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  1. Assessment of knowledge and attitude about basic life support among dental interns and postgraduate students in Bangalore city, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Dhage Pundalika Rao; Biradar, Suvarna V; Reddy, Mayurnath T; Bk, Sujatha

    2015-01-01

    Life-threatening emergencies can occur at anytime, at anywhere and in anyone. Effective management of an emergency situation in the dental office is ultimately the dentist's responsibility. The lack of training and inability to cope with medical emergencies can lead to tragic consequences and sometimes legal complications. Therefore, health professionals including dentists must be well prepared to deal with medical emergencies. This study was undertaken to assess the knowledge about and attitude towards basic life support (BLS) among dental interns and postgraduate students in Bangalore city, India. A cross sectional survey was conducted among dental interns and postgraduate students from May 2014 to June 2014 since few studies have been conducted in Bangalore city. A questionnaire with 17 questions regarding the knowledge about and attitude towards BLS was distributed to 202 study participants. The data analyzed using the Chi-square test showed that dental interns and postgraduate students had average knowledge about BLS. In the 201 participants, 121 (59.9%) had a positive attitude and 81 (40.1%) had a negative attitude towards BLS. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation should be considered as part of the dental curriculum. Workshops on a regular basis should be focused on skills of cardiopulmonary resuscitation for dental students.

  2. Specters of Waste in India's "Silicon Valley": The Underside of Bangalore's Hi-Tech Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanareddy, Rajyashree

    2011-01-01

    The southern Indian city of Bangalore is extolled as India's "Silicon Valley," emerging over the past decade as a premier site for capital flows into India's Information Technology (IT) sector. In the dominant narrative of globalization Bangalore is lauded as an aspiring "global city" that attracts sizeable quantities of…

  3. Seismic microzonation of Bangalore, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of the investigation and details of the study car- .... body features. Figure 8. GIS model of borehole locations in 3-D view. Bangalore map (see figure 7). The 3-D subsurface model with geotechnical data has been ..... 850. P Anbazhagan and T G Sitharam. Figu re. 18. D istrib u tion o f facto r safety again st liq u efaction.

  4. Improving Oral Hygiene in Institutionalised Elderly by Educating Their Caretakers in Bangalore City, India: a Randomised Control Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanagar, Sanjeev; Naganandini, S; Tuteja, Jaspreet Singh; Naik, Sachin; Satish, G; Divya, K T

    2015-09-01

    The population of older people, as well as the number of dependent older people, is steadily increasing; those unable to live independently at home are being cared for in a range of settings. Practical training for nurses and auxiliary care staff has frequently been recommended as a way of improving oral health care for functionally dependent elderly. The aim was improve oral hygiene in institutionalized elderly in Bangalore city by educating their caregivers. The study is a cluster randomized intervention trial with an elderly home as unit of randomization in which 7 out of 65 elderly homes were selected. Oral health knowledge of caregivers was assessed using a pre-tested pro forma and later oral-health education was provided to the caregivers of the study group. Oral hygiene status of elderly residents was assessed by levels of debris, plaque of dentate and denture plaque, and denture stomatitis of denture wearing residents, respectively. Oral-health education to the caregivers of control group was given at the end of six months. There was significant improvement in oral-health knowledge of caregivers from the baseline and also a significant reduction of plaque score from baseline score of 3.17 ± 0.40 to 1.57 ± 0.35 post-intervention (p improvement in the oral-health knowledge among the caregivers and oral-hygiene status of the elderly residents.

  5. Reconciling Dichotomous Demands: Telemarketing Agents in Bangalore and Mumbai, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noronha, Ernesto; D'Cruz, Premilla

    2007-01-01

    Though outsourcing has created enormous employment potential in India's information technology enabled services/business process outsourcing (ITES/BPO) sector, the implications for employees remain to be understood. The present paper describes employee experiences in telemarketing outbound call centers in Bangalore and Mumbai, India. Following van…

  6. Web-Based Urban Metabolic Mapping for Bangalore, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, V. K.; Kemp-Benedict, E.; Wang, G.; Malghan, D.

    2012-12-01

    Cities are like living entities, needing a continuous throughput of resources and energy for survival and growth, creating waste in the process. This paper documents the Bangalore Urban Mapping Project: an initiative that uses this metabolic concept [1],[2]. to inform comprehensive planning in the rapidly growing software capital of Bangalore city in India. Focusing on demographic growth, and water supply and consumption in its first phase, a web-based geo-portal has been developed for two purposes - interactive information communication and delivery, and online planning in the water supply sector. The application, titled Bangalore Urban Mapping Project (BUMP) is built on a free and open source web GIS stack consisting of a Postgis database, PHP, OpenLayers, and Apache Web Server deployed on a 64-bit Ubuntu Linux server platform. The interactive planning portion of the application allows BUMP users to build, run and visualize demographic growth, water supply, and growth scenarios on the browser. Application logic is written in PHP to connect the many components of the interactive application, which is available on the BUMP website (http://www.seimapping.org/bump/index.php). It relies on AJAX to fetch layer data from the server and render the layer using OpenLayers on the fly. This allows users to view multiple layers at the same time without refreshing the page. Data is packed in GeoJSON format and is compressed to reduce traffic. The information communication portion of the application provides thematic representation of each of twenty different map layers, graphical and tabular summaries of demographic and water data that are presented dynamically using Javascript libraries including the Google Chart API. The application also uses other common Javascript libraries/plug-ins, like jQuery, jQuery UI, qTip, to ease the development and to ensure cross-browser compatibility. The planning portion of the platform allows the user to interact with a scenario explorer

  7. Survey on the use of the Internet as a source of oral health information among dental patients in Bangalore City, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naganandini, S; Rao, Rekha; Kulkarni, Smitha B

    2014-01-01

    Widespread internet usage worldwide allows increased access to medical and dental information and can be used for patient self-education. However, because there is little evidence about how the internet is impacting dentistry, this survey was conducted to determine how dental patients in Bangalore, India, use it as a source of information on oral health and to discover how it affects oral hygiene practices of patients. The data was collected from 572 patients attending the outpatient departments of public and private hospitals by administering a specially designed proforma questionnaire. The chi-square test (P health care delivery and educational status of study participants. Out of 572 respondents using the internet, 150 (26.2%) used it for information on oral health. A higher number of males than females and a significantly higher percentage of people aged 18 to 40 years used the internet. A significantly higher number of respondents utilising dental health care from private providers used the internet as a source of information on oral health. The difference in the usage of internet for information on oral health by gender and age groups was due to higher internet access at the work place and through cybercafés. A significantly higher number of patients from the private sector and with higher educational background used the internet. Low socioeconomic status and a low educational level act as barriers to using the internet, which may explain the results of this study. Creating awareness amongst people of different educational backgrounds through appropriate means (following an individualised approach based on educational qualification) would increase internet use for acquiring information on oral health.

  8. Indian National Conference on Hemoglobinopathies, 17-18 May 2013, Bangalore - India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editors: Karuna Rameshkumar

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This abstract book contains some abstracts presented at the Indian National Conference on Hemoglobinopathies, 17-18 May 2013, Bangalore - IndiaOrganized by Departments of Clinical Pathology, Paediatrics & Haematology St. John’s National Academy of Health Sciences Bangalore - India

  9. Assessing resident awareness on e-waste management in Bangalore, India: a preliminary case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Abhishek Kumar; Li, Jinhui

    2018-03-03

    The generation of e-waste has increased significantly in India, and the informal recycling of e-waste has adverse effects on environment and public health. In this article, the E-waste management is evaluated in accordance from the resident's awareness perspective in Bangalore city, India. The survey data revealed that about 58% male and 42% female responded and 35% of the participants belong to age range between 18 and 25 years. About 60% of respondent's education level was either graduate or post graduate, 27% high school to higher school, 10% higher educated (> post graduate), and 3% primary to middle. Only 30% of the respondents were confident with e-waste rules and regulation, while 39% of the respondents were of very little information. Indian e-waste management has been improving for the last few years and it continues to develop. Therefore, the findings can be valuable for better understanding the resident's awareness for e-waste management and also need to promote the environmentally sound management of e-waste in Bangalore, India.

  10. Identification of priority health conditions for field-based screening in urban slums in Bangalore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi, Sarah; Wadugodapitiya, Avanti; Bedaf, Sandra; George, Carolin Elizabeth; Norman, Gift; Hawley, Mark; de Witte, Luc

    2018-03-02

    Urban slums are characterised by unique challenging living conditions, which increase their inhabitants' vulnerability to specific health conditions. The identification and prioritization of the key health issues occurring in these settings is essential for the development of programmes that aim to enhance the health of local slum communities effectively. As such, the present study sought to identify and prioritise the key health issues occurring in urban slums, with a focus on the perceptions of health professionals and community workers, in the rapidly growing city of Bangalore, India. The study followed a two-phased mixed methods design. During Phase I of the study, a total of 60 health conditions belonging to four major categories: - 1) non-communicable diseases; 2) infectious diseases; 3) maternal and women's reproductive health; and 4) child health - were identified through a systematic literature review and semi-structured interviews conducted with health professionals and other relevant stakeholders with experience working with urban slum communities in Bangalore. In Phase II, the health issues were prioritised based on four criteria through a consensus workshop conducted in Bangalore. The top health issues prioritized during the workshop were: diabetes and hypertension (non-communicable diseases category), dengue fever (infectious diseases category), malnutrition and anaemia (child health, and maternal and women's reproductive health categories). Diarrhoea was also selected as a top priority in children. These health issues were in line with national and international reports that listed them as top causes of mortality and major contributors to the burden of diseases in India. The results of this study will be used to inform the development of technologies and the design of interventions to improve the health outcomes of local communities. Identification of priority health issues in the slums of other regions of India, and in other low and lower middle

  11. Contamination by trace elements at e-waste recycling sites in Bangalore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Nguyen Ngoc; Agusa, Tetsuro; Ramu, Karri; Tu, Nguyen Phuc Cam; Murata, Satoko; Bulbule, Keshav A; Parthasaraty, Peethmbaram; Takahashi, Shin; Subramanian, Annamalai; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2009-06-01

    The recycling and disposal of electronic waste (e-waste) in developing countries is causing an increasing concern due to its effects on the environment and associated human health risks. To understand the contamination status, we measured trace elements (TEs) in soil, air dust, and human hair collected from e-waste recycling sites (a recycling facility and backyard recycling units) and the reference sites in Bangalore and Chennai in India. Concentrations of Cu, Zn, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Sb, Hg, Pb, and Bi were higher in soil from e-waste recycling sites compared to reference sites. For Cu, Sb, Hg, and Pb in some soils from e-waste sites, the levels exceeded screening values proposed by US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Concentrations of Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, In, Sn, Sb, Tl, Pb and Bi in air from the e-waste recycling facility were relatively higher than the levels in Chennai city. High levels of Cu, Mo, Ag, Cd, In, Sb, Tl, and Pb were observed in hair of male workers from e-waste recycling sites. Our results suggest that e-waste recycling and its disposal may lead to the environmental and human contamination by some TEs. To our knowledge, this is the first study on TE contamination at e-waste recycling sites in Bangalore, India.

  12. Radon and lung cancer in Bangalore Metropolitan, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathish, L.A.; Nethravathi, K.S.; Ramachandran, T.V.

    2012-01-01

    Radon is a radioactive gas released from the normal decay of 238 U in rocks and soil. It is an invisible, odorless, tasteless gas that seeps up through the ground and diffuses into the air. In a few areas, depending on local geology, radon dissolves into ground water and can be released into the air when the water is used. Radon gas usually exists at very low levels outdoors. However, in areas without adequate ventilation, such as underground mines, radon can accumulate to levels that substantially increase the risk of lung cancer. Radon decays quickly, giving off tiny radioactive particles. When inhaled, these radioactive particles can damage the cells that line the lung. Long-term exposure to radon can lead to lung cancer, the only cancer proven to be associated with inhaling radon. Public interest in radon has been occasionally piqued by articles in the general press. Considerable attention has been given to the high radon levels that were uncovered in the Reading Prong region of Pennsylvania, following the discovery in late 1984 of extremely high levels in one home. Several epidemiological study programmes in different countries are in progress to estimate the population exposures due to natural radiation with a view to obtain the radiation risk coefficients at low dose rate levels. In this regard, radiation surveys in high background areas (HBRAs) can provide excellent settings for epidemiological studies relating to the effects of low doses of radiation. In view of these, a comprehensive estimate of the natural inhalation dose requires both 222 Rn and 220 Rn levels in the indoor atmosphere. In this outlook an attempt is made to investigate the 222 Rn and 220 Rn levels in dwellings of Bangalore Metropolitan, India. Three year results shows that the activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th, radon in ground water, the concentrations 222 Rn and 220 Rn and the dose rate (mSvy -1 ) are at alarming levels for the environment of Bangalore Metropolitan, India. The

  13. Globalization and ICT clusters in Bangalore (India) and Nanjing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. van Dijk (Meine Pieter)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractIn this chapter the effects of globalization on two information and communication technology (ICT) clusters, one in China and the other in India, will be discussed and an effort will be made to analyse how these clusters changed these cities. Globalization had different effects in China

  14. Inventory Analysis in a Private Dental Hospital in Bangalore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nitin; Krishnappa, Pushpanjali

    2016-11-01

    There are various approaches for inventory management. Of all the inventory control systems, ABC (Always, Better, Control) and VED (Vital, Essential, Desirable) matrix is most suitable for dental stores. We could not find any literature pertaining to inventory analysis in a private dental hospital. So, we conducted a study in a private dental hospital in Bangalore, Karnataka, India. The present study aimed at evolving an inventory control plan for a private dental institution by categorizing the materials utilizing an ABC-VED coupling matrix. The study analysed the annual consumption, the expenditure incurred for the dental consumables and developed a matrix based on ABC and VED analysis to narrow down the group of consumables for managerial monitoring. Of the 215 consumables used 13.5% (A category) consumed 70% of total annual expenditure. About 21% of the consumables (Category B) consumed 20% and 65.5% (C category) accounted for 10% of the annual expenditure. The VED analysis found 47% consumables as vital, 37.6% as essential and 15.4% as desirable category. ABC-VED matrix analysis categorized 51.6%, 33.5% and 14.8% of consumables as category I, II and III, respectively. Categorization by the ABC-VED coupling matrix model helps to narrow down on fewer consumables. The management of Category I consumables was monitored by top management resulting in better control on the annual expenses and at the same time making available the vital consumables. Category II was monitored by middle and Category III at lower managerial level.

  15. The Church of Deaf Sociality: Deaf Churchgoing Practices and "Sign Bread and Butter" in Bangalore, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedner, Michele

    2014-01-01

    This article ethnographically analyzes the practices of deaf young adults in Bangalore, India. As sign language is not used by families, schools, or other institutions, the church is a crucial educational space. Churchgoing provides deaf young adults with opportunities to orient themselves toward other deaf young adults, to develop new ideas of…

  16. Government Policies with respect to an Information Technology Cluster in Bangalore, India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. van Dijk (Meine Pieter)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe southern states in India have developed a strong reputation as a source of software development services, with Bangalore, the capital of Karnataka, having the strongest reputation of all. This article focuses on the following issue: what determines the competitiveness of an

  17. Perceived Rewards of Nursing Among Christian Nursing Students in Bangalore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Shelby L; Prater, Llewellyn S; Putturaj, Meena; Raj, Leena

    2015-12-01

    Nurses in India face significant challenges and often migrate to practice nursing abroad. Few studies have focused on the rewards of nursing in India. The aim of this study was to illuminate perceived rewards of nursing among Christian student nurses in Bangalore, India. Photovoice, a participatory action methodology was used, and 14 Christian student nurses participated in the study. Thematic interpretation of photographs, journals, critical group dialog sessions, and observational field notes resulted in the identification of two main themes. These themes included intrinsic rewards and lifelong benefits of nursing in India.

  18. Ethical Conventions: A Study on Dental Practitioner's Knowledge and Practice of Ethics in their Line of Work in Bangalore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Prajna Pramod; Raju, Vamsee Krishnam; Nanjundaiah, Vanishree; Laksmikantha, Ramesh; Nayak, Sushma Shankar; Kshetrimayum, Nandita

    2016-08-01

    Dentistry, being one of the healing professions, has an obligation to society that its members will stick on to high ethical standards of conduct. In India, studies done to assess whether the dental practitioners adhere to ethics in their line of work are very meager. The present study was conducted to assess the knowledge and practice of ethics in their line of work among practicing dentists from various dental colleges in Bangalore, India. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted among 258 practicing dentists attached to various dental colleges in Bangalore city of Karnataka, India. Independent sample t-test was used to compare the knowledge and practice scores according to gender and qualification. One way ANOVA was used to compare knowledge and practice score according to practice type and practice period. Mean knowledge score among males is 8.9 as compared to 9.43 among females and mean practice scores among males was 8.25 as compared to 8.29 in females. Statistically significant differences were found in the mean knowledge and practice scores among graduate dentists and specialists. Mean knowledge score among graduate dentists was 8.44 as compared to 9.36 among specialists and mean practice scores among graduate dentists was 7.7 as compared to 8.53 in specialists. A significant association between the knowledge and practice scores was observed, implying that with an increase in knowledge, there was also an increase in the practices of ethics among study population.

  19. Are eating disorders a significant clinical issue in urban India? A survey among psychiatrists in Bangalore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Prabha S; Abbas, Sarvath; Palmer, Robert

    2012-04-01

    It is believed that cultural changes such as urbanization and westernization can lead to increasing rates of eating disorders (EDs). A survey was conducted among psychiatrists in Bangalore, India to assess whether they were seeing more cases of ED in the last year. Contact details of all psychiatrists in urban Bangalore were obtained from the directory of the local psychiatric society. These psychiatrists were contacted by telephone, email, or in person. A brief proforma was used to record information about the number and nature of eating disorders they had seen in their practice in the last one year. Sixty-six psychiatrists took part in the study. Thirty-eight (56%) were in private practice and 28 (42%) in teaching hospitals. 45 (67%), reported having seen patients with eating disorders in the last year. The total number of cases seen was 74. Of these, 32 were diagnosed as anorexia nervosa (AN), 12 as bulimia nervosa (BN), and 30 as eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS). Sixteen (23.5%) respondents were of the opinion that EDs were increasing in Bangalore, 18 (26.5%) felt the rates were stable and 28 (42%) were not sure. Two-thirds of psychiatrists reported seeing at least one case of ED indicating that EDs are not uncommon in urban India. Epidemiological studies of EDs in India are needed to provide better estimates of their prevalence. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Clinico-epidemiological profile of tobacco users attending a tobacco cessation clinic in a teaching hospital in Bangalore city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George D′Souza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tobacco-attributable mortality in India is estimated to be at least 10%. Tobacco cessation is more likely to avert millions of deaths before 2050 than prevention of tobacco use initiation. Objective: To describe the clinico-epidemiological profile of attendees of a tobacco cessation clinic in a teaching hospital in Bangalore city. Materials and Methods: A descriptive study of 189 attendees seen over 2 years in the Tobacco Cessation Clinic of a tertiary-care teaching hospital in Bangalore, with information on socio demographic characteristics, tobacco-use details, nicotine dependence, family/medical history, past quit attempts, baseline stage-of-change, and treatment initiated. Results: Only 5% were ′walk-in′ patients; 98% of attendees were smokers; 97% were males. The mean (±SD age of attendees was 48.0 (±14.0 years. Most participants were married (88%, and predominantly urban (69%. About 62% had completed at least 8 years of schooling. Two-thirds of smokers reported high levels of nicotine dependence (Fagerström score >5/10. About 43% of patients had attempted quitting earlier. Four-fifths (79% of tobacco-users reported a family member using tobacco. Commonly documented comorbidities included: Chronic respiratory disease (44%, hypertension (23%, diabetes (12%, tuberculosis (9%, myocardial infarction (2%, stroke (1%, sexual dysfunction (1% and cancer (0.5%. About 52% reported concomitant alcohol use. At baseline, patients′ motivational stage was: Precontemplation (14%, contemplation (48%, preparation/action (37% and maintenance (1%. Treatment modalities started were: Counseling alone (41%, nicotine replacement therapy alone (NRT (34%, medication alone (13%, and NRT+medication (12%. Conclusions: This is the first study of the baseline profile of patients attending a tobacco cessation clinic located within a chest medicine department in India. Important determinants of outcome have been captured for follow-up and prospective

  1. Clinico-epidemiological profile of tobacco users attending a tobacco cessation clinic in a teaching hospital in Bangalore city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, George; Rekha, Dorothy P; Sreedaran, Priya; Srinivasan, K; Mony, Prem K

    2012-04-01

    Tobacco-attributable mortality in India is estimated to be at least 10%. Tobacco cessation is more likely to avert millions of deaths before 2050 than prevention of tobacco use initiation. To describe the clinico-epidemiological profile of attendees of a tobacco cessation clinic in a teaching hospital in Bangalore city. A descriptive study of 189 attendees seen over 2 years in the Tobacco Cessation Clinic of a tertiary-care teaching hospital in Bangalore, with information on socio demographic characteristics, tobacco-use details, nicotine dependence, family/medical history, past quit attempts, baseline stage-of-change, and treatment initiated. Only 5% were 'walk-in' patients; 98% of attendees were smokers; 97% were males. The mean (±SD) age of attendees was 48.0 (±14.0) years. Most participants were married (88%), and predominantly urban (69%). About 62% had completed at least 8 years of schooling. Two-thirds of smokers reported high levels of nicotine dependence (Fagerström score >5/10). About 43% of patients had attempted quitting earlier. Four-fifths (79%) of tobacco-users reported a family member using tobacco. Commonly documented comorbidities included: Chronic respiratory disease (44%), hypertension (23%), diabetes (12%), tuberculosis (9%), myocardial infarction (2%), stroke (1%), sexual dysfunction (1%) and cancer (0.5%). About 52% reported concomitant alcohol use. At baseline, patients' motivational stage was: Precontemplation (14%), contemplation (48%), preparation/action (37%) and maintenance (1%). Treatment modalities started were: Counseling alone (41%), nicotine replacement therapy alone (NRT) (34%), medication alone (13%), and NRT+medication (12%). This is the first study of the baseline profile of patients attending a tobacco cessation clinic located within a chest medicine department in India. Important determinants of outcome have been captured for follow-up and prospective documentation of outcomes.

  2. Maternal and child health care in an underprivileged area of Bangalore city: Identifying the gaps in the continuum of care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avita R Johnson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background With over 100 million Indians living in urban slums and high child mortality among low-income groups, focusing on maternal and child health (MCH among urban underprivileged is vital, if India is to achieve the fourth and fifth Millennium Development goals. Objectives To identify the gaps in the MCH Continuum of care, by assessing coverage and quality of Maternal and Child Health Services in an urban underprivileged area of Bangalore City. Methods A survey was conducted in an urban slum of Bangalore City, using systematic random sampling. A total of 178 subjects were interviewed with a pre-tested questionnaire. 88 were mothers who delivered in the last one year (to assess maternal care services, and 90 were mothers of a child aged 12-23 months (to assess immunization coverage. Breastfeeding practices and care during childhood illness were documented in both groups. Results Though institutional delivery rate was 97.7%, only 34.1% mothers had received full antenatal care. The quality of antenatal and postnatal services was poor, practices like prelacteal feeds and delayed initiation of breastfeeding were common. Less than 40 % of children were exclusively breastfed for at least 6 months. Only 53% of children aged 12-23 months were fully immunised. Primary immunisation drop-out rates were high. Mothers’ knowledge regarding vaccines was poor. Children with diarrhea received less fluids and food and only 61% received ORS. Conclusion This study identified the following gaps in the MCH Continuum of Care- lack of IFA consumption, poor quality of antenatal and postnatal care, high immunisation dropout rates, erroneous breastfeeding practices and inadequate care during diarrhoea. Further research may identify potential solutions to bridging these gaps in MCH care.

  3. Maternal and child health care in an underprivileged area of Bangalore city: Identifying the gaps in the continuum of care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avita R Johnson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background With over 100 million Indians living in urban slums and high child mortality among low-­‐income groups, focusing on maternal and child health (MCH among urban underprivileged is vital, if India is to achieve the fourth and fifth Millennium Development goals. Objectives To identify the gaps in the MCH Continuum of care, by assessing coverage and quality of Maternal and Child Health Services in an urban underprivileged area of Bangalore City. Methods A survey was conducted in an urban slum of Bangalore City, using systematic random sampling. A total of 178 subjects were interviewed with a pre-­‐tested questionnaire. 88 were mothers who delivered in the last one year (to assess maternal care services, and 90 were mothers of a child aged 12-­‐23 months (to assess immunization coverage. Breastfeeding practices and care during childhood illness were documented in both groups. Results Though institutional delivery rate was 97.7%, only 34.1% mothers had received full antenatal care. The quality of antenatal and postnatal services was poor, practices like prelacteal feeds and delayed initiation of breastfeeding were common. Less than 40 % of children were exclusively breastfed for at least 6 months. Only 53% of children aged 12-­‐23 months were fully immunised. Primary immunisation drop-­‐out rates were high. Mothers’ knowledge regarding vaccines was poor. Children with diarrhea received less fluids and food and only 61% received ORS. Conclusion This study identified the following gaps in the MCH Continuum of Care-­‐ lack of IFA consumption, poor quality of antenatal and postnatal care, high immunisation dropout rates, erroneous breastfeeding practices and inadequate care during diarrhoea. Further research may identify potential solutions to bridging these gaps in MCH care.

  4. A study on knowledge and awareness about tuberculosis in senior school children in Bangalore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanaja, K; Banu, Reshma; Reddy, Lokeshwar; Kumar, P Chethan; Srinivas, Chaitra; Rajani, T; Navyashree; Shekar, H S

    2016-07-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis), commonly affecting the lungs. All health care professionals including the pharmacists provide a valuable public health role in promoting community awareness of TB particularly in reducing stigma attached to TB. Thus, creating awareness at a community level could play a vital role in control and prevention of TB. To determine whether educational intervention would affect the level of TB awareness among students of selected schools and pre-university colleges (PUCs) in Bangalore urban and Bangalore rural regions. The present study was conducted among the students of 8th, 9th, 10th and PUC in Bangalore rural and urban jurisdiction (n=2635). A questionnaire was designed in English and Kannada language, consisting of 20 questions with multiple-choice answers. A 30-minute visual health education was given on TB in English, followed by general pictorial presentation, and the data were collected as pre-test and post-test. Data collected from 2635 participants during pre- and post-education session revealed that mean score improved from 8.77±2.59 to 14.95±1.99. Impact of the education session showed a significant knowledge improvement about TB from 1.59% (pre-education) to 49.67% (post-education). The present study clearly demonstrated that a simple, 30-minute health education session did have a positive impact on knowledge and awareness about TB among school children as observed with increase in mean knowledge score from pre-test to post-test, indicating that empowerment of students could guide the community on various aspects of TB. Copyright © 2015 Tuberculosis Association of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Seismic characterization and dynamic site response of a municipal solid waste landfill in Bangalore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbazhagan, P; SivakumarBabu, G L; Lakshmikanthan, P; VivekAnand, K S

    2016-03-01

    Seismic design of landfills requires an understanding of the dynamic properties of municipal solid waste (MSW) and the dynamic site response of landfill waste during seismic events. The dynamic response of the Mavallipura landfill situated in Bangalore, India, is investigated using field measurements, laboratory studies and recorded ground motions from the intraplate region. The dynamic shear modulus values for the MSW were established on the basis of field measurements of shear wave velocities. Cyclic triaxial testing was performed on reconstituted MSW samples and the shear modulus reduction and damping characteristics of MSW were studied. Ten ground motions were selected based on regional seismicity and site response parameters have been obtained considering one-dimensional non-linear analysis in the DEEPSOIL program. The surface spectral response varied from 0.6 to 2 g and persisted only for a period of 1 s for most of the ground motions. The maximum peak ground acceleration (PGA) obtained was 0.5 g and the minimum and maximum amplifications are 1.35 and 4.05. Amplification of the base acceleration was observed at the top surface of the landfill underlined by a composite soil layer and bedrock for all ground motions. Dynamic seismic properties with amplification and site response parameters for MSW landfill in Bangalore, India, are presented in this paper. This study shows that MSW has less shear stiffness and more amplification due to loose filling and damping, which need to be accounted for seismic design of MSW landfills in India. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Low anemia prevalence in school-aged children in Bangalore, South India: possible effect of school health initiatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muthayya, S.; Thankachan, P.; Zimmermann, M.B.; Andersson, M.; Eilander, A.; Misquith, D.; Hurrell, R.F.; Kurpad, A.V.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Anemia is a serious public health problem in Indian school children. Since 2003, simple health intervention programs such as antihelminthic treatment and vitamin A supplementation have been implemented in primary schools in the Bangalore region, Karnataka, India. This study examines the

  7. Burnout and Work Engagement Among Dental Practitioners in Bangalore City: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jugale, Pallavi V; Mallaiah, Pramila; Krishnamurthy, Archana; Sangha, Ranganath

    2016-02-01

    Burnout is a job-related stress reaction; a potential hazard for personal, professional lives of dentists. Work Engagement (WE) is the antithesis of Burnout and they can co-exist. This study was taken up to know the prevalence of Burnout and WE among dentists in Bangalore, India. In a cross-sectional study, all (n=116) dentists practicing in Bangalore East Zone were randomly selected. A structured, self-administered questionnaire revealing dentists' demographics, practice characteristics, Burnout level [6-item from Maslach Burnout Inventory] and WE [4-item from Utrecht Work Engagement Scale] was used. Ethical clearance and informed consent was obtained. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 15.0. With a response rate of 58.6%, high burnout was seen in 5.15% dentists. Personal Accomplishment was significantly associated with dentists in older age-group (p=0.002), married (p=0.014), MDS qualified (p=0.038), having long working hours (p=0.009) with assistants (p=0.024), more years into practice (0.007), travelling more distance from residence (p=0.021). Significance was also seen for dedication among dentists with assistants (p=0.006), emotional exhaustion among dentist with long working hours (p=0.009), and driving own vehicle (p=0.028). Finally absorption was found significant in dentists practicing solo. Higher WE were found but still burnout persisted. Thus, burnout and WE were found to co-exist.

  8. Pragati§: an empowerment programme for female sex workers in Bangalore, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjoerd M. Euser

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To describe the effects of a broad empowerment programme among female sex workers (FSWs in Bangalore, India, which seeks to develop the capacities of these women to address the issues that threaten their lives and livelihoods. Design: This study is based on a comprehensive, on-going HIV-prevention and empowering programme, known as Pragati, which reaches out to approximately 10,000–12,000 FSWs in Bangalore each year. The programme has been designed in collaboration with the sex worker community and provides a personalised set of services, which include STI prevention and treatment services, crisis-response facilities, de-addiction services, and microfinance support all of which have been tailored to adequately fulfil each woman's needs. During the period examined by this study, the programme reached out to 20,330 individual FSWs [median (IQR age 28 (24–35 years]. The programme's personal records of the participating FSWs were used for this descriptive study. Results: Between 2005 and 2010, the number of participating FSWs increased from 2,307 to 13,392. These women intensified their contact with the programme over time: the number of programme contacts increased from 10,351 in 2005 to 167,709 in 2010. Furthermore, data on the effects of crisis-response facilities, de-addiction and microfinance services, condom distribution schemes, and STI diagnosis and treatment showed an accumulating involvement of the participating FSWs in these programme services. Conclusion: This programme, which focuses on social and economic empowerment among FSWs, is successful in reaching and involving the target population.

  9. Do newspaper reports of suicides comply with standard suicide reporting guidelines? A study from Bangalore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Prabha S; Doraiswamy, Padmavathy; Padmanabh, Anuroopa; Philip, Mariamma

    2014-11-01

    Several countries have prescribed standard guidelines for media professionals on suicide reporting. However, the implementation of these guidelines has been varied. Suicide rates in South Asia are one of the highest in the world, and it is known that media guidelines for suicide reporting are not followed adequately. However, there are no published reports available from this region. This study aimed at assessing newspaper reports of suicide for quality of reporting based on standard reporting guidelines and to study differences between English and vernacular (Kannada) newspapers in Bangalore, South India. A total of 341 newspaper reports of suicide from 550 newspapers (3 English and 3 Kannada) over 3 months were systematically assessed for compliance with reporting guidelines. Each report was evaluated on 2 domains and 36 parameters. Data were analyzed for frequency of inappropriate reporting and patterns compared between vernacular and English newspapers. In all, 87% of the reports were those of completed suicide. Non-compliant reporting - method of suicide was reported in 89% and 32% of reports were in prominent pages of the newspaper, 95% mentioned gender, 90% reported the name, 80% reported age and suicide location, 75% reported life events related to suicide, 70% reported occupation, 69% had headline explicity on suicide and 61% reported monocausality. Only 16% reported mental disorder related to suicide, and less than 3% included information on suicide prevention and helplines. Vernacular papers showed significantly better compliance in 16 of the 20 areas. However, protective characteristics were better reported in English newspapers. Majority of reports on suicides in newspapers from Bangalore did not comply with standard guidelines of reporting. There is a strong need to evolve local guidelines and mechanisms for ensuring responsible reporting which have important implications in prevention of suicide. © The Author(s) 2013.

  10. Community prevalence of methicillin and vancomycin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in and around Bangalore, southern India

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    Rajendra Goud

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Staphylococcus aureus is a known colonizer in humans and has been implicated in community acquired soft tissue infections. However emergence of methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA has aroused great concern worldwide. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of MRSA in the community of Bangalore, southern India. METHODS: Swabs were collected from anterior nares, forearm, dorsum and palm of the hands of 1,000 healthy individuals residing in and around Bangalore, belonging to different socioeconomic strata and age groups. RESULTS: Analysis verified that 22.5% and 16.6% of the individuals presented Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA, respectively, at any of the three sites. Vancomycin resistance was observed in 1.4% of the S. aureus isolates, which was confirmed by detection of the vanA gene. It was interesting to note that 58.8% of the children in the age group 1-5 years-old presented MRSA, the highest percentage compared to other age groups of 40 (11% years-old and 20-40 (9.9% years-old. Among the population of various socioeconomic strata, maximum MRSA colonization was observed among doctors (22.2%, followed by upper economic class (18.8%, lower economic class (17.7%, apparently healthy hospital in-patients (16.5%, nurses (16% and middle economic class (12.5%. Most of the MRSA isolates were capsular polysaccharide antigen type 8 (57.1%. CONCLUSIONS: There is a need for continuous surveillance and monitoring of the presence of MRSA in the community and a clearer understanding of the dynamics of the spread of MRSA will assist in controlling its dissemination.

  11. Burnout and Work Engagement Among Dental Practitioners in Bangalore City: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallaiah, Pramila; Krishnamurthy, Archana; Sangha, Ranganath

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Burnout is a job-related stress reaction; a potential hazard for personal, professional lives of dentists. Work Engagement (WE) is the antithesis of Burnout and they can co-exist. Aim This study was taken up to know the prevalence of Burnout and WE among dentists in Bangalore, India. Matreials and Methods In a cross-sectional study, all (n=116) dentists practicing in Bangalore East Zone were randomly selected. A structured, self-administered questionnaire revealing dentists’ demographics, practice characteristics, Burnout level [6-item from Maslach Burnout Inventory] and WE [4-item from Utrecht Work Engagement Scale] was used. Ethical clearance and informed consent was obtained. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 15.0. Results With a response rate of 58.6%, high burnout was seen in 5.15% dentists. Personal Accomplishment was significantly associated with dentists in older age-group (p=0.002), married (p=0.014), MDS qualified (p=0.038), having long working hours (p=0.009) with assistants (p=0.024), more years into practice (0.007), travelling more distance from residence (p=0.021). Significance was also seen for dedication among dentists with assistants (p=0.006), emotional exhaustion among dentist with long working hours (p=0.009), and driving own vehicle (p=0.028). Finally absorption was found significant in dentists practicing solo. Conclusion Higher WE were found but still burnout persisted. Thus, burnout and WE were found to co-exist. PMID:27042589

  12. Survey-based socio-economic data from slums in Bangalore, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Debraj; Palavalli, Bharath; Menon, Niveditha; King, Robin; Pfeffer, Karin; Lees, Michael; Sloot, Peter M. A.

    2018-01-01

    In 2010, an estimated 860 million people were living in slums worldwide, with around 60 million added to the slum population between 2000 and 2010. In 2011, 200 million people in urban Indian households were considered to live in slums. In order to address and create slum development programmes and poverty alleviation methods, it is necessary to understand the needs of these communities. Therefore, we require data with high granularity in the Indian context. Unfortunately, there is a paucity of highly granular data at the level of individual slums. We collected the data presented in this paper in partnership with the slum dwellers in order to overcome the challenges such as validity and efficacy of self reported data. Our survey of Bangalore covered 36 slums across the city. The slums were chosen based on stratification criteria, which included geographical location of the slum, whether the slum was resettled or rehabilitated, notification status of the slum, the size of the slum and the religious profile. This paper describes the relational model of the slum dataset, the variables in the dataset, the variables constructed for analysis and the issues identified with the dataset. The data collected includes around 267,894 data points spread over 242 questions for 1,107 households. The dataset can facilitate interdisciplinary research on spatial and temporal dynamics of urban poverty and well-being in the context of rapid urbanization of cities in developing countries.

  13. Out-of-pocket healthcare payments on chronic conditions impoverish urban poor in Bangalore, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhojani Upendra

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The burden of chronic conditions is on the rise in India, necessitating long-term support from healthcare services. Healthcare, in India, is primarily financed through out-of-pocket payments by households. Considering scarce evidence available from India, our study investigates whether and how out-of-pocket payments for outpatient care affect individuals with chronic conditions. Methods A large census covering 9299 households was conducted in Bangalore, India. Of these, 3202 households that reported presence of chronic condition were further analysed. Data was collected using a structured household-level questionnaire. Out-of-pocket payments, catastrophic healthcare expenditure, and the resultant impoverishment were measured using a standard technique. Results The response rate for the census was 98.5%. Overall, 69.6% (95%CI=68.0-71.2 of households made out-of-pocket payments for outpatient care spending a median of 3.2% (95%CI=3.0-3.4 of their total income. Overall, 16% (95%CI=14.8-17.3 of households suffered financial catastrophe by spending more than 10% of household income on outpatient care. Occurrence and intensity of financial catastrophe were inequitably high among poor. Low household income, use of referral hospitals as place for consultation, and small household size were associated with a greater likelihood of incurring financial catastrophe. The out-of-pocket spending on chronic conditions doubled the number of people living below the poverty line in one month, with further deepening of their poverty. In order to cope, households borrowed money (4.2% instances, and sold or mortgaged their assets (0.4% instances. Conclusions This study provides evidence from India that the out-of-pocket payment for chronic conditions, even for outpatient care, pushes people into poverty. Our findings suggest that improving availability of affordable medications and diagnostics for chronic conditions, as well as strengthening the

  14. Out-of-pocket healthcare payments on chronic conditions impoverish urban poor in Bangalore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhojani, Upendra; Thriveni, Bs; Devadasan, Roopa; Munegowda, Cm; Devadasan, Narayanan; Kolsteren, Patrick; Criel, Bart

    2012-11-16

    The burden of chronic conditions is on the rise in India, necessitating long-term support from healthcare services. Healthcare, in India, is primarily financed through out-of-pocket payments by households. Considering scarce evidence available from India, our study investigates whether and how out-of-pocket payments for outpatient care affect individuals with chronic conditions. A large census covering 9299 households was conducted in Bangalore, India. Of these, 3202 households that reported presence of chronic condition were further analysed. Data was collected using a structured household-level questionnaire. Out-of-pocket payments, catastrophic healthcare expenditure, and the resultant impoverishment were measured using a standard technique. The response rate for the census was 98.5%. Overall, 69.6% (95%CI=68.0-71.2) of households made out-of-pocket payments for outpatient care spending a median of 3.2% (95%CI=3.0-3.4) of their total income. Overall, 16% (95%CI=14.8-17.3) of households suffered financial catastrophe by spending more than 10% of household income on outpatient care. Occurrence and intensity of financial catastrophe were inequitably high among poor. Low household income, use of referral hospitals as place for consultation, and small household size were associated with a greater likelihood of incurring financial catastrophe.The out-of-pocket spending on chronic conditions doubled the number of people living below the poverty line in one month, with further deepening of their poverty. In order to cope, households borrowed money (4.2% instances), and sold or mortgaged their assets (0.4% instances). This study provides evidence from India that the out-of-pocket payment for chronic conditions, even for outpatient care, pushes people into poverty. Our findings suggest that improving availability of affordable medications and diagnostics for chronic conditions, as well as strengthening the gate keeping function of the primary care services are important

  15. Antimicrobial Sensitivity Pattern of Microorganisms Isolated from Vaginal Infections at a Tertiary Hospital in Bangalore, India

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    Nagalakshmi Narayana-Swamy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The vagina contains dozens of microbiological species in variable quantities and is, therefore, considered a complex environment. Among the microorganisms, bacteria have important repercussions on women’s health. The present study was conducted especially to elucidate this type of vaginal isolates and their sensitivity towards currently used antibiotics. Methods: This was a retrospective study conducted at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Sapthagiri Hospital, Bangalore, India from January 2012 to December 2013. All symptomatic women who had a high vaginal swab taken for culture and sensitivity testing were included in this study. Antibiotic susceptibility was tested using disc diffusion method (modified Kirby-Bauer method. The antibiotic sensitivity patterns of isolated microorganisms were studied. Results: Out of 200 patients, 95% had positive vaginal cultures. Fifteen types of microorganisms were isolated. The highest frequency of infection was observed at the age of 20-30 years, followed by 41-50 years and 31-40 years, and a low frequency of infection was observed above 50 years of age. The most prevalent pathogen was Escherichia coli, followed by Streptococcus agalactiae and diphtheroids with equal incidence. Among the antibiotics tested, isolated pathogens were completely resistant to nalidixic acid and highly sensitive to meropenem and imepenem. Conclusion: The high prevalence of gynaecological infections demands that patients with symptoms undergo thorough investigation with cultures and sensitivity essays. Changes in treatment protocols are required to treat vaginal infections effectively.

  16. Reconstructing surface hydrological change from 1973 to 2010 in the Arkavathy watershed near Bangalore, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penny, G.; Srinivasan, V.; Lele, S.; Dronova, I.; Thompson, S. E.

    2016-12-01

    Population growth, urbanization, and intensification of agriculture have placed increasing pressure on hydrological systems in south India. Man-made lakes known as "tanks" have been used for centuries to capture monsoon-season streamflow for irrigation. Many of these tanks have dried since the 1970s, but the hydrological changes associated with the drying of tanks are not well understood. We focus on the the Arkavathy watershed near Bangalore, India, where humans activities have modified the landscape through groundwater depletion, watershed development programs (designed to encourage groundwater recharge), and urbanization. We estimated tank water extent in over 1000 tanks in Landsat images from 1973 to 2010 using an automated classification algorithm with sub-pixel unmixing. Classification error was small in pixels containing only water or land, but higher in pixels containing a mix of water and land. At the tank level, errors in water extent were unbiased and classification accuracy improved with increasing tank size. We aggregated water extent in clusters of at least 15 tanks, and used a statistical model to estimate the temporal changes in each cluster after accounting for the interannual variability of precipitation. The results revealed a range of drying and wetting, with land use playing an important role in hydrological changes. Groundwater-irrigated agriculture was associated with a reduction in tank water extent over the study period. Tanks within and downstream of urban areas exhibited mixed results. In some cases, urbanization led to increased tank water extent (likely due to urban water imports), while in other cases tank water was diminished due to encroaching construction. In general, there was an increase in tank water associated with natural land cover. In this region, where historical hydrological data is scarce, classification and analysis of tanks can be a useful tool in understanding long-term hydrological change.

  17. Patterns of Insect Abundance and Distribution in Urban Domestic Gardens in Bangalore, India

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    Madhumitha Jaganmohan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Domestic gardens may play a vital role in supporting urban insect biodiversity, despite their small size. This paper assesses the abundance, diversity and distribution of insects in urban domestic gardens in the tropics, through a study in the rapidly expanding Indian city of Bangalore. Fifty domestic gardens were studied using a combination of light traps and pitfall traps. We recorded a large number of insects, 2,185 insects from 10 orders, of which ants, bugs, beetles and flies were the most common. We found 25 species of trees (from 160 individuals and 117 species of herbs and shrubs in the 50 sampled domestic gardens. The number of insect orders encountered was significantly related to the number of tree and herb/shrub species. Garden management practices also influenced the abundance and richness of insect orders. Thus, greater numbers of insects were observed in gardens with a greater proportion of bare soil relative to grass area and with less intensive weeding practices. More insect orders were encountered in gardens with a composting pit. Insect numbers were significantly reduced in gardens subjected to pesticide application. Most residents avoided application of pesticides and herbicides, citing health concerns.

  18. Oral health impact on quality of life assessment among dental patients in Bangalore city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Over the past few decades mankind has been mainly affected with chronic noncommunicable diseases, which led to compromised quality of life. Common dental diseases come under same categories that are largely social and behavioral in origin. Health-related quality of life helps us address the limitations of traditional clinical indicators of health. Aim: To measure the impact of oral health on quality of life among patients visiting dental teaching hospitals and private clinics in Bangalore city using oral health-related quality of life (OHQoL - U.K index. Materials and Methods: A total of 1200 individuals who are above 16-year of age were selected through stratified cluster random sampling technique for this study. Data were collected using OHQoL-U.K instrument. Results: Most of the subjects (78% perceived their oral health as impacting their quality of life. Many participants perceived their oral health had positive impact on life quality through enhancing their smile, appearance, speech. But 44.9% and 28.5% of respondents said their oral health has a negative impact on quality of life because of breath odor and finance respectively. Subjects are belonging to lower socioeconomic background, women and older adults (>45 years perceived their oral health has a negative impact on quality of life compared to subjects from higher social class, men and young adults. Conclusion: Oral health has more impact on physical and functional aspects rather than on social and psychological domains.

  19. Study on radon, thoron and their progeny in indoor workplaces of Bangalore city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sannappa, J.; Shekhar, Usha; Venu, A.; Srilatha; Ningappa, C.; Sonkawade, R.G.

    2010-01-01

    Radon, thoron and their progeny concentrations in some working places of Bangalore city were measured using Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDs). Finally an estimation of the inhalation dose can be calculated by using the formula. Concentrations in the indoor atmosphere vary with ventilation conditions, types of flooring and types of materials used for construction of buildings. From the data, the concentration of radon and thoron varies from 25 to 150 Bqm -3 and 4.4 to 63 Bqm -3 with a median of 57.9 Bq.m -3 and 28.6 Bq.m -3 , respectively. Their progeny varies from 0.12 to 9.8 mWL and 0.01 to 12.46 mWL with a median of 2.96 mWL and 1.80 mWL, respectively. The equivalent effective dose due to radon, thoron and their progeny varies from 1.03 to 5.39 mSv.y -1 with a median of 2.22mSv.y -1 . This study indicates higher indoor concentration of radon, thoron and their progeny in the workplaces having less human activity arid granite floors. Workplaces having good ventilation show less indoor concentration of radon, thoron and their progeny. A detailed study is required for further analysis

  20. Acceptability and use of emergency contraception among married women in Bangalore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, Corinne H; Shankar, Mridula; Sreevathsa, Anuradha; Krishnan, Suneeta

    2013-04-01

    To assess knowledge, acceptability, and use of emergency contraceptive pills (ECs) among lower-income married women in Bangalore, India. EC counseling and supplies were offered to 322 women aged 18-25 years participating in a longitudinal reproductive health study. Participants completed interviews at enrollment and were followed for 1 year. EC acceptability and use were assessed, and factors associated with use were identified. 206/320 (64.4%) participants did not desire pregnancy but only 46/321 (14.3%) used an intrauterine device or contraceptive pills. Only 25 (7.8%) had heard of ECs. Overall, 123 (38.2%) participants requested advance provisions of ECs after counseling. Over a year, 37/263 (14.1%) women used ECs, usually within 3 days of unprotected sex (33 [89.2%]), and 32 (86.5%) took both pills together or 1 day apart. Thirty-six (97.3%) felt glad and 31 (83.8%) were relieved after taking ECs. Twenty-five (67.6%) women who used ECs sought permission from their husbands. The only factor associated with EC use was couples' pregnancy intentions (odds ratio 4.71; 95% confidence interval, 1.43-15.58; P≤0.01). Indian women with access to ECs generally used them correctly and found them acceptable. Efforts to expand EC knowledge and access should be coupled with efforts to promote gender equality in the reproductive sphere. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Spatial characterization of long-term hydrological change in the Arkavathy watershed adjacent to Bangalore, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penny, Gopal; Srinivasan, Veena; Dronova, Iryna; Lele, Sharachchandra; Thompson, Sally

    2018-01-01

    The complexity and heterogeneity of human water use over large spatial areas and decadal timescales can impede the understanding of hydrological change, particularly in regions with sparse monitoring of the water cycle. In the Arkavathy watershed in southern India, surface water inflows to major reservoirs decreased over a 40-year period during which urbanization, groundwater depletion, modification of the river network, and changes in agricultural practices also occurred. These multiple, interacting drivers combined with limited hydrological monitoring make attribution of the causes of diminishing water resources in the watershed challenging and impede effective policy responses. To mitigate these challenges, we developed a novel, spatially distributed dataset to understand hydrological change by characterizing the residual trends in surface water extent that remain after controlling for precipitation variations and comparing the trends with historical land use maps to assess human drivers of change. Using an automated classification approach with subpixel unmixing, we classified water extent in nearly 1700 man-made lakes, or tanks, in Landsat images from 1973 to 2010. The classification results compared well with a reference dataset of water extent of tanks (R2 = 0.95). We modeled the water extent of 42 clusters of tanks in a multiple regression on simple hydrological covariates (including precipitation) and time. Inter-annual variability in precipitation accounted for 63 % of the predicted variability in water extent. However, precipitation did not exhibit statistically significant trends in any part of the watershed. After controlling for precipitation variability, we found statistically significant temporal trends in water extent, both positive and negative, in 13 of the clusters. Based on a water balance argument, we inferred that these trends likely reflect a non-stationary relationship between precipitation and watershed runoff. Independently of

  2. Spatial characterization of long-term hydrological change in the Arkavathy watershed adjacent to Bangalore, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Penny

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The complexity and heterogeneity of human water use over large spatial areas and decadal timescales can impede the understanding of hydrological change, particularly in regions with sparse monitoring of the water cycle. In the Arkavathy watershed in southern India, surface water inflows to major reservoirs decreased over a 40-year period during which urbanization, groundwater depletion, modification of the river network, and changes in agricultural practices also occurred. These multiple, interacting drivers combined with limited hydrological monitoring make attribution of the causes of diminishing water resources in the watershed challenging and impede effective policy responses. To mitigate these challenges, we developed a novel, spatially distributed dataset to understand hydrological change by characterizing the residual trends in surface water extent that remain after controlling for precipitation variations and comparing the trends with historical land use maps to assess human drivers of change. Using an automated classification approach with subpixel unmixing, we classified water extent in nearly 1700 man-made lakes, or tanks, in Landsat images from 1973 to 2010. The classification results compared well with a reference dataset of water extent of tanks (R2  =  0.95. We modeled the water extent of 42 clusters of tanks in a multiple regression on simple hydrological covariates (including precipitation and time. Inter-annual variability in precipitation accounted for 63 % of the predicted variability in water extent. However, precipitation did not exhibit statistically significant trends in any part of the watershed. After controlling for precipitation variability, we found statistically significant temporal trends in water extent, both positive and negative, in 13 of the clusters. Based on a water balance argument, we inferred that these trends likely reflect a non-stationary relationship between precipitation and watershed

  3. The iodized salt programme in Bangalore, India provides adequate iodine intakes in pregnant women and more-than-adequate iodine intakes in their children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaiswal, N.; Boonstra, A.; Sharma, S.K.; Srinivasan, K.; Zimmerman, M.B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the iodine status of pregnant women and their children who were sharing all meals in Bangalore, India. Design A cross-sectional study evaluating demographic characteristics, household salt iodine concentration and salt usage patterns, urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) in women

  4. EFFECT OF REIKI ON PERCEIVED STRESS AMONG SOFTWARE PROFESSIONALS IN BANGALORE, INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Vasudev, Saumya Suresh; Shastri, Shailaja

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to examinethe efficacy Reiki on Perceived Stress among software professionals. The effectof Hands on reiki, Distance reiki and Distance reiki placebo was investigatedin this study.120 software professionals from a software firm situated atBangalore who met the inclusion exclusion criteria were taken up for the study.Sample was divided into four groups, hands on reiki group, distance reikigroup, distance reiki placebo group and one control group (30 participants ineach ...

  5. Determinants of domestic violence among women attending an human immunodeficiency virus voluntary counseling and testing center in Bangalore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Varalakshmi; Krupp, Karl; George, Ruja; Madhivanan, Purnima

    2007-05-01

    Violence against women is a global phenomenon that cuts across all social and economic classes. This study was designed to measure the prevalence and correlates of domestic violence (DV) among women seeking services at a voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) center in Bangalore, India. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among women visiting an human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) VCT center in Bangalore, between September and November 2005. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect information about violence and other variables. Univariable associations with DV were made using Pearson Chi-squared test for categorical variables and Student t-test or the Mann-Whitney test for continuous variables. Forty-two percent of respondents reported DV, including physical abuse (29%), psychological abuse (69%) and sexual abuse (1%). Among the women who reported violence of any kind, 67% also reported that they were HIV seropositive. The most common reasons reported for DV included financial problems (38%), husband's alcohol use (29%) and woman's HIV status (18%). Older women (P women suffering from domestic partner violence.

  6. Female sex worker client behaviors lead to condom breakage: a prospective telephone-based survey in Bangalore, South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Janet; Rajaram, S; Moses, Stephen; Gowda, G Chandrashekhar; Pushpalatha, R; Ramesh, B M; Isac, Shajy; Boily, Marie-Claude; Lobo, Anil; Gowda, Hareesh; Alary, Michel

    2013-02-01

    We examined condom breakage rates and predictors of breakage in a prospective telephone-based study of female sex workers (FSWs) in Bangalore, India. We obtained data on 3,257 condom-use sex acts, and breakage occurred in 2.1 % of these. Situational factors, especially those associated with male clients' behaviors, were the most important predictors of breakage, including sexual inexperience, roughness and violence. Breakage was also associated with having vaginal and anal sex at the same encounter and with poor-fitting condoms. Despite lower than expected breakage rates, the high client volume of FSWs means that there are many unprotected sex acts caused by breakage. Discussions should be held around new education messages, and how programs can respond quickly when sex workers encounter clients who are inebriated, violent or unusually sexually charged. More work is urgently needed with police, and on FSW empowerment, the use of help lines, and counseling for the most vulnerable women.

  7. Evaluation of groundwater quality in and around Peenya industrial area of Bangalore, South India using GIS techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pius, Anitha; Jerome, Charmaine; Sharma, Nagaraja

    2012-07-01

    Groundwater resource forms a significant component of the urban water supply. Declining groundwater levels in Bangalore Urban District is generally due to continuous overexploitation during the last two decades or more. There is a tremendous increase in demand in the city for good quality groundwater resource. The present study monitors the groundwater quality using geographic information system (GIS) techniques for a part of Bangalore metropolis. Thematic maps for the study area are prepared by visual interpretation of SOI toposheets on 1:50,000 scale using MapInfo software. Physicochemical analysis data of the groundwater samples collected at predetermined locations form the attribute database for the study, based on which spatial distribution maps of major water quality parameters are prepared using MapInfo GIS software. Water quality index was then calculated by considering the following water quality parameters--pH, total dissolved solids, total hardness, calcium hardness, magnesium hardness, alkalinity, chloride, nitrate and sulphate to find the suitability of water for drinking purpose. The water quality index for these samples ranged from 49 to 502. The high value of water quality index reveals that most of the study area is highly contaminated due to excessive concentration of one or more water quality parameters and that the groundwater needs pretreatment before consumption.

  8. A qualitative study of factors affecting mental health amongst low-income working mothers in Bangalore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travasso, Sandra Mary; Rajaraman, Divya; Heymann, Sally Jody

    2014-02-07

    Low-income urban working mothers face many challenges in their domestic, environmental, and working conditions that may affect their mental health. In India, a high prevalence of mental health disorders has been recorded in young women, but there has been little research to examine the factors that affect their mental health at home and work. Through a primarily qualitative approach, we studied the relationship between work, caring for family, spousal support, stress relief strategies and mental health amongst forty eight low-income working mothers residing in urban slums across Bangalore, India. Participants were construction workers, domestic workers, factory workers and fruit and vegetable street vendors. Qualitative data analysis themes included state of mental health, factors that affected mental health positively or negatively, manifestations and consequences of stress and depression, and stress mitigators. Even in our small sample of women, we found evidence of extreme depression, including suicidal ideation and attempted suicide. Women who have an alcoholic and/or abusive husband, experience intimate partner violence, are raising children with special needs, and lack adequate support for child care appear to be more susceptible to severe and prolonged periods of depression and suicide attempts. Factors that pointed towards reduced anxiety and depression were social support from family, friends and colleagues and fulfilment from work. This qualitative study raises concerns that low-income working mothers in urban areas in India are at high risk for depression, and identifies common factors that create and mitigate stress in this population group. We discuss implications of the findings for supporting the mental health of urban working women in the Indian context. The development of the national mental health policy in India and its subsequent implementation should draw on existing research documenting factors associated with negative mental health amongst

  9. Do changes in spousal employment status lead to domestic violence? Insights from a prospective study in Bangalore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Suneeta; Rocca, Corinne H; Hubbard, Alan E; Subbiah, Kalyani; Edmeades, Jeffrey; Padian, Nancy S

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of physical domestic violence--violence against women perpetrated by husbands--is staggeringly high across the Indian subcontinent. Although gender-based power dynamics are thought to underlie women's vulnerability, relatively little is known about risk and protective factors. This prospective study in southern India examined the association between key economic aspects of gender-based power, namely spousal employment status, and physical domestic violence. In 2005-2006, 744 married women, aged 16-25, residing in low-income communities in Bangalore, India were enrolled in the study. Data were collected at enrollment, 12 and 24 months. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine the prospective association between women's employment status, their perceptions of their husband's employment stability, and domestic violence. Women who were unemployed at one visit and began employment by the next visit had an 80% higher odds of violence, as compared to women who maintained their unemployed status. Similarly, women whose husbands had stable employment at one visit and newly had difficulty with employment had 1.7 times the odds of violence, as compared to women whose husbands maintained their stable employment. To our knowledge, this study is the first from a developing country to confirm that changes in spousal employment status are associated with subsequent changes in violence risk. It points to the complex challenges of violence prevention, including the need for interventions among men and gender-transformative approaches to promote gender-equitable attitudes, practices and norms among men and women.

  10. Anemia among hospitalized children at a multispecialty hospital, Bangalore (Karnataka, India

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    Firdos Saba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to the limited availability of data related to anemia in hospitalized children, this research was conducted to study the occurrence, morphological patterns, distribution in different age groups, sex, and severity of anemia among children aged 6 months-12 years. Setting: Inpatients in department of pediatrics at a multispecialty hospital, Bangalore. Study Design: Descriptive cross sectional study from Oct, 2011 to Sep, 2012. Materials and Methods: Ethical clearance was obtained from the ethical committee of the hospital as per 1964 Declaration of Helsinki. Unrestricted random sampling method was used to select the study group consisting of 882 children between the age of 6 months and 12 years. After obtaining the consent, data were obtained and statistically analyzed using statistical tools like mean, median, standard deviation, and Chi-square test. Results: Out of 882 children selected, 642 (72.79% were anemic, out of which a majority of 629 (98% children suffered from nonhemoglobinopathies and a meagre 13 (2% suffered from hemoglobinopathies. Children in the age group of 6 months-1 year were most affected with nonhemoglobinopathies (33%. Moderate degree of anemia (hemoglobin = 7-9.9 g/dL was the commonest grade of anemia (80%, while microcytic hypochromic anemia was commonest morphological type of anemia (48%. Among hemoglobinopathies, thalassemia major was the most common (69%, that is 9 out of 13 patients. Conclusion: The occurrence of anemia among children aged between 6 months and 12 years is high and nonhemoglobinopathies predominate over the hemoglobinopathies.

  11. Effect of rain gauge density over the accuracy of rainfall: a case study over Bangalore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Anoop Kumar

    2013-12-01

    Rainfall is an extremely variable parameter in both space and time. Rain gauge density is very crucial in order to quantify the rainfall amount over a region. The level of rainfall accuracy is highly dependent on density and distribution of rain gauge stations over a region. Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) have installed a number of Automatic Weather Station (AWS) rain gauges over Indian region to study rainfall. In this paper, the effect of rain gauge density over daily accumulated rainfall is analyzed using ISRO AWS gauge observations. A region of 50 km × 50 km box over southern part of Indian region (Bangalore) with good density of rain gauges is identified for this purpose. Rain gauge numbers are varied from 1-8 in 50 km box to study the variation in the daily accumulated rainfall. Rainfall rates from the neighbouring stations are also compared in this study. Change in the rainfall as a function of gauge spacing is studied. Use of gauge calibrated satellite observations to fill the gauge station value is also studied. It is found that correlation coefficients (CC) decrease from 82% to 21% as gauge spacing increases from 5 km to 40 km while root mean square error (RMSE) increases from 8.29 mm to 51.27 mm with increase in gauge spacing from 5 km to 40 km. Considering 8 rain gauges as a standard representative of rainfall over the region, absolute error increases from 15% to 64% as gauge numbers are decreased from 7 to 1. Small errors are reported while considering 4 to 7 rain gauges to represent 50 km area. However, reduction to 3 or less rain gauges resulted in significant error. It is also observed that use of gauge calibrated satellite observations significantly improved the rainfall estimation over the region with very few rain gauge observations.

  12. Beta Testing an Oral Health Edutainment Card Game Among 12-13-Year-Old Children in Bangalore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harikiran, Arkalgud Govindraju; Vadavi, Deepti; Shruti, Tulika

    2017-12-01

    Card games are easy, cost effective, culturally acceptable, as well as sustainable and require minimal infrastructure over other edutainment approaches in achieving health and oral health promotion goals. Therefore, we wanted to conceptualize, develop, and beta test an innovative oral health edutainment card game for preadolescent children in Bangalore, India. An innovative oral health card game, titled "32 warriors" was conceptualized and developed to incorporate age appropriate, medically accurate oral health information. The card game aimed at empowering children to take appropriate care of their oral health. The card game was beta tested on 45 children, aged between 12 and 13 years. Using prepost design, a 32-itemed, closed-ended questionnaire assessed children's oral health knowledge, attitude, and feedback on the game. Change in mean scores for knowledge and attitude was assessed using "Wilcoxon Sign Rank test" at P type of response and its frequency. Statistically significant improvement was observed in group mean overall score, mean knowledge, and attitude scores, respectively (pre 14.7 ± 2.91 and post 18.6 ± 4.35, P = 0.003; 11.8 ± 2.73, 14.76 ± 4.0, P = 0.000; 2.93 ± 1.09, 3.84 ± 1.02, P = 0.000), with mean effect size 0.5. Participants reported that they enjoyed the game and learned new things about oral health. The card game is appealing to children and improves their oral health knowledge and attitude as evidenced by beta test results. We need to further explore the demand, feasibility, and cost effectiveness of introducing this game in formal settings (school based)/informal settings (family and other social settings).

  13. Assessment of screening practices for gestational hyperglycaemia in public health facilities: a descriptive study in Bangalore, India

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    Giridhara R. Babu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Screening and timely treatment of gestational hyperglycaemia (GH is proved to be beneficial and improves maternal and foetal health outcomes. To understand screening practices, we explored the knowledge and perceptions of doctors working in public health facilities in Bangalore, India. We also studied participation factors by examining whether undergoing glucose estimation tests affects morning sickness in pregnant women. Design and Methods. We aimed to understand the screening practices and knowledge of doctors. A semi-structured questionnaire was self-administered by the 50 participant doctors, selected from the sampling frame comprising of all the doctors working in public health facilities. We included 105 pregnant women for baseline assessment, in whom a well-structured questionnaire was used. Results. We reported that gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM screening was done in nearly all the health centres (96%. However, only 12% of the doctors could provide all components of GDM diagnosis and management correctly and 46% would diagnose by using a random blood glucose test. A majority (92% of the doctors had poor knowledge (68% about the cut-off values of glucose tests. More than 80% of pregnant women experienced some discomfort mostly due to rapid ingestion glucose in short span of time. Conclusions. Our study established that screening for GH is done in most public health facilities. Nonetheless, knowledge of doctors on the glucose tests and their interpretation needs improvement. Re-orientation trainings of the doctors can improve their knowledge and thereby can efficiently screen for GH. Further, adequate planning prior to the tests can aid successful completion of them.

  14. Applying the social-ecological system framework to the diagnosis of urban lake commons in Bangalore, India

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    Harini Nagendra

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The south Indian city of Bangalore provides a challenging yet representative context within which to examine issues of governance of urban social-ecological commons. The city was once famous for its numerous large water bodies, which have witnessed tremendous encroachment and pollution in recent years. These water bodies, called tanks or lakes, were typically managed by adjacent village communities but are now administered by a number of government departments involved with aspects of lake management, with multiple overlapping jurisdictions. The public's perceptions of lakes has also changed with urbanization, transitioning from community spaces valued for water and cultural services to urban recreational spaces used largely by joggers and walkers. We focus on a set of seven lakes located in the urbanizing peripheral areas of southeast Bangalore. Some water bodies have been restored and managed effectively by newly forged collaborations between citizens and local government. Others are extremely polluted, and some have completely dried up and have been encroached. We use a social-ecological system (SES framework to investigate why some locations have been successful in negotiating changes in governance from community-based systems to state management following urbanization, whereas other lakes have deteriorated. We use seven second-tier SES variables that were associated with self-organization in previous research: size of resource system, number of actors, leadership, social capital, importance of resource, existence of operational-choice rules, and existence of informal mechanisms for monitoring. We also include three third-tier variables previously identified as important in urban lake commons in Bangalore: scale and type of pre-existing pollution, exclusion of socioeconomic groups from the planning process, and networking with government organizations. We use this subset of 10 variables to examine social outcomes of the lakes, which we

  15. Depression, anxiety and stress levels in industrial workers: A pilot study in Bangalore, India

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    Sheldon Rao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mental health disorders affect around 500 million people worldwide. In India, around 10-12% of people are affected by a mental disorder either due to stress, depression, anxiety, or any other cause. Mental health of workers affects the productivity of the workplace, with estimates putting these losses to be over 100 million dollars annually. Aims: The study aims to measure depression, anxiety, and stress levels of workers in an industry and to investigate if it has any effect on productivity of the firm. Materials and Methods: The study utilized a cross-sectional design and was conducted among workmen of the firm. A sociodemographic based questionnaire and a mental health screening tool -Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21 were used for the same. A total of 90 completed questionnaires were analyzed for the study. The data was analyzed for central tendencies as well as for any associations and correlations. Results: The study showed that none of the workers had a positive score for depression. It also showed that around 36% of the workers had a positive score for anxiety and 18% of the workers had a positive score for stress on DASS-21 scale. The odds ratio between stress and number of leaves taken by a worker in the last 3 months suggested a dose-response relationship, but was statistically insignificant. Conclusion: The study found a prevalence rate of around 18-36% for anxiety and stress amongst the workers at the factory. Large-scale studies will help understand the effect mental health status has on the Indian workplace.

  16. Increased risk of respiratory illness associated with kerosene fuel use among women and children in urban Bangalore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae-Young; Baumgartner, Jill; Harnden, Sarah; Alexander, Bruce H; Town, Robert J; D'Souza, George; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy

    2015-02-01

    Kerosene is a widely used cooking and lighting fuel in developing countries. The potential respiratory health effects of cooking with kerosene relative to cooking with cleaner fuels such as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) have not been well characterised. We sampled 600 households from six urban neighbourhoods in Bangalore, India. Each household's primary cook, usually the woman of the house, was interviewed to collect information on current domestic fuel use and whether there was any presence of respiratory symptoms or illness in her or in the children in the household. Our analysis was limited to 547 adult females (ages 18-85) and 845 children (ages 0-17) in households exclusively cooking with either kerosene or LPG. We investigated the associations between kerosene use and the likelihood of having respiratory symptoms or illness using multivariate logistic regression models. Among adult women, cooking with kerosene was associated with cough (OR=1.88; 95% CI 1.19 to 2.99), bronchitis (OR=1.54; 95% CI 1.00 to 2.37), phlegm (OR=1.51; 95% CI 0.98 to 2.33) and chest illness (OR=1.61; 95% CI 1.02 to 2.53), relative to cooking with LPG in the multivariate models. Among children, living in a household cooking with kerosene was associated with bronchitis (OR=1.91; 95% CI 1.17 to 3.13), phlegm (OR=2.020; 95% CI 1.29 to 3.74) and chest illness (OR=1.70; 95% CI 0.99 to 2.90) after adjusting for other covariates. We also found associations between kerosene use and wheezing, difficulty breathing and asthma in adults and cough and wheezing in children, though these associations were not statistically significant. Women and children in households cooking with kerosene were more likely to have respiratory symptoms and illnesses compared with those in households cooking with LPG. Transitioning from kerosene to LPG for cooking may improve respiratory health among adult women and children in this population. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where

  17. Family planning practices prior to the acceptance of tubectomy: a study among women attending a maternity home in bangalore,india.

    Science.gov (United States)

    V, Srividya; Kumar, Jayanth

    2013-08-01

    The extent of acceptance of contraceptive methods still varies within societies. Reliance on sterilisation is appearing earlier in marriage and among ever-younger ages and lower parities. To study the family planning practices adopted by women who undergo tubectomy before the acceptance of tubectomy. Cross-sectional study of tubectomy acceptors who attended a corporation referral maternity home in Bangalore, India by interview method using a pre-designed a pre-tested structured questionnaire. Majority 295(73.9%) of the study subjects had not practised any method of contraception before they underwent sterilisation. Increase in the education levels of the study subjects was associated with an increase in the contraceptive use (temporary methods) before they accepted tubectomy; this association was found to be statistically significant (p<0.0001).

  18. Prevalence and severity of periodontal disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus (non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patients in Bangalore city: An epidemiological study

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    S M Apoorva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Our objective was to study the prevalence and severity of periodontal disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM patients in Bangalore city. Materials and Methods : Four hundred and eight type 2 DM patients (Study Group and 100 non-diabetic patients (Control Group among the age group of 35-75 years were included in the study. The study group was divided based on Glycated hemoglobin levels into well, moderately and poorly controlled. Relevant information regarding age, oral hygiene habits and personal habits was obtained from the patients. Diabetic status and mode of anti-diabetic therapy of the study group was obtained from the hospital records with consent from the patient. Community periodontal index (CPI was used to assess the periodontal status. The results were statistically evaluated. Results : The mean CPI score and the number of missing teeth was higher in diabetics compared with non-diabetics, and was statistically significant ( P=0.000, indicating that prevalence and extent of periodontal disease was more frequent and more severe in diabetic patients. The risk factors like Glycated hemoglobin, duration of diabetes, fasting blood sugar, personal habits and oral hygiene habits showed a positive correlation with periodontal destruction, whereas mode of anti-diabetic therapy showed a negative correlation according to the multiple regression analysis. The odds ratio of a diabetic showing periodontal destruction in comparison with a non-diabetic was 1.97, 2.10 and 2.42 in well, moderately and poorly controlled diabetics, respectively. Conclusion : Our study has made an attempt to determine the association between type 2 DM (NIDDM and periodontal disease in Bangalore city. It was found that type 2 DM (non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus [NIDDM] subjects manifested relatively higher prevalence and severity of periodontal disease as compared with non-diabetics.

  19. Prevalence and severity of periodontal disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus (non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus) patients in Bangalore city: An epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apoorva, S M; Sridhar, N; Suchetha, A

    2013-01-01

    Our objective was to study the prevalence and severity of periodontal disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients in Bangalore city. Four hundred and eight type 2 DM patients (Study Group) and 100 non-diabetic patients (Control Group) among the age group of 35-75 years were included in the study. The study group was divided based on Glycated hemoglobin levels into well, moderately and poorly controlled. Relevant information regarding age, oral hygiene habits and personal habits was obtained from the patients. Diabetic status and mode of anti-diabetic therapy of the study group was obtained from the hospital records with consent from the patient. Community periodontal index (CPI) was used to assess the periodontal status. The results were statistically evaluated. The mean CPI score and the number of missing teeth was higher in diabetics compared with non-diabetics, and was statistically significant (P=0.000), indicating that prevalence and extent of periodontal disease was more frequent and more severe in diabetic patients. The risk factors like Glycated hemoglobin, duration of diabetes, fasting blood sugar, personal habits and oral hygiene habits showed a positive correlation with periodontal destruction, whereas mode of anti-diabetic therapy showed a negative correlation according to the multiple regression analysis. The odds ratio of a diabetic showing periodontal destruction in comparison with a non-diabetic was 1.97, 2.10 and 2.42 in well, moderately and poorly controlled diabetics, respectively. Our study has made an attempt to determine the association between type 2 DM (NIDDM) and periodontal disease in Bangalore city. It was found that type 2 DM (non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus [NIDDM]) subjects manifested relatively higher prevalence and severity of periodontal disease as compared with non-diabetics.

  20. Oral health-related KAP among 11- to 12-year-old school children in a government-aided missionary school of Bangalore city

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    Harikiran A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To organize community-oriented oral health promotion programs systematic analysis of the oral health situation would be needed, including information on oral health knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP toward oral health among 11 to 12-year-old school children in a government-aided missionary school of Bangalore city. Materials and Methods: The study group comprised of 212 children (Male: 108; Female; 104 who were in the age group of 11-12 years studying in a government-aided missionary school of Bangalore city. Data on oral health KAP were collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire. Statistical significance was determined by Chi-square test. Results: This survey found that only 38.5% of the children brush their teeth two or more times a day. Pain and discomfort from teeth (35.1% were common while dental visits were infrequent. Fear of the dentist was the main cause of irregular visit in 46.1% of study participants. High proportion of study participants reported having hidden sugar at least once a day: soft drinks (32.1%, milk with sugar (65.9%, and tea with sugar (56.1%. It was found that 5.4% and 3.9% of study participants smoke and chew tobacco, respectively. Conclusion: Results of this study suggest that oral health KAP of study participants are poor and needs to be improved. Systematic community-oriented oral health promotion programs are needed to improve oral health KAP of school children.

  1. Understanding peri-urban water management in India | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    14 juil. 2014 ... Access to water is a major concern in India, where rapid urbanization and the unpredictable effects of a changing climate are aggravating water tensions. In the southern city of Bangalore, one of India's largest urban areas, older water supply reservoirs are almost dry while artificial lakes within the city are ...

  2. Understanding peri-urban water management in India | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2014-07-14

    Jul 14, 2014 ... Access to water is a major concern in India, where rapid urbanization and the unpredictable effects of a changing climate are aggravating water tensions. In the southern city of Bangalore, one of India's largest urban areas, older water supply reservoirs are almost dry while artificial lakes within the city are ...

  3. Construction and Use of a Simple Index of Urbanisation in the Rural–Urban Interface of Bangalore, India

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    Ellen M. Hoffmann

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Urbanisation is a global trend rapidly transforming the biophysical and socioeconomic structures of metropolitan areas. To better understand (and perhaps control these processes, more interdisciplinary research must be dedicated to the rural–urban interface. This also calls for a common reference system describing intermediate stages along a rural–urban gradient. The present paper constructs a simple index of urbanisation for villages in the Greater Bangalore Area, using GIS analysis of satellite images, and combining basic measures of building density and distance. The correlation of the two parameters and discontinuities in the frequency distribution of the combined index indicate highly dynamic stages of transformation, spatially clustered in the rural–urban interface. This analysis is substantiated by a qualitative assessment of village morphologies. The index presented here serves as a starting point in a large, coordinated study of rural–urban transitions. It was used to stratify villages for random sampling in order to perform a representative socioeconomic household survey, along with agricultural experiments and environmental assessments in various subsamples. Later on, it will also provide a matrix against which the results can be aligned and evaluated. In this process, the measures and classification systems themselves can be further refined and elaborated.

  4. Energy efficiency benchmarks and the performance of LEED rated buildings for Information Technology facilities in Bangalore, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabapathy, Ashwin; Ragavan, Santhosh K.V.; Vijendra, Mahima; Nataraja, Anjana G. [Enzen Global Solutions Pvt Ltd, 90, Hosur Road, Madiwala, Bangalore 560 068 (India)

    2010-11-15

    This paper provides a summary of an energy benchmarking study that uses performance data of a sample of Information Technology facilities in Bangalore. Information provided by the sample of occupiers was used to develop an Energy Performance Index (EPI) and an Annual Average hourly Energy Performance Index (AAhEPI), which takes into account the variations in operation hours and days for these facilities. The EPI and AAhEPI were modelled to identify the factors that influence energy efficiency. Employment density, size of facility, operating hours per week, type of chiller and age of facility were found to be significant factors in regression models with EPI and AAhEPI as dependent variables. Employment density, size of facility and operating hours per week were standardised and used in a separate regression analysis. Parameter estimates from this regression were used to normalize the EPI and AAhEPI for variance in the independent variables. Three benchmark ranges - the bottom third, middle third and top third - were developed for the two normalised indices. The normalised EPI and AAhEPI of LEED rated building, which were also part of the sample, indicate that, on average, LEED rated buildings outperform the other buildings. (author)

  5. Bangalore looks to new interdisciplinary science centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Ramaseshan

    2008-09-01

    A new centre to boost interdisciplinary research in India is being established in Bangalore - India's IT and software capital. The International Centre for Theoretical Sciences (ICTS) will be led by Spenta Wadia, a theoretical physicist from the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR) in Mumbai, which is setting up the new centre. He expects construction of the ICTS, the first of its kind in India, to start by November 2009.

  6. Prevalence of Malnutrition and Relationship with Scholastic Performance among Primary and Secondary School Children in Two Select Private Schools in Bangalore Rural District (India

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    M R Rashmi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malnutrition is a serious problem among children in developing countries. In India; a school meal program is in place to combat malnutrition, but only in government schools. This study is an attempt to assess the prevalence of malnutrition in primary and secondary school children in private schools and to also assess the relationship between malnutrition and academic performance. Materials and Methods: All 582 students from class 1-7 from two select schools in rural Bangalore, India were included in the study. Information on age of study subjects were collected from school records. Height and weight measurements were taken. BMI was calculated. Children were clinically examined for pallor. Data on height, weight and BMI was transformed into WHO 2007 Z scores and then was categorized as -2 SD, > 2 SD. Mathematics and English scores of the previous two class tests were taken, average scores were calculated. Statistical tests used were Chi square test, Odd′s ratio, Chi square for trend. Results : A total of 582 students participated in this study. Males were 54% (315 and females were 46% (267. One hundred and fifty-nine (27% of the children had pallor, 81 (20% had under nutrition, 38 (7% had stunting, 197 (34% had thinness and 5 (1% were found to be obese. Positive relationship was found between weight for ageZscores and English as well as Maths; Height for age Z scores with English. Conclusion : Hence we conclude that the prevalence of malnutrition is high among children in private schools also; and the nutritional status of the children is strongly associated with their academic performance.

  7. Prevalence of Malnutrition and Relationship with Scholastic Performance among Primary and Secondary School Children in Two Select Private Schools in Bangalore Rural District (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashmi, M R; Shweta, B M; Fathima, Farah Naaz; Agrawal, Twinkle; Shah, Moulik; Sequeira, Randell

    2015-01-01

    Malnutrition is a serious problem among children in developing countries. In India; a school meal program is in place to combat malnutrition, but only in government schools. This study is an attempt to assess the prevalence of malnutrition in primary and secondary school children in private schools and to also assess the relationship between malnutrition and academic performance. All 582 students from class 1-7 from two select schools in rural Bangalore, India were included in the study. Information on age of study subjects were collected from school records. Height and weight measurements were taken. BMI was calculated. Children were clinically examined for pallor. Data on height, weight and BMI was transformed into WHO 2007 Z scores and then was categorized as -2 SD, > 2 SD. Mathematics and English scores of the previous two class tests were taken, average scores were calculated. Statistical tests used were Chi square test, Odd's ratio, Chi square for trend. A total of 582 students participated in this study. Males were 54% (315) and females were 46% (267). One hundred and fifty-nine (27%) of the children had pallor, 81 (20%) had under nutrition, 38 (7%) had stunting, 197 (34%) had thinness and 5 (1%) were found to be obese. Positive relationship was found between weight for ageZscores and English as well as Maths; Height for age Z scores with English. Hence we conclude that the prevalence of malnutrition is high among children in private schools also; and the nutritional status of the children is strongly associated with their academic performance.

  8. Oral health status and treatment needs of substance abusers attending de-addiction centers in Bangalore city

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    Nithin N Bhaskar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Studies in different countries, demonstrated high caries prevalence, poor gingival health, poor motivation and oral hygiene practices with substance abusers. The substances may be natural or synthetic, the use of which has a psychoactive effect and alters or modifies the functions of a living organism. Aim: To assess the oral health status and treatment needs of substance abusers attending de-addiction centers in Bangalore. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 426 substance abusers admitted in the wards who were randomly selected from 5 selected de-addiction centers from April 2009 to September 2009. The study population consisted of four groups namely alcohol, nicotine, alcohol + nicotine and other drugs group from the selected de-addiction centers. The oral health status of the patients was determined based on the WHO proforma1997. Descriptive statistics, Pearson′s Chi-square test and ANOVA tests were applied. Results: The study population consisted of 426 male subjects in the age group of 16-65 years old with an average of 36.35 years. Alcohol + nicotine group had significantly more temporomandibular joint clicking than other groups (P < 0.05. Ninety-Six oral mucosal lesions were found in the study. Alcohol group had significantly higher mean CPI code 3 (pockets 4-5 mm than the other groups (P < 0.05. The prevalence of decayed, missing, filled teeth in the study population was 83.33%. The mean DMFT of the study population is 4.15 ± 3.74 standard deviation. The mean DMFT of the Alcohol group was significantly higher than the other combinations group (P < 0.01. Conclusions: The oral health status of substance abusers was poor. There were a large number of oral mucosal lesions noted in them. The dental caries status and periodontal status was the worst in the alcohol group.

  9. On the possibilities and limits of "DEAF DEAF SAME": Tourism and empowerment camps in Adamorobe (Ghana, Bangalore and Mumbai (India.

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    Michele Ilana Friedner

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article qualitatively analyzes the ways that the discourse of "deaf universalism" circulates within two common deaf practices: tourism and engaging in interventions. Arguing that the largely Northern-situated discipline of Deaf Studies does not adequately examine how deaf bodies and discourses travel, ethnographic data compiled in India and Ghana during transnational encounters is employed to examine how claims of "sameness" and "difference" are enacted and negotiated. Similarly, this article examines how deaf individuals and groups deploy the concepts of deaf "heavens" and "hells" to analyze their travel experiences and justify interventions. We argue that deaf travelers and those engaging in interventions, mostly from Northern countries, employ teleological concepts that they attempt to impose on deaf "others." Adopting a critical approach, this article argues for the importance of carving out a space within Deaf Studies for allowing non-Northern concepts to come to the fore. Keywords: Deaf, Development, Universalism, Discourse, India, Ghana

  10. Prevalence of hypothyroidism in adults: An epidemiological study in eight cities of India

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    Ambika Gopalakrishnan Unnikrishnan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypothyroidism is believed to be a common health issue in India, as it is worldwide. However, there is a paucity of data on the prevalence of hypothyroidism in adult population of India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional, multi-centre, epidemiological study was conducted in eight major cities (Bangalore, Chennai, Delhi, Goa, Mumbai, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad and Kolkata of India to study the prevalence of hypothyroidism among adult population. Thyroid abnormalities were diagnosed on the basis of laboratory results (serum FT3, FT4 and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone [TSH]. Patients with history of hypothyroidism and receiving levothyroxine therapy or those with serum free T4 5.50 μU/ml, were categorized as hypothyroid. The prevalence of self reported and undetected hypothyroidism, and anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO antibody positivity was assessed. Results: A total of 5376 adult male or non-pregnant female participants ³18 years of age were enrolled, of which 5360 (mean age: 46 ± 14.68 years; 53.70% females were evaluated. The overall prevalence of hypothyroidism was 10.95% (n = 587, 95% CI, 10.11-11.78 of which 7.48% (n = 401 patients self reported the condition, whereas 3.47% (n = 186 were previously undetected. Inland cities showed a higher prevalence of hypothyroidism as compared to coastal cities. A significantly higher ( P 5.50 μIU/ml. Anti - TPO antibodies suggesting autoimmunity were detected in 21.85% (n = 1171 patients. Conclusion: The prevalence of hypothyroidism was high, affecting approximately one in 10 adults in the study population. Female gender and older age were found to have significant association with hypothyroidism. Subclinical hypothyroidism and anti-TPO antibody positivity were the other common observations.

  11. Perceived sources of stress amongst final year dental under graduate students in a dental teaching institution at Bangalore, India: A cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A G Harikiran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental schools are known to be highly demanding and stressful learning environments. Dentistry involves an acquisition of required academic, clinical and interpersonal skills during the course of learning. Practicing dentistry requires clinical skills and patient management skills, which also add to the stress perceived by the students. Identifying sources of stress represents the crucial first step towards advocating policy changes and strategies to alleviate the stressors and enhance students′ stress coping skills. The aim of this study was to identify self-reported sources of the stress among the final year [4 th year] dental undergraduate students in a Dental Teaching Institution in Bangalore, India. Materials and Methods: A 38 items, 4-point Likert Scale item modified Dental Environmental Stress (DES questionnaire, addressing 5 stressor domains (living accommodation, interpersonal relationships, academics, clinical skills and miscellaneous was administered to all final year undergraduate dental students of the Institution. Items and domains were considered to be perceived as "stressful", when students classified them as ′slightly′, ′moderately′ or ′severely stressful′. Descriptive and bivariate analyzes based on chi square tests were performed. Results: Out of the 38 items, 19 items were reported to be "stressful" by >70% of the students. Of these, examinations, difficulty in managing difficult cases, lack of patient co-operation, difficulty and amount of course work and completing clinical requirements were reported to be "stressful" by >85% of the students. Personal physical health, difficulty in making friends, staying with roommates, narcotic substance dependencies were least commonly reported to be "stressful". Discussion and Conclusion: The stress provoking factors among >70% of the students are quite similar to those reported by the researchers′ worldwide. Curricular changes, student support mechanisms at

  12. Demographic changes and trends in risk behaviours, HIV and other sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers in Bangalore, India involved in a focused HIV preventive intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraman, Gayatri C; Kumar, Shiv; Isac, Shajy; Javalkar, Prakash; Gowda, Pushpalatha Rama Narayana; Raghunathan, N; Gowda, Chandra Shekhar; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Moses, Stephen; Blanchard, James F

    2013-12-01

    The primary objectives of this study were to assess the changing demographic characteristics of female sex workers (FSWs) in the urban Bangalore district, India, and trends in programme coverage, HIV/sexually transmitted infection prevalence rates and condom use. Cross-sectional, integrated behavioural and biological assessments of FSWs were conducted in 2006, 2009 and 2011. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to describe trends over time. The results indicate the mean age of initiation into sex work has increased (26.9 years in 2006 vs 27.6 years in 2011, pcellphones to solicit clients (4.4% in 2006 vs 57.5% in 2011, p<0.01) and their homes for sex work (61.4% in 2006 vs 77.8% in 2011, p<0.01). Reactive syphilis prevalence declined (12.6% in 2006 to 4% in 2011, p=0.02), as did high-titre syphilis prevalence (9.5% in 2006 to 2.5% in 2011, p=0.01). HIV prevalence declined but not significantly (12.7% in 2006 and 9.3% in 2011, p=0.39). Condom use remained above 90% increasing significantly among repeat (paying) clients (66.6% in 2006 to 93.6% in 2011, p<0.01). However, condom use remained low with non-paying partners when compared with occasional paying partners (17.6% vs 97.2% in 2011, p<0.01). Given the changing dynamics in the FSW population at multiple levels, there is a need to develop and customise strategies to meet local needs.

  13. Public knowledge of cardiovascular disease and response to acute cardiac events in three cities in China and India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duber, Herbert C; McNellan, Claire R; Wollum, Alexandra; Phillips, Bryan; Allen, Kate; Brown, Jonathan C; Bryant, Miranda; Guptam, R B; Li, Yichong; Majumdar, Piyusha; Roth, Gregory A; Thomson, Blake; Wilson, Shelley; Woldeab, Alexander; Zhou, Maigeng; Ng, Marie

    2018-01-01

    To inform interventions targeted towards reducing mortality from acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and sudden cardiac arrest in three megacities in China and India, a baseline assessment of public knowledge, attitudes and practices was performed. A household survey, supplemented by focus group and individual interviews, was used to assess public understanding of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, AMI symptoms, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and automated external defibrillators (AEDs). Additionally, information was collected on emergency service utilisation and associated barriers to care. 5456 household surveys were completed. Hypertension was most commonly recognised among CVD risk factors in Beijing and Shanghai (68% and 67%, respectively), while behavioural risk factors were most commonly identified in Bangalore (smoking 91%; excessive alcohol consumption 64%). Chest pain/discomfort was reported by at least 60% of respondents in all cities as a symptom of AMI, but 21% of individuals in Bangalore could not name a single symptom. In Beijing, Shanghai and Bangalore, 26%, 15% and 3% of respondents were trained in CPR, respectively. Less than one-quarter of participants in all cities recognised an AED. Finally, emergency service utilisation rates were low, and many individuals expressed concern about the quality of prehospital care. Overall, we found low to modest knowledge of CVD risk factors and AMI symptoms, infrequent CPR training and little understanding of AEDs. Interventions will need to focus on basic principles of CVD and its complications in order for patients to receive timely and appropriate care for acute cardiac events. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. International Heliophysical Year 2007: A Report from the UN/NASA Workshop Bangalore, India, 27 November 1 December 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila, Joe; Gopalswamy, Nat; Thompson, Barbara; Haubold, Hans J.

    2008-10-01

    The IHY Secretariat and the United Nations Basic Space Science Initiative (UNBSSI) assist scientists and engineers from all over the world in participating in the International Heliophysical Year (IHY) 2007. A major thrust of IHY/UNBSSI is to deploy arrays of small, inexpensive instruments such as magnetometers, radio telescopes, GPS receivers, all-sky cameras, etc. around the world to allow global measurements of ionospheric and heliospheric phenomena. The small instrument programme is envisioned as a partnership between instrument providers and instrument hosts in developing nations. The IHY/UNBSSI can facilitate the deployment of several of these networks world-wide. Existing data bases and relevant software tools will be identified to promote space science activities in developing nations. Extensive data on space science have been accumulated by a number of space missions. Similarly, long-term data bases are available from ground-based observations. These data can be utilized in ways different from originally intended for understanding the heliophysical processes. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of IHY/UNBSSI, its achievements, future plans, and outreach to the 192 Member States of the United Nations as recorded in the UN/NASA workshop in India.

  15. What can dissaving tell us about catastrophic costs? Linear and logistic regression analysis of the relationship between patient costs and financial coping strategies adopted by tuberculosis patients in Bangladesh, Tanzania and Bangalore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Jason; Lönnroth, Knut; Laokri, Samia; Squire, Stephen Bertel

    2015-10-22

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a major global public health problem which affects poorest individuals the worst. A high proportion of patients incur 'catastrophic costs' which have been shown to result in severe financial hardship and adverse health outcomes. Data on catastrophic cost incidence is not routinely collected, and current definitions of this indicator involve several practical and conceptual barriers to doing so. We analysed data from TB programmes in India (Bangalore), Bangladesh and Tanzania to determine whether dissaving (the sale of assets or uptake of loans) is a useful indicator of financial hardship. Data were obtained from prior studies of TB patient costs in Bangladesh (N = 96), Tanzania (N = 94) and Bangalore (N = 891). These data were analysed using logistic and linear multivariate regression to determine the association between costs (absolute and relative to income) and both the presence of dissaving and the amounts dissaved. After adjusting for covariates such as age, sex and rural/urban location, we found a significant positive association between the occurrence of dissaving and total costs incurred in Tanzania and Bangalore. We further found that, for patients in Bangalore an increase in dissaving of $10 USD was associated with an increase in the cost-income ratio of 0.10 (p total costs of $7 USD (p costs that does not require usage of complex patient cost questionnaires. It also offers an informative indicator of financial hardship in its own right, and could therefore play an important role as an indicator to monitor and evaluate the impact of financial protection and service delivery interventions in reducing hardship and facilitating universal health coverage. Further research is required to understand the patterns and types of dissaving that have the strongest relationship with financial hardship and clinical outcomes in order to move toward evidence-based policy making.

  16. Planned Cities in India. Occasional Papers No. 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sealey, Neil E.

    Intended for college teachers of geography, especially those teaching about developing countries, this publication contains background information about urban conditions in India. Historical and contemporary accounts of urban planning are provided for three Indian cities. The city of Jaipur was built by a maharaja in the 18th century, long before…

  17. Diurnal and seasonal variation of mixing ratio and δ¹³C of air CO₂ observed at an urban station Bangalore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Tania; Ghosh, Prosenjit

    2015-02-01

    We present here observations on diurnal and seasonal variation of mixing ratio and δ(13)C of air CO2, from an urban station-Bangalore (BLR), India, monitored between October 2008 and December 2011. On a diurnal scale, higher mixing ratio with depleted δ(13)C of air CO2 was found for the samples collected during early morning compared to the samples collected during late afternoon. On a seasonal scale, mixing ratio was found to be higher for dry summer months (April-May) and lower for southwest monsoon months (June-July). The maximum enrichment in δ(13)C of air CO2 (-8.04 ± 0.02‰) was seen in October, then δ(13)C started depleting and maximum depletion (-9.31 ± 0.07‰) was observed during dry summer months. Immediately after that an increasing trend in δ(13)C was monitored coincidental with the advancement of southwest monsoon months and maximum enrichment was seen again in October. Although a similar pattern in seasonal variation was observed for the three consecutive years, the dry summer months of 2011 captured distinctly lower amplitude in both the mixing ratio and δ(13)C of air CO2 compared to the dry summer months of 2009 and 2010. This was explained with reduced biomass burning and increased productivity associated with prominent La Nina condition. While compared with the observations from the nearest coastal and open ocean stations-Cabo de Rama (CRI) and Seychelles (SEY), BLR being located within an urban region captured higher amplitude of seasonal variation. The average δ(13)C value of the end member source CO2 was identified based on both diurnal and seasonal scale variation. The δ(13)C value of source CO2 (-24.9 ± 3‰) determined based on diurnal variation was found to differ drastically from the source value (-14.6 ± 0.7‰) identified based on seasonal scale variation. The source CO2 identified based on diurnal variation incorporated both early morning and late afternoon sample; whereas, the source CO2 identified based

  18. Seismic microzonation of Bangalore, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    using both standard penetration test (SPT) data and shear wave velocity data from multichannel analysis of surface wave ... Seismic hazard; site characterization; SPT; MASW; ground response analysis; liquefactions; Microzonation. J. Earth Syst. Sci. ...... defined as the frequency of vibration correspon- ding to the maximum ...

  19. India: When cities expand too rapidly | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    13 mai 2016 ... With more than 1.2 billion inhabitants, the population of India is continually growing, and it's transforming the country as a result. “The climate ... India: When cities expand too rapidly ... Avec plus de 1,2 milliard d'habitants, la population de l'Inde ne cesse de croître et, par le fait même, de transformer le pays.

  20. Trends of particulate matter in four cities in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Indrani; Kumar, Rakesh

    Particulate matter (PM) in all the four Metropolitan cities in India are higher than the prescribed standards of Central Pollution Control Board, India as well as WHO guidelines. Over last 10 years various changes in fuel quality, vehicle technologies, industrial fuel mix and domestic fuel mix have taken place resulting in changes in air quality in these cities. A set of time series analysis methods viz. t-test adjusted for seasonality, Seasonal Kendall test and Intervention analysis have been applied to identify and estimate the trend in PM 10 and total suspended particles (TSP) levels monitored for about 10 years at three monitoring sites at each of the four cities in India. These tests have indicated that overall PM 10 levels in all four metro cities have been decreasing or stationary. The distinct trends for the monthly averages of PM 10 concentrations at Parel, Kalbadevi in Mumbai and Thiruvattiyar in Chennai for the period 1993-2003 were declining by 10%, 6% and 5% per annum, respectively. This is ascribed to a shift in the magnitude and spatial distribution of emissions in the city. However, the monthly averages of TSP do not have a clear trend over the period 1991-2003.

  1. Measuring Compact Urban Form: A Case of Nagpur City, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajashree Kotharkar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The compact city concept is adopted in city planning policies of many developed countries for the following benefits: efficient use of land while curtailing sprawl, reduction in transport network and reliance on mass transport, a socially interactive environment with vibrancy of activities, economic viability, etc. However, it is still debated whether the cities in developing countries like India, which are already dense, will really benefit from the compact city form. Measuring urban form and compactness of these cities becomes more important for understanding the spatial urban structure to intervene accordingly for sustainable urban development. This paper explores various parameters and dimensions of measurement of compactness. Urban form characteristics and their indicators are derived for the study of Nagpur city, India. This study is an attempt to measure the urban form to derive the benefits of compactness. The study indicates that Nagpur city, inherently has a compact form, but may disperse in near future; and there is a need to implement policies to retain its compact character to achieve sustainable urban development.

  2. Indian Academy of Sciences, Bangalore Indian National Science ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    2012-09-28

    Sep 28, 2012 ... FORMAT FOR LETTER OF RECOMMENDATION (to be typed on a separate sheet). Indian Academy of Sciences, Bangalore. Indian National Science Academy, New Delhi. The National Academy of Sciences, India, Allahabad. Summer Research Fellowships 2013. TO BE USED ONLY FOR STUDENT ...

  3. Socio-Demographic Correlates of Subjective Well-Being in Urban India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Jyotsna; Murthy, Pratima; Philip, Mariamma; Mehrotra, Seema; Thennarasu, K.; John, John P.; Girish, N.; Thippeswamy, V.; Isaac, Mohan

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to explore subjective well-being (SWB) in an urban Indian sample. Adults (n = 1099) belonging to two wards in the city of Bangalore in South India, responded to a study-specific questionnaire. This paper is based on data generated as part of an ongoing larger study looking at correlates of SWB. Almost equal number of men and women…

  4. 75 FR 62916 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “India's Fabled City: The...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``India's Fabled City: The Art of... ``India's Fabled City: The Art of Courtly Lucknow,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within...

  5. Effectiveness of self instructional module on awareness about prevention and transmission of HIV/AIDS among bachelor level management students in selected colleges at Bangalore, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara Ramtel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background HIV/AIDS is posing the most alarming public health challenges in worldwide. Based on research studies showed that school, pre‐university and university level students are not fully aware of the mode of transmissions, risk behaviour, attitudes, beliefs and prevention of HIV/AIDS. College students should be aware on the basic information, prevention and transmission of HIV/AIDS so that they can perceive themselves as having a personal responsibility for maintaining healthy life. Objectives This study was undertaken to evaluate the Effectiveness of Self Instructional Module on Knowledge regarding prevention and transmission of HIV/AIDS among bachelor level of management students. Methods Pre experimental research design was done. The samples were 100 bachelor level management students of selected colleges at Bangalore. A purposive sampling technique was used to select the samples for the study. A structured knowledge questionnaire was used to collect the data from the participants. The data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics and interpreted in terms of objectives and hypothesis of the study. The level of significance was set at 0.05 levels. Results The mean pre‐test knowledge score was 41.8% (SD of ± 10.9 whereas the mean post‐test knowledge score was 84.2% (SD of ±8.2. A significant difference was found between mean pre‐test and post‐test knowledge scores (‘t’ = 39.35, p< 0.05. A significant association was found between age, gender, marital status, stream of education, place of origin, educational level of parents and the source of information received on prevention and transmission HIV/AIDS (χ2 = 5.18, 3.87, 7.68, 7.31, 7.53, 8.67, 7.84 at p< 0.05. Conclusion The samples had inadequate knowledge regarding all the aspects of prevention and transmission of HIV/AIDS. The study finding indicates that Self‐Instructional Module was effective in enhancing the knowledge of bachelor level management

  6. Higher Education in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Roddam Narasimha1 2. Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India. Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Bangalore 560 012, India. Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Current Issue : Vol. 22, Issue 12. Current Issue Volume 22 | Issue 12. December 2017. Home · Volumes & Issues ...

  7. Indoor air quality due to secondhand smoke: Signals from selected hospitality locations in rural and urban areas of Bangalore and Dharwad districts in Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travers, Mark J; Nayak, Nayanatara S; Annigeri, Vinod B; Billava, N Narayan

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco smoke has compounds that are known as human carcinogens. With every breath of secondhand smoke we inhale thousands of chemicals. The Government of India in the interest of public health has enacted the Cigarette and Other Tobacco Products Act (COTPA), 2003, which bans smoking in all the public places including hotels and restaurants. The purpose of this study was to observe and record air pollution in smoke free and smoke observed locations and thereby find out whether the owners/managers of hotels, restaurants, and bars comply with rules of COTPA. The objectives of the study were to measure and compare the level of particulate air pollution from secondhand smoke (PM2.5) in smoking and nonsmoking venues. The study was conducted from September 2009 to March 2010 in Karnataka, India following a nonrandom sample of 79 locations, which included restaurants, bars, cafes, hotels, and tea stalls in two districts. The concentration of PM2.5 was measured using a TSI SidePak AM510 Personal Aerosol Monitor. In Karnataka out of the 79 hospitality locations, smoking was observed in 58% places and only 28% had displayed the required "No Smoking" signage. Places where indoor smoking was observed had high levels of air pollution with average 135 PM2.5, which were 3.1 times higher than the average 43 PM2.5 in smoke-free locations and 14 times higher than the World Health Organization (WHO) target air quality guideline for PM2.5. The average PM2.5 levels in different locations ranged from 11 to 417 μg/m(3) and was lower in the case of apparently compliant designated smoking area (DSR). The patrons and the workers in the hospitality sector continue to be exposed to secondhand smoke despite the enactment of COTPA, which bans smoking in public places. This situation demands stringent measures for effective implementation of the Smoke Free Act and negative response to smoking among civil society.

  8. India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semaan, Leslie; Lightman, Kathleen

    Not only is India one of the oldest continuous civilizations in the world, it has also become one of the greatest industrial nations. This package explores India's heritage, its people, and the traumatic changes of the 20th century. Contents include: Introduction, Climate, The Land, Cities, Agriculture, Rural Life, History, Religions, Dress, Food,…

  9. Determinants of Urbanization in Different Size/Class Distribution of Cities/Towns in India

    OpenAIRE

    Rani, Chetana; Tripathi, Sabyasachi

    2016-01-01

    While there are several studies that have investigated the determinants of urbanization in India by considering all the cities/towns together or only large cities, this paper tries to investigate it by considering different class/size of cities of major states separately. For the analysis we use OLS regression model by considering latest Census data in 2011. Urbanization is conventionally measured by size/growth/density of city population. On the other hand, this study considers environment...

  10. Study of electromagnetic radiation pollution in Jalandhar city, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basandrai, D.; Dhami, A. K.; Bedi, R. K.; Khan, S. A.

    2017-07-01

    Environment pollution from electromagnetic radiations emitted from cell phone towers is a new kind of health hazard, which has increase the public concern regarding the health implications of electromagnetic radiations on humans and animals. Long term consequences of these radiations are still unknown. So it become important to measure and maps the electromagnetic radiation level to analyze potential risk. The present study has been taken to estimate the RF pollution by measuring radiation power densities level near school, hospitals and old age home of Jalandhar City, India. The radiation exposure was measured using a handheld portable electrosmog meter. Results were compared with the safety guidelines issued by ICNIRP (International commission on non ionizing radiation protection) and Bio-initiative report, 2012. It has been found that the radiation exposure level in terms of power densities and corresponding specific absorption rate (SAR) are much below than ICNIRP guidelines for all schools, hospitals and old age home. But in the case of 3 schools, the results are quite alarming where the power density and SAR was found to be 79.6% and 4%, respectively higher in comparisons with safe biological limit.

  11. Oral findings of Down syndrome children in Chennai city, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asokan Sharath

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To assess the common oral findings and anomalies of Down syndrome (DS children in Chennai city, India. Materials and Methods: Among the 130 DS children examined, 102 children aged 15 years and below were included in the study. There were 57 male children and 45 female children in the total study sample. A specially prepared case record was used to record the following findings in each child: a brief family and personal history; anomalies of soft tissues, teeth, occlusion, and temporomandibular joint. Age wise and sex wise comparisons of the findings were done. Results: About 97 children (95% had the habit of regular tooth brushing. Everted lower lip (66%, retained primary teeth (31%, and midface deficiency (76% were the most commonly seen soft tissue, dental, and occlusion anomalies, respectively. Conclusions: Midface deficiency was the most common orofacial anomaly seen in these children, followed by everted lower lip and retained primary teeth. Almost all the children had a regular tooth brushing habit. All the children examined were offered free dental treatment in our dental college.

  12. India: When cities expand too rapidly | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-05-13

    May 13, 2016 ... Residents of the suburb of Gwaltoli, Uttar Pradesh state, India. Bouchra Ouatik. With more than 1.2 billion inhabitants, the population of India is continually growing, and it's transforming the country as a result. “The climate is not the only thing changing here. Everything changes!” says Veena Srinivasan ...

  13. Dental Sealants: Knowledge, Value, Opinion, and Practice among Dental Professionals of Bathinda City, India

    OpenAIRE

    Asawa, Kailash; Gupta, Vivek V.; Tak, Mridula; Nagarajappa, Ramesh; Chaturvedi, Pulkit; Bapat, Salil; Mishra, Prashant; Roy, Santanu Sen

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of the study was to assess the knowledge, value, opinion, and practice regarding use of dental sealants among private dental practitioners in Bathinda City, Punjab, India. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among all private dental practitioners in Bathinda City, Punjab. A self-administered structured questionnaire consisting of 28 items was used to assess their knowledge, value, opinion, and practice regarding dental sealants. One-way analysi...

  14. Family Planning Use among Urban Poor Women from Six Cities of Uttar Pradesh, India

    OpenAIRE

    Speizer, Ilene S.; Nanda, Priya; Achyut, Pranita; Pillai, Gita; Guilkey, David K.

    2012-01-01

    Family planning has widespread positive impacts for population health and well-being; contraceptive use not only decreases unintended pregnancies and reduces infant and maternal mortality and morbidity, but it is critical to the achievement of Millennium Development Goals. This study uses baseline, representative data from six cities in Uttar Pradesh, India to examine family planning use among the urban poor. Data were collected from about 3,000 currently married women in each city (Allahabad...

  15. Metropolitan City Finances in India: Options for A New Fiscal Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Roy Bahl

    2012-01-01

    India will face great problems in finding a way to finance public services in its large cities in the next two decades. Backlogs in service levels and infrastructure are already great, and migration to urban areas will put even more pressure on state and local government budgets. Metropolitan cities have an economic base of significant size, but have not been empowered to tap this revenue potential. State governments have more ability to reach a buoyant tax base, and to borrow, but must also ...

  16. Measuring urban sprawl of Srinagar city, Jammu and Kashmir, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahoor A. Nengroo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization, as such, is not perceived as a threat to the environment and development but it is unplanned urban sprawl that affects the accessibility to amenities and land-use of any region. It is thus imperative to study and bring out the intricacies and implications associated with the problem of unplanned urban growth ensuing into sprawl. The methods used to measure the sprawl of Srinagar City are modified versions of SCATTER (The Sprawling Cities And Transport: from Evaluation to Recommendations and Cost of Sprawl: 2000 TRB (Transport Research Bureau, US. The analysis reveals that the largest urban center in the fragile ecology of Himalayas has haphazardly grown during the last forty years which has resulted in disproportionate distribution of various civic amenities, socio economic and environmental variables. This phenomenon of urban sprawl in Srinagar City has been observed as a threat to achieving sustainable urbanization.

  17. GEOSPATIAL INFORMATION FROM SATELLITE IMAGERY FOR GEOVISUALISATION OF SMART CITIES IN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mohan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the recent past, there have been large emphasis on extraction of geospatial information from satellite imagery. The Geospatial information are being processed through geospatial technologies which are playing important roles in developing of smart cities, particularly in developing countries of the world like India. The study is based on the latest geospatial satellite imagery available for the multi-date, multi-stage, multi-sensor, and multi-resolution. In addition to this, the latest geospatial technologies have been used for digital image processing of remote sensing satellite imagery and the latest geographic information systems as 3-D GeoVisualisation, geospatial digital mapping and geospatial analysis for developing of smart cities in India. The Geospatial information obtained from RS and GPS systems have complex structure involving space, time and presentation. Such information helps in 3-Dimensional digital modelling for smart cities which involves of spatial and non-spatial information integration for geographic visualisation of smart cites in context to the real world. In other words, the geospatial database provides platform for the information visualisation which is also known as geovisualisation. So, as a result there have been an increasing research interest which are being directed to geospatial analysis, digital mapping, geovisualisation, monitoring and developing of smart cities using geospatial technologies. However, the present research has made an attempt for development of cities in real world scenario particulary to help local, regional and state level planners and policy makers to better understand and address issues attributed to cities using the geospatial information from satellite imagery for geovisualisation of Smart Cities in emerging and developing country, India.

  18. URBAN SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT OF GUWAHATI CITY IN NORTH-EAST INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Prasanta Kumar Pradhan; C. R. Mohanty; A. K. Swar; P. Mohapatra

    2012-01-01

    In recent years municipal solid waste (MSW) management has been one of the most environmental concerns for all urban areas of India. Most of the urban centers have neither adequate land nor any facility for MSW disposal. In view of scarcity of lands for making landfill sites, solid wastes can be used for energy recovery resulting in volume reduction, thus requires less area for its disposal. Guwahati is one such city of North-East India, having the potential to recover the energy from solid ...

  19. Knowledge, attitude, and practices in research among postgraduate students in dental institutions in Bengaluru City, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitya Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Research is not a separate specialty which is practiced by a few, but it is a systematic approach of reasoning, documenting, analyzing, and reporting unusual clinical observations that we come across in everyday clinical practice. This study was conducted to assess research-related knowledge, attitude, and practices among postgraduate students in dental institutions in Bangalore city. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a structured and validated questionnaire. A sample size of 210 postgraduate students was determined. Study was conducted among 2 nd and 3 rd year postgraduate students in 4 randomly selected dental institutions. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square test, and Student′s t-test were used to analyze the data. Results: The average percentage of correct responses was 56.7% and 52.6% in 3 rd year and 2 nd year postgraduate students, respectively. Overall, positive attitude was seen in both the groups and was significantly more in 3 rd years in relation to improvement of patient outcome with research and importance of research training during the post graduate course. Research in practice was carried out by 56.9% and 36% of 3 rd and 2 nd year postgraduate students, respectively. The most common obstacle stated for research was the lack of adequate financial and technical facilities for research. Conclusion: The study revealed fair knowledge and a positive attitude toward research but postgraduates failed to transform it into actual practice.

  20. The Socio-hydrology of Bangalore's Lake System and implications for Urban Water Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, V.; Roy, S.

    2017-12-01

    Bengaluru city has experienced unprecedented growth in recent decades. If the city is to sustain growth and claim its position as a "global" high-tech city, it must be able to secure sufficient water supply and also create a healthy livable environment. With the city's many lakes vanishing due to rapid urbanisation, depletion of groundwater as a result of overuse in the peri-urban areas, and lack of proper underground drainage system and sewage treatment plants, Bangalore is now grappling with issues of imminent water crisis, inequitable access to water supply, and public health hazards. In this context, the restoration of Bangalore's lakes has been promoted as a panacea for its flooding, water stress, and wastewater problems. It has been argued that lakes can store storm water and recycled wastewater and avoid the need for potentially destructive, expensive schemes that may destroy biodiversity rich aquatic ecosystems and forests. Bangalore's lakes are linked by the drainage channels to form a cascade; overflow from each lake flows to the next lake downstream. Yet, most efforts have tended to view the lakes in isolation. This study of the hydrology of Bangalore's lake system in its entirety simulates the lake system as a whole. The study explores approaches to management and theor impact on urban water security.

  1. Tobacco sales and marketing within 100 yards of schools in Ahmedabad City, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elf, J L; Modi, B; Stillman, F; Dave, P; Apelberg, B

    2013-05-01

    The Government of India passed the Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products (Prohibition of Advertisement and Regulation of Trade and Commerce, Production, Supply and Distribution) Act, 2003 (COPTA 2003), which prohibits the sale of tobacco products within 100 yards of educational institutions and regulates tobacco advertising. The aim of this research was to monitor compliance with the section of COPTA 2003 regarding the advertisement, display and sale of tobacco products around educational institutions in Ahmedabad City, India. Observational study around 30 randomly selected schools. In March 2010, an observational study was conducted to assess compliance with COPTA 2003 in Ahmedabad City, India. All vendors within a 100-yard radius of 30 randomly selected schools were identified. At locations where tobacco was sold, information was collected regarding type of product sold, sale of tobacco in single units and advertising. Twenty public schools and 10 private schools were sampled. Of these, 87% [n = 26, 95% confidence interval (CI) 69-95%] had tobacco sales within 100 yards of their entrance. Of the 771 vendors observed, 24% (n = 185, 95% CI 18-32%) sold tobacco products. Tobacco advertising in violation of the law was found around 57% of schools (n = 17, 95% CI 39-73%), product displays around 83% of schools (n = 25, 95% CI 65-93%) and single sales around 70% of schools (n = 21, 95% CI 51-84%). Violation of the sections of COPTA 2003 regarding sale of tobacco products around educational institutions and advertising in general is widespread in Ahmedabad City, India. Effective enforcement of the existing law is necessary to protect the children in India from widespread exposure to the sale and marketing of tobacco products. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. All rights reserved.

  2. Vegetation in Bangalore's Slums: Composition, Species Distribution, Density, Diversity, and History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, Divya; Nagendra, Harini; Manthey, Michael

    2015-06-01

    There is widespread acknowledgement of the need for biodiversity and greening to be part of urban sustainability efforts. Yet we know little about greenery in the context of urban poverty, particularly in slums, which constitute a significant challenge for inclusive development in many rapidly growing cities. We assessed the composition, density, diversity, and species distribution of vegetation in 44 slums of Bangalore, India, comparing these to published studies on vegetation diversity in other land-use categories. Most trees were native to the region, as compared to other land-use categories such as parks and streets which are dominated by introduced species. Of the most frequently encountered tree species, Moringa oleifera and Cocos nucifera are important for food, while Ficus religiosa plays a critical cultural and religious role. Tree density and diversity were much lower in slums compared to richer residential neighborhoods. There are also differences in species preferences, with most plant (herb, shrub and vines) species in slums having economic, food, medicinal, or cultural use, while the species planted in richer residential areas are largely ornamental. Historic development has had an impact on species distribution, with older slums having larger sized tree species, while recent slums were dominated by smaller sized tree species with greater economic and food use. Extensive focus on planting trees and plant species with utility value is required in these congested neighborhoods, to provide livelihood support.

  3. INDIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES BANGALORE

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Other speakers covered human prehistory, cultures and migrations in India from the archaeological ... 'Supercooled liquids' by Shankar Das to 'Human papillomavirus' by MR Pillai. Thanks to the untiring efforts ..... Topics covered: Genetic engineering of rice, genomics and proteomics of plant viruses, molecular markers and ...

  4. Hospital waste management in nonteaching hospitals of Lucknow City, India

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    Manish Kumar Manar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess hospital waste management in nonteaching hospitals of Lucknow city. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted on the staffs of nonteaching hospitals of Lucknow from September 2012 to March 2013. A total of eight hospitals were chosen as the study sample size. Simple random sampling technique was used for the selection of the nonteaching hospitals. A pre-structured and pre-tested interview questionnaire was used to collect necessary information regarding the hospitals and biomedical waste (BMW management of the hospitals. The general information about the selected hospitals/employees of the hospitals was collected. Results: Mean hospital waste generated in the eight nonteaching hospitals of Lucknow was 0.56 kg/bed/day. About 50.5% of the hospitals did not have BMW department and colored dustbins. In 37.5% of the hospitals, there were no BMW records and segregation at source. Incinerator was used only by hospital A for treatment of BMW. Hospital G and hospital H had no facilities for BMW treatment. Conclusion: There is a need for appropriate training of staffs, strict implementation of rules, and continuous surveillance of the hospitals of Lucknow to improve the BMW management and handling practices.

  5. Occupational stress among police personnel of Wardha city, India

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    Selokar D

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPolice work tends to impose a high degree of stress and amultiplicity of stressful situations which can affect thephysical, mental and interpersonal relationships of policepersonnel. The objective of the present study was to assessthe level of stress among police personnel and to find theassociation of various factors with the level of stress amongpolice personnel.MethodA cross-sectional study was conducted among 102 policepersonnel in Wardha city. A structured questionnaire basedon The Professional Life Stress Test by Fontana was given toall participants. A grading scale was used to linkparticipant’s verbal descriptions of perceived stress to anumerical scoring system being given scores between zeroand five. The total score obtained for each respondent wasconsidered as a measure of stress level.ResultsDifferent stressors that were identified among the policepersonnel included criticism by superiors, excess work, norewards, inadequate value given to abilities andcommitments and no satisfaction from work. Seventyparticipants scored >15 which indicated that stress in theworkplace was a problem, while 32 participants scored ≤15,indicating stress in the workplace was not a problem. Asignificant association was found with between age group,marital status, education and working hours and the level ofstress among police personnel.ConclusionThe majority of police personnel studied were under stressat their workplace due to a variety of stressors. Thisindicates the necessity to modify the organizationalenvironment within the police force.

  6. Urban Environmental Stress and Behavioral Adaptation in Bhopal City of India

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    Parul Rishi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed the effect of the urban environmental stress on the subjective well-being of the people in Bhopal city of India. The objectives were to assess the perceived urban environmental stressors and to explore the coping strategies adopted by the people to combat the outcomes of Urban Environmental Stress. Perceived Urban Environmental stressors’ Scale (UES and Urban Hassle Index were administered. The findings indicated that though people described their city as pleasant, a high level of stress was still perceived and its major reasons were found to be noise, waste accumulation, polluted air with smoke, and unhealthy environment in slums. The outcome of research suggests that the city planners should give equal priority to the natural resources and environment by various pollution management interventions and proper city planning. It is crucial for the well-being of the human beings to lower down the effect of stressors, so that the life in the city can be livable and of good quality. This paper provided guidelines for other metropolitan cities too for developing Environmental Competence and for generating mass awareness about the Urban Environmental Stress and its possible management options to help people develop Environmental Resilience and functional coping.

  7. Of Linear Colliders, the GDE Workshop at Bangalore, Mughals, Camels, Elephants and Sundials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loew, Greg

    2006-04-17

    In this colloquium, the speaker will give a summary of the recent International Linear Collider (ILC) Global Design Effort (GDE) Workshop at Bangalore and how the High Energy Physics community converged to this meeting after many years of electron-positron linear collider design and experimental work. Given that this workshop for the first time took place in India, the speaker will also show a few pictures and talk briefly about what he learned in that fascinating country.

  8. Connecting High School and University Teachers in National and International Contexts: Perspectives from the 2012 Bangalore Workshop of the AAG-CGGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Pratyusha; Pawson, Eric; Akhter, Majed; Palmer, David; Mervine, Valerie M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the Center for Global Geography Education teaching workshop held in Bangalore, India, in March 2012 which served as a collaborative forum linking geography teachers in secondary and higher education in the USA and India. It considers the inclusion of the Advanced Placement Human Geography teachers from the USA and the…

  9. Stakeholders Behaviour towards Clean India Mission's New Municipal Solid Waste Collection System in Chandrapur City, Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Kamble

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to analyze behavioural pattern of stakeholders–inhabitants of Chandrapur city as well as employees of Chandrapur Municipal Corporation (CMC–towards the "Clean India Mission" scheme as compared with previous scheme of women’s self help group. For behavioural change analysis field survey was carried out in October 2015 in Chandrapur city. Total 41 respondent including inhabitants and employees of CMC were interviewed. The results of the study shows that, previously municipal solid waste (MSW collection was irregular (41.66% however, since the implementation of this new scheme it has become regular (100%. Enhanced MSW collection frequency was observed (once a day, 83.33% with alternative staff arrangement in case of staff is absent. The work was monitored by officials (79% which were previously not existing. In previous scheme, extra money was charged for collection of MSW, however no such charges are levied in this new scheme. Satisfaction rate of this new scheme was 95.83% among inhabitants. As reported by MSW collection employees, there was awareness among inhabitants about dry and wet waste (41.17%. The employees were satisfied with the scheme (94.11% as there is improved and timely salary with a job guaranty.INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTVolume-5, Issue-4, Sep-Nov 2016, page: 32-43

  10. Radon mass exhalation rate in soil samples at South Bengaluru city, Karnataka, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poojitha, C.G.; Pranesha, T.S.; Ganesh, K.E.; Sahoo, B.K.; Sapra, B.K.

    2017-01-01

    Radon mass exhalation rate in soil samples collected from different locations of South Bengaluru city were measured using scintillation based Smart radon thoron monitor (RnDuo). It has been observed that the mass exhalation rate estimated due to presence of radon concentration in soil samples ranges from 39.18 - 265.58 mBq/kg/h with an average value of 115.64 mBq/kg/h. Finally we compare our results with similar investigation from different parts of India. (author)

  11. Impact of Urban Growth and Urbanization on the Environmental Degradation of Lakes in Hyderabad City, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandan, M. J.; Sen, M. K.; Harini, P.; Sekhar, B. M.; Balaji, T.

    2013-12-01

    Lakes are a vital part of urban ecosystems which perform important ecological and environmental functions to safeguard local climate, groundwater and habitat. The incessant population growth coupled with low urban planning is causing severe damage to urban ecosystems throughout the world. Hyderabad is one of the largest growing metropolitan cities of India covering an area of 65000 ha situated on the banks of Musi River in the northern part of the Deccan Plateau. The city had a population of 1.25 million in 1961 which increased to 6.8 million in 2011 with a metropolitan population of 7.75 million, making it India's fourth most populous city and sixth most populous urban agglomeration. Hyderabad is popularly known as 'City of Lakes' which occupies the top position in India in terms of Urban Lakes. In 20th century, the number of lakes were around 925 which are now reduced to 521 and most of these lakes are facing extinction. The water spread area of these lakes has been considerably reduced due to steady urban growth and the carrying capacity and ecological status of these urban lakes are in real danger. Many of these lakes have shrunk in size while the waters of several lakes got polluted with the discharge of untreated domestic and industrial effluents. Taking into consideration the environmental degradation of urban lakes, an attempt was made to study the current status, loss of water bodies and water spread using remote sensing and GIS techniques. Time-series satellite images of MSS, IRS and RESOURCESAT and Survey of India maps of 1:50,000 and 1:25,000 were used for this study. Analysis of these together with other data sets was accomplished through integrated use of ERDAS Imagine Arc view and ArcGIS software packages. It is estimated that there were 925 lakes in 1982 in erstwhile Hyderabad Urban Development Authority (HUDA) area which came down to 521 in 2012. A total number of 404 lakes disappeared during the last 30 years period. Consequently the water spread

  12. Effect of urbanization on lightning over four metropolitan cities of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, D. M.; Pawar, S. D.

    2011-01-01

    In the recent years the effect of urbanization on local convections and lightning has been studied very extensively. Here we have analyzed the last 8 years (from 2001 to 2008) data of total lightning, Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) and rainfall over two inland and two coastal metropolitan cities of India, to study the effect of urbanization on lightning. The lightning and rainfall data are taken from TRMM satellite and AOD data is taken from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the Terra (EOS AM) and Aqua (EOS PM) satellites. Our analysis shows that both the inland cities show considerable enhancement, where as both the coastal cities do not show enhancement in lightning, in the last 8 years. The results show that, over a inland city, where aerosol concentration is not increased appreciably in last few years the enhancement in convective activity and lightning is controlled by thermodynamic effect, where as, where aerosol concentration show increasing trend, aerosols play major roll in enhancement in lightning activity. It has been also found that over a city where aerosol concentration show increasing trend, lightning show a sharp increase due to combined positive effect of thermodynamics and aerosols, however rainfall show only small increase because of negative effect of aerosols on rainfall. The analysis of lightning, aerosols and rainfall over coastal cities do not show any increasing trend in rainfall and lightning activity which suggest that during premonsoon period all these parameters are controlled by large scale processes and therefore heat island effect or aerosol effect are not observed in both the coastal cities.

  13. Impact of urbanization on the groundwater regime in a fast growing city in central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Pradeep K; Tambe, Jivesh A; Dehury, Biranchi N; Tiwari, Arun N

    2008-11-01

    This paper describes the impact of urbanization on the groundwater regime in a fast growing city, Solapur, in central India, giving special emphasis on the management of the present and ultimate demand of water in 2,020 AD. The objective is to apprise the city planners and administrators of the effects of urbanization on the groundwater regime in a fast growing medium-sized city in a developing country where the infrastructure developments are not in conformity with the rapid growth in population. Solapur city with an area of 178.57 km2 receives a recharge of about 24 million m3 of groundwater from various sources annually. Reduction in recharge, as conventionally assumed due to the impact of urbanization, could not, however, be well established. Instead, there was a rise in recharge as water use in the city grew from time to time and more and more water was supplied to satisfy the human needs. Compared to mid-1970s, groundwater levels have increased within the main city area due to increased recharge and decreased groundwater abstraction. However, outside the main city area, there is a general decline in groundwater levels due to increased groundwater utilization for irrigation purposes. Groundwater quality deterioration has been highly localized. Water quality has deteriorated during the last 10 years, especially in dugwells, mainly due to misuse and disuse of these structures and poor circulation of groundwater. However, in case of borewells, comparison of the present water quality with that in mid-1970s and early 1980s does not show any perceptible change. Deeper groundwater tapped by borewells can still be used for drinking purposes with caution.

  14. Prevalence of β-thalassemia and other haemoglobinopathies in six cities in India: a multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, D; Colah, R B; Gorakshakar, A C; Patel, R Z; Master, D C; Mahanta, J; Sharma, S K; Chaudhari, U; Ghosh, M; Das, S; Britt, R P; Singh, S; Ross, C; Jagannathan, L; Kaul, R; Shukla, D K; Muthuswamy, V

    2013-01-01

    The population of India is extremely diverse comprising of more than 3,000 ethnic groups who still follow endogamy. Haemoglobinopathies are the commonest hereditary disorders in India and pose a major health problem. The data on the prevalence of β-thalassemias and other haemoglobinopathies in different caste/ethnic groups of India is scarce. Therefore the present multicentre study was undertaken in six cities of six states of India (Maharashtra, Gujarat, West Bengal, Assam, Karnataka and Punjab) to determine the prevalence of haemoglobinopathies in different caste/ethnic groups using uniform methodology. Fifty-six thousand seven hundred eighty individuals (college students and pregnant women) from different caste/ethnic groups were screened. RBC indices were measured on an automated haematology counter while the percentage of HbA(2), HbF and other abnormal Hb variants were estimated by HPLC on the Variant Hemoglobin Testing System. The overall prevalence of β-thalassemia trait was 2.78 % and varied from 1.48 to 3.64 % in different states, while the prevalence of β-thalassemia trait in 59 ethnic groups varied from 0 to 9.3 %. HbE trait was mainly seen in Dibrugarh in Assam (23.9 %) and Kolkata in West Bengal (3.92 %). In six ethnic groups from Assam, the prevalence of HbE trait varied from 41.1 to 66.7 %. Few subjects with δβ-thalassemia, HPFH, HbS trait, HbD trait, HbE homozygous and HbE β-thalassemia as well as HbS homozygous and HbS-β-thalassemia (India.

  15. Family planning use among urban poor women from six cities of Uttar Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speizer, Ilene S; Nanda, Priya; Achyut, Pranita; Pillai, Gita; Guilkey, David K

    2012-08-01

    Family planning has widespread positive impacts for population health and well-being; contraceptive use not only decreases unintended pregnancies and reduces infant and maternal mortality and morbidity, but it is critical to the achievement of Millennium Development Goals. This study uses baseline, representative data from six cities in Uttar Pradesh, India to examine family planning use among the urban poor. Data were collected from about 3,000 currently married women in each city (Allahabad, Agra, Varanasi, Aligarh, Gorakhpur, and Moradabad) for a total sample size of 17,643 women. Participating women were asked about their fertility desires, family planning use, and reproductive health. The survey over-sampled slum residents; this permits in-depth analyses of the urban poor and their family planning use behaviors. Bivariate and multivariate analyses are used to examine the role of wealth and education on family planning use and unmet need for family planning. Across all of the cities, about 50% of women report modern method use. Women in slum areas generally report less family planning use and among those women who use, slum women are more likely to be sterilized than to use other methods, including condoms and hormonal methods. Across all cities, there is a higher unmet need for family planning to limit childbearing than for spacing births. Poorer women are more likely to have an unmet need than richer women in both the slum and non-slum samples; this effect is attenuated when education is included in the analysis. Programs seeking to target the urban poor in Uttar Pradesh and elsewhere in India may be better served to identify the less educated women and target these women with appropriate family planning messages and methods that meet their current and future fertility desire needs.

  16. Land use patterns and urbanization in the holy city of Varanasi, India: a scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manoj; Mukherjee, Nivedita; Sharma, Gyan Prakash; Raghubanshi, A S

    2010-08-01

    Rapid urbanization and increasing land use changes due to population and economic growth in selected landscapes is being witnessed of late in India and other developing countries. The cities are expanding in all directions resulting in large-scale urban sprawl and changes in urban land use. The spatial pattern of such changes is clearly noticed on the urban fringes or city peripheral rural areas than in the city center. In fact, this is reflected in changing urban land use patterns. There is an urgent need to accurately describe land use changes for planning and sustainable management. In the recent times, remote sensing is gaining importance as vital tool in the analysis and integration of spatial data. This study intends to estimate land use pattern in a planned and unplanned urban setup and also to analyze the impact of change in land use pattern in the Varanasi urban environment. The results indicate that the planned urban setup had a higher tree cover to that of unplanned area in the Varanasi City, although a considerable disparity existed within the planned urban setups. The results emphasize the need to critically review concepts of urban planning and give more consideration to the preservation and management of urban tree cover/greenspace.

  17. Victims of stalking in India: A study of girl college students in Tirunelveli City

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    Jaishankar Karuppannan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The word 'stalking' was not commonly known in India, until Priyadharshini Mattoo's case (1996 hit the headlines. Eve teasing, a colloquial word for gender harassment is popularly known and Tamil Nadu Prohibition of Eve-Teasing Act, 1998 on that was developed after the brutal killing of a girl named Sarika Shah in Chennai. Though, stalking is there in the past, it was not acknowledged with this terminology and it was always merged with Eve teasing. On the other hand, stalking is much graver than Eve teasing and it is an obsessive behaviour. After the Matoo's case, the Indian Criminal Justice System awoke and the National Commission for Women is ready with a draft Bill (Sexual Assault Prevention Bill to make the Indian Penal Code more effective against the menace of stalkers. Research studies related to stalking in India are sparse and there is a need to study this phenomenon in depth. This paper presents some results from a study of stalking victims among Girl College students at Tirunelveli City, Tamil Nadu, India. In-depth questionnaire data are drawn on to investigate the course and nature of prolonged stalking in 150 self-defined victims. Findings indicate a pattern of repeated intrusions, the stalking harassment methods, lack of reporting behaviour, and effects of stalking on the victims.

  18. Prevalence of hypothyroidism in pregnancy: An epidemiological study from 11 cities in 9 states of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Kumar Dhanwal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A previous hospital based study from Delhi revealed a high prevalence of hypothyroidism in pregnant women. Several other studies with small sample size also indicate a rising trend of prevalence of hypothyroidism during pregnancy in India. Objective: To assess prevalence of hypothyroidism in pregnant women from various states/cities across India. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional multicenter study conducted at Allahabad (Uttar Pradesh, Bengaluru (Karnataka, Chennai (Tamil Nadu, Kolkata (West Bengal, Hyderabad (Telangana, Nasik (Maharashtra, Rohtak (Haryana, Pune (Maharashtra, New Delhi (Delhi, Srinagar (Kashmir, and Vizag (Andhra Pradesh enrolling 2599 pregnant women. Estimation of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, free T4, and antithyroid peroxidase (TPO antibodies was carried out using Roche modular kit using ECLIA technology in a central laboratory. Results: We found in our study population that 13.13% of pregnant women have hypothyroidism (n = 388, using a cutoff TSH level of 4.5 μIU/ml. This prevalence was much higher using the American Thyroid Association criteria. Anti-TPO antibodies were positive in 20.74% of all pregnant women (n = 613, whereas 40% (n = 155 of hypothyroid pregnant women were positive for anti-TPO antibodies. Conclusion: This study concludes that there is a high prevalence of hypothyroidism (13.13%, majority being subclinical in pregnant women during the first trimester from India and universal screening of hypothyroidism may be desirable in our country.

  19. Eye care infrastructure and human resources for managing diabetic retinopathy in India: The India 11-city 9-state study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare E Gilbert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a paucity of information on the availability of services for diagnosis and management of diabetic retinopathy (DR in India. Objectives: The study was undertaken to document existing healthcare infrastructure and practice patterns for managing DR. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 11 cities and included public and private eye care providers. Both multispecialty and stand-alone eye care facilities were included. Information was collected on the processes used in all steps of the program, from how diabetics were identified for screening through to policies about follow-up after treatment by administering a semistructured questionnaire and by using observational checklists. Results: A total of 86 eye units were included (31.4% multispecialty hospitals; 68.6% stand-alone clinics. The availability of a dedicated retina unit was reported by 68.6% (59 facilities. The mean number of outpatient consultations per year was 45,909 per responding facility, with nearly half being new registrations. A mean of 631 persons with sight-threatening-DR (ST-DR were registered per year per facility. The commonest treatment for ST-DR was laser photocoagulation. Only 58% of the facilities reported having a full-time retina specialist on their rolls. More than half the eye care facilities (47; 54.6% reported that their ophthalmologists would like further training in retina. Half (51.6% of the facilities stated that they needed laser or surgical equipment. About 46.5% of the hospitals had a system to track patients needing treatment or for follow-up. Conclusions: The study highlighted existing gaps in service provision at eye care facilities in India.

  20. Environmental lead levels in a coastal city of India: the lead burden continues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwanath, Prashant; Devegowda, Devananda; Prashant, Akila; Nayak, Narendra; D'souza, Vivian; Venkatesh, Thuppil; Scott, Clark

    2012-01-01

    Urbanization, rapid industrialization, increased vehicular traffic, and consequent increase in the use of petroleum fuels in India are constantly emitting lead along with other pollutants into the environment. Apart from atmospheric lead, this element is the most widely used in everyday life. Although infants and children are the most susceptible to the effects of lead, adults are also affected to varying degrees and it had ranked as one of the most serious environmental threats to human health. Hence, we must understand the benefits of preventing lead exposure as it reduces treatment costs, increases productivity in industry, and also reduces infant mortality. These are good enough reasons for a nation wide program to prevent lead poisoning. In the view of elevated blood lead levels (BLL) in majority of the school children in the city of Mangalore, we aimed to identify the potential sources of lead in the environment which would have probably caused the elevated BLL. More than 600 readings were taken throughout the city of Mangalore using X-ray fluorimeter. Our results showed that there were elevated levels of lead in the environment surrounding the battery repair shops, battery recyclers, automotive workshops, and tyre retreaders, but interestingly, the soil around the petrol bunks did not show elevated levels of lead. Among the paints, the yellow paint showed high levels of lead. Similar surveys would be useful elsewhere in India and in other developing countries in order to identify the potential sources of lead and to prevent lead poisoning.

  1. Secondhand smoke in public places: can Bangalore metropolitan transport corporation be a role model for effective implementation of Cigarette and Other Tobacco Products Act, 2003?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, N S; Annigeri, V B; Revankar, D R; Kenchaigol, S

    2010-07-01

    The Indian government enacted 'The cigarettes and other tobacco products act, 2003' (COTPA), which prohibits smoking in public places. To validate the efficacy of the Act of 2003, enacted by the Government of India, to prevent secondhand smoking in public places. The study is based on a non-random sample survey of 2,600 bus passengers carried out in the premises of three mega public road transport organizations in Karnataka state, India, in June 2007. The information was gathered through administration of structured schedules. A sample of 1,000 each for the terminus of Bangalore Metropolitan Transport Corporation (BMTC) and Karnataka State Road Transport Corporation (KSRTC) in Bangalore and, 600 for North West Karnataka Road Transport Corporation (NWKRTC) in Hubli-Dharwad city was distributed proportionately according to the number of platforms in each terminus. Simple Averages. There is some reduction in smoking in general as perceived by 69% of the passengers as compared to the scenario a year before the enactment of COTPA. The observed smoking is lower in the bus premises of BMTC where there is strict regulation, and higher in the bus premises of NWKRTC, which has not taken any regulatory measures. Knowing smoking is banned in public places can itself create awareness depending on the coverage extended by media and implementing an agency to reach the public. The implementation of an act depends on the willingness of stakeholders to act upon it. The implementation of COTPA as done by BMTC could well become a role model for replication elsewhere, if BMTC can strive harder to accomplish a 100% smoke-free zone.

  2. Urban Risk Reduction Through Effective Disaster Management Plan-A Case Study Of Shimla City Himachal Pradesh India

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    Bhavna Karki

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract By 2050 70 of the worlds population will live in urban areas. In India the urban population has increased from 217 million to 377 million in last two decades .With increasing population the associated risk and vulnerability has also increased. As cities continue to grow there is increased pressure on resources exposure of lives livelihoods and economic social and environmental assets to risk is set to increase exponentially. Recognised as one of the best cities for public services and one of the oldest Municipal Corporation in India Shimla city is situated at the traverse spur of the Central Himalayas at 31004 N to 31010 N latitude and 77005 E to 77015 E longitude at an altitude of 2397.59 m metres amsl. This paper aims at underlying the role of Shimla Municipal Corporation SMC as local government in managing disasters in the city along with effective planning and risk assessments.

  3. Recharge source identification using isotope analysis and groundwater flow modeling for Puri city in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, P. C.; Vijaya Kumar, S. V.; Rao, P. R. S.; Vijay, T.

    2017-11-01

    The holy city of Lord Jagannath is situated on the sea shore of the Bay of Bengal in Odisha state in India. Puri is a city of high religious importance and heritage value, details of the rituals, fairs, and festivals, and related aspects are covered extensively. It is found that water levels in two wells (Ganga and Yamuna) are declining and the causes are studied by undertaking modeling study of rainfall-recharge processes, surface water-groundwater interactions, and increasing demands due to urbanization at basin scale. Hydrochemical analysis of groundwater samples indicates that pH value is varying from 7 to 8.4 and electrical conductivity (EC) is found in between 238 and 2710 μmhos/cm. The EC values indicate that the shallow groundwater in Puri is not saline. Stable isotopic signatures of O-18, Deuterium indicate two different sources are active in the city area. In most of the handpumps, water recharged by the surface water sources. From the current investigation, it is evident that in a few handpumps and most of the dug-wells, isotopic signatures of water samples resembles with local precipitation. The groundwater recharge is taking place from the north-southern direction. Visual MODFLOW has been used for studying groundwater aspects and different scenarios have been developed. It is suggested to maintain water level in Samang Lake to restore depletion in groundwater level in two wells.

  4. Fine aerosol and PAH carcinogenicity estimation in outdoor environment of Mumbai City, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abba, Elizabeth J; Unnikrishnan, Seema; Kumar, Rakesh; Yeole, Balkrishna; Chowdhury, Zohir

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to fine particles has been shown to cause severe human health impacts. In the present study, outdoor fine particles as well as elemental and organic carbon concentrations were measured in four locations within Mumbai city, India, during 2007-2008. The average outdoor PM(2.5) mass concentrations at control, kerb, residential and industrial sites were 69 ± 21, 84 ± 32, 89 ± 34, 95 ± 36 μg/m(3). In addition, fine particle PAHs were measured during the post monsoon season. The sum of PAHs in PM(2.5) at same above four sites were 35.27 ± 2.10, 42.96 ± 2.49, 175.76 ± 8.95 and 90.78 ± 4.74 ng/m(3), respectively. Estimating the carcinogenic potential of PAHs with equivalents of Benzo(a)pyrene (BaPE). The maximum value of BaPE (18.8) was reported in the residential site. A trend of lung cancer cases in Mumbai city is also presented. This was a preliminary study in understanding the health effects of PAHs in Mumbai city.

  5. Knowledge and Awareness of Primary Teeth and Their Importance among Parents in Bengaluru City, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittoba Setty, Jyothsna; Srinivasan, Ila

    2016-01-01

    Often people responsible for the oral care of children feel or believe that since primary teeth will eventually shed, it is not worthwhile to spend time/money on providing good oral health to children. Parents are the ones who take care of their children and make decisions for them. Hence, they should have knowledge about primary teeth, their health and caring in order to build confidence in their children through tiny teeth. To assess the knowledge of primary teeth and their importance among parents with children below 12 years. A total of 1,000 questionnaires containing questions written both in English and in the local language (Kannada) were prepared for data collection and were personally distributed to parents visiting dental clinics for their children's dental treatment. Both descriptive statistics and Chi-square test were used. Complaints related to dental caries constituted 82% of children visiting dental clinics among children in Bengaluru city. Only 39% of respondents were aware of all functions of primary teeth. The present study revealed that the parents of Bengaluru city had superficial or partial knowledge of primary teeth and that there is a need to improve this awareness. How to cite this article: Setty JV, Srinivasan I. Knowledge and Awareness of Primary Teeth and Their Importance among Parents in Bengaluru City, India. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(1):56-61.

  6. Assessment of Passenger Satisfaction with Public Bus Transport Services: A Case Study of Lucknow City (India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Sanjay

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study is threefold. First, it tries to assess the passenger satisfaction with public bus transport services in the city of Lucknow in India. Second, it tries to examine the service quality attributes that influence the passenger satisfaction. Third, it tries to evaluate the relative importance of service quality attributes to find out the priority for service quality improvements to enhance passenger satisfaction. The study is based on a survey of objective as well as subjective questions conducted between May and July 2014. Five major bus stops of Lucknow were selected for the survey. Total 148 respondents were randomly selected to elicit their overall satisfaction and factors that influence their satisfaction in the use of public bus transport services in Lucknow using a self-rated questionnaire. The collected sample of responses is subjected to principal component analysis, a statistical technique for dimensionality reduction of the dataset, and descriptive analysis. The result of theses analyses shows that passengers are mostly dissatisfied with public bus transport services in Lucknow. Using principal component analysis, five underlying factors were extracted that influenced passenger satisfaction with public bus transport services in the city. Out of these five factors, comfort and safety has the greatest impact on overall satisfaction, followed by the adequacy of capacity of public bus transport services, orderly and clean environment inside buses, elegant design of buses and bus stops, and accessibility to public bus transport services in the city. The study thus provides a direction for public bus transport administration in the city to understand the gaps that exist and try to fill them to improve its services so that passenger satisfaction can be enhanced and consequently more people can be attracted towards public bus transport.

  7. Assessing cold chain status in a metro city of India: an intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallik, S; Mandal, P K; Chatterjee, C; Ghosh, P; Manna, N; Chakrabarty, D; Bagchi, S N; Dasgupta, S

    2011-03-01

    Cold chain maintenance is an essential activity to maintain the potency of vaccines and to prevent adverse events following immunization. One baseline study highlighted the unsatisfactory cold chain status in city of Kolkata in India. To assess the changes which occurred in the cold chain status after the intervention undertaken to improve the status and also to assess the awareness of the cold chain handlers regarding cold chain maintenance. Intervention consisted of reorganization of cold chain points and training of health manpower in Kolkata Municipal area regarding immunization and cold chain following the guidelines as laid by Govt of India. Reevaluation of cold chain status was done at 20 institutions selected by stratified systematic random sampling after the intervention. The results were compared with baseline survey. Significant improvement had been observed in correct placing of cold chain equipment, maintenance of stock security, orderly placing of ice packs, diluents and vaccines inside the equipment, temperature recording and maintenance. But awareness and skill of cold chain handlers regarding basics of cold chain maintenance was not satisfactory. The success of intervention included significant improvement of cold chain status including creation of a designated cold chain handler. The gaps lay in non-availability of non-electrical cold chain equipment and separate cold chain room, policy makers should stress. Cold chain handlers need reorientation training regarding heat & cold sensitive vaccines, preventive maintenance and correct contingency plan.

  8. Assessment and quantification of plastics waste generation in major 60 cities of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalini, R; Srinivasulu, B; Shit, Subhas C; Nigam, Suneel Kumar; Akolkar, A B; Dwivedfi, R K

    2013-04-01

    Polymers or plastics materials registered rapid growth in 1970s, 1980s and 1990s at the rate of 2-2.5 times the GDP growth in India. The demand for plastic raw material got more than doubled from 3.3 Million Metric Ton to 6.8 Million Metric Tons in 2010 attributed mainly to rapid urbanization, spread of retail chains, plastics based packaging from grocery to food and vegetable products to cosmetics and consumer items. Plastics packages have its merits over many of conventional materials in the related sector but unless they are collected back effectively after their use to go into recycling process, they become an eyesore in the stream of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) due to high visibility. As the synthetic and conventional plastics are non-biodegradable in nature, these remain in the dump yards/ landfills for several years, if not collected properly. Due to non- biodegradability, plastics waste remains in the environment for several years, if not collected and disposing plastics wastes at landfills are unsafe since toxic chemicals leach out into the soil and as they contaminate soil and underground water quality. The municipal solid waste also increasing day-by-day due to the inefficient source collection, segregation and transmission of plastics waste for recycling and reusing. In order to find out the realistic plastics waste generation, a study on assessment and quantification of plastics waste has been carried out by CPCB in collaboration with CIPET on selected 60 major cities of India.

  9. A Case-control Study of Diphtheria in the High Incidence City of Hyderabad, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam, Ramesh Reddy; Uthappa, Chengappa Kechamada; Duerst, Rebecca; Sorley, Evan; Udaragudi, Prasada Rao; Kampa, Shankar; Dworkin, Mark S

    2016-03-01

    India accounts for approximately 72% of reported diphtheria cases globally, the majority of which occur in the state of Andhra Pradesh. The aim of this study is to better understand lack of knowledge on diphtheria vaccination and to determine factors associated with diphtheria and low knowledge and negative attitudes. We performed a 1:1 case-control study of hospitalized diphtheria cases in Hyderabad. Eligible case patients were 10 years of age or older, resided within the city of Hyderabad and were diagnosed with diphtheria per the case definition. Patients admitted to the hospital for nonrespiratory communicable diseases and residing in the same geographic region as that of cases were eligible for enrolment as controls : There were no statistical differences in disease outcome by gender, education, economic status and mean room per person sleeping in the house in case and control subjects. Not having heard of diphtheria (adjusted odds ratio: 3.56; 95% confidence intervals: 1.58-8.04] and not believing that vaccines can prevent people from getting diseases (adjusted odds ratio: 3.99; 95% confidence intervals: 1.18-13.45) remained significantly associated with diphtheria on multivariate analysis. To reduce the burden of diphtheria in India, further efforts to educate the public about diphtheria should be considered.

  10. Municipal Solid Waste Management and its Energy Potential in Roorkee City, Uttarakhand, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Tabish; Kulkarni, Kishore

    2016-03-01

    Energy plays a vital role in the development of any country. With rapid economic growth and multifold urbanization, India faces the problem of municipal solid waste management and disposal. This problem can be mitigate through adoption of environment friendly technologies for treatment and processing of waste before it is disposed off. Currently, urban and industrial wastes throughout India receive partial treatment before its final disposal, except in few exceptional cases. This practice leads to severe environmental pollution problems including major threat to human health. There is an absolute need to provide adequate waste collection and treatment before its disposal. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) is getting importance in recent years. The MSW management involves collection, transportation, handling and conversion to energy by biological and thermal routes. Based on the energy potential available, the energy conversion through biogas production using available waste is being carried out. Waste-to-energy is now a clean, renewable, sustainable source of energy. The estimation of energy content of MSW in Roorkee city is discussed in this paper. Furthermore this paper also takes into account the benefits of carbon credits.

  11. Study of noise pollution for three consecutive years during Deepawali festival in Meerut City, Uttar Pradesh (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Digvijay; Joshi, B D

    2012-07-01

    The present paper deals with monitoring of noise pollution at different places of Meerut City (India) on the night of Deepawali festival. During the present study the noise levels were measured with the help of sound meter. The noise pollution is decreasing considerably for the last three years and it is recorded minimum in 2009 as compared to 2008 and 2007. The main reason of this decrement is the growing environmental awareness in the people of Meerut City. Needless to say, students of most of the school in Meerut City now prefer to celebrate Deepawali, festival of lights without sound and smoke. The campaign for eco-friendly Deepawali is expected to catch on with people in Meerut City which has already demonstrated its commitment towards environment conservation. Mainly fire crackers are used during Deepawali. The present paper is an attempt to create awareness among the people of Meerut City about the bitter truth of fire crackers.

  12. Initial drug resistance in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Initial drug resistance in India. There is gradual increase in primary MDR all over India : Pondi= Pondicherry 1985; Bangalore =1986; Jaipur = 1991; Jaipur =2000. Overall the MDR is less than 3% (TRC studies).

  13. The Impact of Body Mass Index on Oral Hygiene Practices of Adolescents in Bhopal City, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santha, Binu; Sudheer, Hongal; Saxena, Vrinda; Jain, Manish; Tiwari, Vidhatri

    2016-02-01

    To assess the impact of Body Mass Index (BMI) on oral hygiene practices of adolescents in Bhopal City, India. Cross-sectional study. Arts College, Bhopal, from February to March 2014. Aconvenience sample of 17 - 23 years college-going adolescents from Arts College, Bhopal city was selected for the study. Self-reported questionnaire for adolescents to assess BMI and oral hygiene attitude, knowledge and practices was used. Descriptive statistics and chi-square test were applied. Out of the total study population, 53.54% (n=166) were males and 46.45% (n=144) were females. Two hundred and six (66.45%) were of optimal weight, 27.74% (n=86) were underweight and only 4.52% (n=14) were overweight. There was a significant association between BMI and oral hygiene practice of toothbrushing (p oral hygiene practices of adolescent population. There is growing interest in the relationship between BMI and oral health because both are significant public health concerns. These public health problems are related to common lifestyle factors such as unhealthy eating habits and smoking among children. These maladapted habits track into later life as predictors of increased BMI and oral health problems. Hence, it is required that the dentists are aware of the influence of body mass Index and lifestyle on oral health practices among children and adolescents.

  14. Experience, awareness, and perceptions about medical emergencies among dental interns of Chennai city, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Leelavathi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Every dental health professional should have the essential knowledge to identify, assess and manage a potentially life-threatening situation. Aim: To assess the experience, awareness, and perceptions about medical emergencies among dental interns in Chennai city, India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study carried out in four randomly selected dental colleges of Chennai city. Data were collected using a self-administered, structured, closed-ended 20-item questionnaire. It consists of questions on experience of medical emergencies encountered by interns during their graduation, awareness of the essential drugs and equipment, the amount of medical emergencies training undertaken by participants, preparedness of interns in handling medical emergencies. Descriptive statistics, independent sample t-test, were used. Results: Out of 335 interns, 157 (47% said that syncope was the most common medical emergency event encountered by the interns. Regarding awareness about essential drugs, about 161 (48% study participants answered oxygen, epinephrine, nitroglycerin, antihistamine, salbutamol, and aspirin as emergency drugs. About half of the study participants, 187 (56% were aware that pressure should be given to the affected site, with or without suturing if the greater palatine artery is inadvertently cut. The majority of the interns (93% preferred to have a specified training on the handling of medical emergencies in dental practice. Conclusions: Syncope was the most common medical emergency event. Awareness about the essential drugs, equipment, and preparedness of dental interns in handling medical emergencies was low.

  15. Dental Sealants: Knowledge, Value, Opinion, and Practice among Dental Professionals of Bathinda City, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asawa, Kailash; Gupta, Vivek V; Tak, Mridula; Nagarajappa, Ramesh; Chaturvedi, Pulkit; Bapat, Salil; Mishra, Prashant; Roy, Santanu Sen

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of the study was to assess the knowledge, value, opinion, and practice regarding use of dental sealants among private dental practitioners in Bathinda City, Punjab, India. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among all private dental practitioners in Bathinda City, Punjab. A self-administered structured questionnaire consisting of 28 items was used to assess their knowledge, value, opinion, and practice regarding dental sealants. One-way analysis of variance, independent sample t-test, and multivariate regression analysis were utilized for statistical analysis. Confidence level and level of significance were set at 95% and 5%, respectively. Results. The mean scores for knowledge, value, opinion, and practice were 41.8 ± 3.7, 18.7 ± 2.8, 18.1 ± 1.4, and 12.9 ± 2.3, respectively. Analysis revealed that qualification was statistically significant among all dependent variables (P ≤ 0.05); work experience was significantly associated with both knowledge and opinion means scores (P ≤ 0.05). Conclusion. The results suggest that dental practitioners had sufficient knowledge about dental sealants. They also acknowledge the importance of use of dental sealants. Practice of dental sealants in clinics was found adequate but they were not following the specific guidelines and standardized procedures.

  16. Dental Sealants: Knowledge, Value, Opinion, and Practice among Dental Professionals of Bathinda City, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kailash Asawa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of the study was to assess the knowledge, value, opinion, and practice regarding use of dental sealants among private dental practitioners in Bathinda City, Punjab, India. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among all private dental practitioners in Bathinda City, Punjab. A self-administered structured questionnaire consisting of 28 items was used to assess their knowledge, value, opinion, and practice regarding dental sealants. One-way analysis of variance, independent sample t-test, and multivariate regression analysis were utilized for statistical analysis. Confidence level and level of significance were set at 95% and 5%, respectively. Results. The mean scores for knowledge, value, opinion, and practice were 41.8 ± 3.7, 18.7 ± 2.8, 18.1 ± 1.4, and 12.9 ± 2.3, respectively. Analysis revealed that qualification was statistically significant among all dependent variables (P≤0.05; work experience was significantly associated with both knowledge and opinion means scores (P≤0.05. Conclusion. The results suggest that dental practitioners had sufficient knowledge about dental sealants. They also acknowledge the importance of use of dental sealants. Practice of dental sealants in clinics was found adequate but they were not following the specific guidelines and standardized procedures.

  17. Effect of westernization on oral health among college students of Udaipur City, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujara, Piyush; Sharma, Neeraj; Parikh, Rujul Jayeshkumar; Shah, Maitri; Parikh, Shachi; Vadera, Vivek; Kaur, Manpreet; Makkar, Isha; Parmar, Mayur; Rupakar, Pratik; Patel, Shrikant

    2016-01-01

    There is overwhelming evidence that periodontal disease and dental caries affect the majority of populations and that western culture and lifestyle may have a profound influence on oral health, especially in adults. The present study was performed to determine the effect of westernization on the oral health of college students of Udaipur City, Rajasthan. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among students attending various professional and non-professional bachelor's degree colleges of Udaipur City, Rajasthan, India, from March 2013 to May 2013. Eight hundred students were selected based on a two-stage random sampling procedure. Westernization was assessed by a self-administered structured questionnaire. Periodontal status, dental caries status and malocclusion were assessed according to World Health Organization (WHO) criteria (1997). Statistical analysis was performed using chi-square and Multivariate logistic regression. The confidence level and level of significance were set at 95 and 5 %, respectively. The present study suggested that adverse habits, listening to English music and preferring English food had a significant association with dental caries and periodontal diseases. Malocclusion also showed a significant relationship with consuming English food for snacks and desserts. Multivariate analysis revealed a significantly greater odds ratio ( OR ) for periodontal disease and dental caries among those who preferred English food for lunch. Based on the results of the present study, there is an association between westernization and oral health.

  18. Child-Oral impacts on daily performances: A socio dental approach to assess prevalence and severity of oral impacts on daily performances in South Indian school children of Bangalore city: A cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Agrawal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral disorders can have a negative impact on the functional, social and psychological well-being of children and their families. Oral health and dental treatment may have an impact on eating, speaking and appearance, thereby affecting quality of life. Thus, there has been a greater focus on the measurement of quality of life as a complement to the clinical measures. Objective: The aim was to assess the prevalence, characteristics and severity of oral impacts in south Indian school children using Child-Oral Impacts on Daily Performances (Child-OIDP index as a measure of oral health related quality of life. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was undertaken among the six government, and six private school children aged 11-12 years, of Karnataka, South India randomly selected as cluster, and all their 563 children were invited to participate. A cross culturally adapted and validated oral health-related quality of life measure; Child-OIDP was used to assess oral impacts. Results: The common perceived oral health problems were tooth ache reported by 342 children, a sensitive tooth reported by 230 children, tooth decay - hole in the tooth reported by 226 children. Eating was the most common performance affected (68.3%. The severity of impacts was high for eating and cleaning mouth and low for the study and social contact performances. Conclusion: The study reveals that oral health impacts on quality of life of school children of Karnataka aged 11-12 years. Oral impacts were prevalent, but not severe. The impacts mainly related to difficulty eating. Toothache, a sensitive tooth, tooth decay and bleeding gums contributed largely to the incidence of oral impacts.

  19. An Integrated Framework for Analysis of Water Supply Strategies in a Developing City: Chennai, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, V.; Gorelick, S.; Goulder, L.

    2009-12-01

    Indian cities are facing a severe water crisis: rapidly growing population, low tariffs, high leakage rates, inadequate reservoir storage, are straining water supply systems, resulting in unreliable, intermittent piped supply. Conventional approaches to studying the problem of urban water supply have typically considered only centralized piped supply by the water utility. Specifically, they have tended to overlook decentralized actions by consumers such as groundwater extraction via private wells and aquifer recharge by rainwater harvesting. We present an innovative integrative framework for analyzing urban water supply in Indian cities. The framework is used in a systems model of water supply in the city of Chennai, India that integrates different components of the urban water system: water flows into the reservoir system, diversion and distribution by the public water utility, groundwater flow in the urban aquifer, informal water markets and consumer behavior. Historical system behavior from 2002-2006 is used to calibrate the model. The historical system behavior highlights the buffering role of the urban aquifer; storing water in periods of surplus for extraction by consumers via private wells. The model results show that in Chennai, distribution pipeline leaks result in the transfer of water from the inadequate reservoir system to the urban aquifer. The systems approach also makes it possible to evaluate and compare a wide range of centralized and decentralized policies. Three very different policies: Supply Augmentation (desalination), Efficiency Improvement (raising tariffs and fixing pipe leaks), and Rainwater Harvesting (recharging the urban aquifer by capturing rooftop and yard runoff) were evaluated using the model. The model results suggest that a combination of Rainwater Harvesting and Efficiency Improvement best meets our criteria of welfare maximization, equity, system reliability, and utility profitability. Importantly, the study shows that

  20. Air quality mapping using GIS and economic evaluation of health impact for Mumbai City, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Awkash; Gupta, Indrani; Brandt, Jørgen; Kumar, Rakesh; Dikshit, Anil Kumar; Patil, Rashmi S

    2016-05-01

    Mumbai, a highly populated city in India, has been selected for air quality mapping and assessment of health impact using monitored air quality data. Air quality monitoring networks in Mumbai are operated by National Environment Engineering Research Institute (NEERI), Maharashtra Pollution Control Board (MPCB), and Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC). A monitoring station represents air quality at a particular location, while we need spatial variation for air quality management. Here, air quality monitored data of NEERI and BMC were spatially interpolated using various inbuilt interpolation techniques of ArcGIS. Inverse distance weighting (IDW), Kriging (spherical and Gaussian), and spline techniques have been applied for spatial interpolation for this study. The interpolated results of air pollutants sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and suspended particulate matter (SPM) were compared with air quality data of MPCB in the same region. Comparison of results showed good agreement for predicted values using IDW and Kriging with observed data. Subsequently, health impact assessment of a ward was carried out based on total population of the ward and air quality monitored data within the ward. Finally, health cost within a ward was estimated on the basis of exposed population. This study helps to estimate the valuation of health damage due to air pollution. Operating more air quality monitoring stations for measurement of air quality is highly resource intensive in terms of time and cost. The appropriate spatial interpolation techniques can be used to estimate concentration where air quality monitoring stations are not available. Further, health impact assessment for the population of the city and estimation of economic cost of health damage due to ambient air quality can help to make rational control strategies for environmental management. The total health cost for Mumbai city for the year 2012, with a population of 12.4 million, was estimated as USD

  1. Prevalence of molar incisor hypomineralization in 7?9-year-old children of Bengaluru City, India

    OpenAIRE

    Subramaniam, Priya; Gupta, Tulika; Sharma, Akhilesh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) is a developmental defect. The prevalence of MIH ranges widely from 2.4% to 40.2%. Aim: This study was under taken to determine the prevalence of MIH in 7–9-year-old children of Bengaluru City, India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted in a representative sample of 2500 school children aged 7–9 years of Bengaluru, India. Oral examination was carried out by a single trained calibrated examiner under na...

  2. INDIAN INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE Bangalore-560012

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    savitha

    India's production of food grains has been increasing every year, and India is among the top producers of several crops such as ... for 78% of the food grains production in the country. Despite high levels of production in the .... ground water sources and is fast depleting . • India uses 2-3 times as much water to produce one ...

  3. Trends in thermal discomfort indices over western coastal cities of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Manasi S.; Dhorde, Amit G.

    2018-02-01

    The present research aimed at analyzing temporal trends in thermal discomfort indices for a period of 46 years from 1969 to 2014 over western coastal region of India for seven urban centers during the months of pre-monsoon and monsoon seasons. Direct thermal discomfort indices employed for this purpose were thermo-hygrometric index (THI) and heat index (HI). Statistical techniques applied for obtaining temporal trends were linear regression model and Mann-Kendall (MK) rank test. Statistical significance of the obtained trends was evaluated at 95% confidence level. Sequential MK (SQ-MK) test was used for change point detection. To investigate actual incidences of thermal discomfort, daily index values were averaged for standard meteorological weeks (SMWs) over the study period and decadal percentage of thermal discomfort during SMWs was estimated. Trend analysis of selected meteorological parameters such as dry bulb temperature (DBT), wet bulb temperature (WBT), relative humidity (RH), and wind speed (WS) were investigated, which might be responsible for variation in thermal discomfort over the period. The results obtained depicted significant increase in thermal discomfort over the cities located on the southern part of west coast, while significant increase was observed during monsoon season months compared to pre-monsoon season. Decadal variation in percentage of SMWs falling in various discomfort categories was studied. At majority of the stations, moderate and high-risk SMWs have increased over the last two decades. The results of change point detection for THI and HI denoted significant increase at most of the stations after 1990s. The study validates increase in thermal discomfort vulnerability, particularly at thriving urban centers of western coastal region of India.

  4. Resource requirements of inclusive urban development in India: insights from ten cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh Nagpure, Ajay; Reiner, Mark; Ramaswami, Anu

    2018-02-01

    This paper develops a methodology to assess the resource requirements of inclusive urban development in India and compares those requirements to current community-wide material and energy flows. Methods include: (a) identifying minimum service level benchmarks for the provision of infrastructure services including housing, electricity and clean cooking fuels; (b) assessing the percentage of homes that lack access to infrastructure or that consume infrastructure services below the identified benchmarks; (c) quantifying the material requirements to provide basic infrastructure services using India-specific design data; and (d) computing material and energy requirements for inclusive development and comparing it with current community-wide material and energy flows. Applying the method to ten Indian cities, we find that: 1%-6% of households do not have electricity, 14%-71% use electricity below the benchmark of 25 kWh capita-month-1 4%-16% lack structurally sound housing; 50%-75% live in floor area less than the benchmark of 8.75 m2 floor area/capita; 10%-65% lack clean cooking fuel; and 6%-60% lack connection to a sewerage system. Across the ten cities examined, to provide basic electricity (25 kWh capita-month-1) to all will require an addition of only 1%-10% in current community-wide electricity use. To provide basic clean LPG fuel (1.2 kg capita-month-1) to all requires an increase of 5%-40% in current community-wide LPG use. Providing permanent shelter (implemented over a ten year period) to populations living in non-permanent housing in Delhi and Chandigarh would require a 6%-14% increase over current annual community-wide cement use. Conversely, to provide permanent housing to all people living in structurally unsound housing and those living in overcrowded housing (<5 m cap-2) would require 32%-115% of current community-wide cement flows. Except for the last scenario, these results suggest that social policies that seek to provide basic

  5. Girl prostitution in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, K K

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the nature, magnitude, causes, and consequences of female child prostitution in India and offers measures for control and prevention of girl prostitution. Data are obtained from the 6-city study of prostitution and the author's own research. An estimated 85% of all prostitutes in Calcutta and Delhi entered the work at an early age. The numbers are rising. The promotion of tourism is linked with prostitution. Girl prostitutes are primarily located in low-middle income areas and business districts and are known by officials. Brothel keepers regularly recruit young girls. An estimated 33% of prostitutes are young girls. In Bangalore, Calcutta, Delhi, and Hyderabad, there are an estimated 10,000 girl prostitutes. UNICEF estimates about 300,000 child prostitutes. Girl prostitutes are grouped as common prostitutes, singers and dancers, call girls, religious prostitutes or devdasi, and caged brothel prostitutes. Religious prostitutes are mainly found in the South. Caged ones are found in Bombay. A little over 50% of prostitutes come from other countries, such as Nepal and Bangladesh. The girls tend to come from urban slums and poor rural areas. High prostitute supply regions include Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and West Bengel states. About 85% are Hindus, and about 66% are from scheduled castes and tribes. Bangalore and Bombay have a higher proportion of girl prostitutes. The causes of prostitution include ill treatment by parents, bad company, family prostitutes, social customs, inability to arrange marriage, lack of sex education, media, prior incest and rape, early marriage and desertion, lack of recreational facilities, ignorance, and acceptance of prostitution. Economic causes include poverty and economic distress. Psychological causes include desire for physical pleasure, greed, and dejection. Most enter involuntarily. A brief profile is given of the life of a prostitute.

  6. Comparative assessment of Oral Hygiene and Periodontal status among children who have Poliomyelitis at Udaipur city, Rajasthan, India

    OpenAIRE

    Tak, Mridula; Nagarajappa, Ramesh; Sharda, Archana; Asawa, Kailash; Tak, Aniruddh; Jalihal, Sagar

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess and compare the oral hygiene and periodontal status among children with Poliomyelitis having upper limb disability, lower limb disability and both upper and lower disability at Udaipur city, Rajasthan, India. Study design: Total sample comprised of 344 Poliomyelitis children (upper limb disability: 33.4%; lower limb disability: 33.7%; both upper and lower limb disability: 32.9%) in the age group of 12-15 years. Clinical examination included recording Simplified Oral Hygie...

  7. The Impact of Body Mass Index on Oral Hygiene Practices of Adolescents in Bhopal City, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santha, B.; Sudheer, H.; Saxena, V.; Jain, M.; Tiwari, V.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of Body Mass Index (BMI) on oral hygiene practices of adolescents in Bhopal City, India. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Arts College, Bhopal, from February to March 2014. Methodology: A convenience sample of 17 - 23 years college-going adolescents from Arts College, Bhopal city was selected for the study. Self-reported questionnaire for adolescents to assess BMI and oral hygiene attitude, knowledge and practices was used. Descriptive statistics and chi-square test were applied. Results: Out of the total study population, 53.54 percent (n=166) were males and 46.45 percent (n=144) were females. Two hundred and six (66.45 percent) were of optimal weight, 27.74 percent (n=86) were underweight and only 4.52 percent (n=14) were overweight. There was a significant association between BMI and oral hygiene practice of tooth brushing (p < 0.001) and mouth rinsing (p=0.001) among both male and female subjects. Conclusion: Hence, BMI is significantly associated with the oral hygiene practices of adolescent population. There is growing interest in the relationship between BMI and oral health because both are significant public health concerns. These public health problems are related to common lifestyle factors such as unhealthy eating habits and smoking among children. These maladapted habits track into later life as predictors of increased BMI and oral health problems. Hence, it is required that the dentists are aware of the influence of body mass index and lifestyle on oral health practices among children and adolescents. (author)

  8. Lead isotopic fingerprinting of aerosols to characterize the sources of atmospheric lead in an industrial city of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Indra S.; Bizimis, Michael; Tripathi, Sachchida Nand; Paul, Debajyoti

    2016-03-01

    Anthropogenic Pb in the environment is primarily sourced from combustion of fossil fuel and high-temperature industries such as smelters. Identifying the sources and pathways of anthropogenic Pb in the environment is important because Pb toxicity is known to have adverse effects on human health. Pb pollution sources for America, Europe, and China are well documented. However, sources of atmospheric Pb are unknown in India, particularly after leaded gasoline was phased out in 2000. India has a developing economy with a rapidly emerging automobile and high temperature industry, and anthropogenic Pb emission is expected to rise in the next decade. In this study, we report on the Pb-isotope compositions and trace metal ratios of airborne particulates collected in Kanpur, a large city in northern part of India. The study shows that the PM10 aerosols had elevated concentration of Cd, Pb, Zn, As, and Cu in the Kanpur area, however their concentrations are well below the United States Environmental Protection Agency chronic exposure limit. Lead isotopic and trace metal data reveal industrial emission as the plausible source of anthropogenic Pb in the atmosphere in Kanpur. However, Pb isotopic compositions of potential source end-members are required to fully evaluate Pb contamination in India over time. This is the first study that characterizes the isotopic composition of atmospheric Pb in an Indian city after leaded gasoline was phased out by 2000.

  9. Preconditions for market solution to urban water scarcity: Empirical results from Hyderabad City, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleth, R. Maria; Dinar, Ariel

    2001-01-01

    Utilizing both primary and secondary information pertaining to the water sector of Hyderabad City, India, this paper (1) evaluates the economics of various technically feasible supply augmentations options; (2) estimates the group-specific water demand and consumption response functions under alternative pricing behaviors; (3) calculates the net willingness to pay (NWTP, considered to be the value of raw water at source) of different user groups as derived from their respective price elasticities; (4) shows how inadequate the NWTP is to justify most supply augmentation options including intersectoral water transfers under the existing water rate structure; (5) argues that the economic and institutional conditions internal to urban water sector cannot justify an externally imposed water transfers, whether market-based or otherwise, as long as the water rate structure is inefficient and regressive; and (6) concludes by underlining the central role that the pricing option, both the level and structure, plays not only in activating a number of nonprice options but also in generating incentives for the emergence of new and the consolidation of existing institutional conditions needed to support economically rooted water transfers and conservation initiatives.

  10. Survey of mesiodens and its characteristics in 2500 children of Davangere city, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaveni, N B; Sreedevi, B; Praveen, B S; Praveen Reddy, B; Vidyullatha, B G; Umashankara, K V

    2010-12-01

    The aim of the present study is to report the prevalence of mesiodens and its characteristics and also to present 25 cases with 27 mesiodentes in 2500 children in Davangere city, India. A survey of 2500 children examined in the Department of Paediatric Dentistry was conducted. Their ages ranged from 3 to 12 years. A total of 27 mesiodentes were diagnosed in 25 patients (1%). The patients' records and radiographs were evaluated and the following variables were studied: age and sex distribution, number, shape, position, eruption status, associated dentition and arch, associated complications and anomalies. In this study were enrolled 16 males and 9 females: 96.2% of the mesiodentes were seen in the maxillary arch while only one in the mandibular arch; 92.5% were observed in the permanent dentition. Most mesiodentes (92.5%) were conical in shape, and about 96.2% were placed vertical in position with only one mesiodens impacted and inverted. Of the 27 mesiodentes, 23 were u%% caused a midline diastema, 14.8% occlusal interference, 7.4% root resorption, and 3.7% had caused delayed eruption of permanent incisors. Rare anomalies like facial talon cusp were found in two mesiodentes (7.4%), and only one (3.7%) had a root anomaly. Mesiodens may occur as an isolated finding or can be associated with other odontogenic anomalies.

  11. Factors that effect dental caries status of medical students in Udaipur city, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S; Gupta, A; Dixit, A; Solanki, K; Balasubramanyam, G; Duraiswamy, P; Kulkarni, S

    2010-05-01

    To evaluate the effect of oral hygiene behaviour, dental anxiety, self assessed dental status and treatment necessity on dental caries status of medical students. The study was conducted among 345 medical students of Udaipur city, India who had provision for free dental services and the study was based on a questionnaire which consisted of two parts, first part containing questions regarding self assessment of dental status and treatment necessity along with oral hygiene behaviour and the later part comprised of Corah Dental Anxiety scale (DAS). Clinical examination was based on the WHO caries diagnostic criteria. Females perceived greater dental anxiety than males. Individuals claiming poor dental status had higher mean decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) score (6.67) than good (2.89) and fair (4.44). The mean decayed component among the anxious students (5.4) was almost twice that of less anxious (2.77) student population. DAS constituted the first major contributor for missing component followed by smoking status which alone explained a variance of 7.1%. The cumulative variance explained by all the independent variables on the DMFT status accounted to 56.4% with self assessed dental status alone contributing a variance of 44.9%. The most significant (P dental status (14.5%). Oral hygiene behaviour, dental anxiety, self assessed dental status and treatment necessity significantly affected the dental caries status of medical students.

  12. AN EXPLORATORY STUDY ON THE EFFECTIVENESS OF EMARKETING ON MICRO, SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES (MSMES) IN B2B MARKET OF BANGALORE DISTRICT

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Y. Nagaraju; Anil Kumar Kottani

    2018-01-01

    This study on the effectiveness of e-marketing on Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) in B2B market of Bangalore District basically deals with the analysis through qualitative study on ten selected MSME units in Bangalore district of India to elicit the comprehensive understanding of the issues under investigation in order to know the experiences/perceptions of owners/managers of MSMEs regarding how they use e-marketing tools in the real scenario and to explore the challenges faced wh...

  13. Evaluating the impact of comprehensive epilepsy education programme for school teachers in Chandigarh city, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Sonu; Singh, Navpreet; Lal, Vivek; Singh, Amarjeet

    2014-01-01

    School teachers can play a key role in the first-aid management of school children experiencing a seizure. The teachers have a pivotal role in disseminating knowledge to the children of diseases experienced by them and developing positive attitudes among the children regarding the diseases. The present study investigated the knowledge and practices used by teachers to manage epileptic seizures. The study also tested an epilepsy intervention educational package to see whether it improved the knowledge and practices of the teachers regarding epilepsy. A total of 85 teachers in schools from Chandigarh, a city of northern India, participated in the study. At the start of the study the teachers completed a pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire on the first-aid management of epileptic seizures. They were then presented with an intervention package that included audio-visual material on basic aspects of epilepsy. The teachers were then retested after the intervention (one immediately and another after three months from the intervention). A scoring system was devised to quantify the knowledge, attitude and skills of teachers. More than 90% of the teachers had previously either heard or read about epilepsy. Nearly half of the teachers said that books and magazines were the most common source of their information, followed by the internet. A comparison of the knowledge, attitudes and skills about the first-aid management of epilepsy based on the before and after questionnaire scores showed significant improvements in the various domains (peducational package provided a positive, short term, impact on the knowledge and skills of teachers about epilepsy. There is a need for regular workshops to improve and reinforce the knowledge and skills of the teachers about health problems like epilepsy. Copyright © 2013 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessment of implementation of COTPA-2003 in Bengaluru city, India: A cross-sectional study

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    Shweta Gururaj Habbu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tobacco as a slow and modern epidemic remains a serious public health problem for the country. Despite the existence of a comprehensive law to reduce tobacco burden, India still faces the uphill task of its acceptance and successful implementation. Aim: To assess the implementation of Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products Act 2003 (COTPA-2003 (Section 4, 6b, and 7 in public places of Bengaluru city and to assess the awareness of the head of these institutions/offices regarding COTPA-2003 and its enforcement in their premises. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 175 public places selected as sources of data using cluster random sampling. The tool in the form of a checklist was prepared based on the sections of COTPA-2003 (Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products' Act, and data were recorded through direct observation. A structured interview was conducted of the institutional heads regarding the implementation of COTPA-2003 in their premises. Informed consent was obtained from the institutional heads or in-charges of the public places. Results: Section 4 (Prohibition of smoking in public places was not complied by 58%. Only 16.7% educational institutions complied with the Section 6b (Prohibition of sale of tobacco products near educational institutions. More than 50% of the head of the institutions were unaware of their role in the implementation of this law. Conclusion: Although the law has been drafted comprehensively, it is implemented only to a certain extent. Hence, all concerned departments and ministries responsible for meeting the framework convention on tobacco control objectives and enforcing COTPA, at central and state levels, should act urgently and in coordination.

  15. Prevalence of osteoporosis in apparently healthy adults above 40 years of age in Pune City, India

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    Nidhi S Kadam

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of study was to assess the prevalence of osteoporosis and changes in bone mass with increasing age and compare bone health status of apparently healthy men, premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Methods: Data were collected on anthropometric and sociodemographic factors in 421 apparently healthy Indian adults (women = 228, 40–75 years of age, in a cross-sectional study in Pune city, India. Bone mineral density (BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at two sites-lumbar spine (LS and left femur. Individuals were classified as having osteoporosis or osteopenia based on the World Health Organization criteria of T-scores. Results: Mean age of study population was 53.3 ± 8.4 years. Of the total women, 44.3% were postmenopausal with 49.2 ± 3.5 years as mean age at menopause. Postmenopausal women showed a rapid decline in BMD with age till 50 years while men showed a gradual decline. Premenopausal women showed no significant decline in BMD with age (P > 0.1. Significantly lower T-scores were observed at LS in men compared to premenopausal (P 0.1. The prevalence of osteoporosis in men at LS was lower than postmenopausal women but higher than premenopausal women. Conclusion: In Indian men, a low T-score compared to women indicates higher susceptibility to osteoporosis. In women, menopause causes a rapid decline in BMD. Therefore, both Indian men and postmenopausal women require adequate measures to prevent osteoporosis during later years in life.

  16. Study of Seasonal Variation in Groundwater Quality of Sagar City (India by Principal Component Analysis

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    Hemant Pathak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater is one of the major resources of the drinking water in Sagar city (India.. In this study 15 sampling station were selected for the investigations on 14 chemical parameters. The work was carried out during different months of the pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon seasons in June 2009 to June 2010. The multivariate statistics such as principal component and cluster analysis were applied to the datasets to investigate seasonal variations in groundwater quality. Principal axis factoring has been used to observe the mode of association of parameters and their interrelationships, for evaluating water quality. Average value of BOD, COD, ammonia and iron was high during entire study period. Elevated values of BOD and ammonia in monsoon, slightly more value of BOD in post-monsoon, BOD, ammonia and iron in pre-monsoon period reflected contribution on temporal effect on groundwater. Results of principal component analysis evinced that all the parameters equally and significantly contribute to groundwater quality variations. Factor 1 and factor 2 analysis revealed the DO value deteriorate due to organic load (BOD/Ammonia in different seasons. Hierarchical cluster analysis grouped 15 stations into four clusters in monsoon, five clusters in post-monsoon and five clusters in pre-monsoon with similar water quality features. Clustered group at monsoon, post-monsoon and pre-monsoon consisted one station exhibiting significant spatial variation in physicochemical composition. The anthropogenic nitrogenous species, as fallout from modernization activities. The study indicated that the groundwater sufficiently well oxygenated and nutrient-rich in study places.

  17. Association between Body Mass Index and Dental Caries among Anganwadi Children of Belgaum City, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluckal, Eby; Anzil, Ksa; Baby, Mathews; George, Eldhose K; Lakshmanan, Sanju; Chikkanna, Shilpa

    2016-10-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is an index that measures height for weight, which is commonly used to categorize underweight, overweight, and obese individuals. Deviation from normal weight results from an imbalance between caloric consumption and energy expenditure. Childhood obesity and childhood dental caries are coincidental in many populations, probably due to common confounding risk factors, such as intake frequency, cariogenic diet, and poor oral hygiene. So the aim of the present study was to assess the BMI status and to corelate between dental caries and BMI among the Anganwadi children of Belgaum city, Karnataka, India. Four hundred and thirty three children from 20 Anganwadi's belonging to the age group of 2 to 6 years of both sexes were measured for BMI and dental caries status. The caries index was measured as the number of decayed (d) and filled (f) teeth (t) (dft). The BMI in units of kg/m 2 was determined and children were categorized according to age-and gender-specific criteria as underweight (95th percentile). The data were subjected to statistical analysis using Student's t-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and Karl Pearson's correlation coefficient test with the help of Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 18.0. The proportion of subjects in Centre for Disease Control (CDC) weight categories was: 5% underweight, 79% normal, 9% under the risk for overweight, and 6% overweight. A significant association was found between children with normal BMI and those who were underweight, overweight, and under the risk for overweight. Children with overweight/obese or underweight/malnourished children had higher decayed and filled surfaces compared to children with normal weight. Nutritional status has a profound effect on dental caries. Both underweight/malnutrition and overweight/ obesity have significant adverse implications for health. Childhood obesity and childhood dental caries are coincidental in many populations.

  18. The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in the urban slums of a city in Western India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shobha, Misra; Bithika, Duttaroy; Bhavesh, Shroff

    2013-04-01

    There is scant information available on the prevalence of parasitic infections in Gujarat, a state in Western India. The present community-based study was undertaken in the urban slums of a city in Gujarat to determine the following parameters: (a) the prevalence and type of pathogenic intestinal parasites and (b) the availability of sanitary facilities in the study population. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2008, and the study participants were urban slum dwellers. Considering an expected infection prevalence of 30% among slum dwellers, an allowable error of 10% and an anticipated design effect of two, the sample size for the cluster design was set to 1800 participants from 30 clusters and 360 households (HHs). Stool samples were examined using both direct wet mount and the formalin-ether sedimentation concentration technique, followed by trichrome staining for protozoan cysts. Toilet facilities were utilized by 56% of the HHs, while 44% of the HHs resorted to open air defecation. The overall prevalence rate of intestinal parasitic infections was 15.19%. Parasitic infections due to protozoa were observed in 70.71% of the study participants. Helminth infections were detected in 25.71% of the participants, and multiple parasitic infections were detected in 3.57%. Diarrhea was the most common complaint (9.56%) in the study population. This study demonstrates that poor sanitation and inadequate environmental conditions are the main determining factors that predispose the population to intestinal parasites. Mass deworming programs are recommended for school children, as this population is easily accessible. Copyright © 2012 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Prediction of heavy rainfall over Chennai Metropolitan City, Tamil Nadu, India: Impact of microphysical parameterization schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, K. S.; Bonthu, Subbareddy; Purvaja, R.; Robin, R. S.; Kannan, B. A. M.; Ramesh, R.

    2018-04-01

    This study attempts to investigate the real-time prediction of a heavy rainfall event over the Chennai Metropolitan City, Tamil Nadu, India that occurred on 01 December 2015 using Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-ARW) model. The study evaluates the impact of six microphysical (Lin, WSM6, Goddard, Thompson, Morrison and WDM6) parameterization schemes of the model on prediction of heavy rainfall event. In addition, model sensitivity has also been evaluated with six Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) and two Land Surface Model (LSM) schemes. Model forecast was carried out using nested domain and the impact of model horizontal grid resolutions were assessed at 9 km, 6 km and 3 km. Analysis of the synoptic features using National Center for Environmental Prediction Global Forecast System (NCEP-GFS) analysis data revealed strong upper-level divergence and high moisture content at lower level were favorable for the occurrence of heavy rainfall event over the northeast coast of Tamil Nadu. The study signified that forecasted rainfall was more sensitive to the microphysics and PBL schemes compared to the LSM schemes. The model provided better forecast of the heavy rainfall event using the logical combination of Goddard microphysics, YSU PBL and Noah LSM schemes, and it was mostly attributed to timely initiation and development of the convective system. The forecast with different horizontal resolutions using cumulus parameterization indicated that the rainfall prediction was not well represented at 9 km and 6 km. The forecast with 3 km horizontal resolution provided better prediction in terms of timely initiation and development of the event. The study highlights that forecast of heavy rainfall events using a high-resolution mesoscale model with suitable representations of physical parameterization schemes are useful for disaster management and planning to minimize the potential loss of life and property.

  20. Development of tyre/road noise assessment methodology in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Ali Boodihal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The major objective of this research study was to develop a methodology to evaluate tyre/road noise of the various road types and sections in Bangalore. The scope of the effort included field noise measurements of the 17 conventional asphalt concrete (AC, four Portland cement concrete (PCC, and two plastic modified asphalt concrete (PMAC in Bangalore city covering about 24 km of roadway stretches at varying traffic speeds. Field noise measurements were performed using a noise meter mounted underneath a trailer developed in this study and attached to the parent vehicle. Overall, PMAC sections produced the highest noise levels than the PCC followed by the conventional AC sections; PMAC mix type had an average difference of about 6–8 decibels (dB(A compared with the AC mix, and 1–2 dB(A in comparison with the PCC mix types. It is noteworthy that although many traffic noise studies have been conducted in India, the contribution of tyre/road noise to the overall noise has not been developed and/or established till date. The approach taken in this study is first of its kind within the framework of tyre/road noise research and development in India.

  1. India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semaan, Leslie

    This text examines India's rich and long history, then uses this perspective to focus on present day problems and aspirations. It forces students to reevaluate their stereotyped images of India by presenting a nation that has striven to recover from a past of colonial domination, is presently faced with regional ethnic discord and disparity, and…

  2. Primary Education for All in the City of Mumbai, India: The Challenge Set by Local Actors. School Mapping and Local-Level Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juneja, Nalini

    This book discusses primary education of the poor in the city of Mumbai, India. It focuses on the city of Mumbai itself and the poor who live in it, answering questions such as What makes the city the way it is? What does it mean to be poor in Mumbai? and How does the poverty of the poor in Mumbai affect their chances of receiving a basic…

  3. India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-01

    In this discussion of India attention is directed to the following: the people; geography; history; government; political conditions; the economy; foreign relations (Pakistan and Bangladesh, China, and the Soviet Union); defense; and the relations between the US and India. In 1983 India's population was estimated at 746 million with an annual growth rate of 2.24%. The infant mortality rate was estimated at 116/1000 in 1984 with a life expectancy of 54.9 years. Although India occupies only 2.4% of the world's land area, it supports nearly 15% of the world's population. 2 major ethnic strains predominate in India: the Aryan in the north and the Dravidian in the south, although the lines between them are blurred. India dominates the South Asian subcontinent geographically. The people of India have had a continuous civilization since about 2500 B.C., when the inhabitants of the Indus River Valley developed an urban culture based on commerce, trade, and, to a lesser degree, agriculture. This civilization declined about 1500 B.C. and Aryan tribes originating in central Asia absorbed parts of its culture as they spread out over the South Asian subcontinent. During the next few centuries, India flourished under several successive empires. The 1st British outpost in South Asia was established in 1619 at Surat on the northwestern coast of India. The British gradually expanded their influence until, by the 1850s, they controlled almost the entire area of present-day India. Independence was attained on August 15, 1947, and India became a dominion within the Commonwealth of Nations with Jawaharlal Nehru as prime minister. According to its constitution, India is a "sovereign socialist secular democratic republic." Like the US, India has a federal form of government, but the central government in India has greater power in relation to its states, and government is patterned after the British parliamentary system. The Congress Party has ruled India since independence with the

  4. Knowledge, attitude and practice in emergency management of dental injury among physical education teachers: A survey in Bangalore urban schools

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    Mohandas U

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess, by means of a self administered structured questionnaire, the level of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of physical education teachers in Bangalore city with regards to emergency management of dental injuries. The questionnaire surveyed the physical education teacher′s background, knowledge of management of tooth fracture, avulsion, luxation injuries, it also investigated physical education teacher′s attitude and the way they handle the injuries. The sample consisted 580 teachers from 700 selected schools in Bangalore city. Chi-square test was applied to test the significance between trained and untrained teachers. Among the population 70% were males physical education teachers 30% were females. 95% of the teachers had physical education training and 5% did not have the training. 95% of the population had first aid component and 5% did not have. Only 25% of trained physical education teachers had correct knowledge about tooth identification and 17% among untrained teachers. 81% of trained teachers answered correctly regarding management of fractured anterior teeth against 27.5% of untrained teachers (P< 0.0002. The present report indicates that there is lack of knowledge and practice among physical education teachers in Bangalore city regarding emergency management of dental trauma. Educational programs to improve the knowledge and awareness among the teachers have to be implemented.

  5. Indoor radon levels in Bangalore metropolitan: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathish, L.A.; Balakrishan, M.T.; Sundareshan, S.

    2013-01-01

    Indoor 222 Rn and 220 Rn levels for the environment of Bangalore city are surveyed for 7 years. The area of present study is Bangalore city lies over a hard and moderately dense gneissic basement dated back to the Archean era (2500-3500 mya). A large granitic intrusion in the south central part of the city extends from the Golf Course in the north central to Vasantpur (VV Nagar) in the south of the city (almost 13 km in length) and on an average 4 km from East to West along the way. A magmatite intrusion formed within the granitic one extends for approximately 7.3 km running parallel with Krishna Rajendra road/Kanakpura road from Puttanna Chetty road in Chamrajpet till Bikaspura road in the south. These basic intrusions which mark the close of Archean era (Lower Proterozoic; 1600-2500 mya) mainly constitute hard massive rocks such as Gabbro, Dolerite, Norite and Pyroxenite. Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors were used for the long term measurements. lndoor 222 Rn and 220 Rn levels were measured for the environment of Bangalore city on room wise, flooring wise, wall wise, season wise, volume wise, ventilation wise and location wise. The measured range and mean value of 222 Rn levels in the ground water of different locations found to be 14.3-480.2 BqL - 1 and 166.2 BqL - 1 respectively. In all the study locations the concentration is higher than the permissible limit of 11.1 BqL - 1 for drinking water. The maximum values of dose rates for the analyzed granite samples used for construction of buildings were in range of 1.72 to 2.71 and the minimum values were varied from 1.05 to 1.66 msvy -1 , whereas the AM and GM were in the range of 1.34 to 2.08 and 1.33 to 2.02 mSvy -1 respectively. lndoor 222 Rn and 220 Rn concentrations were ranged from 16.6 ± 0.9 to 81.0 ± 3.5 and 10.6 ± 1.7 to 38.6 ± 6.1 Bqm -1 for good and poor ventilation conditions respectively, for winter and summer seasons they were 42.42 ± 2.1 and 26.78 ± 1.34 Bqm -3 and 17.13 ± 0.69 and 15.2

  6. A mark-resight survey method to estimate the roaming dog population in three cities in Rajasthan, India

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    Singh Baldev

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available 1. Abstract Background Dog population management is required in many locations to minimise the risks dog populations may pose to human health and to alleviate animal welfare problems. In many cities in India, Animal Birth Control (ABC projects have been adopted to provide population management. Measuring the impact of such projects requires assessment of dog population size among other relevant indicators. Methods This paper describes a simple mark-resight survey methodology that can be used with little investment of resources to monitor the number of roaming dogs in areas that are currently subject to ABC, provided the numbers, dates and locations of the dogs released following the intervention are reliably recorded. We illustrate the method by estimating roaming dog numbers in three cities in Rajasthan, India: Jaipur, Jodhpur and Jaisalmer. In each city the dog populations were either currently subject to ABC or had been very recently subject to such an intervention and hence a known number of dogs had been permanently marked with an ear-notch to identify them as having been operated. We conducted street surveys to record the current percentage of dogs in each city that are ear-notched and used an estimate for the annual survival of ear-notched dogs to calculate the current size of each marked population. Results Dividing the size of the marked population by the fraction of the dogs that are ear-notched we estimated the number of roaming dogs to be 36,580 in Jaipur, 24,853 in Jodhpur and 2,962 in Jaisalmer. Conclusions The mark-resight survey methodology described here is a simple way of providing population estimates for cities with current or recent ABC programmes that include visible marking of dogs. Repeating such surveys on a regular basis will further allow for evaluation of ABC programme impact on population size and reproduction in the remaining unsterilised dog population.

  7. A mark-resight survey method to estimate the roaming dog population in three cities in Rajasthan, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiby, Lex R; Reece, John F; Wright, Rachel; Jaisinghani, Rajan; Singh, Baldev; Hiby, Elly F

    2011-08-11

    Dog population management is required in many locations to minimise the risks dog populations may pose to human health and to alleviate animal welfare problems. In many cities in India, Animal Birth Control (ABC) projects have been adopted to provide population management. Measuring the impact of such projects requires assessment of dog population size among other relevant indicators. This paper describes a simple mark-resight survey methodology that can be used with little investment of resources to monitor the number of roaming dogs in areas that are currently subject to ABC, provided the numbers, dates and locations of the dogs released following the intervention are reliably recorded. We illustrate the method by estimating roaming dog numbers in three cities in Rajasthan, India: Jaipur, Jodhpur and Jaisalmer. In each city the dog populations were either currently subject to ABC or had been very recently subject to such an intervention and hence a known number of dogs had been permanently marked with an ear-notch to identify them as having been operated. We conducted street surveys to record the current percentage of dogs in each city that are ear-notched and used an estimate for the annual survival of ear-notched dogs to calculate the current size of each marked population. Dividing the size of the marked population by the fraction of the dogs that are ear-notched we estimated the number of roaming dogs to be 36,580 in Jaipur, 24,853 in Jodhpur and 2,962 in Jaisalmer. The mark-resight survey methodology described here is a simple way of providing population estimates for cities with current or recent ABC programmes that include visible marking of dogs. Repeating such surveys on a regular basis will further allow for evaluation of ABC programme impact on population size and reproduction in the remaining unsterilised dog population.

  8. Prevalence of molar incisor hypomineralization in 7–9-year-old children of Bengaluru City, India

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    Priya Subramaniam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH is a developmental defect. The prevalence of MIH ranges widely from 2.4% to 40.2%. Aim: This study was under taken to determine the prevalence of MIH in 7–9-year-old children of Bengaluru City, India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted in a representative sample of 2500 school children aged 7–9 years of Bengaluru, India. Oral examination was carried out by a single trained calibrated examiner under natural daylight. Results: Twelve children (0.48% were diagnosed with MIH. A total of 68 teeth were observed with MIH. All four first permanent molars were affected in 50% of children. In the molar group, mandibular molars (29.41% were more frequently affected than maxillary molars (27.94%. Conclusion: The prevalence of MIH in 7–9-year-old children of Bengaluru was 0.48%, with no gender predilection.

  9. Prevalence of molar incisor hypomineralization in 7-9-year-old children of Bengaluru City, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Priya; Gupta, Tulika; Sharma, Akhilesh

    2016-01-01

    Molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) is a developmental defect. The prevalence of MIH ranges widely from 2.4% to 40.2%. This study was under taken to determine the prevalence of MIH in 7-9-year-old children of Bengaluru City, India. A cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted in a representative sample of 2500 school children aged 7-9 years of Bengaluru, India. Oral examination was carried out by a single trained calibrated examiner under natural daylight. Twelve children (0.48%) were diagnosed with MIH. A total of 68 teeth were observed with MIH. All four first permanent molars were affected in 50% of children. In the molar group, mandibular molars (29.41%) were more frequently affected than maxillary molars (27.94%). The prevalence of MIH in 7-9-year-old children of Bengaluru was 0.48%, with no gender predilection.

  10. Prevalence of molar incisor hypomineralization in 7–9-year-old children of Bengaluru City, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Priya; Gupta, Tulika; Sharma, Akhilesh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) is a developmental defect. The prevalence of MIH ranges widely from 2.4% to 40.2%. Aim: This study was under taken to determine the prevalence of MIH in 7–9-year-old children of Bengaluru City, India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted in a representative sample of 2500 school children aged 7–9 years of Bengaluru, India. Oral examination was carried out by a single trained calibrated examiner under natural daylight. Results: Twelve children (0.48%) were diagnosed with MIH. A total of 68 teeth were observed with MIH. All four first permanent molars were affected in 50% of children. In the molar group, mandibular molars (29.41%) were more frequently affected than maxillary molars (27.94%). Conclusion: The prevalence of MIH in 7–9-year-old children of Bengaluru was 0.48%, with no gender predilection. PMID:27041893

  11. A STUDY OF IMPACT OF DETERMINANTS OF PATIENTS AND HEALTH SYSTEM DELAY ON TUBERCULOSIS DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT IN BANGALORE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagadish Siddalinga Devaru

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Setting: TU/DMCs of Bangalore city. India. All new sputum positive patients registered to the selected TU/DMCs were interviewed. A total of 468 patients aged above 20 years were enrolled. The study period was from January to June 2009. Objectives: To track the delay in diagnosis and treatment of patients reporting to tuberculosis units and microscopy centers. Design: A cross sectional study. TU/DMCs were randomly selected. A pretested questionnaire was administered to collect data. Results: The study population had 326 (69.7% males. The mean age of study population was 38.5 years. 74.4% were married, 20.7% were illiterates, 27.8% were daily wagers, 10.5% were unemployed. The median and mean total delays from development of cough to diagnosis were 41 days and 36.04 days; the median and mean patient delay was 24 days and 20.7 days, and health system delay was 18 and 15.31 days respectively. There was a significant difference among the different age group of patients with older people having longer patient delay (p<0.0001. Lower income, illiteracy, unemployment, showed significant association with patients delay (p<0.0001. Alcohol intake and smoking habit among the male patients had significant association for longer patient delay (p=0.00004. Health seeking behavior like self medication, also had longer patient delay. Other socio demographic factors had no significant influence on the patient delay. Longer health system delay was found among patients who visited general practitioners and Ayurvedic medicine. Conclusion: More specific and effective health education of the general public on tuberculosis and seeking of appropriate medical consultation are likely to improve case detection.

  12. Shaping Future Green Cities : LEDs Technology adoption as an option for India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singh, R.; Kroesen, J.O.

    2010-01-01

    The sustainable development in developing and newly industrialising countries (China, India, South Africa, and Brazil) is central issue for policy makers, decision makers, academic, and planners. The attainment of sustainability has become a challenge for rapidly urbanising India. The paper focuses

  13. Predictors of Sexually Transmitted Infections among Female Sex Workers (FSWs in a City of Northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi Shukla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs and Reproductive tract infections RTIs are important public health problems in India. The prevalence of these infections is considerably higher among high risk groups (HRGs ranging from 20-30%. It is high time that a study should be conducted to explore different factors and conditions responsible for the practice of unsafe sex among female sex workers (FSWs in Uttar Pradesh (UP and the impact of this on social life and health of FSWs. As Lucknow provides a comprehensive opportunity in terms of tourism, occupation, and economy, it becomes a potential hub for sex work. Studying FSW in Lucknow can thus be considered as a yardstick for the entire FSW population of UP population. The present study was thus planned with the objective of knowing the STI prevalence and its determinants among FSWs. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on FSWs registered with Targeted Intervention-Non-government Organization (TI-NGO, registered with Uttar Pradesh State Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS Control Society (UPSACS of Lucknow city. Total 288 subjects were studied. Results: The average age of FSWs was 31 years. FSWs were mostly Hindus and illiterate. The overall prevalence of STI as per Syndromic diagnosis was found to be 35.8%. However, the percentage of FSWs with STI was higher in street-based (50.6% than home-based (29.8%. Majority (42.7% of sex workers with STI had non-regular partners only while majority (52.4% of sex workers without any STI had only regular partners. Condom usage with regular partners was poor. However, with the non-regular partners the condom usage was better. On multivariate analysis being single, having sex work as a sole means of earning, duration of sex work > 2 years, having pallor, and giving in to client′s demand for unsafe sex were found to be significant in causing STI. Conclusions: Prevalence of STI among the female sex workers as

  14. Predictors of Sexually Transmitted Infections among Female Sex Workers (FSWs) in a City of Northern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Pallavi; Masood, Jamal; Singh, J V; Singh, V K; Gupta, Abhishek; Krishna, Asuri

    2015-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and Reproductive tract infections RTIs are important public health problems in India. The prevalence of these infections is considerably higher among high risk groups (HRGs) ranging from 20-30%. It is high time that a study should be conducted to explore different factors and conditions responsible for the practice of unsafe sex among female sex workers (FSWs) in Uttar Pradesh (UP) and the impact of this on social life and health of FSWs. As Lucknow provides a comprehensive opportunity in terms of tourism, occupation, and economy, it becomes a potential hub for sex work. Studying FSW in Lucknow can thus be considered as a yardstick for the entire FSW population of UP population. The present study was thus planned with the objective of knowing the STI prevalence and its determinants among FSWs. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on FSWs registered with Targeted Intervention-Non-government Organization (TI-NGO), registered with Uttar Pradesh State Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Control Society (UPSACS) of Lucknow city. Total 288 subjects were studied. The average age of FSWs was 31 years. FSWs were mostly Hindus and illiterate. The overall prevalence of STI as per Syndromic diagnosis was found to be 35.8%. However, the percentage of FSWs with STI was higher in street-based (50.6%) than home-based (29.8%). Majority (42.7%) of sex workers with STI had non-regular partners only while majority (52.4%) of sex workers without any STI had only regular partners. Condom usage with regular partners was poor. However, with the non-regular partners the condom usage was better. On multivariate analysis being single, having sex work as a sole means of earning, duration of sex work > 2 years, having pallor, and giving in to client's demand for unsafe sex were found to be significant in causing STI. Prevalence of STI among the female sex workers as per Syndromic diagnosis was found to be 35.8%. Unemployment, anemia

  15. Is small town India falling into the nutritional trap of metro cities? A study in school-going adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabassum Nawab

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There has been an increasing secular trend in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in developing countries. The prevalence reported among children and adolescents of some metro cities in India are comparable to that in some developed countries. Westernization of culture, rapid mushrooming of fast food joints, lack of physical activity, and increasing sedentary pursuits in the metro cities are some of the reasons implicated for this. The nutritional changes in small town school children might be following the same pattern of larger cities. Aims and Objectives: To study the prevalence of overweight and obesity among school-going adolescents of Aligarh and to study the sociodemographic and behavioral correlates of the same. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study done in two affluent and two nonaffluent schools in Aligarh, taking 330 adolescents from each group (total-660. Study tools included a predesigned and pretested questionnaire, Global Physical Activity Questionnaire, and anthropometric measurement. Overweight and obesity were defined based on World Health Organization 2007 Growth Reference. Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression analysis were done. Results: Prevalence of overweight and obesity was 9.8% and 4.8% among school-going adolescents. The difference in prevalence of overweight and obesity among affluent schools (14.8% and 8.2% and nonaffluent schools (4.8% and 1.5% was significant. Risk factors for overweight and obesity were affluence, higher maternal education, parental history of obesity, frequent fast food intake, and television (TV viewing more than 2 h/day. Conclusion: Overweight and obesity among school-going adolescents is a crisis facing even smaller cities in India. Behavior change communication should be focused to adolescents, especially of the affluent section, toward restricting fast food intake, and TV viewing.

  16. The nutrition transition in India

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2. 1St John's Institute of Population Health and Clinical Research, Bangalore, India, and. 2Population Health Research Institute, McMaster University, Canada ..... 2. Popkin BM. An overview on the nutrition transition and its health implications: the. Bellagio meeting. Public Health Nutr 2002; 5(1A): 93-103. 3. Shetty PS.

  17. India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    Interest has grown recently in the issues of third tier or emerging nuclear suppliers. These are states that could export nuclear equipment, services, or technology but are outside the export control framework of the London Nuclear Supplier Group (NSG). The concern is that they may conduct nuclear trade without adequate safeguards, thus weakening the nonproliferation regime or even contributing to nuclear proliferation. The volume of nuclear sales by emerging suppliers is still minuscule, and it is unclear how far their export practices will diverge from the NSG framework. This case study of Indian nuclear supplier capability and practice is an effort to discern the type of path India is likely to adopt. This paper examines four aspects of India's nuclear activity for clues to India's potential role as an emerging nuclear supplier: foreign transactions; nuclear decision making; policy norms; and nuclear industrial capabilities

  18. Dental caries prevalence and treatment needs among 12- and 15- Year old schoolchildren in Shimla city, Himachal Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shailee, Fotedar; Sogi, G M; Sharma, K R; Nidhi, Pruthi

    2012-01-01

    Dental caries is one of the commonest oral diseases in children. Despite this fact, not many studies have been done on this issue among school children in Shimla. To assess the prevalence of dental caries and treatment needs among schoolchildren aged 12 years and 15 years in Shimla city, Himachal Pradesh, India. With this study we also aimed to establish reliable baseline data. Cross-sectional study. This study was conducted among 12 - and 15 - year old schoolchildren in Shimla city, Himachal Pradesh-India. A sample of 1011 schoolchildren was selected by a two-stage cluster sampling method. Clinical recording of dental caries, was done according to WHO diagnostic criteria (1997). The statistical tests used were the t- test, and the Chi-square test. The prevalence of dental caries was 32.6% and 42.2% at 12 years and 15 years respectively. At 12 years of age, the mean Decayed Missing Filled Teeth was 0.62 ± 1.42 and it was 1.06 ± 2.93 at 15 years of age. Females had higher level of caries than males at both the ages. Dental caries was higher in children from government schools as compared to those from private schools. The 'decayed' component was the biggest contributor to the DMFT index. The highest treatment need at both ages was one surface restoration. The caries experience of 12- and 15- year-old children was low compared to WHO - 'recommended' values. Effective oral health promotion strategies need to be implemented to further improve the dental health of school children in Shimla city.

  19. Being a 'Modern Indian' in an Offshore Centre in Bangalore

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gertsen, Martine Cardel; Zølner, Mette

    2014-01-01

    . The analysis is based upon the study of an off–shore service centre in Bangalore that performs financial services for an MNC headquartered in Denmark. The identification with the MNC and its corporate culture expressed by local employees is conveyed as being connected to external self–enhancement (belonging...... to an esteemed organisation) as well as internal self–enhancement (feeling important within the organisation). The corporate culture is made sense of in the local Indian context and shaped by their particular characteristics as members of Bangalore's international workforce. We argue that understanding...

  20. Measuring socio-economic inequality: From dwellers' perspective within Bangalore urban agglomeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keya Chakraborty

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Planners and researchers have realized that larger regional framework of urban areas are significant in assessing various inequality aspects in a developing country like India. The framework consists of heterogeneity in spatial and demographic aspects and in quality of socio-economic development levels as well. Against this background, the present paper has proposed a methodological framework to assess socio-economic inequality within Bangalore Urban Agglomeration (BUA as governed by the composite set of Human Development Index (HDI based indicators. Assessments are based on local data of dwellers' preferences on the indicators. On the whole, this paper has tried to establish the significance of application of HDI based indicators in an assessment of socio-economic inequality within BUA. Consequently, the paper has arrived at the need for improvement of comprehensive HDI governed basic public services, amenities, and advanced facilities, across all trans-urban-area levels to ensure a holistic development within BUA.

  1. Earthquake scenario in West Bengal with emphasis on seismic hazard microzonation of the city of Kolkata, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, S. K.; Adhikari, M. D.; Maiti, S. K.; Devaraj, N.; Srivastava, N.; Mohapatra, L. D.

    2014-09-01

    Seismic microzonation is a process of estimating site-specific effects due to an earthquake on urban centers for its disaster mitigation and management. The state of West Bengal, located in the western foreland of the Assam-Arakan Orogenic Belt, the Himalayan foothills and Surma Valley, has been struck by several devastating earthquakes in the past, indicating the need for a seismotectonic review of the province, especially in light of probable seismic threat to its capital city of Kolkata, which is a major industrial and commercial hub in the eastern and northeastern region of India. A synoptic probabilistic seismic hazard model of Kolkata is initially generated at engineering bedrock (Vs30 ~ 760 m s-1) considering 33 polygonal seismogenic sources at two hypocentral depth ranges, 0-25 and 25-70 km; 158 tectonic sources; appropriate seismicity modeling; 14 ground motion prediction equations for three seismotectonic provinces, viz. the east-central Himalaya, the Bengal Basin and Northeast India selected through suitability testing; and appropriate weighting in a logic tree framework. Site classification of Kolkata performed following in-depth geophysical and geotechnical investigations places the city in D1, D2, D3 and E classes. Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment at a surface-consistent level - i.e., the local seismic hazard related to site amplification performed by propagating the bedrock ground motion with 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years through a 1-D sediment column using an equivalent linear analysis - predicts a peak ground acceleration (PGA) range from 0.176 to 0.253 g in the city. A deterministic liquefaction scenario in terms of spatial distribution of liquefaction potential index corresponding to surface PGA distribution places 50% of the city in the possible liquefiable zone. A multicriteria seismic hazard microzonation framework is proposed for judicious integration of multiple themes, namely PGA at the surface, liquefaction potential

  2. The costs of HIV prevention for different target populations in Mumbai, Thane and Bangalore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrashekar, Sudha; Vassall, Anna; Reddy, Bhaskar; Shetty, Govindraj; Vickerman, Peter; Alary, Michel

    2011-12-29

    Avahan, the India AIDS Initiative, delivers HIV prevention services to high-risk populations at scale. Although the broad costs of such HIV interventions are known, to-date there has been little data available on the comparative costs of reaching different target groups, including female sex workers (FSWs), replace with 'high risk men who have sex with men (HR-MSM) and trans-genders. Costs are estimated for the first three years of Avahan scale up differentiated by typology of female sex workers (brothel, street, home, lodge based, bar based), HR-MSM and transgenders in urban districts in India: Mumbai and Thane in Maharashtra and Bangalore in Karnataka. Financial and economic costs were collected prospectively from a provider perspective. Outputs were measured using data collected by the Avahan programme. Costs are presented in US$2008. Costs were found to vary substantially by target group. Non-governmental organisations (NGOs) working with transgender populations had a higher mean cost (US $116) per person reached compared to those dealing primarily with FSWs (US $75-96) and MSWs (US $90) by the end of year three of the programme in Mumbai. The mean cost of delivering the intervention to HR-MSMs (US $42) was higher than delivering it to FSWs (US $37) in Bangalore. The package of services delivered to each target group was similar, and our results suggest that cost variation is related to the target population size, the intensity of the programme (in terms of number of contacts made per year) and a number of specific issues related to each target group. Based on our data policy makers and program managers need to consider the ease of accessing high risk population when planning and budgeting for HIV prevention services for these populations and avoid funding programmes on the basis of target population size alone.

  3. Mega-events in India, Brazil, and South Africa: Lessons for safer cities

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-12-13

    Dec 13, 2016 ... Most research on mega-events has focused on western experience. In this 2015 paper, Brij Maharaj of the University of Kwazulu-Natal presents a missing perspective, examining three recent mega-events in the Global South: the 2010 Commonwealth Games in Delhi, India; the 2010 FIFA World Cup in ...

  4. 'Mafias' in the Waterscape: Urban Informality and Everyday Public Authority in Bangalore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malini Ranganathan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the phenomenon of Bangaloreʼs urban 'water mafias', operators who extract and deliver groundwater to scores of informal residential areas in Indian cities. The term 'mafia' here is treated as a semantic area of situated meanings and cultural interpretations that needs to be historicised and prised open in order to better understand how the urban waterscape is produced and inhabited. It situates the provenance and workings of mafias within wider debates on urban informality, state formation, and urban infrastructure and space. Rather than seeing mafias as filling a gap where government water supply has failed, as mainstream narratives suggest, the paper argues that mafias must be seen as formative of the post-colonial state. It further suggests that the specific form of public authority exercised by water mafias explains the production of informality in Bangaloreʼs waterscape. Based on ethnographic research in 2007-2009, the paper characterises the everyday authority wielded by mafias along three main registers: (i the ability of mafias to make and break discursive and material boundaries between the formal and informal, public and private, and state and society, (ii the varied nature of mafiasʼ political practices, ranging from exploitation to electoral lobbying to social protection to the provision of welfare, and iii mafiasʼ complicity in both water and land regimes in a neo-liberalised urban political economy.

  5. An Urban-Spatial Analysis of the Women in the Informal Sectors of Greater Guwahati City of Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zona Bhuyan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects the use of urban space by women in urban informal sectors in the city of Guwahati located in North East India. The population influx from across the borders in the aftermath of the partition has huge implications both on polity and on economy of the northeastern states in general and Assam in particular.  Importantly, the urban informal sectors have a sizeable share in terms of its significant contributions towards Gross Domestic Product (GDP as well as generation of employment opportunities largely. Using a feminist perspective, the research is an attempt to investigate the engagement of women in the informal sector in greater Guwahati. Research findings reveal that the occupations of the women workers are location-specific, that is, the manufacturing sectors (textiles, food preparation, printing and skilled service are mainly home/shop based production (fixed locations whereas the service sectors (leisure, caring, elementary construction, elementary sales and cleaning occupation operate at variable locations (construction sites, street pavements, marketplaces and other various locations. Further analysis shows that the informal sector is highly demand dependent and such demands are in the central business areas of the city, therefore informal sector services (skilled services and elementary services are found to be located in and around the central areas of Guwahati city. Women operators in the informal sector are attracted to the central business district because of the many advantages that it enjoys relative to other parts of a city. The paper concludes by calling on policy makers and physical planning agencies to evolve more pragmatic strategies for urban development matters in order that urban informal sector activities can be integrated into urban development plans. Finally, further research is called for on how urban planners could redesign the urban space with appropriate consideration of the informal sector

  6. Characteristics of black carbon concentration at a metropolitan city located near land-ocean boundary in Eastern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukdar, Shamitaksha; Jana, Soumyajyoti; Maitra, Animesh; Gogoi, Mukunda M.

    2015-02-01

    Near surface aerosol black carbon (BC) concentration data were collected using a seven channel Aethalometer (AE31) during June 2012-May 2013 in Kolkata (22° 34‧E, 88° 22‧N), a metropolitan city located near the land-ocean boundary in Eastern India. BC concentration shows a prominent seasonal and diurnal variation associated with the meteorological parameters. The mean BC concentration varied from 5 μg/m3 to 27 μg/m3 seasonally. The variation of BC mass concentration and its significant association with atmospheric parameters such as temperature profile, relative humidity and wind speed have been studied. Moreover, the influence of the transported air masses on BC concentration at different seasons has also been discussed. An estimation of Angstrom exponent discloses that fossil fuel combustion is a major source of BC at this location.

  7. Temporal and spatial assemblages of invasive birds occupying the urban landscape and its gradient in a southern city of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjula Menon

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Common birds play an important role in regulating the functioning of urban ecosystems. Typically, a few common species have become invasive species threatening biodiversity worldwide. Our understanding of the dynamics of invasive birds in an Indian context is still in its infancy. Hence, we studied the gradual adaptation of invasive birds to novel habitats and their dispersal dynamics in a southern city of India. We tested the prediction that urban matrix are increasingly composed of invasive generalist species. The results illustrate the dominance of invasive species such as Corvus splendens, Acridotheres tristis, Acridotheres livia, and Milvus migrans in the urban environment. The significant abundance of C. splendens exhibited urbanization-induced homogenization. The land-use pattern showed more inclination toward the urban structures than the vegetative attributes. Specialist groups from the frugivore guild were found to decline from the urban environment, which may shed light on the ecological factors that constrain their distribution.

  8. The effect of aerosol optical depth on rainfall with reference to meteorology over metro cities in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunaseelan, Indira; Bhaskar, B Vijay; Muthuchelian, K

    2014-01-01

    Rainfall is a key link in the global water cycle and a proxy for changing climate; therefore, proper assessment of the urban environment's impact on rainfall will be increasingly important in ongoing climate diagnostics and prediction. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements on the monsoon seasons of the years 2008 to 2010 were made over four metro regional hotspots in India. The highest average of AOD was in the months of June and July for the four cities during 3 years and lowest was in September. Comparing the four regions, Kolkata was in the peak of aerosol contamination and Chennai was in least. Pearson correlation was made between AOD with climatic parameters. Some changes in the parameters were found during drought year. Temperature, cloud parameters, and humidity play an important role for the drought conditions. The role of aerosols, meteorological parameters, and their impacts towards the precipitation during the monsoon was studied.

  9. Dynamic analysis and ecological evaluation of urban heat islands in Raipur city, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Subhanil; Govil, Himanshu; Mukherjee, Sandip

    2017-07-01

    Spatial-temporal distribution of the urban heat islands (UHI) and their changes over Raipur city have been analyzed using multitemporal Landsat satellite data from 1995 to 2016. Land surface temperature (LST) was retrieved through a mono-window algorithm. Some selected land use/land cover (LU-LC) indices were analyzed with LST using linear regression. The urban thermal field variance index (UTFVI) was applied to measure the thermal comfort level of the city. Results show that during the observed period, the study area experienced a gradual increasing rate in mean LST (>1% per annum). The UHI developed especially along the north-western industrial area and south-eastern bare land of the city. A difference in mean LST between UHI and non-UHI for different time periods (2.6°C in 1995, 2.85°C in 2006, 3.42°C in 2009, and 3.63°C in 2016) reflects the continuous warming status of the city. The LST map also shows the existence of a few urban hot spots near the industrial areas, metal roofs, and high density transport parking lots, which are more abundant in the north-western part of the city. The UTFVI map associated with UHI indicates that the inner parts of the city are ecologically more comfortable than the outer peripheries.

  10. Role of private-public partnership in health education: a survey of current practices in udaipur city, rajasthan, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Jaddu J; Multani, Suraj; Bhat, Nagesh; Sharma, Ashish; Singh, Sopan; Patel, Rahul

    2013-09-01

    The concept of a public-private partnership (PPP) has been proposed as a potential model for providing education services besides public finance and public delivery. The present study was conducted to survey the current practices of Private-Public Partnership (PPP) in health education in Udaipur city, Rajasthan, India. A questionnaire survey was conducted among organizations involved exclusively and actively in health education in Udaipur city, Rajasthan, India. The pretested self designed structured questionnaire consisted of 21 items pertaining to the current practices of private-public partnership (PPP) in health education. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the data. On the basis of inclusion criteria, 50 personnel from 2 private dental colleges, 1 private medical college, 2 Non Government Organizations (NGOs) and 1 health museum were selected. Only 15 (30%) of participants agreed that they have a written reference policy that outlines the services they provide to the general public. Regarding the collection of health education materials available, majority 35 (70%) had printed books followed by audio visual (AV) materials (slides, videos, audio cassettes) [22 (44%)]. 35 (70%) of participants reported that they loan only pamphlets and broachers to the public. Thirty four (68%) of participants provide information about oral health. Only 23 (46%) of participants reported that their institution/organization undergo periodic evaluation. Results of this survey show that that most of the PPP were involved in delivering health education, mostly concentrated on general health. Only few of them were involved in oral health education. The role of PPP in health education is integral to the effort of promoting a healthier population. This effort continues the trend and broadens the scope of involvement for further studies.

  11. The fortifications of Cartagena de Indias and its tourist function in the cultural tourism of the city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Menchero Sánchez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The cultural legacy of Cartagena de Indias (Colombia is formed by an important defen-sive cultural heritage, integrated by strongholds, bulwarks, curtains, and batteries, locat-ed in the historic center and in its bay. Theses fortifications account for up to 44% of the cultural heritage protected by the Ministry of Cultural of Colombia in the city, and all of them, have been included and recognized as a World Heritage Site (UNESCO, 1984. However, although they have all been inventoried as tourist attractions, their role in the city’s cultural tourism is variable. The present article analyses this heritage, by means of its current tourism valuation and functionality. For this, information from different sources has been studied, which has been systematized through variables, verified later by means of direct observation. In this way, it has been possible to determine the situa-tion of the attractions within the cultural tourism of Cartagena de Indias, being able to establish conclusions. 

  12. Factors Influencing Employment and Employability for Persons with Disability: Insights from a City in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandra, Srikrishna S; Murthy, G V S; Shamanna, B R; Allagh, Komal P; Pant, Hira B; John, Neena

    2017-01-01

    There is a lack of evidence on barriers faced by persons with disability in accessing employment opportunities in India. This study was undertaken to ascertain both employee and employer perceptions on barriers existing among Information Technology (IT) and IT-enabled sectors to employ persons with disabilities. Two hundred participants from six IT/IT-enabled sector organizations were included in the study; study was conducted at Hyderabad, India. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to the participants. Physical access to and within the worksite was highlighted as a concern by 95% of respondents. Majority perceived that communication, attitude of people, discrimination, harassment at work place, and information were critical barriers. Only 3.8% of employers were aware that their company had a written policy on employing persons with disabilities. Employers stated that commitment and perseverance were important facilitators among persons with disabilities. Evidence from this study will help in planning need-based employment for persons with disabilities.

  13. Cytoskeletal Pathologies of Age-Related Diseases between Elderly Sri Lankan (Colombo) and Indian (Bangalore) Brain Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesinghe, Printha; Shankar, S K; Chickabasaviah, Yasha T; Gorrie, Catherine; Amaratunga, Dhammika; Hulathduwa, Sanjayah; Kumara, K Sunil; Samarasinghe, Kamani; Suh, Yoo Hun; Steinbusch, H W; De Silva, K Ranil D

    2016-01-01

    Within South Asia, Sri Lanka represents fastest aging with 13% of the population was aged over 60's in 2011, whereas in India it was 8%. Majority of the Sri Lankan population based genetic studies have confirmed their origin on Indian mainland. As there were inadequate data on aging cytoskeletal pathologies of these two nations with their close genetic affiliations, we performed a comparison on their elderly. Autopsy brain samples of 50 individuals from Colombo, Sri Lanka (mean age 72.1 yrs ± 7.8, mean ± S.D.) and 42 individuals from Bangalore, India (mean age 65.9 yrs ± 9.3) were screened for neurodegenerative pathologies using immunohistochemical techniques. A total of 79 cases with incomplete clinical history (Colombo- 47 and Bangalore- 32) were subjected to statistical analysis and 13 cases, clinically diagnosed with dementia and/or Parkinsonism disorders were excluded. As per National Institute on Aging- Alzheimer's Association guidelines, between Colombo and Bangalore samples, Alzheimer's disease neuropathologic change for intermediate/ high level was 4.25% vs. 3.12% and low level was 19.15% vs. 15.62% respectively. Pathologies associated with Parkinsonism including brainstem predominant Lewy bodies- 6.4% and probable progressive supra nuclear palsy- 2.13% were found solely in Colombo samples. Alzheimer related pathologies were not different among elders, however, in Colombo males, neurofibrillary tangle grade was significantly higher in the region of hippocampus (odds ratio = 1.46, 95% confidence interval = 0.07-0.7) and at risk in midbrain substantia nigra (p = 0.075). Other age-related pathologies including spongiform changes (p aging cytoskeletal pathologies are comparatively higher in elderly Sri Lankans and this might be due to their genetic, dietary and/ or environmental variations.

  14. High ambient noise levels in Vadodara City, India, affected by urbanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Neha; Dhiman, Hitesh; Shaikh, Sadaf; Shah, Purvish; Sarkar, Roma; Patel, Shashin

    2016-12-01

    The present research was conducted to study the urbanization of Vadodara city and to monitor the ambient noise level in the industrial, commercial, residential and silence zones of the city. A settlement map created by unsupervised classification for the land use and land cover study of Vadodara city clearly shows the increasing pattern of urbanization in its central part, which may be the result of urban sprawl due to migration of people from the rural to the urban areas. The fluctuation in ambient noise level was recorded using an A-weighted sound level meter in all the four zones of Vadodara city for 3 h at regular intervals of 15 min on 3 consecutive days at the same time. The results showed the highest equivalent noise level of 93.7 dBA in the commercial zone followed by 85.5 dBA in the industrial zone, 73.2 dBA in silence zone, and 70.2 dBA in the residential zone. The values of noise level were high in all the zones of the city increasing remarkably over the prescribed limit given in the Noise Pollution (Control and Regulation) Rules, 2000. Continuous exposure to such high level of noise may lead to detrimental effect on people.

  15. Organizational Commitment among High School Teachers of India and Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joolideh, Faranak; Yeshodhara, K.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to investigate the organizational commitment of teachers in India and Iran. It is an attempt to understand how these perceptions vary by demographic variables such as age and subject taught by teachers. Design/methodology/approach: Data were collected from 721 high school teachers in Bangalore (India) and Sanandaj (Iran).…

  16. Gulmarg, Kashmir, India: Potential Site for Optical Astronomical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ajaz Ahmad Dar

    2Department of Physics, Islamia College of Science and Commerce, Srinagar 190 002, India. 3Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore 560 034, India. ∗. Corresponding author. E-mail: mmalik@kashmiruniversity.ac.in. MS received 28 April 2016; accepted 24 March 2017; published online 19 June 2017. Abstract.

  17. Prevalence of Dental Caries and Traumatic Dental Injuries among 6- to 12-year-old Children in Bhopal City, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maran, Satish; Shashikiran, N D; Ahirwar, Pratibha; Maran, Priyanka; Raj Kannojiya, Pawan; Niranjan, Babita

    2017-01-01

    Dental caries and trauma are the most common oral health problems for many decades. There is need for prevalence data to analyze the nature of the problems and to take necessary steps in improving public health. To assess the prevalence of dental caries and traumatic dental injuries among schoolchildren of age 6 to 12 years in Bhopal city. Cross-sectional study design was selected. Universal sampling method was followed in this study. A total of 1,204 children were examined. The distribution of samples was done based on age, gender, residing area, and type of school. Data were collected and statistically evaluated under chi-square test and analysis of variance. The overall caries experience (73.17%) was found to be higher than that of traumatic injury experience (20.9%). There was age-related correlation between age and decay, missing, and filled teeth score. Since most injuries occur at home or at school, educating the individual is the key that will have a great impact on the prognosis of traumatic injuries. Also good food habits need to be instilled in children from a tender age with the help of parents, which is the ultimate solution to fight caries. Maran S, Shashikiran ND, Ahirwar P, Maran P, Kannojiya PR, Niranjan B. Prevalence of Dental Caries and Traumatic Dental Injuries among 6- to 12-year-old Children in Bhopal City, India. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2017; 10(2): 172-176.

  18. India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-01

    This discussion of India focuses on the following: the history of the country's demographic situation; the government's overall approach to population problems; population data systems and development planning; institutional arrangements for the integration of population with development planning; the government's view of the importance of population policy in achieving development objectives; population size, growth and natural increase; morbidity and mortality; fertility; international migration; and spatial distribution. India's government views the population problem in the country as extremely serious particularly in relation to the alleviation of poverty. It was the 1st country to introduce a family planning program at the national level. Development plans have consistently treated the population situation as a priority issue. A relatively comprehensive system of data collection for demographic purposes has existed in India for a long time. The 1st census was conducted in 1872. The government has continually worked to maintain the integration of population concerns within overall development planning. The government regards population growth as an impediment to development and views the slow growth in per capita income as being due largely to the rapid population increase which continues to outpace the increases in the gross national product. The government perceives the current rate of population growth as unsatisfactory because it is too high. Mortality levels have dropped considerably, but the government still considers the situation with regard to mortality as unacceptable. In 1980 the UN estimated the infant mortality rate was 128.9 infant deaths/1000 live births for the 1975-80 period. The total fertility rate, as estimated by the UN, is reported to have dropped from 6.3 births per woman in 1960 to 6.0 in 1970 and 5.0 in 1980. The government has continuously indicated concern with fertility levels, perceiving the situation as unsatisfactory because its

  19. Linking resilience and green growth: how green business can contribute to more resilient cities in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mans, U.

    2012-01-01

    In the face of a growing sustainability challenge, cities are becoming increasingly important actors. Municipal leaders are stepping up their efforts to adapt to the consequences of climate change and to mitigate the future impacts of greenhouse gas emissions. Becoming more resilient has become a

  20. Mega-events in India, Brazil, and South Africa: Lessons for safer cities

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    13 déc. 2016 ... Hosting global events is a popular strategy for boosting city profiles and spurring economic development. But these mega-events produce winners and losers, as infrastructure projects and private sector development compete for space in established neighbourhoods. Most research on mega-events has ...

  1. Energy Costs of Urban Water Supply Systems: Evidence from India (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malghan, D.; Mehta, V. K.; Goswami, R.

    2013-12-01

    For the first time in human history more people around the globe now live in urban centres rather than in rural settings. Although India's urban population proportion at 31% is still below the global average, it has been urbanizing rapidly. The population growth rate in urban India is more than two-and-half times that of rural India. The current Indian urban population, of over 370 million people, exceeds that of the total population of every other country on the planet with the exception of China. Supplying water to India's burgeoning urban agglomerations poses a challenge in terms of social equity, biophysical sustainability, and economic efficiency. A typical Indian city relies on both surface and ground water sources. Several Indian cities import surface water from distances that now exceed a hundred kilometres and across gradients of up to three thousand metres. While the depleting groundwater levels as a result of rapidly growing demand from urban India is at least anecdotally understood even when reliable estimates are not available, the energy costs of supplying water to urban India has thus far not received academic or policy attention it deserves. We develop a simple framework to integrate distributed groundwater models with water consumption data to estimate the energy and emissions associated with supplying water to urban centres. We assemble a unique data set from seventy five of the largest urban agglomerations in India and derive estimated values of energy consumption and carbon emissions associated with water provision in urban India. Our analysis shows that in every major city, the energy cost associated with long distance import of surface water significantly exceeds groundwater extraction. However, with rapidly depleting groundwater levels, we estimate inflection points for select cities when energy costs of groundwater extraction will exceed energy required to import surface water into the city. In addition to the national snapshot, we also

  2. Earthquake induced liquefaction hazard, probability and risk assessment in the city of Kolkata, India: its historical perspective and deterministic scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Sankar Kumar; Srivastava, Nishtha; Ghatak, Chitralekha; Adhikari, Manik Das; Ghosh, Ambarish; Sinha Ray, S. P.

    2018-01-01

    Liquefaction-induced ground failure is one amongst the leading causes of infrastructure damage due to the impact of large earthquakes in unconsolidated, non-cohesive, water saturated alluvial terrains. The city of Kolkata is located on the potentially liquefiable alluvial fan deposits of Ganga-Bramhaputra-Meghna Delta system with subsurface litho-stratigraphic sequence comprising of varying percentages of clay, cohesionless silt, sand, and gravel interbedded with decomposed wood and peat. Additionally, the region has moderately shallow groundwater condition especially in the post-monsoon seasons. In view of burgeoning population, there had been unplanned expansion of settlements in the hazardous geological, geomorphological, and hydrological conditions exposing the city to severe liquefaction hazard. The 1897 Shillong and 1934 Bihar-Nepal earthquakes both of M w 8.1 reportedly induced Modified Mercalli Intensity of IV-V and VI-VII respectively in the city reportedly triggering widespread to sporadic liquefaction condition with surface manifestation of sand boils, lateral spreading, ground subsidence, etc., thus posing a strong case for liquefaction potential analysis in the terrain. With the motivation of assessing seismic hazard, vulnerability, and risk of the city of Kolkata through a consorted federal funding stipulated for all the metros and upstart urban centers in India located in BIS seismic zones III, IV, and V with population more than one million, an attempt has been made here to understand the liquefaction susceptibility condition of Kolkata under the impact of earthquake loading employing modern multivariate techniques and also to predict deterministic liquefaction scenario of the city in the event of a probabilistic seismic hazard condition with 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years and a return period of 475 years. We conducted in-depth geophysical and geotechnical investigations in the city encompassing 435 km2 area. The stochastically

  3. Earthquake induced liquefaction hazard, probability and risk assessment in the city of Kolkata, India: its historical perspective and deterministic scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Sankar Kumar; Srivastava, Nishtha; Ghatak, Chitralekha; Adhikari, Manik Das; Ghosh, Ambarish; Sinha Ray, S. P.

    2017-09-01

    Liquefaction-induced ground failure is one amongst the leading causes of infrastructure damage due to the impact of large earthquakes in unconsolidated, non-cohesive, water saturated alluvial terrains. The city of Kolkata is located on the potentially liquefiable alluvial fan deposits of Ganga-Bramhaputra-Meghna Delta system with subsurface litho-stratigraphic sequence comprising of varying percentages of clay, cohesionless silt, sand, and gravel interbedded with decomposed wood and peat. Additionally, the region has moderately shallow groundwater condition especially in the post-monsoon seasons. In view of burgeoning population, there had been unplanned expansion of settlements in the hazardous geological, geomorphological, and hydrological conditions exposing the city to severe liquefaction hazard. The 1897 Shillong and 1934 Bihar-Nepal earthquakes both of M w 8.1 reportedly induced Modified Mercalli Intensity of IV-V and VI-VII respectively in the city reportedly triggering widespread to sporadic liquefaction condition with surface manifestation of sand boils, lateral spreading, ground subsidence, etc., thus posing a strong case for liquefaction potential analysis in the terrain. With the motivation of assessing seismic hazard, vulnerability, and risk of the city of Kolkata through a consorted federal funding stipulated for all the metros and upstart urban centers in India located in BIS seismic zones III, IV, and V with population more than one million, an attempt has been made here to understand the liquefaction susceptibility condition of Kolkata under the impact of earthquake loading employing modern multivariate techniques and also to predict deterministic liquefaction scenario of the city in the event of a probabilistic seismic hazard condition with 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years and a return period of 475 years. We conducted in-depth geophysical and geotechnical investigations in the city encompassing 435 km2 area. The stochastically

  4. Transport scenarios in two metropolitan cities in India: Delhi and Mumbai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Anjana; Parikh, Jyoti

    2004-01-01

    With rising population and increasing migration to the cities, it is expected that the urban population will increase and many more metropolitan cities will arise. Urban transport will also increase due to the high growth in population, travel demand and vehicles. In this paper, we look at the growth in vehicles and travel demand up to 2020, assuming business as usual, high GDP growth and low GDP growth scenarios for Mumbai and Delhi assuming a certain population growth. The consequent energy needs and local and global environment implications are studied. The case studies demonstrate that despite similar population and higher per capita GDP, due to the higher share of public bus transport and suburban railway system, the Mumbai transport results in 60% less energy and emissions compared to Delhi. This picture may change in the future with the introduction of metro in Delhi, but basic differences remain even in 2020, perhaps also due to the different urban design. The vehicle stock increases nearly three times in both cities in 23 years due to the increase in population, migration and economic growth. However, the vehicle ownership per 1000 persons only doubles and is far lower in 2020, even compared to the present world average ownership. Emissions, however, do not rise as much due to the introduction of more efficient vehicles and fuels, such as CNG or battery operated vehicles. The high share of public transport also helps. The effects of various policies, such as urban design, suburban railway system, transport management, control practices, etc. are very important

  5. Status of forensic odontology in metro and in tier 2 city in urban India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, Parul; Chandra, Shaleen; Raj, Vineet; Verma, Poonam; Subha, G; Khare, Abhishek

    2013-07-01

    Dentist can play a significant role in identifying the victims or perpetrators of crime as well as in disasters. Knowledge about the various aspects of forensic science as well as dental and related evidences can help a dental practitioner in assisting the civil agencies in such cases. To evaluate the awareness and knowledge of forensic odontology among dentists in a metropolitan and a tier 2 city. Seven hundred and seventy four dentists were included in this survey. Questionnaire was designed to assess the knowledge, aptitude, and status of practice of forensic odontology. Data was analyzed by comparing overall awareness of forensic odontology among dentists in metro and tier 2 city as well as between the different groups. Apart from the source of knowledge, no significant differences were seen in respondents of metropolitan and tier 2 city. Significantly higher proportion of subjects in metro reported journals as source of knowledge (P odontology in routine practice; hence, steps must be taken to educate the dental practitioners about its clinical applications.

  6. Mobile devices and weak ties: a study of vision impairments and workplace access in Bangalore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Joyojeet; Lakshmanan, Meera

    2015-07-01

    To explore ways in which social and economic interactions are changed by access to mobile telephony. This is a mixed-methods study of mobile phone use among 52 urban professionals with vision impairments in Bangalore, India. Interviews and survey results indicated that mobile devices, specifically those with adaptive technology software, play a vital role as multi-purpose devices that enable people with disabilities to navigate economically and socially in an environment where accessibility remains a significant challenge. We found that mobile devices play a central role in enabling and sustaining weak ties, but also that these weak ties have important gender-specific implications. We found that women have less access to weak ties than men, which impacts women's access to assistive technology (AT). This has potential implications for women's sense of safety and independence, both of which are strongly related to AT access. Implications for Rehabilitation Adaptive technologies increase individuals' ability to keep in contact with casual connections or weak ties through phone calls or social media. Men tend to have stronger access to weak ties than women in India due to cultural impediments to independent access to public spaces. Weak ties are an important source of assistive technology (AT) due to the high rate of resale of used AT, typically through informal networks.

  7. Is migration status a determinant of urban nutrition insecurity? Empirical evidence from Mumbai city, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Neetu; Parthasarathy, D

    2009-09-01

    From an economic perspective that understood it as a spillover of development, migration is now also the subject of socioeconomic investigation incorporating the problems of assimilation, relative deprivation and isolation. The corollary is an increased emphasis on economic and social understanding of migration and its consequences. This entails studying migration or migrants in terms of factors beyond income. Health outcome is important among these non-income factors but at the same time remains less studied. Although there have been a few influential studies on health issues as linked to migration status, the issue of malnutrition in this context continues to be under-researched. This paper explores, theoretically and empirically, migration status and malnutrition in Mumbai in India. An econometric analysis of Demographic and Health Survey data gives insight into the dynamics of child and maternal undernutrition as mediated by migration status in Mumbai.

  8. Accelerating access to quality TB care for pediatric TB cases through better diagnostic strategy in four major cities of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raizada, Neeraj; Khaparde, Sunil D; Salhotra, Virender Singh; Rao, Raghuram; Kalra, Aakshi; Swaminathan, Soumya; Khanna, Ashwani; Chopra, Kamal Kishore; Hanif, M; Singh, Varinder; Umadevi, K R; Nair, Sreenivas Achuthan; Huddart, Sophie; Prakash, C H Surya; Mall, Shalini; Singh, Pooja; Saha, B K; Denkinger, Claudia M; Boehme, Catharina; Sarin, Sanjay

    2018-01-01

    Diagnosis of TB in children is challenging, and is largely based on positive history of contact with a TB case, clinical and radiological findings, often without microbiological confirmation. Diagnostic efforts are also undermined by challenges in specimen collection and the limited availability of high sensitivity, rapid diagnostic tests that can be applied with a quick turnaround time. The current project was undertaken in four major cities of India to address TB diagnostic challenges in pediatric population, by offering free of cost Xpert testing to pediatric presumptive TB cases, thereby paving the way for better TB care. A high throughput lab was established in each of the four project cities, and linked to various health care providers across the city through rapid specimen transportation and electronic reporting linkages. Free Xpert testing was offered to all pediatric (0-14 years) presumptive TB cases (both pulmonary and extra-pulmonary) seeking care at public and private health facilities. The current project enrolled 42,238 pediatric presumptive TB cases from April, 2014 to June, 2016. A total of 3,340 (7.91%, CI 7.65-8.17) bacteriologically confirmed TB cases were detected, of which 295 (8.83%, CI 7.9-9.86) were rifampicin-resistant. The level of rifampicin resistance in the project cohort was high. Overall Xpert yielded a high proportion of valid results and TB detection rates were more than three-fold higher than smear microscopy. The project provided same-day testing and early availability of results led to rapid treatment initiation and success rates and very low rates of treatment failure and loss to follow-up. The current project demonstrated the feasibility of rolling out rapid and upfront Xpert testing for pediatric presumptive TB cases through a single Xpert lab per city in an efficient manner. Rapid turnaround testing time facilitated prompt and appropriate treatment initiation. These results suggest that the upfront Xpert assay is a promising

  9. Dietary intakes and familial correlates of overweight/obesity: a four-cities study in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Seema; Misra, Anoop; Colles, Susan L; Kondal, Dimple; Gupta, Nidhi; Goel, Kashish; Bansal, Sunil; Mishra, Mamatha; Madkaikar, Vaishali; Bhardwaj, Swati

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity among children is increasing in India. However, knowledge of, attitude towards and practice of health and nutrition in mothers and children have not been researched. To assess knowledge of, attitude towards and practice of nutrition, physical activity and other lifestyle practices in a nationally representative sample of urban children and mothers in India. A cross-sectional observational study of 1,800 children aged 9-18 years and their mothers, using qualitative (focus group) and quantitative (semi-structured survey) data. The overall prevalence of overweight/obesity among the children was 19.2% in males and 18.1% in females; 64.8% of mothers were either overweight [body mass index (BMI) 23.0-24.9; 23.3%] or obese (BMI >25.0; 41.5%). Household family income, related socioeconomic factors, and overweight in mothers were most significantly associated with obesity in children (all p ≤ 0.001). Dietary consumption patterns (snacking, fast food etc.) showed a marked association between mothers and children (all p ≤ 0.000). Focus group discussion revealed several interesting attitudes and misconceptions among children ('home-cooked food is old fashioned') and mothers ('a child with chubby cheeks is healthy, not fat'). Importantly, only a few mothers understood that excess weight or diets are contributory factors of morbidities in children or themselves. This study highlights the poor knowledge, faulty attitudes and practices of urban Asian Indian mothers and their children in a highly correlated manner. These knowledge gaps must be addressed to formulate effective strategies for the prevention of obesity and related metabolic disorders. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Studies on assessment of traffic noise level in Aurangabad city, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B J Bhosale

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid rate of urbanization of Aurangabad city due to the expanding industrialization, the problem of noise pollution has become a concern for urban dwellers and government authority too. Noise pollution due to vehicular traffic is one of the growing environmental problems of urban centers. The study deals with the assessment of traffic noise levels in Aurangabad city. With respect to the total number of vehicles passing the road in unit time, which was surveyed by direct count method, six different sites from Aurangabad city, viz., Nagar Naka, Kranti Chowk, CIDCO bus stand, Railway station area, Dhoot Hospital and Baba petrol pump were selected to study the vehicular noise level. Noise measurements were carried out at these six locations on both working day and holiday during the peak traffic hours, i.e. 8:00 a.m. - 11:a.m., 1:00 p.m. - 4:00 p.m. and 5:00 p.m. - 8:00 p.m., in the morning, afternoon and evening sessions, respectively, after 5 minutes time interval. The noise level was monitored using noise level meter. The results obtained from this investigation showed that the Nagar Naka, Kranti chowk and CIDCO bus stand area have dense traffic zones when compared with the Railway station area, Dhoot Hospital and Baba petrol pump. The minimum and the maximum noise levels are 74 and 86 dB, respectively, on working day and 70 and 81 dB, respectively, on holiday. The measured noise level values exceed the prescribed noise level.

  11. Spatio-temporal footprints of urbanisation in Surat, the Diamond City of India (1990-2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Richa; Ghosh, Aniruddha; Joshi, Pawan Kumar

    2013-04-01

    Urbanisation is a ubiquitous phenomenon with greater prominence in developing nations. Urban expansion involves land conversions from vegetated moisture-rich to impervious moisture-deficient land surfaces. The urban land transformations alter biophysical parameters in a mode that promotes development of heat islands and degrades environmental health. This study elaborates relationships among various environmental variables using remote sensing dataset to study spatio-temporal footprint of urbanisation in Surat city. Landsat Thematic Mapper satellite data were used in conjugation with geo-spatial techniques to study urbanisation and correlation among various satellite-derived biophysical parameters, [Normalised Difference Vegetation Index, Normalised Difference Built-up Index, Normalised Difference Water Index, Normalised Difference Bareness Index, Modified NDWI and land surface temperature (LST)]. Land use land cover was prepared using hierarchical decision tree classification with an accuracy of 90.4 % (kappa = 0.88) for 1990 and 85 % (kappa = 0.81) for 2009. It was found that the city has expanded over 42.75 km(2) within a decade, and these changes resulted in elevated surface temperatures. For example, transformation from vegetation to built-up has resulted in 5.5 ± 2.6 °C increase in land surface temperature, vegetation to fallow 6.7 ± 3 °C, fallow to built-up is 3.5 ± 2.9 °C and built-up to dense built-up is 5.3 ± 2.8 °C. Directional profiling for LST was done to study spatial patterns of LST in and around Surat city. Emergence of two new LST peaks for 2009 was observed in N-S and NE-SW profiles.

  12. Informal public transport modes in India: A case study of five city regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megha Kumar

    2016-03-01

    The paper highlights that these systems bridge a large transport supply gap and play an important role in Indian cities. The modes may follow some illegitimate practices, but they do it to become profitable, which in turn helps them provide the much-needed mobility services. The study also shows that these systems are not as unsafe and polluting as people often perceive them to be. However, there is significant room for improvements in terms of vehicle efficiency and compliance with regulatory provisions related to public transport.

  13. Impact of leachate on groundwater pollution due to non-engineered municipal solid waste landfill sites of erode city, Tamil Nadu, India

    OpenAIRE

    Nagarajan, Rajkumar; Thirumalaisamy, Subramani; Lakshumanan, Elango

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Leachate and groundwater samples were collected from Vendipalayam, Semur and Vairapalayam landfill sites in Erode city, Tamil Nadu, India, to study the possible impact of leachate percolation on groundwater quality. Concentrations of various physicochemical parameters including heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Fe and Zn) were determined in leachate samples and are reported. The concentrations of Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, NH4+ were found to be in considerable levels in the groundwater sa...

  14. Monitoring of environmental parameters for CO2 sequestration: a case study of Nagpur City, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, P R; Gajghate, D G; Dhadse, Sharda; Suple, Sonali; Satapathy, D R; Wate, S R

    2007-12-01

    Carbon dioxide concentration is an index of total amount of combustion and natural ventilation in an urban environment and therefore required more careful attention for assessment of CO(2) level in air environment. An attempt was made to monitor CO(2) levels in ambient air of Nagpur city at industrial, commercial and residential sites. In addition to this a remote sensing studies and biotic survey for floral biodiversity were carried out to study the green cover at respective sampling locations. The observations showed that the largest amount of CO(2) occurred at night due to absence of photosynthesis and lowest concentration of CO(2) was observed in the afternoon due to photosynthesis at its maximum level. The most pollution tolerant species found in Nagpur city are having higher Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI) value, which acts as a natural sink for CO(2) sequestration. In case of commercial site the CO(2) level is highest (366 ppm) because of lowest vegetation and vehicular pollution. The generation of database of CO(2) concentration and floral biodiversity along with percentage of green cover helps to formulate the strategy for prevention of global worming phenomenon.

  15. Status Of Physico-Chemical Parameter Of Ground Water Of Gorakhpur City U.P. India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Chaudhary

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The ground water is most prime water which has multipurpose use ranging from drinking to industrial and agricultural uses. The continuously increase in the level of pollution of water is a serious problem. The city of Gorakhpur is not untouched with this serious issue .The pollution level of the major water sources in and around the city is increase rapidly. The main objective of the present study is to study the variation of ground water quality in Gorakhpur district by collecting 20 samples of water from hand pump from 20 locations well distributed with in Gorakhpur district were analyzed for different parameters such as pH electric conductivity chloride total free chlorine hardness fluoride nitrate iron Turbidity potassium. Groundwater is polluted from seepage pits refuse dumps septic tanks barnyards manures transport accident and different pollutant. Important sources of ground water pollution are sewage is dumped in shallow soak pits. It gives rise to cholera hepatitis dysenteries etc. especially in areas with high water table.

  16. A review on salt lake city, Kolkata, India: Master planning and realization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tošković Dobrivoje

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivation for construction of Salt Lake City comes from the circumstances characterizing life in Calcutta known by its social, political and cultural activities. Among many problems, the City was faced with poverty and overcrowding. West Bengal Government realized that serious steps have to be taken to resolve the situation. One of the biggest actions of the Government was creation of so called 'NEDECO' Plan for reclamation certain area of the Salted Lakes, followed by the tender for urban planning. The enterprise for water ways Ivan Milutinović was considered the most convenient for both: reclamation and planning. The Conceptualization covers the Main Aims and interests forming plan basis where three factors were selected: urban character, new vs old town, inhabitants and town growth. Follows Existing Land Use Pattern of the Municipal Area. The realization of the Salt Lake Master Plan, as a part of the Municipal Area, is shown through an Overview of Achieved Infrastructure covering Roads, Water Supply, Sewerage, Area Level Storm Water Drainage, Solid Waste Management and, finally, through the Other Municipal Services, such as: Administrative Infrastructure, Health Infrastructure, Greeneries, Water bodies, Socio-Cultural Infrastructure. .

  17. Knowledge, attitude, and practices toward oral health among school teachers in "Guntur city," Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guntipalli M Naidu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: School teachers play an important role in the all-round development of children. Quite often, they play an important role in general health education as well as oral health education in children. To perform the above tasks, teachers should have required oral health knowledge and positive attitude about oral health. Objectives: The objective was to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practices about oral health among school teachers in Guntur city, Andhra Pradesh. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted, and data were collected with pretested self-administered questionnaire. A total of 248 school teachers was selected by simple random method from the list of primary and high school teachers working in Guntur city. Questionnaire consisted of seventeen questions on knowledge, attitude, and practice. Each favorable and unfavorable response was given a score of 1 and 0 respectively. Total score of 60% or more for each domain was considered "satisfactory" whereas < 60% as "unsatisfactory. Data were analyzed with SPSS-17 (Chicago Inc., and Chi-square, test was used to test the statistical significance among various variables. Results: A total of 248 school teachers was participated in this study, 64.9% of the teachers had satisfactory knowledge about oral health. About 194 (78.2% had satisfactory attitude about oral health and around 191 (77% teachers had satisfactory oral hygiene practice methods. Conclusion: Teachers required being further educated about oral health through an effective media to deliver oral health education to students.

  18. The association of lifestyle with the physical activity and diet of adolescents in Bhopal City, India

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    Binu Santha

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To assess the association of lifestyle with physical activity and diet of adolescents in Bhopal City, Madhya Pradesh. Materials and Methods: A convenience sample of 310 college going adolescents within an age range of 17–23 years from an Arts Institute in Bhopal city were selected for the study. Self-reported questionnaire for adolescents to assess lifestyle factors (tobacco and alcohol consumption, regular physical activity, and dietary habits were used. Descriptive statistics and Spearman's correlation were applied wherever indicated. Results: Out of the total study population, 54% were males and 46% were females. Majority, i.e., 66% of the total study participants were optimal weight, 28% were underweight, and only a few, 5% were overweight. A significant association was observed between lifestyle habits (P < 0.05 and regular physical activity and dietary habits. Conclusion: Lifestyle factors have a strong association with regular physical activities and dietary practices among the adolescents. The unsatisfactory lifestyle habits of adolescents are a major public health concern. These maladapted habits track into later life as predictors of depleted health. Hence, it is mandatory that health professionals keep a check and provide regular health education among children and adolescents.

  19. Dentition status and treatment need in urban slum dwellers in Indore city, Central India

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    Bhuvnesh Airen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the dental caries experience and treatment needs of residents of slum area, in Indore.Materials and Methods: A survey was conducted in one of the largest slum areas, Panchsheel nagar of Indore, (M.P.. The sample size was estimated assuming the prevalence of dental caries to be 90% as found in the pilot study. The minimum sample required was 138. The dentition status was recorded according to the WHO guidelines. Examination was performed by the trained and calibrated examiner. The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 16.5 software. Results: A considerably higher prevalence (76.2% of dental caries in the residents of slum as compared to the general population of India (50-60% was found. The mean decayed, missing and filled teeth recorded was 2.54. Statistically significant difference was found in the caries prevalence between different age groups and occupations. Males exhibited significantly higher caries experience as compared to females. Conclusion: The residents of slum have a high prevalence of dental caries. The prevalence of dental caries differed for different occupational groups and gender.

  20. Son preference and sterilization use among young married women in two slums in Bengaluru city, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmeades, Jeffrey; Pande, Rohini Prabha; Falle, Tina; Krishnan, Suneeta

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the ways in which women’s sterilisation decisions are influenced by the combination of a preference for male children and a desire for smaller family size among young married women in two urban slums in Bengaluru, India. While both son preference and an emphasis on sterilisation are well-known demographic characteristics of most south-Asian countries, relatively little research has been conducted that links the two. We take advantage of a longitudinal survey of 416 unsterilised married women aged 16–25 to explore how having sons and the number of children influence a woman’s sterilisation decision. Discrete-time event-history techniques are used to estimate two models: the first examines the effect of having sons and number of children separately, and the second examines them in combination in the form of an interaction. The results suggest sterilization is motivated by son preference mainly at lower parities (three or fewer children) and by concerns about family size at higher parities. Understanding how sterilisation and other reproductive behaviours are influenced by the interaction of family size and sex preferences will help policymakers and programmers to meet the needs of women while continuing to address discriminatory behaviour against females. PMID:21218299

  1. Breast Self-examination: Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice among Female Dental Students in Hyderabad City, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, Dolar; Reddy, B Srikanth; Kulkarni, Suhas; Karunakar, P

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) regarding breast self-examination (BSE) in a cohort of Indian female dental students. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive questionnaire study was conducted on dental students at Panineeya Institute of Dental Sciences, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India. Data were analyzed using SPSS software (version 12). Chi-square test was used for analysis of categorical variables. Correlation was analyzed using Karl Pearson's correlation coefficient. The total scores for KAP were categorized into good and poor scores based on 70% cut-off point out of the total expected score for each. P-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: This study involved a cohort of 203 female dental students. Overall, the total mean knowledge score was 14.22 ± 8.04 with the fourth year students having the maximum mean score (19.98 ± 3.68). The mean attitude score was 26.45 ± 5.97. For the practice score, the overall mean score was 12.64 ± 5.92 with the highest mean score noted for third year 13.94 ± 5.31 students. KAP scores upon correlation revealed a significant correlation between knowledge and attitude scores only (P<0.05). Conclusion: The study highlights the need for educational programs to create awareness regarding regular breast cancer screening behavior. PMID:22837614

  2. Breast self-examination: Knowledge, attitude, and practice among female dental students in Hyderabad city, India

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    Dolar Doshi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP regarding breast self-examination (BSE in a cohort of Indian female dental students. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive questionnaire study was conducted on dental students at Panineeya Institute of Dental Sciences, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India. Data were analyzed using SPSS software (version 12. Chi-square test was used for analysis of categorical variables. Correlation was analyzed using Karl Pearson's correlation coefficient. The total scores for KAP were categorized into good and poor scores based on 70% cut-off point out of the total expected score for each. P-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: This study involved a cohort of 203 female dental students. Overall, the total mean knowledge score was 14.22 ± 8.04 with the fourth year students having the maximum mean score (19.98 ± 3.68. The mean attitude score was 26.45 ± 5.97. For the practice score, the overall mean score was 12.64 ± 5.92 with the highest mean score noted for third year 13.94 ± 5.31 students. KAP scores upon correlation revealed a significant correlation between knowledge and attitude scores only (P<0.05. Conclusion: The study highlights the need for educational programs to create awareness regarding regular breast cancer screening behavior.

  3. Solid waste, its health impairments and role of rag pickers in Tiruchirappalli city, Tamil Nadu, Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandramohan, A; Ravichandran, C; Sivasankar, V

    2010-10-01

    In India, the significant increase in the generation of municipal solid waste (MSW) during the last few decades is due to the rapid population and economic development. Though the appropriate attempts are made through the 3-'R' principles, waste management still needs to be envisaged seriously by everybody for a cleaner and greener environment. Rag-pickers, who contribute to solid waste management to some extent, are the people who rummage through garbage bins to pick out 'rags' for their livelihood. These rag-pickers usually collect the materials that have good re-sale value as these materials are mostly recycled or reused. In the present study, the collection and the management of solid waste and the level of microbial pollution generated through air, soil and solid waste were studied. A questionnaire survey based on age, sex, educational status, socio-economic status, habits and health effects was conducted from 65 randomly selected rag-pickers from various places of Tiruchirappalli city The results revealed that they can be properly educated and trained to protect themselves from unhygienic practices and addiction. Either the Government or non-governmental organizations (NGOs) should devise a suitable proposal to monitor and make use of these unorganized rag-pickers who are indispensable to the society.

  4. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and its associated factors among the urban elderly population in Hyderabad metropolitan city, South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryanarayana, Palla; Arlappa, Nimmathota; Sai Santhosh, Vadakattu; Balakrishna, Nagalla; Lakshmi Rajkumar, Pondey; Prasad, Undrajavarapu; Raju, Banavath Bhoja; Shivakeseva, Kommula; Divya Shoshanni, Kondru; Seshacharyulu, Madabushi; Geddam, Jagjeevan Babu; Prasanthi, Prabhakaran Sobhana; Ananthan, Rajendran

    2018-03-01

    Deficiency of vitamin D has been associated with various health conditions. However, vitamin D deficiency (VDD) and factors associated with VDD are not well studied, especially among the urban elderly population of India. To assess the prevalence of VDD and its associated factors among the urban free-living elderly population in Hyderabad. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 298 urban elderly (≥60 years) by adapting a random sampling procedure. Demographic particulars were collected. Blood pressure and anthropometric measurements were recorded using standard equipment. Fasting glucose, lipid profile and 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH) D] were estimated in plasma samples. The mean ± SE plasma vitamin D and the prevalence of VDD among the urban elderly population were 19.3 ± 0.54 (ng/ml) and 56.3%, respectively. The prevalence of VDD was significantly associated with education, high body mass index (BMI), hypertension (HT) and metabolic syndrome (MS). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed HT as a significant predictor of vitamin D deficiency and the risk of VDD was double among the elderly with hypertension. The prevalence of VDD was high among the urban elderly population in the south Indian city of Hyderabad. High BMI, MS, HT and education are significant associated factors of VDD.

  5. Antibiotic Prescribing Habits of Dental Surgeons in Hyderabad City, India, for Pulpal and Periapical Pathologies: A Survey

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    K. Pavan Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To determine the antibiotic prescribing habits for pulpal and periapical pathology among dentists in Hyderabad city, India. Methodology. A total of 246 questionnaires were distributed to all the dentists registered with the local dental branch. Demographic details and questions regarding type and dosage of antibiotics prescribed for allergic and nonallergic patients were recorded. Inferential statistics were performed, and P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results. The response rate for the study was 87.8%. Around 148 (68.5% of respondents regularly prescribed antibiotics for endodontic management. The first antibiotic of choice for patients with no history of medical allergies was a combination of amoxicillin and metronidazole, followed by amoxicillin alone (29.1%. The first antibiotic of choice in case of allergy to penicillin was erythromycin. Necrotic pulp with acute apical periodontitis with swelling and moderate/severe preoperative symptom was the condition most commonly identified for antibiotic therapy (92.1%. Conclusion. The present study reveals that the overall antibiotic prescribing practices among this group of dentists were quite high, and there is a need for more educational initiatives to rationalize the use of antibiotics in dentistry.

  6. Allocation of solid waste collection bins and route optimisation using geographical information system: A case study of Dhanbad City, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, D; Samadder, S R

    2016-07-01

    Collection of municipal solid waste is one of the most important elements of municipal waste management and requires maximum fund allocated for waste management. The cost of collection and transportation can be reduced in comparison with the present scenario if the solid waste collection bins are located at suitable places so that the collection routes become minimum. This study presents a suitable solid waste collection bin allocation method at appropriate places with uniform distance and easily accessible location so that the collection vehicle routes become minimum for the city Dhanbad, India. The network analyst tool set available in ArcGIS was used to find the optimised route for solid waste collection considering all the required parameters for solid waste collection efficiently. These parameters include the positions of solid waste collection bins, the road network, the population density, waste collection schedules, truck capacities and their characteristics. The present study also demonstrates the significant cost reductions that can be obtained compared with the current practices in the study area. The vehicle routing problem solver tool of ArcGIS was used to identify the cost-effective scenario for waste collection, to estimate its running costs and to simulate its application considering both travel time and travel distance simultaneously. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Comparative assessment of Oral Hygiene and Periodontal status among children who have Poliomyelitis at Udaipur city, Rajasthan, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajappa, Ramesh; Sharda, Archana; Asawa, Kailash; Tak, Aniruddh; Jalihal, Sagar

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess and compare the oral hygiene and periodontal status among children with Poliomyelitis having upper limb disability, lower limb disability and both upper and lower disability at Udaipur city, Rajasthan, India. Study design: Total sample comprised of 344 Poliomyelitis children (upper limb disability: 33.4%; lower limb disability: 33.7%; both upper and lower limb disability: 32.9%) in the age group of 12-15 years. Clinical examination included recording Simplified Oral Hygiene Index and Community Periodontal Index. Analysis of variance (ANOVA), multiple logistic and stepwise linear regression were used for statistical analysis. Results: The mean OHI-S (2.52±1.05) score was found to be highest among children who had both upper and lower limb disability (poral hygiene and periodontal status was limb involved in the disability. Conclusion: The results of the study depicted an overall poor oral hygiene and periodontal status of the group. It was recognized that limbs involved in the disability had an impact on the oral hygiene and periodontal condition. The situation in this specialized population draws immediate attention for an integrated approach in improving the oral health and focus towards extensive research. Key words:Poliomyelitis, upper limb disability, lower limb disability, oral hygiene, periodontal status. PMID:22549671

  8. Knowledge, attitude and anxiety pertaining to basic life support and medical emergencies among dental interns in Mangalore City, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somaraj, Vinej; Shenoy, Rekha P; Panchmal, Ganesh Shenoy; Jodalli, Praveen S; Sonde, Laxminarayan; Karkal, Ravichandra

    2017-01-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude and anxiety pertaining to basic life support (BLS) and medical emergencies among interns in dental colleges of Mangalore city, Karnataka, India. The study subjects comprised of interns who volunteered from the four dental colleges. The knowledge and attitude of interns were assessed using a 30-item questionnaire prepared based on the Basic Life Support Manual from American Heart Association and the anxiety of interns pertaining to BLS and medical emergencies were assessed using a State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) Questionnaire. Chi-square test was performed on SPSS 21.0 (IBM Statistics, 2012) to determine statistically significant differences ( P basic life support procedures. Assessment of stress showed a total of 27.1% participants to be above high-stress level. Comparison of assessed knowledge and stress was found to be insignificant ( P =0.983). There was an evident lack of knowledge pertaining to the management of medical emergencies among the interns. As oral health care providers moving out to the society, a focus should be placed on the training of dental interns with respect to Basic Life Support procedures.

  9. Lead poisoning in pregnant women who used Ayurvedic medications from India--New York City, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    Lead poisoning still occurs in the United States despite extensive prevention efforts and strict regulations. Exposure to lead can damage the brain, kidneys, and nervous and reproductive systems. Fetal exposure to lead can adversely affect neurodevelopment, decrease fetal growth, and increase the risk for premature birth and miscarriage. During 2011-2012, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) investigated six cases of lead poisoning associated with the use of 10 oral Ayurvedic medications made in India. All six cases were in foreign-born pregnant women assessed for lead exposure risk by health-care providers during prenatal visits, as required by New York state law. Their blood lead levels (BLLs) ranged from 16 to 64 µg/dL. Lead concentrations of the medications were as high as 2.4%; several medications also contained mercury or arsenic, which also can have adverse health effects. DOHMH distributed information about the medications to health-care providers, product manufacturers, and government agencies in the United States and abroad, via postal and electronic mail. DOHMH also ordered a local business selling contaminated products to cease sales. Health-care providers should ask patients, especially foreign-born or pregnant patients, about any use of foreign health products, supplements, and remedies such as Ayurvedic medications. Public health professionals should consider these types of products when investigating heavy metal exposures and raise awareness among health-care providers and the public regarding the health risks posed by such products.

  10. Gene diversity for haptoglobin and transferrin classical markers among Hindu and Muslim populations of Aligarh City, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ara, G; Siddique, Y H; Afzal, M

    2011-06-01

    The present paper reports the distribution of serum protein markers viz. haptoglobin and transferrin in two major groups of Aligarh city of North India. In present study we have undertaken a survey of 538 individuals belonging to eight different populations, four from the Hindu community i.e. Brahmin, Bania, Rajput and Jatav, and the rest four among the Muslim community i.e. Syed, Sheikh, Pathan and Ansari. The heterozygosity ranged from 0.2939 (Ansari) to 0.4873 (Brahmin) for haptoglobin and from 0.000 (Rajput) to 0.1498 (Pathan) for transferrin. The values of D(ST) are 0.4122 and 0.4406, and that of G(ST) are 0.5059 and 0.9726 for haptoglobin and transferrin markers respectively. Through F(ST) test, it has been concluded that there is a high genetic differentiation of populations within Hindu and Muslim groups, though there is absence of any significant differences between these groups.

  11. Comparative assessment of oral hygiene and periodontal status among children who have Poliomyelitis at Udaipur city, Rajasthan, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak, Mridula; Nagarajappa, Ramesh; Sharda, Archana; Asawa, Kailash; Tak, Aniruddh; Jalihal, Sagar

    2012-11-01

    To assess and compare the oral hygiene and periodontal status among children with Poliomyelitis having upper limb disability, lower limb disability and both upper and lower disability at Udaipur city, Rajasthan, India. Total sample comprised of 344 Poliomyelitis children (upper limb disability: 33.4%; lower limb disability: 33.7%; both upper and lower limb disability: 32.9%) in the age group of 12-15 years. Clinical examination included recording Simplified Oral Hygiene Index and Community Periodontal Index. Analysis of variance (ANOVA), multiple logistic and stepwise linear regression were used for statistical analysis. The mean OHI-S (2.52 ± 1.05) score was found to be highest among children who had both upper and lower limb disability (phealthy sextants were found among those with only lower limb disability (4.53 ± 2.05) and among those with both upper and lower limb disability (0.77 ± 1.39), respectively (poral hygiene and periodontal status was limb involved in the disability. The results of the study depicted an overall poor oral hygiene and periodontal status of the group. It was recognized that limbs involved in the disability had an impact on the oral hygiene and periodontal condition. The situation in this specialized population draws immediate attention for an integrated approach in improving the oral health and focus towards extensive research.

  12. High radioactive heat-producing, economically potential granites around Jodhpur city, Malani Igneous Suite, Northwestern India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrivastava, K.L.; Prajapat, Tina; Mathur, Anju; Gaur, Virendra; Dadhich; Mamta Chauhan, C.P.; Tripathi, Beena

    2013-01-01

    In the south and southeast periphery of the desert city of Jodhpur, there are pink and grey granite islands in the desert sand at Fitkasni-Rasida and Salawas-Nandanvan areas of Malani Igneous Suite (Neoproterozoic). We are reporting the average heat generation value of 15.33 HGU for first and 8.83 HGU for the second area that is much higher than the average (3.8 HGU) known for the continental crust. The concentration of uranium determined is two to four times higher than the average continental crust and thorium is still higher than U and K. The radioelement concentration (Ur) varies from 25.06 to 27 in the Salawas-Nandanvan granites and 43.73 to 75.81 in Fitkasni-Rasida granites. It clearly indicates a 'hot crust', hence favourable for the formation of mineralization of HFS elements, Nb, Ce, REE, U and Th, which need yet to be explored. (author)

  13. Estimation of fluoride levels in various commercially available carbonated soft drinks in Chandigarh city, India

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    Mohit Bansal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fluoride has a preventive action on dental caries. However, Excessive ingestion of fluoride from different sources can lead to the development of dental fluorosis. Aim: To estimate fluoride levels in various commercially available carbonated soft drinks available in Chandigarh city. Materials and Methods: Twelve different brands of commercially available soft drinks were purchased from three different places and divided into three groups. Fluoride levels were estimated using fluoride test strips Quantofix 37211 Fluka; Sigma-Aldrich. Results: Fluoride levels ranged from 0.12 to 0.42 mg/dl F with the maximum level in Thumbs up and least in Diet Pepsi. Conclusion: The levels of fluoride varied in various carbonated soft drinks analyzed. This could contribute significantly to the total fluoride intake from all sources and thus be an important risk factor for the development of dental fluorosis.

  14. Isolation of pathogenic Escherichia coli from buffalo meat sold in Parbhani city, Maharashtra, India

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    M. S. Vaidya

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Isolation, characterization, in-vitro pathogenicity and antibiogram study of E.coli from buffalo meat sold in Parbhani city. Materials and Methods: Meat samples were collected from buffalo immediately after slaughter. Isolation, identification and enumeration of E. coli were done by following standard methods and protocols. Hemolysin test and Congo red binding assay were used to study in-vitro pathogenicity of E. coli isolates. Disc diffusion method was used to study antibiogram of pathogenic E. coli isolates. Results: A total of 250 buffalo meat samples were collected and processed. A total of 22 (8.80 percent E. coli isolates were isolated with average differential count of 1.231 ± 0.136 log cfu/g on EMB agar. All the E. coli isolates were confirmed by 10 Grams staining, biochemical reactions and sugar fermentation and motility tests. A total of 9 (3.6 percent E. coli isolates were found to be pathogenic by in-vitro pathogenicity testing. Antibiogram studies of pathogenic E. coli isolates showed that all 9 isolates were sensitive to gentamycin (20 ± 1.49 mm while 7 isolate showed resistance to enrofloxacin (18.22 ± 3.58 mm and tetracycline (11.44 ± 2.04 mm. Conclusion: Buffalo meat sold in Parbhani city is an important source of E. coli infection to human population. A total of 9 pathogenic E. coli were isolated from buffalo meat immediately after slaughter. All isolates were characterized and confirmed pathogenic by in-vitro pathogenicity tests. Antibiogram studies of all isolates revealed sensitivity to gentamicin and resistance to tetracycline and enrofloxacin. [Vet World 2013; 6(5.000: 277-279

  15. Determinants of Overweight and Obesity in Affluent Adolescent in Surat City, South Gujarat region, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Jagdish P; Kumar, Nagendra; Parmar, Indira; Shah, Vijay B; Patel, Bharat

    2011-10-01

    Obesity is a major global burden. Low levels of physical activity, TV watching, and dietary pattern are modifiable risk factors for overweight and obesity in adolescent. The objective of this study was to determine risk factors for overweight and obesity among affluent adolescent, in Surat city in south Gujarat. Cross sectional from July 2009 to April 2010. Two private schools with tuition fees more than Rs. 2000 per month, were selected randomly using a random table. The participants were adolescents, 12 to 15 years of age. Pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire was used to elicit the information about dietary history and physical activity. Height and weight was measured and BMI was calculated. Overweight and obesity were assessed by BMI for age. Student who had BMI for age <85(th) and <95(th) percentile of reference population were classified as overweight and BMI for age <95(th) percentile of reference population were classified as obese (IAP Growth Monitoring Guidelines for Children from Birth to 18 Year). The overall prevalence of obesity and overweight was 6.55% and 13.9% (boys: 6.7% and 15.1%; girls 6.4% and 13.35%). Final model of multiple logistic regression analysis showed that important determinants of overweight and obesity were low levels of physical activity, watching television or playing computer games, and consuming junk foods, snacks and carbonated drinks. The magnitude of obesity and overweight among affluent adolescent of Surat city was found to be 6.55% and 13.9%, respectively. Low level of physical activity, watching TV or playing computer games, and dietary pattern predisposed the adolescent to overweight/obesity.

  16. Determinants of overweight and obesity in affluent adolescent in Surat city, South Gujarat region, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagdish P Goyal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Obesity is a major global burden. Low levels of physical activity, TV watching, and dietary pattern are modifiable risk factors for overweight and obesity in adolescent. Objective : The objective of this study was to determine risk factors for overweight and obesity among affluent adolescent, in Surat city in south Gujarat. Design : Cross sectional from July 2009 to April 2010. Setting : Two private schools with tuition fees more than Rs. 2000 per month, were selected randomly using a random table. Participants : The participants were adolescents, 12 to 15 years of age. Data collection : Pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire was used to elicit the information about dietary history and physical activity. Measurement : Height and weight was measured and BMI was calculated. Overweight and obesity were assessed by BMI for age. Student who had BMI for age >85 th and 95 th percentile of reference population were classified as obese (IAP Growth Monitoring Guidelines for Children from Birth to 18 Year. Result : The overall prevalence of obesity and overweight was 6.55% and 13.9% (boys: 6.7% and 15.1%; girls 6.4% and 13.35%. Final model of multiple logistic regression analysis showed that important determinants of overweight and obesity were low levels of physical activity, watching television or playing computer games, and consuming junk foods, snacks and carbonated drinks. Conclusion : The magnitude of obesity and overweight among affluent adolescent of Surat city was found to be 6.55% and 13.9%, respectively. Low level of physical activity, watching TV or playing computer games, and dietary pattern predisposed the adolescent to overweight/obesity.

  17. Antibacterial activity of actinomycetes isolated from different soil samples of Sheopur (A city of central India

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    Hotam S Chaudhary

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the present study was isolation, purification, and characterization of actinomycetes from soil samples, having antimicrobial activity against 12 selected pathogenic strains. Soils samples were taken from different niche habitats of Sheopur district, Madhya Pradesh, India. These samples were serially diluted and plated on actinomycete isolation agar media. Potential colonies were screened, purified, and stored in glycerol stock. Isolates were morphologically and biochemically characterized. These isolates were subjected to extraction for production of the antibacterial compound. Antibacterial activity and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC of the purified extract of isolates were evaluated. Totally 31 actinomycete isolates were tested for antagonistic activity against 12 pathogenic microorganisms. Isolates AS14, AS27, and AS28 were highly active, while AS1 showed less activity against the pathogenic microorganisms. Isolate AS7 exhibited the highest antagonistic activity against Bacillus cereus (24 mm and AS16 showed the highest activity against Enterococcus faecalis (21 mm. MIC was also determined for actinomycete isolates against all the tested microorganisms. MIC of actinomycete isolates was found to be 2.5 mg/ml against Shigella dysenteriae, Vancomycin-resistant enterococci, and Klebsiella pneumoniae, and was 1.25 mg/ml for Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus xylosus, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, and Staphylococcus aureus. All actinomycetes isolates showed antibacterial activity against S. aureus, while they showed less activity against S. dysenteriae. These isolates had antibacterial activity and could be used in the development of new antibiotics for pharmaceutical or agricultural purposes.

  18. Antibacterial activity of actinomycetes isolated from different soil samples of Sheopur (A city of central India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Hotam S; Yadav, Jayprakash; Shrivastava, Anju R; Singh, Smriti; Singh, Anil K; Gopalan, Natrajan

    2013-04-01

    The main objective of the present study was isolation, purification, and characterization of actinomycetes from soil samples, having antimicrobial activity against 12 selected pathogenic strains. Soils samples were taken from different niche habitats of Sheopur district, Madhya Pradesh, India. These samples were serially diluted and plated on actinomycete isolation agar media. Potential colonies were screened, purified, and stored in glycerol stock. Isolates were morphologically and biochemically characterized. These isolates were subjected to extraction for production of the antibacterial compound. Antibacterial activity and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of the purified extract of isolates were evaluated. Totally 31 actinomycete isolates were tested for antagonistic activity against 12 pathogenic microorganisms. Isolates AS14, AS27, and AS28 were highly active, while AS1 showed less activity against the pathogenic microorganisms. Isolate AS7 exhibited the highest antagonistic activity against Bacillus cereus (24 mm) and AS16 showed the highest activity against Enterococcus faecalis (21 mm). MIC was also determined for actinomycete isolates against all the tested microorganisms. MIC of actinomycete isolates was found to be 2.5 mg/ml against Shigella dysenteriae, Vancomycin-resistant enterococci, and Klebsiella pneumoniae, and was 1.25 mg/ml for Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus xylosus, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, and Staphylococcus aureus. All actinomycetes isolates showed antibacterial activity against S. aureus, while they showed less activity against S. dysenteriae. These isolates had antibacterial activity and could be used in the development of new antibiotics for pharmaceutical or agricultural purposes.

  19. Assessment of pack animal welfare in and around Bareilly city of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Probhakar Biswas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the welfare of pack animal: Pony, Horse, Mule and Donkey in and around Bareilly city. Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out in Bareilly city and Izatnagar area of Bareilly district of Uttar Pradesh in the year 2009. Representative sample of 100 pack animal owners were selected to get the information regarding various social, personal and economic attributes of the pack animal. Further during interviewing different health and behavior pattern of animals was keenly examined. Analysis has been done as per standard procedures. Results: Most of the pack animal owners (98% were aware of the freedom from hunger and thirst. Majority of respondents (96, 93, 81 & 85 percent were aware of freedom from injury and disease, pain and discomfort, to express normal behavior and adequate space and freedom from fear and distress. Respondents (85% believed that they themselves were responsible for the welfare of the animals. Most of the owners (48.8% employed their animals for work for 9-10 hrs with rest (96.5% in between work and most (88.3% indulged into beating to compel the animals to work. All pregnant animals were put to work in the first two trimesters of pregnancy. Upon physical examination, pack animals showed abnormality in eyes (49%, abnormality in gait (40% and limb deformity (39%. Most animals (75% had tether lesions and 34 percent animals avoided or were aggressive to observer. Majority (74.1% of the owners housed their animals in a part of their own residence with improper drainage and cleaning. Most of the owners (82% consulted Veterinary doctors for treatment and believed in allopathic medicine (57%. Vaccination was not carried out on most (96% of the animals. All the animals were feed green fodder but practice of supplementation of minerals to animals was only among 11 percent owners. Conclusions: Present findings provide baseline information on welfare activities followed by pack animal owners and status of pack

  20. A study on physicochemical parameters of an aquaculture body in Mysore city, Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachidanandamurthy, K L; Yajurvedi, H N

    2006-10-01

    Monthly changes in water quality parameters (physicochemical) of a rain fed lake (Bilikere) in Mysore city, were investigated for two calendar years (2002 and 2003) to assess the suitability of this lake for pisciculture. Although there were monthly fluctuations in water temperature, total suspended solids (TSS), dissolved oxygen (DO), nitrite and ammonia, they were within the desirable limits. On the other hand, total alkalinity and hydrogen sulphide throughout the study period and pH for a major part, were higher than the desirable limits. Other parameters viz; turbidity, biological oxygen demand (BOD), phosphate, and nitrate in a few months were higher than the desirable limits for waters used for fish culture. The high levels of these factors are due to the entry of agricultural run off and occasional flow of sewage into the lake. In addition dense algal growth was noticed at times of the year which is caused by surge in nutrients level whenever there was a rainfall. Since, the lake has a great aquacultural potential, it is suggested that control of nutrient load that enters the lake occasionally, might help the lake to continue its mesotrophic status.

  1. Source apportionment of particulate matter in the ambient air of Hyderabad city, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gummeneni, Sagareswar; Yusup, Yusri Bin; Chavali, Murthy; Samadi, S. Z.

    2011-08-01

    Source apportionment of particulate matter (PM) has been carried out for the city of Hyderabad using the chemical mass balance model (CMB8, Ver. 8.0) in PM10 and PM2.5 size modes. Urban particles were collected using Continuous Particulate Matter Analyzer (TEOM) during different seasons conducted in Punjagutta site, a critical traffic corridor, during June 2004-May 2005. The measurement of PM10 & PM2.5 at the site is measured throughout the day. Samples were collected in every 15 min; additionally instrument computes the total mass accumulation for every 30 min, 1-h, 8-h and 24 h average mass concentrations. Chemical characterization of PM10 & PM2.5 was done by ICP-MS. Source apportionment studies were carried out to quantify the possible sources affecting region using CMB Model Ver. 8.o. The CMB8 executed separately for both coarse and fine sizes. Results obtained by CMB indicate the dominance of resuspended dust (40%), followed by vehicular pollution (22%), combustion (12%), industrial (9%) and refuse burning (7%) in PM10; while in PM2.5 vehicular pollution (31%) dominated over resuspended dust (26%), combustion (9%), industrial (7%) and refuse burning (6%).

  2. PM2.5 exposure in highly polluted cities: A case study from New Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Pallavi; Habib, Gazala; Marshall, Julian D; Peltier, Richard E

    2017-07-01

    Personal exposure (PE) to air pollutants is driven by a combination of pollutant concentrations in indoor and outdoor environments, and time-activity pattern of individuals. The objectives of this study were to estimate personal exposure to PM 2.5 and black carbon (BC), and assess the representability of ambient air quality monitoring stations to serve as surrogates for PE in New Delhi. Personal exposure to air pollutants (PM 2.5-PE and BC PE ) was measured using portable, battery-operated instruments (PM 2.5 - pDR1500 and BC- microAethalometer AE51) in a small cohort of healthy adults (n=12 in summer, n=6 in winter) with no occupational exposure. Average PM 2.5-PE and BC PE (µg/m 3 ) were 53.9±136 and 3.71±4.29 respectively, in summer and 489.2±209.2 and 23.3±14.9 respectively, in winter. Activities associated with highest exposure levels were cooking and indoor cleaning for PM 2.5 , and commuting for BC. Within transport microenvironments, autorickshaws were found to be the most polluted, and lowest BC exposure was registered in public buses. Comparison of fixed-site ambient monitoring data showed a higher correlation with personal exposure dataset in winter compared to summer (r 2 of 0.51 (winter) and 0.21 (summer); 51% (winter) and 20% (summer)). This study highlights the need for detailed assessment of PE to air pollutants in Indian cities, and calls for a denser network of monitoring stations for better exposure assessment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Urban Expansion and Its Impact on Green Spaces of Dehradun City, Uttarakhand, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peeyush Gupta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization is on increase because of heavy population pressure, industrialization, and better job opportunities in plane areas compared to Himalayan terrain. The urbanization has also added hypertension because of very fast life and lack of recreational opportunities within easily accessible distances. Deforestation is the permanent destruction of indigenous forests and woodlands. The term does not include the removal of industrial forests such as plantations of gums or pines. Deforestation is clearing of forests on a massive scale, often resulting in damage to the quality of the land. Urbanization is one of the major causes of the deforestation. Urban green space planning is an important component of urban ecosystems; provide many environmental and social services that contribute quality of life in the cities.The green spaces are said to be the lungs of the urban ecosystem. The process of urbanization led to natural landscape change. In the process tree cover, green spaces and wetlands were recklessly converted into built-up areas in the past and the process is still going on. Due to availability of required infrastructure, Dehradun was named interim capital of the nascent Himalayan state of Uttarakhand in 2000. Other regions of Uttarakhand is also experiencing rapid urbanization. The hill districts adjoining Dehradun district have witnessed a four-fold increase in the number of towns between 1901 and 2001. The population of Dehradun registered increase of 41.08 % between1961-1971, 32.84 % between 1971-81, 25.39 % between 1981-91 and during 1991-2001 it increased by 52.45 %. The temporal imaging of remote sensing data and socio-economic data of 1982 will be used for overall spatial monitoring.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i4.11731     International Journal of EnvironmentVolume-3, Issue-4, Sep-Nov 2014Page: 57-73

  4. Stress and Coping among Adolescents in Selected Schools in the Capital City of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Naina; Khakha, Deepika Cecil; Qureshi, Ashia; Sagar, Rajesh; Khakha, Cecil Christopher

    2015-09-01

    To find out various life stressors of adolescents, coping strategies adopted by them and the impact of stress on adolescent mental health. A descriptive, cross sectional study was conducted in the schools in south zone of Delhi, capital city of the country. Data was collected on 360 adolescents between the age group of 13-17 y on socio-demographic profile, Adolescent Life Event Stress Scale, Brief Cope and Youth Self Report for ages 11-18 y. Stress related to uncontrollable events such as family events, relocation events, accident events, ambiguous events and controllable events such as sexual events, deviance events and autonomy events was significantly higher as compared to distressful events (p stress was significantly correlated with various demographic variables in the study. The most frequently used coping strategies by the adolescents were positive reframing, planning, active coping, and instrumental support. It has also been found that stress has a significant impact on adolescent mental health in the form of either internalizing problems such as anxiety, withdrawal and somatic problems or externalizing problems such as rule breaking and aggressive behaviors. A significant correlation was found between most of the stressful life event domains and the syndrome subscale of the youth self report form which indicate that out of the total sample of 360 adolescents 150 were identified as having psycho-social morbidity, including 59 borderline cases and 91 high-risk cases. The study pointed out the need for mental health screening among the adolescents and also indicated the need for mental health inputs in educational institutions.

  5. Fluoride content in bottled drinking waters, carbonated soft drinks and fruit juices in Davangere city, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thippeswamy, H M; Kumar, Nanditha; Anand, S R; Prashant, G M; Chandu, G N

    2010-01-01

    The regular ingestion of fluoride lowers the prevalence of dental caries. The total daily intake of fluoride for optimal dental health should be 0.05-0.07 mg fluoride/kg body weight and to avoid the risk of dental fluorosis, the daily intake should not exceed a daily level of 0.10 mg fluoride/kg body weight. The main source of fluoride is from drinking water and other beverages. As in other countries, consumption of bottled water, juices and carbonated beverages has increased in our country. To analyze the fluoride content in bottled water, juices and carbonated soft drinks that were commonly available in Davangere city. Three samples of 10 commercially available brands of bottled drinking water, 12 fruit juices and 12 carbonated soft drinks were purchased. Bottled water and carbonated soft drinks were stored at a cold place until fluoride analysis was performed and a clear juice was prepared using different fruits without the addition of water. Then, the fluoride analysis was performed. The mean and standard deviation of fluoride content of bottled water, fruit juices and carbonated soft drinks were measured, which were found to be 0.20 mg (±0.19) F/L, 0.29 mg (±0.06) F/L and 0.22 mg (±0.05) F/L, respectively. In viewing the results of the present study, it can be concluded that regulation of the optimal range of fluoride in bottled drinking water, carbonated soft drinks and fruit juices should be drawn for the Indian scenario.

  6. Fluoride content in bottled drinking waters, carbonated soft drinks and fruit juices in Davangere city, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thippeswamy H

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The regular ingestion of fluoride lowers the prevalence of dental caries. The total daily intake of fluoride for optimal dental health should be 0.05-0.07 mg fluoride/kg body weight and to avoid the risk of dental fluorosis, the daily intake should not exceed a daily level of 0.10 mg fluoride/kg body weight. The main source of fluoride is from drinking water and other beverages. As in other countries, consumption of bottled water, juices and carbonated beverages has increased in our country. Objective: To analyze the fluoride content in bottled water, juices and carbonated soft drinks that were commonly available in Davangere city. Materials and Methods: Three samples of 10 commercially available brands of bottled drinking water, 12 fruit juices and 12 carbonated soft drinks were purchased. Bottled water and carbonated soft drinks were stored at a cold place until fluoride analysis was performed and a clear juice was prepared using different fruits without the addition of water. Then, the fluoride analysis was performed. Results: The mean and standard deviation of fluoride content of bottled water, fruit juices and carbonated soft drinks were measured, which were found to be 0.20 mg (±0.19 F/L, 0.29 mg (±0.06 F/L and 0.22 mg (±0.05 F/L, respectively. Conclusion: In viewing the results of the present study, it can be concluded that regulation of the optimal range of fluoride in bottled drinking water, carbonated soft drinks and fruit juices should be drawn for the Indian scenario.

  7. Compliance monitoring of prohibition of smoking (under section-4 of COTPA) at a tertiary health-care institution in a smoke-free city of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Jaya Prasad; Goel, Sonu; Patro, Binod Kumar

    2013-10-01

    India enacted a comprehensive tobacco control law known as cigarettes and other tobacco products act (COTPA) in 2003. However, enforcement of the provisions under the law is still a matter of concern. Compliance survey is an effective tool to measure the status of implementation of the law at various public places. Smoke-free hospital campus demonstrates commitment to good health and sends a pro-healthy signal to the community. The objective of this study was to assess the compliance to the prohibition of smoking at public places (under section-4 of COTPA) in a tertiary health-care institution in a smoke-free city of India. An observational cross-sectional study was conducted at 40 different venues within a tertiary health-care institution in a smoke-free city of India. These places were observed for certain parameters of assessment by a structured checklist, which included evidence of active smoking, evidence of recent smoking, display of signages, presence of smoking aids, cigarette butts and bidi ends. Overall compliance rate for section-4 of COTPA was found to be mere 23%. Evidence of active smoking was observed in 21 (52.5%) venues. Signages were seen at only 8 places (20%). Butt ends and other smoking aids were seen in 37 (92.5%) and 26 (65%) places respectively. These dismal findings suggest non-compliance to the provisions under COTPA, which calls for a sensitization workshop and advocacy for all the stakeholders.

  8. Genetic diversity & drug sensitivity profiles of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from two slums of Jaipur city, Rajasthan, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Bharti; Dashora, Deepti; Kumar, Vipin; Goyal, Sumit; Sharma, Bhavana; Kumar, Madhu; Gupta, Kailash Narayan; Sharma, Vishnu Dutt; Chauhan, D S; Katoch, Kiran; Katoch, Vishwa Mohan

    2017-01-01

    Slums are considered as hotspots of tuberculosis (TB). The study of genetic diversity and drug susceptibility profile of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) will help understand the transmission dynamics and can be used for better prevention and control of the disease. The aim of this study was to determine the drug susceptibility profiles and genetic diversity using the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU VNTR) of MTB isolates from sputum samples of pulmonary TB patients residing in the two slums of Jaipur city in Rajasthan, India. Sputum samples collected from pulmonary TB patients, their contacts and suspects during 2010-2012 were processed for microscopy and mycobacterial culture. Drug susceptibility testing was done by one per cent indirect proportion method on Lowenstein-Jensen medium for first-line anti-TB drugs rifampicin, isoniazid, ethambutol and streptomycin. MTB DNA was extracted by physicochemical method, and DNA fingerprinting was done by RAPD and MIRU VNTR analysis. Among 175 sputum samples collected, 75 were positive (43.8%) for acid-fast bacilli, 83 for MTB culture and four were contaminated. Fifty two isolates (62.7%) were fully sensitive to four drugs, and five (6%) were multidrug resistant (MDR). RAPD analysis of 81 isolates revealed six clusters containing 23 (28.4%) isolates, and 58 (71.6%) were unique. MIRU VNTR analysis clustered 20 (24.7%) isolates, and 61 (75.3%) were unique. About 62.7 per cent isolates from the sputum samples from slum areas were sensitive to four drugs; six per cent of isolates were MDR. Poly-resistance other than MDR was high (16%). About one-fourth isolates were clustered by either method. RAPD was rapid, less expensive but had low reproducibility. MIRU VNTR analysis could identify to greater extent the epidemiological link in the population studied.

  9. Surgical site infection rates in six cities of India: findings of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sanjeev; Chakravarthy, Murali; Rosenthal, Victor Daniel; Myatra, Sheila N; Dwivedy, Arpita; Bagasrawala, Iqbal; Munshi, Nita; Shah, Sweta; Panigrahi, Bishnu; Sood, Sanjeev; Kumar-Nair, Pravin; Radhakrishnan, Kavitha; Gokul, B N; Sukanya, R; Pushparaj, L; Pramesh, C S; Shrikhande, S V; Gulia, A; Puri, A; Moiyadi, A; Divatia, J V; Kelkar, Rohini; Biswas, Sanjay; Raut, Sandhya; Sampat, Sulochana; Shetty, Suvin; Binu, Sheena; Pinto, Preethi; Arora, Sohini; Kamble, Asmita; Kumari, Neelakshi; Mendonca, Angelina; Singhal, Tanu; Naik, Reshma; Kothari, Vatsal; Sharma, Bindu; Verma, Neeru; Khanna, D K; Chacko, Felcy

    2015-09-01

    Surgical site infections are a threat to patient safety. However, in India, data on their rates stratified by surgical procedure are not available. From January 2005 to December 2011, the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) conducted a cohort prospective surveillance study on surgical site infections in 10 hospitals in 6 Indian cities. CDC National Healthcare Safety Network (CDC-NHSN) methods were applied and surgical procedures were classified into 11 types, according to the ninth edition of the International Classification of Diseases. We documented 1189 surgical site infections, associated with 28 340 surgical procedures (4.2%; 95% CI: 4.0-4.4). Surgical site infections rates were compared with INICC and CDC-NHSN reports, respectively: 4.3% for coronary bypass with chest and donor incision (4.5% vs 2.9%); 8.3% for breast surgery (1.7% vs 2.3%); 6.5% for cardiac surgery (5.6% vs 1.3%); 6.0% for exploratory abdominal surgery (4.1% vs 2.0%), among others. In most types of surgical procedures, surgical site infections rates were higher than those reported by the CDC-NHSN, but similar to INICC. This study is an important advancement towards the knowledge of surgical site infections epidemiology in the participating Indian hospitals that will allow us to introduce targeted interventions. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Interpersonal relationships of elderly in selected old age homes in urban India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duvvuru Jamuna

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Never before have there been so many old people in India. According the 2001 Census of India data, the projected figure for 2031 is 179 million seniors. Dual-career families, changing values, and nuclear family dynamics have altered the social landscape of India. An emerging phenomenon in urban India is the emergence of “pay and stay” homes as a late life living arrangement for middle and higher-income groups. This study focused on selected ‘pay and stay’ homes in the four cities of Hyderabad, Bangalore, Chennai, and Tiruvananthapuram. Personal interviews were conducted with 150 seniors to understand the relocation experience, the extent and nature of self-reported social networks, and evaluation by seniors of this late life arrangement. Majority of respondents were female (65%. More than half of the respondents (58% reported being currently widowed. Results show that childlessness and strained intergenerational relationships were important considerations in the decision to relocate. Majority of the seniors had never conceived that they would be spending their autumn years away from family. Occupants frequently conceived of their living space as their “home.” Living amidst non-family members, the reported network sizes were small. The absence of family members was frequently cited as a source of dissatisfaction when evaluating these homes.

  11. "India Population Projects" in Karnataka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, P H; Badari, V S

    1991-12-01

    An overview, objectives, implementation, and research and evaluation studies of 2 India Population Projects in Karnataka are presented. The India Population Project I (IPP-I) was conducted in Karnataka and Uttar Pradesh. India Population Project III (IPP-III) took place between 1984-92 in 6 districts of Karnataka: Belgaum, Bijapur, Dharwad, Bidar, Gulbarga, and Raichur, and 4 districts in Kerala. The 6 districts in Karnataka accounted for 36% (13.2 million) of the total national population. The project cost was Rs. 713.1 million which was shared by the World Bank, and the Indian national and regional government. Due to poor past performance, these projects were undertaken to improve health and family welfare status. Specific project objectives are outlined. IPP-I included an urban component, and optimal Government of India program, and an intensive rural initiative. The urban program aimed to improved pre- and postnatal services and facilities, and the family planning (FP) in Bangalore city. The rural program was primarily to provide auxiliary nurse-midwives and hospitals and clinics, and also supplemental feeding program for pregnant and nursing mothers and children up to 2 years. The government program provided FP staff and facilities. IPP-I had 3 units to oversee building construction, to recruit staff and provide supplies and equipment, and to establish a Population Center. IPP-III was concerned with service delivery; information, education, and communication efforts (IEC) and population education; research and evaluation; and project management. Both projects contributed significantly to improving the infrastructure. A brief account of the types and kinds of studies undertaken is given. Studies were grouped into longitudinal studies of fertility, mortality, and FP; management information and evaluation systems for health and family welfare programs; experimental strategies; and other studies. Research and evaluation studies in IPP-III encompassed studies in

  12. Innovations in nutrition education and global health: the Bangalore Boston nutrition collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background India has a wide range of nutrition and health problems which require professionals with appropriate skills, knowledge and trans-disciplinary collaborative abilities to influence policy making at the national and global level. Methods The Bangalore Boston Nutrition Collaborative (BBNC) was established as collaboration between St. John’s Research Institute (SJRI), Harvard School of Public Health and Tufts University, with a focus on nutrition research and training. The goals of the BBNC were to conduct an interdisciplinary course, develop web-based courses and identify promising Indian students and junior faculty for graduate training in Boston. Results From 2010, an annual two-week short course in nutrition research methods was conducted on the SJRI campus taught by international faculty from Indian and US universities. More than 100 students applied yearly for approximately 30 positions. The course had didactic lectures in the morning and practical hands-on sessions in the afternoon. Student rating of the course was excellent and consistent across the years. The ratings on the design and conduct of the course significantly improved (p nutrition and global health. Efforts are ongoing to secure long term funding to sustain and expand this collaboration to deliver high quality nutrition and global health education enabled by information and communication technologies. PMID:24400811

  13. Doing Science That Matters to Address India'sWater Crisis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 22; Issue 3. Doing Science That Matters to Address India'sWater Crisis. Veena Srinivasan ... Author Affiliations. Veena Srinivasan1. Centre for Environment and Development Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment Bangalore, India.

  14. Estimation of seismic spectral acceleration in Peninsular India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 116; Issue 3 ... However, very few strong motion records are available for developing attenuation relations for ground acceleration, required by engineers to arrive at rational ... Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India.

  15. India | Page 94 | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    explique Veena Srinivasan, sociohydrologiste au Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment (ATREE), basé à Bangalore, une ville de 4 millions ... Carried out by the MS Swaminathan Research Foundation in India and the Sarvodaya Shramadana Movement in Sri Lanka, the project has established coastal ...

  16. Chemical Research Society of India – Tenth Anniversary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    The Chemical Research Society of India (CRSI) established in 1999 completes its tenth year during the Tenth National Symposium (NSC-10; February 2008) in Bangalore at the. Indian Institute of Science. The Society has been providing a forum for chemists to dis- cuss and share their research contributions with ...

  17. Compliance monitoring of prohibition of smoking (under section-4 of COTPA at a tertiary health-care institution in a smoke-free city of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaya Prasad Tripathy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: India enacted a comprehensive tobacco control law known as cigarettes and other tobacco products act (COTPA in 2003. However, enforcement of the provisions under the law is still a matter of concern. Compliance survey is an effective tool to measure the status of implementation of the law at various public places. Smoke-free hospital campus demonstrates commitment to good health and sends a pro-healthy signal to the community. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the compliance to the prohibition of smoking at public places (under section-4 of COTPA in a tertiary health-care institution in a smoke-free city of India. Materials and Methods: An observational cross-sectional study was conducted at 40 different venues within a tertiary health-care institution in a smoke-free city of India. These places were observed for certain parameters of assessment by a structured checklist, which included evidence of active smoking, evidence of recent smoking, display of signages, presence of smoking aids, cigarette butts and bidi ends. Results: Overall compliance rate for section-4 of COTPA was found to be mere 23%. Evidence of active smoking was observed in 21 (52.5% venues. Signages were seen at only 8 places (20%. Butt ends and other smoking aids were seen in 37 (92.5% and 26 (65% places respectively. Conclusion: These dismal findings suggest non-compliance to the provisions under COTPA, which calls for a sensitization workshop and advocacy for all the stakeholders.

  18. Evaluation of the Relevance of Piaget's Cognitive Principles among Parented and Orphan Children in Belagavi City, Karnataka, India: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M Badakar, Chandrashekhar; J Thakkar, Prachi; M Hugar, Shivayogi; Kukreja, Pratibha; G Assudani, Harsha; Gokhale, Niraj

    2017-01-01

    To determine and compare the relevance of Piaget's cognitive principles among 4- to 7-year-old parented and orphan children in Belagavi City, Karnataka, India. This study was conducted on 240 children between the ages of 4 to 7 years who were equally divided into two groups of 120 parented and 120 orphan children. These were subdivided into four groups of 30 children each. Various characteristics like egocentrism, concept of cardinal numbers based on centration, lack of conservation, and reversibility were assessed, using experiments and comparison of their prevalence between two groups was carried out. There is a statistically significant difference in the cognitive development among parented and orphan children age 4 to 7 years. There is a significantly better cognitive development among parented children as compared with orphan children in Belagavi city. A child is not a miniature adult but rather can think and perceive the world differently from an adult. Understanding a child's intellectual level can enable a pedodontist to deliver improved quality care to children. According to Jean Piaget, in the preoperational period, children think symbolically and their reasoning is based more on appearance rather than logic. It is often rightly said that a child's behavior is a reflection of his parents. However, Piaget did not consider the effect of social setting and culture on the cognitive development. This study was carried out as there is not much literature available to describe the cognitive development of children in the Indian scenario and the influence of parental presence on the same. How to cite this article: Badakar CM, Thakkar PJ, Hugar SM, Kukreja P, Assudani HG, Gokhale N. Evaluation of the Relevance of Piaget's Cognitive Principles among Parented and Orphan Children in Belagavi City, Karnataka, India: A Comparative Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2017;10(4):346-350.

  19. Evaluation of the Relevance of Piaget’s Cognitive Principles among Parented and Orphan Children in Belagavi City, Karnataka, India: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    M Badakar, Chandrashekhar; M Hugar, Shivayogi; Kukreja, Pratibha; G Assudani, Harsha; Gokhale, Niraj

    2017-01-01

    Aim To determine and compare the relevance of Piaget’s cognitive principles among 4- to 7-year-old parented and orphan children in Belagavi City, Karnataka, India. Materials and methods This study was conducted on 240 children between the ages of 4 to 7 years who were equally divided into two groups of 120 parented and 120 orphan children. These were subdivided into four groups of 30 children each. Various characteristics like egocentrism, concept of cardinal numbers based on centration, lack of conservation, and reversibility were assessed, using experiments and comparison of their prevalence between two groups was carried out. Results There is a statistically significant difference in the cognitive development among parented and orphan children age 4 to 7 years. Conclusion There is a significantly better cognitive development among parented children as compared with orphan children in Belagavi city. Clinical significance A child is not a miniature adult but rather can think and perceive the world differently from an adult. Understanding a child’s intellectual level can enable a pedodontist to deliver improved quality care to children. According to Jean Piaget, in the preoperational period, children think symbolically and their reasoning is based more on appearance rather than logic. It is often rightly said that a child’s behavior is a reflection of his parents. However, Piaget did not consider the effect of social setting and culture on the cognitive development. This study was carried out as there is not much literature available to describe the cognitive development of children in the Indian scenario and the influence of parental presence on the same. How to cite this article: Badakar CM, Thakkar PJ, Hugar SM, Kukreja P, Assudani HG, Gokhale N. Evaluation of the Relevance of Piaget’s Cognitive Principles among Parented and Orphan Children in Belagavi City, Karnataka, India: A Comparative Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2017;10(4):346-350. PMID:29403227

  20. Mobile phones: the next step towards healthcare delivery in rural India?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSouza, Sherwin I; Rashmi, M R; Vasanthi, Agalya P; Joseph, Suchitha Maria; Rodrigues, Rashmi

    2014-01-01

    Given the ubiquity of mobile phones, their use to support healthcare in the Indian context is inevitable. It is however necessary to assess end-user perceptions regarding mobile health interventions especially in the rural Indian context prior to its use in healthcare. This would contextualize the use of mobile phone communication for health to 70% of the country's population that resides in rural India. To explore the acceptability of delivering healthcare interventions through mobile phones among users in a village in rural Bangalore. This was an exploratory study of 488 mobile phone users, residing in a village, near Bangalore city, Karnataka, South India. A pretested, translated, interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to obtain data on mobile phone usage patterns and acceptability of the mobile phone, as a tool for health-related communication. The data is described using basic statistical measures. The primary use of mobile phones was to make or receive phone calls (100%). Text messaging (SMS) was used by only 70 (14%) of the respondents. Most of the respondents, 484 (99%), were willing to receive health-related information on their mobile phones and did not consider receiving such information, an intrusion into their personal life. While receiving reminders for drug adherence was acceptable to most 479 (98%) of our respondents, 424 (89%) preferred voice calls alone to other forms of communication. Nearly all were willing to use their mobile phones to communicate with health personnel in emergencies and 367 (75%) were willing to consult a doctor via the phone in an acute illness. Factors such as sex, English literacy, employment status, and presence of chronic disease affected preferences regarding mode and content of communication. The mobile phone, as a tool for receiving health information and supporting healthcare through mHealth interventions was acceptable in the rural Indian context.

  1. Mobile phones: the next step towards healthcare delivery in rural India?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherwin I DeSouza

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Given the ubiquity of mobile phones, their use to support healthcare in the Indian context is inevitable. It is however necessary to assess end-user perceptions regarding mobile health interventions especially in the rural Indian context prior to its use in healthcare. This would contextualize the use of mobile phone communication for health to 70% of the country's population that resides in rural India. OBJECTIVES: To explore the acceptability of delivering healthcare interventions through mobile phones among users in a village in rural Bangalore. METHODS: This was an exploratory study of 488 mobile phone users, residing in a village, near Bangalore city, Karnataka, South India. A pretested, translated, interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to obtain data on mobile phone usage patterns and acceptability of the mobile phone, as a tool for health-related communication. The data is described using basic statistical measures. RESULTS: The primary use of mobile phones was to make or receive phone calls (100%. Text messaging (SMS was used by only 70 (14% of the respondents. Most of the respondents, 484 (99%, were willing to receive health-related information on their mobile phones and did not consider receiving such information, an intrusion into their personal life. While receiving reminders for drug adherence was acceptable to most 479 (98% of our respondents, 424 (89% preferred voice calls alone to other forms of communication. Nearly all were willing to use their mobile phones to communicate with health personnel in emergencies and 367 (75% were willing to consult a doctor via the phone in an acute illness. Factors such as sex, English literacy, employment status, and presence of chronic disease affected preferences regarding mode and content of communication. CONCLUSION: The mobile phone, as a tool for receiving health information and supporting healthcare through mHealth interventions was acceptable in the rural Indian

  2. Mobile Phones: The Next Step towards Healthcare Delivery in Rural India?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSouza, Sherwin I.; Rashmi, M. R.; Vasanthi, Agalya P.; Joseph, Suchitha Maria; Rodrigues, Rashmi

    2014-01-01

    Background Given the ubiquity of mobile phones, their use to support healthcare in the Indian context is inevitable. It is however necessary to assess end-user perceptions regarding mobile health interventions especially in the rural Indian context prior to its use in healthcare. This would contextualize the use of mobile phone communication for health to 70% of the country's population that resides in rural India. Objectives To explore the acceptability of delivering healthcare interventions through mobile phones among users in a village in rural Bangalore. Methods This was an exploratory study of 488 mobile phone users, residing in a village, near Bangalore city, Karnataka, South India. A pretested, translated, interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to obtain data on mobile phone usage patterns and acceptability of the mobile phone, as a tool for health-related communication. The data is described using basic statistical measures. Results The primary use of mobile phones was to make or receive phone calls (100%). Text messaging (SMS) was used by only 70 (14%) of the respondents. Most of the respondents, 484 (99%), were willing to receive health-related information on their mobile phones and did not consider receiving such information, an intrusion into their personal life. While receiving reminders for drug adherence was acceptable to most 479 (98%) of our respondents, 424 (89%) preferred voice calls alone to other forms of communication. Nearly all were willing to use their mobile phones to communicate with health personnel in emergencies and 367 (75%) were willing to consult a doctor via the phone in an acute illness. Factors such as sex, English literacy, employment status, and presence of chronic disease affected preferences regarding mode and content of communication. Conclusion The mobile phone, as a tool for receiving health information and supporting healthcare through mHealth interventions was acceptable in the rural Indian context. PMID

  3. Community-based control of Aedes aegypti by adoption of eco-health methods in Chennai City, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunachalam, Natarajan; Tyagi, Brij Kishore; Samuel, Miriam; Krishnamoorthi, R; Manavalan, R; Tewari, Satish Chandra; Ashokkumar, V; Kroeger, Axel; Sommerfeld, Johannes; Petzold, Max

    2012-12-01

    Dengue is highly endemic in Chennai city, South India, in spite of continuous vector control efforts. This intervention study was aimed at establishing the efficacy as well as the favouring and limiting factors relating to a community-based environmental intervention package to control the dengue vector Aedes aegypti. A cluster randomized controlled trial was designed to measure the outcome of a new vector control package and process analysis; different data collection tools were used to determine the performance. Ten randomly selected intervention clusters (neighbourhoods with 100 houses each) were paired with ten control clusters on the basis of ecological/entomological indices and sociological parameters collected during baseline studies. In the intervention clusters, Aedes control was carried out using a community-based environmental management approach like provision of water container covers through community actors, clean-up campaigns, and dissemination of dengue information through schoolchildren. The main outcome measure was reduction in pupal indices (pupae per person index), used as a proxy measure of adult vectors, in the intervention clusters compared to the control clusters. At baseline, almost half the respondents did not know that dengue is serious but preventable, or that it is transmitted by mosquitoes. The stakeholder analysis showed that dengue vector control is carried out by vertically structured programmes of national, state, and local administrative bodies through fogging and larval control with temephos, without any involvement of community-based organizations, and that vector control efforts were conducted in an isolated and irregular way. The most productive container types for Aedes pupae were cement tanks, drums, and discarded containers. All ten intervention clusters with a total of 1000 houses and 4639 inhabitants received the intervention while the ten control clusters with a total of 1000 houses and 4439 inhabitants received only

  4. ‘Slum’ and the City : Exploring relations of informal settlements comparatively in Chennai, India and Durban, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saharan, T.

    2018-01-01

    Although urbanization has the potential to make cities and countries develop, many urban residents and cities struggle with fragmented growth accompanied by high levels of inequality. Despite several decades of policy intervention, there is still a shortage in affordable housing and ‘slums’ continue

  5. Preparedness for tobacco control among postgraduate residents of a medical college in Bangalore

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    Prem K Mony

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tobacco use is a major cause of avoidable mortality. Postgraduate doctors in training are an important group of physicians likely to influence patients′ tobacco use/cessation. Objective: To assess preparedness for tobacco control among clinical postgraduate residents of a medical college in southern India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was undertaken among all clinical postgraduate residents enrolled in St. John′s Medical College, Bangalore, to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding tobacco cessation in their patients. A self-administered, anonymous questionnaire was used. Simple descriptive analysis was undertaken. Results: The overall response rate was 66% (76/116. Mean (S.D. knowledge score on tobacco use prevalence and disease burden was 6.2 (2.0 out of 10. About 25% of them were not aware of nicotine replacement therapy as a treatment option for tobacco cessation. Nearly two thirds of them expected their patients to ask for assistance with quitting and nearly half were sceptical about patients′ ability to quit. While 80% of them enquired routinely about tobacco use in their patients, only 50% offered advice on quitting and less than a third assessed readiness to quit or offered assistance with quitting in their patients. Conclusion: Our study revealed suboptimal levels of knowledge and tobacco cessation practice among postgraduate residents. Attitudes toward tobacco cessation by their patients was however generally positive and there was substantial interest in further training in tobacco control. Reorienting postgraduate medical education to include tobacco control interventions would enable future physicians to be better equipped to deal with nicotine addiction.

  6. Assessment of 2-(4-morpholinyl) benzothiazole (24MoBT) and N-cyclohexyl-2-benzothiazolamine (NCBA) as traffic tracers in metropolitan cities of China and India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Suhong; Sun, Yali; Zhang, Gan; Li, Jun; Xie, Qilai; Chakraborty, Paromita

    2012-09-01

    2-(4-Morpholinyl) benzothiazole (24MoBT) and N-cyclohexyl-2-benzothiazolamine (NCBA), which are present in automobile tires, are impurities of the vulcanisation accelerators OBS and CBS, respectively, as defined by the Japan Industrial Standard. To assess 24MoBT and NCBA as markers to trace the usage patterns of OBS and CBS in developing countries, urban dusts were collected from five representative cities of China and India for the analysis of 24MoBT and NCBA. The concentrations in these dust samples were found to be within the range of 3.40-151 ng g-1 for 24MoBT and nd-56.9 ng g-1 for NCBA. The higher levels of 24MoBT may indicate that the traditional accelerator OBS is still used in vehicle tires, whereas the relatively lower contents of NCBA are mainly related to the lesser use of CBS tires. The individual fractions of 24MoBT and NCBA in BTs (24MoBT + NCBA) are compared among cities, and the results show that the fraction sequence is consistent with the number of vehicles and the cities' economic development. This study indicates not only that 24MoBT is presently more suitable for tracing tire wear emissions than NCBA in China but also that there is a potential to assess the impact of traffic sources on urban environments using BTs.

  7. Subaltern urbanism in India beyond the mega-city slum: The civic politics of occupancy and development in two peripheral cities in the Mumbai Metropolitan Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, T.K.

    2014-01-01

    Tara van Dijk leverages concepts from subaltern urbanism, namely political society and occupancy urbanism, to look at how residence and locality development are constituted and governed in practice across three types of settlements in two 'satellite' cities of the Mumbai Metropolitan Region:

  8. Teleradiology in an inaccessible area of northern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Char, Amit; Kalyanpur, Arjun; Puttanna Gowda, V N; Bharathi, Anjan; Singh, Jasbir

    2010-01-01

    Teleradiology can be used to provide health care to rural populations, especially where there is a scarcity of resources, including on-site radiologists. We have established a network link between a commercial teleradiology provider in Bangalore, south India and the Ramakrishna Mission Hospital (RKMH), located over 3000 km away in the north east of India. Image files were transferred to Bangalore via an ADSL connection using secure file transfer protocol. In the 12-month period beginning in August 2007, a total of 962 studies was sent to Bangalore from the RKMH. The average turnaround time for the report to reach the hospital once the images had been received in Bangalore was six hours for non-emergency cases. For emergency cases the turnaround time was consistently below 30 minutes. Because the RKMH was a charitable institution providing rural patients with free or low-cost treatment, no charge was made for the reporting. Our experience demonstrates that remote implementation of teleradiology is possible in rural India. The service has proved valuable for the remote hospital concerned.

  9. Impact of leachate on groundwater pollution due to non-engineered municipal solid waste landfill sites of erode city, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagarajan Rajkumar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Leachate and groundwater samples were collected from Vendipalayam, Semur and Vairapalayam landfill sites in Erode city, Tamil Nadu, India, to study the possible impact of leachate percolation on groundwater quality. Concentrations of various physicochemical parameters including heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Fe and Zn were determined in leachate samples and are reported. The concentrations of Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, NH4+ were found to be in considerable levels in the groundwater samples particularly near to the landfill sites, likely indicating that groundwater quality is being significantly affected by leachate percolation. Further they were proved to be the tracers for groundwater contamination near Semur and Vendipalayam dumpyards. The presence of contaminants in groundwater particularly near the landfill sites warns its quality and thus renders the associated aquifer unreliable for domestic water supply and other uses. Although some remedial measures are suggested to reduce further groundwater contamination via leachate percolation, the present study demands for the proper management of waste in Erode city.

  10. Susceptibility mapping and estimation of rainfall threshold using space based input for assessment of landslide hazard in Guwahati city in North East India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhusan, K.; Kundu, S. S.; Goswami, K.; Sudhakar, S.

    2014-11-01

    Slopes are the most common landforms in North Eastern Region (NER) of India and because of its relatively immature topography, active tectonics, and intense rainfall activities; the region is susceptible to landslide incidences. The scenario is further aggravated due to unscientific human activities leading to destabilization of slopes. Guwahati, the capital city of Assam also experiences similar hazardous situation especially during monsoon season thus demanding a systematic study towards landslide risk reduction. A systematic assessment of landslide hazard requires understanding of two components, "where" and "when" that landslides may occur. Presently no such system exists for Guwahati city due to lack of landslide inventory data, high resolution thematic maps, DEM, sparse rain gauge network, etc. The present study elucidates the potential of space-based inputs in addressing the problem in absence of field-based observing networks. First, Landslide susceptibility map in 1 : 10,000 scale was derived by integrating geospatial datasets interpreted from high resolution satellite data. Secondly, the rainfall threshold for dynamic triggering of landslide was estimated using rainfall estimates from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis. The 3B41RT data for 1 hourly rainfall estimates were used to make Intensity-Duration plot. Critical rainfall was estimated for every incidence by analysing cumulative rainfall leading to a landslide for total of 19 incidences and an empirical rainfall intensity-duration threshold for triggering shallow debris slides was developed (Intensity = 5.9 Duration-0.479).

  11. Oral health status and treatment needs among 12- and 15-year-old government and private school children in Shimla city, Himachal Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shailee, Fotedar; Girish, M Sogi; Kapil, R Sharma; Nidhi, Pruthi

    2013-01-01

    To assess the dental caries, periodontal health, and malocclusion of school children aged 12 and 15 years in Shimla city and to compare them in government and private schools. A cross-sectional study of 12- and 15-year-old children in government and private schools was conducted in Shimla city, Himachal Pradesh, India. A sample of 1011 school children (both males and females) was selected by a two-stage cluster sampling method. Clinical recordings of dental caries and malocclusion were done according to World Health Organization diagnostic criteria 1997. Periodontal health was assessed by Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs index. The data collected was analyzed by SPSS package 13. The statistical tests used were t-test and Chi-square tests. The prevalence of dental caries was 32.6% and 42.2% at 12 and 15 years, respectively. At the12 years of age, the mean decayed, missing, filled teeth was 0.62 ± 1.42 and it was 1.06 ± 2.93 at 15 years of age. Females had higher level of caries than males at both the ages. At both ages, mean of decayed teeth was statistically higher in government schools as compared with private schools. Children in government schools had significantly less number of mean filled teeth at both ages as compared with private schools. The healthy component of gingiva was present in higher percentage of children in private schools as compared with government schools at both the age groups. The prevalence of malocclusion among the 12- year-old (58.1%) was more as compared with that among the 15-year-old (53.5%). The caries experience of 12- and 15-year-old children was low but the prevalence of gingivitis and malocclusion was quite high. Effective oral health promotion strategies need to be implemented to improve the oral health of school children further in Shimla city.

  12. Long-term energy consumptions of urban transportation: A prospective simulation of 'transport-land uses' policies in Bangalore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefevre, Benoit

    2009-01-01

    The current trends of urban dynamics in the Third World are alarming with regard to climate change, because they are giving an increasingly important role to cars-to the detriment of public and non-motorized transportation. Yet this is the type of energy consumption that is expected to grow the fastest, in business-as-usual scenarios. How can these market-based urban trends be influenced? What level of emissions reduction can be achieved? This article shows that first, there is a relevant and urgent need to tackle the urban dynamics of cities in developing countries focusing on the 'transport-land uses' couple, and second, that existing transport technologies and decision-helping tools are already available to take up the climate change challenge. Through the application of an integrated 'transport-land uses' model, TRANUS, this study demonstrates that transit technologies affordable to an emerging city like Bangalore can significantly curb the trajectories of energy consumption and the ensuing carbon dioxide emissions, if and only if they are implemented in the framework of appropriate urban planning. Furthermore, this study establishes that there are tools which are available to facilitate the necessary policy-making processes. These tools allow stakeholders to discuss different political alternatives integrating energy issues, based on quantitative assessments

  13. Women's status and health of two ethnic groups inhabiting a periurban habitat of Kolkata City, India: a micro-level study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Rohini; Bharati, Premananda

    2005-03-01

    We studied the interrelationship of women's status in terms of socioeconomic inequality and its effect on women's health at micro level between two ethnic groups in a periurban area of Kolkata City, India. One-hundred twenty-seven women who belong to a tribal population (Munda) and 174 women who belong to a caste population (Poundrakshatriya) participated in this study. We found significant differences between various (socioeconomic, demographic, diet intake, and body mass index [BMI] factors among the two ethnic groups that indicated a better situation for the Pod women. The number of live births, dietary intake and BMI of the women of the two ethnic groups varied differentially among socioeconomic factors, such as women's education and working pattern and poverty level of the household, which are the most recognized measures of women's status. Thus, the diverse socioeconomic status in various cultural groups in traditional Indian societies reflects a more complex situation of women's status and their health. Different factors were responsible for the differential health status of women, which is culture and location specific. Women who are more educated and employed are not necessarily more healthy, since poverty remains an integral factor, base on which literacy and employment status of women in India is determined. Furthermore, suppression of women is rooted in the very fabric of the Indian society, in tradition, in religious doctrine and practices, within the educational systems, and within the families. Along with education, therefore, income-generating schemes for the women of the economically deprived population should be strengthened to bring equality in overall health status of a region that consists of diverse cultural populations with vast economic disparity.

  14. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in 8-18-year-old school-going children of Srinagar city of Kashmir India

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    Syed MS Andrabi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Obesity is the most common cause of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome (MS. These are the most important risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD. No evidence exists regarding the prevalence of the MS in children in sSrinagar city of Kashmir India. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of MS in 8-18-year-old school-going children of Kashmir, India. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 758 respondents in 8-18 years of age were randomly selected using a simple random sampling method. The self-designed questionnaire was individually completed after receiving a written informed consent. The weight, height, waist circumference (WC, body mass index (BMI, and blood pressure were measured using standard tools. Ten milliliters of blood was taken for measuring lipid profile and fasting blood sugar (FBS of the school children. We determined MS according to the modified Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III criteria. Results: The prevalence of the MS was 3.8% (boys: 3.9%, girls: 3.8% and the prevalence of obesity was 9.9% (boys: 9.9%, girls: 10.6% among the studied children. Obese subjects had the highest proportion of MS compared with those at risk for overweight and those with normal weight (30.7% vs. 2.5% and 0.5%, respectively; P = 0.000. Conclusion: The MS is prevalent even in young children, so we suggest screening programs for children aged 8-18 years to control obesity and MS in the developing world.

  15. 76 FR 71602 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Telemanagement Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-18

    ... Networks, Redwood Shores, CA; Aspivia Ltd, Bournemouth, UNITED KINGDOM; Aviat Networks, Melbourne, FL...-city, Kanagawa, JAPAN; Infosys Technologies Ltd. to Bangalore, Karnataka, INDIA; Mobile TeleSystems...

  16. The ground subsidence anomaly investigation around Ambala, India by InSAR and spatial analyses: Why and how the Ambala city behaves as the most significant subsidence region in the Northwest India?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J.; Lin, S. Y.; Tsai, Y.; Singh, S.; Singh, T.

    2017-12-01

    A large ground deformation which may be caused by a significant groundwater depletion of the Northwest India Aquifer has been successfully observed throughout space geodesy techniques (Tsai et al, 2016). Employing advanced time-series ScanSAR InSAR analysis and Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites data, it revealed 400-km wide huge ground deformation in and around Haryana. It was further notified that the Ambala city located in northern Haryana district shown the most significant ground subsidence with maximum cumulative deformation up to 0.2 meters within 3 years in contrast to the nearby cities such as Patiala and Chandigarh that did not present similar subsidence. In this study, we investigated the details of "Ambala Anomaly" employing advanced time-series InSAR and spatial analyses together with local geology and anthropogenic contexts and tried to identify the factors causing such a highly unique ground deformation pattern. To explore the pattern and trend of Ambala' subsidence, we integrated the time-series deformation results of both ascending L-band PALSAR-1 (Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar) from 2007/1 to 2011/1 and descending C-band ASAR (Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar) from 2008/9 to 2010/8 to process the 3D decomposition, expecting to reveal the asymmetric movement of the surface. In addition. The spatial analyses incorporating detected ground deformations and local economical/social factors were then applied for the interpretation of "Ambala Anomaly". The detailed interrelationship of driving factors of the "Ambala Anomaly" and the spatial pattern of corresponding ground subsidence will be further demonstrated. After all, we determined the uniqueness of Ambala subsidence possibly be driven by both anthropogenic behaviors including the rapid growth rate of population and constructing of industrial centers as well as the natural geological characteristics and sediment deposition.

  17. Traveling with Cognitive Tests: Testing the Validity of a KABC-II Adaptation in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malda, Maike; van de Vijver, Fons J. R.; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Transler, Catherine; Sukumar, Prathima

    2010-01-01

    The authors evaluated the adequacy of an extensive adaptation of the American Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, second edition (KABC-II), for 6- to 10-year-old Kannada-speaking children of low socioeconomic status in Bangalore, South India. The adapted KABC-II was administered to 598 children. Subtests showed high reliabilities, the…

  18. Alteration in hematology of Labeo rohita under stress of pollution from Lakes of Bangalore, Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zutshi, Bela; Prasad, S G Raghu; Nagaraja, R

    2010-09-01

    Blood is an indicator of physiological condition of an animal. Therefore, a field study was conducted to investigate the hematological parameters of wild population of rohu, Labeo rohita (Ham). The following aspects were evaluated in blood: hemoglobin content, red blood cell (RBC) and white blood cell (WBC) count, packed cell volume (PCV), and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) values, and in plasma: cholesterol, protein, and glucose levels. For this purpose, rohu fish of varying sizes and weights were sampled from Hebbal (receiving a storm water drain) and Chowkalli lake (received domestic sewage and industrial effluents from various sources and was more polluted than Hebbal lake). It revealed noticeable differences in hemoglobin content, RBC and WBC count, and PCV and MCHC values. Severe anemia can be marked by a significant decrease in RBC count (p pollutants present mainly in the Chowkalli lake which receives heavy metals, synthetic detergents, petroleum products, and other acid and alkali substances from the nearby local industries. Other observations of these fish include dark body color and aggressive nature of fish.

  19. Numerical analysis and combinatorial methods. [Bangalore, India, March 7--11, 1973

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keshava Murthy, G.N. (ed.)

    1973-01-01

    Nineteen papers on numerical analysis and combinatorial methods were presented at this conference. Among the topics discussed were the following: matrix algebra, Seidel equivalence of graphs, information theory techniques in number theory, operations in weighted spaces, zero-one nonlinear programing, Ramanujan's sums, the finite difference method, Clifford algebra, the Hammerstein integral equation, Diophantine equations and partition functions, and duality. One paper, on numerical methods in nuclear physics, is abstracted separately. (RWR)

  20. An evaluation of dental prosthetic status and prosthetic needs among eunuchs (trans genders) residing in bhopal city, madhya pradesh, India: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongal, S; Torwane, Na; Chandrashekhar, Br; Saxena, V; Chavan, Kr

    2014-11-01

    Eunuchs are considered as the most vulnerable, frustrated, and insecure community. The accessibility to medical and dental facilities for the eunuchs is nearly nonexistent. Due to these reasons, they might be at a high risk of developing severe dental problems like tooth loss. The present cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the dental prosthetic status and prosthetic needs among eunuchs residing in Bhopal city, Madhya Pradesh, India. On the basis of convenient nonprobability snowball sampling technique, all the self-identified eunuchs residing in the city of Bhopal along with a matched control consisting of cross section of the general population residing in the same locality was examined to evaluate the prosthetic status and prosthetic needs of the population. All the obtained data were entered into a personal computer on Microsoft excel sheet and analyzed using the software; Statistical Package for Social Science version 20. Data comparison was done by applying Chi-square test. A total of 639 subjects comprised of 207 eunuchs, 218 males and 214 females. Among all participants, 2.8% (18/639) were having prosthesis. The overall prosthetic status among males was 3.2% (7/218) followed by 2.9% (6/207) eunuchs and 2.3% (5/214) females. However, need for multi-unit and combination of one and more unit prosthesis for upper and lower jaws was higher in males compared to females and eunuchs, but the difference was not statistically significant. The findings of this study clearly demonstrate a high unmet need for prosthetic care among the population surveyed.

  1. Oral health-related knowledge, attitude and practices among eunuchs (hijras residing in Bhopal City, Madhya Pradesh, India: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir Hongal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The current cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted to assess the oral health-related knowledge, attitude and practices among eunuchs (hijras residing in Bhopal city, Madhya Pradesh, India. Materials and Methods: Based on a convenient non-probability snow ball sampling technique, all the self-identified eunuchs residing in the city of Bhopal who were present at the time of study and who fulfilled the selection criteria were approached. A cross section of the general population was also surveyed. An interviewer-based, predesigned, structured, close-ended 18-item questionnaire that had been designed based on the primary objective of the study was used. All the obtained data were analyzed using software, Statistical Package for Social Science version 20. Results: According to 188 (86.2% males, 187 (87.4% females and 168 (81.2% eunuchs, good oral health can improve the general health. Most of the study participants including 211 (98.6% females, 210 (96.3% males and 205 (99% eunuchs use either tooth paste or tooth powder to clean their teeth. While, a majority of eunuchs, i.e., 113 (54.6%, were having habit of chewing smokeless tobacco containing products such as betel nut, betel quid, gutkha, etc., The difference in use of tobacco products was statistically significant. Conclusion: The information presented in this study adds to our understanding of the common oral hygiene practices which are performed among eunuch population. Efforts to increase the awareness of oral effects of tobacco use and to eliminate the habit are needed to improve oral and general health of this population.

  2. Bombay, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Formerly known as Bombay, the city of Mumbai is situated on India's west coast, on the Arabian Sea, roughly 500 km (310 miles) south of the Tropic of Cancer. Its large harbor and ideal location facing Africa, Europe, and the Middle East make it an excellent city for trade. Sometimes referred to as the 'Gateway of India,' Mumbai handles more than one third of the country's foreign trade. The city supports a population of more than 12 million people in an area of roughly 619 square km (239 square miles). The port was acquired in 1534 by Portugal, which named it Bom Bahia, meaning 'beautiful bay.' Originally, the city rested upon seven small islands, mostly basaltic bedrock from earlier lava flows. These islands are now connected to one another by reclaimed land, but each island, or neighborhood, still retains a distinct identity within the city. (For more details, visit Welcome to Bombay: The Gateway of India.) The blue-grey pixels in this false-color image are urban areas. The dark green areas are heavily vegetated surfaces while the light brown regions are more sparsely vegetated. This image of Mumbai was acquired by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+), flying aboard the Landsat 7 satellite. July 23, 2002, marks the 30th anniversary of the Landsat program. (Click to read the press release-Celebrating 30 Years of Imaging the Earth.) The Landsat program has been particularly instrumental in tracking land use and land cover changes-such as increased urban growth-over the last three decades. Image courtesy Ron Beck, USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  3. Utilization of maternal health services by the migrant population living in the non-notified slums of Hyderabad city, India

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    Jagjivan Babu Geddam

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite increase in accessibility and utilization of maternal health services in the state of Telangana, penetration of these services in vulnerable communities is inadequate. Aims & Objectives: To understand the determinants of utilization of reproductive health services by migrant population living in non-notified slums of Hyderabad city in the Indian state of Telangana. Material & Methods: It is a community based cross sectional study of 761 rural to urban internal migrant mothers with a child of less than 2 years of age residing for a period minimum of 30 days and not more than 10 years. Information was collected for socio demographic details, antenatal care and child delivery. Results: Mothers receiving at least 4 antenatal care visits and institutional deliveries in migrants was 69.6% and 69% respectively, compared to 85.8% and 97% in general population of Hyderabad city. The likelihood of mothers receiving adequate care is 6.7 times higher in mothers with secondary education compared to formal education. The likelihood of institutional delivery is 7.8 times higher in mothers availing adequate antenatal care versus inadequate care and 2.2 times higher in mothers with secondary education versus formal education. Conclusion: Utilization of antenatal care services and promotion of institutional deliveries can be improved by acting on the supply side barriers such as health care infrastructure and demand side barriers such as indirect consumer costs, financial constraints and community engagement

  4. Insular pathways to health care in the city: a multilevel analysis of access to hospital care in urban Kerala, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levesque, Jean-Frédéric; Haddad, Slim; Narayana, Delampady; Fournier, Pierre

    2007-07-01

    To identify individual and urban unit characteristics associated with access to inpatient care in public and private sectors in urban Kerala, and to discuss policy implications of inequalities in access. We analysed the NSSO survey (1995-1996) for urban Kerala with regard to source and trajectories of hospitalization. Multinomial multilevel regression models were built for 695 cases nested in 24 urban units. Private sector accounts for 62% of hospitalizations. Only 31% of hospitalizations are in free wards and 20% of public hospitalizations involve payment. Hospitalization pathways suggest a segmentation of public and private health markets. Members of poor and casual worker households have lower propensity of hospitalization in paying public wards or private hospitals. There were important variations between cities, with higher odds of private hospitalization in towns with fewer hospital beds overall and in districts with high private-public bed ratios. Cities from districts with better economic indicators and dominance of private services have higher proportion of private hospitalizations. The private sector is the predominant source of inpatient care in urban Kerala. The public sector has an important role in providing access to care for the poor. Investing in the quality of public services is essential to ensure equity in access.

  5. Assessment of Misconceptions about Oral Health Care and Their Source of Information among Out-Patients Attending Dental College in Bangalore -A Cross Sectional Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajitha Kanduluru

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Myths/misconceptions/false beliefs are the ideas/thoughts which are inculcated into human life during the course of lifetime. They are considered as an integral part of all the existing systems including healthcare. Aim: To assess the prevalence of misconceptions regarding oral health care and their source of information among out patients attending one of the dental colleges in Bangalore city. Materials and Method : A cross-sectional survey was conducted on a sample of 2021 out patients visiting Vydehi Institute of Dental Sciences and Research Centre, Bangalore using a self administered questionnaire. Data was collected and supervised by the investigator. Analysis was done using Chi square test and significance level was fixed at p< 0.05. Results: Out of2021 participants, 942 (46.6% had poor level of knowledge; 431(21.3% of them were found with average level of knowledge; 380(18.8% of them had good level of knowledge, and 268(13.2% of them had excellent level ofk:nowledge regarding oral health. Conclusions: Majority of the study population had considerable beliefs in myths and false perceptions regarding oral health issues. Most of them belonged to 36-45yrs age group, females, illiterates and unemployed.

  6. Impact of anti-tobacco warning labels on behaviour of tobacco users in one of the cities of Gujarat, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, V R; Dave, V R; Sonaliya, K N

    2013-06-01

    Tobacco use continues to be the leading global cause of preventable deaths, killing nearly 6 million people worldwide each year. Tobacco control must be given the high priority by scaling up tobacco control measures. In India under Control of Tobacco Product Act, it is mandatory to keep the warning labels over all kind of tobacco products in order to minimise the use of tobacco. Review of the knowledge regarding warning labels printed on tobacco products among its users and to evaluate the impact of them on addicting behaviour. A Cross Sectional study was carried out among the group of people using tobacco in any form. Total 776 tobacco users were enrolled in the study. Mean age of tobacco user was 41.4 years. Out of total 776 tobacco users, 561 (72.3%) had ever noticed warning signals over the tobacco products. Among those who have noticed warning labels, 64.4 % became aware about health effects and 66% have thought to quit tobacco. Tobacco users of young age group (15-45) were more aware regarding warning labels. Females were less aware. As level of education increases number of tobacco users who tried to quit or reduced the daily quantity of tobacco intake were also increases. Positive impact of warning labels has been seen among the tobacco users who have noticed them. Not all the tobacco users were aware regarding the presence of warning labels as per the findings of present study.

  7. Effect of Training School Teachers on Oral Hygiene Status of 8-10 Years Old Government School Children of Udaipur City, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Sandeep; Bhat, Nagesh; Asawa, Kailash; Tak, Mridula; Singh, Anukriti; Shinde, Kushal; Gandhi, Neha; Doshi, Astha

    2016-08-01

    Provision of oral health knowledge to the children by their teachers at the school level can prove to be more fruitful because it is the time period during which the children begin to learn the basic oral hygiene practices and are most prone to dental caries. This study was carried out to assess the effect of training school teachers on oral hygiene status of 8-10 years old government school children of Udaipur city, India. A total of nine school teachers and 279, 8-10 year old school children from two government schools were included in the study. The questionnaire on oral health knowledge and practice contained 17 questions to evaluate the knowledge and practice of children towards oral hygiene before and after the teachers training program. Baseline and six months post training data on oral health knowledge and practice was obtained by the questionnaire method. Baseline and six months post training data on oral hygiene status was obtained by OHI-S Index. Statistical analysis was done using software SPSS 22, the test used were McNemar's test, paired t-test. Pre and post training data were compared and it was found that there was a significant improvement in oral health knowledge and practices of school teachers and children. Also oral hygiene status of school children was significantly improved after the program. Results of the present study suggest that experiential learning is an effective school based oral health education method for improvement of oral hygiene in primary school children.

  8. Consumption patterns and levels among households with HIV positive members and economic impoverishment due to medical spending in Pune city, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Varun; Krishnaswamy, Divya; Mulay, Sanjeevanee

    2015-01-01

    HIV infection poses a serious threat to the economy of a household. Out of pocket (OOP) health spending can be prohibitive and can drag households below poverty level. Based on the data collected from a cross-sectional survey of 401 households with HIV+ members in Pune city, India, this paper examines the consumption levels and patterns among households, and comments on the economic impoverishment resulting from OOP medical spending. Analysis reveals that households with HIV members spend a major portion of their monthly consumption expenditure on food items. Medical expenditure constitutes a large portion of their total consumption spending. Expenditure on children's education constitutes a minor proportion of total monthly spending. A high proportion of medical expenditure has a bearing on the economic condition of households with HIV members. Poverty increases by 20% among the studied HIV households when OOP health spending is adjusted. It increases 18% among male-headed households and 26% among female-headed households. The results reiterate the need of greater support from the government in terms of accessibility and affordability of health care to save households with HIV members from economic catastrophe.

  9. Impact of various extra-oral factors on caries experience among mentally disabled children residing in Bhopal city, central India: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonal Chhajed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental caries is the most common dental problem among the mentally challenged children. There are various extra-oral factors responsible for high caries experience among such children. Aim: The aim of the present investigation was to study the impact of various extra-oral factors on dental caries experience among mentally challenged children residing in Bhopal city, Central India. Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifty-two children between the age group 5 and 15 years were included in this descriptive cross-sectional study. A pretested pro forma was used to record information about socioeconomic status, demographic data, mental retardation (MR type, and intelligent quotient. The clinical examination was performed to evaluate dental caries and treatment needs using the World Health Organization dentition status and treatment needs index. Results: The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT and dmft were 2.32 and 2.21, respectively. Age, parent occupation, income, and intelligent quotient were significant predictors of both DMFT and dmft. In addition, socio-economic status and type of MR were significant predictors of only DMFT. Conclusion: Dental health professionals should, therefore, be aware of the various extra-oral factors responsible for high caries experience of mentally challenged children. They should understand and provide basic treatment needs to such children.

  10. Impact of various extra-oral factors on caries experience among mentally disabled children residing in Bhopal city, central India: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhajed, Sonal; Bhambhani, Garima; Agarwal, Rohit; Balsaraf, Swati

    2016-01-01

    Dental caries is the most common dental problem among the mentally challenged children. There are various extra-oral factors responsible for high caries experience among such children. The aim of the present investigation was to study the impact of various extra-oral factors on dental caries experience among mentally challenged children residing in Bhopal city, Central India. One hundred and fifty-two children between the age group 5 and 15 years were included in this descriptive cross-sectional study. A pretested pro forma was used to record information about socioeconomic status, demographic data, mental retardation (MR) type, and intelligent quotient. The clinical examination was performed to evaluate dental caries and treatment needs using the World Health Organization dentition status and treatment needs index. The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT and dmft) were 2.32 and 2.21, respectively. Age, parent occupation, income, and intelligent quotient were significant predictors of both DMFT and dmft. In addition, socio-economic status and type of MR were significant predictors of only DMFT. Dental health professionals should, therefore, be aware of the various extra-oral factors responsible for high caries experience of mentally challenged children. They should understand and provide basic treatment needs to such children.

  11. Pattern of tobacco use among primary school teachers in Belgaum city, India – A Cross Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Savadi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The consumption of tobacco related products by the school teachers is a bad habit because it sends a wrong signal to young minds of students. It is injurious to health and is a waste of money and also is a wrong role model for the students.Objectives To find out the prevalence of pattern of tobacco use among primary school teachers in Belgaum city and to determine the factors influencing the use of tobacco among primary school teachers.Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using random sampling technique among 400 teachers aged 21 to 60 years from 78 primary schools in Belgaum city during March to December 2009.Results Overall, prevalence of any form of tobacco use among primary school teachers was 14.50%. Only male teachers 46.03% used tobacco. 37.93% were using smoking type of tobacco, 46.56% used smokeless & 15.51%were using both types of tobacco products. Most of the users initiated tobacco use by 16 to 20 years of age. A substantial number of teachers initiated tobacco use for fun, imitation and peer pressure. 58.33% of the teachers were using tobacco due to un-satisfaction from profession, 37.50% due to family problems.Conclusion High proportion of male teachers used tobacco than female teachers, because of social norm. Almost all the teachers consciously avoided tobacco use in school premises. Students will be encouraged to start using tobacco, if they observe use of tobacco products by teachers who are the role models for students. It was concluded that it would be beneficial to conduct educational programs and seminars encouraging tobacco cessation to this professional group, along with school children.

  12. Pattern of tobacco use among primary school teachers in Belgaum city, India – A Cross Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Savadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The consumption of tobacco related products by the school teachers is a bad habit because it sends a wrong signal to young minds of students. It is injurious to health and is a waste of money and also is a wrong role model for the students. Objectives To find out the prevalence of pattern of tobacco use among primary school teachers in Belgaum city and to determine the factors influencing the use of tobacco among primary school teachers. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using random sampling technique among 400 teachers aged 21 to 60 years from 78 primary schools in Belgaum city during March to December 2009. Results Overall, prevalence of any form of tobacco use among primary school teachers was 14.50%. Only male teachers 46.03% used tobacco. 37.93% were using smoking type of tobacco, 46.56% used smokeless & 15.51%were using both types of tobacco products. Most of the users initiated tobacco use by 16 to 20 years of age. A substantial number of teachers initiated tobacco use for fun, imitation and peer pressure. 58.33% of the teachers were using tobacco due to un- satisfaction from profession, 37.50% due to family problems. Conclusion High proportion of male teachers used tobacco than female teachers, because of social norm. Almost all the teachers consciously avoided tobacco use in school premises. Students will be encouraged to start using tobacco, if they observe use of tobacco products by teachers who are the role models for students. It was concluded that it would be beneficial to conduct educational programs and seminars encouraging tobacco cessation to this professional group, along with school children.

  13. Ordered Probit Analysis of Consumers’ Preferences for Milk and Meat Quality Attributes in the Emerging Cities of Southern India

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    S. PRIYADHARSINI

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess consumer preferences for milk and meat quality attributes, a study was carried out in two Second-Tier cities of Tamil Nadu. Personal interviews were done to collect the data from 160 respondents chosen through a multistage sampling procedure in each of the two cities selected for this study. Ordered Probit model fitted for the attributes of milk showed that: family size had a significant positive preference towards texture, low fat and low price of milk, educated consumers paid greater attention to taste, safety, flavour, packaging and low fat attributes of milk and low income consumers paid less importance on most of the attributes of milk. Ordered Probit model for meat revealed that as the family size increased, the consumers were likely to give more importance to ageing and tenderness and less importance to leanness of meat. Male consumers paid greater attention to colour and females were none concerned with tenderness, cooking quality and price. As the education level increased, the consumers became more and more quality and price conscious. Households having children paid more importance to tenderness and taste attributes of meat, whereas the household having aged people opted for colour, taste, tenderness, cooking quality, leanness and price attributes. Low income consumers paid less importance to quality attributes and the respondents performing more physical activity paid lesser attention towards leanness and more importance to price of the meat. This suggests the need for enhancing the production of quality livestock products, together by developing a well-organized distribution system.

  14. Impacts of a participatory approach to assess sustainable sewage treatment technologies for urban fringe of Surat city in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vashi, A N; Shah, N C

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the assessment of the sustainability of a number of different sewage treatment technologies by means of a multi-criteria, participatory method for a scattered settlement of urban fringe of Surat. The special efforts have been made for the broad participation to achieve stronger democracy, better quality of the end product, and a more effective process. The mere participation of technocrats and bureaucrats certainly lead to the greater efficiency in working methods. However, the ultimate goal of sustainable developments of such technologies could not be reached in absence of democratic participation and social learning. Keeping this important aspect in view for assessment of sustainability, the detailed study was conducted in the presence of policy makers and stakeholders, academicians, technical experts, finance managers and NGO, to find out sustainability criteria and indicators for three different sewage treatment technologies: (A) Conventional Activated Sludge Process (B) Extended Aeration System, and (C) Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) Reactor followed by Aerated Lagoon and Polishing Pond. Technologies were compared according to four criteria subdivided into twenty operational indicators. Criteria and indicators were evaluated as in a weighted-scale matrix. In India, sustainability criteria used in this type of comparisons are often restricted to a limited set of environmental impacts and financial costs but in this study additional criteria were evaluated including economic, social, and technical aspects. Based on the values assigned by the panel, the Sustainability Index (SI) was calculated for each technology. According to the SI and a predefined scale, sustainability was medium for options A and B, whereas high for option C. The purpose of this study is to provide a basis for the selection of a particular technology based on a rational and democratic assessment of its contribution to sustainability in the local and global context

  15. Determinants of tobacco use and prevalence of oral precancerous lesions in cab drivers in Bengaluru City, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punith Shetty

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tobacco is a most important risk factor for various types of cancer as well as some noncommunicable disease. Around 34.6% of Indian population consume tobacco. The tobacco consumption is higher in some vulnerable population such as drivers, daily wage laborers, and policemen. Tobacco consumption is known to cause oral cancers, and screening for oral cancer in these individuals is known to reduce mortality from cancer. The study was designed to assess the determinants of tobacco use and the prevalence of oral precancerous lesions in cab drivers. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study among cab drivers at prepaid taxi counters in Bengaluru city. A total of 450 cab drivers were enrolled in the study, of which 225 cab drivers were interviewed during morning hours and remaining half at night time using a semi-structured questionnaire. All were screened for oral cancer/precancerous lesions. Results: Nearly 70.88% of cab drivers were consuming tobacco in any form. Long working hours, working at night, and family members consuming tobacco were significant risk factors for tobacco use among cab drivers. Forty-eight drivers were detected to have oral precancerous lesions. Conclusions: It was very evident that long hours of driving and infrequent shifts played a greater role in acquiring the habit. Behavioral counseling and new laws need to be formed to limit the working hours in drivers to have an effective tobacco control.

  16. 77 FR 31581 - U.S. Architecture Services Trade Mission to India; Chennai, Kolkata and Bangalore, India; October...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration U.S. Architecture Services Trade Mission... from the American Institute of Architects ( http://www.aia.org/ ), is organizing an Architecture..., etc. along the port); hospitals and health care architecture; airports/other transportation...

  17. A hydrogeochemical study of rain water to characterize the source of atmospheric pollutants at Jodhpur - desert city of India (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrivastava, K.L.; Ojha, S.K.

    1999-01-01

    A study was undertaken has been conducted to determined the physical parameters and chemical species in the first precipitants of the season at desert city of Jodhpur to understand firstly, the degree of pollutants in the atmosphere and secondly to identity the minerals/pollutants of the atmosphere to characterize its possible source of origin. The precipitate samples for cations and other physical and chemical parameters by standard analytical methods. The results obtained on turbidity, conductivity, total dissolved solids and the ratio of total dissolved solids and conductivity, show a moderate degree of pollutants at all the four sites, A, B, C and D but slightly higher at C and D sites. The concentration of various water-soluble chemical species present in the precipitates, specially a balance between acidic and basic constituents decides its pH value. Hydrogen ions are mainly responsible for acidification of rain waters and are derived chiefly from oxidation of SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub 2/ to from H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and HNO/sub 3/ respectively. Hence a correlation study carried out between H/sup */and SO/sub 4//sup --/, NO/sub 3/ and Cl. Result shows no strong correlation between H/sup +/ and Cl/up -/. A group of strongly corrected elements Cl, Na/sup +/,K/sup +/ and Mg/sup ++/ were observed representing a similar source of their origin. The atmospheric desert dust components chiefly consist of quartz, mica flakes, clays like illite, kaolinite etc., and especially clays, may neutralize the acidity of precipitates via H/sup +/ exchange. Some minerals like Halite, Gypsum, Dolomite, Calcite may get slightly dissolved in the rainwater to replace H/sup +/ ions and so, impart alkalinity. Thus, it is logical to believe that the cations may have been derived originally from some of the geological source. Some rations like Cl/Na, Mg/Na, Ca/Na are known to have been used in characterization of the source. As expected in the atmosphere of desert city, like Jodhpur, the solid

  18. Detection of Salmonella spp. from chevon, mutton and its environment in retail meat shops in Anand city (Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. P. Makwana

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was (i To attempt isolation and identification of Salmonella species from samples. (ii Serotyping of Salmonella isolates. (iii Detection of virulence factor associated genes by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Materials and Methods: A total of 284 samples comprised of chevon and mutton (112 samples each as well as 60 samples (20 each of retail meat shops environment samples viz. Butchers’ hands, knives and log swabs were collected from the retail meat shops in and around Anand City under aseptic precautions. Rappaport-vassiliadis soy bean meal broth and tetrathionate broth was used for the enrichment of all the samples and inoculation was done on brilliant green agar and xylose lysine deoxycholate agar. This was followed by the confirmation of isolates using biochemical tests. For the serotyping, isolates were sent to the National Salmonella and Escherichia Centre, Central Research Institute, Kasauli, Himachal Pradesh. Detection of virulence genes was performed by PCR technique using previously reported primer. Result: Of 284 meats and retail meat shops environment samples, 13 (4.58% samples were found positive for Salmonella. It was interesting to know that incidence of Salmonella was more in mutton (6.25% than chevon (3.57%. In case of meat shop environmental samples 1 (5.00% sample observed positive for Salmonella separately among the butchers’ hands and knives swabs (Each of 20 samples examined. Out of 13, eleven isolates detected as Salmonella Typhimurium, whereas only two isolates were detected as Salmonella Enteritidis. All Salmonella isolates possess invA and stn genes, whereas nine isolates had a presence of spvR gene while only five of the isolates revealed the presence of spvC gene as shown by in vitro detection of virulence genes by PCR. Conclusion: Therefore, might be suggested that the good hygiene practices and effective control measures should be taken to encourage clean meat production with

  19. Outdoor Operational Stability of Indium-Free Flexible Polymer Solar Modules Over 1 Year Studied in India, Holland, and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angmo, Dechan; Sommeling, Paul M.; Gupta, Ritu

    2014-01-01

    We present an outdoor interlaboratory stability study of fully printed and coated indium-tin-oxide (ITO)-free polymer solar cell modules in JNCASR Bangalore (India), ECN (Holland), and DTU (Denmark) carried over more than 1 year. The modules comprising a fully printed and coated stack (Ag grid...

  20. Fast Food Consumption Pattern and Its Association with Overweight Among High School Boys in Mangalore City of Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Nitin; Nelliyanil, Maria; Rai, Sharada; Y P, Raghavendra Babu; Kotian, Shashidhar M; Ghosh, Tanima; Singh, Manisha

    2015-05-01

    Fast foods are quite popular among children owing to taste, appearance and hype created by mass media. However, the increased incidence of lifestyle disorders seen now-a-days at an early age could be attributed to fast foods. This study was done to assess the awareness of health hazards, consumption pattern of fast foods and to find out its association with overweight among high school students. This cross-sectional study was done among boys of 3 private schools in Mangalore city in March 2012. Data was collected using a semi-structured self-administered questionnaire. Chi-square test, one-way ANOVA and binary logistic regression analysis was used for analysis. P-value ≤ 0.05 was considered as statistically significant association. Mean age of boys was 13.5±0.9 years. Out of 300 participants, 41(13.7%) were overweight and 8 (2.7%) were obese. 292(97.3%) were fast food users of which 42(14.4%) consumed it every day. Majority of participants were introduced to fast foods through television commercials 193(64.3%). 73(57%) developed this habit as they were bored with home food. Awareness of harmful effects of fast food consumption was known to 186(62%) students and this was found to be associated with the perceived need to control its usage (pfoods was found to influence fast food consumption among children (p=0.024). As many as 68(22.7%) and 206(68.7%) children were not eating vegetables and fruits respectively every day. Increased frequency of fast food consumption in a week was found to be associated with overweight or obesity among children after adjusting the effects of confounders (p=0.003). Awareness on health hazards of fast foods needs to be taught at schools so as to minimize its consumption. Parents have to set an example themselves by not eating fast foods and improving home food to support discouragement of fast foods. This would minimize life style disorders among children to a greater extent.

  1. Variability in optical properties of atmospheric aerosols and their frequency distribution over a mega city "New Delhi," India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, S; Tiwari, Suresh; Hopke, P K; Attri, S D; Soni, V K; Singh, Abhay Kumar

    2016-05-01

    The role of atmospheric aerosols in climate and climate change is one of the largest uncertainties in understanding the present climate and in capability to predict future climate change. Due to this, the study of optical properties of atmospheric aerosols over a mega city "New Delhi" which is highly polluted and populated were conducted for two years long to see the aerosol loading and its seasonal variability using sun/sky radiometer data. Relatively higher mean aerosol optical depth (AOD) (0.90 ± 0.38) at 500 nm and associated Angstrom exponent (AE) (0.82 ± 0.35) for a pair of wavelength 400-870 nm is observed during the study period indicating highly turbid atmosphere throughout the year. Maximum AOD value is observed in the months of June and November while minimum is in transition months March and September. Apart from this, highest value of AOD (AE) value is observed in the post-monsoon [1.00 ± 0.42 (1.02 ± 0.16)] season followed by the winter [0.95 ± 0.36 (1.02 ± 0.20)] attributed to significance contribution of urban as well as biomass/crop residue burning aerosol which is further confirmed by aerosol type discrimination based on AOD vs AE. During the pre-monsoon season, mostly dust and mixed types aerosols are dominated. AODs value at shorter wavelength observed maximum in June and November while at longer wavelength maximum AOD is observed in June only. For the better understanding of seasonal aerosol modification process, the aerosol curvature effect is studied which show a strong seasonal dependency under a high turbid atmosphere, which are mainly associated with various emission sources. Five days air mass back trajectories were computed. They suggest different patterns of particle transport during the different seasons. Results suggest that mixtures of aerosols are present in the urban environment, which affect the regional air quality as well as climate. The present study will be very much useful to the modeler for

  2. Device-Associated Infection Rates in 20 Cities of India, Data Summary for 2004-2013: Findings of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Yatin; Jaggi, Namita; Rosenthal, Victor Daniel; Kavathekar, Maithili; Sakle, Asmita; Munshi, Nita; Chakravarthy, Murali; Todi, Subhash Kumar; Saini, Narinder; Rodrigues, Camilla; Varma, Karthikeya; Dubey, Rekha; Kazi, Mohammad Mukhit; Udwadia, F E; Myatra, Sheila Nainan; Shah, Sweta; Dwivedy, Arpita; Karlekar, Anil; Singh, Sanjeev; Sen, Nagamani; Limaye-Joshi, Kashmira; Ramachandran, Bala; Sahu, Suneeta; Pandya, Nirav; Mathur, Purva; Sahu, Samir; Singh, Suman P; Bilolikar, Anil Kumar; Kumar, Siva; Mehta, Preeti; Padbidri, Vikram; Gita, N; Patnaik, Saroj K; Francis, Thara; Warrier, Anup R; Muralidharan, S; Nair, Pravin Kumar; Subhedar, Vaibhavi R; Gopinath, Ramachadran; Azim, Afzal; Sood, Sanjeev

    2016-02-01

    To report the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium surveillance data from 40 hospitals (20 cities) in India 2004-2013. Surveillance using US National Healthcare Safety Network's criteria and definitions, and International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium methodology. We collected data from 236,700 ICU patients for 970,713 bed-days Pooled device-associated healthcare-associated infection rates for adult and pediatric ICUs were 5.1 central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs)/1,000 central line-days, 9.4 cases of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAPs)/1,000 mechanical ventilator-days, and 2.1 catheter-associated urinary tract infections/1,000 urinary catheter-days In neonatal ICUs (NICUs) pooled rates were 36.2 CLABSIs/1,000 central line-days and 1.9 VAPs/1,000 mechanical ventilator-days Extra length of stay in adult and pediatric ICUs was 9.5 for CLABSI, 9.1 for VAP, and 10.0 for catheter-associated urinary tract infections. Extra length of stay in NICUs was 14.7 for CLABSI and 38.7 for VAP Crude extra mortality was 16.3% for CLABSI, 22.7% for VAP, and 6.6% for catheter-associated urinary tract infections in adult and pediatric ICUs, and 1.2% for CLABSI and 8.3% for VAP in NICUs Pooled device use ratios were 0.21 for mechanical ventilator, 0.39 for central line, and 0.53 for urinary catheter in adult and pediatric ICUs; and 0.07 for mechanical ventilator and 0.06 for central line in NICUs. Despite a lower device use ratio in our ICUs, our device-associated healthcare-associated infection rates are higher than National Healthcare Safety Network, but lower than International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium Report.

  3. Proportion of depression and its determinants among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in various tertiary care hospitals in Mangalore city of South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Depression is found to be common among patients with diabetes and it is associated with poor outcomes in disease control. This study was carried out to find out the proportion and determinants associated with depression among patients with established type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM in various tertiary care hospitals in Mangalore city of south India. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in one government and three private tertiary care hospitals in Mangalore in December 2010. All consenting patients with confirmed diagnosis of T2DM were interviewed and screened for depression by administering the 9-item PRIME-MD Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9. Results: Of the 230 T2DM patients, 119 (51.7% were males. The mean age of all participants was 53.61 ± 10.7 years. The median duration of T2DM was found to be 12.1 ± 7.35 years. Among the participants, 71 (30.9% met the criteria for moderate depression, 33 (14.3% for severe depression, and the remaining 126 (54.8% had no clinically significant depression. Only 26 (11.3% patients were already aware that they were depressed, of whom just 3 had taken medical consultation. Among the risk factors, depression was found to be significantly associated with older age, female gender, low socioeconomic status, unskilled and retired employment status, having complications due to T2DM or comorbidities like hypertension and coronary artery disease, being overweight and being on insulin syringe injections. Conclusion: This study found a high proportion of depression among patients with T2DM. Therefore the care of individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM should include the screening and possible treatment of depression in order to achieve and sustain treatment goals.

  4. Entrepreneurship Education at Indian Industrial Training Institutes – A Case Study of the Prescribed, Adopted and Enacted Curriculum in and around Bangalore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea Zenner

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available On the one hand, India is a growing economy that needs skilled labour, self-employed entrepreneurs and employees to tackle its economic and social challenges. On the other hand, India faces high unemployment rates, especially among young people. Graduates from industrial training institutes (ITIs in particular are often facing difficulties in pursuing self-employment. Entrepreneurship education is an essential element in preparing young people for self-employment. This paper analyses how and to what extent entrepreneurship education has been conceived and implemented in vocational schools in and around Bangalore to face these challenges. Methodologically the authors use a three-step approach following the theories of a `prescribed', `adopted' or `enacted' curriculum. Qualitative interviews are used for the analysis of the adopted and enacted curriculum. The authors conclude that whereas the prescribed curriculum includes several elements of entrepreneurship education and teacher's understanding is in line with the prescription, the understanding is seldom translated into input in the day-to-day teaching. The plausible reasons for this gap are discussed in this paper.

  5. Participatory Sustainability Approach to Value Capture-Based Urban Rail Financing in India through Deliberated Stakeholder Engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satya Sai Kumar Jillella

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly, cities around the world are seeking innovative financial mechanisms to build rail transit projects. Land value capture (VC is a financing mechanism to fund urban rail transit. Often VC mechanisms are viewed only as a financing tool applied in relation to increased land values from the administration and legislation perspectives, without actively involving the community in the process. The lack of such participation has resulted in the under collection of the true value established. The transit beneficiary community and city tax payers are especially important stakeholders in this process as their willingness to participate is really critical to the overall VC success and transport outcome. This paper introduces a participatory sustainability approach to enable a more deliberated stakeholder engagement intervention across the VC life cycle. A four-step “Participatory Strategic Value Capture (PSVC” framework is proposed offering step-by-step guidance toward facilitating a meaningful stakeholder dialogue, deliberation, and collaboration around the stated engagement interests. The PSVC framework, applied to the proposed Bangalore sub-urban rail project in India, has demonstrated the importance of stakeholder engagement using deliberated participatory approaches from a win-win perspective.

  6. Neuropsychology in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, J Keshav; Sadasivan, Akila

    2016-11-01

    This is an invited paper for a special issue with the objective to provide information on neuropsychology in India. Information was gathered from a literature search and personal communication with professionals working in the field of neuropsychology. Neuropsychology as a specialization started in India approximately 40 years ago. The early years witnessed the use of Western tools for assessing patients with organic brain damage. Subsequent years saw the development of indigenous tools for use with the vast majority of the Indian population and also a few Western tests adapted to suit the needs of the unique Indian clientele. The starting of the Neuropsychology unit at the National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS) in Bangalore in 1975 resulted in changing of the course of training and practice of Neuropsychology. The field of assessments has witnessed indigenous tests being developed, while rehabilitation programs have brought about a decline in cognitive deficits in several clinical conditions. Currently, work within the field of neuropsychology has focused on child, geriatric, acquired brain injury, and forensic populations with a development of unique rehabilitations to suit needs of several clinical conditions. However, there are very few neuropsychologists in the country, and only one nodal training center, which limits the availability of training to the large population of the country. Despite the shortcomings, the field of neuropsychology has received much attention in the recent years with the number of referrals and professionals increasing.

  7. Diurnal variations of (218)Po, (214)Pb, and (214)Po and their effect on atmospheric electrical conductivity in the lower atmosphere at Mysore city, Karnataka State, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruthvi Rani, K S; Paramesh, L; Chandrashekara, M S

    2014-12-01

    The short-lived radon daughters ((218)Po, (214)Pb, (214)Bi and (214)Po) are natural tracers in the troposphere, in particular near the ground surface. They are electrically charged particles and are chemically reactive. As soon as they are formed they get attached to the aerosol particles of the atmosphere. The behavior of radon daughters is similar to that of aerosols with respect to their growth, transport and removal processes in the atmosphere. The electrical conductivity of the atmosphere is mainly due to the presence of highly mobile ions. Galactic cosmic rays are the main source of ionization in the planetary boundary layer; however, near the surface of the earth, ions are produced mainly by decays of natural radioactive gases emanating from the soil surface and by radiations emitted directly from the surface. Hence the electrical conductivity of air near the surface of the earth is mainly due to radiations emitted by (222)Rn, (218)Po, (214)Pb, (214)Bi and (214)Po, and depends on aerosol concentrations and meteorological parameters. In the present work the diurnal and seasonal variations of radon and its progeny concentrations are studied using Low Level Radon Detection System and Airflow Meter respectively. Atmospheric electrical conductivity of both positive and negative polarities is measured using a Gerdien Condenser. All the measurements were carried out simultaneously at one location in Mysore city (12°N, 76°E), India. The diurnal variation of atmospheric electrical conductivity was found to be similar to that of ion pair production rate estimated from radon and its progeny concentrations with a maximum in the early morning hours and minimum during day time. The annual average concentrations of (222)Rn, (218)Po, (214)Pb, and (214)Po at the study location were found to be 21.46, 10.88, 1.78 and 1.80 Bq m(-3) respectively. The annual average values of positive and negative atmospheric electrical conductivity were found to be 18.1 and 16.6 f S m(-1

  8. Feeding and oral hygiene habits of children attending daycare centres in Bangalore and their caretakers oral health knowledge, attitude and practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Vinay

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Caretakers in day-care centers play a significant role in imparting good oral hygiene practices and also extend a working relationship with parents with regard to their children′s oral health. As a result of this, caregiver′s dental knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and practices affect the child′s oral condition. Settings and Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study involved caretakers working in day-care centers of Bangalore. Fifty-two day-care centers were randomly selected from the different zones of Bangalore city, from which 246 caretakers provided consent for participation. Materials and Methods: A comprehensive, closed-ended, self-administered questionnaire was employed which was designed to collect the sociodemographic details and to evaluate the oral health knowledge, attitudes, practice of caretakers. The institutional review committee approved the study. Data were entered using SPSS 13.01. Results: Seventy-nine percent of the subjects had good knowledge of child′s tooth eruption time, clinical presentation of dental caries and the role of fluoride in caries prevention. Yet, half of the subjects found routine dental examination after all the milk teeth have erupted in the oral cavity insignificant and 41% strongly agreed that dentist should be consulted only when the child has a toothache. In spite of the good knowledge, 77% preferred to use pacifier dipped in honey/sugar if the children acted troublesome. Analogous to this, 45% gave milk/juice with sugar before the child′s nap time. Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that caretaker′s attitude toward oral health care needs is far from acceptable standards to mirror any positive impact on the children.

  9. Occurrence and sources of selected organochlorine pesticides in the soil of seven major Indian cities: Assessment of air-soil exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Paromita; Zhang, Gan; Li, Jun; Sivakumar, A; Jones, Kevin C

    2015-09-01

    India is an agricultural country and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) accounts for nearly three fourth of the annual pesticide consumption. Selected OCPs were therefore quantified in 81 soil samples along urban-suburban-rural transect from New Delhi and Agra in the north, Kolkata in the east, Mumbai and Goa in the west and Chennai and Bangalore in the southern part of India. ΣOCPs ranges from 2 to 410 ng/g dry weight (Mean, 35) with dominance of endosulfan sulfate in the rural sites. Urban centers and suburbs reflects OCP usage for vector control. Lower winter temperature in New Delhi favored site-specific deposition of most OCPs in soil. Volatilization of OCPs from soil occurred in the Indian cities having higher ambient temperature. Due to the compounded impact of past and ongoing usage of selected OCPs like DDT, a sporadic cycle of emission and re-emission from Indian soil is expected to continue for many more years to come. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Bacterial fauna associating with chironomid larvae from lakes of Bengaluru city, India - A 16s rRNA gene based identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramprasad Kuncham

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Chironomid larvae that inhabit in aquatic sediments play an important role as vector for bacterial pathogens. Its life cycle consists of four stages i.e. eggs, larvae, pupae and adult. In the present study we identified bacterial species associated with whole larvae of chironomids from 11 lake sediments of Bangalore region using 16s rRNA gene Sanger sequencing. We found that larvae from all lake sediments associated with bacterial species which include key pathogens. Totally we identified 65 bacterial isolates and obtained GenBank accession numbers (KX980423 - KX980487. Phylogenetic tree constructed using MEGA 7 software and tree analysis highlight the predominant bacterial community associated with larvae which include Enterobacteriaceae (43.08%; 28 isolates and Aeromonas (24.62%; 16 isolates, Shewanella, Delftia, Bacillus (6.15%; 4 isolates each, Pseudomonas (4.62%; 3 isolates and Exiguobacterium (3.08%; 2 isolates. Current findings state that among bacterial population Aeromonas, Enterobacter and Escherichia with serotypes are commonly associated with larvae in maximum lake points. In other hand Vibrio, Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, Shigella, Bacillus, and other bacterial species were identified moderately in all lakes. Interestingly, we identified first time Shigella Gram negative, rod shaped pathogenic organism of Enterobacteriaceae and Rheinheimera Gram negative, rod shaped organism associating chironomid larvae.

  11. Bacterial fauna associating with chironomid larvae from lakes of Bengaluru city, India - A 16s rRNA gene based identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuncham, Ramprasad; Sivaprakasam, Thiyagarajan; Puneeth Kumar, R; Sreenath, P; Nayak, Ravi; Thayumanavan, Tha; Subba Reddy, Gopireddy V

    2017-06-01

    Chironomid larvae that inhabit in aquatic sediments play an important role as vector for bacterial pathogens. Its life cycle consists of four stages i.e. eggs, larvae, pupae and adult. In the present study we identified bacterial species associated with whole larvae of chironomids from 11 lake sediments of Bangalore region using 16s rRNA gene Sanger sequencing. We found that larvae from all lake sediments associated with bacterial species which include key pathogens. Totally we identified 65 bacterial isolates and obtained GenBank accession numbers (KX980423 - KX980487). Phylogenetic tree constructed using MEGA 7 software and tree analysis highlight the predominant bacterial community associated with larvae which include Enterobacteriaceae (43.08%; 28 isolates) and Aeromonas (24.62%; 16 isolates), Shewanella , Delftia , Bacillus (6.15%; 4 isolates each), Pseudomonas (4.62%; 3 isolates) and Exiguobacterium (3.08%; 2 isolates). Current findings state that among bacterial population Aeromonas , Enterobacter and Escherichia with serotypes are commonly associated with larvae in maximum lake points. In other hand Vibrio , Pseudomonas , Klebsiella , Shigella , Bacillus , and other bacterial species were identified moderately in all lakes. Interestingly, we identified first time Shigella Gram negative, rod shaped pathogenic organism of Enterobacteriaceae and Rheinheimera Gram negative, rod shaped organism associating chironomid larvae.

  12. Charecterisation and Modelling Urbanisation Pattern in Sillicon Valley of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aithal, B. H.

    2015-12-01

    Urbanisation and Urban sprawl has led to environmental problems and large losses of arable land in India. In this study, we characterise pattern of urban growth and model urban sprawl by means of a combination of remote sensing, geographical information system, spatial metrics and CA based modelling. This analysis uses time-series data to explore and derive the potential political-socio-economic- land based driving forces behind urbanisation and urban sprawl, and spatial models in different scenarios to explore the spatio-temporal interactions and development. The study area applied is Greater Bangalore, for the period from 1973 to 2015. Further water bodies depletion, vegetation depletion, tree cover were also analysed to obtain specific region based results effecting global climate and regional balance. Agents were integrated successfully into modelling aspects to understand and foresee the landscape pattern change in urban morphology. The results reveal built-up paved surfaces has expanded towards the outskirts and have expanded into the buffer regions around the city. Population growth, economic, industrial developments in the city core and transportation development are still the main causes of urban sprawl in the region. Agent based model are considered to be to the traditional models. Agent Based modelling approach as seen in this paper clearly shown its effectiveness in capturing the micro dynamics and influence in its neighbourhood mapping. Greenhouse gas emission inventory has shown important aspects such as domestic sector to be one of the major impact categories in the region. Further tree cover reduced drastically and is evident from the statistics and determines that if city is in verge of creating a chaos in terms of human health and desertification. Study concludes that integration of remote sensing, GIS, and agent based modelling offers an excellent opportunity to explore the spatio-temporal variation and visulaisation of sprawling metropolitan

  13. Faith, Trust and the Perinatal Healthcare Maze in Urban India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Raman

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available How women access and utilise health services through pregnancy, childbirth and infancy needs to be understood if we are to improve the delivery of and access to appropriate healthcare. Drawing on ethnographic observations of clinic encounters and in-depth interviews with women in Bangalore, South India, this paper reports on the complexities of negotiating healthcare throughout the perinatal continuum in urban India. Key themes identified include faith and trust in health services, confusion over right to healthcare; and the contested nature of choice for women. What is revealed is a socially restrictive framework that results in choices that seem arbitrary, irrational and self-defeating; poor women being particularly vulnerable. Given the current policy support for public-private-partnerships in reproductive healthcare delivery in India, both public and private health services need to move substantially to achieve true partnership and provide care that is respectful and valued by women and children in urban India.

  14. Climate Change Studies over Bangalore using Multi-source Remote Sensing Data and GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    B, S.; Gouda, K. C.; Laxmikantha, B. P.; Bhat, N.

    2014-12-01

    Urbanization is a form of metropolitan growth that is a response to often bewildering sets of economic, social, and political forces and to the physical geography of an area. Some of the causes of the sprawl include - population growth, economy, patterns of infrastructure initiatives like the construction of roads and the provision of infrastructure using public money encouraging development. The direct implication of such urban sprawl is the change in land use and land cover of the region. In this study the long term climate data from multiple sources like NCEP reanalysis, IMD observations and various satellite derived products from MAIRS, IMD, ERSL and TRMM are considered and analyzed using the developed algorithms for the better understanding of the variability in the climate parameters over Bangalore. These products are further mathematically analyzed to arrive at desired results by extracting land surface temperature (LST), Potential evapo-transmission (PET), Rainfall, Humidity etc. Various satellites products are derived from NASA (National Aeronautics Space Agency), Indian meteorological satellites and global satellites are helpful in massive study of urban issues at global and regional scale. Climate change analysis is well studied by using either single source data such as Temperature or Rainfall from IMD (Indian Meteorological Department) or combined data products available as in case of MAIRS (Monsoon Asia Integrated Regional Scale) program to get rainfall at regional scale. Finally all the above said parameters are normalized and analyzed with the help of various open source available software's for pre and post processing our requirements to obtain desired results. A sample of analysis i.e. the Inter annual variability of annual averaged Temperature over Bangalore is presented in figure 1, which clearly shows the rising trend of the temperature (0.06oC/year). Also the Land use and land cover (LULC) analysis over Bangalore, Day light hours from

  15. The Bangalore Challenge: Case Studies of the Social Construction of Technology in Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byker, Erik Jon

    2012-01-01

    As India aspires to become the information and communication technology (ICT) leader in the world, the education of its children is a primary concern. While India's policymakers expect ICT to usher in promising education changes, there is a limited understanding of how computers are used and negotiated in India's schools. This dissertation is an…

  16. Consequences of inhibition of mixed-layer deepening by the West India coastal current for winter phytoplankton bloom in the northeastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vijith, V.; Vinayachandran, P.N.; Thushara, V.; Amol, P.; Shankar, D.; Anil, A.C.

    acknowledge the Fund for644 Improvement of S&T Infrastructure (FIST) of the Department of Science and Tech-645 nology, Government of India and the Divecha Centre for Climate Change, Indian646 Institute of Science (IISc), Bangalore for funding the high... performance comput-647 ing facility (Mandhan) at the Centre for Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, IISc,648 Bangalore. The final simulation was carried out in SahasraT (CrayXC40) located649 at the Supercomputer Education and Research Centre (SERC), IISc...

  17. The Mighty Ganges and its Journey Through the Silk City: A Case Study of Water Quality and its Impact on Health in Bhagalpur, Bihar, India, using Machine Learning, GIS & Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, B.; Kumar, N.

    2016-12-01

    River Ganges with an approximate stretch of 2525 km serves about 40% of India's population across 11 states, one of which is Bihar. The district Bhagalpur is located in the eastern part of Bihar and extends between the north latitudes of 25°03'40" and 25°30'00" and east longitudes of 86°30'00" and 87°29'45" encompassing approximately 66 km stretch of the Ganges. It forms a part of the mid- Gangetic alluvium plain covering an area of 2570 km2. The total population of the district stands at 3.03 million with a population density of 743 per km2. Ganges is a life line of millions of people with utmost religious significance but its banks have become a dumping ground for untreated urban sewage, industrial waste, disposal of solid corpses etc. which has led to severe environmental issues and as reported by the Central Ground water Board, the southern part of the city is affected by arsenic contamination in ground water (> 50 mg/L as per WHO norm). The municipal corporation is trying to cope up. This study aims at a comprehensive analysis of water quality along the entire 66 km stretch of the river. The methodology would involve dividing the stretch into 1 km sub-study areas and collection of 10 water samples from each stretch. Samples will also be collected at disposal points from industries especially the silk manufacturing units, sewage disposal points, cremation grounds, pesticide disposal points. A high resolution remotely sensed imagery of the city would be used and the multi-class relevance vector machine (MCRVM) would be used to broadly classify the landuse/landcover and this synoptic view of the city would facilitate the understanding of the urban environment. In conjunction, a standard questionnaire on health along with GPS locations would be collected from sample population inhabiting the demarcated stretches. Analysis would include physical, chemical and bacteriological tests on water samples. The results would bring forth the water quality and check for

  18. Compliance monitoring of prohibition of smoking (under section-4 of COTPA) at a tertiary health-care institution in a smoke-free city of India

    OpenAIRE

    Tripathy, Jaya Prasad; Goel, Sonu; Patro, Binod Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Background: India enacted a comprehensive tobacco control law known as cigarettes and other tobacco products act (COTPA) in 2003. However, enforcement of the provisions under the law is still a matter of concern. Compliance survey is an effective tool to measure the status of implementation of the law at various public places. Smoke-free hospital campus demonstrates commitment to good health and sends a pro-healthy signal to the community. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess ...

  19. Surveillance on quality of turmeric powders vis a vis curcumin content and presence of extraneous color s from city markets of India

    OpenAIRE

    Dixit , Sumita; Purshottam , Shakendra; Khanna , Subhash K; Das , Mukul

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Curcumin, the principal curcuminoid of turmeric is responsible for its yellow colour and serves as a measure of quality of turmeric. The Prevention of Food Adulteration (PFA) Act of India allows only Curcuma longa L. for the production of turmeric powder and prohibits addition of any foreign matter/ artificial colour but does not specify minimum curcumin limit. Therefore, the present surveillance has been undertaken to study the quality of loose versus branded turmeric pow...

  20. 500 Cities: City Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This city boundary shapefile was extracted from Esri Data and Maps for ArcGIS 2014 - U.S. Populated Place Areas. This shapefile can be joined to 500 Cities...

  1. Flood risk assessment through 1D/2D couple HEC-RAS hydrodynamic modeling- A case study of Surat City, Lower Tapi Basin, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dhruvesh; Ramirez, Jorge; Srivastava, Prashant; Bray, Michaela; Han, Dawei

    2017-04-01

    Surat, known as the diamond city of Gujart is situated 100 km downstream of Ukai dam and near the mouth of river Tapi and affected by the flood at every alternate year. The city experienced catastrophic floods in 1933, 1959, 1968, 1970, 1994, 1998 and 2006. It is estimated that a single flood event during August 6-12, 2006 in Surat and Hazira twin-city, caused heavy damages, resulted in the death of 300 people and property damage worth € 289 million. The peak discharge of 25768 m3 s-1 release from Ukai dam was responsible for the disastrous flood in Surat city. To identifylow lying areas prone to inundation and reduce the uncertainty in flood mitigation measures, HEC-RAS based 1D/2D Couple hydrodynamic modeling is carried out for Surat city. Release from the Ukai dam and tidal level of the sea are considered for upstream and downstream boundary condition. 299 surveyed cross-sections have been considered for 1D modeling, whereas a topographic map at 0.5 m contour interval was used to produce a 5 m grid and SRTM (30 & 90 m) grid has been considered for Suart and Lower Tapi Basin (LTB). Flow is simulated under unsteady conditions, calibrated for the year 1998 and validated for the year 2006. The simulated result shows that the 9th August 18.00 hr was the worst day for Surat city and maximum 75-77 % area was under inundation. Most of the flooded area experienced 0.25 m/s water velocity with the duration of 90 hr. Due to low velocity and high duration of the flood, a low lying area within the west zone and south-west zone of the city was badly affected by the flood, whereas the south zone and south-east zone was least. Simulated results show good correlation when compared with an observed flood level map. The simulated results will be helpful to improve the flood resilience strategy at Surat city and reduce the uncertainty for flood inundation mapping for future dam releases. The present case study shows the applicability of 1D/2D coupled hydrodynamic modeling for

  2. Road Rage Menace: A Cross-sectional Study to Assess Driver Anger Level in Public Motor Vehicle Drivers in a City in Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Dixit

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Road rage and aggressive driving is a prevalent condition in today’s society due to motorists’ frustrations during heavy traffic volumes. Objective: This study was done to assess the level of anger amongst the drivers of public transport vehicles in Indore, using Driving Anger Scale (DAS by Deffenbacher et. al. and various factors affecting it. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 135 drivers of Public transport vehicle drivers (Star bus, City-van and star cab drivers in Indore to assess their anger level using Driving Anger Scale. The participants were required to record the amount of anger they would experience in response to each item in the scale (1=not at all angry, 2=a little angry, 3=some anger, 4=much anger, 5=very much angry. Results: The mean DAS score in Indore was found to be 3.013 and in the three organizations namely Star bus drivers, City van drivers and Star cab drivers was 2.92, 3.08 and 3.04 respectively. The DAS score of drivers with respect to the 6 sub-scales were: hostile gestures (Star bus -3.42,City van -3.67,Star cab -3.38, slow driving (Star bus -2.73,City van driv-2.78,Star cab-3.17, traffic obstructions (Star bus-2.85,City van -3.25,Star cab-3.18, discourtesy (Star bus -3.23,City van-3.33,Star cab -3.25and police presence (Star bus -2.15,City van -1.99,Star cab -2.78, illegal driving (Star bus -3.04,City van -3.14,Star cab -2.89. The DAS scores of the drivers did not vary significantly with age group, experience, and educational qualification. Conclusion: Though DAS scores did not vary between the three groups of drivers, however average level anger for various given circumstances commonly found in the Indian traffic scenario was on the higher side.

  3. J. Astrophys. Astr. (2014) 35, 745–746 Acknowledgments Journal of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    BetiCiciJoan

    Singh, K. P., Mumbai, India. Singh, H. P., Delhi, India. Singh, Parihar Padmakar, Bangalore, India. Smith, Randall, Cambridge, United States. Soler, Roberto, Palma de Mallorca, Spain. Srivastava, Abhisekh Kumar, Varanasi, India. Stalin, Chelliah Subramonian, Bangalore, India. Subramnaniam, Annapurni, Bangalore, India.

  4. The role of non-governmental organizations in residential solid waste management: a case study of Puducherry, a coastal city of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajamanikam, Ramamoorthy; Poyyamoli, Gopalsamy; Kumar, Sunil; R, Lekshmi

    2014-09-01

    Poorly planned and uncontrolled urbanization in India has caused a variety of negative, often irreversible, environmental impacts. The impacts appear to be unavoidable and not easily mitigable due to the mounting public health problems caused by non-segregation of solid wastes at source and their subsequent improper management. Recently in India, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and other civil society organizations have increasingly started to get involved in improving waste management services. Municipal solid waste management being a governmental function, the contribution of NGOs in this field has not been well documented. This study highlights the activities and services of Shuddham, an NGO functioning in the town of Puducherry within the Union Territory of Puducherry in South India. The NGO program promoted much needed awareness and education, encouraged source separation, enhanced door-to-door collection, utilized wastes as raw materials and generated more job opportunities. Even though source separation prior to door-to-door collection is a relatively new concept, a significant percentage of residents (39%) in the study area participated fully, while a further 48% participated in the collection service. The average amount of municipal solid waste generated by residential units in the Raj Bhavan ward was 8582 kg/month of which 47% was recovered through active recycling and composting practices. The study describes the features and performance of NGO-mediated solid waste management, and evaluates the strengths and weaknesses as well as the opportunities and threats of this system to see whether this model can sustainably replace the low-performance conventional solid waste management in practice in the town of Puducherry. The experiences from this case study are expected to provide broad guidelines to better understand the role of NGOs and their contributions towards sustainable waste management practices in urban areas. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Biomonitoring of pollen grains of a river bank suburban city, Konnagar, Calcutta, India, and its link and impact on local people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita Ghosal

    2015-05-01

    Bio-monitoring, together with statistical and biochemical results, leave no doubt about the role of pollen as a bio-pollutant. General knowledge about pollen allergy and specific allergenic pollen grains of a particular locality could be a good step towards better health for the cosmopolitan suburban city.

  6. Application of Remote Sensing and GIS in Landfill (waste Disposal) Site Selection and Environmental Impacts Assessment around Mysore City, Karnataka, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basavarajappa, T. H.

    2012-07-01

    Landfill site selection is a complex process involving geological, hydrological, environmental and technical parameters as well as government regulations. As such, it requires the processing of a good amount of geospatial data. Landfill site selection techniques have been analyzed for identifying their suitability. Application of Geographic Information System (GIS) is suitable to find best locations for such installations which use multiple criteria analysis. The use of Artificial intelligence methods, such as expert systems, can also be very helpful in solid waste planning and management. The waste disposal and its pollution around major cities in Karnataka are important problems affecting the environment. The Mysore is one of the major cities in Karnataka. The landfill site selection is the best way to control of pollution from any region. The main aim is to develop geographic information system to study the Landuse/ Landcover, natural drainage system, water bodies, and extents of villages around Mysore city, transportation, topography, geomorphology, lithology, structures, vegetation and forest information for landfill site selection. GIS combines spatial data (maps, aerial photographs, and satellite images) with quantitative, qualitative, and descriptive information database, which can support a wide range of spatial queries. For the Site Selection of an industrial waste and normal daily urban waste of a city town or a village, combining GIS with Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) will be more appropriate. This method is innovative because it establishes general indices to quantify overall environmental impact as well as individual indices for specific environmental components (i.e. surface water, groundwater, atmosphere, soil and human health). Since this method requires processing large quantities of spatial data. To automate the processes of establishing composite evaluation criteria, performing multiple criteria analysis and carrying out spatial clustering

  7. HIV prevention and care-seeking behaviour among female sex workers in four cities in India, Kenya, Mozambique and South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafort, Yves; Greener, Ross; Roy, Anuradha; Greener, Letitia; Ombidi, Wilkister; Lessitala, Faustino; Haghparast-Bidgoli, Hassan; Beksinska, Mags; Gichangi, Peter; Reza-Paul, Sushena; Smit, Jenni A; Chersich, Matthew; Delva, Wim

    2016-10-01

    To identify gaps in the use of HIV prevention and care services and commodities for female sex workers, we conducted a baseline cross-sectional survey in four cities, in the context of an implementation research project aiming to improve use of sexual and reproductive health services. Using respondent-driven sampling, 400 sex workers were recruited in Durban, 308 in Tete, 400 in Mombasa and 458 in Mysore and interviewed face-to-face. RDS-adjusted proportions were estimated by nonparametric bootstrapping and compared across cities using post hoc pairwise comparison. Condom use with last client ranged from 88.3% to 96.8%, ever female condom use from 1.6% to 37.9%, HIV testing within the past 6 months from 40.5% to 70.9%, receiving HIV treatment and care from 35.5% to 92.7%, care seeking for last STI from 74.4% to 87.6% and having had at least 10 contacts with a peer educator in the past year from 5.7% to 98.1%. Many of the differences between cities remained statistically significant (P < 0.05) after adjusting for differences in FSWs' socio-demographic characteristics. The use of HIV prevention and care by FSWs is often insufficient and differed greatly between cities. Differences could not be explained by variations in socio-demographic sex worker characteristics. Models to improve use of condoms and HIV prevention and care services should be tailored to the specific context of each site. Programmes at each site must focus on improving availability and uptake of those services that are currently least used. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Study on relationship between the nutritional status and dental caries in 8-12 year old children of Udaipur City, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panwar, N K; Mohan, A; Arora, R; Gupta, A; Marya, C M; Dhingra, S

    2014-01-01

    The future health of individuals depends on the well being of the children of today. Proper nutrition for children is very important. The most commonly used index of obesity and over weight is Body Mass Index. The growth of children should be monitored using the Body Mass Index (BMI) and risk factors assessed through a dietary and physical activity history. The increase in obesity is attributed to increased carbohydrate consumption among children. Obesity and caries are both diet-based conditions that share a cause that is, excessive ingestion of fermentable carbohydrates. This study was undertaken to determine the association of nutritional status with dental caries in 8 to 12 year old children of Udaipur city. The present study was conducted on a random sample of 1000 boys and girls, aged 8-12 years. The children were selected from schools located in the Udaipur City, Rajasthan. The schools examined were of government and private sector schools in Udaipur city. The children from schools of Udaipur city was taken in the study with male, female and age group ratio as per distribution in population. A proforma was used to record children's age, gender, school, year, height, weight, parental income and dental caries status. Statistical analysis was done using Statistical Package of Social Science (SPSS Version 15; Chicago Inc., USA). It was found that caries free individuals were more from normal nutritional status group with 134 (13.4 %) subjects where as only 11 (1.1 %) of subjects obese children were found caries free. Study shows that the children with normal BMI for age had more caries in their primary teeth, as well as in their permanent teeth, than the overweight children.

  9. An assessment of municipal solid waste compost quality produced in different cities of India in the perspective of developing quality control indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, J K; Panwar, N; Singh, M V

    2010-02-01

    A study was conducted to investigate physico-chemical properties, fertilizing potential and heavy metal polluting potentials of municipal solid waste composts produced in 29 cities of the country. Results indicated that except a very few samples, all other samples have normal pH and EC. Organic matter as well as major nutrients N and P contents in MSW composts are generally low as compared to the composts prepared from rural wastes. Heavy metal contents in composts from bigger cities (>1 million population) were higher by about 86% for Zn, 155% for Cu, 194% for Cd, 105% for Pb, 43% for Ni and 132% for Cr as compared to those from smaller cities (soil and food chain. Under the scheme, 'Fertilizing index' was calculated from the values of total organic C, N, P, K, C/N ratio and stability parameter, and 'Clean index' was calculated from the contents of heavy metals, taking the relative importance of each of the parameters into consideration. As per the scheme, majority of the compost samples did not belong to any classes and hence, have been found unsuitable for any kind of use. As per the regulatory limits of different countries, very few compost samples (prepared from source separated biogenos wastes) were found in marketable classes (A, B, C and D) and some samples (11-14) were found suitable only for some restricted use.

  10. Sex in the city: privacy-making practices, spatialized intimacies and the environmental risks of men-who-have-sex-with-men in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorway, Robert; Hwang, Sandra D H; Reza-Paul, Sushena; Pasha, Akram; Rahman, Syed Hafeez Ur; Moses, Stephen; Blanchard, James

    2011-09-01

    Employing community-based approaches, the spatialization of sexual risk among men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM) at local cruising spots was explored in South India. To move beyond individualistic and structural deterministic understandings of sexual risk the study examined how erotic associations and networks formed and dissolved as social actors connect to each other through their material world (which includes other bodies). Crowding was important for safely establishing intimacy in public but also created contexts of discrimination and violence, particularly for feminine-acting males. Risk itineraries drawn by MSM anticipated fluctuating levels of risk, enabling them to avoid dangerous situations. Although sexual typologies connected gender nonconforming males to HIV prevention networks, they reinforce the exclusion of men who did not identify with sexual minority identities. Future work must therefore address the HIV prevention needs of men whose identities cannot be readily separated from "the general population". Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. El perfil epidemiológico del sobrepeso y la obesidad y sus principales comorbilidades en la ciudad de Cartagena de Indias Epidemiological profile of overweight and obesity and its main comorbidities in the city of Cartagena de Indias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Manzur

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: la obesidad es una condición compleja multifactorial, que tiene componentes genéticos y ambientales, y dispara diversas anormalidades, según la predisposición de los individuos y de las poblaciones. Las repercusiones más frecuentes del sobrepeso y la obesidad se asocian con la aparición de diferentes enfermedades crónicas, entre las que se encuentran la enfermedad cardiovascular, la diabetes y las enfermedades del aparato locomotor. Se ha comprobado que el riesgo de que aparezcan estas enfermedades crónicas en la población, aumenta de manera progresiva a partir de un índice de masa corporal de 21. Según cálculos recientes de la Organización Mundial de la Salud, en los últimos años se ha producido un aumento de la incidencia mundial de sobrepeso que llega a 1.600 millones y de obesidad que alcanzó 400 millones en 2005. Además, se prevé que estas cifras se eleven más y lleguen hasta 2.300 millones y 700 millones, respectivamente en 2015. Objetivo: conocer el perfil epidemiológico del sobrepeso y la obesidad, y evaluar la relación con sus principales comorbilidades como la hipertensión arterial, la diabetes mellitus y algunas dislipidemias en la población adulta de Cartagena de Indias. Métodos: estudio transversal analítico, en el que se evaluaron 749 personas por muestreo aleatorio estratificado de las diferentes zonas de Cartagena, aplicando un formato de encuesta estructurada, con el fin de obtener las variables sociodemográficas y antropométricas. Para las variables bioquímicas se determinó glucemia en ayunas, colesterol total, colesterol HDL y triglicéridos. Resultados: se evidencia una prevalencia alta de sobrepeso y obesidad, que sumados constituyen 62% de la población (41% de sobrepeso y 21% de obesidad. Se determinó la prevalencia de obesidad abdominal según los criterios del ATP III, encontrándose que 41,8% de la población presentó obesidad abdominal, de éstos 39,3% mostraba hipertensi

  12. Contested urban commons: mapping the transition of a lake to a sports stadium in Bangalore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hita Unnikrishnan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Urban expansion is a global phenomenon during which manycommon spaces, often with complex histories of governance and stewardshipsbecome redefined within prevailing notions of urbanity. However, such commonsoften pose challenges that result in conflict with respect to their use, management,and ownership. In this paper, we use the example of a lake in the South Indianmegapolis of Bengaluru (formerly Bangalore to look at different changing notionsof urban commons pictured against a backdrop of rapid urbanization, migration,and landscape change. We look at conflicts at each period of change and argue thatmany of these have shaped the landscape of today and perhaps may be responsiblefor current notions of ownership associated with the landscape. We combinelandscape change analysis through geospatial means along with official archivalrecords, oral narratives, and secondary information sources to describe gradualloss of an urban commons. We then pose that knowledge of historical contexts ofaccess to ecosystem services, exclusion, conflict, and the mechanisms of conflictresolution around urban commons can help understand trends in contemporarymanagement of commons. This knowledge would help shape more equitable andecologically robust policy frameworks that govern these vulnerable resources.

  13. 210Po and 210Pb concentration in drinking water of Bangalore and its surroundings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiva Prasad, N.G.; Nagaiah, N.; Ashok, G.V.

    2013-01-01

    Drinking water samples collected from different locations of Bangalore and its surrounding area were analysed for the activity concentrations of 210 Po and 210 Pb by employing radiochemical analysis. The measure concentration of 210 Po varies from 0.46 to 36.46 mBq L -1 with a mean of 6.17 mBq L -1 and that of 210 Pb ranges from 1.19 to 56.95 mBq L -1 with a mean of 13.98 mBq L -1 . The activity concentrations of these radionuclides were found to be low at the place Kambasandra and high at Kalkere. The range and the mean value obtained in the present study are well within the guidance value of 100 mBq L -1 as prescribed by World Health Organization. From the measured concentrations of these radionuclides, the annual effective dose was calculated for different age groups: for babies (age below 1 y), children (age from 2 to 7 y) and adults (age from 17 y and above) using IAEA dose conversion factors and the prescribed water consumption rates. The total dose received is very much less than the ICRP recommended value of 1000 μ Sv y -1 for all age groups. (author)

  14. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy Analysis Of Oil Of Menthaarvensis Grown At Sites Varying With Vehicular Traffic Loads In Lucknow City, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Prakash

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The demand of the essential oil of mint species; widely used in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries, is growing throughout the world. Owing its significance, it was felt important to know the changes in chemical characteristics of the oil, if any, for economic value when the crop of Mentha is grown near highways, railway tracks or areas having heavy traffic loads. To assess the effect of vehicular emissions on menthol (mint oil, transfer experiment study was conducted. Firstly, within the municipal premises of Lucknow city, five sites (Road stretches were identified based on survey of Lucknow city and the available data on air pollution loads. Sites were selected which were differing from each other significantly in terms of the number of vehicles (source of pollution plying on them but were quite similar to each other in other eco-physiological factors. On the select sites equal number of potted Menthaarvensis plants of the same age, height and vigour of saccham variety obtained from CSIR-CIMAP was kept to get exposed to auto-exhaust pollutants for one year. Irrigation regime at all sites was kept uniform to avoid the influence of any other variable other than vehicular emissions. An analysis of hydro-distillated essential oil of Menthaarvensis variety Sascham under FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy revealed some qualitative changes in the organic-compounds of the oil from plants grown at sites of Lucknow city loaded with high vehicular load (auto-exhaust pollutants over plants kept under relatively pollution free site. Several indicator bands that are pertained to functional groups represent chemical components or metabolic products. The quantity of the peppermint oil extracted from plants of site having highest traffic loads, in turn maximum ambient pollutants (NO2, SO2, O3, SPM & RSPM was also found less as compared to plants grown in less polluted site. International Journal of Environment, Volume-2, Issue-1, Sep

  15. 1st Joint India-AMS Meeting in Mathematics : History of Indian Mathematics at the AMS-India Mathematics Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Sridharan, R; Srinivas, M

    2005-01-01

    This volume consists of a collection of articles based on lectures given by scholars from India, Europe and USA at the sessions on 'History of Indian Mathematics' at the AMS-India mathematics conference in Bangalore during December 2003. These articles cover a wide spectrum of themes in Indian mathematics. They begin with the mathematics of the ancient period dealing with Vedic Prosody and Buddhist Logic, move on to the work of Brahmagupta, of Bhaskara, and that of the mathematicians of the Kerala school of the classical and medieval period, and end with the work of Ramanaujan, and Indian contributions to Quantum Statistics during the modern era. The volume should be of value to those interested in the history of mathematics.

  16. Evaluation of Oral Health Status among 5-15-Year-old School Children in Shimoga City, Karnataka, India: A Cross-sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashibhushan, Kukkalli Kamalaksharappa; Pradeep, Muttugadur Chandrappa; Babaji, Prashant; Reddy, Vundela Rajashekar

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Oral health is an integral part of general health. Dental problems can be avoided if identified at an early stage. There is no data on oral health status of school going children in Karnataka state’s Shimoga city. Aim To evaluate oral health status of school going children among 5-15-year-old in Shimoga city. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1458 government and private school children aged 5-6, 9-10 and 14-15 years. Dental caries (DMFT and deft Index), oral hygiene status (OHI-S Index) and dental fluorosis (Dean’s Fluorosis Index) according to WHO diagnostic criteria (1997) were assessed. Data was evaluated using ANOVA and t-test by SPSS (IBM statistical software version 21.0.) at a level of 5% significance. Results The deft among 5-6-year-old children was 3.36±3.511, deft and DMFT among 9-10-year-old was 2.55±2.497 and 0.45±0.996 respectively and DMFT among 14-15-year-old was 1.34±1.832. The caries prevalence among 5-6-year-old was 68.8%, 9-10-year-old was 77.2% and 14-15-year-old was 48.9% and overall prevalence of dental caries was 65.3% which was statistically significant. Among 9-10-year-old oral hygiene was good in 85.4%, fair in 13.5% and poor in 1% of school children and among 14-15-year-old oral hygiene was good in 77.4%, fair in 22.2% and poor in 0.4%. Overall 81.7% of children had good oral hygiene. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 14.5%. Conclusion The children from government school were found to be less caries free than the private school children, but the difference was not significant. Oral hygiene status is found to be good among both the private and government school children. So the dental awareness is required among children of government school. PMID:28893041

  17. To develop a public private partnership model of disease notification as a part of integrated disease surveillance project (IDSP for private medical practitioners in Mumbai City, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratnendra R. Shinde

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The main objective of Integrated Disease Surveillance Project (IDSP was early detection of disease outbreaks. This could be possible only when the public health authorities have a strong and effective surveillance system in collaboration with Private Health Sector. Objectives 1 To assess knowledge, attitude & practice about notification of diseases amongst Private Medical Practitioners (PMPs. 2 To find out barriers experienced by PMPs in reporting of diseases under surveillance. 3 To assess feasibility of various alternative ways of reporting convenient for PMPs. 4 To develop a Public Private Partnership Model of disease notification based on feasible options obtained in the study. Materials and Methods This study was a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted in the F South Municipal ward of Mumbai city during April-May 2011. Two stage simple random sampling was used to select 104 PMPs for the study. Results and Conclusions Nearly 98% PMPs felt importance of notification in health system, but only 46% had practiced it. Most common reason for non-reporting was lack of information about reporting system. The convenient way of reporting for PMPs was to report to the nearest health post personally or to District Surveillance Unit through SMS/phone call and both at weekly interval.

  18. Shear strength characteristics of mechanically biologically treated municipal solid waste (MBT-MSW) from Bangalore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivakumar Babu, G.L.; Lakshmikanthan, P.; Santhosh, L.G.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Shear strength properties of mechanically biologically treated municipal solid waste. • Effect of unit weight and particle size on the shear strength of waste. • Effect of particle size on the strength properties. • Stiffness ratio and the strength ratio of MSW. - Abstract: Strength and stiffness properties of municipal solid waste (MSW) are important in landfill design. This paper presents the results of comprehensive testing of shear strength properties of mechanically biologically treated municipal solid waste (MBT-MSW) in laboratory. Changes in shear strength of MSW as a function of unit weight and particle size were investigated by performing laboratory studies on the MSW collected from Mavallipura landfill site in Bangalore. Direct shear tests, small scale and large scale consolidated undrained and drained triaxial tests were conducted on reconstituted compost reject MSW samples. The triaxial test results showed that the MSW samples exhibited a strain-hardening behaviour and the strength of MSW increased with increase in unit weight. Consolidated drained tests showed that the mobilized shear strength of the MSW increased by 40% for a unit weight increase from 7.3 kN/m 3 to 10.3 kN/m 3 at 20% strain levels. The mobilized cohesion and friction angle ranged from 5 to 9 kPa and 8° to 33° corresponding to a strain level of 20%. The consolidated undrained tests exhibited reduced friction angle values compared to the consolidated drained tests. The friction angle increased with increase in the unit weight from 8° to 55° in the consolidated undrained tests. Minor variations were found in the cohesion values. Relationships for strength and stiffness of MSW in terms of strength and stiffness ratios are developed and discussed. The stiffness ratio and the strength ratio of MSW were found to be 10 and 0.43

  19. Does higher economic growth reduce poverty and increase inequality? Evidence from Urban India

    OpenAIRE

    Tripathi, Sabyasachi

    2012-01-01

    This paper calculates select urban inequality and poverty indices and finds their policy linkages. In addition, the determinants of urban poverty and inequality are estimated by using data of 52 large cities in India. The main results show that higher city economic growth and large city population agglomeration are associated with reduction in city poverty and increase in inequality between cities.

  20. Polychlorinated biphenyls in settled dust from informal electronic waste recycling workshops and nearby highways in urban centers and suburban industrial roadsides of Chennai city, India: Levels, congener profiles and exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Paromita; Prithiviraj, Balasubramanian; Selvaraj, Sakthivel; Kumar, Bhupander

    2016-12-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were quantified in settled dust collected from informal electronic waste (e-waste) recycling workshops and nearby highways in the urban centers and roadside dust from the suburban industrial belt of Chennai city in India. Further dust samples were subjected to a high resolution field emission scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (FESEM/EDX) to characterize the shape, size and elemental composition of the dust particles. Geomean of total PCB concentration followed the following order: informal e-waste metal recovery workshops (53ngg -1 )>e-waste dismantling sites (3.6ngg -1 )>nearby highways (1.7ngg -1 )>suburban industrial roadsides (1.6ngg -1 ). In e-waste workshops, tetra, penta and hexa-PCB homologs contributed two third of Σ 26 PCB concentration. Informal e-waste recycling workshops contributed more than 80% concentration of all the PCB congeners loaded in the first principal component. Predominance of dioxin like PCBs, PCB-l14, -118 and -126 in the e-waste metal recovery sites were presumably due to combustion and pyrolytic processes performed during recycling of electrical components. According to the morphology and elemental composition, settled dust from e-waste workshops were irregular particles heavily embedded with toxic metals and industrial roadside dust were distinct angular particles. FESEM revealed that average particle size (in Ferret diameter) increased in the following order: e-waste recycling workshops (0.5μm)waste recycling workshops engaged in metal recovery were found with maximum toxicity equivalents (TEQs) for dl-PCBs and potential cancer risk (10 -6 -10 -4 ) for both adult and children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Oscillatory dynamics of a charged microbubble under ultrasound

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The system exhibits period-doubling route to chaos and the presence of charge has the effect of advancing these bifurcations. ... Institute of Information Technology-Bangalore, 26/C Electronics City, Hosur Road, Bangalore 560 100, India; School of Natural Sciences and Engineering, National Institute of Advanced Studies, ...

  2. Optical spectroscopy of rare earth-doped oxyfluoro-tellurite glasses ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-08-16

    Aug 16, 2017 ... Optical spectroscopy of rare earth-doped oxyfluoro-tellurite glasses to probe local environment. GAJANAN V HONNAVAR1,2,∗ and K P RAMESH2. 1PES Institute of Technology, Bangalore South Campus, Near Electronic City, Bangalore 560100, India. 2Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, ...

  3. CHARACTERISTICS OF CHILDHOOD VITILIGO IN A TERTIARY REFERRAL CENTRE IN BANGALORE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belliappa Pemmanda

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Vitiligo is an acquired depigmentary disorder, where approximately 50% of the cases have the onset of their disease prior to the age of 20 years and 25% prior to the age of 14 years. There is limited data on the clinical characteristics including associated cutaneous and ocular abnormalities in childhood vitiligo. AIMS To evaluate the various clinical characteristics and associated cutaneous and ocular abnormalities of childhood vitiligo. METHODS In a prospective, hospital based study over a period of two years; the epidemiology of childhood vitiligo was studied including associated cutaneous and ocular abnormalities. RESULTS Of the total 122 children studied, majority of them were females (n=75, 61.5%, and the rest males (n=47, 38.5%. The mean age of presentation was 8 years. Progression of lesions was present in 36 children (29.5%. The most common site of initial lesion was head and neck followed by lower limbs, genitalia, trunk and upper limbs. Eight children (6.6% had a history of trauma prior to onset of vitiligo. Eighteen children (14.8% had a family history of vitiligo. The most common type was vitiligo vulgaris seen in 45 children (36.9% followed by segmental type in 33 children (27%. Leukotrichia was seen in 51 children (41.8%, while Koebner phenomenon was observed in 30 children (24.6%. Fifteen children (12.3% had an associated cutaneous disorder. These associated disorders were halo nevi in 6 children (4.9%, alopecia areata in 3 children (2.5%, canities in 2 children (1.6%, and cafe au lait macule, nevus depigmentosus, lichen nitidus, lichen striatus in 1 each (0.8%. Thirty children (24.6% had an associated ocular disorder. These associated disorders were eyelid vitiligo in 26 children (21.3%, depigmented spots in the iris in 2 patients (1.6%, lamellar cataract and persistent papillary membrane in 1 each (0.8%. CONCLUSIONS Childhood vitiligo in Bangalore showed preponderance in females and greater number of children (72

  4. Image city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    Image city exhibition explores a condition of mediation, through a focus on image and sound narratives with a point of departure on a number of Asian cities.......Image city exhibition explores a condition of mediation, through a focus on image and sound narratives with a point of departure on a number of Asian cities....

  5. Education Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaked, Haim

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, several cities in Israel have labeled themselves "Education Cities," concentrating on education as their central theme. Employing qualitative techniques, this article aims to describe, define, and conceptualize this phenomenon as it is being realized in three such cities. Findings show that Education Cities differ from…

  6. Proportion and Factors Associated with Depressive Symptoms among Elderly in an Urban Slum in Bangalore

    OpenAIRE

    Thirthahalli, Chethana; Suryanarayana, S. P.; Sukumar, Gautham Melur; Bharath, Srikala; Rao, Girish N.; Murthy, Nandagudi Srinivasa

    2014-01-01

    Depression among elderly is emerging as an important public health issue in developing countries like India. Published evidence regarding the magnitude and determinants of depression among elderly hailing from urban slum is currently limited. Hence, the current study was conducted to assess magnitude of the problem and identify factors associated with depression among the elderly in an urban slum. A cross-sectional study was done to cover total of473 elderly persons from an urban slum in Bang...

  7. Water Resource Planning Under Future Climate and Socioeconomic Uncertainty in the Cauvery River Basin in Karnataka, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhave, Ajay Gajanan; Conway, Declan; Dessai, Suraje; Stainforth, David A.

    2018-02-01

    Decision-Making Under Uncertainty (DMUU) approaches have been less utilized in developing countries than developed countries for water resources contexts. High climate vulnerability and rapid socioeconomic change often characterize developing country contexts, making DMUU approaches relevant. We develop an iterative multi-method DMUU approach, including scenario generation, coproduction with stakeholders and water resources modeling. We apply this approach to explore the robustness of adaptation options and pathways against future climate and socioeconomic uncertainties in the Cauvery River Basin in Karnataka, India. A water resources model is calibrated and validated satisfactorily using observed streamflow. Plausible future changes in Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) precipitation and water demand are used to drive simulations of water resources from 2021 to 2055. Two stakeholder-identified decision-critical metrics are examined: a basin-wide metric comprising legal instream flow requirements for the downstream state of Tamil Nadu, and a local metric comprising water supply reliability to Bangalore city. In model simulations, the ability to satisfy these performance metrics without adaptation is reduced under almost all scenarios. Implementing adaptation options can partially offset the negative impacts of change. Sequencing of options according to stakeholder priorities into Adaptation Pathways affects metric satisfaction. Early focus on agricultural demand management improves the robustness of pathways but trade-offs emerge between intrabasin and basin-wide water availability. We demonstrate that the fine balance between water availability and demand is vulnerable to future changes and uncertainty. Despite current and long-term planning challenges, stakeholders in developing countries may engage meaningfully in coproduction approaches for adaptation decision-making under deep uncertainty.

  8. An epidemiological study on pattern of thoraco-abdominal injuries sustained in fatal road traffic accidents of Bangalore: Autopsy-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Bayapa Reddy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The statistical profile reflects a global estimate of 5.1 million deaths in 2000, which was due to injuries that accounted for 10% of deaths due to all causes. Out of this, a quarter of injury-related deaths occurred in the South-East Asian region. Road Traffic Accident (RTA is one among the top 5 causes of morbidity and mortality in South-East Asian countries. Most common cause of blunt abdominal trauma in India is road traffic accident followed by pedestrian accidents, abdominal blows, and fall from heights. Aims: To analyze the epidemiology and pattern of fatal thoraco-abdominal injuries in road traffic accidents. Materials and Methods: An autopsy-based cross-sectional study conducted. A purposive sampling technique was applied to select the study sample of 100 post-mortems of road traffic accident between November 2008 and May 2010 subjected to medico-legal autopsy at the department of Forensic Medicine, KIMS Hospital Bangalore. Results: The majority of the victims were aged 21 to 40 years, 50 (50.0%, most of the victims were male 92 (92.0%; and male/female ratio was 11.5:1. Commonest offending agents in heavy motor vehicles were 54 (54.0%. Bony cage sustained injuries were observed in 71; out of this, fractures of ribs were observed in 45 (63.3% victims, clavicle in 14 (19.7%, sternum was 6 (8.4%, and vertebrae 6 (8.4% of fatal road traffic accidents. Internal thoracic injuries were observed in 26 cases. Among internal thoracic injuries, lungs were the most commonly involved organ 24 (92.3% followed by the heart 2 (7.6%. Lung sustained more lacerations 19 (79.1% than contusions 5 (20.8%. Internal abdominal injuries were observed in 49 cases. In road traffic accidents, the most commonly injured abdominal organs were solid organs such as liver 16 (32.6% followed by spleen 9 (18.3%. Conclusions: Majority of the times in road traffic accidents, young and productive males were injured or lost their life. This study may help the

  9. An epidemiological study on pattern of thoraco-abdominal injuries sustained in fatal road traffic accidents of Bangalore: Autopsy-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, N Bayapa; Hanumantha; Madithati, Pallavi; Reddy, N Nagarjuna; Reddy, C Sainarasimha

    2014-04-01

    The statistical profile reflects a global estimate of 5.1 million deaths in 2000, which was due to injuries that accounted for 10% of deaths due to all causes. Out of this, a quarter of injury-related deaths occurred in the South-East Asian region. Road Traffic Accident (RTA) is one among the top 5 causes of morbidity and mortality in South-East Asian countries. Most common cause of blunt abdominal trauma in India is road traffic accident followed by pedestrian accidents, abdominal blows, and fall from heights. To analyze the epidemiology and pattern of fatal thoraco-abdominal injuries in road traffic accidents. An autopsy-based cross-sectional study conducted. A purposive sampling technique was applied to select the study sample of 100 post-mortems of road traffic accident between November 2008 and May 2010 subjected to medico-legal autopsy at the department of Forensic Medicine, KIMS Hospital Bangalore. The majority of the victims were aged 21 to 40 years, 50 (50.0%), most of the victims were male 92 (92.0%); and male/female ratio was 11.5:1. Commonest offending agents in heavy motor vehicles were 54 (54.0%). Bony cage sustained injuries were observed in 71; out of this, fractures of ribs were observed in 45 (63.3%) victims, clavicle in 14 (19.7%), sternum was 6 (8.4%), and vertebrae 6 (8.4%) of fatal road traffic accidents. Internal thoracic injuries were observed in 26 cases. Among internal thoracic injuries, lungs were the most commonly involved organ 24 (92.3%) followed by the heart 2 (7.6%). Lung sustained more lacerations 19 (79.1%) than contusions 5 (20.8%). Internal abdominal injuries were observed in 49 cases. In road traffic accidents, the most commonly injured abdominal organs were solid organs such as liver 16 (32.6%) followed by spleen 9 (18.3%). Majority of the times in road traffic accidents, young and productive males were injured or lost their life. This study may help the planners to take safety measures, to implement strict traffic rules, to

  10. Earth's City Lights

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This image of Earth's city lights was created with data from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS). Originally designed to view clouds by moonlight, the OLS is also used to map the locations of permanent lights on the Earth's surface. The brightest areas of the Earth are the most urbanized, but not necessarily the most populated. (Compare western Europe with China and India.) Cities tend to grow along coastlines and transportation networks. Even without the underlying map, the outlines of many continents would still be visible. The United States interstate highway system appears as a lattice connecting the brighter dots of city centers. In Russia, the Trans-Siberian railroad is a thin line stretching from Moscow through the center of Asia to Vladivostok. The Nile River, from the Aswan Dam to the Mediterranean Sea, is another bright thread through an otherwise dark region. Even more than 100 years after the invention of the electric light, some regions remain thinly populated and unlit. Antarctica is entirely dark. The interior jungles of Africa and South America are mostly dark, but lights are beginning to appear there. Deserts in Africa, Arabia, Australia, Mongolia, and the United States are poorly lit as well (except along the coast), along with the boreal forests of Canada and Russia, and the great mountains of the Himalaya. The Earth Observatory article Bright Lights, Big City describes how NASA scientists use city light data to map urbanization. Image by Craig Mayhew and Robert Simmon, NASA GSFC, based on DMSP data

  11. Modelling the impact of household life cycle on slums in Bangalore

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roy, D.; Lees, M.H.; Pfeffer, K.; Sloot, P.M.A.

    According to the United Nations Human Settlements Program (UNHSP), the number of slum households in developing countries continues to grow by a higher proportion as compared to its encompassing city. Traditionally, policy makers have concentrated on population control strategies by focussing on

  12. Providing Effective Support to Teachers in Addressing Social, Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties in Mainstream Classrooms in a Bangalore Pre-Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Mildred; Jament, Johnson

    2015-01-01

    This article reports a study conducted on children's social, emotional and behavioural difficulties (SEBD) in a single pre-primary school in Bangalore, with the objective of developing a behaviour management policy for use by teachers. Limited evidence is available in the Indian literature in the area of SEBD and it remains important to know how…

  13. City PLANTastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , any attempt to create a green city is motivated by certain ecological, political and esthetical perspectives. Therefore the role of plants in tomorrows cities is everything but straightforward. Rather, a broad range of possibilities unfolds. City PLANTastic is the title of the 8th World in Denmark...... and urbanism, who reflect upon the multiple roles of plants in the future city through their most recent projects. The theme for the 2012 World in Denmark conference is City PLANTastic, which will also be explored by researchers through their works.......The city is going green. From New York to Copenhagen vegetables are enthusiastically planted on city squares, and buildings are turning green everywhere . The word “plant” is on everyone’s lips, reflecting a growing desire to solve ecological, technical and social challenges in the city. Hovever...

  14. Sin City?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svarer, Michael; Gautier, Pieter A.; Teulings, Coen n.

    , the ones who stay in the city have significant higher divorce rates. Similarly, for the couples who married outside the city, the ones who move to the city are more likely to divorce. This correlation can be explained by both a causal and a sorting effect. We disentangle them by using the timing...

  15. Gender and suicide in India: a multiperspective approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tousignant, M; Seshadri, S; Raj, A

    1998-01-01

    The gap between male and female suicide rates in India is relatively small. However, society's views on female and male motives are quite different. In order to investigate the perceptions of male and female suicide, we interviewed a focus group of university professors as well as police inspectors, crime reporters, and hospital nurses in Bangalore. We also obtained four narratives of suicide. Women tended to be blamed for their own or their husband's suicide, although they were also viewed more often as victims of life adversities than men. A historical review illustrates that both men and women have been associated with culturally sanctioned suicides. One known form is sati, and we discuss the recent case of sati-murder of Roop Kanwar in 1987. The social sciences and the media also pay a lot of attention to the typical female suicides, symbolizing their role as martyrs of society, which seems to compensate for attribution of blame.

  16. City PLANTastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The city is going green. From New York to Copenhagen vegetables are enthusiastically planted on city squares, and buildings are turning green everywhere . The word “plant” is on everyone’s lips, reflecting a growing desire to solve ecological, technical and social challenges in the city. Hovever......, any attempt to create a green city is motivated by certain ecological, political and esthetical perspectives. Therefore the role of plants in tomorrows cities is everything but straightforward. Rather, a broad range of possibilities unfolds. City PLANTastic is the title of the 8th World in Denmark...... conference, which invites you to discuss the contemporary tendencies for a greener city. Come and listen to five international key note speakers, whose projects have showed new directions for planting in urban spaces: The conference presents key note speakers from landscape architecture, urban design...

  17. Economic evaluation of public-private mix for tuberculosis care and control, India. Part I. Socio-economic profile and costs among tuberculosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantoja, Andrea; Floyd, K; Unnikrishnan, K P; Jitendra, R; Padma, M R; Lal, S S; Uplekar, M; Chauhan, L S; Kumar, P; Sahu, S; Wares, F; Lönnroth, K

    2009-06-01

    Bangalore City, India. To assess the socio-economic profile, health-seeking behaviour and costs related to tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis and treatment among patients treated under the Revised National TB Control Programme (RNTCP). All 1106 new TB patients registered for treatment under the RNTCP in the second quarter of 2005 participated. Interviews at the beginning and at the end of treatment were conducted. A convenience sample of 32 patients treated outside the RNTCP also participated. Among the TB patients, respectively 50% and 39% were from low and middle standard of living (SL) households, and 77% were from households with a per capita income of less than US$1 per day. The first health contact was with a private practitioner in the case of >70% of patients. Mean patient delay was low, at 21 days, but the mean health system delay was 52 days. The average cost incurred by patients before treatment in the RNTCP was US$145, and during treatment it was US$21. Costs as a proportion of annual household income per capita were 53% for people from low SL households and 41% for those from other households. Costs during treatment faced by patients treated outside the RNTCP averaged US$127. Patients treated under the RNTCP through a public-private mix approach were predominantly poor. Many of them experienced considerable health expenditures before starting treatment. Additional efforts are required to reduce the delays and the number of health care providers consulted, and to ensure that patients are shifted to subsidised treatment within the RNTCP.

  18. Surgery in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukerjee, S; Gupta, T

    1997-06-01

    Surgical practice in India is mostly managed by the central and state governments and is totally government financed, offering free medical aid. However, with the economic growth and affluence of the middle-class population in urban areas, more and more hospitals, nursing homes, and clinics managed by the private sector are arising in cities and towns. Privately owned hospitals are built and managed by large industrial houses and trusts. It is essential, according to government directives, for these hospitals to have certain numbers of general beds that will provide for the economically weaker sections of the population. Medical insurance is popular amongst the urban population; in addition to well-established insurance companies, many new medical service reimbursement organizations are forming. Surgical care standards are uniformly high in the larger teaching institutions and hospitals run by the private sector in major cities in India, in which superspecialty surgical care that meets worldwide standards is available in addition to general surgical care. These hospitals are manned by surgeons holding master's degrees in general surgery, superspecialties, and subspecialties. In the hospitals and dispensaries in rural areas, only basic surgical facilities are available; for major surgical procedures, the patients are referred to the closest urban hospitals. Therefore, the government of India is placing more and more emphasis on building hospitals that offer better surgical facilities away from the cities and towns. A diploma course in surgery is run by the National Board of Surgery, and these diplomates are encouraged to practice more in rural areas and small hospitals. Economic constraints and the population explosion are the biggest hurdles to progress in surgical care, teaching, and research activities. With the advancement in education and growth of the economy, more and more multinationals are walking into the field of medical care, which is proving to be a

  19. India Symposium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    JNCASR

    The panel discussion is scheduled in the pre lunch session of the. India Symposium ... School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University,. New Delhi. 5. ... (1) Showcasing the work done by Indian Women Scientists. (2) Panel Discussion on Gender Issues in Indian Science. Program: 09.00 a.m. – 09.10 a.m.. : Welcome ...

  20. Poverty, inequality and violence in urban India: Towards more ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Yet, as populations increasingly urbanize, Indian cities are experiencing high levels of tension over limited resources such as land, water, and finance. Traditional urban planning ... Symposium on Making Cities Safe and Inclusive : Perspectives from South Asia, 21st November 2015, India Islamic Centre, New Delhi. Articles.

  1. An inventory of multipurpose avenue trees of urban Chandigarh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. K. Kohli; H. P. Singh; Daizy R. Batish

    2000-01-01

    Trees in urban ecosystems play a very significant role in environmental protection by checking air and noise pollutants, abating wind, and handling many other functions, in India, Chandigarh is the most modern and environmentally safe city and qualifies to be called a GREEN CITY because of its rich tree component. This is so in spite of its high population density,...

  2. Eating Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg; Fisker, Anna Marie; Clausen, Katja Seerup

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzed the development of a city based sustainable food strategy for the city of Aalborg. It’s based on 3 cases of food service: food for the elderly as operated by the Municipality, food the hospital patients as operated by the region and food for defense staff as operated...

  3. Atypical Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiJulio, Betsy

    2011-01-01

    In this creative challenge, Surrealism and one-point perspective combine to produce images that not only go "beyond the real" but also beyond the ubiquitous "imaginary city" assignment often used to teach one-point perspective. Perhaps the difference is that in the "atypical cities challenge," an understanding of one-point perspective is a means…

  4. Newborn healthcare in urban India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, J; Osrin, D; Patil, B; Neogi, S B; Chauhan, M; Khanna, R; Kumar, R; Paul, V K; Zodpey, S

    2016-12-01

    The rapid population growth in urban India has outpaced the municipal capacity to build essential infrastructures that make life in cities safe and healthy. Local and national governments alike are grappling with the challenges of urbanization with thousands migrating from villages to cities. Thus, urbanization in India has been accompanied by a concentration of poverty and urban public healthcare has emerged as one of the most pressing priorities facing our country. Newborn mortality rates in urban settings are lower than rural areas, early neonatal deaths account for greater proportion than late neonatal deaths. The available evidence suggests that socio-economic inequalities and poor environment pose major challenges for newborn health. Moreover, fragmented and weak public health system, multiplicity of actors and limited capacity of public health planning further constrain the delivery of quality and affordable health care service. Though healthcare is concentrated in urban areas, delay in deciding to seek health care, reaching a source of it and receiving appropriate care affects the health outcomes disproportionately. However, a few city initiatives and innovations piloted in different states and cities have brought forth the evidences of effectiveness of different strategies. Recently launched National Urban Health Mission (NUHM) provides an opportunity for strategic thinking and actions to improve newborn health outcomes in India. There is also an opportunity for coalescence of activities around National Health Mission (NHM) and Reproductive, Maternal, Newborn and Child Health+Adolescent (RMNCH+A) strategy to develop feasible and workable models in different urban settings. Concomitant operational research needs to be carried out so that the obstacles, approaches and response to the program can be understood.

  5. The Making of a Scientist

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. Raghavendra Gadagkar1 2. Centre for Ecological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012, India. Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Jakkur, Bangalore 560064, India.

  6. Diabetes mellitus: Trends in northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Gutch

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is becoming a global health issue with more than 80% diabetics living in developing countries. India accounts for 62.4 million diabetics (2011. Indian Council of Medical Research India Diabetes Study (ICMR-INDIAB study showed highest weighted prevalence rate in the north India among all studied regions. Diabetes in north India has many peculiarities in all aspects from risk factors to control programmers. North Indians are becoming more prone for diabetes and dyslipidemia because rapid westernization of living style and diet due rapid migration to metropolitan cities for employment. North Indian diabetes is plagued with gender bias against females, poor quality of health services, myths, and lack of disease awareness compounded with small number of prevention and awareness programmers that too are immature to counteract the growing pandemic.

  7. India Symposium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    JNCASR

    Science and a few young women scientists as well who will give a perception of those who are entering the field now. The panel discussion is scheduled in the pre lunch session of the. India Symposium which will start at 9.00 a.m. We envisage a talk by each panelist for about 5-7 minutes, followed by a discussion and then ...

  8. A study on teenage pregnant mothers attending primary health centers of Kempegowda Institute of Medical Sciences, Bangalore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parasuramalu, B G; Shakila, N; Masthi, Ramesh N R

    2010-01-01

    Data were collected from 78 teenage pregnant mothers (15-19 years) out of 1446 pregnant mothers who attended the primary health centers situated in the field practice area of the rural health center, Kengeri of Kempegowda Institute of Medical Sciences, Bangalore, between May and July 2009 to study the factors associated with teenage pregnancies and awareness regarding family planning. This was a descriptive study. Out of 78 teenage pregnant mothers, 57 (73%) were Hindus and 45 (57.7%) belonged to joint families. 76 (97.4%) teenage pregnant mothers were housewives, i.e. 55 (70.5%) of the spouses of the teenage pregnant mothers were laborers, in majority, i.e. 40 (51.3%) teenage pregnant mothers' age at marriage and the age at first pregnancy were 18 years. The mean age at marriage increased significantly with an increase of the educational status of the teenage pregnant mothers (F value = 7.08%, Ppregnancy was also increased with an increase of the education status of both the teenage pregnant mothers and their spouse. The most common reason for early marriage and early pregnancy was traditional practices and family pressure among 50 (64%) and 45 (57.7%) teenage pregnant mothers, respectively. 49 (63%) teenage pregnant mothers were not aware of any family planning methods.

  9. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    D Mukhopadhyay, Roorkee, India. S Mukhopadhya, Roorkee, India. V S N Murty, Goa, India. Ravi S Nanjundiah, Bangalore, India. B M Reddy, Hyderabad, India. Roger Bilham, USA. Sajani Surendran, USA. Sarva Jit Singh, Rohtak, India. S K Satheesh, Bangalore, India. D Sengupta, Bangalore, India. D Shankar, Goa, India.

  10. Globalisation, Urbanisation and Spatial Inequality in India with special reference to North East India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin L Saitluanga

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Globalisation, an increasing international interaction in economic, political and cultural aspects, is a highly uneven set of processes whose impact varies over space, through time, and between social groups. On one hand, as globalisation seems to be an inevitable reality, many developing countries are restructuring their economies to receive and reap the benefits of widening and deepening global economic interactions. On the other hand, there are regions, which are increasingly excluded, and ‘structurally irrelevant’ to the current process of globalisation. Moreover, cities are at the core of development strategy of globalisation. While cities in developed countries are becoming centres of globally integrated organisation of economic activity, cities in developing countries are usually at disadvantage positions due to weak financial bases, low levels of technology as well as lack of infrastructural facilities and institutional factors.The present paper, in the limelight of these contradictions, analyses the differential impacts of economic globalisation in cities and regions of India in general and Northeast India in particular. It is noted that the ushering of globalisation through structural adjustment of the economy during the 1990s has disparate impacts on various cities and regions of the country. The paper also examines the infrastructural constraints of cities of Northeast India as well as the existing institutional arrangements to ‘globalise’ the region through neoliberal reforms and investments. 

  11. INSTANT CITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte; Kiib, Hans

    2013-01-01

    This article analyses Roskilde Festival as an Instant City. For more than 40 years, Roskilde Festival has had many thousands participants for a weeklong festival on music, performances and cultural experiences in a layout designed as an urban environment. During the last ten years, in- creasing...... emphasis has been laid on creating a vivid, and engaging social environment in order to create a lab for social, and architectural experi- ments. These goals challenge the city planning as well as the urban sce- nography. The article addresses the research questions: What kind of city life and social...... experiments are taking place in ‘the instant city’, and how can it be characterized? It also emphasizes the relation between city life, urban design, and the aesthetics of architecture and urban spaces. The question here is, in what way architecture and urban scenography are used as tools to support the goal...

  12. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbelin, Bruno; Lasserre, Sebastien; Ciger, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Flying Cities is an artistic installation which generates imaginary cities from the speech of its visitors. Thanks to an original interactive process analyzing people's vocal input to create 3D graphics, a tangible correspondence between speech and visuals opens new possibilities of interaction. ...... and a potential application. We believe that it could become a new medium for creativity, and a way to visually perceive a vocal performance in the context of the rehabilitation of people with reduced mobility or language impairments....

  13. Staying Preferences by Street Children in Surat City

    OpenAIRE

    Patel NB, Desai Toral, Bansal RK, Girish Thakar

    2011-01-01

    India houses the largest number of street children in the world. These children often live in abject poverty and squalid conditions. The present study aims to explore their staying preferences in the city of Surat and the reasons thereof. This cross-sectional study was conducted by interviewing 326 street children in Surat city. The study found that street children prefer to stay and work in Surat city as they perceive that Surat is a safer city; it is easier to earn money in this city; life ...

  14. AIDS in position to ravage India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraman, K S

    1996-09-01

    The Joint UN Program on AIDS reports that India has more than 3 million adults infected with HIV, more HIV-infected adults than any other country in the world. By the year 2005, India will have more people infected with HIV than does Africa. Having sex with a Bombay housewife today is at least twice as risky as it was to have sex with a prostitute in the city's red light district in 1988. 2-3% of all women in the city are infected with HIV. There is ignorance, apathy, corruption, and lack of commitment at all levels with regard to HIV/AIDS. Accordingly, India's lackluster campaign against AIDS launched 10 years ago has lost momentum just as the epidemic is exploding and at a time when traditional beliefs about cultural barriers and the sexual behavior of Indian males are being called into question. Considerable homosexual behavior occurs in India. However, the most important factor contributing to the spread of HIV throughout India is the virus' spread from urban areas into small villages, often through migrant laborers. Ignorance, illiteracy, and poverty in villages will make AIDS prevention especially difficult. Indian government policy forbidding the distribution of condoms in prisons, needles to injectable-drug users, and free drugs to AIDS patients further contributes to the spread of HIV.

  15. Indian Solar Cities Programme: An Overview of Major Activities and Accomplishments; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandt, A.

    2012-05-01

    This paper details the Indian Solar City Programme, provides an overview of one city's Master Plan and implementation progress, describes NREL's support of the Indian Solar City Programme, and outlines synergies and differences between the Indian and American programs including unique challenges and opportunities India is facing.

  16. The size distributions of all Indian cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckstead, Jeff; Devadoss, Stephen; Danforth, Diana

    2017-05-01

    We apply five distributions-lognormal, double-Pareto lognormal, lognormal-upper tail Pareto, Pareto tails-lognormal, and Pareto tails-lognormal with differentiability restrictions-to estimate the size distribution of all Indian cities. Since India contains numerous small cities, it is important to explicitly model the lower-tail behavior for studying the distribution of all Indian cities. Our results rigorously confirm, using both graphical and formal statistical tests, that among these five distributions, Pareto tails-lognormal is a better suited parametrization of the Indian city size data, verifying that the Indian city size distribution exhibits a strong reverse Pareto in the lower tail, lognormal in the mid-range body, and Pareto in the upper tail.

  17. India's Unfinished Telecom Tasks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    India's Unfinished Telecom Tasks · India's Telecom Story is now well known · Indian Operators become an enviable force · At the same time · India Amongst the Leaders · Unfinished Tasks as Operators · LightGSM ON: Innovation for Rural Area from Midas · Broadband Access Options for India · Broadband driven by DSL: ...

  18. A mental health training program for community health workers in India: impact on knowledge and attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armstrong Gregory

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unmet needs for mental health treatment in low income countries are pervasive. If mental health is to be effectively integrated into primary health care in low income countries like India then grass-roots workers need to acquire relevant knowledge and skills to be able to recognise, refer and support people experiencing mental disorders in their own communities. This study aims to provide a mental health training intervention to community health workers in Bangalore Rural District, Karnataka, India, and to evaluate the impact of this training on mental health literacy. Methods A pre-test post-test study design was undertaken with assessment of mental health literacy at three time points; baseline, completion of the training, and three month follow-up. Mental health literacy was assessed using the interviewer-administered Mental Health Literacy Survey. The training intervention was a four day course based on a facilitator's manual developed specifically for community health workers in India. Results 70 community health workers from Doddaballapur, Bangalore Rural District were recuited for the study. The training course improved participants' ability to recognize a mental disorder in a vignette, and reduced participants' faith in unhelpful and potentially harmful pharmacological interventions. There was evidence of a minor reduction in stigmatizing attitudes, and it was unclear if the training resulted in a change in participants' faith in recovery following treatment. Conclusion The findings from this study indicate that the training course demonstrated potential to be an effective way to improve some aspects of mental health literacy, and highlights strategies for strengthening the training course.

  19. Drone City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2016-01-01

    This paper address the phenomenon of drones and their potential relationship with the city from the point of view of the so-called “mobilities turn”. This is done in such a way that turns attention to a recent redevelopment of the “turn” towards design; so the emerging perspective of “mobilities...... design” will be used as a background perspective to reflect upon the future of drones in cities. The other perspective used to frame the phenomenon is the emerging discourse of the “smart city”. A city of proliferating digital information and data communication may be termed a smart city as shorthand...... for a new urban condition where cities are networked and connected (as well as disconnected) from the local block to global digital spheres. In the midst of many of the well-known data-creating devices (e.g. Bluetooth, radio-frequency identification (RFID), GPS, smartphone applications) there is a “new kid...

  20. Using the Kannada version of the Connor Davidson Resilience Scale to assess resilience and its relationship with psychological distress among adolescent girls in Bangalore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidheek, K P Fasli; Satyanarayana, Veena A; Sowmya, H R; Chandra, Prabha S

    2017-12-01

    A widely used and accepted scale for assessing resilience is the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC). The aim of the present study was to establish the psychometric properties of the Kannada version of the scale and assess the relationship between resilience and psychological distress in a sample of adolescent girls living in low-income settings. Data was obtained from a sample of 606 adolescent girls studying in a college meant for women from a socio-economically disadvantaged setting. The CD- RISC (25 item) was used to assess resilience and Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10) was used to assess psychological distress. Exploratory factor analysis yielded four stable factors instead of the original five factors. Similar results have been obtained in other factor-analytic studies. A significant negative correlation was found between psychological distress and resilience. Our study shows that the CD-RISC is a valuable measure to assess resilience among adolescents in low-income settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. FDI Climate in India

    OpenAIRE

    Khandelwal, Varun

    2007-01-01

    ABSTRACT Since 1991, after the external payment crisis in India, there has been liberalization of various policies by the Government of India. Due to this there has been rapid surge of FDI inflows in India. The current investment climate has attracted many foreign investors to India in various sectors. India is considered as one of the favorable destination of FDI. However the country also suffers from few weaknesses and constraints in terms of policy and regulatory framework, which rest...

  2. Energy management in Lucknow city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zia, Hina; Devadas, V.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, an attempt is made to prepare an energy management model for Lucknow city along with policy recommendations for optimal energy utilization and management. At the outset, the authors have reviewed the related literature on energy management in the urban system. The entire collected literature is divided into the following sections, such as, energy resource assessment, energy consumption, energy and economy, energy and environment, energy and transportation, forecasting the energy demand and supply, alternate energy sources and technologies, energy conservation and demand-side management and energy management measures in India, and are reviewed thoroughly and presented. Subsequently, an attempt is made to establish the importance of energy in urban development by using Systems concept. Lucknow city has been chosen for investigation in this study. A detailed methodology is developed for organizing the survey at the grassroots level to evolve feasible strategies for optimal energy management in the study area. An attempt is further made to assess the available energy resource in the city, and the energy consumption by source wise in the city and estimating the energy gap in the year 2011. The paper concludes with preparation of a detailed energy management model for Lucknow city to reduce the expected energy gap for the year 2011. The recommendations are made for supply augmentation, demand-side management and policy measures to be taken by the government authorities

  3. Vatican City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-11-01

    Vatican City, the administrative and spiritual capital of the Roman catholic Church, has a population of 1000. Citizenship is generally accorded only to those who reside in Vatican City for reasons of office of employment. Supreme legislative, executive, and judicial power is currentily exercised by Pope John Paul II, the 1st non-italian pope in 5 centuries. The State of Vatican City is recognized by many nations as an independent sovereign state under the temporal jurisdiction of the Pope. By 1984, 108 countries had established diplomatic relations with the Holy See, most of which are not Roman Catholic. Third World countries comprise a large proportion of countries that have recently established relations with the Holy See. The US re-established relations with the Vatican in 1984 and there is frequent contact and consultation between the 2 states on key international issues.

  4. Expanding cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Jensen, Lasse

    A number of cities in Africa experience very rapid spatial growth without the benefit of a systematic process of planning and implementation of planning decisions. This process has challenged the road and transport system, created high levels of congestion, and hampered mobility and accessibility...... to both central and new peripheral areas. This paper reports on studies carried out in Accra and Dar es Salaam to address and link 1) mobility practices of residents, 2) local strategies for ‘post-settlement’ network extension, and 3) the city-wide performance of the transport system. The studies draw...... in advance. However, such solutions are often impeded by costly and cumbersome land-acquisition processes, and because of the reactive and often piecemeal approach to infrastructure extensions, the development will often be more costly. Moreover, the lack of compliance to a city-wide development plan...

  5. Electrochemical impedance studies of capacity fading of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2 P VISHNU KAMATH1. Department of Chemistry, Central College, Bangalore University, Bangalore 560 001, India; Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India ...

  6. Preparation for parenthood programme: experiences from southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Bino; Bhugra, Dinesh

    2014-08-01

    Parenting skills are critically important to ensure that children are brought up in a safe environment. Recent evidence shows that studies of parenting skills are still at a preliminary stage in low- and middle-income countries. These need to involve family practitioners and religious groups who often play a major role in preparing young people in India. There are organized programmes available in the country for Christian adults to prepare themselves for marriage and family life through various church initiatives and activities. In order to develop a programme which can be used to prepare young parents for responsibilities of parenthood, a needs assessment was carried out among 70 young adults who attended a marriage preparation course in Bangalore, India. All the participants belonged to the Christian faith. Participants consisted of 53% men and 47% women whose average age for deciding to get married was 26.8 years. All of them expressed a need for such a preparatory programme for parenthood. They considered they needed to know about normal child development, behavioural management of children, to develop adequate skills in handling children at different ages, and deal with their own past issues with their own parents when they were being parented. The results suggest that the development of a preparatory programme for young adults to support them in the role of parenthood must take their views and needs into account.

  7. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciger, Jan

    2006-01-01

    of providing a tangible correspondence between the two spaces. This interaction mean has proved to suit the artistic expression well but it also aims at providing anyone with a pleasant and stimulating feedback from speech activity, a new medium for creativity and a way to visually perceive a vocal performance......The Flying Cities artistic installation brings to life imaginary cities made from the speech input of visitors. In this article we describe the original interactive process generating real time 3D graphics from spectators' vocal inputs. This example of cross-modal interaction has the nice property...

  8. Vacant city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Marzot

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Abandoned places that the crisis has multiplied, unaware wrecks of a project of civilization that has consumed its thrust and life-giving function, are waiting for new desirable interpretations, they are an expression of a possible city in opposition to the existing, even if  not recognized by any instrument. It is the Vacant city, magmatic, formless, pervasive and widespread, marginal and interstitial. Its spaces express, in their programmatic essence, those conditions of re-colonization of the territory intended to minimum investment  of financial capital and maximum return in terms of social value as a result of a transformation. 

  9. 'A Study on Impact of Job Satisfaction on Quality of Work life: With Special Reference to It Professionals in Bangalore City'

    OpenAIRE

    Dr.S.Gomathi and Ms.M.Swapna.

    2012-01-01

    Quality of working life has been differentiated from the broader concept of quality of life. To some degree, this may be overly simplistic, as Elizur and Shye,(1990) concluded that quality of work performance is affected by quality of life as well as quality of working life. However, the specific attention to work-related aspects of quality of life is valid. Whilst quality of life has been more widely studied, quality of working life remains relatively unexplored and unexplained. A review of ...

  10. City 2020+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, C.; Buttstädt, M.; Merbitz, H.; Sachsen, T.; Ketzler, G.; Michael, S.; Klemme, M.; Dott, W.; Selle, K.; Hofmeister, H.

    2010-09-01

    This research initiative CITY 2020+ assesses the risks and opportunities for residents in urban built environments under projected demographic and climate change for the year 2020 and beyond, using the City of Aachen as a case study. CITY 2020+ develops scenarios, options and tools for planning and developing sustainable future city structures. We investigate how urban environment, political structure and residential behavior can best be adapted, with attention to the interactions among structural, political, and sociological configurations and with their consequences on human health. Demographers project that in the EU-25-States by 2050, approximately 30% of the population will be over age 65. Also by 2050, average tem¬peratures are projected to rise by 1 to 2 K. Combined, Europe can expect enhanced thermal stress and higher levels of particulate matter. CITY 2020+ amongst other sub-projects includes research project dealing with (1) a micro-scale assessment of blockages to low-level cold-air drainage flow into the city centre by vegetation and building structures, (2) a detailed analysis of the change of probability density functions related to the occurrence of heat waves during summer and the spatial and temporal structure of the urban heat island (UHI) (3) a meso-scale analysis of particulate matter (PM) concentrations depending on topography, local meteorological conditions and synoptic-scale weather patterns. First results will be presented specifically from sub-projects related to vegetation barriers within cold air drainage, the assessment of the UHI and the temporal and spatial pattern of PM loadings in the city centre. The analysis of the cold air drainage flow is investigated in two consecutive years with a clearing of vegetation stands in the beginning of the second year early in 2010. The spatial pattern of the UHI and its possible enhancement by climate change is addressed employing a unique setup using GPS devices and temperature probes fixed to

  11. Sustainable urban development? An analysis of fuel innovation in the auto-rickshaw sector in Bangalore and Hyderabad

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baud, I.S.A.; Bokhorst, J.R.; van de Loo, T.J.C.; Quaedvlieg, J.G.J.; Rothuizen, J.V.; Tulleners, B.A.W.

    2010-01-01

    This article deals with the question of what contributions fuel transitions can make to more sustainable development in urban areas in India. A major sector of private collective transportation is studied—the auto-rickshaw sector, in which a private sector-led transition to gas has taken place. The

  12. Better Half of Bangalore : Improving spatial conditions for women working in blue- and white-collar industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baliga, N.; Tummers, L.C.

    2016-01-01

    In the case of a relatively traditional society like India, on the one hand gender roles are strongly enforced, while on the other hand the continuous feminization of the workforce has been a result of the liberalization of global policies in the early 90’s. The still present binary definition of

  13. A CROSS-SECTIONAL PROSPECTIVE STUDY ON CUTANEOUS DISEASES IN PAEDIATRIC PATIENTS BELONGING TO LOW INCOME GROUP FAMILIES ATTENDING PRIMARY HEALTH CENTRES AT BANGALORE RURAL, SOUTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megha Chandrashekar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The incidence and the spectrum of paediatric dermatological diseases vary from one part of the world to another.1 Skin diseases, though very common in many developing countries are not often regarded as a significant health problem.2 Majority of the skin diseases tend to occur in children under the age of 5 years. This high prevalence could be due to the lower immunity or higher frequency of hospital visits by infants due to greater parental care. The aim of the study is to compare the present spectrum of cutaneous disorders between two age groups of children less than 5 years and 5-14 years old and their correlation with socioeconomic status attending primary health centre, Bangalore rural, south. MATERIALS AND METHODS A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted from March 22 to November 22, 2017, in children with skin disorders under 14 years old who attended primary health centre at Bangarappanagar and Uttarahalli in Bangalore. RESULTS A total of 522 children with skin diseases, 486 children were included in the study and they were divided into two groups of those less than 5 years with the sex ratio (M:F 1.5:1 and 5-14 years old with the sex ratio (M:F 1.3:1. The most common dermatological disease among less than 5 years age group was infections, eczema, infestations and pigmentary disorders and the most common dermatological diseases between 5-14 years was infections, scabies, eczema and acne. CONCLUSION Skin problems mainly scabies, tinea, impetigo and eczema were common in children who attended the primary health centres at Bangalore rural. There is a high prevalence of communicable diseases among children belonging to parents of low socioeconomic status. Community health education regarding personal hygiene coupled with that of the surrounding environment can help in controlling these diseases in the long run.

  14. FUN CITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    down the consquences of these developments, to elocidate the interplay between funscapes and fear culture, and to account for the meaning of new concepts and new phenomena such as "event culture", "urban scenography", "experience economy","city branding" and "cultural planning"....

  15. Fun City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    down the consquences of these developments, to elocidate the interplay between funscapes and fear culture, and to account for the meaning of new concepts and new phenomena such as "event culture", "urban scenography", "experience economy","city branding" and "cultural planning"....

  16. City Branding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimann, Søren; Stigel, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    with their relatively concrete dimensions are absent when the main question is one of values. Furthermore, when  the relatively straightforward identification and power structures of corporations and consumers are replaced by the more diversified structures of city government, their poplulations, and potential visitors...

  17. Excite City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte; Kiib, Hans; Jensen, Ole B.

    This paper takes its point of departure in the pressure of the experience economy on European cities - a pressure which in recent years has found its expression in a number of comprehensive transformations of the physical and architectural environments, and new eventscapes related to fun and cult......This paper takes its point of departure in the pressure of the experience economy on European cities - a pressure which in recent years has found its expression in a number of comprehensive transformations of the physical and architectural environments, and new eventscapes related to fun...... and cultural experience are emerging. The physical, cultural and democratic consequences of this development are discussed in the paper, which concludes with a presentation of a new field of research that highlights the problems and the new opportunities with which "the experience city" is faced. Special...... attention is put on a new research project called "Experience City - hybrid cultural projects and performative urban spaces". The thesis and research themes are presented and related to the general framework of present cultural planning and post industrial urban transformation....

  18. Vacant city

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marzot, N.

    2013-01-01

    Abandoned places that the crisis has multiplied, unaware wrecks of a project of civilization that has consumed its thrust and life-giving function, are waiting for new desirable interpretations, they are an expression of a possible city in opposition to the existing, even if not recognized by any

  19. Slum population in India: Extent and policy response

    OpenAIRE

    Upinder Sawhney

    2013-01-01

    An increasing pace of urbanization and the absence of affordable housing has resulted in growth of slums in urban India. The Government of India (GOI) has been incorporating certain programmes to alleviate poverty , create employment opportunities and encourage planned urban development in its public policy , yet there has been a fast emergence of slums in the Indian cities due to a number of factors. The present paper aims to analyze certain demographic attributes of the slum population in I...

  20. Arranged Love: Marriage in a transnational work environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, M.

    2007-01-01

    In India, ‘love’ and ‘arranged’ marriages appear to be at opposite ends of the spectrum, but Michiel Baas argues that this ‘opposition’ is being challenged by IT professionals in the South India city of Bangalore.

  1. Perceived mental health related stigma, gender, and depressive symptom severity in a psychiatric facility in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulesza, Magdalena; Raguram, R; Rao, Deepa

    2014-06-01

    Few studies exist on the topic of gender associated with depression and mental health-related stigma coming out of non-Western countries such as India. We aimed to add to the literature by assessing these relationships among adults seeking psychiatric services in India. Participants were 60 individuals seeking care at a psychiatric clinic in Bangalore, India. The majority of participants were female with a mean age of 36 years (SD=9.75). Contrary to our prediction, there were no significant differences between men (M=28.96; SD=9.85) and women (M=33.03; SD=12.08) on depression severity, t(58)=1.42, p=.16. Yet, women (M=10.09, SD=8.23) reported significantly more perceived stigma than men (M=5.79, SD=5.86), t(58)=2.30, p=.02. While men and women seeking psychiatric services at the psychiatric clinic in India report similar levels of depression severity, women reported more perceived mental illness stigma. Having experienced regular forms of discrimination associated with female status in India, it may be the case that women are more attuned to other forms of stigma, such as mental health stigma investigated in the present study. Given the detrimental impact of stigma on treatment adherence and engagement in care, additional research is needed support this work, including research on interventions to reduce stigma and improve engagement in care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Identification of Variables and Factors Impacting Consumer Behavior in On-line Shopping in India: An Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhikara, Sudesh

    On-line shopping is a recent phenomenon in the field of E-Business and is definitely going to be the future of shopping in the world. Most of the companies are running their on-line portals to sell their products/services. Though online shopping is very common outside India, its growth in Indian Market, which is a large and strategic consumer market, is still not in line with the global market. The potential growth of on-line shopping has triggered the idea of conducting a study on on-line shopping in India. The present research paper has used exploratory study to depict and highlight the various categories of factors and variables impacting the behavior of consumers towards on-line shopping in India. The data was collected through in-depth interviews on a sample of 41 respondents from Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai and Bangalore. The results of the study show that on-line shopping in India is basically impacted by five categories of factors like demographics factor, Psychographics factor, Online shopping feature and policies, Technological factor, Security factor. The results of the study are used to present a comprehensive model of on-line shopping which could be further used by the researchers and practitioners for conducting future studies in the similar area. A brief operational definition of all the factors and variables impacting on-line shopping in India is also described. And finally practical implications of the study are also elucidated.

  3. Sustainable Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georg, Susse; Garza de Linde, Gabriela Lucía

    Judging from the number of communities and cities striving or claiming to be sustainable and how often eco-development is invoked as the means for urban regeneration, it appears that sustainable and eco-development have become “the leading paradigm within urban development” (Whitehead 2003......), urban design competitions are understudied mechanisms for bringing about field level changes. Drawing on actor network theory, this paper examines how urban design competitions may bring about changes within the professional field through the use of intermediaries such as a sustainable planning....../assessment tool. The context for our study is urban regeneration in one Danish city, which had been suffering from industrial decline and which is currently investing in establishing a “sustainable city”. Based on this case study we explore how the insights and inspiration evoked in working with the tool...

  4. Sharing City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This magazine offers an insight into the growing commercial innovation, civic movements, and political narratives surrounding sharing economy services, solutions and organisational types. It presents a cross-section of the manifold sharing economy services and solutions that can be found in Denmark....... Solutions of sharing that seeks to improve our cities and local communities in both urban and rural environments. 24 sharing economy organisations and businesses addressing urban and rural issues are being portrayed and seven Danish municipalities that have explored the potentials of sharing economy....... Moreover, 15 thought leading experts - professionals and academic - have been invited to give their perspective on sharing economy for cities. This magazine touches upon aspects of the sharing economy as mobility, communities, sustainability, business development, mobility, and urban-rural relation....

  5. Macronutrient status of the elderly (60-80 years) from Central India ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    present investigation was undertaken to assess the macronutrient intake of the elderly (60-80 years) from Central India. Four hundred elderly, which included 200 males and 200 females were selected from Nagpur city, Maharashtra, India, through stratified random sampling. All subjects were personally interviewed.

  6. Solar cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roaf, S.; Fuentes, M.; Gupta, R.

    2005-01-01

    Over the last decade, climate change has moved from being the concern of few to a widely recognized threat to humanity itself and the natural environment. The 1990s were the warmest decade on record, and ever-increasing atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/), could, if left unchecked lead to serious consequences globally, including increased risks of droughts, floods and storms, disruption to agriculture, rising sea levels and the spread of disease. The contribution of anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide has been recognized as the principal cause of the atmospheric changes that drive these climate trends. Globally, buildings are the largest source of indirect carbon emissions. In 2000, the UK Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution estimated that in order to stabilise carbon emissions at levels, which avoid catastrophic alterations in the climate, we would have to reduce emissions from the built environment by at least 60% by 2050 and 80% by 2100 relative to 1997 levels. Studies of the Oxford Ecohouse have demonstrated that it is not difficult to reduce carbon emissions from houses by 60% or more through energy efficiency measures, but it is only possible to reach the 90% level of reductions required by using renewable energy technologies. Solar energy technologies have been the most successfully applied of all renewable to date largely because they are the only systems that can be incorporated easily into the urban fabric. In addition, the short fossil fuel horizons that are predicted (c. 40 years left for oil and 65 years for gas) will drive the markets for solar technologies. For these reasons, the cities of the future will be powered by solar energy, to a greater or lesser extent, depending on the city form and location. In recognition of the need to move rapidly towards a renewable energy future, a group of international cities, including Oxford, have started the Solar City Network. In this paper we outline the

  7. HIV testing in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Srikanth; Pereira, Michael; Tripathy, Sriram Prasad

    2012-06-01

    The National AIDS Control Organization (NACO) has initiated programs for HIV/AIDS control in India. Algorithms for HIV testing have been developed for India. NACO programs have resulted in HIV situation improving over the last decade.

  8. Delhi: India's urban example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, B

    1988-06-01

    Demography, migration, economy, employment, education, planning, housing and transportation in the Delhi Union Territory are described. The Territory is an administrative district that includes Old Delhi, the site of the ancient walled city, the New Delhi Municipal Corporation, the center of government, the Delhi Cantonment, a military center, and 27 smaller towns, many of which are rural in character. The Delhi Territory is notable for its relatively high per capita income ($321), high sex ratio (124), high proportion of recent migrants (over half), but also high employment rate and educational status of these migrants. Much of the economy is based on government service, retail trade and services. School enrollment is high, nearly 100% of primary school age children, 77% of middle school, and 50% of secondary school. Rapid growth has stressed the public health, sanitation, housing, electric power systems. Transportation is coping relatively well, considering that 20% of all motor vehicles in India are in Delhi. 50% of daily trips are made by bus, 22% by bicycle, 10% by motorcycles, and 4% by cars. Accommodations for tourists in Delhi's old center are good in both expensive and inexpensive hotels.

  9. Management research in India: Current state and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naresh Khatri

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Concerned over the lack of high quality, context specific management research in India, and the predilection of Indian researchers to follow Western models of research and publication blindly, the authors take stock of Indian management research in this round table discussion and debate some of the relevant issues. Urging Indian researchers to strive for the levels of rigour of the Western models, they make a case for confident indigenous scholarship to suit the development and educational requirements of the country, following context-relevant constructs and methodologies in research and developing curricula, materials and modes of dissemination independently. These ideas were also explored at the second Indian Academy of Management Conference held at IIM Bangalore in December 2011.

  10. India Agricultural Policy Review

    OpenAIRE

    Gilmour, Brad; Gurung, Rajendra Kumar

    2008-01-01

    With a population of about 1.1 billion, India is expected to overtake China as the world's most populous country by 2030. India's economy ranks as Asia's third largest, after Japan and China, and is now one of the world's fastest growing. While growth has led to significant reductions in poverty, India still ranks among the world's low income countries in terms of income per capita. Nevertheless, economic growth has resulted in a burgeoning middle-class. India's agriculture sector accounts fo...

  11. Immunization Uptake among Children of a Migrant Tribal Community Living in an Eastern Indian city

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, Suchismita; Kusuma, Yadlapalli; Babu, Bontha

    2013-01-01

    Background: In India, of the rural-urban migrants, a small segment of people migrated from tribal areas (hilly forest areas) and they possess more vulnerability due to their multiple disadvantage.Objective: To report immunization uptake of children of tribal migrants living in an urban city of Eastern India.Methods: Data were collected from 126 tribal households who migrated to the city during last 12 years. Data pertaining to the awareness of vaccines and reception of various vaccines were c...

  12. The India Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Alim, Jamaal

    2012-01-01

    Even though lawmakers in India don't seem likely to pass any laws that would enable foreign universities to set up shop in India anytime soon, opportunities still abound for institutions of higher learning in the United States to collaborate with their Indian counterparts and to engage and recruit students in India as well. That's the consensus…

  13. Quasi-static crack tip fields in rate-sensitive FCC single crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. P Biswas1 R Narasimhan2. Global General Motors R&D, India Science Lab, GM Technical Centre (India), Bangalore 560 066, India; Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India ...

  14. Sustainable Transport: BRT experiences from Mexico and India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogat, Jorge; Dhar, Subash; Joshi, Rutul

    2015-01-01

    Increasing population and urbanization is creating a steadily increasing demand for transportation in the cities of many developing countries, coinciding with rapid economic growth leading to increasing demand for higher standards of living and faster and more efficient modes of transportation...... transit (BRT). The BRT systems of Curitiba and Bogotá have subsequently been adopted all over the world with some variations. Implementation of two recent BRTs, Mexico City and Ahmedabad in India, are examined in this paper....

  15. Energy Sector of India: Past and Present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Ibragimova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Strengthening the influence of India in the Asian region and in the world requires for resorting of the modernization experience of this country, including the development of its energy sector. India today is among the top ten countries to generate electricity per capita. At the same time, both traditional sources of energy production coexist in India (using the muscular strength of man and animals with the conditions for the development of modern energy infrastructure through foreign investments. The article attempts to trace the main stages of the formation and development of energy industry in India; the modern state of energy is analyzed and plans for its development are considered. The research is based on a complex of traditional methods and approaches based on the principle of scientific objectivity and systemic method used in research in the framework of international relations and political science. For more than a century of history of the development of energy sector in India significant success has been achieved. Starting with the electrification of large cities and industrial enterprises due to foreign investments in the colonial period, India, after gaining the independence, set the task of developing its own infrastructure, electrifying the countryside and providing the industry with energy resources. The greatest progress in the development of electric power and nuclear energy was made. Indian economic growth will increase India’s energy needs and quadruple the demand for electricity over the next 25 years. For this, India needs to solve the problems of energy efficiency, energy complex management, lack of standards and energy imports, as well as actively introduce alternative energy sources and move to clean electricity (increased use of water resources and solar energy, which can be done through the development of Russian -Indian cooperation.

  16. Whose city?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Die Stadt als Beute. But where most of these films follow the money and dissect the power relations in today’s urban planning, Whose city? instead moves back in time to the almost forgotten, but defining architectural disputes of the 1990s. With the fall of the Berlin Wall and the rest of the Iron...... the fundamental question was no longer asked: Who are we building for? The film represents a meditative journey through Berlin, from Potsdamer Platz in the West to Alexanderplatz in the East, and from the male-dominated conservative urban planning of the early 1990s to the more open-minded, women-led urban...

  17. A pilot study on water pollution and characterization of multidrug-resistant superbugs from Byramangala tank, Ramanagara district, Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skariyachan, Sinosh; Lokesh, Priyanka; Rao, Reshma; Kumar, Arushi Umesh; Vasist, Kiran S; Narayanappa, Rajeswari

    2013-07-01

    Urbanization and industrialization has increased the strength and qualities of municipal sewage in Bangalore, India. The disposal of sewage into natural water bodies became a serious issue. Byramangala reservoir is one such habitat enormously polluted in South India. The water samples were collected from four hotspots of Byramangala tank in 3 months. The biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and bacterial counts were determined. The fecal coliforms were identified by morphological, physiological, and biochemical studies. The antibiotics sensitivity profiling of isolated bacteria were further carried out. We have noticed that a high content of BOD in the tank in all the 3 months. The total and fecal counts were found to be varied from 1.6 × 10(6) to 8.2 × 10(6) colony forming unit/ml and >5,500/100 ml, respectively. The variations in BOD and total count were found to be statistically significant at p > 0.05. Many pathogenic bacteria were characterized and most of them were found to be multidrug resistant. Salmonella showed resistance to cefoperazone, cefotaxime, cefixime, moxifloxacin, piperacillin/tazobactam, co-trimoxazole, levofloxacin, trimethoprim, and ceftazidime. Escherichia coli showed resistance to chloramphenicol, trimethoprim, co-trimoxazole, rifampicin, and nitrofurantoin while Enterobacter showed resistant to ampicillin, cefepime, ceftazidime, cefoperazone, and cefotaxime. Klebsiella and Shigella exhibited multiple drug resistance to conventional antibiotics. Staphylococcus showed resistance to vancomycin, methicillin, oxacillin, and tetracycline. Furthermore, Salmonella and Klebsiella are on the verge of acquiring resistance to even the strongest carbapenems-imipenem and entrapenem. Present study revealed that Byramanagala tank has become a cesspool of multidrug-resistant "superbugs" and will be major health concern in South Bangalore, India.

  18. Seasonal variation of heavy metals in water, sediment, and highly consumed cultured fish (Labeo rohita and Labeo bata) and potential health risk assessment in aquaculture pond of the coal city, Dhanbad (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Divya; Maiti, Subodh Kumar

    2018-02-20

    The extent of heavy metal pollution and their impact on the various component of urban aquaculture pond (India) were investigated on the basis of seasonal variation. The water, sediment, and fish samples (Labeo rohita and Labeo bata) were collected and analyzed to assess the metal toxicity. In the sediment, geoaccumulation index (I geo ), contamination factor (CF), pollution load index (PLI), and ecological risk index (ERI) were calculated. The estimated daily dietary intake (EDI) for As, Cd, Cr, Mn, Pb, and Zn was estimated in adult and children on the basis an average amount of fish consumed by the Indian people and its associated health hazard with was also assessed in terms of target hazard quotients (THQs). The concentration of metals in all the analyzed samples was found higher during pre-monsoon season. While, in case of fish, L. bata species has higher metal accumulation rate during both the seasons than the L. rohita because of their bottom dweller feeding habit. The order of metals in L. bata muscles is Zn > Mn > Pb > Cr > As > Cd. The I geo value for Zn (2.66 to 3.68) was found to be highest and followed by Cd (1.65 to 3.52) and Pb (1.52 to 2.55) indicating moderate to highly polluted sediment quality. The values of ERI were significantly high during pre-monsoon period and varied from 319 to 557, representing very high metal contamination. From the human health perspective, present study highlighted that the local inhabitants who rely on this valuable pond for fish consumption are exposed chronically to As and Pb pollution due to higher THQ values, especially from the intake of L. bata.

  19. Profile of injury cases admitted to a tertiary level hospital in south India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthkarsh, Pallavi Sarji; Suryanarayana, S P; Gautham, M S; Shivraj, N S; Murthy, N S; Pruthvish, S

    2012-01-01

    Injuries now rank among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality the world over. Injuries are steadily increasing in developing countries like India. Systematic and scientific efforts in injury prevention and control are yet to begin in India. Data on injuries are very essential to plan preventive and control measures. The objective of this study is to know the profile of the injury cases admitted to M S Ramaiah hospital, Bangalore, India, using a cross-sectional study design for six months, i.e. from Oct 2008 to April 2009. The mean age of the study population was 35.3 years (SD = 15.38), 69.1% were injured in road traffic accidents (RTA), 28.7% due to falls and 2.2% due to burns. Nearly 14.4% were under the influence of alcohol. Nearly 73.6% of RTA cases were two-wheeler users, 48.5% had not followed sign boards and 56.5% had not obeyed the one-way rules, 63.5% of the two-wheeler users did not use helmets. Also, 38% of two wheelers had two pillion riders, whereas 57% of four-wheeler users had not used a seat belt. Among falls, 58% occurred at home, 49% occurred due to slippery surface. Road traffic accidents were the most common cause for injuries, in which two wheelers were most commonly involved. Strict enforcement of traffic rules and education on road safety are very essential to prevent injuries.

  20. Learning Cities as Healthy Green Cities: Building Sustainable Opportunity Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses a new generation of learning cities we have called EcCoWell cities (Economy, Community, Well-being). The paper was prepared for the PASCAL International Exchanges (PIE) and is based on international experiences with PIE and developments in some cities. The paper argues for more holistic and integrated development so that…

  1. India | Page 57 | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Mumbai, India's largest and wealthiest city, is a study in contrasts: it is rich and poor, modern and ancient, orderly and chaotic. Home to the national stock exchange and one of the world's largest film industries, Mumbai is also a vista of sprawling slums and pockets of severe poverty. Read more about Transforming the slum: ...

  2. India | Page 90 | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    As eastern India's second-largest city, Guwahati faces numerous challenges relating to population growth, poverty, and violence. A new study from the Centre for Urban Equity at the Centre for Environmental Planning and Technology University (CEPT) shows how inclusive urban planning processes can help prevent ...

  3. India | Page 46 | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Home · South Asia. India. Inde. Read more about Intergenerational Transfers, Aging and Social Protection in Asia. Language English. Read more about Women's Rights and Access to Water and Sanitation in Asian Cities. Language English. Read more about Droits des femmes et accès à l'eau et aux systèmes ...

  4. Recommendations for making Ahmedabad, India, safer and more ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-08-25

    Aug 25, 2016 ... Policy brief 2: Vatwa Resettlement Sites – Basic Services and Amenities: Deprivations and infrastructural conflicts (PDF, 7.6MB) - Also available in Gujarati (PDF ... While it is the largest city in India's northeastern state of Assam, Guwahati's sprawling development pattern and limited transportation options se.

  5. Trade secrets from a semen bank in India.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Dr X (pseudonym adopted to protect the identity of the service provider and the sperm bank) is the director of a sperm bank that has been operating since the early 1990s in a large city in India. What follows here is an abridged version of the author’s interview with Dr X conducted in December 2001.

  6. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in India. First positive case detected on 16th May 09 in a traveler from Hyderabad from USA. During June, 108 cases tested positive from many major cities. First case in Pune was a US traveler detected on 21 June.

  7. All projects related to India | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Global supply chains are an engine of economic growth and job creation for many countries in South Asia. Topic: Gender. Region: India, Nepal. Program: Employment and Growth ... Climate adaptive action plans to manage heat stress in Indian cities. Project. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change estimates that ...

  8. Branding Cities, Changing Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ooi, Can-Seng

    Societal changes are seldom discussed in the literature on city branding. The time element is important because it highlights the fluctuating reality of society. The city brand message freezes the place but in fact, the city branding exercise is a continuous process. Society emerges too. City...... brands are supposed to accentuate the uniqueness of the city, be built from the bottom-up and reflect the city's identity. This paper highlights three paradoxes, pointing out that city branding processes can also make cities more alike, bring about societal changes and forge new city identities. A city...... branding campaign does not just present the city, it may change the city. The relationships between the branding exercise and the city are intertwined in the evolution of the place....

  9. Branding Cities, Changing Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ooi, Can-Seng

    brands are supposed to accentuate the uniqueness of the city, be built from the bottom-up and reflect the city's identity. This paper highlights three paradoxes, pointing out that city branding processes can also make cities more alike, bring about societal changes and forge new city identities. A city......Societal changes are seldom discussed in the literature on city branding. The time element is important because it highlights the fluctuating reality of society. The city brand message freezes the place but in fact, the city branding exercise is a continuous process. Society emerges too. City...... branding campaign does not just present the city, it may change the city. The relationships between the branding exercise and the city are intertwined in the evolution of the place....

  10. Policy interventions and grassroots initiatives: Mismatches in a relocation project in Chennai, India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M.J. van Eerd (Maartje)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis article is based on research that took place between 1998 and 2002 in a relocation project in Southern Chennai, India. About 2,640 poor urban households were relocated from the city centre to the project location on the outskirts of the city in the early 1990s. The objectives of

  11. Smart City project

    KAUST Repository

    Al Harbi, Ayman

    2018-01-24

    A \\'smart city\\' is an urban region that is highly advanced in terms of overall infrastructure, sustainable real estate, communications and market viability. It is a city where information technology is the principal infrastructure and the basis for providing essential services to residents. Yanbu Industrial City- Smart City Project - First large scale smart city in The kingdom.

  12. Optimal way of selecting cities and conveyances for supplying coal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Optimal way of selecting cities and conveyances for supplying coal in uncertain environment. AMIT KUMAR1 and AMARPREET KAUR2,∗. 1School of Mathematics and Computer Applications, Thapar University,. Patiala 147 004, India. 2Center for Physical and Mathematical Sciences, School of Basic and Applied. Sciences ...

  13. Knowledge and attitudes of doctors regarding the provision of mental health care in Doddaballapur Taluk, Bangalore Rural district, Karnataka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cowan Joshua

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Specialist mental health care is out of reach for most Indians. The World Health Organisation has called for the integration of mental health into primary health care as a key strategy in closing the treatment gap. However, few studies in India have examined medical practitioners’ mental health-related knowledge and attitudes. This study examined these facets of service provision amongst doctors providing primary health care in a rural area of Karnataka is Southern India. Methods A mental health knowledge and attitudes questionnaire was self- administered by participants. The questionnaire consisted of four sections; 1 basic demographics and practice information, 2 training in mental health, 3 knowledge of mental health, and self-perceived competence in providing mental health care, and 4 attitudes towards mental health. Data was analysed quantitatively, primarily using descriptive statistics. Results This study recruited 46 participants. The majority of participants (69.6% felt competent in providing mental health services to their patients. However, there was a substantial level of endorsement for several statements that reflected negative attitudes. Almost one third of participants (28.0% had not received any training in providing mental health care. Whilst three-quarters of participants correctly identified depression (76.1% and psychosis (76.1% in a vignette, fewer were able to name three common signs and symptoms of depression (50.0% and psychosis (28.3%. Conclusions Integrating mental health into primary health care requires evidence-based up-skilling programs. Doctors in this study desired such training and would benefit from it, with a focus on both depth of knowledge and uncovering stigmatising attitudes towards people with mental health problems.

  14. City Revenues and Expenses

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — City Revenues and Expenses from the Operating Budget from 2012 to Present, updated every night from the City's JD Edwards ledger.

  15. Pittsburgh City Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Pittsburgh City FacilitiesIncludes: City Administrative Buildings, Police Stations, Fire Stations, EMS Stations, DPW Sites, Senior Centers, Recreation Centers, Pool...

  16. Recommendations on Implementing the Energy Conservation Building Code in Visakhapatnam, AP, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Meredydd [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Madanagobalane, Samhita S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Yu, Sha [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tan, Qing [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Visakhapatnam can play an important role in improving energy efficiency in its buildings by implementing ECBC. This document seeks to capture stakeholder recommendations on a road map for implementation, which can help all market players plan for implementation. Visakhapatnam also has an opportunity to serve as a role model for other Smart Cities and cities in general in India. The road map and steps that VUDA adopts to implement ECBC can provide helpful examples to these other cities.

  17. The application of optical satellite imagery and census data for urban population estimation: A case study for Ahmedabad, India

    OpenAIRE

    Nolte, Eike-Marie

    2010-01-01

    The rapid growth of India's urban population leads to the need to employ new technologies for population modelling. In this study, optical satellite images and census data are used to model the population distribution for the city of Ahmedabad (northwest India. The selected spatial scales for which the population data are generated correspond to those often used for earthquake risk modelling and loss estimation.

  18. The Impact of Differing Maternal Expectations on the Academic Achievements of Primary School Children in Urban Bangalore, South: A Comparison between Boys and Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haridarshan, Pooja

    2015-01-01

    Education of girls in India lags behind that of boys and several communities in India fare worse than others. Because of their secondary status in the society, Indian girls tend to suffer from low self-esteem. Thus, it is necessary to study the reasons why girls are being discouraged from attending and completing school as well as what are the…

  19. Entrepreneurship Education at Indian Industrial Training Institutes--A Case Study of the Prescribed, Adopted and Enacted Curriculum in and around Bangalore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenner, Lea; Kumar, Kothandaraman; Pilz, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    On the one hand, India is a growing economy that needs skilled labour, self-employed entrepreneurs and employees to tackle its economic and social challenges. On the other hand, India faces high unemployment rates, especially among young people. Graduates from industrial training institutes (ITIs) in particular are often facing difficulties in…

  20. Nature Watch

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. P N Shankar1 B S Shylaja2. crFD Division, NAL Bangalore 560 017, India. Bangalore Association for Science Education, which administers the Jawaharlal Nehru Planetarium in Bangalore.

  1. Nature Watch

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. P N Shankar1 B S Shylaja2. CTFD Division, NAL Bangalore 560 017, India. Bangalore Association for Science Education, which administers the Jawaharlal Nehru Planetarium in Bangalore.

  2. Large aerosol optical depths observed at an urban location in southern India associated with rain-deficit summer monsoon season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Vinoj

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol spectral optical depth (AOD measurements were made covering three years (2001, 2002 and 2003 at an urban continental location, Bangalore (13°N, 77.6°E in India. These ground-based observations have shown that AODs reach a maximum during April (~0.5 at 500nm and minimum during the November to January period (~0.2. The Angstrom wavelength exponent (α was ~1.1 during the dry season (December to April, which, in conjunction with the high optical depth indicates significant anthropogenic influence. Seasonal variations in AODs appear to have an association with monsoon rainfall. Large AODs (α~1.4 were observed during the rain-deficit summer monsoon season (SMS of 2002, which persisted for more than six months. Enhancement in AODs during SMS 2002 was ~0.15 (at 500nm, compared to 2001 and 2003.

  3. Quality of life declines in big and growing cities. Poverty in cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harel, K

    1997-01-01

    The quality of life in developing countries during the first couple of decades after the Second World War was higher in cities than in small towns and villages. However, the relative advantage of city dwellers in developing countries has declined since the 1970s, with high-growth rate cities experiencing a more severe decline. Infant mortality levels in Latin America and sub-Saharan Africa in the 1990s are as high in large cities as in the smallest towns and villages. In most developing regions, big city residents are increasingly disadvantaged, such that researchers and policymakers can no longer assume that the quality of life in urban areas is better than in rural areas. The urban transformation of the developing world is similar to the 19th century urbanization of now-developed countries, but today many more people are crowding into far bigger cities. Using survey information from 43 countries representing 63% of the developing world's urban population outside of China and India, Martin Brockerhoff of the Population Council and Ellen Brennan of the UN Population Division found that rapid population growth and big size have overwhelmed the capacity of cities to provide essential goods and services.

  4. Gifted Education in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Paromita

    2017-01-01

    In the backdrop of India's growing population of 1.21 billion people with diverse, multicultural and multilingual backgrounds, gifted education is yet to be part of a formal educational policy in the country. Research on giftedness in India spans across 50 years, but lacks systematic and empirical grounding. The term "gifted" in the…

  5. African Journals Online: India

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: India. Home > African Journals Online: India. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access. Afghanistan ...

  6. AREVA in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    India is the sixth largest energy consumer in the world and its demand is rising rapidly. To support its economic growth, estimated to be 8% on average over the last three years and to ensure access to electricity for all, the country foresees massive investments in its power sector over the next five years. India is therefore an essential market for the AREVA Group, where its Transmission and Distribution division plays a leading role on the strategic grid modernization market. This document presents: 1 - the economic situation in India: Key figures, Growth, India's growing need for electricity, India's energy sources and policy: current mix, driving role of the State, the financial reorganization of the SEBs, the 'Mega-Power' projects, the electricity act, the rural electrification program, the Investments. 2 - Civil nuclear energy: a strong potential for development; 3 - India's transmission and distribution network: the power challenge of the transmission network, the efficiency challenge of the distribution network. 4 - AREVA T and D in India: AREVA T and D profile, Areva's presence in India, market share, T and D customers and flagship projects

  7. India's Higher Education Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altbach, Philip G.

    2014-01-01

    India, with the world's second largest higher education system and a rapidly growing economy as one of the BRIC nations, faces significant challenges in building both capacity and excellence in higher education. India's higher education system is characterized by "islands of excellence in a sea of mediocrity." The mainstream universities…

  8. The Case of India

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    pwust

    Over the past decade, India has quietly become a significant provider of development assistance to other less developed countries. In fact, current trends suggest that the country could become a net exporter of development assistance sometime in the next five years. This transformation is driven by India's perception of itself ...

  9. IDRC in India

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Listen to IDRC's India Lecture series as eminent thinkers offer their views on an evolving India: www.idrc.ca/indialectures. About Canada's International Development Research Centre. IDRC supports research in developing countries to promote growth and development. IDRC also encourages sharing this knowledge with.

  10. Hydropower development in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxena, Praveen [Govt. of India, New Delhi (India). Ministry of New and Renewable Energy], E-mail: psaxena_98@yahoo.com; Kumar, Arun [Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Uttarakhand (India). Alternate Hydro Energy Centre], E-mail: aheciitr@gmail.com

    2011-04-15

    India is posed for large deployment of hydropower in present conducive policy and investment environment. Growing energy demand and concern for carbon emission is making hydropower development more favorable. The Government of India is ensuring a good performance of the new SHP stations by linking the incentives to the SHP developers with the performance of the station. (author)

  11. LIGO-India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Many scientists from India have been working in the area of gravitaional wave detection as part of the LIGO international collaboration. This article recounts how these smaller scale efforts grew into a proposal for locating an advanced detector in India, which brings very significant scientific advantages. There is now ...

  12. LIGO-India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    experimental gravity, cosmology and optical metrology, was formed. This consortium sought to promote gravitational wave research in the country with a dream of realizing an advanced GW observatory in India. This multi-institutional, multi-disciplinary. IndIGO consortium now consists of three lead institutions for. LIGO-India ...

  13. The Myths of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Frederick A.

    1988-01-01

    Stating that superficial stereotypes hinder the understanding of people and places, Day presents several well-known over-generalizations about India. Attempts to update readers about recent changes within the country while dispelling some popular myths. Discusses India's large population, poverty, economic growth, women's roles, and culture, along…

  14. Water changed the cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elle, Morten; Jensen, Marina Bergen

    An improvement in water infrastructure and cleaning up the waters changed many harbour cities in Denmark at the beginning of the 90s. The harbour cities changed from drity, run-down industrial harbours to clean and attractive harbour dwelling creating new city centres and vital city areas...

  15. Resonance – Journal of Science Education | Indian Academy of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Raghavendra Gadagkar1 2. Centre for Ecological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India. India and Evolutionary and Organismal Biology Unit, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Jakkur P.O., Bangalore 560064, India.

  16. Resonance – Journal of Science Education | Indian Academy of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vasant Natarajan1 V Balakrishnan2 N Mukunda3. Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India. Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Chennai 600 036, India. 103, 6th Main Road, Malleswaram, Bangalore 560 003, India.

  17. The True Origin of Agriculture: Credit Goes to the Ants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Raghavendra Gadagkar1 2. Centre for Ecological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India. India and Evolutionary and Organismal Biology Unit, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Jakkur P.O., Bangalore 560064, India.

  18. Resonance – Journal of Science Education | Indian Academy of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bikram Phookun1 2 Biman Nath3. Department of Physics and Centre for Mathematical Sciences, St. Stephen's College, Delhi 110 007, India. Currently visiting Raman Research Institute, Bangalore 560 080, India; Raman Research Institute, Bangalore 560 080, India.

  19. Author Affiliations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bikram Phookun1 2 Biman Nath3. Department of Physics and Centre for Mathematical Sciences, St. Stephen's College, Delhi 110 007, India. Currently visiting Raman Research Institute, Bangalore 560 080, India; Raman Research Institute, Bangalore 560 080, India.

  20. Facilities at Indian Institute of Astrophysics and New Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Bhuwan Chandra

    2018-04-01

    The Indian Institute of Astrophysics is a premier national institute of India for the study of and research into topics pertaining to astronomy, astrophysics and related subjects. The Institute's main campus in Bangalore city in southern India houses the main administrative set up, library and computer center, photonics lab and state of art mechanical workshop. IIA has a network of laboratories and observatories located in various places in India, including Kodaikanal (Tamilnadu), Kavalur (Tamilnadu), Gauribidanur (Karnataka), Leh & Hanle (Jammu & Kashmir) and Hosakote (Karnataka).

  1. Understanding transformations in agriculture in south India through the quantification of productivity, equity, and resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penny, G.; Srinivasan, V.; Thompson, S. E.

    2017-12-01

    Rapid acceleration of human-water interactions have been identified in many regions of the world, often resulting in reduced water security. In the Arkavathy watershed adjacent to Bangalore, India, environmental and human systems have collectively experienced major transformations since the initiation of sustainable agriculture near the beginning of the Holocene. We reconstruct a narrative history of water security in the Arkavathy, focusing on quantitative metrics of productivity, equity, and resilience. Over this time period, the system can be separated into multiple distinct eras characterized by the dominant practices of agriculture and water management, including the unmanaged (natural) plant ecology of the region, followed by subsistence farming, tank irrigation, construction of large reservoirs, groundwater depletion, and decentralized adaptation. Each of these eras was initiated by a combination of external drivers (e.g., climate, technology) and internal drivers (e.g., demand for food and water). The last fifty years have been characterized by rapid increase in productivity largely sustained by expansion of groundwater irrigation and increasing demand from the rapidly urbanizing Bangalore. Equity initially increased with the introduction of groundwater irrigation and the increased access to irrigation supply. As the water table declined and groundwater irrigation became less affordable, resilience of the system decreased and was followed by a decrease in equity and productivity, with wealthier farmers reaping the benefits and poorer farmers unable to afford access to groundwater. Absent meaningful changes to water rights policy, the system appears to be trending towards a new, undesirable equilibrium characterized by high inequality, moderate productivity (concentrated among the wealthiest farmers), and low resilience.

  2. Cancer Risk and Diet in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinha R

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available India is a developing country with one of the most diverse populations and diets in the world. Cancer rates in India are lower than those seen in Western countries, but are rising with increasing migration of rural population to the cities, increase in life expectancy and changes in lifestyles. In India, rates for oral and oesophageal cancers are some of the highest in the world. In contrast, the rates for colorectal, prostate, and lung cancers are one of the lowest. Studies of Indian immigrants in Western societies indicate that rates of cancer and other chronic diseases, such as coronary heart disease and diabetes, increase dramatically after a generation in the adopted country. Change of diet is among the factors that may be responsible for the changing disease rates. Diet in India encompasses diversity unknown to most other countries, with many dietary patterns emanating from cultural and religious teachings that have existed for thousands of years. Very little is known, however, about the role of the Indian diet in causation of cancer or its role, if any, in prevention of cancer, although more attention is being focused on certain aspects of the Indian diet, such as vegetarianism, spices, and food additives. Of particular interest for cancer prevention is the role of turmeric (curcumin, an ingredient in common Indian curry spice. Researchers also have investigated cumin, chilies, kalakhar, Amrita Bindu, and various plant seeds for their apparent cancer preventive properties. Few prospective studies, however, have been conducted to investigate the role of Indian diet and its various components in prevention of cancer. From a public health perspective, there is an increasing need to develop cancer prevention programs responsive to the unique diets and cultural practices of the people of India.

  3. Curriculum for pharmacology in pharmacy institutions in India: opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Ramesh K; Bhise, Satish B; Srinivasan, B P; Rao, C Mallikarjun; Sen, Tuhinadri; Koneri, Raju

    2014-01-01

    The curriculum of pharmacy institutions in India is regulated by the All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) and the Pharmacy Council of India (PCI) at degree and diploma levels. However, it has been over two decades that the syllabi have been revised by these regulatory agencies. Considering the dynamic character of pharmacology, it is essential to prepare a syllabus that caters to the contemporary needs of the academic institutions and pharmaceutical industry, the community. Pharmacists are also witnessing a greater role in community pharmacy practice as well as in several healthcare sectors. Considering these facts, a panel discussion was held at IPSCON 2013, (the Annual Conference of Indian Pharmacological Society) at Bangalore. The discussion saw several recommendations for syllabi for institutions offering various pharmacy courses to meet the objectives of teaching, learning and research in Pharmacology. This article documents a summary of the discussion. For B. Pharm. course, a balance between industry-oriented pharmacology and clinical pharmacy has been recommended. Redundant animal experiments should be replaced with the simulation experiments or those which are feasible in the light of stringent regulations of the Committee for the Purpose of Control and Supervision of Experiments on Animals (CPCSEA). It is recommended that the M. Pharm curriculum should focus on preclinical research with the inclusion of molecular biology and experiments on gene expression, proteomics, pharmacogenomics, cell culture and tissue culture. In general, at all levels, exposure of students to hospitals and clinicians is needed. Pharm. D., syllabus too should lay lesser emphasis on experimental pharmacology. Present experiments in the D. Pharm. course have no relevance to the program objectives and hence, only experiments through demonstrations or simulated preparations or interactive videos maybe undertaken. Regulatory bodies as well as universities should design a

  4. Visual and hearing impairment among rural elderly of south India: a community-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R, Deepthi; Kasthuri, Arvind

    2012-01-01

    Of India's population, 76.6 million (7.2%) are aged above 60 years. Increasing age is associated with increasing disability and functional impairments such as low vision, loss of mobility and hearing impairment. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to study the prevalence of hearing and visual impairment among a rural elderly population in South India and its association with selected variables. This was a cross-sectional study of elderly persons in two villages of Bangalore District, Karnataka, South India. Elderly persons identified were administered a questionnaire for assessment of demographic details, health and function related information. Visual acuity was checked using Snellen's E chart for distant vision. Hearing was assessed using pure tone audiometry. Two hundred and fifty-seven (12.2%) of the population were elderly in these two villages. Seventy-two (32.4%) of the elderly persons were facing problems completely or partially in at least one of the activities and 10 (4.5%) elderly persons had cognitive impairment. Sixty-two (35.4%) of the elderly had low vision and 22 (12.6%) were blind. On assessment with pure tone audiometry, 117 (66.9%) of the elderly persons had some degree of hearing impairment. Forty-three (24.6%) of the elderly had disabling hearing impairment. Forty-seven (26.9%) of the elderly had combined low vision associated with hearing impairment and 18 (10.2%) had combined blindness along with hearing impairment. As age advanced there was a significant increase in visual, hearing and combined impairments. Visual and hearing impairment are important health problems among elderly persons in rural areas of South India. © 2011 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  5. (rehabilitating Heritage Places) Structural Repairs and Conservation Works for Astor Kolkata, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, S.; Fournier, L.

    2017-08-01

    Kolkata, formerly known as Calcutta in English, is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal and is located in eastern India on the east bank of the River Hooghly. The city was a colonial city developed by the British East India Company and then by the British Empire. Kolkata was the capital of the British Indian empire until 1911 when the capital was relocated to Delhi. Kolkata grew rapidly in the 19th century to become the second city of the British Empire. This was accompanied by the development of a culture that fused European philosophies with Indian tradition. The city has been known by many names "Cultural Capital of India", "The City of Processions", "The City of Palaces", and the "City of Joy". Problems related to rapid urbanisation started to plaque Kolkata from the 1930s and the city remains an example of the urbanization challenges of the developing nations. The exercise included Archival research, Field surveys, Condition Mapping, structural evaluation and preparation of restoration & conservation solutions along with post conservation management plan. The Major challenges encountered were identifying the correct consolidation techniques using modern technology and incorporation of modern services. The Documentation and Mapping was used as a significant tool to guide towards the structural consolidation, conservation and Management strategy of the complex.

  6. (REHABILITATING HERITAGE PLACES STRUCTURAL REPAIRS AND CONSERVATION WORKS FOR ASTOR KOLKATA, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dasgupta

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Kolkata, formerly known as Calcutta in English, is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal and is located in eastern India on the east bank of the River Hooghly. The city was a colonial city developed by the British East India Company and then by the British Empire. Kolkata was the capital of the British Indian empire until 1911 when the capital was relocated to Delhi. Kolkata grew rapidly in the 19th century to become the second city of the British Empire. This was accompanied by the development of a culture that fused European philosophies with Indian tradition. The city has been known by many names "Cultural Capital of India", "The City of Processions", "The City of Palaces", and the "City of Joy". Problems related to rapid urbanisation started to plaque Kolkata from the 1930s and the city remains an example of the urbanization challenges of the developing nations. The exercise included Archival research, Field surveys, Condition Mapping, structural evaluation and preparation of restoration & conservation solutions along with post conservation management plan. The Major challenges encountered were identifying the correct consolidation techniques using modern technology and incorporation of modern services. The Documentation and Mapping was used as a significant tool to guide towards the structural consolidation, conservation and Management strategy of the complex.

  7. India's future: it's about jobs

    OpenAIRE

    Geoffrey N. Keim; Beth Anne Wilson

    2007-01-01

    Projections of sustained strong growth in India depend importantly on the utilization of the huge increase in India's working-age population projected over the next two decades. To date, however, India's economic growth has been concentrated in high-skill and capital-intensive sectors, and has not generated strong employment growth. In this paper, we highlight the tension between India's performance in output and employment, describe the characteristics of India's demographic dividend, and di...

  8. Clinical trials in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Rituparna; M, Raghavendra

    2007-07-01

    The concept of outsourcing for the development and global studies on new drugs has become widely accepted in the pharmaceutical industry due to its cost and uncertainty. India is going to be the most preferred location for contract pharma research and development due to its huge treatment naïve population, human resources, technical skills, adoption/amendment/implementation of rules/laws by regulatory authorities, and changing economic environment. But still 'miles to go' to fulfill the pre-requisites to ensure India's success. In spite of all the pitfalls, the country is ambitious and optimist to attract multinational pharmaceutical companies to conduct their clinical trials in India.

  9. Health Care in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BM Hegde

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The modern medical facilities in India are of such good quality that the National Health Service of the UK is negotiating with many corporate hospitals in India to get their patients on the long waiting lists to be flown to India for elective surgery. Be that as it may, health is not contigent on the availability of medical technology but contigent on basic provisions; clean water, three square meals a day, freedom from the effects of pollution and the skills to earn a living.

  10. New technologies, new hazards: Need for evidence base: A report on the health status and safety measures in a biotechnology factory in Bangalore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhashree V

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In highly competitive economies, the fast-paced development of new and improved products and services inevitably spurs the development of new technologies, of which one-fifth growth has been in the biotechnology sector. Advances in technologies provide opportunities to minimize the drudgery of work and to eliminate old hazards, but they may create new currently unrecognized risks to workers. Objectives: To assess the morbidity pattern among workers in the biotechnology industry and also to find out the health and safety measures provided to the workers. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a biotechnology industry in Bangalore, which covered 779 employees who underwent health examination and blood and urine investigations; of the 779 employees, 600 were permanent employees and 179 were contract employees. Results and Discussion: The common morbidity among the workers included refractory errors; allergic contact dermatitis; hypertension; abnormal pulmonary function tests (61, 10.2%, of which 23 (37.7% were from the production department; high eosinophil count (110, 14.1%. Majority, i.e., 46 (41.8% worked in the production department. The safety measures provided to the workers are adequate, but there is a need to insist on regular use of personal protective devices by newly employed and contract laborers.

  11. City Car = The City Car / Andres Sevtshuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sevtshuk, Andres, 1981-

    2008-01-01

    Massachusettsi Tehnoloogiainstituudi (MIT) meedialaboratooriumi juures tegutseva Targa Linna Grupi (Smart City Group) ja General Motorsi koostööna sündinud kaheistmelisest linnasõbralikust elektriautost City Car. Nimetatud töögrupi liikmed (juht William J. Mitchell, töögruppi kuulus A. Sevtshuk Eestist)

  12. Rapid growth within India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, D.

    2000-01-01

    The Indian government has published (in Hydrocarbon Vision 2025) its ideas for a long term strategy for its oil industry which is currently growing at an unprecedented rate. Increasing domestic production and investment in oil exploration and production overseas figure strongly in the plan. At present, India has a refining surplus but with an annual growth of 8-10%, this will disappear in the next 2-3 years. The report recommends that India should maintain 90% self-sufficiency in refining. The report sees development of the domestic oil industry as globally competitive and helping safeguard India's assets. The capability of India's refineries, current upgrading, the newer refineries and plans for new projects are all mentioned

  13. PRESENT STATUS IN INDIA

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. PRESENT STATUS IN INDIA. FIXED LINES – 36 MILLION. MOBILE CONNECTIONS – 14 MILLION. TELEDENSITY APPROXIMATELY 5. INTERNET CONNECTIONS – 5 MILLION. INTERNET USERS NEARLY – 25 MILLION.

  14. Community and Healthcare Providers' Perspectives on Male Circumcision: A Multi-Centric Qualitative Study in India

    OpenAIRE

    Sahay, Seema; Nagarajan, Karikalan; Mehendale, Sanjay; Deb, Sibnath; Gupta, Abhilasha; Bharat, Shalini; Bhatt, Shripad; Kumar, Athokpam Bijesh; Kanthe, Vidisha; Sinha, Anju; Chandhiok, Nomita

    2014-01-01

    Background Although male circumcision (MC) is recommended as an HIV prevention option, the religious, cultural and biomedical dimensions of its feasibility, acceptability and practice in India have not been explored till date. This study explores beliefs, experiences and understanding of the community and healthcare providers (HCPs) about adult MC as an HIV prevention option in India. Methods This qualitative study covered 134 in-depth interviews from Belgaum, Kolkata, Meerut and Mumbai citie...

  15. First record of Galeodes indicus Pocock, 1900 (Arachnida: Solifugae: Galeodidae from Rajasthan, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruquaeya Bano

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available During a regular survey to collect soil arthropods in Lasiurus sindicus Henrard grassland by pitfall methods at Chandan Village near Jaisalmer City, Rajasthan, we found a dead specimen of Galeodes indicus in a sample.  Galeodes indicus (Pocock, 1900 has been reported from Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Telangana but so far was unknown to Rajasthan, India.  In this communication, we report Galeodes indicus from Jaisalmer District, Rajasthan, India

  16. India : the new China?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanavaty, K. [Reliance Industries Ltd., Mumbai (India). Cracker and Polymer Div.

    2006-07-01

    India is emerging as a strong force in the global economy. The population of China is 1.2 times that of India, and its gross domestic product is 2.5 times that of India. However, analyses of per capita gross domestic product (GDP) indicate that if India continues its rate of growth, its' consumption and production will reach China's current levels in less than 15 years. This represents a significant investment opportunity in basic industry, particularly since a growing middle class will ensure a boom in consumer products consumption. This presentation compared India and China, in terms of economic approaches and challenges for India. Implications for the petrochemical industry were also discussed with reference to Reliance Industries Ltd. and its full integration in the value chain with petroleum refining. Reliance Industries Ltd. claims that India's captive utilities and labour productivity provide the company with conversion costs that are among the lowest in the industry. In terms of agriculture, India is one of the largest producers of agricultural commodities in the world and is well supported by varying agro-climates and fertile land. This presentation also included an agro-commodities yield comparison for rice, wheat and cereal. The Indian manufacturing industry is also competitive, focusing on cutting cost, increasing productivity and innovation. It was noted that although China has the advantage of a well established infrastructure on a global and domestic scale as well as job opportunities and quick policy implementation, it has lax labour laws, poor pollution laws and a challenging banking system. In contrast, India has the entrepreneurial advantage as well as global scale information technology, a globally competitive manufacturing industry, an independent regulatory framework and world class capital markets and banking system. India's challenge lies in its lack of a world-class infrastructure, complicated tax structure and slow

  17. Seaweed industry in India

    OpenAIRE

    Kaladharan, P.; Kaliaperumal, N.

    1999-01-01

    The seaweed industry in India is mainly a cottage industry and is based only on the natural stock of agar yielding red seaweeds, such as Gelidiella acerosa and Gracilaria eduli and algin yielding brown seaweed species such as Sargassum and Turbinaria. India produces 110-132 t of dry agar annually utilizing about 880-1100 t of dry agarophytes, and 360-540 t of algin from 3600-5400 t of dry alginophytes.

  18. Looking ahead in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupte, P

    1986-03-01

    India and China contain more than 40% of the world's population, yet in India it is painfully clear that the political commitment necessary to tackle India's greatest problem is not there in full measure. India's present per capita income is less than $300, and nearly 65% of the people live below the poverty line. The average Indian woman produces 5 children; even if the Indian government's efforts to reduce family size to 2 children is successful by the year 2040, India will have a population of 2.5 billion. The possibility that India will succeed in reducing average family size to 2 children appears remote. 30 years ago, India became the 1st developing country to formally make family planning a matter of national policy. In the early years of the national family planning programs, practitioners had access mostly to sterilization and condoms. Over the years, theIndian government persuaded the US and other western donors to give $2 billion to population control programs. Still, the population continues to grow annually at the rate of 2.1%. Government statistics reflect the ups and downs of national population control policies; thenumber of new family planning users increased from 4.3 million in 1974-1975 to 12.5 million in 1976-1977, due largely to a dramatic increase in vasectomies. Tge number of new contraceptive users fell to 4.5 million after the "emergency" was lifted in 1977. The present Indian generation is far more receptive culturally as well as sociologically to the concept of population control than most other developing countries. What is needed now is renewed political committment by the Gandhi adminiostration. India cannot afford to replicate the Chinese way of tackling overpopulation without inflicting human abuses and without undermining its painstakingly cultivated democratic system.

  19. Unleashing science in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagla, Pallava

    2009-04-01

    With a population of over 1.1 billion people, of whom 714 million are entitled to vote, elections in India are complex affairs. In the next general election, which begins on 16 April, there will be more than 828 000 polling stations, where some 1.3 million electronic voting machines will be used in what will be the world's largest electronic election. The machines themselves were built and designed in India.

  20. Diabetes Care in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Shashank R

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes has become a major health care problem in India with an estimated 66.8 million people suffering from the condition, representing the largest number of any country in the world. The rising burden of diabetes has greatly affected the health care sector and economy in India. The goal of health care experts in India is to transform India into a diabetes care capital in the world. An expert detailed review of the medical literature with an Asian Indian context was performed. Recent epidemiologic studies from India point to a great burden from diabetes. Diabetes control in India is far from ideal with a mean hemoglobin A1c of 9.0%-at least 2.0% higher than suggested by international bodies. Nearly half of people with diabetes remain undetected, accounting for complications at the time of diagnosis. Screening can differentiate an asymptomatic individual at high risk from one at low risk for diabetes. Despite the large number of people with diabetes in India, awareness is low and needs to be addressed. Other challenges include balancing the need for glycemic control with risk reduction due to overly tight control, especially in high-risk groups and taking into account health care professional expertise, attitudes, and perceptions. Pharmacologic care should be individualized with early consideration of combination therapy. Regular exercise, yoga, mindful eating, and stress management form a cornerstone in the management of diabetes. Considering the high cost incurred at various steps of screening, diagnosis, monitoring, and management, it is important to realize the cost-effective measures of diabetes care that are necessary to implement. Result-oriented organized programs involving patient education, as well as updating the medical fraternity on various developments in the management of diabetes, are required to combat the current diabetes epidemic in India. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Financing firms in India

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Franklin; Chakrabarti, Rajesh; De, Sankar; Qian, Jun; Qian, Meijun

    2006-01-01

    The authors examine the legal and business environments, financing channels, and governance mechanisms of various types of firms in India and compare them to those from other countries. Despite its English commonlaw origin, strong legal protection provided by the law, and a democratic government, corruption within India's legal system and government significantly weakens investor protection in practice. External financing of firms has been dominated by nonmarket sources of financing, while th...

  2. What Is Clean Cities?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-08-01

    This Clean Cities Program fact sheet describes the purpose and scope of this DOE program. Clean Cities facilitates the use of alternative and advanced fuels and vehicles to displace petroleum in the transportation sector.

  3. Cities spearhead climate action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Mark

    2017-08-01

    Following President Trump's withdrawal from the Paris Agreement, cities worldwide have pledged support to combat climate change. Along with a growing coalition of businesses and institutions, cities represent a beacon of hope for carbon reduction in politically tumultuous times.

  4. City of Pittsburgh Trees

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Trees cared for and managed by the City of Pittsburgh Department of Public Works Forestry Division. Tree Benefits are calculated using the National Tree Benefit...

  5. Ground water quality evaluation in Beed city, Maharashtra, India ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey was undertaken to assess the quality of ground water in Beed district of Maharashtra taking both physico-chemical and bacteriological parameters into consideration. The present investigation is aimed to calculate Water Quality Index (WQI) of ground water and to assess the impact of pollutants due to agriculture ...

  6. Revisiting city connectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mans, U.

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces a new perspective on city connectivity in order to analyze non-hub cities and their position in the world economy. The author revisits the different approaches discussed in the Global Commodity Chains (GCC), Global Production Networks (GPN) and World City Network (WCN)

  7. Smart city analytics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Casper; Hansen, Christian; Alstrup, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    is very useful when full records are not accessible or available. Smart city analytics does not necessarily require full city records. To our knowledge this preliminary study is the first to predict large increases in home care for smart city analytics....

  8. Imagineering the city

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, M.; Paddison, R.; Hutton, T.

    2015-01-01

    Cities today are products. The urban experience is commodified into marketable items by urban entrepreneurs. Urban administrations, city marketers, politicians, local businesses and other actors all over the world are developing entrepreneurial strategies to sell their city. From "‘I ♥ New York"’ to

  9. Making waves | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-26

    Jan 26, 2011 ... The development challenge: Reaching the unreached. India's information technology sector emerged during the 1980s as software development companies became established in the cities of Bangalore, Chennai, and Hyderabad. The country is now the world's second largest exporter of software. Yet, the ...

  10. Acknowledgements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    user1

    Kar Sayan, Kharagpur, India. Lister Matthew L., United States. Metzger Brian, United States. Misra Ranjeev, Pune, India. Nandi Dibyendu, Mohanpur, India. Pal Supratik, Kolkata, India. Rangarajan, K. E., Bangalore, India. Rao Vivekanand P., Hyderabad, India. Saha Rajib, Bhopal, India. Saini Tarun Deep, Bangalore, India.

  11. India | Page 64 | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Language French. Read more about Le rôle des petites villes dans la poursuite de meilleurs résultats en matière d'emploi chez les jeunes en Inde et en Indonésie (ITT). Language French. Read more about The Role of Small Cities in Shaping Youth Employment Outcomes in India (TTI). Language English. Read more about ...

  12. Marriage and the City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gautier, Pieter; Svarer, Michael; Teulings, Coen

    Do people move to cities because of marriage market considerations? In cities singles can meet more potential partners than in rural areas. Singles are therefore prepared to pay a premium in terms of higher housing prices. Once married, the marriage market benefits disappear while the housing...... premium remains. We extend the model of Burdett and Coles (1997) with a distinction between efficient (cities) and less efficient (non-cities) search markets. One implication of the model is that singles are more likely to move from rural areas to cities while married couples are more likely to make...

  13. Improving Security Ties with India

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McLaughlin, W

    2003-01-01

    .... India as a democracy with a large economic base is an increasingly important ally in the region, although rising Hindu fundamentalism does pose a danger to the secular framework of modern India...

  14. Impact of rapid urbanization on the microclimate of Indian cities: a case study for the city of Bhubaneswar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, D.; Roberts, G. J.; Dash, J.; Vinoj, V.; Lekshmi, K.; Tripathy, S.

    2016-05-01

    The impact of rapid urbanization in cities on their microclimate is at present a great cause of global concern. One of the major consequences is the unexpected rise in temperatures in the cities compared to their surrounding areas, termed as the Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect. Over the past many years, several Indian cities are under severe stress owing to such extreme anomalous changes in their micro-meteorological conditions making them unfriendly for habitation. Presented here is a case study on Bhubaneswar - one such city on the east coast of India undergoing rapid urbanization in recent times. In this study, Land Surface Temperatures (LST) from MODIS Terra and Aqua instruments at 1 km2 spatial resolution along with the Land Use and Land Cover (LULC) change data from Landsat was used over a 25 km radius about the city for a 15 years' period from 2000 to 2014. Preliminary analyses indicate spatio-temporal changes in LULC to be one of the primary and significant factors responsible for changes in the UHI effect over the city. Investigations on the spatio-temporal variations in LST across the city and its relationship with vegetation cover indicate that overexploitation of various resources demanded by a fast growing population has led to significant changes in LULC patterns in the last few years. Analysis of the changes in the urban energy balance and resulting UHI effect across the city under various urban growth scenarios and different proportions of green urban area are in progress.

  15. Venereology in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devinder Mohan Thappa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Venereology-the study of venereal diseases or more recently, the sexually transmitted infections (STI includes a variety of pathogens namely viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa for which the common factor is the mode of transmission and acquisition: Sexual relations between human beings. Medical and other historians have often suggested that well-known diseases such as syphilis, gonorrhea, chancroid and lymphogranuloma venereum have existed since earliest times. However, it is difficult to identify modern disease entities based on written historical record. Studying the origin of STIs helps us to learn the political, economic and moral conditions that led to the disease. Effective management of STI rests on three pillars of diagnosis, prevention and treatment. For most of past 50 years in India, the diagnostic pillar has been the least well-supported. Until well into present century, diagnosis of STI in India was clinical. Treatment of STIs in India followed the methods used in England. Of course in the 19th century, in many parts of the world, only a few had access to modern methods of treatment; in India, there was extensive use of Ayurvedic treatment with traditional medicines. This article thus gives just an overview and evolution of venereology in India with regard to venereal diseases (now more often known as STIs/disease, control measures, academic, association and journal development and finally future perspective.

  16. Fiscal Discipline in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanhita SUCHARITA

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study broadly attempts to analyze the role of Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act in restoring fiscal balance in India. It analyses the need for fiscal rules and constraints in India. The study aims at finding out the major factor behind rising fiscal imbalance in India and to examine whether there is an electoral motive towards high fiscal deficit to GDP ratio or not. It also analyzes the effectiveness of various measures undertaken at the central and state level to inculcate fiscal discipline in the fiscal management. The study also makes an attempt to do a critical in depth reviews of the Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act and make an attempt at examining effectiveness and suitability of FRBM Act through a quantitative analysis. It also makes an attempt to suggest improvements in the fiscal monitoring mechanism in India. We employ Ordinary Least Square (OLS method to examine the impact of Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act on fiscal deficit in India using the data for the period 1980-81 to 2008-09. The regression results indicates that FRBM Act does not have a significant effect on the Gross Fiscal Deficit (GFD to GDP ratio where as GDP (at factor cost growth rate has a significant negative effect on the GFD to GDP ratio.

  17. India's nuclear spin-off

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaul, Ravi.

    1974-01-01

    After examining world-wide reactions of the foreign governments and news media to the India's peaceful nuclear experiment (PNE) in the Rajasthan Desert on 18 May 1974, development of nuclear technology in India is assessed and its economic advantages are described. Implications of the Non-Proliferation Treaty are explained. Psychological impact of India's PNE on India's neighbours and superpowers and associated political problems in context of proliferation of nuclear weapons are discussed in detail. (M.G.B.)

  18. Mobile microscopy as a screening tool for oral cancer in India: A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skandarajah, Arunan; Sunny, Sumsum P.; Gurpur, Praveen; Reber, Clay D.; D’Ambrosio, Michael V.; Raghavan, Nisheena; James, Bonney Lee; Ramanjinappa, Ravindra D.; Suresh, Amritha; Kandasarma, Uma; Birur, Praveen; Kumar, Vinay V.; Galmeanu, Honorius-Cezar; Itu, Alexandru Mihail; Modiga-Arsu, Mihai; Rausch, Saskia; Sramek, Maria; Kollegal, Manohar; Paladini, Gianluca; Kuriakose, Moni; Koch, Felix; Fletcher, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Oral cancer is the most common type of cancer among men in India and other countries in South Asia. Late diagnosis contributes significantly to this mortality, highlighting the need for effective and specific point-of-care diagnostic tools. The same regions with high prevalence of oral cancer have seen extensive growth in mobile phone infrastructure, which enables widespread access to telemedicine services. In this work, we describe the evaluation of an automated tablet-based mobile microscope as an adjunct for telemedicine-based oral cancer screening in India. Brush biopsy, a minimally invasive sampling technique was combined with a simplified staining protocol and a tablet-based mobile microscope to facilitate local collection of digital images and remote evaluation of the images by clinicians. The tablet-based mobile microscope (CellScope device) combines an iPad Mini with collection optics, LED illumination and Bluetooth-controlled motors to scan a slide specimen and capture high-resolution images of stained brush biopsy samples. Researchers at the Mazumdar Shaw Medical Foundation (MSMF) in Bangalore, India used the instrument to collect and send randomly selected images of each slide for telepathology review. Evaluation of the concordance between gold standard histology, conventional microscopy cytology, and remote pathologist review of the images was performed as part of a pilot study of mobile microscopy as a screening tool for oral cancer. Results indicated that the instrument successfully collected images of sufficient quality to enable remote diagnoses that show concordance with existing techniques. Further studies will evaluate the effectiveness of oral cancer screening with mobile microscopy by minimally trained technicians in low-resource settings. PMID:29176904

  19. Mobile microscopy as a screening tool for oral cancer in India: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skandarajah, Arunan; Sunny, Sumsum P; Gurpur, Praveen; Reber, Clay D; D'Ambrosio, Michael V; Raghavan, Nisheena; James, Bonney Lee; Ramanjinappa, Ravindra D; Suresh, Amritha; Kandasarma, Uma; Birur, Praveen; Kumar, Vinay V; Galmeanu, Honorius-Cezar; Itu, Alexandru Mihail; Modiga-Arsu, Mihai; Rausch, Saskia; Sramek, Maria; Kollegal, Manohar; Paladini, Gianluca; Kuriakose, Moni; Ladic, Lance; Koch, Felix; Fletcher, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Oral cancer is the most common type of cancer among men in India and other countries in South Asia. Late diagnosis contributes significantly to this mortality, highlighting the need for effective and specific point-of-care diagnostic tools. The same regions with high prevalence of oral cancer have seen extensive growth in mobile phone infrastructure, which enables widespread access to telemedicine services. In this work, we describe the evaluation of an automated tablet-based mobile microscope as an adjunct for telemedicine-based oral cancer screening in India. Brush biopsy, a minimally invasive sampling technique was combined with a simplified staining protocol and a tablet-based mobile microscope to facilitate local collection of digital images and remote evaluation of the images by clinicians. The tablet-based mobile microscope (CellScope device) combines an iPad Mini with collection optics, LED illumination and Bluetooth-controlled motors to scan a slide specimen and capture high-resolution images of stained brush biopsy samples. Researchers at the Mazumdar Shaw Medical Foundation (MSMF) in Bangalore, India used the instrument to collect and send randomly selected images of each slide for telepathology review. Evaluation of the concordance between gold standard histology, conventional microscopy cytology, and remote pathologist review of the images was performed as part of a pilot study of mobile microscopy as a screening tool for oral cancer. Results indicated that the instrument successfully collected images of sufficient quality to enable remote diagnoses that show concordance with existing techniques. Further studies will evaluate the effectiveness of oral cancer screening with mobile microscopy by minimally trained technicians in low-resource settings.

  20. Mobile microscopy as a screening tool for oral cancer in India: A pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunan Skandarajah

    Full Text Available Oral cancer is the most common type of cancer among men in India and other countries in South Asia. Late diagnosis contributes significantly to this mortality, highlighting the need for effective and specific point-of-care diagnostic tools. The same regions with high prevalence of oral cancer have seen extensive growth in mobile phone infrastructure, which enables widespread access to telemedicine services. In this work, we describe the evaluation of an automated tablet-based mobile microscope as an adjunct for telemedicine-based oral cancer screening in India. Brush biopsy, a minimally invasive sampling technique was combined with a simplified staining protocol and a tablet-based mobile microscope to facilitate local collection of digital images and remote evaluation of the images by clinicians. The tablet-based mobile microscope (CellScope device combines an iPad Mini with collection optics, LED illumination and Bluetooth-controlled motors to scan a slide specimen and capture high-resolution images of stained brush biopsy samples. Researchers at the Mazumdar Shaw Medical Foundation (MSMF in Bangalore, India used the instrument to collect and send randomly selected images of each slide for telepathology review. Evaluation of the concordance between gold standard histology, conventional microscopy cytology, and remote pathologist review of the images was performed as part of a pilot study of mobile microscopy as a screening tool for oral cancer. Results indicated that the instrument successfully collected images of sufficient quality to enable remote diagnoses that show concordance with existing techniques. Further studies will evaluate the effectiveness of oral cancer screening with mobile microscopy by minimally trained technicians in low-resource settings.