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  1. The coupled social-hydrology of Bangalore city, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muddu, S.; Mehta, V. K.; Malghan, D.; Kemp-Benedict, E.

    2012-12-01

    India's 370 million urban population exceeds the total population of all countries except China. Water supply has not kept up with increasing urban demand. As utilities reach farther out to increase extraction and supply, and private self-supply from groundwater increases apace , there is no doubt that local water balances are dramatically impacted. Despite this, very little research has emerged on the modified water balance in urban India, which is essential to understanding sustainability of the resource base. This paper, taking Bangalore city as a case study, illustrates the possible impacts of domestic water supply and consumption. Spatial patterns in population growth and current piped water supply from the utility were developed from utility and municipal data. GIS analysis shows the spatial mismatch between the growth of the city and the piped water supply. In the past decade, Bangalore's population grew by almost 3 million people, with most of the additions in the outer areas where piped water supply infrastructure is most inadequate. In these areas, which account for large parts of the city with hundreds of thousands of residents, piped water supply is below 40 lpcd (liters per capita per day). Residents in these areas rely largely on groundwater from tankers and private borewells. Estimates of self-supply from groundwater were derived, which were then used with lumped and distributed simulations of groundwater balances. Lumped model results show that a severe lack of systematic data on actual groundwater extraction drives large uncertainty in the magnitude of net recharge change on a city-wide scale. Despite this uncertainty, the direction of net groundwater recharge is negative. Artificial recharge from leaking pipes and return flows exceed natural rainfall recharge by two-fold; however, private groundwater pumping is the largest component of the groundwater balance, leading to an overall groundwater overdraft estimate of 130%. Distributed groundwater

  2. Prevalence of Malocclusion Among School Children in Bangalore, India

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of malocclusion among school children of Bangalore city, India during their mixed dentition period. The sample consisted of 745 children (388 males and 357 females) in the age group of 8-12 years randomly selected from twelve different schools in Bangalore city. The subjects were randomly selected, and none had received previous orthodontic treatment. Occlusal anteroposterior relationships were assessed based on the Angle classificat...

  3. Seismic microzonation of Bangalore, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Anbazhagan; T G Sitharam

    2008-11-01

    In the present study, an attempt has been made to evaluate the seismic hazard considering local site effects by carrying out detailed geotechnical and geophysical site characterization in Bangalore, India to develop microzonation maps. An area of 220 km2, encompassing Bangalore Mahanagara Palike (BMP) has been chosen as the study area. Seismic hazard analysis and microzonation of Bangalore are addressed in three parts: in the first part, estimation of seismic hazard is done using seismotectonic and geological information. Second part deals with site characterization using geotechnical and shallow geophysical techniques. In the last part, local site effects are assessed by carrying out one-dimensional (1-D) ground response analysis (using the program SHAKE 2000) using both standard penetration test (SPT) data and shear wave velocity data from multichannel analysis of surface wave (MASW) survey. Further, field experiments using microtremor studies have also been carried out for evaluation of predominant frequency of the soil columns. The same has been assessed using 1-D ground response analysis and compared with microtremor results. Further, the Seed and Idriss simplified approach has been adopted to evaluate the soil liquefaction susceptibility and liquefaction resistance assessment. Microzonation maps have been prepared with a scale of 1:20,000. The detailed methodology, along with experimental details, collated data, results and maps are presented in this paper.

  4. Work, Stress, and Diurnal Bruxism: A Pilot Study among Information Technology Professionals in Bangalore City, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, S. K.; Bhat, M.; David, J.

    2011-01-01

    The study assessed the prevalence of diurnal bruxism among information technology (IT) professionals and explored plausible predictors associated with the parafunctional habit. A cross-sectional study was designed and IT professionals were invited to participate. The inclusion criteria composed of participants in service for at least one year, having natural dentition, no history of cervical or facial injury and not undergoing orthodontic therapy. The participants (N = 147) were interviewed by a trained interviewer to record information. A pre-tested questionnaire that included questions related to work, stress symptoms and diurnal bruxism was completed by each participant. The prevalence of self-reported diurnal bruxism was 59%. Bivariate analyses revealed that work (P < 0.05) and work experience (P < 0.05) were significantly associated with self-reported diurnal bruxism. In the binary logistic regression analysis stress (Odds Ratio [OR]  = 5.9, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 2.6–13.3) was identified to be a strong predictor of diurnal bruxism. Professionals with 11 or more years of experience were less likely to report diurnal bruxism (OR = 0.04, 95% CI 0.00–0.43) than those with 1 to 5 years of work experience. The study revealed that stress and less work experience were associated with diurnal bruxism among IT professionals in Bangalore city. PMID:22190934

  5. Work, Stress, and Diurnal Bruxism: A Pilot Study among Information Technology Professionals in Bangalore City, India

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    S. K. Rao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed the prevalence of diurnal bruxism among information technology (IT professionals and explored plausible predictors associated with the parafunctional habit. A cross-sectional study was designed and IT professionals were invited to participate. The inclusion criteria composed of participants in service for at least one year, having natural dentition, no history of cervical or facial injury and not undergoing orthodontic therapy. The participants (N=147 were interviewed by a trained interviewer to record information. A pre-tested questionnaire that included questions related to work, stress symptoms and diurnal bruxism was completed by each participant. The prevalence of self-reported diurnal bruxism was 59%. Bivariate analyses revealed that work (<0.05 and work experience (<0.05 were significantly associated with self-reported diurnal bruxism. In the binary logistic regression analysis stress (Odds Ratio [OR] =5.9, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 2.6–13.3 was identified to be a strong predictor of diurnal bruxism. Professionals with 11 or more years of experience were less likely to report diurnal bruxism (OR=0.04, 95% CI 0.00–0.43 than those with 1 to 5 years of work experience. The study revealed that stress and less work experience were associated with diurnal bruxism among IT professionals in Bangalore city.

  6. Improving Oral Hygiene in Institutionalised Elderly by Educating Their Caretakers in Bangalore City, India: a Randomised Control Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanagar, Sanjeev; Naganandini, S.; Tuteja, Jaspreet Singh; Naik, Sachin; Satish, G.; Divya, K.T.

    2015-01-01

    Background The population of older people, as well as the number of dependent older people, is steadily increasing; those unable to live independently at home are being cared for in a range of settings. Practical training for nurses and auxiliary care staff has frequently been recommended as a way of improving oral health care for functionally dependent elderly. The aim was improve oral hygiene in institutionalized elderly in Bangalore city by educating their caregivers. Methods The study is a cluster randomized intervention trial with an elderly home as unit of randomization in which 7 out of 65 elderly homes were selected. Oral health knowledge of caregivers was assessed using a pre-tested pro forma and later oral-health education was provided to the caregivers of the study group. Oral hygiene status of elderly residents was assessed by levels of debris, plaque of dentate and denture plaque, and denture stomatitis of denture wearing residents, respectively. Oral-health education to the caregivers of control group was given at the end of six months Results There was significant improvement in oral-health knowledge of caregivers from the baseline and also a significant reduction of plaque score from baseline score of 3.17 ± 0.40 to 1.57 ± 0.35 post-intervention (p denture plaque score 3.15 ± 0.47 to 1.21 ± 0.27 (p denture stomatitis score 1.43 ± 0.68 to 0.29 ± 0.53 (p < .001). Conclusions The result of the present study showed that there was a significant improvement in the oral-health knowledge among the caregivers and oral-hygiene status of the elderly residents. PMID:26495047

  7. Specters of Waste in India's "Silicon Valley": The Underside of Bangalore's Hi-Tech Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanareddy, Rajyashree

    2011-01-01

    The southern Indian city of Bangalore is extolled as India's "Silicon Valley," emerging over the past decade as a premier site for capital flows into India's Information Technology (IT) sector. In the dominant narrative of globalization Bangalore is lauded as an aspiring "global city" that attracts sizeable quantities…

  8. Reconciling Dichotomous Demands: Telemarketing Agents in Bangalore and Mumbai, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noronha, Ernesto; D'Cruz, Premilla

    2007-01-01

    Though outsourcing has created enormous employment potential in India's information technology enabled services/business process outsourcing (ITES/BPO) sector, the implications for employees remain to be understood. The present paper describes employee experiences in telemarketing outbound call centers in Bangalore and Mumbai, India. Following van…

  9. Perceptions regarding menstruation and Practices during menstrual cycles among high school going adolescent girls in resource limited settings around Bangalore city, Karnataka, India

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    Shanbhag D

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hygiene-related practices of adolescents during menstruation are of importance, as it has a health impact in terms of increased vulnerability to reproductive tract infections (RTI. Therefore, increased knowledge about menstruation right from childhood may escalate safe practices and may help in mitigating the suffering of women.Objectives: To assess the perceptions and practices regarding menstrual hygiene among selected high school girls in a resource limited settings in area around Bangalore city. Methodology: This was a cross sectional study done in four selected Government High Schools in rural areas around Bangalore City. A pre-designed, pre-tested and structured questionnaire was administered. Results: A total of 506 girls were interviewed. The average age was 14.08 with Standard deviation of 1.06 and range between 12-16yrs. 99.6% of the students had heard of menstruation and 57.9% had acquired this even knowledge before attaining menarche. 73.7% knew that menstruation was a normal phenomenon but only 28.7% had knowledge regarding menstruation. 48.1% did not know that menstruation was related to pregnancy. Only 44.1% used sanitary pad during the menstrual cycles. Among those who used cloth, only 31.3% used soap and water to clean them. 56.8% used soap and water to clean their genital organs and 88.8% of the girls took bath daily during menstruation

  10. Web-Based Urban Metabolic Mapping for Bangalore, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, V. K.; Kemp-Benedict, E.; Wang, G.; Malghan, D.

    2012-12-01

    Cities are like living entities, needing a continuous throughput of resources and energy for survival and growth, creating waste in the process. This paper documents the Bangalore Urban Mapping Project: an initiative that uses this metabolic concept [1],[2]. to inform comprehensive planning in the rapidly growing software capital of Bangalore city in India. Focusing on demographic growth, and water supply and consumption in its first phase, a web-based geo-portal has been developed for two purposes - interactive information communication and delivery, and online planning in the water supply sector. The application, titled Bangalore Urban Mapping Project (BUMP) is built on a free and open source web GIS stack consisting of a Postgis database, PHP, OpenLayers, and Apache Web Server deployed on a 64-bit Ubuntu Linux server platform. The interactive planning portion of the application allows BUMP users to build, run and visualize demographic growth, water supply, and growth scenarios on the browser. Application logic is written in PHP to connect the many components of the interactive application, which is available on the BUMP website (http://www.seimapping.org/bump/index.php). It relies on AJAX to fetch layer data from the server and render the layer using OpenLayers on the fly. This allows users to view multiple layers at the same time without refreshing the page. Data is packed in GeoJSON format and is compressed to reduce traffic. The information communication portion of the application provides thematic representation of each of twenty different map layers, graphical and tabular summaries of demographic and water data that are presented dynamically using Javascript libraries including the Google Chart API. The application also uses other common Javascript libraries/plug-ins, like jQuery, jQuery UI, qTip, to ease the development and to ensure cross-browser compatibility. The planning portion of the platform allows the user to interact with a scenario explorer

  11. Indian National Conference on Hemoglobinopathies, 17-18 May 2013, Bangalore - India

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    Editors: Karuna Rameshkumar

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This abstract book contains some abstracts presented at the Indian National Conference on Hemoglobinopathies, 17-18 May 2013, Bangalore - IndiaOrganized by Departments of Clinical Pathology, Paediatrics & Haematology St. John’s National Academy of Health Sciences Bangalore - India

  12. Clinico-epidemiological profile of tobacco users attending a tobacco cessation clinic in a teaching hospital in Bangalore city

    OpenAIRE

    George D′Souza; Dorothy P Rekha; Priya Sreedaran; Srinivasan, K.; Mony, Prem K

    2012-01-01

    Background: Tobacco-attributable mortality in India is estimated to be at least 10%. Tobacco cessation is more likely to avert millions of deaths before 2050 than prevention of tobacco use initiation. Objective: To describe the clinico-epidemiological profile of attendees of a tobacco cessation clinic in a teaching hospital in Bangalore city. Materials and Methods: A descriptive study of 189 attendees seen over 2 years in the Tobacco Cessation Clinic of a tertiary-care teaching hospital in Ba...

  13. Contamination by trace elements at e-waste recycling sites in Bangalore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Nguyen Ngoc; Agusa, Tetsuro; Ramu, Karri; Tu, Nguyen Phuc Cam; Murata, Satoko; Bulbule, Keshav A; Parthasaraty, Peethmbaram; Takahashi, Shin; Subramanian, Annamalai; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2009-06-01

    The recycling and disposal of electronic waste (e-waste) in developing countries is causing an increasing concern due to its effects on the environment and associated human health risks. To understand the contamination status, we measured trace elements (TEs) in soil, air dust, and human hair collected from e-waste recycling sites (a recycling facility and backyard recycling units) and the reference sites in Bangalore and Chennai in India. Concentrations of Cu, Zn, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Sb, Hg, Pb, and Bi were higher in soil from e-waste recycling sites compared to reference sites. For Cu, Sb, Hg, and Pb in some soils from e-waste sites, the levels exceeded screening values proposed by US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Concentrations of Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, In, Sn, Sb, Tl, Pb and Bi in air from the e-waste recycling facility were relatively higher than the levels in Chennai city. High levels of Cu, Mo, Ag, Cd, In, Sb, Tl, and Pb were observed in hair of male workers from e-waste recycling sites. Our results suggest that e-waste recycling and its disposal may lead to the environmental and human contamination by some TEs. To our knowledge, this is the first study on TE contamination at e-waste recycling sites in Bangalore, India.

  14. Globalization and ICT clusters in Bangalore (India) and Nanjing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. van Dijk (Meine Pieter)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractIn this chapter the effects of globalization on two information and communication technology (ICT) clusters, one in China and the other in India, will be discussed and an effort will be made to analyse how these clusters changed these cities. Globalization had different effects in China

  15. Government Policies with respect to an Information Technology Cluster in Bangalore, India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. van Dijk (Meine Pieter)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe southern states in India have developed a strong reputation as a source of software development services, with Bangalore, the capital of Karnataka, having the strongest reputation of all. This article focuses on the following issue: what determines the competitiveness of an informati

  16. The Church of Deaf Sociality: Deaf Churchgoing Practices and "Sign Bread and Butter" in Bangalore, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedner, Michele

    2014-01-01

    This article ethnographically analyzes the practices of deaf young adults in Bangalore, India. As sign language is not used by families, schools, or other institutions, the church is a crucial educational space. Churchgoing provides deaf young adults with opportunities to orient themselves toward other deaf young adults, to develop new ideas of…

  17. Seasonal prevalence of different species of Culicoides in Bangalore rural and urban districts of South India

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    M. Archana

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was undertaken to know the seasonal prevalence of different species of Culicoides in Bangalore rural and urban districts of South India. Materials and Methods: The flies were collected with UV-light traps (Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute. ARC. LNR ?? during rainy season (south west monsoon: June, July, August and September: North West monsoon: October, November and December, winter season (January, February and summer season (March, April and May in eleven different farms of cattle, buffalo, sheep and goats in Bangalore rural and urban districts. Results: From a total of 83, 629 number of Culicoides midges collected, 77906 (93.16% were female and 5723 (6.84% were males. In rainy season a total of 48,318 (57.77%, winter season 18,592 (22.23% and summer season 16719 (19.99% were reported. Conclusion: In rainy season, highest numbers of Culicoides were found whereas least in summer.

  18. Clinico-epidemiological profile of tobacco users attending a tobacco cessation clinic in a teaching hospital in Bangalore city

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    George D′Souza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tobacco-attributable mortality in India is estimated to be at least 10%. Tobacco cessation is more likely to avert millions of deaths before 2050 than prevention of tobacco use initiation. Objective: To describe the clinico-epidemiological profile of attendees of a tobacco cessation clinic in a teaching hospital in Bangalore city. Materials and Methods: A descriptive study of 189 attendees seen over 2 years in the Tobacco Cessation Clinic of a tertiary-care teaching hospital in Bangalore, with information on socio demographic characteristics, tobacco-use details, nicotine dependence, family/medical history, past quit attempts, baseline stage-of-change, and treatment initiated. Results: Only 5% were ′walk-in′ patients; 98% of attendees were smokers; 97% were males. The mean (±SD age of attendees was 48.0 (±14.0 years. Most participants were married (88%, and predominantly urban (69%. About 62% had completed at least 8 years of schooling. Two-thirds of smokers reported high levels of nicotine dependence (Fagerström score >5/10. About 43% of patients had attempted quitting earlier. Four-fifths (79% of tobacco-users reported a family member using tobacco. Commonly documented comorbidities included: Chronic respiratory disease (44%, hypertension (23%, diabetes (12%, tuberculosis (9%, myocardial infarction (2%, stroke (1%, sexual dysfunction (1% and cancer (0.5%. About 52% reported concomitant alcohol use. At baseline, patients′ motivational stage was: Precontemplation (14%, contemplation (48%, preparation/action (37% and maintenance (1%. Treatment modalities started were: Counseling alone (41%, nicotine replacement therapy alone (NRT (34%, medication alone (13%, and NRT+medication (12%. Conclusions: This is the first study of the baseline profile of patients attending a tobacco cessation clinic located within a chest medicine department in India. Important determinants of outcome have been captured for follow-up and prospective

  19. Low anemia prevalence in school-aged children in Bangalore, South India: possible effect of school health initiatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muthayya, S.; Thankachan, P.; Zimmermann, M.B.; Andersson, M.; Eilander, A.; Misquith, D.; Hurrell, R.F.; Kurpad, A.V.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Anemia is a serious public health problem in Indian school children. Since 2003, simple health intervention programs such as antihelminthic treatment and vitamin A supplementation have been implemented in primary schools in the Bangalore region, Karnataka, India. This study examines the p

  20. Maternal and child health care in an underprivileged area of Bangalore city: Identifying the gaps in the continuum of care

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    Avita R Johnson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background With over 100 million Indians living in urban slums and high child mortality among low-­‐income groups, focusing on maternal and child health (MCH among urban underprivileged is vital, if India is to achieve the fourth and fifth Millennium Development goals. Objectives To identify the gaps in the MCH Continuum of care, by assessing coverage and quality of Maternal and Child Health Services in an urban underprivileged area of Bangalore City. Methods A survey was conducted in an urban slum of Bangalore City, using systematic random sampling. A total of 178 subjects were interviewed with a pre-­‐tested questionnaire. 88 were mothers who delivered in the last one year (to assess maternal care services, and 90 were mothers of a child aged 12-­‐23 months (to assess immunization coverage. Breastfeeding practices and care during childhood illness were documented in both groups. Results Though institutional delivery rate was 97.7%, only 34.1% mothers had received full antenatal care. The quality of antenatal and postnatal services was poor, practices like prelacteal feeds and delayed initiation of breastfeeding were common. Less than 40 % of children were exclusively breastfed for at least 6 months. Only 53% of children aged 12-­‐23 months were fully immunised. Primary immunisation drop-­‐out rates were high. Mothers’ knowledge regarding vaccines was poor. Children with diarrhea received less fluids and food and only 61% received ORS. Conclusion This study identified the following gaps in the MCH Continuum of Care-­‐ lack of IFA consumption, poor quality of antenatal and postnatal care, high immunisation dropout rates, erroneous breastfeeding practices and inadequate care during diarrhoea. Further research may identify potential solutions to bridging these gaps in MCH care.

  1. Population dynamics of some coccids (Coccoidea: Hemiptera) infesting sandal (Santalum album) in Bangalore, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramachandran Sundararaj; Raja Muthukrishnan

    2011-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the population dynamics of four important coccids viz., Aonidiella orientalis (Newstead), Ceroplastes actiniformis Green, Cardiococcus bivalvata (Green) and Parasaissetia nigra (Nietner) infesting sandal in Bangalore, India. Meteorological data viz., monthly mean maximum and minimum temperatures,morning and evening relative humidity and total rainfall were also collected during the experimental period for statistical analysis to ascertain their influence on the population of ceccids. The results show that all the four coccids are infesting sandal throughout the year. Maximum temperature exhibited significantly negative correlation with the population dynamics of A.orientalis, while other weather parameters did not show much influence on its incidence. In case of C. bivalvata, minimum temperature and morning relative humidity exhibited significant positive correlation with its population dynamics while other weather parameters had less significant effect on its population dynamics. For C.actiniformis and P. nigra, none of the weather factors seem to have influence on their incidences.

  2. Studies on contaminant transport at an industrial waste dumpsite of Bangalore, India

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    Zulfiqar Ahmed Mohammed Nazeer

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Industrialization and urbanization has produced various types of wastes that sometimes are dumped in low-lying areas without proper treatment and engineering controls. Bangalore district has more than 60 illegal dumpsites consisting of either municipal or industrial waste. Government records indicate that more than 1,500 industries are working at various industrial areas and other locations around the city. In the present study an attempt has been made to characterize the Bommasandra industrial area dump site located at the south of Bangalore. This dump site is 15 to 20 years old and spreads on an area of 12.7 acres. Around 60 to 70 industries of all nature are located around this dump site. A large number of soil samples were collected and after site characterization of soil properties, an attempt has been made to predict the transport behavior of selected chemical species using available mathematical models and a program based on MATLAB- 7 to study the migration properties of these selected chemical species as a function of time. Also a model provided by USEPA DRASTIC has been used. The DRASTIC Index found for this dumpsite was 146; therefore, one can conclude that the studied dumpsite is moderately vulnerable to pollutants. The migrating behavior of cations such as sodium, calcium and anions such as sulphate, chloride were considered. It was observed that cations are better retarded in comparison to anions. This was attributed to exchangeable chemical reactions.

  3. Pragati§: an empowerment programme for female sex workers in Bangalore, India

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    Sjoerd M. Euser

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To describe the effects of a broad empowerment programme among female sex workers (FSWs in Bangalore, India, which seeks to develop the capacities of these women to address the issues that threaten their lives and livelihoods. Design: This study is based on a comprehensive, on-going HIV-prevention and empowering programme, known as Pragati, which reaches out to approximately 10,000–12,000 FSWs in Bangalore each year. The programme has been designed in collaboration with the sex worker community and provides a personalised set of services, which include STI prevention and treatment services, crisis-response facilities, de-addiction services, and microfinance support all of which have been tailored to adequately fulfil each woman's needs. During the period examined by this study, the programme reached out to 20,330 individual FSWs [median (IQR age 28 (24–35 years]. The programme's personal records of the participating FSWs were used for this descriptive study. Results: Between 2005 and 2010, the number of participating FSWs increased from 2,307 to 13,392. These women intensified their contact with the programme over time: the number of programme contacts increased from 10,351 in 2005 to 167,709 in 2010. Furthermore, data on the effects of crisis-response facilities, de-addiction and microfinance services, condom distribution schemes, and STI diagnosis and treatment showed an accumulating involvement of the participating FSWs in these programme services. Conclusion: This programme, which focuses on social and economic empowerment among FSWs, is successful in reaching and involving the target population.

  4. Burnout and Work Engagement Among Dental Practitioners in Bangalore City: A Cross-Sectional Study

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    Mallaiah, Pramila; Krishnamurthy, Archana; Sangha, Ranganath

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Burnout is a job-related stress reaction; a potential hazard for personal, professional lives of dentists. Work Engagement (WE) is the antithesis of Burnout and they can co-exist. Aim This study was taken up to know the prevalence of Burnout and WE among dentists in Bangalore, India. Matreials and Methods In a cross-sectional study, all (n=116) dentists practicing in Bangalore East Zone were randomly selected. A structured, self-administered questionnaire revealing dentists’ demographics, practice characteristics, Burnout level [6-item from Maslach Burnout Inventory] and WE [4-item from Utrecht Work Engagement Scale] was used. Ethical clearance and informed consent was obtained. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 15.0. Results With a response rate of 58.6%, high burnout was seen in 5.15% dentists. Personal Accomplishment was significantly associated with dentists in older age-group (p=0.002), married (p=0.014), MDS qualified (p=0.038), having long working hours (p=0.009) with assistants (p=0.024), more years into practice (0.007), travelling more distance from residence (p=0.021). Significance was also seen for dedication among dentists with assistants (p=0.006), emotional exhaustion among dentist with long working hours (p=0.009), and driving own vehicle (p=0.028). Finally absorption was found significant in dentists practicing solo. Conclusion Higher WE were found but still burnout persisted. Thus, burnout and WE were found to co-exist. PMID:27042589

  5. Ethical Conventions: A Study on Dental Practitioner’s Knowledge and Practice of Ethics in their Line of Work in Bangalore, India

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    Raju, Vamsee Krishnam; Nanjundaiah, Vanishree; Laksmikantha, Ramesh; Nayak, Sushma Shankar; Kshetrimayum, Nandita

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Dentistry, being one of the healing professions, has an obligation to society that its members will stick on to high ethical standards of conduct. In India, studies done to assess whether the dental practitioners adhere to ethics in their line of work are very meager. Aim The present study was conducted to assess the knowledge and practice of ethics in their line of work among practicing dentists from various dental colleges in Bangalore, India. Materials and Methods A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted among 258 practicing dentists attached to various dental colleges in Bangalore city of Karnataka, India. Independent sample t-test was used to compare the knowledge and practice scores according to gender and qualification. One way ANOVA was used to compare knowledge and practice score according to practice type and practice period. Results Mean knowledge score among males is 8.9 as compared to 9.43 among females and mean practice scores among males was 8.25 as compared to 8.29 in females. Statistically significant differences were found in the mean knowledge and practice scores among graduate dentists and specialists. Mean knowledge score among graduate dentists was 8.44 as compared to 9.36 among specialists and mean practice scores among graduate dentists was 7.7 as compared to 8.53 in specialists. Conclusion A significant association between the knowledge and practice scores was observed, implying that with an increase in knowledge, there was also an increase in the practices of ethics among study population. PMID:27656570

  6. Segregation, Integration, Inclusion and Effective Provision: A Case Study of Perspectives from Special Educational Needs Children, Parents and Teachers in Bangalore India

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    Elton-Chalcraft, Sally; Cammack, Paul J.; Harrison, Liz

    2016-01-01

    Educating special educational needs (SEN) children in special schools is the norm in India but there is a growing trend towards inclusive practice. Perspectives were sought from children, their parents and teachers in Bangalore, India to investigate perceptions of effective provision for SEN children using an interpretative approach to provide…

  7. A population-based case-control investigation on cancers of the oral cavity in Bangalore, India.

    OpenAIRE

    Nandakumar, A.; Thimmasetty, K. T.; Sreeramareddy, N. M.; Venugopal, T. C.; Rajanna,; Vinutha, A. T.; Srinivas,; Bhargava, M K

    1990-01-01

    A case-control study on cancers of the oral cavity was conducted by utilising data from the population based cancer registry. Bangalore, India. Three hundred and forty-eight cases of cancers of the oral cavity (excluding base tongue) were age and sex matched with controls from the same residential area but with no evidence of cancer. The relative risk due to pan tobacco chewing was elevated in both males and females, being appreciably higher in the latter (relative risk 25.3%; 95% confidence ...

  8. Consumer views of community pharmacy services in Bangalore city, India

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    Jayaprakash G

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The opinion about pharmacy services was studied using an instrument which measured satisfaction with pharmacy services. The main focus of the instrument was to assess patients’ opinion and expectation of the present pharmacy services. Method: The instrument contained 20 items, which were grouped based on their similarity into eight dimensions, namely, General satisfaction, Interpersonal Skill, Evaluation, Gathering non-medical information, Trust, Helping Patients, Explanation, and Finance. Chance random sampling was done and the participants were the general public above the age of 18 years. The main outcome measure was to study participants’ opinion regarding the current and desired pharmacy services. Descriptive statistics are presented for the satisfaction dimension score. The level of satisfaction with the different dimensions was compared across the different demographic characteristics.Result: The study results revealed significant difference in the General satisfaction and Interpersonal skill amongst the gender. Significant difference was seen in the Helping patients, Evaluation and Explanation skill among the various age groups. Education background showed significant difference in evaluation, Gathering-non-medical information, Helping patients and Explanation skills of the pharmacist. There was an overall satisfaction dimension score of 56.83% in the current practice and 68.83% in the desired practice. Conclusion: Awareness about pharmacy service continuing education programme for practicing pharmacist will heighten the pharmacy profession in our country.

  9. A cumulative analysis of odontogenic cysts from major dental institutions of Bangalore city: A study of 252 cases

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    Prashanth Ramachandra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of this study was to perform a cumulative analysis of odontogenic cysts obtained from the data of major dental institutions of Bangalore city, as well as to evaluate their distribution during a 5-year period and compare the results with other international studies. Materials and Methods: Data for the study were obtained from the reports of patients diagnosed with odontogenic cysts between 2005 and 2010 from different dental institutions of Bangalore. Case records of patients that fit the histological classification of the World Health Organization (WHO (2005 were included in the study and the following variables were analyzed: age, gender, anatomic location, and histological type. Results: In a total of 252 cyst specimens diagnosed, 79.76% were odontogenic cysts and 20.24% were nonodontogenic cysts. Among the odontogenic cysts most frequent lesions were radicular cysts (50.25%, followed by keratocysts (27.36% and dentigerous cysts (22.39%. Conclusions: Our study provides a cumulative data of odontogenic cysts in the population of Bangalore city. The results of our study showed a similar frequency of odontogenic cysts as compared to other populations of the world, with radicular cyst being identified as the most frequent odontogenic cyst. Keratocyst was the second most common cyst followed by dentigerous cyst.

  10. The iodized salt programme in Bangalore, India provides adequate iodine intakes in pregnant women and more-than-adequate iodine intakes in their children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaiswal, N.; Boonstra, A.; Sharma, S.K.; Srinivasan, K.; Zimmerman, M.B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the iodine status of pregnant women and their children who were sharing all meals in Bangalore, India. Design A cross-sectional study evaluating demographic characteristics, household salt iodine concentration and salt usage patterns, urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) in women

  11. Selection and screening of microbial consortia for efficient and ecofriendly degradation of plastic garbage collected from urban and rural areas of Bangalore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skariyachan, Sinosh; Megha, M; Kini, Meghna Niranjan; Mukund, Kamath Manali; Rizvi, Alya; Vasist, Kiran

    2015-01-01

    Industrialization and urbanization have led to massive accumulation of plastic garbage all over India. The persistence of plastic in soil and aquatic environment has become ecological threat to the metropolitan city such as Bangalore, India. Present study investigates an ecofriendly, efficient and cost-effective approach for plastic waste management by the screening of novel microbial consortia which are capable of degrading plastic polymers. Plastic-contaminated soil and water samples were collected from six hot spots of urban and rural areas of Bangalore. The plastic-degrading bacteria were enriched, and degradation ability was determined by zone of clearance method. The percentage of polymer degradation was initially monitored by weight loss method, and the main isolates were characterized by standard microbiology protocols. These isolates were used to form microbial consortia, and the degradation efficiency of the consortia was compared with individual isolate and known strains obtained from the Microbial Type Culture Collection (MTCC) and Gene Bank, India. One of the main enzymes responsible for polymer degradation was identified, and the biodegradation mechanism was hypothesized by bioinformatics studies. From this study, it is evident that the bacteria utilized the plastic polymer as a sole source of carbon and showed 20-50% weight reduction over a period of 120 days. The two main bacteria responsible for the degradation were microbiologically characterized to be Pseudomonas spp. These bacteria could grow optimally at 37 °C in pH 9.0 and showed 35-40% of plastic weight reduction over 120 days. These isolates were showed better degradation ability than known strains from MTCC. The current study further revealed that the microbial consortia formulated by combining Psuedomonas spp. showed 40 plastic weight reduction over a period of 90 days. Further, extracellular lipase, one of the main enzymes responsible for polymer degradation, was identified. The

  12. A Comparative Study on causes of corrosion of steel reinforcement in RC structures at Bangalore, India and Kigali, Rwanda

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    Abaho G

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Premature failure of reinforced concrete structures occurs primarily due to early corrosion of steel reinforcement. This paper intends to uplift the awareness of people about the role of structure maintenance to prevent or control corrosion in steel reinforced concrete structures. Some data collected using a designed questionnaire were distributed in Bangalore, India and Kigali, Rwanda, about corrosion of steel reinforcement which actually motivated this research. The research finds that without corrosion in steel reinforced concrete structures is just a matter of time. However corrosion map for Kigali is not available. Hence the survey has been conducted in Rwanda. Based on survey corrosion map will be prepared so that vulnerable areas for corrosion can be identified. This map will enable for protective design of structures against corrosion. The new steel RC structures corrosion monitoring systems should be incorporated for future less costly, timely maintenance for their reliable service life.

  13. Evaluation of groundwater quality in and around Peenya industrial area of Bangalore, South India using GIS techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pius, Anitha; Jerome, Charmaine; Sharma, Nagaraja

    2012-07-01

    Groundwater resource forms a significant component of the urban water supply. Declining groundwater levels in Bangalore Urban District is generally due to continuous overexploitation during the last two decades or more. There is a tremendous increase in demand in the city for good quality groundwater resource. The present study monitors the groundwater quality using geographic information system (GIS) techniques for a part of Bangalore metropolis. Thematic maps for the study area are prepared by visual interpretation of SOI toposheets on 1:50,000 scale using MapInfo software. Physicochemical analysis data of the groundwater samples collected at predetermined locations form the attribute database for the study, based on which spatial distribution maps of major water quality parameters are prepared using MapInfo GIS software. Water quality index was then calculated by considering the following water quality parameters--pH, total dissolved solids, total hardness, calcium hardness, magnesium hardness, alkalinity, chloride, nitrate and sulphate to find the suitability of water for drinking purpose. The water quality index for these samples ranged from 49 to 502. The high value of water quality index reveals that most of the study area is highly contaminated due to excessive concentration of one or more water quality parameters and that the groundwater needs pretreatment before consumption.

  14. 77 FR 31581 - U.S. Architecture Services Trade Mission to India; Chennai, Kolkata and Bangalore, India; October...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-29

    ... pre-screened potential buyers, agents, distributors and joint venture partners; meetings with state... participants will also have the option to have additional stops at Mumbai, Ahmedabad and New Delhi, where CS... the Delhi-Mumbai Industrial Corridor (DMIC) and the proposed 250-km Bangalore-Chennai expressway,...

  15. Determinants of domestic violence among women attending an Human Immunodeficiency Virus voluntary counseling and testing center in Bangalore, India

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    Chandrasekaran Varalakshmi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Context: Violence against women is a global phenomenon that cuts across all social and economic classes. Aims:This study was designed to measure the prevalence and correlates of domestic violence (DV among women seeking services at a voluntary counseling and testing (VCT center in Bangalore, India. Settings and Designs: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among women visiting an human immunodeficiency virus (HIV VCT center in Bangalore, between September and November 2005. Materials and Methods:An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect information about violence and other variables. Statistical Analysis Used:Univariable associations with DV were made using Pearson Chi-squared test for categorical variables and Student t-test or the Mann-Whitney test for continuous variables. Results:0 Forty-two percent of respondents reported DV, including physical abuse (29%, psychological abuse (69% and sexual abuse (1%. Among the women who reported violence of any kind, 67% also reported that they were HIV seropositive. The most common reasons reported for DV included financial problems (38%, husband′s alcohol use (29% and woman′s HIV status (18%. Older women (P < 0.001 and those with low income levels were the most likely to have experienced DV (P = 0.02. Other factors included husband′s education, HIV seropositivity and alcohol or tobacco use (P < 0.001. Conclusion: This study found DV levels comparable to other studies from around the world. The findings highlight the need for additional training among health care providers in VCT centers in screening for DV, detection of signs of physical abuse and provisions and referrals for women suffering from domestic partner violence.

  16. Do changes in spousal employment status lead to domestic violence? Insights from a prospective study in Bangalore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Suneeta; Rocca, Corinne H; Hubbard, Alan E; Subbiah, Kalyani; Edmeades, Jeffrey; Padian, Nancy S

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of physical domestic violence--violence against women perpetrated by husbands--is staggeringly high across the Indian subcontinent. Although gender-based power dynamics are thought to underlie women's vulnerability, relatively little is known about risk and protective factors. This prospective study in southern India examined the association between key economic aspects of gender-based power, namely spousal employment status, and physical domestic violence. In 2005-2006, 744 married women, aged 16-25, residing in low-income communities in Bangalore, India were enrolled in the study. Data were collected at enrollment, 12 and 24 months. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine the prospective association between women's employment status, their perceptions of their husband's employment stability, and domestic violence. Women who were unemployed at one visit and began employment by the next visit had an 80% higher odds of violence, as compared to women who maintained their unemployed status. Similarly, women whose husbands had stable employment at one visit and newly had difficulty with employment had 1.7 times the odds of violence, as compared to women whose husbands maintained their stable employment. To our knowledge, this study is the first from a developing country to confirm that changes in spousal employment status are associated with subsequent changes in violence risk. It points to the complex challenges of violence prevention, including the need for interventions among men and gender-transformative approaches to promote gender-equitable attitudes, practices and norms among men and women.

  17. Visitor Report Bangalore: A Europeans impressions on healthcare and Philips research in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, M.

    2011-01-01

    India is a country that defies generalization. It is so big, so diverse and so overwhelming that it’s easy to come back with one’s preconceptions simply confirmed. You think of India as an awakening giantwith world-beating companies? India hosts scores of futuristic technology parks with new skyscra

  18. A population-based case-control investigation on cancers of the oral cavity in Bangalore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandakumar, A; Thimmasetty, K T; Sreeramareddy, N M; Venugopal, T C; Rajanna; Vinutha, A T; Srinivas; Bhargava, M K

    1990-11-01

    A case-control study on cancers of the oral cavity was conducted by utilising data from the population based cancer registry. Bangalore, India. Three hundred and forty-eight cases of cancers of the oral cavity (excluding base tongue) were age and sex matched with controls from the same residential area but with no evidence of cancer. The relative risk due to pan tobacco chewing was elevated in both males and females, being appreciably higher in the latter (relative risk 25.3%; 95% confidence interval 11.2-57.3). A statistically significant (linear test for trend P less than 0.001) dose response based on years, times per day and period of time chewed was seen. Any smoking (cigarette or bidi or both) had only slightly elevated risk of developing oral cancer, whereas a history of alcohol drinking or inhalation of snuff did not influence the risk. A new finding of our study was the markedly elevated risk of oral cancer in persons consuming ragi (Eleusine coracana, family graminae) in comparison to those not consuming ragi as staple cereal in their diet. There also appeared to be some interaction between ragi consumption and tobacco chewing with substantially higher relative risks in those who pursued both habits compared to those who gave a history of either.

  19. Self-reported suicidality and its predictors among adolescents from a pre-university college in Bangalore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhola, Poornima; Rekha, Dorothy P; Sathyanarayanan, Vidya; Daniel, Sheila; Thomas, Tinku

    2014-02-01

    There is increasing concern about suicide rates in the vulnerable developmental stage of adolescence. The experiences and expressions of suicidality among adolescents are often "hidden" and occur due to complex and cumulative interactions of multiple factors. A cross-sectional survey assessed self-reported suicidal ideation, suicide attempts and helpseeking behaviour among adolescents attending a pre-university college in Bangalore, India. This formed part of a 2-year teacher training project for Adolescent Mental Health and Suicide Prevention in the college. 1087 male and female adolescents aged 16-18 years, completed the Columbia Teen Screen which assessed self-reported suicide attempt/s (lifetime, past 3 months) as well as suicidal ideation (current, past 3 months) and associated intensity, severity and duration. Adolescents' perceptions about the need for help and mental health consultation were also assessed. Emotional and behavioural difficulties were reported on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. The results indicated that 25.4% of the adolescents reported suicidal ideation (past 3 months) and 12.9% of the total sample expressed their need for seeking help. The rate of suicide attempt was 12.9% (lifetime) and 6% (past 3 months). Logistic Regression analysis identified factors associated with recent suicidal ideation and attempt. Females had higher rates of suicide ideation and attempts than males (Ideation OR = 1.4, CI = 1.04-1.9; Attempt OR = 2.2, CI = 1.0-4.5) and adolescents with abnormal emotional and behavioural problems were at higher risk for suicidal ideation (emotional difficulties OR = 4.6, CI = 3.2-6.6; hyperactivity/inattention OR = 2.1, CI = 1.3-3.2). The findings add to the limited database on youth suicidality in India and have implications for prevention and intervention.

  20. Influence of additives on the retention of metal ions in a soil of Bangalore, India

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    Dr Maya Naik

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Liners play an important role in minimizing migration of contaminants and are frequently constructed with natural materials serving as the primary barrier to contain chemicals and potentially harmful pollutants from municipal toxic waste leachates. To improve the performance of liners, additives like lime and cement at low percentages were added to Red Soil of Bangalore. Heavy metals like hexavalent chromium, copper and zinc and alkali metals like sodium and potassium were taken as contaminants. Batch leaching tests on 50 samples were performed according to ASTM D 3987 – 85 for soil and soil mixtures with contaminants. The heavy metals were potentiometrically monitored using ion selective mercury and platinum electrodes. The alkali metals were determined using a Flame Photometry. It has been observed that the retention of heavy metals elements followed the order copper> zinc>chromium over a period of 7 to 28 days. Chromium, zinc and copper attained equilibrium in this period as confirmed based on conductivity and pH data. Cement and lime had significant effect on copper and zinc. Specific adsorption of Cu onto CaCO3 surfaces may control Cu concentration in solution. Zn adsorption increases with pH; Zinc hydrolysed at pH > 7.7 and these hydrolyzed species are strongly adsorbed to soil surfaces. Cr was retained only by 50% and additives did not have much effect as it is subjected to nonspecific adsorption (temporary. Cr was found to be highly mobile in alkaline soils. It was observed that the retention of alkali metals follows the order: K > Na. Cement and lime had positive effect on the retention of Na and K. Sodium ion retarded immediately due to the removal of exchangeable cations, whereas potassium retarded more than sodium due to the lower hydrated radius of potassium. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM characterization tests were performed to understand the soil mineral structure. Regular porous, sponge like, particles were detected in

  1. Assessment of screening practices for gestational hyperglycaemia in public health facilities: a descriptive study in Bangalore, India

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    Giridhara R. Babu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Screening and timely treatment of gestational hyperglycaemia (GH is proved to be beneficial and improves maternal and foetal health outcomes. To understand screening practices, we explored the knowledge and perceptions of doctors working in public health facilities in Bangalore, India. We also studied participation factors by examining whether undergoing glucose estimation tests affects morning sickness in pregnant women. Design and Methods. We aimed to understand the screening practices and knowledge of doctors. A semi-structured questionnaire was self-administered by the 50 participant doctors, selected from the sampling frame comprising of all the doctors working in public health facilities. We included 105 pregnant women for baseline assessment, in whom a well-structured questionnaire was used. Results. We reported that gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM screening was done in nearly all the health centres (96%. However, only 12% of the doctors could provide all components of GDM diagnosis and management correctly and 46% would diagnose by using a random blood glucose test. A majority (92% of the doctors had poor knowledge (68% about the cut-off values of glucose tests. More than 80% of pregnant women experienced some discomfort mostly due to rapid ingestion glucose in short span of time. Conclusions. Our study established that screening for GH is done in most public health facilities. Nonetheless, knowledge of doctors on the glucose tests and their interpretation needs improvement. Re-orientation trainings of the doctors can improve their knowledge and thereby can efficiently screen for GH. Further, adequate planning prior to the tests can aid successful completion of them.

  2. Spatial characterization of long-term hydrological change in the Arkavathy watershed adjacent to Bangalore, India

    OpenAIRE

    Penny, Gopal; Srinivasan, Veena; Dronova, Iryna; Lele, Sharachchandra; Thompson, Sally

    2016-01-01

    The complexity and heterogeneity of human water use over large spatial areas and decadal timescales can impede the understanding of hydrologic change, particularly in regions with sparse monitoring of the water cycle. In the Arkavathy watershed in south India, surface water inflows to major reservoirs decreased over a 40 year period during which urbanization, groundwater depletion, modification of the river network, and changes in agricultural practices also occurred. These multiple, co-varyi...

  3. Applying the social-ecological system framework to the diagnosis of urban lake commons in Bangalore, India

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    Harini Nagendra

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The south Indian city of Bangalore provides a challenging yet representative context within which to examine issues of governance of urban social-ecological commons. The city was once famous for its numerous large water bodies, which have witnessed tremendous encroachment and pollution in recent years. These water bodies, called tanks or lakes, were typically managed by adjacent village communities but are now administered by a number of government departments involved with aspects of lake management, with multiple overlapping jurisdictions. The public's perceptions of lakes has also changed with urbanization, transitioning from community spaces valued for water and cultural services to urban recreational spaces used largely by joggers and walkers. We focus on a set of seven lakes located in the urbanizing peripheral areas of southeast Bangalore. Some water bodies have been restored and managed effectively by newly forged collaborations between citizens and local government. Others are extremely polluted, and some have completely dried up and have been encroached. We use a social-ecological system (SES framework to investigate why some locations have been successful in negotiating changes in governance from community-based systems to state management following urbanization, whereas other lakes have deteriorated. We use seven second-tier SES variables that were associated with self-organization in previous research: size of resource system, number of actors, leadership, social capital, importance of resource, existence of operational-choice rules, and existence of informal mechanisms for monitoring. We also include three third-tier variables previously identified as important in urban lake commons in Bangalore: scale and type of pre-existing pollution, exclusion of socioeconomic groups from the planning process, and networking with government organizations. We use this subset of 10 variables to examine social outcomes of the lakes, which we

  4. Radiological and chemical toxicity due to ingestion of uranium through drinking water in the environment of Bangalore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Gladys; Nagaiah, N; Karthik Kumar, M B; Ambika, M R

    2015-06-01

    Groundwater samples collected from 96 bore wells in the study area (city of Bangalore) were analysed for concentration of natural uranium using laser-induced fluorimetry. The risk to the population of the region associated with radiological and chemical toxicity of uranium due to its ingestion through drinking water over a lifetime was estimated. The concentration of uranium was found to be in the range 0.136 to 2027.5 μg L(-1) with an average value of 92.42 μg L(-1). In the present study, about 61% of the samples show concentrations of uranium within the safe limit of 30 μg L(-1) as set by the world health organisation. The radiological risk estimated as lifetime cancer risk is in the range 4.3  ×  10(-7) to 6.4  ×  10(-3) with an average of 2.9  ×  10(-4). The chemical toxicity risk measured as lifetime average daily dose is found to range from 0.005 to 75.42 μg kg(-1) d(-1). The reference dose estimated as 1.12 μg kg(-1) d(-1) was used to assess the chemical toxicity. The results indicate that the chemical toxicity due to ingestion of uranium through drinking water is of more concern than the radiological toxicity. The present study, being the first of its kind in this region, will augment the database of uranium in groundwater.

  5. Self-assessed and clinically diagnosed periodontal health status among patients visiting the outpatient department of a dental school in Bangalore, India

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    Nagarajan Sripriya

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of the present cross-sectional study was to assess the extent of agreement between clinical and self-assessed periodontal health status among patients visiting the outpatient department of M.S. Ramaiah Dental College, Bangalore, India. Materials and Methods: The study population included 216 patients aged between 20 and 44 years who attended the outpatient department of the M.S. Ramaiah Dental College, Bangalore. The study population was subjected to a self-administered questionnaire (questions regarding bleeding gums, deposits on teeth, receding gums, swelling of gums, loose teeth, which was followed by periodontal examination. The clinical examination included an assessment of the periodontal condition, using the criteria of Loe and Silness Gingival Index, the Community Periodontal Index, and Mobility, respectively. Conclusion: The present study showed that the perceived periodontal health status was low and the discrepancy between the subjectively and objectively assessed needs was very distinct. The awareness of the periodontal problems has been reported to increase with increasing severity of the disease due to the destructive changes that set in.

  6. Family Planning Practices Prior to the Acceptance of Tubectomy: A Study Among Women Attending a Maternity Home in Bangalore,India

    Science.gov (United States)

    V, Srividya; Kumar, Jayanth

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The extent of acceptance of contraceptive methods still varies within societies. Reliance on sterilisation is appearing earlier in marriage and among ever-younger ages and lower parities. Aim and Objective: To study the family planning practices adopted by women who undergo tubectomy before the acceptance of tubectomy. Material and Methods: Cross–sectional study of tubectomy acceptors who attended a corporation referral maternity home in Bangalore, India by interview method using a pre–designed a pre–tested structured questionnaire. Results: Majority 295(73.9%) of the study subjects had not practised any method of contraception before they underwent sterilisation. Increase in the education levels of the study subjects was associated with an increase in the contraceptive use (temporary methods) before they accepted tubectomy; this association was found to be statistically significant (p<0.0001). PMID:24086862

  7. Community prevalence of methicillin and vancomycin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in and around Bangalore, southern India Prevalência de Staphylococcus aureus resistente à meticilina e à vancomicina em comunidade no entorno de Bangalore, Índia do Sul

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    Rajendra Goud

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Staphylococcus aureus is a known colonizer in humans and has been implicated in community acquired soft tissue infections. However emergence of methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA has aroused great concern worldwide. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of MRSA in the community of Bangalore, southern India. METHODS: Swabs were collected from anterior nares, forearm, dorsum and palm of the hands of 1,000 healthy individuals residing in and around Bangalore, belonging to different socioeconomic strata and age groups. RESULTS: Analysis verified that 22.5% and 16.6% of the individuals presented Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA, respectively, at any of the three sites. Vancomycin resistance was observed in 1.4% of the S. aureus isolates, which was confirmed by detection of the vanA gene. It was interesting to note that 58.8% of the children in the age group 1-5 years-old presented MRSA, the highest percentage compared to other age groups of 40 (11% years-old and 20-40 (9.9% years-old. Among the population of various socioeconomic strata, maximum MRSA colonization was observed among doctors (22.2%, followed by upper economic class (18.8%, lower economic class (17.7%, apparently healthy hospital in-patients (16.5%, nurses (16% and middle economic class (12.5%. Most of the MRSA isolates were capsular polysaccharide antigen type 8 (57.1%. CONCLUSIONS: There is a need for continuous surveillance and monitoring of the presence of MRSA in the community and a clearer understanding of the dynamics of the spread of MRSA will assist in controlling its dissemination.INTRODUÇÃO: O Staphylococcus aureus é conhecido por ser um colonizador em humanos sendo implicado em infecções comunitárias dos tecidos moles. Contudo, a resistência à meticilina e emergência de S. aureus meticilina resistentes (MRSA têm despertado preocupação em todo o mundo. O presente estudo visa encontrar a prevalência de MRSA na comunidade de Bangalore, sul da

  8. Controlling factors of rainwater and water vapor isotopes at Bangalore, India: Constraints from observations in 2013 Indian monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahul, P.; Ghosh, Prosenjit; Bhattacharya, S. K.; Yoshimura, Kei

    2016-12-01

    Isotopic ratios of rainwaters are believed to decrease with the amount of rainfall. However, analyses of the isotopic composition of rainwater and water vapor samples collected from Bangalore during the monsoon period of 2013 fail to show any simple relationship with the local meteorological parameters whereas show good correlation with the regional integrated convective activity. The correlation is particularly high when the averaging is done over the preceding 8 to 15 days, showing the influence of mixing or residence time scale of atmospheric moisture. This observation emphasizes the role of regional atmospheric circulation driving the isotopic values. A comparison between observed isotope ratios in water vapor and rainwater with Isotope-enabled Global Spectral Model shows discrepancies between the two. The observed values are relatively enriched, indicating a systematic bias in the model values. The higher observed values suggest underestimation of the evaporation in the model, which we estimate to be about 28 ± 15% on average. Simultaneous analyses of rainwater and water vapor isotopic composition again show definitive presence of raindrop evaporation (31 ± 14%). We also documented a distinct pattern of isotopic variation in six samples collected at Bangalore due to mixing of vapor from a cyclonic system in close proximity that originated from the Bay of Bengal. It seems that large-scale isotopic depletion occurs during cyclones caused by Rayleigh fractionation due to massive rainout. These results demonstrate the power of rainwater and water vapor isotope monitoring to elucidate the genesis and dynamics of water recycling within synoptic-scale monsoon systems.

  9. A comparative study of two mouthrinses on plaque and gingivitis in school children in the age group of 13-16 years in Bangalore city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaprakash, K; Veeresha, K L; Hiremath, S S

    2007-01-01

    Research and clinical evidence indicate that most forms of plaque associated periodontal disease start as inflammatory lesions of the gingiva which if left untreated, may progress and eventually involve and compromise the entire periodontal attachment apparatus of the affected teeth. A study was conducted to assess the effect of a mouthrinse containing chlorhexidine and sodium fluoride on plaque accumulation and gingivitis in comparison with a chlorhexidine mouthrinse alone in a group of school children aged 13-16 years in Bangalore city. This combination along with the well established effect of fluoride in the prevention of caries presents an important contribution to dental public health. The results suggest that the chlorhexidine-sodium fluoride mouthrinse potentially possesses a significant effect on inhibition of plaque accumulation and gingivitis. This combination along with the well-established effect of fluoride in the prevention of caries, presents an important contribution to dental public health.

  10. A comparative study of two mouthrinses on plaque and gingivitis in school children in the age group of 13-16 years in Bangalore city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayaprakash K

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Research and clinical evidence indicate that most forms of plaque associated periodontal disease start as inflammatory lesions of the gingiva which if left untreated, may progress and eventually involve and compromise the entire periodontal attachment apparatus of the affected teeth. A study was conducted to assess the effect of a mouthrinse containing chlorhexidine and sodium fluoride on plaque accumulation and gingivitis in comparison with a chlorhexidine mouthrinse alone in a group of school children aged 13-16 years in Bangalore city. This combination alongwith the well established effect of fluoride in the prevention of caries presents an important contribution to dental public health. The results suggest that the chlorhexidine-sodium fluoride mouthrinse potentially possesses a significant effect on inhibition of plaque accumulation and gingivitis. This combination along with the well-established effect of fluoride in the prevention of caries, presents an important contribution to dental public health.

  11. Prevalence and severity of periodontal disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus (non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patients in Bangalore city: An epidemiological study

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    S M Apoorva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Our objective was to study the prevalence and severity of periodontal disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM patients in Bangalore city. Materials and Methods : Four hundred and eight type 2 DM patients (Study Group and 100 non-diabetic patients (Control Group among the age group of 35-75 years were included in the study. The study group was divided based on Glycated hemoglobin levels into well, moderately and poorly controlled. Relevant information regarding age, oral hygiene habits and personal habits was obtained from the patients. Diabetic status and mode of anti-diabetic therapy of the study group was obtained from the hospital records with consent from the patient. Community periodontal index (CPI was used to assess the periodontal status. The results were statistically evaluated. Results : The mean CPI score and the number of missing teeth was higher in diabetics compared with non-diabetics, and was statistically significant ( P=0.000, indicating that prevalence and extent of periodontal disease was more frequent and more severe in diabetic patients. The risk factors like Glycated hemoglobin, duration of diabetes, fasting blood sugar, personal habits and oral hygiene habits showed a positive correlation with periodontal destruction, whereas mode of anti-diabetic therapy showed a negative correlation according to the multiple regression analysis. The odds ratio of a diabetic showing periodontal destruction in comparison with a non-diabetic was 1.97, 2.10 and 2.42 in well, moderately and poorly controlled diabetics, respectively. Conclusion : Our study has made an attempt to determine the association between type 2 DM (NIDDM and periodontal disease in Bangalore city. It was found that type 2 DM (non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus [NIDDM] subjects manifested relatively higher prevalence and severity of periodontal disease as compared with non-diabetics.

  12. Oral health-related KAP among 11- to 12-year-old school children in a government-aided missionary school of Bangalore city

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    Harikiran A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To organize community-oriented oral health promotion programs systematic analysis of the oral health situation would be needed, including information on oral health knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP toward oral health among 11 to 12-year-old school children in a government-aided missionary school of Bangalore city. Materials and Methods: The study group comprised of 212 children (Male: 108; Female; 104 who were in the age group of 11-12 years studying in a government-aided missionary school of Bangalore city. Data on oral health KAP were collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire. Statistical significance was determined by Chi-square test. Results: This survey found that only 38.5% of the children brush their teeth two or more times a day. Pain and discomfort from teeth (35.1% were common while dental visits were infrequent. Fear of the dentist was the main cause of irregular visit in 46.1% of study participants. High proportion of study participants reported having hidden sugar at least once a day: soft drinks (32.1%, milk with sugar (65.9%, and tea with sugar (56.1%. It was found that 5.4% and 3.9% of study participants smoke and chew tobacco, respectively. Conclusion: Results of this study suggest that oral health KAP of study participants are poor and needs to be improved. Systematic community-oriented oral health promotion programs are needed to improve oral health KAP of school children.

  13. Energy efficiency benchmarks and the performance of LEED rated buildings for Information Technology facilities in Bangalore, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabapathy, Ashwin; Ragavan, Santhosh K.V.; Vijendra, Mahima; Nataraja, Anjana G. [Enzen Global Solutions Pvt Ltd, 90, Hosur Road, Madiwala, Bangalore 560 068 (India)

    2010-11-15

    This paper provides a summary of an energy benchmarking study that uses performance data of a sample of Information Technology facilities in Bangalore. Information provided by the sample of occupiers was used to develop an Energy Performance Index (EPI) and an Annual Average hourly Energy Performance Index (AAhEPI), which takes into account the variations in operation hours and days for these facilities. The EPI and AAhEPI were modelled to identify the factors that influence energy efficiency. Employment density, size of facility, operating hours per week, type of chiller and age of facility were found to be significant factors in regression models with EPI and AAhEPI as dependent variables. Employment density, size of facility and operating hours per week were standardised and used in a separate regression analysis. Parameter estimates from this regression were used to normalize the EPI and AAhEPI for variance in the independent variables. Three benchmark ranges - the bottom third, middle third and top third - were developed for the two normalised indices. The normalised EPI and AAhEPI of LEED rated building, which were also part of the sample, indicate that, on average, LEED rated buildings outperform the other buildings. (author)

  14. Prevalence of Malnutrition and Relationship with Scholastic Performance among Primary and Secondary School Children in Two Select Private Schools in Bangalore Rural District (India

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    M R Rashmi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malnutrition is a serious problem among children in developing countries. In India; a school meal program is in place to combat malnutrition, but only in government schools. This study is an attempt to assess the prevalence of malnutrition in primary and secondary school children in private schools and to also assess the relationship between malnutrition and academic performance. Materials and Methods: All 582 students from class 1-7 from two select schools in rural Bangalore, India were included in the study. Information on age of study subjects were collected from school records. Height and weight measurements were taken. BMI was calculated. Children were clinically examined for pallor. Data on height, weight and BMI was transformed into WHO 2007 Z scores and then was categorized as -2 SD, > 2 SD. Mathematics and English scores of the previous two class tests were taken, average scores were calculated. Statistical tests used were Chi square test, Odd′s ratio, Chi square for trend. Results : A total of 582 students participated in this study. Males were 54% (315 and females were 46% (267. One hundred and fifty-nine (27% of the children had pallor, 81 (20% had under nutrition, 38 (7% had stunting, 197 (34% had thinness and 5 (1% were found to be obese. Positive relationship was found between weight for ageZscores and English as well as Maths; Height for age Z scores with English. Conclusion : Hence we conclude that the prevalence of malnutrition is high among children in private schools also; and the nutritional status of the children is strongly associated with their academic performance.

  15. Brief Communication: Economic Comparison of Opportunistic Infection Management With Antiretroviral Treatment in People Living With HIV/AIDS Presenting at an NGO Clinic in Bangalore, India

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    John KR

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Context Highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART usage in India is escalating. With the government of India launching the free HAART rollout as part of the "3 by 5" initiative, many people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA have been able to gain access to HAART medications. Currently, the national HAART centers are located in a few district hospitals (in the high- and medium-prevalence states and have very stringent criteria for enrolling PLHA. Patients who do not fit these criteria or patients who are too ill to undergo the prolonged wait at the government hospitals avail themselves of nongovernment organization (NGO services in order to take HAART medications. In addition, the government program has not yet started providing second-line HAART (protease inhibitors. Hence, even with the free HAART rollout, NGOs with the expertise to provide HAART continue to look for funding opportunities and other innovative ways of making HAART available to PLHA. Currently, no study from Indian NGOs has compared the direct and indirect costs of solely managing opportunistic infections (OIs vs HAART. Objective Compare direct medical costs (DMC and nonmedical costs (NMC with 2005 values accrued by the NGO and PLHA, respectively, for either HAART or exclusive OI management. Study design Retrospective case study comparison. Setting Low-cost community care and support center - Freedom Foundation (NGO, Bangalore, south India. Patients Retrospective analysis data on PLHA accessing treatment at Freedom Foundation between January 1, 2003 and January 1, 2005. The HAART arm included case records of PLHA who initiated HAART at the center, had frequent follow-up, and were between 18 and 55 years of age. The OI arm included records of PLHA who were also frequently followed up, who were in the same age range, who had CD4+ cell counts Results At 2005 costs, the median DMC plus NMC in the OI group was 21,335 Indian rupees (Rs (mean Rs 24,277/- per patient per year (pppy

  16. Impact of Demographic Variables on Work-Life Balance of Women Employees (with special reference to Bangalore City

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    Kumari K Thriveni

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Today we see women working in almost all types of professions demonstrating that there is no gender difference in work. In fact many organisations say that women are playing a major role in uplifting the organization. This is a positive development that women are making their presence felt in different walks of life. On the other hand, for every woman there is one more background to manage. That is home and personal life. Today with increasing demands at work place, the interface between work life and personal life assumed significance which demands more attention. Different factors affect work –life balance and one set of factors could be demographic variables. The present study is undertaken to determine the relationship between the demographic variables and work life balance. Women employees in various professions like IT, BPO, Marketing, Insurance, Banking and Education at Bangalore constitute the universe for the study and a sample of 340 employees is chosen using stratified random sampling method. The hypothesis is tested using chi-square test and it has revealed that there is significant relationship between demographic variables and work life balance.

  17. Risk factors for predicting early childhood caries in Anganwadi children in Bangalore city: A cross-sectional study

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    K B Shilpashree

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Preschool oral health is an overlooked aspect of childhood health and well-being. Early childhood caries (ECC is an infectious and multifactorial disease of the childhood. Several factors play a role in the etiology of disease. Aim: To predict the risk factors for occurrence of ECC in children aged 3–6 years of Anganwadi centers. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study consisting of 3009 children aged 3–6 years attending Anganwadi centers of Bangalore South. Required and relevant information regarding feeding practices and oral hygiene practices were obtained. Multivariate regression analysis was performed for statistical analysis. Results: The prevalence of ECC was 31.4% with mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT of study population is 1.15 ± 2.28. Mean DMFT among males and females were 1.31 ± 2.48 and 1.01 ± 2.07, respectively. Habit of bottle feeding in the night (P < 0.001 and odds ratio [OR] of 1.32, in between meal, snacks (P < 0.001 and OR of 1.24 were the risk factors for caries in this study. Conclusions: The present study provides an insight regarding the risk factors involved in predicting ECC in children.

  18. Prevalence of hypothyroidism in adults: An epidemiological study in eight cities of India

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    Ambika Gopalakrishnan Unnikrishnan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypothyroidism is believed to be a common health issue in India, as it is worldwide. However, there is a paucity of data on the prevalence of hypothyroidism in adult population of India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional, multi-centre, epidemiological study was conducted in eight major cities (Bangalore, Chennai, Delhi, Goa, Mumbai, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad and Kolkata of India to study the prevalence of hypothyroidism among adult population. Thyroid abnormalities were diagnosed on the basis of laboratory results (serum FT3, FT4 and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone [TSH]. Patients with history of hypothyroidism and receiving levothyroxine therapy or those with serum free T4 5.50 μU/ml, were categorized as hypothyroid. The prevalence of self reported and undetected hypothyroidism, and anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO antibody positivity was assessed. Results: A total of 5376 adult male or non-pregnant female participants ³18 years of age were enrolled, of which 5360 (mean age: 46 ± 14.68 years; 53.70% females were evaluated. The overall prevalence of hypothyroidism was 10.95% (n = 587, 95% CI, 10.11-11.78 of which 7.48% (n = 401 patients self reported the condition, whereas 3.47% (n = 186 were previously undetected. Inland cities showed a higher prevalence of hypothyroidism as compared to coastal cities. A significantly higher ( P 5.50 μIU/ml. Anti - TPO antibodies suggesting autoimmunity were detected in 21.85% (n = 1171 patients. Conclusion: The prevalence of hypothyroidism was high, affecting approximately one in 10 adults in the study population. Female gender and older age were found to have significant association with hypothyroidism. Subclinical hypothyroidism and anti-TPO antibody positivity were the other common observations.

  19. Evaluation of Cold Chain Practices in Urban Health Centers of a Metro City in India

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    Lalitha Krishnappa, Arvind B Anniappan, Narayana H Voderhobli, Shantha Kumar Krishna, Sudarshana Yathiraj, Pruthvish Sreekantaiah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: National Family Health Survey report (NFHS-3 reports revealed that immunization coverage in India among children between 12-23 months was low at 43.5%. In lieu of strengthening Routine Immu-nization (RI, Government of Karnataka undertook state-wide training of Medical officers and Health workers on RI with concurrent efforts of strengthening cold chain system in health centers. With this background, this study was undertaken to assess the cold chain practices in urban health centers of Bangalore city. Methodology: This Cross-sectional study was conducted during Octo-ber-December 2008 in three-zones of Bruhat Bangalore Mahanagara Palike (BBMP covering 35 units. Physical verification of the available cold chain equipments was done using predesigned pretested checklist and face to face interview of cold chain handlers was employed. Results: Of 35 centers, 33(94% and 32(91% of them had atleast one functional Ice-lined refrigerator(ILR and one deep freezer(DF respectively. Good storage code practice was practiced in 12 out of 33 ILRs. Functional thermometer was available in 31(91% ILRs of which 23(74% had temperature in the recommend range. With respect to knowledge of cold chain handlers on RI, 86% were trained on RI and their overall knowledge regarding cold chain practices was satisfactory except for knowledge on temperature in DF and on conditioning of ice-packs. Conclusion: Availability of cold chain equipments has improved and Cold storage practice was good/fair in most of the centers. Knowledge of cold chain handlers was low with respect to select cold chain practices.

  20. An early description of monomelic amyotrophy: An excerpt from the diaries of Dr. Charles I Smith (1830-1880) in Bangalore, Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Sanjeev

    2017-01-01

    An early description of paralysis confined to an upper limb can be found in the casebook of Dr. Charles I Smith, who was a doctor in Bangalore in the 19th century. The historical and clinical aspects, as well as the current importance of this entity are described briefly.

  1. An early description of monomelic amyotrophy: An excerpt from the diaries of Dr. Charles I Smith (1830–1880 in Bangalore, Southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Jain

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An early description of paralysis confined to an upper limb can be found in the casebook of Dr. Charles I Smith, who was a doctor in Bangalore in the 19th century. The historical and clinical aspects, as well as the current importance of this entity are described briefly.

  2. Potential impact of pre-exposure prophylaxis for female sex workers and men who have sex with men in Bangalore, India: a mathematical modelling study

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    Kate M Mitchell

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In Bangalore, new HIV infections of female sex workers and men who have sex with men continue to occur, despite high condom use. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP has high anti-HIV efficacy for men who have sex with men. PrEP demonstration projects are underway amongst Indian female sex workers. We estimated the impact and efficiency of prioritizing PrEP to female sex workers and/or men who have sex with men in Bangalore. Methods: A mathematical model of HIV transmission and treatment for female sex workers, clients, men who have sex with men and low-risk groups was parameterized and fitted to Bangalore data. The proportion of transmission attributable (population attributable fraction to commercial sex and sex between men was calculated. PrEP impact (infections averted, life-years gained and efficiency (life-years gained/infections averted per 100 person-years on PrEP were estimated for different levels of PrEP adherence, coverage and prioritization strategies (female sex workers, high-risk men who have sex with men, both female sex workers and high-risk men who have sex with men, or female sex workers with lower condom use, under current conditions and in a scenario with lower baseline condom use amongst key populations. Results: Population attributable fractions for commercial sex and sex between men have declined over time, and they are predicted to account for 19% of all new infections between 2016 and 2025. PrEP could prevent a substantial proportion of infections amongst female sex workers and men who have sex with men in this setting (23%/27% over 5/10 years, with 60% coverage and 50% adherence, which could avert 2.9%/4.3% of infections over 5/10 years in the whole Bangalore population. Impact and efficiency in the whole population was greater if female sex workers were prioritized. Efficiency increased, but impact decreased, if only female sex workers with lower condom use were given PrEP. Greater impact and efficiency was

  3. Socio-Demographic Correlates of Subjective Well-Being in Urban India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Jyotsna; Murthy, Pratima; Philip, Mariamma; Mehrotra, Seema; Thennarasu, K.; John, John P.; Girish, N.; Thippeswamy, V.; Isaac, Mohan

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to explore subjective well-being (SWB) in an urban Indian sample. Adults (n = 1099) belonging to two wards in the city of Bangalore in South India, responded to a study-specific questionnaire. This paper is based on data generated as part of an ongoing larger study looking at correlates of SWB. Almost equal number of men and women…

  4. Bangalore, ville des nouvelles technologies

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    Clarisse Didelon

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Bangalore est devenue la Silicon Valley de l’Inde. Une partie de ses habitants y vit à l’occidentale mais le reste de la population souffre de la croissance spectaculaire de la ville. Face à l’insuffisance des infrastructures, Bangalore devient de moins en moins attractive pour les entreprises internationales.

  5. 75 FR 62916 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “India's Fabled City: The...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``India's Fabled City: The Art of... ``India's Fabled City: The Art of Courtly Lucknow,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition...

  6. Measuring Compact Urban Form: A Case of Nagpur City, India

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    Rajashree Kotharkar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The compact city concept is adopted in city planning policies of many developed countries for the following benefits: efficient use of land while curtailing sprawl, reduction in transport network and reliance on mass transport, a socially interactive environment with vibrancy of activities, economic viability, etc. However, it is still debated whether the cities in developing countries like India, which are already dense, will really benefit from the compact city form. Measuring urban form and compactness of these cities becomes more important for understanding the spatial urban structure to intervene accordingly for sustainable urban development. This paper explores various parameters and dimensions of measurement of compactness. Urban form characteristics and their indicators are derived for the study of Nagpur city, India. This study is an attempt to measure the urban form to derive the benefits of compactness. The study indicates that Nagpur city, inherently has a compact form, but may disperse in near future; and there is a need to implement policies to retain its compact character to achieve sustainable urban development.

  7. Chemical composition of runoff water in Raipur city, central India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambade, Balram

    2015-03-01

    Runoff water is an important transporting medium for various pollutants from land to surface water. Several mobiles and stationary sources such as vehicles, steel cement and thermal power plants, cooking, street, construction debris, etc. are emitting effluents in the environment of the central India. The rain runoff water washes out the air as well as land pollutants and flushes out into water bodies. Therefore, rain runoff water pollution in most urbanized and industrialized city of central India, i.e., Raipur during rainy season (May-September 2012) is analyzed statistically using cluster and principal component analysis to assess sources. The cluster analysis grouped runoff water samples into two clusters based on the similarity of runoff water quality characteristics of the total variance. The factor analysis differentiated the diffused sources of runoff water contaminants. The enrichment factors and runoff fluxes of the contaminants are discussed.

  8. Seismic vulnerability and risk assessment of Kolkata City, India

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    S. K. Nath

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The city of Kolkata is one of the most urbanized and densely populated regions in the world, which is a major industrial and commercial hub of the Eastern and Northeastern region of India. In order to classify the seismic risk zones of Kolkata we used seismic hazard exposures on the vulnerability components namely, landuse/landcover, population density, building typology, age and height. We microzoned seismic hazard of the City by integrating seismological, geological and geotechnical themes in GIS which in turn is integrated with the vulnerability components in a logic-tree framework to estimate both the socio-economic and structural risk of the City. In both the risk maps, three broad zones have been demarcated as "severe", "high" and "moderate". There had also been a risk-free zone in the City. The damage distribution in the City due to the 1934 Bihar-Nepal Earthquake of Mw 8.1 well matches with the risk regime. The design horizontal seismic coefficients for the City have been worked out for all the predominant periods which indicate suitability of "A", "B" and "C" type of structures. The cumulative damage probabilities in terms of "slight", "moderate", "extensive" and "complete" have also been assessed for the significant four model building types viz. RM2L, RM2M, URML and URMM for each structural seismic risk zone in the City. Both the Seismic Hazard and Risk maps are expected to play vital roles in the earthquake inflicted disaster mitigation and management of the city of Kolkata.

  9. Indoor air quality due to secondhand smoke: Signals from selected hospitality locations in rural and urban areas of Bangalore and Dharwad districts in Karnataka, India

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    Mark J Travers

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoke has compounds that are known as human carcinogens. With every breath of secondhand smoke we inhale thousands of chemicals. The Government of India in the interest of public health has enacted the Cigarette and Other Tobacco Products Act (COTPA, 2003, which bans smoking in all the public places including hotels and restaurants. The purpose of this study was to observe and record air pollution in smoke free and smoke observed locations and thereby find out whether the owners/managers of hotels, restaurants, and bars comply with rules of COTPA. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the study were to measure and compare the level of particulate air pollution from secondhand smoke (PM2.5 in smoking and nonsmoking venues. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted from September 2009 to March 2010 in Karnataka, India following a nonrandom sample of 79 locations, which included restaurants, bars, cafes, hotels, and tea stalls in two districts. The concentration of PM2.5was measured using a TSI SidePak AM510 Personal Aerosol Monitor. RESULTS: In Karnataka out of the 79 hospitality locations, smoking was observed in 58% places and only 28% had displayed the required “No Smoking” signage. Places where indoor smoking was observed had high levels of air pollution with average 135 PM2.5, which were 3.1 times higher than the average 43 PM2.5in smoke-free locations and 14 times higher than the World Health Organization (WHO target air quality guideline for PM2.5. The average PM2.5levels in different locations ranged from 11 to 417 μg/m3 and was lower in the case of apparently compliant designated smoking area (DSR. CONCLUSIONS: The patrons and the workers in the hospitality sector continue to be exposed to secondhand smoke despite the enactment of COTPA, which bans smoking in public places. This situation demands stringent measures for effective implementation of the Smoke Free Act and negative response to smoking among civil society.

  10. Urban malaria control situation and environmental issues, Madras City, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyma, B; Ramesh, A; Chakrapani, K P

    1983-01-01

    Madras was one of 22 urban places in India where centrally sponsored urban malaria control schemes were introduced in 1971-1972. Yet since 1970, malaria cases have actually registered a significant increase in Madras. This paper deals with some critical environmental issues facing malaria control schemes. The overall spatial trends and patterns of malaria incidence are illustrated through maps for the years 1975-1981. Areas of high incidence are shown in the northern part of the city which is also traditionally an endemic area. The City Corporation has identified 17 high risk divisions accounting for 75% of the total registered cases in the city. High risk areas were found to be related to environmentally deteriorating areas such as high density, older, residential areas, slums and squatter settled areas along stretches of two rivers and a canal which traverse the city, and the low-lying poorly drained areas scattered over many parts of the city. The typical breeding grounds and sources of major vectors (anophelines and culicines) are presented. A relationship exists between the density of breeding sources (of Anopheles stephensi), such as private and public wells (in use and in disuse), overhead tanks and cisterns, and malaria cases. Field observations were made in detail in four selected high risk areas. Each area presents different environmental, epidemiological and human (social) factors in understanding malaria resurgence situation and demand different types of control measures. The problems of implementation of urban control schemes are found to be political, administrative, economic, social as well as environmental in nature. The persistence of malaria problems in the city has been attributed to slackening of malaria eradication measures, rapid urban growth and deteriorating environmental conditions with sewage, drainage and sanitation programmes lagging far behind the plans. The advantages and drawbacks of various antimalaria (mostly larval) measures in

  11. Shaping Future Green Cities: LEDs Technology adoption as an option for India

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, R; Kroesen, J.O.

    2010-01-01

    The sustainable development in developing and newly industrialising countries (China, India, South Africa, and Brazil) is central issue for policy makers, decision makers, academic, and planners. The attainment of sustainability has become a challenge for rapidly urbanising India. The paper focuses on the challenges for building less energy consuming cities. The cities use different technologies for lighting purposes but which technology can decarbonise them in future. Moreover, the question ...

  12. Oral findings of Down syndrome children in Chennai city, India

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    Asokan Sharath

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To assess the common oral findings and anomalies of Down syndrome (DS children in Chennai city, India. Materials and Methods: Among the 130 DS children examined, 102 children aged 15 years and below were included in the study. There were 57 male children and 45 female children in the total study sample. A specially prepared case record was used to record the following findings in each child: a brief family and personal history; anomalies of soft tissues, teeth, occlusion, and temporomandibular joint. Age wise and sex wise comparisons of the findings were done. Results: About 97 children (95% had the habit of regular tooth brushing. Everted lower lip (66%, retained primary teeth (31%, and midface deficiency (76% were the most commonly seen soft tissue, dental, and occlusion anomalies, respectively. Conclusions: Midface deficiency was the most common orofacial anomaly seen in these children, followed by everted lower lip and retained primary teeth. Almost all the children had a regular tooth brushing habit. All the children examined were offered free dental treatment in our dental college.

  13. Vegetation in Bangalore's Slums: Composition, Species Distribution, Density, Diversity, and History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, Divya; Nagendra, Harini; Manthey, Michael

    2015-06-01

    There is widespread acknowledgement of the need for biodiversity and greening to be part of urban sustainability efforts. Yet we know little about greenery in the context of urban poverty, particularly in slums, which constitute a significant challenge for inclusive development in many rapidly growing cities. We assessed the composition, density, diversity, and species distribution of vegetation in 44 slums of Bangalore, India, comparing these to published studies on vegetation diversity in other land-use categories. Most trees were native to the region, as compared to other land-use categories such as parks and streets which are dominated by introduced species. Of the most frequently encountered tree species, Moringa oleifera and Cocos nucifera are important for food, while Ficus religiosa plays a critical cultural and religious role. Tree density and diversity were much lower in slums compared to richer residential neighborhoods. There are also differences in species preferences, with most plant (herb, shrub and vines) species in slums having economic, food, medicinal, or cultural use, while the species planted in richer residential areas are largely ornamental. Historic development has had an impact on species distribution, with older slums having larger sized tree species, while recent slums were dominated by smaller sized tree species with greater economic and food use. Extensive focus on planting trees and plant species with utility value is required in these congested neighborhoods, to provide livelihood support.

  14. Connecting High School and University Teachers in National and International Contexts: Perspectives from the 2012 Bangalore Workshop of the AAG-CGGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Pratyusha; Pawson, Eric; Akhter, Majed; Palmer, David; Mervine, Valerie M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the Center for Global Geography Education teaching workshop held in Bangalore, India, in March 2012 which served as a collaborative forum linking geography teachers in secondary and higher education in the USA and India. It considers the inclusion of the Advanced Placement Human Geography teachers from the USA and the…

  15. Innovations in nutrition education and global health: the Bangalore Boston nutrition collaborative

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background: India has a wide range of nutrition and health problems which require professionals with appropriate skills, knowledge and trans-disciplinary collaborative abilities to influence policy making at the national and global level. Methods: The Bangalore Boston Nutrition Collaborative (BBNC) was established as collaboration between St. John’s Research Institute (SJRI), Harvard School of Public Health and Tufts University, with a focus on nutrition research and training. The goals of th...

  16. Of Linear Colliders, the GDE Workshop at Bangalore, Mughals, Camels, Elephants and Sundials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loew, Greg

    2006-04-17

    In this colloquium, the speaker will give a summary of the recent International Linear Collider (ILC) Global Design Effort (GDE) Workshop at Bangalore and how the High Energy Physics community converged to this meeting after many years of electron-positron linear collider design and experimental work. Given that this workshop for the first time took place in India, the speaker will also show a few pictures and talk briefly about what he learned in that fascinating country.

  17. Kumbakonam: the ritual topography of a sacred and royal city of South India

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    Vivek Nanda

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available South India is renowned worldwide for the architectural splendour of its temples and the elaborate sculpture that adorns them, but their symbolism, still ritually enacted today, is less well understood outside India. Complex interrelationships of art, architecture and ritual are expressed in the evolution, through the past thousand years, of the topography of one of th most important of the temple cities.

  18. Field evaluation of biolarvicides in Surat city, India

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    S. Haq, R.M. Bhatt, K.G. Vaishnav & R.S. Yadav

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives : Two bacterial larvicide (bio-larvicide formulations— Bacticide® and VectoBac® containing viable endospores and delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis var israelensisH-14 were evaluated in 2001 for their mosquito larvicidal efficacy under the operational conditions ofurban malaria control programme in Surat city, India.Methods : Larvicides were applied at the recommended dose in selected breeding habitats of Anopheles(An. stephensi, Aedes (Ae. aegypti and Culex (Cx. quinquefasciatus and reductions in thedensities of III and IV instars were compared with that of untreated matched controls.Results : At the construction sites in cemented tanks/chambers VectoBac produced reduction in thedensity of III and IV instar larvae of An. stephensi (98–100% and Ae. aegypti (100% in the first weekof application whereas Bacticide produced 71–100% reduction in An. stephensi and 100% in Ae.aegypti. Re-application of VectoBac on Day 10 caused better control up to Day 20 when comparedwith Bacticide. In stagnant water pools, VectoBac produced 27.6–85.3% reduction in the larvae of An.subpictus and 18.5–83.8% in those of Cx. quinquefasciatus whereas Bacticide produced 23.3–30.3%and 39–97.2% reduction in An. subpictus and Cx. quinquefasciatus larval densities in the first weekpost application, respectively. Bacticide application gave better impact on Cx. quinquefasciatuslarvae in the second week after re-application as compared to VectoBac. In storm water drains, Vecto-Bac caused respectively 6.2–100% and 6.4–97.6% reduction in An. subpictus and Cx. quinquefasciatuslarvae in the first week of application whereas Bacticide produced 100% and 13.3–98.8% reductionin An. subpictus and Cx. quinquefasciatus larval densities, respectively.Interpretation & conclusion : Both the formulations were equally effective on An. subpictus and Cx.quinquefasciatus larvae after a second application. The results showed that application of

  19. Modelling, Simulation, and Analysis of HAL BangaloreInternational Airport

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    P. Lathasree

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Air traffic density in India and the world at large is growing fast and posing challengingproblems. The problems encountered can be parameterized as flight delay, workload of air trafficcontrollers and noise levels in and around aerodromes. Prediction and quantification of theseparameters aid in developing strategies for efficient air traffic management. In this study, themethod used for quantifying is by simulation and analysis of the selected aerodrome and airspace. This paper presents the results of simulation of HAL Bangalore International Airport,which is used by civil as well as military aircraft. With the test flying of unscheduled militaryaircraft and the increase in the civil air traffic, this airport is hitting the limit of acceptable delay.The workload on air traffic controllers is pushed to high during peak times. The noise contourprediction, especially for the test flying military aircraft is sounding a wake up call to thecommunities living in the vicinity of the Airport.

  20. Sonic drifting: sound, city and psychogeography

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    Budhaditya Chattopadhyay

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Studying and perceiving an emerging city by listening to its sounds might be phenomenologically reductive in approach, but it can lead to a framework for understanding the fabric of the urban environment through artistic practice. This paper describes a sound work, Elegy for Bangalore, and examines its artistic processes in order to shed light on the methodologies for listening to an expanding city by engaging with multilayered urban contexts and, subsequently, evoking the psychogeography of the city through sound-based artistic practice. The paper further investigates the project’s approach, development and method to speculate on present urban conditions in countries like India experiencing rapid growth. Devising the unfolding auditory situation of an Indian city in corresponding acts of drifting, listening, recording and composing, this paper examines the processes of perceiving an apparently chaotic and disorganised urban environment with its multisensory complexity.

  1. Perceptions regarding menstruation and Practices during menstrual cycles among high school going adolescent girls in resource limited settings around Bangalore city, Karnataka, India

    OpenAIRE

    Shanbhag D; Shilpa R; D’Souza N; Josephine P; Singh J; Goud BR

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Hygiene-related practices of adolescents during menstruation are of importance, as it has a health impact in terms of increased vulnerability to reproductive tract infections (RTI). Therefore, increased knowledge about menstruation right from childhood may escalate safe practices and may help in mitigating the suffering of women.Objectives: To assess the perceptions and practices regarding menstrual hygiene among selected high school girls in a resource limited settings in area ...

  2. Secondhand smoke in public places: Can Bangalore metropolitan transport corporation be a role model for effective implementation of cigarette and other tobacco products Act, 2003?

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    N S Nayak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The Indian government enacted ′The cigarettes and other tobacco products act, 2003′ (COTPA, which prohibits smoking in public places. Aim : To validate the efficacy of the Act of 2003, enacted by the Government of India, to prevent secondhand smoking in public places. Settings and Design : The study is based on a non-random sample survey of 2,600 bus passengers carried out in the premises of three mega public road transport organizations in Karnataka state, India, in June 2007. Methods and Material : The information was gathered through administration of structured schedules. A sample of 1,000 each for the terminus of Bangalore Metropolitan Transport Corporation (BMTC and Karnataka State Road Transport Corporation (KSRTC in Bangalore and, 600 for North West Karnataka Road Transport Corporation (NWKRTC in Hubli-Dharwad city was distributed proportionately according to the number of platforms in each terminus. Statistical Analysis Used : Simple Averages. Results : There is some reduction in smoking in general as perceived by 69% of the passengers as compared to the scenario a year before the enactment of COTPA. The observed smoking is lower in the bus premises of BMTC where there is strict regulation, and higher in the bus premises of NWKRTC, which has not taken any regulatory measures. Conclusions : Knowing smoking is banned in public places can itself create awareness depending on the coverage extended by media and implementing an agency to reach the public. The implementation of an act depends on the willingness of stakeholders to act upon it. The implementation of COTPA as done by BMTC could well become a role model for replication elsewhere, if BMTC can strive harder to accomplish a 100% smoke-free zone.

  3. Investigation of tuberculosis clusters in Dehradun city of India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Neeraj Tiwari; Vineeta Kandpal; Ajoy Tewari; KRam Mohan Rao; Tolia VS

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the presence of statistically significant geographical clusters of tuberculosis (TB) using Geographical Information System and spatial scan statistics in Dehradun, India. Methods:The spatial scan statistic implemented with a software program, SaTScan v6.1, was used to test the presence of statistically significant spatial clusters of TB and to identify their approximate locations (P< 0.05 for primary clusters and P<0.1 for secondary clusters). Geographical Information System was used for geographical analysis. Results: Significant high rate spatial clusters were identified in seven wards of the Dehradun Municipal area. Conclusions:There is sufficient evidence about the existence of statistically significant TB clusters in seven wards of Dehradun, India. The purely spatial scan statistics methodology used in this study has a potential use in surveillance of TB for detecting the true clusters of the disease.

  4. Geospatial Information from Satellite Imagery for Geovisualisation of Smart Cities in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, M.

    2016-06-01

    In the recent past, there have been large emphasis on extraction of geospatial information from satellite imagery. The Geospatial information are being processed through geospatial technologies which are playing important roles in developing of smart cities, particularly in developing countries of the world like India. The study is based on the latest geospatial satellite imagery available for the multi-date, multi-stage, multi-sensor, and multi-resolution. In addition to this, the latest geospatial technologies have been used for digital image processing of remote sensing satellite imagery and the latest geographic information systems as 3-D GeoVisualisation, geospatial digital mapping and geospatial analysis for developing of smart cities in India. The Geospatial information obtained from RS and GPS systems have complex structure involving space, time and presentation. Such information helps in 3-Dimensional digital modelling for smart cities which involves of spatial and non-spatial information integration for geographic visualisation of smart cites in context to the real world. In other words, the geospatial database provides platform for the information visualisation which is also known as geovisualisation. So, as a result there have been an increasing research interest which are being directed to geospatial analysis, digital mapping, geovisualisation, monitoring and developing of smart cities using geospatial technologies. However, the present research has made an attempt for development of cities in real world scenario particulary to help local, regional and state level planners and policy makers to better understand and address issues attributed to cities using the geospatial information from satellite imagery for geovisualisation of Smart Cities in emerging and developing country, India.

  5. GEOSPATIAL INFORMATION FROM SATELLITE IMAGERY FOR GEOVISUALISATION OF SMART CITIES IN INDIA

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    M. Mohan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the recent past, there have been large emphasis on extraction of geospatial information from satellite imagery. The Geospatial information are being processed through geospatial technologies which are playing important roles in developing of smart cities, particularly in developing countries of the world like India. The study is based on the latest geospatial satellite imagery available for the multi-date, multi-stage, multi-sensor, and multi-resolution. In addition to this, the latest geospatial technologies have been used for digital image processing of remote sensing satellite imagery and the latest geographic information systems as 3-D GeoVisualisation, geospatial digital mapping and geospatial analysis for developing of smart cities in India. The Geospatial information obtained from RS and GPS systems have complex structure involving space, time and presentation. Such information helps in 3-Dimensional digital modelling for smart cities which involves of spatial and non-spatial information integration for geographic visualisation of smart cites in context to the real world. In other words, the geospatial database provides platform for the information visualisation which is also known as geovisualisation. So, as a result there have been an increasing research interest which are being directed to geospatial analysis, digital mapping, geovisualisation, monitoring and developing of smart cities using geospatial technologies. However, the present research has made an attempt for development of cities in real world scenario particulary to help local, regional and state level planners and policy makers to better understand and address issues attributed to cities using the geospatial information from satellite imagery for geovisualisation of Smart Cities in emerging and developing country, India.

  6. Evaluation of Liquefaction Return Period for Bangalore Based on Standard Penetration Test Data: Performance Based Approach

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    K. S. Vipin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The conventional liquefaction evaluation is based on a deterministic approach. However in this method the uncertainty in the earthquake loading is not properly taken into account. However recent research in this field indicates that this uncertainty in the earthquake loading has to be considered in the liquefaction potential evaluation. Moreover the evaluation of liquefaction return period is not possible in the conventional deterministic methods. This study explained the methods for evaluating the probability of liquefaction and the return period of liquefaction based on probabilistic approach. Approach: In this study the geotechnical data was collected from 450 bore holes in Bangalore, India, covering an area of 220 km2. The seismic hazard analysis for the study area is carried out using Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA and the peak acceleration at ground surface was evaluated for site class-D after considering local site effects. For assessment of site class, shear wave velocity profiles in the city had been obtained using Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW survey. Based on this data the probabilistic liquefaction analysis was done to evaluate the probability of liquefaction in the study area. Based on the performance based approach the liquefaction return period for the study area was also evaluated. Results: The results showed the variation of liquefaction susceptibility for the study area. The corrected standard penetration values required to prevent the liquefaction for return periods of 475 and 2500 years were also presented here. Conclusion/Recommendations: The spatial variation of probability of liquefaction and the factor of safety against liquefaction evaluated using the two methods match well for the study area.

  7. Sustainability of Smart Cities under Climate Variability and Climate Change in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, R.; Mishra, V.

    2015-12-01

    India has experienced a rapid urbanization during the past few decades. On the other hand, many parts of the country witnessed significant changes in mean and extreme climate related to precipitation and temperature. Here we analysed urban residence using the remotely sensed data considering the susceptibility of Indian cities to droughts and heat waves. We selected recently announced 100 urban areas that are planned to be developed as smart cities in future. Gridded precipitation data were used to compute SPEI values for frequency and ascertain the extent of droughts in the cities. The heat wave analysis was done in two phases. First phase included analysis using Heat Wave Magnitude Index (HWMI) to determine the intensity of such extreme events. In the second phase, Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect across different ecological configuration was studied for the cities. Land Surface Temperature (LST), urban extent map from MODIS and land-cover maps were used to study the UHI effect. For this, the urban extents were divided into urban core and sub-urban zones based on built up regions in the cities. The urban to rural temperature difference is analysed considering the ecological configuration in the region. The selected cities were categorised based on the biome features surrounding them. The results suggest aggravated condition in the urban space in India with reference to extreme events. For instance, extreme heat waves have substantially increased in India during the last few decades. In many urban areas, the UHI effect contributed a significant warming due to increased urbanization. We estimated projected changes in droughts and heat waves in the selected urban areas using the dynamically downscaled data from the region climate models. Our results suggest that a majority of urban areas are projected to face an elevated risk of temperature related extremes and issues of water sustainability in the coming decades.

  8. Persistent organochlorines in human breast milk from major metropolitan cities in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devanathan, Gnanasekaran; Subramanian, Annamalai; Someya, Masayuki; Sudaryanto, Agus; Isobe, Tomohiko; Takahashi, Shin; Chakraborty, Paromita; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2009-01-01

    The present study was carried out to understand the current contamination status of organochlorine compounds (OCs) in human breast milk from three metropolitan cities in India (New Delhi, Mumbai and Kolkata). Among the OCs analyzed, DDTs were predominant followed by HCHs and PCBs. CHLs and HCB levels were much lower. Contamination patterns were different in human milk found in our previous study in Chennai, a metropolitan city in southern India, indicating region specific exposure routes and variable sources. In comparison with previous data, levels of DDTs and HCHs generally declined with time, implying the effect of various bans and restrictions on their usage. No association between concentrations of OCs and demographic characteristics such as parity and age of mothers was observed which might be due to narrow range of mother's age. Estimated daily intake shows that some infants are exposed to OCs to a greater extent, particularly HCHs than the guideline standard.

  9. Conceptualizing Sustainable Transportation for City of Pune, India.

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    B.H. Sutara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pune the second largest city of Maharashtra state of Indian union is witnessing large scale urban sprawl and its negative ramifications in last couple of decades. Urban sprawl is defined as dispersed and discontinuous suburban land development associated with low population densities and high auto dependence. This phenomenon is adversely affecting sustainability of the city because of its negative environmental, social and economic impacts. It saps local resources, destroys open space and farmland, and increases the energy consumption of mobility by promoting long travel distances. Another problem is high levels of traffic congestion and harmful emissions causing environmental pollution. There is a plethora of research that sought to address the issue of urban sustainability and combat sprawl; little has been done on developing analytical tools that could be used to assess the future of urban sustainability for Indian cities and for Pune in particular. This paper explores that how particular land use development patterns or the expansion of the current urban transportation infrastructure are likely to impact urban sustainability.

  10. STUDY OF AQUATIC ANGIOSPERMIC PLANTS OF ANAND CITY, GUJARAT, INDIA

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    K. R. PATEL1 AND N. K. PATEL2

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the taxonomic study of Aquatic Angiosperms growing throughout the Anand city. The plants are listed along with their brief taxonomic account of each species with current nomenclature, vernacular name, family and uses. The  collected plants are systematically observed during present work, During my study I observed various aquatic angiospermic plants such as   Ceratophyllum demersum, Colocasia esculenta, Eichhornia crassipes, Ipomoea aquatica, Nymphoides indicum, Ludwigia repens, Polygonum orientale, Typha elephantina, Lemna perpusilla, Spirodella polyrrhiza, Xanthium indicum, Phyllanthus reticulatus, Cynodon dactylon, Hydrilla verticillata were very common. Whereas Nymphaea nouchali, Polygonum barbatum, Scirpus articulatus were very rare in the study area.

  11. Girl prostitution in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, K K

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the nature, magnitude, causes, and consequences of female child prostitution in India and offers measures for control and prevention of girl prostitution. Data are obtained from the 6-city study of prostitution and the author's own research. An estimated 85% of all prostitutes in Calcutta and Delhi entered the work at an early age. The numbers are rising. The promotion of tourism is linked with prostitution. Girl prostitutes are primarily located in low-middle income areas and business districts and are known by officials. Brothel keepers regularly recruit young girls. An estimated 33% of prostitutes are young girls. In Bangalore, Calcutta, Delhi, and Hyderabad, there are an estimated 10,000 girl prostitutes. UNICEF estimates about 300,000 child prostitutes. Girl prostitutes are grouped as common prostitutes, singers and dancers, call girls, religious prostitutes or devdasi, and caged brothel prostitutes. Religious prostitutes are mainly found in the South. Caged ones are found in Bombay. A little over 50% of prostitutes come from other countries, such as Nepal and Bangladesh. The girls tend to come from urban slums and poor rural areas. High prostitute supply regions include Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and West Bengel states. About 85% are Hindus, and about 66% are from scheduled castes and tribes. Bangalore and Bombay have a higher proportion of girl prostitutes. The causes of prostitution include ill treatment by parents, bad company, family prostitutes, social customs, inability to arrange marriage, lack of sex education, media, prior incest and rape, early marriage and desertion, lack of recreational facilities, ignorance, and acceptance of prostitution. Economic causes include poverty and economic distress. Psychological causes include desire for physical pleasure, greed, and dejection. Most enter involuntarily. A brief profile is given of the life of a prostitute.

  12. Rethinking urban space in cities - A study of parks in Hyderabad, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrinagesh, B.; Markandey, Kalpana

    2016-06-01

    Urban areas being economically diversified attract large streams of migrants making for a burgeoning population. This is more prevalent in the developing countries. The concomitants of this are high density, heavy traffic movement and increased pollution levels. To reduce the stressful life of city dwellers it is important to have open spaces, where one can pursue leisure time activities a few removes from clutter. A public space is a space that is generally open and accessible to people. Roads, public parks, libraries etc, are typically considered public space. The term ‘public space’ is also often misconstrued to mean other things such as ‘gathering place’, which is an element of the larger concept of social space. Hyderabad, the historical city is the capital of Telangana, India and extends from longitude 78o23’ to 78o33’E and latitude of 17o17’ to 17o31’N. It is the second largest city in terms of area and fifth largest in terms of population. It is one of the fastest growing cities in India. There is a huge influx of people from other states in search of better opportunities. The main objectives of the study are; to study the sprawl and changing demographic structure of the city of Hyderabad, to study the accessibility of parks, to study the need for the emergence of a local public sphere. The data base will be mainly on secondary data collected from various government sources. A primary survey will be conducted based on a structured questionnaire. GIS and other mapping techniques will be applied to analyse the data.

  13. Prevalence of dental fluorosis among school children residing in Kanpur City, Uttar Pradesh, India

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    Ashish Bhalla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective was to find the prevalence of dental fluorosis among school children residing in Kanpur city, Uttar Pradesh India. Materials and Methods: A total of 1343 school children, residing in the city since childhood and consuming the groundwater, in the age group of 7-17 years was selected from various schools. Schools were selected from all four directions of the city. Children were categorized in five age groups and were examined for dental fluorosis. Dean′s criteria for assessment of dental fluorosis were used, and observations were recorded on a study specific performa. Results: Among the 1343 children examined, 243 (18% were found to be having dental fluorosis, among which number of males (131 was more than females (112. Among the different grades of fluorosis observed, mild dental fluorosis was observed in most of the cases (158. It was observed that the southern part of the city had a maximum number of cases of dental fluorosis. Conclusion: It was evident from the results that the city had a good number of cases of dental fluorosis and that the groundwater in certain areas had more than normal quantity of fluoride. Since this study was the first attempt in this area, more studies can be undertaken to substantiate our findings.

  14. Prevalence of β-thalassemia and other haemoglobinopathies in six cities in India: a multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, D; Colah, R B; Gorakshakar, A C; Patel, R Z; Master, D C; Mahanta, J; Sharma, S K; Chaudhari, U; Ghosh, M; Das, S; Britt, R P; Singh, S; Ross, C; Jagannathan, L; Kaul, R; Shukla, D K; Muthuswamy, V

    2013-01-01

    The population of India is extremely diverse comprising of more than 3,000 ethnic groups who still follow endogamy. Haemoglobinopathies are the commonest hereditary disorders in India and pose a major health problem. The data on the prevalence of β-thalassemias and other haemoglobinopathies in different caste/ethnic groups of India is scarce. Therefore the present multicentre study was undertaken in six cities of six states of India (Maharashtra, Gujarat, West Bengal, Assam, Karnataka and Punjab) to determine the prevalence of haemoglobinopathies in different caste/ethnic groups using uniform methodology. Fifty-six thousand seven hundred eighty individuals (college students and pregnant women) from different caste/ethnic groups were screened. RBC indices were measured on an automated haematology counter while the percentage of HbA(2), HbF and other abnormal Hb variants were estimated by HPLC on the Variant Hemoglobin Testing System. The overall prevalence of β-thalassemia trait was 2.78 % and varied from 1.48 to 3.64 % in different states, while the prevalence of β-thalassemia trait in 59 ethnic groups varied from 0 to 9.3 %. HbE trait was mainly seen in Dibrugarh in Assam (23.9 %) and Kolkata in West Bengal (3.92 %). In six ethnic groups from Assam, the prevalence of HbE trait varied from 41.1 to 66.7 %. Few subjects with δβ-thalassemia, HPFH, HbS trait, HbD trait, HbE homozygous and HbE β-thalassemia as well as HbS homozygous and HbS-β-thalassemia (India.

  15. Impact of Urban Growth and Urbanization on the Environmental Degradation of Lakes in Hyderabad City, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandan, M. J.; Sen, M. K.; Harini, P.; Sekhar, B. M.; Balaji, T.

    2013-12-01

    Lakes are a vital part of urban ecosystems which perform important ecological and environmental functions to safeguard local climate, groundwater and habitat. The incessant population growth coupled with low urban planning is causing severe damage to urban ecosystems throughout the world. Hyderabad is one of the largest growing metropolitan cities of India covering an area of 65000 ha situated on the banks of Musi River in the northern part of the Deccan Plateau. The city had a population of 1.25 million in 1961 which increased to 6.8 million in 2011 with a metropolitan population of 7.75 million, making it India's fourth most populous city and sixth most populous urban agglomeration. Hyderabad is popularly known as 'City of Lakes' which occupies the top position in India in terms of Urban Lakes. In 20th century, the number of lakes were around 925 which are now reduced to 521 and most of these lakes are facing extinction. The water spread area of these lakes has been considerably reduced due to steady urban growth and the carrying capacity and ecological status of these urban lakes are in real danger. Many of these lakes have shrunk in size while the waters of several lakes got polluted with the discharge of untreated domestic and industrial effluents. Taking into consideration the environmental degradation of urban lakes, an attempt was made to study the current status, loss of water bodies and water spread using remote sensing and GIS techniques. Time-series satellite images of MSS, IRS and RESOURCESAT and Survey of India maps of 1:50,000 and 1:25,000 were used for this study. Analysis of these together with other data sets was accomplished through integrated use of ERDAS Imagine Arc view and ArcGIS software packages. It is estimated that there were 925 lakes in 1982 in erstwhile Hyderabad Urban Development Authority (HUDA) area which came down to 521 in 2012. A total number of 404 lakes disappeared during the last 30 years period. Consequently the water spread

  16. STATUS OF HEAVY METALS DISTRIBUTION IN MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE IN TIRUCHIRAPPALLI CITY, INDIA

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    A. Noorjahan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization and rapid growth of population in India has led to drastic increase in municipal solid waste. Unscientific disposal of municipal solid waste is one of the main reasons attributed for environmental degradation. The present work concentrates on municipal solid waste management in Tiruchirappalli City which comprises of four zones namely Srirangam, Goldenrock, Araiyamangalam and Abishekapuram. This study also attempted to assess the physical composition, characteristics and the heavy metals content in municipal solid waste. It can be observed that the bio-degradable fraction of municipal solid waste is found to be 74 percent of the total solid waste generated from the city. Hence composting could be the best option for the treatment of municipal solid waste.

  17. Physico-chemical characteristics of groundwater in and around Surat City (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raval, Viral H; Malik, G M

    2010-10-01

    Groundwater samples were collected from different locations of Surat city, Gujarat (India). These samples from 32 locations of Surat city were analysed for their physico-chemical characteristics involving pH, colour, odour, hardness, chloride, alkalinity, COD, sulfate, TDS, SS, iron, Cu, boron, chromium, temperature and Langelier Saturation Index. On comparing the results against drinking water quality standards laid by Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) and World Health Organization (WHO), it is found that most of the water samples are non-potable. Most of the samples indicated Total Alkalinity, Hardness, Chloride and TDS values much higher than the permissible level stipulated by ICMR and WHO. Even at some places Langelier Saturation Index values found higher too. The high values of these parameters may have health implications and therefore these need attention.

  18. Pilot study of essential drug quality in two major cities in India.

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    Roger Bate

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: India is an increasingly influential player in the global pharmaceutical market. Key parts of the drug regulatory system are controlled by the states, each of which applies its own standards for enforcement, not always consistent with others. A pilot study was conducted in two major cities in India, Delhi and Chennai, to explore the question/hypothesis/extent of substandard and counterfeit drugs available in the market and to discuss how the Indian state and federal governments could improve drug regulation and more importantly regulatory enforcement to combat these drugs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Random samples of antimalarial, antibiotic, and antimycobacterial drugs were collected from pharmacies in urban and peri-urban areas of Delhi and Chennai, India. Semi-quantitative thin-layer chromatography and disintegration testing were used to measure the concentration of active ingredients against internationally acceptable standards. 12% of all samples tested from Delhi failed either one or both tests, and were substandard. 5% of all samples tested from Chennai failed either one or both tests, and were substandard. Spatial heterogeneity between pharmacies was observed, with some having more or less substandard drugs (30% and 0% respectively, as was product heterogeneity, with some drugs being more or less frequently substandard (12% and 7% respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In a study using basic field-deployable techniques of lesser sensitivity rather than the most advanced laboratory-based techniques, the prevalence of substandard drugs in Delhi and Chennai is confirmed to be roughly in accordance with the Indian government's current estimates. However, important spatial and product heterogeneity exists, which suggests that India's substandard drug problem is not ubiquitous, but driven by a subset of manufacturers and pharmacies which thrive in an inadequately regulated environment. It is likely that the drug regulatory

  19. 75 FR 21595 - Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... International Trade Administration Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India AGENCY: International Trade... Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India (New Delhi, Mumbai and Bangalore), November 15-19, 2010. Led... Indian market. The cosmetics/ beauty industry is one of the booming retail sectors in India with...

  20. 75 FR 33763 - Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... International Trade Administration Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India AGENCY: International Trade... Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India (New Delhi, Mumbai and Bangalore), November 15-19, 2010. Led.... The cosmetics/beauty industry is one of the booming retail sectors in India with very strong...

  1. Family planning use among urban poor women from six cities of Uttar Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speizer, Ilene S; Nanda, Priya; Achyut, Pranita; Pillai, Gita; Guilkey, David K

    2012-08-01

    Family planning has widespread positive impacts for population health and well-being; contraceptive use not only decreases unintended pregnancies and reduces infant and maternal mortality and morbidity, but it is critical to the achievement of Millennium Development Goals. This study uses baseline, representative data from six cities in Uttar Pradesh, India to examine family planning use among the urban poor. Data were collected from about 3,000 currently married women in each city (Allahabad, Agra, Varanasi, Aligarh, Gorakhpur, and Moradabad) for a total sample size of 17,643 women. Participating women were asked about their fertility desires, family planning use, and reproductive health. The survey over-sampled slum residents; this permits in-depth analyses of the urban poor and their family planning use behaviors. Bivariate and multivariate analyses are used to examine the role of wealth and education on family planning use and unmet need for family planning. Across all of the cities, about 50% of women report modern method use. Women in slum areas generally report less family planning use and among those women who use, slum women are more likely to be sterilized than to use other methods, including condoms and hormonal methods. Across all cities, there is a higher unmet need for family planning to limit childbearing than for spacing births. Poorer women are more likely to have an unmet need than richer women in both the slum and non-slum samples; this effect is attenuated when education is included in the analysis. Programs seeking to target the urban poor in Uttar Pradesh and elsewhere in India may be better served to identify the less educated women and target these women with appropriate family planning messages and methods that meet their current and future fertility desire needs.

  2. Eye care infrastructure and human resources for managing diabetic retinopathy in India: The India 11-city 9-state study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Clare E.; Babu, R. Giridhara; Gudlavalleti, Aashrai Sai Venkat; Anchala, Raghupathy; Shukla, Rajan; Ballabh, Pant Hira; Vashist, Praveen; Ramachandra, Srikrishna S.; Allagh, Komal; Sagar, Jayanti; Bandyopadhyay, Souvik; Murthy, G. V. S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is a paucity of information on the availability of services for diagnosis and management of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in India. Objectives: The study was undertaken to document existing healthcare infrastructure and practice patterns for managing DR. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 11 cities and included public and private eye care providers. Both multispecialty and stand-alone eye care facilities were included. Information was collected on the processes used in all steps of the program, from how diabetics were identified for screening through to policies about follow-up after treatment by administering a semistructured questionnaire and by using observational checklists. Results: A total of 86 eye units were included (31.4% multispecialty hospitals; 68.6% stand-alone clinics). The availability of a dedicated retina unit was reported by 68.6% (59) facilities. The mean number of outpatient consultations per year was 45,909 per responding facility, with nearly half being new registrations. A mean of 631 persons with sight-threatening-DR (ST-DR) were registered per year per facility. The commonest treatment for ST-DR was laser photocoagulation. Only 58% of the facilities reported having a full-time retina specialist on their rolls. More than half the eye care facilities (47; 54.6%) reported that their ophthalmologists would like further training in retina. Half (51.6%) of the facilities stated that they needed laser or surgical equipment. About 46.5% of the hospitals had a system to track patients needing treatment or for follow-up. Conclusions: The study highlighted existing gaps in service provision at eye care facilities in India. PMID:27144134

  3. Victims of stalking in India: A study of girl college students in Tirunelveli City

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    Jaishankar Karuppannan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The word 'stalking' was not commonly known in India, until Priyadharshini Mattoo's case (1996 hit the headlines. Eve teasing, a colloquial word for gender harassment is popularly known and Tamil Nadu Prohibition of Eve-Teasing Act, 1998 on that was developed after the brutal killing of a girl named Sarika Shah in Chennai. Though, stalking is there in the past, it was not acknowledged with this terminology and it was always merged with Eve teasing. On the other hand, stalking is much graver than Eve teasing and it is an obsessive behaviour. After the Matoo's case, the Indian Criminal Justice System awoke and the National Commission for Women is ready with a draft Bill (Sexual Assault Prevention Bill to make the Indian Penal Code more effective against the menace of stalkers. Research studies related to stalking in India are sparse and there is a need to study this phenomenon in depth. This paper presents some results from a study of stalking victims among Girl College students at Tirunelveli City, Tamil Nadu, India. In-depth questionnaire data are drawn on to investigate the course and nature of prolonged stalking in 150 self-defined victims. Findings indicate a pattern of repeated intrusions, the stalking harassment methods, lack of reporting behaviour, and effects of stalking on the victims.

  4. Prevalence of hypothyroidism in pregnancy: An epidemiological study from 11 cities in 9 states of India

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    Dinesh Kumar Dhanwal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A previous hospital based study from Delhi revealed a high prevalence of hypothyroidism in pregnant women. Several other studies with small sample size also indicate a rising trend of prevalence of hypothyroidism during pregnancy in India. Objective: To assess prevalence of hypothyroidism in pregnant women from various states/cities across India. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional multicenter study conducted at Allahabad (Uttar Pradesh, Bengaluru (Karnataka, Chennai (Tamil Nadu, Kolkata (West Bengal, Hyderabad (Telangana, Nasik (Maharashtra, Rohtak (Haryana, Pune (Maharashtra, New Delhi (Delhi, Srinagar (Kashmir, and Vizag (Andhra Pradesh enrolling 2599 pregnant women. Estimation of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, free T4, and antithyroid peroxidase (TPO antibodies was carried out using Roche modular kit using ECLIA technology in a central laboratory. Results: We found in our study population that 13.13% of pregnant women have hypothyroidism (n = 388, using a cutoff TSH level of 4.5 μIU/ml. This prevalence was much higher using the American Thyroid Association criteria. Anti-TPO antibodies were positive in 20.74% of all pregnant women (n = 613, whereas 40% (n = 155 of hypothyroid pregnant women were positive for anti-TPO antibodies. Conclusion: This study concludes that there is a high prevalence of hypothyroidism (13.13%, majority being subclinical in pregnant women during the first trimester from India and universal screening of hypothyroidism may be desirable in our country.

  5. Socio economic determinants of health insurance in India: the case of Hyderabad city

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    J. Yellaiah

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Health has been declared as a fundamental human right in India and several other countries. Theoretical works as well as empirical evidences clearly show the positive linkage between good health and economic development. The policy concern in developing countries including India is not only to reach the entire population with adequate healthcare services, but also to secure an acceptable level of health for all the people through the application of primary healthcare programs. Health insurance is one of the most important aspects of health care management system. This paper identifies the socio economic determinants of demand for health insurance in India taking Hyderabad as the case. For this purpose, a sample survey has been conducted taking 200 sample units in Hyderabad city. The logistic model has been used to identify the determinants of health insurance. We conclude that the main determinants of demand for health insurance in Hyderabad are the occupation, income, health expenditure and awareness. The other variables such as the age and education are positively associated with demand for health insurance but are not statistically significant. In view of these findings, some policy suggestions are made.

  6. Five year studies on suspended particulate matter and heavy metals trends in Brass City of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahima; Pal, Raina; Singh, D; Tripathi, Anamika; Singh, G S

    2013-10-01

    Moradabad is historically an important city of western Uttar Pradesh which is popularly known as Brass City of India, as about one thousand large and small scale brassware industries are located in and around the city. Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) was collected two times in a week using High Volume Samplers (HVS) at six selected sites representing different areas of the city. The result indicates the annual and seasonal variations of SPM from 2005-2010. The highest value (869 μg/m3) was recorded at industrial site, i.e. Mughalpura in June (2008-09) while lowest value (71 μg/m3) at PTC in the month of July (2005-06). Five heavy metals, i.e. Cu, Zn, Fe, Cd and Pb were also observed at all the sites. Among the metals highest concentration of Zn were recorded at almost all the sites whereas Cu and Zn were found at industrial site, may be attributed to melting of Brass silly to prepare the different Brassware items. Pb and Cd were abundant at commercial site, located nearby Railway station as traffic density remains high during the day and night.

  7. Persistent organochlorines in human breast milk from major metropolitan cities in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devanathan, Gnanasekaran; Subramanian, Annamalai; Someya, Masayuki; Sudaryanto, Agus; Isobe, Tomohiko; Takahashi, Shin [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Chakraborty, Paromita [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Tanabe, Shinsuke [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan)], E-mail: shinsuke@agr.ehime-u.ac.jp

    2009-01-15

    The present study was carried out to understand the current contamination status of organochlorine compounds (OCs) in human breast milk from three metropolitan cities in India (New Delhi, Mumbai and Kolkata). Among the OCs analyzed, DDTs were predominant followed by HCHs and PCBs. CHLs and HCB levels were much lower. Contamination patterns were different in human milk found in our previous study in Chennai, a metropolitan city in southern India, indicating region specific exposure routes and variable sources. In comparison with previous data, levels of DDTs and HCHs generally declined with time, implying the effect of various bans and restrictions on their usage. No association between concentrations of OCs and demographic characteristics such as parity and age of mothers was observed which might be due to narrow range of mother's age. Estimated daily intake shows that some infants are exposed to OCs to a greater extent, particularly HCHs than the guideline standard. - Indian infants may be exposed to relatively high levels of DDTs and HCHs through mothers' milk.

  8. Urban Risk Reduction Through Effective Disaster Management Plan-A Case Study Of Shimla City Himachal Pradesh India

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    Bhavna Karki

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract By 2050 70 of the worlds population will live in urban areas. In India the urban population has increased from 217 million to 377 million in last two decades .With increasing population the associated risk and vulnerability has also increased. As cities continue to grow there is increased pressure on resources exposure of lives livelihoods and economic social and environmental assets to risk is set to increase exponentially. Recognised as one of the best cities for public services and one of the oldest Municipal Corporation in India Shimla city is situated at the traverse spur of the Central Himalayas at 31004 N to 31010 N latitude and 77005 E to 77015 E longitude at an altitude of 2397.59 m metres amsl. This paper aims at underlying the role of Shimla Municipal Corporation SMC as local government in managing disasters in the city along with effective planning and risk assessments.

  9. Urban air pollution & its assessment in Lucknow City--the second largest city of North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Alfred; Fatima, Nishat

    2014-08-01

    Investigations were carried out during the summer season (March-June 2012) to observe the quality of indoor air by monitoring the levels of some selected air pollutants at 15 different houses covering the urban areas of Lucknow City. Concentrations of CO2, CO, PM10, PM2.5, SO2 and NO2 were monitored indoors and outdoors simultaneously and I/O ratios were calculated. Regression analysis for I/O relationship was performed to assess the contribution of outdoor sources to indoor air quality. Air Quality Index (AQI) for indoor air was also calculated to have an idea about the quality of indoor air and their health effects. In collaboration with the medical college doctors of the city, we surveyed 197 persons to find out different diseases/symptoms being faced due to indoor air pollution. Results of the study revealed that the average levels of PM10 and PM2.5 were above the permissible limits laid by WHO at densely populated and roadside sites with 189 μg/m(3) (PM2.5 76 μg/m(3)) and 226 μg/m(3) (PM2.5 91 μg/m(3)) respectively. Correlation analysis showed positive results. At sites like Alambagh and Chowk, the indoor AQI range was alarming with the values of 302 and 209. Survey results also showed that 46% of urban people suffered from acute respiratory infections like bronchial asthma, headache, depression and dizziness and these people were mostly from Roadside colonies.

  10. A STUDY OF IMPACT OF DETERMINANTS OF PATIENTS AND HEALTH SYSTEM DELAY ON TUBERCULOSIS DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT IN BANGALORE

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    Jagadish Siddalinga Devaru

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Setting: TU/DMCs of Bangalore city. India. All new sputum positive patients registered to the selected TU/DMCs were interviewed. A total of 468 patients aged above 20 years were enrolled. The study period was from January to June 2009. Objectives: To track the delay in diagnosis and treatment of patients reporting to tuberculosis units and microscopy centers. Design: A cross sectional study. TU/DMCs were randomly selected. A pretested questionnaire was administered to collect data. Results: The study population had 326 (69.7% males. The mean age of study population was 38.5 years. 74.4% were married, 20.7% were illiterates, 27.8% were daily wagers, 10.5% were unemployed. The median and mean total delays from development of cough to diagnosis were 41 days and 36.04 days; the median and mean patient delay was 24 days and 20.7 days, and health system delay was 18 and 15.31 days respectively. There was a significant difference among the different age group of patients with older people having longer patient delay (p<0.0001. Lower income, illiteracy, unemployment, showed significant association with patients delay (p<0.0001. Alcohol intake and smoking habit among the male patients had significant association for longer patient delay (p=0.00004. Health seeking behavior like self medication, also had longer patient delay. Other socio demographic factors had no significant influence on the patient delay. Longer health system delay was found among patients who visited general practitioners and Ayurvedic medicine. Conclusion: More specific and effective health education of the general public on tuberculosis and seeking of appropriate medical consultation are likely to improve case detection.

  11. Child-Oral impacts on daily performances: A socio dental approach to assess prevalence and severity of oral impacts on daily performances in South Indian school children of Bangalore city: A cross-sectional survey

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    Neha Agrawal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral disorders can have a negative impact on the functional, social and psychological well-being of children and their families. Oral health and dental treatment may have an impact on eating, speaking and appearance, thereby affecting quality of life. Thus, there has been a greater focus on the measurement of quality of life as a complement to the clinical measures. Objective: The aim was to assess the prevalence, characteristics and severity of oral impacts in south Indian school children using Child-Oral Impacts on Daily Performances (Child-OIDP index as a measure of oral health related quality of life. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was undertaken among the six government, and six private school children aged 11-12 years, of Karnataka, South India randomly selected as cluster, and all their 563 children were invited to participate. A cross culturally adapted and validated oral health-related quality of life measure; Child-OIDP was used to assess oral impacts. Results: The common perceived oral health problems were tooth ache reported by 342 children, a sensitive tooth reported by 230 children, tooth decay - hole in the tooth reported by 226 children. Eating was the most common performance affected (68.3%. The severity of impacts was high for eating and cleaning mouth and low for the study and social contact performances. Conclusion: The study reveals that oral health impacts on quality of life of school children of Karnataka aged 11-12 years. Oral impacts were prevalent, but not severe. The impacts mainly related to difficulty eating. Toothache, a sensitive tooth, tooth decay and bleeding gums contributed largely to the incidence of oral impacts.

  12. Deterministic Seismic Hazard Assessment at Bed Rock Level: Case Study for the City of Bhubaneswar, India

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    Sukanti Rout

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study an updated deterministic seismic hazard contour map of Bhubaneswar (20°12'0"N to 20°23'0"N latitude and 85°44'0"E to 85° 54'0"E longitude one of the major city of India with tourist importance, has been prepared in the form of spectral acceleration values. For assessing the seismic hazard, the study area has been divided into small grids of size 30˝×30˝ (approximately 1.0 km×1.0 km, and the hazard parameters in terms of spectral acceleration at bedrock level, PGA are calculated as the center of each of these grid cells by considering the regional Seismo-tectonic activity within 400 km radius around the city center. The maximum credible earthquake in terms of moment magnitude of 7.2 has been used for calculation of hazard parameter, results in PGA value of 0.017g towards the northeast side of the city and the corresponding maximum spectral acceleration as 0.0501g for a predominant period of 0.05s at bedrock level.

  13. Recharge source identification using isotope analysis and groundwater flow modeling for Puri city in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, P. C.; Vijaya Kumar, S. V.; Rao, P. R. S.; Vijay, T.

    2016-11-01

    The holy city of Lord Jagannath is situated on the sea shore of the Bay of Bengal in Odisha state in India. Puri is a city of high religious importance and heritage value, details of the rituals, fairs, and festivals, and related aspects are covered extensively. It is found that water levels in two wells (Ganga and Yamuna) are declining and the causes are studied by undertaking modeling study of rainfall-recharge processes, surface water-groundwater interactions, and increasing demands due to urbanization at basin scale. Hydrochemical analysis of groundwater samples indicates that pH value is varying from 7 to 8.4 and electrical conductivity (EC) is found in between 238 and 2710 μmhos/cm. The EC values indicate that the shallow groundwater in Puri is not saline. Stable isotopic signatures of O-18, Deuterium indicate two different sources are active in the city area. In most of the handpumps, water recharged by the surface water sources. From the current investigation, it is evident that in a few handpumps and most of the dug-wells, isotopic signatures of water samples resembles with local precipitation. The groundwater recharge is taking place from the north-southern direction. Visual MODFLOW has been used for studying groundwater aspects and different scenarios have been developed. It is suggested to maintain water level in Samang Lake to restore depletion in groundwater level in two wells.

  14. A survey of Trace Metals Determination in Hospital Waste Incinerator in Lucknow City, India

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    Ranjan Kumar

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Information on the elemental content of incinerator burning of human organ, animal and medical waste is scanty in India Nineteen trace elements were analyzed in the incinerator ash from four major hospitals, one municipal waste incinerator and two R & D laboratories engaged in animal experiment in Lucknow city. Concentrations of Zinc and Lead were found to be very high in comparison to other metals due to burning of plastic products. The source of Ca, P and K are mainly bone, teeth and other animal organs. A wide variation in trace concentration of several toxic elements have been seen due to variation in initial waste composition, design of the incinerator and operating conditions.

  15. Current status of Marsh Crocodiles Crocodylus palustris (Reptilia: Crocodylidae in Vishwamitri River, Vadodara City, Gujarat, India

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    R. Vyas

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Data presented here is based on a three year study (2008-2010 on a population of Mugger Crocodylus palustris inhabiting Vishwamitri River near Vadodara City, Gujarat State, India. In total, 155 Muggers were counted in the 25km river stretch during 2010. In all, 40 burrows were observed along the river bank, and the same were clumped in certain sections of the river. Muggers fed eight species of birds, and domestic livestock in addition to scavenging. Eight instances of human-crocodile conflicts were observed including four human causalities. A total 90 Muggers were rescued from the urban areas and the same were relocated elsewhere in the river system. Various types of threats to Mugger were also noticed including habitat loss, alteration and soil erosion and mortality due to rail traffic. The present study suggests further research to propose strategies to conserve this population.

  16. Assessment and quantification of plastics waste generation in major 60 cities of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalini, R; Srinivasulu, B; Shit, Subhas C; Nigam, Suneel Kumar; Akolkar, A B; Dwivedfi, R K

    2013-04-01

    Polymers or plastics materials registered rapid growth in 1970s, 1980s and 1990s at the rate of 2-2.5 times the GDP growth in India. The demand for plastic raw material got more than doubled from 3.3 Million Metric Ton to 6.8 Million Metric Tons in 2010 attributed mainly to rapid urbanization, spread of retail chains, plastics based packaging from grocery to food and vegetable products to cosmetics and consumer items. Plastics packages have its merits over many of conventional materials in the related sector but unless they are collected back effectively after their use to go into recycling process, they become an eyesore in the stream of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) due to high visibility. As the synthetic and conventional plastics are non-biodegradable in nature, these remain in the dump yards/ landfills for several years, if not collected properly. Due to non- biodegradability, plastics waste remains in the environment for several years, if not collected and disposing plastics wastes at landfills are unsafe since toxic chemicals leach out into the soil and as they contaminate soil and underground water quality. The municipal solid waste also increasing day-by-day due to the inefficient source collection, segregation and transmission of plastics waste for recycling and reusing. In order to find out the realistic plastics waste generation, a study on assessment and quantification of plastics waste has been carried out by CPCB in collaboration with CIPET on selected 60 major cities of India.

  17. Municipal Solid Waste Management and its Energy Potential in Roorkee City, Uttarakhand, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Tabish; Kulkarni, Kishore

    2016-03-01

    Energy plays a vital role in the development of any country. With rapid economic growth and multifold urbanization, India faces the problem of municipal solid waste management and disposal. This problem can be mitigate through adoption of environment friendly technologies for treatment and processing of waste before it is disposed off. Currently, urban and industrial wastes throughout India receive partial treatment before its final disposal, except in few exceptional cases. This practice leads to severe environmental pollution problems including major threat to human health. There is an absolute need to provide adequate waste collection and treatment before its disposal. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) is getting importance in recent years. The MSW management involves collection, transportation, handling and conversion to energy by biological and thermal routes. Based on the energy potential available, the energy conversion through biogas production using available waste is being carried out. Waste-to-energy is now a clean, renewable, sustainable source of energy. The estimation of energy content of MSW in Roorkee city is discussed in this paper. Furthermore this paper also takes into account the benefits of carbon credits.

  18. Prevalence of molar incisor hypomineralization in 7–9-year-old children of Bengaluru City, India

    OpenAIRE

    Priya Subramaniam; Tulika Gupta; Akhilesh Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Background: Molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) is a developmental defect. The prevalence of MIH ranges widely from 2.4% to 40.2%. Aim: This study was under taken to determine the prevalence of MIH in 7–9-year-old children of Bengaluru City, India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted in a representative sample of 2500 school children aged 7–9 years of Bengaluru, India. Oral examination was carried out by a single trained calibrated examiner under na...

  19. Urban Infrastructure Financing and Delivery in India and China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Darshini Mahadevia

    2006-01-01

    This comparison is not restricted to Mumbai and Shanghai but also to Bangalore and Hangzhou, Delhi and Beijing and so on. The Chinese and Indian economies are expected to be the growth engines of the global economy. In this process cities are expected to play an important role, through their transformation into "World Class" cities, a term now doing rounds in the policy circles in Mumbai, to be achieved through massive infrastructure investments made in them. In China, this has been possible because of the decentralized administrative and fiscal system in China. In contrast, in India, the system of urban infrastructure is currently evolving and making a transition from a centralized to a decentralized system. This paper: (i) compares the Chinese and Indian financial systems to explain differences in the quantum of funds available in cities in both countries; (ii) looks at urban responsibility allocations in terms of institutions; and (iii) compares capital investments made by one city each in the two countries, in Beijing (China) and in Mumbai (India).

  20. An Integrated Framework for Analysis of Water Supply Strategies in a Developing City: Chennai, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, V.; Gorelick, S.; Goulder, L.

    2009-12-01

    Indian cities are facing a severe water crisis: rapidly growing population, low tariffs, high leakage rates, inadequate reservoir storage, are straining water supply systems, resulting in unreliable, intermittent piped supply. Conventional approaches to studying the problem of urban water supply have typically considered only centralized piped supply by the water utility. Specifically, they have tended to overlook decentralized actions by consumers such as groundwater extraction via private wells and aquifer recharge by rainwater harvesting. We present an innovative integrative framework for analyzing urban water supply in Indian cities. The framework is used in a systems model of water supply in the city of Chennai, India that integrates different components of the urban water system: water flows into the reservoir system, diversion and distribution by the public water utility, groundwater flow in the urban aquifer, informal water markets and consumer behavior. Historical system behavior from 2002-2006 is used to calibrate the model. The historical system behavior highlights the buffering role of the urban aquifer; storing water in periods of surplus for extraction by consumers via private wells. The model results show that in Chennai, distribution pipeline leaks result in the transfer of water from the inadequate reservoir system to the urban aquifer. The systems approach also makes it possible to evaluate and compare a wide range of centralized and decentralized policies. Three very different policies: Supply Augmentation (desalination), Efficiency Improvement (raising tariffs and fixing pipe leaks), and Rainwater Harvesting (recharging the urban aquifer by capturing rooftop and yard runoff) were evaluated using the model. The model results suggest that a combination of Rainwater Harvesting and Efficiency Improvement best meets our criteria of welfare maximization, equity, system reliability, and utility profitability. Importantly, the study shows that

  1. Measuring socio-economic inequality: From dwellers' perspective within Bangalore urban agglomeration

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    Keya Chakraborty

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Planners and researchers have realized that larger regional framework of urban areas are significant in assessing various inequality aspects in a developing country like India. The framework consists of heterogeneity in spatial and demographic aspects and in quality of socio-economic development levels as well. Against this background, the present paper has proposed a methodological framework to assess socio-economic inequality within Bangalore Urban Agglomeration (BUA as governed by the composite set of Human Development Index (HDI based indicators. Assessments are based on local data of dwellers' preferences on the indicators. On the whole, this paper has tried to establish the significance of application of HDI based indicators in an assessment of socio-economic inequality within BUA. Consequently, the paper has arrived at the need for improvement of comprehensive HDI governed basic public services, amenities, and advanced facilities, across all trans-urban-area levels to ensure a holistic development within BUA.

  2. Three new species of Kerria (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Tachardiidae) from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Ayashaa; Ramamurthy, V V; Sharma, K K; Mohanasundaram, A; Vidyarthi, A S; Ramani, R

    2013-11-07

    Three new species of Kerria Targioni-Tozzetti from India, namely Kerria pennyae Ahmad & Ramamurthy sp. nov. on Schleichera oleosa from Orissa, Kerria dubeyi Ahmad & Ramamurthy sp. nov. on Ficus bengalensis from Bangalore and Kerria varshneyi Ahmad & Ramamurthy sp. nov. on Ziziphus mauritiana from Punjab are described and illustrated, and a key is provided to species of Kerria known from India.

  3. Organizational Commitment among High School Teachers of India and Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joolideh, Faranak; Yeshodhara, K.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to investigate the organizational commitment of teachers in India and Iran. It is an attempt to understand how these perceptions vary by demographic variables such as age and subject taught by teachers. Design/methodology/approach: Data were collected from 721 high school teachers in Bangalore (India) and Sanandaj (Iran).…

  4. Trends in thermal discomfort indices over western coastal cities of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Manasi S.; Dhorde, Amit G.

    2017-02-01

    The present research aimed at analyzing temporal trends in thermal discomfort indices for a period of 46 years from 1969 to 2014 over western coastal region of India for seven urban centers during the months of pre-monsoon and monsoon seasons. Direct thermal discomfort indices employed for this purpose were thermo-hygrometric index (THI) and heat index (HI). Statistical techniques applied for obtaining temporal trends were linear regression model and Mann-Kendall (MK) rank test. Statistical significance of the obtained trends was evaluated at 95% confidence level. Sequential MK (SQ-MK) test was used for change point detection. To investigate actual incidences of thermal discomfort, daily index values were averaged for standard meteorological weeks (SMWs) over the study period and decadal percentage of thermal discomfort during SMWs was estimated. Trend analysis of selected meteorological parameters such as dry bulb temperature (DBT), wet bulb temperature (WBT), relative humidity (RH), and wind speed (WS) were investigated, which might be responsible for variation in thermal discomfort over the period. The results obtained depicted significant increase in thermal discomfort over the cities located on the southern part of west coast, while significant increase was observed during monsoon season months compared to pre-monsoon season. Decadal variation in percentage of SMWs falling in various discomfort categories was studied. At majority of the stations, moderate and high-risk SMWs have increased over the last two decades. The results of change point detection for THI and HI denoted significant increase at most of the stations after 1990s. The study validates increase in thermal discomfort vulnerability, particularly at thriving urban centers of western coastal region of India.

  5. 'Mafias' in the Waterscape: Urban Informality and Everyday Public Authority in Bangalore

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    Malini Ranganathan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the phenomenon of Bangaloreʼs urban 'water mafias', operators who extract and deliver groundwater to scores of informal residential areas in Indian cities. The term 'mafia' here is treated as a semantic area of situated meanings and cultural interpretations that needs to be historicised and prised open in order to better understand how the urban waterscape is produced and inhabited. It situates the provenance and workings of mafias within wider debates on urban informality, state formation, and urban infrastructure and space. Rather than seeing mafias as filling a gap where government water supply has failed, as mainstream narratives suggest, the paper argues that mafias must be seen as formative of the post-colonial state. It further suggests that the specific form of public authority exercised by water mafias explains the production of informality in Bangaloreʼs waterscape. Based on ethnographic research in 2007-2009, the paper characterises the everyday authority wielded by mafias along three main registers: (i the ability of mafias to make and break discursive and material boundaries between the formal and informal, public and private, and state and society, (ii the varied nature of mafiasʼ political practices, ranging from exploitation to electoral lobbying to social protection to the provision of welfare, and iii mafiasʼ complicity in both water and land regimes in a neo-liberalised urban political economy.

  6. ASSESSMENT OF SO2 CONCENTRATION IN AMBIENT AIR AND ITS IMPACT ON HUMAN HEALTH IN THE CITY OF GWALIOR, INDIA

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    Ishfaq Ahmad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Gwalior is a historical and major city in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. It is located south of Delhi the capital city of India, and 423 kilometers north of Bhopal, the state capital. Gwalior is being called as The Heart of Incredible India. Gwalior is surrounded by industrial and commercial zones of neighboring districts (Malanpur – Bhind, Banmor – Morena on all three main directions. Rapid increase in urbanization with vehicle congestion has increased enormously on the roads of Gwalior city. As a result of this, gaseous pollutants (SOx, NOx and Respirable and suspended particulate matter pollutants are continuously increasing in the ambient air of Gwalior city. Levels of SO2 were monitored at 4 locations of Gwalior city by using high volume air sampler (Envirotech APM 415 and 411. The average ambient air concentration of SO2 was found below the permissible limits of NAAQS of CPCB at all the sites. Comparatively somewhat higher concentration of SO2 was observed during these months. A health survey was also carried out which demonstrated that symptoms were developed such as sneezing, sore throat, shortness of breath, wheezing, chest tightness, skin irritation, nausea etc. In this study, an exposure–response assessment (aged 10 to 60 years was carried out related to health problems due to vehicular pollution between the months of November-2013 to May-2014 (winter. The main objectives of this study are to investigate the state of vehicular emission in Gwalior and to investigate the impact of vehicular emission on people.

  7. India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-01

    In this discussion of India attention is directed to the following: the people; geography; history; government; political conditions; the economy; foreign relations (Pakistan and Bangladesh, China, and the Soviet Union); defense; and the relations between the US and India. In 1983 India's population was estimated at 746 million with an annual growth rate of 2.24%. The infant mortality rate was estimated at 116/1000 in 1984 with a life expectancy of 54.9 years. Although India occupies only 2.4% of the world's land area, it supports nearly 15% of the world's population. 2 major ethnic strains predominate in India: the Aryan in the north and the Dravidian in the south, although the lines between them are blurred. India dominates the South Asian subcontinent geographically. The people of India have had a continuous civilization since about 2500 B.C., when the inhabitants of the Indus River Valley developed an urban culture based on commerce, trade, and, to a lesser degree, agriculture. This civilization declined about 1500 B.C. and Aryan tribes originating in central Asia absorbed parts of its culture as they spread out over the South Asian subcontinent. During the next few centuries, India flourished under several successive empires. The 1st British outpost in South Asia was established in 1619 at Surat on the northwestern coast of India. The British gradually expanded their influence until, by the 1850s, they controlled almost the entire area of present-day India. Independence was attained on August 15, 1947, and India became a dominion within the Commonwealth of Nations with Jawaharlal Nehru as prime minister. According to its constitution, India is a "sovereign socialist secular democratic republic." Like the US, India has a federal form of government, but the central government in India has greater power in relation to its states, and government is patterned after the British parliamentary system. The Congress Party has ruled India since independence with the

  8. PATRIMONIAL CITIES: PAST AND PRESENT: LA HABANA AND CARTAGENA DE INDIAS

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    Nelson Melero Lazo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Hispanic presence in Cuba and Colombia, established social, cultural, architectural and urban codes that will prevail in the material and spiritual production of both peoples, easily in and Cartagena de Indias. Values and cultural significance of these within the Caribbean and Latin American area, and the and work made in them, determined that they were included in the World Heritage List; Havana in 1982, and Cartagena in 1984.  With different strategies and policies in their areas of historical value have been conducting rescue projects and revalorization. In this paper some of the last actions performed in the historic centers of Havana and Cartagena, which currently are at different stages are shown, works completed, in progress , final design, study, etc. centers are witness and document of the past and cultural part of the urban frame of the city, is a living, dynamic, changing entity, projecting into the future effectively, combine the solution of current problems and prospects, is the challenge that we must take with creativity, without losing its essence and authenticity

  9. Awareness of Consumer Protection Act among Doctors in Udaipur City, India

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    K. Singh

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the awareness of provisions of consumer protection act among dental and medical professionals in Udaipur city, Rajasthan, India.Materials and Methods: In a cross sectional study, a total of 448 professionals (253 males, 195 females belonging to dental (222 and medical (226 categories were surveyed using a self administered structured questionnaire. The questionnaire comprised of 22questions about the awareness of consumer protection art (CPA and whether these professionals were following the recommendations of CPA. The student’s t-test, ANOVA test,and Scheffe’s test were used as tests of significance.Results: The awareness scores were significantly higher for medical professionals compared with those of dental professionals. Similarly, postgraduates showed more awareness in both the professions and it was found that private practitioners significantly have more awareness than the academic sector.Conclusion: Though medical professionals have more awareness of CPA compared to dental professionals, considering the present scenario, better knowledge of CPA is necessary for both professionals in order to be on the safer side.

  10. Mental Health Status among Married Working Women Residing in Bhubaneswar City, India: A Psychosocial Survey

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    Ansuman Panigrahi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mental health is a major public health concern worldwide. This study aimed to assess the mental health status and its correlates among married working women residing in Bhubaneswar city of Odisha, India. A cross-sectional study was undertaken in 240 households involving 240 married working women following a multistage cluster random sampling design. Using the predesigned, pretested interview schedule and self-reporting questionnaire, all relevant information was collected. Our study revealed that 32.9% of study respondents had poor mental health and only about 10% of these women had sought any kind of mental health services. Logistic regression analysis showed that 3 predictors such as favourable attitude of colleagues, sharing their own problems with husband, and spending time for yoga/meditation/exercise had significant positive impact on the mental health status of married working women. A preventive program regarding various aspects of mental health for married working women at workplace as well as community level could be a useful strategy in reducing this public health problem.

  11. Tobacco smoking patterns, awareness and expenditure: a cross-sectional overview from Surat City, India

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    Rajkumar Bansal

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As smoking is a major risk factor in India, the objective of present study was to assess smoking patterns, expenditure and awareness amongst smokers and to examine factors associated with the severity of smoking in Surat city.METHODS: Community-based cross-sectional study was conducted with the use of pre-structured questionnaire tool targeting 281 current smokers in the slums of 20 Urban Health Centers. Smokers were categorized based on pack-years, which means the number of packs smoked per day multiplied by the duration of smoking (mild 15, and based on the number of cigarette/bidis smoked per day without the duration component (mild 0.05. With the influence of friends (50%, about 60% smokers engage into this habit before the age of 20 years. Though only 20% of current smokers were not aware of the consequences of active smoking, more than 50% did not know about the same for passive smoking. The lowest socioeconomic class spends 44% of their income on tobacco products compared to 7% in the highest class.CONCLUSION: The study provides insights for information, education and counseling (IEC activities which should take into account health impact of bidi smoking, low awareness of health impact of passive smoking, and higher percentage of total monthly expenditure on tobacco among low-income household resulting in crowding out of expenditures on other needs.

  12. Being a 'Modern Indian' in an Offshore Centre in Bangalore

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gertsen, Martine Cardel; Zølner, Mette

    2014-01-01

    . The analysis is based upon the study of an off–shore service centre in Bangalore that performs financial services for an MNC headquartered in Denmark. The identification with the MNC and its corporate culture expressed by local employees is conveyed as being connected to external self–enhancement (belonging...

  13. Assessment of Water Quality of Lakes for Drinking and Irrigation Purposes in Raipur City, Chhattisgarh, India

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    Sumant Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Lake water is an important source for drinking, domestic and irrigation purposes in rural and urban India. The present study aims at evaluating the water quality of various lakes in Raipur city, Chhatisgarh. There existed 154 lakes in the city but it shrinked to 85 in number due to encroachment or drying up of lakes. Twenty seven prominent lakes are selected to study and evaluate the water quality for drinking and irrigation purposes. The water samples were collected and analysed for pH, Turbidity, Electrical Conductivity (EC, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS, Alkalinity, Hardness, Sodium(Na+ , Potassium(K+ , Calcium(Ca2+ , Magnesium(Mg2+ , Bicarbonate(HCO3- , Sulphate (SO4 2- , Nitrate (NO3 − ,Phosphate(PO4 3- Fluoride(F- , Chloride (Cl− , Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD, Dissolved Oxygen (DO, Total Coliform (TC and Fecal Coliform (FC. There are variations for pH (6.59-8.29, EC (382-2330μS/cm, Turbidity (1-232 NTU, TDS (244-1491 mg/L, Alkalinity (120-600 mg/L, Hardness (66-330mg/L, Na+ (37-430 mg/L, K+ (8- 253 mg/L, Ca2+ (9-90 mg/L, Mg2+ (3-26 mg/L, SO4 2- (5-200 mg/L, NO3 - (0-19 mg/L, PO4 3- (0.19-5.3 mg/L, F -( 0.18-1.41 mg/L and Cl- (46-388 mg/L, DO(1-8.6 mg/L, BOD (0.1-11.3 mg/L, COD (8-118 mg/L, Total Coliform( 15-3600 MPN/100ml and Fecal Coliform (4-240 MPN/100 ml. The results have been compared with the drinking water standard prescribed by Bureau of Indian Standard (BIS. All the physiochemical parameters are within the prescribed limit except turbidity, fecal & total coliform. The Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR and salinity hazards are studied to classify the water for irrigation uses. It is found that lake water is suitable for irrigation purposes.

  14. Environmental sanitation and health facilities in schools of an urban city of south India

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    Nitin Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Environmental sanitation and health facilities in schools are an important public health issue. Aims : To assess the school environment, sanitation and health related facilities and to compare the availability of these facilities between government, aided and private schools. Materials and Methods : This cross sectional study was done in 30 schools in Mangalore city of south India in February 2010. Results : Out of the 30 schools surveyed, four were government, 12 were aided and 14 were private schools. Overcrowding was seen in one third of schools. The recommended minus desks was lacking in 23(76.7% and chairs with back rest was lacking in 11(36.7% schools. More than a quarter of schools had no drinking water purification facility. Water storage units were not cleaned periodically in 6(20% schools. Quarter of all government schools and half of all aided schools had no dining hall for serving mid-day meals. Toilets were not adequate in 10(33.3% and it was not separated for boys and girls in 8(26.7% schools. Four of the surveyed schools had no medical examination of students and in 13(43.3% schools daily morning inspection by teachers was not done. Hardly few schools had staff trained to deal with medical emergencies and in counselling activities. None of the schools had an immunization register. Although the performance scores between the types of schools did not differ significantly, the combined performance of only private schools were found to be satisfactory. Conclusion : A good number of schools in this urban area were found to be falling short of several essential requirements regarding sanitation and health facilities which needs to be rectified.

  15. Ground water quality in environmentally degraded localities of Panipat city, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishnoi, Mukul; Malik, Ravinder

    2008-11-01

    Asystematic physico-chemical analysis of the groundwater at 41 different locations in Panipat city (Haryana), India has been taken up to evaluate its suitabilityfor domestic purposes. The data revealed considerable variations in the water samples with respect to chemical composition. For the analyzed water samples pH, EC, TDS, TA, TH, Na+, K+, Ca2+, HCO3-, Cl-, SO4(2-) and F(-) varied from 6.6-7.5, 0.09-3.28 mmhoS cm(-1), 700-2100 mg l(-1), 245-1054 mg l(-1) (as CaCO3), 153-520 mg l(-1) (as CaCO3), 57-560 mg l(-1), 5-22 mg l(-1), 36-95 mg l(-1), 298-1285 mg l(-1), 60-311 mgl(-1), 17-786 mg l(-1), 0.24-9.27 mg l(-1) respectively. All samples have high concentration of dissolved salts and all the samples were hard to very hard. Correlation coefficient "r" analysis has been worked out among different water quality parameters. The study shows a positive and significant, correlation of electrical conductivity with total dissolved salts (r = 0.979), total hardness (r = 0.507), sulphate (r = 0.453), total alkalinity (r = 0.725). Total hardness is positively and significantly correlated with magnesium (r = 0.833) and sulphate (r = 0.687). Where as total alkalinity was found to be positively and significantly correlated with bicarbonate (r = 0.992). Fluoride was higher than permissible limits in most of the samples.

  16. Prevalence of molar incisor hypomineralization in 7–9-year-old children of Bengaluru City, India

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    Priya Subramaniam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH is a developmental defect. The prevalence of MIH ranges widely from 2.4% to 40.2%. Aim: This study was under taken to determine the prevalence of MIH in 7–9-year-old children of Bengaluru City, India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted in a representative sample of 2500 school children aged 7–9 years of Bengaluru, India. Oral examination was carried out by a single trained calibrated examiner under natural daylight. Results: Twelve children (0.48% were diagnosed with MIH. A total of 68 teeth were observed with MIH. All four first permanent molars were affected in 50% of children. In the molar group, mandibular molars (29.41% were more frequently affected than maxillary molars (27.94%. Conclusion: The prevalence of MIH in 7–9-year-old children of Bengaluru was 0.48%, with no gender predilection.

  17. Prevalence of molar incisor hypomineralization in 7–9-year-old children of Bengaluru City, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Priya; Gupta, Tulika; Sharma, Akhilesh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) is a developmental defect. The prevalence of MIH ranges widely from 2.4% to 40.2%. Aim: This study was under taken to determine the prevalence of MIH in 7–9-year-old children of Bengaluru City, India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted in a representative sample of 2500 school children aged 7–9 years of Bengaluru, India. Oral examination was carried out by a single trained calibrated examiner under natural daylight. Results: Twelve children (0.48%) were diagnosed with MIH. A total of 68 teeth were observed with MIH. All four first permanent molars were affected in 50% of children. In the molar group, mandibular molars (29.41%) were more frequently affected than maxillary molars (27.94%). Conclusion: The prevalence of MIH in 7–9-year-old children of Bengaluru was 0.48%, with no gender predilection. PMID:27041893

  18. A mark-resight survey method to estimate the roaming dog population in three cities in Rajasthan, India

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    Singh Baldev

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available 1. Abstract Background Dog population management is required in many locations to minimise the risks dog populations may pose to human health and to alleviate animal welfare problems. In many cities in India, Animal Birth Control (ABC projects have been adopted to provide population management. Measuring the impact of such projects requires assessment of dog population size among other relevant indicators. Methods This paper describes a simple mark-resight survey methodology that can be used with little investment of resources to monitor the number of roaming dogs in areas that are currently subject to ABC, provided the numbers, dates and locations of the dogs released following the intervention are reliably recorded. We illustrate the method by estimating roaming dog numbers in three cities in Rajasthan, India: Jaipur, Jodhpur and Jaisalmer. In each city the dog populations were either currently subject to ABC or had been very recently subject to such an intervention and hence a known number of dogs had been permanently marked with an ear-notch to identify them as having been operated. We conducted street surveys to record the current percentage of dogs in each city that are ear-notched and used an estimate for the annual survival of ear-notched dogs to calculate the current size of each marked population. Results Dividing the size of the marked population by the fraction of the dogs that are ear-notched we estimated the number of roaming dogs to be 36,580 in Jaipur, 24,853 in Jodhpur and 2,962 in Jaisalmer. Conclusions The mark-resight survey methodology described here is a simple way of providing population estimates for cities with current or recent ABC programmes that include visible marking of dogs. Repeating such surveys on a regular basis will further allow for evaluation of ABC programme impact on population size and reproduction in the remaining unsterilised dog population.

  19. Shaping Future Green Cities: LEDs Technology adoption as an option for India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singh, R.; Kroesen, J.O.

    2010-01-01

    The sustainable development in developing and newly industrialising countries (China, India, South Africa, and Brazil) is central issue for policy makers, decision makers, academic, and planners. The attainment of sustainability has become a challenge for rapidly urbanising India. The paper focuses

  20. Situational analysis of services for diabetes and diabetic retinopathy and evaluation of programs for the detection and treatment of diabetic retinopathy in India: Methods for the India 11-city 9-state study

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    G. V. S. Murthy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetic retinopathy (DR is a leading cause of visual impairment in India. Available evidence shows that there are more than 60 million persons with diabetes in India and that the number will increase to more than a 100 million by 2030. There is a paucity of data on the perceptions and practices of persons with diabetes and the available infrastructure and uptake of services for DR in India. Objectives: Assess perception of care and challenges faced in availing eye care services among persons with diabetics and generate evidence on available human resources, infrastructure, and service utilization for DR in India. Methods: The cross-sectional, hospital-based survey was conducted in eleven cities across 9 States in India. In each city, public and private providers of eye-care were identified. Both multispecialty and standalone facilities were included. Specially designed semi-open ended questionnaires were administered to the clients. Semi-structured interviews were administered to the service providers (both diabetic care physicians and eye care teams and observational checklists were used to record findings of the assessment of facilities conducted by a dedicated team of research staff. Results: A total of 859 units were included in this study. This included 86 eye care and 73 diabetic care facilities, 376 persons with diabetes interviewed in the eye clinics and 288 persons with diabetes interviewed in the diabetic care facilities. Conclusions: The findings will have significant implications for the organization of services for persons with diabetes in India.

  1. Interpersonal relationships of elderly in selected old age homes in urban India

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    Duvvuru Jamuna

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Never before have there been so many old people in India. According the 2001 Census of India data, the projected figure for 2031 is 179 million seniors. Dual-career families, changing values, and nuclear family dynamics have altered the social landscape of India. An emerging phenomenon in urban India is the emergence of “pay and stay” homes as a late life living arrangement for middle and higher-income groups. This study focused on selected ‘pay and stay’ homes in the four cities of Hyderabad, Bangalore, Chennai, and Tiruvananthapuram. Personal interviews were conducted with 150 seniors to understand the relocation experience, the extent and nature of self-reported social networks, and evaluation by seniors of this late life arrangement. Majority of respondents were female (65%. More than half of the respondents (58% reported being currently widowed. Results show that childlessness and strained intergenerational relationships were important considerations in the decision to relocate. Majority of the seniors had never conceived that they would be spending their autumn years away from family. Occupants frequently conceived of their living space as their “home.” Living amidst non-family members, the reported network sizes were small. The absence of family members was frequently cited as a source of dissatisfaction when evaluating these homes.

  2. Universities, regional innovation systems and the Bangalore experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vang, Jan; Coenen, Lars; Chaminade, Christina;

    2007-01-01

    This paper takes stock with one-size-fits-all models on the role of universities in regional innovation systems in Asia. It proposes a contextual and evolutionary perspective which focuses on the match between the specific competences and capabilities of the universities and the firms' particular...... requirements. Drawing on a non-deterministic evolutionary perspective, it makes an empirical analysis of the role played by universities and publicly funded research organizations in initiating, sustaining and deepening Bangalore's regional innovation system for the IT-service and software industry....

  3. The effect of aerosol optical depth on rainfall with reference to meteorology over metro cities in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunaseelan, Indira; Bhaskar, B Vijay; Muthuchelian, K

    2014-01-01

    Rainfall is a key link in the global water cycle and a proxy for changing climate; therefore, proper assessment of the urban environment's impact on rainfall will be increasingly important in ongoing climate diagnostics and prediction. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements on the monsoon seasons of the years 2008 to 2010 were made over four metro regional hotspots in India. The highest average of AOD was in the months of June and July for the four cities during 3 years and lowest was in September. Comparing the four regions, Kolkata was in the peak of aerosol contamination and Chennai was in least. Pearson correlation was made between AOD with climatic parameters. Some changes in the parameters were found during drought year. Temperature, cloud parameters, and humidity play an important role for the drought conditions. The role of aerosols, meteorological parameters, and their impacts towards the precipitation during the monsoon was studied.

  4. Temporal and spatial assemblages of invasive birds occupying the urban landscape and its gradient in a southern city of India

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    Manjula Menon

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Common birds play an important role in regulating the functioning of urban ecosystems. Typically, a few common species have become invasive species threatening biodiversity worldwide. Our understanding of the dynamics of invasive birds in an Indian context is still in its infancy. Hence, we studied the gradual adaptation of invasive birds to novel habitats and their dispersal dynamics in a southern city of India. We tested the prediction that urban matrix are increasingly composed of invasive generalist species. The results illustrate the dominance of invasive species such as Corvus splendens, Acridotheres tristis, Acridotheres livia, and Milvus migrans in the urban environment. The significant abundance of C. splendens exhibited urbanization-induced homogenization. The land-use pattern showed more inclination toward the urban structures than the vegetative attributes. Specialist groups from the frugivore guild were found to decline from the urban environment, which may shed light on the ecological factors that constrain their distribution.

  5. Characteristics of black carbon concentration at a metropolitan city located near land-ocean boundary in Eastern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukdar, Shamitaksha; Jana, Soumyajyoti; Maitra, Animesh; Gogoi, Mukunda M.

    2015-02-01

    Near surface aerosol black carbon (BC) concentration data were collected using a seven channel Aethalometer (AE31) during June 2012-May 2013 in Kolkata (22° 34‧E, 88° 22‧N), a metropolitan city located near the land-ocean boundary in Eastern India. BC concentration shows a prominent seasonal and diurnal variation associated with the meteorological parameters. The mean BC concentration varied from 5 μg/m3 to 27 μg/m3 seasonally. The variation of BC mass concentration and its significant association with atmospheric parameters such as temperature profile, relative humidity and wind speed have been studied. Moreover, the influence of the transported air masses on BC concentration at different seasons has also been discussed. An estimation of Angstrom exponent discloses that fossil fuel combustion is a major source of BC at this location.

  6. An Urban-Spatial Analysis of the Women in the Informal Sectors of Greater Guwahati City of Assam, India

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    Zona Bhuyan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects the use of urban space by women in urban informal sectors in the city of Guwahati located in North East India. The population influx from across the borders in the aftermath of the partition has huge implications both on polity and on economy of the northeastern states in general and Assam in particular.  Importantly, the urban informal sectors have a sizeable share in terms of its significant contributions towards Gross Domestic Product (GDP as well as generation of employment opportunities largely. Using a feminist perspective, the research is an attempt to investigate the engagement of women in the informal sector in greater Guwahati. Research findings reveal that the occupations of the women workers are location-specific, that is, the manufacturing sectors (textiles, food preparation, printing and skilled service are mainly home/shop based production (fixed locations whereas the service sectors (leisure, caring, elementary construction, elementary sales and cleaning occupation operate at variable locations (construction sites, street pavements, marketplaces and other various locations. Further analysis shows that the informal sector is highly demand dependent and such demands are in the central business areas of the city, therefore informal sector services (skilled services and elementary services are found to be located in and around the central areas of Guwahati city. Women operators in the informal sector are attracted to the central business district because of the many advantages that it enjoys relative to other parts of a city. The paper concludes by calling on policy makers and physical planning agencies to evolve more pragmatic strategies for urban development matters in order that urban informal sector activities can be integrated into urban development plans. Finally, further research is called for on how urban planners could redesign the urban space with appropriate consideration of the informal sector

  7. Prevalence of tobacco use in urban, semi urban and rural areas in and around Chennai City, India.

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    Kolappan Chockalingam

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tobacco use leads to many health complications and is a risk factor for the occurrence of cardio vascular diseases, lung and oral cancers, chronic bronchitis etc. Almost 6 million people die from tobacco-related causes every year. This study was conducted to measure the prevalence of tobacco use in three different areas around Chennai city, south India. METHODS: A survey of 7510 individuals aged > = 15 years was undertaken covering Chennai city (urban, Ambattur (semi-urban and Sriperumbudur (rural taluk. Details on tobacco use were collected using a questionnaire adapted from both Global Youth Tobacco Survey and Global Adults Tobacco Survey. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of tobacco use was significantly higher in the rural (23.7% compared to semi-urban (20.9% and urban (19.4% areas (P value <0.001 Tobacco smoking prevalence was 14.3%, 13.9% and 12.4% in rural, semi-urban and urban areas respectively. The corresponding values for smokeless tobacco use were 9.5%, 7.0% and 7.0% respectively. Logistic regression analysis showed that the odds of using tobacco (with smoke or smokeless forms was significantly higher among males, older individuals, alcoholics, in rural areas and slum localities. Behavioural pattern analysis of current tobacco users led to three groups (1 those who were not reached by family or friends to advice on harmful effects (2 those who were well aware of harmful effects of tobacco and even want to quit and (3 those are exposed to second hand/passive smoking at home and outside. CONCLUSIONS: Tobacco use prevalence was significantly higher in rural areas, slum dwellers, males and older age groups in this region of south India. Women used mainly smokeless tobacco. Tobacco control programmes need to develop strategies to address the different subgroups among tobacco users. Public health facilities need to expand smoking cessation counseling services as well as provide pharmacotherapy where necessary.

  8. Investigation of Toxic Heavy Metals in Drinking Water of Agra City, India

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    P. Susan Verghese

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Water quality of Agra city is impaired by the presence of large number of industries in the city. From the observed data it is found that drinking water of Agra city is contaminated with toxic heavy metals like chromium, copper, cadmium, lead, and nickel. Among all these heavy metals, chromium is found to be in comparatively large amounts because most of the leather industries located in Agra city adopt chrome tanning procedure as their basic step for dehairing and dehiding. Presence of high concentration of chromium and other heavy metals in drinking water pose deleterious effects on the health of human beings therefore it becomes necessary to employ certain technological methods to keep the concentration of such toxic heavy metals within their desirable limits.

  9. Mobile phones: the next step towards healthcare delivery in rural India?

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    Sherwin I DeSouza

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Given the ubiquity of mobile phones, their use to support healthcare in the Indian context is inevitable. It is however necessary to assess end-user perceptions regarding mobile health interventions especially in the rural Indian context prior to its use in healthcare. This would contextualize the use of mobile phone communication for health to 70% of the country's population that resides in rural India. OBJECTIVES: To explore the acceptability of delivering healthcare interventions through mobile phones among users in a village in rural Bangalore. METHODS: This was an exploratory study of 488 mobile phone users, residing in a village, near Bangalore city, Karnataka, South India. A pretested, translated, interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to obtain data on mobile phone usage patterns and acceptability of the mobile phone, as a tool for health-related communication. The data is described using basic statistical measures. RESULTS: The primary use of mobile phones was to make or receive phone calls (100%. Text messaging (SMS was used by only 70 (14% of the respondents. Most of the respondents, 484 (99%, were willing to receive health-related information on their mobile phones and did not consider receiving such information, an intrusion into their personal life. While receiving reminders for drug adherence was acceptable to most 479 (98% of our respondents, 424 (89% preferred voice calls alone to other forms of communication. Nearly all were willing to use their mobile phones to communicate with health personnel in emergencies and 367 (75% were willing to consult a doctor via the phone in an acute illness. Factors such as sex, English literacy, employment status, and presence of chronic disease affected preferences regarding mode and content of communication. CONCLUSION: The mobile phone, as a tool for receiving health information and supporting healthcare through mHealth interventions was acceptable in the rural Indian

  10. Assessment of oral mucosal lesions among eunuchs residing in Bhopal city, Madhya Pradesh, India: A cross-sectional study

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    Nilesh Arjun Torwane

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present cross-sectional study following the STROBE guidelines was conducted to assess the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions among males, females, and eunuchs residing in Bhopal city, Madhya Pradesh India. Materials and Methods: Based on convenient non-probability snowball sampling technique, all the self-identified eunuchs residing in the city of Bhopal who were present at the time of examination and who fulfilled the selection criteria were examined. A cross section of the general population (males and females residing in the same locality where these eunuchs live was also examined. The World Health Organization (WHO oral health assessment proforma (1997 was used to collect the information on oral mucosal lesions. All the obtained data were analyzed by using a Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20. Results: Overall prevalence of oral mucosal lesions was 127 (19.9% among the study subjects. Fifty-nine (28.5% eunuchs, 56 (25.7% males, and 12 (5.6% females were observed to have some oral mucosal lesions. Oral submucous fibrosis (6.4%, leukoplakia (5.5%, and traumatic ulceration (4.2% were the major oral mucosal conditions observed. Conclusion: The information presented in this study adds to our understanding of the common oral mucosal lesions occurring in the eunuch population. Efforts to increase patient awareness of the oral effects of tobacco use and to eliminate the habit are needed to improve the oral and general health of eunuchs.

  11. Hepatitis B vaccination status among healthcare workers in a tertiary care hospital in Haldwani City of Nainital, Uttarakhand, India

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    Subhash Chandra Joshi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Healthcare workers (HCWs have a high risk of hepatitis B virus (HBV infection. The prevalence of HBV among HCWs in hospitals in developing countries is high. However, the vaccination status of these workers in hospitals in Haldwani city is not well documented. Objectives: The aim was to assess the hepatitis B vaccination status among HCWs in a tertiary care hospital in Haldwani city of Nainital, Uttarakhand, India. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 367 HCWs were randomly selected. Information pertaining to demographic and vaccination status was collected by interviewing them with the help of predesigned and pretested interview schedule. Result: The overall proportions of complete, incomplete and unvaccinated respondents with hepatitis B vaccine were 48.5%, 21.8%, and 29.7% respectively. In relation to designation of respondents, 35 (53.8%, 65 (77.4%, 61 (51.7%, 12 (40.0% and 5 (7.2% of respondents who were residents, interns, nurses, technicians and nursing attendants respectively had received Hepatitis B vaccination as against those who had partially received and not received vaccination and this differences were statistically significant. The most common reason for acceptance of vaccine was protection against Hepatitis-B infection (39.9% and the commonest reason for not getting vaccinated was negligence (43.1% Conclusion: These results conclude that because of low immunization coverage, HCWs are at greater risk of getting Hepatitis B infection at the hospital.

  12. A study on periodontal disease and systemic disease relationship a hospital based study in Bangalore

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    Sukhvinder Singh Oberoi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontal deterioration has been reported to be associated with various systemic conditions like Cardiovascular disease, Diabetes, Respiratory disease, Liver cirrhosis, Bacterial Pneumonia, Nutritional deficiencies and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Aim: To assess the periodontal disease among patients with systemic disease/conditions. Materials and Method: A total of 500 patients with systemic disease/conditions (Diabetes, Cardiovascular disease, Respiratory disease and Renal disease and 500-age and gender matched controls without systemic disease/conditions were selected from the Government Hospitals in Bangalore City. The medical conditions were recorded and the periodontal status of the study population was assessed using the CPITN index. Results: The prevalence of CPITN Code 4 was found to be more among the patients with systemic disease/conditions (46.2%. The mean number of sextants with CPITN code 3 and 4 were more among the patients with systemic disease/conditions. The prevalence of CPITN code was found to be more among the patients with Respiratory disease whereas the mean number of sextants was found to be more among the patients with Diabetes, Cardiovascular and Renal disease. Conclusion: It may be concluded that the systemic diseases/conditions are associated with higher severity of periodontal disease.

  13. Linking resilience and green growth: how green business can contribute to more resilient cities in India

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    U. Mans

    2011-01-01

    In the face of a growing sustainability challenge, cities are becoming increasingly important actors. Municipal leaders are stepping up their efforts to adapt to the consequences of climate change and to mitigate the future impacts of greenhouse gas emissions. Becoming more resilient has become a ke

  14. Assessment of Ground Water Quality in Rajajinagar of Bangalore

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    Alimuddin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Water borne diseases continue to be a dominant cause of water borne morbidities and mortality all over the world. Hence, drinking water needs to be protected from pollution and biological contamination. Ground water samples were collected from ten different sampling point in Rajajinagar area of Bangalore and analysed for water quality parameters viz. pH , total alkalinity, chloride, total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, dissolved oxygen, BOD, COD and total hardness. The pH value of the study area ranges between 7.3 to 8.4 indicating that ground water is slightly alkaline. The total alkalinity are varied in the range from 122 to 282 mg/l which is well within the limit prescribed by BIS. The TDS value found from 397 to 546 mg/l. The values of hardness of water ranges from 125 to 267 mg/l which is within the prescribed limit as per BIS.

  15. Prevalence of anterior dental trauma and its associated factors among children aged 3-5 years in Jaipur City, India – A cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To study the prevalence of anterior dental trauma and its associated factors among 800 preschool children aged 3 to 5 years in Jaipur City, Rajasthan, India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among children aged 3-5 years, who were enrolled in various private and public schools in Jaipur. Parents were asked to fill a form addressing socio-demographic data and clinical examinations were performed by a single dentist. Traumatic dental injuries (TDI) were a...

  16. Relationship between the sense of coherence and quality of life among institutionalized elders in Bengaluru city India: A questionnaire study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Kumara Raja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aged people living in residential homes have a higher prevalence of depression and stress which cause oral health-related problems, contributing to excessive morbidity, than do those who live in communities. Aim: To find the relationship between senses of coherence (SOC and quality of life (QoL using Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI among elderly residents of old age homes in Bengaluru city, India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among elderly residents of Bengaluru city, India. Data were collected using a validated questionnaire which record demographic details, oral hygiene practices, and oral health habits. SOC and oral health-related QoL was measured using 13-item short version of the SOC scale and 12-item GOHAI scale. Chi-square test and Pearson's correlation coefficient test were used for statistical analysis. All variables showing significant association (P < 0.05 were entered into a regression model to identify predictors of low GOHAI and SOC. Results: A total of 376 elderly residents participated in the study and completed the questionnaire. Among them 150 (39.9% were men and 226 (60.1% were women. SOC was statistically significant with gender (P = 0.008, marital status (P = 0.003, dentition status (P = 0.000, smoking (P = 0.043, and alcohol consumption (P = 0.043. Age (P = 0.036, gender (P = 0.045, dentition status (P < 0.019, and smoking (P = 0.042 were found to be associated with GOHAI, there also exist a strong Pearson's correlation (r = 0.712 between SOC and GOHAI scores. Conclusions: A strong positive correlation was found between SOC and GOHAI scores indicating elder's with low SOC had low GOHAI scores and vice versa. The elders in residential homes were found to have more self-reported oral health-related functional problems, so dental health education must be focused on the special needs of the disabled, dependant and socio – economically deprived geriatric population to

  17. Status of forensic odontology in metro and in tier 2 city in urban India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parul Khare

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentist can play a significant role in identifying the victims or perpetrators of crime as well as in disasters. Knowledge about the various aspects of forensic science as well as dental and related evidences can help a dental practitioner in assisting the civil agencies in such cases. Aim: To evaluate the awareness and knowledge of forensic odontology among dentists in a metropolitan and a tier 2 city. Materials and Methods: Seven hundred and seventy four dentists were included in this survey. Questionnaire was designed to assess the knowledge, aptitude, and status of practice of forensic odontology. Data was analyzed by comparing overall awareness of forensic odontology among dentists in metro and tier 2 city as well as between the different groups. Results: Apart from the source of knowledge, no significant differences were seen in respondents of metropolitan and tier 2 city. Significantly higher proportion of subjects in metro reported journals as source of knowledge (P < 0.001, whereas it was newspaper in tier 2 city (P = 0.001. On comparing the mean scores of knowledge (k, aptitude (a, and practice (p among different study groups, it was found that all the three scores were highest for practitioner cum academician (PA group (k - 2.37, a - 0.69, P - 0.17. Knowledge scores were minimum for pure practitioner (PP group (1.98, and attitude and practice scores of pure academician (A group were minimum (a - 0.53, P - 0.06. Conclusion: Respondents had low knowledge about the applications of forensic odontology in routine practice; hence, steps must be taken to educate the dental practitioners about its clinical applications.

  18. Isolation of pathogenic Escherichia coli from buffalo meat sold in Parbhani city, Maharashtra, India

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Isolation, characterization, in-vitro pathogenicity and antibiogram study of E.coli from buffalo meat sold in Parbhani city. Materials and Methods: Meat samples were collected from buffalo immediately after slaughter. Isolation, identification and enumeration of E. coli were done by following standard methods and protocols. Hemolysin test and Congo red binding assay were used to study in-vitro pathogenicity of E. coli isolates. Disc diffusion method was used to study antibiogram of patho...

  19. Threat of land subsidence in and around Kolkata City and East Kolkata Wetlands, West Bengal, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Sahu; P K Sikdar

    2011-06-01

    This paper attempts to estimate the possible rate of land subsidence of Kolkata City including Salt Lake City and the adjoining East Kolkata Wetlands located at the lower part of the deltaic alluvial plain of South Bengal basin. Demand of groundwater for drinking, agricultural and industrial purposes has increased due to rapid urbanization. The subsurface geology consists of Quaternary sediments comprising a succession of clay, silty clay and sand of various grades. Groundwater occurs mostly under confined condition except in those places where the top aquitard has been obliterated due to the scouring action of past channels. Currently, the piezometric head shows a falling trend and it may be accelerated due to further over-withdrawal of groundwater resulting in land subsidence. The estimated mean land subsidence rate is 13.53 mm/year and for 1 m drop in the piezometric head, the mean subsidence is 3.28 cm. The surface expression of the estimated land subsidence is however, cryptic because of a time lag between the settlement of the thick low-permeable aquitard at the top and its surface expression. Therefore, groundwater of the cities and wetland areas should be developed cautiously based on the groundwater potential to minimize the threat of land subsidence.

  20. Classification of LULC Change Detection using Remotely Sensed Data for Coimbatore City, Tamilnadu, India

    CERN Document Server

    Babykalpana, Y

    2010-01-01

    Maps are used to describe far-off places . It is an aid for navigation and military strategies. Mapping of the lands are important and the mapping work is based on (i). Natural resource management & development (ii). Information technology ,(iii). Environmental development ,(iv). Facility management and (v). e-governance. The Landuse / Landcover system espoused by almost all Organisations and scientists, engineers and remote sensing community who are involved in mapping of earth surface features, is a system which is derived from the united States Geological Survey (USGS) LULC classification system. The application of RS and GIS involves influential of homogeneous zones, drift analysis of land use integration of new area changes or change detection etc.,National Remote Sensing Agency(NRSA) Govt. of India has devised a generalized LULC classification system respect to the Indian conditions based on the various categories of Earth surface features , resolution of available satellite data, capabilities of se...

  1. Calibration of safety performance function for crashes on inter-city four lane highways in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Kumar ChikkaKrishna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a significant need to improve the highway safety during roadway planning, design and operations in developing countries like India. To receive appropriate consideration, safety needs to be dealt objectively within the transportation planning and highway design processes. Lack of available tools is a deterrent to quantify safety of a transportation facility during the planning or highway design process. The objective of this paper is to develop safety performance functions considering various elements involved in the planning, design and operation of a section on four-lane National Highway (NH-58 located in the state of Uttarakhand, India. The mixed traffic on Indian multilane highways comes with a lot of variability within, ranging from different vehicle types to different driver characteristics. This could result in variability in the effect of explanatory variables on crashes across locations. Hence, explanatory variables for highway segment safety analysis considered were geometric characteristics like curvature change rate, slope change rate, transverse slope and traffic characteristics in the form of average daily traffic, light vehicle traffic, light commercial vehicle traffic, heavy vehicle traffic, two-wheelers, non-motorised traffic volume and operating speed were analysed against dependent variable as crash count per 200 m per year. Safety performance functions involving the explanatory variables are calibrated to predict crash frequency using Poisson Weibull technique and crash types are predicted using ordered logit model. Model results suggest that increase in traffic volume leads to higher probability of crash risk and traffic safety is significantly distorted by higher curvature change rate values.

  2. Dental prosthetic status and prosthetic needs of institutionalised elderly population in oldage homes of jabalpur city, madhya pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deogade, Suryakant C; Vinay, S; Naidu, Sonal

    2013-12-01

    Oral disorders are cumulative throughout life and hence unfavourable outcomes are likely to be greatest among the elderly. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among institutionalized geriatric population in old-age homes of Jabalpur city, Madhya Pradesh, to assess their prosthetic status and prosthetic needs. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in all the four old-age homes of Jabalpur city, Madhya Pradesh state, India. All residents aged 60 years and above formed the study population. The recording of prosthetic status and prosthetic needs was carried out according to the World Health Organisation (WHO) Oral Health Assessment Form (1997). A total of 224 individuals were included in the study of which 123 were females and 101 were males. Seventy five percent of the females and 55 % of the males had no prostheses in their upper arch and 61 % of the females and 76 % of the males had no prostheses in their lower arch. More number of males presented with 'Bridges' in their upper arch when compared to females (P value = 0.006). Highest prosthetic need in males was multi-unit prosthesis (42 % in upper arch and 41 % in lower arch) whereas, females' required full prosthesis (39 % in both the upper arch and lower arches). Ageing presents some formidable challenges, particularly with the institutionalised. This study clearly demonstrates a high insufficiency of prosthetic care among the institutionalized elderly population. Any preparation towards the provision of oral health care should not be limited to treatment alone but, more importantly focus on empowering this elderly community with information and education programmes.

  3. Air quality simulation of NOX over the tropical coastal city Chennai in southern India with FLEXPART-WRF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madala, Srikanth; Hari Prasad, K. B. R. R.; Srinivas, C. V.; Satyanarayana, A. N. V.

    2016-03-01

    Chennai is a rapidly growing metropolitan coastal city in southern India with several major sources of pollution. The complex coastal meteorology influences the pollutant transport in different seasons. In this study, the air quality pattern in Chennai with respect of NOX over different seasons are simulated with FLEXPART-WRF Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model (LPDM) considering release inventory of industrial, vehicular and domestic sources of pollution from seven different locations in Chennai. The meteorological fields for dispersion calculation are simulated using Advanced Research WRF (ARW) mesoscale model at a high resolution (3 km). Air quality data in the study region available at six different places are used for comparing model outputs over 12 days in each season (winter, pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon). The Hanna diffusion scheme in FLEXPART-WRF is modified with new seasonal empirical turbulent intensity relationships derived as a function of atmospheric stability from turbulence data. Simulated concentrations are evaluated by varying the diffusion schemes (Hanna, modified Hanna) in FLEXPART and the planetary boundary layer (PBL) schemes [YSU, ACM2 and MYNN2] in ARW. Simulations revealed distinct seasonal variation of dispersion patterns of NOX due to seasonal flow-field variation in the study region. It is found that, the new turbulence intensity relationships provide better comparisons for concentrations of NOX relative to the default Hanna relationship. Further, simulations using ACM2 PBL significantly reduced the negative bias and errors in concentration due to capturing the flow-field and other meteorological variables well. The study demonstrates the utility of FLEXPART for air quality modeling in the coastal city.

  4. TB diagnostics in India: creating an ecosystem for innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Nora; Kenneth, John; Pai, Madhukar

    2012-01-01

    The 'TB diagnostics in India: from importation and imitation to innovation' conference was held in Bangalore, India, on 25-26 August 2011, and was organized by the St. John's Research Institute, Bangalore, with the support of several partners. This unique conference brought together, for the first time, over 220 representatives from industry, government, donors, academia, civil society and the media to discuss what it takes to innovate in tuberculosis (TB) diagnostics in India. The goal was to engage these stakeholders to stimulate interest and investments in TB innovations. The conference was successful in engaging stakeholders and understanding the challenge of TB innovations from diverse perspectives. Coordination between stakeholders and innovations in delivery systems, partnerships, funding, regulatory and communication mechanisms are among the key challenges ahead.

  5. Preparedness for tobacco control among postgraduate residents of a medical college in Bangalore

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    Prem K Mony

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tobacco use is a major cause of avoidable mortality. Postgraduate doctors in training are an important group of physicians likely to influence patients′ tobacco use/cessation. Objective: To assess preparedness for tobacco control among clinical postgraduate residents of a medical college in southern India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was undertaken among all clinical postgraduate residents enrolled in St. John′s Medical College, Bangalore, to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding tobacco cessation in their patients. A self-administered, anonymous questionnaire was used. Simple descriptive analysis was undertaken. Results: The overall response rate was 66% (76/116. Mean (S.D. knowledge score on tobacco use prevalence and disease burden was 6.2 (2.0 out of 10. About 25% of them were not aware of nicotine replacement therapy as a treatment option for tobacco cessation. Nearly two thirds of them expected their patients to ask for assistance with quitting and nearly half were sceptical about patients′ ability to quit. While 80% of them enquired routinely about tobacco use in their patients, only 50% offered advice on quitting and less than a third assessed readiness to quit or offered assistance with quitting in their patients. Conclusion: Our study revealed suboptimal levels of knowledge and tobacco cessation practice among postgraduate residents. Attitudes toward tobacco cessation by their patients was however generally positive and there was substantial interest in further training in tobacco control. Reorienting postgraduate medical education to include tobacco control interventions would enable future physicians to be better equipped to deal with nicotine addiction.

  6. Influence of epicentral distance on local seismic response in Kolkata City, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    William K Mohanty; Akhilesh K Verma; Franco Vaccari; Giuliano F Panza

    2013-04-01

    The influence of source and epicentral distance on the local seismic response in the Kolkata city is investigated by computing the seismic ground motion along 2-D geological cross-sections in the Kolkata city for the earthquake that occurred on 12 June 1897 ( = 8.1; focal mechanism: dip = 57°, strike = 110° and rake = 76°; focal depth = 9 km) in Shillong plateau. For the estimation of ground motion parameters, a hybrid technique is used, which is the combination of modal summation and finite difference method. This technique allows the estimation of site specific ground motion for various events located at different distances from Kolkata city, taking into account simultaneously the position and geometry of the seismic source, the mechanical properties of the propagation medium and the geotechnical properties of the site. The epicenter of the Shillong earthquake is about 460 km away from Kolkata. The estimated peak ground acceleration (PGA) varies in the range of 0.11–0.18 g and this range corresponds to the intensity of IX to X on the Mercalli-Cancani-Sieberg (MCS) scale and VIII on the Modified Mercalli (MM) scale. The maximum amplification in terms of response spectral ratio (RSR) varies from 10 to 12 in the frequency range 1.0–1.5 Hz. These amplifications occur in correspondence to low-velocity shallow, loose soil deposit. The comparison of these results with earlier ones obtained considering the Calcutta earthquake that occurred on 15 April 1964 ( = 6.5; focal mechanism: dip = 32°, strike = 232° and rake = 56°; focal depth = 36 km) shows that the source parameters (magnitude and focal mechanism) and epicentral distance play an important role on site response but the variation in the frequency of the peak values (RSR) is negligible. The obtained results match with observed reported intensities in Kolkata region.

  7. Studies on assessment of traffic noise level in Aurangabad city, India

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    B J Bhosale

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid rate of urbanization of Aurangabad city due to the expanding industrialization, the problem of noise pollution has become a concern for urban dwellers and government authority too. Noise pollution due to vehicular traffic is one of the growing environmental problems of urban centers. The study deals with the assessment of traffic noise levels in Aurangabad city. With respect to the total number of vehicles passing the road in unit time, which was surveyed by direct count method, six different sites from Aurangabad city, viz., Nagar Naka, Kranti Chowk, CIDCO bus stand, Railway station area, Dhoot Hospital and Baba petrol pump were selected to study the vehicular noise level. Noise measurements were carried out at these six locations on both working day and holiday during the peak traffic hours, i.e. 8:00 a.m. - 11:a.m., 1:00 p.m. - 4:00 p.m. and 5:00 p.m. - 8:00 p.m., in the morning, afternoon and evening sessions, respectively, after 5 minutes time interval. The noise level was monitored using noise level meter. The results obtained from this investigation showed that the Nagar Naka, Kranti chowk and CIDCO bus stand area have dense traffic zones when compared with the Railway station area, Dhoot Hospital and Baba petrol pump. The minimum and the maximum noise levels are 74 and 86 dB, respectively, on working day and 70 and 81 dB, respectively, on holiday. The measured noise level values exceed the prescribed noise level.

  8. Informal public transport modes in India: A case study of five city regions

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    Megha Kumar

    2016-03-01

    The paper highlights that these systems bridge a large transport supply gap and play an important role in Indian cities. The modes may follow some illegitimate practices, but they do it to become profitable, which in turn helps them provide the much-needed mobility services. The study also shows that these systems are not as unsafe and polluting as people often perceive them to be. However, there is significant room for improvements in terms of vehicle efficiency and compliance with regulatory provisions related to public transport.

  9. Determination of some carcinogenic PAHs with toxic equivalency factor along roadside soil within a fast developing northern city of India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vaneet Kumar; N C Kothiyal; Saruchi; R Mehra; A Parkash; R R Sinha; S K Tayagi; R Gaba

    2014-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to ascertain contamination levels, distribution behaviour and PAHs exposure during summer, winter and autumn during 2011–2012 in one of the developing cities of northern India. Average PAHs concentration was found to be 18.17, 4.04 and 16.38 g g−1, whereas, concentration of 16 individual PAHs was found to vary between 0.02 and 200.23, 0.008 and 28.4 g g−1, and 0.01 and 252.55 g g−1 during summer, winter and autumn seasons, respectively. The average concentration of low and high carcinogenic PAHs during summer, winter and autumn was found to be 5.1 and 31.29, 2.1 and 6.4, 4.74 and 35.08 g g−1 at most intercepts. The average ratio of low to high carcinogenic PAHs was found to be 1:6, 1:3, 1:7.6 during summer, winter and autumn, respectively. Five ringed PAHs were found in higher concentration in all seasons. Dib(ah)A and B(a)P were the two individual PAHs found in highest concentration during summer, winter and autumn seasons. Two tailed T-test was applied for authenticity of the results. Toxic equivalency factor of B(a)P and Dib(ah)A was maximum as compared to other PAHs. The study could be of great significance for the planners while considering environmental remedial measures.

  10. Elemental composition and sources of air pollution in the city of Chandigarh, India, using EDXRF and PIXE techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandhu, H.K.; Puri, Sanjiv; Garg, M.L.; Singh, B.; Shahi, J.S.; Mehta, D.; Swietlicki, E.; Dhawan, D.K.; Mangal, P.C.; Singh, Nirmal E-mail: nsingh.phys@puniv.chd.nic.in

    2000-01-01

    The aerosol samples collected from industrial, commercial and relatively cleaner zones from the city of Chandigarh, India, have been characterized using EDXRF and PIXE techniques. Sample collection was done over different time periods during 1994-1996 using the Millipore sampling kit. Sixteen elements, namely, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, and Pb, were quantified in these samples. The loading distribution of aerosol on the filter media was assessed by scanning the sample along its diameter using proton beam. The elemental concentrations in all the samples analyzed by both the techniques have been corrected for this distribution. The elemental concentrations measured at different sites were used in absolute principle component analysis in order to identify the major sources affecting these sites and to apportion the measured air pollutants to these sources. Plausible sources identified from this analysis are soil dust, industrial activity, vehicular traffic and refuse burning. The soil dust accounts for the major fraction of the measured mass.

  11. Allocation of solid waste collection bins and route optimisation using geographical information system: A case study of Dhanbad City, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, D; Samadder, S R

    2016-07-01

    Collection of municipal solid waste is one of the most important elements of municipal waste management and requires maximum fund allocated for waste management. The cost of collection and transportation can be reduced in comparison with the present scenario if the solid waste collection bins are located at suitable places so that the collection routes become minimum. This study presents a suitable solid waste collection bin allocation method at appropriate places with uniform distance and easily accessible location so that the collection vehicle routes become minimum for the city Dhanbad, India. The network analyst tool set available in ArcGIS was used to find the optimised route for solid waste collection considering all the required parameters for solid waste collection efficiently. These parameters include the positions of solid waste collection bins, the road network, the population density, waste collection schedules, truck capacities and their characteristics. The present study also demonstrates the significant cost reductions that can be obtained compared with the current practices in the study area. The vehicle routing problem solver tool of ArcGIS was used to identify the cost-effective scenario for waste collection, to estimate its running costs and to simulate its application considering both travel time and travel distance simultaneously.

  12. Gene diversity for haptoglobin and transferrin classical markers among Hindu and Muslim populations of Aligarh City, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ara, G; Siddique, Y H; Afzal, M

    2011-06-01

    The present paper reports the distribution of serum protein markers viz. haptoglobin and transferrin in two major groups of Aligarh city of North India. In present study we have undertaken a survey of 538 individuals belonging to eight different populations, four from the Hindu community i.e. Brahmin, Bania, Rajput and Jatav, and the rest four among the Muslim community i.e. Syed, Sheikh, Pathan and Ansari. The heterozygosity ranged from 0.2939 (Ansari) to 0.4873 (Brahmin) for haptoglobin and from 0.000 (Rajput) to 0.1498 (Pathan) for transferrin. The values of D(ST) are 0.4122 and 0.4406, and that of G(ST) are 0.5059 and 0.9726 for haptoglobin and transferrin markers respectively. Through F(ST) test, it has been concluded that there is a high genetic differentiation of populations within Hindu and Muslim groups, though there is absence of any significant differences between these groups.

  13. Lead poisoning in pregnant women who used Ayurvedic medications from India--New York City, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    Lead poisoning still occurs in the United States despite extensive prevention efforts and strict regulations. Exposure to lead can damage the brain, kidneys, and nervous and reproductive systems. Fetal exposure to lead can adversely affect neurodevelopment, decrease fetal growth, and increase the risk for premature birth and miscarriage. During 2011-2012, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) investigated six cases of lead poisoning associated with the use of 10 oral Ayurvedic medications made in India. All six cases were in foreign-born pregnant women assessed for lead exposure risk by health-care providers during prenatal visits, as required by New York state law. Their blood lead levels (BLLs) ranged from 16 to 64 µg/dL. Lead concentrations of the medications were as high as 2.4%; several medications also contained mercury or arsenic, which also can have adverse health effects. DOHMH distributed information about the medications to health-care providers, product manufacturers, and government agencies in the United States and abroad, via postal and electronic mail. DOHMH also ordered a local business selling contaminated products to cease sales. Health-care providers should ask patients, especially foreign-born or pregnant patients, about any use of foreign health products, supplements, and remedies such as Ayurvedic medications. Public health professionals should consider these types of products when investigating heavy metal exposures and raise awareness among health-care providers and the public regarding the health risks posed by such products.

  14. Quantification and distribution of heavy metals from small-scale industrial areas of Kanpur city, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, Manju; Ramanathan, Al; Subramanian, V

    2009-12-30

    Kanpur city has large number of small-scale industries (SSIs), primarily comprising of textile and leather industries. This study inventorises the presence of heavy metals in the samples collected from Panki and Jajmau Industrial Areas of Kanpur city. The bulk concentration of heavy metals found in solid waste samples was Fe as 1885 and 2340 mg/kg, Mn 173 and 445 mg/kg, Zn 233 and 132 mg/kg, Cu 20 and 28 mg/kg, Cd 1.4 and 1.1mg/kg, Ni 26 and 397 mg/kg, Pb 107 and 19 mg/kg, Cr 1323 and 734 mg/kg, respectively. Heavy metal concentration was also found to be high in soil and road dust samples viz. Ni and Pb were in higher concentration in few samples, whereas Cr was found in higher concentration in all samples than the recommended values of USEPA and specifications for compost quality contained in the Indian Municipal Solid Wastes (Management and Handling) Rules, 2000. The heavy metal pollution so detected is indicative of contamination in ground and surface water and food chain. This raises concerns pertaining to adverse consequences to environment and human health.

  15. Status Of Physico-Chemical Parameter Of Ground Water Of Gorakhpur City U.P. India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Chaudhary

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The ground water is most prime water which has multipurpose use ranging from drinking to industrial and agricultural uses. The continuously increase in the level of pollution of water is a serious problem. The city of Gorakhpur is not untouched with this serious issue .The pollution level of the major water sources in and around the city is increase rapidly. The main objective of the present study is to study the variation of ground water quality in Gorakhpur district by collecting 20 samples of water from hand pump from 20 locations well distributed with in Gorakhpur district were analyzed for different parameters such as pH electric conductivity chloride total free chlorine hardness fluoride nitrate iron Turbidity potassium. Groundwater is polluted from seepage pits refuse dumps septic tanks barnyards manures transport accident and different pollutant. Important sources of ground water pollution are sewage is dumped in shallow soak pits. It gives rise to cholera hepatitis dysenteries etc. especially in areas with high water table.

  16. A review on salt lake city, Kolkata, India: Master planning and realization

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    Tošković Dobrivoje

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivation for construction of Salt Lake City comes from the circumstances characterizing life in Calcutta known by its social, political and cultural activities. Among many problems, the City was faced with poverty and overcrowding. West Bengal Government realized that serious steps have to be taken to resolve the situation. One of the biggest actions of the Government was creation of so called 'NEDECO' Plan for reclamation certain area of the Salted Lakes, followed by the tender for urban planning. The enterprise for water ways Ivan Milutinović was considered the most convenient for both: reclamation and planning. The Conceptualization covers the Main Aims and interests forming plan basis where three factors were selected: urban character, new vs old town, inhabitants and town growth. Follows Existing Land Use Pattern of the Municipal Area. The realization of the Salt Lake Master Plan, as a part of the Municipal Area, is shown through an Overview of Achieved Infrastructure covering Roads, Water Supply, Sewerage, Area Level Storm Water Drainage, Solid Waste Management and, finally, through the Other Municipal Services, such as: Administrative Infrastructure, Health Infrastructure, Greeneries, Water bodies, Socio-Cultural Infrastructure. .

  17. Breast self-examination: Knowledge, attitude, and practice among female dental students in Hyderabad city, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolar Doshi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP regarding breast self-examination (BSE in a cohort of Indian female dental students. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive questionnaire study was conducted on dental students at Panineeya Institute of Dental Sciences, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India. Data were analyzed using SPSS software (version 12. Chi-square test was used for analysis of categorical variables. Correlation was analyzed using Karl Pearson's correlation coefficient. The total scores for KAP were categorized into good and poor scores based on 70% cut-off point out of the total expected score for each. P-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: This study involved a cohort of 203 female dental students. Overall, the total mean knowledge score was 14.22 ± 8.04 with the fourth year students having the maximum mean score (19.98 ± 3.68. The mean attitude score was 26.45 ± 5.97. For the practice score, the overall mean score was 12.64 ± 5.92 with the highest mean score noted for third year 13.94 ± 5.31 students. KAP scores upon correlation revealed a significant correlation between knowledge and attitude scores only (P<0.05. Conclusion: The study highlights the need for educational programs to create awareness regarding regular breast cancer screening behavior.

  18. Estimation of fluoride levels in various commercially available carbonated soft drinks in Chandigarh city, India

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    Mohit Bansal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fluoride has a preventive action on dental caries. However, Excessive ingestion of fluoride from different sources can lead to the development of dental fluorosis. Aim: To estimate fluoride levels in various commercially available carbonated soft drinks available in Chandigarh city. Materials and Methods: Twelve different brands of commercially available soft drinks were purchased from three different places and divided into three groups. Fluoride levels were estimated using fluoride test strips Quantofix 37211 Fluka; Sigma-Aldrich. Results: Fluoride levels ranged from 0.12 to 0.42 mg/dl F with the maximum level in Thumbs up and least in Diet Pepsi. Conclusion: The levels of fluoride varied in various carbonated soft drinks analyzed. This could contribute significantly to the total fluoride intake from all sources and thus be an important risk factor for the development of dental fluorosis.

  19. Assessment of air pollution tolerance index of some trees in Moradabad city, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Anamika; Tiwari, P B; Mahima; Singh, Dharmveer

    2009-07-01

    To see the relative tolerance of the plant species, ten different plant species i.e. Ficus rumphii, Pongamia pinnata, Alstonia scholaris, Holoptelea integrifolia, Saraca indica, Pithecolobium dulcis, Cassia simea, Bauhinia variegata, Azadirachta indica and Grewelia robusta was taken from residential (SI), industrial (SII) and commercial (SIII) area of the city as this florais very much common to the Brass city and is planted on the roadside. The quality of air with respect to SPM, SO2 and NO2 has been also assessed on respective sites to see its effect on biochemical parameters of the leaves i.e. pH, total water content, chlorophyll and ascorbic acid and evaluate the (air pollution tolerance index (APTI) of various plants. It was concluded that Pongamia pinnata 15.8, Pithecolobium dulcis 34.8, Holoptelea integrifolia 55.8 and Saraca indica 52.0 have very high APTI value over control so these are considered as high tolerant tree species, Ficus rumphii 35.7, Azadirachta indica 30.5 and Grewelia robusta 34.3 have slightlymoreAPTI value over control so these are considered as moderately tolerant tree species and Alstonia scholaris 21.5, Cassia simea 6.09 and Bauhinia variegata 18.22 have lessAPTI value than control, so these are sensitive species respectively. One way ANOVA finds the obtained values to be highly significant (p < 0.001) at the industrial site. Thus present findings show that Brass and allied industries are the prominent sources responsible for the elevated level of air pollutants at the industrial site.

  20. Isolation of pathogenic Escherichia coli from buffalo meat sold in Parbhani city, Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Vaidya

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Isolation, characterization, in-vitro pathogenicity and antibiogram study of E.coli from buffalo meat sold in Parbhani city. Materials and Methods: Meat samples were collected from buffalo immediately after slaughter. Isolation, identification and enumeration of E. coli were done by following standard methods and protocols. Hemolysin test and Congo red binding assay were used to study in-vitro pathogenicity of E. coli isolates. Disc diffusion method was used to study antibiogram of pathogenic E. coli isolates. Results: A total of 250 buffalo meat samples were collected and processed. A total of 22 (8.80 percent E. coli isolates were isolated with average differential count of 1.231 ± 0.136 log cfu/g on EMB agar. All the E. coli isolates were confirmed by 10 Grams staining, biochemical reactions and sugar fermentation and motility tests. A total of 9 (3.6 percent E. coli isolates were found to be pathogenic by in-vitro pathogenicity testing. Antibiogram studies of pathogenic E. coli isolates showed that all 9 isolates were sensitive to gentamycin (20 ± 1.49 mm while 7 isolate showed resistance to enrofloxacin (18.22 ± 3.58 mm and tetracycline (11.44 ± 2.04 mm. Conclusion: Buffalo meat sold in Parbhani city is an important source of E. coli infection to human population. A total of 9 pathogenic E. coli were isolated from buffalo meat immediately after slaughter. All isolates were characterized and confirmed pathogenic by in-vitro pathogenicity tests. Antibiogram studies of all isolates revealed sensitivity to gentamicin and resistance to tetracycline and enrofloxacin. [Vet World 2013; 6(5.000: 277-279

  1. Antibacterial activity of actinomycetes isolated from different soil samples of Sheopur (A city of central India

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    Hotam S Chaudhary

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the present study was isolation, purification, and characterization of actinomycetes from soil samples, having antimicrobial activity against 12 selected pathogenic strains. Soils samples were taken from different niche habitats of Sheopur district, Madhya Pradesh, India. These samples were serially diluted and plated on actinomycete isolation agar media. Potential colonies were screened, purified, and stored in glycerol stock. Isolates were morphologically and biochemically characterized. These isolates were subjected to extraction for production of the antibacterial compound. Antibacterial activity and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC of the purified extract of isolates were evaluated. Totally 31 actinomycete isolates were tested for antagonistic activity against 12 pathogenic microorganisms. Isolates AS14, AS27, and AS28 were highly active, while AS1 showed less activity against the pathogenic microorganisms. Isolate AS7 exhibited the highest antagonistic activity against Bacillus cereus (24 mm and AS16 showed the highest activity against Enterococcus faecalis (21 mm. MIC was also determined for actinomycete isolates against all the tested microorganisms. MIC of actinomycete isolates was found to be 2.5 mg/ml against Shigella dysenteriae, Vancomycin-resistant enterococci, and Klebsiella pneumoniae, and was 1.25 mg/ml for Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus xylosus, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, and Staphylococcus aureus. All actinomycetes isolates showed antibacterial activity against S. aureus, while they showed less activity against S. dysenteriae. These isolates had antibacterial activity and could be used in the development of new antibiotics for pharmaceutical or agricultural purposes.

  2. Urban land use and geohazards in the Itanagar Capital city, Arunachal Pradesh, India: Need for geoethics in urban disaster resilience governance in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharjee, Swapna

    2013-04-01

    The capital city, Itanagar, Arunachal Pradesh, India is exposed to the multiple geohazards as the city is located in the region which experiences extreme physical phenomenon due to changing climate in the tectonically active North-Eastern Himalayas. The geohazards in Itanagar includes landslides, floods, soil erosion and earthquakes. The high decadal growth rate of 111.36% in 1991-2001 census has brought in many challenges with respect to the capital city developmental planning. Due to rapid and haphazard growth in urban land use the people residing in the city are gradually becoming more vulnerable to the geohazards in the past decades. The city condition at present has raised issues of grave concern related to effective hazard management. It is observed that geoscientific approach is violated at many places in the urban developmental activities along the central spine, the National Highway-52A of the capital city. There is an urgent need of geoscientists to apprise the urban populace about land suitability and stability in terms of rock types, soil, slope, geomorphology, groundwater condition etc. and the vulnerability of the existing urban land use to landslides, flood, soil erosion and earthquakes. In this paper major issue, critical issues and elements at risk are discussed in the context of ethics in geohazard management and developmental planning for urban disaster resilience governance in a changing climate.

  3. Detection of Spatio-temporal variations of rainfall and temperature extremes over India

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    Hari, V.; Karmakar, S.; Ghosh, S.

    2012-12-01

    Hydrologic disturbances are commonly associated with the phenomenal occurrence of extreme events. The human kind has always been facing problem with hydrologic extremes in terms of deaths and economic loss. Hence, a complete analysis of observed extreme events will have a substantial role in planning, designing and management of the water resource systems. In India, the occurrence of extreme events, such as heavy rainfall, which is directly associated with the flash flood have been observed. For example; in 2005, Mumbai city of India suffered a huge economic damage, due to the record rainfall of 94 cm in a day. In the same year, two other major cities Chennai and Bangalore had also experienced the flash floods due to the heavy rainfall. Hence, occurrence of these recent events instigates researchers to investigate long term variation and trend of extreme rainfall over India. Very few previous studies have been conducted in India either considering a particular region or by considering a single extreme rainfall variable (either frequency or intensity of rainfall). In the present study, rainfall variables such as intensity, duration, frequency and volume are considered to investigate spatio-temporal variations for the entire India. The peak over threshold method with 95 percentile is considered to delineate the extreme variables from the observed rainfall data available (at 1×1 deg) for a period of 1901-2004. The temporal variability is determined by implementing a moving window of 30 years. As well as, the correlation analysis is conducted with the implementation of non-parametric coefficients. The spatio-temporal variability of 50 year return level (RL) for the rainfall intensity is determined considering Generalized Pareto and non-parametric kernel distributions as best fit. To identify the significant changes in the derived RL from first to last time window, a bootstrap-based approach proposed by Kharin and Zwiers (2005, Jl. of Climate, 18, 1156-1173) is

  4. Assessment of pack animal welfare in and around Bareilly city of India

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    Probhakar Biswas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the welfare of pack animal: Pony, Horse, Mule and Donkey in and around Bareilly city. Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out in Bareilly city and Izatnagar area of Bareilly district of Uttar Pradesh in the year 2009. Representative sample of 100 pack animal owners were selected to get the information regarding various social, personal and economic attributes of the pack animal. Further during interviewing different health and behavior pattern of animals was keenly examined. Analysis has been done as per standard procedures. Results: Most of the pack animal owners (98% were aware of the freedom from hunger and thirst. Majority of respondents (96, 93, 81 & 85 percent were aware of freedom from injury and disease, pain and discomfort, to express normal behavior and adequate space and freedom from fear and distress. Respondents (85% believed that they themselves were responsible for the welfare of the animals. Most of the owners (48.8% employed their animals for work for 9-10 hrs with rest (96.5% in between work and most (88.3% indulged into beating to compel the animals to work. All pregnant animals were put to work in the first two trimesters of pregnancy. Upon physical examination, pack animals showed abnormality in eyes (49%, abnormality in gait (40% and limb deformity (39%. Most animals (75% had tether lesions and 34 percent animals avoided or were aggressive to observer. Majority (74.1% of the owners housed their animals in a part of their own residence with improper drainage and cleaning. Most of the owners (82% consulted Veterinary doctors for treatment and believed in allopathic medicine (57%. Vaccination was not carried out on most (96% of the animals. All the animals were feed green fodder but practice of supplementation of minerals to animals was only among 11 percent owners. Conclusions: Present findings provide baseline information on welfare activities followed by pack animal owners and status of pack

  5. IMPACT OF LEATHER PROCESSING INDUSTRIES ON CHROMIUM CONCENTRATION IN GROUNDWATER SOUTH OF CHENNAI CITY, INDIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elango, L.; Brindha, K.; G. Rajesh, V.

    2009-12-01

    The groundwater quality is under threat due to disposal of effluents from a number of industries. Poor practice of treatment of wastes from tanning industries or leather processing industries lead to pollution of groundwater. This study was carried out with the objective of assessing the impact of tanneries on groundwater quality in Chromepet area which is a part of the metropolitan area of Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. This area serves as the home town for a number of small and large scale tanning industries. People in certain parts of this area depend on the groundwater for their domestic needs as there is no piped drinking water supply system. Topographically this region is generally flat with gentle slope towards east and north east. The charnockite rocks occur as basement at the depth of about 15m from the surface of this area. Weathered charnockite rock occurs at the depth from 7m to 15m from the ground surface. The upper layer consists of loamy soil. Groundwater occurs in the unconfined condition at a depth from 0.5m to 5m. Thirty six groundwater samples were collected during March 2008 and the groundwater samples were analysed for their heavy metal (chromium) content using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) recommended the maximum permissible limit of chromium in drinking water as 0.05 mg/l. Considering this, it was found that 86% of the groundwater samples possessed concentration of chromium above the maximum permissible limit recommended by BIS. The tanneries use chrome sulphate to strengthen the leather and make it water repellent. The excess of chromium gets washed off and remains in the wastewater. This wastewater is disposed into open uncovered drains either untreated or after partial treatment. Thus the chromium leaches through the soil and reaches the groundwater table. Apart from this, there is also huge quantity of solid waste resulting from the hides and skins which are dumped off without suitable treatment. The

  6. A study on physicochemical parameters of an aquaculture body in Mysore city, Karnataka, India.

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    Sachidanandamurthy, K L; Yajurvedi, H N

    2006-10-01

    Monthly changes in water quality parameters (physicochemical) of a rain fed lake (Bilikere) in Mysore city, were investigated for two calendar years (2002 and 2003) to assess the suitability of this lake for pisciculture. Although there were monthly fluctuations in water temperature, total suspended solids (TSS), dissolved oxygen (DO), nitrite and ammonia, they were within the desirable limits. On the other hand, total alkalinity and hydrogen sulphide throughout the study period and pH for a major part, were higher than the desirable limits. Other parameters viz; turbidity, biological oxygen demand (BOD), phosphate, and nitrate in a few months were higher than the desirable limits for waters used for fish culture. The high levels of these factors are due to the entry of agricultural run off and occasional flow of sewage into the lake. In addition dense algal growth was noticed at times of the year which is caused by surge in nutrients level whenever there was a rainfall. Since, the lake has a great aquacultural potential, it is suggested that control of nutrient load that enters the lake occasionally, might help the lake to continue its mesotrophic status.

  7. Analysis of Groundwater Quality of Aligarh City, (India: Using Water Quality Index.

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    Khwaja M. Anwar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Water is essential for all living organisms for their existence and metabolic process. Unethical human intervention in natural system and over exploitation of groundwater resources induces degradation of its quality. In many instances groundwater is used directly for drinking as well as for other purposes, hence the evaluation of groundwater quality is extremely important. The present study is aimed to analyze the underground water quality at Aligarh. In this study 80 water samples were collected from 40 places and analyzed for 14 water quality parameters for pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons (2012. The water quality index of these samples ranges from 18.92 to 74.67 pre-monsoon and 16.82 to 70.34 during post-monsoon. The study reveals that 50 % of the area under study falls in moderately polluted category. The ground water of Aligarh city needs some treatment before consumption and it also needs to be protected from contamination.

  8. Evaluation and analysis of noise levels at traffic intersections of Nagpur city, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijay, Ritesh; Popat, Rishabh; Pisode, Mayur; Sharma, Asheesh; Manoj, Kumar; Chakrabarti, T; Gupta, Rajesh

    2013-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to monitor and assess the noise levels at traffic intersections in Napgur city under heterogenic traffic activities. For this, traffic volume and noise level were measured at intersections on highways, major roads andring road during morning and evening peak hours. Traffic volume was categorized in light, medium and heavy vehicles while noise levels were measured for Lmin, Lmax, Leq , L10 and L90. Equivalent noise was observed in the range of 71.3 to 79.3 dB(A) at the traffic intersections. Due to heterogenic traffic conditions and activities at the intersection like honking, idling, gear noise, bearing noise, breaking noise, tyre-road noise and exhaust noise, no correlation was established between traffic volume and observed noise levels except West High Court road. A strong correlation was found at West High Court road due to controlled traffic flow and less impact of heavy vehicles. Impact of noisy vehicles on general traffic was also assessed at the traffic intersections based on noise pollution levels and traffic noise index. The study suggests that control measures are required at the traffic intersections to minimize noise pollution levels.

  9. Homi Jehangir Bhabha : Architect of Modern Science and Technology in India

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Virendra

    2009-01-01

    After describing Bhabha's early life at Bombay, now Mumbai, we discuss his research career at Cambridge, where he made many distinguished contributions to positron physics, cosmic rays and the meson theory. These include theory of positron-electron scattering (Bhabha scattering), Bhabha-Heitler theory of cosmic ray showers and prediction of heavier electrons (ie. muons). Later in his life, after 1945, Bhabha worked in India at Bangalore and Mumbai. In India Bhabha laid foundations of modern n...

  10. Aeroallergen sensitivity among patients suffering from bronchial asthma in Bangalore

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    Giriyanna Gowda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Asthma is a serious public health problem throughout the world and its prevalence has increased in last 2-3 decades. Allergens are one of the many factors which trigger an attack of asthma. Skin prick test is useful in identifying the offending allergen in bronchial asthma. Aim: To identify the possible offending allergens in patients of bronchial asthma. Materials and Methods: The study was a descriptive study conducted at allergy center, Kempegowda Institute of Medical Sciences Hospital and Research Center, Bangalore from January to December 2011. Skin prick test was done in 139 patients suffering from bronchial asthma using 49 allergens extracts. Statistical Analysis: Frequency, proportions, Chi-square test, odds ratio, and 95% confidence interval was used. Results: Out of 139 patients who underwent the skin prick tests, 40% (56 were males and 60% (83 were females. Majority, that is, 60% were in the age group of 21-40 years. Forty-three percent (60 had family history of asthma/atopy, 80% (111 had allergic rhinitis, 24% (34 had chronic urticaria, and 24% (33 had allergic conjunctivitis. Out of 139 patients, 100 (71.94% were sensitive for one or more allergens. The common offending allergens found in the study were dust mites (Dermatophagoides farinae and D. pteronyssinus (DF and DP - 49.28%, dusts - 7.2%, pollens - 6.77%, insects - 6.62%, fungi - 4.53%, and epithelia - 1.92%. Conclusion: The most common allergens in bronchial asthma were dust mites followed by dusts and pollens. Identifying possible allergens in asthma patients help in allergen avoidance and immunotherapy in these patients.

  11. Magnitude of drug resistant shigellosis: A report from Bangalore

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    Srinivasa H

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Shigella is an important cause of acute invasive diarrhea in children and others. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Shigella spp. isolated from diarrhoeal/ dysenteric patients in Bangalore was studied in our hospital from January 2002 to December 2007. One hundred and thirty-four isolates were identified as Shigella species. S. flexneri, S. sonnei , S. boydii and S. dysenteriae were accounted respectively for 64.9%, 21.6%, 8.2% and 3.7% of the total number of Shigella isolated. Of these 56 (41.8% were from children (0 to 14 years and 78 (58.2% were from adults and elderly patients. Over 70% of Shigella isolates were resistant to two or more drugs including Ampicillin and Co-trimoxazole. During 2002 to 2007, resistance to Ampicillin had increased from 46.7% to 68%. For Co-trimoxazole, though the resistance had gradually decreased from 100% to 72%, but still the resistance is high. Chloramphenicol resistance showed sudden decline from 73.3% to 25% from 2002 to 2003, but gradually has reached 48%. Nalidixic acid resistance was more than 70%. All isolates were sensitive to Ciprofloxacin during the period 2002 to 2004, but over the years the resistance pattern gradually increased up to 48%. Ceftriaxone had shown no resistance. The results of the study revealed the endemicity of Shigellosis with S. flexneri as the predominant serogroup. Children were at a higher risk of severe shigellosis. The results also suggest that Ampicillin, Co-trimoxazole, Chloramphenicol, Nalidixic acid and Ciprofloxacin should not be used empirically as the first line drugs in the treatment of Shigellosis. Periodic analysis and reporting of antibiotic susceptibility is an important measure to guide antibiotic treatment.

  12. Compliance monitoring of prohibition of smoking (under section-4 of COTPA at a tertiary health-care institution in a smoke-free city of India

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    Jaya Prasad Tripathy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: India enacted a comprehensive tobacco control law known as cigarettes and other tobacco products act (COTPA in 2003. However, enforcement of the provisions under the law is still a matter of concern. Compliance survey is an effective tool to measure the status of implementation of the law at various public places. Smoke-free hospital campus demonstrates commitment to good health and sends a pro-healthy signal to the community. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the compliance to the prohibition of smoking at public places (under section-4 of COTPA in a tertiary health-care institution in a smoke-free city of India. Materials and Methods: An observational cross-sectional study was conducted at 40 different venues within a tertiary health-care institution in a smoke-free city of India. These places were observed for certain parameters of assessment by a structured checklist, which included evidence of active smoking, evidence of recent smoking, display of signages, presence of smoking aids, cigarette butts and bidi ends. Results: Overall compliance rate for section-4 of COTPA was found to be mere 23%. Evidence of active smoking was observed in 21 (52.5% venues. Signages were seen at only 8 places (20%. Butt ends and other smoking aids were seen in 37 (92.5% and 26 (65% places respectively. Conclusion: These dismal findings suggest non-compliance to the provisions under COTPA, which calls for a sensitization workshop and advocacy for all the stakeholders.

  13. Awareness and perception regarding health insurance in Bangalore rural population

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    Suwarna Madhukumar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Awareness and perception regarding health insurance was still very preliminary. Although health insurance is not a new concept and people are also getting familiar with it, yet this awareness has not reached to the level of subscription of health insurance products. Insurance as not been able to make inroads in the rural areas because of key reasons such as high cost of delivery and low awareness among the rural population about insurance products. There is a felt need to provide financial protection to rural families for the treatment of major ailments, requiring hospitalization and surgery. The present study is an effort in the area of health insurance to assess the individuals’ awareness level and willingness to join and pay for it. The present study is an effort to examine what are the reasons behind those who have not in favour of subscription. Methods: Nandagudi a village in Bangalore rural district was selected because the Rural Health Training Centre of MVJ Medical College & RH is located. The houses were listed and by using systematic random sampling every 2nd house was included in the study. 331 houses were interviewed. The interview was taken either from the head of the family or the family member who takes financial decisions in the house. Data was collected and analysed. Findings were described in terms of proportions and percentages. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS statistical package. Results: In our study population majority were males (94.9%, Hindus (60%, literate (85%,and manual workers (79.5%.Only one third of the houses were aware of health insurance but only 22% had health insurance coverage. The coverage was not for all family members. The subscription depended on education, socio–economic status, type of family. The willingness to pay a premium was Rs 500 per year in 31% of the families. It was observed that the main barriers for the subscription of health insurance were low income or uncertainty

  14. Assessment of 2-(4-morpholinyl) benzothiazole (24MoBT) and N-cyclohexyl-2-benzothiazolamine (NCBA) as traffic tracers in metropolitan cities of China and India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Suhong; Sun, Yali; Zhang, Gan; Li, Jun; Xie, Qilai; Chakraborty, Paromita

    2012-09-01

    2-(4-Morpholinyl) benzothiazole (24MoBT) and N-cyclohexyl-2-benzothiazolamine (NCBA), which are present in automobile tires, are impurities of the vulcanisation accelerators OBS and CBS, respectively, as defined by the Japan Industrial Standard. To assess 24MoBT and NCBA as markers to trace the usage patterns of OBS and CBS in developing countries, urban dusts were collected from five representative cities of China and India for the analysis of 24MoBT and NCBA. The concentrations in these dust samples were found to be within the range of 3.40-151 ng g-1 for 24MoBT and nd-56.9 ng g-1 for NCBA. The higher levels of 24MoBT may indicate that the traditional accelerator OBS is still used in vehicle tires, whereas the relatively lower contents of NCBA are mainly related to the lesser use of CBS tires. The individual fractions of 24MoBT and NCBA in BTs (24MoBT + NCBA) are compared among cities, and the results show that the fraction sequence is consistent with the number of vehicles and the cities' economic development. This study indicates not only that 24MoBT is presently more suitable for tracing tire wear emissions than NCBA in China but also that there is a potential to assess the impact of traffic sources on urban environments using BTs.

  15. A STUDY ON AWARENESS ABOUT HIV/AIDS AMO NG FIRST YEAR MEDICAL STUDENTS OF BANGALORE MEDICAL COLLEGE AND RESEARCH INSTITUTE

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    Shivaraj

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: HIV/AIDS epidemic is one of the challenges in public health in India. Young people are more vulnerable for getting in contact with the disease. Medical students during their tenure of student life can play a pivotal role in knowledge transmission about th e disease to the general public. This study was conducted at Bangalore Medical College and Research Institute to find out the awareness of HIV/AIDS among first year medical students. METHODOLOGY: A Cross sectional study was done among 250 MBBS students of Bangalore Medical College and Research Institute during the academic year of 2012 - 2013 . The information was collected from them within 2 - 3 weeks of admission to the course using pre - tested semi structured questionnaire. RESULTS: The mean age of the study population was 18 ( + 1 years. Males comprised 64% and females comprised 36% of respondents. 29% of them were from rural background and 67% from Urban. 97% of the participants know that HIV causative agent is virus. 49% of them said it is contagious , 42% of them said non - contagious and 8.9% say they don’t know. They had adequate knowledge about modes of transmission of HIV/AIDS was through blood transfusion , unsterilized instrument , and mother to child transmission. But regarding sexual transmission among tw o HIV infected person , 40% of them said it is safe . 92% of them felt HIV can be prevented by taking proper precautions. 94% of them got the information from mass media especially from TV. 55% of them received formal sex education in Schools and Colleges. CONCLUSION: Young medical students can be used as a resource persons for educating the youth at the community level.

  16. Participatory Sustainability Approach to Value Capture-Based Urban Rail Financing in India through Deliberated Stakeholder Engagement

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    Satya Sai Kumar Jillella

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly, cities around the world are seeking innovative financial mechanisms to build rail transit projects. Land value capture (VC is a financing mechanism to fund urban rail transit. Often VC mechanisms are viewed only as a financing tool applied in relation to increased land values from the administration and legislation perspectives, without actively involving the community in the process. The lack of such participation has resulted in the under collection of the true value established. The transit beneficiary community and city tax payers are especially important stakeholders in this process as their willingness to participate is really critical to the overall VC success and transport outcome. This paper introduces a participatory sustainability approach to enable a more deliberated stakeholder engagement intervention across the VC life cycle. A four-step “Participatory Strategic Value Capture (PSVC” framework is proposed offering step-by-step guidance toward facilitating a meaningful stakeholder dialogue, deliberation, and collaboration around the stated engagement interests. The PSVC framework, applied to the proposed Bangalore sub-urban rail project in India, has demonstrated the importance of stakeholder engagement using deliberated participatory approaches from a win-win perspective.

  17. PROFILE OF HUMAN RABIES CASES ADMITTED AT EPIDEMIC DISEASES HOSPITAL, BANGALORE, INDIA

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    Mahendra

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The present study was carried out with the following objectives 1. To describe the socio demographic profile of human rabies cases 2. To describe the pattern of clinical presentation 3. To assess the quality of data in the case record forms of the human rabies cases TYPE OF STUDY: Case Record Analysis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Case records of suspect human rabies cases. Data analyzed using proportions. STUDY PERIOD: April 2009 to March 2012. RESULTS: 75 suspected human rabies cases were admitted to the epidemic diseases hospital during the study period. 64 (85.33% of the cases were from the state of Karnataka, 11 (14.67% were from Andhra Pradesh and Tamilnadu. 61 (81.33% were males. 17 (22.67% were children aged ≤ 15 years. 44 (58.67% of the cases were from rural areas. In 71 (94.67% of the victims, the exposure was to dogs. Mean duration of time since bite to seeking admission was 118 days. Category of the wound was documented for 43 (57.33% of the 75 cases. Of these, 40 (93.02% had category III exposure. 61 (81.33% of the case records had data regarding wound toilet and only 12 (19.68% of the victims had performed wound toilet. Only 1 (1.47% of the victims had received rabies immunoglobulin, but had not completed the scheduled vaccination regimen. 43 (67.19% had not received any post exposure prophylaxis. Clinical signs and symptoms of rabies had been entered in 68 (90.67% of the case records, and all had hydrophobia. CONCLUSION: Most of the suspected human rabies cases admitted had not received post exposure prophylaxis or had received incomplete post exposure prophylaxis. The data entered into the case record forms of the patients was mostly incomplete.

  18. Sexuality in Adolescents: have we Explored Enough! A Cross-sectional Study to Explore Adolescent Health in a City Slum in Northern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Yogesh

    2014-01-01

    Context: Adolescent health is a relatively new focus area of India’s National health program. However, little evidence is available for the existing problems especially in adolescent slum population. A study was planned to explore the problems of adolescent pertaining to sexuality, physical health, tobacco and alcohol use in slums of Urban Meerut, and create evidence base for informed planning and decision making by the local health authorities. Aims: To study the adolescent health in the slums of Meerut City, India. Settings and Design: Entire slums of Urban Meerut, cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: Study was done in the slums of Meerut city, in Northern India. WHO 30 cluster sampling technique was used. Thirty slums were selected from the list of all the slums of Meerut, 210 adolescents were selected with 7 adolescents from each slum. Statistical Analysis: Proportions and Chi-square test. Results: More than one third of the (36.7%) adolescents reported to have a current health problem, however only half of these sought medical help for treatment. Tweleve percent of adolescents reported history of alcohol or tobacoo use. Nine percent adolescents complained of stressful atmosphere at home. About 10% adolescents in the surveyed population gave history of sexual activity, but only one third of them had used condom during their last sexual intercourse. Conclusion: This study reflects the high morbidity and poor treatment seeking behaviour among adolescents in urban slums. A significant proportion of adolescents indulge in high risk sexual behavior, tobacco and alcohol use. There were significant gender differences with regards to treatment seeking behaviour, sexual behaviour, tobacco and alcohol use. The gender nuances must be taken into account while planning interventions for this section of population. PMID:25302222

  19. PREVALENCE OF ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO ABUSE AMONG THE ELDERLY IN A RURAL AREA OF BANGALORE: A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY

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    Swathi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The population of elderly persons in India is the second largest in the world and is steadily growing. Although alcohol and tobacco problems are often under reported, their use remains common among older persons. Cessation of their use can reduce the incidence of cardio-vascular, pulmonary or malignant diseases, and prevent substance-induced problems.1 OBJECTIVES The study was conducted to assess the prevalence of alcohol and tobacco usage in the elderly in few villages of Bangalore Urban District. METHODS A Study was conducted over the period of 2 months in the calendar year 2014 on a sample of 295 people belonging to 14 villages under two sub centers. Data was collected using pretested structured questionnaires (CAGE, SMAST-G, AUDIT and Fagerstroms. The collected data was analysed. Our inclusion criteria >60 years, exclusion criteria were elders with cognitive defects and sensorineural deafness and bed ridden patients. RESULTS Among 295 subjects, 28.84 % of them used alcohol, 6.5% of females used alcohol. 15.5% of males of 33.3% of females out of them were found to be dependent on alcohol. 47.13% of males used tobacco and 47.11% of females used tobacco or tobacco products. Reasons for usage were to forget their problems or losses or due to loneliness. Many of them skipped meals, had tremors or sustained injuries to themselves or others because of their drinking. CONCLUSION Prevalence of alcohol use was 18.3% and that of alcohol dependence 15.5%. Prevalence of tobacco usage was 47.11%, prevalence of high dependency tobacco was 22%.

  20. Emissions Inventory of Anthropogenic PM2.5 and PM10 in Mega city, Delhi, India for Air Quality Forecasting during CWG- 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, S.; Beig, G.; Schultz, M.; Parkhi, N.; Stein, O.

    2012-04-01

    The mega city of Delhi is the second largest urban agglomeration in India with 16.7 mio. inhabitants. Delhi has the highest per capita power consumption of electricity in India and the demand has risen by more than 50% during the last decade. Emissions from commercial, power, domestic and industrial sectors have strongly increased causing more and more environmental problems due to air pollution and its adverse impacts on human health. Particulate matter (PM) of size less than 2.5-micron (PM2.5) and 10 micron (PM10) have emerged as primary pollutants of concern due to their adverse impact on human health. As part of the System of Air quality Forecasting and Research (SAFAR) project developed for air quality forecasting during the Commonwealth Games (CWG) - 2010, a high resolution Emission Inventory (EI) of PM10 and PM2.5 has been developed for the metropolitan city Delhi for the year 2010. The comprehensive inventory involves detailed activity data and has been developed for a domain of 70km×65km with a 1.67km×1.67km resolution covering Delhi and its surrounding region (i.e. National Capital Region (NCR)). In creating this inventory, Geographical Information System (GIS) based techniques were used for the first time in India. The major sectors considered are, transport, thermal power plants, industries, residential and commercial cooking along with windblown road dust which is found to play a major role for the megacity environment. Extensive surveys were conducted among the Delhi slum dwellers (Jhuggi) in order to obtain more robust estimates for the activity data related to domestic cooking and heating. Total emissions of PM10 and PM2.5 including wind blown dust over the study area are found to be 236 Gg/yr and 94 Gg/yr respectively. About half of the PM10 emissions stem from windblown road dust. The new emission inventory has been used for regional air quality forecasts in the Delhi region during the Commonwealth games (SAFAR project), and they will soon be

  1. Prevalence of obesity and overweight among school children of Pune city, Maharashtra, India: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Ghonge

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: High prevalence of obesity and overweight in school children indicate an urgent need to increase awareness via education and motivation of all stakeholders. This will go a long way in preventing childhood obesity and thus ultimately stemming the rising tide of non-communicable diseases such as diabetes and cardio vascular disease in India. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(12.000: 3599-3603

  2. A Study on Quality of Work Life among Nurses in a Medical College Hospital in Bangalore

    OpenAIRE

    Naveen Ramesh, Catherine Nisha, Andre Mary Josephine, Seena Thomas, Bobby Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Quality of Work Life (QWL) is defined as the extent to which an employee is satisfied with personal and working needs through participating in the workplace while achieving the goals of the organization. Objectives: To assess the quality of life of nurses working in a medical college hospital in Bangalore and the factors associated with it. Methods: Ethical approval from the institution and informed consent from the study participants was obtained and quality of life que...

  3. Secondary X-Ray Environment in the Lower Atmosphere of the Earth during Monsoon Season over Udaipur City (India) in July-September 2006

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.N.A.Jaaffrey; Shubhra Tiwari

    2009-01-01

    We present a study on the secondary x-rays of energy band 2-100 keY emitted by the intruded principal pollutant components (gases and minerals) brought up in the lower atmosphere by dust storms,monsoon drift and the gravitational pull on meteoritic showers.On the ground we employed a 1.5 × 1 inch2 NaI crystal in a scintillation detector,suitable for the energy range 2-100 keV of secondary x-rays,providing better energy resolution than a larger sized crystal.In order to eliminate the radioactive background of the Earth,the detector was well shielded on all sides with the help of the lead (Pb) container,except with a.smail open window at the top to permit only vertically incident secondary radiation.The results from the data analysis obtained during the monsoon over Udalpur city (India) during the period from July to September (2006) have revealed a linear correlation between dust storm cure monsoon clouds and observed luminosities of secondary x-ray radiation from intruded pollutants.We found intense flux of secondary x-rays from the intruded pollutants when heavy dust and monsoon clouds were brought up by dust storms and monsoon drift in the lower atmosphere over Udalpur city as compared to normal days.Thus,secondary x-rays in the environment provide a tool for investigation of local intrusive pollutant components in the lower atmosphere.

  4. Feeding and oral hygiene habits of children attending daycare centres in Bangalore and their caretakers oral health knowledge, attitude and practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Vinay

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Caretakers in day-care centers play a significant role in imparting good oral hygiene practices and also extend a working relationship with parents with regard to their children′s oral health. As a result of this, caregiver′s dental knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and practices affect the child′s oral condition. Settings and Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study involved caretakers working in day-care centers of Bangalore. Fifty-two day-care centers were randomly selected from the different zones of Bangalore city, from which 246 caretakers provided consent for participation. Materials and Methods: A comprehensive, closed-ended, self-administered questionnaire was employed which was designed to collect the sociodemographic details and to evaluate the oral health knowledge, attitudes, practice of caretakers. The institutional review committee approved the study. Data were entered using SPSS 13.01. Results: Seventy-nine percent of the subjects had good knowledge of child′s tooth eruption time, clinical presentation of dental caries and the role of fluoride in caries prevention. Yet, half of the subjects found routine dental examination after all the milk teeth have erupted in the oral cavity insignificant and 41% strongly agreed that dentist should be consulted only when the child has a toothache. In spite of the good knowledge, 77% preferred to use pacifier dipped in honey/sugar if the children acted troublesome. Analogous to this, 45% gave milk/juice with sugar before the child′s nap time. Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that caretaker′s attitude toward oral health care needs is far from acceptable standards to mirror any positive impact on the children.

  5. Faith, Trust and the Perinatal Healthcare Maze in Urban India

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    S. Raman

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available How women access and utilise health services through pregnancy, childbirth and infancy needs to be understood if we are to improve the delivery of and access to appropriate healthcare. Drawing on ethnographic observations of clinic encounters and in-depth interviews with women in Bangalore, South India, this paper reports on the complexities of negotiating healthcare throughout the perinatal continuum in urban India. Key themes identified include faith and trust in health services, confusion over right to healthcare; and the contested nature of choice for women. What is revealed is a socially restrictive framework that results in choices that seem arbitrary, irrational and self-defeating; poor women being particularly vulnerable. Given the current policy support for public-private-partnerships in reproductive healthcare delivery in India, both public and private health services need to move substantially to achieve true partnership and provide care that is respectful and valued by women and children in urban India.

  6. Affective journeys: the emotional structuring of medical tourism in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Harris

    2011-04-01

    This paper examines the grid of sentiment that structures medical travel to India. In contrast to studies that render emotion as ancillary, the paper argues that affect is fundamental to medical travel's ability to ease the linked somatic, emotional, financial, and political injuries of being ill 'back home'. The ethnographic approach follows the scenes of medical travel within the Indian corporate hospital room, based on observations and interviews among foreign patients, caregivers, and hospital staff in Mumbai, New Delhi, Chennai, and Bangalore. Foreign patients conveyed diverse sentiments about their journey to India ranging from betrayal to gratitude, and their expressions of risk, healthcare costs, and cultural difference help sustain India's popularity as a medical travel destination. However, although the affective dimensions of medical travel promise a remedy for foreign patients, they also reveal the fault lines of market medicine in India.

  7. Haemoglobin status of adult women of two ethnic groups living in a peri-urban area of Kolkata city, India: a micro-level study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Rohini; Bharati, Premananda

    2003-01-01

    A micro level study on the haemoglobin status of 127 Munda (a tribe) and 174 Poundrakshatriya (Pod) (caste) women were conducted in the peri-urban area of Kolkata City, India. The two ethnic groups were selected in order to find out whether populations residing in the same habitat, with similar medical and health care facilities have similar haemoglobin status. Results indicate that there exists very high percentage of anaemia in both the ethnic groups and 100 percent anaemia was observed among the Munda. Mean haemoglobin level was higher among the women of both the ethnic groups, consuming calorie, protein, iron and folic acid, above the recommended value (Indian Council of Medical Research, 2000). Women below the age of 30 years were found to be more anaemic. Education (P ethnic groups was found to increase with increase in Body Mass Index. Low socioeconomic condition, very low literacy rates, poverty and higher live births may have lowered the haemoglobin level of the women of the Munda population. However, women of both the ethnic groups were found to be anaemic in higher percentage than the state of West Bengal and all India (NFHS, 2000). Linear regression analysis indicated that expenditure on food had positive effect on the haemoglobin level (Pfood expenditure on the haemoglobin level was noticed among the Pod women (Pfood sharing within the households. Thus populations residing with similar medical and health care facilities revealed differences in the haemoglobin level. Differential expenditure pattern and food sharing practice seems to be the major factors responsible for the differences in haemoglobin status among the adult women in this present study. Very low intake of iron and heavy workload may be the reasons for this high percentage of anaemia. Moreover, hookworm infections need to be analyzed, as its prevalence is very high in India and South Asia. One hundred percent anaemia among Munda women is also very alarming. The results suggest that

  8. An Assesment of Groundwater Quality Index in Bommasandra Area,Bengaluru city,Karnataka State,India

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    Shivaprasad H

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater is a natural resource for drinking water .In addition to the population growth, urbanization and industrialization also extend the demand of water. Providing safe drinking water supply to the ever growing urban and sub-urban population is going to be a challenge to the civil authorities, city planners, policy makers and environmentalists. Groundwater is a major source of drinking water in both urban and rural areas of Bommasandra. Bommasandra city is rapidly raising population, changing lifestyle and intense competition among users- agriculture, industry and domestic sectors is driving the groundwater table lower. Besides, discharge of untreated wastewater through bores and leachate from unscientific disposal of solid wastes also contaminate groundwater, thereby reducing quality of fresh water resources.

  9. Charecterisation and Modelling Urbanisation Pattern in Sillicon Valley of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aithal, B. H.

    2015-12-01

    Urbanisation and Urban sprawl has led to environmental problems and large losses of arable land in India. In this study, we characterise pattern of urban growth and model urban sprawl by means of a combination of remote sensing, geographical information system, spatial metrics and CA based modelling. This analysis uses time-series data to explore and derive the potential political-socio-economic- land based driving forces behind urbanisation and urban sprawl, and spatial models in different scenarios to explore the spatio-temporal interactions and development. The study area applied is Greater Bangalore, for the period from 1973 to 2015. Further water bodies depletion, vegetation depletion, tree cover were also analysed to obtain specific region based results effecting global climate and regional balance. Agents were integrated successfully into modelling aspects to understand and foresee the landscape pattern change in urban morphology. The results reveal built-up paved surfaces has expanded towards the outskirts and have expanded into the buffer regions around the city. Population growth, economic, industrial developments in the city core and transportation development are still the main causes of urban sprawl in the region. Agent based model are considered to be to the traditional models. Agent Based modelling approach as seen in this paper clearly shown its effectiveness in capturing the micro dynamics and influence in its neighbourhood mapping. Greenhouse gas emission inventory has shown important aspects such as domestic sector to be one of the major impact categories in the region. Further tree cover reduced drastically and is evident from the statistics and determines that if city is in verge of creating a chaos in terms of human health and desertification. Study concludes that integration of remote sensing, GIS, and agent based modelling offers an excellent opportunity to explore the spatio-temporal variation and visulaisation of sprawling metropolitan

  10. Climate Change Studies over Bangalore using Multi-source Remote Sensing Data and GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    B, S.; Gouda, K. C.; Laxmikantha, B. P.; Bhat, N.

    2014-12-01

    Urbanization is a form of metropolitan growth that is a response to often bewildering sets of economic, social, and political forces and to the physical geography of an area. Some of the causes of the sprawl include - population growth, economy, patterns of infrastructure initiatives like the construction of roads and the provision of infrastructure using public money encouraging development. The direct implication of such urban sprawl is the change in land use and land cover of the region. In this study the long term climate data from multiple sources like NCEP reanalysis, IMD observations and various satellite derived products from MAIRS, IMD, ERSL and TRMM are considered and analyzed using the developed algorithms for the better understanding of the variability in the climate parameters over Bangalore. These products are further mathematically analyzed to arrive at desired results by extracting land surface temperature (LST), Potential evapo-transmission (PET), Rainfall, Humidity etc. Various satellites products are derived from NASA (National Aeronautics Space Agency), Indian meteorological satellites and global satellites are helpful in massive study of urban issues at global and regional scale. Climate change analysis is well studied by using either single source data such as Temperature or Rainfall from IMD (Indian Meteorological Department) or combined data products available as in case of MAIRS (Monsoon Asia Integrated Regional Scale) program to get rainfall at regional scale. Finally all the above said parameters are normalized and analyzed with the help of various open source available software's for pre and post processing our requirements to obtain desired results. A sample of analysis i.e. the Inter annual variability of annual averaged Temperature over Bangalore is presented in figure 1, which clearly shows the rising trend of the temperature (0.06oC/year). Also the Land use and land cover (LULC) analysis over Bangalore, Day light hours from

  11. The linkages of anthropogenic emissions and meteorology in the rapid increase of particulate matter at a foothill city in the Arawali range of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Ravi; Beig, G.; Jaaffrey, S. N. A.

    2014-03-01

    The city of Udaipur (24.58°N, 73.68°E) in the province of Rajasthan in the Western part of India has a special significance as it is surrounded by the Arawali mountain ranges on one side and desert on the other side. It is located around the foothills of the rocky Arawali range. It is on the world map due to its tourist attraction. The changing pattern in particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10) during the past three years indicates an alarming increasing trend, posing a threat to its environment & tourism sector which regulates its economy to a period during the monsoon and distribution of particulate matter is found to be governed by the meteorology and changes the trend. The level of PM10, which was already above the threshold level in 2010, further increased in 2012. The trend is found to be rapid during the months of October & November where an increase by 37% is observed in 3 years. The level of PM2.5, which is the most hazardous for respiratory system diseases, has now started to cross the ambient air quality standards set by the World Health Organization. The impact is significant during winter when the inversion layer is down due to colder temperature and foreign tourists are a peak giving rise an increased morbidity rate. The linkages of local weather with an anthropogenically induced trend and long range transport of pollutants have been outlined.

  12. Consumption patterns and levels among households with HIV positive members and economic impoverishment due to medical spending in Pune city, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Varun; Krishnaswamy, Divya; Mulay, Sanjeevanee

    2015-01-01

    HIV infection poses a serious threat to the economy of a household. Out of pocket (OOP) health spending can be prohibitive and can drag households below poverty level. Based on the data collected from a cross-sectional survey of 401 households with HIV+ members in Pune city, India, this paper examines the consumption levels and patterns among households, and comments on the economic impoverishment resulting from OOP medical spending. Analysis reveals that households with HIV members spend a major portion of their monthly consumption expenditure on food items. Medical expenditure constitutes a large portion of their total consumption spending. Expenditure on children's education constitutes a minor proportion of total monthly spending. A high proportion of medical expenditure has a bearing on the economic condition of households with HIV members. Poverty increases by 20% among the studied HIV households when OOP health spending is adjusted. It increases 18% among male-headed households and 26% among female-headed households. The results reiterate the need of greater support from the government in terms of accessibility and affordability of health care to save households with HIV members from economic catastrophe.

  13. Monitoring of Lead (Pb) Pollution in Soils and Plants Irrigated with Untreated Sewage Water in Some Industrialized Cities of Punjab, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikka, R; Nayyar, V K

    2016-04-01

    Soil and plant samples were collected from sewage and tubewell irrigated sites from three industrially different cities of Punjab (India) viz. Ludhiana, Jalandhar and Malerkotla. The extent of lead (Pb) pollution was assessed with respect to background concentration of tubewell irrigation. In sewage irrigated surface soil layer (0-15 cm), the extent of Pb accumulation was 4.61, 4.20 and 2.26 times higher than those receiving tubewell irrigation sites in Ludhiana, Jalandhar and Malerkotla, respectively. Multiple regression analysis showed that soil pH, organic carbon, calcium carbonate and clay were significant soil parameters explaining the variation in available soil Pb. The mean Pb content in plants receiving sewage irrigation was 4.56, 5.48 and 2.72 times higher than tubewell irrigation in Ludhiana, Jalandhar and Malerkotla, respectively. The content of Pb in plants receiving sewage irrigation revealed that, assuming a weekly consumption of 500-1000 g of vegetables grown on sewage irrigated soils by an adult of 70 kg body weight, the Pb intake may far exceed the World Health Organization proposed tolerable weekly intake of Pb.

  14. Prevalence of anterior dental trauma and its associated factors among children aged 3-5 years in Jaipur City, India – A cross sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalissery, Vemina P.; Marwah, Nikhil; Jafer, Mohammed; Chalisserry, Elna P.; Bhatt, Tanmay; Anil, Sukumaran

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To study the prevalence of anterior dental trauma and its associated factors among 800 preschool children aged 3 to 5 years in Jaipur City, Rajasthan, India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among children aged 3-5 years, who were enrolled in various private and public schools in Jaipur. Parents were asked to fill a form addressing socio-demographic data and clinical examinations were performed by a single dentist. Traumatic dental injuries (TDI) were assessed and recorded based on Andreasen's classification. Associated factors such as sex, socioeconomic status (SES), and the type of injury were also analyzed. The data were analyzed statistically using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software (version 20). Results: An overall 10.2% prevalence of TDI was observed among the study population. TDI were reported to be more among male children (11.87%) compared to female children (8.14%). Enamel fractures (69%) were the most prevalent type of anterior dental trauma. Upper central incisors were the most frequently affected. The SES of the parents had little influence on the prevalence of TDI. Conclusions: The prevalence rate of dental trauma among children aged 3-5 years was 10.2%. Associated factors, such as SES, were observed to be not significantly correlated to dental trauma among the studied preschoolers. PMID:27195225

  15. Earthquake hazard in northeast India – A seismic microzonation approach with typical case studies from Sikkim Himalaya and Guwahati city

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sankar Kumar Nath; Kiran Kumar Singh Thingbaijam; Abhishek Raj

    2008-11-01

    A comprehensive analytical as well as numerical treatment of seismological, geological, geomorphological and geotechnical concepts has been implemented through microzonation projects in the northeast Indian provinces of Sikkim Himalaya and Guwahati city, representing cases of contrasting geological backgrounds – a hilly terrain and a predominantly alluvial basin respectively. The estimated maximum earthquakes in the underlying seismic source zones, demarcated in the broad northeast Indian region, implicates scenario earthquakes of 8.3 and 8.7 to the respective study regions for deterministic seismic hazard assessments. The microzonation approach as undertaken in the present analyses involves multi-criteria seismic hazard evaluation through thematic integration of contributing factors. The geomorphological themes for Sikkim Himalaya include surface geology, soil cover, slope, rock outcrop and landslide integrated to achieve geological hazard distribution. Seismological themes, namely surface consistent peak ground acceleration and predominant frequency were, thereafter, overlaid on and added with the geological hazard distribution to obtain the seismic hazard microzonation map of the Sikkim Himalaya. On the other hand, the microzonation study of Guwahati city accounts for eight themes – geological and geomorphological, basement or bedrock, landuse, landslide, factor of safety for soil stability, shear wave velocity, predominant frequency, and surface consistent peak ground acceleration. The five broad qualitative hazard classifications – `low’, `moderate’, `high’, `moderate high’ and `very high’ could be applied in both the cases, albeit with different implications to peak ground acceleration variations. These developed hazard maps offer better representation of the local specific seismic hazard variation in the terrain.

  16. Oral health status and treatment needs among 12- and 15-year-old government and private school children in Shimla city, Himachal Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shailee, Fotedar; Girish, M. Sogi; Kapil, R. Sharma; Nidhi, Pruthi

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the dental caries, periodontal health, and malocclusion of school children aged 12 and 15 years in Shimla city and to compare them in government and private schools. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study of 12- and 15-year-old children in government and private schools was conducted in Shimla city, Himachal Pradesh, India. A sample of 1011 school children (both males and females) was selected by a two-stage cluster sampling method. Clinical recordings of dental caries and malocclusion were done according to World Health Organization diagnostic criteria 1997. Periodontal health was assessed by Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs index. The data collected was analyzed by SPSS package 13. The statistical tests used were t-test and Chi-square tests. Results: The prevalence of dental caries was 32.6% and 42.2% at 12 and 15 years, respectively. At the12 years of age, the mean decayed, missing, filled teeth was 0.62 ± 1.42 and it was 1.06 ± 2.93 at 15 years of age. Females had higher level of caries than males at both the ages. At both ages, mean of decayed teeth was statistically higher in government schools as compared with private schools. Children in government schools had significantly less number of mean filled teeth at both ages as compared with private schools. The healthy component of gingiva was present in higher percentage of children in private schools as compared with government schools at both the age groups. The prevalence of malocclusion among the 12- year-old (58.1%) was more as compared with that among the 15-year-old (53.5%). Conclusion: The caries experience of 12- and 15-year-old children was low but the prevalence of gingivitis and malocclusion was quite high. Effective oral health promotion strategies need to be implemented to improve the oral health of school children further in Shimla city. PMID:24478980

  17. Prevalence and Assessment of Clinical Management of Sexually Transmitted Infections among Female Sex Workers in Two Cities of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Das

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Control of sexually transmitted infections (STIs among female sex workers (FSWs is an important strategy to reduce HIV transmission. A study was conducted to determine the prevalence and assess the current clinical management of STIs in India. Methods. FSWs attending three clinics for regular checkups or symptoms were screened for study eligibility. A behavioral questionnaire was administered, clinical examination performed, and laboratory samples collected. Results. 417 study participants reported a mean number of 4.9 (SD 3.5 commercial clients in the last week. 14.6% reported anal sex in the last three months. Consistent condom use with commercial and regular partners was 70.1% and 17.5%, respectively. The prevalence of gonorrhea was 14.1%, chlamydia 16.1%, and trichomoniasis 31.1% with a third of all infections being asymptomatic. Syphilis seropositivity was 10.1%. Conclusions. At study sites, presumptive treatment for gonorrhea, chlamydia, and syphilis screening should continue. Presumptive treatment for trichomoniasis should be considered. Consistent condom use and partner treatment need to be reemphasized.

  18. Main determinants of preschool education in the industrial and the bay location of Cartagena of Indias City

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    Mabel Escorcia Muñoz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The pre-school education corresponds to the education offered to the boys and to the girls with fewer ages to five years, for their integral development in the biological, cognitive, psychomotor, socio-emotional and spiritual aspects, with pedagogic and recreate socialization experiences. The children who join to first of primary the industrial locality and of the bay, present academic differences depending on the establishments where they did their pre-school one. The study was to compare the community education project in Children's Homes ICBF with the educational plan of the school officials of the Ministry of Education in the Industrial locality and bay in Cartagena de Indias. The determinants found to affect the academic development of children who enter elementary school, were the nutrition, health, emotional, social and pedagogical conditions necessary and sufficient infrastructure. Preschool education in the psychological development of the child is important and essential, the interaction of family and community, the activities within the institution, where the stimuli help shape values for their integral development. 

  19. Study on validity of a rapid diagnostic test kit versus light microscopy for malaria diagnosis in Ahmedabad city, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, S; Puwar, B; Patel, V; Bhatt, G; Kulkarni, S; Fancy, M

    2014-05-01

    Light microscopy of blood smears for diagnosis of malaria in the field has several limitations, notably delays in diagnosis. This study in Ahmedabad in Gujarat State, India, evaluated the diagnostic performance of a rapid diagnostic test for malaria (SD Bioline Malaria Ag P.f/Pan) versus blood smear examination as the gold standard. All fever cases presenting at 13 urban health centres were subjected to rapid diagnostic testing and thick and thin blood smears. A total of 677 cases with fever were examined; 135 (20.0%) tested positive by rapid diagnostic test and 86 (12.7%) by blood smear. The sensitivity of the rapid diagnostic test for malaria was 98.8%, specificity was 91.5%, positive predictive value 63.0% and negative predictive value 99.8%. For detection of Plasmodium falciparum the sensitivity of rapid diagnostic test was 100% and specificity was 97.3%. The results show the acceptability of the rapid test as an alternative to light microscopy in the field setting.

  20. Pattern of tobacco use among primary school teachers in Belgaum city, India – A Cross Sectional Study

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    Prashant Savadi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The consumption of tobacco related products by the school teachers is a bad habit because it sends a wrong signal to young minds of students. It is injurious to health and is a waste of money and also is a wrong role model for the students.Objectives To find out the prevalence of pattern of tobacco use among primary school teachers in Belgaum city and to determine the factors influencing the use of tobacco among primary school teachers.Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using random sampling technique among 400 teachers aged 21 to 60 years from 78 primary schools in Belgaum city during March to December 2009.Results Overall, prevalence of any form of tobacco use among primary school teachers was 14.50%. Only male teachers 46.03% used tobacco. 37.93% were using smoking type of tobacco, 46.56% used smokeless & 15.51%were using both types of tobacco products. Most of the users initiated tobacco use by 16 to 20 years of age. A substantial number of teachers initiated tobacco use for fun, imitation and peer pressure. 58.33% of the teachers were using tobacco due to un-satisfaction from profession, 37.50% due to family problems.Conclusion High proportion of male teachers used tobacco than female teachers, because of social norm. Almost all the teachers consciously avoided tobacco use in school premises. Students will be encouraged to start using tobacco, if they observe use of tobacco products by teachers who are the role models for students. It was concluded that it would be beneficial to conduct educational programs and seminars encouraging tobacco cessation to this professional group, along with school children.

  1. Impacts of a participatory approach to assess sustainable sewage treatment technologies for urban fringe of Surat city in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vashi, A N; Shah, N C

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the assessment of the sustainability of a number of different sewage treatment technologies by means of a multi-criteria, participatory method for a scattered settlement of urban fringe of Surat. The special efforts have been made for the broad participation to achieve stronger democracy, better quality of the end product, and a more effective process. The mere participation of technocrats and bureaucrats certainly lead to the greater efficiency in working methods. However, the ultimate goal of sustainable developments of such technologies could not be reached in absence of democratic participation and social learning. Keeping this important aspect in view for assessment of sustainability, the detailed study was conducted in the presence of policy makers and stakeholders, academicians, technical experts, finance managers and NGO, to find out sustainability criteria and indicators for three different sewage treatment technologies: (A) Conventional Activated Sludge Process (B) Extended Aeration System, and (C) Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) Reactor followed by Aerated Lagoon and Polishing Pond. Technologies were compared according to four criteria subdivided into twenty operational indicators. Criteria and indicators were evaluated as in a weighted-scale matrix. In India, sustainability criteria used in this type of comparisons are often restricted to a limited set of environmental impacts and financial costs but in this study additional criteria were evaluated including economic, social, and technical aspects. Based on the values assigned by the panel, the Sustainability Index (SI) was calculated for each technology. According to the SI and a predefined scale, sustainability was medium for options A and B, whereas high for option C. The purpose of this study is to provide a basis for the selection of a particular technology based on a rational and democratic assessment of its contribution to sustainability in the local and global context.

  2. A Cross Sectional Study to Assess Socio Economic Complications of Adolescent Pregnancy in a Metropolitan City of Central India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachna Dubey, Sanjay Dixit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available "Background: Teenage pregnancy is not new to this century which is pregnancy in a female under the age of 20 (when the pregnancy ends. Half of all the teenage births occur in just 7 countries, namely Bangladesh, Brazil, Congo, Ethiopia, Nigeria, India and USA. Present study assessed the prevalence of adolescent pregnancies and correlate with their social background, also to study the possible socio-economic problems specific to pregnant adolescents. Methods: The cross sectional study is conducted at Hukumchand hospital, District hospital and MGM medical college from 1st October 2011 to 1st September 2012. The delivered mothers were visited daily and detailed history was taken in a pre-designed, semi-open pro-forma. Study Group include Adolescent mothers (Study group 14-20 years & Mothers 20-28 years (Control group. Result: 12.05% of the total deliveries were teenage pregnancy. 31.74% were adolescent deliveries out of the total primi-gravida. 77 (43.75% adolescent mothers were found in the age group of 17-19 years. In non-adolescent mothers 68 (38.64% beneficiaries were in 21-23 years. Mean age of delivery in adolescent age was 18.45 years as compared to 22.28 years in control group. Only 41 (11.65% beneficiaries were graduates and above. Most beneficiaries were in the Socio Economic Status Class III and IV. 101 (57.39% adolescent mothers had alcoholic/addict fathers as compared to 54 (30.68% in non-adolescent mothers. Conclusion: Most of adolescent mothers had low education, rural background and belonged to low socioeconomic status with history of both pre and post marital sex discrimination."

  3. Socio-hydrology of the Thippagondanahalli catchment in India - from common property to open-access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, V.; Thomas, B.; Lele, S.

    2014-12-01

    Developing countries face difficult challenge as they must adapt to an uncertain climate future even as land use, demography and the composition of their economies are rapidly changing. Achieving a secure water future requires making reliable predictions of water cycle dynamics in future years. This necessitates understanding societal feedbacks and predicting how these will change in the future. We explore this "Predictions Under Change" problem in the Thippagondanahalli (TG Halli) catchment of the Arkavathy Basin in South India. Here, river flows have declined sharply over the last thirty years. The TG Halli Reservoir that once supplied 148 MLD to Bangalore city only yields 30 MLD today. Our analyses suggest that these declines cannot be attributed to climatic factors; groundwater depletion is probably the major cause. We analysed the interlinked human and hydrologic factors and feedbacks between them that have resulted in the present situation using extensive primary data, including weather stations, stream gaging, soil moisture sensing, household surveys, oral histories, interviews, and secondary data including census data, crop reports, satellite imagery and historical hydro-climatic data. Our analysis suggests that several factors have contributed to a continuous shift from surface to groundwater in the TG Halli catchment. First, cheap borewell technology has made groundwater more accessible. Second, as demand for high-value produce from the city and wealth increased, farmers became increasingly willing to invest in risky borewell drilling. Third, differences in governance in groundwater (open access) versus surface water (community managed tanks) hastened the break-down of community managed water systems allowing unchecked exploitation of groundwater. Finally, the political economy of water spurred groundwater development through provision of free electricity and "watershed development" programmes.

  4. Thomson Reuters innovation award research brief: the use of patent analytics in measuring innovation in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stembridge, Bob

    2009-09-01

    There are six different factors that can be used to assess the inventiveness of an organization and to determine how efficiently they apply invention resources to innovate effectively. This research briefing describes the techniques used to measure certain aspects of patenting activity by Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) headquartered in India. The techniques are used to identify the most innovative SMEs in India in order to determine the winners of the Innovation Award 2009 from Thomson Reuters, awarded at InfoVision 2009 in Bangalore.

  5. Proportion of depression and its determinants among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in various tertiary care hospitals in Mangalore city of South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Depression is found to be common among patients with diabetes and it is associated with poor outcomes in disease control. This study was carried out to find out the proportion and determinants associated with depression among patients with established type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM in various tertiary care hospitals in Mangalore city of south India. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in one government and three private tertiary care hospitals in Mangalore in December 2010. All consenting patients with confirmed diagnosis of T2DM were interviewed and screened for depression by administering the 9-item PRIME-MD Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9. Results: Of the 230 T2DM patients, 119 (51.7% were males. The mean age of all participants was 53.61 ± 10.7 years. The median duration of T2DM was found to be 12.1 ± 7.35 years. Among the participants, 71 (30.9% met the criteria for moderate depression, 33 (14.3% for severe depression, and the remaining 126 (54.8% had no clinically significant depression. Only 26 (11.3% patients were already aware that they were depressed, of whom just 3 had taken medical consultation. Among the risk factors, depression was found to be significantly associated with older age, female gender, low socioeconomic status, unskilled and retired employment status, having complications due to T2DM or comorbidities like hypertension and coronary artery disease, being overweight and being on insulin syringe injections. Conclusion: This study found a high proportion of depression among patients with T2DM. Therefore the care of individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM should include the screening and possible treatment of depression in order to achieve and sustain treatment goals.

  6. Sources of chemical species in rainwater during monsoon and non-monsoonal periods over two mega cities in India and dominant source region of secondary aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, P. S. P.; Tiwari, S.; Matwale, J. L.; Pervez, S.; Tunved, P.; Safai, P. D.; Srivastava, A. K.; Bisht, D. S.; Singh, S.; Hopke, P. K.

    2016-12-01

    Samples of rainwater (RW) were collected to characterize the chemistry and sources in two representative megacities at Pune (Southwest) and Delhi (Northern) India from 2011 to 2014 across two seasons: monsoon (MN) and non-monsoon (NMN). Collected RW samples were analyzed for major chemical constituents (F-, Cl-, SO42-, NO3-, NH4+, Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+), pH and conductivity. In addition, bicarbonate (HCO3-) was also estimated. The mean pH values of the RW were >6 at Pune and pollution effects in these Indian mega cities. Both the Ca2+ and SO42- were the dominant ions, accounting for 43% (Pune) and 54% (Delhi) of the total ions. The sum of measured ions during the NMN period was greater than the NM period by a factor of 1.5 for Pune (278.4: NM and 412.1: NMN μeq/l) and a factor of about 2.5 for Delhi (406 and 1037.7 μeq/l). The contributions of SO42- and NO3- to the RW acidity were ∼40% and 60%, respectively, at Pune and correspondingly, 36% and 64% at Delhi. The concentrations of secondary aerosols (SO42-and NO3-) were higher by a factor of two and three when the air masses were transported to Pune from the continental side. At Delhi, the concentrations of SO42-, NO3-, Ca2+, and Mg2+ were significantly higher when the air masses arrive from Punjab, Haryana, and Pakistan indicating the greater atmospheric pollution over the Indo-Gangetic Plain. Positive matrix factorization was applied to the source apportionment of the deposition fluxes of these ions. Three factors were obtained for Pune and four for Delhi. The sources at Pune were secondary aerosols from fossil fuel combustion, soil dust, and marine, whereas, at Delhi, the sources were soil, fossil fuel combustion, biomass burning, and industrial chlorine.

  7. Detection of Salmonella spp. from chevon, mutton and its environment in retail meat shops in Anand city (Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. P. Makwana

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was (i To attempt isolation and identification of Salmonella species from samples. (ii Serotyping of Salmonella isolates. (iii Detection of virulence factor associated genes by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Materials and Methods: A total of 284 samples comprised of chevon and mutton (112 samples each as well as 60 samples (20 each of retail meat shops environment samples viz. Butchers’ hands, knives and log swabs were collected from the retail meat shops in and around Anand City under aseptic precautions. Rappaport-vassiliadis soy bean meal broth and tetrathionate broth was used for the enrichment of all the samples and inoculation was done on brilliant green agar and xylose lysine deoxycholate agar. This was followed by the confirmation of isolates using biochemical tests. For the serotyping, isolates were sent to the National Salmonella and Escherichia Centre, Central Research Institute, Kasauli, Himachal Pradesh. Detection of virulence genes was performed by PCR technique using previously reported primer. Result: Of 284 meats and retail meat shops environment samples, 13 (4.58% samples were found positive for Salmonella. It was interesting to know that incidence of Salmonella was more in mutton (6.25% than chevon (3.57%. In case of meat shop environmental samples 1 (5.00% sample observed positive for Salmonella separately among the butchers’ hands and knives swabs (Each of 20 samples examined. Out of 13, eleven isolates detected as Salmonella Typhimurium, whereas only two isolates were detected as Salmonella Enteritidis. All Salmonella isolates possess invA and stn genes, whereas nine isolates had a presence of spvR gene while only five of the isolates revealed the presence of spvC gene as shown by in vitro detection of virulence genes by PCR. Conclusion: Therefore, might be suggested that the good hygiene practices and effective control measures should be taken to encourage clean meat production with

  8. The Bangalore Challenge: Case Studies of the Social Construction of Technology in Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byker, Erik Jon

    2012-01-01

    As India aspires to become the information and communication technology (ICT) leader in the world, the education of its children is a primary concern. While India's policymakers expect ICT to usher in promising education changes, there is a limited understanding of how computers are used and negotiated in India's schools. This dissertation is an…

  9. Spatial Magnetic Analysis of Dusts from Sealed Urban Surfaces for Estimation of Particulate Matter Accumulation in the Mega-city of Mumbai, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathani, B.; Blaha, U.; Das, P. K.; Kannan, D.

    2011-12-01

    perpendicular to a busy inner city road in Mumbai, revealing MS values of ~650×10^-5 SI near the road and background values of ~500×10^-5 SI at a distance of ~10 m. Comparison of curbside MS values in Mumbai (India) and Tübingen (Germany) reveals similarities on the roadside accumulation patterns, at the same time showing significant differences in absolute MS values. The differences go along with different MS background values due to different geological settings, while climatic zones and different standards in road traffic play an additional role. In general, curbside zones seem to pose higher health risk to humans due to increased exposition to harmful dust particles from combustion processes, anthropogenic as well as natural dusts as seen from the roadside deposits. Test measurements with a quartz sand collector, at the curbside of a low traffic road nearby dust producing quarries in Navi Mumbai, reveal that moving vehicles re-suspend significant amounts of dusts, causing significant increase of MS rapidly.

  10. India's "Democracy"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Dao: After independence, India basically inherited the political system set up by British colonial rule. After half century's transformation, a "democratic" political system with "India's characteristics" has gradually taken shape in India.

  11. MYCOLOGICAL PROFILE OF DERMATOPHYTES ISOLATED FROM CLINICAL SAMPLES IN KIMS HOSPITAL, BANGALORE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The dermatophytoses constitute a group of superficial fungal infections of keratinised tissue - epidermis, hair and nails, caused by a closely related group of filamentous fungi, the dermatophytes. OBJECTIVES: Isolation and speciation of dermatophytes by culture and to determine its prevalence. METHODOLOGY: The study was conducted from January 2012 - December 2013 at Kempegowda institute of medical sciences, Bangalore. All clinically suspected cases coming to the microbiology department where subjected to mycological work - up. Specimens like skin scraping, hair, and nail were collected and microscopically examined using 10%, 20% and 40% KOH respectively for fungal filaments. Culture was carried out using Sabouraud dextrose agar medium with and without cycloheximide. The growth in the culture tube was speciated based on the macroscopic and microscopic findings (with Lactophenol cotton blue staining. RESULTS: Total cases in the two year period were 609. The infection was found to be common in adults aged 20 - 30 years, the male to female ratio is 1.2:1. The KOH positives were 491(80%, and culture positives were 471(77%. Of the positive cultures Trichophyton rubrum (35% was the common isolate followed by Trichophyton mentagrophytes (17%, and Epidermophyton floccosum (6%. CONCLUSION : In the present study the most common clinical presentation is Tinea corporis followed by Tinea unguium and Tinea cruris and the common isolate was T.rubrum. The present study was undertaken to determine the clinical pattern of dermatophytosis and the common species that was prevalent here.

  12. Contested urban commons: mapping the transition of a lake to a sports stadium in Bangalore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hita Unnikrishnan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Urban expansion is a global phenomenon during which manycommon spaces, often with complex histories of governance and stewardshipsbecome redefined within prevailing notions of urbanity. However, such commonsoften pose challenges that result in conflict with respect to their use, management,and ownership. In this paper, we use the example of a lake in the South Indianmegapolis of Bengaluru (formerly Bangalore to look at different changing notionsof urban commons pictured against a backdrop of rapid urbanization, migration,and landscape change. We look at conflicts at each period of change and argue thatmany of these have shaped the landscape of today and perhaps may be responsiblefor current notions of ownership associated with the landscape. We combinelandscape change analysis through geospatial means along with official archivalrecords, oral narratives, and secondary information sources to describe gradualloss of an urban commons. We then pose that knowledge of historical contexts ofaccess to ecosystem services, exclusion, conflict, and the mechanisms of conflictresolution around urban commons can help understand trends in contemporarymanagement of commons. This knowledge would help shape more equitable andecologically robust policy frameworks that govern these vulnerable resources.

  13. Medication adherence, work performance and self-esteem among psychiatric patients attending psychosocial rehabilitation services at Bangalore, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sailaxmi Gandhi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Work benefits mental health in innumerable ways. Vocational rehabilitation can enhance self-esteem. Medication adherence can improve work performance and thereby the individuals′ self-esteem. Aim: To test the hypothesis that there would be a significant correlation between medication adherence, work performance and self-esteem. Setting and Design: A quantitative, descriptive correlational research design was adopted to invite patients attending psychiatric rehabilitation services to participate in the research. Material and Methods: Data was collected from a convenience sample of 60 subjects using the ′Medication Adherence Rating scale′, ′Griffiths work behaviour scale′ and the ′Rosenberg′s Self-esteem scale′. Statistical analysis used: Analysis was done using spss18 with descriptive statistics, Pearsons correlation coefficient and multiple regression analysis. Results: There were 36 males and 24 females who participated in this study. The subjects had good mean medication adherence of 8.4 ± 1.5 with median of 9.00, high mean self-esteem of 17.65 ± 2.97 with median of 18.0 and good mean work performance of 88.62 ± 22.56 with median of 93.0. Although weak and not significant, there was a positive correlation (r = 0.22, P = 0.103 between medication adherence and work performance; positive correlation between (r = 0.25, P = 0.067 medication adherence and self-esteem; positive correlation between (r = 0.136, P = 0.299 work performance and self-esteem. Multiple regression analysis showed no significant predictors for medication adherence, work performance and self-esteem among patients with psychiatric illness. Conclusions: Medication monitoring and strengthening of work habit can improve self-esteem thereby, strengthening hope of recovery from illness.

  14. Knowledge and attitude towards family planning practices among non-acceptors in a rural area in Bangalore, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemavarneshwari S.

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: Most common reason for non-acceptance of family planning was male child preference (26.8%. There is a need for behaviour change communication for eligible couples regarding family planning adoption among the non-acceptors highlighting the importance of small family, happy family. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(12.000: 3611-3613

  15. International cosmic ray conference, 18th, Bangalore, India, August 22-September 3, 1983, papers. Volumes 1-14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durgaprasad, N.; Ramadurai, S.; Ramana Murthy, P.V.; Rao, M.V.S.; Sivaprasad, K.

    1983-01-01

    The generation, propagation, and detection of cosmic rays are discussed in reviews and reports of theoretical and observational investigations. Individual volumes are devoted to X-rays and G gamma rays, high-energy physics, models of cosmic-ray origin and galactic interactions, muons and neutrinos, extensive air showers, solar particles, modulation and geophysical effects, and observation techniques, for a total of over 900 contributions. Late papers and invited and rapporteur reviews are included in four additional volumes, grouped under the same rubrics.

  16. Shear strength characteristics of mechanically biologically treated municipal solid waste (MBT-MSW) from Bangalore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivakumar Babu, G.L., E-mail: gls@civil.iisc.ernet.in [Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Lakshmikanthan, P., E-mail: lakshmikanthancp@gmail.com [Centre for Sustainable Technologies (CST), Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Santhosh, L.G., E-mail: lgsanthu2006@gmail.com [Centre for Sustainable Technologies (CST), Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Shear strength properties of mechanically biologically treated municipal solid waste. • Effect of unit weight and particle size on the shear strength of waste. • Effect of particle size on the strength properties. • Stiffness ratio and the strength ratio of MSW. - Abstract: Strength and stiffness properties of municipal solid waste (MSW) are important in landfill design. This paper presents the results of comprehensive testing of shear strength properties of mechanically biologically treated municipal solid waste (MBT-MSW) in laboratory. Changes in shear strength of MSW as a function of unit weight and particle size were investigated by performing laboratory studies on the MSW collected from Mavallipura landfill site in Bangalore. Direct shear tests, small scale and large scale consolidated undrained and drained triaxial tests were conducted on reconstituted compost reject MSW samples. The triaxial test results showed that the MSW samples exhibited a strain-hardening behaviour and the strength of MSW increased with increase in unit weight. Consolidated drained tests showed that the mobilized shear strength of the MSW increased by 40% for a unit weight increase from 7.3 kN/m{sup 3} to 10.3 kN/m{sup 3} at 20% strain levels. The mobilized cohesion and friction angle ranged from 5 to 9 kPa and 8° to 33° corresponding to a strain level of 20%. The consolidated undrained tests exhibited reduced friction angle values compared to the consolidated drained tests. The friction angle increased with increase in the unit weight from 8° to 55° in the consolidated undrained tests. Minor variations were found in the cohesion values. Relationships for strength and stiffness of MSW in terms of strength and stiffness ratios are developed and discussed. The stiffness ratio and the strength ratio of MSW were found to be 10 and 0.43.

  17. Digital romance in the Indian city

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Arora (Payal); A. Rangaswamy (Arvind)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The Indian city is no Paris. Far from being a city of love, it spells of crowds, chaos and confusion. Within desperately strained urban infrastructures lie grey zones, grey markets, and grey practices. In Mumbai alone, the most populous city in India of 30 million, more

  18. Urban Air Pollution in India

    OpenAIRE

    Narain, Urvashi

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the main efforts undertaken to stem the growth of air pollution in Indian cities. We begin by examining trends in air quality across the country. This is followed by a description of the legal and institutional framework and policies for controlling air pollution in India. Next we report on efforts to improve air quality in Delhi. We conclude by describing recent actions to control air pollution in cities other than Delhi.

  19. An epidemiological study on pattern of thoraco-abdominal injuries sustained in fatal road traffic accidents of Bangalore: Autopsy-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Bayapa Reddy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The statistical profile reflects a global estimate of 5.1 million deaths in 2000, which was due to injuries that accounted for 10% of deaths due to all causes. Out of this, a quarter of injury-related deaths occurred in the South-East Asian region. Road Traffic Accident (RTA is one among the top 5 causes of morbidity and mortality in South-East Asian countries. Most common cause of blunt abdominal trauma in India is road traffic accident followed by pedestrian accidents, abdominal blows, and fall from heights. Aims: To analyze the epidemiology and pattern of fatal thoraco-abdominal injuries in road traffic accidents. Materials and Methods: An autopsy-based cross-sectional study conducted. A purposive sampling technique was applied to select the study sample of 100 post-mortems of road traffic accident between November 2008 and May 2010 subjected to medico-legal autopsy at the department of Forensic Medicine, KIMS Hospital Bangalore. Results: The majority of the victims were aged 21 to 40 years, 50 (50.0%, most of the victims were male 92 (92.0%; and male/female ratio was 11.5:1. Commonest offending agents in heavy motor vehicles were 54 (54.0%. Bony cage sustained injuries were observed in 71; out of this, fractures of ribs were observed in 45 (63.3% victims, clavicle in 14 (19.7%, sternum was 6 (8.4%, and vertebrae 6 (8.4% of fatal road traffic accidents. Internal thoracic injuries were observed in 26 cases. Among internal thoracic injuries, lungs were the most commonly involved organ 24 (92.3% followed by the heart 2 (7.6%. Lung sustained more lacerations 19 (79.1% than contusions 5 (20.8%. Internal abdominal injuries were observed in 49 cases. In road traffic accidents, the most commonly injured abdominal organs were solid organs such as liver 16 (32.6% followed by spleen 9 (18.3%. Conclusions: Majority of the times in road traffic accidents, young and productive males were injured or lost their life. This study may help the

  20. The role of non-governmental organizations in residential solid waste management: a case study of Puducherry, a coastal city of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajamanikam, Ramamoorthy; Poyyamoli, Gopalsamy; Kumar, Sunil; R, Lekshmi

    2014-09-01

    Poorly planned and uncontrolled urbanization in India has caused a variety of negative, often irreversible, environmental impacts. The impacts appear to be unavoidable and not easily mitigable due to the mounting public health problems caused by non-segregation of solid wastes at source and their subsequent improper management. Recently in India, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and other civil society organizations have increasingly started to get involved in improving waste management services. Municipal solid waste management being a governmental function, the contribution of NGOs in this field has not been well documented. This study highlights the activities and services of Shuddham, an NGO functioning in the town of Puducherry within the Union Territory of Puducherry in South India. The NGO program promoted much needed awareness and education, encouraged source separation, enhanced door-to-door collection, utilized wastes as raw materials and generated more job opportunities. Even though source separation prior to door-to-door collection is a relatively new concept, a significant percentage of residents (39%) in the study area participated fully, while a further 48% participated in the collection service. The average amount of municipal solid waste generated by residential units in the Raj Bhavan ward was 8582 kg/month of which 47% was recovered through active recycling and composting practices. The study describes the features and performance of NGO-mediated solid waste management, and evaluates the strengths and weaknesses as well as the opportunities and threats of this system to see whether this model can sustainably replace the low-performance conventional solid waste management in practice in the town of Puducherry. The experiences from this case study are expected to provide broad guidelines to better understand the role of NGOs and their contributions towards sustainable waste management practices in urban areas.

  1. Waste assimilative capacity of coastal waters along Mumbai mega city, west coast of India using MIKE-21 and WASP simulation models.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Renjith, V.; Vethamony, P.; Zainudin, Z.; VinodKumar, K.

    , K. Vinod Kumar1 1CSIR-National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa – 403 004, India 2Department of Biotechnology Engineering, International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM), Kuala Lumpur- 50728 *Corresponding author: Dr. P. Vethamony... - 73º 15′ E) of 330 x 330 grids having a resolution of 500m x 500m (Figure 1c). The model bathymetry was generated using ETOPO5 data obtained from the National Geophysical Data Center, USA for deep waters and digitized hydrographic chart data [49...

  2. Application of Remote Sensing and GIS in Landfill (waste Disposal) Site Selection and Environmental Impacts Assessment around Mysore City, Karnataka, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basavarajappa, T. H.

    2012-07-01

    Landfill site selection is a complex process involving geological, hydrological, environmental and technical parameters as well as government regulations. As such, it requires the processing of a good amount of geospatial data. Landfill site selection techniques have been analyzed for identifying their suitability. Application of Geographic Information System (GIS) is suitable to find best locations for such installations which use multiple criteria analysis. The use of Artificial intelligence methods, such as expert systems, can also be very helpful in solid waste planning and management. The waste disposal and its pollution around major cities in Karnataka are important problems affecting the environment. The Mysore is one of the major cities in Karnataka. The landfill site selection is the best way to control of pollution from any region. The main aim is to develop geographic information system to study the Landuse/ Landcover, natural drainage system, water bodies, and extents of villages around Mysore city, transportation, topography, geomorphology, lithology, structures, vegetation and forest information for landfill site selection. GIS combines spatial data (maps, aerial photographs, and satellite images) with quantitative, qualitative, and descriptive information database, which can support a wide range of spatial queries. For the Site Selection of an industrial waste and normal daily urban waste of a city town or a village, combining GIS with Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) will be more appropriate. This method is innovative because it establishes general indices to quantify overall environmental impact as well as individual indices for specific environmental components (i.e. surface water, groundwater, atmosphere, soil and human health). Since this method requires processing large quantities of spatial data. To automate the processes of establishing composite evaluation criteria, performing multiple criteria analysis and carrying out spatial clustering

  3. Learning Lessons from The Bangalore Urban Poverty Alleviation Programme: Participatory Approaches to Urban Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W. de Wit (Joop); A.N. Krishnamurthy

    2000-01-01

    textabstractThe present report contains the findings of a review study of the BUPP programme in the context of the SINPA programme. This study aims to be relevant in a practical, operational sense, first for the Bangladesh city of Tangail, then for other cities in Bangladesh which want to set up Urb

  4. CHARACTERISTICS OF CHILDHOOD VITILIGO IN A TERTIARY REFERRAL CENTRE IN BANGALORE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belliappa Pemmanda

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Vitiligo is an acquired depigmentary disorder, where approximately 50% of the cases have the onset of their disease prior to the age of 20 years and 25% prior to the age of 14 years. There is limited data on the clinical characteristics including associated cutaneous and ocular abnormalities in childhood vitiligo. AIMS To evaluate the various clinical characteristics and associated cutaneous and ocular abnormalities of childhood vitiligo. METHODS In a prospective, hospital based study over a period of two years; the epidemiology of childhood vitiligo was studied including associated cutaneous and ocular abnormalities. RESULTS Of the total 122 children studied, majority of them were females (n=75, 61.5%, and the rest males (n=47, 38.5%. The mean age of presentation was 8 years. Progression of lesions was present in 36 children (29.5%. The most common site of initial lesion was head and neck followed by lower limbs, genitalia, trunk and upper limbs. Eight children (6.6% had a history of trauma prior to onset of vitiligo. Eighteen children (14.8% had a family history of vitiligo. The most common type was vitiligo vulgaris seen in 45 children (36.9% followed by segmental type in 33 children (27%. Leukotrichia was seen in 51 children (41.8%, while Koebner phenomenon was observed in 30 children (24.6%. Fifteen children (12.3% had an associated cutaneous disorder. These associated disorders were halo nevi in 6 children (4.9%, alopecia areata in 3 children (2.5%, canities in 2 children (1.6%, and cafe au lait macule, nevus depigmentosus, lichen nitidus, lichen striatus in 1 each (0.8%. Thirty children (24.6% had an associated ocular disorder. These associated disorders were eyelid vitiligo in 26 children (21.3%, depigmented spots in the iris in 2 patients (1.6%, lamellar cataract and persistent papillary membrane in 1 each (0.8%. CONCLUSIONS Childhood vitiligo in Bangalore showed preponderance in females and greater number of children (72

  5. Bioindicator: A Comparative Study on Uptake and Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Some Plant`s Leaves of M.G. Road, Agra City, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Aslam

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to investigate the concentrations of some heavy metals (cobalt, cadmium, lead, nickel and chromium in the leaves of plants viz: neem (Azadirachta indica, kaner (Nerium oleander L., Ashok (Saraca indica L. and imli (Tamarindus indica around the polluted and non polluted sites near Agra region, India. Heavy metal concentrations in leaves were determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS. According to our findings the order of heavy metals in plants leaves were found in as follows: Co>Pb>Ni>Cr>Cd. Correlation between heavy metals in different plants at different sites were calculated for each metal separately and a positive correlation is observed. The presence of these metal ions in plant leaves explain the fact that these plant leaves are good bioindicators and can be used in air pollution monitoring studies in industrial areas.

  6. Job stress and hypertension in younger software professionals in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giridhara R Babu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: We report the results of a moderately large study (1071 to study the prevalence of hypertension among software professionals in the Indian subcontinent employed at 27 different companies in Bangalore. The focus of our study is on the age gradient of hypertension prevalence and exploring the association of workplace psychosocial predictors of hypertension. Materials and Methods: We used mixed methods sampling strategy, the first stage of which involved stratified sampling to select the clusters of software companies in Bangalore and the second stage involved selecting individual companies through purposive sampling. Job stress questionnaire was self-administered to collect information on job stress and blood pressure classification is done based on 7 th report of Joint National Commission. Results: The prevalence of hypertension among Information Technology/Information Technology Enabled Services professionals was 31% and pre-hypertension was 45.7%. The prevalence of stage-1 hypertension in the age group of 19-25 years was 18% and 23% in 26-30 years group while the prevalence of stage-2 hypertension in the age group of 19-25 years was 5% and 3% in 26-30 years group. The results indicate that dimensions of workplace autonomy and workplace environment are associated with hypertension. Conclusions: Hypertension affects the young urban Indians a decade earlier compared to available evidence. Furthermore, there is an association of autonomy and work-environment with hypertension. This signifies further exploration of underlying endocrine mechanisms. Funding: The funding UCLA International Research and Training Program and the Public Health Foundation of India provided the funding for this study. Results: The study was supported through Fogarty/UCLA International Research and Training Program (Grant Number: D43 TW000013 and the Public Health Foundation of India

  7. 500 Cities: City Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This city boundary shapefile was extracted from Esri Data and Maps for ArcGIS 2014 - U.S. Populated Place Areas. This shapefile can be joined to 500 Cities...

  8. Prevalence of domestic accidents in the rural field practice area of a medical college in Bangalore, Karnataka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N R Ramesh Masthi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Domestic accidents are worldwide health problems. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the rural field practice area of Kempegowda Institute of Medical Sciences, Bangalore. A total of 5419 individuals were selected from 30 clusters (villages using cluster sampling technique. Of the 5419 study population, 50.9% (2748 were males and the rest were females. The prevalence of domestic accidents in the rural community was found to be 9.6% (522 individuals who had sustained domestic accidents, was found to be more in females compared with males, which was statistically significant with P-value =0.0077 (Z value =9.09. Falls 43% (225 was the most common type of domestic accidents. The most common place of occurrence of domestic accidents was 46% (243 kitchen, most frequent site of injures in domestic accidents was upper limbs.

  9. Arsenic burden from cooked rice in the populations of arsenic affected and nonaffected areas and Kolkata City in West-Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Arup; Chowdhury, Uttam Kumar; Mondal, Debapriya; Das, Bhaskar; Nayak, Bishwajit; Ghosh, Arijit; Maity, Sumana; Chakraborti, Dipankar

    2009-05-01

    Arsenic contamination of rice irrigated with contaminated groundwater contributes to the additional arsenic burden of the population where rice is the staple food. In an arsenic contaminated area, an experimental field-based study done on nine fields elucidated significant positive correlation between arsenic in irrigation water and soil, irrigation water and rice, and also soil and rice both for Boro (groundwater) and Aman (rainwater) rice. Speciation studies showed that for both Boro (cooked) and Aman (raw) rice from contaminated area, 90% of total recovered arsenic was inorganic. In arsenic contaminated, uncontaminated villages, and Kolkata city, daily quantities of arsenic ingested by adult population from cooked rice diet are equivalent to 6.5, 1.8, and 2.3 L respectively, of drinking water containing WHO guideline value. In contaminated area, daily intake only from cooked Boro rice for 34.6% of the samples exceeded the WHO recommended MTDI value (2 microg In-As day(-1) kg(-1) body wt), whereas daily intake from Aman rice was below MTDI value as was rice from uncontaminated areas and Kolkata city. Our study indicated that employing traditional rice cooking method as followed in Bengal delta and using water having arsenic <3 microg L(-1) for cooking, actual exposure to arsenic from rice would be much less.

  10. Breast and cervical cancer risk in India: An update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita Asthana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast and cervical cancers are two major cancers among Indian women. Analysis of trends would help in planning and organization of programs for control of these cancers. Objective: The objective of the following study is to compute risk of breast and cervical cancers using updated data from different cancer registries of India and study of its trends. Materials and Methods: Data on incidence rates of breast and cervical cancers were obtained from six major cancer registries of India for the years 1982-2008 and from the recently initiated cancer registries, North Eastern Registries of India with a total of 21 registries. Annual percent change in incidence and risk in terms of one in number of women likely to develop cancer was estimated for both the cancers in various registries. Results: The annual percentage change in incidence ranged from 0.46 to 2.56 and −1.14 to −3.4 for breast and cervical cancers respectively. Trends were significant for both cancers in the registries of Chennai, Bangalore, Mumbai and Delhi except Barshi and Bhopal. North East region showed decrease in risk for breast and cervical cancers whereas increasing trend was observed in Imphal (West and for cervical cancer in Silchar. Conclusion: North Eastern region recorded decline in the incidence of breast cancer which is contrary to the observation in other registries, which showed increase in breast cancer and decline in cervical cancer incidences.

  11. Polychlorinated biphenyls in settled dust from informal electronic waste recycling workshops and nearby highways in urban centers and suburban industrial roadsides of Chennai city, India: Levels, congener profiles and exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Paromita; Prithiviraj, Balasubramanian; Selvaraj, Sakthivel; Kumar, Bhupander

    2016-12-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were quantified in settled dust collected from informal electronic waste (e-waste) recycling workshops and nearby highways in the urban centers and roadside dust from the suburban industrial belt of Chennai city in India. Further dust samples were subjected to a high resolution field emission scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (FESEM/EDX) to characterize the shape, size and elemental composition of the dust particles. Geomean of total PCB concentration followed the following order: informal e-waste metal recovery workshops (53ngg(-1))>e-waste dismantling sites (3.6ngg(-1))>nearby highways (1.7ngg(-1))>suburban industrial roadsides (1.6ngg(-1)). In e-waste workshops, tetra, penta and hexa-PCB homologs contributed two third of Σ26PCB concentration. Informal e-waste recycling workshops contributed more than 80% concentration of all the PCB congeners loaded in the first principal component. Predominance of dioxin like PCBs, PCB-l14, -118 and -126 in the e-waste metal recovery sites were presumably due to combustion and pyrolytic processes performed during recycling of electrical components. According to the morphology and elemental composition, settled dust from e-waste workshops were irregular particles heavily embedded with toxic metals and industrial roadside dust were distinct angular particles. FESEM revealed that average particle size (in Ferret diameter) increased in the following order: e-waste recycling workshops (0.5μm)

  12. Impact of single-point GPS integrated water vapor estimates on short-range WRF model forecasts over southern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prashant; Gopalan, Kaushik; Shukla, Bipasha Paul; Shyam, Abhineet

    2016-09-01

    Specifying physically consistent and accurate initial conditions is one of the major challenges of numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. In this study, ground-based global positioning system (GPS) integrated water vapor (IWV) measurements available from the International Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) Service (IGS) station in Bangalore, India, are used to assess the impact of GPS data on NWP model forecasts over southern India. Two experiments are performed with and without assimilation of GPS-retrieved IWV observations during the Indian winter monsoon period (November-December, 2012) using a four-dimensional variational (4D-Var) data assimilation method. Assimilation of GPS data improved the model IWV analysis as well as the subsequent forecasts. There is a positive impact of ˜10 % over Bangalore and nearby regions. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model-predicted 24-h surface temperature forecasts have also improved when compared with observations. Small but significant improvements were found in the rainfall forecasts compared to control experiments.

  13. Reading Trends of Library Users in Bihar (India)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, S. N.

    1971-01-01

    This article traces the reading trends of readers in the city of Patna (India) and attempts to establish a relationship between their personality traits and the nature and content of the literature they prefer. (Author)

  14. Incidence, Type and Intensity of Abuse in Street Children in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Meena; Rathore, Prachi; Mathur, Monika

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The aims of this cross-sectional survey were to examine the prevalence, type and intensity of abuse in street children in Jaipur city, India. Method: Based on purposive random sampling, 200 street children, inclusive of equal number of boys and girls, were selected from the streets of Jaipur city, India, and administered an in-depth…

  15. Oral health knowledge, practice, oral hygiene status, and dental caries prevalence among visually impaired children in Bangalore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S T Prashanth

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Visually impaired children daily face challenges for bearing their everyday skills. Maintenance of proper oral hygiene is one among them. Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the oral health knowledge, practice, oral hygiene status, and dental caries prevalence among visually impaired children in Bangalore. Materials and Methods: A total of 85 children were asked verbally a questionnaire regarding the frequency of brushing, cleaning tools, use of dentifrice, knowledge about the role of sugar in producing dental decay, and frequency of visit to the dentist. All children were screened and DMF and def scores were recorded and oral hygiene status were assessed by Green and Vermillion index. Results: Green and Vermillion index. Kruskal Wallis Chi square test was performed and no statistically significant results were obtained with DMF and def scores as well as OHI scores across different ages in the range of 8 to 13 years. A highly statistically significant result was obtained with dental caries prevalence and oral hygiene status of visually impaired children. Conclusions: The present study shows not much worsening of oral health status in the study population. A little extra care by the parent or caretaker regarding oral hygiene can give drastic results in reduction of dental caries.

  16. Arranged Love: Marriage in a transnational work environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Baas

    2007-01-01

    In India, ‘love’ and ‘arranged’ marriages appear to be at opposite ends of the spectrum, but Michiel Baas argues that this ‘opposition’ is being challenged by IT professionals in the South India city of Bangalore.

  17. New Bangalores? The role of Central and Eastern Europe in business and IT services offshoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltan Gal

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses how the second global shift in business services provision and corporate restructuring open up new offshoring opportunities into Central and Eastern Europe (CEE. It explores three issues: First, it builds upon the theoretical framework of the ‘new paradigm of globalization, which considers offshoring as one of the most important globalizing forces of recent time. This results in a shift in global trade, namely from ‘trade in goods’ to ‘trade in tasks’ determined by the changing trends in the division of labour. Second, the paper gives an overview of services relocation into CEE in comparison with its Asian counterparts. As the EU expanded eastwards, the opportunities for European corporations to offshore their business services to these ‘nearshore’ locations increased. Building on the region’s nearshoring advantages such as geographical-cultural proximity and on their multilingual graduate sup ply, CEE is likely to utilise more value added quality-driven BPO and KPO services. Third, the paper examines the implications of offshoring for the home markets in CEE assessing its impact on their locations. It reveals the role of offshoring activities in the metropolitan transformation and discusses the factors that make the capital cities an increasingly attractive option for companies to relocate their services. Despite CEE has taken advantage on the trend supported by the global service delivery models reducing dependency on any single location, its further growth may be influenced by the worsening macro-conditions, and future prospect of the region depends largely on government incentives and on the success of exploiting talent pools offered by its provincial cities.

  18. Internet India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahl, Ronald H.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews a number of Internet sites containing information on every aspect of life in Modern India. The various sites provide information on such diverse topics as the Indian film industry, politics, the booming Indian computer industry, changing status of women, and financial and political issues. (MJP)

  19. Isotopic and geochemical characterization of invader tilapia fishes from water bodies of West Bengal and Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Mousumi; Ghosh, Prosenjit; Ramdas, Leena; Chakrabarti, Ramananda

    2015-11-01

    The otoliths (N = 12) of freshwater invasive species tilapia (Tilapia mossambicus) collected from two water bodies located at Kolkata and Bangalore, India, were analyzed for stable isotopes (δ18O, δ14C) and major and trace elements in order to assess the suitability of using otoliths as a tracer of aquatic environmental changes. The stable isotope analysis was done using the dual inlet system of a Finnigan-MAT 253 isotope ratio mass spectrometer (Thermo-Fisher, Bremen, Germany). Concentrations of major and trace elements were determined using a Thermo X-Series II quadrupole mass spectrometer. The stable isotope composition in tilapia otolith samples from Bangalore and Kolkata water bodies are quite good agreeing with that of the respective lake/pond and rain water. Elemental composition revealed in a pattern of Ca>Fe>Na>Sr>K>Ba>Cr>Mg>As>Mn>Zn>Co>Cu>Cd>Pb. The otoliths from Kolkata pond water are more enriched in Ba, Zn, Pb, Mn, Se, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Ni whereas Cr and As were found to be higher in otolith samples from Bangalore lake. The enrichment factor (EF) values of Cr were higher for both the sampling location in comparison with other metals, although all the studied metals exhibited EF values>1. The PCA shows clustering of metals in the otolith which are related either with the metabolic and physiological attributes or waterborne source. The study demonstrated the potential of stable isotope techniques to distinguish otolith specimens from varied climatic zone, while elemental composition recorded the quality of water at both the locations. The role of climate driving the quality of water can be understood by detailed and continuous monitoring of otolith specimens in the future. Future method allows reconstruction of climate and water quality from old specimens from field exposures or museum collection.

  20. Management research in India: Current state and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naresh Khatri

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Concerned over the lack of high quality, context specific management research in India, and the predilection of Indian researchers to follow Western models of research and publication blindly, the authors take stock of Indian management research in this round table discussion and debate some of the relevant issues. Urging Indian researchers to strive for the levels of rigour of the Western models, they make a case for confident indigenous scholarship to suit the development and educational requirements of the country, following context-relevant constructs and methodologies in research and developing curricula, materials and modes of dissemination independently. These ideas were also explored at the second Indian Academy of Management Conference held at IIM Bangalore in December 2011.

  1. Identification of Variables and Factors Impacting Consumer Behavior in On-line Shopping in India: An Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhikara, Sudesh

    On-line shopping is a recent phenomenon in the field of E-Business and is definitely going to be the future of shopping in the world. Most of the companies are running their on-line portals to sell their products/services. Though online shopping is very common outside India, its growth in Indian Market, which is a large and strategic consumer market, is still not in line with the global market. The potential growth of on-line shopping has triggered the idea of conducting a study on on-line shopping in India. The present research paper has used exploratory study to depict and highlight the various categories of factors and variables impacting the behavior of consumers towards on-line shopping in India. The data was collected through in-depth interviews on a sample of 41 respondents from Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai and Bangalore. The results of the study show that on-line shopping in India is basically impacted by five categories of factors like demographics factor, Psychographics factor, Online shopping feature and policies, Technological factor, Security factor. The results of the study are used to present a comprehensive model of on-line shopping which could be further used by the researchers and practitioners for conducting future studies in the similar area. A brief operational definition of all the factors and variables impacting on-line shopping in India is also described. And finally practical implications of the study are also elucidated.

  2. Newborn healthcare in urban India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, J; Osrin, D; Patil, B; Neogi, S B; Chauhan, M; Khanna, R; Kumar, R; Paul, V K; Zodpey, S

    2016-01-01

    The rapid population growth in urban India has outpaced the municipal capacity to build essential infrastructures that make life in cities safe and healthy. Local and national governments alike are grappling with the challenges of urbanization with thousands migrating from villages to cities. Thus, urbanization in India has been accompanied by a concentration of poverty and urban public healthcare has emerged as one of the most pressing priorities facing our country. Newborn mortality rates in urban settings are lower than rural areas, early neonatal deaths account for greater proportion than late neonatal deaths. The available evidence suggests that socio-economic inequalities and poor environment pose major challenges for newborn health. Moreover, fragmented and weak public health system, multiplicity of actors and limited capacity of public health planning further constrain the delivery of quality and affordable health care service. Though healthcare is concentrated in urban areas, delay in deciding to seek health care, reaching a source of it and receiving appropriate care affects the health outcomes disproportionately. However, a few city initiatives and innovations piloted in different states and cities have brought forth the evidences of effectiveness of different strategies. Recently launched National Urban Health Mission (NUHM) provides an opportunity for strategic thinking and actions to improve newborn health outcomes in India. There is also an opportunity for coalescence of activities around National Health Mission (NHM) and Reproductive, Maternal, Newborn and Child Health+Adolescent (RMNCH+A) strategy to develop feasible and workable models in different urban settings. Concomitant operational research needs to be carried out so that the obstacles, approaches and response to the program can be understood. PMID:27924107

  3. Image city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    Image city exhibition explores a condition of mediation, through a focus on image and sound narratives with a point of departure on a number of Asian cities.......Image city exhibition explores a condition of mediation, through a focus on image and sound narratives with a point of departure on a number of Asian cities....

  4. Climate change: a case study over India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahai, A.K. [Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Pune (India)

    1998-12-31

    A brief account of various causes of climate change in recent decades and climate change trends in the Indian region is presented. Local temperature is one of the major climatic elements to record the changes in the atmospheric environment caused by industrialization and urbanization. Literature data show that there is either a cooling tendency or cessation of warming after the late 1950s at most of the Indian industrial cities. A case study of Nagpur, a centrally located city in India, is done to understand the possible causes of cooling. Nagpur is the only city in India for which a long-term record of temperature, for urban (Mayo Hospital) and relatively suburban (Sonegaon Airport) area, is available. The study of the diurnal asymmetry in maximum and minimum temperatures indicates that the role of suspended particulate matter dominates over that of increasing greenhouse gases.

  5. Globalisation, Urbanisation and Spatial Inequality in India with special reference to North East India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin L Saitluanga

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Globalisation, an increasing international interaction in economic, political and cultural aspects, is a highly uneven set of processes whose impact varies over space, through time, and between social groups. On one hand, as globalisation seems to be an inevitable reality, many developing countries are restructuring their economies to receive and reap the benefits of widening and deepening global economic interactions. On the other hand, there are regions, which are increasingly excluded, and ‘structurally irrelevant’ to the current process of globalisation. Moreover, cities are at the core of development strategy of globalisation. While cities in developed countries are becoming centres of globally integrated organisation of economic activity, cities in developing countries are usually at disadvantage positions due to weak financial bases, low levels of technology as well as lack of infrastructural facilities and institutional factors.The present paper, in the limelight of these contradictions, analyses the differential impacts of economic globalisation in cities and regions of India in general and Northeast India in particular. It is noted that the ushering of globalisation through structural adjustment of the economy during the 1990s has disparate impacts on various cities and regions of the country. The paper also examines the infrastructural constraints of cities of Northeast India as well as the existing institutional arrangements to ‘globalise’ the region through neoliberal reforms and investments. 

  6. AIDS in position to ravage India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraman, K S

    1996-09-01

    The Joint UN Program on AIDS reports that India has more than 3 million adults infected with HIV, more HIV-infected adults than any other country in the world. By the year 2005, India will have more people infected with HIV than does Africa. Having sex with a Bombay housewife today is at least twice as risky as it was to have sex with a prostitute in the city's red light district in 1988. 2-3% of all women in the city are infected with HIV. There is ignorance, apathy, corruption, and lack of commitment at all levels with regard to HIV/AIDS. Accordingly, India's lackluster campaign against AIDS launched 10 years ago has lost momentum just as the epidemic is exploding and at a time when traditional beliefs about cultural barriers and the sexual behavior of Indian males are being called into question. Considerable homosexual behavior occurs in India. However, the most important factor contributing to the spread of HIV throughout India is the virus' spread from urban areas into small villages, often through migrant laborers. Ignorance, illiteracy, and poverty in villages will make AIDS prevention especially difficult. Indian government policy forbidding the distribution of condoms in prisons, needles to injectable-drug users, and free drugs to AIDS patients further contributes to the spread of HIV.

  7. Beer City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Shandong Province’s Qingdao is becoming China’s great beer city sicenically located on a peninsula over-looking the Pacific Ocean, Qingdao, |or Tsingtao, is a coastal city soaked in two kinds of foam. One floats in

  8. Oral health status and parental perception of child oral health related quality-of-life of children with autism in Bangalore, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Children with autism present with the physical-mental impairments and oral problems, which may have an impact on their quality-of-life (QoL. The aim of the following study was to assess oral health status and parental perception of child oral health related quality of life (OHRQoL among children with autism. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 4-15-year-old children with autism (n = 135 and children without autism (n = 135. Oral health status was evaluated using Oral Hygiene Index-Simplified (OHI-S, its Miglani′s modification for deciduous teeth, Decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT/dmft and Decayed, missing and filled surface (DMFS/dmfs indices. Parents answered the Parental-Caregivers Perception Questionnaire for assessing children′s OHRQoL. Mann-Whitney U, Chi-square test and Pearson′s correlation analysis were performed. Results: Mean OHI-S, DMFT, dmft scores were significantly high among children with autism (2.07 ± 0.83; 0.86 ± 1.22, 1.40 ± 2.48 when compared to children without autism (0.46 ± 0.58; 0.46 ± 1.06, 0.59 ± 1.28 respectively. Out of all domains of OHRQoL, mean score of functional limitations related to teeth problem was significantly higher among children with autism (8.87 ± 5.65 as compared to non-autism group (6.66 ± 4.97. Conclusion: Functional limitations may have a negative impact on oral health status that might influence OHRQoL.

  9. Where is the bride? Progressively declining sex ratio in India: an alarming signal for imbalanced society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmala Sharma

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Female feticide is an extreme form of violence against women, the most active part is being played by the women themselves just for the mere want of a boy, mothers dont feel bad in strangulating their own daughters in their wombs. From decades of sex determination and female feticide is creating a statistical imbalance regarding the commonly expected and lsquo;male: female' birth ratio in India. This offense have been spreaded to the states in India like Punjab, Haryana, Delhi, Gujarat and Rajasthan, with the news of increasing number of female fetus being aborted from Orissa and Bangalore. The 2011 census has revealed a drastic fall in child sex ratio throughout the country. The decline in child sex ratio in India is guarded by the census figure, in 1991 the figure was 947 girls to 1000 boys, ten years later in 2001 it was about for 927 girl child to 1000 boys. In 2011 it further declined to 914 girl children to 1000 boys. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(2.000: 301-303

  10. City PLANTastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The city is going green. From New York to Copenhagen vegetables are enthusiastically planted on city squares, and buildings are turning green everywhere . The word “plant” is on everyone’s lips, reflecting a growing desire to solve ecological, technical and social challenges in the city. Hovever,...... and urbanism, who reflect upon the multiple roles of plants in the future city through their most recent projects. The theme for the 2012 World in Denmark conference is City PLANTastic, which will also be explored by researchers through their works....

  11. Earthquake risk mitigation projects in central asia and india

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausler, E.; Petal, M.; Tobin, T.; Tucker, B.; Gupta, M.; Sharma, A.; Shaw, R.

    2003-04-01

    In the fall of 2002, GeoHazards International (GHI), a California-based nonprofit organization, launched two 3-year projects, each funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development, to improve the earthquake risk management of 23 cities in Central Asia and India. The objectives of these projects are to: * Assess the earthquake risk of each city, * Identify the most effective risk mitigation options for each city, * Raise awareness of that risk and those mitigation options, and * Initiate mitigation activities in some of these cities. A critical characteristic of these projects is that leaders of each local community will be deeply involved in realizing all four objectives. GHI will work with, in addition to local authorities, national government, academic and non-governmental organizations. In India, GHI’s partners are the Disaster Management Planning Hyogo Office, United Nations Centre for Regional Development (UNCRD) of Kobe, Japan, and the Sustainable Environment and Ecological Development Society (SEEDS), of Delhi, India. In India, we will work in 20 cities that were chosen, in a February 1, 2002 workshop (sponsored by Munich Reinsurance Company) in Delhi; the cities were selected by Indian earthquake professionals on the basis of the cities’ population, hazard, and economic, cultural and political significance. In Central Asia, we will focus on Tashkent, Uzbekistan; Dushanbe, Tadzhikistan; and Almaty, Kazakstan. GHI and its partners are looking for other organizations that would like to collaborate on these projects.

  12. Sustainability in South Asian city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Akhmat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available City brings about the most complex interplay of social, cultural, and political dimensions of space. It will have to accommodate around one billion humans only in South Asia by the year 2030. Therefore it needs to be prepared to absorb huge increases in urban population and resulting pressure on basic infrastructure and livelihood opportunities. In order to secure a better future and to improve the quality of life of all the citizens, city needs to be reinvented, by incorporating creativity and innovation with the approaches, we use in its planning. Here we present an overview of the progress, challenges and some key interventions to reinvent the city in South Asian region as well as in the developing world, with the examples of the most populous countries in the region: India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. Planning transforms geometric space in city into lived space. City planning in South Asia is as old as the human settlement itself, but the current situation is well below the level to be admired. Most of the city plans have been faulty with poor economic base and implementability, and fostered unintended city within the city, whose growth rate shadows the growth rate of the city itself. City in the developing world desperately needs to follow a sustainable development pattern which satisfies the requirement for equity; meets basic human needs; allows social and ethnic self-determination; promotes environmental awareness, integrity and inter-linkages between various living beings across time and space. It requires a combination of strategic policy making, supported by a system that combines personal opinion with scientific knowledge. It needs to reset the basis for the articulation of the initiatives of all relevant stakeholders to seek synergies for its development.

  13. Biopolicies and biotechnologies: reflections on surrogate maternity in India

    OpenAIRE

    Mónica Amador

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the impact of biotechnology, particularly on assisted reproductive technologies such as surrogate motherhood. The study is based on interviews and field work conducted in the city of Hyderabad in India within the frame of the seminar on “Research Methodology” given by Dr. Rohan D´Souza at the Centre for Studies in Science Policy at the Jawaharlal Nehru University in India. The theoretical framework of this analysis focuses on exploring concepts such as cyborg (Haraway,19...

  14. Factors influencing dental professional career in India: An exploratory survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivam Kapoor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Motives for choosing a career are complex, and a choice of dentistry as a career is no exception. It is expected that the person should have some expectations in terms of their future, and the fulfillment of these expectations should give some amount of satisfaction. Aim: The aim was to explore factors influencing dental professional career: Attitudes, perceptions, and motivations. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out in May and June 2013, among 445 interns working in the dental colleges of Bangalore using a self-administered validated questionnaire. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 18. Descriptive statistics, independent t-test, ANOVA and Pearson′s correlation test were used (P < 0.05. Results: The most popular reason for choosing dentistry as a career was to serve people (81.3%. Majority of them enjoyed helping people (92.8%; appeared to be satisfied with their doctor-patient relationship (92.4%; appreciated the independence in the profession (92.1%; aspired to enhance clinical skills (94.2% and realized the importance of higher education (87% in the future. Private practice (81.4% was the most preferred future career plan. Attitudes and perceptions significantly correlated with future career plans (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Service to mankind coupled with autonomy, self-efficacy and inclination to excel in one′s own field appeared to influence dental careers in India.

  15. Biopolicies and biotechnologies: reflections on surrogate maternity in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Amador

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the impact of biotechnology, particularly on assisted reproductive technologies such as surrogate motherhood. The study is based on interviews and field work conducted in the city of Hyderabad in India within the frame of the seminar on “Research Methodology” given by Dr. Rohan D´Souza at the Centre for Studies in Science Policy at the Jawaharlal Nehru University in India. The theoretical framework of this analysis focuses on exploring concepts such as cyborg (Haraway,1991 and subaltern subject (Spivak, 1998 in the context of biotechnological production in India

  16. Indian Solar Cities Programme: An Overview of Major Activities and Accomplishments; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandt, A.

    2012-05-01

    This paper details the Indian Solar City Programme, provides an overview of one city's Master Plan and implementation progress, describes NREL's support of the Indian Solar City Programme, and outlines synergies and differences between the Indian and American programs including unique challenges and opportunities India is facing.

  17. CO2 Emissions from Direct Energy Use of Urban Households in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Sohail; Baiocchi, Giovanni; Creutzig, Felix

    2015-10-01

    India hosts the world's second largest population and offers the world's largest potential for urbanization. India's urbanization trajectory will have crucial implications on its future GHG emission levels. Using household microdata from India's 60 largest cities, this study maps GHG emissions patterns and its determinants. It also ranks the cities with respect to their household actual and "counter-factual" GHG emissions from direct energy use. We find that household GHG emissions from direct energy use correlate strongly with income and household size; population density, basic urban services (municipal water, electricity, and modern cooking-fuels access) and cultural, religious, and social factors explain more detailed emission patterns. We find that the "greenest" cities (on the basis of household GHG emissions) are Bareilly and Allahabad, while the "dirtiest" cities are Chennai and Delhi; however, when we control for socioeconomic variables, the ranking changes drastically. In the control case, we find that smaller lower-income cities emit more than expected, and larger high-income cities emit less than expected in terms of counter-factual emissions. Emissions from India's cities are similar in magnitude to China's cities but typically much lower than those of comparable U.S. cities. Our results indicate that reducing urban heat-island effects and the associated cooling degree days by greening, switching to modern nonsolid cooking fuels, and anticipatory transport infrastructure investments are key policies for the low-carbon and inclusive development of Indian cities.

  18. Adaptation and Evaluation of the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale in India (NEWS-India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlakha, Deepti; Hipp, J Aaron; Brownson, Ross C

    2016-04-02

    Physical inactivity is the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality, with most of these deaths occurring in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) like India. Research from developed countries has consistently demonstrated associations between built environment features and physical activity levels of populations. The development of culturally sensitive and reliable measures of the built environment is a necessary first step for accurate analysis of environmental correlates of physical activity in LMICs. This study systematically adapted the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS) for India and evaluated aspects of test-retest reliability of the adapted version among Indian adults. Cultural adaptation of the NEWS was conducted by Indian and international experts. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with local residents and key informants in the city of Chennai, India. At baseline, participants (N = 370; female = 47.2%) from Chennai completed the adapted NEWS-India surveys on perceived residential density, land use mix-diversity, land use mix-access, street connectivity, infrastructure and safety for walking and cycling, aesthetics, traffic safety, and safety from crime. NEWS-India was administered for a second time to consenting participants (N = 62; female = 53.2%) with a gap of 2-3 weeks between successive administrations. Qualitative findings demonstrated that built environment barriers and constraints to active commuting and physical activity behaviors intersected with social ecological systems. The adapted NEWS subscales had moderate to high test-retest reliability (ICC range 0.48-0.99). The NEWS-India demonstrated acceptable measurement properties among Indian adults and may be a useful tool for evaluation of built environment attributes in India. Further adaptation and evaluation in rural and suburban settings in India is essential to create a version that could be used throughout India.

  19. Adaptation and Evaluation of the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale in India (NEWS-India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepti Adlakha

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Physical inactivity is the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality, with most of these deaths occurring in low and middle-income countries (LMICs like India. Research from developed countries has consistently demonstrated associations between built environment features and physical activity levels of populations. The development of culturally sensitive and reliable measures of the built environment is a necessary first step for accurate analysis of environmental correlates of physical activity in LMICs. This study systematically adapted the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS for India and evaluated aspects of test-retest reliability of the adapted version among Indian adults. Cultural adaptation of the NEWS was conducted by Indian and international experts. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with local residents and key informants in the city of Chennai, India. At baseline, participants (N = 370; female = 47.2% from Chennai completed the adapted NEWS-India surveys on perceived residential density, land use mix-diversity, land use mix-access, street connectivity, infrastructure and safety for walking and cycling, aesthetics, traffic safety, and safety from crime. NEWS-India was administered for a second time to consenting participants (N = 62; female = 53.2% with a gap of 2–3 weeks between successive administrations. Qualitative findings demonstrated that built environment barriers and constraints to active commuting and physical activity behaviors intersected with social ecological systems. The adapted NEWS subscales had moderate to high test-retest reliability (ICC range 0.48–0.99. The NEWS-India demonstrated acceptable measurement properties among Indian adults and may be a useful tool for evaluation of built environment attributes in India. Further adaptation and evaluation in rural and suburban settings in India is essential to create a version that could be used throughout India.

  20. Adaptation and Evaluation of the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale in India (NEWS-India)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlakha, Deepti; Hipp, J. Aaron; Brownson, Ross C.

    2016-01-01

    Physical inactivity is the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality, with most of these deaths occurring in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) like India. Research from developed countries has consistently demonstrated associations between built environment features and physical activity levels of populations. The development of culturally sensitive and reliable measures of the built environment is a necessary first step for accurate analysis of environmental correlates of physical activity in LMICs. This study systematically adapted the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS) for India and evaluated aspects of test-retest reliability of the adapted version among Indian adults. Cultural adaptation of the NEWS was conducted by Indian and international experts. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with local residents and key informants in the city of Chennai, India. At baseline, participants (N = 370; female = 47.2%) from Chennai completed the adapted NEWS-India surveys on perceived residential density, land use mix-diversity, land use mix-access, street connectivity, infrastructure and safety for walking and cycling, aesthetics, traffic safety, and safety from crime. NEWS-India was administered for a second time to consenting participants (N = 62; female = 53.2%) with a gap of 2–3 weeks between successive administrations. Qualitative findings demonstrated that built environment barriers and constraints to active commuting and physical activity behaviors intersected with social ecological systems. The adapted NEWS subscales had moderate to high test-retest reliability (ICC range 0.48–0.99). The NEWS-India demonstrated acceptable measurement properties among Indian adults and may be a useful tool for evaluation of built environment attributes in India. Further adaptation and evaluation in rural and suburban settings in India is essential to create a version that could be used throughout India. PMID:27049394

  1. Emotional Expression and Control in School-Age Children in India and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Stephanie L.; Raval, Vaishali V.; Salvina, Jennifer; Raval, Pratiksha H.; Panchal, Ila N.

    2012-01-01

    The present study compared 6- to 9-year-old children's reports of their decisions to express anger, sadness, and physical pain; methods of controlling and communicating felt emotion; and reasons for doing so in response to hypothetical situations across three groups: old-city India (n = 60), suburban India (n = 60), and suburban United States (n =…

  2. Sin City?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svarer, Michael; Gautier, Pieter A.; Teulings, Coen n.

    s moving to the countryside a credible commitment device for couples? We investigate whether lowering the arrival rate of potential alternative partners by moving to a less populated area lowers the dissolution risk for a sample of Danish couples. We find that of the couples who married in the city......, the ones who stay in the city have significant higher divorce rates. Similarly, for the couples who married outside the city, the ones who move to the city are more likely to divorce. This correlation can be explained by both a causal and a sorting effect. We disentangle them by using the timing...

  3. Eating Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg; Fisker, Anna Marie; Clausen, Katja Seerup

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzed the development of a city based sustainable food strategy for the city of Aalborg. It’s based on 3 cases of food service: food for the elderly as operated by the Municipality, food the hospital patients as operated by the region and food for defense staff as operated by the st......This paper analyzed the development of a city based sustainable food strategy for the city of Aalborg. It’s based on 3 cases of food service: food for the elderly as operated by the Municipality, food the hospital patients as operated by the region and food for defense staff as operated...

  4. Health and safety aspects of textile workers from Solapur (India) textile industries

    OpenAIRE

    Rahul B Hiremath; Ruth Kattumuri; Bimlesh Kumar; Gurudevi R Hiremath

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Textile sector in India plays an important role in the country's economy, providing employment to a significant population in rural and urban areas. Objectives: This paper focuses on health and safety aspects of textile workers in Solapur City (one of the key textile cluster) in the state of Maharashtra, India. Methodology: A sample of 180 workers from the identified textile industries of Solapur city were assessed for their general physique, muscle tone, lung condition, and eye...

  5. Atypical Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiJulio, Betsy

    2011-01-01

    In this creative challenge, Surrealism and one-point perspective combine to produce images that not only go "beyond the real" but also beyond the ubiquitous "imaginary city" assignment often used to teach one-point perspective. Perhaps the difference is that in the "atypical cities challenge," an understanding of one-point perspective is a means…

  6. The India Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Alim, Jamaal

    2012-01-01

    Even though lawmakers in India don't seem likely to pass any laws that would enable foreign universities to set up shop in India anytime soon, opportunities still abound for institutions of higher learning in the United States to collaborate with their Indian counterparts and to engage and recruit students in India as well. That's the consensus…

  7. INSTANT CITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte; Kiib, Hans

    2013-01-01

    experiments are taking place in ‘the instant city’, and how can it be characterized? It also emphasizes the relation between city life, urban design, and the aesthetics of architecture and urban spaces. The question here is, in what way architecture and urban scenography are used as tools to support the goal...... of an experimental and social en- gaged city environment? The analysis shows that the specific city life at the instant city, Roskilde Festival, can be characterized by being ‘open minded’, ‘playful’ and ‘inclusive’, but also by ‘a culture of laughter’ that penetrates the aesthetics and the urban scenography.......This article analyses Roskilde Festival as an Instant City. For more than 40 years, Roskilde Festival has had many thousands participants for a weeklong festival on music, performances and cultural experiences in a layout designed as an urban environment. During the last ten years, in- creasing...

  8. Delhi: India's urban example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, B

    1988-06-01

    Demography, migration, economy, employment, education, planning, housing and transportation in the Delhi Union Territory are described. The Territory is an administrative district that includes Old Delhi, the site of the ancient walled city, the New Delhi Municipal Corporation, the center of government, the Delhi Cantonment, a military center, and 27 smaller towns, many of which are rural in character. The Delhi Territory is notable for its relatively high per capita income ($321), high sex ratio (124), high proportion of recent migrants (over half), but also high employment rate and educational status of these migrants. Much of the economy is based on government service, retail trade and services. School enrollment is high, nearly 100% of primary school age children, 77% of middle school, and 50% of secondary school. Rapid growth has stressed the public health, sanitation, housing, electric power systems. Transportation is coping relatively well, considering that 20% of all motor vehicles in India are in Delhi. 50% of daily trips are made by bus, 22% by bicycle, 10% by motorcycles, and 4% by cars. Accommodations for tourists in Delhi's old center are good in both expensive and inexpensive hotels.

  9. Sustainable Transport: BRT experiences from Mexico and India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogat, Jorge; Dhar, Subash; Joshi, Rutul

    2015-01-01

    Increasing population and urbanization is creating a steadily increasing demand for transportation in the cities of many developing countries, coinciding with rapid economic growth leading to increasing demand for higher standards of living and faster and more efficient modes of transportation. T...... transit (BRT). The BRT systems of Curitiba and Bogotá have subsequently been adopted all over the world with some variations. Implementation of two recent BRTs, Mexico City and Ahmedabad in India, are examined in this paper....

  10. Efficacy of Family Intervention in Acquired Head-Injury Cases in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mysore Narasimha Vranda

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In India, there are few studies on interventions for families of persons with acquired or traumatic brain injuries. This study aimed to test the efficacy of the Family Intervention Package (FIP with caregivers of persons with head injuries.Method: The study was carried out at the Neuro-Surgery Department of the National Institute for Mental Health and Neuro Sciences (NIMHANS, Bangalore, India. Ninety persons with severe head injuries and their caregivers were included in the study using the socio-demographic schedule and family interaction pattern scale.Results: The findings revealed that the Family Intervention Package (FIP was effective in bringing about changes in the functioning of persons with head injuries, and interactions among their families in the experimental group, as compared to the control group.Conclusion: The multi-disciplinary team dealing with persons with head injury need to recognise the importance of multi-component FIP for this group and their families. The current FIP should be made a part of treatment in clinical settings.doi: 10.5463/dcid.v23i3.120

  11. Curriculum for pharmacology in pharmacy institutions in India: opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Ramesh K; Bhise, Satish B; Srinivasan, B P; Rao, C Mallikarjun; Sen, Tuhinadri; Koneri, Raju

    2014-01-01

    The curriculum of pharmacy institutions in India is regulated by the All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) and the Pharmacy Council of India (PCI) at degree and diploma levels. However, it has been over two decades that the syllabi have been revised by these regulatory agencies. Considering the dynamic character of pharmacology, it is essential to prepare a syllabus that caters to the contemporary needs of the academic institutions and pharmaceutical industry, the community. Pharmacists are also witnessing a greater role in community pharmacy practice as well as in several healthcare sectors. Considering these facts, a panel discussion was held at IPSCON 2013, (the Annual Conference of Indian Pharmacological Society) at Bangalore. The discussion saw several recommendations for syllabi for institutions offering various pharmacy courses to meet the objectives of teaching, learning and research in Pharmacology. This article documents a summary of the discussion. For B. Pharm. course, a balance between industry-oriented pharmacology and clinical pharmacy has been recommended. Redundant animal experiments should be replaced with the simulation experiments or those which are feasible in the light of stringent regulations of the Committee for the Purpose of Control and Supervision of Experiments on Animals (CPCSEA). It is recommended that the M. Pharm curriculum should focus on preclinical research with the inclusion of molecular biology and experiments on gene expression, proteomics, pharmacogenomics, cell culture and tissue culture. In general, at all levels, exposure of students to hospitals and clinicians is needed. Pharm. D., syllabus too should lay lesser emphasis on experimental pharmacology. Present experiments in the D. Pharm. course have no relevance to the program objectives and hence, only experiments through demonstrations or simulated preparations or interactive videos maybe undertaken. Regulatory bodies as well as universities should design a

  12. City Streets

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for city streets found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. In some areas, these roadways are current through the 2000...

  13. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbelin, Bruno; Lasserre, Sebastien; Ciger, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Flying Cities is an artistic installation which generates imaginary cities from the speech of its visitors. Thanks to an original interactive process analyzing people's vocal input to create 3D graphics, a tangible correspondence between speech and visuals opens new possibilities of interaction. ...... and a potential application. We believe that it could become a new medium for creativity, and a way to visually perceive a vocal performance in the context of the rehabilitation of people with reduced mobility or language impairments....

  14. Model cities

    OpenAIRE

    Batty, M.

    2007-01-01

    The term ?model? is now central to our thinking about how weunderstand and design cities. We suggest a variety of ways inwhich we use ?models?, linking these ideas to Abercrombie?sexposition of Town and Country Planning which represented thestate of the art fifty years ago. Here we focus on using models asphysical representations of the city, tracing the development ofsymbolic models where the focus is on simulating how functiongenerates form, to iconic models where the focus is on representi...

  15. Adverse drug reactions in tuberculosis patients due to directly observed treatment strategy therapy: Experience at an outpatient clinic of a teaching hospital in the city of Imphal, Manipur, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumarjit Sinha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: As to the profile of adverse drug reactions (ADRs due to directly observed treatment, short course (DOTS, there is no report available in patients receiving antituberculosis (anti-TB chemotherapy in Manipur, India. One of the main reasons for non-adherence to anti-TB therapy (ATT is ADRs, even under DOTS. Aims: This study aimed to determine the incidence of ADRs due to DOTS therapy with a TB population of Manipur, India. Setting and Design: A prospective institution-based cohort study, and performed during July 2009-December 2010. Materials and Methods: The study included 102 diagnosed TB patients on anti-TB treatment under DOTS. Every patient was followed-up for the duration he/she received the treatment. Statistical Analysis: Frequency of different ADRs was assessed and p value was determined. Results: Incidence of TB was more among males than female (76.47% against 23.53%. Seventy-one patients (69.01% showed one or more ADR. Incidence of ADRs based on affected organ was: Gastrointestinal (GI disorders in 38 patients (53.52%, generalized weakness in 12 patients (16.9%, liver dysfunction in 11 patients (15.49%, allergic skin reactions in six patients (8.45%, neurological system disorders in two patients (2.82%, and fever in two patients (2.82%. However, 30.99% did not experience any ADRs. Conclusion: Incidence of ADRs due to DOTS therapy was 69.01%. Majority of cases suffered from GI symptoms. This highlighted the importance of developing strategies to ameliorate ADRs both to improve the quality of patient care and to control TB safely.

  16. China's India Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Qian

    2008-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, with the improvement of relationship between India and China, the scope of India studies in China's IR research has been broadened and the new areas of studies are being explored. The research agenda of India studies has already extended to the areas like economy, society, culture, security, national strategy and their impact on both bilateral and international relations. In this situation, the focuses of India studies in China's IR research can be mainly identified as follows: reviews on India's social, political and economic systems; analysis on the national strategy and foreign policy; Sino-Indian relations; India's relations with some international organizations. However, even though many fresh progresses have been made in India studies, the India studies in China's IR research still lag far behind the study of other important countries like the U.S., UK, Russia and Japan, and more problems and challenges will face in the coming future. The paper believes that a fuller understanding of India probably will not make China and India close friends, but it definitely will help to prevent them from becoming fierce enemies.

  17. The Impact of Differing Maternal Expectations on the Academic Achievements of Primary School Children in Urban Bangalore, South: A Comparison between Boys and Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haridarshan, Pooja

    2015-01-01

    Education of girls in India lags behind that of boys and several communities in India fare worse than others. Because of their secondary status in the society, Indian girls tend to suffer from low self-esteem. Thus, it is necessary to study the reasons why girls are being discouraged from attending and completing school as well as what are the…

  18. New technologies, new hazards: Need for evidence base: A report on the health status and safety measures in a biotechnology factory in Bangalore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhashree V

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In highly competitive economies, the fast-paced development of new and improved products and services inevitably spurs the development of new technologies, of which one-fifth growth has been in the biotechnology sector. Advances in technologies provide opportunities to minimize the drudgery of work and to eliminate old hazards, but they may create new currently unrecognized risks to workers. Objectives: To assess the morbidity pattern among workers in the biotechnology industry and also to find out the health and safety measures provided to the workers. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a biotechnology industry in Bangalore, which covered 779 employees who underwent health examination and blood and urine investigations; of the 779 employees, 600 were permanent employees and 179 were contract employees. Results and Discussion: The common morbidity among the workers included refractory errors; allergic contact dermatitis; hypertension; abnormal pulmonary function tests (61, 10.2%, of which 23 (37.7% were from the production department; high eosinophil count (110, 14.1%. Majority, i.e., 46 (41.8% worked in the production department. The safety measures provided to the workers are adequate, but there is a need to insist on regular use of personal protective devices by newly employed and contract laborers.

  19. Soft Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Anders; Yoneda, Akira; Nakamura, Kiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a project exploring sustainable ways of urban living. The project renders a scenario comprised of an array of simple conversions of existing urban spaces and buildings, in the attempt to tie strategies ranging from urban planning to interior design into a coherent vision...... of a sustainable future. The project is the result of a joint research study between Denmark and Japan. Taking as its example the city of Kyoto, the project investigates some possible strategies on how cities more generally may be transformed into liveable, healthy and ecologically sensible environments....

  20. Fun City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Once the blues guitarist B.B. King sang that when he "didn't wanna live no more", he would go shopping instead. Now, however, shopping has become a lifestyle... The city of today has become "Disneyfied" and "Tivolized". It has become a scene for events. The aim of the book is to encircle and pin...... down the consquences of these developments, to elocidate the interplay between funscapes and fear culture, and to account for the meaning of new concepts and new phenomena such as "event culture", "urban scenography", "experience economy","city branding" and "cultural planning"....

  1. City Branding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimann, Søren; Stigel, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    Succesful corporate branding requires that questions related to communication, publicity, and organizational structures are adressed. An uncritical adoption of approaches known from tradition product branding will inevitable give problems as the properties of tangible commodities and services......, problems seem to multiply in what has becom known as city branding. This analysis of the communicational aspects of two Danish provincial towns´ branding efforts examines both their internally and externally directed communication. It demonstrates that an insufficient understanding of - or willingness...... to face - these differences will inevitably hamper such branding efforts because of the consequential inconsistencies. Finally, paths to more effective city branding are indicated...

  2. Outbreak investigation of cholera in Bharuch city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navneet G. Padhiyar, Jivraj Damor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cholera is an acute diarrhoeal disease, present in India since ancient times. Cholera epidemic was reported in June 2009 in Bharuch city, Gujarat. Aim: To find out the cause of cholera epidemic and to suggest preventive and control measure. Study design: Cross sectional study. Person from high risk area were interviewed Results: Contamination of drinking water with sewage water was found to be the cause of this epidemic.

  3. City 2020+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, C.; Buttstädt, M.; Merbitz, H.; Sachsen, T.; Ketzler, G.; Michael, S.; Klemme, M.; Dott, W.; Selle, K.; Hofmeister, H.

    2010-09-01

    This research initiative CITY 2020+ assesses the risks and opportunities for residents in urban built environments under projected demographic and climate change for the year 2020 and beyond, using the City of Aachen as a case study. CITY 2020+ develops scenarios, options and tools for planning and developing sustainable future city structures. We investigate how urban environment, political structure and residential behavior can best be adapted, with attention to the interactions among structural, political, and sociological configurations and with their consequences on human health. Demographers project that in the EU-25-States by 2050, approximately 30% of the population will be over age 65. Also by 2050, average tem¬peratures are projected to rise by 1 to 2 K. Combined, Europe can expect enhanced thermal stress and higher levels of particulate matter. CITY 2020+ amongst other sub-projects includes research project dealing with (1) a micro-scale assessment of blockages to low-level cold-air drainage flow into the city centre by vegetation and building structures, (2) a detailed analysis of the change of probability density functions related to the occurrence of heat waves during summer and the spatial and temporal structure of the urban heat island (UHI) (3) a meso-scale analysis of particulate matter (PM) concentrations depending on topography, local meteorological conditions and synoptic-scale weather patterns. First results will be presented specifically from sub-projects related to vegetation barriers within cold air drainage, the assessment of the UHI and the temporal and spatial pattern of PM loadings in the city centre. The analysis of the cold air drainage flow is investigated in two consecutive years with a clearing of vegetation stands in the beginning of the second year early in 2010. The spatial pattern of the UHI and its possible enhancement by climate change is addressed employing a unique setup using GPS devices and temperature probes fixed to

  4. Sustainable Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georg, Susse; Garza de Linde, Gabriela Lucía

    /assessment tool. The context for our study is urban regeneration in one Danish city, which had been suffering from industrial decline and which is currently investing in establishing a “sustainable city”. Based on this case study we explore how the insights and inspiration evoked in working with the tool...

  5. Excite City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte; Kiib, Hans; Jensen, Ole B.

    This paper takes its point of departure in the pressure of the experience economy on European cities - a pressure which in recent years has found its expression in a number of comprehensive transformations of the physical and architectural environments, and new eventscapes related to fun and cult...

  6. Vacant city

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marzot, N.

    2013-01-01

    Abandoned places that the crisis has multiplied, unaware wrecks of a project of civilization that has consumed its thrust and life-giving function, are waiting for new desirable interpretations, they are an expression of a possible city in opposition to the existing, even if not recognized by any in

  7. Sin City?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gautier, Pieter A.; Svarer, Michael; Teulings, Coen N.

    2007-01-01

    Is moving to the countryside a credible commitment device for couples? We investigate whether lowering the arrival rate of potential alternative partners by moving to a less populated area lowers the dissolution risk for a sample of Danish couples. We find that of the couples who married in the city

  8. Trauma care systems in India - An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshipura M

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Trauma-care systems in India are at a nascent stage of development. Industrialized cities, rural towns and villages coexist, with variety of health care facilities and almost complete lack of organized trauma care. There is gross disparity between trauma services available in various parts of the country. Rural India has inefficient services for trauma care, due to the varied topography, financial constraints and lack of appropriate health infrastructure. There is no national lead agency to coordinate various components of a trauma system. No mechanism for accreditation of trauma centres and professionals exists. Education in trauma life-support skills has only recently become available. A nationwide survey encompassing various facilities has demonstrated significant deficiencies in current trauma systems. Although injury is a major public-health problem, the government, medical fraternity and the society are yet to recognize it as a growing challenge.

  9. Trauma care in India: current scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshipura, M K

    2008-08-01

    Trauma-care systems in India are at a nascent stage of development. Industrialized cities, rural towns, and villages coexist with a variety of health care facilities and an almost complete lack of organized trauma care. There is gross disparity between trauma services available in various parts of the country. Rural India has inefficient services for trauma care, due to the varied topography, financial constraints, and lack of appropriate health infrastructure. There is no national lead agency to coordinate various components of a trauma system. No mechanism for accreditation of trauma centers and professionals exists. Education in trauma life-support skills has only recently become available. A nationwide survey encompassing various facilities has documented significant deficiencies in current trauma systems. Some initiatives on improving prehospital systems have been seen recently. Although injury is a major public-health problem, the government, medical fraternity, and the society are yet to recognize it as a significant public health challenge.

  10. An optimum city size? The scaling relationship for urban population and fine particulate (PM(2.5)) concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lijian; Zhou, Weiqi; Pickett, Steward T A; Li, Weifeng; Li, Li

    2016-01-01

    We utilize the distribution of PM2.5 concentration and population in large cities at the global scale to illustrate the relationship between urbanization and urban air quality. We found: 1) The relationship varies greatly among continents and countries. Large cities in North America, Europe, and Latin America have better air quality than those in other continents, while those in China and India have the worst air quality. 2) The relationships between urban population size and PM2.5 concentration in large cities of different continents or countries were different. PM2.5 concentration in large cities in North America, Europe, and Latin America showed little fluctuation or a small increasing trend, but those in Africa and India represent a "U" type relationship and in China represent an inverse "U" type relationship. 3) The potential contribution of population to PM2.5 concentration was higher in the large cities in China and India, but lower in other large cities.

  11. Energy for rural India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urban, Frauke; Benders, René M.J.; Moll, Henri C.

    2009-01-01

    About 72 million households in rural India do not have access to electricity and rely primarily on traditional biofuels. This research investigates how rural electrification could be achieved in India using different energy sources and what the effects for climate change mitigation could be We use t

  12. India's Higher Education Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altbach, Philip G.

    2014-01-01

    India, with the world's second largest higher education system and a rapidly growing economy as one of the BRIC nations, faces significant challenges in building both capacity and excellence in higher education. India's higher education system is characterized by "islands of excellence in a sea of mediocrity." The mainstream universities…

  13. Slum Population In India: Extent And Policy Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upinder Sawhney

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an evidence of large scale migration of the rural poor to the cities/towns in search of employment in India, especially since 1991when India adopted Economic Reform Programme. In the absence of any affordable housing , there has been a  growth of slums in the urban areas of the country. The Government of India (GOI has been incorporating certain programmes to alleviate  poverty , create employment opportunities and encourage  planned urban development in its public policy , yet there has been a fast emergence of slums in the Indian cities due to a number of factors.  The present paper aims to analyze certain demographic attributes of the slum population in India , its socio-economic and  environmental impact and the public policy response towards the same. It also reviews certain programmes designed by the government to control the growth of slums and the efforts to rehabilitate the slum-dwellers.   The data and definition of slums in India are based on the census of 2001, 65th round of NSSO and other GOI documents.

  14. Cancer Risk and Diet in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinha R

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available India is a developing country with one of the most diverse populations and diets in the world. Cancer rates in India are lower than those seen in Western countries, but are rising with increasing migration of rural population to the cities, increase in life expectancy and changes in lifestyles. In India, rates for oral and oesophageal cancers are some of the highest in the world. In contrast, the rates for colorectal, prostate, and lung cancers are one of the lowest. Studies of Indian immigrants in Western societies indicate that rates of cancer and other chronic diseases, such as coronary heart disease and diabetes, increase dramatically after a generation in the adopted country. Change of diet is among the factors that may be responsible for the changing disease rates. Diet in India encompasses diversity unknown to most other countries, with many dietary patterns emanating from cultural and religious teachings that have existed for thousands of years. Very little is known, however, about the role of the Indian diet in causation of cancer or its role, if any, in prevention of cancer, although more attention is being focused on certain aspects of the Indian diet, such as vegetarianism, spices, and food additives. Of particular interest for cancer prevention is the role of turmeric (curcumin, an ingredient in common Indian curry spice. Researchers also have investigated cumin, chilies, kalakhar, Amrita Bindu, and various plant seeds for their apparent cancer preventive properties. Few prospective studies, however, have been conducted to investigate the role of Indian diet and its various components in prevention of cancer. From a public health perspective, there is an increasing need to develop cancer prevention programs responsive to the unique diets and cultural practices of the people of India.

  15. Prevalence of Malocclusion in Jaipur, India

    OpenAIRE

    Trehan, Mridula; Chugh, Vinay K; Sharma, Sunil

    2009-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of malocclusion in Jaipur city, India. A total of 700 subjects, in the age group of 16-26 years were divided into five groups of normal occlusion, Angle’s Class I, Class II Div 1, Class II Div 2 and Class III malocclusion. The results revealed that the prevalence of malocclusion was 66.3%, with the majority of them having Class I malocclusion (57.9%), while the prevalence of Class III malocclusion was found to be the least (1.4%). There was n...

  16. Methylated and unsubstituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in street dust from Vietnam and India: occurrence, distribution and in vitro toxicity evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuyen, Le Huu; Tue, Nguyen Minh; Takahashi, Shin; Suzuki, Go; Viet, Pham Hung; Subramanian, Annamalai; Bulbule, Kesav A; Parthasarathy, Peethambaram; Ramanathan, Alagappan; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2014-11-01

    Methylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (MePAHs), unsubstituted PAHs and AhR-mediated activities were determined in street dust collected from Vietnam and India using a combined approach of chemical analysis and in vitro reporter gene assay. MePAHs and PAHs diagnostic ratios indicated that the main sources of MePAHs in Vietnam were pyrogenic emissions, whereas in India there were mixed sources of pyrogenic and petrogenic emissions. AhR-mediated activities determined by using DR-CALUX assay were observed in urban street dust at mean 40, 29 and 20 ng CALUX-TEQ/g dw for Hanoi, Bangalore and New Delhi, respectively. MePAHs and PAHs contributed only 5% or less to AhR-mediated activity in street dust, indicating the occurrence of unknown AhR agonists. The principal contributors to Theoretical-TEQs among target compounds were methyl benz[a]anthracene, benzo[b]- and benzo[k]fluoranthene. The present study indicates importance of MePAHs in evaluation of toxic risk related to AhR-mediated activity in urban polluted areas.

  17. Drone City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2016-01-01

    This paper address the phenomenon of drones and their potential relationship with the city from the point of view of the so-called “mobilities turn”. This is done in such a way that turns attention to a recent redevelopment of the “turn” towards design; so the emerging perspective of “mobilities ...... of being mobile, as well as profoundly altering the process and perspective of data collection and feedback to governments, businesses and citizens.......This paper address the phenomenon of drones and their potential relationship with the city from the point of view of the so-called “mobilities turn”. This is done in such a way that turns attention to a recent redevelopment of the “turn” towards design; so the emerging perspective of “mobilities...... for a new urban condition where cities are networked and connected (as well as disconnected) from the local block to global digital spheres. In the midst of many of the well-known data-creating devices (e.g. Bluetooth, radio-frequency identification (RFID), GPS, smartphone applications) there is a “new kid...

  18. Hepatitis C in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashis Mukhopadhya

    2008-11-01

    Hepatitis C is an emerging infection in India and an important pathogen causing liver disease in India. The high risk of chronicity of this blood-borne infection and its association with hepatocellular carcinoma underscores its public health importance. Blood transfusion and unsafe therapeutic interventions by infected needles are two preventable modalities of spread of hepatitis C infection. In addition, risk factor modification by reducing the number of intravenous drug users will help curtail the prevalence of this infection. This review summarizes the extent, nature and implications of this relatively new pathogen in causing disease in India.

  19. The seagrasses of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jagtap, T.G.; Komarpant, D.S.; Rodrigues, R.

    in India. In d i a 101 T.G. Jagtap 0.5. Komarpant R. Rodrigues Surprisingly, sea grasses have not been introduced even at the level of plant science education programs. Hence, large number of students, researchers and coastaL zone managers in India may... 21 138 33 150 143 77 4 I 100 13 9 However, seagrasses in India have been largely left out of education, research and management compared to other ecoLogicalLy sensitive habitats such as mangroves, sand dunes and corals. Considering the lack...

  20. Current Impact, Future Prospects and Implications of Mobile Healthcare in India

    OpenAIRE

    Rishi Kappal; Amit Mehndiratta; Prabu Anandaraj; Athanasios Tsanas

    2014-01-01

    India has a diverse geographical landscape and predominately rural population. Telemedicine is identified as one of the technological pillars to support healthcare services in this region, but is associated with high cost and complex infrastructure, thus restricting its wider use. Mobile-based healthcare (m-Health) services may provide a practical, promising alternative approach to support healthcare facilities. India has a high mobile user base, both in cities and in rural regions. The appro...

  1. First record of Galeodes indicus Pocock, 1900 (Arachnida: Solifugae: Galeodidae from Rajasthan, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruquaeya Bano

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available During a regular survey to collect soil arthropods in Lasiurus sindicus Henrard grassland by pitfall methods at Chandan Village near Jaisalmer City, Rajasthan, we found a dead specimen of Galeodes indicus in a sample.  Galeodes indicus (Pocock, 1900 has been reported from Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Telangana but so far was unknown to Rajasthan, India.  In this communication, we report Galeodes indicus from Jaisalmer District, Rajasthan, India

  2. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciger, Jan

    2006-01-01

    of providing a tangible correspondence between the two spaces. This interaction mean has proved to suit the artistic expression well but it also aims at providing anyone with a pleasant and stimulating feedback from speech activity, a new medium for creativity and a way to visually perceive a vocal performance....... As the feedback we have received when presenting Flying Cities was very positive, our objective now is to cross the bridge between art and the potential applications to the rehabilitation of people with reduced mobility or for the treatment of language impairments....

  3. Is India the Exception?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Klaus; Storm, Rasmus K.

    2013-01-01

    India is the extreme under-achiever in international sport competitions. This has only marginally changed with the recent promotion of the Indian economy into the league of BRIC nations. Whereas in China high growth rates have been accompanied by a huge improvement of its performance in internati......India is the extreme under-achiever in international sport competitions. This has only marginally changed with the recent promotion of the Indian economy into the league of BRIC nations. Whereas in China high growth rates have been accompanied by a huge improvement of its performance...... in international sport events a similar impact of extraordinary growth rates has been almost totally absent in the case of India. Is India an exception? Several econometric studies have shown that income per capita is a significant variable explaining elite sport results such as results in the Olympic Games. From...

  4. Is India the Exception?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Klaus; Storm, Rasmus K.

    India is still the extreme under-achiever in international sport competitions. Whereas in China high growth rates have been accompanied by a huge improvement in its ranking in international sport events a similar impact of extraordinary growth rates is seemingly totally absent in the case of India....... Is India an exception? Several econometric studies have shown that income per capita is a significant variable explaining elite sport results such as results in the Olympic Games. From this stylized fact follows the hypothesis that 'above/below average' growth rates lead to relative improvements....../deterioration of elite sport results (with a time lag)’. However, this has not previously been tested, and the contingencies explaining the seemingly widely different developments in countries such as China and India have not been explored. This paper tests the above hypothesis by means of a study of the correlation...

  5. Looking ahead in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupte, P

    1986-03-01

    India and China contain more than 40% of the world's population, yet in India it is painfully clear that the political commitment necessary to tackle India's greatest problem is not there in full measure. India's present per capita income is less than $300, and nearly 65% of the people live below the poverty line. The average Indian woman produces 5 children; even if the Indian government's efforts to reduce family size to 2 children is successful by the year 2040, India will have a population of 2.5 billion. The possibility that India will succeed in reducing average family size to 2 children appears remote. 30 years ago, India became the 1st developing country to formally make family planning a matter of national policy. In the early years of the national family planning programs, practitioners had access mostly to sterilization and condoms. Over the years, theIndian government persuaded the US and other western donors to give $2 billion to population control programs. Still, the population continues to grow annually at the rate of 2.1%. Government statistics reflect the ups and downs of national population control policies; thenumber of new family planning users increased from 4.3 million in 1974-1975 to 12.5 million in 1976-1977, due largely to a dramatic increase in vasectomies. Tge number of new contraceptive users fell to 4.5 million after the "emergency" was lifted in 1977. The present Indian generation is far more receptive culturally as well as sociologically to the concept of population control than most other developing countries. What is needed now is renewed political committment by the Gandhi adminiostration. India cannot afford to replicate the Chinese way of tackling overpopulation without inflicting human abuses and without undermining its painstakingly cultivated democratic system.

  6. My Relations With India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    Cheng Youshu was born in 1924. She worked for newspapers between 1946 and 1952. In 1953 she was transferred to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and worked twice at the Chinese Embassy to India and undertook work involving India, in particular many significant events involving the Sino-Indian frontier dispute. She has also worked with the Chinese permanent delegation to the United Nations and Chinese embassies to Denmark and Iceland.

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL CHALLENGES FACING INDIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DR.J.P.Semwal

    2004-01-01

    @@ INTRODUCTION India is among one of the ten most industrialized nations in the world. Increase in population has raised the urbar industrial, transport and agriculture demands which are major reasons for the degradation of the environmel condition. For India besides land and soil degradation, deforestation, low accessibility of water, ,industrial pollution and urban congestion are the major environmental issues of priority. The industries that generate huge quantities of waste are thermal power station, Iron and Steel Plants, Sugar, Paper and Fertilizer Industries.

  8. Evidence from India

    OpenAIRE

    Duggan, Mark; Garthwaite, Craig; Goyal, Aparajita

    2016-01-01

    In 2005, as the result of a World Trade Organization mandate, India began to implement product patents for pharmaceuticals that were compliant with the 1995 Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS). We combine pharmaceutical product sales data for India with a newly gathered dataset of molecule-linked patents issued by the Indian patent office. Exploiting variation in the timing of patent decisions, we estimate that a molecule receiving a patent experienced an average pri...

  9. Unleashing science in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagla, Pallava

    2009-04-01

    With a population of over 1.1 billion people, of whom 714 million are entitled to vote, elections in India are complex affairs. In the next general election, which begins on 16 April, there will be more than 828 000 polling stations, where some 1.3 million electronic voting machines will be used in what will be the world's largest electronic election. The machines themselves were built and designed in India.

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL CHALLENGES FACING INDIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DR.J.P.Semwal

    2004-01-01

    India is among one of the ten most industrialized nations in the world. Increase in population has raisedthe urbar industrial, transport and agriculture demands which are major reasons for the degradationof the environmel condition. For India besides landand soil degradation, deforestation, low accessibilityof water, ,industrial pollution and urban congestionare the major environmental issues of priority. Theindustries that generate huge quantities ofwaste are thermal power station, Iron and SteelPlants, Sugar, Paper and Fertilizer Industries.

  11. History of Nuclear India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Ram

    2000-04-01

    India emerged as a free and democratic country in 1947, and entered into the nuclear age in 1948 by establishing the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), with Homi Bhabha as the chairman. Later on the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) was created under the Office of the Prime Minister Jawahar Lal Nehru. Initially the AEC and DAE received international cooperation, and by 1963 India had two research reactors and four nuclear power reactors. In spite of the humiliating defeat in the border war by China in 1962 and China's nuclear testing in 1964, India continued to adhere to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. On May 18, 1974 India performed a 15 kt Peaceful Nuclear Explosion (PNE). The western powers considered it nuclear weapons proliferation and cut off all financial and technical help, even for the production of nuclear power. However, India used existing infrastructure to build nuclear power reactors and exploded both fission and fusion devices on May 11 and 13, 1998. The international community viewed the later activity as a serious road block for the Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty; both deemed essential to stop the spread of nuclear weapons. India considers these treaties favoring nuclear states and is prepared to sign if genuine nuclear disarmament is included as an integral part of these treaties.

  12. Branding Cities, Changing Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ooi, Can-Seng

    Societal changes are seldom discussed in the literature on city branding. The time element is important because it highlights the fluctuating reality of society. The city brand message freezes the place but in fact, the city branding exercise is a continuous process. Society emerges too. City...... brands are supposed to accentuate the uniqueness of the city, be built from the bottom-up and reflect the city's identity. This paper highlights three paradoxes, pointing out that city branding processes can also make cities more alike, bring about societal changes and forge new city identities. A city...... branding campaign does not just present the city, it may change the city. The relationships between the branding exercise and the city are intertwined in the evolution of the place....

  13. Air nicotine monitoring for second hand smoke exposure in public places in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagdish Kaur

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Air nicotine monitoring is an established method of measuring exposure to second hand smoke (SHS. Not much research has been done in India to measure air nicotine for the purpose of studying exposure to SHS. It is a risk factor and many diseases are known to occur among non smokers if they are exposed to second hand smoke. Objective: To conduct monitoring of air nicotine for second hand smoke exposure in public places across major cities in India. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional survey was conducted across four cities across the country, using passive air monitoring. The buildings included hospitals, secondary schools, Governmental offices, bars and restaurants. The buildings were selected through convenience sampling method keeping in view specific sentinel locations of interest. Result: The presence of air nicotine was recorded in most of the buildings under the study, which included government buildings, hospitals, schools, restaurants and entertainment venues (bars in all four cities under the study. The highest median levels of air nicotine were found in entertainment venues and restaurants in cities. Conclusion: The presence of air nicotine in indoor public places indicates weak implementation of existing smoke free law in India. The findings of this study provide a baseline characterization of exposure to SHS in public places in India, which could be used to promote clean indoor air policies and programs and monitor and evaluate the progress and future smoke-free initiatives in India.

  14. Learning Cities as Healthy Green Cities: Building Sustainable Opportunity Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses a new generation of learning cities we have called EcCoWell cities (Economy, Community, Well-being). The paper was prepared for the PASCAL International Exchanges (PIE) and is based on international experiences with PIE and developments in some cities. The paper argues for more holistic and integrated development so that…

  15. Patent Pooling for Promoting Access to Antiretroviral Drugs (ARVs) - A Strategic Option for India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyanarayana, Kanikaram; Srivastava, Sadhana

    2010-01-19

    The current HIV/AIDS scenario in India is quite grim with an estimated 2.4 million people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) in 2008, just behind South Africa and Nigeria. The anti-retroviral drugs (ARVs) remain the main stay of global HIV/AIDS treatment. Over 30 ARVs (single and FDCs) available under six categories viz., NRTIs (nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors), NNRTIs (non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors), Protease inhibitors, the new Fusion inhibitors, Entry inhibitors-CCR5 co-receptor antagonists and HIV integrase strand transfer inhibitors. The major originator companies for these ARVs are: Abbott, Boehringer Ingelheim (BI), Bristol-Myers Squibb (BMS), Gilead, GlaxoSmithKline (GSK), Merck, Pfizer, Roche, and Tibotec. Beginning with zidovidine in 1987, all the drugs are available in the developed countries. In India, about 30 ARVs are available as generics manufactured by Aurobindo, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh; Cipla Limited, Goa; Emcure Pharmaceuticals, Pune, Maharashtra; Hetero Drugs, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh; Macleods Pharmaceuticals, Daman; Matrix Laboratories, Nashik, Maharashtra; Ranbaxy, Sirmour, Himachal Pradesh; and Strides Arcolab, Bangalore, Karnataka. The National AIDS Control Organization (NACO) set up in 1992 by the Govt. of India provides free ARVs to HIV positive patients in India since 2004. The drugs available in India include both single drugs and FDCs covering both first line and second line ARVs. Even while there are claims of stabilization of the disease load, there is still huge gap of those who require ARVs as only about 150,000 PLHA receive the ARVs from the Govt. and other sources. Access to ARVs therefore is still a cause of serious concern ever since India became fully Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS)-complaint in 2005. Therefore, the Indian pharmaceutical companies cannot make generics for those for drugs introduced post-2005 due to product patent regime. Other concerns include heat stable

  16. Quality of life declines in big and growing cities. Poverty in cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harel, K

    1997-01-01

    The quality of life in developing countries during the first couple of decades after the Second World War was higher in cities than in small towns and villages. However, the relative advantage of city dwellers in developing countries has declined since the 1970s, with high-growth rate cities experiencing a more severe decline. Infant mortality levels in Latin America and sub-Saharan Africa in the 1990s are as high in large cities as in the smallest towns and villages. In most developing regions, big city residents are increasingly disadvantaged, such that researchers and policymakers can no longer assume that the quality of life in urban areas is better than in rural areas. The urban transformation of the developing world is similar to the 19th century urbanization of now-developed countries, but today many more people are crowding into far bigger cities. Using survey information from 43 countries representing 63% of the developing world's urban population outside of China and India, Martin Brockerhoff of the Population Council and Ellen Brennan of the UN Population Division found that rapid population growth and big size have overwhelmed the capacity of cities to provide essential goods and services.

  17. India. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminar Abroad 1994 (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickler, Paul

    This curriculum packet on politics and international relations in India contains an essay, three lessons and a variety of charts, maps, and additional readings to support the unit. The essay is entitled "India 1994: The Peacock and the Vulture." The lessons include: (1) "The Kashmir Dispute"; (2) "India: Domestic Order and International Affairs, A…

  18. Pittsburgh City Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Pittsburgh City FacilitiesIncludes: City Administrative Buildings, Police Stations, Fire Stations, EMS Stations, DPW Sites, Senior Centers, Recreation Centers,...

  19. Pittsburgh City Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Pittsburgh City FacilitiesIncludes: City Administrative Buildings, Police Stations, Fire Stations, EMS Stations, DPW Sites, Senior Centers, Recreation Centers, Pool...

  20. Expats rank Chinese cities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    By Lv Dong

    2012-01-01

    Beijing, April The results of the "2011 Amazing China- The Most Attractive Chinese Cities for Foreigners" election are released. Expats choose Beijing, Shanghai, Tianjin and other cities as Chinas 10 most attractive cities for foreigners.

  1. Widening economic & social disparities: implications for India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurian, N J

    2007-10-01

    India is often characterized as an emerging economic super power. The huge demographic dividend, the high quality engineering and management talent, the powerful Indian diaspora and the emerging Indian transnational--kneeling the optimism. In contrast, there is another profile of India which is rather gloomy. This is the country with the largest number of the poor, illiterates and unemployed in the world. High infant mortality, morbidity and widespread anaemia among women and children continue. India suffers from acute economic and social disparities. This article addresses four dimensions of such disparities, viz. regional, rural-urban, social, and gender. There is empirical evidence to indicate that during the last two decades all these disparities have been increasing. As a result of economic reforms, the southern and western States experienced accelerated economic and social development as compared to northern and eastern States. This has led to widening gap in income, poverty and other indicators of development between the two regions. Rural-urban divide also widened in the wake of reforms. While large and medium cities experience unprecedented economic prosperity, the rural areas experience economic stagnation. As a result, there is widespread agrarian distress which results in farmers' suicide and rural unrest. Socially backward sections, especially scheduled castes and tribes (SCs and STs) have gained little from the new prosperity which rewards disproportionately those with assets, skills and higher education. STs have often been victims of development as a result of displacement. The gender gap in social and economic status, traditionally more in India as compared to other societies; has further widened by the economic reforms and globalization. The approach paper to the Eleventh Plan stresses the importance of more inclusive economic growth. It emphasizes the need for bridging the divides discussed in this article. Unless these are achieved in a time

  2. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease : report of 10 cases from North India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehndiratta M

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD is increasingly being reported over the last three decades as a result of heightened awareness of the disease. Various studies have reported annual incidence of 0.5-1.5 cases of CJD per million of general population. In India, the disease is still under reported. Over the period spanning from 1968-1997, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS, Bangalore recorded 69 cases of CJD from different parts of India in the CJD registry. This paper describes the clinical experience with cases of CJD managed at the Department of Neurology, G.B. Pant Hospital, New Delhi from 1990-1998. In this series, the mean age of the patients was 53.80 (+/- 7.32 years and there were 5 females and 5 males. Myoclonus was present in all the cases and abnormal behaviour with or without other features was the presenting complaint in 7 of the 10 patients, while one patient of CJD had cerebellar ataxia as the presenting feature. One patient with occipital variant of CJD presented with acute onset cortical blindness and myoclonic jerks. One of the patients had acute psychosis precipitated by emotional stress at the onset. Extrapyramidal features were noted in 7 of the 10 patients before death. The mean duration of symptoms from the onset of disease to death was 6.6 (+/- 6.11 months. Classical EEG changes were observed in all the patients, except in one possible case of occipital variant of CJD, where we did not have access to EEG record. Brain biopsy could be undertaken in 3 patients, and in 2 patients the features of subacute spongiform encephalopathy (SSE were noted.

  3. Chemical characterization and toxicity of particulate matter emissions from roadside trash combustion in urban India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreeland, Heidi; Schauer, James J.; Russell, Armistead G.; Marshall, Julian D.; Fushimi, Akihiro; Jain, Grishma; Sethuraman, Karthik; Verma, Vishal; Tripathi, Sachi N.; Bergin, Michael H.

    2016-12-01

    Roadside trash burning is largely unexamined as a factor that influences air quality, radiative forcing, and human health even though it is ubiquitously practiced across many global regions, including throughout India. The objective of this research is to examine characteristics and redox activity of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) associated with roadside trash burning in Bangalore, India. Emissions from smoldering and flaming roadside trash piles (n = 24) were analyzed for organic and elemental carbon (OC/EC), brown carbon (BrC), and toxicity (i.e. redox activity, measured via the dithiothreitol "DTT" assay). A subset of samples (n = 8) were further assessed for toxicity by a cellular assay (macrophage assay) and also analyzed for trace organic compounds. Results show high variability of chemical composition and toxicity between trash-burning emissions, and characteristic differences from ambient samples. OC/EC ratios for trash-burning emissions range from 0.8 to 1500, while ambient OC/EC ratios were observed at 5.4 ± 1.8. Trace organic compound analyses indicate that emissions from trash-burning piles were frequently composed of aromatic di-acids (likely from burning plastics) and levoglucosan (an indicator of biomass burning), while the ambient sample showed high response from alkanes indicating notable representation from vehicular exhaust. Volume-normalized DTT results (i.e., redox activity normalized by the volume of air pulled through the filter during sampling) were, unsurprisingly, extremely elevated in all trash-burning samples. Interestingly, DTT results suggest that on a per-mass basis, fresh trash-burning emissions are an order of magnitude less redox-active than ambient air (13.4 ± 14.8 pmol/min/μgOC for trash burning; 107 ± 25 pmol/min/μgOC for ambient). However, overall results indicate that near trash-burning sources, exposure to redox-active PM can be extremely high.

  4. Impact Of Demographics On The Consumption Of Different Services Online In India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A M Sakkthivel

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The role of Internet is becoming inevitable to corporate and society. Across the world, governments and corporate are increasingly working towards the better utilization of the internet. The Internet which was initially perceived as a communication media is now metamorphosing into a powerful business media. The late 20 and early 21st century witnessed the entry and exit of the dot.com companies. The internet motivated many brick & mortar companies to use the Internet to sell products/services online and found negative outcomes as the companies failed to understand the internet buyer behavior and could not figure out the categories of services the Internet users intend to buy. In offline marketing, demographics plays a vital role in understanding buying behavior of consumers belong to different segments which would enable companies to develop products/services according to their specific requirements. Internet is a medium which does not offer this luxury to companies to know the profile of Internet users as it is an indirect medium. The companies would do well if they could find the demographic profile of Internet users which would help them devise strategies accordingly. Hence, the author conducted an extensive primary research in Bangalore, India (Silicon Valley of India in order to identify the willingness of Internet users to buy different services over Internet. The paper aims at providing a specific focus to identify the impact of demographics in influencing Indian Internet users in consuming different services online. The outcomes would help the corporate world to understand the importance of demographics on online purchase which could be adopted and deployed for better use.

  5. Cities, Towns and Villages - City Limit (polygon)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Data available online through GeoStor at http://www.geostor.arkansas.gov. Arkansas Cities: This data set contains all of the city limit boundaries within the state...

  6. Fiscal Discipline in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanhita SUCHARITA

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study broadly attempts to analyze the role of Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act in restoring fiscal balance in India. It analyses the need for fiscal rules and constraints in India. The study aims at finding out the major factor behind rising fiscal imbalance in India and to examine whether there is an electoral motive towards high fiscal deficit to GDP ratio or not. It also analyzes the effectiveness of various measures undertaken at the central and state level to inculcate fiscal discipline in the fiscal management. The study also makes an attempt to do a critical in depth reviews of the Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act and make an attempt at examining effectiveness and suitability of FRBM Act through a quantitative analysis. It also makes an attempt to suggest improvements in the fiscal monitoring mechanism in India. We employ Ordinary Least Square (OLS method to examine the impact of Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act on fiscal deficit in India using the data for the period 1980-81 to 2008-09. The regression results indicates that FRBM Act does not have a significant effect on the Gross Fiscal Deficit (GFD to GDP ratio where as GDP (at factor cost growth rate has a significant negative effect on the GFD to GDP ratio.

  7. City positioning theories and city core competencies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinquan; Zhu

    2007-01-01

    Gity positioning The Chinese city in a decision develops the topic of the destiny. Since the 90's of 20 centuries, the economic integral and globalization developed rapidly. The development make national boundary become not so important, the function of the city is increasingly outstanding. In other words, national competition ability is morally now on the city competition ability. At the same time, this development result that the industry is divided internationally and is divided in cities. Therefore, under the condition of globalization, if the city wants the superior development, it must take advantages and avoid shortage, to position the city accurately, establish the competition and development the strategy. The city positioning is clearly defined the city competition ability, more important it indicated the direction of the city development. Trough the analysis of the resource and environment of the city, decide an accurate position of the best function of the city, well configure the inner and outside resource, catch the opportunities,face the challenges, maximized the market share in order to maximized the wealth and city competition ability.

  8. Spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 in eastern India: Some new observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyan B Bhattacharyya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs are hereditary, autosomal dominant progressive neurodegenerative disorders showing clinical and genetic heterogeneity. They are usually manifested clinically in the third to fifth decade of life although there is a wide variability in the age of onset. More than 36 different types of SCAs have been reported so far and about half of them are caused by pathological expansion of the trinucleotide, Cytosine Alanine Guanine (CAG repeat. The global prevalence of SCA is 0.3-2 per 100,000 population, SCA3 being the commonest variety worldwide, accounting for 20-50 per cent of all cases, though SCA 2 is generally considered as the commonest one in India. However, SCA6 has not been addressed adequately from India though it is common in the eastern Asian countries like, Japan, Korea and Thailand. Objective: The present study was undertaken to identify the prevalence of SCA6 in the city of Kolkata and the eastern part of India. Materials and Methods: 83 consecutive patients were recruited for the study of possible SCAs and their clinical features and genotype were investigated. Results: 6 of the 83 subjects turned out positive for SCA6, constituting therefore, 13.33% of the patient pool. Discussion: SCA6 is prevalent in the eastern part of India, though not as frequent as the other common varieties. Conclusions: Further community based studies are required in order to understand the magnitude of SCA6 in the eastern part, as well as in other regions of India.

  9. Telestroke a viable option to improve stroke care in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Padma V; Sudhan, Paulin; Khurana, Dheeraj; Bhatia, Rohit; Kaul, Subash; Sylaja, P N; Moonis, Majaz; Pandian, Jeyaraj Durai

    2014-10-01

    In India, stroke care services are not well developed. There is a need to explore alternative options to tackle the rising burden of stroke. Telemedicine has been used by the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) to meet the needs of remote hospitals in India. The telemedicine network implemented by ISRO in 2001 presently stretches to around 100 hospitals all over the country, with 78 remote/rural/district health centers connected to 22 specialty hospitals in major cities, thus providing treatment to more than 25 000 patients, which includes stroke patients. Telemedicine is currently used in India for diagnosing stroke patients, subtyping stroke as ischemic or hemorrhagic, and treating accordingly. However, a dedicated telestroke system for providing acute stroke care is needed. Keeping in mind India's flourishing technology sector and leading communication networks, the hub-and-spoke model could work out really well in the upcoming years. Until then, simpler alternatives like smartphones, online data transfer, and new mobile applications like WhatsApp could be used. Telestroke facilities could increase the pool of patients eligible for thrombolysis. But this primary aim of telestroke can be achieved in India only if thrombolysis and imaging techniques are made available at all levels of health care.

  10. Insights into the Changing Perspectives of Multiple Sclerosis in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lekha Pandit

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple Sclerosis (MS is being diagnosed in increasing numbers in metropolitan cities of India for which the availability of specialist neurologists and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI facilities are primarily responsible. Epidemiological data are unavailable. Existing data have been obtained from small often retrospective studies from different parts of the country. These earlier studies suggested that optic nerve and spinal cord involvement are considerably high, and that perhaps optic spinal MS was the most prevalent form in India. On this basis it was also speculated that neuromyelitis optica (NMO may be overrepresented in Indians. However in recent times, prospective studies backed by MRI data have shown no distinct differences between MS seen in the west and India. Sero positivity for NMO IgG is low though NMO phenotype disorders constitute nearly 20% of demyelinating disorders in India. Genetic susceptibility for MS among Indians may be similar to that for white populations. In the major histocompatibility complex (MHC, HLA DR1*1501 has been strongly associated with MS in Indians. A recent study that evaluated the established non-MHC multiple sclerosis loci in a small data set of Indian patients suggested a strong similarity with white populations. This review highlights some of the background information available on MS from India and so also some recent studies that unveiled the disease characteristics in Indian patients.

  11. The paleoposition of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Sankar; Hotton, Nicholas

    In most of the plate tectonic models of paleocontinental assembly, the supercontinent Pangea has been disassociated into independent Laurasia and Gondwana, separated by a vast oceanic Tethys. The position of India remains problematical, but geological and geophysical data support a Pangea reconstruction. Traditionally India has always been regarded as a part of Gondwana as it shares two unique geologic features with other southern continents. These are the Upper Paleozoic glacial strata and the Glossopteris flora. However, neither line of evidence definitely proves continuity of land; together they indicate zonation of cold climates. The recent discovery of Upper Paleozoic glacial strata in the U.S.S.R., southern Tibet, Saudi Arabia, Oman, China, Malaya, Thailand, and Burma demonstrates that the Permo-Carboniferous glaciation was far more extensive beyond the Gondwana limit than is usually thought. Similarly the Glossopteris flora has been found farther north of the Indian Peninsula, in the Himalaya, Kashmir and Tibet. Moreover the floral similarities are explained easily by wind and insect dispersal. On the other hand, the distribution of large terrestrial tetrapods is strongly influenced by the distribution of continents. To terrestrial tetrapods, sea constitutes a barrier. In consequence, they are more reliable indicators of past land connections than are plants, invertebrates and fishes. The postulated separation of India from Antarctica, its northward journey, and its subsequent union with Asia, as suggested by the plate tectonic models, require that during some part of the Mesozoic or Early Tertiary India must have been an island continent. The lack of endemism in the Indian terrestrial tetrapods during this period is clearly inconsistent with the island continent hypothesis. On the contrary, Indian Mesozoic and Tertiary vertebrates show closest similarities to those of Laurasia, indicating that India was never far from Asia. The correlation of faunal

  12. Woman's lot in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, S K

    1980-01-26

    I read Dr. Rao's article on attitudes to women and nutrition programmes in India (Dec. 22/29, p. 1357) with considerable interest. In India parents have to save a lot of money to be able to give a dowry when a daughter marries. In addition they are expected to spend considerable sums when their daughters' children are born and when the grandchildren in turn marry. The task of looking after elderly parents--and of discharging their responsibilities if they themselves are unable to do so--falls upon the sons. In India daughters rarely help out their parents in this way, and the parents will not usually agree to accept help from daughters if they have a son who is prepared to discharge the sacred duty of helping parents in time of need. Once she marries, a daughter's obligations to her parents cease while their obligations to her extend even further to include her husband, children, and in-laws. No wonder the birth of a girl is rarely a cause of celebration in India. The main cause for the plight of women in India is poverty. In most Indian families, the woman of the house will consume less than anyone of nutritious items such as milk, cheese, meat, fish, and butter. Whenever the family's meagre resources are shared out, whether for food, for education, for medical care, it is the males who are given preference. This unequal distribution takes place with the full approval of the woman of the house. Food is normally allocated by the woman, and when food is scarce they tend to favour sons over daughters. Readers in the West may feel that women get the worst possible deal in India. However, although parents do not normally spend as much on the education of their daughters as they do on their sons, in the long run daughters very often get more than their fair share of the family's fortunes because of the dowry system and other social customs.

  13. Reforming delivery of urban services in developing countries: Evidence from a case study in India.

    OpenAIRE

    Sridhar, Kala Seetharam

    2006-01-01

    Given the importance of urban public services in attracting firm location, increasing employment and facilitating economic growth, in this paper, we examine the following questions: Is there a need for reforming public service delivery in Ludhiana (which is a city chosen under India's leading urban initiative), when judged against national benchmarks? Is there a relationship between the city's financial performance and its delivery of urban services? We develop several hypotheses. Next, we ex...

  14. SUBSTANCE ABUSE IN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bano Rubeena

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The epidemic of substance abuse in young generation has assumed alarming dimensions in India. Changing cultural values, increasing economic stress and dwindling supportive bonds are leading to initiation into substance use. Cannabis, heroin, and Indian-produced pharmaceutical drugs are the most frequently abused drugs in India. Drug use, misuse or abuse is also primarily due to the nature of the drug abused, the personality of the individual and the addict’s immediate environment. The processes of industrialization, urbanization and migration have led to loosening of the traditional methods of social control rendering an individual vulnerable to the stresses and strains of modern life.

  15. PV opportunities in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Jack L.; Ullal, Harin S.

    1996-01-01

    The growing middle class in India, coupled with a need for electricity to provide basic services to the masses, provides an opportunity to deploy photovoltaic systems in cost-effective applications ranging from grid-connected to isolated location requirements. This need is being satisfied by aggressive government programs, the availability of funds from agencies such as the World Bank, and the desire of Indian industries to form joint ventures for in-country manufacturing. The relaxed restrictions on doing business in India makes today's opportunities timely indeed.

  16. CPAFFC Delegation Visits India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>A CPAFFC delegation headed by Wang Wenyuan,former vice chairman of the National Committee of the Chinese Peo-ple’s Political Consultative Conference and adviser to the CPAFFC,paid a goodwill visit to India from December 19 to 28,2007 at the invitation of the Indian Council for Cultural Relations(ICCR).Also on the delegation were CPAFFC President Chen Haosu and Vice President Feng Zuoku.It was the highest-level delegation the CPAFFC has sent to India over the last decade.

  17. Water changed the cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elle, Morten; Jensen, Marina Bergen

    An improvement in water infrastructure and cleaning up the waters changed many harbour cities in Denmark at the beginning of the 90s. The harbour cities changed from drity, run-down industrial harbours to clean and attractive harbour dwelling creating new city centres and vital city areas...

  18. The Impact of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montessori, Mario M.

    1998-01-01

    Describes the experiences of Maria Montessori and her son, Mario, during their internment in India during World War II. Discusses how their observations of communities of Buddhists, Christians, Hindus, Muslims, and Zoroastrians at the Theosophical Society contributed to ideas related to the absorbent mind, and enabled the extension of the…

  19. India's African Engagement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Peter

    was addressed. This kicked off a quest among donor agencies, think tanks and researchers alike to identify and establish the doings of these ‘emerging’ donors. To date, however, China has received most attention while the doings of other donors like India, Brazil and South Africa have remained virtually...

  20. CAPTURED India Country Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Donoghue, R.; Brouwers, J.H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    This report provides the findings of the India Country Evaluation and is produced as part of the overall CAPTURED End Evaluation. After five years of support by the CAPTURED project the End Evaluation has assessed that results are commendable. I-AIM was able to design an approach in which health fol

  1. Female feticide in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nehaluddin

    2010-01-01

    Women are murdered all over the world. But in India a most brutal form of killing females takes place regularly, even before they have the opportunity to be born. Female feticide--the selective abortion of female fetuses--is killing upwards of one million females in India annually with far-ranging and tragic consequences. In some areas, the sex ratio of females to males has dropped to less than 8000:1000. Females not only face inequality in this culture, they are even denied the right to be born. Why do so many families selectively abort baby daughters? In a word: economics. Aborting female fetuses is both practical and socially acceptable in India. Female feticide is driven by many factors, but primarily by the prospect of having to pay a dowry to the future bridegroom of a daughter. While sons offer security to their families in old age and can perform the rites for the souls of deceased parents and ancestors, daughters are perceived as a social and economic burden. Prenatal sex detection technologies have been misused, allowing the selective abortions of female offspring to proliferate. Legally, however, female feticide is a penal offence. Although female infanticide has long been committed in India, feticide is a relatively new practice, emerging concurrently with the advent of technological advancements in prenatal sex determination on a large scale in the 1990s. While abortion is legal in India, it is a crime to abort a pregnancy solely because the fetus is female. Strict laws and penalties are in place for violators. These laws, however, have not stemmed the tide of this abhorrent practice. This article will discuss the socio-legal conundrum female feticide presents, as well as the consequences of having too few women in Indian society.

  2. Treatment seeking and health financing in selected poor urban neighbourhoods in India, Indonesia and Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Jens; Pannarunothai, Supasit; Padmawati, Retna S

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a comparative analysis of socio-economic disparities in relation to treatment-seeking strategies and healthcare expenditures in poor neighbourhoods within larger health systems in four cities in India, Indonesia and Thailand. About 200 households in New Delhi, Bhubaneswar...

  3. Impact of Physical, Psychological, and Sexual Violence on Social Adjustment of School Children in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Sibnath; Walsh, Kerryann

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to understand the pervasiveness and impact of physical, psychological, and sexual violence on the social adjustment of Grade 8 and 9 school children in the state of Tripura, India. The study participants, 160 boys and 160 girls, were randomly selected from classes in eight English and Bengali medium schools in Agartala city,…

  4. Skills Development in the Informal Sector in India: The Case of Street Food Vendors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilz, Matthias; Uma, Gengaiah; Venkatram, Rengan

    2015-01-01

    The informal sector dominates India's economic life, so issues of skills development are particularly important. On the basis of a survey of 49 street food vendors in the Indian cities of New Delhi and Coimbatore, the authors of this article demonstrate that informal learning is a particularly significant form of vocational education and training.…

  5. Beyond the metropolis—Regional globalisation and town development in India: an introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.J. Scrase; M. Rutten; R. Ganguly-Scrase; T. Brown

    2015-01-01

    Despite the rapid transformation of India over the past 25 years and a swathe of publications dealing with the impact of globalisation on the culture and economy of the subcontinent, and on its large metropolitan cities, we contend that relatively far less is known about the regional impacts of glob

  6. City health development planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Geoff; Acres, John; Price, Charles; Tsouros, Agis

    2009-11-01

    The objective of this evaluation was to review the evolution and process of city health development planning (CHDP) in municipalities participating in the Healthy Cities Network organized by the European Region of the World Health Organization. The concept of CHDP combines elements from three theoretical domains: (a) health development, (b) city governance and (c) urban planning. The setting was the 56 cities which participated in Phase III (1998-2002) of the Network. Evidence was gathered from documents either held in WHO archives or made available from Network cities and from interviews with city representatives. CHDPs were the centrepiece of Phase III, evolving from city health plans developed in Phase II. They are strategic documents giving direction to municipalities and partner agencies. Analysis revealed three types of CHDP, reflecting the realpolitik of each city. For many cities, the process of CHDP was as important as the plan itself.

  7. Analysis of Solar Irradiation Anomalies in Long Term Over India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cony, M.; Polo, J.; Martin, L.; Navarro, A.; Serra, I.

    2012-04-01

    India has a high potential for solar energy applications due to its geographic position within the Sun Belt and the large number of cloudless days in many regions of the country. However, certain regions of India, particularly those largely populated, can exhibit large aerosol loading in the atmosphere as a consequence of anthropogenic emissions that could have a negative feedback in the solar resource potential. This effect, named as solar dimming, has already been observed in India, and in some other regions in the world, by some authors using ground data from the last two decades. The recent interest in the promotion of solar energy applications in India highlights the need of extending and improving the knowledge of the solar radiation resources in this country, since most of the long term measurements available correspond to global horizontal radiation and most of them are also located big cities or highly populated areas. In addition, accurate knowledge on the aerosol column quantification and on its dynamical behavior with high spatial resolution is particularly important in the case of India, due to their impact on direct normal irradiation. Long term studies of solar irradiation over India can be performed using monthly means of global hemispheric irradiation measurements from the Indian Meteorological Department. Ground data are available from 1964 till today through the World Radiation Data Centre that publish these values in the web. This work shows a long term analysis of solar irradiation in India using anomalies techniques and trends in ten places over India. Most of the places have exhibit a decreasing trend and negative anomalies confirming thus the darkening effect already reported by solar dimming studies. The analysis of anomalies has also found two periods of different behavior. From 1964 till 1988 the anomalies observed were positive and the last 20 years seems to be a period of negative anomalies. This observation is also consequent with

  8. Teleophthalmology: A Model for Eye Care Delivery in Rural and Underserved Areas of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayaraghavan Prathiba

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To describe the application of teleophthalmology in rural and underserved areas of India. Study Design. This paper describes the major teleophthalmology projects in India and its benefits. Results. Teleophthalmology is the use of telecommunication for electronic transfer of health-related data from rural and underserved areas of India to specialities in urban cities. The MDRF/WDF Rural Diabetes Project has proved to be very beneficial for improvement of quality health care in Tamilnadu and can be replicated at the national level. This community outreach programme using telemedicine facilities has increased awareness of eye diseases, improved access to specialized health care, helped in local community empowerment, and provided employment opportunities. Early detection of sight threatening disorders by teleophthalmology and prompt treatment can help decrease visual impairment. Conclusion. Teleophthalmology can be a very effective model for improving eye care delivery system in rural and underserved areas of India.

  9. Assisted reproductive technology in India: A 3 year retrospective data analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra Malhotra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Assisted reproductive technology (ART has grown by leaps and bounds in the last few years. India has one of the highest growths in the ART centers and the number of ART cycles performed every year. Very soon India will be the leader in the world of ART in terms of a number of cycles. With the advances of technology and availability of techniques even in tier II and tier III cities our country, the results still vary dramatically. There is no standardization of protocols and reporting is very inadequate. Furthermore, there are only ART guidelines and no law still exists. Our first and the biggest challenge is to document the tremendous work being done in India and on the basis of analysis of this work, a proper registry can be made and guidance given to all on standardization and improvement. This is the 8 th edition of National ART Registry of India being presented and analyzed.

  10. Fast, cheap, and out of control? Speculations and ethical concerns in the conduct of outsourced clinical trials in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamat, Vinay R

    2014-03-01

    The globalization of biopharmaceutical clinical trials and their offshore outsourcing, from the West to low and middle-income countries, has come under increasing scrutiny from academic scholars, practitioners, regulatory agencies and the media. This article reports the results of a study conducted in Bangalore and Hyderabad between 2007 and 2009, to elicit the perspectives of stakeholders, concerning media representations of their work and the ethical issues that emanate from their engagement in the clinical trials enterprise. In acknowledging the inherently problematic nature of the outsourcing of clinical trials to low income countries, I argue that the practice of not prioritizing research on diseases that are most prevalent among communities, from which subjects are recruited, demands a coordinated and sustained critique. I propose that the critical discourse on the outsourcing of clinical trials should not only emphasize the perils of this practice, but also address some broader issues of equity and distributive justice that determine people's access to basic health care in low income countries. Close attention to the specific context of clinical trials in an increasingly neoliberal medical and health environment in emerging economies such as India can provide critical insights into the on-the-ground complexities and challenges of outsourced global clinical trials.

  11. Weather-induced mass deaths of the Common House Swift Apus affinis in Thengumarahada Village of the Nilgiris, southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ramakrishnan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Weather influences all living organisms, especially wild animals. In the case of birds, inclement weather conditions may affect them during migration and feeding that could cause mass mortality in the same species or many related species. This paper describes an incidence of mass deaths of the Common House Swift Apus affinis at Thengumarahada Village of Nilgiris, Tamil Nadu, southern India during February 2008. The samples of the dead birds were sent for toxicological and bacteriological examination at Southern Regional Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, Bangalore. Spot post mortems were also conducted by forest veterinarians. Results of the diagnostic analysis revealed that mass mortality might be due to extreme weather conditions leading to acute dehydration, shock and death. The postmortem reports say that the crop and the gastro intestinal tract (GI were found empty in all the cases, suggesting starvation. We thus conclude that unseasonal heavy rains and non availability of food could have led to hypothermia and starvation of birds over a long period resulting in mass mortality.

  12. Factors influencing consent to HIV testing among wives of heavy drinkers in an urban slum in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyanarayana, Veena A; Chandra, Prabha S; Vaddiparti, Krishna; Benegal, Vivek; Cottler, Linda B

    2009-05-01

    The study examined the influence of socio cultural factors, perception of risk and exposure to violence on consent to HIV testing among at risk women in an urban slum. Married women chosen via a multistage probability sampling in a section of Bangalore, India, between 18 and 44 years, sexually active and considered to be at risk because of their husband's hazardous drinking were recruited for the study. Written informed consent was obtained and measures of risk behavior and violence were administered. Pretest HIV counseling was then conducted and consent for HIV testing was sought. Factors influencing refusal of and consent to HIV testing were documented. Data collected on 100 participants indicated that over half the sample (58%) refused consent for HIV testing. There were no significant differences between the groups who consented and those who refused on perception of risk and exposure to violence. Reasons women refused testing include the following: spouse/family would not allow it (40%), believed that they were not at risk or would test negative (29%) and underwent HIV testing during an earlier pregnancy (21%). Among those who consented for HIV testing, 79% did so because the testing site was easily accessible, 67% consented because testing was free and because the importance of HIV testing was understood. The findings highlight the role of social, logistic and awareness related factors in utilizing voluntary counseling and testing services by women in the slum community. They have important implications for HIV testing, particularly among at risk monogamous women.

  13. India dokfilmide paremik jõuab taaralinna

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Tartus täna algavatest India dokumentaalfilmide päevadest, mida korraldavad Maailmafilmi festival, Eesti Rahva Muuseum ja organisatsioon Films For Freedom India. Lisatud nimekiri "India dokfilmi päevad"

  14. Statistical Analysis of Bus Networks in India

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Atanu; Ramadurai, Gitakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Through the past decade the field of network science has established itself as a common ground for the cross-fertilization of exciting inter-disciplinary studies which has motivated researchers to model almost every physical system as an interacting network consisting of nodes and links. Although public transport networks such as airline and railway networks have been extensively studied, the status of bus networks still remains in obscurity. In developing countries like India, where bus networks play an important role in day-to-day commutation, it is of significant interest to analyze its topological structure and answer some of the basic questions on its evolution, growth, robustness and resiliency. In this paper, we model the bus networks of major Indian cities as graphs in \\textit{L}-space, and evaluate their various statistical properties using concepts from network science. Our analysis reveals a wide spectrum of network topology with the common underlying feature of small-world property. We observe tha...

  15. What do highly qualified professionally achieving women do after retirement in India? Exploring time use, leisure, and volunteering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, Samta P

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzes the time use of highly qualified professionally achieving (HQPA) women after retirement. Data were collected from a random sample of 1,023 HQPA women in the city of Mumbai, India. HQPA women spent their postretirement time in caregiving and family responsibilities, leisure activities, and volunteer work. Several HQPA women volunteered at social service organizations as the main postretirement activity. In a developing country like India, which is still growing in terms of skilled human resources, this voluntary engagement of experienced and skilled older women is crucial. Policy makers in India and developing nations can promote this.

  16. Improving Security Ties with India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Mohammed Ali Jinnah , with it being split between East (today’s Bangladesh) and West Pakistan. India, although predominantly Hindu, has a large Muslim...population. At partition , most Muslims elected to live in East and West Pakistan. India wanted to grow as an independent state and Nehru did not want...bilateral relations between these states. 19 Pakistan is the greatest immediate concern to India in South Asia. Ever since partition , the two have been

  17. Hemovigilance Program-India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akanksha Bisht

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A centralized hemovigilance program to assure patient safety and to promote public health has been launched for the first time in India on Dec 10, 2012 in 60 medical colleges in the first phase along with a well-structured program for monitoring adverse reactions associated with blood transfusion and blood product administration. National Institute of Biologicals (NIB will be the National Coordinating Centre for Hemovigilance. This program will be implemented under overall ambit of Pharmacovigilance Program of India (PvPI, which is being coordinated by Indian Pharmacopoeia Commission (IPC. All medical colleges of the country will be enrolled in this program by the year 2016 in order to have a National Centre of Excellence for Hemovigilance at NIB, which will act as a global knowledge platform.

  18. Cartagena de Indias (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Quintero

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este documento analiza la diversificación de la oferta turística de Cartagena de Indias como destino turístico a partir de sus recursos culturales, dada su condición como Patrimonio Histórico y Cultural de la Humanidad (UNESCO, 1985, y se estudia hasta qué punto las propuestas de diversificación de la oferta y de inclusión de la cultura se reflejan en la promoción y en el producto que ofrece Cartagena de Indias y algunos de sus competidores internacionales. A su vez se presenta la situación actual de Cartagena en cuanto al uso turístico y la comercialización de los bienes patrimoniales inmuebles Finalmente, se identifican las dificultades que enfrenta el destino en el proceso de valorización turística de los recursos patrimoniales inmuebles.

  19. City Car = The City Car / Andres Sevtshuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sevtshuk, Andres, 1981-

    2008-01-01

    Massachusettsi Tehnoloogiainstituudi (MIT) meedialaboratooriumi juures tegutseva Targa Linna Grupi (Smart City Group) ja General Motorsi koostööna sündinud kaheistmelisest linnasõbralikust elektriautost City Car. Nimetatud töögrupi liikmed (juht William J. Mitchell, töögruppi kuulus A. Sevtshuk Eestist)

  20. Medical tourism in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vijay; Das, Poonam

    2012-06-01

    The term 'medical tourism' is under debate because health care is a serious business and rarely do patients combine the two. India is uniquely placed by virtue of its skilled manpower, common language, diverse medical conditions that doctors deal with, the volume of patients, and a large nonresident Indian population overseas. Medical tourism requires dedicated services to alleviate the anxiety of foreign patients. These include translation, currency conversion, travel, visa, posttreatment care system,and accommodation of patient relatives during and after treatment.

  1. Strategic Estimate: India

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-16

    est.): 26% urban, 74% rural. Annual growth (1989): 2.2% Official language: Hindi. Major religions: Hinduism, Islam, Christianity, Sikhism , Buddhism...as part of India’s goal of developing a modern defense structure. IMET builds on the Indian armed forces’ tradition of respect for democracy and...least as low as the base force, if not lower. * Traditional national and intrastate rivalries, previously held in check by the Cold War superpowers

  2. El Archivo de Indias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Elías Ortíz

    1961-05-01

    Full Text Available De todos es sabido, y no por ello es inoportuno recordarlo, que el Archivo General de Indias figura entre los tres más grandes depositarios de papeles del mundo y como el primero en su clase para la documentación histórica de lo que constituyó el imperio español entre fines del siglo XV y primer tercio del XIX.

  3. Cancer notification in India

    OpenAIRE

    Lakshmaiah, K. C.; Guruprasad, B.; Lokesh, K. N.; Veena, V. S.

    2014-01-01

    In many developed countries, notification of cancer cases is compulsory. Developing countries including India accounts for more than half of new cancer cases in the world, however notification of cancer is not yet mandatory. The primary purpose of notification is to effect prevention and control and better utilization of resources. It is also a valuable source for incidence, prevalence, mortality and morbidity of the disease. Notification of cancer will lead to improved awareness of common et...

  4. Paragonimus & paragonimiasis in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, T Shantikumar; Sugiyama, Hiromu; Rangsiruji, Achariya

    2012-08-01

    Ever since the discovery of the first indigenous case in 1981, paragonimiasis has gained recognition as a significant food borne parasitic zoonosis in India. The data available on the occurrence of paragonimiasis, until today, may be just the tip of an iceberg as the study areas covered were restricted to Northeast Indian States. Nevertheless, the results of research on paragonimiasis in India have revealed valuable information in epidemiology, life cycle, pathobiology and speciation of Indian Paragonimus. Potamiscus manipurensis, Alcomon superciliosum and Maydelliathelphusa lugubris were identified as the crab hosts of Paragonimus. Paragonimus miyazakii manipurinus n. sub sp., P. hueit'ungensis, P. skrjabini, P. heterotremus, P. compactus, and P. westermani have been described from India. P. heterotremus was found as the causative agent of human paragonimiasis. Ingestion of undercooked crabs and raw crab extract was the major mode of infection. Pulmonary paragonimiasis was the commonest clinical manifestation while pleural effusion and subcutaneous nodules were the common extra-pulmonary forms. Clinico-radiological features of pulmonary paragonimiasis simulated pulmonary tuberculosis. Intradermal test, ELISA and Dot-immunogold filtration assay (DIGFA) were used for diagnosis and epidemiological survey of paragonimiasis. Phylogenitically, Indian Paragonimus species, although nested within the respective clade were distantly related to others within the clade.

  5. Child maltreatment in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhi, Pratibha; Saini, Arushi Gahlot; Malhi, Prabhjot

    2013-11-01

    Child maltreatment is a global problem but is more difficult to assess and manage in developing countries such as India where one-fifth of the world's total child population resides. Certain forms of maltreatment such as feticide, infanticide, abandonment, child labour, street-begging, corporal punishment and battered babies are particularly prevalent in India. Most physicians still need to be sensitized in order to suspect child abuse on the basis of unexplained trauma, multiple fractures, parental conflict and other corroborative evidence. This article summarizes the various aspects of this major problem in resource-poor settings in the hope that it will assist in the planning of services addressing child physical and sexual abuse and neglect in India and in other developing countries. A culture of non-violence towards children needs to be built into communities in order to provide an environment conducive to the overall development of the child. Rehabilitation of abused children and their families requires a multi-disciplinary service including paediatricians, child psychologists and social workers, and the training of police forces in how to tackle the problem.

  6. Carbon taxes and India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher-Vanden, K.A.; Pitcher, H.M.; Edmonds, J.A.; Kim, S.H. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Shukla, P.R. [Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad (India)

    1994-07-01

    Using the Indian module of the Second Generation Model 9SGM, we explore a reference case and three scenarios in which greenhouse gas emissions were controlled. Two alternative policy instruments (carbon taxes and tradable permits) were analyzed to determine comparative costs of stabilizing emissions at (1) 1990 levels (the 1 X case), (2) two times the 1990 levels (the 2X case), and (3) three times the 1990 levels (the 3X case). The analysis takes into account India`s rapidly growing population and the abundance of coal and biomass relative to other fuels. We also explore the impacts of a global tradable permits market to stabilize global carbon emissions on the Indian economy under the following two emissions allowance allocation methods: (1) {open_quotes}Grandfathered emissions{close_quotes}: emissions allowances are allocated based on 1990 emissions. (2) {open_quotes}Equal per capita emissions{close_quotes}: emissions allowances are allocated based on share of global population. Tradable permits represent a lower cost method to stabilize Indian emissions than carbon taxes, i.e., global action would benefit India more than independent actions.

  7. A Crowded City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Over 4 million vehicles on road challenge Beijing’s city management Beijing, the city once known as the kingdom of bicycles, has become clogged with automobiles, the Beijing Municipal Government Publicity Office said on December 18.

  8. Build a Green City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUYING; HAOXUE

    2005-01-01

    MA'ANSHAN,dubbed ""City of Iron and Steel,""is on the south bank of the Yangtze River in eastern Anhui Province, bordering Jiangsu Province. One of the city's most impressive features is its clean environment.

  9. Supporting adherence to antiretroviral therapy with mobile phone reminders: results from a cohort in South India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Rodrigues

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adherence is central to the success of antiretroviral therapy. Supporting adherence has gained importance in HIV care in many national treatment programs. The ubiquity of mobile phones, even in resource-constrained settings, has provided an opportunity to utilize an inexpensive, contextually feasible technology for adherence support in HIV in these settings. We aimed to assess the influence of mobile phone reminders on adherence to antiretroviral therapy in South India. Participant experiences with the intervention were also studied. This is the first report of such an intervention for antiretroviral adherence from India, a country with over 800 million mobile connections. METHODS: STUDY DESIGN: Quasi-experimental cohort study involving 150 HIV-infected individuals from Bangalore, India, who were on antiretroviral therapy between April and July 2010. The intervention: All participants received two types of adherence reminders on their mobile phones, (i an automated interactive voice response (IVR call and (ii A non-interactive neutral picture short messaging service (SMS, once a week for 6 months. Adherence measured by pill count, was assessed at study recruitment and at months one, three, six, nine and twelve. Participant experiences were assessed at the end of the intervention period. RESULTS: The mean age of the participants was 38 years, 27% were female and 90% urban. Overall, 3,895 IVRs and 3,073 SMSs were sent to the participants over 6 months. Complete case analysis revealed that the proportion of participants with optimal adherence increased from 85% to 91% patients during the intervention period, an effect that was maintained 6 months after the intervention was discontinued (p = 0.016. Both, IVR calls and SMS reminders were considered non-intrusive and not a threat to privacy. A significantly higher proportion agreed that the IVR was helpful compared to the SMS (p<0.001. CONCLUSION: Mobile phone reminders may improve

  10. India Co2 Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharan, S.; Diffenbaugh, N. S.

    2010-12-01

    Is there a way to find a balance between improving living conditions for the people on the margins and also reducing emissions while limiting our negative impacts on the climate? This is a critical question today because there are many arguments between developed and developing countries about who is responsible for global warming. Developed countries believe that it is the poor countries because they are not educated enough to know about how they are affecting the climate. While the developing countries hold wealthy nations responsible because they are using the most resources. However it is important to acknowledge the fact that if there was no gap in between the developed and developing countries our emissions total would be much higher. This “gap” has been a natural controlling factor in climate change. This is why I wanted to see if I could plot what it would look like if a developing country such as India were to produce emissions that the US or Switzerland or Norway are producing as developed countries. India has a population total of 1.1 billion compared to the US with only 298 million, Switzerland with 7.5 million, and Norway with 4.6 million people. When the population is compared to the emissions output in metric tons, per capita, India produced the least emissions out of these countries, 1.4 tons per person while having the second largest population in the world, while the US produced 19 tons per capita, Switzerland produced 5.6 and Norway produced 8.7 tons per capita in 2006. The emissions rate is growing every year and increases widely and globally. If India was producing emissions that equal Norway, Switzerland and the US the total emissions it would be producing annually would be 9 billion for Norway, 6 billion for Switzerland and 20 billion emissions for the US, all in the year 2006 alone. This shows how the balance between countries with huge populations and very little emission output and average population and high emission out put has

  11. The Creative Cities Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The Creative Cities Network, started by UNESCO in 2004, is one of the world’s highest-level non-governmental organizations in creative industry. The network focuses on the excellence of its member cities as its main product, and finds ways to maintain relevance in city life, local economy

  12. Revisiting city connectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mans, U.

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces a new perspective on city connectivity in order to analyze non-hub cities and their position in the world economy. The author revisits the different approaches discussed in the Global Commodity Chains (GCC), Global Production Networks (GPN) and World City Network (WCN) discou

  13. Life time risk for development of ten major cancers in India and its trends over the years 1982 to 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyanarayana L

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Background : Understanding cancer magnitude, risk and trends will be of help in cancer control programs. Aim : To study trends in cumulative risk up to 64 years of age as lifetime risk of developing major cancers in India during the years 1982 to 2000. Design : Retrospective. Setting : Secondary sources of cancer-registration data. Materials and Methods : Data on age-specific cancer-incidence rates were collected for patients 0-64 years of age of either sex for 10 major cancer sites from the National Cancer Registry Program (NCRP reports of India from Mumbai, Chennai, Bangalore, Bhopal and Delhi; and Barshi registries for the years 1982 or 1988 to 2000. Statistical Analysis : Cumulative risks computed for lifetime development of cancer. Linear trends were studied using simple linear regressions. Results : The lifetime risk among females for the10 cancer sites ranged from 0.02 to 3.3% and from 0.04 to 2.4% for the years 1982 and 2000 respectively; whereas among males, it ranged from 0.04 to 0.89% and from 0.05 to 0.95% respectively. Significant (P < 0.05 increasing trends were observed for breast, non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma (NHL, gallbladder, thyroid and ovary cancers among females; while declining trends were observed for cervix, mouth, stomach, esophagus and tongue cancers. Among males, significant (P < 0.05 increasing trends were observed for NHL and prostate cancer; whereas declining trends were observed for stomach, liver, hypopharynx and tongue cancers. Cancers of mouth and esophagus showed increasing trends (P < 0.05 in some regions and declining trends (P < 0.05 in some other. Conclusion : Significant and higher rates of positive trends in lifetime cancer risks for breast cancer among females and for NHL among both sexes were observed.

  14. Global Horizontal Irradiance Anomalies in Long Term Series Over India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cony, Marco; Liria, Juan; Weisenberg, Ralf; Serrano, Enrique

    2014-05-01

    India has a high potential for solar energy applications due to its geographic position within the Sun Belt and the large number of cloudless days in many regions of the country. However, certain regions of India, particularly those largely populated, can exhibit large aerosol loading in the atmosphere as a consequence of anthropogenic emissions that could have a negative feedback in the solar resource potential. This effect, named as solar dimming, has already been observed in India, and in some other regions in the world, by some authors using ground data from the last two decades. The recent interest in the promotion of solar energy applications in India highlights the need of extending and improving the knowledge of the solar radiation resources in this country, since most of the long term measurements available correspond to global horizontal radiation (GHI) and most of them are also located big cities or highly populated areas. In addition, accurate knowledge on the aerosol column quantification and on its dynamical behavior with high spatial resolution is particularly important in the case of India, due to their impact on direct normal irradiation. Long term studies of solar irradiation over India can be performed using monthly means of GHI measurements from the Indian Meteorological Department. Ground data are available from 1964 till today through the World Radiation Data Centre that publish these values in the web. This work shows a long term analysis of GHI using anomalies techniques over ten different sites over India. Besides, techniques of linear trends have been applied for to show the evolution over this period. The analysis of anomalies has also found two periods of different behavior. From 1964 till 1988 the anomalies observed were positive and the last 20 years seems to be a period of negative anomalies. The results exhibit a decreasing trend and negative anomalies confirming thus the darkening effect already reported by solar dimming studies

  15. India-EU relations in health services: prospects and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanda Rupa

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background India and the EU are currently negotiating a Trade and Investment Agreement which also covers services. This paper examines the opportunities for and constraints to India-EU relations in health services in the context of this agreement, focusing on the EU as a market for India's health services exports and collaboration. The paper provides an overview of key features of health services in the EU and India and their bearing on bilateral relations in this sector. Methods Twenty six semi-structured, in-person, and telephonic interviews were conducted in 2007-2008 in four Indian cities. The respondents included management and practitioners in a variety of healthcare establishments, health sector representatives in Indian industry associations, health sector officials in the Indian government, and official representatives of selected EU countries and the European Commission based in New Delhi. Secondary sources were used to supplement and corroborate these findings. Results The interviews revealed that India-EU relations in health services are currently very limited. However, several opportunity segments exist, namely: (i Telemedicine; (ii Clinical trials and research in India for EU-based pharmaceutical companies; (iii Medical transcriptions and back office support; (iv Medical value travel; and (v Collaborative ventures in medical education, research, training, staff deployment, and product development. However, various factors constrain India's exports to the EU. These include data protection regulations; recognition requirements; insurance portability restrictions; discriminatory conditions; and cultural, social, and perception-related barriers. The interviews also revealed several constraints in the Indian health care sector, including disparity in domestic standards and training, absence of clear guidelines and procedures, and inadequate infrastructure. Conclusions The paper concludes that although there are several

  16. Teledermatology in India: Practical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feroze Kaliyadan

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Teledermatology is considered to be one of the solutions to the problem of inadequate number of dermatologists in remote parts of India. We present a brief account of the technological components involved in teledermatology in India, and an evaluation of the advantages and limitations of the use of teledermatology as a clinical tool.

  17. India hiilgav viletsus / Andrei Hvostov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hvostov, Andrei, 1963-

    2006-01-01

    Hiinat nimetatakse maailma töökojaks, Indiat aga bürooks (back office), võrdlus põhineb India IT-firmade edul - kõik tegevused, mida saab teha arvutite abil, kipuvad kolima Indiasse. Tulevikuriik India on hädas keskaegsete tavadega

  18. Environment and Culture in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuthold, David

    India suffers from severe environmental problems with respect to deforestation, flooding, and pollution. These problems are associated with industrialization, lack of money to enforce anti-pollution practices, climatic and population pressures, and cultural factors. Half of India's forests have been cut in the last 40 years. Deforestation is the…

  19. The Danish East India Company

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2005-01-01

    The article analysis the first Danish East India Company incorporated in 1616, which was the first Danish Stock Company and which has impacts even on modern Danish company la......The article analysis the first Danish East India Company incorporated in 1616, which was the first Danish Stock Company and which has impacts even on modern Danish company la...

  20. A Tale of Two Indias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    The latest battle between India's increasingly successful haves and left-behind have-nots is playing out in the country's educational system. India's Supreme Court recently upheld a stay against a quota system for low-caste and historically oppressed Indians, who are officially called Other Backward Classes. The decision could halt quotas for…

  1. Passages from India, Vol. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geils, Kenneth, Ed.

    This is compendium of readings designed for use in the secondary classroom to assist with the study of India. There are seventeen categories of readings: (1) introduction to the subcontinent; (2) description of society; (3) caste and its continuing impact; (4) leadership roles; (5) women in India; (6) role playing in society; (7) marriage; (8)…

  2. India's Trade in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Shailendra

    2015-01-01

    India has had an extremely adverse balance of trade in education. Though only a minor education exporter through Mode 2, India is the world's second largest student-sending country. Nevertheless, given English as the medium of instruction especially in apex institutions, low tuition and cost of living, quite a few world-class institutions, and a…

  3. Indigenisation of Psychology in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalal, Ajit K.

    2011-01-01

    Academic psychology which made a new beginning in India in the early part of 20th century was modelled on the Western scientific tradition. The teaching of psychology was very much on the British pattern since the colonial rule, whereas the research was mostly an extension of the Western work in India. Psychology went through massive expansion…

  4. Who killed Rambhor?: The state of emergency medical services in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh H Garg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In India, the healthcare delivery system starts up from the sub-center at the village level and reaches up to super specialty medical centers providing state of the art emergency medical services (EMS. These highest centers, located in big cities, are considered the last referral points for the patients from nearby cities and states. As the incidents of rail and road accidents have increased in recent years, the role of EMS becomes critical in saving precious lives. But when the facilities and management of these emergency centers succumbs before the patient, then the question arises regarding the adequate availability and quality of EMS. The death of an unknown common man, Rambhor, for want of EMS in three big hospitals in the national capital of India put a big question on the "health" of the emergency health services in India. The emergency services infrastructure seems inadequate and quality and timely provision of EMS to critical patients appears unsatisfactory. There is lack of emergency medicine (EM specialists in India and also the postgraduation courses in EM have not gained foot in our medical education system. Creation of a Centralized Medical Emergency Body, implementation of management techniques, modification of medical curriculum, and fixing accountability are some of the few steps which are required to improve the EMS in India.

  5. Viewing India from Religious Angle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu Yonghui

    2004-01-01

    @@ It would be impossible to understand India without any knowledge about the religions of this country. India is a developing country with many religions, nationalities and languages. This nation has long been noted for its democratic politics and multiculture. India was founded on the principle of secularism, but at the same time it has suffered from religions. Therefore, to have a clear idea about the basic conditions of India's multiple religious beliefs is the foundation for studies of its religions of the country, and is also one key to grasping Indian social politics. In early September 2004, the Indian government published religious data from the 2001 census. Accordingly, we can make some basic judgments about the religions in today's India.

  6. Me, the City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Lidin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The search for identity of cities looks rather urgent and attracts attention of many researchers. Addressing this issue, the article draws an analogy between a human person and a city. Like a city, a human being needs to comprehend his self-identity in order to resist depressive tendencies. It is shown that a person’s depressive symptoms are similar to those of cities. The city identity necessary to resist depression can be searched for both historically and geographically. The historical aspect consists of local myths and legends about the city and the citizens. The geographical aspect of identity comprises features of the terrain, climate, flora and fauna of the region where the city is located.

  7. EVALUATION OF STRESS IN PROFESSIONAL LIFE AND OTHER FACTORS AMONG YOUNG TECHNOLOGY PROFESSIONALS IN SOUTH INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Bhat M

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Stress has been a topic of interest in the last century, since its description by Hans Selye. Stressors could be anything from the daily life, professional or domestic, eventually leading the deleterious health outcomes. However some types of stressors were believed to be necessary for growth, which were termed eustress. In the present study we evaluated the stress levels in software professionals (n=155 from Karnataka State, India by using Professional Life stress Score (PLSS and Perceived Stress Score (PSS after explaining the subjects about the questionnaire and response types and obtaining their informed consent. Ethical clearance was obtained from the institutional ethics committee before the beginning of the data collection. Apart from the responses for the questionnaire, their BMI was calculated by carefully measuring their height and weight. Their other demographic data such as age, matrimonial status were also collected. From the results we found that PLSS score was elevated to mild and moderate degree among the study group, which was not correlated with either their age or matrimonial status. However in contrast, the PSS scores were elevated to higher degree and it was well correlated with BMI, age and number of years of experience. From the results we found that these young technical professionals of Bangalore and Mangalore did not have much professional stress but they were influenced by other factors which produce overall stress as evidenced by the elevated PSS scores. Thus we herestate that this study produced results which was helpful in differentiating the professional life environment causing stress and other compounding factors influencing the psychological well being. We, therefore conclude that well employed young professional enjoy their work but other extraneous factors could lead to stress.

  8. Electromagnetic Education in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajpai Shrish

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Out of the four fundamental interactions in nature, electromagnetics is one of them along with gravitation, strong interaction and weak interaction. The field of electromagnetics has made much of the modern age possible. Electromagnets are common in day-to-day appliances and are becoming more conventional as the need for technology increases. Electromagnetism has played a vital role in the progress of human kind ever since it has been understood. Electromagnets are found everywhere. One can find them in speakers, doorbells, home security systems, anti-shoplifting systems, hard drives, mobiles, microphones, Maglev trains, motors and many other everyday appliances and products. Before diving into the education system, it is necessary to reiterate its importance in various technologies that have evolved over time. Almost every domain of social life has electromagnetic playing its role. Be it the mobile vibrators you depend upon, a water pump, windshield wipers during rain and the power windows of your car or even the RFID tags that may ease your job during shopping. A flavor of electromagnetics is essential during primary level of schooling for the student to understand its future prospects and open his/her mind to a broad ocean of ideas. Due to such advancements this field can offer, study on such a field is highly beneficial for a developing country like India. The paper presents the scenario of electromagnetic education in India, its importance and numerous schemes taken by the government of India to uplift and acquaint the people about the importance of EM and its applications.

  9. The facilities and challenges for cancer control in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, P B

    1992-07-01

    India is a vast subcontinent with 845 million peoples occupying 2.5% of land mass of the earth, but carrying 15% of the world population. It is a multiracial society with widely varying cultures, habits, languages and many different ethnic groups. The pattern of cancer, therefore, mainly depends on their habits and life styles apart from other variations. Head, Neck & Esophagus cancers in the male and cervix and breast cancers in the females are the main cancers. All together they form nearly 60% of all cancers. The incidence rates are around 90/100,000 though this is an underestimate as cancer is not a notifiable disease in India. It is estimated that by the year 2,000 there will be six million cancer patients in India at any given time with nearly 2 million new patients annually. The over-all facilities for cancer treatment vary widely from metropolitan cities to rural areas where 70% of the Indian population lives. In major cities, good to excellent treatment facilities exist in comprehensive cancer centres--yet in the rural setting the facilities are sketchy at best or non-existent at worst. The Government of India in its national cancer policy has recognized regional cancer centres and consolidated other existing centres. There are 10 regional cancer centres thus identified, each one at a different level of development. For optimal requirements at least 600 teletherapy units, (existing 150--not always functional) 100 departments of surgical oncology and an equal number of medical oncology divisions are needed (existing 20). The demand for cancer treatment facilities are, therefore, very high with poor available facility. Nearly 50% of patients present late for treatment and therefore appropriate education in prevention and early diagnosis are important factors. The Government of India through Ministry of Health has identified cancer as a major health problem by the year 2,000 and hence planning by the National Cancer Plan is operative in many States. Major

  10. Mathematics in India

    CERN Document Server

    Plofker, Kim

    2009-01-01

    Based on extensive research in Sanskrit sources, Mathematics in India chronicles the development of mathematical techniques and texts in South Asia from antiquity to the early modern period. Kim Plofker reexamines the few facts about Indian mathematics that have become common knowledge--such as the Indian origin of Arabic numerals--and she sets them in a larger textual and cultural framework. The book details aspects of the subject that have been largely passed over in the past, including the relationships between Indian mathematics and astronomy, and their cross-fertilizations with Islamic sc

  11. A Passage to India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.

    2012-01-01

    theoretical model that combines resource-based theory and international business network theory. It aims to investigate how determinants of the offshore outsourcing process contribute to the resource stocks of client firms. Based on two longitudinal case studies of offshore outsourcing to India, the study...... are lacking. This paper suggests a detailed, activity-based approach to the study of the process of offshore outsourcing of high-value, advanced service activities. While earlier research has considered either firm-internal or firm-external sources of resource building, this study offers a more comprehensive...

  12. Opportunities and Challenges for Solar Minigrid Development in Rural India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thirumurthy, N.; Harrington, L.; Martin, D.; Thomas, L.; Takpa, J.; Gergan, R.

    2012-09-01

    The goal of this report is to inform investors about the potential of solar minigrid technologies to serve India's rural market. Under the US-India Energy Dialogue, the US Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is supporting the Indian Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE)'s Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (JNNSM) in performing a business-case and policy-oriented analysis on the deployment of solar minigrids in India. The JNNSM scheme targets the development of 2GW of off-grid solar power by 2022 and provides large subsidies to meet this target. NREL worked with electricity capacity and demand data supplied by the Ladakh Renewable Energy Development Agency (LREDA) from Leh District, to develop a technical approach for solar minigrid development. Based on the NREL-developed, simulated solar insolation data for the city of Leh, a 250-kW solar photovoltaic (PV) system can produce 427,737 kWh over a 12-month period. The business case analysis, based on several different scenarios and JNNSM incentives shows the cost of power ranges from Rs. 6.3/kWh (US$0.126) to Rs. 9/kWh (US$0.18). At these rates, solar power is a cheaper alternative to diesel. An assessment of the macro-environment elements--including political, economic, environmental, social, and technological--was also performed to identify factors that may impact India?s energy development initiatives.

  13. Organ donation after brain death in India: A trained intensivist is the key to success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayanand Palaniswamy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Organ donation after brain death in India is gaining momentum but only in a few states. Tamil Nadu is leading in the country in this regard. Certain cities have performed well compared to Chennai′s results. A single tertiary hospital performed 28 donations in a 17 months period with a team of an intensivist and a transplant coordinator. An intensivist needs training and interest in this noble cause. There is no formal training program in this noble cause for doctors in India. A structured formal training needs to be introduced and made mandatory for the doctors in intensive care to make this donation process a successful program.

  14. A review on current status of municipal solid waste management in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Neha; Yadav, Krishna Kumar; Kumar, Vinit

    2015-11-01

    Municipal solid waste management is a major environmental issue in India. Due to rapid increase in urbanization, industrialization and population, the generation rate of municipal solid waste in Indian cities and towns is also increased. Mismanagement of municipal solid waste can cause adverse environmental impacts, public health risk and other socio-economic problem. This paper presents an overview of current status of solid waste management in India which can help the competent authorities responsible for municipal solid waste management and researchers to prepare more efficient plans.

  15. Outbreak of waterborne hepatitis E in Hyderabad, India, 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailaja, B; Murhekar, M V; Hutin, Y J; Kuruva, S; Murthy, S P; Reddy, K S Jowaher; Rao, G Mastan; Gupte, M D

    2009-02-01

    A large outbreak of hepatitis E occurred in 2005 in Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India. A total of 1611 cases were reported between 1 March and 31 December 2005 (attack rate 40/100,000). The epidemic curve suggested a continuing common source outbreak. Cases were centred around open sewage drains that crossed the old city. The attack rate was significantly higher in neighbourhood blocks supplied by water supply lines that crossed open drains (203/100,000) than in blocks supplied by non-crossing water pipes with a linear trend (38/100 000, Pwater pipelines were repaired and the attack rates declined.

  16. City Carbon Footprint Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangwu Chen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Progressive cities worldwide have demonstrated political leadership by initiating meaningful strategies and actions to tackle climate change. However, the lack of knowledge concerning embodied greenhouse gas (GHG emissions of cities has hampered effective mitigation. We analyse trans-boundary GHG emission transfers between five Australian cities and their trading partners, with embodied emission flows broken down into major economic sectors. We examine intercity carbon footprint (CF networks and disclose a hierarchy of responsibility for emissions between cities and regions. Allocations of emissions to households, businesses and government and the carbon efficiency of expenditure have been analysed to inform mitigation policies. Our findings indicate that final demand in the five largest cities in Australia accounts for more than half of the nation’s CF. City households are responsible for about two thirds of the cities’ CFs; the rest can be attributed to government and business consumption and investment. The city network flows highlight that over half of emissions embodied in imports (EEI to the five cities occur overseas. However, a hierarchy of GHG emissions reveals that overseas regions also outsource emissions to Australian cities such as Perth. We finally discuss the implications of our findings on carbon neutrality, low-carbon city concepts and strategies and allocation of subnational GHG responsibility.

  17. Holocene aridification of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponton, Camilo; Giosan, Liviu; Eglinton, Tim I.; Fuller, Dorian Q.; Johnson, Joel E.; Kumar, Pushpendra; Collett, Tim S.

    2012-02-01

    Spanning a latitudinal range typical for deserts, the Indian peninsula is fertile instead and sustains over a billion people through monsoonal rains. Despite the strong link between climate and society, our knowledge of the long-term monsoon variability is incomplete over the Indian subcontinent. Here we reconstruct the Holocene paleoclimate in the core monsoon zone (CMZ) of the Indian peninsula using a sediment core recovered offshore from the mouth of Godavari River. Carbon isotopes of sedimentary leaf waxes provide an integrated and regionally extensive record of the flora in the CMZ and document a gradual increase in aridity-adapted vegetation from ˜4,000 until 1,700 years ago followed by the persistence of aridity-adapted plants after that. The oxygen isotopic composition of planktonic foraminifer Globigerinoides ruber detects unprecedented high salinity events in the Bay of Bengal over the last 3,000 years, and especially after 1,700 years ago, which suggest that the CMZ aridification intensified in the late Holocene through a series of sub-millennial dry episodes. Cultural changes occurred across the Indian subcontinent as the climate became more arid after ˜4,000 years. Sedentary agriculture took hold in the drying central and south India, while the urban Harappan civilization collapsed in the already arid Indus basin. The establishment of a more variable hydroclimate over the last ca. 1,700 years may have led to the rapid proliferation of water-conservation technology in south India.

  18. Holocene aridification of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponton, C.; Giosan, L.; Eglinton, T.I.; Fuller, D.Q.; Johnson, J.E.; Kumar, P.; Collett, T.S.

    2012-01-01

    Spanning a latitudinal range typical for deserts, the Indian peninsula is fertile instead and sustains over a billion people through monsoonal rains. Despite the strong link between climate and society, our knowledge of the long-term monsoon variability is incomplete over the Indian subcontinent. Here we reconstruct the Holocene paleoclimate in the core monsoon zone (CMZ) of the Indian peninsula using a sediment core recovered offshore from the mouth of Godavari River. Carbon isotopes of sedimentary leaf waxes provide an integrated and regionally extensive record of the flora in the CMZ and document a gradual increase in aridity-adapted vegetation from ???4,000 until 1,700 years ago followed by the persistence of aridity-adapted plants after that. The oxygen isotopic composition of planktonic foraminifer Globigerinoides ruber detects unprecedented high salinity events in the Bay of Bengal over the last 3,000 years, and especially after 1,700 years ago, which suggest that the CMZ aridification intensified in the late Holocene through a series of sub-millennial dry episodes. Cultural changes occurred across the Indian subcontinent as the climate became more arid after ???4,000 years. Sedentary agriculture took hold in the drying central and south India, while the urban Harappan civilization collapsed in the already arid Indus basin. The establishment of a more variable hydroclimate over the last ca. 1,700 years may have led to the rapid proliferation of water-conservation technology in south India. Copyright 2012 by the American Geophysical Union.

  19. Cancer notification in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmaiah, K C; Guruprasad, B; Lokesh, K N; Veena, V S

    2014-01-01

    In many developed countries, notification of cancer cases is compulsory. Developing countries including India accounts for more than half of new cancer cases in the world, however notification of cancer is not yet mandatory. The primary purpose of notification is to effect prevention and control and better utilization of resources. It is also a valuable source for incidence, prevalence, mortality and morbidity of the disease. Notification of cancer will lead to improved awareness of common etiologic agents, better understanding of common preventable causes and better utilization of health resources with better monitoring and evaluation of the effectiveness of health programs such as cancer screening and cancer treatment programs, which ultimately might improve survival. Notification of cancer can be done by the doctor or the hospital. Akin to the integrated disease surveillance project where more than 90% of the districts report weekly data through E-mail/portal, notification of cancer can be implemented if it is incorporated into the National Program for Prevention and Control of Cancer, Diabetes, Cardiovascular diseases and Stroke scheme. The need of the hour is cancer notification in India.

  20. Cancer notification in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K C Lakshmaiah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In many developed countries, notification of cancer cases is compulsory. Developing countries including India accounts for more than half of new cancer cases in the world, however notification of cancer is not yet mandatory. The primary purpose of notification is to effect prevention and control and better utilization of resources. It is also a valuable source for incidence, prevalence, mortality and morbidity of the disease. Notification of cancer will lead to improved awareness of common etiologic agents, better understanding of common preventable causes and better utilization of health resources with better monitoring and evaluation of the effectiveness of health programs such as cancer screening and cancer treatment programs, which ultimately might improve survival. Notification of cancer can be done by the doctor or the hospital. Akin to the integrated disease surveillance project where more than 90% of the districts report weekly data through E-mail/portal, notification of cancer can be implemented if it is incorporated into the National Program for Prevention and Control of Cancer, Diabetes, Cardiovascular diseases and Stroke scheme. The need of the hour is cancer notification in India.

  1. Cities as development drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Bjørn; Poulsen, Tjalfe; Hansen, Jens Aage

    2011-01-01

    for innovative problem solving and potential spill-over effects, which may stimulate further economic growth and development. This paper discusses how waste problems of cities can be transformed to become part of new, more sustainable solutions. Two cases are explored: Aalborg in Denmark and Malmö in Sweden....... It is shown that the cities have the potential to significantly contribute to a more sustainable development through increased material recycling and energy recovery. Waste prevention may increase this potential. For example, instead of constituting 3% of the total greenhouse gas emission problem, it seems......There is a strong connection between economic growth and development of cities. Economic growth tends to stimulate city growth, and city economies have often shaped innovative environments that in turn support economic growth. Simultaneously, social and environmental problems related to city growth...

  2. Second China-India Forum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>The Second China-India Forum sponsored by the CPAFFC and the China-India Friendship Association(CIFA) was held in Beijing May 15-16.CIFA President Jiang Zheng-hua,CIFA Advisor Wang Maolin,CPAFFC Vice President Feng Zuoku,and Indian Ambassador to China S.Jaishankar attended the opening ceremony.Over 200 officials,scholars,businessmen from the political,economic,cultural and environmental sectors of China,India and some other countries as well as reporters were present at the forum.

  3. EU Smart City Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Gargiulo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years European Commission has developed a set of documents for Members States tracing, directly or indirectly, recommendations for the transformation of the European city. The paper wants to outline which future EU draws for the city, through an integrated and contextual reading of addresses and strategies contained in the last documents, a future often suggested as Smart City. Although the three main documents (Cohesion Policy 2014-2020 of European Community, Digital Agenda for Europe and European Urban Agenda face the issue of the future development of European cities from different points of view, which are respectively cohesion social, ICT and urban dimension, each of them pays particular attention to urban and territorial dimension, identified by the name of Smart City. In other words, the paper aims at drawing the scenario of evolution of Smart Cities that can be delineated through the contextual reading of the three documents. To this end, the paper is divided into three parts: the first part briefly describes the general contents of the three European economic plan tools; the second part illustrates the scenarios for the future of the European city contained in each document; the third part seeks to trace the evolution of the Smart Cities issue developed by the set of the three instruments, in order to provide the framework of European Community for the near future of our cities

  4. Different Creative Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Mark; Vaarst Andersen, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    and exhibits a tendency of congregating in major cities with diverse service and cultural offers and tolerance to non-mainstream lifestyles. However, we find that a range of smaller Danish cities also attract the creative class. Second, we undertake qualitative interviews that facilitate theory building. We...... suggest that many creatives are attracted by the smaller cities' cost advantages, specialized job offers, attractive work/life balances, and authenticity and sense of community. The article synthesizes its results into four stylized types of creative cities, and concludes by discussing the policy...

  5. Suburbs and Cities

    OpenAIRE

    William N. Goetzmann; Matthew I. Spiegel; Susan M. Wachter

    1996-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of how closely the fortunes of suburbs are tied to the fortunes of the central city. We use similarities in residential housing price dynamics as a measure of how closely the economies of cities and suburbs are related. We develop housing price indices for most of the zip codes in California, and use these in a clustering procedure to see whether cities and suburbs naturally aggregate together, or whether they move separately. We find that central cities tend to...

  6. Mothers' Socialization of Children's Emotion in India and the USA: A Cross- and within-Culture Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raval, Vaishali V.; Raval, Pratiksha H.; Salvina, Jennifer M.; Wilson, Stephanie L.; Writer, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Parent responses to children's emotions vary within and across cultures. The present study compared mothers' reports of their emotional and behavioral responses in hypothetical situations depicting their children experiencing anger, sadness, or physical pain in two communities in India (traditional old city, "N" = 60; suburban middle…

  7. Educating the Urban Poor: A Case Study of Running Preschools in Non-Notified Slums of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaijayanti, K.; Subramanian, Mathangi

    2015-01-01

    United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) recently reported that the world's population is shifting to its cities. India is no exception. Throughout the country, an increasing number of migrants are leaving agricultural lifestyles in search of economic and educational opportunities, often relocating to non-notified slums. Despite the fact that many…

  8. Modeling falling groundwater tables in major cities of the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutanudjaja, Edwin; Erkens, Gilles

    2016-04-01

    Groundwater use and its over-consumption are one of the major drivers in the hydrology of many major cities in the world, particularly in delta regions. Yet, a global assessment to identify cities with declining groundwater table problems has not been done yet. In this study we used the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB (10 km resolution, for 1960-2010). Using this model, we globally calculated groundwater recharge and river discharge/surface water levels, as well as global water demand and abstraction from ground- and surface water resources. The output of PCR-GLOBWB model was then used to force a groundwater MODFLOW-based model simulating spatio-temporal groundwater head dynamics, including groundwater head declines in all major cities - mainly in delta regions - due to escalation in abstraction of groundwater to meet increasing water demand. Using these coupled models, we managed to identify a number of critical cities having groundwater table falling rates above 50 cm/year (average in 2000-2010), such as Barcelona, Houston, Los Angeles, Mexico City, New York, Rome and many large cities in China, Libya, India and Pakistan, as well as in Middle East and Central Asia regions. However, our simulation results overestimate the depletion rates in San Jose, Tokyo, Venice, and other cities where groundwater usages have been aggressively managed and replaced by importing surface water from other places. Moreover, our simulation might underestimate the declining groundwater head trends in some familiar cases, such as Bangkok (12 cm/year), Ho Chi Minh City (34 cm/year), and Jakarta (26 cm/year). The underestimation was due to an over-optimistic model assumption in allocating surface water for satisfying urban water needs. In reality, many big cities, although they are located in wet regions and have abundant surface water availability, still strongly rely on groundwater sources due to inadequate facilities to treat and distribute surface water resources.

  9. Internet addiction: Prevalence and risk factors: A cross-sectional study among college students in Bengaluru, the Silicon Valley of India

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Internet is a widely used tool known to foster addictive behavior, and Internet addiction threatens to develop into a major public health issue in the near future in a rapidly developing country like India. Objective: This cross-sectional study intends to estimate prevalence, understand patterns, and evaluate risk factors for Internet addiction among college students in the city of Bengaluru, India. Materials and Methods: Out of a total of 554 data samples from eight colleges ...

  10. Restoration of Bhoj Wetlands At Bhopal, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, S. S.; Kulshrestha, M.; Wetland Project, Bhoj

    Bhoj Wetlands comprise the two lakes at Bhopal, India. These wetlands are listed amongst the 21 lakes recognized by Ministry of Environment and Forest, India and are under consideration for Ramsar lake status. The twin lakes have a total water- spread area of 32.29 sq. kms and catchment area of 370.6 sq. kms and both lakes support a rich and diverse range of flora and fauna. Currently with the help of 7055-m Yen soft loan from Japan Bank for International Cooperation (JBIC), a comprehen- sive project called the Bhoj Wetland Project has been launched for Eco-conservation management of twin lakes and this is one of the most reputed projects of its kind being undertaken in India. This paper presents details of the various works being undertaken for restoration of these wetlands at Bhopal. The Bhoj Wetlands are located at Bhopal, a city founded in 11th century AD by King Bhoj and which became known for the worst industrial Gas tragedy in 1984 when thousands lost their lives. The city is still recovering and the Bhoj Wetland Project is playing a very crucial role in improving the overall environmental status of the City. These wetlands are at present facing acute en- vironmental degradation due to pollution from a number of sources such as inflow of untreated sewage and solid waste, silt erosion and inflow from catchment, commercial activities like washing of clothes and cleaning of vehicles etc., inflow of agricultural residues and pesticides, and encroachment by builders all of which are fast eroding the rich eco-culture, flora fauna in and around the wetlands. The Bhoj Wetland Project is being implemented since the year 1995 and is scheduled to end in March 2002. The project works are being undertaken under the overall aegis of Ministry of Housing Environment, Govt. of Madhya Pradesh (M.P.) State, India. All the detailed project reports (DPRs) and preliminary ground work was undertaken by the in-house staff of Bhoj Wetland project, resulting in huge amounts of

  11. The City at Stake:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Esmann Andersen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies of the city have been addressed from many different approaches such as law, political science, art history and public administration, in which the eco-nomic, political and legal status of the city have played a major role. However, a new agenda for conceptualizing the city has emerged, in which the city assumes new roles. By using stakeholder theory as a framework for conceptualizing the city, we argue that the city assumes a political-economic agenda-setting role as well as providing a stage for identity constructions and relational performances for consumers, organizations, the media, politicians and other stakeholders. Stakeholder theory allows us to conceptualize the city as being constituted by stakes and relationships between stakeholders which are approached from three analytical positions (modern, postmodern and hypermodern, respectively, thereby allowing us to grasp different stakes and types of relationships, ranging from functional and contractual relationships to individualized and emotionally driven or more non-committal and fluid forms of relationships. In order to support and illustrate the analytical potentials of our framework for conceptualizing urban living, we introduce a project which aims to turn the city of Aarhus into a CO2-neutral city by the year 2030, entitled Aarhus CO2030. We conclude that applying stakeholder theory to a hyper-complex organization such as a city opens up for a reconceptualization of the city as a web of stakes and stakeholder relations. Stakeholder theory contributes to a nuanced and elaborate understanding of the urban complexity and web of both enforced and voluntary relationships as well as the different types of relationships that characterize urban life.

  12. East India Company Logbooks - Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This collection consists of images of 1,235 ship logbooks created during British East India Company voyages. Period of record 1786-1834, peaking in 1804. The...

  13. Marine archaeological research in India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S; Sundaresh; Vora, K.H.; Bandodkar, S

    of this activity. All the developed countries have made tremendous progress in this field and substantial progress has been made in India in marine archaeology. Over the years the National Institute of Oceanography in collaboration with other Government agencies...

  14. Comets in ancient India

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Patrick Das

    2014-01-01

    The Indo-aryans of ancient India observed stars and constellations for ascertaining auspicious times for sacrificial rites ordained by vedas. It is but natural that they would have recounted in the vedic texts about comets. In Rigveda ($\\sim $ 1700 - 1500 BC) and Atharvaveda ($\\sim $ 1150 BC), there are references to dhumaketus and ketus, which stand for comets in Sanskrit. Varahamihira in 550 AD and Ballala Sena ($\\sim $ 1100 - 1200 AD) have described a large number of comets recorded by ancient seers such as Parashara, Vriddha Garga, Narada, Garga, etc. In this article, I conjecture that an episode narrated in Mahabharata of a radiant king, Nahusha, ruling the heavens, and later turning into a serpent after he had kicked the seer Agastya (also the star Canopus), is a mythological retelling of a cometary event.

  15. High prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing pathogens: results of a surveillance study in two hospitals in Ujjain, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pathak A

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Ashish Pathak1,2, Yogyata Marothi3, Vandana Kekre4, Kalpana Mahadik5, Ragini Macaden6, Cecilia Stålsby Lundborg11Division of Global Health, Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 2Department of Pediatrics, 3Department of Microbiology, 4Department of Medicine, 5Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, RD Gardi Medical College, Ujjain, India; 6St Johns Research Institute, Bangalore, IndiaBackground: Recent reports of the rapid evolution of bacterial resistance in India require urgent antibiotic stewardship programs. This study aimed to define the magnitude and pattern of resistance of bacterial pathogens to guide empirical therapy.Methods: We prospectively collected consecutive, clinically significant, and nonduplicate bacterial isolates from each patient from two hospitals in Ujjain, India. The antibiotic susceptibility of the bacteria was tested using a disc diffusion method as recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute.Results: A total of 716 pathogens were isolated from 2568 patients (median age, 25 years; range, 0 days to 92 years. Gram-negative infections were predominant (62%. The isolated pathogens included Staphylococcus aureus (n = 221; 31%, Escherichia coli (n = 149; 21%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 127; 18%, and Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 107; 15%. Common diagnoses included abscesses (56%, urinary tract infections (14%, blood stream infections (10%, pneumonia (10%, and vaginal infections (10%. In E. coli isolates, 69% (95% confidence interval [CI] 61.6–76.6 were extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL producers and 41% (95% CI 31.6–50.5 of K. pneumoniae isolates were ESBL producers. These isolates had a high resistance to fluoroquinolones and β-lactams, except for imipenem and piperacillin-tazobactam. Salmonella typhi remained sensitive to third-generation cephalosporins. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA constituted 30% of all S. aureus isolates and showed resistance

  16. The Posture of India's Rise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Jiali

    2006-01-01

    @@ India, a large developing country with a population of 1.1 billion,has experienced robust economic growth in recent years. As its economic power steadily builds, its military might, diplomatic the ac-tivities and even its cultural influence are expanding, resulting in its strategic rise. The international community universally believes that India has set foot on the path to become a major power.

  17. Seasonal Drought Prediction in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, R.; Mishra, V.

    2015-12-01

    Drought is among the most costly natural disasters in India. Seasonal prediction of drought can assist planners to manage agriculture and water resources. Such information can be valuable for a country like India where 60% of agriculture is rain-fed. Here we evaluate precipitation and temperature forecast from the NCEP's CFSV2 for seasonal drought prediction in India. We demonstrate the utility of the seasonal prediction of precipitation and temperature for drought forecast at 1-2 months lead time at a high spatial resolution. Precipitation from CFSv2 showed moderate correlations with observed up to two months lead. For one month lead, we found a significant correlation between CFSv2 and observed precipitation during winter season. Air temperature from the CFSv2 showed a good correlation with observed temperature during the winter. We forced the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model with the CFSv2 forecast of precipitation and air temperature to generate forecast of hydrologic variables such as soil moisture and total runoff. We find that errors of the prediction reduce for the two month lead time in the majority of the study domain except the northern India. Skills of Initial Hydrologic Conditions combined with moderate skills of forcings based on the CFSv2 showed ability of drought prediction in India. The developed system was able to successfully predict observed top layer soil moisture and observed drought based on satellite remote sensing in India.

  18. CHONGQING, the Hot City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Chongqing is a well-known city with a history of more than 3,000 years. It is a famous historical and cultural city in China. Chongqing is the birthplace of the Bayu Culture. At present, Chongqing is a municipality directly under the Central Government with the largest area, the most administrative districts and the largest population.

  19. City Improves State Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    EnjoyceZhu

    2003-01-01

    As China's new leadership drafts measures to help ailing Stateowned enterprises(SOEs),Changchun,a strategic city in the Rust Belt,is reaping benefits unseen in more than a decade of SOE reform.Home to a large number of SOEs,Changchun has had its share of bureaucracy and stagnation.The city initiated a program called,“Saving SOEs

  20. City profile: Paramaribo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verrest, H.J.L.M.

    2010-01-01

    Paramaribo, the largest and only significant urban area in Suriname, is a typical primate city. The majority of the countries’ population resides here and the majority of political, social and economic functions is clustered in the urban zone. In the course of the 20th century, the city changed dram

  1. Responsive City Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Esben Skouboe; Andersen, Hans Jørgen; Jensen, Ole B.

    This paper presents and discusses perspectives extracted from two interviews conducted during the experiments Urban Responsive Lighting. The two experts embody two different fields related to city lighting: architecture & public lighting industry. The representatives were invited to the test...... on applied technologies and responsive light design in the contemporary cities....

  2. Making the Experience City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the latest research into cultural planning and architectural branding in Denmark based on the ‘Experience City' research project located at Aalborg University. The paper explores the implication of the turn towards culture and experience in the contemporary Danish city. It thus...

  3. Reflective cool cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heidegger, V.

    2011-01-01

    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0531 Smart & Bioclimatic Design. Our globe is heating, and cities are heating up much more. At the same time, cities are growing and green spaces are substituted by buildings and streets. These man-made surfaces are dark and tend to heat up

  4. Deer City Legend

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUHUANZHI; LILIKUN

    2003-01-01

    MORE and more commodities,such as clothes,shoes,millinery,lighters and shavers,now bear the “Made in Wenzhou”mark.It woule appear that Wenzhou grooms the whole nation.Lucheng(deer city)District in central Wenzhou is the nucleus of the city's thriving light industry sector.

  5. Futures of cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    Bogen dokumenterer resultater fra den internationale kongres Futures of Cities arrangeret af IFHP International Federation of Housing and Planning, Realdania, Kunstakademiets Arkitektskole og City of Copenhagen. Kongressen blev afholdt i september 2007 i Øksnehallen og på Kunstakademiets Arkitekt...

  6. Challenges and opportunities associated with waste management in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Smith, Stephen R.; Fowler, Geoff; Velis, Costas; Kumar, S. Jyoti; Arya, Shashi; Rena; Kumar, Rakesh

    2017-01-01

    India faces major environmental challenges associated with waste generation and inadequate waste collection, transport, treatment and disposal. Current systems in India cannot cope with the volumes of waste generated by an increasing urban population, and this impacts on the environment and public health. The challenges and barriers are significant, but so are the opportunities. This paper reports on an international seminar on ‘Sustainable solid waste management for cities: opportunities in South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) countries’ organized by the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research-National Environmental Engineering Research Institute and the Royal Society. A priority is to move from reliance on waste dumps that offer no environmental protection, to waste management systems that retain useful resources within the economy. Waste segregation at source and use of specialized waste processing facilities to separate recyclable materials has a key role. Disposal of residual waste after extraction of material resources needs engineered landfill sites and/or investment in waste-to-energy facilities. The potential for energy generation from landfill via methane extraction or thermal treatment is a major opportunity, but a key barrier is the shortage of qualified engineers and environmental professionals with the experience to deliver improved waste management systems in India.

  7. India's Trade Intensity with ASEAN Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Rekha Acharya; Dr. Haldhar Sharma

    2012-01-01

    India is a growing economy and ASEAN is a fastest developing trade block. India’s trade relations with ASEAN substantially have been changed after the “Look-East†policy of India in 1991. To strengthen the economic relation with ASEAN; India became full dialogue partner of ASEAN in December 1995 at Bangkok. More recently a Free Trade Agreement in goods was signed between India and ASEAN, in Bangkok on August 13th 2009. In this context, this paper is an attempt to measure the India’s tr...

  8. "I'm Not Like Indian Women": Reflections of Young European Women in Varanasi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Korpela

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to look at the ways in which young European women staying in the city of Varanasi for long periods of time talk about India and how they negotiate their place and role as women there. There is a common travellers’ discourse that sees India as a difficult and dangerous place to a vulnerable traveler, and the encounters of colonial women with “otherness” have been widely analysed. This article brings this discussion to the post colonial era and endeavors to initiate a discussion about how to understand the encounters between visiting Western women and the locals in India today. The article is based on nine interviews which Korpela conducted in Varanasi, and on her participant observation.

  9. Low carbon scenarios for transport in India: Co-benefits analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhar, Subash; Shukla, P.R.

    2015-01-01

    Dependence on oil for transport is a concern for India's policymakers on three counts – energy security, local environment and climate change. Rapid urbanisation and accompanying motorisation has created some of the most polluting cities in India and rising demand for oil is leading to higher...... imports, besides causing more CO2 emissions. The government of India wants to achieve the climate goals through a sustainability approach that simultaneously addresses other environment and developmental challenges. This paper analyses a sustainable low carbon transport (SLCT) scenario based...... security (cumulative oil demand lower by 3100 Mtoe), improved air quality (PM 2.5 emissions never exceed the existing levels) and the cumulative CO2 emissions are lower by 13 billion t CO2 thereby showing that achieving development objectives with CO2 co-benefits is feasible....

  10. The Flickering Global City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Slater

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article explores new dimensions of the global city in light of the correlation between hegemonic transition and the prominence of financial centers. It counterposes Braudel’s historical sequence of dominant cities to extant approaches in the literature, shifting the emphasis from a convergence of form and function to variations in history and structure. The marked increase of finance in the composition of London, New York and Tokyo has paralleled each city’s occupation of a distinct niche in world financial markets: London is the principal center of currency exchange, New York is the primary equities market, and Tokyo is the leader in international banking. This division expresses the progression of world-economies since the nineteenth century and unfolds in the context of the present hegemonic transition. By combining world-historical and city-centered approaches, the article seeks to reframe the global city and overcome the limits inherent in the paradigm of globalization.

  11. Great cities look small

    CERN Document Server

    Sim, Aaron; Barahona, Mauricio; Stumpf, Michael P H

    2015-01-01

    Great cities connect people; failed cities isolate people. Despite the fundamental importance of physical, face-to-face social-ties in the functioning of cities, these connectivity networks are not explicitly observed in their entirety. Attempts at estimating them often rely on unrealistic over-simplifications such as the assumption of spatial homogeneity. Here we propose a mathematical model of human interactions in terms of a local strategy of maximising the number of beneficial connections attainable under the constraint of limited individual travelling-time budgets. By incorporating census and openly-available online multi-modal transport data, we are able to characterise the connectivity of geometrically and topologically complex cities. Beyond providing a candidate measure of greatness, this model allows one to quantify and assess the impact of transport developments, population growth, and other infrastructure and demographic changes on a city. Supported by validations of GDP and HIV infection rates ac...

  12. A liveable city:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommerlund, Julie

    2014-01-01

    There are over 20 cities world-wide with a population of over 10 million people. We have entered ‘The Millennium of the City’. The growth of urban populations has been accompanied by profound changes of the cities’ economic and social profile and of the cities themselves. The world economy...... is increas- ingly based in and on cities rather than nations, and cities compete for businesses, branding, tourists and talent. In the western world, urbanisation has happened simultane- ously to de-industrialisation, which has opened industrial neighbourhoods and harbours for new uses – often focus- ing...... on experience. We will argue for a human turn in the research on liveabil- ity and urbanisation, and debates the concept of liveability. We will take Copenhagen as our main case and compare with other cities from around the world....

  13. Marriage and the City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gautier, Pieter; Svarer, Michael; Teulings, Coen

    Do people move to cities because of marriage market considerations? In cities singles can meet more potential partners than in rural areas. Singles are therefore prepared to pay a premium in terms of higher housing prices. Once married, the marriage market benefits disappear while the housing...... premium remains. We extend the model of Burdett and Coles (1997) with a distinction between efficient (cities) and less efficient (non-cities) search markets. One implication of the model is that singles are more likely to move from rural areas to cities while married couples are more likely to make...... the reverse movement. A second prediction of the model is that attractive singles benefit most from a dense market (i.e. from being choosy). Those predictions are tested with a unique Danish dataset....

  14. Universities Scale Like Cities

    CERN Document Server

    van Raan, Anthony F J

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies of urban scaling show that important socioeconomic city characteristics such as wealth and innovation capacity exhibit a nonlinear, particularly a power law scaling with population size. These nonlinear effects are common to all cities, with similar power law exponents. These findings mean that the larger the city, the more disproportionally they are places of wealth and innovation. Local properties of cities cause a deviation from the expected behavior as predicted by the power law scaling. In this paper we demonstrate that universities show a similar behavior as cities in the distribution of the gross university income in terms of total number of citations over size in terms of total number of publications. Moreover, the power law exponents for university scaling are comparable to those for urban scaling. We find that deviations from the expected behavior can indeed be explained by specific local properties of universities, particularly the field-specific composition of a university, and its ...

  15. Governing the City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornberger, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Strategy frames the contemporary epistemological space of urbanism: major cities across the globe such as New York, London and Sydney invest time, energy and resources to craft urban strategies. Extensive empirical research projects have proposed a shift towards a strategic framework to manage...... cities. This theoretical curiosity is reflected in the rising interest in urban strategy from practice. For instance, the World Bank regularly organizes an Urban Strategy Speaker Series, while the powerful network CEOs for Cities lobbies for a strategic approach to urban development. Critical scholars...... such as Zukin diagnose not a shift in but a shift to strategic thinking in the contemporary city. This article poses the question: what makes strategy such an attractive ‘thought style’ in relation to imagining and managing cities? How can we understand the practice of urban strategy? And what are its intended...

  16. Cities, Towns and Villages, City Limits of City of Dubuque, IA, Published in 2007, City of Dubuque.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cities, Towns and Villages dataset, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2007. It is described as 'City Limits of City of...

  17. 2008 City of Baltimore Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the spring of 2008, the City of Baltimore expressed an interest to upgrade the City GIS Database with mapping quality airborne LiDAR data. The City of Baltimore...

  18. Distribution of neurologists and neurosurgeons in India and its relevance to the adoption of telemedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnan Ganapathy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Majority of Indians have no access to centres of neurological excellence in the country. A detailed analysis of 3666 members of the Neurological Society of India and the Indian Academy of Neurology revealed that not a single member lived in a geographical area covering 934.8 million people. 30.09% live in the four major metropolitan cities, 29.54% in the state capitals, 30.58% in Tier 2 cities, 7.12% in tier 3 cities and 2.67% in rural areas covering a population of 84.59 million. Building additional neurological centres cannot be the only answer, given the acute shortage of funds and trained personnel. In 1999, the author among others, foresaw that it could be possible, to extend the reach of urban specialists to suburban and rural India, by virtual means. The neurological community has been slow to use Information and Communication Technology (ICT as an integral part of their health care delivery system. This article analyses the distribution of neurologists and neurosurgeons in India and suggests that providing additional virtual neurological care can be the only answer to offset the lop sided distribution of clinical care givers in neurosciences. In this article, the authors′ considerable experience in introducing and developing telehealth in India over the last 15 years is being shared with specific emphasis on its relevance to neurosciences. A review of the global literature on telemedicine and neurosciences will substantiate the plea that telemedicine must be deployed by neurologists and neurosurgeons in India to extend their reach to patients particularly those residing in rural areas.

  19. Spatial variation of temperature and indicative of the urban heat island in Chennai Metropolitan Area, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeganathan, Anushiya; Andimuthu, Ramachandran; Prasannavenkatesh, Ramachandran; Kumar, Divya Subash

    2016-01-01

    Heat island is the main product of urban climate, and one of the important problems of twenty-first century. Cities in tropical countries suffer extensively due to the urban heat island effect, and urban climate studies are necessary to improve the comfort level and city planning. Chennai is the tropical city; it is the fourth largest metropolis in India and one of the fastest growing economic and industrial growth centers in South Asia. The spatial distribution of heat intensity in Chennai Metropolitan Area was studied, and the influence of land use and green cover were analyzed in the present work. Mobile measurements were carried out throughout the study area using a grid network to represent various land use patterns of the city. The study revealed some heat and cool pockets within the city limit; the maximum intensities of temperature were noticed in the central core city and north Chennai, which are distinguished for their commercial centers and densely populated residential areas. In morning time, temperature differences between fringes and central parts of heat packets were in the range of 3-4.5 °C. Land use and green cover play a critical role in microclimate and influences it. Green cover has a significant negative correlation with observed microclimate variations. Thus, the study urges city administration, policy makers, and architects to take up effective mitigation and adaptation strategies in the city to make people more comfortable.

  20. A 'snapshot' of physical activity and food habits among private school children in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staab, Erin M; Cunningham, Solveig A; Thorpe, Sara; Patil, Shailaja S

    2016-11-01

    Concerns about increasing obesity in poorer parts of the world, including India, have often been premised in terms of global shifts in activity levels and caloric consumption. Lifestyle changes have been documented in large cities, but we do not know whether these changes are reaching young people in less urban locations. This study used photo journals to explore children's perceptions of their food and activity habits in a remote Indian city. Children expressed interest in active pastimes, learning, and health, and indicated traditional, modern, local, and global influences in their lives. Findings offer context for research and interventions.

  1. Epidemiology of knee osteoarthritis in India and related factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Chandra Prakash; Singh, Pulkesh; Chaturvedi, Sanjay; Pruthi, Kaushal Kumar; Vij, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Background: Among the chronic rheumatic diseases, hip and knee osteoarthritis (OA) is the most prevalent and is a leading cause of pain and disability in most countries worldwide. Its prevalence increases with age and generally affects women more frequently than men. OA is strongly associated with aging and heavy physical occupational activity, a required livelihood for many people living in rural communities in developing countries. Determining region-specific OA prevalence and risk factor profiles will provide important information for planning future cost effective preventive strategies and health care services. Materials and Methods: The study was a community based cross sectional study to find out the prevalence of primary knee OA in India which has a population of 1.252 billion. The study was done across five sites in India. Each site was further divided into big city, small city, town, and village. The total sample size was 5000 subjects. Tools consisted of a structured questionnaire and plain skiagrams for confirmation of OA. Diagnosis was done using Kellgren and Lawrence scale for osteoarthritis. Results: Overall prevalence of knee OA was found to be 28.7%. The associated factors were found to be female gender (prevalence of 31.6%) (P = 0.007), obesity (P = 0.04), age (P = 0.001) and sedentary work (P = 0.001). Conclusions: There is scarcity of studies done in India which has varied socio geographical background and communities. We conducted this study for analyzing the current prevalence of OA in different locations. This study has evidenced a large percentage of population as borderline OA; therefore, it depends mainly on the prevention of modifiable risk factors to preserve at ease movement in elderly population through awareness programs.

  2. Exposure to particulate matter in India: A synthesis of findings and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Pallavi; Guttikunda, Sarath K; Peltier, Richard E

    2016-05-01

    Air pollution poses a critical threat to human health with ambient and household air pollution identified as key health risks in India. While there are many studies investigating concentration, composition, and health effects of air pollution, investigators are only beginning to focus on estimating or measuring personal exposure. Further, the relevance of exposures studies from the developed countries in developing countries is uncertain. This review summarizes existing research on exposure to particulate matter (PM) in India, identifies gaps and offers recommendations for future research. There are a limited number of studies focused on exposure to PM and/or associated health effects in India, but it is evident that levels of exposure are much higher than those reported in developed countries. Most studies have focused on coarse aerosols, with a few studies on fine aerosols. Additionally, most studies have focused on a handful of cities, and there are many unknowns in terms of ambient levels of PM as well as personal exposure. Given the high mortality burden associated with air pollution exposure in India, a deeper understanding of ambient pollutant levels as well as source strengths is crucial, both in urban and rural areas. Further, the attention needs to expand beyond the handful large cities that have been studied in detail.

  3. @City: technologising Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojas, Jesús

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is about the concept of the contemporary city - the influence that technology has when one thinks about, plans and lives in a city. The conjunction of technology and city reformulates customs and social practices; it can even determine the way one constitutes one's own identity. One can see how close the relation is between technology (specifically, TICS and the structures of the city in a wide variety of situations: in social interactions on the street, in transport, and in ways of buying, of working and entertainment. "@City" is a concept that very well reflects the emergent properties of a current city, that is, the coexistence of a physical and a virtual urban space. The "22@Barcelona" project attempts to bring together different types of spaces. By combining the physical with the virtual, 22@Barcelona, as a neighborhood of @City, creates an uncertain and blurred border between both spaces.The article also examines the impact that these spaces have on the psycho-social processes involved in the daily life of a traditionally working-class neighborhood, now strongly limited by technological boundaries.

  4. @City: technologising Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Rojas

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is about the concept of the contemporary city - the influence that technology has when one thinks about, plans and lives in a city. The conjunction of  technology and city reformulates customs and social practices; it can even determine the way one constitutes one's own identity. One can see how close the relation is between technology (specifically, TICS and the structures of the city in a wide variety of situations: in social interactions on the street, in transport, and in ways of buying, of working and entertainment. "@City" is a concept that very well reflects  the emergent properties of a current city, that is, the coexistence of a physical and a virtual urban space. The "22@Barcelona" project attempts to bring together different types of spaces. By combining the physical with the virtual, 22@Barcelona, as a neighborhood of @City,  creates an uncertain and blurred border between both spaces.The article also examines the impact that these spaces have on the psycho-social processes involved in the daily life of a traditionally working-class neighborhood, now strongly limited by technological boundaries.

  5. Indias keelati maal / Maria-Kristiina Soomre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soomre, Maria-Kristiina, 1978-

    2000-01-01

    Dehlis kõrvaldati näituselt "Uue sajandi hääled" Surendran Nairi maal, millel Ikarose aktifiguur istub India rahvussümbolil - Ashoka sambal. Kuu varem katkestati moedemonstratsioon, mille kollektsiooni kuulus India riigilipust valmistatud kleit.

  6. India`s nuclear weapons posture: The end of ambiguity. Master`s thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.D.

    1996-12-01

    This thesis examines the future of India`s nuclear weapons posture. Since testing a nuclear device in 1974, India been able to produce weapons material within its civilian nuclear power program. Despite having this nuclear weapons capability, India prefers to maintain an ambiguous nuclear posture. New pressures in the post-cold war era -- the loss of the Soviet Union as a strategic ally, the indefinite extension of the nuclear nonproliferation treaty, the rise of Hindu nationalism, and India`s growing participation in the global economy -- have the potential to derail India`s current nuclear policy. This thesis identifies the domestic and international pressures on India, and assesses the prospects for India to retain its ambiguous policy, renounce the nuclear option, or assemble an overt nuclear arsenal.

  7. Smart city – future city? smart city 20 as a livable city and future market

    CERN Document Server

    Etezadzadeh, Chirine

    2016-01-01

    The concept of a livable smart city presented in this book highlights the relevance of the functionality and integrated resilience of viable cities of the future. It critically examines the progressive digitalization that is taking place and identifies the revolutionized energy sector as the basis of urban life. The concept is based on people and their natural environment, resulting in a broader definition of sustainability and an expanded product theory. Smart City 2.0 offers its residents many opportunities and is an attractive future market for innovative products and services. However, it presents numerous challenges for stakeholders and product developers.

  8. Cities and Refugees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katz, Bruce; Noring, Luise; Garrelts, Nantke

    institutions, it is municipalities across Europe in general and Germany in particular who are responsible for planning, delivering, and, in some cases, financing the housing, education, and full integration of new arrivals. “Cities and Refugees: The European Response” is a collaboration of the Brookings...... Centennial Scholar Initiative and the Foreign Policy program, with key research led by the Copenhagen Business School. It aims to show the extent to which cities are at the vanguard of this crisis and to deepen our understanding of the role and capacity of city governments and local networks in resettlement...... and long-term economic and social integration....

  9. The Indian summer monsoon and the waters around India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shetye, S.R.

    Managing Trustee is Prof. V. Balakrishnan. The main focus of the Trust is to fosier scientific interaction and activity in the fields of Physics, Mathematics and Computer Science in various scientific institutions, and encourage scientific education..., Bangalore and other educational institutions. The Trust also organises each year the Kumari L. A. Meera Memorial Meeting on Frontier areas in Physics. The first meeting in the series, on the topic “Geometry and Topology in Physics”, was held at Dhvanyaloka...

  10. Judicial Productivity in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry Walsh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential thesis of this paper is that the practices and associated expectations of participants in the Indian court system are significantly different from most other countries that have inherited their legal systems from the British. An examination of those differences can help to identify strategies that may be pursued in overcoming a significant case backlog and delay problem in Indian courts. International comparisons with courts in other jurisdictions are not only useful and appropriate, but offer new opportunities for reforming the Indian court system that may hitherto have been overlooked. If the reader agrees with the author’s arguments and conclusions, then this paper offers a novel range of areas in which reforms may be advanced. If, on the other hand, the effect of this paper is to provoke a contradictory response from Indian commentators by reference to practices in other countries, then it will have achieved its purpose in seeking to gain recognition of the value of international comparisons as a means of identifying court system reform strategies in India and, hopefully, elsewhere.

  11. Decriminalising homosexuality in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Geetanjali

    2009-11-01

    This paper examines the successful fight against the provision in Section 377 of the Penal Code of India that criminalised private consensual sex between adults of the same sex. This law had led to serious discrimination against people engaging in homosexual acts, who were subjected to frequent beatings and blackmail attempts by police, who used the threat of prosecution against them. NGOs working with sexual minorities have also been harassed and sometimes charged under Section 377. By stigmatising homosexuality and threatening gay men with prison, the law is also likely to have impeded the battle against HIV. The provision was read down in July 2009 after an innovative, sustained, mass media campaign by activists. The Voices Against 377 coalition brought together sexuality and lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) organisations, who were previously marginalised, with groups working in areas such as children's rights and feminist groups, showing that support for non-discrimination towards sexual minorities was broad-based. Further legal and social changes are needed for LGBT individuals to gain full acceptance and equality within Indian society. However, the judgement transcended the LGBT issue with the implication of protection for all minorities and introduced for the first time in South Asia the idea of sexual citizenship.

  12. Study of Muncipal Solid Waste Management Scenario of Kadapa City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.P.Hari Prasad

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Municipal Solid Waste management constitutes a serious problem in many third world cities. Most cities do not collect the totality of wastes generated and of the wastes collected, only a fraction received proper disposal. The insufficient collection and inappropriate disposal of solid wastes represent a source of water, land and air pollution and poses risks to human health and the environment. Over the next several decades globalization, rapid urbanization and economic growth in the developing world tend to further deteriorate this situation. Items that we no longer need or don’t have any further use are falling in the category of waste and we tend to throw them away. In early days people were not facing such big problems of disposals because of availability of space and natural materials but now a day’s congestion in cities and use of non-biodegradable materials in our day life create many problems. It is directly deals with our hygiene and psychology. So, proper management of solid waste has become unavoidable. Two decades of economic growth since 1990 has changed the composition of India wastes. The quantity of MSW generated in India is increasing rapidly due to increasing population and change in lifestyles. Land is scarce and public health and environment resources are precious. The current SWM crisis in India should be approached holistically; while planning for long term solutions, focus on the solving the present problems should maintained. Solid waste Management, its impacts on public health and environment and prospects for the future should further researched. The findings should be disseminated into the public knowledge domain more effectively. The present paper deals with various topics related with solid waste such as it quantity, performance of solid waste management in Kadapa Municipal Corporation, future generation trends in KMC, deficiencies in the present Municipal Solid Waste management system and also keys to reduce it

  13. The United States -- India Strategic Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    mandala , or circle of countries, or enemies. 22 The Arthashastra translates to “The Science of Polity” and is the finest, fullest and most cogently...September 2009): 216. 22 Cohen, India: Emerging Power, 11. 23 Wolpert, A New History of India, 57. 9 day northern India. Mandala was based on a

  14. Veterinary urban hygiene: a challenge for India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, B B; Ghatak, S; Banga, H S; Gill, J P S; Singh, B

    2013-12-01

    India is confronted with many hygiene problems in urban areas that are related to animal populations. While some of these issues have been present for many years, others are only now emerging. A livestock census in 2003 and another in 2007 revealed that populations of crossbred cattle, goats and poultry are all increasing in urban areas, since this enables easy market access, which, in turn, reduces transportation costs and adds to profits. The canine population has increased along with the human population, largely due to a lack of control measures such as impounding stray animals and euthanasia. These increases in populations of both food-producing animals and stray animals in cities exacerbate such public health hazards as the transmission of zoonoses, vector-borne diseases, occcupational health hazards and environmental pollution, as well as compromising animal welfare. At present, public health hazards due to urban animal husbandry practices are considerably under-estimated. To improve veterinary-related urban hygiene and to facilitate livestock production operations in urban areas, there is an urgent need to develop sound, science-based strategies enforced through stringent regulations. The use of One Health teams may provide an answer to these highly integrated public health problems.

  15. Towards Intelligently - Sustainable Cities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Salvati

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the quest for achieving sustainable cities, Intelligent and Knowledge City Programmes (ICPs and KCPs represent cost-efficient strategies for improving the overall performance of urban systems. However, even though nobody argues on the desirability of making cities “smarter”, the fundamental questions of how and to what extent can ICPs and KCPs contribute to the achievement of urban sustainability lack a precise answer. In the attempt of providing a structured answer to these interrogatives, this paper presents a methodology developed for investigating the modalities through which ICPs and KCPs contribute to the achievement or urban sustainability. Results suggest that ICPs and KCPs efficacy lies in supporting cities achieve a sustainable urban metabolism through optimization, innovation and behavior changes.

  16. Ecological city planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Rueda

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A territory, a city, a neighbourhood are all ecosystems; a mixture of chemico-physical and organic elements related to each other. That which defines an ecological system is the set of rules and characteristics which condition its relationships, and its duration in time is guaranteed by its efficiency and internal organization which applied to the city is translated in the reduction of the use of natural resources and in the increase of social organization. To increase the efficiency of the urban systems is the necessary condition for the formulation of ecological city planning favouring the maximum liveability of sites. Liveability is directly correlated to the optimization of numerous elements (public space, equipment, services, building techniques, innovative technology, social cohesion, biodiversity. To carry out such objectives, ecological city planning proposes a new model of town planning on three levels (subsoil, ground level, and upper level.

  17. OpenCities Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Open Cities Project aims to catalyze the creation, management and use of open data to produce innovative solutions for urban planning and resilience challenges...

  18. Postsovkhoz City & Postsovkhoz Person

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    Põlvamaal Moostes mõtte- ja keskkonnakunstitalgud "Postsovkhoz City" ja "Postsovkhoz Person". Näha saab endistesse tööstushoonetesse ülespandud näitusi ja installatsioone. 11. VIII esinejad, ettekanded.

  19. Earthquakes in cities revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Wirgin, Armand

    2016-01-01

    During the last twenty years, a number of publications of theoretical-numerical nature have appeared which come to the apparently-reassuring conclusion that seismic motion on the ground in cities is smaller than what this motion would be in the absence of the buildings (but for the same underground and seismic load). Other than the fact that this finding tells nothing about the motion within the buildings, it must be confronted with the overwhelming empirical evidence (e.g, earthquakes in Sendai (2011), Kathmandu (2015), Tainan City (2016), etc.) that shaking within buildings of a city is often large enough to damage or even destroy these structures. I show, on several examples, that theory can be reconciled with empirical evidence, and suggest that the crucial subject of seismic response in cities is in need of more thorough research.

  20. Should Cities Regulate Graffiti?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Graffiti, while still a new phenomenon to most Chinese, is becoming more familiar among teenagers in big cities like Beijing and Shanghai. A recent report by Xinhua News Agency discusses the trend. The report said a small

  1. WE LOVE THE CITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    WE LOVE THE CITY Byen i bygningen, bygningen i byen Lasse Andersson, Ph.d., arkitekt maa, adjunkt ved Aalborg Universitet Med udstillingen WE LOVE THE CITY vil vi formidle mødet mellem urban design oog arkitektur. Disciplinen ’at bygge by’ har de seneste 20 år ikke tændt hjerterne hos...... fjern og ’usexet’ for unge arkitekter in spe. Det kan fremtidens by ikke være tjent med, og WE LOVE THE CITY vil derfor gerne vise alle, der færdes i byen og bruger dens arkitektur, at her er et potentiale. Med udstillingen WE LOVE THE CITY ønsker Utzon Centeret, LasseVegas Kontoret ApS og ADEPT...

  2. City sewer collectors biocorrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksiażek, Mariusz

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents the biocorrosion of city sewer collectors impregnated with special polymer sulphur binders, polymerized sulphur, which is applied as the industrial waste material. The city sewer collectors are settled with a colony of soil bacteria which have corrosive effects on its structure. Chemoautotrophic nitrifying bacteria utilize the residues of halites (carbamide) which migrate in the city sewer collectors, due to the damaged dampproofing of the roadway and produce nitrogen salts. Chemoorganotrophic bacteria utilize the traces of organic substrates and produce a number of organic acids (formic, acetic, propionic, citric, oxalic and other). The activity of microorganisms so enables the origination of primary and secondary salts which affect physical properties of concretes in city sewer collectors unfavourably.

  3. Aging City Leads Way

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The northern city of Dalian has become a model of care for the elderly that other Chinese cities are following Chinese Minister of Civil Affairs Li Xueju has called upon civil affairs agencies in the nation to learn from Dalian’s diversified models for elderly care,ranging from running collectively owned and foreign-designed nursing homes to offering tax incentives to private households and companies serving the elderly

  4. City marketing: online communication plan for the city of Lisbon

    OpenAIRE

    Altrichter, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Mestrado em Marketing City Marketing represents marketing efforts of cities in order to attract more visitors. Today, we are confronted everyday with marketing campaigns in all different communication media promoting countries, cities or events. Cities are competing for visitors on a global scale, forcing them to adapt successful marketing strategies for gaining and retaining costumers. Yet, City Marketing still remains an unknown chapter for a big part of the general public an...

  5. Sinking coastal cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkens, G.; Bucx, T.; Dam, R.; de Lange, G.; Lambert, J.

    2015-11-01

    In many coastal and delta cities land subsidence now exceeds absolute sea level rise up to a factor of ten. A major cause for severe land subsidence is excessive groundwater extraction related to rapid urbanization and population growth. Without action, parts of Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Bangkok and numerous other coastal cities will sink below sea level. Land subsidence increases flood vulnerability (frequency, inundation depth and duration of floods), with floods causing major economic damage and loss of lives. In addition, differential land movement causes significant economic losses in the form of structural damage and high maintenance costs for (infra)structure. The total damage worldwide is estimated at billions of dollars annually. As subsidence is often spatially variable and can be caused by multiple processes, an assessment of subsidence in delta cities needs to answer questions such as: what are the main causes? What is the current subsidence rate and what are future scenarios (and interaction with other major environmental issues)? Where are the vulnerable areas? What are the impacts and risks? How can adverse impacts be mitigated or compensated for? Who is involved and responsible to act? In this study a quick-assessment of subsidence is performed on the following mega-cities: Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Dhaka, New Orleans and Bangkok. Results of these case studies will be presented and compared, and a (generic) approach how to deal with subsidence in current and future subsidence-prone areas is provided.

  6. HOW DO MEDICAL STUDENTS LEARN? A STUDY FROM TWO MEDICAL COLLEGES IN SOUTH INDIA – A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christofer Thomas, Praveen K Kodumuri, Saranya P

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: “Learning style” is defined as an individual’s preferred method for approaching learning and gaining knowledge. As a teacher, it is important to understand the different learning styles of the students in acquiring the information, and hence one can make the necessary changes that best match the learning style of the students. Assessment of learning styles can be done in various ways but Visual Auditory Reading Kinesthetic (VARK questionnaire is the most accepted one among them. The present study was undertaken to determine the learning preferences of first year medical students in South India. The study was also aimed at determining whether males and females have similar pattern of learning styles. Materials and Methods: This study was jointly conducted in Mamata Medical College, Khammam, Telangana and Sapthagiri Institute of Medical Science and Research Center, Bangalore, Karnataka. VARK-questionnaire Version 7.8 was used after obtaining permission. The VARK–questionnaire along with information about age and sex was distributed among 200 first year students of both colleges on the same day and response rate was 80%( Males49% and Females 51% Results: VARK questionnaire results revealed that none of our respondents preferred unimodal method. 3% were bimodal, 32% were trimodal and 63% were quad modal. There was no statistical difference between the individual scores between male and female respondents. Implication: The implication of this study is applicable to teachers to understand his/her student’s pattern of learning. Although none of the students learn only by one method, all the multimodal learners will have a predominance of a particular learning style either it be visual/auditory/read/kinesthetic.

  7. Factors associated with spectacle-wear compliance among school children of 7-15 years in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MB Pavithra

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Easily correctable refractive errors are the commonest cause of visual impairment in school children in India. Children who need but cannot afford spectacle correction are high in our country. Important factor for the success of the corrective services is compliance to spectacle wear. Objective: To assess the spectacle wear compliance among school children who were provided spectacle free of cost. To study the determinants of spectacle acceptance and reasons for non compliance. Materials and Methods: All (1378 government school children of 7-15 years age group in both rural and urban field practice areas of a medical college in Bangalore were screened and students with refractive error were provided spectacles free of cost. An unannounced follow up was done after 3 months to assess compliance. Data was analyzed to determine the factors associated with spectacle wear compliance. Results: Among 36 boys and 47 girls who received spectacles free of cost, 31 were from rural and 52 from urban schools. 48(57.8% children were actually wearing the spectacles at the time of follow up. 42(87.5% compliant children reported improvement of performance in school related activities. Compliance was better in younger children and those from urban schools. Children of father with lower level of education and with power -0.5D were more likely to be non compliant. Conclusion: To achieve the goal of vision 2020 timely detection of refractive errors should be followed by cost effective intervention. The barriers to spectacle acceptance should be studied and addressed.

  8. Regional trends of aerosol optical depth and their impact on cloud properties over Southern India using MODIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, K. Rama; Obul Reddy, K. Raja; Balakrishnaiah, G.; Arafath, S. MD.; Kumar Reddy, N. Siva; Rao, T. Chakradhar; Reddy, T. Lokeswara; Reddy, R. Ramakrishna

    2016-08-01

    Remote sensing of global aerosols has constituted a great scientific interest in a variety of applications related to global warming and climatic change. In the present study we investigate the spatial and temporal variations of aerosol optical properties and its impact on various properties of clouds over Southern India for the last ten years (2005-2014) by using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data retrieved from the onboard Terra and Aqua satellites. The spatial distributions of annual mean lowest Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) value is observed in Bangalore (BLR) (0.22±0.04) and the highest AOD value is noted in Visakhapatnam (VSK) (0.39±0.05). Similarly high Fine Mode Fraction (FMF) is noticed over VSK and Thiruvananthapuram (TVM), while lower values are observed in Anantapur (ATP), Hyderabad (HYD), Pune (PUNE) and BLR. From the results, a negative correlation was found between AOD and Cloud Top Temperature (CTT), Cloud Top Pressure (CTP) where as, a positive correlation was observed between AOD and Cloud Fraction (CF), Water Vapor (WV) over the selected regions. Monthly average AOD and FMF are plotted for analysis of the trends of aerosol loading in a long-term scale and both values showed statistically significant enhancing trend over all regions as derived from the MODIS measurements. Further, the annual variation of spatial correlation between MODIS and MISR (Multi - Angle Imaging Spectro Radiometer) AOD has been analyzed and the correlation coefficients are found to be higher in two of the regions VSK and PUNE (>0.8), and considerably lower for TVM (<0.7).

  9. India joins the ISOLDE collaboration

    CERN Document Server

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    On 18 April India signed a Memorandum of Understanding with the ISOLDE collaboration, thus strengthening its links with CERN. Three experiments led by Indian scientists at ISOLDE have been recommended by the Research Board and will be performed in the coming months, and more projects are being designed for the future HIE-ISOLDE scientific programme.   Shaking hands: Rüdiger Voss (left), adviser for India in CERN’s International Relations Office, and SINP Director Milan Kumar Sanyal (right). Also photographed: ISOLDE spokesperson Yorick Blumenfeld, (centre left) and Sunanda Banerjee, head of high-energy at SINP (centre right).  The new Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) was signed in Kolkata at the Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics (SINP). India thus becomes the 15th member of the ISOLDE collaboration, after having signed similar collaboration documents with the CMS and ALICE experiments. “This agreement will a...

  10. Critical Zone Exploration in the Tropics: Clues from small experimental watersheds in South Cameroon and South India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, J.-J.; Riotte, J.; Audry, S.; Boeglin, J. L.; Descloitres, M.; Deschamps, P.; Maréchal, J. C.; Viers, J.; Ndam, J.-R.; Sekhar, M.

    2009-04-01

    Critical Zone Exploration in the Tropics: Clues from small experimental watersheds in South Cameroon and South India J.-J. BRAUN1,2*, J. RIOTTE1,2, S. AUDRY2, J. L. BOEGLIN2, M. DESCLOITRES3, P. DESCHAMPS4, J. C. MARÉCHAL1,2, J. VIERS2, J.-R. NDAM5, M. SEKHAR6, B. DUPRÉ2 1IFCWS, Indian Institute of Science, 560012 Bangalore, India. (*Correspondence: braun@civil.iisc.ernet.in) 2LMTG, Univ. Toulouse, CNRS IRD OMP, 14, avenue E. Belin, F-31400 Toulouse, France 3LTHE, Univ. Grenoble, CNRS, IRD, INPG, BP53, F-38041 Grenoble, Cedex 09, France 4CEREGE, Univ. Aix-Marseille, CNRS, IRD, Europôle Méditerranéen de l'Arbois, BP80, 13545 Aix en Provence, France. 5Université de Yaoundé I, Faculté des Sciences, Département des Sciences de la Terre, BP80, 13545 Yaoundé, Cameroun. 6Deprtment of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, 560012 Bangalore, India Understanding the relative controls of forcing factors on the silicate chemical weathering rates and the associated atmospheric CO2 consumption is usually assessed through investigations based on small to medium granito-gneissic watersheds from 1 to100 km2 located in different climatic and tectonic settings. In addition to climate, the importance of the thickness and nature of the blanket of loose and transportable weathered material, namely regolith, which overlies the intact bedrocks, was also recently invoked, especially in tropical environment. We have conducted an integrated approach of the Critical Zone in two pristine forested small watersheds located in Cameroon and India. Both watersheds have developed on granito-gneissic bedrocks of stable Precambrian shields. Our approach is directed at (i) understanding the bio-geochemical, hydro-geological and hydrological processes and (ii) assessing the long-term and contemporary chemical weathering rates. The Nsimi watershed, South Cameroon, has been the first to be monitored since 1994. It belongs to the Nyong River basin and has a humid tropical climate. It is

  11. India emerging: New financial architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankarshan Basu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The global financial crisis of 2007–2008 highlighted the need to re-evaluate several well established tenets in the world of finance. Questions have been raised the world over about the existing paradigm, leading to an acceptance that new financial architecture needed to be evolved and that new models need to emerge, keeping in mind the multiplicity of socio-economic realities that exist round the globe. In this context, the imperative for a new financial architecture in India is quite evident, and the ensuing panel discussion throws up some India-specific issues that need to be explored by the various stakeholders involved in this attempt.

  12. Coral reef research in India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wafar, M.V.M.

    area of the coastline gets lost every year. Some of the remedial measures to control erosion have also been indicated. The second article on Deep Sea Mining is of great potential value for the future. The polymetallic nodules which cover a very large... 2008 Dr. S.Z. Qasim In This Issue... From the Editor's Desk Vulnerability of the Indian Coastline to Erosion S.Z. Qasim Potential for Deep Sea Mining in India G.S. Roonwal Coral Reef Research in India M.V.M. Wafar Role of Microbes in the Ecology...

  13. Mechatronics Engineering Education in India

    OpenAIRE

    Bajpai Shrish; Khare Sushant

    2015-01-01

    Present paper aims to give an insight in the field of Mechatronics, specifically its standard of education in India. We have investigated this field right from its origin. We have analyzed how it expanded as a proper discipline of engineering and in which direction the development in this field is going now and, at the same time, its status of education in India and where we are in addressing the industry’s need both in terms of quality and quantity of students. We have also assessed why Mech...

  14. Mucormycosis in India: unique features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Arunaloke; Singh, Rachna

    2014-12-01

    Mucormycosis remains a devastating invasive fungal infection, with high mortality rates even after active management. The disease is being reported at an alarming frequency over the past decades from India. Indian mucormycosis has certain unique features. Rhino-orbito-cerebral presentation associated with uncontrolled diabetes is the predominant characteristic. Isolated renal mucormycosis has emerged as a new clinical entity. Apophysomyces elegans and Rhizopus homothallicus are emerging species in this region and uncommon agents such as Mucor irregularis and Thamnostylum lucknowense are also being reported. This review focuses on these distinct features of mucormycosis observed in India.

  15. Sinking Coastal Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkens, G.; Stuurman, R.; De Lange, G.; Bucx, T.; Lambert, J.

    2014-12-01

    In many coastal cities land subsidence now exceeds absolute sea level rise up to a factor of ten. Without action, parts of Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Bangkok and numerous other coastal cities will continue to sink, even below sea level. The ever increasing industrial and domestic demand for water in these cities results in excessive groundwater extraction, causing severe subsidence. In addition, coastal cities are often faced with larger natural subsidence, as they are built on thick sequences of soft soil. The impacts of subsidence are further exacerbated by climate-induced sea level rise. Land subsidence results in two types damage: foremost it increases flood vulnerability (frequency, inundation depth and duration of floods), with floods causing major economic damage and loss of lives. Secondly, differential land movement causes significant economic losses in the form of structural damage and high maintenance costs of roads and transportation networks, sewage systems, buildings and foundations. The total damage worldwide is estimated at billions of dollars annually. To survey the extent of groundwater associated subsidence, we conducted a quick-assessment of subsidence in a series of mega-cities (Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Dhaka, New Orleans and Bangkok). For each city research questions included: what are the main causes, how much is the current subsidence rate and what are predictions, where are the vulnerable areas, what are the impacts and risks, how can adverse impacts can be mitigated or compensated for, and what governmental bodies are involved and responsible to act? Using the assessment, this paper discusses subsidence modelling and measurement results from the selected cities. The focus is on the importance of delayed settlement after increases in hydraulic heads, the role of the subsurface composition for subsidence rates and best practice solutions for subsiding cities. For the latter, urban (ground)water management, adaptive flood risk management

  16. Uttarakhand State, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.C. Bagri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Himalaya indio se caracteriza por el potencial turístico que ofrece una buena oportunidad para el desarrollo económico de largo plazo. Teniendo en cuenta un gran potencial para el desarrollo turístico, Koti- -Kanasar, Indroli, circuito Pattyur de Uttarakhand ha sido identificado como área para la promoción del turismo rural a través del Ministerio de Turismo de la India. Puesto que el circuito está en la etapa de desarrollo la participación, es importante para garantizar el desarrollo sostenible del turismo para el que es muy esencial la comprensión de la actitud de los residentes. Este estudio examinó la actitud de los residentes hacia los efectos y la influencia de los atributos demográficos en su actitud de turismo. Un estudio revela las instalaciones de infraestructura, diseño y envases de productos de turismo rural, programas de desarrollo de habilidades para los interesados y campañas de marketing específicas son esenciales para el desarrollo del turismo. Los hallazgos indican que los residentes a comprender la magnitud de los impactos del turismo en su región montañosa en las dimensiones económicas, sociales y ambientales. Estudio revela también que, aunque los lugareños quieren aumentar las ganancias del turismo con el correspondiente esfuerzo para reducir las consecuencias privadas, sus impactos percibidos de turismo varían a través de sus variables demográficas.

  17. Cholera outbreaks in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamurthy, Thandavarayan; Sharma, Naresh C

    2014-01-01

    Cholera is a global health problem as several thousands of cases and deaths occur each year. The unique epidemiologic attribute of the disease is its propensity to occur as outbreaks that may flare-up into epidemics, if not controlled. The causative bacterial pathogen Vibrio cholerae prevails in the environment and infects humans whenever there is a breakdown in the public health component. The Indian subcontinent is vulnerable to this disease due its vast coastlines with areas of poor sanitation, unsafe drinking water, and overcrowding. Recently, it was shown that climatic conditions also play a major role in the persistence and spread of cholera. Constant change in the biotypes and serotypes of V. cholerae are also important aspects that changes virulence and survival of the pathogen. Such continuous changes increase the infection ability of the pathogen affecting the susceptible population including the children. The short-term carrier status of V. cholerae has been studied well at community level and this facet significantly contributes to the recurrence of cholera. Several molecular tools recognized altering clonality of V. cholerae in relation with the advent of a serogroup or serotype. Rapid identification systems were formulated for the timely detection of the pathogen so as to identify and control the outbreak and institute proper treatment of the patients. The antimicrobials used in the past are no longer useful in the treatment of cholera as V. cholerae has acquired several mechanisms for multiple antimicrobial resistance. This upsurge in antimicrobial resistance directly influences the management of the disease. This chapter provides an overview of cholera prevalence in India, possible sources of infection, and molecular epidemiology along with antimicrobial resistance of V. cholerae.

  18. Image based 3D city modeling : Comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S. P.; Jain, K.; Mandla, V. R.

    2014-06-01

    3D city model is a digital representation of the Earth's surface and it's related objects such as building, tree, vegetation, and some manmade feature belonging to urban area. The demand of 3D city modeling is increasing rapidly for various engineering and non-engineering applications. Generally four main image based approaches were used for virtual 3D city models generation. In first approach, researchers were used Sketch based modeling, second method is Procedural grammar based modeling, third approach is Close range photogrammetry based modeling and fourth approach is mainly based on Computer Vision techniques. SketchUp, CityEngine, Photomodeler and Agisoft Photoscan are the main softwares to represent these approaches respectively. These softwares have different approaches & methods suitable for image based 3D city modeling. Literature study shows that till date, there is no complete such type of comparative study available to create complete 3D city model by using images. This paper gives a comparative assessment of these four image based 3D modeling approaches. This comparative study is mainly based on data acquisition methods, data processing techniques and output 3D model products. For this research work, study area is the campus of civil engineering department, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee (India). This 3D campus acts as a prototype for city. This study also explains various governing parameters, factors and work experiences. This research work also gives a brief introduction, strengths and weakness of these four image based techniques. Some personal comment is also given as what can do or what can't do from these softwares. At the last, this study shows; it concluded that, each and every software has some advantages and limitations. Choice of software depends on user requirements of 3D project. For normal visualization project, SketchUp software is a good option. For 3D documentation record, Photomodeler gives good result. For Large city

  19. India - Mahabharata. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminar Abroad 1994 (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVito, Carole; DeVito, Pasquale

    This lecture is accompanied by slides of India. The lecture is used an introduction to the first of the three videotapes of Peter Brook's "Mahabharata," providing students with preliminary background on Hinduism and on the Hindu epic. The objective is also to have students think about the basic values of ancient and modern Hindus. (EH)

  20. Anthropogenic and impact spherules: Morphological similarity and chemical distinction – A case study from India and its implications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ambalika Niyogi; Jayanta K Pati; Suresh C Patel; Dipak Panda; Shiv K Patil

    2011-12-01

    This paper provides first report of silica-rich anthropogenic spherules of varying colour, shape, size, surface texture and chemical composition found in road-deposited sediments (RDS) of Allahabad city, Uttar Pradesh, India. Morphological details and lithophile elemental composition of the silica-rich spherules are compared to microtektites and impact spherules from India to demonstrate their striking morphological similarities and chemical variability. This study suggests the need to use spherule data carefully while assigning an impact origin to spherule-finds or spherule-bearing lithological horizons.