acceptors in a rural area in Bangalore, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemavarneshwari S.

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: Most common reason for non-acceptance of family planning was male child preference (26.8%. There is a need for behaviour change communication for eligible couples regarding family planning adoption among the non-acceptors highlighting the importance of small family, happy family. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(12.000: 3611-3613

  5. Do large agglomerations lead to economic growth? evidence from urban India

    OpenAIRE

    Tripathi, Sabyasachi

    2012-01-01

    The cities and towns of India constitute the world’s second largest urban system besides contributing over 50 per cent of the country’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP). This phenomenon has been neglected by the existing studies and writings on urban India. By considering 59 large cities in India and employing new economic geography models, this paper investigates the relevant state and city-specific determinants of urban agglomeration. In addition, the spatial interactions between cities and the...

  6. Modeling urban heat islands in heterogeneous land surface and its correlation with impervious surface area by using night-time ASTER satellite data in highly urbanizing city, Delhi-India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, Javed; Rahman, Atiqur; Singh, Chander Kumar

    2013-08-01

    The present study is an assessment and identification of urban heat island (UHI) in the environment of one of the fastest urbanizing city of India, Delhi Metropolis, employing satellite image of ASTER and Landsat 7 ETM+ in the thermal infrared region 3-14 μm. Temporal (2001 and 2005) ASTER datasets were used to analyze the spatial structure of the thermal urban environment subsequently urban heat island (UHI) in relation to the urban surface characteristics and land use/land cover (LULC). The study involves derivation of parameters governing the surface heat fluxes, constructing statistics of ASTER thermal infrared images along with validation through intensive in situ measurements. The average images reveal spatial and temporal variations of land surface temperature (LST) of night-time and distinct microclimatic patterns. Central Business District (CBD) of Delhi, (Connaught Place, a high density built up area), and commercial/industrial areas display heat islands condition with a temperature greater than 4 °C compared to the suburbs. The small increase in surface temperature at city level is mainly attributed to cumulative impact of human activities, changes in LULC pattern and vegetation density. In this study the methodology takes into account spatially-relative surface temperatures and impervious surface fraction value to measure surface UHI intensity between the urban land cover and rural surroundings. Both the spatial and temporal variation in surface temperature associated with impervious surface area (ISA) has been evaluated to assess the effect of urbanization on the local climate.

  7. Digital romance in the Indian city

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Arora (Payal); A. Rangaswamy (Arvind)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The Indian city is no Paris. Far from being a city of love, it spells of crowds, chaos and confusion. Within desperately strained urban infrastructures lie grey zones, grey markets, and grey practices. In Mumbai alone, the most populous city in India of 30 million, more

  8. Shear strength characteristics of mechanically biologically treated municipal solid waste (MBT-MSW) from Bangalore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivakumar Babu, G.L., E-mail: gls@civil.iisc.ernet.in [Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Lakshmikanthan, P., E-mail: lakshmikanthancp@gmail.com [Centre for Sustainable Technologies (CST), Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Santhosh, L.G., E-mail: lgsanthu2006@gmail.com [Centre for Sustainable Technologies (CST), Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Shear strength properties of mechanically biologically treated municipal solid waste. • Effect of unit weight and particle size on the shear strength of waste. • Effect of particle size on the strength properties. • Stiffness ratio and the strength ratio of MSW. - Abstract: Strength and stiffness properties of municipal solid waste (MSW) are important in landfill design. This paper presents the results of comprehensive testing of shear strength properties of mechanically biologically treated municipal solid waste (MBT-MSW) in laboratory. Changes in shear strength of MSW as a function of unit weight and particle size were investigated by performing laboratory studies on the MSW collected from Mavallipura landfill site in Bangalore. Direct shear tests, small scale and large scale consolidated undrained and drained triaxial tests were conducted on reconstituted compost reject MSW samples. The triaxial test results showed that the MSW samples exhibited a strain-hardening behaviour and the strength of MSW increased with increase in unit weight. Consolidated drained tests showed that the mobilized shear strength of the MSW increased by 40% for a unit weight increase from 7.3 kN/m{sup 3} to 10.3 kN/m{sup 3} at 20% strain levels. The mobilized cohesion and friction angle ranged from 5 to 9 kPa and 8° to 33° corresponding to a strain level of 20%. The consolidated undrained tests exhibited reduced friction angle values compared to the consolidated drained tests. The friction angle increased with increase in the unit weight from 8° to 55° in the consolidated undrained tests. Minor variations were found in the cohesion values. Relationships for strength and stiffness of MSW in terms of strength and stiffness ratios are developed and discussed. The stiffness ratio and the strength ratio of MSW were found to be 10 and 0.43.

  9. Shear strength characteristics of mechanically biologically treated municipal solid waste (MBT-MSW) from Bangalore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar Babu, G L; Lakshmikanthan, P; Santhosh, L G

    2015-05-01

    Strength and stiffness properties of municipal solid waste (MSW) are important in landfill design. This paper presents the results of comprehensive testing of shear strength properties of mechanically biologically treated municipal solid waste (MBT-MSW) in laboratory. Changes in shear strength of MSW as a function of unit weight and particle size were investigated by performing laboratory studies on the MSW collected from Mavallipura landfill site in Bangalore. Direct shear tests, small scale and large scale consolidated undrained and drained triaxial tests were conducted on reconstituted compost reject MSW samples. The triaxial test results showed that the MSW samples exhibited a strain-hardening behaviour and the strength of MSW increased with increase in unit weight. Consolidated drained tests showed that the mobilized shear strength of the MSW increased by 40% for a unit weight increase from 7.3kN/m(3) to 10.3kN/m(3) at 20% strain levels. The mobilized cohesion and friction angle ranged from 5 to 9kPa and 8° to 33° corresponding to a strain level of 20%. The consolidated undrained tests exhibited reduced friction angle values compared to the consolidated drained tests. The friction angle increased with increase in the unit weight from 8° to 55° in the consolidated undrained tests. Minor variations were found in the cohesion values. Relationships for strength and stiffness of MSW in terms of strength and stiffness ratios are developed and discussed. The stiffness ratio and the strength ratio of MSW were found to be 10 and 0.43. PMID:25746176

  10. The knowledge, attitude and practice in prevention of dental caries amongst pediatricians in Bangalore: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murthy G

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries comprise the single most chronic disease affecting children today. Evidence increasingly suggests that for successful prevention of dental caries, preventive interactions must begin within the first year of life. Pediatricians are responsible for the primary care of the child and are well positioned to begin this process if they recognize and encourage good preventive habits and refer appropriately. Insufficient information about their role in prevention of dental caries led us to conduct a survey among pediatricians in Bangalore urban to determine their knowledge, attitude and practice in prevention of dental caries.

  11. The role of non-governmental organizations in residential solid waste management: a case study of Puducherry, a coastal city of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajamanikam, Ramamoorthy; Poyyamoli, Gopalsamy; Kumar, Sunil; R, Lekshmi

    2014-09-01

    Poorly planned and uncontrolled urbanization in India has caused a variety of negative, often irreversible, environmental impacts. The impacts appear to be unavoidable and not easily mitigable due to the mounting public health problems caused by non-segregation of solid wastes at source and their subsequent improper management. Recently in India, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and other civil society organizations have increasingly started to get involved in improving waste management services. Municipal solid waste management being a governmental function, the contribution of NGOs in this field has not been well documented. This study highlights the activities and services of Shuddham, an NGO functioning in the town of Puducherry within the Union Territory of Puducherry in South India. The NGO program promoted much needed awareness and education, encouraged source separation, enhanced door-to-door collection, utilized wastes as raw materials and generated more job opportunities. Even though source separation prior to door-to-door collection is a relatively new concept, a significant percentage of residents (39%) in the study area participated fully, while a further 48% participated in the collection service. The average amount of municipal solid waste generated by residential units in the Raj Bhavan ward was 8582 kg/month of which 47% was recovered through active recycling and composting practices. The study describes the features and performance of NGO-mediated solid waste management, and evaluates the strengths and weaknesses as well as the opportunities and threats of this system to see whether this model can sustainably replace the low-performance conventional solid waste management in practice in the town of Puducherry. The experiences from this case study are expected to provide broad guidelines to better understand the role of NGOs and their contributions towards sustainable waste management practices in urban areas. PMID:25125511

  12. Application of Remote Sensing and GIS in Landfill (waste Disposal) Site Selection and Environmental Impacts Assessment around Mysore City, Karnataka, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basavarajappa, T. H.

    2012-07-01

    Landfill site selection is a complex process involving geological, hydrological, environmental and technical parameters as well as government regulations. As such, it requires the processing of a good amount of geospatial data. Landfill site selection techniques have been analyzed for identifying their suitability. Application of Geographic Information System (GIS) is suitable to find best locations for such installations which use multiple criteria analysis. The use of Artificial intelligence methods, such as expert systems, can also be very helpful in solid waste planning and management. The waste disposal and its pollution around major cities in Karnataka are important problems affecting the environment. The Mysore is one of the major cities in Karnataka. The landfill site selection is the best way to control of pollution from any region. The main aim is to develop geographic information system to study the Landuse/ Landcover, natural drainage system, water bodies, and extents of villages around Mysore city, transportation, topography, geomorphology, lithology, structures, vegetation and forest information for landfill site selection. GIS combines spatial data (maps, aerial photographs, and satellite images) with quantitative, qualitative, and descriptive information database, which can support a wide range of spatial queries. For the Site Selection of an industrial waste and normal daily urban waste of a city town or a village, combining GIS with Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) will be more appropriate. This method is innovative because it establishes general indices to quantify overall environmental impact as well as individual indices for specific environmental components (i.e. surface water, groundwater, atmosphere, soil and human health). Since this method requires processing large quantities of spatial data. To automate the processes of establishing composite evaluation criteria, performing multiple criteria analysis and carrying out spatial clustering

  13. An epidemiological study on pattern of thoraco-abdominal injuries sustained in fatal road traffic accidents of Bangalore: Autopsy-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Bayapa Reddy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The statistical profile reflects a global estimate of 5.1 million deaths in 2000, which was due to injuries that accounted for 10% of deaths due to all causes. Out of this, a quarter of injury-related deaths occurred in the South-East Asian region. Road Traffic Accident (RTA is one among the top 5 causes of morbidity and mortality in South-East Asian countries. Most common cause of blunt abdominal trauma in India is road traffic accident followed by pedestrian accidents, abdominal blows, and fall from heights. Aims: To analyze the epidemiology and pattern of fatal thoraco-abdominal injuries in road traffic accidents. Materials and Methods: An autopsy-based cross-sectional study conducted. A purposive sampling technique was applied to select the study sample of 100 post-mortems of road traffic accident between November 2008 and May 2010 subjected to medico-legal autopsy at the department of Forensic Medicine, KIMS Hospital Bangalore. Results: The majority of the victims were aged 21 to 40 years, 50 (50.0%, most of the victims were male 92 (92.0%; and male/female ratio was 11.5:1. Commonest offending agents in heavy motor vehicles were 54 (54.0%. Bony cage sustained injuries were observed in 71; out of this, fractures of ribs were observed in 45 (63.3% victims, clavicle in 14 (19.7%, sternum was 6 (8.4%, and vertebrae 6 (8.4% of fatal road traffic accidents. Internal thoracic injuries were observed in 26 cases. Among internal thoracic injuries, lungs were the most commonly involved organ 24 (92.3% followed by the heart 2 (7.6%. Lung sustained more lacerations 19 (79.1% than contusions 5 (20.8%. Internal abdominal injuries were observed in 49 cases. In road traffic accidents, the most commonly injured abdominal organs were solid organs such as liver 16 (32.6% followed by spleen 9 (18.3%. Conclusions: Majority of the times in road traffic accidents, young and productive males were injured or lost their life. This study may help the

  14. Waste assimilative capacity of coastal waters along Mumbai mega city, west coast of India using MIKE-21 and WASP simulation models.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Renjith, V.; Vethamony, P.; Zainudin, Z.; VinodKumar, K.

    locations, they are inadequate to handle the present situation. According to a World Bank report, 5 about 75% of the sewage in this region is untreated and discharged to local rivers and coastal waterways, causing extensive environmental hazards [48... and discussion The Mumbai city and suburb are one of the most heavily populated coastal regions on earth. The total population according to the latest national census in Mumbai region is around 13 million. The number of Megacities in the world increased from 3...

  15. DIVERSITY AND ABUNDANCE OF DRAGONFLIES AND DAMSELFLIES (ORDER - ODONATA) IN AGRO ECOSYSTEMS AROUND THE AMRAVATI CITY (M.S.), INDIA IN MANSOON SEASON

    OpenAIRE

    Pawan P. Rathod; Santosh S Pawar; Narendra A. Manwar

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to explore the Diversity and Abundance of dragonflies and damselflies (Order – odonata, Class Insecta, phylum Arthopoda) in agro ecosystems around Amravati city in monsoon season (July 2012 to October 2012). Odonata fauna of agro ecosystem for present study was investigated, total 31 species belonging to six families of dragonflies and damselflies (order - odonata) were recorded, in which the most abundant family was Lebellulidae followed by Coenagrionida...

  16. A Study on Celebrity Based Advertisements on the Purchase Attitude of Consumers towards Durable Products in Coimbatore city, Tamil Nadu, India

    OpenAIRE

    A. Pughazhendi; Thirunavukkarasu, R.; S.Susendiran

    2011-01-01

    The study aims to investigate celebrity based advertisements on the purchase attitude of consumers towards durable products in reference to the city of Coimbatore. In the present era of information explosion and media influence, these advertisements play a major role in changing the settled perception or thinking, which is otherwise called attitude, of the consumer and also the consumption pattern of the society in general. Across the world, celebrities have been used for a wide variety of br...

  17. CHARACTERISTICS OF CHILDHOOD VITILIGO IN A TERTIARY REFERRAL CENTRE IN BANGALORE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belliappa Pemmanda

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Vitiligo is an acquired depigmentary disorder, where approximately 50% of the cases have the onset of their disease prior to the age of 20 years and 25% prior to the age of 14 years. There is limited data on the clinical characteristics including associated cutaneous and ocular abnormalities in childhood vitiligo. AIMS To evaluate the various clinical characteristics and associated cutaneous and ocular abnormalities of childhood vitiligo. METHODS In a prospective, hospital based study over a period of two years; the epidemiology of childhood vitiligo was studied including associated cutaneous and ocular abnormalities. RESULTS Of the total 122 children studied, majority of them were females (n=75, 61.5%, and the rest males (n=47, 38.5%. The mean age of presentation was 8 years. Progression of lesions was present in 36 children (29.5%. The most common site of initial lesion was head and neck followed by lower limbs, genitalia, trunk and upper limbs. Eight children (6.6% had a history of trauma prior to onset of vitiligo. Eighteen children (14.8% had a family history of vitiligo. The most common type was vitiligo vulgaris seen in 45 children (36.9% followed by segmental type in 33 children (27%. Leukotrichia was seen in 51 children (41.8%, while Koebner phenomenon was observed in 30 children (24.6%. Fifteen children (12.3% had an associated cutaneous disorder. These associated disorders were halo nevi in 6 children (4.9%, alopecia areata in 3 children (2.5%, canities in 2 children (1.6%, and cafe au lait macule, nevus depigmentosus, lichen nitidus, lichen striatus in 1 each (0.8%. Thirty children (24.6% had an associated ocular disorder. These associated disorders were eyelid vitiligo in 26 children (21.3%, depigmented spots in the iris in 2 patients (1.6%, lamellar cataract and persistent papillary membrane in 1 each (0.8%. CONCLUSIONS Childhood vitiligo in Bangalore showed preponderance in females and greater number of children (72

  18. Bioindicator: A Comparative Study on Uptake and Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Some Plant`s Leaves of M.G. Road, Agra City, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Aslam

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to investigate the concentrations of some heavy metals (cobalt, cadmium, lead, nickel and chromium in the leaves of plants viz: neem (Azadirachta indica, kaner (Nerium oleander L., Ashok (Saraca indica L. and imli (Tamarindus indica around the polluted and non polluted sites near Agra region, India. Heavy metal concentrations in leaves were determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS. According to our findings the order of heavy metals in plants leaves were found in as follows: Co>Pb>Ni>Cr>Cd. Correlation between heavy metals in different plants at different sites were calculated for each metal separately and a positive correlation is observed. The presence of these metal ions in plant leaves explain the fact that these plant leaves are good bioindicators and can be used in air pollution monitoring studies in industrial areas.

  19. Sex in the city: privacy-making practices, spatialized intimacies and the environmental risks of men-who-have-sex-with-men in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorway, Robert; Hwang, Sandra D H; Reza-Paul, Sushena; Pasha, Akram; Rahman, Syed Hafeez Ur; Moses, Stephen; Blanchard, James

    2011-09-01

    Employing community-based approaches, the spatialization of sexual risk among men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM) at local cruising spots was explored in South India. To move beyond individualistic and structural deterministic understandings of sexual risk the study examined how erotic associations and networks formed and dissolved as social actors connect to each other through their material world (which includes other bodies). Crowding was important for safely establishing intimacy in public but also created contexts of discrimination and violence, particularly for feminine-acting males. Risk itineraries drawn by MSM anticipated fluctuating levels of risk, enabling them to avoid dangerous situations. Although sexual typologies connected gender nonconforming males to HIV prevention networks, they reinforce the exclusion of men who did not identify with sexual minority identities. Future work must therefore address the HIV prevention needs of men whose identities cannot be readily separated from "the general population". PMID:21703909

  20. Does higher economic growth reduce poverty and increase inequality? Evidence from Urban India

    OpenAIRE

    Tripathi, Sabyasachi

    2012-01-01

    This paper calculates select urban inequality and poverty indices and finds their policy linkages. In addition, the determinants of urban poverty and inequality are estimated by using data of 52 large cities in India. The main results show that higher city economic growth and large city population agglomeration are associated with reduction in city poverty and increase in inequality between cities.

  1. An assessment of municipal solid waste compost quality produced in different cities of India in the perspective of developing quality control indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, J K; Panwar, N; Singh, M V

    2010-02-01

    A study was conducted to investigate physico-chemical properties, fertilizing potential and heavy metal polluting potentials of municipal solid waste composts produced in 29 cities of the country. Results indicated that except a very few samples, all other samples have normal pH and EC. Organic matter as well as major nutrients N and P contents in MSW composts are generally low as compared to the composts prepared from rural wastes. Heavy metal contents in composts from bigger cities (>1 million population) were higher by about 86% for Zn, 155% for Cu, 194% for Cd, 105% for Pb, 43% for Ni and 132% for Cr as compared to those from smaller cities (MSW composts did not conform to the quality control guideline of 'The Fertilizer (Control) Order 1985' in respect of total organic C, total P, total K as well as heavy metals Cu, Pb and Cr. In order to enable the relevant stakeholders to judge overall quality, a scheme has been proposed for the categorization of composts into different marketable classes (A, B, C, and D) and restricted use classes (RU-1, RU-2, and RU-3) on the basis their fertilizing potential and as well as potential for contaminating soil and food chain. Under the scheme, 'Fertilizing index' was calculated from the values of total organic C, N, P, K, C/N ratio and stability parameter, and 'Clean index' was calculated from the contents of heavy metals, taking the relative importance of each of the parameters into consideration. As per the scheme, majority of the compost samples did not belong to any classes and hence, have been found unsuitable for any kind of use. As per the regulatory limits of different countries, very few compost samples (prepared from source separated biogenos wastes) were found in marketable classes (A, B, C and D) and some samples (11-14) were found suitable only for some restricted use. PMID:19857948

  2. Gender and suicide in India: a multiperspective approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tousignant, M; Seshadri, S; Raj, A

    1998-01-01

    The gap between male and female suicide rates in India is relatively small. However, society's views on female and male motives are quite different. In order to investigate the perceptions of male and female suicide, we interviewed a focus group of university professors as well as police inspectors, crime reporters, and hospital nurses in Bangalore. We also obtained four narratives of suicide. Women tended to be blamed for their own or their husband's suicide, although they were also viewed more often as victims of life adversities than men. A historical review illustrates that both men and women have been associated with culturally sanctioned suicides. One known form is sati, and we discuss the recent case of sati-murder of Roop Kanwar in 1987. The social sciences and the media also pay a lot of attention to the typical female suicides, symbolizing their role as martyrs of society, which seems to compensate for attribution of blame. PMID:9560166

  3. Outdoor Operational Stability of Indium-Free Flexible Polymer Solar Modules Over 1 Year Studied in India, Holland, and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angmo, Dechan; Sommeling, Paul M.; Gupta, Ritu;

    2014-01-01

    We present an outdoor interlaboratory stability study of fully printed and coated indium-tin-oxide (ITO)-free polymer solar cell modules in JNCASR Bangalore (India), ECN (Holland), and DTU (Denmark) carried over more than 1 year. The modules comprising a fully printed and coated stack (Ag grid......-cost plastic barrier material with the use of a UV curing adhesive. The impact of differences in the climatic conditions on the performance of the modules is highlighted and the performance of the modules under storage conditions in parallel with the outdoor study is investigated. While all Gen-I modules...

  4. Arsenic burden from cooked rice in the populations of arsenic affected and nonaffected areas and Kolkata City in West-Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Arup; Chowdhury, Uttam Kumar; Mondal, Debapriya; Das, Bhaskar; Nayak, Bishwajit; Ghosh, Arijit; Maity, Sumana; Chakraborti, Dipankar

    2009-05-01

    Arsenic contamination of rice irrigated with contaminated groundwater contributes to the additional arsenic burden of the population where rice is the staple food. In an arsenic contaminated area, an experimental field-based study done on nine fields elucidated significant positive correlation between arsenic in irrigation water and soil, irrigation water and rice, and also soil and rice both for Boro (groundwater) and Aman (rainwater) rice. Speciation studies showed that for both Boro (cooked) and Aman (raw) rice from contaminated area, 90% of total recovered arsenic was inorganic. In arsenic contaminated, uncontaminated villages, and Kolkata city, daily quantities of arsenic ingested by adult population from cooked rice diet are equivalent to 6.5, 1.8, and 2.3 L respectively, of drinking water containing WHO guideline value. In contaminated area, daily intake only from cooked Boro rice for 34.6% of the samples exceeded the WHO recommended MTDI value (2 microg In-As day(-1) kg(-1) body wt), whereas daily intake from Aman rice was below MTDI value as was rice from uncontaminated areas and Kolkata city. Our study indicated that employing traditional rice cooking method as followed in Bengal delta and using water having arsenic arsenic from rice would be much less. PMID:19534157

  5. Prevalence of Obesity among College Students in Rural Area of Bangalore

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjay T Varadappa, Prashanth Kumar S Prakash, Gangaboraiah, Ramesh Masthi N Raju, Lakshmeesha Y Subbanna

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Increasing trend of obesity among adolescents is a worldwide phenomenon. There is a scarcity of research on obesity in the later part of adolescence from rural part of India. Objective: To find out the prevalence and factors associated with obesity among college students studying 11th& 12th standard between 15 – 19 years of age. Methods: A cross sectional study was undertaken by involving all the colleges located within the rural field practice area of Kempegowda Inst...

  6. Job stress and hypertension in younger software professionals in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giridhara R Babu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: We report the results of a moderately large study (1071 to study the prevalence of hypertension among software professionals in the Indian subcontinent employed at 27 different companies in Bangalore. The focus of our study is on the age gradient of hypertension prevalence and exploring the association of workplace psychosocial predictors of hypertension. Materials and Methods: We used mixed methods sampling strategy, the first stage of which involved stratified sampling to select the clusters of software companies in Bangalore and the second stage involved selecting individual companies through purposive sampling. Job stress questionnaire was self-administered to collect information on job stress and blood pressure classification is done based on 7 th report of Joint National Commission. Results: The prevalence of hypertension among Information Technology/Information Technology Enabled Services professionals was 31% and pre-hypertension was 45.7%. The prevalence of stage-1 hypertension in the age group of 19-25 years was 18% and 23% in 26-30 years group while the prevalence of stage-2 hypertension in the age group of 19-25 years was 5% and 3% in 26-30 years group. The results indicate that dimensions of workplace autonomy and workplace environment are associated with hypertension. Conclusions: Hypertension affects the young urban Indians a decade earlier compared to available evidence. Furthermore, there is an association of autonomy and work-environment with hypertension. This signifies further exploration of underlying endocrine mechanisms. Funding: The funding UCLA International Research and Training Program and the Public Health Foundation of India provided the funding for this study. Results: The study was supported through Fogarty/UCLA International Research and Training Program (Grant Number: D43 TW000013 and the Public Health Foundation of India

  7. A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY OF BRONCHIAL ASTHMA IN ALLERGIC RHINITIS PATIENTS: A COMMUNITY BASED ASSESSMENTS AMONG ADULTS IN BANGALORE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giriraja

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Allergic rhinitis is rather erroneously viewed as a trivial disease, it is important to note that it can significantly affect the quality of life. There is significant overlap between bronchial asthma and allergic rhinitis. AIMS This study was done to assess the prevalence of asthmatics in allergic rhinitis patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS A community based cross sectional study was conducted in Bangalore, among 1000 adults aged 30 yrs and above. Allergic rhinitis was diagnosed as per ARIA guidelines. Sperometery was done to diagnose asthma among them. Multivariate logistic regression analysis has been used to find the association of risk factors with disease. RESULTS Among subjects with allergic rhinitis, 40(33% were also diagnosed to be suffering from concomitant asthma showing a considerable overlap between rhinitis and asthma. CONCLUSION Burden of allergic rhinitis is high with a considerable overlap with asthma. This highlights the importance of early and regular treatment

  8. Prevalence of domestic accidents in the rural field practice area of a medical college in Bangalore, Karnataka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N R Ramesh Masthi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Domestic accidents are worldwide health problems. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the rural field practice area of Kempegowda Institute of Medical Sciences, Bangalore. A total of 5419 individuals were selected from 30 clusters (villages using cluster sampling technique. Of the 5419 study population, 50.9% (2748 were males and the rest were females. The prevalence of domestic accidents in the rural community was found to be 9.6% (522 individuals who had sustained domestic accidents, was found to be more in females compared with males, which was statistically significant with P-value =0.0077 (Z value =9.09. Falls 43% (225 was the most common type of domestic accidents. The most common place of occurrence of domestic accidents was 46% (243 kitchen, most frequent site of injures in domestic accidents was upper limbs.

  9. Epidemiology of asthma in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramesh, H

    2002-04-01

    Allergic respiratory disorders, in particular asthma are increasing in prevalence, which is a global phenomenon. Even though genetic predisposition is one of the factors in children for the increased prevalence - urbanisation, air pollution and environmental tobacco smoke contribute more significantly. Our hospital based study on 20,000 children under the age of 18 years from 1979,1984,1989,1994 and 1999 in the city of Bangalore showed a prevalence of 9%,10.5%,18.5%, 24.5% and 29.5% respectively. The increased prevalence correlated well with demographic changes of the city. Further to the hospital study, a school survey in 12 schools on 6550 children in the age group of 6 to 15 years was undertaken for prevalence of asthma and children were categorized into three groups depending upon the geographical situation of the school in relation to vehicular traffic and the socioeconomic group of children. Group I-Children from schools of heavy traffic area showed prevalence of 19.34%, Group II-Children from heavy traffic region and low socioeconomic population had 31.14% and Group III-Children from low traffic area school had 11.15% respectively. (P: I & II; II & III <0.001). A continuation of study in rural areas showed 5.7% in children of 6-15 years. The persistent asthma also showed an increase from 20% to 27.5% and persistent severe asthma 4% to 6.5% between 1994-99. Various epidemiological spectra of asthma in children are discussed here. PMID:12019551

  10. Water Conversations: Paani Bachao, India 2010

    OpenAIRE

    MacLeod, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Water Conversations: Paani Bachao! (Save Water!) India 2010 A collaborative project by artists Anna Macleod (Irl) and Carol Hummel (USA) Locations: Shimla, Jammu, Srinagar, New Delhi and Jaipur, India, 2010. Paani Bachao! (save water) is an ongoing project that posits a ubiquitous poster image into public spaces in varying global locations to examine attitudes to water as an element for life. Initially inspired by a ‘conserve water’ image produced by Dublin City Council in Jan/Feb...

  11. Incidence, Type and Intensity of Abuse in Street Children in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Meena; Rathore, Prachi; Mathur, Monika

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The aims of this cross-sectional survey were to examine the prevalence, type and intensity of abuse in street children in Jaipur city, India. Method: Based on purposive random sampling, 200 street children, inclusive of equal number of boys and girls, were selected from the streets of Jaipur city, India, and administered an in-depth…

  12. Impact of single-point GPS integrated water vapor estimates on short-range WRF model forecasts over southern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prashant; Gopalan, Kaushik; Shukla, Bipasha Paul; Shyam, Abhineet

    2016-09-01

    Specifying physically consistent and accurate initial conditions is one of the major challenges of numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. In this study, ground-based global positioning system (GPS) integrated water vapor (IWV) measurements available from the International Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) Service (IGS) station in Bangalore, India, are used to assess the impact of GPS data on NWP model forecasts over southern India. Two experiments are performed with and without assimilation of GPS-retrieved IWV observations during the Indian winter monsoon period (November-December, 2012) using a four-dimensional variational (4D-Var) data assimilation method. Assimilation of GPS data improved the model IWV analysis as well as the subsequent forecasts. There is a positive impact of ˜10 % over Bangalore and nearby regions. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model-predicted 24-h surface temperature forecasts have also improved when compared with observations. Small but significant improvements were found in the rainfall forecasts compared to control experiments.

  13. Charles Michie Smith - founder of the Kodaikanal (Solar Physics) Observatory and beginnings of physical astronomy in India

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, N Kameswara; Birdie, Christina

    2014-01-01

    It has been about 115 years since the establishment of Kodaikanal Observatory as an extension of the original Madras Observatory, which has evolved into the present Indian Institute of Astrophysics at Bangalore. It is also the first mountain observatory in India. Charles Michie Smith was the man who selected the site, established the observatory and directed it for the first 12 years. He was also the man who recruited John Evershed, discoverer of the famous Evershed effect and established Kodaikanal Observatory as a major centre for solar physics. Michie Smith, the person and the establishment of Kodaikanal Observatory are discussed here in the context of the early studies in physical astronomy (observational astrophysics) in India.

  14. Oral health knowledge, practice, oral hygiene status, and dental caries prevalence among visually impaired children in Bangalore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S T Prashanth

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Visually impaired children daily face challenges for bearing their everyday skills. Maintenance of proper oral hygiene is one among them. Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the oral health knowledge, practice, oral hygiene status, and dental caries prevalence among visually impaired children in Bangalore. Materials and Methods: A total of 85 children were asked verbally a questionnaire regarding the frequency of brushing, cleaning tools, use of dentifrice, knowledge about the role of sugar in producing dental decay, and frequency of visit to the dentist. All children were screened and DMF and def scores were recorded and oral hygiene status were assessed by Green and Vermillion index. Results: Green and Vermillion index. Kruskal Wallis Chi square test was performed and no statistically significant results were obtained with DMF and def scores as well as OHI scores across different ages in the range of 8 to 13 years. A highly statistically significant result was obtained with dental caries prevalence and oral hygiene status of visually impaired children. Conclusions: The present study shows not much worsening of oral health status in the study population. A little extra care by the parent or caretaker regarding oral hygiene can give drastic results in reduction of dental caries.

  15. PM over summertime India: Sources and trends investigated using long term measurements and multi-receptor site back trajectory analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vinod; Sarkar, Chinmoy; Sachan, Himanshu; Kumar, Devender; Sinha, Baerbel

    2013-04-01

    residue burning is practiced during harvesting months (April-May) displays enhanced seasonal average PM10 loadings. Average PM10 loadings are approximately 40 μg/m3 higher compared to average PM10 loadings in the Eastern IGP, where crop residue burning is not practiced. PM10 loading in Patiala (Central Punjab) are underpredicted by a factor of 1.8 with respect to the seasonal average and a factor of 2.5 for the harvesting season only. A comparison between 1992-1995 and 2000-2003 shows that PM10 loadings over entire India decreased with the strongest decrease (-150 μg/m3) over the mining areas in Madhya Pradesh and in Chhattisgarh, providing confidence in environmental protection norms put in place by government regulatory authorities. TSP mass loadings decreased over Central India, the Eastern IGB and the Bay of Bengal (-300 μg/m3) but increased over the Southern Indus plains (+ 200 μg/m3) and the Thar Desert. In general there is an increase of TSP from windblown desert dust which is most apparent over the dust source regions but also impacts TSP loadings over the NW-IGB. References: Gupta and Kumar: Trends of particulate matter in four cities in India. Atmospheric Environment 40 (2006) 2552-2566. Acknowledgement: Vinod Kumar and Himanshu Sachan acknowledge the DST INSPIRE Fellowship programme. Chinmoy Sarkar thanks the Max Planck-DST India Partner Group on Tropospheric OH reactivity and VOCs for funding

  16. Arranged Love: Marriage in a transnational work environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Baas

    2007-01-01

    In India, ‘love’ and ‘arranged’ marriages appear to be at opposite ends of the spectrum, but Michiel Baas argues that this ‘opposition’ is being challenged by IT professionals in the South India city of Bangalore.

  17. New Bangalores? The role of Central and Eastern Europe in business and IT services offshoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltan Gal

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses how the second global shift in business services provision and corporate restructuring open up new offshoring opportunities into Central and Eastern Europe (CEE. It explores three issues: First, it builds upon the theoretical framework of the ‘new paradigm of globalization, which considers offshoring as one of the most important globalizing forces of recent time. This results in a shift in global trade, namely from ‘trade in goods’ to ‘trade in tasks’ determined by the changing trends in the division of labour. Second, the paper gives an overview of services relocation into CEE in comparison with its Asian counterparts. As the EU expanded eastwards, the opportunities for European corporations to offshore their business services to these ‘nearshore’ locations increased. Building on the region’s nearshoring advantages such as geographical-cultural proximity and on their multilingual graduate sup ply, CEE is likely to utilise more value added quality-driven BPO and KPO services. Third, the paper examines the implications of offshoring for the home markets in CEE assessing its impact on their locations. It reveals the role of offshoring activities in the metropolitan transformation and discusses the factors that make the capital cities an increasingly attractive option for companies to relocate their services. Despite CEE has taken advantage on the trend supported by the global service delivery models reducing dependency on any single location, its further growth may be influenced by the worsening macro-conditions, and future prospect of the region depends largely on government incentives and on the success of exploiting talent pools offered by its provincial cities.

  18. Internet India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahl, Ronald H.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews a number of Internet sites containing information on every aspect of life in Modern India. The various sites provide information on such diverse topics as the Indian film industry, politics, the booming Indian computer industry, changing status of women, and financial and political issues. (MJP)

  19. Image city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    Image city exhibition explores a condition of mediation, through a focus on image and sound narratives with a point of departure on a number of Asian cities.......Image city exhibition explores a condition of mediation, through a focus on image and sound narratives with a point of departure on a number of Asian cities....

  20. Isotopic and geochemical characterization of invader tilapia fishes from water bodies of West Bengal and Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Mousumi; Ghosh, Prosenjit; Ramdas, Leena; Chakrabarti, Ramananda

    2015-11-01

    The otoliths (N = 12) of freshwater invasive species tilapia (Tilapia mossambicus) collected from two water bodies located at Kolkata and Bangalore, India, were analyzed for stable isotopes (δ18O, δ14C) and major and trace elements in order to assess the suitability of using otoliths as a tracer of aquatic environmental changes. The stable isotope analysis was done using the dual inlet system of a Finnigan-MAT 253 isotope ratio mass spectrometer (Thermo-Fisher, Bremen, Germany). Concentrations of major and trace elements were determined using a Thermo X-Series II quadrupole mass spectrometer. The stable isotope composition in tilapia otolith samples from Bangalore and Kolkata water bodies are quite good agreeing with that of the respective lake/pond and rain water. Elemental composition revealed in a pattern of Ca>Fe>Na>Sr>K>Ba>Cr>Mg>As>Mn>Zn>Co>Cu>Cd>Pb. The otoliths from Kolkata pond water are more enriched in Ba, Zn, Pb, Mn, Se, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Ni whereas Cr and As were found to be higher in otolith samples from Bangalore lake. The enrichment factor (EF) values of Cr were higher for both the sampling location in comparison with other metals, although all the studied metals exhibited EF values>1. The PCA shows clustering of metals in the otolith which are related either with the metabolic and physiological attributes or waterborne source. The study demonstrated the potential of stable isotope techniques to distinguish otolith specimens from varied climatic zone, while elemental composition recorded the quality of water at both the locations. The role of climate driving the quality of water can be understood by detailed and continuous monitoring of otolith specimens in the future. Future method allows reconstruction of climate and water quality from old specimens from field exposures or museum collection.

  1. Feeding and oral hygiene habits of children attending daycare centres in Bangalore and their caretakers oral health knowledge, attitude and practices

    OpenAIRE

    Vinay, S.; N Naveen; N Naganandini

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Caretakers in day-care centers play a significant role in imparting good oral hygiene practices and also extend a working relationship with parents with regard to their children′s oral health. As a result of this, caregiver′s dental knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and practices affect the child′s oral condition. Settings and Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study involved caretakers working in day-care centers of Bangalore. Fifty-two day-care centers were randomly selected from th...

  2. Identification of Variables and Factors Impacting Consumer Behavior in On-line Shopping in India: An Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhikara, Sudesh

    On-line shopping is a recent phenomenon in the field of E-Business and is definitely going to be the future of shopping in the world. Most of the companies are running their on-line portals to sell their products/services. Though online shopping is very common outside India, its growth in Indian Market, which is a large and strategic consumer market, is still not in line with the global market. The potential growth of on-line shopping has triggered the idea of conducting a study on on-line shopping in India. The present research paper has used exploratory study to depict and highlight the various categories of factors and variables impacting the behavior of consumers towards on-line shopping in India. The data was collected through in-depth interviews on a sample of 41 respondents from Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai and Bangalore. The results of the study show that on-line shopping in India is basically impacted by five categories of factors like demographics factor, Psychographics factor, Online shopping feature and policies, Technological factor, Security factor. The results of the study are used to present a comprehensive model of on-line shopping which could be further used by the researchers and practitioners for conducting future studies in the similar area. A brief operational definition of all the factors and variables impacting on-line shopping in India is also described. And finally practical implications of the study are also elucidated.

  3. City PLANTastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The city is going green. From New York to Copenhagen vegetables are enthusiastically planted on city squares, and buildings are turning green everywhere . The word “plant” is on everyone’s lips, reflecting a growing desire to solve ecological, technical and social challenges in the city. Hovever......, any attempt to create a green city is motivated by certain ecological, political and esthetical perspectives. Therefore the role of plants in tomorrows cities is everything but straightforward. Rather, a broad range of possibilities unfolds. City PLANTastic is the title of the 8th World in Denmark...

  4. Globalisation, Urbanisation and Spatial Inequality in India with special reference to North East India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin L Saitluanga

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Globalisation, an increasing international interaction in economic, political and cultural aspects, is a highly uneven set of processes whose impact varies over space, through time, and between social groups. On one hand, as globalisation seems to be an inevitable reality, many developing countries are restructuring their economies to receive and reap the benefits of widening and deepening global economic interactions. On the other hand, there are regions, which are increasingly excluded, and ‘structurally irrelevant’ to the current process of globalisation. Moreover, cities are at the core of development strategy of globalisation. While cities in developed countries are becoming centres of globally integrated organisation of economic activity, cities in developing countries are usually at disadvantage positions due to weak financial bases, low levels of technology as well as lack of infrastructural facilities and institutional factors.The present paper, in the limelight of these contradictions, analyses the differential impacts of economic globalisation in cities and regions of India in general and Northeast India in particular. It is noted that the ushering of globalisation through structural adjustment of the economy during the 1990s has disparate impacts on various cities and regions of the country. The paper also examines the infrastructural constraints of cities of Northeast India as well as the existing institutional arrangements to ‘globalise’ the region through neoliberal reforms and investments. 

  5. Beer City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Shandong Province’s Qingdao is becoming China’s great beer city sicenically located on a peninsula over-looking the Pacific Ocean, Qingdao, |or Tsingtao, is a coastal city soaked in two kinds of foam. One floats in

  6. A pilot study on water pollution and characterization of multidrug-resistant superbugs from Byramangala tank, Ramanagara district, Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skariyachan, Sinosh; Lokesh, Priyanka; Rao, Reshma; Kumar, Arushi Umesh; Vasist, Kiran S; Narayanappa, Rajeswari

    2013-07-01

    Urbanization and industrialization has increased the strength and qualities of municipal sewage in Bangalore, India. The disposal of sewage into natural water bodies became a serious issue. Byramangala reservoir is one such habitat enormously polluted in South India. The water samples were collected from four hotspots of Byramangala tank in 3 months. The biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and bacterial counts were determined. The fecal coliforms were identified by morphological, physiological, and biochemical studies. The antibiotics sensitivity profiling of isolated bacteria were further carried out. We have noticed that a high content of BOD in the tank in all the 3 months. The total and fecal counts were found to be varied from 1.6 × 10(6) to 8.2 × 10(6) colony forming unit/ml and >5,500/100 ml, respectively. The variations in BOD and total count were found to be statistically significant at p > 0.05. Many pathogenic bacteria were characterized and most of them were found to be multidrug resistant. Salmonella showed resistance to cefoperazone, cefotaxime, cefixime, moxifloxacin, piperacillin/tazobactam, co-trimoxazole, levofloxacin, trimethoprim, and ceftazidime. Escherichia coli showed resistance to chloramphenicol, trimethoprim, co-trimoxazole, rifampicin, and nitrofurantoin while Enterobacter showed resistant to ampicillin, cefepime, ceftazidime, cefoperazone, and cefotaxime. Klebsiella and Shigella exhibited multiple drug resistance to conventional antibiotics. Staphylococcus showed resistance to vancomycin, methicillin, oxacillin, and tetracycline. Furthermore, Salmonella and Klebsiella are on the verge of acquiring resistance to even the strongest carbapenems-imipenem and entrapenem. Present study revealed that Byramanagala tank has become a cesspool of multidrug-resistant "superbugs" and will be major health concern in South Bangalore, India. PMID:23114918

  7. Ideal Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Meitner, Erika

    2012-01-01

    Erika Meitner discusses her new book: Ideal Cities. This collection of autobiographical narrative and lyric poems explores the relationship between body and place—specifically the pleasures and dangers of women’s corporeal experiences. Ideal Cities is guided by an epigraph from Song of Songs, and the metaphorical idea of bodies as cities, and cities as bodies. How do women’s bodies become sites of inscription via sex, childbirth, and other highly physical acts? These poems also investigate ur...

  8. AIDS in position to ravage India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraman, K S

    1996-09-01

    The Joint UN Program on AIDS reports that India has more than 3 million adults infected with HIV, more HIV-infected adults than any other country in the world. By the year 2005, India will have more people infected with HIV than does Africa. Having sex with a Bombay housewife today is at least twice as risky as it was to have sex with a prostitute in the city's red light district in 1988. 2-3% of all women in the city are infected with HIV. There is ignorance, apathy, corruption, and lack of commitment at all levels with regard to HIV/AIDS. Accordingly, India's lackluster campaign against AIDS launched 10 years ago has lost momentum just as the epidemic is exploding and at a time when traditional beliefs about cultural barriers and the sexual behavior of Indian males are being called into question. Considerable homosexual behavior occurs in India. However, the most important factor contributing to the spread of HIV throughout India is the virus' spread from urban areas into small villages, often through migrant laborers. Ignorance, illiteracy, and poverty in villages will make AIDS prevention especially difficult. Indian government policy forbidding the distribution of condoms in prisons, needles to injectable-drug users, and free drugs to AIDS patients further contributes to the spread of HIV.

  9. Sin City?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svarer, Michael; Gautier, Pieter A.; Teulings, Coen n.

    , the ones who stay in the city have significant higher divorce rates. Similarly, for the couples who married outside the city, the ones who move to the city are more likely to divorce. This correlation can be explained by both a causal and a sorting effect. We disentangle them by using the timing...

  10. Oral health status and parental perception of child oral health related quality-of-life of children with autism in Bangalore, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Children with autism present with the physical-mental impairments and oral problems, which may have an impact on their quality-of-life (QoL. The aim of the following study was to assess oral health status and parental perception of child oral health related quality of life (OHRQoL among children with autism. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 4-15-year-old children with autism (n = 135 and children without autism (n = 135. Oral health status was evaluated using Oral Hygiene Index-Simplified (OHI-S, its Miglani′s modification for deciduous teeth, Decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT/dmft and Decayed, missing and filled surface (DMFS/dmfs indices. Parents answered the Parental-Caregivers Perception Questionnaire for assessing children′s OHRQoL. Mann-Whitney U, Chi-square test and Pearson′s correlation analysis were performed. Results: Mean OHI-S, DMFT, dmft scores were significantly high among children with autism (2.07 ± 0.83; 0.86 ± 1.22, 1.40 ± 2.48 when compared to children without autism (0.46 ± 0.58; 0.46 ± 1.06, 0.59 ± 1.28 respectively. Out of all domains of OHRQoL, mean score of functional limitations related to teeth problem was significantly higher among children with autism (8.87 ± 5.65 as compared to non-autism group (6.66 ± 4.97. Conclusion: Functional limitations may have a negative impact on oral health status that might influence OHRQoL.

  11. Space research. Volume 20 - Proceedings of the Open Meetings of the Working Groups on Physical Sciences, Bangalore, India, May 29-June 9, 1979

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rycroft, M. J.

    1980-09-01

    The meetings focused on atmospheric radiation, tropical troposphere, atmospheric circulation, mesosphere, equatorial ionosphere, planetary science, and cosmic ray studies. Papers were presented on measurements of atmospheric submillimeter radiation, satellite radiation climatology, brightness data, energetic characteristics of winter stratospheric warmings, mesospheric density variability, D-region nitric oxide density enhancement on winter anomalous days, infrared reflection spectra of the moon and lunar soil, and energy spectra and charge states of low energy cosmic rays in the Skylab experiment.

  12. Sustainability in South Asian city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Akhmat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available City brings about the most complex interplay of social, cultural, and political dimensions of space. It will have to accommodate around one billion humans only in South Asia by the year 2030. Therefore it needs to be prepared to absorb huge increases in urban population and resulting pressure on basic infrastructure and livelihood opportunities. In order to secure a better future and to improve the quality of life of all the citizens, city needs to be reinvented, by incorporating creativity and innovation with the approaches, we use in its planning. Here we present an overview of the progress, challenges and some key interventions to reinvent the city in South Asian region as well as in the developing world, with the examples of the most populous countries in the region: India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. Planning transforms geometric space in city into lived space. City planning in South Asia is as old as the human settlement itself, but the current situation is well below the level to be admired. Most of the city plans have been faulty with poor economic base and implementability, and fostered unintended city within the city, whose growth rate shadows the growth rate of the city itself. City in the developing world desperately needs to follow a sustainable development pattern which satisfies the requirement for equity; meets basic human needs; allows social and ethnic self-determination; promotes environmental awareness, integrity and inter-linkages between various living beings across time and space. It requires a combination of strategic policy making, supported by a system that combines personal opinion with scientific knowledge. It needs to reset the basis for the articulation of the initiatives of all relevant stakeholders to seek synergies for its development.

  13. Earthquake risk mitigation projects in central asia and india

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausler, E.; Petal, M.; Tobin, T.; Tucker, B.; Gupta, M.; Sharma, A.; Shaw, R.

    2003-04-01

    In the fall of 2002, GeoHazards International (GHI), a California-based nonprofit organization, launched two 3-year projects, each funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development, to improve the earthquake risk management of 23 cities in Central Asia and India. The objectives of these projects are to: * Assess the earthquake risk of each city, * Identify the most effective risk mitigation options for each city, * Raise awareness of that risk and those mitigation options, and * Initiate mitigation activities in some of these cities. A critical characteristic of these projects is that leaders of each local community will be deeply involved in realizing all four objectives. GHI will work with, in addition to local authorities, national government, academic and non-governmental organizations. In India, GHI’s partners are the Disaster Management Planning Hyogo Office, United Nations Centre for Regional Development (UNCRD) of Kobe, Japan, and the Sustainable Environment and Ecological Development Society (SEEDS), of Delhi, India. In India, we will work in 20 cities that were chosen, in a February 1, 2002 workshop (sponsored by Munich Reinsurance Company) in Delhi; the cities were selected by Indian earthquake professionals on the basis of the cities’ population, hazard, and economic, cultural and political significance. In Central Asia, we will focus on Tashkent, Uzbekistan; Dushanbe, Tadzhikistan; and Almaty, Kazakstan. GHI and its partners are looking for other organizations that would like to collaborate on these projects.

  14. Where is the bride? Progressively declining sex ratio in India: an alarming signal for imbalanced society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmala Sharma

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Female feticide is an extreme form of violence against women, the most active part is being played by the women themselves just for the mere want of a boy, mothers dont feel bad in strangulating their own daughters in their wombs. From decades of sex determination and female feticide is creating a statistical imbalance regarding the commonly expected and lsquo;male: female' birth ratio in India. This offense have been spreaded to the states in India like Punjab, Haryana, Delhi, Gujarat and Rajasthan, with the news of increasing number of female fetus being aborted from Orissa and Bangalore. The 2011 census has revealed a drastic fall in child sex ratio throughout the country. The decline in child sex ratio in India is guarded by the census figure, in 1991 the figure was 947 girls to 1000 boys, ten years later in 2001 it was about for 927 girl child to 1000 boys. In 2011 it further declined to 914 girl children to 1000 boys. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(2.000: 301-303

  15. Past, present & future scenario of thalassaemic care & control in India

    OpenAIRE

    Ishwar C Verma; Saxena, Renu; Kohli, Sudha

    2011-01-01

    The first case of thalassaemia, described in a non-Mediterranean person, was from India. Subsequently, cases of thalassaemia were documented in all parts of India. Centres for care of thalassaemics were started in the mid-1970s in Mumbai and Delhi, and then in other cities. The parent's associations, with the help of International Thalassemia Federation, greatly helped in improving the care of thalassaemics. Obtaining blood for transfusion was difficult, but the Indian Red Cross Society and t...

  16. Indian Solar Cities Programme: An Overview of Major Activities and Accomplishments; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandt, A.

    2012-05-01

    This paper details the Indian Solar City Programme, provides an overview of one city's Master Plan and implementation progress, describes NREL's support of the Indian Solar City Programme, and outlines synergies and differences between the Indian and American programs including unique challenges and opportunities India is facing.

  17. Staying Preferences by Street Children in Surat City

    OpenAIRE

    Patel NB, Desai Toral, Bansal RK, Girish Thakar

    2011-01-01

    India houses the largest number of street children in the world. These children often live in abject poverty and squalid conditions. The present study aims to explore their staying preferences in the city of Surat and the reasons thereof. This cross-sectional study was conducted by interviewing 326 street children in Surat city. The study found that street children prefer to stay and work in Surat city as they perceive that Surat is a safer city; it is easier to earn money in this city; life ...

  18. CO2 Emissions from Direct Energy Use of Urban Households in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Sohail; Baiocchi, Giovanni; Creutzig, Felix

    2015-10-01

    India hosts the world's second largest population and offers the world's largest potential for urbanization. India's urbanization trajectory will have crucial implications on its future GHG emission levels. Using household microdata from India's 60 largest cities, this study maps GHG emissions patterns and its determinants. It also ranks the cities with respect to their household actual and "counter-factual" GHG emissions from direct energy use. We find that household GHG emissions from direct energy use correlate strongly with income and household size; population density, basic urban services (municipal water, electricity, and modern cooking-fuels access) and cultural, religious, and social factors explain more detailed emission patterns. We find that the "greenest" cities (on the basis of household GHG emissions) are Bareilly and Allahabad, while the "dirtiest" cities are Chennai and Delhi; however, when we control for socioeconomic variables, the ranking changes drastically. In the control case, we find that smaller lower-income cities emit more than expected, and larger high-income cities emit less than expected in terms of counter-factual emissions. Emissions from India's cities are similar in magnitude to China's cities but typically much lower than those of comparable U.S. cities. Our results indicate that reducing urban heat-island effects and the associated cooling degree days by greening, switching to modern nonsolid cooking fuels, and anticipatory transport infrastructure investments are key policies for the low-carbon and inclusive development of Indian cities.

  19. Biopolicies and biotechnologies: reflections on surrogate maternity in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Amador

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the impact of biotechnology, particularly on assisted reproductive technologies such as surrogate motherhood. The study is based on interviews and field work conducted in the city of Hyderabad in India within the frame of the seminar on “Research Methodology” given by Dr. Rohan D´Souza at the Centre for Studies in Science Policy at the Jawaharlal Nehru University in India. The theoretical framework of this analysis focuses on exploring concepts such as cyborg (Haraway,1991 and subaltern subject (Spivak, 1998 in the context of biotechnological production in India

  20. Adaptation and Evaluation of the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale in India (NEWS-India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepti Adlakha

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Physical inactivity is the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality, with most of these deaths occurring in low and middle-income countries (LMICs like India. Research from developed countries has consistently demonstrated associations between built environment features and physical activity levels of populations. The development of culturally sensitive and reliable measures of the built environment is a necessary first step for accurate analysis of environmental correlates of physical activity in LMICs. This study systematically adapted the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS for India and evaluated aspects of test-retest reliability of the adapted version among Indian adults. Cultural adaptation of the NEWS was conducted by Indian and international experts. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with local residents and key informants in the city of Chennai, India. At baseline, participants (N = 370; female = 47.2% from Chennai completed the adapted NEWS-India surveys on perceived residential density, land use mix-diversity, land use mix-access, street connectivity, infrastructure and safety for walking and cycling, aesthetics, traffic safety, and safety from crime. NEWS-India was administered for a second time to consenting participants (N = 62; female = 53.2% with a gap of 2–3 weeks between successive administrations. Qualitative findings demonstrated that built environment barriers and constraints to active commuting and physical activity behaviors intersected with social ecological systems. The adapted NEWS subscales had moderate to high test-retest reliability (ICC range 0.48–0.99. The NEWS-India demonstrated acceptable measurement properties among Indian adults and may be a useful tool for evaluation of built environment attributes in India. Further adaptation and evaluation in rural and suburban settings in India is essential to create a version that could be used throughout India.

  1. Adaptation and Evaluation of the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale in India (NEWS-India)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlakha, Deepti; Hipp, J. Aaron; Brownson, Ross C.

    2016-01-01

    Physical inactivity is the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality, with most of these deaths occurring in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) like India. Research from developed countries has consistently demonstrated associations between built environment features and physical activity levels of populations. The development of culturally sensitive and reliable measures of the built environment is a necessary first step for accurate analysis of environmental correlates of physical activity in LMICs. This study systematically adapted the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS) for India and evaluated aspects of test-retest reliability of the adapted version among Indian adults. Cultural adaptation of the NEWS was conducted by Indian and international experts. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with local residents and key informants in the city of Chennai, India. At baseline, participants (N = 370; female = 47.2%) from Chennai completed the adapted NEWS-India surveys on perceived residential density, land use mix-diversity, land use mix-access, street connectivity, infrastructure and safety for walking and cycling, aesthetics, traffic safety, and safety from crime. NEWS-India was administered for a second time to consenting participants (N = 62; female = 53.2%) with a gap of 2–3 weeks between successive administrations. Qualitative findings demonstrated that built environment barriers and constraints to active commuting and physical activity behaviors intersected with social ecological systems. The adapted NEWS subscales had moderate to high test-retest reliability (ICC range 0.48–0.99). The NEWS-India demonstrated acceptable measurement properties among Indian adults and may be a useful tool for evaluation of built environment attributes in India. Further adaptation and evaluation in rural and suburban settings in India is essential to create a version that could be used throughout India. PMID:27049394

  2. Health and safety aspects of textile workers from Solapur (India) textile industries

    OpenAIRE

    Rahul B Hiremath; Ruth Kattumuri; Bimlesh Kumar; Gurudevi R Hiremath

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Textile sector in India plays an important role in the country's economy, providing employment to a significant population in rural and urban areas. Objectives: This paper focuses on health and safety aspects of textile workers in Solapur City (one of the key textile cluster) in the state of Maharashtra, India. Methodology: A sample of 180 workers from the identified textile industries of Solapur city were assessed for their general physique, muscle tone, lung condition, and eye...

  3. The India Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Alim, Jamaal

    2012-01-01

    Even though lawmakers in India don't seem likely to pass any laws that would enable foreign universities to set up shop in India anytime soon, opportunities still abound for institutions of higher learning in the United States to collaborate with their Indian counterparts and to engage and recruit students in India as well. That's the consensus…

  4. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbelin, Bruno; Lasserre, Sebastien; Ciger, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Flying Cities is an artistic installation which generates imaginary cities from the speech of its visitors. Thanks to an original interactive process analyzing people's vocal input to create 3D graphics, a tangible correspondence between speech and visuals opens new possibilities of interaction....... This cross-modal interaction not only supports our artistic messages, but also aims at providing anyone with a pleasant and stimulating feedback from her/his speech activity. As the feedback we have received when presenting Flying Cities was very positive, our objective is now to cross the bridge between art...

  5. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciger, Jan

    2006-01-01

    The Flying Cities artistic installation brings to life imaginary cities made from the speech input of visitors. In this article we describe the original interactive process generating real time 3D graphics from spectators' vocal inputs. This example of cross-modal interaction has the nice property....... As the feedback we have received when presenting Flying Cities was very positive, our objective now is to cross the bridge between art and the potential applications to the rehabilitation of people with reduced mobility or for the treatment of language impairments....

  6. Sustainable Transport: BRT experiences from Mexico and India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogat, Jorge; Dhar, Subash; Joshi, Rutul;

    2015-01-01

    Increasing population and urbanization is creating a steadily increasing demand for transportation in the cities of many developing countries, coinciding with rapid economic growth leading to increasing demand for higher standards of living and faster and more efficient modes of transportation...... transit (BRT). The BRT systems of Curitiba and Bogotá have subsequently been adopted all over the world with some variations. Implementation of two recent BRTs, Mexico City and Ahmedabad in India, are examined in this paper....

  7. INSTANT CITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte; Kiib, Hans

    2013-01-01

    emphasis has been laid on creating a vivid, and engaging social environment in order to create a lab for social, and architectural experi- ments. These goals challenge the city planning as well as the urban sce- nography. The article addresses the research questions: What kind of city life and social......This article analyses Roskilde Festival as an Instant City. For more than 40 years, Roskilde Festival has had many thousands participants for a weeklong festival on music, performances and cultural experiences in a layout designed as an urban environment. During the last ten years, in- creasing...... experiments are taking place in ‘the instant city’, and how can it be characterized? It also emphasizes the relation between city life, urban design, and the aesthetics of architecture and urban spaces. The question here is, in what way architecture and urban scenography are used as tools to support the goal...

  8. City Streets

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for city streets found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. In some areas, these roadways are current through the 2000...

  9. Beautiful city

    OpenAIRE

    Gerald A. Carlino

    2009-01-01

    Proponents of the City Beautiful movement advocated for sizable public investments in monumental spaces, street beautification, and classical architecture. Today, economists and policymakers see the provision of consumer leisure amenities as a way to attract people and jobs to cities. But past studies have provided only indirect evidence of the importance of leisure amenities for urban growth and development. In this article, Jerry Carlino uses a new data set on the number of leisure tourist ...

  10. City Beautiful

    OpenAIRE

    Gerald A. Carlino; Saiz, Albert

    2008-01-01

    The City Beautiful movement, which in the early 20th century advocated city beautification as a way to improve the living conditions and civic virtues of the urban dweller, had languished by the Great Depression. Today, new urban economic theorists and policymakers are coming to see the provision of consumer leisure amenities as a way to attract population, especially the highly skilled and their employers. However, past studies have provided only indirect evidence of the importance of leisur...

  11. Model cities

    OpenAIRE

    M Batty

    2007-01-01

    The term ?model? is now central to our thinking about how weunderstand and design cities. We suggest a variety of ways inwhich we use ?models?, linking these ideas to Abercrombie?sexposition of Town and Country Planning which represented thestate of the art fifty years ago. Here we focus on using models asphysical representations of the city, tracing the development ofsymbolic models where the focus is on simulating how functiongenerates form, to iconic models where the focus is on representi...

  12. Sustainable cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sustainable City Project, a collaboration among the cities of Portland, Oregon, and San Francisco and San Jose, California, aims at developing and implementing sustainable energy planning methods and programs for cites. For a period of two years (1989-90), the three project cities worked in parallel, yet pursued independent courses to develop appropriate sustainable urban energy practices to meet local needs and aspirations. Central to the Sustainable City Project was finding ways to manage today's urban energy needs without jeopardizing the needs of future generations. Sustainability implies that nothing should go to waste, but rather should contribute to the proper balance between the natural environment and the built environment Sustainable urban energy systems encompass more than energy efficiency and energy conservation measures: they must be diverse, flexible, self-reliant, renewable, and integrated. Since local governments make decisions affecting land use, building codes, transportation systems, waste disposal, and power plants--all of which impact energy resource use--local jurisdictions can do much to ensure their own sustainable future. This paper will present an accounting of the specific steps that each city took to determine and begin implementation of their respective approaches to sustainable energy planning, with a specific focus on the City of San Jose activities. Useful tools for facilitating community process, program planning and implementation, and quantitative analysis will also be discussed

  13. Efficacy of Family Intervention in Acquired Head-Injury Cases in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mysore Narasimha Vranda

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In India, there are few studies on interventions for families of persons with acquired or traumatic brain injuries. This study aimed to test the efficacy of the Family Intervention Package (FIP with caregivers of persons with head injuries.Method: The study was carried out at the Neuro-Surgery Department of the National Institute for Mental Health and Neuro Sciences (NIMHANS, Bangalore, India. Ninety persons with severe head injuries and their caregivers were included in the study using the socio-demographic schedule and family interaction pattern scale.Results: The findings revealed that the Family Intervention Package (FIP was effective in bringing about changes in the functioning of persons with head injuries, and interactions among their families in the experimental group, as compared to the control group.Conclusion: The multi-disciplinary team dealing with persons with head injury need to recognise the importance of multi-component FIP for this group and their families. The current FIP should be made a part of treatment in clinical settings.doi: 10.5463/dcid.v23i3.120

  14. Cuantificación de micronúcleos en células de sangre periférica de mototaxistas que trabajan en la ciudad de Cartagena de Indias / Quantification of micronuclei in peripheral blood cells of motorcycle drivers working in the city of Cartagena de Indias

    OpenAIRE

    Carranza López, Liliana Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Introducción. Cartagena de Indias es una ciudad con abundante tráfico donde las emisiones de motores de vehículos representan una de las fuentes principales de contaminación del aire. Esta ciudad está experimentando el fenómeno conocido como ―mototaxismo‖, caracterizado por el transporte público de personas empleando motocicletas. La exposición de estas personas a la contaminación del aire es extensa y no existe ninguna información sobre el impacto de esta actividad sobre la salud humana. ...

  15. China's India Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Qian

    2008-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, with the improvement of relationship between India and China, the scope of India studies in China's IR research has been broadened and the new areas of studies are being explored. The research agenda of India studies has already extended to the areas like economy, society, culture, security, national strategy and their impact on both bilateral and international relations. In this situation, the focuses of India studies in China's IR research can be mainly identified as follows: reviews on India's social, political and economic systems; analysis on the national strategy and foreign policy; Sino-Indian relations; India's relations with some international organizations. However, even though many fresh progresses have been made in India studies, the India studies in China's IR research still lag far behind the study of other important countries like the U.S., UK, Russia and Japan, and more problems and challenges will face in the coming future. The paper believes that a fuller understanding of India probably will not make China and India close friends, but it definitely will help to prevent them from becoming fierce enemies.

  16. Excite City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte; Kiib, Hans; Jensen, Ole B.

    This paper takes its point of departure in the pressure of the experience economy on European cities - a pressure which in recent years has found its expression in a number of comprehensive transformations of the physical and architectural environments, and new eventscapes related to fun and cult...... attention is put on a new research project called "Experience City - hybrid cultural projects and performative urban spaces". The thesis and research themes are presented and related to the general framework of present cultural planning and post industrial urban transformation.......This paper takes its point of departure in the pressure of the experience economy on European cities - a pressure which in recent years has found its expression in a number of comprehensive transformations of the physical and architectural environments, and new eventscapes related to fun...

  17. City Branding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trads, Søren Frimann; Stigel, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    Succesful corporate branding requires that questions related to communication, publicity, and organizational structures are adressed. An uncritical adoption of approaches known from tradition product branding will inevitable give problems as the properties of tangible commodities and services......, problems seem to multiply in what has becom known as city branding. This analysis of the communicational aspects of two Danish provincial towns´ branding efforts examines both their internally and externally directed communication. It demonstrates that an insufficient understanding of - or willingness...... to face - these differences will inevitably hamper such branding efforts because of the consequential inconsistencies. Finally, paths to more effective city branding are indicated...

  18. City 2020+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, C.; Buttstädt, M.; Merbitz, H.; Sachsen, T.; Ketzler, G.; Michael, S.; Klemme, M.; Dott, W.; Selle, K.; Hofmeister, H.

    2010-09-01

    This research initiative CITY 2020+ assesses the risks and opportunities for residents in urban built environments under projected demographic and climate change for the year 2020 and beyond, using the City of Aachen as a case study. CITY 2020+ develops scenarios, options and tools for planning and developing sustainable future city structures. We investigate how urban environment, political structure and residential behavior can best be adapted, with attention to the interactions among structural, political, and sociological configurations and with their consequences on human health. Demographers project that in the EU-25-States by 2050, approximately 30% of the population will be over age 65. Also by 2050, average tem¬peratures are projected to rise by 1 to 2 K. Combined, Europe can expect enhanced thermal stress and higher levels of particulate matter. CITY 2020+ amongst other sub-projects includes research project dealing with (1) a micro-scale assessment of blockages to low-level cold-air drainage flow into the city centre by vegetation and building structures, (2) a detailed analysis of the change of probability density functions related to the occurrence of heat waves during summer and the spatial and temporal structure of the urban heat island (UHI) (3) a meso-scale analysis of particulate matter (PM) concentrations depending on topography, local meteorological conditions and synoptic-scale weather patterns. First results will be presented specifically from sub-projects related to vegetation barriers within cold air drainage, the assessment of the UHI and the temporal and spatial pattern of PM loadings in the city centre. The analysis of the cold air drainage flow is investigated in two consecutive years with a clearing of vegetation stands in the beginning of the second year early in 2010. The spatial pattern of the UHI and its possible enhancement by climate change is addressed employing a unique setup using GPS devices and temperature probes fixed to

  19. Economic Change in India

    OpenAIRE

    Adam Cagliarini; Mark Baker

    2010-01-01

    India has become an increasingly important part of the global economic landscape over the past decade. Its economy has become more open to international trade, its workforce is growing strongly and the rate of investment has picked up following economic reforms. The strong growth of the Indian economy has also seen a significant deepening of the trade relationship between Australia and India, with India now the third largest destination for Australia’s exports.

  20. India's African Engagement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Peter

    The exceptionally fast growth of big economies like China and India has resulted in a new-found interest in the economic and political consequences of this growth for the developed economies. Recently, traditional donors’ concern that ‘emerging’ donors were re-emerging on the development scene wa...... invisible. This ARI describes India’s current engagement in Africa and analyses the reasons why India once again puts Africa high on its political agenda. It argues that the development cooperation and in particular the 2008 India-Africa summit is a way to brand India anew....

  1. Do upcoming “Smart cities” need to provide smart distribution of higher urban economic growth? Evidence from Urban India

    OpenAIRE

    Tripathi, Sabyasachi

    2015-01-01

    The present paper tries to understand the causes behind the emergence of India‘s large agglomeration (or giant cities) and how these large agglomerations are linked with economic growth. In addition, the distribution of urban economic growth is measured by the estimation of poverty, inequality and pro-poorness. The paper suggests that the upcoming ―Smart cities‖ in India will emerge as a greater platform for future development of urban India, only if these cities surely ensure smart distribut...

  2. Fun City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Once the blues guitarist B.B. King sang that when he "didn't wanna live no more", he would go shopping instead. Now, however, shopping has become a lifestyle... The city of today has become "Disneyfied" and "Tivolized". It has become a scene for events. The aim of the book is to encircle and pin ...

  3. Vacant city

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marzot, N.

    2013-01-01

    Abandoned places that the crisis has multiplied, unaware wrecks of a project of civilization that has consumed its thrust and life-giving function, are waiting for new desirable interpretations, they are an expression of a possible city in opposition to the existing, even if not recognized by any in

  4. Sin City?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gautier, Pieter A.; Svarer, Michael; Teulings, Coen N.

    2007-01-01

    Is moving to the countryside a credible commitment device for couples? We investigate whether lowering the arrival rate of potential alternative partners by moving to a less populated area lowers the dissolution risk for a sample of Danish couples. We find that of the couples who married in the city

  5. Drone City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2016-01-01

    This paper address the phenomenon of drones and their potential relationship with the city from the point of view of the so-called “mobilities turn”. This is done in such a way that turns attention to a recent redevelopment of the “turn” towards design; so the emerging perspective of “mobilities...... design” will be used as a background perspective to reflect upon the future of drones in cities. The other perspective used to frame the phenomenon is the emerging discourse of the “smart city”. A city of proliferating digital information and data communication may be termed a smart city as shorthand...... on the block” that will potentially be a game-changer for urban governance, economics and everyday life. Here we are thinking of the unmanned aerial vehicle or drone as the popular term has it. Therefore, the paper asks how life in “drone city” may play out. Drones may alter the notion of surveillance by means...

  6. City Geology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markle, Sandra

    1989-01-01

    This article provides information on the evolution of the building material, concrete, and suggests hands-on activities that allow students to experience concrete's qualities, test the heat absorbency of various ground surface materials, discover how an area's geology changes, and search for city fossils. A reproducible activity sheet is included.…

  7. New technologies, new hazards: Need for evidence base: A report on the health status and safety measures in a biotechnology factory in Bangalore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhashree V

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In highly competitive economies, the fast-paced development of new and improved products and services inevitably spurs the development of new technologies, of which one-fifth growth has been in the biotechnology sector. Advances in technologies provide opportunities to minimize the drudgery of work and to eliminate old hazards, but they may create new currently unrecognized risks to workers. Objectives: To assess the morbidity pattern among workers in the biotechnology industry and also to find out the health and safety measures provided to the workers. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a biotechnology industry in Bangalore, which covered 779 employees who underwent health examination and blood and urine investigations; of the 779 employees, 600 were permanent employees and 179 were contract employees. Results and Discussion: The common morbidity among the workers included refractory errors; allergic contact dermatitis; hypertension; abnormal pulmonary function tests (61, 10.2%, of which 23 (37.7% were from the production department; high eosinophil count (110, 14.1%. Majority, i.e., 46 (41.8% worked in the production department. The safety measures provided to the workers are adequate, but there is a need to insist on regular use of personal protective devices by newly employed and contract laborers.

  8. Hydropower development in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxena, Praveen [Govt. of India, New Delhi (India). Ministry of New and Renewable Energy], E-mail: psaxena_98@yahoo.com; Kumar, Arun [Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Uttarakhand (India). Alternate Hydro Energy Centre], E-mail: aheciitr@gmail.com

    2011-04-15

    India is posed for large deployment of hydropower in present conducive policy and investment environment. Growing energy demand and concern for carbon emission is making hydropower development more favorable. The Government of India is ensuring a good performance of the new SHP stations by linking the incentives to the SHP developers with the performance of the station. (author)

  9. AREVA in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    India is the sixth largest energy consumer in the world and its demand is rising rapidly. To support its economic growth, estimated to be 8% on average over the last three years and to ensure access to electricity for all, the country foresees massive investments in its power sector over the next five years. India is therefore an essential market for the AREVA Group, where its Transmission and Distribution division plays a leading role on the strategic grid modernization market. This document presents: 1 - the economic situation in India: Key figures, Growth, India's growing need for electricity, India's energy sources and policy: current mix, driving role of the State, the financial reorganization of the SEBs, the 'Mega-Power' projects, the electricity act, the rural electrification program, the Investments. 2 - Civil nuclear energy: a strong potential for development; 3 - India's transmission and distribution network: the power challenge of the transmission network, the efficiency challenge of the distribution network. 4 - AREVA T and D in India: AREVA T and D profile, Areva's presence in India, market share, T and D customers and flagship projects

  10. Energy for rural India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urban, Frauke; Benders, René M.J.; Moll, Henri C.

    2009-01-01

    About 72 million households in rural India do not have access to electricity and rely primarily on traditional biofuels. This research investigates how rural electrification could be achieved in India using different energy sources and what the effects for climate change mitigation could be We use t

  11. The seagrasses of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jagtap, T.G.; Komarpant, D.S.; Rodrigues, R.

    in India. In d i a 101 T.G. Jagtap 0.5. Komarpant R. Rodrigues Surprisingly, sea grasses have not been introduced even at the level of plant science education programs. Hence, large number of students, researchers and coastaL zone managers in India may... with Thalassia hemprichii in \

  12. A sense of India through soft power

    OpenAIRE

    Parida, Soumik

    2015-01-01

    India is a cultural melting pot. It has a rich and illustrious history with many different people from the Greeks to the Moghuls and latterly the English, Portuguese and French influencing its traditions that were initially set by the Indo Aryans. India’s classical dances and songs have a strong presence on the world stage. India’s cuisine can be found in all major cities of the world. Yoga has become the new-age mantra for healthy living with millions of people practicing it every day. Bolly...

  13. Cancer Risk and Diet in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinha R

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available India is a developing country with one of the most diverse populations and diets in the world. Cancer rates in India are lower than those seen in Western countries, but are rising with increasing migration of rural population to the cities, increase in life expectancy and changes in lifestyles. In India, rates for oral and oesophageal cancers are some of the highest in the world. In contrast, the rates for colorectal, prostate, and lung cancers are one of the lowest. Studies of Indian immigrants in Western societies indicate that rates of cancer and other chronic diseases, such as coronary heart disease and diabetes, increase dramatically after a generation in the adopted country. Change of diet is among the factors that may be responsible for the changing disease rates. Diet in India encompasses diversity unknown to most other countries, with many dietary patterns emanating from cultural and religious teachings that have existed for thousands of years. Very little is known, however, about the role of the Indian diet in causation of cancer or its role, if any, in prevention of cancer, although more attention is being focused on certain aspects of the Indian diet, such as vegetarianism, spices, and food additives. Of particular interest for cancer prevention is the role of turmeric (curcumin, an ingredient in common Indian curry spice. Researchers also have investigated cumin, chilies, kalakhar, Amrita Bindu, and various plant seeds for their apparent cancer preventive properties. Few prospective studies, however, have been conducted to investigate the role of Indian diet and its various components in prevention of cancer. From a public health perspective, there is an increasing need to develop cancer prevention programs responsive to the unique diets and cultural practices of the people of India.

  14. India's future: it's about jobs

    OpenAIRE

    Geoffrey N. Keim; Beth Anne Wilson

    2007-01-01

    Projections of sustained strong growth in India depend importantly on the utilization of the huge increase in India's working-age population projected over the next two decades. To date, however, India's economic growth has been concentrated in high-skill and capital-intensive sectors, and has not generated strong employment growth. In this paper, we highlight the tension between India's performance in output and employment, describe the characteristics of India's demographic dividend, and di...

  15. Methylated and unsubstituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in street dust from Vietnam and India: occurrence, distribution and in vitro toxicity evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuyen, Le Huu; Tue, Nguyen Minh; Takahashi, Shin; Suzuki, Go; Viet, Pham Hung; Subramanian, Annamalai; Bulbule, Kesav A; Parthasarathy, Peethambaram; Ramanathan, Alagappan; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2014-11-01

    Methylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (MePAHs), unsubstituted PAHs and AhR-mediated activities were determined in street dust collected from Vietnam and India using a combined approach of chemical analysis and in vitro reporter gene assay. MePAHs and PAHs diagnostic ratios indicated that the main sources of MePAHs in Vietnam were pyrogenic emissions, whereas in India there were mixed sources of pyrogenic and petrogenic emissions. AhR-mediated activities determined by using DR-CALUX assay were observed in urban street dust at mean 40, 29 and 20 ng CALUX-TEQ/g dw for Hanoi, Bangalore and New Delhi, respectively. MePAHs and PAHs contributed only 5% or less to AhR-mediated activity in street dust, indicating the occurrence of unknown AhR agonists. The principal contributors to Theoretical-TEQs among target compounds were methyl benz[a]anthracene, benzo[b]- and benzo[k]fluoranthene. The present study indicates importance of MePAHs in evaluation of toxic risk related to AhR-mediated activity in urban polluted areas.

  16. Health Care in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BM Hegde

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The modern medical facilities in India are of such good quality that the National Health Service of the UK is negotiating with many corporate hospitals in India to get their patients on the long waiting lists to be flown to India for elective surgery. Be that as it may, health is not contigent on the availability of medical technology but contigent on basic provisions; clean water, three square meals a day, freedom from the effects of pollution and the skills to earn a living.

  17. Hepatitis C in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashis Mukhopadhya

    2008-11-01

    Hepatitis C is an emerging infection in India and an important pathogen causing liver disease in India. The high risk of chronicity of this blood-borne infection and its association with hepatocellular carcinoma underscores its public health importance. Blood transfusion and unsafe therapeutic interventions by infected needles are two preventable modalities of spread of hepatitis C infection. In addition, risk factor modification by reducing the number of intravenous drug users will help curtail the prevalence of this infection. This review summarizes the extent, nature and implications of this relatively new pathogen in causing disease in India.

  18. Efficient Resource Recovery Options from Municipal Solid Waste: Case Study of Patna, India

    OpenAIRE

    Herambprasad Digambar Gandhe; Awkash Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Solid waste management is one of the biggest issues in India as well as in the world. The generation of solid waste should be estimated for proper management of municipal solid waste (MSW) of the cities.The segregation, collection, transportation and disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW) are currently done in very unscientific and causal way in India and in many other developing countries. This creates problem for environment in terms of water, air and odour pollution. In this study, munici...

  19. Understanding patterns of temporary method use among urban women from Uttar Pradesh, India

    OpenAIRE

    Barden-O’Fallon, Janine; Speizer, Ilene S.; Calhoun, Lisa M; Montana, Livia; Nanda, Priya

    2014-01-01

    Background: Almost one in five contraceptive users in India uses a temporary method. It is important to understand user profiles and method use patterns for optimal program targeting. This analysis examines differences in demographic characteristics, discontinuation and use patterns of temporary method users among a representative sample of urban women from four cities in Uttar Pradesh, India. Methods: Individual data from a panel of women aged 15–49 were collected in 2010 in Agra, Aligarh, A...

  20. Branding Cities, Changing Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ooi, Can-Seng

    Societal changes are seldom discussed in the literature on city branding. The time element is important because it highlights the fluctuating reality of society. The city brand message freezes the place but in fact, the city branding exercise is a continuous process. Society emerges too. City...... brands are supposed to accentuate the uniqueness of the city, be built from the bottom-up and reflect the city's identity. This paper highlights three paradoxes, pointing out that city branding processes can also make cities more alike, bring about societal changes and forge new city identities. A city...... branding campaign does not just present the city, it may change the city. The relationships between the branding exercise and the city are intertwined in the evolution of the place....

  1. Learning Cities as Healthy Green Cities: Building Sustainable Opportunity Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses a new generation of learning cities we have called EcCoWell cities (Economy, Community, Well-being). The paper was prepared for the PASCAL International Exchanges (PIE) and is based on international experiences with PIE and developments in some cities. The paper argues for more holistic and integrated development so that…

  2. Is India the Exception?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Klaus; Storm, Rasmus K.

    India is still the extreme under-achiever in international sport competitions. Whereas in China high growth rates have been accompanied by a huge improvement in its ranking in international sport events a similar impact of extraordinary growth rates is seemingly totally absent in the case of India....... Is India an exception? Several econometric studies have shown that income per capita is a significant variable explaining elite sport results such as results in the Olympic Games. From this stylized fact follows the hypothesis that 'above/below average' growth rates lead to relative improvements....../deterioration of elite sport results (with a time lag)’. However, this has not previously been tested, and the contingencies explaining the seemingly widely different developments in countries such as China and India have not been explored. This paper tests the above hypothesis by means of a study of the correlation...

  3. Is India the Exception?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Klaus; Storm, Rasmus K.

    2013-01-01

    India is the extreme under-achiever in international sport competitions. This has only marginally changed with the recent promotion of the Indian economy into the league of BRIC nations. Whereas in China high growth rates have been accompanied by a huge improvement of its performance in internati......India is the extreme under-achiever in international sport competitions. This has only marginally changed with the recent promotion of the Indian economy into the league of BRIC nations. Whereas in China high growth rates have been accompanied by a huge improvement of its performance...... in international sport events a similar impact of extraordinary growth rates has been almost totally absent in the case of India. Is India an exception? Several econometric studies have shown that income per capita is a significant variable explaining elite sport results such as results in the Olympic Games. From...

  4. Liver transplantation in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan, Gomathy; Kota, Venugopal; Rela, Mohamed

    2016-07-01

    Liver transplantation as an established form of treatment for end-stage liver disease has gained acceptance in India over the last 10 years. Liver transplantation in India has unique features that have contributed to the growth of both deceased donor and living donor transplantations of which living donor currently dominates the picture. Living donor contributes to 80% and deceased donor to 20% of the liver transplants currently performed in India. The majority of these transplants are performed within the private sector with public sector hospitals lagging behind significantly. This article gives an overview of the evolution of liver transplantation in India and the potential future challenges. Liver Transplantation 22 1019-1024 2016 AASLD. PMID:27082718

  5. My Relations With India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    Cheng Youshu was born in 1924. She worked for newspapers between 1946 and 1952. In 1953 she was transferred to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and worked twice at the Chinese Embassy to India and undertook work involving India, in particular many significant events involving the Sino-Indian frontier dispute. She has also worked with the Chinese permanent delegation to the United Nations and Chinese embassies to Denmark and Iceland.

  6. Investment Climate in India

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Rataj

    2013-01-01

    Today India is one of the most popular destinations for FDI location for investors from all over the world. Factors that affect this situation include: sustained for several years, high rates of economic growth entailing an increase in domestic purchasing potential of the country, relatively cheap labor, rich base of young and skilled workforce. The advantage of of India is also supported by the fact that the official language is English, and the government of the country is committed to attr...

  7. English for Employability: India

    OpenAIRE

    Perez-Gore, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    This paper situates the issue of employability skills in India in relation to the world economic changes and their impact on the job market. An overview of the last decade's government policies shows numerous initiatives trying to address the skills gap. In 2013, large scale India-based employability studies started to show the criticality of the skills situation in the Indian upcoming workforce (Wheebox 2013, Aspiring Minds 2014). This summary from the latest reports has been frequently quot...

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL CHALLENGES FACING INDIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DR.J.P.Semwal

    2004-01-01

    @@ INTRODUCTION India is among one of the ten most industrialized nations in the world. Increase in population has raised the urbar industrial, transport and agriculture demands which are major reasons for the degradation of the environmel condition. For India besides land and soil degradation, deforestation, low accessibility of water, ,industrial pollution and urban congestion are the major environmental issues of priority. The industries that generate huge quantities of waste are thermal power station, Iron and Steel Plants, Sugar, Paper and Fertilizer Industries.

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL CHALLENGES FACING INDIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DR.J.P.Semwal

    2004-01-01

    India is among one of the ten most industrialized nations in the world. Increase in population has raisedthe urbar industrial, transport and agriculture demands which are major reasons for the degradationof the environmel condition. For India besides landand soil degradation, deforestation, low accessibilityof water, ,industrial pollution and urban congestionare the major environmental issues of priority. Theindustries that generate huge quantities ofwaste are thermal power station, Iron and SteelPlants, Sugar, Paper and Fertilizer Industries.

  10. History of Nuclear India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Ram

    2000-04-01

    India emerged as a free and democratic country in 1947, and entered into the nuclear age in 1948 by establishing the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), with Homi Bhabha as the chairman. Later on the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) was created under the Office of the Prime Minister Jawahar Lal Nehru. Initially the AEC and DAE received international cooperation, and by 1963 India had two research reactors and four nuclear power reactors. In spite of the humiliating defeat in the border war by China in 1962 and China's nuclear testing in 1964, India continued to adhere to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. On May 18, 1974 India performed a 15 kt Peaceful Nuclear Explosion (PNE). The western powers considered it nuclear weapons proliferation and cut off all financial and technical help, even for the production of nuclear power. However, India used existing infrastructure to build nuclear power reactors and exploded both fission and fusion devices on May 11 and 13, 1998. The international community viewed the later activity as a serious road block for the Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty; both deemed essential to stop the spread of nuclear weapons. India considers these treaties favoring nuclear states and is prepared to sign if genuine nuclear disarmament is included as an integral part of these treaties.

  11. Air nicotine monitoring for second hand smoke exposure in public places in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagdish Kaur

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Air nicotine monitoring is an established method of measuring exposure to second hand smoke (SHS. Not much research has been done in India to measure air nicotine for the purpose of studying exposure to SHS. It is a risk factor and many diseases are known to occur among non smokers if they are exposed to second hand smoke. Objective: To conduct monitoring of air nicotine for second hand smoke exposure in public places across major cities in India. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional survey was conducted across four cities across the country, using passive air monitoring. The buildings included hospitals, secondary schools, Governmental offices, bars and restaurants. The buildings were selected through convenience sampling method keeping in view specific sentinel locations of interest. Result: The presence of air nicotine was recorded in most of the buildings under the study, which included government buildings, hospitals, schools, restaurants and entertainment venues (bars in all four cities under the study. The highest median levels of air nicotine were found in entertainment venues and restaurants in cities. Conclusion: The presence of air nicotine in indoor public places indicates weak implementation of existing smoke free law in India. The findings of this study provide a baseline characterization of exposure to SHS in public places in India, which could be used to promote clean indoor air policies and programs and monitor and evaluate the progress and future smoke-free initiatives in India.

  12. Impact of urbanization on avian population and its status in Maharashtra state, India

    OpenAIRE

    Kale, Manoj; Dudhe, Nandkishor; Kasambe, Raju; Chakane, Sanjay; Bhattacharya, Prosun

    2012-01-01

    The avifaunal diversity and density in Amravati city, Maharashtra, India was studied for a period of one month. Amravati city has got two reservoirs in the city limits itself namely, the Chhatri Lake and the Wadali Lake. The city has got well-protected by greenery, Amravati had remained an important birding place. During the study of five different transects lines 30 plants species and 61 birds species were observed, during study in which 57 are resident species and 4 are winter migrant. High...

  13. Sustainable Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georg, Susse; Garza de Linde, Gabriela Lucía

    Judging from the number of communities and cities striving or claiming to be sustainable and how often eco-development is invoked as the means for urban regeneration, it appears that sustainable and eco-development have become “the leading paradigm within urban development” (Whitehead 2003......). But what is it that is driving these urban transformations? Clearly, there are many probable answers to this complex question and in what follows we will focus on one particular catalyst of change – urban design competitions. Considered as field changing events (Lampel and Meyer 2008, Anand and Jones 2008......), urban design competitions are understudied mechanisms for bringing about field level changes. Drawing on actor network theory, this paper examines how urban design competitions may bring about changes within the professional field through the use of intermediaries such as a sustainable planning...

  14. Clinical profile of Herpes zoster in a rural tertiary care hospital in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chankramat Sujatha Vinod

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Herpes zoster (Hz, which presents as localized, painful cutaneous eruption is a common clinical problem, particularly among adults of above 50 years of age and immunocompromised patients. It results from reactivation of varicella zoster virus. Aim: To analyze the clinical pattern of herpes zoster with special emphasis to the precipitating factors and incidence of post herpetic neuralgia. Material and Methods: 100 clinically diagnosed cases of herpes zoster, attending the Dermatology department of MVJ Medical College and Research Hospital Bangalore, India from a period of June 2010 to May 2012 were included in the study. The clinical pattern of herpes zoster with special emphasis to the precipitating factors and incidence of post herpetic neuralgia were analyzed. Results and Conclusion: The study showed a male preponderance. Age group varied from 8-80 years. 42% of the total patients presented during summer season when the incidence of varicella is also high. Past history of chicken pox was present in 68% of the patients. 11% of the patients were on immunosuppressive treatment. 8% of the patients had associated diabetes mellitus and 7% showed HIV seropositivity. Thoracic dermatomal involvement was seen in majority of patients. Most commonly observed complication was post herpetic neuralgia which was encountered in 36% of the patients and most of these patients were (77% were above the age of 60years.

  15. Pittsburgh City Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Pittsburgh City FacilitiesIncludes: City Administrative Buildings, Police Stations, Fire Stations, EMS Stations, DPW Sites, Senior Centers, Recreation Centers,...

  16. Cities, Towns and Villages - City Limit (polygon)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Data available online through GeoStor at http://www.geostor.arkansas.gov. Arkansas Cities: This data set contains all of the city limit boundaries within the state...

  17. Patent Pooling for Promoting Access to Antiretroviral Drugs (ARVs) - A Strategic Option for India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyanarayana, Kanikaram; Srivastava, Sadhana

    2010-01-01

    The current HIV/AIDS scenario in India is quite grim with an estimated 2.4 million people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) in 2008, just behind South Africa and Nigeria. The anti-retroviral drugs (ARVs) remain the main stay of global HIV/AIDS treatment. Over 30 ARVs (single and FDCs) available under six categories viz., NRTIs (nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors), NNRTIs (non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors), Protease inhibitors, the new Fusion inhibitors, Entry inhibitors-CCR5 co-receptor antagonists and HIV integrase strand transfer inhibitors. The major originator companies for these ARVs are: Abbott, Boehringer Ingelheim (BI), Bristol-Myers Squibb (BMS), Gilead, GlaxoSmithKline (GSK), Merck, Pfizer, Roche, and Tibotec. Beginning with zidovidine in 1987, all the drugs are available in the developed countries. In India, about 30 ARVs are available as generics manufactured by Aurobindo, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh; Cipla Limited, Goa; Emcure Pharmaceuticals, Pune, Maharashtra; Hetero Drugs, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh; Macleods Pharmaceuticals, Daman; Matrix Laboratories, Nashik, Maharashtra; Ranbaxy, Sirmour, Himachal Pradesh; and Strides Arcolab, Bangalore, Karnataka. The National AIDS Control Organization (NACO) set up in 1992 by the Govt. of India provides free ARVs to HIV positive patients in India since 2004. The drugs available in India include both single drugs and FDCs covering both first line and second line ARVs. Even while there are claims of stabilization of the disease load, there is still huge gap of those who require ARVs as only about 150,000 PLHA receive the ARVs from the Govt. and other sources. Access to ARVs therefore is still a cause of serious concern ever since India became fully Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS)-complaint in 2005. Therefore, the Indian pharmaceutical companies cannot make generics for those for drugs introduced post-2005 due to product patent regime. Other concerns include heat stable

  18. Characterization of Wastewater in Rajouri Town, Jammu And Kashmir, India

    OpenAIRE

    Zishan Aslam; Yawar Mushtaq Raina

    2015-01-01

    Water exaggerated physically, chemically as well as biologically is known as wastewater. Thrown away process of solid waste and its treatment has been the foremost environmental setback for most of the cities in India especially in rural area. To make people aware about the level of contaminants in wastewater and to suggest the ways of treatment of wastewater which will result in disposing off of domestic effluents without any danger to human health, a study on characteristics of ...

  19. Influence of affluence on sustainable housing in Mysore, India

    OpenAIRE

    Satish, B K; Brennan, John; Pedreschi, Remo

    2011-01-01

    Mysore, the second largest city in the state of Karnataka, India, can be identified as an early adopter of sustainable design practices. Between 1903 and 1947 the use of local construction materials, the Swadeshi movement of 1905, robust planning and clear legislation resulted in sustainable urban development. However, post-colonial development fuelled by economic globalisation after the 1980s has transformed perceptions of the house among the growing middle class, becoming a commodity to dem...

  20. Class in Metropolitan India: The Rise of the Middle Classes

    OpenAIRE

    Mooij, Jos; Lama-Rewal, S.T.

    2009-01-01

    textabstractIt is almost a cliché to say that India’s appearance and image (internationally as well as self-image) have changed dramatically in the last fifteen years. Instead of being associated with rural poverty, India is now associated with high rates of economic growth, a booming Information Technology (IT) sector and, particularly, an increasingly expanding middle class that consumes and behaves like elites and middle classes elsewhere in the world. Considering that cities concentrate m...

  1. Fiscal federalism in big developing countries: China and India

    OpenAIRE

    Fraschini, Angela

    2006-01-01

    In South and East Asian countries a highly centralized government prevails, although recently some trends are moving toward a greater degree of decentralization. Also the two giants China and India, which cannot rely on a merely centralized Government, have experienced a greater or lesser degree of fiscal unionism. As to China the local government system provides four levels: provincial level; city level; county level; township level. Intergovernmental fiscal relations were revamped by the 19...

  2. Sister Cities Flourish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Building sister city relation,also known as friendsh ip city,is a common channel for cities in different countries to keep a closer tie and communication.According to the statistics from China International Friendship Cities Association,up to the end of 2007,1087 provinces and states and 314 cities from 120 countries in the world have found their sister cities in China.Among them,Japan has the largest amount of Chinese sister cities,that is 200 provinces and 33 cities,and takes up almost 17 percent of the total number.

  3. City positioning theories and city core competencies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinquan; Zhu

    2007-01-01

    Gity positioning The Chinese city in a decision develops the topic of the destiny. Since the 90's of 20 centuries, the economic integral and globalization developed rapidly. The development make national boundary become not so important, the function of the city is increasingly outstanding. In other words, national competition ability is morally now on the city competition ability. At the same time, this development result that the industry is divided internationally and is divided in cities. Therefore, under the condition of globalization, if the city wants the superior development, it must take advantages and avoid shortage, to position the city accurately, establish the competition and development the strategy. The city positioning is clearly defined the city competition ability, more important it indicated the direction of the city development. Trough the analysis of the resource and environment of the city, decide an accurate position of the best function of the city, well configure the inner and outside resource, catch the opportunities,face the challenges, maximized the market share in order to maximized the wealth and city competition ability.

  4. India. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminar Abroad 1994 (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickler, Paul

    This curriculum packet on politics and international relations in India contains an essay, three lessons and a variety of charts, maps, and additional readings to support the unit. The essay is entitled "India 1994: The Peacock and the Vulture." The lessons include: (1) "The Kashmir Dispute"; (2) "India: Domestic Order and International Affairs, A…

  5. The landless poor--India's growing problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baidya, K N

    1985-01-01

    The bulk of poverty in India is found among those with no land or insufficient land with which to feed themselves. This predicament is a result of both population growth and the failure of the government to create sufficient employment opportunities in rural areas. India's inheritance custom, which calls for a sharing of property among a deceased's heirs, has fragmented farms into ever smaller holdings. The sharecropping system has created obstacles against participation of the rural masses in the development effort. The failure of agrarian reform efforts in India is attributed to the resistance of the powerful land-owning interests, supported by small landowners. Industrialization has not provided employment for the many rural unemployed who drift to the cities. It is not the lack of agricultural investment per se that is the source of the problem of the landless poor. Rather, social and political issues are involved. Large farms tend to obtain whatever aid is available for rural development. The increased use of electrification and mechanization has reduced the amount of employment available for landless workers. Half of India's arable land remains in the hands of 7% of the big land-holders. Thus, the gap between the haves and the have-nots has actually increased as a result of agricultural development. Food production has increased, but the ability of the poor masses to purchase food has decreased. As long as they are weak economically, the poor are likely to remain weak politically. Thus, there is a need for both economic and political reform. Resources must be massively diverted for the benefit of the rural sector, and power must be developed within democratic organizations at the rural level. The consequences of such change may be unacceptable to the elite classes who control the state apparatus and have the power to eradicate poverty and reduce inequality, however. PMID:12266988

  6. Widening economic & social disparities: implications for India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurian, N J

    2007-10-01

    India is often characterized as an emerging economic super power. The huge demographic dividend, the high quality engineering and management talent, the powerful Indian diaspora and the emerging Indian transnational--kneeling the optimism. In contrast, there is another profile of India which is rather gloomy. This is the country with the largest number of the poor, illiterates and unemployed in the world. High infant mortality, morbidity and widespread anaemia among women and children continue. India suffers from acute economic and social disparities. This article addresses four dimensions of such disparities, viz. regional, rural-urban, social, and gender. There is empirical evidence to indicate that during the last two decades all these disparities have been increasing. As a result of economic reforms, the southern and western States experienced accelerated economic and social development as compared to northern and eastern States. This has led to widening gap in income, poverty and other indicators of development between the two regions. Rural-urban divide also widened in the wake of reforms. While large and medium cities experience unprecedented economic prosperity, the rural areas experience economic stagnation. As a result, there is widespread agrarian distress which results in farmers' suicide and rural unrest. Socially backward sections, especially scheduled castes and tribes (SCs and STs) have gained little from the new prosperity which rewards disproportionately those with assets, skills and higher education. STs have often been victims of development as a result of displacement. The gender gap in social and economic status, traditionally more in India as compared to other societies; has further widened by the economic reforms and globalization. The approach paper to the Eleventh Plan stresses the importance of more inclusive economic growth. It emphasizes the need for bridging the divides discussed in this article. Unless these are achieved in a time

  7. Widening economic & social disparities: implications for India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurian, N J

    2007-10-01

    India is often characterized as an emerging economic super power. The huge demographic dividend, the high quality engineering and management talent, the powerful Indian diaspora and the emerging Indian transnational--kneeling the optimism. In contrast, there is another profile of India which is rather gloomy. This is the country with the largest number of the poor, illiterates and unemployed in the world. High infant mortality, morbidity and widespread anaemia among women and children continue. India suffers from acute economic and social disparities. This article addresses four dimensions of such disparities, viz. regional, rural-urban, social, and gender. There is empirical evidence to indicate that during the last two decades all these disparities have been increasing. As a result of economic reforms, the southern and western States experienced accelerated economic and social development as compared to northern and eastern States. This has led to widening gap in income, poverty and other indicators of development between the two regions. Rural-urban divide also widened in the wake of reforms. While large and medium cities experience unprecedented economic prosperity, the rural areas experience economic stagnation. As a result, there is widespread agrarian distress which results in farmers' suicide and rural unrest. Socially backward sections, especially scheduled castes and tribes (SCs and STs) have gained little from the new prosperity which rewards disproportionately those with assets, skills and higher education. STs have often been victims of development as a result of displacement. The gender gap in social and economic status, traditionally more in India as compared to other societies; has further widened by the economic reforms and globalization. The approach paper to the Eleventh Plan stresses the importance of more inclusive economic growth. It emphasizes the need for bridging the divides discussed in this article. Unless these are achieved in a time

  8. Population control and the women of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, B K

    1973-01-01

    14% of the world's population, (547,000,000 people) live on 2.4% of its land in India. 18% of the population of India live in 2690 cities, the rest in rural villages, with roughly an average of 700 people per village. The woman's role in India was mainly to produce children, most importantly sons. In 1956 India began the program of planned parenthood at a governmental level, aiming at restricting births. This met with some negativism on the part of the older generation especially due to its depriving them of the privilege and benefits of large families, and the lesser guarantee of a male heir. But due to the effects of agricultural and industrial reforms, rapid urbanization has occurred bringing better communication and helping to spread the ideas and information about family planning to the village. Urbanization also brought about a crashing economic situation. Motivation for planned parenthood has its most persuasive impetus when social and economic pressures are at their peak. Thus the message that a "small family is a happy family" has from necessity become accepted. The poor housing conditions with a total lack of privacy has contributed to the inability of Indian women to use more sophisticated methods of contraception. The pill is too expensive for most Indian women. The IUD therefore was the most practical to start with in 1956 and thereafter has been freely available. India's national leadership is committed to the success of the planned parenthood program which aims at the adoption of the norm of a small family as a social and personal ideal. The 2 facets of the program have been to persuade people to accept the new norms and to provide contraceptive services within easy reach. If the birth rate declines from its present level of 39 to 30 per 1000 by 1986, the population will still reach 792,000,000 by 1991, and 941,000,000 by 2001. The reason for the past increase in growth has been due to the rapidly declining death rate. Legislation has been passed to

  9. Fiscal Discipline in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanhita SUCHARITA

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study broadly attempts to analyze the role of Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act in restoring fiscal balance in India. It analyses the need for fiscal rules and constraints in India. The study aims at finding out the major factor behind rising fiscal imbalance in India and to examine whether there is an electoral motive towards high fiscal deficit to GDP ratio or not. It also analyzes the effectiveness of various measures undertaken at the central and state level to inculcate fiscal discipline in the fiscal management. The study also makes an attempt to do a critical in depth reviews of the Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act and make an attempt at examining effectiveness and suitability of FRBM Act through a quantitative analysis. It also makes an attempt to suggest improvements in the fiscal monitoring mechanism in India. We employ Ordinary Least Square (OLS method to examine the impact of Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act on fiscal deficit in India using the data for the period 1980-81 to 2008-09. The regression results indicates that FRBM Act does not have a significant effect on the Gross Fiscal Deficit (GFD to GDP ratio where as GDP (at factor cost growth rate has a significant negative effect on the GFD to GDP ratio.

  10. Insights into the Changing Perspectives of Multiple Sclerosis in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lekha Pandit

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple Sclerosis (MS is being diagnosed in increasing numbers in metropolitan cities of India for which the availability of specialist neurologists and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI facilities are primarily responsible. Epidemiological data are unavailable. Existing data have been obtained from small often retrospective studies from different parts of the country. These earlier studies suggested that optic nerve and spinal cord involvement are considerably high, and that perhaps optic spinal MS was the most prevalent form in India. On this basis it was also speculated that neuromyelitis optica (NMO may be overrepresented in Indians. However in recent times, prospective studies backed by MRI data have shown no distinct differences between MS seen in the west and India. Sero positivity for NMO IgG is low though NMO phenotype disorders constitute nearly 20% of demyelinating disorders in India. Genetic susceptibility for MS among Indians may be similar to that for white populations. In the major histocompatibility complex (MHC, HLA DR1*1501 has been strongly associated with MS in Indians. A recent study that evaluated the established non-MHC multiple sclerosis loci in a small data set of Indian patients suggested a strong similarity with white populations. This review highlights some of the background information available on MS from India and so also some recent studies that unveiled the disease characteristics in Indian patients.

  11. Spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 in eastern India: Some new observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyan B Bhattacharyya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs are hereditary, autosomal dominant progressive neurodegenerative disorders showing clinical and genetic heterogeneity. They are usually manifested clinically in the third to fifth decade of life although there is a wide variability in the age of onset. More than 36 different types of SCAs have been reported so far and about half of them are caused by pathological expansion of the trinucleotide, Cytosine Alanine Guanine (CAG repeat. The global prevalence of SCA is 0.3-2 per 100,000 population, SCA3 being the commonest variety worldwide, accounting for 20-50 per cent of all cases, though SCA 2 is generally considered as the commonest one in India. However, SCA6 has not been addressed adequately from India though it is common in the eastern Asian countries like, Japan, Korea and Thailand. Objective: The present study was undertaken to identify the prevalence of SCA6 in the city of Kolkata and the eastern part of India. Materials and Methods: 83 consecutive patients were recruited for the study of possible SCAs and their clinical features and genotype were investigated. Results: 6 of the 83 subjects turned out positive for SCA6, constituting therefore, 13.33% of the patient pool. Discussion: SCA6 is prevalent in the eastern part of India, though not as frequent as the other common varieties. Conclusions: Further community based studies are required in order to understand the magnitude of SCA6 in the eastern part, as well as in other regions of India.

  12. Telestroke a viable option to improve stroke care in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Padma V; Sudhan, Paulin; Khurana, Dheeraj; Bhatia, Rohit; Kaul, Subash; Sylaja, P N; Moonis, Majaz; Pandian, Jeyaraj Durai

    2014-10-01

    In India, stroke care services are not well developed. There is a need to explore alternative options to tackle the rising burden of stroke. Telemedicine has been used by the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) to meet the needs of remote hospitals in India. The telemedicine network implemented by ISRO in 2001 presently stretches to around 100 hospitals all over the country, with 78 remote/rural/district health centers connected to 22 specialty hospitals in major cities, thus providing treatment to more than 25 000 patients, which includes stroke patients. Telemedicine is currently used in India for diagnosing stroke patients, subtyping stroke as ischemic or hemorrhagic, and treating accordingly. However, a dedicated telestroke system for providing acute stroke care is needed. Keeping in mind India's flourishing technology sector and leading communication networks, the hub-and-spoke model could work out really well in the upcoming years. Until then, simpler alternatives like smartphones, online data transfer, and new mobile applications like WhatsApp could be used. Telestroke facilities could increase the pool of patients eligible for thrombolysis. But this primary aim of telestroke can be achieved in India only if thrombolysis and imaging techniques are made available at all levels of health care.

  13. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease : report of 10 cases from North India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehndiratta M

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD is increasingly being reported over the last three decades as a result of heightened awareness of the disease. Various studies have reported annual incidence of 0.5-1.5 cases of CJD per million of general population. In India, the disease is still under reported. Over the period spanning from 1968-1997, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS, Bangalore recorded 69 cases of CJD from different parts of India in the CJD registry. This paper describes the clinical experience with cases of CJD managed at the Department of Neurology, G.B. Pant Hospital, New Delhi from 1990-1998. In this series, the mean age of the patients was 53.80 (+/- 7.32 years and there were 5 females and 5 males. Myoclonus was present in all the cases and abnormal behaviour with or without other features was the presenting complaint in 7 of the 10 patients, while one patient of CJD had cerebellar ataxia as the presenting feature. One patient with occipital variant of CJD presented with acute onset cortical blindness and myoclonic jerks. One of the patients had acute psychosis precipitated by emotional stress at the onset. Extrapyramidal features were noted in 7 of the 10 patients before death. The mean duration of symptoms from the onset of disease to death was 6.6 (+/- 6.11 months. Classical EEG changes were observed in all the patients, except in one possible case of occipital variant of CJD, where we did not have access to EEG record. Brain biopsy could be undertaken in 3 patients, and in 2 patients the features of subacute spongiform encephalopathy (SSE were noted.

  14. Impact Of Demographics On The Consumption Of Different Services Online In India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A M Sakkthivel

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The role of Internet is becoming inevitable to corporate and society. Across the world, governments and corporate are increasingly working towards the better utilization of the internet. The Internet which was initially perceived as a communication media is now metamorphosing into a powerful business media. The late 20 and early 21st century witnessed the entry and exit of the dot.com companies. The internet motivated many brick & mortar companies to use the Internet to sell products/services online and found negative outcomes as the companies failed to understand the internet buyer behavior and could not figure out the categories of services the Internet users intend to buy. In offline marketing, demographics plays a vital role in understanding buying behavior of consumers belong to different segments which would enable companies to develop products/services according to their specific requirements. Internet is a medium which does not offer this luxury to companies to know the profile of Internet users as it is an indirect medium. The companies would do well if they could find the demographic profile of Internet users which would help them devise strategies accordingly. Hence, the author conducted an extensive primary research in Bangalore, India (Silicon Valley of India in order to identify the willingness of Internet users to buy different services over Internet. The paper aims at providing a specific focus to identify the impact of demographics in influencing Indian Internet users in consuming different services online. The outcomes would help the corporate world to understand the importance of demographics on online purchase which could be adopted and deployed for better use.

  15. Scenarios for biodegradable solid waste management and energy recovery in the 'A' Ward in Mumbai, India

    OpenAIRE

    Tellnes, Lars Gunnar Furelid

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. Mumbai is one of the most highly-populated cities in the world and the commercial capital of India. Every day, about 6500 tons of municipal solid waste (MSW) and 2500 tons of construction and demolition waste are generated. The collection efficiency in Mumbai is relatively high for an Indian city, but there is a paucity of space for landfilling.. With the introduction of the Municipal Solid Waste (Management & Handling) Rules, 2000, biodegradable wastes could not be landfill...

  16. Large Agglomerations and Economic Growth in Urban India: An Application of Panel Data Model

    OpenAIRE

    Tripathi, Sabyasachi

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of urban agglomeration on urban economic growth, using static and dynamic panel data approach, based on data of 52 large cities in India for the period 2000 to 2009. The results shows that agglomeration has a strong positive effect on urban economic growth and support the “Williamson hypothesis” that agglomeration increases economic growth only up to certain level of economic development. The critical level per-capita city income is estimated about Rs. 37049...

  17. Land Conflicts and Cooperatives along Pune's Highways: Managing India's Agrarian to Urban Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Balakrishnan, Sai Swarna

    2013-01-01

    The past ten years has been a decade of land wars in India. Rapid urbanization is spilling beyond city boundaries into the highways connecting large cities, instigating a frenzied consolidation and conversion of agricultural lands into urban/industrial lands. This process is fraught with conflict, as different social groups compete to stake their claims on the land value increments - the increases in land value due to the change in land use from agricultural to non-agricultural - of these new...

  18. The paleoposition of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Sankar; Hotton, Nicholas

    In most of the plate tectonic models of paleocontinental assembly, the supercontinent Pangea has been disassociated into independent Laurasia and Gondwana, separated by a vast oceanic Tethys. The position of India remains problematical, but geological and geophysical data support a Pangea reconstruction. Traditionally India has always been regarded as a part of Gondwana as it shares two unique geologic features with other southern continents. These are the Upper Paleozoic glacial strata and the Glossopteris flora. However, neither line of evidence definitely proves continuity of land; together they indicate zonation of cold climates. The recent discovery of Upper Paleozoic glacial strata in the U.S.S.R., southern Tibet, Saudi Arabia, Oman, China, Malaya, Thailand, and Burma demonstrates that the Permo-Carboniferous glaciation was far more extensive beyond the Gondwana limit than is usually thought. Similarly the Glossopteris flora has been found farther north of the Indian Peninsula, in the Himalaya, Kashmir and Tibet. Moreover the floral similarities are explained easily by wind and insect dispersal. On the other hand, the distribution of large terrestrial tetrapods is strongly influenced by the distribution of continents. To terrestrial tetrapods, sea constitutes a barrier. In consequence, they are more reliable indicators of past land connections than are plants, invertebrates and fishes. The postulated separation of India from Antarctica, its northward journey, and its subsequent union with Asia, as suggested by the plate tectonic models, require that during some part of the Mesozoic or Early Tertiary India must have been an island continent. The lack of endemism in the Indian terrestrial tetrapods during this period is clearly inconsistent with the island continent hypothesis. On the contrary, Indian Mesozoic and Tertiary vertebrates show closest similarities to those of Laurasia, indicating that India was never far from Asia. The correlation of faunal

  19. Critical care in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udwadia, F E; Guntupalli, K K; Vidyasagar, D

    1997-04-01

    India is a vast democracy of nearly one billion people. Before the British rule ended in 1947, the life span of an Indian was a mere 21 years. Within a short span of 50 years, it increased to an impressive 63 years, largely due to public health measures initiated by the government. This created a pool of more than 300 million middle class Indians who could afford the benefits of modern and specialized care when needed. Critical care medicine, as practiced in the West, is still confined to large Metropolitan areas. A large pool of expatriate Indian physicians from all over the world are helping bridge the resource gap between the West and India by transfer of technology and providing appropriate training to physicians and paramedical personnel. This article describes the history and current status of development of critical care medicine in India. PMID:9107510

  20. Pharmacovigilance programme of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalaiselvan Vivekanandan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring and reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs through pharmacovigilance is vital to patient safety and rational prescribing. In India, Central Drugs Standard Control Organization (CDSCO initiated Pharmacovigilance Programme of India (PvPI to report ADRs through ADRs monitoring centres in India. Indian Pharmacopoeia Commission (IPC is functioning as National Coordination Centre (NCC for PvPI. The ADRs are reported to NCC through VigiFlow by various centres are evaluated and committed to Uppsala Monitoring Centre, Sweden. The potential benefit of the PvPI is aimed to reducing or eliminating a harm of medicine. Continuous efforts of the healthcare professionals and the patients are expected to make this as one of the most successful and effective programmes. The present article updates the status and future plan of PvPI.

  1. Water changed the cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elle, Morten; Jensen, Marina Bergen

    An improvement in water infrastructure and cleaning up the waters changed many harbour cities in Denmark at the beginning of the 90s. The harbour cities changed from drity, run-down industrial harbours to clean and attractive harbour dwelling creating new city centres and vital city areas...

  2. PV opportunities in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Jack L.; Ullal, Harin S.

    1996-01-01

    The growing middle class in India, coupled with a need for electricity to provide basic services to the masses, provides an opportunity to deploy photovoltaic systems in cost-effective applications ranging from grid-connected to isolated location requirements. This need is being satisfied by aggressive government programs, the availability of funds from agencies such as the World Bank, and the desire of Indian industries to form joint ventures for in-country manufacturing. The relaxed restrictions on doing business in India makes today's opportunities timely indeed.

  3. SUBSTANCE ABUSE IN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bano Rubeena

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The epidemic of substance abuse in young generation has assumed alarming dimensions in India. Changing cultural values, increasing economic stress and dwindling supportive bonds are leading to initiation into substance use. Cannabis, heroin, and Indian-produced pharmaceutical drugs are the most frequently abused drugs in India. Drug use, misuse or abuse is also primarily due to the nature of the drug abused, the personality of the individual and the addict’s immediate environment. The processes of industrialization, urbanization and migration have led to loosening of the traditional methods of social control rendering an individual vulnerable to the stresses and strains of modern life.

  4. CPAFFC Delegation Visits India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>A CPAFFC delegation headed by Wang Wenyuan,former vice chairman of the National Committee of the Chinese Peo-ple’s Political Consultative Conference and adviser to the CPAFFC,paid a goodwill visit to India from December 19 to 28,2007 at the invitation of the Indian Council for Cultural Relations(ICCR).Also on the delegation were CPAFFC President Chen Haosu and Vice President Feng Zuoku.It was the highest-level delegation the CPAFFC has sent to India over the last decade.

  5. CAPTURED India Country Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Donoghue, R.; Brouwers, J.H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    This report provides the findings of the India Country Evaluation and is produced as part of the overall CAPTURED End Evaluation. After five years of support by the CAPTURED project the End Evaluation has assessed that results are commendable. I-AIM was able to design an approach in which health fol

  6. Vocationalising Education in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacheti, A. K.; Ray, S.

    Since India gained its independence in 1947, three important commissions have examined the issue of educational reform. The first (in 1948) recommended a vocational emphasis in the intermediate (predegree) courses without sacrificing emphasis on preparation for university education. In 1954, the Secondary Education Commission resulted in the…

  7. Welcome to India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    India is a large country with 5,000 years of history. It is virtually a continent by itself.It is located in South Asia between Pakistan,China and Nepal. On its northern border lies the Himalayan Mountains, the highest

  8. A Passage to India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.

    2012-01-01

    theoretical model that combines resource-based theory and international business network theory. It aims to investigate how determinants of the offshore outsourcing process contribute to the resource stocks of client firms. Based on two longitudinal case studies of offshore outsourcing to India, the study...

  9. Planting Trees in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, James M.

    Reforestation is desperately needed in India. Three-fourths of the country's ground surface is experiencing desertification, and primitive forests are being destroyed. Reforestation would help moderate temperatures, increase ground water levels, improve soil fertility, and alleviate a wood shortage. In the past, people from the United States, such…

  10. A POPULATION BASED SURVEY OF OCCURRENCE OF INJURY & FIRST AID PRACTICE AMONG MOTHERS OF UNDER 15 CHILDREN IN A RURAL AREA OF SOUTH INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rekha S.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Children less than 15 years of age are especially vulnerable to the morbidity and mortality resulting from injury. Injuries resulting from accidents are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in India. OBJECTIVES: were to study the occurrence of injuries among families residing in a rural area in Bangalore Urban district of Karnataka state, to document the current treatment practices with respect to the injuries identified METHODS: A cross sectional study conducted among 140 mothers of under 15 children in a village of South India. A pretested interview schedule was administered which included socio-demographic details and questions covering practice regarding first aid in various circumstances RESULTS: Of the 140 subjects included in the study, 49 (35% reported a domestic injury occurring in their house hold (either to themselves or to a family members in the four weeks preceding the survey. There were several misconceptions regarding the management of various emergencies and injuries which could potentially lead to adverse outcomes following injury. CONCLUSION: The First Aid practice for management of injuries among women with children <15 years in the study area was poor.

  11. Treatment seeking and health financing in selected poor urban neighbourhoods in India, Indonesia and Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Jens; Pannarunothai, Supasit; Padmawati, Retna S;

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a comparative analysis of socio-economic disparities in relation to treatment-seeking strategies and healthcare expenditures in poor neighbourhoods within larger health systems in four cities in India, Indonesia and Thailand. About 200 households in New Delhi, Bhubaneswar...

  12. Beyond the metropolis—Regional globalisation and town development in India: an introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.J. Scrase; M. Rutten; R. Ganguly-Scrase; T. Brown

    2015-01-01

    Despite the rapid transformation of India over the past 25 years and a swathe of publications dealing with the impact of globalisation on the culture and economy of the subcontinent, and on its large metropolitan cities, we contend that relatively far less is known about the regional impacts of glob

  13. Comprehensive Evaluation of Drug De-addiction Centres (DDCs) in Punjab (Northern India)

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Vikram Kumar; Kaur, Paramjeet; Singh, Gurmeet; Bansal, Priya; Sidhu, B. S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Drug addiction is on the rise in Punjab,India. There are 15 DDCs which are supported by the Indian Red Cross Society. There is alleged mushrooming of private Drug De-addiction Centres (DDCs) in the smaller towns, villages and cities of Punjab.

  14. Impact of Physical, Psychological, and Sexual Violence on Social Adjustment of School Children in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Sibnath; Walsh, Kerryann

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to understand the pervasiveness and impact of physical, psychological, and sexual violence on the social adjustment of Grade 8 and 9 school children in the state of Tripura, India. The study participants, 160 boys and 160 girls, were randomly selected from classes in eight English and Bengali medium schools in Agartala city,…

  15. Female feticide in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nehaluddin

    2010-01-01

    Women are murdered all over the world. But in India a most brutal form of killing females takes place regularly, even before they have the opportunity to be born. Female feticide--the selective abortion of female fetuses--is killing upwards of one million females in India annually with far-ranging and tragic consequences. In some areas, the sex ratio of females to males has dropped to less than 8000:1000. Females not only face inequality in this culture, they are even denied the right to be born. Why do so many families selectively abort baby daughters? In a word: economics. Aborting female fetuses is both practical and socially acceptable in India. Female feticide is driven by many factors, but primarily by the prospect of having to pay a dowry to the future bridegroom of a daughter. While sons offer security to their families in old age and can perform the rites for the souls of deceased parents and ancestors, daughters are perceived as a social and economic burden. Prenatal sex detection technologies have been misused, allowing the selective abortions of female offspring to proliferate. Legally, however, female feticide is a penal offence. Although female infanticide has long been committed in India, feticide is a relatively new practice, emerging concurrently with the advent of technological advancements in prenatal sex determination on a large scale in the 1990s. While abortion is legal in India, it is a crime to abort a pregnancy solely because the fetus is female. Strict laws and penalties are in place for violators. These laws, however, have not stemmed the tide of this abhorrent practice. This article will discuss the socio-legal conundrum female feticide presents, as well as the consequences of having too few women in Indian society.

  16. Renewable energy in India; Duurzame energie in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schilt, R.C.A. [DWA Installatie- en energieadvies, Bodegraven (Netherlands); Menon, R.M. (ed.)

    1998-01-01

    India is considered to be, more or less, one of Asia's economic tigers. The expectation is that India's energy consumption will increase dramatically. The Indian government's policy is aimed at giving renewable energy sources a considerable role in the energy supply in the near future. India is already one of the top three countries in the use of wind energy, and the former British colony has several hydro-electric power plants.

  17. Changes in metal contamination levels in estuarine sediments around India--an assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Parthasarathi; Ramteke, Darwin; Chakraborty, Sucharita; Nagender Nath, B

    2014-01-15

    This review is the first attempt to comprehend the changes in metal contamination levels in surface estuarine sediments with changing time around India. Contamination factor, geoaccumulation index, pollution load index, effects range low and effects range median analysis were used to evaluate the quality of the estuarine sediments (by using the available literature data). This study suggests that estuarine sediments from the east coast of India were comparatively less contaminated by metals than the west coast. Sediments from those estuaries were found to be more contaminated by metals on which major cities are located. An improvement in estuarine sediment quality (in terms of metal contamination) over time around India was noticed. This study provides managers and decision-makers of environmental protection agency with a better scientific understanding for decision-making in controlling metal pollution in estuarine sediments around India. PMID:24211100

  18. Teleophthalmology: A Model for Eye Care Delivery in Rural and Underserved Areas of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayaraghavan Prathiba

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To describe the application of teleophthalmology in rural and underserved areas of India. Study Design. This paper describes the major teleophthalmology projects in India and its benefits. Results. Teleophthalmology is the use of telecommunication for electronic transfer of health-related data from rural and underserved areas of India to specialities in urban cities. The MDRF/WDF Rural Diabetes Project has proved to be very beneficial for improvement of quality health care in Tamilnadu and can be replicated at the national level. This community outreach programme using telemedicine facilities has increased awareness of eye diseases, improved access to specialized health care, helped in local community empowerment, and provided employment opportunities. Early detection of sight threatening disorders by teleophthalmology and prompt treatment can help decrease visual impairment. Conclusion. Teleophthalmology can be a very effective model for improving eye care delivery system in rural and underserved areas of India.

  19. Assisted reproductive technology in India: A 3 year retrospective data analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra Malhotra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Assisted reproductive technology (ART has grown by leaps and bounds in the last few years. India has one of the highest growths in the ART centers and the number of ART cycles performed every year. Very soon India will be the leader in the world of ART in terms of a number of cycles. With the advances of technology and availability of techniques even in tier II and tier III cities our country, the results still vary dramatically. There is no standardization of protocols and reporting is very inadequate. Furthermore, there are only ART guidelines and no law still exists. Our first and the biggest challenge is to document the tremendous work being done in India and on the basis of analysis of this work, a proper registry can be made and guidance given to all on standardization and improvement. This is the 8 th edition of National ART Registry of India being presented and analyzed.

  20. Hookah use among high school children in an Indian city

    OpenAIRE

    Nayak Prathibha Anand; Khandelwal Vishal; Nayak Ullal Anand; Khandelwal Sushma; Ninawe Nupur

    2013-01-01

    Context: Use of hookah is on the rise among youngsters. A growing body of evidence suggests that these children are experimenting with this form of tobacco. Aims: The study was carried out to know prevalence estimates of hookah use and factors associated with it among high school students.Settings and Design: This study adds to the current literature by providing prevalence estimates and factors associated with hookah use among high school students of Indore - a city in central India.Material...

  1. APTI of Some Selected Plants in Shivamogga City, South Asia

    OpenAIRE

    M.P. Adamsab; Hina Kousar; D.S. Shwetha; M.H. Sirajuddin; Ravichandran, M.

    2011-01-01

    Air pollution is the human introduction into the atmosphere of chemicals, particulate matter or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organism or damage the environment. The study examined air pollution indices (APTI) of fourteen plant species around Shivamogga city of Karnataka State India . Four physiological and biochemical parameters, leaf relative water content (RWC) , ascorbic acid (AA), total leaf chlorophyll (TCH), and leaf extract PH were used t...

  2. European Cities in the World City Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Taylor (Peter)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis is primarily an empirical paper that brings together selected results from the GaWC research programme. The latter studies inter-city relations at a global scale. Empirical research is based upon a model of world city network network formation as a product of the location strategies

  3. City Car = The City Car / Andres Sevtshuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sevtshuk, Andres, 1981-

    2008-01-01

    Massachusettsi Tehnoloogiainstituudi (MIT) meedialaboratooriumi juures tegutseva Targa Linna Grupi (Smart City Group) ja General Motorsi koostööna sündinud kaheistmelisest linnasõbralikust elektriautost City Car. Nimetatud töögrupi liikmed (juht William J. Mitchell, töögruppi kuulus A. Sevtshuk Eestist)

  4. Statistical Analysis of Bus Networks in India

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Atanu; Ramadurai, Gitakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Through the past decade the field of network science has established itself as a common ground for the cross-fertilization of exciting inter-disciplinary studies which has motivated researchers to model almost every physical system as an interacting network consisting of nodes and links. Although public transport networks such as airline and railway networks have been extensively studied, the status of bus networks still remains in obscurity. In developing countries like India, where bus networks play an important role in day-to-day commutation, it is of significant interest to analyze its topological structure and answer some of the basic questions on its evolution, growth, robustness and resiliency. In this paper, we model the bus networks of major Indian cities as graphs in \\textit{L}-space, and evaluate their various statistical properties using concepts from network science. Our analysis reveals a wide spectrum of network topology with the common underlying feature of small-world property. We observe tha...

  5. India dokfilmide paremik jõuab taaralinna

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Tartus täna algavatest India dokumentaalfilmide päevadest, mida korraldavad Maailmafilmi festival, Eesti Rahva Muuseum ja organisatsioon Films For Freedom India. Lisatud nimekiri "India dokfilmi päevad"

  6. A Crowded City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Over 4 million vehicles on road challenge Beijing’s city management Beijing, the city once known as the kingdom of bicycles, has become clogged with automobiles, the Beijing Municipal Government Publicity Office said on December 18.

  7. Bright Lights, Big Cities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Overabundant lighting has become another pollution source in the Chinese cities The glow of electric lights illuminating the nights of ever-brighter cities has been regarded as one of the signs of prosperity and modern civilization.

  8. Astronomy of the Korku Tribe of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahia, M. N.; Halkare, Ganesh; Dahedar, Purushottam

    2016-08-01

    The Korku are an ancient tribe of India believed to be of Austro-Asian origin. They trace their origin to the eastern Indian region of Chota Nagpur but large numbers of these people are settled in the forest reserves of central India. We visited twelve villages almost exclusively populated by Korku people in Northern Maharashtra about 200 km north of the city of Amravati, and focused on recording their astronomical beliefs. While living in the same Satpuda Mountain ranges, these groups differ in their astronomical beliefs from other tribes in the region. They focus on the Big Dipper (part of Ursa Major), and also show an understanding of some other aspects of the sky. They are particularly fascinated by eclipses (but treat solar and lunar eclipses the same) and have elaborate ways of measuring time. They also are aware of conjunctions of Mars and Venus and consider these to be of importance for marriages. They also are fascinated by Taurus. In this paper we report on the astronomical beliefs of the Korkus and compare these with the astronomical beliefs of other tribes in the region that have already been reported.

  9. Weather-induced mass deaths of the Common House Swift Apus affinis in Thengumarahada Village of the Nilgiris, southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ramakrishnan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Weather influences all living organisms, especially wild animals. In the case of birds, inclement weather conditions may affect them during migration and feeding that could cause mass mortality in the same species or many related species. This paper describes an incidence of mass deaths of the Common House Swift Apus affinis at Thengumarahada Village of Nilgiris, Tamil Nadu, southern India during February 2008. The samples of the dead birds were sent for toxicological and bacteriological examination at Southern Regional Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, Bangalore. Spot post mortems were also conducted by forest veterinarians. Results of the diagnostic analysis revealed that mass mortality might be due to extreme weather conditions leading to acute dehydration, shock and death. The postmortem reports say that the crop and the gastro intestinal tract (GI were found empty in all the cases, suggesting starvation. We thus conclude that unseasonal heavy rains and non availability of food could have led to hypothermia and starvation of birds over a long period resulting in mass mortality.

  10. Fast, cheap, and out of control? Speculations and ethical concerns in the conduct of outsourced clinical trials in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamat, Vinay R

    2014-03-01

    The globalization of biopharmaceutical clinical trials and their offshore outsourcing, from the West to low and middle-income countries, has come under increasing scrutiny from academic scholars, practitioners, regulatory agencies and the media. This article reports the results of a study conducted in Bangalore and Hyderabad between 2007 and 2009, to elicit the perspectives of stakeholders, concerning media representations of their work and the ethical issues that emanate from their engagement in the clinical trials enterprise. In acknowledging the inherently problematic nature of the outsourcing of clinical trials to low income countries, I argue that the practice of not prioritizing research on diseases that are most prevalent among communities, from which subjects are recruited, demands a coordinated and sustained critique. I propose that the critical discourse on the outsourcing of clinical trials should not only emphasize the perils of this practice, but also address some broader issues of equity and distributive justice that determine people's access to basic health care in low income countries. Close attention to the specific context of clinical trials in an increasingly neoliberal medical and health environment in emerging economies such as India can provide critical insights into the on-the-ground complexities and challenges of outsourced global clinical trials.

  11. HLA-B∗57 and Gender Influence the Occurrence of Tuberculosis in HIV Infected People of South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latha Jagannathan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Substantial evidence exists for HLA and other host genetic factors being determinants of susceptibility or resistance to infectious diseases. However, very little information is available on the role of host genetic factors in HIV-TB coinfection. Hence, a longitudinal study was undertaken to investigate HLA associations in a cohort of HIV seropositive individuals with and without TB in Bangalore, South India. Methods. A cohort of 238 HIV seropositive subjects were typed for HLA-A, B, and DR by PCR-SSP and followed up for 5 years or till manifestation of Tuberculosis. HLA data of 682 HIV Negative healthy renal donors was used as control. Results. The ratio of males and females in HIV cohort was comparable (50.4% and 49.6%. But the incidence of TB was markedly lower in females (12.6%, than males (25.6%. Further, HLA-B*57 frequency in HIV cohort was significantly higher among females without TB (21.6%, 19/88 than males (1.7%, 1/59; P=0.0046; OR=38. CD4 counts also were higher among females in this cohort. Conclusion. This study suggests that HIV positive women with HLA-B*57 have less occurrence of TB as compared to males.

  12. On the classification and sub-classification of aerosol key types over south central peninsular India: MODIS-OMI algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreekanth, V

    2014-01-15

    Long-term (8 years), simultaneous data on aerosol optical properties from MODIS and OMI satellite sensors are analyzed to study their temporal characteristics and to infer on the major aerosol types present over the study location, Bangalore situated in south central peninsular India. Investigations are carried out on Aerosol Optical Depths (AODs), Angstrom exponent (α) and Aerosol Index (AI) for the purpose. Aerosol parameters exhibited significant seasonal variations: AODs peaking during monsoon, α during post-monsoon and AI during summer. Seasonal air mass back trajectories are computed to infer on the transport component over the study region. By assigning proper thresholds (depending on the nature of the location and transport pathways) on AOD and α values, aerosols are discriminated into their major types viz., marine influenced, desert dust, urban/industrialized and mixed types. Further sub-categorization of the aerosols has been done on an annual scale taking into account of their absorptance information in terms of the OMI-AI values. Mixed type aerosols contributed the most during all the seasons. Next to mixed type aerosols, marine influenced aerosols dominated during winter, desert dust during monsoon and summer, urban/industrialized aerosols during post-monsoon. Considering the urban nature of the study location, urban/industrialized/carbonaceous type aerosols have been significantly underestimated in these methodologies. Finally, discussion has been made on the consistency of the results obtained from the methodologies (i) based on AODs and α; (ii) based on AODs, α and AI. PMID:24095970

  13. A Case Study on Municipal Solid Waste Management in Salt Lake City

    OpenAIRE

    Maity, S. K.; B. K. Bhattacharyay; BHATTACHARYYA, B.

    2011-01-01

    Solid waste management is an important social problem throughout the world. In India it takes the shape of alarming dimension which has to be addressed urgently. It includes the collection and disposal ofgarbage, or municipal solid waste, compounded by increasing consumption levels. Among the solid waste generated in Indian cities, Kolkata’s position is second. Bidhannagar or Salt Lake City is a planned satellite township in Kolkata. The problem of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) also...

  14. Imagineering the city

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van den Berg

    2015-01-01

    Cities today are products. The urban experience is commodified into marketable items by urban entrepreneurs. Urban administrations, city marketers, politicians, local businesses and other actors all over the world are developing entrepreneurial strategies to sell their city. From "‘I ♥ New York"’ to

  15. The Creative Cities Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The Creative Cities Network, started by UNESCO in 2004, is one of the world’s highest-level non-governmental organizations in creative industry. The network focuses on the excellence of its member cities as its main product, and finds ways to maintain relevance in city life, local economy

  16. Hemovigilance Program-India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akanksha Bisht

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A centralized hemovigilance program to assure patient safety and to promote public health has been launched for the first time in India on Dec 10, 2012 in 60 medical colleges in the first phase along with a well-structured program for monitoring adverse reactions associated with blood transfusion and blood product administration. National Institute of Biologicals (NIB will be the National Coordinating Centre for Hemovigilance. This program will be implemented under overall ambit of Pharmacovigilance Program of India (PvPI, which is being coordinated by Indian Pharmacopoeia Commission (IPC. All medical colleges of the country will be enrolled in this program by the year 2016 in order to have a National Centre of Excellence for Hemovigilance at NIB, which will act as a global knowledge platform.

  17. Corporate governance in India

    OpenAIRE

    Chakrabarti, Rajesh; William L. Megginson; Yadav, Pradeep K.

    2007-01-01

    This study describes the Indian corporate governance system and examines how the system has both supported and held back India's ascent to the top ranks of the world's economies. While on paper the country's legal system provides some of the best investor protection in the world, enforcement is a major problem with slow, over-burdened courts and significant corruption. Ownership remains concentrated and family business groups continue to be the dominant business model. There is significant py...

  18. Medical tourism in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vijay; Das, Poonam

    2012-06-01

    The term 'medical tourism' is under debate because health care is a serious business and rarely do patients combine the two. India is uniquely placed by virtue of its skilled manpower, common language, diverse medical conditions that doctors deal with, the volume of patients, and a large nonresident Indian population overseas. Medical tourism requires dedicated services to alleviate the anxiety of foreign patients. These include translation, currency conversion, travel, visa, posttreatment care system,and accommodation of patient relatives during and after treatment.

  19. Crisis, Imbalances, and India

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Rajiv; Vashisht, Pankaj

    2011-01-01

    With the revival of global economy, the issues of “exit policies” and rebalancing global growth have taken center stage in policy discussions. Since many emerging Asian economies presently have large current account surpluses, the issue of rebalancing has special significance for Asia. While India, like other Asian economies, suffered only an indirect impact from the financial crisis, its current policy challenges appear to be different from those facing the People’s Republic of China (PRC) a...

  20. Greening India's Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Mani, Muthukumara S.

    2014-01-01

    India’s sustained and rapid economic growth offers an opportunity to lift millions out of poverty. But this may come at a steep cost to the nation’s environment and natural resources. This insightful book analyzes India’s growth from an economic perspective and assesses whether India can grow in a “green” and sustainable manner. Three key issues are addressed. The first is the physical and...

  1. FINANCIAL LITERACY IN INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Ravikumar, R.; S.D. SIVAKUMAR; M. JAWAHARLAL; N. Venkatesa Palanichamy; D. Sureshkumar

    2013-01-01

    Financial literacy is gaining importance in recent years as number new products have been continuously offered in the financial markets. Whatever the type of business such as corporates, small business and family run business the financial management is vital important. Financial literacy enables the efficient financial management ultimately results in increased profitability and reduces cost. The global researchers indicated that, India is least financially literate country. Keeping these th...

  2. Tobacco control in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaly, Preetha Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    Portuguese introduced tobacco to India 400 years ago. Ever since, Indians have used tobacco in various forms. Sixty five per cent of all men and 33% of all women use tobacco in some form. Tobacco causes over 20 categories of fatal and disabling diseases including oral cancer. By 2020 it is predicted that tobacco will account for 13% of all deaths in India. A major step has to be taken to control what the World Health Organization, has labeled a 'smoking epidemic' in developing countries. India's anti-tobacco legislation, first passed in 1975, was largely limited to health warnings and proved to be insufficient. A new piece of national legislation, proposed in 2001, represents an advance including banning smoking in public places, advertising and forbidding sale of tobacco to minors. Preventing the use of tobacco in various forms as well as treating nicotine addiction is the major concern of dentists and physicians. The dental encounter probably constitutes a "teachable moment" when the patient is receptive to counseling about life- style issues. Both policy makers and health professionals must work together for achieving a smoke free society for our coming generations. PMID:17347536

  3. Paragonimus & paragonimiasis in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, T Shantikumar; Sugiyama, Hiromu; Rangsiruji, Achariya

    2012-08-01

    Ever since the discovery of the first indigenous case in 1981, paragonimiasis has gained recognition as a significant food borne parasitic zoonosis in India. The data available on the occurrence of paragonimiasis, until today, may be just the tip of an iceberg as the study areas covered were restricted to Northeast Indian States. Nevertheless, the results of research on paragonimiasis in India have revealed valuable information in epidemiology, life cycle, pathobiology and speciation of Indian Paragonimus. Potamiscus manipurensis, Alcomon superciliosum and Maydelliathelphusa lugubris were identified as the crab hosts of Paragonimus. Paragonimus miyazakii manipurinus n. sub sp., P. hueit'ungensis, P. skrjabini, P. heterotremus, P. compactus, and P. westermani have been described from India. P. heterotremus was found as the causative agent of human paragonimiasis. Ingestion of undercooked crabs and raw crab extract was the major mode of infection. Pulmonary paragonimiasis was the commonest clinical manifestation while pleural effusion and subcutaneous nodules were the common extra-pulmonary forms. Clinico-radiological features of pulmonary paragonimiasis simulated pulmonary tuberculosis. Intradermal test, ELISA and Dot-immunogold filtration assay (DIGFA) were used for diagnosis and epidemiological survey of paragonimiasis. Phylogenitically, Indian Paragonimus species, although nested within the respective clade were distantly related to others within the clade.

  4. ADS National Programmes: India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Initial preliminary studies in India on ADS concepts were aimed toward applications such as, one way coupled booster reactor concept, thorium burner concept, enhancement of breeding rate of thorium– fueled fast reactors, and to incinerate Pu and minor actinides discharged from heavy water and fast reactors. These studies led to a roadmap on development of ADS subsystems in India, which was chalked out initially in June 2001. It was realized in these studies that the most challenging subsystem in terms of technology development and capital investment for ADS in India would be the high intensity proton accelerator, and that it must be accomplished in phased manner. Of the two alternative accelerator types, viz. the cyclotron and linear accelerator (linac), it is concluded that only linac would provide the necessary intense beam current for ADS applications. The energy amplifier (EA) scheme, with lead (45.5%) bismuth (55.5%) eutectic (LBE) as target & coolant, which was proposed in the early nineties would be one of the desired configurations of ADS for Indian applications. Additionally, subcritical reactor core of Indian Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR), with advantages of its low fission power density, and neutron economy is also a candidate among various ADS reactor configurations. These options of ADS configurations for thorium utilization are based on the neutronic properties of 233U isotope as fissile fuel, which are more or less similar in thermal and in moderately fast neutron spectra

  5. Carbon taxes and India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher-Vanden, K.A.; Pitcher, H.M.; Edmonds, J.A.; Kim, S.H. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Shukla, P.R. [Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad (India)

    1994-07-01

    Using the Indian module of the Second Generation Model 9SGM, we explore a reference case and three scenarios in which greenhouse gas emissions were controlled. Two alternative policy instruments (carbon taxes and tradable permits) were analyzed to determine comparative costs of stabilizing emissions at (1) 1990 levels (the 1 X case), (2) two times the 1990 levels (the 2X case), and (3) three times the 1990 levels (the 3X case). The analysis takes into account India`s rapidly growing population and the abundance of coal and biomass relative to other fuels. We also explore the impacts of a global tradable permits market to stabilize global carbon emissions on the Indian economy under the following two emissions allowance allocation methods: (1) {open_quotes}Grandfathered emissions{close_quotes}: emissions allowances are allocated based on 1990 emissions. (2) {open_quotes}Equal per capita emissions{close_quotes}: emissions allowances are allocated based on share of global population. Tradable permits represent a lower cost method to stabilize Indian emissions than carbon taxes, i.e., global action would benefit India more than independent actions.

  6. Energy for rural India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    About 72 million households in rural India do not have access to electricity and rely primarily on traditional biofuels. This research investigates how rural electrification could be achieved in India using different energy sources and what the effects for climate change mitigation could be. We use the Regional Energy Model (REM) to develop scenarios for rural electrification for the period 2005-2030 and to assess the effects on greenhouse gas emissions, primary energy use and costs. We compare the business-as-usual scenario (BAU) with different electrification scenarios based on electricity from renewable energy, diesel and the grid. Our results indicate that diesel systems tend to have the highest CO2 emissions, followed by grid systems. Rural electrification with primarily renewable energy-based end-uses could save up to 99% of total CO2 emissions and 35% of primary energy use in 2030 compared to BAU. Our research indicates that electrification with decentralised diesel systems is likely to be the most expensive option. Rural electrification with renewable energy tends to be the most cost-effective option when end-uses are predominantly based on renewable energy, but turns out to be more costly than grid extensions when electric end-use devices are predominantly used. This research therefore elaborates whether renewable energy is a viable option for rural electrification and climate change mitigation in rural India and gives policy recommendations.

  7. Child maltreatment in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhi, Pratibha; Saini, Arushi Gahlot; Malhi, Prabhjot

    2013-11-01

    Child maltreatment is a global problem but is more difficult to assess and manage in developing countries such as India where one-fifth of the world's total child population resides. Certain forms of maltreatment such as feticide, infanticide, abandonment, child labour, street-begging, corporal punishment and battered babies are particularly prevalent in India. Most physicians still need to be sensitized in order to suspect child abuse on the basis of unexplained trauma, multiple fractures, parental conflict and other corroborative evidence. This article summarizes the various aspects of this major problem in resource-poor settings in the hope that it will assist in the planning of services addressing child physical and sexual abuse and neglect in India and in other developing countries. A culture of non-violence towards children needs to be built into communities in order to provide an environment conducive to the overall development of the child. Rehabilitation of abused children and their families requires a multi-disciplinary service including paediatricians, child psychologists and social workers, and the training of police forces in how to tackle the problem. PMID:24070123

  8. Mental hospitals in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, K; Venugopal, D; Alimchandani, A K

    2000-04-01

    This review traces the history of the mental hospital movement, initially on the world stage, and later in India, in relation to advances in psychiatric care. Mental hospitals have played a significant role in the evolution of psychiatry to its present statusThe earliest hospital in India were established during the British colonial rule. They served as a means to isolate mentally ill persons from the societal mainstream and provide treatments that were in vogue at the time. Following India's independence, there has been a trend towards establishing general hospital psychiatry units and deinstitutionalization, while at the same time improving conditions in the existing mental hospitals.Since 1947, a series of workshops of superintendents was conducted to review the prevailing situations in mental hospitals and to propose recommendations to improve the same. Implementation of the Mental Health Act, 1987, and grovernmental focus upon mental hospital reform have paved way for a more specific and futuristic role for mental hospitals in planning psychiatric services for the new millenium, especially for severe mental illnesses. PMID:21407925

  9. Shigellosis: Epidemiology in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taneja, Neelam; Mewara, Abhishek

    2016-01-01

    Shigellosis is one of the major causes of diarrhoea in India. The accurate estimates of morbidity and mortality due to shigellosis are lacking, though it is endemic in the country and has been reported to cause many outbreaks. The limited information available indicates Shigella to be an important food-borne pathogen in India. S. flexneri is the most common species, S. sonnei and non-agglutinable shigellae seem to be steadily surfacing, while S. dysenteriae has temporarily disappeared from the northern and eastern regions. Antibiotic-resistant strains of different Shigella species and serotypes have emerged all over the world. Especially important is the global emergence of multidrug resistant shigellae, notably the increasing resistance to third generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones, and also azithromycin. This calls for a continuous and strong surveillance of antibiotic resistance across the country for periodic updation of the local antibiograms. The prevention of shigellosis is desirable as it will substantially reduce the morbidity associated with diarrhoea in the country. Public health measures like provision of safe water and adequate sanitation are of immense importance to reduce the burden of shigellosis, however, the provision of resources to develop such an infrastructure in India is a complex issue and will take time to resolve. Thus, the scientific thrust should be focused towards development of a safe and affordable multivalent vaccine. This review is focused upon the epidemiology, disease burden and the therapeutic challenges of shigellosis in Indian perspective. PMID:27487999

  10. Shigellosis: Epidemiology in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taneja, Neelam; Mewara, Abhishek

    2016-05-01

    Shigellosis is one of the major causes of diarrhoea in India. The accurate estimates of morbidity and mortality due to shigellosis are lacking, though it is endemic in the country and has been reported to cause many outbreaks. The limited information available indicates Shigella to be an important food- borne pathogen in India. S. flexneri is the most common species, S. sonnei and non-agglutinable Shigellae seem to be steadily surfacing, while S. dysenteriae has temporarily disappeared from the northern and eastern regions. Antibiotic-resistant strains of different Shigella species and serotypes have emerged all over the world. Especially important is the global emergence of multidrug resistant Shigellae, notably the increasing resistance to third generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones, and also azithromycin. This calls for a continuous and strong surveillance of antibiotic resistance across the country for periodic updation of the local antibiograms. The prevention of shigellosis is desirable as it will substantially reduce the morbidity associated with diarrhoea in the country. Public health measures like provision of safe water and adequate sanitation are of immense importance to reduce the burden of shigellosis, however, the provision of resources to develop such an infrastructure in India is a complex issue and will take time to resolve. Thus, the scientific thrust should be focused towards development of a safe and affordable multivalent vaccine. this review is focused upon the epidemiology, disease burden and the therapeutic challenges of shigellosis in Indian perspective. PMID:27487999

  11. Shigellosis: Epidemiology in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelam Taneja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Shigellosis is one of the major causes of diarrhoea in India. The accurate estimates of morbidity and mortality due to shigellosis are lacking, though it is endemic in the country and has been reported to cause many outbreaks. The limited information available indicates Shigella to be an important food- borne pathogen in India. S. flexneri is the most common species, S. sonnei and non-agglutinable Shigellae seem to be steadily surfacing, while S. dysenteriae has temporarily disappeared from the northern and eastern regions. Antibiotic-resistant strains of different Shigella species and serotypes have emerged all over the world. Especially important is the global emergence of multidrug resistant Shigellae, notably the increasing resistance to third generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones, and also azithromycin. This calls for a continuous and strong surveillance of antibiotic resistance across the country for periodic updation of the local antibiograms. The prevention of shigellosis is desirable as it will substantially reduce the morbidity associated with diarrhoea in the country. Public health measures like provision of safe water and adequate sanitation are of immense importance to reduce the burden of shigellosis, however, the provision of resources to develop such an infrastructure in India is a complex issue and will take time to resolve. Thus, the scientific thrust should be focused towards development of a safe and affordable multivalent vaccine. this review is focused upon the epidemiology, disease burden and the therapeutic challenges of shigellosis in Indian perspective.

  12. India Co2 Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharan, S.; Diffenbaugh, N. S.

    2010-12-01

    Is there a way to find a balance between improving living conditions for the people on the margins and also reducing emissions while limiting our negative impacts on the climate? This is a critical question today because there are many arguments between developed and developing countries about who is responsible for global warming. Developed countries believe that it is the poor countries because they are not educated enough to know about how they are affecting the climate. While the developing countries hold wealthy nations responsible because they are using the most resources. However it is important to acknowledge the fact that if there was no gap in between the developed and developing countries our emissions total would be much higher. This “gap” has been a natural controlling factor in climate change. This is why I wanted to see if I could plot what it would look like if a developing country such as India were to produce emissions that the US or Switzerland or Norway are producing as developed countries. India has a population total of 1.1 billion compared to the US with only 298 million, Switzerland with 7.5 million, and Norway with 4.6 million people. When the population is compared to the emissions output in metric tons, per capita, India produced the least emissions out of these countries, 1.4 tons per person while having the second largest population in the world, while the US produced 19 tons per capita, Switzerland produced 5.6 and Norway produced 8.7 tons per capita in 2006. The emissions rate is growing every year and increases widely and globally. If India was producing emissions that equal Norway, Switzerland and the US the total emissions it would be producing annually would be 9 billion for Norway, 6 billion for Switzerland and 20 billion emissions for the US, all in the year 2006 alone. This shows how the balance between countries with huge populations and very little emission output and average population and high emission out put has

  13. Me, the City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Lidin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The search for identity of cities looks rather urgent and attracts attention of many researchers. Addressing this issue, the article draws an analogy between a human person and a city. Like a city, a human being needs to comprehend his self-identity in order to resist depressive tendencies. It is shown that a person’s depressive symptoms are similar to those of cities. The city identity necessary to resist depression can be searched for both historically and geographically. The historical aspect consists of local myths and legends about the city and the citizens. The geographical aspect of identity comprises features of the terrain, climate, flora and fauna of the region where the city is located.

  14. India-EU relations in health services: prospects and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanda Rupa

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background India and the EU are currently negotiating a Trade and Investment Agreement which also covers services. This paper examines the opportunities for and constraints to India-EU relations in health services in the context of this agreement, focusing on the EU as a market for India's health services exports and collaboration. The paper provides an overview of key features of health services in the EU and India and their bearing on bilateral relations in this sector. Methods Twenty six semi-structured, in-person, and telephonic interviews were conducted in 2007-2008 in four Indian cities. The respondents included management and practitioners in a variety of healthcare establishments, health sector representatives in Indian industry associations, health sector officials in the Indian government, and official representatives of selected EU countries and the European Commission based in New Delhi. Secondary sources were used to supplement and corroborate these findings. Results The interviews revealed that India-EU relations in health services are currently very limited. However, several opportunity segments exist, namely: (i Telemedicine; (ii Clinical trials and research in India for EU-based pharmaceutical companies; (iii Medical transcriptions and back office support; (iv Medical value travel; and (v Collaborative ventures in medical education, research, training, staff deployment, and product development. However, various factors constrain India's exports to the EU. These include data protection regulations; recognition requirements; insurance portability restrictions; discriminatory conditions; and cultural, social, and perception-related barriers. The interviews also revealed several constraints in the Indian health care sector, including disparity in domestic standards and training, absence of clear guidelines and procedures, and inadequate infrastructure. Conclusions The paper concludes that although there are several

  15. Pornography, Sexual Enhancement Products, and Sexual Risk of Female Sex Workers and their Clients in Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Janet; Rajaram, Subramanian Potty; Isac, Shajy; Gurav, Kaveri; Ramesh, B M; Gowda, Chandrashekhar; Moses, Stephen; Alary, Michel

    2016-05-01

    Despite their large numbers, and important role in the HIV epidemic in India, male clients of female sex workers (FSWs) are a difficult to reach population and little is known about their sexual behaviors. Using data from an integrated behavioral and biological assessment of 684 clients in Bangalore in 2012, we examined factors associated with their reports of having sex with three or more different female sex workers in the last month, and anal sex with sex workers. We included sociodemographic and sexual behavior factors and, for the first time in client studies in India, included data on the use of pornography and sexual enhancement products (SEPs) such as pills, oils, and sprays, in our multivariable analyses of client risk. Seventy-eight percent of clients had seen pornographic material and 8% reported ever having used SEPs. The profiles of men practicing the two risk behaviors examined were quite different. Travel in the past year, drunkenness in the past month, young age at first commercial sex, non-use of condoms at last sex, and finding sex workers in public places (but not use of pornography and SEPs) were independently associated with multiple partnering. Sex with a man or transsexual, being a white collar worker, seeking out FSWs at home, pornography and SEP use, and condom use at last FSW sex, were all independently associated with anal sex with an FSW. More research is needed to better understand the links between pornography and SEPs, and HIV risk behaviors, and HIV prevention programs need to be cognizant of the importance of ensuring that condom use is adequately promoted and supported in the context of anal sex in female sex worker-client interactions. PMID:25905909

  16. Life time risk for development of ten major cancers in India and its trends over the years 1982 to 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyanarayana L

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Background : Understanding cancer magnitude, risk and trends will be of help in cancer control programs. Aim : To study trends in cumulative risk up to 64 years of age as lifetime risk of developing major cancers in India during the years 1982 to 2000. Design : Retrospective. Setting : Secondary sources of cancer-registration data. Materials and Methods : Data on age-specific cancer-incidence rates were collected for patients 0-64 years of age of either sex for 10 major cancer sites from the National Cancer Registry Program (NCRP reports of India from Mumbai, Chennai, Bangalore, Bhopal and Delhi; and Barshi registries for the years 1982 or 1988 to 2000. Statistical Analysis : Cumulative risks computed for lifetime development of cancer. Linear trends were studied using simple linear regressions. Results : The lifetime risk among females for the10 cancer sites ranged from 0.02 to 3.3% and from 0.04 to 2.4% for the years 1982 and 2000 respectively; whereas among males, it ranged from 0.04 to 0.89% and from 0.05 to 0.95% respectively. Significant (P < 0.05 increasing trends were observed for breast, non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma (NHL, gallbladder, thyroid and ovary cancers among females; while declining trends were observed for cervix, mouth, stomach, esophagus and tongue cancers. Among males, significant (P < 0.05 increasing trends were observed for NHL and prostate cancer; whereas declining trends were observed for stomach, liver, hypopharynx and tongue cancers. Cancers of mouth and esophagus showed increasing trends (P < 0.05 in some regions and declining trends (P < 0.05 in some other. Conclusion : Significant and higher rates of positive trends in lifetime cancer risks for breast cancer among females and for NHL among both sexes were observed.

  17. Passages from India, Vol. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geils, Kenneth, Ed.

    This is compendium of readings designed for use in the secondary classroom to assist with the study of India. There are seventeen categories of readings: (1) introduction to the subcontinent; (2) description of society; (3) caste and its continuing impact; (4) leadership roles; (5) women in India; (6) role playing in society; (7) marriage; (8)…

  18. India's Trade in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Shailendra

    2015-01-01

    India has had an extremely adverse balance of trade in education. Though only a minor education exporter through Mode 2, India is the world's second largest student-sending country. Nevertheless, given English as the medium of instruction especially in apex institutions, low tuition and cost of living, quite a few world-class institutions, and a…

  19. India and the Green Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilden, Clark G.

    In the 1960s it was predicted that famine would strike India because the country lacked the necessary resources to feed its rapidly growing population. Yet, in the 1970s and 1980s new agricultural developments occured that have helped abate the crisis. These developments comprise what is now called the Green Revolution. India's food/population…

  20. Adult Education in India & Abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Nikhil Ranjan

    A survey is made of various aspects of adult education in India since 1947, together with comparative accounts of the origin, development, and notable features of adult education in Denmark, Great Britain, the Soviet Union, and the United States. Needs and objectives in India, largely in the eradication of illiteracy, are set forth, and pertinent…