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Sample records for band structure calculations

  1. Calculation of band structure in (101)-biaxially strained Si

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The structure model used for calculation was defined according to Vegard’s rule and Hooke’s law. Calculations were performed on the electronic structures of(101)-biaxially strained Si on relaxed Si1-X GeX alloy with Ge fraction ranging from X = 0 to 0.4 in steps of 0.1 by CASTEP approach. It was found that [±100] and [00±1] valleys(-4) splitting from the [0±10] valley(-2) constitute the conduction b0and(CB) edge,that valence band(VB) edge degeneracy is partially lifted and that the electron mass is un-altered under strain while the hole mass decreases in the [100] and [010] directions. In addition,the fitted dependences of CB splitting energy,VB splitting energy and indirect bandgap on X are all linear.

  2. Volume and surface photoemission from tungsten. I. Calculation of band structure and emission spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, N. Egede; Feuerbacher, B.

    1974-01-01

    The electronic energy-band structure of tungsten has been calculated by means of the relativistic-augmented-plane-wave method. A series of mutually related potentials are constructed by varying the electronic configuration and the amount of Slater exchange included. The best band structure...

  3. Band Structure Calculation of Si and Ge by Non-Local Empirical Pseudo-Potential Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yong; RAVAIOLI Umberto

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the princ iple of spatial nonlocal empirical pseudopotential and its detailed calculation procedure is presented. Consequently, this technique is employed to calculate the band structuresof Silicon and Germaniun. By comparing the results with photoemission experimental data, the validity and accuracy of this calculation are fully conformed for valence or conductance band,respectively. Thus it can be concluded that the spin-orbit Hamiltonian will only affect the energy band gap and another conductance or valence band structure. Therefore, this nonlocal approach without spin-orbit part is adequate for the device simulation of only one carrier transport such as metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFET)'s, and it can significantly reduce the complication of band structure calculation.

  4. The LDA+U calculation of electronic band structure of GaAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahuguna, B. P.; Sharma, R. O.; Saini, L. K.

    2016-05-01

    We present the electronic band structure of bulk gallium arsenide (GaAs) using first principle approach. A series of calculations has been performed by applying norm-conserving pseudopotentials and ultrasoft non-norm-conserving pseudopotentials within the density functional theory. These calculations yield too small band gap as compare to experiment. Thus, we use semiemperical approach called local density approximation plus the multi-orbital mean-field Hubbard model (LDA+U), which is quite effective in order to describe the band gap of GaAs.

  5. Band Structure and Optical Properties of Kesterite Type Compounds: first principle calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaz, S.; Unver, H.; Ugur, G.; Mamedov, A. M.; Ozbay, E.

    2017-02-01

    In present work, our research is mainly focused on the electronic structures, optical and magnetic properties of Cu2FeSnZ4 (Z = S, Se) compounds by using ab initio calculations within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The calculations are performed by using the Vienna ab-initio simulation package (VASP) based on the density functional theory. The band structure of the Cu2FeSnZ4 ( Z = S, Se) compounds for majority spin (spin-up) and minority spin (spin-down) were calculated. It is seen that for these compounds, the majority spin states cross the Fermi level and thus have the metallic character, while the minority spin states open the band gaps around the Fermi level and thus have the narrow-band semiconducting nature. For better understanding of the electronic states, the total and partial density of states were calculated, too. The real and imaginary parts of dielectric functions and hence the optical functions such as energy-loss function, the effective number of valance electrons and the effective optical dielectric constant for Cu2FeSnZ4 (Z = S, Se) compounds were also calculated.

  6. Band calculation of lonsdaleite Ge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pin-Shiang; Fan, Sheng-Ting; Lan, Huang-Siang; Liu, Chee Wee

    2017-01-01

    The band structure of Ge in the lonsdaleite phase is calculated using first principles. Lonsdaleite Ge has a direct band gap at the Γ point. For the conduction band, the Γ valley is anisotropic with the low transverse effective mass on the hexagonal plane and the large longitudinal effective mass along the c axis. For the valence band, both heavy-hole and light-hole effective masses are anisotropic at the Γ point. The in-plane electron effective mass also becomes anisotropic under uniaxial tensile strain. The strain response of the heavy-hole mass is opposite to the light hole.

  7. Band structure calculation of GaSe-based nanostructures using empirical pseudopotential method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osadchy, A. V.; Volotovskiy, S. G.; Obraztsova, E. D.; Savin, V. V.; Golovashkin, D. L.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper we present the results of band structure computer simulation of GaSe- based nanostructures using the empirical pseudopotential method. Calculations were performed using a specially developed software that allows performing simulations using cluster computing. Application of this method significantly reduces the demands on computing resources compared to traditional approaches based on ab-initio techniques and provides receiving the adequate comparable results. The use of cluster computing allows to obtain information for structures that require an explicit account of a significant number of atoms, such as quantum dots and quantum pillars.

  8. Electronic structure and optical properties of noncentrosymmetric LiGaSe2: Experimental measurements and DFT band structure calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrentyev, A. A.; Gabrelian, B. V.; Vu, V. T.; Ananchenko, L. N.; Isaenko, L. I.; Yelisseyev, A. P.; Khyzhun, O. Y.

    2017-04-01

    We report on measurements of X-ray photoelectron (XP) spectra for pristine and Ar+ ion-irradiated surfaces of LiGaSe2 single crystal grown by Bridgman-Stockbarger method. Electronic structure of the LiGaSe2 compound is studied from a theoretical and experimental viewpoint. In particular, total and partial densities of states of LiGaSe2 are investigated by density functional theory (DFT) calculations employing the augmented plane wave + local orbitals (APW + lo) method and they are verified by data of X-ray spectroscopy measurements. The DFT calculations indicate that the main contributors to the valence band of LiGaSe2 are the Se 4p states, which contribute mainly at the top and in the upper portion of the valence band, with also essential contributions of these states in the lower portion of the band. Other substantial contributions to the valence band of LiGaSe2 emerge from the Ga 4s and Ga 4p states contributing mainly at the lower ant upper portions of the valence band, respectively. With respect to the conduction band, the calculations indicate that its bottom is composed mainly from contributions of the unoccupied Ga s and Se p states. The present calculations are confirmed experimentally when comparing the XP valence-band spectrum of the LiGaS2 single crystal on a common energy scale with the X-ray emission bands representing the energy distribution of the Ga 4p and Se 4p states. Measurements of the fundamental absorption edges at room temperature reveal that bandgap value, Eg, of LiGaSe2 is equal to 3.47 eV and the Eg value increases up to 3.66 eV when decreasing temperature to 80 K. The main optical characteristics of the LiGaSe2 compound are clarified by the DFT calculations.

  9. From Metal Cluster to Metal Nanowire: A Topological Analysis of Electron Density and Band Structure Calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Wang

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:We investigate a theoretical model of molecular metalwire constructed from linear polynuclear metal complexes. In particular we study the linear Crn metal complex and Cr molecular metalwire. The electron density distributions of the model nanowire and the linear Crn metal complexes, with n = 3, 5, and 7, are calculated by employing CRYSTAL98 package with topological analysis. The preliminary results indicate that the bonding types between any two neighboring Cr are all the same, namely the polarized open-shell interaction. The pattern of electron density distribution in metal complexes resembles that of the model Cr nanowire as the number of metal ions increases. The conductivity of the model Cr nanowire is also tested by performing the band structure calculation.

  10. Calculation and analysis of complex band structure in dispersive and dissipative two-dimensional photonic crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Brûlé, Yoann; Gralak, Boris

    2015-01-01

    Numerical calculation of modes in dispersive and absorptive systems is performed using the finite element method. The dispersion is tackled in the frame of an extension of Maxwell's equations where auxiliary fields are added to the electromagnetic field. This method is applied to multi-domain cavities and photonic crystals including Drude and Drude-Lorentz metals. Numerical results are compared to analytical solutions for simple cavities and to previous results of the literature for photonic crystals, showing excellent agreement. The advantages of the developed method lie on the versatility of the finite element method regarding geometries, and in sparing the use of tedious complex poles research algorithm. Hence the complex spectrum of resonances of non-hermitian operators and dissipative systems, like two-dimensional photonic crystal made of absorbing Drude metal, can be investigated in detail. The method is used to reveal unexpected features of their complex band structures.

  11. A Pseudospectral Time-Domain Algorithm for Calculating the Band Structure of a Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何江平; 沈林放; 张全; 何赛灵

    2002-01-01

    A pseudospectral time-domain (PSTD) method is developed for calculating the band structure of a two-dimensional photonic crystal. Maxwell's equations are rewritten in terms of period fields by using the Bloch theorem. Instead of spatial finite differences, the fast Fourier transform is used to calculate the spatial derivatives. To reach a similar accuracy, fewer sample points are required in the present PSTD method as compared to the conventional finite-difference time-domain methods. Our numerical simulation shows that the present PSTD method is an efficient and accurate method for calculating the band structure of a photonic crystal.

  12. BAND-STRUCTURE AND CLUSTER-MODEL CALCULATIONS OF LACOO(3) IN THE LOW-SPIN PHASE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ABBATE, M; POTZE, R; SAWATZKY, GA; FUJIMORI, A

    1994-01-01

    We present band-structure and cluster-model calCulatiOns Of LaCoO3 in the low-spin phase. The purpose of these calculations is to contrast and complement the results and conclusions of recent spectroscopic studies. The total density of states (DOS) is compared to the photoemission spectrum; the agre

  13. First-Principles Band Calculations on Electronic Structures of Ag-Doped Rutile and Anatase TiO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Xing-Gang; LIU An-Dong; HUANG Mei-Dong; LIAO Bin; WU Xiao-Ling

    2009-01-01

    The electronic structures of Ag-doped rutile and anatase TiO2 are studied by first-principles band calculations based on density funetionai theory with the full-potentiai linearized-augraented-plane-wave method.New occupied bands ore found between the band gaps of both Ag-doped rutile and anatase TiO2.The formation of these new bands Capri be explained mainly by their orbitals of Ag 4d states mixed with Ti 3d states and are supposed to contribute to their visible light absorption.

  14. Band-gap control in phosphorene/BN structures from first-principles calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsoner Steinkasserer, Lukas Eugen; Suhr, Simon; Paulus, Beate

    2016-09-01

    Using both DFT as well as G0W0 calculations, we investigate static and dynamic effects on the phosphorene band gap upon deposition and encapsulation on/in BN multilayers. We demonstrate how competing long- and short-range effects cause the phosphorene band gap to increase at low P -BN interlayer spacings, while the band gap is found to drop below that of isolated phosphorene in the BN/P bilayer at intermediate distances around 4 Å. Subsequent stacking of BN layers, i.e., BN/BN/P and BN/BN/BN/P is found to have a negligible effect at the DFT level while at the G0W0 level, increased screening lowers the band gap as compared to the BN/P bilayer. Encapsulation between two BN layers, on the other hand, is found to further increase the phosphorene band gap with respect to the BN/P bilayer. Lastly we investigate the use of the GLLB-SC functional as a starting point for G0W0 calculations showing it to, in the case of phosphorene, yield results close to those obtained from G W0@P B E .

  15. Electronic band structure of a type-Ⅱ 'W' quantum well calculated by an eight-band k·p model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Xiu; Gu Yong-Xian; Wang Qing; Wei Xin; Chen Liang-Hui

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present an investigation of type-Ⅱ 'W' quantum wells for the InAs/Ga1-xInxSb/AlSb family, where 'W' denotes the conduction profile of the material. We focus our attention on using the eight-band k·p model to calculate the band structures within the framework of finite element method. For the sake of clarity, the simulation in this paper is simplified and based on only one period-AlSb/InAs/Ga1-xInxSb/InAs/AlSb. The obtained numerical results include the energy levels and wavefunctions of carriers. We discuss the variations of the electronic properties by changing several important parameters, such as the thickness of either InAs or Ga1-xInxSb layer and the alloy composition in Ga1-xInxSb separately. In the last part, in order to compare the eight-band k·p model, we recalculate the conduction bands of the 'W' structure using the one-band k·p model and then discuss the difference between the two results, showing that conduction bands are strongly coupled with valence bands in the narrow band gap structure. The in-plane energy dispersions, which illustrate the suppression of the Auger recombination process, are also obtained.

  16. Analytical and Numerical Calculations of Two-Dimensional Dielectric Photonic Band Gap Structures and Cavities for Laser Acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Samokhvalova, Ksenia R; Liang Qian, Bao

    2005-01-01

    Dielectric photonic band gap (PBG) structures have many promising applications in laser acceleration. For these applications, accurate determination of fundamental and high order band gaps is critical. We present the results of our recent work on analytical calculations of two-dimensional (2D) PBG structures in rectangular geometry. We compare the analytical results with computer simulation results from the MIT Photonic Band Gap Structure Simulator (PBGSS) code, and discuss the convergence of the computer simulation results to the analytical results. Using the accurate analytical results, we design a mode-selective 2D dielectric cylindrical PBG cavity with the first global band gap in the frequency range of 8.8812 THz to 9.2654 THz. In this frequency range, the TM01-like mode is shown to be well confined.

  17. Structural analysis of char by Raman spectroscopy: Improving band assignments through computational calculations from first principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Matthew W.; Dallmeyer, Ian; Johnson, Timothy J.; Brauer, Carolyn S.; McEwen, Jean-Sabin; Espinal, Juan F.; Garcia-Perez, Manuel

    2016-04-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a powerful tool for the characterization of many carbon 27 species. The complex heterogeneous nature of chars and activated carbons has confounded 28 complete analysis due to the additional shoulders observed on the D-band and high intensity 29 valley between the D and G-bands. In this paper the effects of various vacancy and substitution 30 defects have been systematically analyzed via molecular modeling using density functional 31 theory (DFT) and how this is manifested in the calculated gas-phase Raman spectra. The 32 accuracy of these calculations was validated by comparison with (solid-phase) experimental 33 spectra, with a small correction factor being applied to improve the accuracy of frequency 34 predictions. The spectroscopic effects on the char species are best understood in terms of a 35 reduced symmetry as compared to a “parent” coronene molecule. Based upon the simulation 36 results, the shoulder observed in chars near 1200 cm-1 has been assigned to the totally symmetric 37 A1g vibrations of various small polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) as well as those containing 38 rings of seven or more carbons. Intensity between 1400 cm-1 and 1450 cm-1 is assigned to A1g 39 type vibrations present in small PAHs and especially those containing cyclopentane rings. 40 Finally, band intensity between 1500 cm-1 and 1550 cm-1 is ascribed to predominately E2g 41 vibrational modes in strained PAH systems. A total of ten potential bands have been assigned 42 between 1000 cm-1 and 1800 cm-1. These fitting parameters have been used to deconvolute a 43 thermoseries of cellulose chars produced by pyrolysis at 300-700 °C. The results of the 44 deconvolution show consistent growth of PAH clusters with temperature, development of non-45 benzyl rings as temperature increases and loss of oxygenated features between 400 °C and 46 600 °C

  18. Fast and accurate approximate quasiparticle band structure calculations of ZnO, CdO, and MgO polymorphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataide, C. A.; Pelá, R. R.; Marques, M.; Teles, L. K.; Furthmüller, J.; Bechstedt, F.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate ZnO, CdO, and MgO oxides crystallizing in rocksalt, wurtzite, and zincblende structures. Whereas in MgO calculations, the conventional LDA-1/2 method is employed through a self-energy potential (VS), the shallow d bands in ZnO and CdO are treated through an increased amplitude (A ) of VS to modulate the self-energy of the d states to place them in the quasiparticle position. The LDA+A -1/2 scheme is applied to calculate band structures and electronic density of states of ZnO and CdO. We compare the results with those of more sophisticated quasiparticle calculations and experiments. We demonstrate that this new LDA+A -1/2 method reaches accuracy comparable to state-of-the-art methods, opening a door to study more complex systems containing shallow core electrons to the prize of LDA studies.

  19. Application of the new LDA+GTB method for the band structure calculation of n-type cuprates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korshunov, M.M. [L.V. Kirensky Institute of Physics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, 660036 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: mkor@iph.krasn.ru; Ovchinnikov, S.G. [L.V. Kirensky Institute of Physics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, 660036 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Gavrichkov, V.A. [L.V. Kirensky Institute of Physics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, 660036 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Nekrasov, I.A. [Institute of Metal Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences-Ural Division, 620219 Yekaterinburg GSP-170 (Russian Federation); Pchelkina, Z.V. [Institute of Metal Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences-Ural Division, 620219 Yekaterinburg GSP-170 (Russian Federation); Anisimov, V.I. [Institute of Metal Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences-Ural Division, 620219 Yekaterinburg GSP-170 (Russian Federation)

    2006-05-01

    A novel hybrid scheme is proposed and applied for band structure calculations of undoped n-type cuprate Nd{sub 2}CuO{sub 4}. The ab initio LDA calculation is used to obtain single electron and Coulomb parameters of the multiband Hubbard-type model. In strong correlation regime the electronic structure within this model is calculated by the generalized tight-binding (GTB) method, that combines the exact diagonalization of the model Hamiltonian for a small cluster with perturbation treatment of the intercluster hopping and interactions. For Nd{sub 2}CuO{sub 4}, this scheme results in charge transfer insulator with value of the gap and band dispersion in agreement to the experimental data.

  20. Spectral element method for band-structure calculations of 3D phononic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Linlin; Liu, Na; Zhou, Jianyang; Zhou, Yuanguo; Wang, Jiamin; Huo Liu, Qing

    2016-11-01

    The spectral element method (SEM) is a special kind of high-order finite element method (FEM) which combines the flexibility of a finite element method with the accuracy of a spectral method. In contrast to the traditional FEM, the SEM exhibits advantages in the high-order accuracy as the error decreases exponentially with the increase of interpolation degree by employing the Gauss-Lobatto-Legendre (GLL) polynomials as basis functions. In this study, the spectral element method is developed for the first time for the determination of band structures of 3D isotropic/anisotropic phononic crystals (PCs). Based on the Bloch theorem, we present a novel, intuitive discretization formulation for Navier equation in the SEM scheme for periodic media. By virtue of using the orthogonal Legendre polynomials, the generalized eigenvalue problem is converted to a regular one in our SEM implementation to improve the efficiency. Besides, according to the specific geometry structure, 8-node and 27-node hexahedral elements as well as an analytic mesh have been used to accurately capture curved PC models in our SEM scheme. To verify its accuracy and efficiency, this study analyses the phononic-crystal plates with square and triangular lattice arrangements, and the 3D cubic phononic crystals consisting of simple cubic (SC), bulk central cubic (BCC) and faced central cubic (FCC) lattices with isotropic or anisotropic scatters. All the numerical results considered demonstrate that SEM is superior to the conventional FEM and can be an efficient alternative method for accurate determination of band structures of 3D phononic crystals.

  1. First-principles calculation of nitrogen-tungsten codoping effects on the band structure of anatase-titania

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The electronic properties and photocatalytic activity of nitrogen (N) and/or tungsten (W)-doped anatase are calculated using density functional theory. For N-doping, isolated N 2p states above the top of the valence band are responsible for experimentally observed redshifts in the optical absorption edge. For W-doping, W 5d states below the conduction band lead to band gap narrowing; the transition energy is reduced by 0.2 eV. Addition of W to the N-doped system yields significant band gap na...

  2. Band structure of semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Tsidilkovski, I M

    2013-01-01

    Band Structure of Semiconductors provides a review of the theoretical and experimental methods of investigating band structure and an analysis of the results of the developments in this field. The book presents the problems, methods, and applications in the study of band structure. Topics on the computational methods of band structure; band structures of important semiconducting materials; behavior of an electron in a perturbed periodic field; effective masses and g-factors for the most commonly encountered band structures; and the treatment of cyclotron resonance, Shubnikov-de Haas oscillatio

  3. Electronic band structure and specific features of Sm{sub 2}NiMnO{sub 6} compound: DFT calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reshak, A.H. [Institute of complex systems, FFPW, CENAKVA, University of South Bohemia in CB, Nove Hrady 37333 (Czech Republic); Center of Excellence Geopolymer and Green Technology, School of Material Engineering, University Malaysia Perlis, 01007 Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); Azam, Sikander, E-mail: sikander.physicst@gmail.com [Institute of complex systems, FFPW, CENAKVA, University of South Bohemia in CB, Nove Hrady 37333 (Czech Republic)

    2013-09-15

    The band structure, density of states, electronic charge density, Fermi surface and optical properties of Sm{sub 2}NiMnO{sub 6} compound have been investigated with the support of density functional theory (DFT). The atomic positions of Sm{sub 2}NiMnO{sub 6} compound were optimized by minimizing the forces acting on the atoms, using the full potential linear augmented plane wave method. We employed the local density approximation (LDA), generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and Engel–Vosko GGA (EVGGA) to treat the exchange correlation potential by solving Kohn–Sham equations. The calculation shows that the compound is metallic with strong hybridization near the Fermi energy level (E{sub F}). The calculated density of states at the E{sub F} is about 21.60, 24.52 and 26.21 states/eV, and the bare linear low-temperature electronic specific heat coefficient (γ) is found to be 3.74, 4.25 and 4.54 mJ/mol K{sup 2} for EVGGA, GGA and LDA, respectively. The Fermi surface is composed of two sheets. The bonding features of the compounds are analyzed using the electronic charge density in the (011) crystallographic plane. The dispersion of the optical constants was calculated and discussed. - Highlights: • The compound is metallic with strong hybridization near the Fermi energy. • The density of states at the Fermi energy is calculated. • The bare linear low-temperature electronic specific heat coefficient is obtained. • Fermi surface is composed of two sheets. • The bonding features are analyzed using the electronic charge density.

  4. A new integral representation for quasiperiodic fields and its application to two-dimensional band structure calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Barnett, Alex H

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we consider band-structure calculations governed by the Helmholtz or Maxwell equations in piecewise homogeneous periodic materials. Methods based on boundary integral equations are natural in this context, since they discretize the interface alone and can achieve high order accuracy in complicated geometries. In order to handle the quasi-periodic conditions which are imposed on the unit cell, the free-space Green's function is typically replaced by its quasi-periodic cousin. Unfortunately, the quasi-periodic Green's function diverges for families of parameter values that correspond to resonances of the empty unit cell. Here, we bypass this problem by means of a new integral representation that relies on the free-space Green's function alone, adding auxiliary layer potentials on the boundary of the unit cell itself. An important aspect of our method is that by carefully including a few neighboring images, the densities may be kept smooth and convergence rapid. This framework results in an integr...

  5. Crystal symmetry and pressure effects on the valence band structure of γ -InSe and ɛ -GaSe: Transport measurements and electronic structure calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errandonea, D.; Segura, A.; Manjón, F. J.; Chevy, A.; Machado, E.; Tobias, G.; Ordejón, P.; Canadell, E.

    2005-03-01

    This paper reports on Hall effect and resistivity measurements under high pressure up to 3-4 GPa in p -type γ -indium selenide (InSe) (doped with As, Cd, or Zn) and ɛ -gallium selenide (GaSe) (doped with N or Sn). The pressure behavior of the hole concentration and mobility exhibits dramatic differences between the two layered compounds. While the hole concentration and mobility increase moderately and monotonously in ɛ -GaSe, a large increase of the hole concentration near 0.8 GPa and a large continuous increase of the hole mobility, which doubled its ambient pressure value by 3.2 GPa, is observed in γ -InSe. Electronic structure calculations show that the different pressure behavior of hole transport parameters can be accounted for by the evolution of the valence-band maximum in each material under compression. While the shape of the valence band maximum is virtually pressure-insensitive in ɛ -GaSe, it changes dramatically in γ -InSe, with the emergence of a ring-shaped subsidiary maximum that becomes the absolute valence-band maximum as pressure increases. These differences are shown to be a consequence of the presence or absence of a symmetry element (mirror plane perpendicular to the anisotropy axis) in the point group of each polytype ( D3h for the ɛ -polytype and C3v for the γ -polytype), resulting in different selection rules that affect the k⃗•p⃗ interaction between valence bands.

  6. Calculation of the Energy-Band Structure of the Kronig-Penney Model Using the Nearly-Free and Tightly-Bound-Electron Approximations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetsel, Grover C., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Calculates the energy-band structure of noninteracting electrons in a one-dimensional crystal using exact and approximate methods for a rectangular-well atomic potential. A comparison of the two solutions as a function of potential-well depth and ratio of lattice spacing to well width is presented. (Author/GA)

  7. Real-space finite-difference calculation method of generalized Bloch wave functions and complex band structures with reduced computational cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Shigeru; Hirose, Kikuji; Blügel, Stefan

    2014-07-01

    Generalized Bloch wave functions of bulk structures, which are composed of not only propagating waves but also decaying and growing evanescent waves, are known to be essential for defining the open boundary conditions in the calculations of the electronic surface states and scattering wave functions of surface and junction structures. Electronic complex band structures being derived from the generalized Bloch wave functions are also essential for studying bound states of the surface and junction structures, which do not appear in conventional band structures. We present a novel calculation method to obtain the generalized Bloch wave functions of periodic bulk structures by solving a generalized eigenvalue problem, whose dimension is drastically reduced in comparison with the conventional generalized eigenvalue problem derived by Fujimoto and Hirose [Phys. Rev. B 67, 195315 (2003)]. The generalized eigenvalue problem derived in this work is even mathematically equivalent to the conventional one, and, thus, we reduce computational cost for solving the eigenvalue problem considerably without any approximation and losing the strictness of the formulations. To exhibit the performance of the present method, we demonstrate practical calculations of electronic complex band structures and electron transport properties of Al and Cu nanoscale systems. Moreover, employing atom-structured electrodes and jellium-approximated ones for both of the Al and Si monatomic chains, we investigate how much the electron transport properties are unphysically affected by the jellium parts.

  8. LDA + GTB (generalized tight-binding) method for the electronic structure calculations of strongly correlated electron systems: Application for the band structure calculations of p-type cuprates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korshunov, Maxim M. [L.V. Kirensky Institute of Physics, Siberian Branch of RAS, Akademgorodok, 660036 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik komplexer Systeme, Noethnitzer Str. 38, D-01187 Dresden (Germany)], E-mail: maxim@mpipks-dresden.mpg.de; Ovchinnikov, Sergey G. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik komplexer Systeme, Noethnitzer Str. 38, D-01187 Dresden (Germany)

    2007-09-01

    Mean-field theory of the non-superconducting phase of the high-T{sub c} cuprates is formulated within the effective t-t'-t''-J model with three-site correlated hoppings. This model with the ab initio calculated parameters results from the LDA + GTB method. The static spin and kinematical correlation functions beyond Hubbard I approximation are calculated self-consistently taking into account hoppings to the first, the second, and the third neighboring sites, as well as the three-site correlated hoppings. The obtained Fermi surface evolves from hole-pockets at low-doping to large hole-type Fermi surface at higher doping concentrations. Calculated doping dependence of the nodal Fermi velocity, the effective mass and the chemical potential shift are in good agreement with experimental data.

  9. Intermetallic solid solution Fe{sub 1-x}Co{sub x}Ga{sub 3}: Synthesis, structure, NQR study and electronic band structure calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verchenko, V.Yu.; Likhanov, M.S.; Kirsanova, M.A. [Department of Chemistry, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Gippius, A.A; Tkachev, A.V.; Gervits, N.E. [Faculty of Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); A.V. Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, Moscow 119333 (Russian Federation); Galeeva, A.V. [Faculty of Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Buettgen, N.; Kraetschmer, W. [Institut fuer Physik, University of Augsburg, Augsburg D-86135 (Germany); Lue, C.S. [Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Okhotnikov, K.S. [Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Shevelkov, A.V., E-mail: shev@inorg.chem.msu.ru [Department of Chemistry, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2012-10-15

    Unlimited solid solution Fe{sub 1-x}Co{sub x}Ga{sub 3} was prepared from Ga flux. Its crystal structure was refined for Fe{sub 0.5}Co{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 3} (P4{sub 2}/mnm, a=6.2436(9), c=6.4654(13), Z=4) and showed no ordering of the metal atoms. A combination of the electronic band structure calculations within the density functional theory (DFT) approach and {sup 69,71}Ga nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) spectroscopy clearly shows that the Fe-Fe and Co-Co dumbbells are preferred to the Fe-Co dumbbells in the crystals structure. The band structure features a band gap of about 0.4 eV, with the Fermi level crossing peaks of a substantial density of electronic states above the gap for x>0. The solid solution is metallic for x>0.025. The study of the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation shows that the rate of the relaxation, 1/T{sub 1}, is very sensitive to the Co concentration and correlates well with the square of the density of states at the Fermi level, N{sup 2}(E{sub F}). - Graphical abstract: Rate of the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation, 1/T{sub 1}, observed in the {sup 69}Ga NQR experiments for the intermetallic solid solution Fe{sub 1-x}Co{sub x}Ga{sub 3} is the highest for x=0.25 with the highest calculated density of electronic states at the Fermi level, N(E{sub F}); in general, 1/T{sub 1} correlates with N{sup 2}(E{sub F}). Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fe{sub 1-x}Co{sub x}Ga{sub 3} solid solution is prepared in single crystalline form from Ga flux. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In the crystal structure Fe-Fe and Co-Co dumbbells are preferred to Fe-Co dumbbells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Metal-to-semiconductor transition occurs at 0

  10. A postprocessing method based on high-resolution spectral estimation for FDTD calculation of phononic band structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su Xiaoxing, E-mail: xxsu@bjtu.edu.c [School of Electronic and Information Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Li Jianbao; Wang Yuesheng [Institute of Engineering Mechanics, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China)

    2010-05-15

    If the energy bands of a phononic crystal are calculated by the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method combined with the fast Fourier transform (FFT), good estimation of the eigenfrequencies can only be ensured by the postprocessing of sufficiently long time series generated by a large number of FDTD iterations. In this paper, a postprocessing method based on the high-resolution spectral estimation via the Yule-Walker method is proposed to overcome this difficulty. Numerical simulation results for three-dimensional acoustic and two-dimensional elastic systems show that, compared with the classic FFT-based postprocessing method, the proposed method can give much better estimation of the eigenfrequencies when the FDTD is run with relatively few iterations.

  11. Absence of a Dirac cone in silicene on Ag(111): First-principles density functional calculations with a modified effective band structure technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun-Peng; Cheng, Hai-Ping

    2013-06-01

    We investigate the currently debated issue of the existence of the Dirac cone in silicene on an Ag(111) surface, using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory to obtain the band structure. By unfolding the band structure in the Brillouin zone of a supercell to that of a primitive cell, followed by projecting onto Ag and silicene subsystems, we demonstrate that the Dirac cone in silicene on Ag(111) is destroyed. Our results clearly indicate that the linear dispersions observed in both angular-resolved photoemission spectroscopy [P. Vogt , Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.108.155501 108, 155501 (2012)] and scanning tunneling spectroscopy [L. Chen , Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.109.056804 109, 056804 (2012)] come from the Ag substrate and not from silicene.

  12. Band structure, elastic and magnetic properties, and stability of antiperovskites MCNi3( M = Y - Ag) according to FLAPW-GGA calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannikov, V. V.; Shein, I. R.; Ivanovskiĭ, A. L.

    2007-09-01

    Using the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave method (FLAPW) and the WIEN2k software package, calculations of the band structure and the elastic and magnetic properties of the ternary antiperovskite carbides MCNi3, where M = Y, Zr, ..., Ag (overall, nine compounds) are performed and the features of interatomic interactions in them are considered. Stability of these antiperovskite compounds depending on the 4 d metal is discussed based on the calculated energies of formation of MCNi3 from the corresponding elements (according to the formal reaction M + C + 3Ni → MCNi3), and the conclusion is drawn that the YCNi3, ZrCNi3, and PdCNi3 antiperovskites can be synthesized. The obtained results are compared with the available data on known isostructural nickel-based carbides (antiperovskites MgCNi3, ZnCNi3).

  13. Modified extended Hückel band calculations on conjugated polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sung Y.; Marynick, Dennis S.

    1992-04-01

    In order to more accurately predict band gaps, corresponding to π-π* transitions of one-dimensional conducting polymers, the formula for the off-diagonal elements, Hαβij in the extended Hückel (EH) band calculation method was modified according to the form Hαβij=K1(Hααii +Hββjj)exp(-K2Rαβ) Sαβij. Parametrizations for the constants K1 and K2 were performed so as to yield reasonable band gaps for the pure hydrocarbon polymers trans-polyacetylene, poly(para-phenylene), and poly(phenylene vinylene). Since there is a large difference in bond alternations along polymeric chains between ab initio and modified neglect of diatomic overlap optimized geometries, especially for heterocyclic polymers, the valence orbital exponents of oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur were separately adjusted, depending on the chosen geometry, to reproduce the band gaps of polyfuran, polypyrrole, and polythiophene. It is found that geometrical relaxations in the presence of heteroatoms strongly affect the C1-C4 interactions as well as bond alternations, which in turn affect the band gap. Modified EH band calculations were performed for various polymers. The predicted band gaps had average errors of ca. 10% (less than 0.3 eV) compared to the experimental values, and the method produced band structures consistent with electron-energy-loss spectroscopic observations.

  14. Comparative studies of band structures for biaxial (100)-, (110)-, and (111)-strained GeSn: A first-principles calculation with GGA+U approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenqi; Cheng, Buwen; Xue, Chunlai; Liu, Zhi

    2015-10-01

    Experiments and calculations performed in previous studies indicate that compressive strain will increase (100)-strained GeSn's need for Sn to realize a direct bandgap when it is pseudomorphically grown on Ge buffers. To eliminate this negative effect, we systematically investigate the band structures of biaxial (100)-, (110)-, and (111)-strained GeSn using a first-principle calculation combined with supercell models and the GGA+U approach. This method has proven to be efficient and accurate for calculating the properties of GeSn. The calculated lattice constants and elastic constants of Ge and Sn are in good agreement with the experimental results. The crossover value of Sn concentration which is required to change the bandgap of unstrained GeSn from indirect to direct is found to be 8.5%, which is very close to the recent experimental result of 9%. The calculated bandgaps of strained GeSn show that the moving rate of the Γ valley is higher than those of the L and X valleys in (100)- and (110)-strained GeSn. However, the moving rate of the L valley is higher than those of Γ and X valleys in (111)-strained GeSn. Tensile strain has a positive effect on the transition of (100)- and (110)-strained GeSn, changing the bandgap from indirect to direct, whereas compressive strain has a positive effect for (111)-strained GeSn. The use of the (111) orientation can reduce GeSn's need for Sn and greatly increase the energy difference between the L valley and Γ valley. Thus, for strained GeSn grown on Ge buffers, the (111) orientation is a good choice to take advantage of compressive strain.

  15. First-principle calculation of the elastic, band structure, electronic states, and optical properties of Cu-doped ZnS nanolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiji, Mohammadreza Askaripour; Ziabari, Ali Abdolahzadeh

    2016-11-01

    The structural, elastic, electronic, and optical properties of undoped and Cu-doped ZnS nanostructured layers have been studied in the zincblende (ZB) phase, by first-principle approach. Density functional theory (DFT) has been employed to calculate the fundamental properties of the layers using full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave (FPLAPW) method. Mechanical analysis revealed that the bulk modulus increases with the increase of Cu content. Cu doping was found to reduce the band gap value of the material. In addition, DOS effective mass of the electrons and heavy holes was evaluated. Adding Cu caused the decrement/increment of transmission/reflectance of nanolayers in the UV-vis region. The substitution by Cu increased the intensity of the peaks, and a slight red shift was observed in the absorption peak. Moreover, the static dielectric constant, and static refractive index increased with Cu content. The optical conductivity also followed a similar trend to that of the dielectric constants. Energy loss function of the modeled compounds was also evaluated. All calculated parameters were compared with the available experimental and other theoretical results.

  16. Microstrip microwave band gap structures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Subramanian

    2008-04-01

    Microwave band gap structures exhibit certain stop band characteristics based on the periodicity, impedance contrast and effective refractive index contrast. These structures though formed in one-, two- and three-dimensional periodicity, are huge in size. In this paper, microstrip-based microwave band gap structures are formed by removing the substrate material in a periodic manner. This paper also demonstrates that these structures can serve as a non-destructive characterization tool for materials, a duplexor and frequency selective coupler. The paper presents both experimental results and theoretical simulation based on a commercially available finite element methodology for comparison.

  17. Relativistic Band Calculation and the Optical Properties of Gold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, N Egede; Seraphin, B. O.

    1971-01-01

    The energy band structure of gold is calculated by the relativistic augmented-plane-wave (RAPW) method. A nonrelativistic calculation is also presented, and a comparison between this and the RAPW results demonstrates that the shifts and splittings due to relativistic effects are of the same order...... of magnitude as the gaps (approximately 1 eV). Various integrated functions, density of states, joint density of states, and energy distributions of joint density of states are derived from the RAPW calculation. These functions are used in an interpretation of photoemission and static reflectance measurements....... It is shown that the photoemission results are extremely well described in terms of a model assuming all transitions to be direct whereas a nondirect model fails. The ε2 profile calculated in a crude model assuming constant matrix elements matches well the corresponding experimental results. The calculated...

  18. One-Dimensional Anisotropic Band Gap Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The band gap structure of one-dimensional anisotropic photonic crystal has been studied by means of the transfer matrix formalism. From the analytic expressions and numeric calculations we see some general characteristics of the band gap structure of anisotropic photonic crystals, each band separates into two branches and the two branches react to polarization sensitively. In the practical case of oblique incidence, gaps move towards high frequency when the angle of incidence increases. Under some special conditions, the two branches become degenerate again.

  19. Quasiparticle Band Structure of BaS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Tie-Yu; CHEN De-Yan; HUANG Mei-Chun

    2006-01-01

    @@ We calculate the band structure of BaS using the local density approximation and the GW approximation (GWA),i.e. in combination of the Green function G and the screened Coulomb interaction W. The Ba 4d states are treated as valence states. We find that BaS is a direct band-gap semiconductor. The result shows that the GWA band gap (Eg-Gw = 3.921 eV) agrees excellently with the experimental result (Eg-EXPT = 3.88 eV or 3.9eV).

  20. Complex band structure and superlattice electronic states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulman, J. N.; McGill, T. C.

    1981-04-01

    The complex band structures of the bulk materials which constitute the alternating layer (001) semiconductor-semiconductor superlattice are investigated. The complex bands near the center of the Brillouin zone in the [001] direction are studied in detail. The decay lengths of superlattice states whose energies lie in the bulk band gaps of one of the semiconductors are determined from the dispersion curves of these bands for imaginary k-->. This method is applied using a tight-binding band-structure calculation to two superlattices: the AlAs-GaAs superlattice and the CdTe-HgTe superlattice. The decay lengths of AlAs-GaAs superlattice conduction-band minimum states are found to be substantially shorter than those for the CdTe-HgTe superlattice. These differences in the decay of the states in the two superlattices result in differences in the variation of the conduction-band effective masses with the thickness of the AlAs and CdTe layers. The conduction-band effective masses increase more rapidly with AlAs thickness in the AlAs-GaAs superlattice than with CdTe thickness in the CdTe-HgTe superlattice.

  1. Band structure of superdeformed bands in odd-A Hg nuclei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈星渠; 邢正

    1997-01-01

    Through particle-rotor model, band structure of superdeformed bands in odd-A Hg nuclei is analysed. An overall and excellent agreement between the calculated and observed kinematic and dynamic moments of inertia is obtained. The electromagnetic transition properties of SD bands can be used to identify the configuration with certainty.

  2. Real-structure effects: Band gaps of Mg_xZn_{1-x}O, Cd_xZn_{1-x}O, and n-type ZnO from ab-initio calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleife, A; Bechstedt, F

    2012-02-15

    Many-body perturbation theory is applied to compute the quasiparticle electronic structures and the optical-absorption spectra (including excitonic effects) for several transparent conducting oxides. We discuss HSE+G{sub 0}W{sub 0} results for band structures, fundamental band gaps, and effective electron masses of MgO, ZnO, CdO, SnO{sub 2}, SnO, In{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and SiO{sub 2}. The Bethe-Salpeter equation is solved to account for excitonic effects in the calculation of the frequency-dependent absorption coefficients. We show that the HSE+G{sub 0}W{sub 0} approach and the solution of the Bethe-Salpeter equation are very well-suited to describe the electronic structure and the optical properties of various transparent conducting oxides in good agreement with experiment.

  3. Quasiparticle band structure of antiferromagnetic Eu Te

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathi Jaya, S.; Nolting, W. [Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Institut fuer Physik, Lehrstuhl Festkoerpertheorie, Invalidenstrasse 110, D-10115 Berlin (Germany)

    1997-11-24

    The temperature-dependent electronic quasiparticle spectrum of the antiferromagnetic semiconductor Eu Te is derived by use of a combination of a many-body model procedure with a tight-binding-'linear muffin tin orbital' (TB - LMTO) band structure calculation. The central part is the d-f model for a single band electron ('test electron') being exchange coupled to the anti ferromagnetically ordered localized moments of the Eu ions. The single-electron Bloch energies of the d-f model are taken from a TB-LMTO calculation for paramagnetic Eu Te. The d-f model is evaluated by a recently proposed moment conserving Green function technique to get the temperature-dependent sublattice-quasiparticle band structure (S-QBS) and sublattice-quasiparticle density of states (S-QDOS) of the unoccupied 5 d-6 s energy bands. Unconventional correlation effects and the appearance of characteristic quasiparticles ('magnetic polarons') are worked out in detail. The temperature dependence of the S-QDOS and S-QBS is mainly provoked by the spectral weights of the energy dispersions. Minority- and majority-spin spectra coincide for all temperatures but with different densities of states. Upon cooling from T{sub N} to T = 0 K the lower conduction band edge exhibits a small blue shift of -0.025 eV in accordance with the experiment. Quasiparticle damping manifesting itself in a temperature-dependent broadening of the spectral density peaks arises from spin exchange processes between (5 d-6 s) conduction band electrons and localized 4 f moments. (author)

  4. The complex band structure for armchair graphene nanoribbons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Liu-Jun; Xia Tong-Sheng

    2010-01-01

    Using a tight binding transfer matrix method, we calculate the complex band structure of armchair graphene nanoribbons. The real part of the complex band structure calculated by the transfer matrix method fits well with the bulk band structure calculated by a Hermitian matrix. The complex band structure gives extra information on carrier's decay behaviour. The imaginary loop connects the conduction and valence band, and can profoundly affect the characteristics of nanoscale electronic device made with graphene nanoribbons. In this work, the complex band structure calculation includes not only the first nearest neighbour interaction, but also the effects of edge bond relaxation and the third nearest neighbour interaction. The band gap is classified into three classes. Due to the edge bond relaxation and the third nearest neighbour interaction term, it opens a band gap for N= 3M-1. The band gap is almost unchanged for N = 3M + 1, but decreased for N = 3M. The maximum imaginary wave vector length provides additional information about the electrical characteristics of graphene nmaoribbons, and is also classified into three classes.

  5. Elucidating the stop bands of structurally colored systems through recursion

    CERN Document Server

    Amir, Ariel

    2012-01-01

    Interference phenomena are the source of some of the spectacular colors of animals and plants in nature. In some of these systems, the physical structure consists of an ordered array of layers with alternating high and low refractive indices. This periodicity leads to an optical band structure that is analogous to the electronic band structure encountered in semiconductor physics; namely, specific bands of wavelengths (the stop bands) are perfectly reflected. Here, we present a minimal model for optical band structure in a periodic multilayer and solve it using recursion relations. We present experimental data for various beetles, whose optical structure resembles the proposed model. The stop bands emerge in the limit of an infinite number of layers by finding the fixed point of the recursive relations. In order for these to converge, an infinitesimal amount of absorption needs to be present, reminiscent of the regularization procedures commonly used in physics calculations. Thus, using only the phenomenon of...

  6. Electronic structure of NiO: Correlation and band effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Z. (Stanford Electronics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, California (USA)); List, R.S. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico (USA)); Dessau, D.S.; Wells, B.O. (Stanford Electronics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, California (USA)); Jepsen, O. (Max-Planck-Institute for Solid State Research, D-7000 Stuttgart 80 (Federal Republic of Germany)); Arko, A.J.; Barttlet, R. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico (USA)); Shih, C.K. (Department of Physics, University of Texas, Austin, Texas (USA)); Parmigiani, F. (IBM Research Division, Almaden Research Center, 650 Harry Road, San Jose, California (USA)); Huang, J.C.; Lindberg, P.A.P. (Stanford Electronics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, California (USA))

    1991-08-15

    We have performed angle-resolved-photoemission experiments and local-density-functional (LDA) band calculations on NiO to study correlation and band effects of this conceptually important compound. Our experimental result suggests a dual nature of the electronic structure of NiO. On the one hand, the LDA band calculation has some relevance to the electronic structure of NiO, and the inclusion of the antiferromagnetic order is essential. For the lower O 2{ital p} bands, the LDA calculation agrees almost perfectly with experimental energy positions and dispersion relations. On the other hand, discrepancies between the experiment and the LDA calculation do exist, especially for the Ni 3{ital d} bands and the O 2{ital p} bands that are heavily mixed with the Ni 3{ital d} bands. It appears that the main discrepancies between the experimental results and the LDA calculation are concentrated in the regions of the insulating gap and the valence-band satellite. In addition to these results, we also report the interesting angle and photon-energy dependence of the satellite emission. The above results show that the angle-resolved-photoemission studies can provide much additional information about the electronic structure of correlated materials like NiO.

  7. The calculation of band gap energy in zinc oxide films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Ali; Belahssen, Okba; Gareh, Salim; Benramache, Said

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the optical properties of undoped zinc oxide thin films as the n-type semiconductor; the thin films were deposited at different precursor molarities by ultrasonic spray and spray pyrolysis techniques. The thin films were deposited at different substrate temperatures ranging between 200 and 500 °C. In this paper, we present a new approach to control the optical gap energy of ZnO thin films by concentration of the ZnO solution and substrate temperatures from experimental data, which were published in international journals. The model proposed to calculate the band gap energy with the Urbach energy was investigated. The relation between the experimental data and theoretical calculation suggests that the band gap energies are predominantly estimated by the Urbach energies, film transparency, and concentration of the ZnO solution and substrate temperatures. The measurements by these proposal models are in qualitative agreements with the experimental data; the correlation coefficient values were varied in the range 0.96-0.99999, indicating high quality representation of data based on Equation (2), so that the relative errors of all calculation are smaller than 4%. Thus, one can suppose that the undoped ZnO thin films are chemically purer and have many fewer defects and less disorder owing to an almost complete chemical decomposition and contained higher optical band gap energy.

  8. ELECTRONIC BAND STRUCTURE OF THE ORDERED Zn0.5Cd0.5Se ALLOY CALCULATED BY THE SEMI-EMPIRICAL TIGHT-BINDING METHOD CONSIDERING SECOND-NEAREST NEIGHBOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Salcedo-Reyes

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Usually, semiconductor ternary alloys are studied via a pseudo-binary approach in which the semiconductoris described like a crystalline array were the cation/anion sub-lattice consist of a random distribution of thecationic/anionic atoms. However, in the case of reported III-V and II-VI artificial structures, in which anordering of either the cations or the anions of the respective fcc sub-lattice is involved, a pseudo-binaryapproach can no longer be employed, an atomistic point of view, which takes into account the localstructure, must be used to study the electronic and optical properties of these artificial semiconductoralloys. In particular, the ordered Zn0.5Cd0.5Se alloy has to be described as a crystal with the simple-tetragonalBravais lattice with a composition equal to the zincblende random ternary alloy. The change of symmetryproperties of the tetragonal alloy, in relation to the cubic alloy, results mainly in two effects: i reduction ofthe banned gap, and ii crystal field cleavage of the valence band maximum. In this work, the electronicband structure of the ordered Zn0.5Cd0.5Se alloy is calculated using a second nearest neighbor semi-empiricaltight binding method. Also, it is compared with the electronic band structure obtained by FP-LAPW (fullpotentiallinearized augmented-plane wave method.

  9. Electronic properties of cubic TaC{sub x}N{sub 1-x}: A comparative study using self-consistent cluster and ab initio band-structure calculations and X-ray spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavrentyev, A.A.; Gabrelian, B.V.; Vorzhev, V.B.; Nikiforov, I.Ya. [Department of Physics, Don State Technical University, Gagarin Sq. 1, Rostov-on-Don (Russian Federation); Khyzhun, O.Yu. [Frantsevych Institute for Problems of Materials Science, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 3 Krzhyzhanivsky Street, UA-03142 Kyiv (Ukraine)], E-mail: khyzhun@ipms.kiev.ua

    2009-03-20

    To investigate the influence of substitution of carbon atoms for nitrogen atoms in the cubic TaC{sub x}N{sub 1-x} carbonitrides, total and partial densities of states were calculated for TaC, TaC{sub 0.5}N{sub 0.5} and TaN compounds (NaCl structure) using the self-consistent cluster (with the FEFF8 code) and ab initio band-structure augmented plane wave + local orbitals (APW + LO) methods. In the present work a rather good agreement of the theoretical FEFF8 and APW + LO data for electronic properties of the TaC{sub x}N{sub 1-x} system under consideration was obtained. The results indicate that a strong hybridization of the Ta 5d- and C(N) 2p-like states is characteristic for the valence band of the TaC{sub x}N{sub 1-x} carbonitrides. When going from TaC to TaN through the TaC{sub 0.5}N{sub 0.5} carbonitride, the main maxima of curves representing total and partial Ta 5d densities of states shift in the direction opposite to the position of the Fermi level. In the above sequence of compounds, an increase of occupation of the near-Fermi sub-band formed by contributions of Ta 5d(t{sub 2g}) states has been detected. The theoretical FEFF8 and APW + LO results for the electronic structure of the TaC{sub x}N{sub 1-x} carbonitrides were found to be in excellent agreement with the experimental data derived in the present work employing X-ray photoelectron, emission and absorption spectroscopy methods for cubic TaC{sub 0.98}, TaC{sub 0.52}N{sub 0.49} and TaN{sub 0.97} compounds.

  10. Electronic Band Structure and Sub-band-gap Absorption of Nitrogen Hyperdoped Silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhen; Shao, Hezhu; Dong, Xiao; Li, Ning; Ning, Bo-Yuan; Ning, Xi-Jing; Zhao, Li; Zhuang, Jun

    2015-05-27

    We investigated the atomic geometry, electronic band structure, and optical absorption of nitrogen hyperdoped silicon based on first-principles calculations. The results show that all the paired nitrogen defects we studied do not introduce intermediate band, while most of single nitrogen defects can introduce intermediate band in the gap. Considering the stability of the single defects and the rapid resolidification following the laser melting process in our sample preparation method, we conclude that the substitutional nitrogen defect, whose fraction was tiny and could be neglected before, should have considerable fraction in the hyperdoped silicon and results in the visible sub-band-gap absorption as observed in the experiment. Furthermore, our calculations show that the substitutional nitrogen defect has good stability, which could be one of the reasons why the sub-band-gap absorptance remains almost unchanged after annealing.

  11. Structure of negative parity yrast bands in odd mass 125-131Ce nuclei

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arun Bharti; Suram Singh; S K Khosa

    2010-04-01

    The negative parity yrast bands of neutron-deficient 125-131Ce nuclei are studied by using the projected shell model approach. Energy levels, transition energies and (1)/(2) ratios are calculated and compared with the available experimental data. The calculations reproduce the band-head spins of negative parity yrast bands and indicate the multi-quasiparticle structure for these bands.

  12. Electronic structure of the valence band of II--VI wide band gap semiconductor interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    In this work we present the electronic band structure for (001)--CdTe interfaces with some other II--VI zinc blende semiconductors. We assume ideal interfaces. We use tight binding Hamiltonians with an orthogonal basis ($s p^3 s^*$). We make use of the well--known Surface Green's Function Matching method to calculate the interface band structure. In our calculation the dominion of the interface is constituted by four atomic layers. We consider here anion--anion interfaces only. We have includ...

  13. Band Gap Properties of Magnetoelectroelastic Grid Structures with Initial Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yi-Ze; LI Feng-Ming

    2012-01-01

    The propagation of elastic waves in magnetoelectroelastic grid structures is studied.Band gap properties are presented and the effects of the magnetoelectroelastic coupling and initial stress are considered. Numerical calculations are performed using the plane-wave expansion method.The results show that the band gap width can be tuned by the initial stress.It is hoped that our results will be helpful for designing acoustic filters with magnetoelectroelastic materials and grid structures.

  14. Electronic structures of TiO2-TCNE, -TCNQ, and -2,6-TCNAQ surface complexes studied by ionization potential measurements and DFT calculations: Mechanism of the shift of interfacial charge-transfer bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Jun-ichi; Hanaya, Minoru

    2016-06-01

    Interfacial charge-transfer (ICT) transitions between inorganic semiconductors and π-conjugated molecules allow direct charge separation without loss of energy. This feature is potentially useful for efficient photovoltaic conversions. Charge-transferred complexes of TiO2 nanoparticles with 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) and its analogues (TCNX) show strong ICT absorption in the visible region. The ICT band was reported to be significantly red-shifted with extension of the π-conjugated system of TCNX. In order to clarify the mechanism of the red-shift, in this work, we systematically study electronic structures of the TiO2-TCNX surface complexes (TCNX; TCNE, TCNQ, 2,6-TCNAQ) by ionization potential measurements and density functional theory (DFT) calculations.

  15. Effective band structure of random alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Voicu; Zunger, Alex

    2010-06-11

    Random substitutional A(x)B(1-x) alloys lack formal translational symmetry and thus cannot be described by the language of band-structure dispersion E(k(→)). Yet, many alloy experiments are interpreted phenomenologically precisely by constructs derived from wave vector k(→), e.g., effective masses or van Hove singularities. Here we use large supercells with randomly distributed A and B atoms, whereby many different local environments are allowed to coexist, and transform the eigenstates into an effective band structure (EBS) in the primitive cell using a spectral decomposition. The resulting EBS reveals the extent to which band characteristics are preserved or lost at different compositions, band indices, and k(→) points, showing in (In,Ga)N the rapid disintegration of the valence band Bloch character and in Ga(N,P) the appearance of a pinned impurity band.

  16. CdSe/CdTe interface band gaps and band offsets calculated using spin-orbit and self-energy corrections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, M. [Centro de Pesquisas Avancadas Wernher von Braun, Av. Alice de Castro P.N. Mattosinho 301, CEP 13098-392 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Ferreira, L.G. [Departamento de Fisica dos Materiais e Mecanica, Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, 05315-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Fonseca, L.R.C. [Center for Semiconductor Components, State University of Campinas, R. Pandia Calogeras 90, 13083-870 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Ramprasad, R. [Department of Chemical, Materials and Biomolecular Engineering, Institute of Materials Science, University of Connecticut, 97 North Eagleville Road, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States)

    2012-09-20

    We performed ab initio calculations of the electronic structures of bulk CdSe and CdTe, and their interface band alignments on the CdSe in-plane lattice parameters. For this, we employed the LDA-1/2 self-energy correction scheme to obtain corrected band gaps and band offsets. Our calculations include the spin-orbit effects for the bulk cases, which have shown to be of importance for the equilibrium systems and are possibly degraded in these strained semiconductors. Therefore, the SO showed reduced importance for the band alignment of this particular system. Moreover, the electronic structure calculated along the transition region across the CdSe/CdTe interface shows an interesting non-monotonic variation of the band gap in the range 0.8-1.8 eV, which may enhance the absorption of light for corresponding frequencies at the interface between these two materials in photovoltaic applications.

  17. Unfolding the band structure of non-crystalline photonic band gap materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsitrin, Samuel; Williamson, Eric Paul; Amoah, Timothy; Nahal, Geev; Chan, Ho Leung; Florescu, Marian; Man, Weining

    2015-08-20

    Non-crystalline photonic band gap (PBG) materials have received increasing attention, and sizeable PBGs have been reported in quasi-crystalline structures and, more recently, in disordered structures. Band structure calculations for periodic structures produce accurate dispersion relations, which determine group velocities, dispersion, density of states and iso-frequency surfaces, and are used to predict a wide-range of optical phenomena including light propagation, excited-state decay rates, temporal broadening or compression of ultrashort pulses and complex refraction phenomena. However, band calculations for non-periodic structures employ large super-cells of hundreds to thousands building blocks, and provide little useful information other than the PBG central frequency and width. Using stereolithography, we construct cm-scale disordered PBG materials and perform microwave transmission measurements, as well as finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations. The photonic dispersion relations are reconstructed from the measured and simulated phase data. Our results demonstrate the existence of sizeable PBGs in these disordered structures and provide detailed information of the effective band diagrams, dispersion relation, iso-frequency contours, and their angular dependence. Slow light phenomena are also observed in these structures near gap frequencies. This study introduces a powerful tool to investigate photonic properties of non-crystalline structures and provides important effective dispersion information, otherwise difficult to obtain.

  18. Unfolding the band structure of GaAsBi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maspero, R.; Sweeney, S. J.; Florescu, Marian

    2017-02-01

    Typical supercell approaches used to investigate the electronic properties of GaAs(1-x)Bi(x) produce highly accurate, but folded, band structures. Using a highly optimized algorithm, we unfold the band structure to an approximate E≤ft(\\mathbf{k}\\right) relation associated with an effective Brillouin zone. The dispersion relations we generate correlate strongly with experimental results, confirming that a regime of band gap energy greater than the spin-orbit-splitting energy is reached at around 10% bismuth fraction. We also demonstrate the effectiveness of the unfolding algorithm throughout the Brillouin zone (BZ), which is key to enabling transition rate calculations, such as Auger recombination rates. Finally, we show the effect of disorder on the effective masses and identify approximate values for the effective mass of the conduction band and valence bands for bismuth concentrations from 0-12%.

  19. First-principle band calculation of ruthenium for various phases

    CERN Document Server

    Watanabe, S; Kai, T; Shiiki, K

    2000-01-01

    The total energies and the magnetic moments of Ru for HCP, BCC, FCC, BCT structures were calculated by using a first-principle full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave (FLAPW) method based on the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). HCP has the lowest energy among the structures calculated, which agrees with the experimental result that HCP is the equilibrium phase of Ru. The total energy of BCT Ru has the local minimum at c/a=sq root 2 (FCC) with a=5.13 au, c=7.25 au and c/a=0.83 with a=6.15 au, c=5.11 au. It is pointed out that these phases are possibly metastable. The BCC structure, which corresponds to BCT with a=c=5.78 au, is unstable because it is at a saddle point of the total energy. BCT Ru of c/a<1 has a magnetic moment at the stable volume.

  20. Automated effective band structures for defective and mismatched supercells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brommer, Peter; Quigley, David

    2014-12-01

    In plane-wave density functional theory codes, defects and incommensurate structures are usually represented in supercells. However, interpretation of E versus k band structures is most effective within the primitive cell, where comparison to ideal structures and spectroscopy experiments are most natural. Popescu and Zunger recently described a method to derive effective band structures (EBS) from supercell calculations in the context of random alloys. In this paper, we present bs_sc2pc, an implementation of this method in the CASTEP code, which generates an EBS using the structural data of the supercell and the underlying primitive cell with symmetry considerations handled automatically. We demonstrate the functionality of our implementation in three test cases illustrating the efficacy of this scheme for capturing the effect of vacancies, substitutions and lattice mismatch on effective primitive cell band structures.

  1. Phase separation in iron chalcogenide superconductor Rb0.8+xFe1.6+ySe2 as seen by Raman light scattering and band structure calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashkevich, Yu.; Gnezdilov, V.; Lemmens, P.; Shevtsova, T.; Gusev, A.; Lamonova, K.; Wulferding, D.; Gnatchenko, S.; Pomjakushina, E.; Conder, K.

    2016-06-01

    We report Raman light scattering in the phase separated superconducting single crystal Rb0.77Fe1.61Se2 with Tc = 32 K over a wide temperature region 3-500 K. The observed phonon lines from the majority vacancy ordered Rb2Fe4Se5 (245) antiferromagnetic phase with TN = 525 K demonstrate modest anomalies in the frequency, intensity and halfwidth at the superconductive phase transition. We identify phonon lines from the minority compressed RbδFe2Se2 (122) conductive phase. The superconducting gap with d x 2 - y 2 symmetry has been detected in our spectra. In the range 0-600 cm-1 we observe a weak but highly polarized B1g-type background which becomes well-structured upon cooling. A possible magnetic or multiorbital origin of this background is discussed. We argue that the phase separation in M0.8+xFe1.6+ySe2 is of pure magnetic origin. It occurs below the Néel temperature when the magnetic moment of iron reaches a critical value. We state that there is a spacer between the majority 245 and minority 122 phases. Using ab initio spin-polarized band structure calculations we demonstrate that the compressed vacancy ordered Rb2Fe4Se5 phase can be conductive and therefore may serve as a protective interface spacer between the purely metallic RbδFe2Se2 phase and the insulating Rb2Fe4Se5 phase providing percolative Josephson-junction like superconductivity all throughout of Rb0.8+xFe1.6+ySe2. Our lattice dynamics calculations show significant differences in the phonon spectra of the conductive and insulating Rb2Fe4Se5 phases.

  2. Band Structure and Fermi-Surface Properties of Ordered beta-Brass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, Hans Lomholt; Christensen, N. E.

    1973-01-01

    The band structure of ordered β-brass (β′-CuZn) has been calculated throughout the Brillouin zone by the augmented-plane-wave method. The present band model differs from previous calculations with respect to the position and width of the Cu 3d band. The derived dielectric function ε2(ω) and the p...

  3. Band Structure in the Doubly Magic Nucleus 56Ni

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Bao-Guo; GUO Hong-Chao

    2004-01-01

    @@ Band structures near yrast lines of the Z = N doubly magic nucleus 56Ni are investigated with the configurationdependent cranked Nilsson-Strutinsky approach. The observed deformed bands are confirmed as highly deformed and their properties are explained theoretically. The calculated transition quadrupole moments Qt, ~ 1.7 eb at low spin as well as the kinematic and dynamic moments of inertia J1) and J(2) for configurations of interest are found to be generally in good agreement with the observed results. Two terminating states at 20+ and 29- for the two observed bands and other terminations in 56Ni are also predicted. It is found that the configuration-dependent cranked Nilsson-Strutinsky approach is better in the description of nuclear properties and band structures at high spin than other models.

  4. Maximizing band gaps in plate structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkjær, Søren; Sigmund, Ole; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    2006-01-01

    Band gaps, i.e., frequency ranges in which waves cannot propagate, can be found in elastic structures for which there is a certain periodic modulation of the material properties or structure. In this paper, we maximize the band gap size for bending waves in a Mindlin plate. We analyze an infinite...... periodic plate using Bloch theory, which conveniently reduces the maximization problem to that of a single base cell. Secondly, we construct a finite periodic plate using a number of the optimized base cells in a postprocessed version. The dynamic properties of the finite plate are investigated...

  5. Bulk band structure of Bi2Te3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michiardi, Matteo; Aguilera, Irene; Bianchi, Marco;

    2014-01-01

    -electron full-potential linearized augmented-plane-wave (FLAPW) formalism, fully taking into account spin-orbit coupling. Quasiparticle effects produce significant changes in the band structure of Bi2Te3 when compared to LDA. Experimental and calculated results are compared in the spectral regions where...... distinct differences between the LDA and GW results are present. Overall a superior agreement with GW is found, highlighting the importance of many-body effects in the band structure of this family of topological insulators....

  6. Complex band structure of topological insulator Bi2Se3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, J.; Li, S.; Dang, X.; Burton, J. D.; Tsymbal, E. Y.; Velev, J. P.

    2016-10-01

    Topological insulators are very interesting from a fundamental point of view, and their unique properties may be useful for electronic and spintronic device applications. From the point of view of applications it is important to understand the decay behavior of carriers injected in the band gap of the topological insulator, which is determined by its complex band structure (CBS). Using first-principles calculations, we investigate the dispersion and symmetry of the complex bands of Bi2Se3 family of three-dimensional topological insulators. We compare the CBS of a band insulator and a topological insulator and follow the CBS evolution in both when the spin-orbit interaction is turned on. We find significant differences in the CBS linked to the topological band structure. In particular, our results demonstrate that the evanescent states in Bi2Se3 are non-trivially complex, i.e. contain both the real and imaginary contributions. This explains quantitatively the oscillatory behavior of the band gap obtained from Bi2Se3 (0 0 0 1) slab calculations.

  7. Band structure engineering in organic semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarze, Martin; Tress, Wolfgang; Beyer, Beatrice; Gao, Feng; Scholz, Reinhard; Poelking, Carl; Ortstein, Katrin; Günther, Alrun A.; Kasemann, Daniel; Andrienko, Denis; Leo, Karl

    2016-06-01

    A key breakthrough in modern electronics was the introduction of band structure engineering, the design of almost arbitrary electronic potential structures by alloying different semiconductors to continuously tune the band gap and band-edge energies. Implementation of this approach in organic semiconductors has been hindered by strong localization of the electronic states in these materials. We show that the influence of so far largely ignored long-range Coulomb interactions provides a workaround. Photoelectron spectroscopy confirms that the ionization energies of crystalline organic semiconductors can be continuously tuned over a wide range by blending them with their halogenated derivatives. Correspondingly, the photovoltaic gap and open-circuit voltage of organic solar cells can be continuously tuned by the blending ratio of these donors.

  8. Production of S-band Accelerating Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Piel, C; Vogel, H; Vom Stein, P

    2004-01-01

    ACCEL currently produces accelerating structures for several scientific laboratories. Multi-cell cavities at S-band frequencies are required for the projects CLIC-driver-linac, DLS and ASP pre-injector linac and the MAMI-C microtron. Based on those projects differences and similarities in design, production technologies and requirements will be addressed.

  9. Midfrequency band dynamics of large space structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppolino, Robert N.; Adams, Douglas S.; Levine, Marie B.

    2004-09-01

    High and low intensity dynamic environments experienced by a spacecraft during launch and on-orbit operations, respectively, induce structural loads and motions, which are difficult to reliably predict. Structural dynamics in low- and mid-frequency bands are sensitive to component interface uncertainty and non-linearity as evidenced in laboratory testing and flight operations. Analytical tools for prediction of linear system response are not necessarily adequate for reliable prediction of mid-frequency band dynamics and analysis of measured laboratory and flight data. A new MATLAB toolbox, designed to address the key challenges of mid-frequency band dynamics, is introduced in this paper. Finite-element models of major subassemblies are defined following rational frequency-wavelength guidelines. For computational efficiency, these subassemblies are described as linear, component mode models. The complete structural system model is composed of component mode subassemblies and linear or non-linear joint descriptions. Computation and display of structural dynamic responses are accomplished employing well-established, stable numerical methods, modern signal processing procedures and descriptive graphical tools. Parametric sensitivity and Monte-Carlo based system identification tools are used to reconcile models with experimental data and investigate the effects of uncertainties. Models and dynamic responses are exported for employment in applications, such as detailed structural integrity and mechanical-optical-control performance analyses.

  10. Band offset of the ZnO/Cu2O heterojunction from ab initio calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemzemi, M.; Alaya, S.

    2013-12-01

    The ZnO/Cu2O system has known a recent revival of interest in solar cells for its potential use as a heterojunction able to highly perform under visible light. In this work, we are interested on the characterization of the interface through nanoscale modelization based on ab initio (Density Functional Theory (DFT), Local Density Approximation (LDA), Generalized Gradient Approximation (GGA-PBE), and Pseudopotential (PP)). This work aims to build a supercell containing a heterojunction ZnO/Cu2O and study the structural properties and the discontinuity of the valence band (band offset) from a semiconductor to another. We built a zinc oxide in the wurtzite structure along the [0 0 0 1] on which we placed the copper oxide in the hexagonal structure (CdI2-type). We choose the method of Van de Walle and Martin to calculate the energy offset. This approach fits well with the DFT. Our calculations of the band offset gave us a value that corresponds to other experimental and theoretical values.

  11. Photonic crystal digital alloys and their band structure properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeongkug; Kim, Dong-Uk; Jeon, Heonsu

    2011-09-26

    We investigated semi-disordered photonic crystals (PCs), digital alloys, and made thorough comparisons with their counterparts, random alloys. A set of diamond lattice PC digital alloys operating in a microwave regime were prepared by alternately stacking two kinds of sub-PC systems composed of alumina and silica spheres of the same size. Measured transmission spectra as well as calculated band structures revealed that when the digital alloy period is short, band-gaps of the digital alloys are practically the same as those of the random alloys. This study indicates that the concept of digital alloys holds for photons in PCs as well.

  12. Band structure analysis in SiGe nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amato, Michele [' Centro S3' , CNR-Istituto Nanoscienze, via Campi 213/A, 41100 Modena (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze e Metodi dell' Ingegneria, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, via Amendola 2 Pad. Morselli, I-42100 Reggio Emilia (Italy); Palummo, Maurizia [European Theoretical Spectroscopy Facility (ETSF) (Italy); CNR-INFM-SMC, Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma, ' Tor Vergata' , via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Ossicini, Stefano, E-mail: stefano.ossicini@unimore.it [' Centro S3' , CNR-Istituto Nanoscienze, via Campi 213/A, 41100 Modena (Italy) and Dipartimento di Scienze e Metodi dell' Ingegneria, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, via Amendola 2 Pad. Morselli, I-42100 Reggio Emilia (Italy) and European Theoretical Spectroscopy Facility - ETSF (Italy) and Centro Interdipartimentale ' En and Tech' , Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, via Amendola 2 Pad. Morselli, I-42100 Reggio Emilia (Italy)

    2012-06-05

    One of the main challenges for Silicon-Germanium nanowires (SiGe NWs) electronics is the possibility to modulate and engine their electronic properties in an easy way, in order to obtain a material with the desired electronic features. Diameter and composition constitute two crucial ways for the modification of the band gap and of the band structure of SiGe NWs. Within the framework of density functional theory we present results of ab initio calculations regarding the band structure dependence of SiGe NWs on diameter and composition. We point out the main differences with respect to the case of pure Si and Ge wires and we discuss the particular features of SiGe NWs that are useful for future technological applications.

  13. Nonequilibrium band structure of nano-devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackenbuchner, S.; Sabathil, M.; Majewski, J. A.; Zandler, G.; Vogl, P.; Beham, E.; Zrenner, A.; Lugli, P.

    2002-03-01

    A method is developed for calculating, in a consistent manner, the realistic electronic structure of three-dimensional (3-D) heterostructure quantum devices under bias and its current density close to equilibrium. The nonequilibrium electronic structure is characterized by local Fermi levels that are calculated self-consistently. We have applied this scheme to predict asymmetric Stark shifts and tunneling of confined electrons and holes in single-dot GaAs/InGaAs photodiodes.

  14. Complex banded structures in directional solidification processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzhenevskii, A L; Rozas, R E; Horbach, J

    2016-01-27

    A combination of theory and numerical simulation is used to investigate impurity superstructures that form in rapid directional solidification (RDS) processes in the presence of a temperature gradient and a pulling velocity with an oscillatory component. Based on a capillary wave model, we show that the RDS processes are associated with a rich morphology of banded structures, including frequency locking and the transition to chaos.

  15. Banded electron structures in the plasmasphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, W.J.; Rubin, A.G.; Hardy, D.A.; Holeman, E.G.

    1995-05-01

    The low-energy plasma analyzer on CRRES has detected significant fluxes of 10-eV to 30-keV electrons trapped on plasmaspheric field lines. On energy versus time spectrograms these electrons appear as banded structures that can span the 2 < L < 6 range of magnetic shells. The authors present an example of banded electron structures, encountered in the nightside plasmasphere during the magnetically quiet January 30, 1991. Empirical analysis suggests that two clouds of low energy electrons were injected from the plasma sheet to L < 4 on January 26 and 27 while the convective electric field was elevated. The energies of electrons in the first cloud were greater than those in the second. DMSP F8 measurements show that after the second injection, the polar cap potential rapidly decreased from >50 to <20 kY. Subsequent encounters with the lower energy cloud on alternating CRRES orbits over the next 2 days showed a progressive, earthward movement of the electrons, inner boundary. Whistler and electron cyclotron harmonic emissions accompanied the most intense manifestations of cloud electrons. The simplest explanation of these measurements is that after initial injection, the AIfven boundary moved Outward, leaving the cloud electrons on closed drift paths. Subsequent fluctuations of the convective electric field penetrated the plasmasphere, transporting cloud elements inward. The magnetic shell distribution of electron temperatures in one of the banded structures suggests that radiative energy losses may be comparable in magnitude to gains due to adiabatic compression.

  16. A novel eigenvalue metho d for calculating the band structure of lossy and disp ersive photonic crystals%有耗色散光子晶体带隙结构的本征值分析新方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王辉; 沙威; 黄志祥; 吴先良; 沈晶

    2014-01-01

    A novel eigenvalue method is proposed to calculate the band structure of lossy and dispersive photonic crystal (PC). Using an idea from quantum transport problem, a standard linear eigenvalue equation rather than a nonlinear eigenvalue equation is obtained by a rigorous and artful transformation. And the physical parameters of lossy and dispersive PC are obtained by solving the linear eigenvalue equation using finite-difference frequency-domain (FDFD) method. Compared with other methods, the proposed method has great features, such as clear concept, simple calculation, less computing time and storage. A dielectric PC is simulated by the proposed method, and the results accord well with those from the traditional FDFD method, which verifies the validity of the proposed method. Moreover, the dispersion relation of the lossy and dispersive PC is calculated by the proposed method, and the surface plasmon frequency is obtained. Furthermore, the influence of loss on the dispersion relation and eigenmode field distribution is studied. The results provide some theoretical guidance for studying the lossy and dispersive PC.%为计算有耗色散光子晶体的带隙结构,提出了新的本征值分析方法。该方法借助于量子输运问题中的思想,在本征值方程的推导过程中进行了巧妙的变换,将复杂的非线性本征值问题转化为线性本征值问题;并利用频域有限差分(FDFD)方法直接求解线性本征值方程,最终得到有耗色散光子晶体结构的相关物理参数。与其他方法相比,该方法的最大特点为概念清晰、计算简便,最终节省了计算时间及所需内存量。利用该方法,对介质光子晶体结构进行模拟,结果与传统FDFD方法符合较好,从而验证了方法的有效性。此外,利用所提方法计算了有耗色散光子晶体结构的色散曲线,得到了表面等离子波激发的区域,进一步讨论了损耗对其色散曲线及本征模场

  17. Band Structure and Optical Properties of Ordered AuCu3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, Hans Lomholt; Lengkeek, H. P.

    1979-01-01

    The optical spectra of ordered AuCu3 have been measured at low temperatures by a direct ellipsometric technique. We find several structural elements above the absorption edge as well as in the infrared. The measured spectra are interpreted in terms of the interband absorption calculated from an ab...... initio band structure obtained by the relativistic linear muffin-tin orbitals method. The band calculation reveals that ordered AuCu3 has distinct copper and gold d bands positioned in and hybridizing with an s band common to copper and gold. The calculated state density is found to be in good agreement...

  18. The band-gap enhanced photovoltaic structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessler, Nir

    2016-05-01

    We critically examine the recently suggested structure that was postulated to potentially add 50% to the photo-conversion efficiency of organic solar cells. We find that the structure could be realized using stepwise increase in the gap as long as the steps are not above 0.1 eV. We also show that the charge extraction is not compromised due to an interplay between the contact's space charge and the energy level modification, which result in a flat energy band at the extracting contact.

  19. Calculation of effective band gap narrowing in heavily-doped and compensated silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polsky, B. S.; Rimshans, J. S.

    1991-06-01

    The effective band gap narrowing in heavily-doped and compensated silicon for different values of impurity concentration is calculated within the semiclassical approximation. The calculated and known measured data are compared.

  20. Theoretical study on the band structure and optical properties of 4H-SiC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Peng-Shou; Xie Chang-Kun; Pan Hai-Bin; Xu Fa-Qiang

    2004-01-01

    We have studied the band structure and optical properties of 4H-SiC by using a full potential linearized augmented plane waves (FPLAPW) method. The density of states (DOS) and band structure are presented. The imaginary part of the dielectric function has been obtained directly from the band structure calculation. With band gap correction, the real part of the dielectric function has been derived from the imaginary part by the Kramers-Kronig (KK) dispersion relationship. The values of reflectivity for normal incidence as a function of photon energy have also been calculated.We found the theoretical results are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  1. Global nuclear-structure calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, P.; Nix, J.R.

    1990-04-20

    The revival of interest in nuclear ground-state octupole deformations that occurred in the 1980's was stimulated by observations in 1980 of particularly large deviations between calculated and experimental masses in the Ra region, in a global calculation of nuclear ground-state masses. By minimizing the total potential energy with respect to octupole shape degrees of freedom in addition to {epsilon}{sub 2} and {epsilon}{sub 4} used originally, a vastly improved agreement between calculated and experimental masses was obtained. To study the global behavior and interrelationships between other nuclear properties, we calculate nuclear ground-state masses, spins, pairing gaps and {Beta}-decay and half-lives and compare the results to experimental qualities. The calculations are based on the macroscopic-microscopic approach, with the microscopic contributions calculated in a folded-Yukawa single-particle potential.

  2. Self-consistent treatment of v-groove quantum wire band structure in no parabolic approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crnjanski Jasna V.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The self-consistent no parabolic calculation of a V-groove-quantum-wire (VQWR band structure is presented. A comparison with the parabolic flat-band model of VQWR shows that both, the self-consistency and the nonparabolicity shift sub band edges, in some cases even in the opposite directions. These shifts indicate that for an accurate description of inter sub band absorption, both effects have to be taken into the account.

  3. Hubbard-U band-structure methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albers, R.C.; Christensen, Niels Egede; Svane, Axel

    2009-01-01

    -body techniques such as using dynamical mean-field theory. We review the physics underlying these approaches and discuss their strengths and weaknesses in terms of the larger issues of electronic structure that they involve. In particular, we argue that the common assumptions made to justify such calculations...

  4. From lattice Hamiltonians to tunable band structures by lithographic design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadjine, Athmane; Allan, Guy; Delerue, Christophe

    2016-08-01

    Recently, new materials exhibiting exotic band structures characterized by Dirac cones, nontrivial flat bands, and band crossing points have been proposed on the basis of effective two-dimensional lattice Hamiltonians. Here, we show using atomistic tight-binding calculations that these theoretical predictions could be experimentally realized in the conduction band of superlattices nanolithographed in III-V and II-VI semiconductor ultrathin films. The lithographed patterns consist of periodic lattices of etched cylindrical holes that form potential barriers for the electrons in the quantum well. In the case of honeycomb lattices, the conduction minibands of the resulting artificial graphene host several Dirac cones and nontrivial flat bands. Similar features, but organized in different ways, in energy or in k -space are found in kagome, distorted honeycomb, and Lieb superlattices. Dirac cones extending over tens of meV could be obtained in superlattices with reasonable sizes of the lithographic patterns, for instance in InAs/AlSb heterostructures. Bilayer artificial graphene could be also realized by lithography of a double quantum-well heterostructure. These new materials should be interesting for the experimental exploration of Dirac-based quantum systems, for both fundamental and applied physics.

  5. Electronic Structure of Silicon Nanowires Matrix from Ab Initio Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monastyrskii, Liubomyr S; Boyko, Yaroslav V; Sokolovskii, Bogdan S; Potashnyk, Vasylyna Ya

    2016-12-01

    An investigation of the model of porous silicon in the form of periodic set of silicon nanowires has been carried out. The electronic energy structure was studied using a first-principle band method-the method of pseudopotentials (ultrasoft potentials in the basis of plane waves) and linearized mode of the method of combined pseudopotentials. Due to the use of hybrid exchange-correlation potentials (B3LYP), the quantitative agreement of the calculated value of band gap in the bulk material with experimental data is achieved. The obtained results show that passivation of dangling bonds with hydrogen atoms leads to substantial transformation of electronic energy structure. At complete passivation of the dangling silicon bonds by hydrogen atoms, the band gap value takes the magnitude which substantially exceeds that for bulk silicon. The incomplete passivation gives rise to opposite effect when the band gap value decreases down the semimetallic range.

  6. Tuning the band gap in hybrid tin iodide perovskite semiconductors using structural templating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, Jeremy L; Martin, James D; Mitzi, David B

    2005-06-27

    Structural distortions within the extensive family of organic/inorganic hybrid tin iodide perovskite semiconductors are correlated with their experimental exciton energies and calculated band gaps. The extent of the in- and out-of-plane angular distortion of the SnI4(2-) perovskite sheets is largely determined by the relative charge density and steric requirements of the organic cations. Variation of the in-plane Sn-I-Sn bond angle was demonstrated to have the greatest impact on the tuning of the band gap, and the equatorial Sn-I bond distances have a significant secondary influence. Extended Hückel tight-binding band calculations are employed to decipher the crystal orbital origins of the structural effects that fine-tune the band structure. The calculations suggest that it may be possible to tune the band gap by as much as 1 eV using the templating influence of the organic cation.

  7. A Theoretical Structure of High School Concert Band Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergee, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    This study used exploratory (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to verify a theoretical structure for high school concert band performance and to test that structure for viability, generality, and invariance. A total of 101 university students enrolled in two different bands rated two high school band performances (a "first"…

  8. Calculation of IR-spectra of structural fragments of lignins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derkacheva, O. Yu.; Ishankhodzhaeva, M. M.

    2016-12-01

    To study structure of softwood lignins the experimental and theoretical IR-spectra in middle IR-diapason were analyzed. To interpret these data the quantum chemical calculations of IR-spectra of general dimmer fragments of softwood lignins by method of density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP) with 6-31G(d,p) as basis set were carried out. These calculations showed that frequencies of normal vibrations of fragment with β-alkyl-aryl linkage are close to the experimental values of the IR absorption bands of lignin, and infrared spectrum of this structure is similar to the experimental spectrum of lignin. The calculations with accounting for the solvent showed a strong increase in the intensity of the majority of the bands and the solvent effect on the frequencies of vibrations.

  9. Theoretical Calculation of Rotational Bands of 179Pt in the Particle-Triaxial-Rotor Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Guo-Jie; SONG Hui-Chao; LIU Yu-Xin

    2005-01-01

    Theoretical calculations have been performed for nucleus 179Pt in the particle-triaxial-rotor model with variable moment of inertia. The obtained energy spectrum agrees with the experimental data quite well. The calculated results indicate that the bands 1/2- and 7/2+ are triaxial deformation bands and originate mainly from the v[521]1/2- and v[633]7/2+ configurations respectively.

  10. Electronic band structure of calcium selenide under pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louail, L. [Faculty of Sciences, Department of Physics, University of Setif, Setif (Algeria)], E-mail: llouail@yahoo.fr; Haddadi, K.; Maouche, D.; Ali Sahraoui, F.; Hachemi, A. [Faculty of Sciences, Department of Physics, University of Setif, Setif (Algeria)

    2008-09-01

    Energy band structures under pressure of calcium selenide (CaSe) were calculated using the plane-wave pseudopotential code CASTEP. The results show a progressive transition from a direct to an indirect gap semiconductor at a pressure of about 2 GPa, in the B1 phase. An insulator-conductor change was also observed at 70 GPa, in the B2 phase. Concerning CaSe, these two results could not be evidenced in previous literature. Hence, our work is a first attempt in this direction.

  11. Crossing points in the electronic band structure of vanadium oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keshav N. Shrivastava

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The electronic band structures of several models of vanadium oxide are calculated. In the models 1-3, every vanadium atom is connected to 4 oxygen atoms and every oxygen atom is connected to 4 vanadium atoms. In model 1, a=b=c 2.3574 Å; in model 2, a= 4.7148 Å, b= 2.3574 Å and c= 2.3574 Å; and in model 3, a= 4.7148 Å, b= 2.3574 Å and c= 4.7148 Å. In the models 4-6, every vanadium atom is connected to 4 oxygen atoms and every oxygen atom is connected to 2 vanadium atoms. In model 4, a=b= 4.551 Å and c= 2.851 Å; in model 5, a=b=c= 3.468 Å; and in model 6, a=b=c= 3.171 Å. We have searched for a crossing point in the band structure of all the models. In model 1 there is a point at which five bands appear to meet but the gap is 7.3 meV. In model 2 there is a crossing point between G and F points and there is a point between F and Q with the gap ≈ 3.6608 meV. In model 3, the gap is very small, ~ 10-5 eV. In model 4, the gap is 5.25 meV. In model 5, the gap between Z and G points is 2.035 meV, and in model 6 the gap at Z point is 4.3175 meV. The crossing point in model 2 looks like one line is bent so that the supersymmetry is broken. When pseudopotentials are replaced by a full band calculation, the crossing point changes into a gap of 2.72 x 10-4 eV.

  12. Electronic structure calculations on helical conducting polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripoll, Juan D; Serna, Andrei; Guerra, Doris; Restrepo, Albeiro

    2010-10-21

    We present a study of the electronic structure and derived properties of polyfurane (PFu), polypyrrol (PPy), and polythiophene (PTh). Two spatial arrangements are considered: trans chain (tc-PFu, tc-PPy, tc-PTh) and cis α-helical (α-PFu, α-PPy, α-PTh). Even at the small sizes considered here, helical conformations appear to be stable. Band gaps of pure, undoped oligomers fall into the semiconductor range. Density of states (DOS) analysis suggest dense valence and conduction bands. Bond length alternation analysis predicts almost complete delocalization of the π clouds in all spatial arrangements. Doping with electron donors or electron-withdrawing impurities reduces all band gaps close to the metallic regime in addition to increasing the DOS for the valence and conduction bands.

  13. Calculation of strange star structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GH Bordbar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have considered that the strange-star consists of quark matter from its center to surface. For quark matter, we have used two models, the MIT bag model and string-flip like model. In the bag model, the energy of the system has been considered the kinetic energy of the particles of system in addition to a constant B. We have considered two states for B, one of them is constant and the other one is density dependent. The second state has been obtained from the recent Cern data from quark-geleon plasma formation. In string-flip like model, the energy of the particles of the system has been obtained from the Schrodinger equation, where the Hamiltonian has been considered the sum of kinetic and potential energies. The potential in Hamiltonian is the general potential which depends on density that is the block potential. In the String-flip like model, the block potential is linear or square functions of the relative distance between two quarks. We have also obtained the equation of state of quark matter for all considered cases. Finally, we have computed the structure of the quark star using our equations of state.

  14. Electronic band structure and optical properties of the cubic, Sc, Y and La hydride systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterman, D.J.

    1980-01-01

    Electronic band structure calculations are used to interpret the optical spectra of the cubic Sc, Y and La hydride systems. Self-consistent band calculations of ScH/sub 2/ and YH/sub 2/ were carried out. The respective joint densities of states are computed and compared to the dielectric functions determined from the optical measurements. Additional calculations were performed in which the Fermi level or band gap energies are rigidly shifted by a small energy increment. These calculations are then used to simulate the derivative structure in thermomodulation spectra and relate the origin of experimental interband features to the calculated energy bands. While good systematic agreement is obtained for several spectral features, the origin of low-energy interband transitions in YH/sub 2/ cannot be explained by these calculated bands. A lattice-size-dependent premature occupation of octahedral sites by hydrogen atoms in the fcc metal lattice is suggested to account for this discrepancy. Various non-self-consistent calculations are used to examine the effect of such a premature occupation. Measurements of the optical absorptivity of LaH/sub x/ with 1.6 < x < 2.9 are presented which, as expected, indicate a more premature occupation of the octahedral sites in the larger LaH/sub 2/ lattice. These experimental results also suggest that, in contrast to recent calculations, LaH/sub 3/ is a small-band-gap semiconductor.

  15. Band structure of fcc-C60 solid state crystal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Javanbakht

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We studied the architecture of the C60 cluster to drive its atomic positions which can be seen at room temperature. We then used the obtained carbon positions as a basis set for the fcc structure to construct the fcc-C60 compound. Self consistent calculations were performed based on the density functional theory (DFT utilizing the accurate WIEN2K code to solve the single-particle Kohen-Sham equation within the augmented plane waves plus local orbital (APW+lo method. The cohesive energy has been found to be 1.537 eV for the fcc-C60 . The calculated small cohesive energy that results from the weak Van der Waals-London interactions among a C60 cluster with its nearest neighbors is in good agreement with experiment. The electron densities of states (DOSs were calculated for a C60 macromolecule as well as the fcc-C60 compound and the results were compared with each other. The band gap from DOS calculations has been found to be 0.7 eV. Band structures were also calculated within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA. The band structure calculation results in 1.04 eV for the direct band gap. Two kinds of σ and π bonds were determined in the band structure. Our results are in good agreement with experiment and pseudopotential calculations.

  16. Projected shell model study of band structure of 90Nb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Singh, Dhanvir; Gupta, Anuradha; Singh, Suram; Bharti, Arun

    2016-05-01

    A systematic study of two-quasiparticle bands of the odd-odd 90Nb nucleus is performed using the projected shell model approach. Yrast band with some other bands have been obtained and back-bending in moment of inertia has also been calculated and compared with the available experimental. On comparing the available experimental data, it is found that the treatment with PSM provides a satisfactory explanation of the available data.

  17. Atomic Structure Calculations for Neutral Oxygen

    OpenAIRE

    Norah Alonizan; Rabia Qindeel; Nabil Ben Nessib

    2016-01-01

    Energy levels and oscillator strengths for neutral oxygen have been calculated using the Cowan (CW), SUPERSTRUCTURE (SS), and AUTOSTRUCTURE (AS) atomic structure codes. The results obtained with these atomic codes have been compared with MCHF calculations and experimental values from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) database.

  18. Emergence of rotational bands in ab initio no-core configuration interaction calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Caprio, M A; Vary, J P; Smith, R

    2015-01-01

    Rotational bands have been observed to emerge in ab initio no-core configuration interaction (NCCI) calculations for p-shell nuclei, as evidenced by rotational patterns for excitation energies, electromagnetic moments, and electromagnetic transitions. We investigate the ab initio emergence of nuclear rotation in the Be isotopes, focusing on 9Be for illustration, and make use of basis extrapolation methods to obtain ab initio predictions of rotational band parameters for comparison with experiment. We find robust signatures for rotational motion, which reproduce both qualitative and quantitative features of the experimentally observed bands.

  19. Photonic band gaps in materials with triply periodic surfaces and related tubular structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michielsen, K; Kole, JS

    2003-01-01

    We calculate the photonic band gap of triply periodic bicontinuous cubic structures and of tubular structures constructed from the skeletal graphs of triply periodic minimal surfaces. The effect of the symmetry and topology of the periodic dielectric structures on the existence and the characteristi

  20. Acoustic band pinning in the phononic crystal plates of anti-symmetric structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Chen; Zhu Xue-Feng; Chen Qian; Yuan Ying; Liang Bin; Cheng Jian-Chun

    2011-01-01

    Acoustic bands are studied numerically for a Lamb wave propagating in an anti-symmetric structure of a onedimensional periodic plate by using the method of supercell plane-wave expansion.The results show that all the bands are pinned in pairs at the Brillouin zone boundary as long as the anti-symmetry remains and acoustic band gaps (ABGs) only appear between certain bands.In order to reveal the relationship between the band pinning and the anti-symmetry,the method of eigenmode analysis is introduced to calculate the displacement fields of different plate structures.Further,the method of harmony response analysis is employed to calculate the reference spectra to verify the accuracy of numerical calculations of acoustic band map,and both the locations and widths of ABGs in the acoustic band map are in good agreement with those of the reference spectra.The investigations show that the pinning effect is very sensitive to the anti-symmetry of periodic plates,and by introducing different types of breakages,more ABGs or narrow pass bands will appear,which is meaningful in band gap engineering.

  1. High-Pressure Crystal Structure, Lattice Vibrations, and Band Structure of BiSbO4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errandonea, Daniel; Muñoz, Alfonso; Rodríguez-Hernández, Placida; Gomis, Oscar; Achary, S Nagabhusan; Popescu, Catalin; Patwe, Sadeque J; Tyagi, Avesh K

    2016-05-16

    The high-pressure crystal structure, lattice-vibrations, and electronic band structure of BiSbO4 were studied by ab initio simulations. We also performed Raman spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, and diffuse-reflectance measurements, as well as synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction. High-pressure X-ray diffraction measurements show that the crystal structure of BiSbO4 remains stable up to at least 70 GPa, unlike other known MTO4-type ternary oxides. These experiments also give information on the pressure dependence of the unit-cell parameters. Calculations properly describe the crystal structure of BiSbO4 and the changes induced by pressure on it. They also predict a possible high-pressure phase. A room-temperature pressure-volume equation of state is determined, and the effect of pressure on the coordination polyhedron of Bi and Sb is discussed. Raman- and infrared-active phonons were measured and calculated. In particular, calculations provide assignments for all the vibrational modes as well as their pressure dependence. In addition, the band structure and electronic density of states under pressure were also calculated. The calculations combined with the optical measurements allow us to conclude that BiSbO4 is an indirect-gap semiconductor, with an electronic band gap of 2.9(1) eV. Finally, the isothermal compressibility tensor for BiSbO4 is given at 1.8 GPa. The experimental (theoretical) data revealed that the direction of maximum compressibility is in the (0 1 0) plane at ∼33° (38°) to the c-axis and 47° (42°) to the a-axis. The reliability of the reported results is supported by the consistency between experiments and calculations.

  2. Bi-directional evolutionary optimization for photonic band gap structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Fei [Centre for Innovative Structures and Materials, School of Civil, Environmental and Chemical Engineering, RMIT University, GPO Box 2476, Melbourne, VIC 3001 (Australia); School of Civil Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410075 (China); Huang, Xiaodong, E-mail: huang.xiaodong@rmit.edu.au [Centre for Innovative Structures and Materials, School of Civil, Environmental and Chemical Engineering, RMIT University, GPO Box 2476, Melbourne, VIC 3001 (Australia); Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Vehicle Body Design & Manufacture, Hunan University, Changsha, 410082 (China); Jia, Baohua [Centre for Micro-Photonics, Faculty of Engineering & Industrial Science, Swinburne University of Technology, PO Box 218, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia)

    2015-12-01

    Toward an efficient and easy-implement optimization for photonic band gap structures, this paper extends the bi-directional evolutionary structural optimization (BESO) method for maximizing photonic band gaps. Photonic crystals are assumed to be periodically composed of two dielectric materials with the different permittivity. Based on the finite element analysis and sensitivity analysis, BESO starts from a simple initial design without any band gap and gradually re-distributes dielectric materials within the unit cell so that the resulting photonic crystal possesses a maximum band gap between two specified adjacent bands. Numerical examples demonstrated the proposed optimization algorithm can successfully obtain the band gaps from the first to the tenth band for both transverse magnetic and electric polarizations. Some optimized photonic crystals exhibit novel patterns markedly different from traditional designs of photonic crystals.

  3. Time Dependent Density Functional Theory Calculations of Large Compact PAH Cations: Implications for the Diffuse Interstellar Bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisman, Jennifer L.; Lee, Timothy J.; Salama, Farid; Gordon-Head, Martin; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the electronic absorption spectra of several maximally pericondensed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon radical cations with time dependent density functional theory calculations. We find interesting trends in the vertical excitation energies and oscillator strengths for this series containing pyrene through circumcoronene, the largest species containing more than 50 carbon atoms. We discuss the implications of these new results for the size and structure distribution of the diffuse interstellar band carriers.

  4. Determination of conduction and valence band electronic structure of anatase and rutile TiO2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jakub Szlachetko; Katarzyna Michalow-Mauke; Maarten Nachtegaal; Jacinto Sá

    2014-03-01

    Electronic structures of rutile and anatase polymorph of TiO2 were determined by resonant inelastic X-ray scattering measurements and FEFF9.0 calculations. Difference between crystalline structures led to shifts in the rutile Ti -band to lower energy with respect to anatase, i.e., decrease in band gap. Anatase possesses localized states located in the band gap where electrons can be trapped, which are almost absent in the rutile structure. This could well explain the reported longer lifetimes in anatase. It was revealed that HR-XAS is insufficient to study in-depth unoccupied states of investigated materials because it overlooks the shallow traps.

  5. B3LYP, BLYP and PBE DFT band structures of the nucleotide base stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekeres, Zs; Bogár, F.; Ladik, J.

    DFT crystal orbital (band structure) calculations have been performed for the nucleotide base stacks of cytosine, thymine, adenine, and guanine arranged in DNA B geometry. The band structures obtained with PBE, BLYP, and B3LYP functionals are presented and compared to other related experimental and theoretical results. The influence of the quality of the basis set on the fundamental gap values was also investigated using Clementi's double ζ, 6-31G and 6-31G* basis sets.

  6. Photonic band structures of two-dimensional photonic crystals with deformed lattices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Xiang-Hua; Zheng Wan-Hua; Ma Xiao-Tao; Ren Gang; Xia Jian-Bai

    2005-01-01

    Using the plane-wave expansion method, we have calculated and analysed the changes of photonic band structures arising from two kinds of deformed lattices, including the stretching and shrinking of lattices. The square lattice with square air holes and the triangular lattice with circular air holes are both studied. Calculated results show that the change of lattice size in some special ranges can enlarge the band gap, which depends strongly on the filling factor of air holes in photonic crystals; and besides, the asymmetric band edges will appear with the broken symmetry of lattices.

  7. Calculation of temperature distribution in adiabatic shear band based on gradient-dependent plasticity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王学滨

    2004-01-01

    A method for calculation of temperature distribution in adiabatic shear band is proposed in terms of gradient-dependent plasticity where the characteristic length describes the interactions and interplaying among microstructures. First, the increment of the plastic shear strain distribution in adiabatic shear band is obtained based on gradient-dependent plasticity. Then, the plastic work distribution is derived according to the current flow shear stress and the obtained increment of plastic shear strain distribution. In the light of the well-known assumption that 90% of plastic work is converted into the heat resulting in increase in temperature in adiabatic shear band, the increment of the temperature distribution is presented. Next, the average temperature increment in the shear band is calculated to compute the change in flow shear stress due to the thermal softening effect. After the actual flow shear stress considering the thermal softening effect is obtained according to the Johnson-Cook constitutive relation, the increment of the plastic shear strain distribution, the plastic work and the temperature in the next time step are recalculated until the total time is consumed. Summing the temperature distribution leads to rise in the total temperature distribution. The present calculated maximum temperature in adiabatic shear band in titanium agrees with the experimental observations. Moreover, the temperature profiles for different flow shear stresses are qualitatively consistent with experimental and numerical results. Effects of some related parameters on the temperature distribution are also predicted.

  8. Band structures in the nematic elastomers phononic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuai; Liu, Ying; Liang, Tianshu

    2017-02-01

    As one kind of new intelligent materials, nematic elastomers (NEs) represent an exciting physical system that combines the local orientational symmetry breaking and the entropic rubber elasticity, producing a number of unique physical phenomena. In this paper, the potential application of NEs in the band tuning is explored. The band structures in two kinds of NE phononic crystals (PCs) are investigated. Through changing NE intrinsic parameters, the influence of the porosity, director rotation and relaxation on the band structures in NE PCs are analyzed. This work is a meaningful try for application of NEs in acoustic field and proposes a new intelligent strategy in band turning.

  9. Broadening of effective photonic band gaps in biological chiral structures: From intrinsic narrow band gaps to broad band reflection spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, W. E.; Hernández-Jiménez, M.; Libby, E.; Azofeifa, D. E.; Solis, Á.; Barboza-Aguilar, C.

    2015-09-01

    Under normal illumination with non-polarized light, reflection spectra of the cuticle of golden-like and red Chrysina aurigans scarabs show a structured broad band of left-handed circularly polarized light. The polarization of the reflected light is attributed to a Bouligand-type left-handed chiral structure found through the scarab's cuticle. By considering these twisted structures as one-dimensional photonic crystals, a novel approach is developed from the dispersion relation of circularly polarized electromagnetic waves traveling through chiral media, to show how the broad band characterizing these spectra arises from an intrinsic narrow photonic band gap whose spectral position moves through visible and near-infrared wavelengths.

  10. Band structures in Sierpinski triangle fractal porous phononic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Kai; Liu, Ying, E-mail: yliu5@bjtu.edu.cn; Liang, Tianshu

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, the band structures in Sierpinski triangle fractal porous phononic crystals (FPPCs) are studied with the aim to clarify the effect of fractal hierarchy on the band structures. Firstly, one kind of FPPCs based on Sierpinski triangle routine is proposed. Then the influence of the porosity on the elastic wave dispersion in Sierpinski triangle FPPCs is investigated. The sensitivity of the band structures to the fractal hierarchy is discussed in detail. The results show that the increase of the hierarchy increases the sensitivity of ABG (Absolute band gap) central frequency to the porosity. But further increase of the fractal hierarchy weakens this sensitivity. On the same hierarchy, wider ABGs could be opened in Sierpinski equilateral triangle FPPC; whilst, a lower ABG could be opened at lower porosity in Sierpinski right-angled isosceles FPPCs. These results will provide a meaningful guidance in tuning band structures in porous phononic crystals by fractal design.

  11. Atomic structure of amorphous shear bands in boron carbide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, K Madhav; Liu, P; Hirata, A; Fujita, T; Chen, M W

    2013-01-01

    Amorphous shear bands are the main deformation and failure mode of super-hard boron carbide subjected to shock loading and high pressures at room temperature. Nevertheless, the formation mechanisms of the amorphous shear bands remain a long-standing scientific curiosity mainly because of the lack of experimental structure information of the disordered shear bands, comprising light elements of carbon and boron only. Here we report the atomic structure of the amorphous shear bands in boron carbide characterized by state-of-the-art aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy. Distorted icosahedra, displaced from the crystalline matrix, were observed in nano-sized amorphous bands that produce dislocation-like local shear strains. These experimental results provide direct experimental evidence that the formation of amorphous shear bands in boron carbide results from the disassembly of the icosahedra, driven by shear stresses.

  12. Detailed Study of the TE band structure of two dimensional metallic photonic crystals with square symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedghi, Aliasghar; Valiaghaie, Soma; Soufiani, Ahad Rounaghi

    2014-10-01

    By virtue of the efficiency of the Dirichlet-to-Neumann map method, we have calculated, for H-polarization (TE mode), the band structure of 2D photonic crystals with a square lattice composed of metallic rods embedded in an air background. The rod in the unit cell is chosen to be circular in shape. Here, from a practical point of view, in order to obtain maximum band gaps, we have studied the band structure as a function of the size of the rods. We have also studied the flat bands appearing in the band structures and have shown that for frequencies around the surface plasmon frequency, the modes are highly localized at the interface between the metallic rods and the air background.

  13. Obtaining the band structure of a complicated photonic crystal by linear operations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴良; 叶卓; 何赛灵

    2003-01-01

    Absolute band gaps can be created by lifting the degeneracy in the bands of a photonic crystal.To calculate the band structure of a complicated photonic crystal generated by e.g.symmetry breaking,general forms of all possible linear operations are presented in terms of matrices and a procedure to combine these operations is given.Other forms of linear operations(such as the addition,subtraction,and translation transforms) are also presented to obtain an explicit expression for the Fourier coefficient of the dielectric function in the plane-wave expansion method.With the present method,band structures for various complicated photonic crystals(related through these linear operations) can be obtained easily and quickly.As a numerical example,a large absolute band gap for a complicated photonic crystal structure of GaAs is found in the high region of normalized frequency.

  14. Detailed study of the TE band structure of two dimensional metallic photonic crystals with square symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedghi, Aliasghar [Islamic Azad University, Shabestar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Valiaghaie, Soma [Islamic Azad University, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Soufiani, Ahad Rounaghi [Islamic Azad University, Sufian (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    By virtue of the efficiency of the Dirichlet-to-Neumann map method, we have calculated, for H-polarization (TE mode), the band structure of 2D photonic crystals with a square lattice composed of metallic rods embedded in an air background. The rod in the unit cell is chosen to be circular in shape. Here, from a practical point of view, in order to obtain maximum band gaps, we have studied the band structure as a function of the size of the rods. We have also studied the flat bands appearing in the band structures and have shown that for frequencies around the surface plasmon frequency, the modes are highly localized at the interface between the metallic rods and the air background.

  15. Band structure approach to the resonant x-ray scattering

    OpenAIRE

    Elfimov, I. S.; Skorikov, N. A.; Anisimov, V. I.; Sawatzky, G.A.

    2001-01-01

    We study the resonance behaviour of the forbidden 600 and 222 x-ray Bragg peaks in Ge using LDA band structure methods. These Bragg peaks remain forbidden in the resonant dipole scattering approximation even taking into account the non local nature of the band states. However they become allowed at resonance if the eigenstates of the unoccupied conduction band involve a hybridization of p like and d like atomic states. We show that the energy dependence of the resonant behaviour, including th...

  16. Ab initio electronic band structure study of III-VI layered semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olguín, Daniel; Rubio-Ponce, Alberto; Cantarero, Andrés

    2013-08-01

    We present a total energy study of the electronic properties of the rhombohedral γ-InSe, hexagonal ɛ-GaSe, and monoclinic GaTe layered compounds. The calculations have been done using the full potential linear augmented plane wave method, including spin-orbit interaction. The calculated valence bands of the three compounds compare well with angle resolved photoemission measurements and a discussion of the small discrepancies found has been given. The present calculations are also compared with recent and previous band structure calculations available in the literature for the three compounds. Finally, in order to improve the calculated band gap value we have used the recently proposed modified Becke-Johnson correction for the exchange-correlation potential.

  17. Electronic Band Structures of TiO2 with Heavy Nitrogen Doping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Jinbo; LI Qi; LIANG Wei; SHANG Jianku

    2008-01-01

    The first-principles density-functional calculation was conducted to investigate the electronic band structures of titanium dioxide with heavy nitrogen doping (TiO2-xNx).The calculation results indicate that when x≤0.25,isolated N 2p states appear above the valence-band maximum of TiO2 without a band-gap narrowing between O 2p and Ti 3d states.When x≥0.50,an obvious band gap narrowing between O 2p and Ti 3d states was observed along with the existence of isolated N 2p states above the valence-band of TiO2,indicating that the mechanism proposed by Asahi et al operates under heavy nitrogen doping condition.

  18. Band gap calculation and photo catalytic activity of rare earths doped rutile TiO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BIAN Liang; SONG Mianxin; ZHOU Tianliang; ZHAO Xiaoyong; DAI Qingqing

    2009-01-01

    The density of states (DOS) of 17 kinds of rare earths (RE) doped futile TiO2 was by using fast-principles density functional the-ory (DFF) calculation. The band gap widths of RE doped rutile TiO2 were important factors for altering their absorbing wavelengths. The results show that RE ions could obviously reduce the band gap widths and form of energy of rutile TiO2 except Lu, Y, Yb and Sc, and the order of absorbing wavelengths of RE doped rutile TiO2 were the same as that of the results of calculation. The ratio of RE dopant was an-other important factor for the photo catalytic activity of RE doped rutile TiO2, and there was an optimal ratio of dopant. There was a constant for predigesting the calculation difficulty, respectively, which were 0.5mol.% and 100 mol-1 under supposition. The band gap widths of RE doped rutile TiO2 by DFT calculation were much larger than that by experiment. Finally, by transferring the calculation values to experiment values, it could be found and predicted that RE enlarged obviously the absorbing wavelengh of futile TiO2. In addition, the degree of RE ions edging out the Ti atom using the parameters of RE elements was computed.

  19. Electronic structure of heavy fermions: narrow temperature-independent bands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arko, A.J.; Joyce, J.J.; Andrews, A.B.; Thompson, J.D.; Smith, J.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Moshopoulou, E.; Fisk, Z. [NHMFL, Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Menovsky, A.A. [Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands). Natuurkundig Lab.; Canfield, P.C.; Olson, C.G. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Ames Lab.

    1997-02-01

    The electronic structure of both Ce and U heavy fermions appears to consist of extremely narrow temperature independent bands. There is no evidence from ARPES data reported here for a collective phenomenon normally referred to as the Kondo resonance. In uranium compounds a small dispersion of the bands is easily measurable. (orig.).

  20. The electronic structure of heavy fermions: Narrow temperature independent bands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arko, A.J.; Joyce, J.J.; Smith, J.L.; Andrews, A.B. [and others

    1996-08-01

    The electronic structure of both Ce and U heavy fermions appears to consist of extremely narrow temperature independent bands. There is no evidence from photoemission for a collective phenomenon normally referred to as the Kondo resonance. In uranium compounds a small dispersion of the bands is easily measurable.

  1. Probing the Spin-Polarized Electronic Band Structure in Monolayer Transition Metal Dichalcogenides by Optical Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zefang; Zhao, Liang; Mak, Kin Fai; Shan, Jie

    2017-02-01

    We study the electronic band structure in the K/K' valleys of the Brillouin zone of monolayer WSe2 and MoSe2 by optical reflection and photoluminescence spectroscopy on dual-gated field-effect devices. Our experiment reveals the distinct spin polarization in the conduction bands of these compounds by a systematic study of the doping dependence of the A and B excitonic resonances. Electrons in the highest-energy valence band and the lowest-energy conduction band have antiparallel spins in monolayer WSe2, and parallel spins in monolayer MoSe2. The spin splitting is determined to be hundreds of meV for the valence bands and tens of meV for the conduction bands, which are in good agreement with first principles calculations. These values also suggest that both n- and p-type WSe2 and MoSe2 can be relevant for spin- and valley-based applications

  2. Multigrid Methods in Electronic Structure Calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Briggs, E L; Bernholc, J

    1996-01-01

    We describe a set of techniques for performing large scale ab initio calculations using multigrid accelerations and a real-space grid as a basis. The multigrid methods provide effective convergence acceleration and preconditioning on all length scales, thereby permitting efficient calculations for ill-conditioned systems with long length scales or high energy cut-offs. We discuss specific implementations of multigrid and real-space algorithms for electronic structure calculations, including an efficient multigrid-accelerated solver for Kohn-Sham equations, compact yet accurate discretization schemes for the Kohn-Sham and Poisson equations, optimized pseudo\\-potentials for real-space calculations, efficacious computation of ionic forces, and a complex-wavefunction implementation for arbitrary sampling of the Brillioun zone. A particular strength of a real-space multigrid approach is its ready adaptability to massively parallel computer architectures, and we present an implementation for the Cray-T3D with essen...

  3. Block Tridiagonal Matrices in Electronic Structure Calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Dan Erik

    This thesis focuses on some of the numerical aspects of the treatment of the electronic structure problem, in particular that of determining the ground state electronic density for the non–equilibrium Green’s function formulation of two–probe systems and the calculation of transmission in the Lan...

  4. Structure of nearly degenerate dipole bands in {sup 108}Ag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sethi, J. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Colaba, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Palit, R., E-mail: palit@tifr.res.in [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Colaba, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Saha, S.; Trivedi, T. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Colaba, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Bhat, G.H.; Sheikh, J.A. [Department of Physics, University of Kashmir, Srinagar 190 006 (India); Datta, P. [Ananda Mohan College, Kolkata 700009 (India); Carroll, J.J. [US Army Research Laboratory, Adelphi, MD 20783 (United States); Chattopadhyay, S. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata 700064 (India); Donthi, R. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Colaba, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Garg, U. [University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Jadhav, S.; Jain, H.C. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Colaba, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Karamian, S. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Kumar, S. [University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Litz, M.S. [US Army Research Laboratory, Adelphi, MD 20783 (United States); Mehta, D. [Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014 (India); Naidu, B.S. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Colaba, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Naik, Z. [Sambalpur University, Sambalpur 143005 (India); Sihotra, S. [Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014 (India); and others

    2013-08-09

    The high spin negative parity states of {sup 108}Ag have been investigated with the {sup 11}B + {sup 100}Mo reaction at 39 MeV beam energy using the INGA facility at TIFR, Mumbai. From the γ–γ coincidence analysis, an excited negative parity band has been established and found to be nearly degenerate with the ground state band. The spin and parity of the levels are assigned using angular correlation and polarization measurements. This pair of degenerate bands in {sup 108}Ag is studied using the recently developed microscopic triaxial projected shell model approach. The observed energy levels and the ratio of the electromagnetic transition probabilities of these bands in this isotope are well reproduced by the present model. Further, it is shown that the partner band has a different quasiparticle structure as compared to the yrast band.

  5. First-principle study of energy band structure of armchair graphene nanoribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fei; Guo, Zhankui; Xu, Kewei; Chu, Paul K.

    2012-07-01

    First-principle calculation is carried out to study the energy band structure of armchair graphene nanoribbons (AGNRs). Hydrogen passivation is found to be crucial to convert the indirect band gaps into direct ones as a result of enhanced interactions between electrons and nuclei at the edge boundaries, as evidenced from the shortened bond length as well as the increased differential charge density. Ribbon width usually leads to the oscillatory variation of band gaps due to quantum confinement no matter hydrogen passivated or not. Mechanical strain may change the crystal symmetry, reduce the overlapping integral of C-C atoms, and hence modify the band gap further, which depends on the specific ribbon width sensitively. In practical applications, those effects will be hybridized to determine the energy band structure and subsequently the electronic properties of graphene. The results can provide insights into the design of carbon-based devices.

  6. Quantum chemistry, band structures and polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Jean-Marie

    2012-06-01

    A short review of the long way from the first calculations on polyenes after the second world war to the recent electronic devices like Organic Light Emitting Diodes or Photovoltaic Cells is given. It shows how quantum chemical methods on one side and synthesis or experiments have (or should have) interacted as incentives to new methods and technologies.

  7. Band Structure in Yang-Mills Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Bachas, Constantin

    2016-01-01

    We show how Yang-Mills theory on $S^3\\times R$ can exhibit a spectrum with continuous bands if coupled either to a topological 3-form gauge field, or to a dynamical axion with heavy Peccei-Quinn scale. The basic mechanism consists in associating winding histories to a bosonic zero mode whose role is to convert a circle in configuration space into a helix. The zero mode is, respectively, the holonomy of the 3-form field or the axion momentum. In these models different theta sectors coexist but are not mixed by local operators. Our analysis sheds light on, and extends Seiberg's proposal for modifying the topological sums in quantum field theories. It refutes a recent claim that $B+L$ violation at LHC is unsuppressed.

  8. Coexisting Honeycomb and Kagome Characteristics in the Electronic Band Structure of Molecular Graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paavilainen, Sami; Ropo, Matti; Nieminen, Jouko; Akola, Jaakko; Räsänen, Esa

    2016-06-08

    We uncover the electronic structure of molecular graphene produced by adsorbed CO molecules on a copper (111) surface by means of first-principles calculations. Our results show that the band structure is fundamentally different from that of conventional graphene, and the unique features of the electronic states arise from coexisting honeycomb and Kagome symmetries. Furthermore, the Dirac cone does not appear at the K-point but at the Γ-point in the reciprocal space and is accompanied by a third, almost flat band. Calculations of the surface structure with Kekulé distortion show a gap opening at the Dirac point in agreement with experiments. Simple tight-binding models are used to support the first-principles results and to explain the physical characteristics behind the electronic band structures.

  9. Band structure characteristics of T-square fractal phononic crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xiao-Jian; Fan You-Hua

    2013-01-01

    The T-square fractal two-dimensional phononic crystal model is presented in this article.A comprehensive study is performed for the Bragg scattering and locally resonant fractal phononic crystal.We find that the band structures of the fractal and non-fractal phononic crystals at the same filling ratio are quite different through using the finite element method.The fractal design has an important impact on the band structures of the two-dimensional phononic crystals.

  10. Optimum design of band-gap beam structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olhoff, Niels; Niu, Bin; Cheng, Gengdong

    2012-01-01

    -sectional area. To study the band-gap for travelling waves, a repeated inner segment of the optimized beams is analyzed using Floquet theory and the waveguide finite element (WFE) method. Finally, the frequency response is computed for the optimized beams when these are subjected to an external time......The design of band-gap structures receives increasing attention for many applications in mitigation of undesirable vibration and noise emission levels. A band-gap structure usually consists of a periodic distribution of elastic materials or segments, where the propagation of waves is impeded...

  11. Band-structure engineering in conjugated 2D polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutzler, Rico

    2016-10-26

    Conjugated polymers find widespread application in (opto)electronic devices, sensing, and as catalysts. Their common one-dimensional structure can be extended into the second dimension to create conjugated planar sheets of covalently linked molecules. Extending π-conjugation into the second dimension unlocks a new class of semiconductive polymers which as a consequence of their unique electronic properties can find usability in numerous applications. In this article the theoretical band structures of a set of conjugated 2D polymers are compared and information on the important characteristics band gap and valence/conduction band dispersion is extracted. The great variance in these characteristics within the investigated set suggests 2D polymers as exciting materials in which band-structure engineering can be used to tailor sheet-like organic materials with desired electronic properties.

  12. Photonic band structure of ZnO photonic crystal slab laser

    CERN Document Server

    Yamilov, A; Cao, H

    2005-01-01

    We recently reported on the first realization of ultraviolet photonic crystal laser based on zinc oxide [Appl. Phys. Lett. {\\bf 85}, 3657 (2004)]. Here we present the details of structural design and its optimization. We develop a computational super-cell technique, that allows a straightforward calculation of the photonic band structure of ZnO photonic crystal slab on sapphire substrate. We find that despite of small index contrast between the substrate and the photonic layer, the low order eigenmodes have predominantly transverse-electric (TE) or transverse-magnetic (TM) polarization. Because emission from ZnO thin film shows strong TE preference, we are able to limit our consideration to TE bands, spectrum of which can possess a complete photonic band gap with an appropriate choice of structure parameters. We demonstrate that the geometry of the system may be optimized so that a sizable band gap is achieved.

  13. Valence and conduction band structure of the quasi-two-dimensional semiconductor Sn S2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racke, David A.; Neupane, Mahesh R.; Monti, Oliver L. A.

    2016-02-01

    We present the momentum-resolved photoemission spectroscopy of both the valence and the conduction band region in the quasi-two-dimensional van der Waals-layered indirect band gap semiconductor Sn S2 . Using a combination of angle-resolved ultraviolet photoemission and angle-resolved two-photon photoemission (AR-2PPE) spectroscopy, we characterize the band structure of bulk Sn S2 . Comparison with density functional theory calculations shows excellent quantitative agreement in the valence band region and reveals several localized bands that likely originate from defects such as sulfur vacancies. Evidence for a moderate density of defects is also observed by AR-2PPE in the conduction band region, leading to localized bands not present in the computational results. The energetic structure and dispersion of the conduction bands is captured well by the computational treatment, with some quantitative discrepancies remaining. Our results provide a broader understanding of the electronic structure of Sn S2 in particular and van der Waals-layered semiconductors in general.

  14. Pathway to Oxide Photovoltaics via Band-Structure Engineering of SnO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Haowei; Bikowski, Andre; Zakutayev, Andriy; Lany, Stephan

    2016-10-01

    All-oxide photovoltaics could open rapidly scalable manufacturing routes, if only oxide materials with suitable electronic and optical properties were developed. SnO has exceptional doping and transport properties among oxides, but suffers from a strongly indirect band gap. Here, we address this shortcoming by band-structure engineering through isovalent but heterostructural alloying with divalent cations (Mg, Ca, Sr, and Zn). Using first-principles calculations, we show that suitable band gaps and optical properties close to that of direct semiconductors are achievable, while the comparatively small effective masses are preserved in the alloys. Initial thin film synthesis and characterization support the feasibility of the approach.

  15. Ab initio calculations of electronic structure of anatase TiO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Qiang; Cao Hong-Hong

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the self-consistent calculations on the electronic structure of anatase phase of TiO2. The calculations were performed using the full potential-linearized augmented plane wave method (FP-LAPW)in the framework of the density functional theory (DFT) with the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The fully optimized structure, obtained by minimizing the total energy and atomic forces, is in good agreement with experiment.We also calculated the band structure and the density of states. In particular, the calculated band structure prefers an indirect transition between wlence and conduction bands of anatase TiO2, which may be helpful for clarifying the ambiguity in other theoretical works.

  16. Correlated Band Structure of a Transition Metal Oxide ZnO Obtained from a Many-Body Wave Function Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochi, Masayuki; Arita, Ryotaro; Tsuneyuki, Shinji

    2017-01-01

    Obtaining accurate band structures of correlated solids has been one of the most important and challenging problems in first-principles electronic structure calculation. There have been promising recent active developments of wave function theory for condensed matter, but its application to band-structure calculation remains computationally expensive. In this Letter, we report the first application of the biorthogonal transcorrelated (BITC) method: self-consistent, free from adjustable parameters, and systematically improvable many-body wave function theory, to solid-state calculations with d electrons: wurtzite ZnO. We find that the BITC band structure better reproduces the experimental values of the gaps between the bands with different characters than several other conventional methods. This study paves the way for reliable first-principles calculations of the properties of strongly correlated materials.

  17. Millimeter-wave waveguiding using photonic band structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliyahu, Danny; Sadovnik, Lev S.; Manasson, Vladimir A.

    2000-07-01

    Current trends in device miniaturization and integration, especially in the development of microwave monolithic integrated circuits, calls for flexible, arbitrarily shaped and curved interconnects. Standard dielectric waveguides and microstrip lines are subject to prohibitive losses and their functionality is limited because of their unflexible structures. The problem is addressed by confining the wave- guiding path in a substrate with a Photonic Band Gap structure in a manner that will result in the guided mode being localized within the band gap. Two devices implementing Photonic Band Structures for millimeter waves confinement are presented. The first waveguide is a linear defect in triangular lattice created in a silicon slab (TE mode). The structure consists of parallel air holes of circular cross sections. The silicon was laser drilled to create the 2D crystal. The second device consists of alumina rods arranged in a triangular lattice, surrounded by air and sandwiched between two parallel metal plates (TM mode). Electromagnetic wave (W-band) confinement was obtained in both devices for straight and bent waveguides. Three branch waveguides (intersecting line defects) was studied as well. Measurements confirmed the lowloss waveguide confinement property of the utilizing Photonic Band Gap structure. This structure can find applications in power combiner/splitter and other millimeter wave devices.

  18. Model calculation of N2 Vegard-Kaplan band emissions in Martian dayglow

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Sonal Kumar

    2011-01-01

    A model for N2 Vegard-Kaplan (VK) band (A^3Sigma_u^+ - X^1Sigma_g^+) emissions in Martian dayglow has been developed to explain the recent observations made by the Spectroscopy for Investigation of Characteristics of the Atmosphere of Mars (SPICAM) ultraviolet spectrograph aboard Mars Express. Steady state photoelectron fluxes and volume excitation rates have been calculated using the analytical yield spectra technique. Since interstate cascading is important for triplet states of N2, the population of any given level of N2 triplet states is calculated under statistical equilibrium considering direct excitation, cascading, and quenching effects. Relative population of all vibrational levels of each triplet state is calculated in the model. Line of sight intensities and height-integrated overhead intensities have been calculated for VK, first positive (B^3Pi_g - A^3Sigma_u^+), second positive (C^3Pi_u - B^3Pi_g), and Wu-Benesch (W^3Delta_u - B^3Pi_g) bands of N2. A reduction in the N2 density by a factor of 3 ...

  19. Berry phase and band structure analysis of the Weyl semimetal NbP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergelius, Philip; Gooth, Johannes; Bäßler, Svenja; Zierold, Robert; Wiegand, Christoph; Niemann, Anna; Reith, Heiko; Shekhar, Chandra; Felser, Claudia; Yan, Binghai; Nielsch, Kornelius

    2016-01-01

    Weyl semimetals are often considered the 3D-analogon of graphene or topological insulators. The evaluation of quantum oscillations in these systems remains challenging because there are often multiple conduction bands. We observe de Haas-van Alphen oscillations with several frequencies in a single crystal of the Weyl semimetal niobium phosphide. For each fundamental crystal axis, we can fit the raw data to a superposition of sinusoidal functions, which enables us to calculate the characteristic parameters of all individual bulk conduction bands using Fourier transform with an analysis of the temperature and magnetic field-dependent oscillation amplitude decay. Our experimental results indicate that the band structure consists of Dirac bands with low cyclotron mass, a non-trivial Berry phase and parabolic bands with a higher effective mass and trivial Berry phase. PMID:27667203

  20. First Principle Calculation for the Electronic Bands and Absorption of CdTe1-xSbx

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Long; HUANG Zheng; MA Huan-feng; QIANG Wei-rong; PAN Min

    2010-01-01

    The lattice parameters for the derivatives of cadmium telluride, CdTe1-xSbx, with the zinc blend crystal structure are calculated using the generalized gradient approximation method; which is based on the density functional theory (DFT). The effects of antimony (Sb) on the lattices, electric bands, electronic state density, absorption spectroscopy, and band gap between the valence band maximum (VBM) and the conduction band minimum (CBM) of CdTe1-xSbx are discussed. The results show that the antimonic atoms in the lattice are advantageous in promoting the hole concentration and conductivities of CdTe1-xSbx. The increase of the Sb content in CdTe1-xSbx reduces the interaction among Cd, Te, and Sb; resulting in a decreased binding energy within CdTe1-xSbx as well as an increase in the electronic gap. Also discussed are the mechanics for the lattice phase change of CdTe1-xSbx at x=0.5.

  1. Band structures of 4f and 5f materials studied by angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimori, Shin-ichi

    2016-04-01

    Recent remarkable progress in angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES) has enabled the direct observation of the band structures of 4f and 5f materials. In particular, ARPES with various light sources such as lasers (hν ∼ 7~\\text{eV} ) or high-energy synchrotron radiations (hν ≳ 400~\\text{eV} ) has shed light on the bulk band structures of strongly correlated materials with energy scales of a few millielectronvolts to several electronvolts. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the behaviors of 4f and 5f band structures of various rare-earth and actinide materials observed by modern ARPES techniques, and understand how they can be described using various theoretical frameworks. For 4f-electron materials, ARPES studies of \\text{Ce}M\\text{I}{{\\text{n}}5} (M=\\text{Rh} , \\text{Ir} , and \\text{Co} ) and \\text{YbR}{{\\text{h}}2}\\text{S}{{\\text{i}}2} with various incident photon energies are summarized. We demonstrate that their 4f electronic structures are essentially described within the framework of the periodic Anderson model, and that the band-structure calculation based on the local density approximation cannot explain their low-energy electronic structures. Meanwhile, electronic structures of 5f materials exhibit wide varieties ranging from itinerant to localized states. For itinerant \\text{U}~5f compounds such as \\text{UFeG}{{\\text{a}}5} , their electronic structures can be well-described by the band-structure calculation assuming that all \\text{U}~5f electrons are itinerant. In contrast, the band structures of localized \\text{U}~5f compounds such as \\text{UP}{{\\text{d}}3} and \\text{U}{{\\text{O}}2} are essentially explained by the localized model that treats \\text{U}~5f electrons as localized core states. In regards to heavy fermion \\text{U} -based compounds such as the hidden-order compound \\text{UR}{{\\text{u}}2}\\text{S}{{\\text{i}}2} , their electronic structures exhibit complex behaviors. Their overall band structures

  2. Coupling between Fano and Bragg bands in photonic band structure of two-dimensional metallic photonic structures

    CERN Document Server

    Markos, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Frequency and transmission spectrum of two-dimensional array of metallic rods is investigated numerically. Based on the recent analysis of the band structure of two-dimensional photonic crystal with dielectric rods [P. Marko\\v{s}, Phys. Rev. A 92 043814 (2015)] we identify two types of bands in the frequency spectrum: Bragg (P) bands resulting from a periodicity and Fano (F) bands which arise from Fano resonances associated with each of the cylinders within the periodic structure. It is shown that the existence of Fano band in a certain frequency range is manifested by a Fano resonance in the transmittance. In particular, we re-examine the symmetry properties of the H- polarized band structure in the frequency range where the spectrum consists of the localized modes associated with the single scatterer resonances and we explore process of formation of Fano bands by identifying individual terms in the expansion of the LCAO states. We demonstrate how the interplay between the two scattering mechanisms affects p...

  3. Photonic Band Structure of Dispersive Metamaterials Formulated as a Hermitian Eigenvalue Problem

    KAUST Repository

    Raman, Aaswath

    2010-02-26

    We formulate the photonic band structure calculation of any lossless dispersive photonic crystal and optical metamaterial as a Hermitian eigenvalue problem. We further show that the eigenmodes of such lossless systems provide an orthonormal basis, which can be used to rigorously describe the behavior of lossy dispersive systems in general. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

  4. Band structure and optical properties of LiKB4O7 single crystal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smok, P; Seinert, H; Kityk, [No Value; Berdowski, J

    2003-01-01

    The band structure (BS), electronic charge density distribution and linear optical properties of the LiKB4O7 (LKB4) single crystal are calculated using a self-consistent norm-conserving pseudo-potential method within the framework of the local density approximation theory. Dispersion of the imaginar

  5. Band structures and localization properties of aperiodic layered phononic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan Zhizhong, E-mail: zzyan@bit.edu.cn [Department of Applied Mathematics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Zhang Chuanzeng [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Siegen, D-57078 Siegen (Germany)

    2012-03-15

    The band structures and localization properties of in-plane elastic waves with coupling of longitudinal and transverse modes oblique propagating in aperiodic phononic crystals based on Thue-Morse and Rudin-Shapiro sequences are studied. Using transfer matrix method, the concept of the localization factor is introduced and the correctness is testified through the Rytov dispersion relation. For comparison, the perfect periodic structure and the quasi-periodic Fibonacci system are also considered. In addition, the influences of the random disorder, local resonance, translational and/or mirror symmetries on the band structures of the aperiodic phononic crystals are analyzed in this paper.

  6. Band structures and localization properties of aperiodic layered phononic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhi-Zhong; Zhang, Chuanzeng

    2012-03-01

    The band structures and localization properties of in-plane elastic waves with coupling of longitudinal and transverse modes oblique propagating in aperiodic phononic crystals based on Thue-Morse and Rudin-Shapiro sequences are studied. Using transfer matrix method, the concept of the localization factor is introduced and the correctness is testified through the Rytov dispersion relation. For comparison, the perfect periodic structure and the quasi-periodic Fibonacci system are also considered. In addition, the influences of the random disorder, local resonance, translational and/or mirror symmetries on the band structures of the aperiodic phononic crystals are analyzed in this paper.

  7. Isogeometric analysis in electronic structure calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Cimrman, Robert; Kolman, Radek; Tůma, Miroslav; Vackář, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    In electronic structure calculations, various material properties can be obtained by means of computing the total energy of a system as well as derivatives of the total energy w.r.t. atomic positions. The derivatives, also known as Hellman-Feynman forces, require, because of practical computational reasons, the discretized charge density and wave functions having continuous second derivatives in the whole solution domain. We describe an application of isogeometric analysis (IGA), a spline modification of finite element method (FEM), to achieve the required continuity. The novelty of our approach is in employing the technique of B\\'ezier extraction to add the IGA capabilities to our FEM based code for ab-initio calculations of electronic states of non-periodic systems within the density-functional framework, built upon the open source finite element package SfePy. We compare FEM and IGA in benchmark problems and several numerical results are presented.

  8. Reflectivity calculated for a 3D silicon photonic band gap crystal with finite support

    CERN Document Server

    Devashish, D; van der Vegt, J J W; Vos, Willem L

    2016-01-01

    We study numerically the reflectivity of three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystals with a complete 3D photonic band gap, with the aim to interpret recent experiments. We employ the finite element method to study crystals with the cubic diamond-like inverse woodpile structure. The high-index backbone has a dielectric function similar to silicon. We study crystals with a range of thicknesses up to ten unit cells ($L \\leq 10 c$). The crystals are surrounded by vacuum, and have a finite support as in experiments. The polarization-resolved reflectivity spectra reveal Fabry-P{\\'e}rot fringes related to standing waves in the finite crystal, as well as broad stop bands with nearly $100~\\%$ reflectivity, even for thin crystals. From the strong reflectivity peaks, it is inferred that the maximum reflectivity observed in experiments is not limited by finite size. The frequency ranges of the stop bands are in excellent agreement with stop gaps in the photonic band structure, that pertain to infinite and perfect crystals. ...

  9. Structure of dipole bands in doubly odd 102Ag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, V.; Sihotra, S.; Malik, S. S.; Bhat, G. H.; Palit, R.; Sheikh, J. A.; Kumar, S.; Singh, N.; Singh, K.; Goswamy, J.; Sethi, J.; Saha, S.; Trivedi, T.; Mehta, D.

    2016-10-01

    Excited states in the transitional doubly odd 102Ag nucleus were populated in the 75As(31P,p 3 n ) fusion-evaporation reaction using the 125 MeV incident 31P beam. The subsequent deexcitations were investigated through in-beam γ -ray spectroscopic techniques using the Indian National Gamma Array spectrometer equipped with 21 clover Ge detectors. The level scheme in 102Ag has been established up to excitation energy ˜6.5 MeV and angular momentum 19 ℏ . The earlier reported level scheme is considerably extended and modified to result in a pair of nearly degenerate negative-parity dipole bands. Lifetime measurements for the states of these two dipole bands have been performed by using the Doppler-shift attenuation method. The two nearly degenerate bands exhibit different features with regard to kinetic moment of inertia, and the reduced transition probabilities B (M 1 ) and B (E 2 ) , which do not favor these to be chiral partners. These bands are discussed in the framework of the hybrid version of tilted-axis cranking (tac) model calculations and assigned the π g9 /2⊗ν h11 /2 and π g9 /2⊗ν h11 /2(d5/2/g7 /2) 2 configurations. The tac model calculations are extended to the nearly degenerate bands observed in the heavier doubly odd Ag-108104 isotopes.

  10. Lattice QCD Calculation of Nucleon Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Keh-Fei [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Draper, Terrence [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    2016-08-30

    It is emphasized in the 2015 NSAC Long Range Plan that "understanding the structure of hadrons in terms of QCD's quarks and gluons is one of the central goals of modern nuclear physics." Over the last three decades, lattice QCD has developed into a powerful tool for ab initio calculations of strong-interaction physics. Up until now, it is the only theoretical approach to solving QCD with controlled statistical and systematic errors. Since 1985, we have proposed and carried out first-principles calculations of nucleon structure and hadron spectroscopy using lattice QCD which entails both algorithmic development and large-scale computer simulation. We started out by calculating the nucleon form factors -- electromagnetic, axial-vector, πNN, and scalar form factors, the quark spin contribution to the proton spin, the strangeness magnetic moment, the quark orbital angular momentum, the quark momentum fraction, and the quark and glue decomposition of the proton momentum and angular momentum. The first round of calculations were done with Wilson fermions in the `quenched' approximation where the dynamical effects of the quarks in the sea are not taken into account in the Monte Carlo simulation to generate the background gauge configurations. Beginning in 2000, we have started implementing the overlap fermion formulation into the spectroscopy and structure calculations. This is mainly because the overlap fermion honors chiral symmetry as in the continuum. It is going to be more and more important to take the symmetry into account as the simulations move closer to the physical point where the u and d quark masses are as light as a few MeV only. We began with lattices which have quark masses in the sea corresponding to a pion mass at ~ 300 MeV and obtained the strange form factors, charm and strange quark masses, the charmonium spectrum and the Ds meson decay constant fDs, the strangeness and charmness, the meson mass

  11. Lattice QCD Calculation of Nucleon Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Keh-Fei; Draper, Terrence

    2016-08-30

    It is emphasized in the 2015 NSAC Long Range Plan [1] that \\understanding the structure of hadrons in terms of QCD's quarks and gluons is one of the central goals of modern nuclear physics." Over the last three decades, lattice QCD has developed into a powerful tool for ab initio calculations of strong-interaction physics. Up until now, it is the only theoretical approach to solving QCD with controlled statistical and systematic errors. Since 1985, we have proposed and carried out rst-principles calculations of nucleon structure and hadron spectroscopy using lattice QCD which entails both algorithmic development and large scale computer simulation. We started out by calculating the nucleon form factors { electromagnetic [2], axial-vector [3], NN [4], and scalar [5] form factors, the quark spin contribution [6] to the proton spin, the strangeness magnetic moment [7], the quark orbital angular momentum [8], the quark momentum fraction [9], and the quark and glue decomposition of the proton momentum and angular momentum [10]. These rst round of calculations were done with Wilson fermions in the `quenched' approximation where the dynamical e ects of the quarks in the sea are not taken into account in the Monte Carlo simulation to generate the background gauge con gurations. Beginning in 2000, we have started implementing the overlap fermion formulation into the spectroscopy and structure calculations [11, 12]. This is mainly because the overlap fermion honors chiral symmetry as in the continuum. It is going to be more and more important to take the symmetry into account as the simulations move closer to the physical point where the u and d quark masses are as light as a few MeV only. We began with lattices which have quark masses in the sea corresponding to a pion mass at 300 MeV and obtained the strange form factors [13], charm and strange quark masses, the charmonium spectrum and the Ds meson decay constant fDs [14], the strangeness and charmness [15], the

  12. Electronic Band Structure of Transition Metal Dichalcogenides from Ab Initio and Slater–Koster Tight-Binding Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Ángel Silva-Guillén

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides present a complex electronic band structure with a rich orbital contribution to their valence and conduction bands. The possibility to consider the electronic states from a tight-binding model is highly useful for the calculation of many physical properties, for which first principle calculations are more demanding in computational terms when having a large number of atoms. Here, we present a set of Slater–Koster parameters for a tight-binding model that accurately reproduce the structure and the orbital character of the valence and conduction bands of single layer MX 2 , where M = Mo, W and X = S, Se. The fit of the analytical tight-binding Hamiltonian is done based on band structure from ab initio calculations. The model is used to calculate the optical conductivity of the different compounds from the Kubo formula.

  13. Band gap engineering in penta-graphene by substitutional doping: first-principles calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdiyorov, G. R.; Dixit, G.; Madjet, M. E.

    2016-11-01

    Using density functional theory, we study the structure, electronic properties and partial charges of a new carbon allotrope—penta-graphene (PG)—substitutionally doped by Si, B and N. We found that the electronic bandgap of PG can be tuned down to 0.2 eV due to carbon substitutions. However, the value of the band gap depends on the type and location of the dopants. For example, the strongest reduction of the band gap is obtained for Si substitutions on the top (bottom) plane of PG, whereas the substitution in the middle plane of PG has a smaller effect on the band gap of the material. Surface termination with fluorine and hydroxyl groups results in an increase of the band gap together with considerable changes in electronic and atomic partial charge distribution in the system. Our findings, which are robust against the use of different exchange-correlation functionals, indicate the possibility of tuning the bandgap of the material to make it suitable for optoelectronic and photovoltaic applications.

  14. Band Structure and Quantum Confined Stark Effect in InN/GaN superlattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorczyca, I.; Suski, T.; Christensen, Niels Egede;

    2012-01-01

    for the gap error. The calculated band gap shows a strong decrease with the thickness (m) of the InN well. In superlattices containing a single layer of InN (m = 1) the band gap increases weakly with the GaN barrier thickness n, reaching a saturation value around 2 eV. In superlattices with n = m and n > 5......InN/GaN superlattices offer an important way of band gap engineering in the blue-green range of the spectrum. This approach represents a more controlled method than the band gap tuning in quantum well systems by application of InGaN alloys. The electronic structures of short-period wurtzite InN/GaN......(0001) superlattices are investigated, and the variation of the band gap with the thicknesses of the well and the barrier is discussed. Superlattices of the form mInN/nGaN with n ≥ m are simulated using band structure calculations in the Local Density Approximation with a semiempirical correction...

  15. Band structures in silicene on monolayer gallium phosphide substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Miaojuan; Li, Mingming; Zhang, Changwen; Yuan, Min; Li, Ping; Li, Feng; Ji, Weixiao; Chen, Xinlian

    2016-07-01

    Opening a sizable band gap in the zero-gap silicene is a key issue for its application in nanoelectronics. We design new 2D silicene and GaP heterobilayer (Si/GaP HBL) composed of silicene and monolayer (ML) GaP. Based on first-principles calculations, we find that the interaction energies are in the range of -295.5 to -297.5 meV per unit cell, indicating a weak interaction between silicene and gallium phosphide (GaP) monolayer. The band gap changes ranging from 0.06 to 0.44 eV in hybrid HBLs. An unexpected indirect-direct band gap crossover is also observed in HBLs, dependent on the stacking pattern. These provide a possible way to design effective FETs out of silicene on GaP monolayer.

  16. Tunable band structure and effective mass of disordered chalcopyrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ze-Lian; Xie, Wen-Hui; Zhao, Yong-Hong

    2017-02-01

    The band structure and effective mass of disordered chalcopyrite photovoltaic materials Cu1- x Ag x Ga X 2 ( X = S, Se) are investigated by density functional theory. Special quasirandom structures are used to mimic local atomic disorders at Cu/Ag sites. A local density plus correction method is adopted to obtain correct semiconductor band gaps for all compounds. The bandgap anomaly can be seen for both sulfides and selenides, where the gap values of Ag compounds are larger than those of Cu compounds. Band gaps can be modulated from 1.63 to 1.78 eV for Cu1- x Ag x Ga Se 2, and from 2.33 to 2.64 eV for Cu1- x Ag x Ga S 2. The band gap minima and maxima occur at around x = 0:5 and x = 1, respectively, for both sulfides and selenides. In order to show the transport properties of Cu1- x Ag x Ga X 2, the effective mass is shown as a function of disordered Ag concentration. Finally, detailed band structures are shown to clarify the phonon momentum needed by the fundamental indirect-gap transitions. These results should be helpful in designing high-efficiency photovoltaic devices, with both better absorption and high mobility, by Ag-doping in CuGa X 2.

  17. Ultra-broad band and dual-band highly efficient polarization conversion based on the three-layered chiral structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kai-kai; Xiao, Zhong-yin; Tang, Jing-yao; Liu, De-jun; Wang, Zi-hua

    2016-07-01

    In the paper, a novel three-layered chiral structure is proposed and investigated, which consists of a split-ring resonator sandwiched between two layers of sub-wavelength gratings. This designed structure can achieve simultaneously asymmetric transmission with an extremely broad bandwidth and high amplitude as well as multi-band 90° polarization rotator with very low dispersion. Numerical simulations adopted two kinds of softwares with different algorithms demonstrate that asymmetric parameter can reach a maximum of 0.99 and over than 0.8 from 4.6 to 16.8 GHz, which exhibit magnitude and bandwidth improvement over previous chiral metamaterials in microwave bands (S, C, X and Ku bands). Specifically, the reason of high amplitude is analyzed in detail based on the Fabry-perot like resonance. Subsequently, the highly efficient polarization conversion with very low dispersion between two orthogonal linearly polarized waves is also analyzed by the optical activity and ellipticity. Finally, the electric fields are also investigated and further demonstrate the correctness of the simulated and calculated results.

  18. Quasiparticle bands and structural phase transition of iron from Gutzwiller density-functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schickling, Tobias; Bünemann, Jörg; Gebhard, Florian; Boeri, Lilia

    2016-05-01

    We use the Gutzwiller density-functional theory to calculate ground-state properties and band structures of iron in its body-centered-cubic (bcc) and hexagonal-close-packed (hcp) phases. For a Hubbard interaction U =9 eV and Hund's-rule coupling J =0.54 eV , we reproduce the lattice parameter, magnetic moment, and bulk modulus of bcc iron. For these parameters, bcc is the ground-state lattice structure at ambient pressure up to a pressure of pc=41 GPa where a transition to the nonmagnetic hcp structure is predicted, in qualitative agreement with experiment (pcexp=10 ,...,15 GPa ) . The calculated band structure for bcc iron is in good agreement with ARPES measurements. The agreement improves when we perturbatively include the spin-orbit coupling.

  19. Tunable band structures of polycrystalline graphene by external and mismatch strains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang-Tao Wu; Xing-Hua Shi; Yu-Jie Wei

    2012-01-01

    Lacking a band gap largely limits the application of graphene in electronic devices.Previous study shows that grain boundaries (GBs) in polycrystalline graphene can dramatically alter the electrical properties of graphene.Here,we investigate the band structure of polycrystalline graphene tuned by externally imposed strains and intrinsic mismatch strains at the GB by density functional theory (DFT) calculations.We found that graphene with symmetrical GBs typically has zero band gap even with large uniaxial and biaxial strain.However,some particular asymmetrical GBs can open a band gap in graphene and their band structures can be substantially tuned by external strains.A maximum band gap about 0.19 eV was observed in matched-armchair GB (5,5) | (3,7) with a misorientation of θ =13° when the applied uniaxial strain increases to 9%.Although mismatch strain is inevitable in asymmetrical GBs,it has a small influence on the band gap of polycrystalline graphene.

  20. First Principles Study of Band Structure and Band Gap Engineering in Graphene for Device Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-20

    successfully to realise the full applications of graphene? What is the current status of the graphene based devices or Electronics ? How the graphene...gap value has increased to 1.5eV. It is reflected in the density of states (Fig.20c). The nitrogen atoms are at a distance of 5Ȧ. And there is a...completely modified.The calculation of surface doping of graphene with S is repeated with 96 atom simulation cell. The band gap value is 0.7 eV. The value of

  1. Design for maximum band-gaps in beam structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olhoff, Niels; Niu, Bin; Cheng, Gengdong

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to extend earlier optimum design results for transversely vibrating Bernoulli-Euler beams by determining new optimum band-gap beam structures for (i) different combinations of classical boundary conditions, (ii) much larger values of the orders n and n-1 of adjacent upper and lower...

  2. Analysis of photonic band-gap structures in stratified medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tong, Ming-Sze; Yinchao, Chen; Lu, Yilong;

    2005-01-01

    Purpose - To demonstrate the flexibility and advantages of a non-uniform pseudo-spectral time domain (nu-PSTD) method through studies of the wave propagation characteristics on photonic band-gap (PBG) structures in stratified medium Design/methodology/approach - A nu-PSTD method is proposed...

  3. Doping-dependent quasiparticle band structure in cuprate superconductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eder, R; Ohta, Y.; Sawatzky, G.A

    1997-01-01

    We present an exact diagonalization study of the single-particle spectral function in the so-called t-t'-t ''-J model in two dimensions. As a key result, we find that hole doping leads to a major reconstruction of the quasiparticle band structure near (pi,0): whereas for the undoped system the quasi

  4. TUNABLE Band Structures of 2d Multi-Atom Archimedean-Like Phononic Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y. L.; Chen, C. Q.; Tian, X. G.

    2012-06-01

    Two dimensional multi-atom Archimedean-like phononic crystals (MAPCs) can be obtained by adding "atoms" at suitable positions in primitive cells of traditional simple lattices. Band structures of solid-solid and solid-air MAPCs are computed by the finite element method in conjunction with the Bloch theory. For the solid-solid system, our results show that the MAPCs can be suitably designed to split and shift band gaps of the corresponding traditional simple phononic crystal (i.e., with only one scatterer inside a primitive cell). For the solid-air system, the MAPCs have more and wider band gaps than the corresponding traditional simple phononic crystal. Numerical calculations for both solid-solid and solid-air MAPCs show that the band gap of traditional simple phononic crystal can be tuned by appropriately adding "atoms" into its primitive cell.

  5. X-Band Photonic Band-Gap Accelerator Structure Breakdown Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsh, Roark A.; /MIT /MIT /NIFS, Gifu /JAERI, Kyoto /LLNL, Livermore; Shapiro, Michael A.; Temkin, Richard J.; /MIT; Dolgashev, Valery A.; Laurent, Lisa L.; Lewandowski, James R.; Yeremian, A.Dian; Tantawi, Sami G.; /SLAC

    2012-06-11

    In order to understand the performance of photonic band-gap (PBG) structures under realistic high gradient, high power, high repetition rate operation, a PBG accelerator structure was designed and tested at X band (11.424 GHz). The structure consisted of a single test cell with matching cells before and after the structure. The design followed principles previously established in testing a series of conventional pillbox structures. The PBG structure was tested at an accelerating gradient of 65 MV/m yielding a breakdown rate of two breakdowns per hour at 60 Hz. An accelerating gradient above 110 MV/m was demonstrated at a higher breakdown rate. Significant pulsed heating occurred on the surface of the inner rods of the PBG structure, with a temperature rise of 85 K estimated when operating in 100 ns pulses at a gradient of 100 MV/m and a surface magnetic field of 890 kA/m. A temperature rise of up to 250 K was estimated for some shots. The iris surfaces, the location of peak electric field, surprisingly had no damage, but the inner rods, the location of the peak magnetic fields and a large temperature rise, had significant damage. Breakdown in accelerator structures is generally understood in terms of electric field effects. These PBG structure results highlight the unexpected role of magnetic fields in breakdown. The hypothesis is presented that the moderate level electric field on the inner rods, about 14 MV/m, is enhanced at small tips and projections caused by pulsed heating, leading to breakdown. Future PBG structures should be built to minimize pulsed surface heating and temperature rise.

  6. The role of high-level calculations in the assignment of the Q-band spectra of chlorophyll

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimers, Jeffrey R. [School of Physics and Materials Science, The University of Technology, Sydney NSW (Australia); Cai, Zheng-Li [School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane QLD4001 (Australia); Kobayashi, Rika [Australian National University Supercomputer Facility, Mills Rd, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Rätsep, Margus [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Riia 142, 51014 Tartu (Estonia); Freiberg, Arvi [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Riia 142, 51014 Tartu, Estonia and Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Tartu, Riia 23, 51010 Tartu (Estonia); Krausz, Elmars [Research School of Chemistry, The Australian National University, Canberra 2601 (Australia)

    2014-10-06

    We recently established a novel assignment of the visible absorption spectrum of chlorophyll-a that sees the two components Q{sub x} and Q{sub y} of the low-energy Q band as being intrinsically mixed by non-adiabatic coupling. This ended 50 years debate as to the nature of the Q bands, with prior discussion poised only in the language of the Born-Oppenheimer and Condon approximations. The new assignment presents significant ramifications for exciton transport and quantum coherence effects in photosystems. Results from state of the art electronic structure calculations have always been used to justify assignments, but quantitative inaccuracies and systematic failures have historically limited usefulness. We examine the role of CAM-B3LYP time-dependent density-functional theory (TD-DFT) and Symmetry Adapted Cluster-Configuration Interaction (SAC-CI) calculations in first showing that all previous assignments were untenable, in justifying the new assignment, in making some extraordinary predictions that were vindicated by the new assignment, and in then identifying small but significant anomalies in the extensive experimental data record.

  7. Band structure and itinerant magnetism in quantum critical NbFe2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subedi, A. P. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Singh, David J [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    We report first-principles calculations of the band structure and magnetic ordering in the C14 Laves phase compound NbFe{sub 2}. The magnetism is itinerant in the sense that the moments are highly dependent on ordering. We find an overestimation of the magnetic tendency within the local spin-density approximation, similar to other metals near magnetic quantum critical points. We also find a competition between different magnetic states due to band-structure effects. These lead to competing magnetic tendencies due to competing interlayer interactions, one favoring a ferrimagnetic solution and the other an antiferromagnetic state. While the structure contains Kagome lattice sheets, which could, in principle, lead to strong magnetic frustration, the calculations do not show dominant nearest-neighbor antiferromagnetic interactions within these sheets. These results are discussed in relation to experimental observations.

  8. Study on Band Structure of YbB6 and Analysis of Its Optical Conductivity Spectrum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The electronic structure of YbB6 crystal was studied by means of density functional (GGA+U) method.The calculations were performed by FLAPW method.The high accurate band structure was achieved.The correlation between the feature of the band structure and the Yb-B6 bonding in YbB6 was analyzed.On this basis, some optical constants of YbB6 such as reflectivity, dielectric function, optical conductivity, and energy-loss function were calculated.The results are in good agreement with the experiments.The real part of the optical conductivity spectrum and the energy-loss function spectrum were analyzed in detail.The assignments of the spectra were carried out to correlate the spectral peaks with the interband electronic transitions, which justify the reasonable part of previous empirical assignments and renew the missed or incorrect ones.

  9. Band structure and transport studies of copper selenide: An efficient thermoelectric material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Kriti; Gahtori, Bhasker; Bathula, Sivaiah; Auluck, S.; Dhar, Ajay

    2014-10-01

    We report the band structure calculations for high temperature cubic phase of copper selenide (Cu2Se) employing Hartree-Fock approximation using density functional theory within the generalized gradient approximation. These calculations were further extended to theoretically estimate the electrical transport coefficients of Cu2Se employing Boltzmann transport theory, which show a reasonable agreement with the corresponding experimentally measured values. The calculated transport coefficients are discussed in terms of the thermoelectric (TE) performance of this material, which suggests that Cu2Se can be a potential p-type TE material with an optimum TE performance at a carrier concentration of ˜ 4 - 6 × 10 21 cm - 3 .

  10. QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF BANDED STRUCTURES IN DUAL-PHASE STEELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Krebs

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Dual-Phase (DP steels are composed of martensite islands dispersed in a ductile ferrite matrix, which provides a good balance between strength and ductility. Current processing conditions (continuous casting followed by hot and cold rolling generate 'banded structures' i.e., irregular, parallel and alternating bands of ferrite and martensite, which are detrimental to mechanical properties and especially for in-use properties. We present an original and simple method to quantify the intensity and wavelength of these bands. This method, based on the analysis of covariance function of binary images, is firstly tested on model images. It is compared with ASTM E-1268 standard and appears to be more robust. Then it is applied on real DP steel microstructures and proves to be sufficiently sensitive to discriminate samples resulting from different thermo-mechanical routes.

  11. Density functional calculation of equilibrium geometry and electronic structure of pyrite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱冠周; 肖奇; 胡岳华; 徐竞

    2001-01-01

    The equilibrium geometry and electronic structure of pyrite has been studied using self-consistent density-functional theory within the local density approximation (LDA). The optimum bulk geometry is in good agreement with crystallographic data. The calculated band structure and density of states in the region around the Fermi energy show that valence-band maximum (VBM) is at X (100), and the conduction-band minimum (CBM) is at G (000). The indirect and direct band gaps are 0.6eV and 0.74eV, respectively. The calculated contour map of difference of charge density shows excess charge in nonbonding d electron states on the Fe sites. The density increases between sulfur nuclei and between iron and sulfur nuclei qualitatively reveal that S-S bond and Fe-S bond are covalent binding.

  12. Non-primitive rectangular cells for tight-binding electronic structure calculations

    OpenAIRE

    Boykin, Timothy; Kharche, Neerav; Klimeck, Gerhard

    2009-01-01

    Rectangular non-primitive unit cells are computationally convenient for use in nanodevice electronic structure and transport calculations. When these cells are used for Calculations of structures with periodicity, the resulting bands are zone-folded and must be unfolded in order to identify important gaps and masses. Before the zone-unfolding method can be applied, one must first determine the allowed wavevectors for the specific non-primitive cell. Because most computationally convenient non...

  13. Non-Primitive Rectangular Cells for Tight-Binding Electronic Structure Calculations

    OpenAIRE

    Boykin, Timothy B.

    2008-01-01

    Rectangular non-primitive unit cells are computationally convenient for use in nanodevice electronic structure and transport calculations. When these cells are used for calculations of structures with periodicity, the resulting bands are zone-folded and must be unfolded in order to identify important gaps and masses. Before the zone-unfolding method can be applied, one must first determine the allowed wavevectors for the specific non-primitive cell. Because most computationally convenient ...

  14. Efficient calculation of inelastic vibration signals in electron transport: Beyond the wide-band approximation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Jing Tao; Christensen, Rasmus Bjerregaard; Foti, Giuseppe;

    2014-01-01

    We extend the simple and efficient lowest order expansion (LOE) for inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS) to include variations in the electronic structure on the scale of the vibration energies. This enables first-principles calculations of IETS line shapes for molecular junctions clo...

  15. Investigation of band structure of {sup 103,105}Rh using microscopic computational technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Amit, E-mail: akbcw2@gmail.com [Research Scholar, Department of Physics and Electronics, University of Jammu, Jammu-180006 (India); Singh, Suram, E-mail: suramsingh@gmail.com [Assistant Professor, Department of Physics Govt. Degree College, Kathua-184142 (India); Bharti, Arun, E-mail: arunbharti-2003@yahoo.co.in [Professor, Department of Physics and Electronics, University of Jammu, Jammu-180006 (India)

    2015-08-28

    The high-spin structure in {sup 61}Cu nucleus is studied in terms of effective two body interaction. In order to take into account the deformed BCS basis, the basis states are expanded in terms of the core eigenfunctions. Yrast band with some other bands havew been obtained and back-bending in moment of inertia has also been calculated and compared with the available experimental data for {sup 61}Cu nucleus. On comparing the available experimental as well as other theoretical data, it is found that the treatment with PSM provides a satisfactory explanation of the available data.

  16. Global Evolutionary Algorithms in the Design of Electromagnetic Band Gap Structures with Suppressed Surface Waves Propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kovacs

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the automated design and optimization of electromagnetic band gap structures suppressing the propagation of surface waves. For the optimization, we use different global evolutionary algorithms like the genetic algorithm with the single-point crossover (GAs and the multi-point (GAm one, the differential evolution (DE and particle swarm optimization (PSO. The algorithms are mutually compared in terms of convergence velocity and accuracy. The developed technique is universal (applicable for any unit cell geometry. The method is based on the dispersion diagram calculation in CST Microwave Studio (CST MWS and optimization in Matlab. A design example of a mushroom structure with simultaneous electromagnetic band gap properties (EBG and the artificial magnetic conductor ones (AMC in the required frequency band is presented.

  17. Development of X-band accelerating structures for high gradients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. Bini; M. G. Grimaldi; L. Romano; F. Ruffino; R. Parodi; V. Chimenti; A. Marcelli; L. Palumbo; B. Spataro; V. A. Dolgashev; S. Tantawi; A.D. Yeremian; Y. Higashi

    2012-01-01

    Short copper standing wave (SW) structures operating at an X-band frequency have been recently designed and manufactured at the Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati of the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) using the vacuum brazing technique.High power tests of the structures have been performed at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory.In this manuscript we report the results of these tests and the activity in progress to enhance the high gradient performance of the next generation of structures,particularly the technological characterization of high performance coatings obtained via molybdenum sputtering.

  18. Engineering Design of a Multipurpose X-band Accelerating Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Gudkov, Dmitry; Samoshkin, Alexander; Zennaro, Riccardo; Dehler, Micha; Raguin, Jean-Yves

    2010-01-01

    Both FEL projects, SwissFEL and Fermi-Elettra each require an X-band RF accelerating structure for optimal bunch compression at the respective injectors. As the CLIC project is pursuing a program for producing and testing the X-band high-gradient RF structures, a collaboration between PSI, Elettra and CERN has been established to build a multipurpose X-band accelerating structure. This paper focuses on its engineering design, which is based on the disked cells jointed together by diffusion bonding. Vacuum brazing and laser beam welding is used for auxiliary components. The accelerating structure consists of two coupler subassemblies, 73 disks and includes a wakefield monitor and diagnostic waveguides. The engineering study includes the external cooling system, consisting of two parallel cooling circuits and an RF tuning system, which allows phase advance tuning of the cell by deforming the outer wall. The engineering solution for the installation and sealing of the wake field monitor feed-through devices that...

  19. Banded structures in electron pitch angle diffusion coefficients from resonant wave-particle interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, A. K.; Singhal, R. P.; Khazanov, G. V.; Avanov, L. A.

    2016-04-01

    Electron pitch angle (Dαα) and momentum (Dpp) diffusion coefficients have been calculated due to resonant interactions with electrostatic electron cyclotron harmonic (ECH) and whistler mode chorus waves. Calculations have been performed at two spatial locations L = 4.6 and 6.8 for electron energies ≤10 keV. Landau (n = 0) resonance and cyclotron harmonic resonances n = ±1, ±2, … ±5 have been included in the calculations. It is found that diffusion coefficient versus pitch angle (α) profiles show large dips and oscillations or banded structures. The structures are more pronounced for ECH and lower band chorus (LBC) and particularly at location 4.6. Calculations of diffusion coefficients have also been performed for individual resonances. It is noticed that the main contribution of ECH waves in pitch angle diffusion coefficient is due to resonances n = +1 and n = +2. A major contribution to momentum diffusion coefficients appears from n = +2. However, the banded structures in Dαα and Dpp coefficients appear only in the profile of diffusion coefficients for n = +2. The contribution of other resonances to diffusion coefficients is found to be, in general, quite small or even negligible. For LBC and upper band chorus waves, the banded structures appear only in Landau resonance. The Dpp diffusion coefficient for ECH waves is one to two orders smaller than Dαα coefficients. For chorus waves, Dpp coefficients are about an order of magnitude smaller than Dαα coefficients for the case n ≠ 0. In case of Landau resonance, the values of Dpp coefficient are generally larger than the values of Dαα coefficients particularly at lower energies. As an aid to the interpretation of results, we have also determined the resonant frequencies. For ECH waves, resonant frequencies have been estimated for wave normal angle 89° and harmonic resonances n = +1, +2, and +3, whereas for whistler mode waves, the frequencies have been calculated for angle 10° and Landau

  20. Quantitative calculation of local shear deformation in adiabatic shear band for Ti-6Al-4V

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    JOHNSON-COOK(J-C) model was used to calculate flow shear stress-shear strain curve for Ti-6Al-4V in dynamic torsion test. The predicted curve was compared with experimental result. Gradient-dependent plasticity(GDP) was introduced into J-C model and GDP was involved in the measured flow shear stress-shear strain curve, respectively, to calculate the distribution of local total shear deformation(LTSD) in adiabatic shear band(ASB). The predicted LTSDs at different flow shear stresses were compared with experimental measurements. J-C model can well predict the flow shear stress-shear strain curve in strain-hardening stage and in strain-softening stage where flow shear stress slowly decreases. Beyond the occurrence of ASB, with a decrease of flow shear stress, the increase of local plastic shear deformation in ASB is faster than the decrease of elastic shear deformation, leading to more and more apparent shear localization. According to the measured flow shear stress-shear strain curve and GDP, the calculated LTSDs in ASB are lower than experimental results. At earlier stage of ASB, though J-C model overestimates the flow shear stress at the same shear strain, the model can reasonably assess the LTSDs in ASB. According to the measured flow shear stress-shear strain curve and GDP, the calculated local plastic shear strains in ASB agree with experimental results except for the vicinity of shear fracture surface. In the strain-softening stage where flow shear stress sharply decreases, J-C model cannot be used. When flow shear stress decreases to a certain value, shear fracture takes place so that GDP cannot be used.

  1. 第一性原理计算A、B位掺杂对NaNbO3电子结构的影响%Influences of A and B site dopings on the electronic band structures of NaNbO3 from first-principle calculations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蓝奔月; 史海峰

    2014-01-01

    NaNbO3 is known as a perovskite oxide that exhibits photocatalytic activity for water splitting and the reduction of CO2.Unfortunately,it only absorbs ultraviolet light owing to its wide band gap (Eg~ 3.40 eV).In order to shift its optical absorption from UV region to visible light region,the influ-ences of A site (Ag+)doping and B site (Sb5+,V5+)doping on the electronic structures and optical ab-sorption properties of NaNbO3 have been calculated by first-principle calculations based on density func-tional theory (DFT).As for Ag+doping,the O 2p states are mixed with Ag 4d states so as to move the top of valence band upward.After Sb5+ or V5+ doping,the Nb 4d states are mixed with Sb 5s5p states or V 3 d states,which results in the downward shift of the bottom of conduction band.Based on the cal-culated results,the possible mechanisms for realizing the red shift of absorption edge are proposed, which would be significance of developing doped NaNbO3 photocatalytic materials under visible light.%钙钛矿结构的 NaNbO3具有光催化分解水和降解有机物的性能,但其禁带宽度为3.40 eV,因此仅具有紫外光响应.为了实现其可见光响应,本文通过密度泛函理论计算探讨了 A 位(Ag+)掺杂和 B 位(Sb5+、V5+)掺杂对 NaNbO3的电子结构和光吸收性能的影响.结果表明,掺杂 Ag+后,O 2p轨道和 Ag 4d轨道杂化进而导致价带位置上移.掺杂 Sb5+后,Nb 4d轨道和 Sb 5s5p 轨道杂化,导致导带位置下移.掺杂V5+后,Nb 4d轨道和 V 3d轨道杂化,也导致导带位置下移.基于上述结果,提出了通过 A、B位掺杂 NaN-bO3实现其光吸收红移的机制,本研究对通过掺杂调控 NaNbO3光催化材料的光吸收方面有一定的指导意义.

  2. Parameterization and algebraic structure of 3-band orthogonal wavelet systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, a complete parameterization for the 3-band compact wavelet systems is presented. Using the parametric result, a program of the filterbank design is completed, which can give not only the filterbanks but also the graphs of all possible scaling functions and their corresponding wavelets. Especially some symmetric wavelets with small supports are given. Finally an algebraic structure for this kind of wavelet systems is characterized.

  3. Study of electronic structures and absorption bands of BaMgF4 crystal with F colour centre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kang Ling-Ling; Liu Ting-Yu; Zhang Qi-Ren; Xu Ling-Zhi; Zhang Fei-Wu

    2011-01-01

    The electronic structures of BaMgF4 crystals containing an F colour centre are studied within the framework of the fully relativistic self-consistent Direc-Slate-theory, using a numerically discrete variational (DV-Xα)method. It is concluded from the calculated results that the energy levels of the F colour centre are located in the forbidden band.The optical transition energy from the ground state to the excited state for the F colour centre is about 5.12 eV, which corresponds to the 242-nm absorption band. These calculated results can explain the origin of the absorption bands.

  4. Dispersion characteristics of a slow wave structure with a modified photonic band gap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Xi; Yang Zi-Qiang; Cao Wei-Ping; Jiang Yan-Nan

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the dispersion characteristics of a modified photonic band-gap slow-wave structure with an open boundary by simulation and experiment. A mode launcher with a wheel radiator and a coupling probe is presented to excite a pure TM01-like mode. The cold test and simulation results show that the TM01-like mode is effectively excited and no parasitic modes appear. The dispersion characteristics obtained from the cold test are in good agreement with the calculated results.

  5. The screened pseudo-charge repulsive potential in perturbed orbitals for band calculations by DFT+U.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bolong

    2017-03-06

    The conventional linear response overestimates the U in DFT+U calculations for solids with fully occupied orbitals. Here, we demonstrate that the challenge arises from the incomplete cancellation of the electron-electron Coulomb repulsion energy under external perturbation. We applied the second charge response, denoted as the "pseudo-charge" model, to offset such residue effects. Counteracting between these two charge response-induced Coulomb potentials, the U parameters are self-consistently obtained by fulfilling the conditions for minimizing the non-Koopmans energy. Moreover, the pseudo-charge-induced repulsive potential shows a screening behavior related to the orbital occupation and is potentially in compliance with the screened exact exchange-correlation of electrons. The resultant U parameters are self-consistent solutions for improved band structure calculations by the DFT+U method. This work extends the validity of the linear response method to both partially and fully occupied orbitals and gives a reference for estimating the Hubbard U parameter prior to other advanced methods. The U parameters were determined in a transferability test using both PBE and hybrid density functional methods, and the results showed that this method is independent of the functional. The electronic structures determined from the hybrid-DFT+U(hybrid) approach are provided. Comparisons are also made with the recently developed self-consistent hybrid-DFT+Uw method.

  6. Electronic structure calculations of rare-earth intermetallic compound YAg using ab initio methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    (S).U(g)ur; G.U(g)ur; F.Soyalp; R.Ellialtio(g)lu

    2009-01-01

    The structural,elastic and electronic properties of YAg-B2(CsC1) were investigated using the first-principles calculations.The energy band structure and the density of states were studied in detail,including partial density of states (PDOS),in order to identify the character of each band.The structural parameters (lattice constant,bulk modulus,pressure derivative of bulk modulus) and elastic constants were also obtained.The results were consistent with the experimental data available in the literature,as well as other theoretical results.

  7. Accurate energy bands calculated by the hybrid quasiparticle self-consistent GW method implemented in the ecalj package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguchi, Daiki; Sato, Kazunori; Kino, Hiori; Kotani, Takao

    2016-05-01

    We have recently implemented a new version of the quasiparticle self-consistent GW (QSGW) method in the ecalj package released at http://github.com/tkotani/ecalj. Since the new version of the ecalj package is numerically stable and more accurate than the previous versions, we can perform calculations easily without being bothered with tuning input parameters. Here we examine its ability to describe energy band properties, e.g., band-gap energy, eigenvalues at special points, and effective mass, for a variety of semiconductors and insulators. We treat C, Si, Ge, Sn, SiC (in 2H, 3C, and 4H structures), (Al, Ga, In) × (N, P, As, Sb), (Zn, Cd, Mg) × (O, S, Se, Te), SiO2, HfO2, ZrO2, SrTiO3, PbS, PbTe, MnO, NiO, and HgO. We propose that a hybrid QSGW method, where we mix 80% of QSGW and 20% of LDA, gives universally good agreement with experiments for these materials.

  8. Low-frequency and tuning characteristic of band gap in a symmetrical double-sided locally resonant phononic crystal plate with slit structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X. P.; Jiang, P.; Song, A. L.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, the low-frequency and tuning characteristic of band gap in a two-dimensional phononic crystal structure, consisting of a square array of aluminum cylindrical stubs deposited on both sides of a thin rubber plate with slit structure, are investigated. Using the finite element method, the dispersion relationships and power transmission spectra of this structure are calculated. In contrast to a typical phononic crystal without slit structure, the proposed slit structure shows band gaps at lower frequencies. The vibration modes of the band gap edges are analyzed to clarify the mechanism of the lowest band gaps. Additionally, the influence of the slit parameters and stub parameters on the band gaps in slit structure are investigated. The geometrical parameters of the slits and stubs were found to influence the band gaps; this is critical to understand for practical applications. These results will help in fabricating phononic crystal structures whose band frequency can be modulated at lower frequencies.

  9. Theoretical calculations on structural and electronic properties of BGaAsBi alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Metin; Yalcin, Battal G.; Ustundag, Mehmet; Bagci, Sadik

    2015-11-01

    The structural and electronic properties of cubic B x Ga1- x As1- y Bi y alloys with bismuth (Bi) concentration of 0.0625, 0.125, 0.1875 and 0.25 are studied with various boron (B) compositions by means of density functional theory (DFT) within the Wu-Cohen (WC) exchange correlation potential based on generalized gradient approximation (GGA). For all studied alloy structures, we have implemented geometric optimization before the volume optimization calculations. The obtained equilibrium lattice constants and band gap of studied quaternary alloys are investigated for the first time in literature. While the lattice constant behavior changes linearly with boron concentration, increasing small amount of bismuth concentration alter the lattice constant nonlinearly. The present calculation shows that the band gap decreases with increasing bismuth concentration and direct band gap semiconductor alloy became an indirect band gap with increasing boron concentration. From the band offset calculation we have shown that increasing B and Bi concentration in host GaAs reduced the valance band offset in a heterostructure formed by GaAs and studied alloys.

  10. $^{16}$O + $^{16}$O molecular structures of positive- and negative-parity superdeformed bands in $^{34}$S

    CERN Document Server

    Taniguchi, Yasutaka

    2014-01-01

    The structures of excited states in $^{34}$S are investigated using the antisymmetrized molecular dynamics and generator coordinate method (GCM). The GCM basis wave functions are calculated via energy variation with a constraint on the quadrupole deformation parameter $\\beta$. By applying the GCM after parity and angular momentum projections, the coexistence of two positive- and one negative-parity superdeformed (SD) bands are predicted, and low-lying states and other deformed bands are obtained. The SD bands have structures of $^{16}$O + $^{16}$O + two valence neutrons in molecular orbitals around the two $^{16}$O cores in a cluster picture. The configurations of the two valence neutrons are $\\delta^2$ and $\\pi^2$ for the positive-parity SD bands and $\\pi^1\\delta^1$ for the negative-parity SD band. The structural changes of the yrast states are also discussed.

  11. New band structures and an unpaired crossing in {sup 78}Kr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, H.; Doring, J.; Johns, R.A.; Solomon, G.; Tabor, S.; Devlin, M.; LaFosse, D.; Lerma, F.; Sarantites, D.; Baktash, C.; Rudolph, D.; Yu, C.H.; Lee, I.Y.; Macchiavelli, A.; Birriel, I.; Saladin, J.; Winchell, D.; Wood, V.Q.; Ragnarsson, I.

    1998-07-06

    High-spin states in {sup 78}Kr were studied using the {sup 58}Ni({sup 23}Na,3p) reaction at 70 MeV and the {sup 58}Ni({sup 28}Si,{alpha}4p) reaction at 130 MeV. Prompt {gamma}-{gamma} coincidences were measured using the Pitt-FSU detector array and the GAMMASPHERE-MICROBALL array. Results from these experiments have led to 26 new excitation levels, some of which have been grouped into 3 new bands. Spins were assigned based on directional correlations of oriented nuclei. Two of the new negative-parity bands appear to form a signature-partner pair based on a two-quasineutron structure, in contrast to the previously known two-quasiproton negative-parity bands. A forking has been observed at the 24{sup +} state in the yrast band, which calculations suggest may result from an unpaired crossing. The available evidence suggests oblate shapes in the yrast band coexist with prolate shapes in the negative-parity bands.

  12. New band structures and an unpaired crossing in {sup 78}Kr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, H.; Doering, J.; Johns, G.D.; Kaye, R.A.; Solomon, G.Z.; Tabor, S.L. [Department of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32306 (United States); Doering, J. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); Devlin, M.; LaFosse, D.R.; Lerma, F.; Sarantites, D.G. [Department of Chemistry, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63130 (United States); Baktash, C.; Rudolph, D.; Yu, C. [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Lee, I.Y.; Macchiavelli, A.O. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Birriel, I.; Saladin, J.X.; Winchell, D.F.; Wood, V.Q. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260 (United States); Ragnarsson, I. [Department of Mathematical Physics, Lund Institute of Technology, S-22100 Lund (Sweden)

    1999-02-01

    High-spin states in {sup 78}Kr were studied using the {sup 58}Ni({sup 23}Na,3p) reaction at 70 MeV and the {sup 58}Ni({sup 28}Si,{alpha}4p) reaction at 130 MeV. Prompt {gamma}-{gamma} coincidences were measured using the Pitt-FSU detector array and the GAMMASPHERE-MICROBALL array. Results from these experiments have led to 26 new excitation levels, some of which have been grouped into 3 new bands. Spins were assigned based on directional correlations of oriented nuclei. Two of the new negative-parity bands appear to form a signature-partner pair based on a two-quasineutron structure, in contrast to the previously known two-quasiproton negative-parity bands. A forking has been observed at the 24{sup +} state in the yrast band, which calculations suggest may result from an unpaired crossing. The available evidence suggests oblate shapes in the yrast band coexist with prolate shapes in the negative-parity bands. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  13. Determination of the band structure of LuNi{sub 2}B{sub 2}C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergk, B. [Hochfeld-Magnetlabor, Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Inst. fuer Festkoerperphysik, Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany); Bartkowiak, M.; Ignatchik, O. [Hochfeld-Magnetlabor, Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Jaeckel, M. [Inst. fuer Festkoerperphysik, Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany); Wosnitza, J.; Rosner, H.; Petzold, V. [MPI fuer chemische Physik fester Stoffe, Dresden (Germany); Canfield, P. [Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames (United States). Ames Lab., Condensed Matter Physics

    2007-07-01

    We present de Haas-van Alphen (dHvA) investigations on the nonmagnetic borocarbide superconductor LuNi{sub 2}B{sub 2}C which have been performed by use of the torque method in high magnetic fields up to 32 T and at low temperatures down to 50 mK. The complex band structure is extracted from the quantum oscillations in the normal state. In comparison with full-potential-local-orbital calculations of the band structure we are able to assign the observed dHvA frequencies to the different bands. Temperature dependent dHvA investigations allowed the extraction of the effective band masses for the several Fermi-surface sheets. We observe an enhancement of the effective masses compared to the theoretical calculations which is due to electron-phonon interaction. Finally, we are able to examine the angular dependence of the electron-phonon coupling for the different Fermi-surface sheets. (orig.)

  14. First principles electronic band structure and phonon dispersion curves for zinc blend beryllium chalcogenide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dabhi, Shweta, E-mail: venu.mankad@gmail.com; Mankad, Venu, E-mail: venu.mankad@gmail.com; Jha, Prafulla K., E-mail: venu.mankad@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Maharaja Krishnakumasinhji Bhavnagar University, Bhavnagar-364001 (India)

    2014-04-24

    A detailed theoretical study of structural, electronic and Vibrational properties of BeX compound is presented by performing ab-initio calculations based on density-functional theory using the Espresso package. The calculated value of lattice constant and bulk modulus are compared with the available experimental and other theoretical data and agree reasonably well. BeX (X = S,Se,Te) compounds in the ZB phase are indirect wide band gap semiconductors with an ionic contribution. The phonon dispersion curves are represented which shows that these compounds are dynamically stable in ZB phase.

  15. Doping and strain dependence of the electronic band structure in Ge and GeSn alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chi; Gallagher, James; Senaratne, Charutha; Brown, Christopher; Fernando, Nalin; Zollner, Stefan; Kouvetakis, John; Menendez, Jose

    2015-03-01

    A systematic study of the effect of dopants and strain on the electronic structure of Ge and GeSn alloys is presented. Samples were grown by UHV-CVD on Ge-buffered Si using Ge3H8 and SnD4 as the sources of Ge and Sn, and B2H6/P(GeH3)3 as dopants. High-energy critical points in the joint-density of electronic states were studied using spectroscopic ellipsometry, which yields detailed information on the strain and doping dependence of the so-called E1, E1 +Δ1 , E0' and E2 transitions. The corresponding dependencies of the lowest direct band gap E0 and the fundamental indirect band gap Eindwere studied via room-T photoluminescence spectroscopy. Of particular interest for this work were the determination of deformation potentials, band gap renormalization effects, Burstein-Moss shifts due to the presence of carriers at band minima, and the dependence of other critical point parameters, such as amplitudes and phase angles, on the doping concentration. The selective blocking of transitions due to high doping makes it possible to investigate the precise k-space location of critical points. These studies are complemented with detailed band-structure calculations within a full-zone k-dot- p approach. Supported by AFOSR under DOD AFOSR FA9550-12-1-0208 and DOD AFOSR FA9550-13-1-0022.

  16. Band Gap Opening Induced by the Structural Periodicity in Epitaxial Graphene Buffer Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    N Nair, Maya; Palacio, Irene; Celis, Arlensiú; Zobelli, Alberto; Gloter, Alexandre; Kubsky, Stefan; Turmaud, Jean-Philippe; Conrad, Matthew; Berger, Claire; de Heer, Walter; Conrad, Edward H; Taleb-Ibrahimi, Amina; Tejeda, Antonio

    2017-04-12

    The epitaxial graphene buffer layer on the Si face of hexagonal SiC shows a promising band gap, of which the precise origin remains to be understood. In this work, we correlate the electronic to the atomic structure of the buffer layer by combining angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), and high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (HR-STEM). We show that the band structure in the buffer has an electronic periodicity related to the structural periodicity observed in STM images and published X-ray diffraction. Our HR-STEM measurements show the bonding of the buffer layer to the SiC at specific locations separated by 1.5 nm. This is consistent with the quasi 6 × 6 periodic corrugation observed in the STM images. The distance between buffer C and SiC is 1.9 Å in the bonded regions and up to 2.8 Å in the decoupled regions, corresponding to a 0.9 Å corrugation of the buffer layer. The decoupled regions are sp(2) hybridized. Density functional tight binding (DFTB) calculations demonstrate the presence of a gap at the Dirac point everywhere in the buffer layer, even in the decoupled regions where the buffer layer has an atomic structure close to that of graphene. The surface periodicity also promotes band in the superperiodic Brillouin zone edges as seen by photoemission and confirmed by our calculations.

  17. Low-lying levels and high-spin band structures in sup 1 sup 0 sup 2 Rh

    CERN Document Server

    Gizon, J; Timar, J; Cata-Danil, G; Nyakó, B M; Zolnai, L; Boston, A J; Joss, D T; Paul, E S; Semple, A T; O'Brien, N J; Parry, C M; Bucurescu, D; Brant, S; Paar, V

    1999-01-01

    Levels in sup 1 sup 0 sup 2 Rh have been populated in the reaction sup 7 sup 0 Zn+ sup 3 sup 6 S at 130 MeV. The level structure of sup 1 sup 0 sup 2 Rh has been investigated using the EUROGAM II array. Low-lying states and four high-spin bands have been identified. The configurations of low-lying levels and two-quasiparticle bands are interpreted in the frame of the interacting boson-fermion-fermion model. The four observed band structures are also compared with cranked shell model calculations using a modified oscillator potential.

  18. Bohr Hamiltonian with different mass parameters applied to band structures of Eu isotopes built on Nilsson orbitals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ERMAMATOV M J; YÉPEZ-MARTÍNEZ H; SRIVASTAVA P C

    2016-05-01

    The band structure of the proton-odd nuclei $^{153,155}$Eu, built on Nilsson orbitals, is investigated within the framework of a recently developed extended Bohr Hamiltonian model. The relative distance between spherical orbitals is taken into account by considering single-particle energies as a parameter which changes with increasing neutron number. Energy levels of each band and$B(E2)$ values inside the ground-state band are calculated and compared with the available experimental data. Thus, more comprehensive information on the structure of deformed nuclei can be obtained by studying the rotation–vibration spectra of odd nuclei built on Nilsson single-particle orbitals.

  19. A method for calculating damage evolution in adiabatic shear band of titanium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xue-bin

    2009-01-01

    A method for calculating the evolution of the local damage variable at the adiabatic shear band (ASB) center was proposed. In the present method, the JOHNSON-COOK model and the nonlocal theory were adopted, and the damage variable formula applicable for the bilinear (linearly elastic and strain-softening) constitutive relation was further generalized to consider the plastic deformation occurring in the strain-hardening stage. Aiming at Ti-6Al-4V, the effect of strain rate on the evolution of the local damage variable at the ASB center was investigated. In addition, a parametric study was carried out, including the effects of strain-hardening exponent, strain rate sensitive coefficient, thermal-softening exponent, static shear strength, strain-hardening modulus, shear elastic modulus, work to heat conversion factor, melting temperature and initial temperature. The damage extent at the ASB center in the radial collapse experiment was assessed. It is found that at higher strain rates the damage in the ASB becomes more serious at the same average plastic shear strain of the ASB.

  20. InN/GaN Superlattices: Band Structures and Their Pressure Dependence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorczyca, Iza; Suski, Tadek; Staszczak, Grzegorz;

    2013-01-01

    with one monolayer of InN and 40 monolayers of GaN. The results are compared with calculations performed for different types of superlattices: InN/GaN, InGaN/GaN, and InN/InGaN/GaN with single monolayers of InN and/or InGaN. The superlattices are simulated by band structure calculations based on the local......Creation of short-period InN/GaN superlattices is one of the possible ways of conducting band gap engineering in the green-blue range of the spectrum. The present paper reports results of photoluminescence experiments, including pressure effects, on a superlattice sample consisting of unit cells...

  1. 8-band and 14-band kp modeling of electronic band structure and material gain in Ga(In)AsBi quantum wells grown on GaAs and InP substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gladysiewicz, M.; Wartak, M. S. [Faculty of Fundamental Problems of Technology, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland); Department of Physics and Computer Science, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3C5 (Canada); Kudrawiec, R. [Faculty of Fundamental Problems of Technology, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland)

    2015-08-07

    The electronic band structure and material gain have been calculated for GaAsBi/GaAs quantum wells (QWs) with various bismuth concentrations (Bi ≤ 15%) within the 8-band and 14-band kp models. The 14-band kp model was obtained by extending the standard 8-band kp Hamiltonian by the valence band anticrossing (VBAC) Hamiltonian, which is widely used to describe Bi-related changes in the electronic band structure of dilute bismides. It has been shown that in the range of low carrier concentrations n < 5 × 10{sup 18 }cm{sup −3}, material gain spectra calculated within 8- and 14-band kp Hamiltonians are similar. It means that the 8-band kp model can be used to calculate material gain in dilute bismides QWs. Therefore, it can be applied to analyze QWs containing new dilute bismides for which the VBAC parameters are unknown. Thus, the energy gap and electron effective mass for Bi-containing materials are used instead of VBAC parameters. The electronic band structure and material gain have been calculated for 8 nm wide GaInAsBi QWs on GaAs and InP substrates with various compositions. In these QWs, Bi concentration was varied from 0% to 5% and indium concentration was tuned in order to keep the same compressive strain (ε = 2%) in QW region. For GaInAsBi/GaAs QW with 5% Bi, gain peak was determined to be at about 1.5 μm. It means that it can be possible to achieve emission at telecommunication windows (i.e., 1.3 μm and 1.55 μm) for GaAs-based lasers containing GaInAsBi/GaAs QWs. For GaInAsBi/Ga{sub 0.47}In{sub 0.53}As/InP QWs with 5% Bi, gain peak is predicted to be at about 4.0 μm, i.e., at the wavelengths that are not available in current InP-based lasers.

  2. Wakefield Monitor Experiments with X-Band Accelerating Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Lillestøl, Reidar; Corsini, Roberto; Döbert, Steffen; Farabolini, Wilfrid; Malina, Lukas; Pfingstner, Juergen; Wuensch, Walter

    2015-01-01

    The accelerating structures for CLIC must be aligned with a precision of a few um with respect to the beam trajectory in order to mitigate emittance growth due to transverse wake fields. We report on first results from wake field monitor tests in an X-band structure, with a probe beam at the CLIC Test Facility. The monitors are currently installed in the CLIC Two-Beam Module. In order to fully demonstrate the feasibility of using wakefield monitors for CLIC, the precision of the monitors must be verified using a probe beam while simultaneously filling the structure with high power rf used to drive the accelerating mode. We outline plans to perform such a demonstration in the CLIC Test Facility.

  3. Crystal Structure and Band Gap Engineering in Polyoxometalate-Based Inorganic-Organic Hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Soumyabrata; Sarkar, Sumanta; Pan, Jaysree; Waghmare, Umesh V; Dhanya, R; Narayana, Chandrabhas; Peter, Sebastian C

    2016-04-04

    We have demonstrated engineering of the electronic band gap of the hybrid materials based on POMs (polyoxometalates), by controlling its structural complexity through variation in the conditions of synthesis. The pH- and temperature-dependent studies give a clear insight into how these experimental factors affect the overall hybrid structure and its properties. Our structural manipulations have been successful in effectively tuning the optical band gap and electronic band structure of this kind of hybrids, which can find many applications in the field of photovoltaic and semiconducting devices. We have also addressed a common crystallographic disorder observed in Keggin-ion (one type of heteropolyoxometalate [POMs])-based hybrid materials. Through a combination of crystallographic, spectroscopic, and theoretical analysis of four new POM-based hybrids synthesized with tactically varied reaction conditions, we trace the origin and nature of the disorder associated with it and the subtle local structural coordination involved in its core picture. While the crystallography yields a centrosymmetric structure with planar coordination of Si, our analysis with XPS, IR, and Raman spectroscopy reveals a tetrahedral coordination with broken inversion symmetry, corroborated by first-principles calculations.

  4. Collective Band Structures in Neutron-Rich 108Mo Nucleus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Huai-Bo; WANG Jian-Guo; XU Qiang; ZHU Sheng-Jiang; J. H. Hamilton; A. V. Ramayya; J. K. Hwang; Y. X. Luo; J. O. Rasmussen; I. Y. Lee; CHE Xing-Lai

    2007-01-01

    High spin states in the neutron-rich 108Mo nucleus are studied by measuring prompt γ-rays following the spontaneous fission of 252Cf with a Gammasphere detector array. The ground-state band is confirmed, and the one-phonon γ-vibrational band is updated with spin up to 12 h. A new collective band with the band head level at 1422.4 keV is suggested as a two-phonon γ-vibrational band. Another new band is proposed as a two-quasi-proton excitation band. Systematic characteristics of the collective bands are discussed.

  5. Band Structure Asymmetry of Bilayer Graphene Revealed by Infrared Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Z.Q.; Henriksen, E.A.; Jiang, Z.; Hao, Zhao; Martin, Michael C.; Kim, P.; Stormer, H.L.; Basov, Dimitri N.

    2008-12-10

    We report on infrared spectroscopy of bilayer graphene integrated in gated structures. We observe a significant asymmetry in the optical conductivity upon electrostatic doping of electrons and holes. We show that this finding arises from a marked asymmetry between the valence and conduction bands, which is mainly due to the inequivalence of the two sublattices within the graphene layer and the next-nearest-neighbor interlayer coupling. From the conductivity data, the energy difference of the two sublattices and the interlayer coupling energy are directly determined.

  6. 16O + 16O molecular structures of positive- and negative-parity superdeformed bands in 34S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taniguchi Yasutaka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The structures of excited states in 34S are investigated using the antisymmetrized molecular dynamics and generator coordinate method(GCM. The GCM basis wave functions are calculated via energy variation with a constraint on the quadrupole deformation parameter β. By applying the GCM after parity and angular momentum projections, the coexistence of two positive- and one negative-parity super de formed(SD bands are predicted, and low-lying states and other deformed bands are obtained. The SD bands have structures of 16O + 16O + two valence neutrons in molecular orbitals around the two 16O cores in a cluster picture. The configurations of the two valence neutrons are δ2 and π2 for the positive-parity SD bands and π1δ1 for the negative parity SD band.

  7. Energy band structure calculation on dichloride-(4,5-diaza fiuoren-9-one)-palladium(Ⅱ) complex and its schiff's base derivatives%二氯-4,5-二氮芴-9-酮合钯(Ⅱ)及其席夫碱衍生物能带结构的理论研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许铭坚; 徐志广; 丘仕标; 何家贤

    2011-01-01

    二氯-4,5-二氮芴-9-酮合钯(Ⅱ)配合物(PddafoCl2)是一类大环间呈现π-π堆积层状的晶体.其结构中的羰基官能团,可与含氮的亲核试剂伯胺(RNH2)生成含碳氮席夫碱的衍生物.在共轭环间的π-π堆积下其有序的堆积结构可能产生具半导体性质,但对标题体系的席夫碱衍生物的导电性理论研究还未有见相关报道.基于局域密度(LDA)泛函理论,第一原理赝势平面波法,采用Materials Studio 4.0软件中的CASTEP程序包中的LDA/CA-PZ法研究二氯-4,5-二氮芴-9-酮合钯配合物及其席夫碱衍生物(其中R'=-CN、-COOH、-NO2、-CHO、-CH3、-CH2CH3)共7个体系的能带结构,结果表明该系列体系的能隙在(1.082 6~1.622 2)eV之间,Fermi能级上截距在(7.5147~8.4538)electrch s.eV-1之间.与二氯-4,5-二氮芴-9-酮合钯配合物相比,连接吸电子取代基后的席夫碱衍生物,能隙明显缩少,导电性增强,其中以连接氰基的化合物2的能隙最小.构建不同的席夫碱衍生物,配合物呈现不同的导电性.随R'取代基团电负性增强,体系的导电性能增强,这一规律在实际应用中有理论指导和预测作用.二氯-4,5-二氮芴-9-酮合钯(Ⅱ)及它的席夫碱衍生物有望在不同的领域获得广泛的应用.%Dichlorido(4, 5-diazafluoren-9-one-N, N) Palladium(Ⅱ) complex (PddafoCl2) is a macro cyclic crystal with π-π stacking interaction.The structure of carbonyl functional groups could come into the Schiff base formation after reacting to a nitrogen-containing nucleophiles primary amine (RNH2).With the π-π stacking interaction the crystal structure may has the semiconductor properties, but their electric property has few relevant theoretical calculation reports.Dichloride-(4,5-diazafluoren-9-one)-palladium(Ⅱ) complex and its Schiff's base derivatives(R'=-CN, -COOH, -NO2,-CHO, -CH3, -CH2CH3) were calculated to investigate energy band structure by using LDA/CA-PZ of CASTEP method program of

  8. QUANTUM-MECHANICAL MODELING OF SPATIAL AND BAND STRUCTURE OF Y3AL5O12 SCINTILLATION CRYSTAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Vrubel

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Spatial and electronic structures of a unit cell of yttrium-aluminum garnet have been studied. Quantum-mechanical model have been presented. Semi-empirical methods PM6 and PM7 have been used for geometry optimization of the crystal unit cell. Band structure has been calculated within density functional theory with the use of PBE exchange-correlation functional. Histograms of metal-oxygen distances for equilibrium geometry have been constructed. Comparison of the used methods has been carried out and recommendation about their applicability for such problems was given. The single-particle wave functions and energies have been calculated. The bandgap was estimated. The band structure was plotted. It was shown that the method gives reliable results for spatial and band structure of Y3Al5O12 scintillation crystal. The results of this work can be used for improvement of characteristics of garnet scintillation crystals.

  9. Extended Hückel theory for carbon nanotubes: band structure and transport properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zienert, Andreas; Schuster, Jörg; Gessner, Thomas

    2013-05-02

    Extended Hückel theory (EHT) is a well established method for the description of the electronic structure of molecules and solids. In this article, we present a set of extended Hückel parameters for carbon nanotubes (CNTs), obtained by fitting the ab initio band structure of the (6,0) CNT. The new parameters are highly transferable to different types of CNTs. To demonstrate the versatility of the approach, we perform self-consistent EHT-based electron transport calculations for finite length CNTs with metal electrodes.

  10. Uniaxial stress influence on lattice, band gap and optical properties of n-type ZnO:first-principles calculations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Ping; Li Pei; Zhang Li-Qiang; Wang Xiao-Liang; Wang Huan; Song Xi-Fu; Xie Fang-Wei

    2012-01-01

    The lattice,the band gap and the optical properties of n-type ZnO under uniaxial stress are investigated by firstprinciples calculations.The results show that the lattice constants change linearly with stress.Band gaps are broadened linearly as the uniaxial compressive stress increases.The change of band gap for n-type ZnO comes mainly from the contribution of stress in the c-axis direction,and the reason for band gap of n-type ZnO changing with stress is also explained.The calculated results of optical properties reveal that the imaginary part of the dielectric function decreases with the increase of uniaxial compressive stress at low energy.However,when the energy is higher than 4.0 eV,the imaginary part of the dielectric function increases with the increase of stress and a blueshift appears.There are two peaks in the absorption spectrum in an energy range of 4.0-13.0 eV.The stress coefficient of the band gap of n-type ZnO is larger than that of pure ZnO,which supplies the theoretical reference value for the modulation of the band gap of doped ZnO.

  11. Deformed configurations, band structures and spectroscopic properties of = 50 Ge and Se nuclei

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S K Ghorui; C R Praharaj

    2014-04-01

    The deformed configurations and rotational band structures in =50 Ge and Se nuclei are studied by deformed Hartree–Fock with quadrupole constraint and angular momentum projection. Apart from the `almost’ spherical HF solution, a well-deformed configuration occurs at low excitation. A deformed well-mixed = 1/2+ neutron orbit comes down in energy (from the shell above = 50) to break the = 50 spherical shell closure. A = 7− isomer is predicted in 84Se at fairly low excitation energy. At higher excitation energies (8 MeV), a deformed band with = 7/2+–1/2− (based on $h_{11/2}$) neutron 1p–1h excitation, for 82Ge and 84Se, is shown in our calculation. Our study gives insight into possible deformed structures at spherical shell closure.

  12. Band structure and optical properties of amber studied by first principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Zhi-Fan, E-mail: raozhifan@163.com [Analysis and Testing Center of Yunnan, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Zhou, Rong-Feng [Analysis and Testing Center of Yunnan, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China)

    2013-03-01

    The band structure and density of states of amber is studied by the first principles calculation based on density of functional theory. The complex structure of amber has 214 atoms and the band gap is 5.0 eV. The covalent bond is combined C/O atoms with H atoms. The O 2p orbital is the biggest effect near the Fermi level. The optical properties' results show that the reflectivity is low, and the refractive index is 1.65 in visible light range. The highest absorption coefficient peak is at 172 nm and another higher peak is at 136 nm. These convince that the amber would have a pretty sheen and that amber is a good and suitable crystal for jewelry and ornaments.

  13. Optical Properties of One-dimensional Three-component Photonic Band Gap Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Theoretical study of the optical properties of one-dimensional three-component photonic band gap structure, which is composed of three alternating dielectric layers of different refractive indices and thickness in a unit cell, is performed. This one-dimensional photonic band gap structure exhibits the transparency band and forbidden band. We find that there are several mini-bands of the allowed transmission to be created within the photonic band gap region of the structure if a defect designed specially is introduced inside the structure. This characteristic is very important for some practical applications.

  14. Ab Initio Calculations for the BaTiO3 (001) Surface Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Xu-Yan; WANG Chun-Lei; ZHONG Wei-Lie

    2004-01-01

    @@ The ab initio method within the local density approximation is applied to calculate cubic BaTiO3 (001) surface relaxation and rumpling for two different terminations (BaO and TiO2). Our calculations demonstrate that cubic perovskite BaTiO3 crystals possess surface polarization, accompanied by the presence of the relevant electric field.We analyse their electronic structures (band structure, density of states and the electronic density redistribution with emphasis on the covalency effects). The results are also compared with that of the previous ab initio calculations. Considerable increases of Ti-O chemical bond covalency nearby the surface have been observed.The band gap reduces especially for the TiO2 termination.

  15. Raman spectra and ab initio calculation of a structure of aqueous solutions of methanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hushvaktov, H. A.; Tukhvatullin, F. H.; Jumabaev, A.; Tashkenbaev, U. N.; Absanov, A. A.; Hudoyberdiev, B. G.; Kuyliev, B.

    2017-03-01

    Small amount of low molecular weight alcohols leads to appearance of some special properties of alcohol-water solutions. In the literature it is associated with structural changes in solution with changing concentration. However, the problem special properties and structure of solutions at low concentration of alcohol is not very clear. Accordingly, we carried out quantum-chemical calculations and experimental studies of aqueous solutions of methyl alcohol. The calculations performed for ten molecular alcohol-water mixtures showed that with a low concentration of methyl alcohol in water the solubility of alcohol is poor: the alcohol molecules are displaced from the water structure and should form a particular structure. Thus, with low concentration of alcohol in the aqueous solution there are two types of structures: the structure of water and the structure of alcohol that should lead to the presence of specific properties. At high concentration of alcohol the structure of water is destroyed and there is just the structure made of alcohol-water aggregates. This interpretation is consistent with the experimental data of Raman spectroscopy. The band of Csbnd O vibrations of alcohol is detected to be of complex character just in the region of the presence of specific properties. Formation of intermolecular H-bonds also complicates the Raman spectra of Osbnd H or O-D vibrations of pure alcohol: a non-coincidence of peak frequencies, a shift of the band towards low-frequency region, a strong broadening of the band.

  16. Complex band structures of transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers with spin-orbit coupling effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczęśniak, Dominik; Ennaoui, Ahmed; Ahzi, Saïd

    2016-09-01

    Recently, the transition metal dichalcogenides have attracted renewed attention due to the potential use of their low-dimensional forms in both nano- and opto-electronics. In such applications, the electronic and transport properties of monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides play a pivotal role. The present paper provides a new insight into these essential properties by studying the complex band structures of popular transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers (MX 2, where M  =  Mo, W; X  =  S, Se, Te) while including spin-orbit coupling effects. The conducted symmetry-based tight-binding calculations show that the analytical continuation from the real band structures to the complex momentum space leads to nonlinear generalized eigenvalue problems. Herein an efficient method for solving such a class of nonlinear problems is presented and yields a complete set of physically relevant eigenvalues. Solutions obtained by this method are characterized and classified into propagating and evanescent states, where the latter states manifest not only monotonic but also oscillatory decay character. It is observed that some of the oscillatory evanescent states create characteristic complex loops at the direct band gap of MX 2 monolayers, where electrons can directly tunnel between the band gap edges. To describe these tunneling currents, decay behavior of electronic states in the forbidden energy region is elucidated and their importance within the ballistic transport regime is briefly discussed.

  17. Structural Evolution of a Warm Frontal Precipitation Band During GCPEx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colle, Brian A.; Naeger, Aaron; Molthan, Andrew; Nesbitt, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    A warm frontal precipitation band developed over a few hours 50-100 km to the north of a surface warm front. The 3-km WRF was able to realistically simulate band development, although the model is somewhat too weak. Band genesis was associated with weak frontogenesis (deformation) in the presence of weak potential and conditional instability feeding into the band region, while it was closer to moist neutral within the band. As the band matured, frontogenesis increased, while the stability gradually increased in the banding region. Cloud top generating cells were prevalent, but not in WRF (too stable). The band decayed as the stability increased upstream and the frontogenesis (deformation) with the warm front weakened. The WRF may have been too weak and short-lived with the band because too stable and forcing too weak (some micro issues as well).

  18. Electronic Structure of ABC-stacked Multilayer Graphene and Trigonal Warping:A First Principles Calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelgel, Celal

    2016-04-01

    We present an extensive density functional theory (DFT) based investigation of the electronic structures of ABC-stacked N-layer graphene. It is found that for such systems the dispersion relations of the highest valence and the lowest conduction bands near the K point in the Brillouin zone are characterised by a mixture of cubic, parabolic, and linear behaviours. When the number of graphene layers is increased to more than three, the separation between the valence and conduction bands decreases up until they touch each other. For five and six layer samples these bands show flat behaviour close to the K point. We note that all states in the vicinity of the Fermi energy are surface states originated from the top and/or bottom surface of all the systems considered. For the trilayer system, N = 3, pronounced trigonal warping of the bands slightly above the Fermi level is directly obtained from DFT calculations.

  19. Synergistic effects on band gap-narrowing in titania by codoping from first-principles calculations

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The large intrinsic band gap in TiO2 has hindered severely its potential application for visible-light irradiation. In this study, we have used a passivated approach to modify the band edges of anatase-TiO2 by codoping of X (N, C) with transition metals (TM=W, Re, Os) to extend the absorption edge to longer visible-light wavelengths. It was found that all the codoped systems can narrow the band gap significantly; in particular, (N+W)-codoped systems could serve as remarkably better photocatal...

  20. Contrasting 1D tunnel-structured and 2D layered polymorphs of V2O5: relating crystal structure and bonding to band gaps and electronic structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolhurst, Thomas M; Leedahl, Brett; Andrews, Justin L; Marley, Peter M; Banerjee, Sarbajit; Moewes, Alexander

    2016-06-21

    New V2O5 polymorphs have risen to prominence as a result of their open framework structures, cation intercalation properties, tunable electronic structures, and wide range of applications. The application of these materials and the design of new, useful polymorphs requires understanding their defining structure-property relationships. We present a characterization of the band gap and electronic structure of nanowires of the novel ζ-phase and the orthorhombic α-phase of V2O5 using X-ray spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations. The band gap is found to decrease from 1.90 ± 0.20 eV in the α-phase to 1.50 ± 0.20 eV in the ζ-phase, accompanied by the loss of the α-phase's characteristic split-off dxy band in the ζ-phase. States of dxy origin continue to dominate the conduction band edge in the new polymorph but the inequivalence of the vanadium atoms and the increased local symmetry of [VO6] octahedra results in these states overlapping with the rest of the V 3d conduction band. ζ-V2O5 exhibits anisotropic conductivity along the b direction, defining a 1D tunnel, in contrast to α-V2O5 where the anisotropic conductivity is along the ab layers. We explain the structural origins of the differences in electronic properties that exist between the α- and ζ-phase.

  1. Superlattice band structure: New and simple energy quantification condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiz, F., E-mail: fethimaiz@gmail.com [University of Cartage, Nabeul Engineering Preparatory Institute, Merazka, 8000 Nabeul (Tunisia); King Khalid University, Faculty of Science, Physics Department, P.O. Box 9004, Abha 61413 (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-10-01

    Assuming an approximated effective mass and using Bastard's boundary conditions, a simple method is used to calculate the subband structure for periodic semiconducting heterostructures. Our method consists to derive and solve the energy quantification condition (EQC), this is a simple real equation, composed of trigonometric and hyperbolic functions, and does not need any programming effort or sophistic machine to solve it. For less than ten wells heterostructures, we have derived and simplified the energy quantification conditions. The subband is build point by point; each point presents an energy level. Our simple energy quantification condition is used to calculate the subband structure of the GaAs/Ga{sub 0.5}Al{sub 0.5}As heterostructures, and build its subband point by point for 4 and 20 wells. Our finding shows a good agreement with previously published results.

  2. A Brief Introduction to Band Structure in Three Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Iannucci, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Without our ability to model and manipulate the band structure of semiconducting materials, the modern digital computer would be impractically large, hot, and expensive. In the undergraduate QM curriculum, we studied the effect of spatially periodic potentials on the spectrum of a charged particle in one dimension. We would like to understand how to extend these methods to model actual crystalline materials. Along the way, we will explore the construction of periodic potentials in three dimensions, and we use this framework to relate the single-particle Hamiltonian to the potential contribution from each atom. We then construct a crude model system analogous to the semiconductor silicon, and demonstrate the appearance of level splitting and band gaps as the strength of the potential is varied, in accordance with our intuition from the one-dimensional case. We discuss refinements of the model to include many-particle effects, and finally we show how a careful choice of the potential function leads to good agre...

  3. First-principles studies of the electric-field effect on the band structure of trilayer graphenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun-Peng; Li, Xiang-Guo; Cheng, Hai-Ping

    Electric-field effects on the electronic structure of trilayer graphene are investigated using the density functional theory in the generalized gradient approximation. Two different stacking orders, namely Bernal and rhombohedral, of trilayer graphene are considered. Our calculations reproduce the experimentally data on band gap opening in Bernal stacking and band overlap in rhombohedral trilayer graphene. In addition, we studied effects of charge doping using dual gate configurations. The size of band gap opening in Bernal trilayer graphene can be tuned by charge doping, and charge doping also causes an electron-hole asymmetry in the density of states. Furthermore, hole-doping can reopen a band gap in the band overlapping region of rhombohedral trilayer grapheme induced by electric fields, which contributes to an extra peak in the optical conductivity spectra. This work is supported by DOE # DE-FG02-02ER45995.

  4. A Compact UWB Band-Pass Filter Using Embedded Circular Slot Structures for Improved Upper Stop-band Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Ming; Ren, Jian; Mikkelsen, Jan Hvolgaard;

    2016-01-01

    structures into the ring resonator. This is different from conventional designs using cascaded bandstop/low-pass filters for stop-band response suppression, which usually leads to big circuit sizes. And hence the proposed approach can reduce the circuit size significantly. A prototype filter with a compact...... size (13.6 mm×6.75 mm) has been implemented for experimental validation. The measured results show a −3 dB frequency band from 3.4 GHz to 11.7 GHz and > 20 dB upper stop-band suppression from 12.5 GHz to 20GHz....

  5. Calculated effect of conduction-band offset on CuInSe{sub 2} solar-cell performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, X.; Sites, J.R. [Physics Department, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523 (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The band diagram and resulting current-voltage curves for CuInSe{sub 2} solar cells are calculated as functions of conduction-band offset using ADEPT software with and without an indium-rich intermediate layer. In the absence of the intermediate layer, current-voltage curves for CdS/CuInSe{sub 2} solar cells show only a weak dependence on conduction-band offset over a wide range from approximately {minus}0.5 eV to 0.4 eV at room temperature. An indium rich {ital n}-type intermediate layer with 1.3 eV band gap and thickness smaller than the depletion width can increase the open-circuit voltage as much as 30{percent} at large positive band offsets. The highest efficiency, however, is increased by a more modest 6{percent}. Again the cell parameters are relatively flat, but over a somewhat narrower conduction-band offset range. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  6. Band structure systematics and symmetries in even-even nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucurescu, D.; Cata-Danil, Gh.; Ivascu, M.; Ur, C. A.

    1993-07-01

    It is shown that the experimental in-band energy ratios for the even-even nuclei obey universal systematics similar to those observed by Mallmann for the quasiground band. Systematic correlations between energy ratios belonging to different bands are also found in certain cases. Finally, correlations between mixed energy ratios are shown to be useful in characterizing the evolution of the nulcear collectivity.

  7. Relativistic Band Structure and Fermi Surface of PdTe2 by the LMTO Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jan, J. P.; Skriver, Hans Lomholt

    1977-01-01

    The energy bands of the trigonal layer compound PdTe2 have been calculated, using the relativistic linear muffin-tin orbitals method. The bandstructure is separated into three distinct regions with low-lying Te 5s bands, conduction bands formed by Pd 4d and Te 5p states, and high-lying bands formed...... by Pd 5p, Te 6s and Te 5d states. Density of states and joint density of states have been calculated from the bands determined over the appropriate irreducible zone. The Fermi surface consists of two closed sheets in band 11 and band 13, and sheets in band 12 connected to one another by tubes...

  8. Banding and electronic structures of metal azides——Sensitivity and conductivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖鹤鸣; 李永富

    1995-01-01

    By using both DV-Xα and EH-CO methods, the calculation studies of the structure-property relationships of a series of metal azides, of their clusters’ electronic structures in ground and excited states, of their systems with cation vacancy and the doped Pb(N3)2, as well as their crystal band structures have been conducted. The results show that the sensitivity of ionic-type metal azides varies with the degree of difficulty of electronic transition of the losing charge on N3. A metal azide with cation vacancies has a greater sensitivity than the perfect one. When doped with monovalent metal ions, lead azide’s sensitivity increased; when with trivalent ones, its sensitivity decreased; when with divalent ones, little of it changed. Compared with heavy metal azides. an alkali metal azide has a larger band gap, a smaller band width and a greater transition energy of frontier electron with a smaller amount of losing charge on N3, and thus has lower sensitivity and conductivity than heavy metal azides.

  9. The effect of spin-orbit coupling in band structure of few-layer graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahdan, Muhammad Fauzi, E-mail: sahdan89@yahoo.co.id; Darma, Yudi, E-mail: sahdan89@yahoo.co.id [Department of Physics, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganesa 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24

    Topological insulators are electronic materials that have a bulk band gap like an ordinary insulator but have protected conducting states on their edge or surface. This can be happened due to spin-orbit coupling and time-reversal symmetry. Moreover, the edge current flows through their edge or surface depends on its spin orientation and also it is robust against non-magnetic impurities. Therefore, topological insulators are predicted to be useful ranging from spintronics to quantum computation. Graphene was first predicted to be the precursor of topological insulator by Kane-Mele. They developed a Hamiltonian model to describe the gap opening in graphene. In this work, we investigate the band structure of few-layer graphene by using this model with analytical approach. The results of our calculations show that the gap opening occurs at K and K’ point, not only in single layer, but also in bilayer and trilayer graphene.

  10. Fermi surface and band structure of BiPd from ARPES studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohani, H.; Mishra, P.; Gupta, Anurag; Awana, V. P. S.; Sekhar, B. R.

    2017-03-01

    We present a detailed electronic structure study of the non-centrosymmetric superconductor BiPd based on our angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) measurements and Density Functional Theory (DFT) based calculations. We observe a high intensity distribution on the Fermi surface (FS) of this compound resulting from various electron and hole like bands which are present in the vicinity of the Fermi energy (Ef). The near Ef states are primarily composed of Bi-6p with a little admixture of Pd-4dx2-y2/zy orbitals. There are various spin-orbit split bands involved in the crossing of Ef making a complex FS. The FS mainly consists of multi sheets of three dimensions which disfavor the nesting between different sheets of the FS. Our comprehensive study elucidates that BiPd could be a s-wave multiband superconductor.

  11. The band structure of carbonmonoxide on 2-D Au islands on graphene

    KAUST Repository

    Katsiev, Khabiboulakh

    2014-06-01

    The dispersion of the occupied molecular orbitals of carbon monoxide adsorbed on Au 2D islands, vapor-deposited on graphene/Ru(0 0 0 1), is seen to be wave vector dependent, as revealed by angle-resolved photoemission. The band dispersion is similar to CO monolayers adsorbed on many single crystal metal surfaces. Thus not only are the adsorbed gold islands on graphene flat and crystalline, as evident in the dispersion of the Au d-states, but the CO molecular adlayer is both molecular and ordered as well. The experimental angle-resolved photoemission combined with model calculations of the occupied CO band structure, suggest that, in spite of being a very weakly bound adsorbate, the CO adlayer on Au 2D islands on graphene is strongly hybridized to the Au layer. . © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Systematic study of electronic structure and band alignment of monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides in Van der Waals heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chenxi; Gong, Cheng; Nie, Yifan; Min, Kyung-Ah; Liang, Chaoping; Oh, Young Jun; Zhang, Hengji; Wang, Weihua; Hong, Suklyun; Colombo, Luigi; Wallace, Robert M.; Cho, Kyeongjae

    2017-03-01

    Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are promising low-dimensional materials which can produce diverse electronic properties and band alignment in van der Waals heterostructures. Systematic density functional theory (DFT) calculations are performed for 24 different TMD monolayers and their bilayer heterostacks. DFT calculations show that monolayer TMDs can behave as semiconducting, metallic or semimetallic depending on their structures; we also calculated the band alignment of the TMDs to predict their alignment in van der Waals heterostacks. We have applied the charge equilibration model (CEM) to obtain a quantitative formula predicting the highest occupied state of any type of bilayer TMD heterostacks (552 pairs for 24 TMDs). The CEM predicted values agree quite well with the selected DFT simulation results. The quantitative prediction of the band alignment in the TMD heterostructures can provide an insightful guidance to the development of TMD-based devices.

  13. Band gap narrowing in nitrogen-doped La2Ti2O7 predicted by density-functional theory calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junying; Dang, Wenqiang; Ao, Zhimin; Cushing, Scott K; Wu, Nianqiang

    2015-04-14

    In order to reveal the origin of enhanced photocatalytic activity of N-doped La2Ti2O7 in both the visible light and ultraviolet light regions, its electronic structure has been studied using spin-polarized conventional density functional theory (DFT) and the Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof (HSE06) hybrid approach. The results show that the deep localized states are formed in the forbidden band when nitrogen solely substitutes for oxygen. Introducing the interstitial Ti atom into the N-doped La2Ti2O7 photocatalyst still causes the formation of a localized energy state. Two nitrogen substitutions co-exist stably with one oxygen vacancy, creating a continuum energy band just above the valence band maximum. The formation of a continuum band instead of mid-gap states can extend the light absorption to the visible light region without increasing the charge recombination, explaining the enhanced visible light performance without deteriorating the ultraviolet light photocatalytic activity.

  14. A Banding Structure in a Ni-Cu-Si Cast Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi ZHENG; Yufeng ZHENG; Hongyu ZHANG; Xiaofeng SUN; Hengrong GUAN; Zhuangqi HU

    2008-01-01

    The solidified microstructure of a Ni-Cu-Si cast alloy has been investigated, and a kind of banding structure was observed. The results showed that, the banding structure was composed of coarser particles which were Ni3Si type of precipitates and similar to the fine particles precipitate uniformly distributed within matrix of Ni solid solution, in both crystal structure and composition. The formation of bandings was resulted from cast thermal stress and dislocation walls. It was found that the cracks propagated along these bandings in tensile test. The banding structure can be depressed by reducing the cast thermal stress, which can improve the Qtensile ductility.

  15. Energy-band structure and intrinsic coherent properties in two weakly linked Bose-Einstein condensates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei-Dong; Zhang, Yunbo; Liang, J.-Q.

    2003-06-01

    The energy-band structure and energy splitting due to quantum tunneling in two weakly linked Bose-Einstein condensates were calculated by using the instanton method. The intrinsic coherent properties of Bose-Josephson junction (BJJ) were investigated in terms of energy splitting. For EC/EJ≪1, the energy splitting is small and the system is globally phase coherent. In the opposite limit, EC/EJ≫1, the energy splitting is large and the system becomes phase dissipated. Our results suggest that one should investigate the coherence phenomena of BJJ in proper condition such as EC/EJ˜1.

  16. Photonic Band Gaps in 3D Network Structures with Short-range Order

    CERN Document Server

    Liew, Seng Fatt; Noh, Heeso; Schreck, Carl F; Dufresne, Eric R; O'Hern, Corey S; Cao, Hui

    2011-01-01

    We present a systematic study of photonic band gaps (PBGs) in three-dimensional (3D) photonic amorphous structures (PAS) with short-range order. From calculations of the density of optical states (DOS) for PAS with different topologies, we find that tetrahedrally connected dielectric networks produce the largest isotropic PBGs. Local uniformity and tetrahedral order are essential to the formation of PBGs in PAS, in addition to short-range geometric order. This work demonstrates that it is possible to create broad, isotropic PBGs for vector light fields in 3D PAS without long-range order.

  17. Competition between magnetic field dependent band structure and coherent backscattering in multiwall carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojetz, B.; Roche, S.; Miko, C.; Triozon, F.; Forró, L.; Strunk, C.

    2007-03-01

    Magnetotransport measurements in large diameter multiwall carbon nanotubes (20 40 nm) demonstrate the competition of a magnetic-field dependent bandstructure and Altshuler Aronov Spivak oscillations. By means of an efficient capacitive coupling to a backgate electrode, the magnetoconductance oscillations are explored as a function of Fermi level shift. Changing the magnetic field orientation with respect to the tube axis and by ensemble averaging, allows the contributions of different Aharonov Bohm phases to be identified. The results are in qualitative agreement with numerical calculations of the band structure and the conductance.

  18. Enlargement of Photonic Band Gaps and Physical Picture of Photonic Band Structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yan; SHI Jun-Jie

    2006-01-01

    @@ Light propagation in a one-dimensional photonic crystal (PC), consisting of alternative slabs with refractive indices (layer thicknesses) n1 (a) and n2 (b), is investigated. An important optimal parameter matching condition,n1a ≈ n2b, is obtained for the largest photonic band gap (PBG). Moreover, we find that the exact analytical solutions for the electric/magnetic field eigenmodes at the band edges are standing waves with odd or even symmetry about the centre of each layer. The electric/magnetic field eigenfunctions at the top and bottom of the nth band have n and n - 1 nodes in one period of PC, respectively. The PBG arises from the symmetric differences of the field eigenfunctions at the band edges.

  19. Effects of extrinsic and intrinsic perturbations on the electronic structure of graphene: Retaining an effective primitive cell band structure by band unfolding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Paulo V. C.; Stafström, Sven; Björk, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    We use a band unfolding technique to recover an effective primitive cell picture of the band structure of graphene under the influence of different types of perturbations. This involves intrinsic perturbations, such as structural defects, and external ones, comprising nitrogen substitutions and the inclusion of graphene in adsorbed systems. In such cases, the band unfolding provides a reliable and efficient tool for quantitatively analyzing the effect of doping and defects on the electronic structure of graphene. We envision that this approach will become a standard method in the computational analysis of graphene's electronic structure in related systems.

  20. Calculation of band edge levels of strained Si/(111)Si{sup 1-x}Ge{sup x}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song Jianjun; Zhang Heming; Hu Huiyong; Dai Xianying; Xuan Rongxi, E-mail: wmshhsong@tom.co [Key Laboratory of Wide Band-Gap Semiconductor Materials and Devices, School of Microelectronics, Xidian University, Xi' an 710071 (China)

    2010-01-15

    Calculations were performed on the band edge levels of (111)-biaxially strained Si on relaxed Si{sup 1-x}Ge{sup x} alloy using the k {center_dot} p perturbation method coupled with deformation potential theory. The results show that the conduction band (CB) edge is characterized by six identical valleys, that the valence band (VB) edge degeneracies are partially lifted, and that both the CB and VB edge levels move up in electron energy as the Ge fraction (x) increases. In addition, the dependence of the indirect bandgap and the VB edge splitting energy on x was obtained. Quantitative data from the results supply valuable references for Si-based strained device design. (semiconductor physics)

  1. Structural mechanisms of formation of adiabatic shear bands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Sokovikov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the experimental and theoretical study of plastic deformation instability and localization in materials subjected to dynamic loading and high-velocity perforation. We investigate the behavior of samples dynamically loaded during Hopkinson-Kolsky pressure bar tests in a regime close to simple shear conditions. Experiments were carried out using samples of a special shape and appropriate test rigging, which allowed us to realize a plane strain state. Also, the shear-compression specimens proposed in were investigated. The lateral surface of the samples was investigated in a real-time mode with the aid of a high-speed infra-red camera CEDIP Silver 450M. The temperature field distribution obtained at different time made it possible to trace the evolution of plastic strain localization. Use of a transmission electron microscope for studying the surface of samples showed that in the regions of strain localization there are parts taking the shape of bands and honeycomb structure in the deformed layer. The process of target perforation involving plug formation and ejection was investigated using a high-speed infra-red camera. A specially designed ballistic set-up for studying perforation was used to test samples in different impulse loading regimes followed by plastic flow instability and plug ejection. Changes in the velocity of the rear surface at different time of plug ejection were analyzed by Doppler interferometry techniques. The microstructure of tested samples was analyzed using an optical interferometer-profilometer and a scanning electron microscope. The subsequent processing of 3D deformation relief data enabled estimation of the distribution of plastic strain gradients at different time of plug formation and ejection. It has been found that in strain localization areas the subgrains are elongated taking the shape of bands and undergo fragmentation leading to the formation of super-microcrystalline structure, in which the

  2. Pattern reconfigurable antenna using electromagnetic band gap structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, M. F.; Rahim, M. K. A.; Majid, H. A.; Hamid, M. R.; Yusoff, M. F. M.; Dewan, R.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a single rectangular patch antenna incorporated with an array of electromagnetic band gap (EBG) structures is proposed. The proposed antenna features radiation pattern agility by means of connecting the shorting pin vias to the EBG unit cells. The proposed design consists of 32 mm × 35.5 mm rectangular patch antenna and 10.4-mm-square mushroom-like EBG unit cells. The EBGs are placed at both sides of the antenna radiating patch and located on the thicker substrate of thickness, h. The copper tape which represents the PIN diode is used to control the connection between the EBG's via and the ground plane as reconfigurable mechanism of the antenna. The simulated result shows by switching the ON and OFF EBG structures in either sides or both, the directional radiation pattern can be tilted from 0 to +14°. The proposed antenna exhibits 7.2 dB realized gain at 2.42 GHz. The parametric study on EBG and antenna is also discussed.

  3. Tuning band gap of monolayer and bilayer SnS2 by strain effect and external electric field: A first principles calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Abeera; Shin, Young-Han

    Recently many efforts have been paid to two-dimensional layered metal dichalcogenides (LMDs). Among them MoS2 has become a prototype LMD, and recent studies show surprising and rich new physics emerging in other van der Waals materials such as layered SnS2 [1-4]. SnS2 is a semiconducting earth-abundant material and Sn is a group IV element replacing the transition metal in MoS2. SnS2 shows new possibilities in various potential applications. However, the knowledge on basic properties of layered SnS2 is still not well understood. In this study, we consider two types of structures; 1T with P 3 m 1 (164) space group and 1H with P63 / mmc (194) space group. Our first principles calculations show that the 1T structure for SnS2 is more stable than the 1H structure whereas latter is more stable for MoS2. Moreover,in contrast to MoS2,SnS2 shows an indirect band gap both for 1T and 1H structures while 1T MoS2 is metallic and 1H has a direct band gap. We also study strain effect in the range of 0-10% on the band structure for monolayer and bilayer SnS2 (both for 1T and 1H structures).We find significant change in their band gaps. We also investigate the bilayer SnS2 with and without out-of-plane stress. This research was supported by Brain Korea 21 Plus Program and Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT and future Planning (NRF-2014M3A7B4049367, NRF-2014R1A2A1A1105089).

  4. Electronic structure of the heavy fermion superconductor Ce{sub 2}PdIn{sub 8}: Experiment and calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werwiński, M. [Institute of Molecular Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Smoluchowskiego 17, 60-179 Poznań (Poland); Szajek, A. [Institute of Molecular Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Smoluchowskiego 17, 60-179 Poznań (Poland); Centre for Advanced Materials and Smart Structures, Polish Academy of Sciences, Okólna 2, 50-950 Wrocław (Poland); Ślebarski, A. [Institute of Physics, University of Silesia, Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Centre for Advanced Materials and Smart Structures, Polish Academy of Sciences, Okólna 2, 50-950 Wrocław (Poland); Kaczorowski, D., E-mail: D.Kaczorowski@int.pan.wroc.pl [Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, P. O. Box 1410, 50-950 Wrocław (Poland); Centre for Advanced Materials and Smart Structures, Polish Academy of Sciences, Okólna 2, 50-950 Wrocław (Poland)

    2015-10-25

    The electronic structure of a heavy-fermion superconductor Ce{sub 2}PdIn{sub 8} was investigated by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ab initio density functional band structure calculations. The Ce 3d core-level XPS spectra point to stable trivalent configuration of Ce atoms that is also reproduced in the band structure calculations within the generalized gradient approximation GGA+U approach. Analysis of the 3d{sup 9}f{sup 2} weight in the 3d XPS spectra within the Gunnarsson-Schönhammer model suggests that the onsite hybridization energy between Ce 4f and the conduction band states, Δ{sub fs}, is ∼120 meV, which is about 30 meV larger than Δ{sub fs} in isostructural Ce{sub 2}TIn{sub 8} compounds with T = Co, Rh, and Ir. Taking into account a Coulomb repulsion U on both the Ce 4f and Pd 4d states in electronic band structure calculations, a satisfactory agreement was found between the calculated density of states (DOS) and the measured valence band XPS spectra. - Highlights: • XPS data validated strong electronic correlations in superconducting Ce{sub 2}PdIn{sub 8}. • DFT calculations reproduced XPS spectra measured for Ce{sub 2}PdIn{sub 8}. • Crucial role of Pd d electrons in the HF behavior of Ce{sub 2}PdIn{sub 8} was established.

  5. Structure of the doubly odd nucleus sup 1 sup 8 sup 0 Ta Description of 23 bands

    CERN Document Server

    Saitoh, T R; Sletten, G; Bark, R A; Toermaenen, S; Bergström, M H; Furuno, K; Furutaka, K; Hagemann, G B; Hayakawa, T; Komatsubara, T; Maj, A; Mitarai, S; Oshima, M; Sampson, J; Shizuma, T; Varmette, P G

    1999-01-01

    The structure of the doubly-odd nucleus sup 1 sup 8 sup 0 Ta has been studied by gamma-gamma coincidence measurements with a DC beam at 52 and 57 MeV and time-correlated gamma-gamma coincidence measurements with a pulsed beam at 55 MeV via the sup 1 sup 7 sup 6 Yb( sup 1 sup 1 B, alpha 3n) sup 1 sup 8 sup 0 Ta reaction. In all measurements, gamma-rays were detected in coincidence with charged particles. In the time-correlated gamma-gamma coincidence measurements with a pulsed sup 1 sup 1 B beam, three rotational bands and one octupole vibrational band have been identified above the I suppi=15 sup - T sub 1 sub / sub 2 =30 mu s isomer. The configuration of three bands built on 8 sup + states has been discussed by means of three-band mixing calculations. BCS calculations with blocking have been used in support of configuration assignment of four- and six-quasiparticle structures. Totally, 19 rotational bands, one beta-, one gamma- and two octupole-vibrational bands, plus one intrinsic state have been identified...

  6. Band structure and spin texture of Bi2Se3 3 d ferromagnetic metal interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jia; Velev, Julian P.; Dang, Xiaoqian; Tsymbal, Evgeny Y.

    2016-07-01

    The spin-helical surface states in a three-dimensional topological insulator (TI), such as Bi2Se3 , are predicted to have superior efficiency in converting charge current into spin polarization. This property is said to be responsible for the giant spin-orbit torques observed in ferromagnetic metal/TI structures. In this work, using first-principles and model tight-binding calculations, we investigate the interface between the topological insulator Bi2Se3 and 3 d -transition ferromagnetic metals Ni and Co. We find that the difference in the work functions of the topological insulator and the ferromagnetic metals shift the topological surface states down about 0.5 eV below the Fermi energy where the hybridization of these surface states with the metal bands destroys their helical spin structure. The band alignment of Bi2Se3 and Ni (Co) places the Fermi energy far in the conduction band of bulk Bi2Se3 , where the spin of the carriers is aligned with the magnetization in the metal. Our results indicate that the topological surface states are unlikely to be responsible for the huge spin-orbit torque effect observed experimentally in these systems.

  7. Magnetic Field and Force Calculations for ATLAS Asymmetrical Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Nessi, Marzio

    2001-01-01

    Magnetic field distortion in the assymetrical ATLAS structure are calculated. Magnetic forces in the system are estimated. 3D magnetic field simulation by the Opera3D code for symmetrical and asymmetrical systems is used.

  8. A unified perspective of complex band structure: interpretations, formulations, and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Matthew G.

    2017-02-01

    Complex band structure generalizes conventional band structure by also considering wavevectors with complex components. In this way, complex band structure describes both the bulk-propagating states from conventional band structure and the evanescent states that grow or decay from one unit cell to the next. Even though these latter states are excluded by translational symmetry, they become important when translational symmetry is broken via, for example, a surface or impurity. Many studies over the last 80 years have directly or indirectly developed complex band structure for an impressive range of applications, but very few discuss its fundamentals or compare its various results. In this work we build upon these previous efforts to expose the physical foundation of complex band structure, which mathematically implies its existence. We find that a material’s static and dynamic electronic structure are both completely described by complex band structure. Furthermore, we show that complex band structure reflects the minimal, intrinsic information contained in the material’s Hamiltonian. These realizations then provide a context for comparing and unifying the different formulations and applications of complex band structure that have been reported over the years. Ultimately, this discussion introduces the idea of examining the amount of information contained in a material’s Hamiltonian so that we can find and exploit the minimal information necessary for understanding a material’s properties.

  9. Poly(aryl-ether-ether-ketone) as a Possible Metalized Film Capacitor Dielectric: Accurate Description of the Band Gap Through Ab Initio Calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Poly(aryl-ether-ether-ketone) as a Possible Metalized Film Capacitor Dielectric: Accurate Description of the Band Gap Through Ab Initio...Possible Metalized Film Capacitor Dielectric: Accurate Description of the Band Gap Through Ab Initio Calculation Janet Ho and Marco Olguin Sensors...a Possible Metalized Film Capacitor Dielectric: Accurate Description of the Band Gap Through Ab Initio Calculation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT

  10. True photonic band-gap mode-control in VCSEL structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romstad, F.; Madsen, M.; Birkedal, Dan;

    2003-01-01

    Photonic band-gap mode confinement in novel nano-structured large area VCSEL structures is confirmed by the amplified spontaneous emission spectrum. Both guide and anti-guide VCSEL structures are experimentally characterised to verify the photonic band-gap effect....

  11. Dynamical mean field theory-based electronic structure calculations for correlated materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biermann, Silke

    2014-01-01

    We give an introduction to dynamical mean field approaches to correlated materials. Starting from the concept of electronic correlation, we explain why a theoretical description of correlations in spectroscopic properties needs to go beyond the single-particle picture of band theory.We discuss the main ideas of dynamical mean field theory and its use within realistic electronic structure calculations, illustrated by examples of transition metals, transition metal oxides, and rare-earth compounds. Finally, we summarise recent progress on the calculation of effective Hubbard interactions and the description of dynamical screening effects in solids.

  12. Ab initio calculation of the crystalline structure and IR spectrum of polymers: nylon 6 polymorphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarti, Claudio; Milani, Alberto; Civalleri, Bartolomeo; Orlando, Roberto; Castiglioni, Chiara

    2012-07-19

    State-of-the-art computational methods in solid-state chemistry were applied to predict the structural and spectroscopic properties of the α and γ crystalline polymorphs of nylon 6. Density functional theory calculations augmented with an empirical dispersion correction (DFT-D) were used for the optimization of the two different crystal structures and of the isolated chains, characterized by a different regular conformation and described as one-dimensional infinite chains. The structural parameters of both crystalline polymorphs were correctly predicted, and new insight into the interplay of conformational effects, hydrogen bonding, and van der Waals interactions in affecting the properties of the crystal structures of polyamides was obtained. The calculated infrared spectra were compared to experimental data; based on computed vibrational eigenvectors, assignment of the infrared absorptions of the two nylon 6 polymorphs was carried out and critically analyzed in light of previous investigations. On the basis of a comparison of the computed and experimental IR spectra, a set of marker bands was identified and proposed as a tool for detecting and quantifying the presence of a given polymorph in a real sample: several marker bands employed in the past were confirmed, whereas some of the previous assignments are criticized. In addition, some new marker bands are proposed. The results obtained demonstrate that accurate computational techniques are now affordable for polymers characterization, opening the way to several applications of ab initio modeling to the study of many families of polymeric materials.

  13. Cohesive band structure of carbon nanotubes for applications in quantum transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Vijay K; Bhattacharyya, Arkaprava

    2013-11-21

    An integrated cohesive band structure of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) applicable to all chirality directions (n, m), starting from the Dirac cone of a graphene nanolayer in k-space, is demarcated, in direct contrast to dissimilar chiral and achiral versions in the published literature. The electron wave state of a CNT is quantized into one-dimensional (1-D) nanostructure with a wrapping mode, satisfying the boundary conditions from one Dirac K-point to an equivalent neighboring one with an identical phase and returning to the same K point. The repetitive rotation for an identical configuration with added band index (n-m)mod3, yields one metallic (M) with zero bandgap corresponding to (n-m)mod3 = 0, semiconducting state SC1 with (n-m)mod3 = 1 and SC2 with (n-m)mod3 = 2. The band gap and effective mass of SC2 state are twice as large as those of SC1 state. A broad-spectrum expression signifying the linear dependence of the effective mass on the bandgap is obtained. Both the Fermi energy and the intrinsic velocity limiting the current to the saturation level is calculated as a function of the carrier concentration. Limitations of the parabolic approximation are pointed out. Several new features of the band structure are acquired in a seamlessly unified mode for all CNTs, making it suitable for all-encompassing applications. Applications of the theory to high-field transport are advocated with an example of a metallic CNT, in agreement with experimental observations. The mechanism behind the breakdown of the linear current-voltage relation of Ohm's law and the associated surge in resistance are explained on the basis of the nonequilibrium Arora's distribution function (NEADF). These results are important for the performance evaluation and characterization of a variety of applications on CNT in modern nanoscale circuits and devices.

  14. Electronic Structure of Cu(tmdt2 Studied with First-Principles Calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyoyuki Terakura

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the electronic structure of Cu(tmdt2, a material related to single-component molecular conductors, by first-principles calculations. The total energy calculations for several different magnetic configurations show that there is strong antiferromagnetic (AFM exchange coupling along the crystal a-axis. The electronic structures are analyzed in terms of the molecular orbitals near the Fermi level of isolated Cu(tmdt2 molecule. This analysis reveals that the system is characterized by the half-filled pdσ(− band whose intermolecular hopping integrals have strong one-dimensionality along the crystal a-axis. As the exchange splitting of the band is larger than the band width, the basic mechanism of the AFM exchange coupling is the superexchange. It will also be shown that two more ligand orbitals which are fairly insensitive to magnetism are located near the Fermi level. Because of the presence of these orbitals, the present calculation predicts that Cu(tmdt2 is metallic even in its AFM state, being inconsistent with the available experiment. Some comments will be made on the difference between Cu(tmdt2 and Cu(dmdt2.

  15. Core levels, valence band structure and unoccupied states of clean InN surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Himmerlich, Marcel; Eisenhardt, Anja; Schaefer, Juergen A.; Krischok, Stefan [Institut fuer Physik and Institut fuer Mikro- und Nanotechnologien, TU Ilmenau (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    In this study we used a surface analytics system directly connected to a MBE growth module to study the surface properties of thin InN films. The samples were prepared by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy on GaN/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001) templates and exhibited a 2 x 2 reconstruction after growth. The prepared samples were analysed by photoelectron spectroscopy as well as electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). For the occupied states, a very good agreement to available theoretical calculations is found. Although, the valence band maximum is located at 1.6 eV, indicating strong downward band bending of {proportional_to}0.9 eV, photoemission is detected up to E{sub F}. This indicates that the Fermi level is pinned above the conduction band minimum, as recently predicted. The spin-orbit splitting of the In 4d level at 17.8 eV could be resolved using He II radiation. Furthermore, from the fine structure of the secondary electron cascade peak we extract the energy of different unoccupied states 0 eV to 9 eV above the vacuum level. These measurements enable us to identify features in the InN EELS spectra, with a loss energy larger than 16 eV, as interband transitions from the In 4d level.

  16. MODY - calculation of ordered structures by symmetry-adapted functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Białas, Franciszek; Pytlik, Lucjan; Sikora, Wiesława

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we focus on the new version of computer program MODY for calculations of symmetryadapted functions based on the theory of groups and representations. The choice of such a functional frame of coordinates for description of ordered structures leads to a minimal number of parameters which must be used for presentation of such structures and investigations of their properties. The aim of this work is to find those parameters, which are coefficients of a linear combination of calculated functions, leading to construction of different types of structure ordering with a given symmetry. A spreadsheet script for simplification of this work has been created and attached to the program.

  17. X-band Dielectric Loaded Rf Driven Accelerator Structures Theoretical And Experimental Investigations

    CERN Document Server

    Zou, P

    2001-01-01

    An important area of application of high-power radio frequency (RF) and microwave sources is particle acceleration. A major challenge for the current worldwide research and development effort in linear accelerator is the search for a compact and affordable very-high-energy accelerator technology for the next generation supercolliders. It has been recognized for sometime that dielectric loaded accelerator structures are attractive candidates for the next generation very-high-energy linear accelerators, because they possess several distinct advantages over conventional metallic iris- loaded accelerator structures. However, some fundamental issues, such as RF breakdown in the dielectric, Joule heating, and vacuum properties of dielectric materials, are still the subjects of intense investigation, requiring the validation by experiments conducted at high power levels. An X-band traveling-wave accelerator based on dielectric-lined waveguide has been designed and constructed. Numerical calculation, bench measuremen...

  18. Two-dimensional silica: Structural, mechanical properties, and strain-induced band gap tuning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Enlai; Xie, Bo [Applied Mechanics Laboratory, Department of Engineering Mechanics, and Center for Nano and Micro Mechanics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Xu, Zhiping, E-mail: xuzp@tsinghua.edu.cn [Applied Mechanics Laboratory, Department of Engineering Mechanics, and Center for Nano and Micro Mechanics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); State Key Laboratory of Mechanics and Control of Mechanical Structures, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China)

    2016-01-07

    Two-dimensional silica is of rising interests not only for its practical applications as insulating layers in nanoelectronics, but also as a model material to understand crystals and glasses. In this study, we examine structural and electronic properties of hexagonal and haeckelite phases of silica bilayers by performing first-principles calculations. We find that the corner-sharing SiO{sub 4} tetrahedrons in these two phases are locally similar. The robustness and resilience of these tetrahedrons under mechanical perturbation allow effective strain engineering of the electronic structures with band gaps covering a very wide range, from of that for insulators, to wide-, and even narrow-gap semiconductors. These findings suggest that the flexible 2D silica holds great promises in developing nanoelectronic devices with strain-tunable performance, and lay the ground for the understanding of crystalline and vitreous phases in 2D, where bilayer silica provides an ideal test-bed.

  19. Ab-initio calculations of electronic structure and optical properties of TiAl alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Altaf; Sikandar Hayat, Sardar; Choudhry, M. A.

    2011-05-01

    The electronic structures and optical properties of TiAl intermetallic alloy system are studied by the first-principle orthogonalized linear combination of atomic orbitals method. Results on the band structure, total and partial density of states, localization index, effective atomic charges, and optical conductivity are presented and discussed in detail. Total density of states spectra reveal that (near the Fermi level) the majority of the contribution is from Ti-3d states. The effective charge calculations show an average charge transfer of 0.52 electrons from Ti to Al in primitive cell calculations of TiAl alloy. On the other hand, calculations using supercell approach reveal an average charge transfer of 0.48 electrons from Ti to Al. The localization index calculations, of primitive cell as well as of supercell, show the presence of relatively localized states even above the Fermi level for this alloy. The calculated optical conductivity spectra of TiAl alloy are rich in structures, showing the highest peak at 5.73 eV for supercell calculations. Calculations of the imaginary part of the linear dielectric function show a prominent peak at 5.71 eV and a plateau in the range 1.1-3.5 eV.

  20. Dipole Strength Calculation Based on Two-Level System Approximation to Study Q/B-Band Intensity Ratio of ZnTBP in Solvent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusydi, Febdian; Shukri, Ganes; Saputro, Adithya G.; Agusta, Mohammad K.; Dipojono, Hermawan K.; Suprijadi, Suprijadi

    2017-04-01

    We study the Q/B-band dipole strength of zinc tetrabenzoporphyrin (ZnTBP) using density functional theory (DFT) in various solvents. The solvents are modeled using the polarized continuum model (PCM). The dipole strength calculations are approached by a two-level system, where the Q-band is described by the HOMO → LUMO electronic transition and the B-band by the HOMO-1 → LUMO electronic transition. We compare the results with the experimental data of the Q/B-band intensity ratio. We also perform time-dependent DFT coupled with PCM to calculate the Q/B-band oscillator strength ratio of ZnTBP. The results of both methods show a general trend with respect to the experimental Q/B-band intensity ratio in solvents, except for the calculation in the water solvent. Even so, the approximation is a good starting point for studying the UV-vis spectrum based on DFT study alone.

  1. Theoretical and Experimental Study of the Crystal Structures, Lattice Vibrations, and Band Structures of Monazite-Type PbCrO4, PbSeO4, SrCrO4, and SrSeO4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errandonea, Daniel; Muñoz, Alfonso; Rodríguez-Hernández, Placida; Proctor, John E; Sapiña, Fernando; Bettinelli, Marco

    2015-08-03

    The crystal structures, lattice vibrations, and electronic band structures of PbCrO4, PbSeO4, SrCrO4, and SrSeO4 were studied by ab initio calculations, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and optical-absorption measurements. Calculations properly describe the crystal structures of the four compounds, which are isomorphic to the monazite structure and were confirmed by X-ray diffraction. Information is also obtained on the Raman- and IR-active phonons, with all of the vibrational modes assigned. In addition, the band structures and electronic densities of states of the four compounds were determined. All are indirect-gap semiconductors. In particular, chromates are found to have band gaps smaller than 2.5 eV and selenates higher than 4.3 eV. In the chromates (selenates), the upper part of the valence band is dominated by O 2p states and the lower part of the conduction band is composed primarily of electronic states associated with the Cr 3d and O 2p (Se 4s and O 2p) states. Calculations also show that the band gap of PbCrO4 (PbSeO4) is smaller than the band gap of SrCrO4 (SrSeO4). This phenomenon is caused by Pb states, which, to some extent, also contribute to the top of the valence band and the bottom of the conduction band. The agreement between experiments and calculations is quite good; however, the band gaps are underestimated by calculations, with the exception of the bang gap of SrCrO4, for which theory and calculations agree. Calculations also provide predictions of the bulk modulus of the studied compounds.

  2. Applicability of the wide-band limit in DFT-based molecular transport calculations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verzijl, C.J.O.; Seldenthuis, J.S.; Thijssen, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Transport properties of molecular junctions are notoriously expensive to calculate with ab initio methods, primarily due to the semi-infinite electrodes. This has led to the introduction of different approximation schemes for the electrodes. For the most popular metals used in experiments, such as g

  3. Approaches to calculate the dielectric function of ZnO around the band gap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agocs, E., E-mail: agocs.emil@ttk.mta.hu [Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science (MFA), Research Center for Natural Sciences, Konkoly Thege Rd. 29-33, 1121 Budapest (Hungary); Doctoral School of Molecular- and Nanotechnologies, Faculty of Information Technology, University of Pannonia, Egyetem u. 10, 8200 Veszprem (Hungary); Fodor, B. [Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science (MFA), Research Center for Natural Sciences, Konkoly Thege Rd. 29-33, 1121 Budapest (Hungary); Faculty of Science, University of Pécs, 7624 Pécs, Ifjuság útja 6 (Hungary); Pollakowski, B.; Beckhoff, B.; Nutsch, A. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Abbestr. 2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany); Jank, M. [Fraunhofer Institute for Integrated Systems and Device Technology, Schottkystrasse 10, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Petrik, P. [Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science (MFA), Research Center for Natural Sciences, Konkoly Thege Rd. 29-33, 1121 Budapest (Hungary); Doctoral School of Molecular- and Nanotechnologies, Faculty of Information Technology, University of Pannonia, Egyetem u. 10, 8200 Veszprem (Hungary)

    2014-11-28

    Being one of the most sensitive methods for optical thin film metrology ellipsometry is widely used for the characterization of zinc oxide (ZnO), a key material for optoelectronics, photovoltaics, and printable electronics and in a range of critical applications. The dielectric function of ZnO has a special feature around the band gap dominated by a relatively sharp absorption feature and an excitonic peak. In this work we summarize and compare direct (point-by-point) and parametric approaches for the description of the dielectric function. We also investigate how the choice of the wavelength range influences the result, the fit quality and the sensitivity. Results on ZnO layers prepared by sputtering are presented. - Highlights: • Dielectric function of zinc oxide thin film measured by spectroscopic ellipsometry • Direct and parametric approaches summarized and compared • Influence of chosen wavelength range on fit results investigated.

  4. Theoretical study of relative width of photonic band gap for the 3-D dielectric structure

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G K Johri; Akhilesh Tiwari; Saumya Saxena; Rajesh Sharma; Kuldeep Srivastava; Manoj Johri

    2002-03-01

    Calculations for the relative width (/0) as a function of refractive index and relative radius of the photonic band gap for the fcc closed packed 3-D dielectric microstructure are reported and comparison of experimental observations and theoretical predictions are given. This work is useful for the understanding of photonic crystals and occurrence of the photonic band gap.

  5. Interfacial Properties of Monolayer and Bilayer MoS2 Contacts with Metals: Beyond the Energy Band Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Hongxia; Quhe, Ruge; Wang, Yangyang; Ni, Zeyuan; Ye, Meng; Song, Zhigang; Pan, Yuanyuan; Yang, Jinbo; Yang, Li; Lei, Ming; Shi, Junjie; Lu, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Although many prototype devices based on two-dimensional (2D) MoS2 have been fabricated and wafer scale growth of 2D MoS2 has been realized, the fundamental nature of 2D MoS2-metal contacts has not been well understood yet. We provide a comprehensive ab initio study of the interfacial properties of a series of monolayer (ML) and bilayer (BL) MoS2-metal contacts (metal = Sc, Ti, Ag, Pt, Ni, and Au). A comparison between the calculated and observed Schottky barrier heights (SBHs) suggests that many-electron effects are strongly suppressed in channel 2D MoS2 due to a charge transfer. The extensively adopted energy band calculation scheme fails to reproduce the observed SBHs in 2D MoS2-Sc interface. By contrast, an ab initio quantum transport device simulation better reproduces the observed SBH in 2D MoS2-Sc interface and highlights the importance of a higher level theoretical approach beyond the energy band calculation in the interface study. BL MoS2-metal contacts generally have a reduced SBH than ML MoS2-metal contacts due to the interlayer coupling and thus have a higher electron injection efficiency.

  6. Infrared spectral evidence and DFT calculations of hydrogen-bonding and molecular structures of acetogenins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, Sabrina; Silva, Fabiano B.; Silva, Arnaldo F.; Scarminio, Ieda S.; Bruns, Roy E.

    2017-02-01

    FTIR spectra have been measured for 31 different five component - simplex centroid design solvent mixture extracts of shaded and sun-exposed Annonaceous leaves harvested in all four seasons. The spectral frequencies are characteristic of anonnaceous acetogenins known to be a major component of these leaves. Osbnd H stretching spectral bands in the 3100-3600 cm-1 region provide evidence of notable intensity changes for the shaded and sun-exposed leaves. Chemometric principal component analysis involving 264 spectra show that shaded samples tend to have more intense Osbnd H stretching bands than those grown in the sun. B3LYP density functional calculations indicate significant Osbnd H stretching band changes in this region owing to hydrogen bond formation. Weak Osbnd H intensity enhancements, around 40 km mol-1, occur when an Osbnd H group forms a hydrogen bond with the oxygen atom of an adjacent tetrahydrofuran ring oxygen atom. Much more intense enhancements, 400-500 km mol-1, are predicted to occur for acetogenins with two tetrahydrofuran rings for which the Osbnd H group hydrogen bonds with its fartherest removed tetrahydrofuran ring oxygen. Whereas weak or moderate H-bond stretching intensities are obtained for acetogenins with slightly bent carbon chain structures the strongest hydrogen bond intensities are calculated for molecules with a 45° V-type backbone structure. These important structural modifications as well as significant changes in bond lengths and angles owing to hydrogen bonding are detailed.

  7. Vibronic-structure tracking: A shortcut for vibrationally resolved UV/Vis-spectra calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barton, Dennis; König, Carolin; Neugebauer, Johannes, E-mail: j.neugebauer@uni-muenster.de [Theoretische Organische Chemie, Organisch-Chemisches Institut and Center for Multiscale Theory and Computation, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Corrensstraße 40, 48149 Münster (Germany)

    2014-10-28

    The vibrational coarse structure and the band shapes of electronic absorption spectra are often dominated by just a few molecular vibrations. By contrast, the simulation of the vibronic structure even in the simplest theoretical models usually requires the calculation of the entire set of normal modes of vibration. Here, we exploit the idea of the mode-tracking protocol [M. Reiher and J. Neugebauer, J. Chem. Phys. 118, 1634 (2003)] in order to directly target and selectively calculate those normal modes which have the largest effect on the vibronic band shape for a certain electronic excitation. This is achieved by defining a criterion for the importance of a normal mode to the vibrational progressions in the absorption band within the so-called “independent mode, displaced harmonic oscillator” (IMDHO) model. We use this approach for a vibronic-structure investigation for several small test molecules as well as for a comparison of the vibronic absorption spectra of a truncated chlorophyll a model and the full chlorophyll a molecule. We show that the method allows to go beyond the often-used strategy to simulate absorption spectra based on broadened vertical excitation peaks with just a minimum of computational effort, which in case of chlorophyll a corresponds to about 10% of the cost for a full simulation within the IMDHO approach.

  8. Photonic band gap of one-dimensional periodic structure containing dispersive left-handed metamaterials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhanshan Wang; Tian Sang; Fengli Wang; Yonggang Wu; Lingyan Chen

    2008-01-01

    Band structures of one-dimensional(1D)photonic crystals(PCs)containing dispersive left-handed metamaterials are studied theoretically.The results show that the structure possesses a type of photonic band gap originating from total internal reflection(TIR).In contrast to photonic band gaps corresponding to zero average refractive index and zero phase.the TIR gap exhibits sharp angular effect and has no polarization effect.It should also be noted that band structures of transverse electric(TE) and transverse magnetic(TM) mode waves are exactly the same in the PCs we studied.

  9. Band Structures of $^{182}Os$ Studied by GCM based on 3D-CHFB

    CERN Document Server

    Horibata, T; Onishi, N; Ansari, A; Horibata, Takatoshi; Oi, Makito; Onishi, Naoki; Ansari, Ahmad

    1999-01-01

    Band structure properties of $^{182}$Os are investigated through a particle number and angular momentum constrained generator coordinate(GCM) calculation based on self-consistent three-dimensional cranking solutions. From the analysis of the wave function of the lowest GCM solution, we confirm that this nucleus shows a tilted rotational motion in its yrast states, at least with the present set of force parameters of the pairing-plus-quadrupole interaction Hamiltonian. A close examination of behavior of other GCM solutions reveals a sign of a possible occurrence of multi-band crossing in the nucleus. Furthermore, in the course of calculations, we have also found a new potential curve along the prime meridian on the globe of the $J=18\\hbar$ sphere. Along this new solution the characters of proton and neutron gap parameters get interchanged. Namely, $\\Delta_p$ almost vanishes while $\\Delta_n$ grows to a finite value close to the one corresponding to the principal axis rotation(PAR). A state in the new solution c...

  10. Experimental and theoretical investigations of the electronic band structure of metal-organic frameworks of HKUST-1 type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Zhi-Gang [Institut für Funktionelle Grenzflächen (IFG), Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 350002 Fuzhou (China); Heinke, Lars, E-mail: Lars.Heinke@KIT.edu; Wöll, Christof [Institut für Funktionelle Grenzflächen (IFG), Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Neumann, Tobias; Wenzel, Wolfgang; Li, Qiang; Fink, Karin [Institute of Nanotechnology (INT), Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Gordan, Ovidiu D.; Zahn, Dietrich R. T. [Semiconductor Physics, Technische Universität Chemnitz, 09107 Chemnitz (Germany)

    2015-11-02

    The electronic properties of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are increasingly attracting the attention due to potential applications in sensor techniques and (micro-) electronic engineering, for instance, as low-k-dielectric in semiconductor technology. Here, the band gap and the band structure of MOFs of type HKUST-1 are studied in detail by means of spectroscopic ellipsometry applied to thin surface-mounted MOF films and by means of quantum chemical calculations. The analysis of the density of states, the band structure, and the excitation spectrum reveal the importance of the empty Cu-3d orbitals for the electronic properties of HKUST-1. This study shows that, in contrast to common belief, even in the case of this fairly “simple” MOF, the excitation spectra cannot be explained by a superposition of “intra-unit” excitations within the individual building blocks. Instead, “inter-unit” excitations also have to be considered.

  11. Design and analysis of defected ground structure transformer for dual-band antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai-Wa Choi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a novel dual-band antenna design methodology utilising a dual-frequency impedance transformer with defected ground structure (DGS. The proposed dual-frequency DGS impedance transformer generates a second resonant frequency from a conventional single-band antenna, resulting dual-band operation. Simulation studies illustrate that the adopted design achieves versatile configurations for arbitrary operating frequencies and diverse input impedance ranges in planar antenna structures. To experimentally verify the proposed design methodology, a dual-frequency DGS impedance transformer was implemented for a 2.4 GHz monopole antenna to obtain a 900/2400 MHz dual-band antenna. Measurement shows that the 10 dB return loss bandwidth in 900 MHz band is 34.4 MHz, whereas that in 2400 MHz band is wider than 530 MHz. Typical monopole radiation patterns are observed at both operating bands.

  12. New bismuth borophosphate Bi{sub 4}BPO{sub 10}: Synthesis, crystal structure, optical and band structure analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babitsky, Nicolay A.; Leshok, Darya Y.; Mikhaleva, Natalia S. [Siberian Federal University, 79 Svobodny Av, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 (Russian Federation); Kuzubov, Aleksandr A., E-mail: alexkuzubov@gmail.com [Siberian Federal University, 79 Svobodny Av, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 (Russian Federation); Institute of Physics SB RAS, Krasnoyarsk 660036 (Russian Federation); Zhereb, Vladimir P. [Siberian Federal University, 79 Svobodny Av, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 (Russian Federation); Kirik, Sergei D., E-mail: kiriksd@yandex.ru [Siberian Federal University, 79 Svobodny Av, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 (Russian Federation)

    2015-08-01

    New bismuth borophosphate Bi{sub 4}BPO{sub 10} was obtained by spontaneous crystallization from the melt of correspondent composition at 804 °C. Crystal structure with orthorhombic lattice parameters: a = 22.5731(3) Å, b = 14.0523(2) Å, c = 5.5149(1) Å, V = 1749.34(4), Z = 8, SG Pcab was determined by X-ray powder diffraction technique. The [Bi{sub 2}O{sub 2}]{sup 2+} -layers, which are typical for bismuth oxide compounds, transform into cationic endless strips of 4 bismuth atoms width directed along the c-axis in Bi{sub 4}BPO{sub 10}. The strips combining stacks are separated by flat triangle [BO{sub 3}]{sup 3−} -anions within stacks. Neighboring stacks are separated by tetrahedral [PO{sub 4}]{sup 3−}-anions and shifted relatively to each other. Bismuth atoms are placed in 5–7 vertex oxygen irregular polyhedra. Bi{sub 4}BPO{sub 10} is stable up to 812 °C, then melts according to the peritectic law. The absorption spectrum in the range 350–700 nm was obtained and the width of the forbidden band was estimated as 3.46 eV. The band electronic structure of Bi{sub 4}BPO{sub 10} was modeled using DFT approach. The calculated band gap (3.56 eV) is in good agreement with the experimentally obtained data. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • New bismuth borophosphate with composition Bi{sub 4}BPO{sub 10} was synthesized. • The crystal structure was determined by X-ray powder diffraction technique. • Bismuth-oxygen part [Bi{sub 4}O{sub 3}]{sup 6+} forms endless strips of 4 bismuth atoms width. • Electronic structure was modeled by DFT method. • The calculated band gap (3.56 eV) is very close to the experimental one (3.46 eV)

  13. The spin polarized band structure of strained thin films of gadolinium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldfried, C.; Dowben, P.A. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States); Vescovo, E. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). National Synchrotron Light Source

    1998-12-31

    The magnetic properties of strained thin films of gadolinium are characterized by a wave vector and thickness dependence of the exchange splitting. The spin-resolved band structure has been mapped by spin polarized photoemission, and provides considerable insight into the relationship between magnetism of local moment systems, and band structure.

  14. Phase stability, electronic structure and equation of state of cubic TcN from first-principles calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, T., E-mail: songting_lzjtu@yeah.net [School of Mathematics and Physics, Lanzhou Jiaotong University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); School of Material Science and Engineering, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050 (China); Ma, Q. [School of Material Science and Engineering, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050 (China); Sun, X.W., E-mail: xsun@carnegiescience.edu [School of Mathematics and Physics, Lanzhou Jiaotong University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, DC 20015 (United States); Liu, Z.J., E-mail: liuzj_lzcu@163.com [School of Mathematics and Physics, Lanzhou Jiaotong University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Department of Physics, Lanzhou City University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Fu, Z.J. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Chongqing University of Arts and Sciences, Chongqing 402160 (China); Wei, X.P.; Wang, T.; Tian, J.H. [School of Mathematics and Physics, Lanzhou Jiaotong University, Lanzhou 730070 (China)

    2016-09-07

    The phase transition, electronic band structure, and equation of state (EOS) of cubic TcN are investigated by first-principles pseudopotential method based on density-functional theory. The calculated enthalpies show that TcN has a transformation between zincblende and rocksalt phases and the pressure determined by the relative enthalpy is 32 GPa. The calculated band structure indicates the metallic feature and it might make cubic TcN a better candidate for hard materials. Particular attention is paid to the predictions of volume, bulk modulus and its pressure derivative which play a central role in the formulation of approximate EOSs using the quasi-harmonic Debye model. - Highlights: • The phase transition pressure and electronic band structure for cubic TcN are determined. • Particular attention is paid to investigate the equation of state parameters for cubic TcN. • The thermodynamic properties up to 80 GPa and 3000 K are successfully predicted.

  15. Birefringence and band structure of CdP{sub 2} crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beril, S.I.; Stamov, I.G. [Tiraspol State Corporative University, Yablocikin Street 5, 2069 Tiraspol, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of); Syrbu, N.N., E-mail: sirbunn@yahoo.com [Technical University of Moldova, 168 Stefan cel Mare Avenue, 2004 Chisinau, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of); Zalamai, V.V. [Institute of Applied Physics, Academy of Sciences of Moldova, 5 Academy Street, 2028 Chisinau, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of)

    2013-08-01

    The spatial dispersion in CdP{sub 2} crystals was investigated. The dispersion is positive (n{sup k||c}>n{sup k||y}) at λ>λ{sub 0} and negative (n{sup k||c}bands. Minimal direct energy intervals correspond to transitions Γ{sub 1}→Γ{sub 1} for E{sup ||}c and Γ{sub 2}→Γ{sub 1} for E⊥c. The temperature coefficient of energy gap sifting in the case of temperature changing between 2 and 4.2 K equals to 10.6 meV/K and 3.2 mev/K for Γ{sub 1}→Γ{sub 1} and Γ{sub 2}→Γ{sub 1} band gap correspondingly. Reflectivity spectra were measured for energy interval 1.5–10 eV and optical functions (n, k, ε{sub 1}, ε{sub 2,}d{sup 2}ε{sub 1}/dE{sup 2} and d{sup 2}ε{sub 2}/dE{sup 2}) were calculated by using Kramers–Kronig analyses. All features were interpreted as optical transitions on the basis of both theoretical calculations of band structure.

  16. Coulomb correlation effects in the quasiparticle band structure of ferromagnetic rare-earth insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolting, W.; Borgiel, W.; Borstel, G.

    1988-05-01

    We present a method for calculating the temperature dependence of the electronic quasiparticle density of states (QDOS) of a ferromagnetic rare-earth insulator like EuO. Special attention is devoted to how the ``localized'' ferromagnetism manifests itself in x-ray photoemission and bremsstrahlung isochromat spectra. Our study includes the first six conduction bands of EuO (the first five are Eu 5d like, the sixth is mainly of Eu 6s character) as well as the rather flat 4f levels. The starting point is an extended d-f exchange model, the main parts of which are an exchange interaction between 4f moments and conduction electrons, a Coulomb repulsion between highly correlated 4f electrons, and a hybridization of 4f with conduction-band states. We use an exact T=0 relationship between spin-up quasiparticle energies and one-electron Bloch energies ɛm(k) for an optimal determination of the latter by performing a self-consistent, spin-polarized band-structure calculation based on density-functional theory. For finite temperatures the model is approximately solved by a many-body procedure. The QDOS exhibits a striking temperature dependence mainly due to the d-f exchange. Two 4f-like peaks appear in the spin-polarized QDOS, the low-energy one being occupied, the high-energy one being empty. The temperature dependence of the localized ferromagnetism appears in the QDOS as a temperature-dependent shift of spectral weight between the low- and the high-energy peak.

  17. Comparative studies in method for stratigraphical structure measurement of ice cores: Identification of cloudy bands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Morimasa Takata; Hitoshi Shoji; Atsushi Miyamoto; Kimiko Shimohara

    2003-01-01

    Cloudy bands are typical stratigraphic structure in deep ice core.Detailed recording of cloudy bands is important for dating of ice core since pair of series cloudy band and clear layer is corresponds to annual layer and it sometimes corresponds to volcanic ash layer.We developed two type scanners, transmitted light method and laser tomograph method for the stratigraphic study.Measurements were carried out for NGRIP deep ice core, which containing many cloudy bands, using the two type scanners and digital camera.We discussed about the possibility of identification of cloudy bands by each method and about advantage and disadvantage of measurements and their results.

  18. Band structures of TiO2 doped with N, C and B*

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    This study on the band structures and charge densities of nitrogen (N)-, carbon (C)- and boron (B)-doped titanium dioxide (TiO2) by first-principles simulation with the CASTEP code (Segall et al., 2002) showed that the three 2p bands of impurity atom are located above the valence-band maximum and below the Ti 3d bands, and that along with the decreasing of impurity atomic number, the fluctuations become more intensive. We cannot observe obvious band-gap narrowing in our result. Therefore, the...

  19. Band structure of Heusler compounds studied by photoemission and tunneling spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbelo Jorge, Elena

    2011-07-01

    Heusler compounds are key materials for spintronic applications. They have attracted a lot of interest due to their half-metallic properties predicted by band structure calculations. The aim of this work is to evaluate experimentally the validity of the predictions of half metallicity by band structure calculations for two specific Heusler compounds, Co{sub 2}FeAl{sub 0.3}Si{sub 0.7} and Co{sub 2}MnGa. Two different spectroscopy methods for the analysis of the electronic properties were used: Angular Resolved Ultraviolet Photoemission Spectroscopy (ARUPS) and Tunneling Spectroscopy. Heusler compounds are prepared as thin films by RF-sputtering in an ultra high vacuum system. For the characterization of the samples, bulk and surface crystallographic and magnetic properties of Co{sub 2}FeAl{sub 0.3}Si{sub 0.7} and Co{sub 2}MnGa are studied. X-ray and electron diffraction reveal a bulk and surface crossover between two different types of sublattice order (from B2 to L2{sub 1}) with increasing annealing temperature. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism results show that the magnetic properties in the surface and bulk are identical, although the magnetic moments obtained are 5 % below from the theoretically predicted. By ARUPS evidence for the validity of the predicted total bulk density of states (DOS) was demonstrated for both Heusler compounds. Additional ARUPS intensity contributions close to the Fermi energy indicates the presence of a specific surface DOS. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the crystallographic order, controlled by annealing, plays an important role on broadening effects of DOS features. Improving order resulted in better defined ARUPS features. Tunneling magnetoresistance measurements of Co{sub 2}FeAl{sub 0.3}Si{sub 0.7} and Co{sub 2}MnGa based MTJ's result in a Co{sub 2}FeAl{sub 0.3}Si{sub 0.7} spin polarization of 44 %, which is the highest experimentally obtained value for this compound, although it is lower than the 100 % predicted. For Co

  20. Physical properties and electronic band structure of noncentrosymmetric Th7Co3 superconductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahakyan, M; Tran, V H

    2016-05-25

    The physical properties of the noncentrosymmetric superconductor Th7Co3 have been investigated by means of ac-magnetic susceptibility, magnetization, specific heat, electrical resistivity, magnetoresistance and Hall effect measurements. From these data it is established that Th7Co3 is a dirty type-II superconductor with [Formula: see text] K, [Formula: see text] and moderate electron-phonon coupling [Formula: see text]. Some evidences for anisotropic superconducting gap are found, including e.g. reduced specific heat jump ([Formula: see text]) at T c, diminished superconducting energy gap ([Formula: see text]) as compared to the BCS values, power law field dependence of the Sommerfeld coefficient at 0.4 K ([Formula: see text]), and a concave curvature of the [Formula: see text] line. The magnitudes of the thermodynamic critical field and the energy gap are consistent with mean-squared anisotropy parameter [Formula: see text]. The electronic specific heat in the superconducting state is reasonably fitted to an oblate spheroidal gap model. Calculations of scalar relativistic and fully relativistic electronic band structures reveal considerable differences in the degenerate structure, resulting from asymmetric spin-orbit coupling (ASOC). A large splitting energy of spin-up spin-down bands at the Fermi level E F, [Formula: see text] meV is observed and a sizeable ratio [Formula: see text] could classify the studied compound into the class of noncentrosymmetric superconductors with strong ASOC. The noncentrosymmetry of the crystal structure and the atomic relativistic effects are both responsible for an importance of ASOC in Th7Co3. The calculated results for the density of states show a Van Hove singularity just below E F and dominant role of the 6d electrons of Th to the superconductivity.

  1. Vibrational and structural study of onopordopicrin based on the FTIR spectrum and DFT calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chain, Fernando E; Romano, Elida; Leyton, Patricio; Paipa, Carolina; Catalán, César A N; Fortuna, Mario; Brandán, Silvia Antonia

    2015-01-01

    In the present work, the structural and vibrational properties of the sesquiterpene lactone onopordopicrin (OP) were studied by using infrared spectroscopy and density functional theory (DFT) calculations together with the 6-31G(∗) basis set. The harmonic vibrational wavenumbers for the optimized geometry were calculated at the same level of theory. The complete assignment of the observed bands in the infrared spectrum was performed by combining the DFT calculations with Pulay's scaled quantum mechanical force field (SQMFF) methodology. The comparison between the theoretical and experimental infrared spectrum demonstrated good agreement. Then, the results were used to predict the Raman spectrum. Additionally, the structural properties of OP, such as atomic charges, bond orders, molecular electrostatic potentials, characteristics of electronic delocalization and topological properties of the electronic charge density were evaluated by natural bond orbital (NBO), atoms in molecules (AIM) and frontier orbitals studies. The calculated energy band gap and the chemical potential (μ), electronegativity (χ), global hardness (η), global softness (S) and global electrophilicity index (ω) descriptors predicted for OP low reactivity, higher stability and lower electrophilicity index as compared with the sesquiterpene lactone cnicin containing similar rings.

  2. Electronic structures and optical properties induced by silicon twin boundaries: The first-principle calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, X.X.; Liu, L.Z. [Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, MOE, Institute of Acoustics and Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Wu, X.L., E-mail: hkxlwu@nju.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, MOE, Institute of Acoustics and Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Department of Physics, NingBo University, NingBo 315301 (China); Chu, Paul K. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2015-07-03

    The defect states and optical absorption enhancement induced by twin boundaries in silicon are investigated by first-principle calculation. The defect states in the forbidden bands are identified and based on the established electronic structures, the dielectric functions and absorption coefficients are derived. An important result of our calculations is that visible light absorption by the twinning configuration is enhanced significantly, indicating that twinning structures possibly play an important role in silicon-based photovoltaic devices. - Highlights: • Defect states and optical absorption enhancement induced by twin boundaries in silicon are investigated theoretically. • Dielectric functions and absorption coefficients are derived. • Enhanced visible light absorption by the twinning configuration is demonstrated. • Twinning structures play an important role in silicon-based photovoltaic devices.

  3. Crystal and electronic structures of substituted halide perovskites based on density functional calculation and molecular dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaba, Hiromitsu; Kimura, Shou; Alam, Md. Khorshed

    2017-03-01

    Durability of organo-lead halide perovskite are important issue for its practical application in a solar cells. In this study, using density functional theory (DFT) and molecular dynamics, we theoretically investigated a crystal structure, electronic structure, and ionic diffusivity of the partially substituted cubic MA0.5X0.5PbI3 (MA = CH3NH3+, X = NH4+ or (NH2)2CH+ or Cs+). Our calculation results indicate that a partial substitution of MA induces a lattice distortion, resulting in preventing MA or X from the diffusion between A sites in the perovskite. DFT calculations show that electronic structures of the investigated partially substituted perovskites were similar with that of MAPbI3, while their bandgaps slightly decrease compared to that of MAPbI3. Our results mean that partial substitution in halide perovskite is effective technique to suppress diffusion of intrinsic ions and tune the band gap.

  4. Crystal structure re-investigation in wide band gap CIGSe compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souilah, M. [Institut des Materiaux Jean Rouxel, Universite de Nantes, CNRS, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, BP 32229, 44322 Nantes Cedex 03 (France)], E-mail: marc.souilah@cnrs-imn.fr; Rocquefelte, X.; Lafond, A.; Guillot-Deudon, C. [Institut des Materiaux Jean Rouxel, Universite de Nantes, CNRS, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, BP 32229, 44322 Nantes Cedex 03 (France); Morniroli, J.-P. [Laboratoire de Metallurgie Physique et Genie des Materiaux, UMR CNRS 8517, USTL and ENSCL, Bat C6, Cite Scientifique, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Kessler, J. [Institut des Materiaux Jean Rouxel, Universite de Nantes, CNRS, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, BP 32229, 44322 Nantes Cedex 03 (France)

    2009-02-02

    There is agreement in the literature that Cu(In{sub 1} {sub -} {sub x}Ga{sub x})Se{sub 2} (CIGSe) absorber used in solar cells has an optimum composition (x {approx} 0.3) corresponding to a band gap (1.1-1.2 eV) far below the theoretical value giving the maximum (1.4-1.5 eV). This paper presents a re-investigation of the crystal structure of bulk CIGSe compounds for both stoichiometric and Cu-poor compositions. Regardless of the gallium content, all the stoichiometric compounds are found to adopt the well-known chalcopyrite structure (space group I-42d) while a modification of the structure is evidenced for the high Ga-content Cu-poor compounds. The X-ray diffraction analyses demonstrate that the crystal structure of Cu{sub 0.743}In{sub 0.543} Ga{sub 0.543}Se{sub 2} is derived from that of the stannite structure (space-group I-42m). Ab-initio calculations show a strong dependence of the electronic structure near the Fermi level with the copper content. Such modifications are expected to significantly change the optical properties of Cu-poor CIGSe materials.

  5. Gate-Tunable Band Structure of the LaAlO3 -SrTi O3 Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smink, A. E. M.; de Boer, J. C.; Stehno, M. P.; Brinkman, A.; van der Wiel, W. G.; Hilgenkamp, H.

    2017-03-01

    The two-dimensional electron system at the interface between LaAlO3 and SrTiO3 has several unique properties that can be tuned by an externally applied gate voltage. In this work, we show that this gate tunability extends to the effective band structure of the system. We combine a magnetotransport study on top-gated Hall bars with self-consistent Schrödinger-Poisson calculations and observe a Lifshitz transition at a density of 2.9 ×1 013cm-2 . Above the transition, the carrier density of one of the conducting bands decreases with increasing gate voltage. This surprising decrease is accurately reproduced in the calculations if electronic correlations are included. These results provide a clear, intuitive picture of the physics governing the electronic structure at complex-oxide interfaces.

  6. Infinitesimal cranking for triaxial angular-momentum-projected configuration-mixing calculations and its application to the γ vibrational band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagami, Shingo; Shimizu, Yoshifumi R.

    2016-02-01

    Inclusion of time-odd components into the wave function is important for a reliable description of rotational motion by the angular-momentum-projection method; the cranking procedure with infinitesimal rotational frequency is an efficient way to realize it. In the present work we investigate the effect of this infinitesimal cranking for a triaxially deformed nucleus, where there are three independent cranking axes. It is found that the effects of cranking about three axes on the triaxial energy spectrum are quite different and inclusion of all of them considerably modifies the resultant spectrum from the one obtained without cranking. Employing the Gogny D1S force as an effective interaction, we apply the method to the calculation of the multiple γ vibrational bands in 164Er as a typical example, where the angular-momentum-projected configuration mixing with respect to the triaxial shape degree of freedom is performed. With this method, both the K =0 and the K =4 two-phonon γ vibrational bands are obtained with considerable anharmonicity. Reasonably good agreement, though not perfect, is obtained for both the spectrum and transition probabilities with rather small average triaxial deformation γ ≈9∘ for the ground-state rotational band. The relation to the wobbling motion at high-spin states is also briefly discussed.

  7. Further improvements in program to calculate electronic properties of narrow band gap materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, James D.

    1992-01-01

    The tasks that we have accomplished are discussed. An extra task was a calculation comparing electron mobilities in Mercury Manganese Telluride with Mercury Cadmium Telluride given in 1H. We then list the reports and papers produced and follow that with either abstracts or the papers themselves. In one key paper we obtain good results between experiment and theory in Mercury Zinc Telluride and also find it typically has mobilities competitive with Mercury Cadmium Telluride. In the Appendix we have a relatively complete set of references.

  8. Experimental Study Of X-band Dielectric-loaded Accelerating Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Jing, C

    2005-01-01

    A joint Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)/Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) program is under way to investigate X- band dielectric-loaded accelerating (DLA) structures, using high-power 11.424GHz radiation from the NRL Magnicon facility. As an advanced accelerator concepts, the dielectric-loaded accelerator offers the potential for a simple, inexpensive alternative to high-gradient RF linear accelerators. In this thesis, a comprehensive account of X-band DLA structure design, including theoretical calculation, numerical simulation, fabrication and testing, is presented in detail. Two types of loading dielectrics, alumina and MgxCa1−xTiO 3 (MCT), are investigated. For alumina (with dielectric constant 9.4), no RF breakdown has been observed up to 5 MW of drive power (equivalent to 8MV/m accelerating gradient) in the high power RF testing at NRL, but multipactor was observed to absorb a large fraction of the incident microwave power. Experimental results on suppression of multipactor using TiN coating o...

  9. Effect of acicular ferrite on banded structures in low-carbon microalloyed steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Shi; Ze-sheng Yan; Yong-chang Liu; Xu Yang; Cheng Zhang; Hui-jun Li

    2014-01-01

    The effect of acicular ferrite (AF) on banded structures in low-carbon microalloyed steel with Mn segregation during both iso-thermal transformation and continuous cooling processes was studied by dilatometry and microscopic observation. With respect to the iso-thermal transformation process, the specimen isothermed at 550°C consisted of AF in Mn-poor bands and martensite in Mn-rich bands, whereas the specimen isothermed at 450°C exhibited two different morphologies of AF that appeared as bands. At a continuous cooling rate in the range of 4 to 50°C/s, a mixture of AF and martensite formed in both segregated bands, and the volume fraction of martensite in Mn-rich bands was always higher than that in Mn-poor bands. An increased cooling rate resulted in a decrease in the difference of martensite volume fraction between Mn-rich and Mn-poor bands and thereby leaded to less distinct microstructural banding. The results show that Mn segregation and cooling rate strongly affect the formation of AF-containing banded structures. The formation mechanism of microstructural banding was also discussed.

  10. Study on relationships of electromagnetic band structures and left/right handed structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Chu; CHEN ZhiNing; WANG YunYi; YANG Ning

    2007-01-01

    Two types of dual periodic circuits are introduced. The distributions of passbands and stopbands are generated from their dispersion relationships. Based on the study, Brillouin diagrams of three representative special cases are drawn; S parameters of these three cases are simulated by Aglient ADS; the S parameters of one of the three cases are verified by an experiment. The phase characteristics are compared with those generated from the dispersion relationship. The theoretical analysis and the experimental verification show that both types of the periodic structures can behave as electromagnetic band gap (EBG) structures, right-handed structures (RHS), and left-handed structures (LHS), when they operate at different frequency ranges. Thus, the possibility of a physical structure showing these three different characteristics at different frequency ranges is proven.

  11. Ab initio calculations of the electronic structure and bonding characteristics of LaB6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Faruque M.; Riley, Daniel P.; Murch, Graeme E.

    2005-12-01

    Lanthanum hexaboride ( LaB6 , NIST SRM-660a) is widely used as a standard reference material for calibrating the line position and line shape parameters of powder diffraction instruments. The accuracy of this calibration technique is highly dependent on how completely the reference material is characterized. Critical to x-ray diffraction, this understanding must include the valence of the La atomic position, which in turn will influence the x-ray form factor (f) and hence the diffracted intensities. The electronic structure and bonding properties of LaB6 have been investigated using ab initio plane-wave pseudopotential total energy calculations. The electronic properties and atomic bonding characteristics were analyzed by estimating the energy band structure and the density of states around the Fermi energy level. The calculated energy band structure is consistent with previously reported experimental findings; de Haas-van Alphen and two-dimensional angular correlation of electron-positron annihilation radiation. In addition, the bond strengths and types of atomic bonds in the LaB6 compound were estimated by analyzing the Mulliken charge density population. The calculated result revealed the coexistence of covalent, ionic, and metallic bonding in the LaB6 system and partially explains its high efficiency as a thermionic emitter.

  12. Real-time feedback from iterative electronic structure calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Vaucher, Alain C; Reiher, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Real-time feedback from iterative electronic structure calculations requires to mediate between the inherently unpredictable execution times of the iterative algorithm employed and the necessity to provide data in fixed and short time intervals for real-time rendering. We introduce the concept of a mediator as a component able to deal with infrequent and unpredictable reference data to generate reliable feedback. In the context of real-time quantum chemistry, the mediator takes the form of a surrogate potential that has the same local shape as the first-principles potential and can be evaluated efficiently to deliver atomic forces as real-time feedback. The surrogate potential is updated continuously by electronic structure calculations and guarantees to provide a reliable response to the operator for any molecular structure. To demonstrate the application of iterative electronic structure methods in real-time reactivity exploration, we implement self-consistent semi-empirical methods as the data source and a...

  13. Electronic structures and thermodynamic stabilities of aluminum-based deuterides from first principles calculations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye Xiao-Qiu; Luo De-Li; Sang Ge; Ao Bing-Yun

    2011-01-01

    The alanates (complex aluminohydrides) have relatively high gravimetric hydrogen densities and are among the most promising solid-state hydrogen-storage materials. In this work, the electronic structures and the formation enthalpies of seven typical aluminum-based deuterides have been calculated by the plane-wave pseudopotential method,these being AID3, LiAID4, Li3AID6, BaAID5, Ba2AID7, LiMg(AID4)3 and LiMgAID6. The results show that all these compounds are large band gap insulators at 0 K with estimated band gaps from 2.31 eV in AID3 to 4.96 eV in LiMg(AID4)3. The band gaps are reduced when the coordination of Al varies from 4 to 6. Two peaks present in the valence bands are the common characteristics of aluminum-based deuterides containing AID4 subunits while three peaks are the common characteristics of those containing AID6 subunits. The electronic structures of these compounds are determined mainly by aluminum deuteride complexes (AID4 or AID6) and their mutual interactions. The predicted formation enthalpies are presented for the studied aluminum-based deuterides.

  14. Calculation of surface acoustic waves in a multilayered piezoelectric structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Zuwei; Wen Zhiyu; Hu Jing

    2013-01-01

    The propagation properties of the surface acoustic waves (SAWs) in a ZnO-SiO2-Si multilayered piezoelectric structure are calculated by using the recursive asymptotic method.The phase velocities and the electromechanical coupling coefficients for the Rayleigh wave and the Love wave in the different ZnO-SiO2-Si structures are calculated and analyzed.The Love mode wave is found to be predominantly generated since the c-axis of the ZnO film is generally perpendicular to the substrate.In order to prove the calculated results,a Love mode SAW device based on the ZnO-SiO2-Si multilayered structure is fabricated by micromachining,and its frequency responses are detected.The experimental results are found to be mainly consistent with the calculated ones,except for the slightly larger velocities induced by the residual stresses produced in the fabrication process of the films.The deviation of the experimental results from the calculated ones is reduced by thermal annealing.

  15. Efficient many-body calculations for two-dimensional materials using exact limits for the screened potential: Band gaps of MoS2, h -BN, and phosphorene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Filip A.; Schmidt, Per S.; Winther, Kirsten T.; Thygesen, Kristian S.

    2016-10-01

    Calculating the quasiparticle (QP) band structure of two-dimensional (2D) materials within the GW self-energy approximation has proven to be a rather demanding computational task. The main reason is the strong q dependence of the 2D dielectric function around q =0 that calls for a much denser sampling of the Brillouin zone (BZ) than is necessary for similar three-dimensional solids. Here, we use an analytical expression for the small q limit of the 2D response function to perform the BZ integral over the critical region around q =0 . This drastically reduces the requirements on the q -point mesh and implies a significant computational speedup. For example, in the case of monolayer MoS2, convergence of the G0W0 band gap to within ˜0.1 eV is achieved with 12 ×12 q points rather than the 36 ×36 mesh required with discrete BZ sampling techniques. We perform a critical assessment of the band gap of the three prototypical 2D semiconductors, MoS2, h -BN, and phosphorene, including the effect of self-consistency at the GW0 level. The method is implemented in the open source code gpaw.

  16. Structural uncertainty in air mass factor calculation for NO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorente Delgado, Alba; Folkert Boersma, K.; Yu, Huan; Dörner, Steffen; Hilboll, Andreas; Richter, Andreas; Liu, Mengyao; Lamsal, Lok N.; Barkley, Michael; Smedt, De Isabelle; Roozendael, Van Michel; Wang, Yang; Wagner, Thomas; Beirle, Steffen; Lin, Jin Tai; Krotkov, Nickolay; Stammes, Piet; Wang, Ping; Eskes, Henk J.; Krol, Maarten

    2017-01-01

    Air mass factor (AMF) calculation is the largest source of uncertainty in NO2 and HCHO satellite retrievals in situations with enhanced trace gas concentrations in the lower troposphere. Structural uncertainty arises when different retrieval methodologies are applied within the scientific community

  17. Structural and electronic properties of perylene from first principles calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, I A; Zhuravlev, Y N; Berveno, V P

    2013-03-07

    The electronic structure of crystalline perylene has been investigated within the framework of density functional theory including van der Waals interactions. The computations of the lattice parameters and cohesive energy have good agreement with experimental values. We have also calculated the binding distance and energy of perylene dimers, using different schemes, which include van der Waals interactions.

  18. Three real-space discretization techniques in electronic structure calculations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torsti, T; Eirola, T; Enkovaara, J; Hakala, T; Havu, P; Havu, [No Value; Hoynalanmaa, T; Ignatius, J; Lyly, M; Makkonen, [No Value; Rantala, TT; Ruokolainen, J; Ruotsalainen, K; Rasanen, E; Saarikoski, H; Puska, MJ

    2006-01-01

    A characteristic feature of the state-of-the-art of real-space methods in electronic structure calculations is the diversity of the techniques used in the discretization of the relevant partial differential equations. In this context, the main approaches include finite-difference methods, various ty

  19. Band structures of TiO2 doped with N, C and B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This study on the band structures and charge densities of nitrogen (N)-, carbon (C)- and boron (B)-doped titanium dioxide (TiO2) by first-principles simulation with the CASTEP code (Segall et al., 2002) showed that the three 2p bands of impurity atom are located above the valence-band maximum and below the Ti 3d bands, and that along with the decreasing of impurity atomic number, the fluctuations become more intensive. We cannot observe obvious band-gap narrowing in our result.Therefore, the cause of absorption in visible light might be the isolated impurity atom 2p states in band-gap rather than the band-gap narrowing.

  20. High-power narrow-vertical-divergence photonic band crystal laser diodes with optimized epitaxial structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Lei; Qu, Hongwei; Liu, Yun; Zhang, Yejin; Zheng, Wanhua, E-mail: whzheng@red.semi.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, Institute of Semiconductors, CAS, Beijing 100083 (China); Laboratory of Solid State Optoelectronics Information Technology, Institute of Semiconductors, CAS, Beijing 100083 (China); Wang, Yufei; Qi, Aiyi [Laboratory of Solid State Optoelectronics Information Technology, Institute of Semiconductors, CAS, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2014-12-08

    900 nm longitudinal photonic band crystal (PBC) laser diodes with optimized epitaxial structure are fabricated. With a same calculated fundamental-mode divergence, stronger mode discrimination is achieved by a quasi-periodic index modulation in the PBC waveguide than a periodic one. Experiments show that the introduction of over 5.5 μm-thick PBC waveguide contributes to only 10% increment of the internal loss for the laser diodes. For broad area PBC lasers, output powers of 5.75 W under continuous wave test and over 10 W under quasi-continuous wave test are reported. The vertical divergence angles are 10.5° at full width at half maximum and 21.3° with 95% power content, in conformity with the simulated angles. Such device shows a prospect for high-power narrow-vertical-divergence laser emission from single diode laser and laser bar.

  1. van der Waals binding and band structure effects in graphene overlayers and graphane multilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyldgaard, Per; Rohrer, Jochen

    2011-03-01

    We study graphene formation (by selective Si evaporation) and adhesion on SiC surfaces as well as stacking and binding of graphane multilayers using a number of versions of the van der Waals Density Functional (vdW-DF) method and plane-wave density functional theory calculations. For the graphene/SiC systems and for the graphane multilayers we document that the bonding is entirely dominated by van der Waals (vdW) forces. At the same time we find that dispersive forces acting on the layers produce significant modifications in the graphene and graphane band structure. We interpret the changes and discuss a competition between wave function hybridization and interaction with the charge enhancement (between the layers) that results from density overlap. Supported by Svenska Vetenskapsrådet VR #621-2008-4346.

  2. Band structure of germanium carbides for direct bandgap silicon photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, C. A.; O'Brien, W. A.; Penninger, M. W.; Schneider, W. F.; Gillett-Kunnath, M.; Zajicek, J.; Yu, K. M.; Kudrawiec, R.; Stillwell, R. A.; Wistey, M. A.

    2016-08-01

    Compact optical interconnects require efficient lasers and modulators compatible with silicon. Ab initio modeling of Ge1-xCx (x = 0.78%) using density functional theory with HSE06 hybrid functionals predicts a splitting of the conduction band at Γ and a strongly direct bandgap, consistent with band anticrossing. Photoreflectance of Ge0.998C0.002 shows a bandgap reduction supporting these results. Growth of Ge0.998C0.002 using tetrakis(germyl)methane as the C source shows no signs of C-C bonds, C clusters, or extended defects, suggesting highly substitutional incorporation of C. Optical gain and modulation are predicted to rival III-V materials due to a larger electron population in the direct valley, reduced intervalley scattering, suppressed Auger recombination, and increased overlap integral for a stronger fundamental optical transition.

  3. Chiral nucleon-nucleon forces in nuclear structure calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coraggio L.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Realistic nuclear potentials, derived within chiral perturbation theory, are a major breakthrough in modern nuclear structure theory, since they provide a direct link between nuclear physics and its underlying theory, namely the QCD. As a matter of fact, chiral potentials are tailored on the low-energy regime of nuclear structure physics, and chiral perturbation theory provides on the same footing two-nucleon forces as well as many-body ones. This feature fits well with modern advances in ab-initio methods and realistic shell-model. Here, we will review recent nuclear structure calculations, based on realistic chiral potentials, for both finite nuclei and infinite nuclear matter.

  4. Energy band structure tailoring of vertically aligned InAs/GaAsSb quantum dot structure for intermediate-band solar cell application by thermal annealing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei-Sheng; Chu, Ting-Fu; Huang, Tien-Hao

    2014-12-15

    This study presents an band-alignment tailoring of a vertically aligned InAs/GaAs(Sb) quantum dot (QD) structure and the extension of the carrier lifetime therein by rapid thermal annealing (RTA). Arrhenius analysis indicates a larger activation energy and thermal stability that results from the suppression of In-Ga intermixing and preservation of the QD heterostructure in an annealed vertically aligned InAs/GaAsSb QD structure. Power-dependent and time-resolved photoluminescence were utilized to demonstrate the extended carrier lifetime from 4.7 to 9.4 ns and elucidate the mechanisms of the antimony aggregation resulting in a band-alignment tailoring from straddling to staggered gap after the RTA process. The significant extension in the carrier lifetime of the columnar InAs/GaAsSb dot structure make the great potential in improving QD intermediate-band solar cell application.

  5. AMORPHOUS SILICON ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE MODELING AND BASIC ELECTRO-PHYSICAL PARAMETERS CALCULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Golodenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The amorphous semiconductor has any unique processing characteristics and it is perspective material for electronic engineering. However, we have not authentic information about they atomic structure and it is essential knot for execution calculation they electronic states and electro physical properties. The author's methods give to us decision such problem. This method allowed to calculation the amorphous silicon modeling cluster atomics Cartesian coordinates, determined spectrum and density its electronic states and calculation the basics electro physical properties of the modeling cluster. At that determined numerical means of the energy gap, energy Fermi, electron concentration inside valence and conduction band for modeling cluster. The find results provides real ability for purposeful control to type and amorphous semiconductor charge carriers concentration and else provides relation between atomic construction and other amorphous substance physical properties, for example, heat capacity, magnetic susceptibility and other thermodynamic sizes.

  6. Chaos and band structure in a three-dimensional optical lattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boretz, Yingyue; Reichl, L E

    2015-04-01

    Classical chaos is known to affect wave propagation because it signifies the presence of broken symmetries. The effect of chaos has been observed experimentally for matter waves, electromagnetic waves, and acoustic waves. When these three types of waves propagate through a spatially periodic medium, the allowed propagation energies form bands. For energies in the band gaps, no wave propagation is possible. We show that optical lattices provide a well-defined system that allows a study of the effect of chaos on band structure. We have determined the band structure of a body-centered-cubic optical lattice for all theoretically possible couplings, and we find that the band structure for those lattices realizable in the laboratory differs significantly from that expected for the bands in an "empty" body-centered-cubic crystal. However, as coupling is increased, the lattice becomes increasingly chaotic and it becomes possible to produce band structure that has behavior qualitatively similar to the "empty" body-centered-cubic band structure, although with fewer degeneracies.

  7. Electronic structure of RScO{sub 3} from x-ray spectroscopies and first-principles calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derks, Christine; Raekers, Michael; Neumann, Manfred [Department of Physics, University of Osnabrueck, D-49069 Osnabrueck (Germany); Kuepper, Karsten [Departement of Solidstate Physics, Univeristy of Ulm, D-89069 Ulm (Germany); Postnikov, Andree [Laboratoire de Physique des Milieux Denses, Universite Paul Verlaine, Metz (France); Uecker, Reinhard [Institute for Crystal Growth, D-12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Perovskites of the type RScO{sub 3}, where R represents a trivalent rare-earth metal, exhibit an enormous variety of physical properties and can be used for different applications. They are high k materials and belong to the best available thin film substrates for the epitaxial growth of high quality thin films. This allows a so called strain tailoring of ferroelectric, ferromagnetic, or multiferroic perovskite thin films by choosing different RScO{sub 3}. The electronic structures of a series of RScO{sub 3} single crystals are investigated by means of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and band structure calculations. By combining XES and XAS measurements together with theoretical calculations the band gaps of the compounds can be accurately determined. The presented results will broaden the complete experimental and theoretical picture of the valence bands of RScO{sub 3} series.

  8. Effects of NMR spectral resolution on protein structure calculation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhas Tikole

    Full Text Available Adequate digital resolution and signal sensitivity are two critical factors for protein structure determinations by solution NMR spectroscopy. The prime objective for obtaining high digital resolution is to resolve peak overlap, especially in NOESY spectra with thousands of signals where the signal analysis needs to be performed on a large scale. Achieving maximum digital resolution is usually limited by the practically available measurement time. We developed a method utilizing non-uniform sampling for balancing digital resolution and signal sensitivity, and performed a large-scale analysis of the effect of the digital resolution on the accuracy of the resulting protein structures. Structure calculations were performed as a function of digital resolution for about 400 proteins with molecular sizes ranging between 5 and 33 kDa. The structural accuracy was assessed by atomic coordinate RMSD values from the reference structures of the proteins. In addition, we monitored also the number of assigned NOESY cross peaks, the average signal sensitivity, and the chemical shift spectral overlap. We show that high resolution is equally important for proteins of every molecular size. The chemical shift spectral overlap depends strongly on the corresponding spectral digital resolution. Thus, knowing the extent of overlap can be a predictor of the resulting structural accuracy. Our results show that for every molecular size a minimal digital resolution, corresponding to the natural linewidth, needs to be achieved for obtaining the highest accuracy possible for the given protein size using state-of-the-art automated NOESY assignment and structure calculation methods.

  9. First-principles calculations of electronic structure on (Ti,Co)O{sub 2} within self-interaction-corrected LDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kizaki, H., E-mail: hkizaki@aquarius.mp.es.osaka-u.ac.j [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 567-8531 (Japan); Toyoda, M.; Sato, K. [The Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, 8-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Katayama-Yoshida, H. [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 567-8531 (Japan); The Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, 8-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan)

    2009-12-15

    Electronic structure of TiO{sub 2} (rutile) based dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMS) are investigated within self-interaction-corrected local density approximation (SIC-LDA) from first-principles calculation. These results are compared with those calculated within standard LDA. It is found that the calculated band-gap energy in the host TiO{sub 2} is different within the LDA and the SIC-LDA. We find that high-spin state is predicted within the SIC-LDA with oxygen vacancy. The calculated density of states within SIC-LDA is in good agreement with photoemission results.

  10. Electronic structures of N- and C-doped NiO from first-principles calculations

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The large intrinsic band gap of NiO has hindered severely its potential application under visible-light irradiation. In this study, we have performed first-principles calculations on the electronic properties of N- and C-doped NiO to ascertain if its band gap may be narrowed theoretically. It was found that impurity bands driven by N 2p or C 2p states appear in the band gap of NiO and that some of these locate at the conduction band minimum, which leads to a significant band gap narrowing. Ou...

  11. Electronic structure calculations of ESR parameters of melanin units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batagin-Neto, Augusto; Bronze-Uhle, Erika Soares; Graeff, Carlos Frederico de Oliveira

    2015-03-21

    Melanins represent an important class of natural pigments present in plants and animals that are currently considered to be promising materials for applications in optic and electronic devices. Despite their interesting properties, some of the basic features of melanins are not satisfactorily understood, including the origin of their intrinsic paramagnetism. A number of experiments have been performed to investigate the electron spin resonance (ESR) response of melanin derivatives, but until now, there has been no consensus regarding the real structure of the paramagnetic centers involved. In this work, we have employed electronic structure calculations to evaluate the ESR parameters of distinct melanin monomers and dimers in order to identify the possible structures associated with unpaired spins in this biopolymer. The g-factors and hyperfine constants of the cationic, anionic and radicalar structures were investigated. The results confirm the existence of at least two distinct paramagnetic centers in melanin structure, identifying the chemical species associated with them and their roles in electrical conductivity.

  12. Valence band structure of binary chalcogenide vitreous semiconductors by high-resolution XPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozyukhin, S., E-mail: sergkoz@igic.ras.ru [Russian Academy of Science, Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry (Russian Federation); Golovchak, R. [Lviv Scientific Research Institute of Materials of SRC ' Carat' (Ukraine); Kovalskiy, A. [Lehigh University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering (United States); Shpotyuk, O. [Lviv Scientific Research Institute of Materials of SRC ' Carat' (Ukraine); Jain, H. [Lehigh University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering (United States)

    2011-04-15

    High-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is used to study regularities in the formation of valence band electronic structure in binary As{sub x}Se{sub 100-x}, As{sub x}S{sub 100-x}, Ge{sub x}Se{sub 100-x} and Ge{sub x}S{sub 100-x} chalcogenide vitreous semiconductors. It is shown that the highest occupied energetic states in the valence band of these materials are formed by lone pair electrons of chalcogen atoms, which play dominant role in the formation of valence band electronic structure of chalcogen-rich glasses. A well-expressed contribution from chalcogen bonding p electrons and more deep s orbitals are also recorded in the experimental valence band XPS spectra. Compositional dependences of the observed bands are qualitatively analyzed from structural and compositional points of view.

  13. Heat Transfer Principles in Thermal Calculation of Structures in Fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Usmani, Asif

    2015-11-01

    Structural fire engineering (SFE) is a relatively new interdisciplinary subject, which requires a comprehensive knowledge of heat transfer, fire dynamics and structural analysis. It is predominantly the community of structural engineers who currently carry out most of the structural fire engineering research and design work. The structural engineering curriculum in universities and colleges do not usually include courses in heat transfer and fire dynamics. In some institutions of higher education, there are graduate courses for fire resistant design which focus on the design approaches in codes. As a result, structural engineers who are responsible for structural fire safety and are competent to do their jobs by following the rules specified in prescriptive codes may find it difficult to move toward performance-based fire safety design which requires a deep understanding of both fire and heat. Fire safety engineers, on the other hand, are usually focused on fire development and smoke control, and may not be familiar with the heat transfer principles used in structural fire analysis, or structural failure analysis. This paper discusses the fundamental heat transfer principles in thermal calculation of structures in fire, which might serve as an educational guide for students, engineers and researchers. Insights on problems which are commonly ignored in performance based fire safety design are also presented.

  14. Photonic Band Gaps in Two-Dimensional Crystals with Fractal Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘征; 徐建军; 林志方

    2003-01-01

    We simulate the changes of the photonic band structure of the crystal in two dimensions with a quasi-fractal structure when it is fined to a fractal. The result shows that when the dielectric distribution is fined, the photonic band structure will be compressed on the whole and the ground photonic band gap (PBG) closed while the next PBGs shrunk, in conjunction with their position declining in the frequency spectrum. Furthermore, the PBGs in the high zone are much more sensitive than those in low zones.

  15. Analysis of photonic band-gap (PBG) structures using the FDTD method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tong, M.S.; Cheng, M.; Lu, Y.L.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, a number of photonic band-gap (PBG) structures, which are formed by periodic circuit elements printed oil transmission-line circuits, are studied by using a well-known numerical method, the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The results validate the band-stop filter...

  16. Six-band k•p calculation of spin-dependent interband tunneling in strained broken-gap heterostructures under a quantizing magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharova, A.; Nilsson, K.; Chao, K. A.; Yen, S. T.

    2005-09-01

    We investigate spin-dependent interband magnetotunneling processes in strained broken-gap resonant tunneling structures made from InAs, AlSb, and GaSb, which are promising materials for quantum devices. InAs/AlSb/GaSb/InAs/AlSb/GaSb double-barrier structures grown on both InAs and GaSb are considered. Transmission coefficients for interband tunneling processes from individual eigenstates in the InAs emitter as well as current-voltage characteristics were calculated using a six-band k•p model and the scattering matrix method. We predict that due to lattice-mismatch induced strain, the interband tunneling current density for the structure grown on InAs can be one or two orders of magnitude less than that for the structure grown on GaSb. Furthermore, as a consequence of interband magnetotunneling, structures grown on different substrates yield different spin polarization of the tunneling current. It is obtained that the current spin polarization can be greater than 90%. These resonant tunneling structures can be used as spin filters in the rapidly growing field of spintronics.

  17. Infinitesimal cranking for triaxial angular-momentum-projected configuration-mixing calculation and its application to the gamma vibrational band

    CERN Document Server

    Tagami, Shingo

    2016-01-01

    Inclusion of time-odd components into the wave function is important for reliable description of rotational motion by the angular-momentum-projection method; the cranking procedure with infinitesimal rotational frequency is an efficient way to realize it. In the present work we investigate the effect of this infinitesimal cranking for triaxially deformed nucleus, where there are three independent cranking axes. It is found that the effects of cranking about three axes on the triaxial energy spectrum are quite different and inclusion of all of them considerably modify the resultant spectrum from the one obtained without cranking. Employing the Gogny D1S force as an effective interaction, we apply the method to the calculation of the multiple gamma vibrational bands in $^{164}$Er as a typical example, where the angular-momentum-projected configuration-mixing with respect to the triaxial shape degree of freedom is performed. With this method, both the $K=0$ and $K=4$ two-phonon gamma vibrational bands are obtain...

  18. Observation of banded spherulites and lamellar structures by atomic force microscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜勇; 罗艳红; 范泽夫; 王霞瑜; 徐军; 郭宝华; 李林

    2003-01-01

    Lamellar structures of banded spherulites of poly(ε-caprolactone)/poly(vinyl chloride) (PCL/PVC) blends are observed using tapping mode atomic force microscopy (AFM). The surface of the PCL/PVC banded spherulites presents to be concentric periodic ups and downs. The period of the bands corresponds to the extinction rings under the polarized optical microscopy observation. The lamellae with edge-on orientation in the ridges and the flat-on lamellae in the valleys of the banded spherulites are observed clearly. The twisting between the edge-on and flat-on lamellae is also observed.

  19. IOS and ECS line coupling calculation for the CO-He system - Influence on the vibration-rotation band shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boissoles, J.; Boulet, C.; Robert, D.; Green, S.

    1987-01-01

    Line coupling coefficients resulting from rotational excitation of CO perturbed by He are computed within the infinite order sudden approximation (IOSA) and within the energy corrected sudden approximation (ECSA). The influence of this line coupling on the 1-0 CO-He vibration-rotation band shape is then computed for the case of weakly overlapping lines in the 292-78 K temperature range. The IOS and ECS results differ only at 78 K by a weak amount at high frequencies. Comparison with an additive superposition of Lorentzian lines shows strong modifications in the troughs between the lines. These calculated modifications are in excellent quantitative agreement with recent experimental data for all the temperatures considered. The applicability of previous approaches to CO-He system, based on either the strong collision model or exponential energy gap law, is also discussed.

  20. Band-gap nonlinear optical generation: The structure of internal optical field and the structural light focusing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaytsev, Kirill I., E-mail: kirzay@gmail.com; Katyba, Gleb M.; Yakovlev, Egor V.; Yurchenko, Stanislav O., E-mail: st.yurchenko@mail.ru [Bauman Moscow State Technical University, 2nd Baumanskaya str. 5, Moscow 105005 (Russian Federation); Gorelik, Vladimir S. [P. N. Lebedev Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninskiy Prospekt 53, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2014-06-07

    A novel approach for the enhancement of nonlinear optical effects inside globular photonic crystals (PCs) is proposed and systematically studied via numerical simulations. The enhanced optical harmonic generation is associated with two- and three-dimensional PC pumping with the wavelength corresponding to different PC band-gaps. The interactions between light and the PC are numerically simulated using the finite-difference time-domain technique for solving the Maxwell's equations. Both empty and infiltrated two-dimensional PC structures are considered. A significant enhancement of harmonic generation is predicted owing to the highly efficient PC pumping based on the structural light focusing effect inside the PC structure. It is shown that a highly efficient harmonic generation could be attained for both the empty and infiltrated two- and three-dimensional PCs. We are demonstrating the ability for two times enhancement of the parametric decay efficiency, one order enhancement of the second harmonic generation, and two order enhancement of the third harmonic generation in PC structures in comparison to the nonlinear generations in appropriate homogenous media. Obviously, the nonlinear processes should be allowed by the molecular symmetry. The criteria of the nonlinear process efficiency are specified and calculated as a function of pumping wavelength position towards the PC globule diameter. Obtained criterion curves exhibit oscillating characteristics, which indicates that the highly efficient generation corresponds to the various PC band-gap pumping. The highest efficiency of nonlinear conversions could be reached for PC pumping with femtosecond optical pulses; thus, the local peak intensity would be maximized. Possible applications of the observed phenomenon are also discussed.

  1. Electronic band structure effects in monolayer, bilayer, and hybrid graphene structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puls, Conor

    Since its discovery in 2005, graphene has been the focus of intense theoretical and experimental study owing to its unique two-dimensional band structure and related electronic properties. In this thesis, we explore the electronic properties of graphene structures from several perspectives including the magnetoelectrical transport properties of monolayer graphene, gap engineering and measurements in bilayer graphene, and anomalous quantum oscillation in the monolayer-bilayer graphene hybrids. We also explored the device implications of our findings, and the application of some experimental techniques developed for the graphene work to the study of a complex oxide, Ca3Ru2O7, exhibiting properties of strongly correlated electrons. Graphene's high mobility and ballistic transport over device length scales, make it suitable for numerous applications. However, two big challenges remain in the way: maintaining high mobility in fabricated devices, and engineering a band gap to make graphene compatible with logical electronics and various optical devices. We address the first challenge by experimentally evaluating mobilities in scalable monolayer graphene-based field effect transistors (FETs) and dielectric-covered Hall bars. We find that the mobility is limited in these devices, and is roughly inversely proportional to doping. By considering interaction of graphene's Dirac fermions with local charged impurities at the interface between graphene and the top-gate dielectric, we find that Coulomb scattering is responsible for degraded mobility. Even in the cleanest devices, a band gap is still desirable for electronic applications of graphene. We address this challenge by probing the band structure of bilayer graphene, in which a field-tunable energy band gap has been theoretically proposed. We use planar tunneling spectroscopy of exfoliated bilayer graphene flakes demonstrate both measurement and control of the energy band gap. We find that both the Fermi level and

  2. New crystal structure prediction of fully hydrogenated borophene by first principles calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhi-Qiang; Wang, Hui-Qiong; Feng, Yuan Ping; Zheng, Jin-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    We have studied the structure stability, band structures and mechanical properties of fully hydrogenated borophene (borophane) with different configurations by first principles calculations. Comparing with the Chair-like borophane (C-boropane) that has been reported in literature, we obtained four new conformers with much lower total-energy. The most stable one, Washboard-like borophane (W-borophane), has energy difference about 113.41 meV/atom lower than C-borophane. In W-borophane, B atoms are staggered by zigzag mode along the a direction, and staggered by up and down wrinkle mode along the b direction. Furthermore, we examined the dynamical stability of borophane conformers by calculating phonon dispersions. For the five conformers, no imaginary frequencies along the high-symmetry directions of the Brillouin zone were found, indicating that the five conformers are all dynamically stable. In addition, the band structures of the five conformers all show a Dirac cone along {\\Gamma}-Y or {\\Gamma}-X direction....

  3. Calibrating transition-metal energy levels and oxygen bands in first-principles calculations: Accurate prediction of redox potentials and charge transfer in lithium transition-metal oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong-Hwa; Urban, Alexander; Ceder, Gerbrand

    2015-09-01

    Transition-metal (TM) oxides play an increasingly important role in technology today, including applications such as catalysis, solar energy harvesting, and energy storage. In many of these applications, the details of their electronic structure near the Fermi level are critically important for their properties. We propose a first-principles-based computational methodology for the accurate prediction of oxygen charge transfer in TM oxides and lithium TM (Li-TM) oxides. To obtain accurate electronic structures, the Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof (HSE06) hybrid functional is adopted, and the amount of exact Hartree-Fock exchange (mixing parameter) is adjusted to reproduce reference band gaps. We show that the HSE06 functional with optimal mixing parameter yields not only improved electronic densities of states, but also better energetics (Li-intercalation voltages) for LiCo O2 and LiNi O2 as compared to the generalized gradient approximation (GGA), Hubbard U corrected GGA (GGA +U ), and standard HSE06. We find that the optimal mixing parameters for TM oxides are system specific and correlate with the covalency (ionicity) of the TM species. The strong covalent (ionic) nature of TM-O bonding leads to lower (higher) optimal mixing parameters. We find that optimized HSE06 functionals predict stronger hybridization of the Co 3 d and O 2 p orbitals as compared to GGA, resulting in a greater contribution from oxygen states to charge compensation upon delithiation in LiCo O2 . We also find that the band gaps of Li-TM oxides increase linearly with the mixing parameter, enabling the straightforward determination of optimal mixing parameters based on GGA (α =0.0 ) and HSE06 (α =0.25 ) calculations. Our results also show that G0W0@GGA +U band gaps of TM oxides (M O ,M =Mn ,Co ,Ni ) and LiCo O2 agree well with experimental references, suggesting that G0W0 calculations can be used as a reference for the calibration of the mixing parameter in cases when no experimental band gap has been

  4. Inverse boundary element calculations based on structural modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Peter Møller

    2007-01-01

    The inverse problem of calculating the flexural velocity of a radiating structure of a general shape from measurements in the field is often solved by combining a Boundary Element Method with the Singular Value Decomposition and a regularization technique. In their standard form these methods solve...... for the unknown normal velocities of the structure at the relatively large number of nodes in the numerical model. Efficiently the regularization technique smoothes the solution spatially, since a fast spatial variation is associated with high index singular values, which is filtered out or damped...... in the regularization. Hence, the effective number of degrees of freedom in the model is often much lower than the number of nodes in the model. The present paper deals with an alternative formulation possible for the subset of radiation problems in which a (structural) modal expansion is known for the structure...

  5. Ab initio calculations of yttrium nitride: structural and electronic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zerroug, S.; Ali Sahraoui, F. [Universite Ferhat Abbas, Laboratoire d' Optoelectronique et Composants, Departement de Physique, Setif (Algeria); Bouarissa, N. [King Khalid University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, P.O. Box 9004, Abha (Saudi Arabia)

    2009-11-15

    Using first principles total energy calculations within the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave method, we have studied the structural and electronic properties of yttrium nitride (YN) in the three phases, namely wurtzite, caesium chloride and rocksalt structures. The calculations are performed at zero and under hydrostatic pressure. In agreement with previous findings, it is found that the favored phase for YN is the rocksalt-like structure. We predict that at zero pressure YN in the rocksalt structure is a semiconductor with an indirect bandgap of 0.8 eV. A phase transition from a rocksalt to a caesium chloride structure is found to occur at {proportional_to}134 GPa. Besides, a transition from an indirect ({gamma}-X) bandgap semiconductor to a direct (X-X) one is predicted at pressure of {proportional_to}84 GPa. For the electron effective mass of rocksalt YN, these are the first results, to our knowledge. The information derived from the present study may be useful for the use of YN as an active layer in electronic devices such as diodes and transistors. (orig.)

  6. Disorder enabled band structure engineering of a topological insulator surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yishuai; Chiu, Janet; Miao, Lin; He, Haowei; Alpichshev, Zhanybek; Kapitulnik, A.; Biswas, Rudro R.; Wray, L. Andrew

    2017-02-01

    Three-dimensional topological insulators are bulk insulators with Z2 topological electronic order that gives rise to conducting light-like surface states. These surface electrons are exceptionally resistant to localization by non-magnetic disorder, and have been adopted as the basis for a wide range of proposals to achieve new quasiparticle species and device functionality. Recent studies have yielded a surprise by showing that in spite of resisting localization, topological insulator surface electrons can be reshaped by defects into distinctive resonance states. Here we use numerical simulations and scanning tunnelling microscopy data to show that these resonance states have significance well beyond the localized regime usually associated with impurity bands. At native densities in the model Bi2X3 (X=Bi, Te) compounds, defect resonance states are predicted to generate a new quantum basis for an emergent electron gas that supports diffusive electrical transport.

  7. Experimental determination of excitonic band structures of single-walled carbon nanotubes using circular dichroism spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaojun; Tanaka, Takeshi; Yomogida, Yohei; Sato, Naomichi; Saito, Riichiro; Kataura, Hiromichi

    2016-10-01

    Experimental band structure analyses of single-walled carbon nanotubes have not yet been reported, to the best of our knowledge, except for a limited number of reports using scanning tunnelling spectroscopy. Here we demonstrate the experimental determination of the excitonic band structures of single-chirality single-walled carbon nanotubes using their circular dichroism spectra. In this analysis, we use gel column chromatography combining overloading selective adsorption with stepwise elution to separate 12 different single-chirality enantiomers. Our samples show higher circular dichroism intensities than the highest values reported in previous works, indicating their high enantiomeric purity. Excitonic band structure analysis is performed by assigning all observed Eii and Eij optical transitions in the circular dichroism spectra. The results reproduce the asymmetric structures of the valence and conduction bands predicted by density functional theory. Finally, we demonstrate that an extended empirical formula can estimate Eij optical transition energies for any (n,m) species.

  8. Magnon band structure and magnon density in one-dimensional magnonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Rong-ke; Huang, Te; Zhang, Zhi-dong

    2014-11-01

    By using Callen's Green's function method and the Tyablikov and Anderson-Callen decoupling approximations, we systematically study the magnon band structure and magnon density perpendicular to the superlattice plane of one-dimensional magnonic crystals, with a superlattice consisting of two magnetic layers with ferromagnetic (FM) or antiferromagnetic (AFM) interlayer exchange coupling. The effects of temperature, interlayer coupling, anisotropy and external magnetic field on the magnon-energy band and magnon density in the Kx-direction are investigated in three situations: a) the magnon band of magnetic superlattices with FM interlayer coupling, b) separate and c) overlapping magnon bands of magnetic superlattices with AFM interlayer coupling. In the present work, a quantum approach is developed to study the magnon band structure and magnon density of magnonic crystals and the results are beneficial for the design of magnonic-crystal waveguides or gigahertz-range spin-wave filters.

  9. Theoretical study of band structure of odd-mass 115,117I isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Dhanvir; Kumar, Amit; Sharma, Chetan; Singh, Suram; Bharti, Arun

    2016-05-01

    By using the microscopic approach of Projected Shell Model (PSM), negative-parity band structures of odd mass neutron-rich 115,117I nuclei have been studied with the deformed single-particle states generated by the standard Nilsson potential. For these isotopes, the band structures have been analyzed in terms of quasi-particles configurations. The phenomenon of back bending in moment of inertia is also studied in the present work.

  10. Electronic- and band-structure evolution in low-doped (Ga,Mn)As

    OpenAIRE

    Yastrubchak, O.; J. Sadowski; Krzyzanowska, H.; Gluba, L.; Zuk, J.; Domagala, J. Z.; Andrearczyk, T.; Wosinski, T.

    2013-01-01

    Modulation photoreflectance spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy have been applied to study the electronic- and band-structure evolution in (Ga,Mn)As epitaxial layers with increasing Mn doping in the range of low Mn content, up to 1.2%. Structural and magnetic properties of the layers were characterized with high-resolution X-ray diffractometry and SQUID magnetometery, respectively. The revealed results of decrease in the band-gap transition energy with increasing Mn content in very low-doped ...

  11. Band structure engineering of anatase TiO{sub 2} by metal-assisted P-O coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jiajun; Meng, Qiangqiang [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Huang, Jing [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); School of Materials and Chemical Engineering, Anhui Jianzhu University, Hefei, Anhui 230601 (China); Li, Qunxiang, E-mail: liqun@ustc.edu.cn; Yang, Jinlong [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Synergetic Innovation Center of Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2014-05-07

    In this work, we demonstrate that the metal-assisted P-O coupling is an effective approach to improve the photoelectrochemical properties of TiO{sub 2}. The (Sc + P) and (In + P) codoping effects on electronic structures and photocatalytic activities of anatase TiO{sub 2} are examined by performing hybrid density functional theory calculations. It is found that the coupling of P dopant with the second-nearest neighboring O atom assisted by acceptor metals (Sc/In) leads to the fully occupied and delocalized intermediate bands within the band gap of anatase TiO{sub 2}, which is driven by the P-O antibonding states (π*). This metal-assisted P-O coupling can prevent the recombination of photogenerated electron-hole pairs and effectively reduce the band gap of TiO{sub 2}. Moreover, the band edge alignments in (Sc + P) and (In + P) codoped anatase TiO{sub 2} are desirable for water-splitting. The calculated optical absorption curves indicate that (Sc + P) and (In + P) codoping in anatase TiO{sub 2} can also effectively enhance the visible light absorption.

  12. Band structure engineering of anatase TiO2 by metal-assisted P-O coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiajun; Meng, Qiangqiang; Huang, Jing; Li, Qunxiang; Yang, Jinlong

    2014-05-07

    In this work, we demonstrate that the metal-assisted P-O coupling is an effective approach to improve the photoelectrochemical properties of TiO2. The (Sc + P) and (In + P) codoping effects on electronic structures and photocatalytic activities of anatase TiO2 are examined by performing hybrid density functional theory calculations. It is found that the coupling of P dopant with the second-nearest neighboring O atom assisted by acceptor metals (Sc/In) leads to the fully occupied and delocalized intermediate bands within the band gap of anatase TiO2, which is driven by the P-O antibonding states (π*). This metal-assisted P-O coupling can prevent the recombination of photogenerated electron-hole pairs and effectively reduce the band gap of TiO2. Moreover, the band edge alignments in (Sc + P) and (In + P) codoped anatase TiO2 are desirable for water-splitting. The calculated optical absorption curves indicate that (Sc + P) and (In + P) codoping in anatase TiO2 can also effectively enhance the visible light absorption.

  13. A band Lanczos approach for calculation of vibrational coupled cluster response functions: simultaneous calculation of IR and Raman anharmonic spectra for the complex of pyridine and a silver cation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godtliebsen, Ian H; Christiansen, Ove

    2013-07-07

    We describe new methods for the calculation of IR and Raman spectra using vibrational response theory. Using damped linear response functions that incorporate a Lorentzian line-shape function from the outset, it is shown how the calculation of Raman spectra can be carried out through the calculation of a set of vibrational response functions in the same manner as described previously for IR spectra. The necessary set of response functions can be calculated for both vibrational coupled cluster (VCC) and vibrational configuration interaction (VCI) anharmonic vibrational wave-functions. For the efficient and simultaneous calculation of the full set of necessary response functions, a non-hermitian band Lanczos algorithm is implemented for VCC, and a hermitian band Lanczos algorithm is implemented for VCI. It is shown that the simultaneous calculation of several response functions is often advantageous. Sample calculations are presented for pyridine and the complex between pyridine and the silver cation.

  14. Dual-Band Terahertz Left-Handed Metamaterial with Fishnet Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Qiu-Jiao; LIU Jin-Song; WANG Ke-Jia; YI Xu-Nong; YANG Hong-Wu

    2011-01-01

    We present the design of a dual-band left-handed metamaterial with fishnet structure in the terahertz regime. Its left-handed properties are described by the retrieved effective electromagnetic parameters. We introduce an equivalent circuit which offers a theoretical explanation for the left-handed behavior of the dual-band fishnet metamaterial, and investigate its losses receiving higher figure of merit. The design is beneficial to the development of frequency agile and broadband THz materials and devices. The dual-band fishnet metamaterial can be extended to infrared and optical frequency ranges by regulating the structural parameters.

  15. Realization of Band-Notch UWB Monopole Antenna Using AMC Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the design, simulation and testing of an Ultra Wide Band (UWB planar monopole antenna with WLAN band-notch characteristic. The proposed antenna consists, the combination of planar monopole antenna with partial ground and a pair of AMC structures. The AMC structure used for the design is mushroom-like. Design equation of EBG parameters is also proposed for FR4 substrate using transmission line model. Using proposed equations, Mushroom-like EBG structure is integrated along the feed line of a monopole antenna for WLAN (5 GHz – 6 GHz band rejection. TheCurrent distribution and equivalent circuit model of antenna is used to explain band-notch characteristic of EBG resonator. The proposed antenna is fabricated on an FR4 substrate with a thickness of 1.6 mmand εr = 4.4. The measured VSWR characteristic is less than 2 for complete UWB band except for WLAN band i.e. 5 GHz – 6 GHz. The gain of the proposed structure is around 2 dBi – 6.7 dBi for complete UWBband except for WLAN band where it is reduced to -4 dBi. The measured radiation pattern of proposed antenna is omnidirectional along H plane and bidirectional in E plane. A nearly constant group delaywith variations < 2ns, except for the notched bandwidth makes proposed antenna suitable for UWB application.

  16. Real-time feedback from iterative electronic structure calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaucher, Alain C; Haag, Moritz P; Reiher, Markus

    2016-04-05

    Real-time feedback from iterative electronic structure calculations requires to mediate between the inherently unpredictable execution times of the iterative algorithm used and the necessity to provide data in fixed and short time intervals for real-time rendering. We introduce the concept of a mediator as a component able to deal with infrequent and unpredictable reference data to generate reliable feedback. In the context of real-time quantum chemistry, the mediator takes the form of a surrogate potential that has the same local shape as the first-principles potential and can be evaluated efficiently to deliver atomic forces as real-time feedback. The surrogate potential is updated continuously by electronic structure calculations and guarantees to provide a reliable response to the operator for any molecular structure. To demonstrate the application of iterative electronic structure methods in real-time reactivity exploration, we implement self-consistent semiempirical methods as the data source and apply the surrogate-potential mediator to deliver reliable real-time feedback.

  17. Band structure of 146Ce studied through γ-γ angular correlation measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, S.; Taniguchi, A.; Okano, K.; Aoki, K.

    The β-decay of 146La was studied using the on-line isotope separator KUR-ISOL. Gamma-gamma angular correlation measurements were performed with a 4-Ge detectors system. Spin assignments of three levels were made: 3+ for the 1576.5 keV level, 4+ for the 1627.1 keV level and 5+ for the 1810.2 keV level. The mixing ratios (E2/M1) were deduced to be δ183.2= 0.25 +/- 0.08, δ638.9= 0.33 +/- 0.05, δ959.0= 1.19+0.16-0.14, δ1015.9= 5.4+3.1-1.5 and δ1318.1= 6.5+1.7-1.1. These were compared to the calculated values obtained in three cases involving different Majorana force parameter values. The band structure of 146Ce is discussed based on the results of calculation using the IBM-2 theory.

  18. Vibrational dynamics and band structure of methyl-terminated Ge(111)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hund, Zachary M.; Nihill, Kevin J.; Sibener, S. J., E-mail: s-sibener@uchicago.edu [The James Franck Institute and Department of Chemistry, The University of Chicago, 929 E. 57" t" h Street, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Campi, Davide; Bernasconi, M. [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universita di Milano-Bicocca, Via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Wong, Keith T.; Lewis, Nathan S. [Division of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Beckman Institute and Kavli Nanoscience Institute, California Institute of Technology, 210 Noyes Laboratory, 127-72, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Benedek, G. [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universita di Milano-Bicocca, Via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC), Universidad del País Vasco (EHU), 20018 Donostia/San Sebastian (Spain)

    2015-09-28

    A combined synthesis, experiment, and theory approach, using elastic and inelastic helium atom scattering along with ab initio density functional perturbation theory, has been used to investigate the vibrational dynamics and band structure of a recently synthesized organic-functionalized semiconductor interface. Specifically, the thermal properties and lattice dynamics of the underlying Ge(111) semiconductor crystal in the presence of a commensurate (1 × 1) methyl adlayer were defined for atomically flat methylated Ge(111) surfaces. The mean-square atomic displacements were evaluated by analysis of the thermal attenuation of the elastic He diffraction intensities using the Debye-Waller model, revealing an interface with hybrid characteristics. The methyl adlayer vibrational modes are coupled with the Ge(111) substrate, resulting in significantly softer in-plane motion relative to rigid motion in the surface normal. Inelastic helium time-of-flight measurements revealed the excitations of the Rayleigh wave across the surface Brillouin zone, and such measurements were in agreement with the dispersion curves that were produced using density functional perturbation theory. The dispersion relations for H-Ge(111) indicated that a deviation in energy and lineshape for the Rayleigh wave was present along the nearest-neighbor direction. The effects of mass loading, as determined by calculations for CD{sub 3}-Ge(111), as well as by force constants, were less significant than the hybridization between the Rayleigh wave and methyl adlayer librations. The presence of mutually similar hybridization effects for CH{sub 3}-Ge(111) and CH{sub 3}-Si(111) surfaces extends the understanding of the relationship between the vibrational dynamics and the band structure of various semiconductor surfaces that have been functionalized with organic overlayers.

  19. The calculation of satellite line structures in highly stripped plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdallah, J. Jr.; Kilcrease, D.P. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Faenov, A.Ya.; Pikuz, T.A. [Multicharged Ion Spectra Data Center, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1998-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Recently developed high-resolution x-ray spectrographs have made it possible to measure satellite structures from various plasma sources with great detail. These lines are weak optically thin lines caused by the decay of dielectronic states and generally accompany the resonance lines of H-like and He-like ions. The Los Alamos atomic physics and kinetics codes provide a unique capability for calculating the position and intensities of such lines. These programs have been used to interpret such highly resolved spectral measurements from pulsed power devices and laser produced plasmas. Some of these experiments were performed at the LANL Bright Source and Trident laser facilities. The satellite structures are compared with calculations to diagnose temperatures and densities. The effect of non-thermal electron distributions of electrons on calculated spectra was also considered. Collaborations with Russian scientists have added tremendous value to this research die to their vast experience in x-ray spectroscopy.

  20. Low-frequency photonic band structures in graphene-like triangular metallic lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kang

    2016-11-01

    We study the low frequency photonic band structures in triangular metallic lattice, displaying Dirac points in the frequency spectrum, and constructed upon the lowest order regular polygonal tiles. We show that, in spite of the unfavourable geometrical conditions intrinsic to the structure symmetry, the lowest frequency photonic bands are formed by resonance modes sustained by local structure patterns, with the corresponding electric fields following a triangular distribution at low structure filling rate and a honeycomb distribution at high filling rate. For both cases, the lowest photonic bands, and thus the plasma gap, can be described in the framework of a tight binding model, and analysed in terms of local resonance modes and their mutual correlations. At high filling rate, the Dirac points and their movement following the structure deformation are described in the same framework, in relation with local structure patterns and their variations, as well as the particularity of the metallic lattice that enhances the topological anisotropy.

  1. Synthesis, physical properties, and band structure of the layered bismuthide PtBi2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, C. Q.; Xing, X. Z.; Xu, Xiaofeng; Li, Bin; Chen, B.; Che, L. Q.; Lu, Xin; Dai, Jianhui; Shi, Z. X.

    2016-10-01

    We report details of single-crystal growth of stoichiometric bismuthide PtBi2 whose structure consists of alternate stacking of a Pt layer and Bi bilayer along the c axis. The compound crystallizes in space group P 3 with a hexagonal unit cell of a =b =6.553 Å,c =6.165 Å . Its T -dependent resistivity is typical of a metal whereas a large anisotropy was observed for the in-plane and interplane electrical transport. The magnetization data show opposite sign for fields parallel and perpendicular to the Pt layers, respectively. The magnetic field response of this material shows clearly two types of charge carriers, consistent with the multiple Fermi surfaces revealed in our band structure calculations. The hydrostatic pressure is shown to suppress the resistivity at high T systematically but has little bearing on its low-T transport. Through calorimetric measurements, the density of states at the Fermi level and the Debye temperature are determined to be 0.94 eV-1 per molecule and 145 K, respectively. In addition, the electronic structures and parity analyses are also presented. We find a minimum value of 0.05 eV gap opening at around 2 eV under the Fermi level by invoking spin-orbit interaction. A slab calculation further indicates a surface Dirac cone appearing in the gap of bulk states. We discuss the possibility of PtBi 2 being a candidate for a bulk topological metal, in analogy to the recently proposed topological superconductor β -PdBi2 .

  2. Synthesis and photonic band calculations of NCP face-centered cubic photonic crystals of TiO2 hollow spheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yong-zheng; Cao, Yan-ling; Li, Zhi-hui; Ding, Juan; Liu, Jun-song; Chi, Yuan-bin

    2007-02-01

    With the help of self-assembly, thermal sintering, selective etching techniques and sol-gel process, the non-close packed (ncp) face-centered cubic (fcc) photonic crystals of titanium dioxide (TiO2) hollow spheres connected by TiO2 cylindrical tubes have been fabricated using silica template. The photonic bandgap calculations indicate that the ncp structure of TiO2 hollow spheres was easier to open the pseudogaps than close packed system at the lowest energy.

  3. Physical properties and electronic band structure of noncentrosymmetric Th7Co3 superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahakyan, M.; Tran, V. H.

    2016-05-01

    The physical properties of the noncentrosymmetric superconductor Th7Co3 have been investigated by means of ac-magnetic susceptibility, magnetization, specific heat, electrical resistivity, magnetoresistance and Hall effect measurements. From these data it is established that Th7Co3 is a dirty type-II superconductor with {{T}\\text{c}}=1.8+/- 0.02 K, Hc2\\text{orb}text{kOe}c2p and moderate electron-phonon coupling {λ\\text{el-\\text{ph}}}=0.56 . Some evidences for anisotropic superconducting gap are found, including e.g. reduced specific heat jump (Δ {{C}p}/γ {{T}\\text{c}}=1.01 ) at T c, diminished superconducting energy gap ({{Δ }0}/{{k}\\text{B}}{{T}\\text{c}}=2.17 ) as compared to the BCS values, power law field dependence of the Sommerfeld coefficient at 0.4 K ({{C}p}/T\\propto {{H}0.6} ), and a concave curvature of the {{H}c2}≤ft({{T}\\text{c}}\\right) line. The magnitudes of the thermodynamic critical field and the energy gap are consistent with mean-squared anisotropy parameter ˜ 0.23 . The electronic specific heat in the superconducting state is reasonably fitted to an oblate spheroidal gap model. Calculations of scalar relativistic and fully relativistic electronic band structures reveal considerable differences in the degenerate structure, resulting from asymmetric spin-orbit coupling (ASOC). A large splitting energy of spin-up spin-down bands at the Fermi level E F, Δ {{E}\\text{ASOC}}˜ 100 meV is observed and a sizeable ratio Δ {{E}\\text{ASOC}}/{{k}\\text{B}}{{T}\\text{c}}˜ 640 could classify the studied compound into the class of noncentrosymmetric superconductors with strong ASOC. The noncentrosymmetry of the crystal structure and the atomic relativistic effects are both responsible for an importance of ASOC in Th7Co3. The calculated results for the density of states show a Van Hove singularity just below E F and dominant role of the 6d electrons of Th to the superconductivity.

  4. Calculation of the electron structure of vacancies and their compensated states in III-VI semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehrabova, M. A., E-mail: Mehrabova@mail.ru; Madatov, R. S. [Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Radiation Problems (Azerbaijan)

    2011-08-15

    The Green's functions theory and the bond-orbital model are used as a basis for calculations of the electron structure of local defects-specifically, vacancies and their compensated states in III-VI semiconductors. The energy levels in the band gap are established, and the changes induced in the electron densities in the GaS, GaSe, and InSe semiconductors by anion and cation vacancies and their compensated states are calculated. It is established that, if a vacancy is compensated by an atom of an element from the same subgroup with the same tetrahedral coordination and if the ionic radius of the compensating atom is smaller than that of the substituted atom, the local levels formed by the vacancy completely disappear. It is shown that this mechanism of compensation of vacancies provides a means not only for recovering the parameters of the crystal, but for improving the characteristics of the crystal as well.

  5. Electronic-structure calculations of large cadmium chalcogenide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frenzel, Johannes [Lehrstuhl fuer Theoretische Chemie, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum (Germany); Joswig, Jan-Ole [Physikalische Chemie, Technische Universitaet Dresden (Germany)

    2012-02-15

    In this paper, we will review our studies of large cadmium chalcogenide nanoparticles and present some new results on cadmium telluride systems. All calculations have been performed using density-functional based methods. The studies deal with the structural properties of saturated and unsaturated nanoparticles where the surfactants generally are hydrogen atoms or thiol groups. We have focused on the investigation of the density of states, the Mulliken charges, the eigenvalue spectra, and the spatial distributions of the frontier orbitals. Optical excitation spectra of pure CdS and CdSe/CdS core-shell systems have been calculated using a linear-response formalism. The reviewed studies are compared to the state of the art of modeling large cadmium chalcogenide particles. Optical excitations in large saturated cadmium chalcogenide nanoparticles with several thousand atoms. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Polar semiconductor heterojunction structure energy band diagram considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shuxun; Wen, Cheng P.; Wang, Maojun; Hao, Yilong

    2016-03-01

    The unique nature of built-in electric field induced positive/negative charge pairs of polar semiconductor heterojunction structure has led to a more realistic device model for hexagonal III-nitride HEMT. In this modeling approach, the distribution of charge carriers is dictated by the electrostatic potential profile instead of Femi statistics. The proposed device model is found suitable to explain peculiar properties of GaN HEMT structures, including: (1) Discrepancy in measured conventional linear transmission line model (LTLM) sheet resistance and contactless sheet resistance of GaN HEMT with thin barrier layer. (2) Below bandgap radiation from forward biased Nickel Schottky barrier diode on GaN HEMT structure. (3) GaN HEMT barrier layer doping has negligible effect on transistor channel sheet charge density.

  7. The C-Band accelerating structures for SPARC photoinjector energy upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alesini, D.; Boni, R.; Di Pirro, G.; Di Raddo, R.; Ferrario, M.; Gallo, A.; Lollo, V.; Marcellini, F.; Palumbo, L.; Spizzo, V.; Mostacci, A.; Campogiani, G.; Persichelli, S.; Enomoto, A.; Higo, T.; Kakihara, K.; Kamitani, T.; Matsumoto, S.; Sugimura, T.; Yokoyama, K.; Verdú-Andrés, S.

    2013-05-01

    The use of C-Band structures for electron acceleration and production of high quality beams has been proposed and adopted in several linac projects all over the world. The two main projects that adopted such type of structures are the Japanese Free Electron Laser (FEL) project in Spring-8 and the SwissFEL project at Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI). Also the energy upgrade of the SPARC photo-injector at LNF-INFN (Italy) from 150 to more than 240 MeV will be done by replacing a low gradient S-Band accelerating structure with two C-band structures. The structures are Traveling Wave (TW) and Constant Impedance (CI), have symmetric axial input couplers and have been optimized to work with a SLED RF input pulse. The paper presents the design criteria of the structures, the realization procedure and the low and high power RF test results on a prototype. The high power tests have been carried out by the Frascati INFN Laboratories in close collaboration with the Japanese Laboratory KEK. Experimental results confirmed the feasibility of the operation of the prototype at 50 MV/m with about 10-6 breakdowns per pulse per meter. Such high gradients have not been reached before in C-Band systems and demonstrated the possibility to use C-band accelerators, if needed, at such high field level. The results of the internal inspection of the structure after the high power test are also presented.

  8. Electronic Structure of KFe2Se2 from First-Principles Calculations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Chao; DAI Jian-Hui

    2011-01-01

    @@ Electronic structures and magnetic properties for iron-selenide KFe2Se2 axe studied by first-principles calculations.The ground state is collinear antiferromagnetic with calculated 2.26μB magnetic moment on Fe atoms; and the J1 and J2 coupling strengths are calculated to be 0.038eV and 0.029eV.The states around EF are dominated by the Fe 3d orbitals which hybridize noticeably to the Se 4p orbitals.While the band structure of KFe2Se2 is similar to a heavily electron-doped BaFe2As2 or FeSe system,the Fermi surface of KFe2Se2 is much closer to the FeSe system since the electron sheets around M are symmetric with respect to x-y exchange.These features,as well as the absence of Fermi surface nesting,suggest that the parent KFe2Se2 could be regarded as an electron doped FeSe system with possible local moment magnetism.%Electronic structures and magnetic properties for iron-selenide KFe2Se2 are studied by first-principles calculations.The ground state is collinear antiferromagnetic with calculated 2.26μB magnetic moment on Fe atoms; and the J1 and J2 coupling strengths are calculated to be 0.038eV and 0.029eV.The states around EF are dominated by the Fe 3d orbitals which hybridize noticeably to the Se 4p orbitals.While the band structure of KFe2Se2 is similar to a heavily electron-doped BaFe2As2 or FeSe system, the Fermi surface of KFe2Se2 is much closer to the FeSe system since the electron sheets around M are symmetric with respect to x-y exchange.These features, as well as the absence of Fermi surface nesting, suggest that the parent KFe2Se2 could be regarded as an electron doped FeSe system with possible local moment magnetism.

  9. Reducing support loss in micromechanical ring resonators using phononic band-gap structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Feng-Chia; Hsu, Jin-Chen; Huang, Tsun-Che; Wang, Chin-Hung; Chang, Pin

    2011-09-01

    In micromechanical resonators, energy loss via supports into the substrates may lead to a low quality factor. To eliminate the support loss, in this paper a phononic band-gap structure is employed. We demonstrate a design of phononic-crystal (PC) strips used to support extensional wine-glass mode ring resonators to increase the quality factor. The PC strips are introduced to stop elastic-wave propagation by the band-gap and deaf-band effects. Analyses of resonant characteristics of the ring resonators and the dispersion relations, eigenmodes, and transmission properties of the PC strips are presented. With the proposed resonator architecture, the finite-element simulations show that the leaky power is effectively reduced and the stored energy inside the resonators is enhanced simultaneously as the operating frequencies of the resonators are within the band gap or deaf bands. Realization of a high quality factor micromechanical ring resonator with minimized support loss is expected.

  10. Reducing support loss in micromechanical ring resonators using phononic band-gap structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Feng-Chia; Huang, Tsun-Che; Wang, Chin-Hung; Chang, Pin [Industrial Technology Research Institute-South, Tainan 709, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Jin-Chen, E-mail: fengchiahsu@itri.org.t, E-mail: hsujc@yuntech.edu.t [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Douliou, Yunlin 64002, Taiwan (China)

    2011-09-21

    In micromechanical resonators, energy loss via supports into the substrates may lead to a low quality factor. To eliminate the support loss, in this paper a phononic band-gap structure is employed. We demonstrate a design of phononic-crystal (PC) strips used to support extensional wine-glass mode ring resonators to increase the quality factor. The PC strips are introduced to stop elastic-wave propagation by the band-gap and deaf-band effects. Analyses of resonant characteristics of the ring resonators and the dispersion relations, eigenmodes, and transmission properties of the PC strips are presented. With the proposed resonator architecture, the finite-element simulations show that the leaky power is effectively reduced and the stored energy inside the resonators is enhanced simultaneously as the operating frequencies of the resonators are within the band gap or deaf bands. Realization of a high quality factor micromechanical ring resonator with minimized support loss is expected.

  11. Electronic band structure of LaCoO3/Y/Mn compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahnamaye Aliabad, H. A.; Hesam, V.; Ahmad, Iftikhar; Khan, Imad

    2013-02-01

    Spin polarization effects on electronic properties of pure LaCoO3 and doped compounds (La0.5Y0.5CoO3, LaCo0.5Mn0.5O3) in the rhombohedral phase have been studied. We have employed the full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method with the generalized gradient approximation (GGA+U) under density functional theory (DFT). The calculated band structures along with total as well as partial densities of states reveal that Y and Mn impurities have a significant effect on the structural and electronic properties of LaCoO3. It is found that Mn alters insulating behavior of this compound to the half metallic for spin up state. Obtained results show that the magnetic moment for the Co-3d state is near 3.12μB in LaCoO3 compound which increases and decreases with addition of Y and Mn dopants respectively.

  12. Synthesis, physical properties and band structure of non-magnetic Y3AlC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghule, S. S.; Garde, C. S.; Ramakrishnan, S.; Singh, S.; Rajarajan, A. K.; Laad, Meena

    2016-10-01

    Y3AlC has been synthesized by arc melting and subsequent annealing. Rietveld analysis of the powder x-ray diffraction (XRD) data confirms cubic Pm-3m structure. Electrical resistivity (ρ) of Y3AlC exhibits metallic behaviour. No sign of superconductivity is observed down to the lowest measurement temperatures of 4.2 K in ρ, and 2 K in magnetic susceptibility (χ) and specific heat (Cp) measurements. The value of the electronic specific heat coefficient γ is 1.36 mJ/K2 mol from which the density of states (DOS) at the Fermi energy (EF) is obtained as 0.57 states/eV.unit cell. The value of Debye temperature θD is estimated to be 315 K. Electronic band structure calculations of Y3AlC reveal a pseudo-gap in the DOS at EF leading to a small value of 0.5 states/eV unit cell which matches quite well with that obtained from γ. Non-zero value of the DOS indicates metallic behaviour as confirmed by our ρ data. Covalent and ionic bonding seem to co-exist with metallic bonding in Y3AlC as indicated by van Arkel- Ketelaar triangle for Zintl-like systems.

  13. Band gap formation and control in coupled periodic ferromagnetic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozova, M. A.; Sharaevskaya, A. Yu.; Sadovnikov, A. V.; Grishin, S. V.; Romanenko, D. V.; Beginin, E. N.; Sharaevskii, Yu. P.; Nikitov, S. A.

    2016-12-01

    We demonstrate theoretically and experimentally the formation of additional bandgaps in the spectrum of spin waves in coupled magnonic crystals. We present the analytical model, which reveals the mechanism of bandgaps formation in coupled structures. In particular, the formation of one, two, or three bandgaps in the region of the first Bragg resonance is demonstrated and control of its characteristics by the variation of the complex coupling coefficient between magnonic crystals is shown. The spatially-resolved Brillouin light scattering spectroscopy and microwave measurements demonstrate the bandgap splitting in the spin-wave spectrum. The main advantage of proposed coupled structure, as compared to the conventional magnonic crystal, is the tunability of multiple bandgaps in the spin-wave spectrum, which enables potential applications in the frequency selective magnonic devices.

  14. First-principles calculation on dilute magnetic alloys in zinc blend crystal structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullah, Hamid, E-mail: hamidullah@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Government Post Graduate Jahanzeb College, Saidu Sharif Swat (Pakistan); Inayat, Kalsoom [Department of Physics, Government Post Graduate Jahanzeb College, Saidu Sharif Swat (Pakistan); Khan, S.A; Mohammad, S. [Department of Physics, Materials Modeling Laboratory, Hazara University, Mansehra 21300 (Pakistan); Ali, A. [Department of Advanced Materials Science & Engineering, Hanseo University, Seosan-si, Chungnam-do 356-706 (Korea, Republic of); Alahmed, Z.A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Reshak, A.H. [New Technologies-Research Center, University of West Bohemia, Univerzitni 8, 306 14 Pilsen (Czech Republic); Center of Excellence Geopolymer and Green Technology, School of Material Engineering, University Malaysia Perlis, 01007 Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia)

    2015-07-01

    Ab-initio calculations are performed to investigate the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of spin-polarized diluted magnetic alloys in zinc blende structure. The first-principles study is carried out on Mn doped III–V semiconductors. The calculated band structures, electronic properties and magnetic properties of Ga{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}X (X=P, As) compounds reveal that Ga{sub 0.75}Mn{sub 0.25}P is half metallic turned to be metallic with increasing x to 0.5 and 0.75, whereas substitute P by As cause to maintain the half-metallicity nature in both of Ga{sub 0.75}Mn{sub 0.25}As and Ga{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}As and tune Ga{sub 0.25}Mn{sub 0.75}As to be metallic. Calculated total magnetic moments and the robustness of half-metallicity of Ga{sub 0.75}Mn{sub 0.25}P, Ga{sub 0.75}Mn{sub 0.25}As and Ga{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}As with respect to the variation in lattice parameters are also discussed. The predicted theoretical evidence shows that some Mn-doped III–V semiconductors can be effectively used in spintronic devices.

  15. Electronic structure calculations toward new potentially AChE inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula, A. A. N.; Martins, J. B. L.; Gargano, R.; dos Santos, M. L.; Romeiro, L. A. S.

    2007-10-01

    The main purpose of this study was the use of natural non-isoprenoid phenolic lipid of cashew nut shell liquid from Anacardium occidentale as lead material for generating new potentially candidates of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. Therefore, we studied the electronic structure of 15 molecules derivatives from the cardanol using the following groups: methyl, acetyl, N, N-dimethylcarbamoyl, N, N-dimethylamine, N, N-diethylamine, piperidine, pyrrolidine, and N-benzylamine. The calculations were performed at RHF level using 6-31G, 6-31G(d), 6-31+G(d) and 6-311G(d,p) basis functions. Among the proposed compounds we found that the structures with substitution by acetyl, N, N-dimethylcarbamoyl, N, N-dimethylamine, and pyrrolidine groups were better correlated to rivastigmine indicating possible activity.

  16. Atomically Thin Ordered Alloys of Transition Metal Dichalcogenides: Stability and Band Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pandey, Mohnish; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2016-01-01

    We explore the possibility of modulating the electronic band edges of the transition metal dichalcogenides (TMD) via alloying of different semiconductors within the same group (intra-group alloying). The stability of the ordered alloys is assessed from the calculated mixing enthalpy which is found...

  17. Electronic structure calculations for PrFe4P12 filled skutterudite using Extended Huckel tight-binding method

    CERN Document Server

    Galvan, D H

    2003-01-01

    To get insight into the electronic properties of PrFe4P12 skutterudite, band electronic structure calculations, Total and Projected Density of States, Crystal Orbital Overlap Population and Mulliken Population Analysis were performed. The energy bands yield a semi metallic behavior with a direct gap (at gamma) of 0.02 eV. Total and Projected Density of States provided information of the contribution from each orbital of each atom to the total Density of States. Moreover, the bonding strength between some atoms within the unit cell was obtained. Mulliken Population analysis suggests ionic behavior for this compound.

  18. Electronic structure and optical properties of TbPO4: Experiment and density functional theory calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadraoui, Z.; Horchani-Naifer, K.; Ferhi, M.; Ferid, M.

    2015-09-01

    Single crystals of TbPO4 were grown by high temperature solid-state reaction and identified by means of X-ray diffraction, infrared and Raman spectroscopies analysis. The electronic properties of TbPO4 such as the energy band structures, density of states were carried out using density functional theory (DFT). We have employed the LDA+U functional to treat the exchange correlation potential by solving Kohn-Sham equation. The calculated total and partial density of states indicate that the top of valance band is mainly built upon O-2p states and the bottom of the conduction band mostly originates from Tb-5d states. The population analysis indicates that the P-O bond was mainly covalent and Tb-O bond was mainly ionic. The emission spectrum, color coordinates and decay curve were employed to reveal the luminescence properties of TbPO4. Moreover, the optical properties including the dielectric function, absorption spectrum, refractive index, extinction coefficient, reflectivity and energy-loss spectrum are investigated and analyzed. The results are discussed and compared with the available experimental data.

  19. Magnon band structure and magnon density in one-dimensional magnonic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Rong-ke, E-mail: rkqiu@163.com [Shenyang University of Technology, Shenyang 110870 (China); Huang, Te [Shenyang University of Technology, Shenyang 110870 (China); Zhang, Zhi-dong [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2014-11-15

    By using Callen's Green's function method and the Tyablikov and Anderson–Callen decoupling approximations, we systematically study the magnon band structure and magnon density perpendicular to the superlattice plane of one-dimensional magnonic crystals, with a superlattice consisting of two magnetic layers with ferromagnetic (FM) or antiferromagnetic (AFM) interlayer exchange coupling. The effects of temperature, interlayer coupling, anisotropy and external magnetic field on the magnon-energy band and magnon density in the K{sub x}-direction are investigated in three situations: a) the magnon band of magnetic superlattices with FM interlayer coupling, b) separate and c) overlapping magnon bands of magnetic superlattices with AFM interlayer coupling. In the present work, a quantum approach is developed to study the magnon band structure and magnon density of magnonic crystals and the results are beneficial for the design of magnonic-crystal waveguides or gigahertz-range spin-wave filters. - Highlights: • A quantum approach has been developed to study the magnon band of magnonic crystals. • The separate and overlapping magnon bands of magnetic superlattices are investigated. • The results are beneficial for the design of gigahertz-range spin-wave filters.

  20. Design of UWB monopole antenna with dual notched bands using one modified electromagnetic-bandgap structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hao; Xu, Ziqiang

    2013-01-01

    A modified electromagnetic-bandgap (M-EBG) structure and its application to planar monopole ultra-wideband (UWB) antenna are presented. The proposed M-EBG which comprises two strip patch and an edge-located via can perform dual notched bands. By properly designing and placing strip patch near the feedline, the proposed M-EBG not only possesses a simple structure and compact size but also exhibits good band rejection. Moreover, it is easy to tune the dual notched bands by altering the dimensions of the M-EBG. A demonstration antenna with dual band-notched characteristics is designed and fabricated to validate the proposed method. The results show that the proposed antenna can satisfy the requirements of VSWR WiMAX) and the wireless local area network (WLAN) at 3.5 GHz and 5.5 GHz, respectively.

  1. Study on electro-optic properties of two-dimensional PLZT photonic crystal band structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TONG Kai; WU Xiao-gang; WANG Mei-ting

    2011-01-01

    The band characteristics of two-dimensional (2D) lead lanthanum zirconate titanate (PLZT) photonic cystals are analyzed by finite element method. The electro-optic effect of PLZT can cause the refractive index change when it is imposed by the applied electric field, and the band structure of 2D photonic crystals based on PLZT varies accordingly. The effect of the applied electric field on the structural characteristics of the first and second band gaps in 2D PLZT photonic crystals is analyzed in detail. And the results show that for each band gap, the variations of start wavelength, cut-off wavelength and bandwidth are proportional to quadratic of the electric field.

  2. A short remark on the band structure of free-edge platonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael J. A.; Meylan, Michael H.; McPhedran, Ross C.; Poulton, Chris G.

    2014-10-01

    A corrected version of the multipole solution for a thin plate perforated in a doubly periodic fashion is presented. It is assumed that free-edge boundary conditions are imposed at the edge of each cylindrical inclusion. The solution procedure given here exploits a well-known property of Bessel functions to obtain the solution directly, in contrast to the existing incorrect derivation. A series of band diagrams and an updated table of values are given for the resulting system (correcting known publications on the topic), which shows a spectral band at low frequency for the free-edge problem. This is in contrast to clamped-edge boundary conditions for the same biharmonic plate problem, which features a low-frequency band gap. The numerical solution procedure outlined here is also simplified relative to earlier publications, and exploits the spectral properties of complex-valued matrices to determine the band structure of the structured plate.

  3. Deformation analysis of ferrite/pearlite banded structure under uniaxial tension using digital image correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaochuan; Wang, Yong; Yang, Jia; Qiao, Zhixia; Ren, Chunhua; Chen, Cheng

    2016-10-01

    The ferrite/pearlite banded structure causes the anisotropic behavior of steel. In this paper, digital image correlation (DIC) was used to analyze the micro deformation of this microstructure under uniaxial tension. The reliability of DIC for this application was verified by a zero-deformation experiment. The results show that the performance of DIC can satisfy the requirements of the tensile deformation measurement. Then, two uniaxial tensile tests in different directions (longitudinal direction and transverse direction) were carried out and DIC was used to measure the micro deformation of the ferrite/pearlite banded structure. The measured results show that the ferrite bands undergo the main deformation in the transverse tension, which results in the relatively weaker tensile properties in the transverse direction than in the longitudinal direction. This work is useful to guide the modification of the bands morphology and extend the application scope of DIC.

  4. Efficient Execution of Electronic Structure Calculations on SMP Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ustemirov, Nurzhan [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Applications augmented with adaptive capabilities are becoming common in parallel computing environments. For large-scale scientific applications, dynamic adjustments to a computationally-intensive part may lead to a large pay-off in facilitating efficient execution of the entire application while aiming at avoiding resource contention. Application-specific knowledge, often best revealed during the run-time, is required to initiate and time these adjustments. In particular, General Atomic and Molecular Electronic Structure System (GAMESS) is a program for ab initio quantum chemistry that places significant demands on the high-performance computing platforms. Certain electronic structure calculations are characterized by high consumption of a particular resource, such as CPU, main memory, or disk I/O. This may lead to resource contention among concurrent GAMESS jobs and other programs in the dynamically changing environment. Thus, it is desirable to improve GAMESS calculations by means of dynamic adaptations. In this thesis, we show how an application- or algorithm-specific knowledge may play a significant role in achieving this goal. The choice of implementation is facilitated by a module-driven middleware easily integrated with GAMESS that assesses resource consumption and invokes GAMESS adaptations to the system environment. We show that the throughput of GAMESS jobs may be improved greatly as a result of such adaptations.

  5. Computational aspects of sensitivity calculations in transient structural analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, William H.; Haftka, Raphael T.

    1988-01-01

    A key step in the application of formal automated design techniques to structures under transient loading is the calculation of sensitivities of response quantities to the design parameters. This paper considers structures with general forms of damping acted on by general transient loading and addresses issues of computational errors and computational efficiency. The equations of motion are reduced using the traditional basis of vibration modes and then integrated using a highly accurate, explicit integration technique. A critical point constraint formulation is used to place constraints on the magnitude of each response quantity as a function of time. Three different techniques for calculating sensitivities of the critical point constraints are presented. The first two are based on the straightforward application of the forward and central difference operators, respectively. The third is based on explicit differentiation of the equations of motion. Condition errors, finite difference truncation errors, and modal convergence errors for the three techniques are compared by applying them to a simple five-span-beam problem. Sensitivity results are presented for two different transient loading conditions and for both damped and undamped cases.

  6. Analysis of two-dimensional photonic band gap structure with a rhombus lattice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Limei Qi; Ziqiang Yang; Xi Gao; Zheng Liang

    2008-01-01

    @@ The relative band gap for a rhombus lattice photonic crystal is studied by plane wave expansion method and high frequency structure simulator (HFSS) simulation. General wave vectors in the first Briliouin zone are derived. The relative band gap as a function of air-filling factor and background material is investigated, respectively, and the nature of photonic band gap for different lattice angles is analyzed by the distribution of electric energy. These results would provide theoretical instruction for designing optical integrated devices using photonic crystal with a rhombus lattice.

  7. Band structure properties of (BGa)P semiconductors for lattice matched integration on (001) silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossain, Nadir; Sweeney, Stephen [Advanced Technology Institute and Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Hosea, Jeff [Advanced Technology Institute and Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH, UK and Ibnu Sina Institute for Fundamental Science Studies, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru 81310 (Malaysia); Liebich, Sven; Zimprich, Martin; Volz, Kerstin; Stolz, Wolfgang [Material Sciences Center and Faculty of Physics, Philipps-University, 35032 Marburg (Germany); Kunert, Bernerdette [NAsP III/V GmbH, Am Knechtacker 19, 35041 Marburg (Germany)

    2013-12-04

    We report the band structure properties of (BGa)P layers grown on silicon substrate using metal-organic vapour-phase epitaxy. Using surface photo-voltage spectroscopy we find that both the direct and indirect band gaps of (BGa)P alloys (strained and unstrained) decrease with Boron content. Our experimental results suggest that the band gap of (BGa)P layers up to 6% Boron is large and suitable to be used as cladding and contact layers in GaP-based quantum well heterostructures on silicon substrates.

  8. Study of periodic band gap structure of the magnetized plasma photonic crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hai-feng; MA Li; LIU Shao-bin

    2009-01-01

    The characteristics of the periodic band gaps of the one dimension magnetized plasma photonic crystals are studied with the piecewise linear current density recursive convolution (PLCDRC) finite-differential time-domain (FDTD) method. In fre-quency-domain, the transmission coefficients of electromagnetic Gaussian pulses are computed, and the effects of the periodic structure constant, plasma layer thickness and parameters of plasma on the properties of periodic band gaps of magnetized photonic crystals are analyzed. The results show that the periodic band gaps depend strongly on the plasma parameters.

  9. Band structure in doubly-odd nuclei with mass around 130

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higashiyama, K [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Hongo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Yoshinaga, N [Department of Physics, Saitama University, Saitama City 338-8570 (Japan)

    2006-10-10

    Nuclear structure of the doublet bands in the doubly-odd nuclei with mass A {approx} 130 is studied in terms of a pair-truncated shell model. The model reproduces quite well the energy levels of the doublet bands and the electromagnetic transitions. The doublet bands turn out to be realized by the chopsticks-like motion of two angular momenta of the unpaired neutron and the unpaired proton, weakly coupled with the quadrupole collective excitations of the even-even part of the nucleus.

  10. Engineering the electronic structure and band gap of boron nitride nanoribbon via external electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chegel, Raad

    2016-06-01

    By using the third nearest neighbor modified tight binding (3NN-TB) method, the electronic structure and band gap of BNNRs under transverse electric fields are explored. The band gap of the BNNRs has a decreasing with increasing the intensity of the applied electric field, independent on the ribbon edge types. Furthermore, an analytic model for the dependence of the band gap in armchair and zigzag BNNRs on the electric field is proposed. The reduction of E g is similar for some N a armchair and N z zigzag BNNRs independent of their edges.

  11. Nature of the band gap of halide perovskites 3 (=CH3NH3, Cs; =Sn, Pb; =Cl, Br, I):First-principles calculations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁野; 徐闰; 徐海涛; 洪峰; 徐飞; 王林军

    2015-01-01

    The electronic structures of cubic structure of ABX3(A=CH3NH3, Cs;B=Sn, Pb;X=Cl, Br, I) are analyzed by den-sity functional theory using the Perdew–Burke–Ernzerhof exchange–correlation functional and using the Heyd–Scuseria–Ernzerhof hybrid functional. The valence band maximum (VBM) is found to be made up by an antibonding hybridization of B s and X p states, whereas bands made up by theπ antibonding of B p and X p states dominates the conduction band minimum (CBM). The changes of VBM, CBM, and band gap with ion B and X are then systematically summarized. The natural band offsets of ABX3 are partly given. We also found for all the ABX3 perovskite materials in this study, the bandgap increases with an increasing lattice parameter. This phenomenon has good consistency with the experimental results.

  12. Study on band gap structure of Fibonacci quantum superlattices by using the transfer matrix method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, V.; Castro-Palacio, J. C.; Marí, B.; Monsoriu, J. A.

    2014-02-01

    The scattering properties of particles in a one-dimensional Fibonacci sequence based potential have been analyzed by means of the Transfer Matrix Method. The electronic band gaps are examined comparatively with those obtained using the corresponding periodic potentials. The reflection coefficient shows self-similar properties for the Fibonacci superlattices. Moreover, by using the generalized Bragg's condition, the band gaps positions are derived from the golden mean involved in the design of the superlattice structure.

  13. Dual-Band Perfect Absorption by Breaking the Symmetry of Metamaterial Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai, Le Dinh; Qui, Vu Dinh; Dinh, Tiep Hong; Hai, Pham; Giang, Trinh Thị; Cuong, Tran Manh; Tung, Bui Son; Lam, Vu Dinh

    2017-02-01

    Since the first proposal of Landy et al. (Phys Rev Lett 100:207402, 2008), the metamaterial perfect absorber (MPA) has rapidly become one of the most crucial research trends. Recently, dual-band, multi-band and broadband MPA have been highly desirable in electronic applications. In this paper, we demonstrate and evaluate a MPA structure which can generate dual-band absorption operating at the microwave frequency by breaking the symmetry of structure. There is an agreement between simulation and experimental results. The results can be explained by using the equivalent LC circuit and the electric field distribution of this structure. In addition, various structures with different symmetry configurations were studied to gain greater insight into the absorption.

  14. Low band gap frequencies and multiplexing properties in 1D and 2D mass spring structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, Arafa H.; Mehaney, Ahmed

    2016-11-01

    This study reports on the propagation of elastic waves in 1D and 2D mass spring structures. An analytical and computation model is presented for the 1D and 2D mass spring systems with different examples. An enhancement in the band gap values was obtained by modeling the structures to obtain low frequency band gaps at small dimensions. Additionally, the evolution of the band gap as a function of mass value is discussed. Special attention is devoted to the local resonance property in frequency ranges within the gaps in the band structure for the corresponding infinite periodic lattice in the 1D and 2D mass spring system. A linear defect formed of a row of specific masses produces an elastic waveguide that transmits at the narrow pass band frequency. The frequency of the waveguides can be selected by adjusting the mass and stiffness coefficients of the materials constituting the waveguide. Moreover, we pay more attention to analyze the wave multiplexer and DE-multiplexer in the 2D mass spring system. We show that two of these tunable waveguides with alternating materials can be employed to filter and separate specific frequencies from a broad band input signal. The presented simulation data is validated through comparison with the published research, and can be extended in the development of resonators and MEMS verification.

  15. Photonic Band Gap Structures with Periodically Arranged Atoms in a Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhi-Yu; CHEN Fang; ZHOU Jian-Ying

    2005-01-01

    @@ Linear transmission, reflection and absorption spectra for a new two-dimensional photonic crystal with periodically arranged resonant atoms are examined. Numerical results show that a twin-gap structure with forbidden bands displaced from a non-doped bandgap structure can be produced as a result of atomic polarization. The absorption spectrum is also significantly altered compared to the single atom entity.

  16. Effects of weak nonlinearity on dispersion relations and frequency band-gaps of periodic structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorokin, Vladislav; Thomsen, Jon Juel

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of the behaviour of linear periodic structures can be traced back over 300 years, to Sir Isaac Newton, and still attracts much attention. An essential feature of periodic struc-tures is the presence of frequency band-gaps, i.e. frequency ranges in which waves cannot propagate...

  17. Phononic band gaps and vibrations in one- and two-dimensional mass-spring structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    2003-01-01

    The vibrational response of finite periodic lattice structures subjected to periodic loading is investigated. Special attention is devoted to the response in frequency ranges with gaps in the band structure for the corresponding infinite periodic lattice. The effects of boundaries, viscous dampin...

  18. State-to-state rotational phase coherence effect on the vibration-rotation band shape - An accurate quantum calculation for CO-He

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boissoles, J.; Boulet, C.; Robert, D.; Green, S.

    1989-01-01

    Accurate coupled state calculations of line coupling are performed for infrared lines of carbon monoxide perturbed by helium. Such calculations lead to both real and imaginary line couplings. For the first time, the effect of this imaginary line couplings, connected with state-to-state rotational phase coherences, on infrared band shape, is analyzed. An extension of detailed balance principle to the complex plane is suggested from the present computed off-diagonal cross sections. This allows us to understand the physical mechanism underlying the weak effect of phase coherences on CO-He infrared band shape.

  19. Band structure of magneto-metallo-dielectric photonic crystals with hybrid one- and two-dimensional periodicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes-Ayona, E. [Instituto de Fisica, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Apartado Postal J-48, Puebla 72570 (Mexico); Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica Optica y Electronica, Apartado Postal 51, Puebla 72000 (Mexico); Halevi, P. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica Optica y Electronica, Apartado Postal 51, Puebla 72000 (Mexico)

    2012-06-15

    We calculate the band structure of a magneto-metallo-dielectric photonic crystal (PC) with hybrid one- and two-dimensional periodicity. Namely, the permittivity (permeability) is periodic in a plane (single direction). The metallic and magnetic properties are described, respectively, by means of the Drude model and a specific permeability model for Barium-M ferrite. Because of the dispersion of both the permeability and the permittivity, we obtain a non-standard eigenvalue problem which is possible to solve by means of a linearization technique. We found that the first band of this PC is very sensitive to the filling fraction of the magnetic component: by changing this fraction from 0.20 to 0.16 the slope - and effective index of refraction - changes from positive to negative. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Electronic structure of AlCrN films investigated using various photoelectron spectroscopies and ab initio calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatemizo, N.; Imada, S.; Miura, Y.; Yamane, H.; Tanaka, K.

    2017-03-01

    The valence band (VB) structures of wurtzite AlCrN (Cr concentration: 0-17.1%), which show optical absorption in the ultraviolet-visible-infrared light region, were investigated via photoelectron yield spectroscopy (PYS), x-ray/ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS/UPS), and ab initio density of states (DOS) calculations. An obvious photoelectron emission threshold was observed ~5.3 eV from the vacuum level for AlCrN, whereas no emission was observed for AlN in the PYS spectra. Comparisons of XPS and UPS VB spectra and the calculated DOS imply that Cr 3d states are formed both at the top of the VB and in the AlN gap. These data suggest that Cr doping could be a viable option to produce new materials with relevant energy band structures for solar photoelectric conversion.

  1. Hybrid density functional theory study of Cu(In1−xGaxSe2 band structure for solar cell application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu-Dong Chen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Cu(In1−xGaxSe2 (CIGS alloy based thin film photovoltaic solar cells have attracted more and more attention due to its large optical absorption coefficient, long term stability, low cost and high efficiency. However, the previous theoretical investigation of this material with first principle calculation cannot fulfill the requirement of experimental development, especially the accurate description of band structure and density of states. In this work, we use first principle calculation based on hybrid density functional theory to investigate the feature of CIGS, with B3LYP applied in the CuIn1−xGaxSe2 stimulation of the band structure and density of states. We report the simulation of the lattice parameter, band gap and chemical composition. The band gaps of CuGaSe2, CuIn0.25Ga0.75Se2, CuIn0.5Ga0.5Se2, CuIn0.75Ga0.25Se2 and CuInSe2 are obtained as 1.568 eV, 1.445 eV, 1.416 eV, 1.275 eV and 1.205 eV according to our calculation, which agree well with the available experimental values. The band structure of CIGS is also in accordance with the current theory.

  2. Estimation of various scattering parameters and 2-DEG mobilities from electron mobility calculations in the three conduction bands , L and X of gallium arsenide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sonal Singhal; A K Saxena; S Dasgupta

    2007-10-01

    The electron drift mobility in conduction band of GaAs has been calculated before, but for the first time, we have made attempts to estimate the electron mobilities in higher energy L and X minima. We have also calculated the value of mobility of two-dimensional electron gas needed to predict hetero-structure device characteristics using GaAs. Best scattering parameters have been derived by close comparison between experimental and theoretical mobilities. Room temperature electron mobilities in , L and X valleys are found to be nearly 9094, 945 and 247 cm2 /V-s respectively. For the above valleys, the electron masses, deformation potentials and polar phonon temperatures have been determined to be (0.067, 0.22, 0.39m 0 ), (8.5, 9.5, 6.5 eV), and (416, 382, 542 K) as best values, respectively. The 2-DEG electron mobility in minimum increases to 1.54 × 106 from 1.59 × 105 cm2 /V-s (for impurity concentration of 1014 cm-3) at 10 K. Similarly, the 2-DEG electron mobility values in L and X minima are estimated to be 2.28 × 105 and 1.44 × 105 cm2 /V-s at 10 K, which are about ∼ 4.5 and ∼ 3.9 times higher than normal value with impurity scattering present.

  3. Higher‐order mode absorption measurement of X-band choke-mode cavities in a radial line structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zha, Hao [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing CN-100086 (China); Key Laboratory of Particle and Radiation Imaging, Tsinghua University, Ministry of Education, Beijing (China); The European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva CH-1211 (Switzerland); Shi, Jiaru, E-mail: shij@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing CN-100086 (China); Key Laboratory of Particle and Radiation Imaging, Tsinghua University, Ministry of Education, Beijing (China); The European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva CH-1211 (Switzerland); Wu, Xiaowei; Chen, Huaibi [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing CN-100086 (China); Key Laboratory of Particle and Radiation Imaging, Tsinghua University, Ministry of Education, Beijing (China)

    2016-04-01

    An experiment is presented to study the higher-order mode (HOM) suppression of X-band choke-mode structures with a vector network analyzer (VNA). Specific radial line disks were built to test the reflection from the corresponding damping load and different choke geometries. The mismatch between the radial lines and the VNA was calibrated through a special multi-short-load calibration method. The measured reflections of different choke geometries showed good agreement with the theoretical calculations and verified the HOM absorption feature of each geometric design.

  4. Structure and vibrational spectrum of 2-methylallyl radical. Nonempirical quantum chemical calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avakyan, V.G.; Volkova, V.V.; Gusel' nikov, L.E.; Ziegler, U.; Zimmermann, G.; Ondurshka, B.; Nametkin, N.S.

    1987-04-01

    In the study of the role of allyl type radicals in the pyrolysis of hydrocarbons it is of interest to investigate the conditions of formation, structure, and reactivity of 2-methylallyl radical (C/sub 4/H/sub 7//sup ./). The authors performed theoretical assignment of the bands, which were observed in the lattice spectra of the pyrolysis products, to the vibrations of the C/sub 4/H/sub 7//sup ./ radical by means of calculation of the frequencies and shapes of the normal vibrations. Since the necessary geometrical parameters and force coefficients of C/sub 4/H/sub 7//sup ./ are not known, they determined them by means of nonempirical quantum chemical calculation. The quantum chemical calculation of C/sub 4/H/sub 7//sup ./ was performed by means of the unrestricted Hartree-Fock method using STO-4G (geometry optimization taking into account the characteristics of calculation of radicals in minimal bases and calculation of the force coefficients by means of numerical differentiation) and 4-31G bases (electron density distribution) by means of GAUSSIAN-70 program. For comparison of the energy and electron density distribution they performed calculations also for the 2-methylallyl cation C/sub 4/H/sub 7//sup ./. From the calculation of the difference of the total energies of C/sub 4/H/sub 7//sup ./ and C/sub 4/H/sub 7//sup ./ in the 4-31G basis was 7.4 eV, which is comparable to the ionization energy of the 2-methylallyl radical, 7.95 eV.

  5. Valence-band electronic structure of Zn3P2 as a function of annealing as studied by synchrotron radiation photoemission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Art J.; Kazmerski, L. L.; Engelhardt, Mike; Hochst, Hartmut

    1990-02-01

    Ultraviolet photoemission (UPS) utilizing synchrotron radiation has been used to characterize changes in the valence-band electronic structure of crystalline Zn3P2 as a function of annealing temperature. The Zn3P2 crystal was etched in bromine-methanol prior to analysis and annealing was performed in vacuum at 300 and 350 °C after sputter cleaning. The UPS spectra for the virgin material are qualitatively similar to the photoemission results for various II-VI Zn compound semiconductors and a comparison of the Zn 3d binding energies with respect to the valence band maximum is presented. The results for the virgin material and the 300 °C anneal are further compared with the theoretically predicted band structure of Zn3P2 as determined by a pseudopotential energy band calculation. Loss of phosphorus from the surface and the presence of elemental zinc on the surface after the 350 °C anneal is evident.

  6. Structural, optical and electrical properties of tin oxide thin films for application as a wide band gap semiconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sethi, Riti; Ahmad, Shabir; Aziz, Anver; Siddiqui, Azher Majid, E-mail: amsiddiqui@jmi.ac.in [Department of Physics, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi-110025 (India)

    2015-08-28

    Tin oxide (SnO) thin films were synthesized using thermal evaporation technique. Ultra pure metallic tin was deposited on glass substrates using thermal evaporator under high vacuum. The thickness of the tin deposited films was kept at 100nm. Subsequently, the as-deposited tin films were annealed under oxygen environment for a period of 3hrs to obtain tin oxide films. To analyse the suitability of the synthesized tin oxide films as a wide band gap semiconductor, various properties were studied. Structural parameters were studied using XRD and SEM-EDX. The optical properties were studied using UV-Vis Spectrophotometry and the electrical parameters were calculated using the Hall-setup. XRD and SEM confirmed the formation of SnO phase. Uniform texture of the film can be seen through the SEM images. Presence of traces of unoxidised Sn has also been confirmed through the XRD spectra. The band gap calculated was around 3.6eV and the optical transparency around 50%. The higher value of band gap and lower value of optical transparency can be attributed to the presence of unoxidised Sn. The values of resistivity and mobility as measured by the Hall setup were 78Ωcm and 2.92cm{sup 2}/Vs respectively. The reasonable optical and electrical parameters make SnO a suitable candidate for optoelectronic and electronic device applications.

  7. A functional renormalization group approach to electronic structure calculations for systems without translational symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Seiler, Christian

    2016-01-01

    A formalism for electronic-structure calculations is presented that is based on the functional renormalization group (FRG). The traditional FRG has been formulated for systems that exhibit a translational symmetry with an associated Fermi surface, which can provide the organization principle for the renormalization group (RG) procedure. We here advance an alternative formulation, where the RG-flow is organized in the energy-domain rather than in k-space. This has the advantage that it can also be applied to inhomogeneous matter lacking a band-structure, such as disordered metals or molecules. The energy-domain FRG ({\\epsilon}FRG) presented here accounts for Fermi-liquid corrections to quasi-particle energies and particle-hole excitations. It goes beyond the state of the art GW-BSE, because in {\\epsilon}FRG the Bethe-Salpeter equation (BSE) is solved in a self-consistent manner. An efficient implementation of the approach that has been tested against exact diagonalization calculations and calculations based on...

  8. Extinction coefficients of CC and CC bands in ethyne and ethene molecules interacting with Cu+ and Ag+ in zeolites--IR studies and quantumchemical DFT calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozyra, Paweł; Góra-Marek, Kinga; Datka, Jerzy

    2015-02-05

    The values of extinction coefficients of CC and CC IR bands of ethyne and ethene interacting with Cu+ and Ag+ in zeolites were determined in quantitative IR experiments and also by quantumchemical DFT calculations with QM/MM method. Both experimental and calculated values were in very good agreement validating the reliability of calculations. The values of extinction coefficients of ethyne and ethene interacting with bare cations and cations embedded in zeolite-like clusters were calculated. The interaction of organic molecules with Cu+ and Ag+ in zeolites ZSM-5 and especially charge transfers between molecule, cation and zeolite framework was also discussed in relation to the values of extinction coefficients.

  9. Electronic transport and band structures of GaAs/AlAs nanostructures superlattices for near-infrared detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkissy, Driss; Nafidi, Abdelhakim; Boutramine, Abderrazak; Benchtaber, Nassima; Khalal, Ali; El Gouti, Thami

    2017-01-01

    We report here the theoretical calculations of band structures E( d 1), E( k z , k p ) and effective mass along the growth axis and in the plane of GaAs/Al x Ga1- x As superlattices, in the envelope function formalism. The effect of valence band offset, well thickness and temperature on the band structures, has been also studied. Our results show that a transition from indirect to direct band gap in (GaAs) m /(AlAs)4 takes place between m = 5 and 6 monolayers at room temperature. Samples (GaAs)9/(AlAs)4 and GaAs( d 1 = 10 nm)/Al0.15Ga0.85As( d 2 = 15 nm) have a direct band gap of 1.747 eV at room temperature and 1.546 eV at T = 30 mK, respectively. Their corresponding cutoff wavelengths are located in the near infrared region. We have interpreted the photoluminescence measurements of Ledentsov et al. in GaAs( d 1 = 2.52 nm)/AlAs ( d 1 = 1.16 nm) and the oscillations in the magnetoresistance observed by Kawamura et al. in GaAs/Al0.15Ga0.85As superlattice. In the later, the existence of discrete quantized levels along the growth direction z indicates extremely low interactions between adjacent wells leading to the use in parallel transport. The position of Fermi level predicts that this sample exhibits n-type conductivity. These results were compared and discussed with the available data in the literature and can be used as a guide for the design of infrared nanostructured detectors.

  10. UWB Band-notched Adjustable Antenna Using Concentric Split-ring Slots Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Y.; Hong, J. S.

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, a kind of concentric split-ring slots structure is utilized to design a novel triple-band-notched UWB antenna. Firstly, a concentric split-ring slots structure that has a higher VSWR than that of a single slot at notch frequency is presented. What's more, the structure is very simple and feasible to obtain notched-band at different frequency by adjustment of the length of slot. Secondly, a triple-band-notched antenna, whose notched bands are at 3.52-3.81 GHz for WiMAX and 5.03-5.42 GHz and 5.73-56.17 GHz for WLAN, is designed by using this structure. At last, a compact size of 24 × 30 mm2 of the proposed antenna has been fabricated and measured and it is shown that the proposed antenna has a broadband matched impedance (3.05-14 GHz, VSWR < 2), relatively stable gain and good omnidirectional radiation patterns at low bands.

  11. Adaptations in Electronic Structure Calculations in Heterogeneous Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talamudupula, Sai [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Modern quantum chemistry deals with electronic structure calculations of unprecedented complexity and accuracy. They demand full power of high-performance computing and must be in tune with the given architecture for superior e ciency. To make such applications resourceaware, it is desirable to enable their static and dynamic adaptations using some external software (middleware), which may monitor both system availability and application needs, rather than mix science with system-related calls inside the application. The present work investigates scienti c application interlinking with middleware based on the example of the computational chemistry package GAMESS and middleware NICAN. The existing synchronous model is limited by the possible delays due to the middleware processing time under the sustainable runtime system conditions. Proposed asynchronous and hybrid models aim at overcoming this limitation. When linked with NICAN, the fragment molecular orbital (FMO) method is capable of adapting statically and dynamically its fragment scheduling policy based on the computing platform conditions. Signi cant execution time and throughput gains have been obtained due to such static adaptations when the compute nodes have very di erent core counts. Dynamic adaptations are based on the main memory availability at run time. NICAN prompts FMO to postpone scheduling certain fragments, if there is not enough memory for their immediate execution. Hence, FMO may be able to complete the calculations whereas without such adaptations it aborts.

  12. Molecular Structure, Theoretical Calculation and Thermodynamic Properties of Tebuconazole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Haixia; SONG Jirong; HUANG Ting; LU Xingqiang; XU Kangzhen; SUN Xiaohong

    2009-01-01

    Single crystals of 5-(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2-dimethyl-3-(1,2,4-triazol-1-ylmethyl)-pentom-3-ol (tebuconazole) were obtained in toluene. The single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies showed that it crystallized in the monoclinic system, with space group P2(1)/c and crystal parameters of a= 1.1645(1) nm, b= 1.6768(2) nm, c= 1.7478(2) nm,β=92.055(2)°, Dc= 1.199 g/cm3, Z=4 and F(000)= 1312. Density functional theory (DFT) B3LYP was employed to optimize the structure and calculate the frequencies of tebuconazole. The calculated geometrical parameters are close to the corresponding experimental ones. The specific heat capacity of the title compound was determined with continuous Cp mode of a mircocalorimeter. In the determining temperature range from 283 to 353 K, the special heat capacity of the title compound presents good linear relation with temperature. Using the determined relation-ship of Cp with temperature T, thermodynamic functions (enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs free energy) of the title compound between 283 and 353 K, relative to the standard temperature 298.15 K, were derived through thermody-namic relationship.

  13. Gradient type optimization methods for electronic structure calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Xin; Wen, Zaiwen; Zhou, Aihui

    2013-01-01

    The density functional theory (DFT) in electronic structure calculations can be formulated as either a nonlinear eigenvalue or direct minimization problem. The most widely used approach for solving the former is the so-called self-consistent field (SCF) iteration. A common observation is that the convergence of SCF is not clear theoretically while approaches with convergence guarantee for solving the latter are often not competitive to SCF numerically. In this paper, we study gradient type methods for solving the direct minimization problem by constructing new iterations along the gradient on the Stiefel manifold. Global convergence (i.e., convergence to a stationary point from any initial solution) as well as local convergence rate follows from the standard theory for optimization on manifold directly. A major computational advantage is that the computation of linear eigenvalue problems is no longer needed. The main costs of our approaches arise from the assembling of the total energy functional and its grad...

  14. Two-dimensional wide-band-gap II-V semiconductors with a dilated graphene-like structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue-Jing; Liu, Bang-Gui

    2016-12-01

    Since the advent of graphene, two-dimensional (2D) materials have become very attractive and there is growing interest in exploring new 2D materials beyond graphene. Here, through density-functional theory (DFT) calculations, we predict 2D wide-band-gap II-V semiconductor materials of M3X2 (M = Zn, Cd and X = N, P, As) with a dilated graphene-like honeycomb structure. In this structure the group-V X atoms form two X-atomic planes symmetrically astride the centering group-IIB M atomic plane. Our DFT calculation shows that 2D Zn3N2, Zn3P2 and Zn3As2 have direct band gaps of 2.87, 3.81 and 3.55 eV, respectively, and 2D Cd3N2, Cd3P2 and Cd3As2 exhibit indirect band gaps of 2.74, 3.51 and 3.29 eV, respectively. Each of the six 2D materials is shown to have effective carrier (either hole or electron) masses down to 0.03m 0-0.05m 0. The structural stability and feasibility of experimental realization of these 2D materials has been shown in terms of DFT phonon spectra and total energy comparison with related existing bulk materials. On the experimental side, there already are many similar two-coordinate structures of Zn and other transition metals in various organic materials. Therefore, these 2D semiconductors can enrich the family of 2D electronic materials and may have promising potential for achieving novel transistors and optoelectronic devices.

  15. The band structure of VO2 measured by angle-resolved photoemission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreschini, Luca; Chang, Young Jun; Innocenti, Davide; Walter, Andrew L.; Kim, Young Su; Gaines, Geoffrey; Bostwick, Aaron; Denlinger, Jonathan; Rotenberg, Eli

    2011-03-01

    The origin of the 340K metal-insulator transition (MIT) in VO2 is still under debate. the main reason is that no direct experimental verifications of the electronic structure of VO2 exist up to this point. The quality of the available single crystals is not sufficient for ARPES measurements, so that photoemission is limited to angle-integrated mode. New opportunities are offered by oxide films, on which data of equal or even higher quality have been reported (Saeki et al., PRB 2009). WIth the in situ pulsed-laser-deposition (PLD) system available on beamline 7.0.1 at the Advanced Light Source we have grown VO2(001) films on a TiO2 substrate and measured the Fermi surface of the metallic phase. These results will permit a direct comparison with the existing band calculations and open the way to the study of the MIT as a function, e.g., of film thickness or electron doping with Cr. Work supported by U.S. DOE (DE-AC02-05CH11231 for ALS), the Max Planck Society, and the Swiss National Science Foundation (PBELP2-125484).

  16. Attenuation structure beneath the volcanic front in northeastern Japan from broad-band seismograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takanami, Tetsuo; Selwyn Sacks, I.; Hasegawa, Akira

    2000-10-01

    Anelastic structure in the asthenosphere beneath the volcanic front in northeastern Japan arc is estimated by using the spectral amplitude ratio data of P and S waves from about 100 events which occurred in the subducting Pacific slab below Japan. These earthquakes occurred within a 90 km radius centered about the station Sawauchi (SWU), with focal depths ranging from 60 to 200 km. Waveforms were recorded by the Carnegie broad-band three-component seismograph and were corrected for instrument responses, crustal reverberations, corner frequencies, and superimposed noise. Ray paths and travel times of P and S waves are calculated using a three-dimensional velocity model [Zhao, D., Hasegawa, A., Horiuchi, S., 1992. J. Geophys. Res. 97, 19909-19928]. We find a low- Q region ( QS˜70) extending down to 55 km depth from the lower crust beneath the volcanic front. Using Q-temperature laboratory results [Sato, H., Sacks, I.S., Murase, T., Muncill, G., Fukushima, H., 1989. J. Geophys. Res. 94, 10647-10661], this implies a temperature of about 130°C higher than the eastern forearc region and about 30°C higher than the western backarc region, in good agreement with the tomographic results of Zhao et al. [Zhao, D., Hasegawa, A., Horiuchi, S., 1992. J. Geophys. Res. 97, 19909-19928]. This suggests that low velocities in the crust and uppermost mantle beneath SWU may be explained by a subsolidus temperature increase without partial melting.

  17. Graphene Oxide Regulated Tin Oxide Nanostructures: Engineering Composition, Morphology, Band Structure, and Photocatalytic Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiaoyang; Yi, Zhiguo

    2015-12-16

    A facile, one-step hydrothermal method has been developed to fabricate tin oxide-reduced graphene oxide (Sn-RGO) nanocomposites with tunable composition, morphology, and energy band structure by utilizing graphene oxide (GO) as a multifunctional two-dimensional scaffold. By adjusting the GO concentration during synthesis, a variety of tin oxide nanomaterials with diverse composition and morphology are obtained. Simultaneously, the varying of GO concentration can also narrow the bandgap and tune the band edge positions of the Sn-RGO nanocomposites. As a result, the Sn-RGO nanocomposites with controllable composition, morphology, and energy band structure are obtained, which exhibit efficient photoactivities toward methyl orange (MO) degradation under visible-light irradiation. It is expected that our work would point to the new possibility of using GO for directing synthesis of semiconductor nanomaterials with tailored structure and physicochemical properties.

  18. Ab initio theory for ultrafast magnetization dynamics with a dynamic band structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, B. Y.; Haag, M.; Fähnle, M.

    2016-09-01

    Laser-induced modifications of magnetic materials on very small spatial dimensions and ultrashort timescales are a promising field for novel storage and spintronic devices. Therefore, the contribution of electron-electron spin-flip scattering to the ultrafast demagnetization of ferromagnets after an ultrashort laser excitation is investigated. In this work, the dynamical change of the band structure resulting from the change of the magnetization in time is taken into account on an ab initio level. We find a large influence of the dynamical band structure on the magnetization dynamics and we illustrate the thermalization and relaxation process after laser irradiation. Treating the dynamical band structure yields a demagnetization comparable to the experimental one.

  19. Near-edge band structures and band gaps of Cu-based semiconductors predicted by the modified Becke-Johnson potential plus an on-site Coulomb U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yubo; Zhang, Jiawei; Wang, Youwei [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructures, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Gao, Weiwei; Abtew, Tesfaye A. [Department of Physics, University at Buffalo, SUNY, Buffalo, New York 14260 (United States); Zhang, Peihong, E-mail: pzhang3@buffalo.edu, E-mail: wqzhang@mail.sic.ac.cn [Department of Physics, University at Buffalo, SUNY, Buffalo, New York 14260 (United States); Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang, Wenqing, E-mail: pzhang3@buffalo.edu, E-mail: wqzhang@mail.sic.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructures, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering and Sate Key Laboratory of Coordination Chemistry, Nanjing University, Jiangsu 210093 (China)

    2013-11-14

    Diamond-like Cu-based multinary semiconductors are a rich family of materials that hold promise in a wide range of applications. Unfortunately, accurate theoretical understanding of the electronic properties of these materials is hindered by the involvement of Cu d electrons. Density functional theory (DFT) based calculations using the local density approximation or generalized gradient approximation often give qualitative wrong electronic properties of these materials, especially for narrow-gap systems. The modified Becke-Johnson (mBJ) method has been shown to be a promising alternative to more elaborate theory such as the GW approximation for fast materials screening and predictions. However, straightforward applications of the mBJ method to these materials still encounter significant difficulties because of the insufficient treatment of the localized d electrons. We show that combining the promise of mBJ potential and the spirit of the well-established DFT + U method leads to a much improved description of the electronic structures, including the most challenging narrow-gap systems. A survey of the band gaps of about 20 Cu-based semiconductors calculated using the mBJ + U method shows that the results agree with reliable values to within ±0.2 eV.

  20. Cherenkov oscillator operating at the second band gap of leakage waveguide structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Kyu-Ha; Park, Seong Hee; Lee, Kitae; Jeong, Young Uk

    2016-10-01

    An electromagnetic wave source operating around second band gaps of metallic grating structures is presented. The considered metallic grating structures are not perfect periodic but inhomogeneously structured within a period to have a second band gap where the wavelength is equal to the period of the structures. The radiation mechanism by an electron beam in the structures is different from the well-known Smith-Purcell radiation occurring in perfect periodic grating structures. That is, the radiating wave has a single frequency and the radiation is unidirectional. When the energy of the electron beam is synchronized at the standing wave point in the dispersion curves, strong interaction happens and coherent radiation perpendicular to the grating surface is generated with relatively lower starting oscillation current.

  1. Cherenkov oscillator operating at the second band gap of leakage waveguide structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyu-Ha Jang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available An electromagnetic wave source operating around second band gaps of metallic grating structures is presented. The considered metallic grating structures are not perfect periodic but inhomogeneously structured within a period to have a second band gap where the wavelength is equal to the period of the structures. The radiation mechanism by an electron beam in the structures is different from the well-known Smith-Purcell radiation occurring in perfect periodic grating structures. That is, the radiating wave has a single frequency and the radiation is unidirectional. When the energy of the electron beam is synchronized at the standing wave point in the dispersion curves, strong interaction happens and coherent radiation perpendicular to the grating surface is generated with relatively lower starting oscillation current.

  2. Multi-quasiparticle {gamma}-band structure in neutron-deficient Ce and Nd isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheikh, J.A. [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, 190 006 (India); Bhat, G.H. [Department of Physics, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, 190 006 (India); Palit, R.; Naik, Z. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Colaba, Mumbai, 400 005 (India); Sun, Y. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Department of Physics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)], E-mail: sunyang@sjtu.edu.cn

    2009-06-01

    The newly developed multi-quasiparticle triaxial projected shell model approach is employed to study the high-spin band structures in neutron-deficient even-even Ce- and Nd-isotopes. It is observed that {gamma}-bands are built on each intrinsic configuration of the triaxial mean-field deformation. Due to the fact that a triaxial configuration is a superposition of several K-states, the projection from these states results in several low-lying bands originating from the same intrinsic configuration. This generalizes the well-known concept of the surface {gamma}-oscillation in deformed nuclei based on the ground-state to {gamma}-bands built on multi-quasiparticle configurations. This new feature provides an alternative explanation on the observation of two I=10 aligning states in {sup 134}Ce and both exhibiting a neutron character.

  3. Multi-Quasiparticle Gamma-Band Structure in Neutron-Deficient Ce and Nd Isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheikh, Javid [ORNL; Bhat, G. H. [University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India; Palit, R. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai, India; Naik, Z. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai, India; Sun, Y. [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai

    2009-01-01

    The newly developed multi-quasiparticle triaxial projected shell-model approach is employed to study the high-spin band structures in neutron-deficient even-even Ce and Nd isotopes. It is observed that gamma bands are built on each intrinsic configuration of the triaxial mean-field deformation. Due to the fact that a triaxial configuration is a superposition of several K states, the projection from these states results in several low-lying bands originating from the same intrinsic configuration. This generalizes the well-known concept of the surface gamma oscillation in deformed nuclei based on the ground state to gamma bands built on multi-quasiparticle configurations. This new feature provides an alternative explanation on the observation of two I=10 aligning states in ^{134}Ce and both exhibiting a neutron character.

  4. Valence band structure of strained Si/(111)Si1-xGex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The strained Si techique has been widely adopted in the high-speed and high-performance devices and circuits. Based on the valence band E-k relations of strained Si/(111)Si1-xGex, the valence band and hole effective mass along the [111] and [-110] directions were obtained in this work. In comparison with the relaxed Si, the valence band edge degeneracy was partially lifted, and the significant change was observed band structures along the [111] and [-110] directions, as well as in its corresponding hole effective masses with the increasing Ge fraction. The results obtained can provide valuable references to the investigation concerning the Si-based strained devices enhancement and the conduction channel design related to stress and orientation.

  5. Crystal structure and band gap of AlGaAsN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munich, D. P.; Pierret, R. F.

    1987-09-01

    Quantum dielectric theory is applied to the quaternary alloy Al xGa 1- xAs 1- yN y to predict its electronic properties as a function of Al and N mole fractions. Results are presented for the expected crystal structure, minimum electron energy band gap, and direction in k-space of the band gap minimum for all x and y values. The results suggest that, for a proper choice of x and y, Al xGa 1- xAs 1- yN y could exhibit certain advantages over Al xGa 1- xAs when utilized in field-effect transistor structures.

  6. Quantum Devices Based on Modern Band Structure Engineering and Epitaxial Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razeghi, Manijeh

    Modern band structure engineering is based both on the important discoveries of the past century and modern epitaxial technology. The general goal is to control the behavior of charge carriers on an atomic scale, which affects how they interact with each other and their environment. Starting from the basic semiconductor heterostructure, band structure engineering has evolved into a powerful discipline, employing lower dimensionality to demonstrate new material properties. Several modern technologies under development are used as examples of how this discipline is enabling new types of devices and new functionality in areas with immediate application.

  7. Effect of cation substitution on electronic band structure of ZnGeAs{sub 2} pnictides: A mBJLDA approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saini, Hardev S.; Singh, Mukhtiyar [Department of Physics, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra 136119 (Haryana) (India); Reshak, Ali H. [School of Complex Systems, FFWP - South Bohemia University, Nove Hrady 37333 (Czech Republic); School of Material Engineering, Malaysia University of Perlis, P.O. Box 77, d/a Pejabat Pos Besar, 01007 Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); Kashyap, Manish K., E-mail: manishdft@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra 136119 (Haryana) (India)

    2012-03-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These compounds are characterized as narrow band gap semiconductors with a maximum gap (1.27 eV) for ZnGeAs{sub 2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A good agreement of band gaps with experiments is obtained within mBJLDA formalism. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The band gap decreases with the substitution of either one or both cations in reference compound, ZnGeAs{sub 2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ionic/covalent character for A-As/B-As bond has been described on the basis of electro-negativity difference of the atoms. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The d-states of transition metal, Zn are localized deeper in valence band (E < 5 eV), showing no effective role to decide the magnitude of semiconducting band gap. - Abstract: The electronic properties of ABAs{sub 2} (A = Zn, Cd; B = Ge, Sn) compounds have been investigated using WIEN2k implementation of full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FPLAPW) method with an aim to study the effect of changing local environment by substituting cation(s) with corresponding next group element in reference compound (ZnGeAs{sub 2}) on these properties. The exchange and correlation (XC) effects are taken into account by an orbital independent modified Becke-Johnson (mBJ) potential as coupled with Local Density Approximation (LDA) for these calculations. We predict a direct band gap in all these compounds and observe that the band gap decreases with the change of either one or both cations. The calculated band gaps are in better agreement with corresponding experimental ones as compared to other calculations. The electronic band structure is analyzed in terms of contributions from various electrons and the covalency of two bonds, Zn-As and Ge-As has been discussed with respect to substitutions.

  8. Ab initio calculation of structural stability, electronic and optical properties of Ag{sub 2}Se

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rameshkumar, S.; Jayalakshmi, V., E-mail: karthikajayam@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics, SRM University, Ramapuram Campus, Chennai – 600089 (India); Jaiganesh, G. [Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam – 603102 (India); Palanivel, B. [Department of Physics, Pondicherry Engineering College, Puducherry – 605014 (India)

    2015-06-24

    The structural stability, electronic and optical properties of Ag{sub 2}Se compound is studied using ab initio packages. Ag{sub 2}Se is found to crystallize in orthorhombic structure with two different space groups i.e. P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} (No. 19) and P222{sub 1} (No. 17). For this compound in these two space groups, the total energy has been computed as a function of volume. Our calculated results suggest that the P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}–phase is more stable than that of the P222{sub 1}–phase. The band structure calculation show that Ag{sub 2}Se is semimetallic with an overlap of about 0.014 eV in P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}–phase whereas is metallic in nature in P222{sub 1}–phase. Moreover, the optical properties including the dielectric function, energy loss spectrum are obtained and analysed.

  9. QED Based Calculation of the Fine Structure Constant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lestone, John Paul [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-10-13

    Quantum electrodynamics is complex and its associated mathematics can appear overwhelming for those not trained in this field. Here, semi-classical approaches are used to obtain a more intuitive feel for what causes electrostatics, and the anomalous magnetic moment of the electron. These intuitive arguments lead to a possible answer to the question of the nature of charge. Virtual photons, with a reduced wavelength of λ, are assumed to interact with isolated electrons with a cross section of πλ2. This interaction is assumed to generate time-reversed virtual photons that are capable of seeking out and interacting with other electrons. This exchange of virtual photons between particles is assumed to generate and define the strength of electromagnetism. With the inclusion of near-field effects the model presented here gives a fine structure constant of ~1/137 and an anomalous magnetic moment of the electron of ~0.00116. These calculations support the possibility that near-field corrections are the key to understanding the numerical value of the dimensionless fine structure constant.

  10. LDA+DMFT calculations of X-ray absorption and x-ray circular dichroism spectra: Role of valence-band correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipr, Ondrej; Simunek, Antonin [Institute of Physics AS CR, Cukrovarnicka 10, Prague (Czech Republic); Minar, Jan; Ebert, Hubert [Universitaet Muenchen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    L{sub 2,3}-edge XAS and XMCD spectra of 3d elements are calculated via a self-consistent LDA+DMFT method (including thus valence-band correlations). It is found that the asymmetry of the calculated XAS white lines increases upon inclusion of the correlations for Fe and Co but not for Ni. The change in the height of the L{sub 3} and L{sub 2} peaks in the XMCD spectra is in a good agreement with the change of the orbital magnetic moment caused by adding the valence-band correlations. As a whole, adding valence-band correlations improves the agreement between the theory and experiment but visible differences still remain. Therefore, a core hole is additionally accounted for via the final state approximation and the impact of such a procedure is assessed.

  11. Emission of direct-gap band in germanium with Ge-GeSn layers on one-dimensional structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhong-Mei; Huang, Wei-Qi; Liu, Shi-Rong; Dong, Tai-Ge; Wang, Gang; Wu, Xue-Ke; Qin, Cao-Jian

    2016-04-01

    In our experiment, it was observed that the emission of direct-gap band in germanium with Ge-GeSn layers on one-dimensional (1D) structure. The results of experiment and calculation demonstrate that the uniaxial tensile strain in the (111) and (110) direction can efficiently transform Ge to a direct bandgap material with the bandgap energy useful for technological application. It is interested that under the tensile strain from Ge-GeSn layers on 1D structure in which the uniaxial strain could be obtained by curved layer (CL) effect, the two bandgaps EΓg and ELg in the (111) direction become nearly equal at 0.83 eV related to the emission of direct-gap band near 1500 nm in the experiments. It is discovered that the red-shift of the peaks from 1500 nm to 1600 nm occurs with change of the uniaxial tensile strain, which proves that the peaks come from the emission of direct-gap band.

  12. The accurate calculation of the band gap of liquid water by means of GW corrections applied to plane-wave density functional theory molecular dynamics simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fang, Changming; Li, Wun Fan; Koster, Rik S.; Klimeš, Jiří; Van Blaaderen, Alfons; Van Huis, Marijn A.

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge about the intrinsic electronic properties of water is imperative for understanding the behaviour of aqueous solutions that are used throughout biology, chemistry, physics, and industry. The calculation of the electronic band gap of liquids is challenging, because the most accurate ab initi

  13. Structural, electronic and optical properties of ilmenite and perovskite CdSnO{sub 3} from DFT calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sesion Jr, P D [Escola de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970 Natal, Rio Grande do Norte (Brazil); Henriques, J M [Departamento de Fisica Teorica e Experimental, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970 Natal, Rio Grande do Norte (Brazil); Barboza, C A; Albuquerque, E L [Departamento de Biofisica e Farmacologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-900 Natal, Rio Grande do Norte (Brazil); Freire, V N [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, 60455-970 Fortaleza, Ceara (Brazil); Caetano, E W S, E-mail: ewcaetano@gmail.co [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia do Ceara, Avenida 13 de Maio, 2081, Benfica, 60040-531 Fortaleza, Ceara (Brazil)

    2010-11-03

    CdSnO{sub 3} ilmenite and perovskite crystals were investigated using both the local density and generalized gradient approximations, LDA and GGA, respectively, of the density functional theory (DFT). The electronic band structures, densities of states, dielectric functions, optical absorption and reflectivity spectra related to electronic transitions were obtained, as well as the infrared absorption spectra after computing the vibrational modes of the crystals at q = 0. Dielectric optical permittivities and polarizabilities at {omega} = 0 and {infinity} were also calculated. The results show that GGA-optimized geometries are more accurate than LDA ones, and the Kohn-Sham band structures obtained for the CdSnO{sub 3} polymorphs confirm that ilmenite has an indirect band gap, while perovskite has a direct band gap, both being semiconductors. Effective masses for both crystals are obtained for the first time, being highly isotropic for electrons and anisotropic for holes. The optical properties reveal a very small degree of anisotropy of both crystals with respect to different polarization planes of incident light. The phonon calculation at q = 0 for perovskite CdSnO{sub 3} does not show any imaginary frequencies, in contrast to a previous report suggesting the existence of a more stable crystal of perovskite CdSnO{sub 3} with ferroelectric properties.

  14. Structural, electronic and optical properties of ilmenite and perovskite CdSnO3 from DFT calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesion, P D; Henriques, J M; Barboza, C A; Albuquerque, E L; Freire, V N; Caetano, E W S

    2010-11-03

    CdSnO(3) ilmenite and perovskite crystals were investigated using both the local density and generalized gradient approximations, LDA and GGA, respectively, of the density functional theory (DFT). The electronic band structures, densities of states, dielectric functions, optical absorption and reflectivity spectra related to electronic transitions were obtained, as well as the infrared absorption spectra after computing the vibrational modes of the crystals at q = 0. Dielectric optical permittivities and polarizabilities at ω = 0 and ∞ were also calculated. The results show that GGA-optimized geometries are more accurate than LDA ones, and the Kohn-Sham band structures obtained for the CdSnO(3) polymorphs confirm that ilmenite has an indirect band gap, while perovskite has a direct band gap, both being semiconductors. Effective masses for both crystals are obtained for the first time, being highly isotropic for electrons and anisotropic for holes. The optical properties reveal a very small degree of anisotropy of both crystals with respect to different polarization planes of incident light. The phonon calculation at q = 0 for perovskite CdSnO(3) does not show any imaginary frequencies, in contrast to a previous report suggesting the existence of a more stable crystal of perovskite CdSnO(3) with ferroelectric properties.

  15. Complete multipactor suppression in an X-band dielectric-loaded accelerating structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, C. [Euclid Techlabs, LLC, 5900 Harper Rd, Solon, Ohio 44139, USA; High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA; Gold, S. H. [Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375, USA; Fischer, Richard [Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375, USA; Gai, W. [High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA

    2016-05-09

    Multipactor is a major issue limiting the gradient of rf-driven Dielectric-Loaded Accelerating (DLA) structures. Theoretical models have predicted that an axial magnetic field applied to DLA structures may completely block the multipactor discharge. However, previous attempts to demonstrate this magnetic field effect in an X-band traveling-wave DLA structure were inconclusive, due to the axial variation of the applied magnetic field, and showed only partial suppression of the multipactor loading [Jing et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 213503 (2013)]. The present experiment has been performed under improved conditions with a uniform axial magnetic field extending along the length of an X-band standing-wave DLA structure. Multipactor loading began to be continuously reduced starting from 3.5 kG applied magnetic field and was completely suppressed at 8 kG. Dependence of multipactor suppression on the rf gradient inside the DLA structure was also measured.

  16. Band gap structures in two-dimensional super porous phononic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Sun, Xiu-zhan; Chen, Shao-ting

    2013-02-01

    As one kind of new linear cellular alloys (LCAs), Kagome honeycombs, which are constituted by triangular and hexagonal cells, attract great attention due to the excellent performance compared to the ordinary ones. Instead of mechanical investigation, the in-plane elastic wave dispersion in Kagome structures are analyzed in this paper aiming to the multi-functional application of the materials. Firstly, the band structures in the common two-dimensional (2D) porous phononic structures (triangular or hexagonal honeycombs) are discussed. Then, based on these results, the wave dispersion in Kagome honeycombs is given. Through the component cell porosity controlling, the effects of component cells on the whole responses of the structures are investigated. The intrinsic relation between the component cell porosity and the critical porosity of Kagome honeycombs is established. These results will provide an important guidance in the band structure design of super porous phononic crystals.

  17. The Development of Layered Photonic Band Gap Structures Using a Micro-Transfer Molding Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, Kevin Jerome [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Photonic band gap (PBG) crystals are periodic dielectric structures that manipulate electromagnetic radiation in a manner similar to semiconductor devices manipulating electrons. Whereas a semiconductor material exhibits an electronic band gap in which electrons cannot exist, similarly, a photonic crystal containing a photonic band gap does not allow the propagation of specific frequencies of electromagnetic radiation. This phenomenon results from the destructive Bragg diffraction interference that a wave propagating at a specific frequency will experience because of the periodic change in dielectric permitivity. This gives rise to a variety of optical applications for improving the efficiency and effectiveness of opto-electronic devices. These applications are reviewed later. Several methods are currently used to fabricate photonic crystals, which are also discussed in detail. This research involves a layer-by-layer micro-transfer molding ({mu}TM) and stacking method to create three-dimensional FCC structures of epoxy or titania. The structures, once reduced significantly in size can be infiltrated with an organic gain media and stacked on a semiconductor to improve the efficiency of an electronically pumped light-emitting diode. Photonic band gap structures have been proven to effectively create a band gap for certain frequencies of electro-magnetic radiation in the microwave and near-infrared ranges. The objective of this research project was originally two-fold: to fabricate a three dimensional (3-D) structure of a size scaled to prohibit electromagnetic propagation within the visible wavelength range, and then to characterize that structure using laser dye emission spectra. As a master mold has not yet been developed for the micro transfer molding technique in the visible range, the research was limited to scaling down the length scale as much as possible with the current available technology and characterizing these structures with other methods.

  18. Electronic structure and metallization of cubic GdH3 under pressure: Ab initio many-body GW calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Bo; Zhang, Yachao

    2016-07-01

    The electronic structures of the cubic GdH3 are extensively investigated using the ab initio many-body GW calculations treating the Gd 4f electrons either in the core (4f-core) or in the valence states (4f-val). Different degrees of quasiparticle (QP) self-consistent calculations with the different starting points are used to correct the failures of the GGA/GGA + U/HSE03 calculations. In the 4f-core case, GGA + G0W0 calculations give a fundamental band gap of 1.72 eV, while GGA+ GW0 or GGA + GW calculations present a larger band gap. In the 4f-val case, the nonlocal exchange-correlation (xc) functional HSE03 can account much better for the strong localization of the 4f states than the semilocal or Hubbard U corrected xc functional in the Kohn-Sham equation. We show that the fundamental gap of the antiferromagnetic (AFM) or ferromagnetic (FM) GdH3 can be opened up by solving the QP equation with improved starting point of eigenvalues and wave functions given by HSE03. The HSE03 + G0W0 calculations present a fundamental band gap of 2.73 eV in the AFM configuration, and the results of the corresponding GW0 and GW calculations are 2.89 and 3.03 eV, respectively. In general, for the cubic structure, the fundamental gap from G0W0 calculations in the 4f-core case is the closest to the real result. By G0W0 calculations in the 4f-core case, we find that H or Gd defects can strongly affect the band structure, especially the H defects. We explain the mechanism in terms of the possible electron correlation on the hydrogen site. Under compression, the insulator-to-metal transition in the cubic GdH3 occurs around 40 GPa, which might be a satisfied prediction.

  19. Strained and rolled up silicon: Electronic structure calculations of a promising thermoelectric material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinsche, Nicki; Yavorski, Bogdan; Zahn, Peter; Mertig, Ingrid [Martin-Luther-Universitaet, Institut fuer Physik, Halle/S. (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Starting from bulk silicon, we studied the valley splitting due to symmetry breaking that occurs in rolled-up Si. Valley splitting in Si was studied recently because of tetragonal distortion and quantum well effects in heterostructures. The new aspect in nowadays experimentally accessible rolled-up Si tubes is that symmetry breaking occurs in all spatial directions. As a result, splitting of the six-fold degenerate conduction-band minimum is expected to be lifted. This has a strong influence on the transport properties as well. In detail, the anisotropy of the effective masses of charge carriers contributing to the conductivity in different directions are studied in dependence on the applied strain. The electronic structure is calculated self consistently within the framework of density functional theory. The transport properties of the promising thermoelectric material are studied in the diffusive limit of transport applying the Boltzmann theory in relaxation time approximation.

  20. Study on temperature property of band structures in onedimensional photonic crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Using transfer matrix method, the optical transmission properties in one-dimensional (1-D) photonic crystal is analyzed.When the temperature varies, not only the refractive index of the optical medium is changed because of the thermo-optical effect, but also the thickness of the optical medium is changed due to the thermal-expansion effect. Thus, the structure of 1/4 wave-plate stack in original photonic crystal is destroyed and the band structure varies. In this work, the effects of the temperature variation on the first and second band gap in a 1-D photonic crystal are analyzed in detail. It is found that the changes of the starting wavelength, the cut-off wavelength and the forbidden band width depend linearly on the temperature.

  1. Optical properties and band structure of ZnP{sub 2}-D{sub 4}{sup 8}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stamov, I.G. [T.G. Shevchenko State University of Pridnestrovie, 25 Oktyabrya street 107, 3300 Tiraspol, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of); Syrbu, N.N., E-mail: sirbunn@yahoo.com [Technical University of Moldova, 168 Stefan cel Mare Avenue, 2004 Chisinau, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of); Zalamai, V.V. [Institute of Applied Physics, Academy of Sciences of Moldova, 5 Academy Street, 2028 Chisinau, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of)

    2014-05-01

    The emission lines of bound and free excitons and their phonon replicas were observed in the luminescence spectra of ZnP{sub 2}-D{sub 4}{sup 8} crystals doped with Mn, Sn, Cd and Sb measured at 10 K. The emission lines are described by the model of axial center levels. Models of the bands of the bound excitons with different axial centers (Mn, Sn, Cd and Sb) are presented. It was observed that the indirect transitions in the excitonic bands were nonpolarized and that the direct transitions were polarized. The minimal direct energy gaps in the polarization E∥c are due to the allowed Γ{sub 1}→Γ{sub 1} transitions, and the gaps in the polarization E⊥c are due to the Γ{sub 2}→Γ{sub 1} transitions. The temperature shift coefficient of the bands gaps differs for different polarizations in the temperature interval from 2 to 10 K (ΔE/ΔT=3.5 meV/K and 1 meV/K for E∥c and E⊥c, respectively). The optical constants n, k, ε{sub 1}, ε{sub 2,}d{sup 2}ε{sub 1}/dE{sup 2} and d{sup 2}ε{sub 2}/dE{sup 2} were calculated for the energy interval 1.5–10 eV using the Kramers-Kronig analysis of measured reflection spectra. The features observed in these spectra were interpreted using two types theoretical calculations of band structure as optical transitions.

  2. Structural and electronic phase transitions of ThS2 from first-principles calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yongliang; Wang, Changying; Qiu, Wujie; Ke, Xuezhi; Huai, Ping; Cheng, Cheng; Zhu, Zhiyuan; Chen, Changfeng

    2016-10-01

    Thorium and its compounds have received considerable attention in recent years due to the renewed interest in developing the thorium fuel cycle as an alternative nuclear energy technology. There is pressing current need to explore the physical properties essential to the fundamental understanding and practical application of these materials. Here we report on a computational study of thorium disulfide (ThS2), which plays an important role in the thorium fuel reprocessing cycle. We have employed the density functional theory and evolutionary structure search methods to determine the crystal structures, electronic band structures, phonon dispersions and density of states, and thermodynamic properties of ThS2 under various pressure and temperature conditions. Our calculations identify several crystalline phases of ThS2 and a series of structural phase transitions induced by pressure and temperature. The calculated results also reveal electronic phase transitions from the semiconducting state in the low-pressure phases of ThS2 in the P n m a and F m 3 ¯m symmetry to the metallic state in the high-pressure phases of ThS2 in the P n m a and I 4 /m m m symmetry. These results explain the experimental observation of the thermodynamic stability of the P n m a phase of ThS2 at the ambient conditions and a pressure-induced structural phase transition in ThS2 around 40 GPa. Moreover, the present study reveals considerable additional information on the structural and electronic properties of ThS2 in a wide range of pressure and temperature. Such information provides key insights into the fundamental material behavior and the underlying mechanisms that lay the foundation for further exploration and application of ThS2.

  3. Synthesis, Crystal Structural Investigations, and DFT Calculations of Novel Thiosemicarbazones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian J. Anderson

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The crystal and molecular structures of three new thiosemicarbazones, 2-[1-(2-hydroxy-5-methoxyphenylethylidene]-N-methyl-hydrazinecarbothioamide monohydrate (1, 2-[1-(2-hydroxy-5-methoxyphenylethylidene]-N-ethyl-hydrazinecarbothioamide (2 and 2-[1-(2-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenylethylidene]-N-ethyl-hydrazinecarbothioamide acetonitrile solvate (3, are reported and confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction, NMR and UV-vis spectroscopic data. Compound (1, C11H15N3O2S·H2O, crystallizes in the monoclinic with space group P21/c, with cell parameters a = 8.2304(3 Å, b = 16.2787(6 Å, c = 9.9708(4 Å, and β = 103.355(4°. Compound (2, C12H17N3O2S, crystallizes in the C2/c space group with cell parameters a = 23.3083(6 Å, b = 8.2956(2 Å, c = 13.5312(3 Å, β = 91.077(2°. Compound (3, C11H15N3O2S·C2H3N, crystallizes in the triclinic P-1 space group with cell constants a = 8.9384(7 Å, b = 9.5167(8 Å, c = 10.0574(8 Å, α = 110.773(7°, β = 92.413(6°, and γ = 90.654(7°. DFT B3LYP/6-31(G geometry optimized molecular orbital calculations were also performed and frontier molecular orbitals of each compound are displayed. The correlations between the calculated molecular orbital energies (eV for the surfaces of the frontier molecular orbitals to the electronic excitation transitions from the absorption spectra of each compound have been proposed. Additionally, similar correlations observed among three closely related compounds, (4, 2-[1-(2-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenylethylidene]-N-methyl-hydrazinecarbothioamide, (5, 2-[1-(2-hydroxy-6-methoxyphenylethylidene]-N-methyl-hydrazinecarbothioamide acetonitrile monosolvate and (6, 2-[1-(2-hydroxy-6-methoxyphenylethylidene]-N-ethyl-hydrazinecarbothioamide, examining structural differences from the substitution of the methoxy group from the phenyl ring (4, 5, or 6 position and the substitution of the terminal amine (methyl or ethyl to their frontier molecular orbital surfaces and from their Density Functional

  4. Electronic structure of O-doped SiGe calculated by DFT + U method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zong-Yan; Yang, Wen; Yang, Pei-Zhi

    2016-12-01

    To more in depth understand the doping effects of oxygen on SiGe alloys, both the micro-structure and properties of O-doped SiGe (including: bulk, (001) surface, and (110) surface) are calculated by DFT + U method in the present work. The calculated results are as follows. (i) The (110) surface is the main exposing surface of SiGe, in which O impurity prefers to occupy the surface vacancy sites. (ii) For O interstitial doping on SiGe (110) surface, the existences of energy states caused by O doping in the band gap not only enhance the infrared light absorption, but also improve the behaviors of photo-generated carriers. (iii) The finding about decreased surface work function of O-doped SiGe (110) surface can confirm previous experimental observations. (iv) In all cases, O doing mainly induces the electronic structures near the band gap to vary, but is not directly involved in these variations. Therefore, these findings in the present work not only can provide further explanation and analysis for the corresponding underlying mechanism for some of the experimental findings reported in the literature, but also conduce to the development of μc-SiGe-based solar cells in the future. Project supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Yunnan Province, China (Grant No. 2015FB123), the 18th Yunnan Province Young Academic and Technical Leaders Reserve Talent Project, China (Grant No. 2015HB015), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. U1037604).

  5. 2D Tl-Pb compounds on Ge(1 1 1) surface: atomic arrangement and electronic band structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruznev, D V; Bondarenko, L V; Tupchaya, A Y; Eremeev, S V; Mihalyuk, A N; Chou, J P; Wei, C M; Zotov, A V; Saranin, A A

    2017-01-25

    Structural transformations and evolution of the electron band structure in the (Tl, Pb)/Ge(1 1 1) system have been studied using low-energy electron diffraction, scanning tunneling microscopy, angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations. The two 2D Tl-Pb compounds on Ge(1 1 1), [Formula: see text]-(Tl, Pb) and [Formula: see text]-(Tl, Pb), have been found and their composition, atomic arrangement and electron properties has been characterized. The (Tl, Pb)/Ge(1 1 1)[Formula: see text] compound is almost identical to the alike (Tl, Pb)/Si(1 1 1)[Formula: see text] system from the viewpoint of its atomic structure and electronic properties. They contain 1.0 ML of Tl atoms arranged into a honeycomb network of chained trimers and 1/3 ML of Pb atoms occupying the centers of the honeycomb units. The (Tl, Pb)/Ge(1 1 1)[Formula: see text] compound contains six Tl atoms and seven Pb atoms per [Formula: see text] unit cell (i.e.  ∼0.67 ML Tl and  ∼0.78 ML Pb). Its atomic structure can be visualized as consisting of Pb hexagons surrounded by Tl trimers. The (Tl, Pb)/Ge(1 1 1)[Formula: see text] and (Tl, Pb)/Ge(1 1 1)[Formula: see text] compounds are metallic and their band structures contain spin-split surface-state bands. By analogy with the (Tl, Pb)/Si(1 1 1)[Formula: see text], these (Tl, Pb)/Ge(1 1 1) compounds are believed to be promising objects for prospective studies of superconductivity in one-atom-layer systems.

  6. 2D Tl-Pb compounds on Ge(1 1 1) surface: atomic arrangement and electronic band structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruznev, D. V.; Bondarenko, L. V.; Tupchaya, A. Y.; Eremeev, S. V.; Mihalyuk, A. N.; Chou, J. P.; Wei, C. M.; Zotov, A. V.; Saranin, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    Structural transformations and evolution of the electron band structure in the (Tl, Pb)/Ge(1 1 1) system have been studied using low-energy electron diffraction, scanning tunneling microscopy, angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations. The two 2D Tl-Pb compounds on Ge(1 1 1), \\sqrt{3}× \\sqrt{3} -(Tl, Pb) and 3× 3 -(Tl, Pb), have been found and their composition, atomic arrangement and electron properties has been characterized. The (Tl, Pb)/Ge(1 1 1)\\sqrt{3}× \\sqrt{3} compound is almost identical to the alike (Tl, Pb)/Si(1 1 1)\\sqrt{3}× \\sqrt{3} system from the viewpoint of its atomic structure and electronic properties. They contain 1.0 ML of Tl atoms arranged into a honeycomb network of chained trimers and 1/3 ML of Pb atoms occupying the centers of the honeycomb units. The (Tl, Pb)/Ge(1 1 1)3× 3 compound contains six Tl atoms and seven Pb atoms per 3× 3 unit cell (i.e.  ˜0.67 ML Tl and  ˜0.78 ML Pb). Its atomic structure can be visualized as consisting of Pb hexagons surrounded by Tl trimers. The (Tl, Pb)/Ge(1 1 1)\\sqrt{3}× \\sqrt{3} and (Tl, Pb)/Ge(1 1 1)3× 3 compounds are metallic and their band structures contain spin-split surface-state bands. By analogy with the (Tl, Pb)/Si(1 1 1)\\sqrt{3}× \\sqrt{3} , these (Tl, Pb)/Ge(1 1 1) compounds are believed to be promising objects for prospective studies of superconductivity in one-atom-layer systems.

  7. Automatically inferred Markov network models for classification of chromosomal band pattern structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granum, E; Thomason, M G

    1990-01-01

    A structural pattern recognition approach to the analysis and classification of metaphase chromosome band patterns is presented. An operational method of representing band pattern profiles as sharp edged idealized profiles is outlined. These profiles are nonlinearly scaled to a few, but fixed number of "density" levels. Previous experience has shown that profiles of six levels are appropriate and that the differences between successive bands in these profiles are suitable for classification. String representations, which focuses on the sequences of transitions between local band pattern levels, are derived from such "difference profiles." A method of syntactic analysis of the band transition sequences by dynamic programming for optimal (maximal probability) string-to-network alignments is described. It develops automatic data-driven inference of band pattern models (Markov networks) per class, and uses these models for classification. The method does not use centromere information, but assumes the p-q-orientation of the band pattern profiles to be known a priori. It is experimentally established that the method can build Markov network models, which, when used for classification, show a recognition rate of about 92% on test data. The experiments used 200 samples (chromosome profiles) for each of the 22 autosome chromosome types and are designed to also investigate various classifier design problems. It is found that the use of a priori knowledge of Denver Group assignment only improved classification by 1 or 2%. A scheme for typewise normalization of the class relationship measures prove useful, partly through improvements on average results and partly through a more evenly distributed error pattern. The choice of reference of the p-q-orientation of the band patterns is found to be unimportant, and results of timing of the execution time of the analysis show that recent and efficient implementations can process one cell in less than 1 min on current standard

  8. Full potential linearized augmented plane wave calculations of structural and electronic properties of GeC, SnC and GeSn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khenata, R.; Baltache, H.; Sahnoun, M.; Driz, M.; Rerat, M.; Abbar, B

    2003-08-01

    A theoretical study of structural and electronic properties of GeC, SnC and GeSn is presented using the full potential linearized augmented plane wave method. In this approach, the generalized gradient approximation was used for the exchange-correlation potential. Results are given for lattice constant, bulk modulus and its pressure derivative in both zinc-blende and rocksalt structures. Band structure, density of states and band gap pressure coefficients in zinc-blende structure are also given. The results are compared with previous calculations and with experimental measurements.

  9. Carrier-carrier relaxation kinetics in quantum well semiconductor structures with nonparabolic energy bands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dery, H.; Tromborg, Bjarne; Eisenstein, G.

    2003-01-01

    We describe carrier-carrier scattering dynamics in an inverted quantum well structure including the nonparabolic nature of the valance band. A solution of the semiconductor Bloch equations yields strong evidence to a large change in the temporal evolution of the carrier distributions compared...

  10. Surface plasmon polariton band gap structures: implications to integrated plasmonic circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozhevolnyi, S. I.; Volkov, V. S.; Østergaard, John Erland;

    2001-01-01

    Conventional photonic band gap (PBG) structures are composed of regions with periodic modulation of refractive index that do not allow the propagation of electromagnetic waves in a certain interval of wavelengths, i.e., that exhibit the PBG effect. The PBG effect is essentially an interference ph...

  11. Band structure of one-dimensional plasma photonic crystals using the Fresnel coefficients method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, A.; Rahmat, A.

    2016-11-01

    The current study has examined the band structures of two types of photonic crystals (PCs). The first is a one-dimensional metamaterial photonic crystal (1DMMPC) composed of double-layered units for which both layers of each unit are dielectric. The second type is a very similar one-dimensional plasma photonic crystal (1DPPC) also composed of double-layered units in which the first layer is a dielectric material but the second is a plasma layer. This study compares the band structures of the 1DMMPC with specific optical characteristics of the 1DPPC using the Fresnel coefficients method and also compares the results of this method with the results of the transfer matrix method. It is concluded that the dependency of the electric permittivity of the plasma layer on the incident field frequency causes differences in the band structures in 1DMMPC and 1DPPC for both TE and TM polarizations and their gaps reside in different frequencies. The band structures of the 1DMMPC and 1DPPC are confirmed by the results of the transfer matrix method.

  12. Evolution of structural relaxation spectra of glycerol within the gigahertz band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franosch, T.; Göauttze, W.; Mayr, M. R.; Singh, A. P.

    1997-03-01

    The structural relaxation spectra and the crossover from relaxation to oscillation dynamics, as measured by Wuttke et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3052 (1994)] for glycerol within the GHz band by depolarized light scattering, are described by the solutions of a schematic mode coupling theory model. The applicability of scaling laws for the discussion of the model solutions is considered.

  13. Direct Measurement of the Band Structure of a Buried Two-Dimensional Electron Gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miwa, Jill; Hofmann, Philip; Simmons, Michelle Y.;

    2013-01-01

    We directly measure the band structure of a buried two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) using angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy. The buried 2DEG forms 2 nm beneath the surface of p-type silicon, because of a dense delta-type layer of phosphorus n-type dopants which have been placed there. ...

  14. Band structure of thin films by the linear augmented-plane-wave method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, O.; Madsen, J.; Andersen, Ole Krogh

    1978-01-01

    We present a linear augmented-plane-wave method for solving the band-structure problem in thin crystalline films. The potential is separated into a muffin-tin potential inside the film, a potential depending exclusively on the normal coordinate outside the film, and corrections in both regions...

  15. Design of UWB Monopole Antenna with Dual Notched Bands Using One Modified Electromagnetic-Bandgap Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A modified electromagnetic-bandgap (M-EBG structure and its application to planar monopole ultra-wideband (UWB antenna are presented. The proposed M-EBG which comprises two strip patch and an edge-located via can perform dual notched bands. By properly designing and placing strip patch near the feedline, the proposed M-EBG not only possesses a simple structure and compact size but also exhibits good band rejection. Moreover, it is easy to tune the dual notched bands by altering the dimensions of the M-EBG. A demonstration antenna with dual band-notched characteristics is designed and fabricated to validate the proposed method. The results show that the proposed antenna can satisfy the requirements of VSWR < 2 over UWB 3.1–10.6 GHz, except for the rejected bands of the world interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX and the wireless local area network (WLAN at 3.5 GHz and 5.5 GHz, respectively.

  16. High Power Test on an x-Band Slotted-Iris Accelerator Structure at NLCTA

    CERN Document Server

    Adolphsen, C; Fandos, R; Grudiev, A; Heikkinen, S; Laurent, L; Rodríguez, José Alberto; Taborelli, M; Wuensch, W

    2007-01-01

    The CLIC study group at CERN has built two X-band HDS (Hybrid Damped Structure) accelerating structures for high-power testing in NLCTA at SLAC. These accelerating structures are novel with respect to their rf-design and their fabrication technique. The eleven-cell constant impedance structures, one made out of copper and one out of molybdenum, are assembled from clamped high-speed milled quadrants. They feature the same heavy higher-order-mode damping as nominal CLIC structures achieved by slotted irises and radial damping waveguides for each cell. The X-band accelerators are exactly scaled versions of structures tested at 30 GHz in the CLIC test facility, CTF3. The results of the X-band tests are presented and compared to those at 30 GHz to determine frequency scaling, and are compared to the extensive copper data from the NLC structure development program to determine material dependence and make a basic validation of the HDS design. INTRODUCTION

  17. A study using a through-space/bond interaction analysis for the band structures of substituted polyacetylene-Be systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Shinichirou; Aoki, Yuriko; Imamura, Akira (Dept. of Chemistry, Hiroshima Univ. (Japan))

    1990-05-01

    The band structures of dopant-polymer systems for poly(monofluoroacetylene), (C{sub 2}FH){sub x}, and poly(monohydroxyacetylene), (C{sub 2}H(OH)){sub x}, have been studied using the through-space/bond interaction analysis. It was found that these systems have small band gaps when Be atoms are used as dopants. These small gaps are caused by the band constructed mainly from the orbital of the Be atoms, and the band of Be atoms appears among the band gap of the polymer systems; these band structures are similar to those of the n-type semiconductors. The features of these donor bands near the band gaps are discussed in terms of the through-space/bond interactions by using variational and perturbational methods. Finally, in connection with these systems, a new switching system is proposed. (orig.).

  18. Computational method for general multicenter electronic structure calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batcho, P F

    2000-06-01

    Here a three-dimensional fully numerical (i.e., chemical basis-set free) method [P. F. Batcho, Phys. Rev. A 57, 6 (1998)], is formulated and applied to the calculation of the electronic structure of general multicenter Hamiltonian systems. The numerical method is presented and applied to the solution of Schrödinger-type operators, where a given number of nuclei point singularities is present in the potential field. The numerical method combines the rapid "exponential" convergence rates of modern spectral methods with the multiresolution flexibility of finite element methods, and can be viewed as an extension of the spectral element method. The approximation of cusps in the wave function and the formulation of multicenter nuclei singularities are efficiently dealt with by the combination of a coordinate transformation and a piecewise variational spectral approximation. The complete system can be efficiently inverted by established iterative methods for elliptical partial differential equations; an application of the method is presented for atomic, diatomic, and triatomic systems, and comparisons are made to the literature when possible. In particular, local density approximations are studied within the context of Kohn-Sham density functional theory, and are presented for selected subsets of atomic and diatomic molecules as well as the ozone molecule.

  19. Flexural vibration band gaps in thin plates with two-dimensional binary locally resonant structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Dian-Long; Wang Gang; Liu Yao-Zong; Wen Ji-Hong; Qiu Jing

    2006-01-01

    The complete flexural vibration band gaps are studied in the thin plates with two-dimensional binary locally resonant structures, i.e. the composite plate consisting of soft rubber cylindrical inclusions periodically placed in a host material. Numerical simulations show that the low-frequency gaps of flexural wave exist in the thin plates. The width of the first gap decreases monotonically as the matrix density increases. The frequency response of the finite periodic thin plates is simulated by the finite element method, which provides attenuations of over 20dB in the frequency range of the band gaps. The findings will be significant in the application of phononic crystals.

  20. Electronic band structure effects in the stopping of protons in copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quashie, Edwin E.; Saha, Bidhan C.; Correa, Alfredo A.

    2016-10-01

    We present an ab initio study of the electronic stopping power of protons in copper over a wide range of proton velocities v =0.02 -10 a .u . where we take into account nonlinear effects. Time-dependent density functional theory coupled with molecular dynamics is used to study electronic excitations produced by energetic protons. A plane-wave pseudopotential scheme is employed to solve the time-dependent Kohn-Sham equations for a moving ion in a periodic crystal. The electronic excitations and the band structure determine the stopping power of the material and alter the interatomic forces for both channeling and off-channeling trajectories. Our off-channeling results are in quantitative agreement with experiments, and at low velocity they unveil a crossover region of superlinear velocity dependence (with a power of ˜1.5 ) in the velocity range v =0.07 -0.3 a .u . , which we associate to the copper crystalline electronic band structure. The results are rationalized by simple band models connecting two separate regimes. We find that the limit of electronic stopping v →0 is not as simple as phenomenological models suggest and it is plagued by band-structure effects.

  1. Free-end adaptive nudged elastic band method for locating transition states in minimum energy path calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiayong; Zhang, Hongwu; Ye, Hongfei; Zheng, Yonggang

    2016-09-01

    A free-end adaptive nudged elastic band (FEA-NEB) method is presented for finding transition states on minimum energy paths, where the energy barrier is very narrow compared to the whole paths. The previously proposed free-end nudged elastic band method may suffer from convergence problems because of the kinks arising on the elastic band if the initial elastic band is far from the minimum energy path and weak springs are adopted. We analyze the origin of the formation of kinks and present an improved free-end algorithm to avoid the convergence problem. Moreover, by coupling the improved free-end algorithm and an adaptive strategy, we develop a FEA-NEB method to accurately locate the transition state with the elastic band cut off repeatedly and the density of images near the transition state increased. Several representative numerical examples, including the dislocation nucleation in a penta-twinned nanowire, the twin boundary migration under a shear stress, and the cross-slip of screw dislocation in face-centered cubic metals, are investigated by using the FEA-NEB method. Numerical results demonstrate both the stability and efficiency of the proposed method.

  2. Free-end adaptive nudged elastic band method for locating transition states in minimum energy path calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiayong; Zhang, Hongwu; Ye, Hongfei; Zheng, Yonggang

    2016-09-07

    A free-end adaptive nudged elastic band (FEA-NEB) method is presented for finding transition states on minimum energy paths, where the energy barrier is very narrow compared to the whole paths. The previously proposed free-end nudged elastic band method may suffer from convergence problems because of the kinks arising on the elastic band if the initial elastic band is far from the minimum energy path and weak springs are adopted. We analyze the origin of the formation of kinks and present an improved free-end algorithm to avoid the convergence problem. Moreover, by coupling the improved free-end algorithm and an adaptive strategy, we develop a FEA-NEB method to accurately locate the transition state with the elastic band cut off repeatedly and the density of images near the transition state increased. Several representative numerical examples, including the dislocation nucleation in a penta-twinned nanowire, the twin boundary migration under a shear stress, and the cross-slip of screw dislocation in face-centered cubic metals, are investigated by using the FEA-NEB method. Numerical results demonstrate both the stability and efficiency of the proposed method.

  3. Model creation and electronic structure calculation of amorphous hydrogenated boron carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhadj Larbi, Mohammed

    Boron-rich solids are of great interest for many applications, particularly, amorphous hydrogenated boron carbide (a-BC:H) thin films are a leading candidate for numerous applications such as: heterostructure materials, neutron detectors, and photovoltaic energy conversion. Despite this importance, the local structural properties of these materials are not well-known, and very few theoretical studies for this family of disordered solids exist in the literature. In order to optimize this material for its potential applications the structure property relationships need to be discovered. We use a hybrid method in this endeavor---which is to the best of our knowledge the first in the literature---to model and calculate the electronic structure of amorphous hydrogenated boron carbide (a-BC:H). A combination of classical molecular dynamics using the Large-scale Atomic/Molecular Massively Parallel Simulator (LAMMPS) and ab initio quantum mechanical simulations using the Vienna ab initio simulation package (VASP) have been conducted to create geometry optimized models that consist of a disordered hydrogenated twelve-vertex boron carbide icosahedra, with hydrogenated carbon cross-linkers. Then, the density functional theory (DFT) based orthogonalized linear combination of atomic orbitals (OLCAO) method was used to calculate the total and partial density of states (TDOS, PDOS), the complex dielectric function epsilon, and the radial pair distribution function (RPDF). The RPDF data stand as predictions that may be compared with future experimental electron or neutron diffraction data. The electronic structure simulations were not able to demonstrate a band gap of the same nature as that seen in prior experimental work, a general trend of the composition-properties relationship was established. The content of hydrogen and boron was found to be directly proportional to the decrease in the number of available states near the fermi energy, and inversely proportional to the

  4. First principles calculation on the structure and electronic properties of BNNTs functionalized with isoniazid drug molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikia, Nabanita; Pati, Swapan K.; Deka, Ramesh C.

    2012-09-01

    One-dimensional nanostructures such as nanowires and nanotubes are stimulating tremendous research interest due to their structural, electronic and magnetic properties. We perform first principles calculation using density functional theory on the structural, and electronics properties of BNNTs adsorbed with isoniazid (INH) drug via noncovalent functionalization using the GGA/PBE functional and DZP basis set implemented in SIESTA program. The band structure, density of states and projected density of states (PDOS) plots suggest that isoniazid prefers to get adsorbed at the hollow site in case of (5,5) BNNT, whereas in (10,0) BNNT it favours the bridge site. The adsorption energy of INH onto (5,5) BNNT is smaller than in (10,0) BNNT which proposes that (10,0) BNNT with a larger radius compared to (5,5) BNNT is more favourable for INH adsorption as the corresponding distortion energy will also be quite lower. Functionalization of (5,5) and (10,0) BNNTs with isoniazid displays the presence of new impurity states (dispersionless bands) within the HOMO-LUMO energy gap of pristine BNNT leading to an increase in reactivity of the INH/BNNT system and lowering of the energy gap of the BNNTs. The PDOS plots show the major contribution towards the dispersionless impurity states is from INH molecule itself rather than from BNNT near the Fermi energy region. To summarize, noncovalent functionalization of BNNTs with isoniazid drug modulates the electronic properties of the pristine BNNT by lowering its energy gap with respect to the Fermi level, as well as demonstrating the preferential site selectivity for adsorption of isoniazid onto the nanotube sidewalls of varying chirality.

  5. Disorder effects on the band structure of ZnGeN2: Role of exchange defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skachkov, Dmitry; Quayle, Paul C.; Kash, Kathleen; Lambrecht, Walter R. L.

    2016-11-01

    The role of exchange defects on the band structure of ZnGeN2 is investigated. Exchange defects are defined through the exchange of cations Zn and Ge starting from the ideal P n a 21 crystal structure, which obeys the local octet rule. Each such exchange creates several nitrogen-centered tetrahedra which violate the local octet rule, although overall charge neutrality is preserved. We study several distributions of exchange defects, some with all antisites making up the exchange defect close to each other and with increasing numbers of exchange defects, and others where the two types of antisites ZnGe and GeZn are kept separated from each other. We also compare the results for these models with a fully random distribution of Zn and Ge on the cation sites. We show that for a single-nearest-neighbor exchange defect, the band gap is narrowed by about 0.5 eV due to two effects: (1) the ZnGe antisites form filled acceptor states just above and merging with the valence-band maximum (VBM) of perfect crystal ZnGeN2 and (2) the GeZn antisites form a resonance in the conduction band which lowers the conduction-band minimum (CBM). When more exchange defects are created, these acceptor states broaden into bands which can lower the gap further. When tetrahedra occur surrounded completely by four Zn atoms, states even deeper in the gap are found localized all near these tetrahedra, forming a separate intermediate band. Finally, for phase-segregated ZnGe and GeZn, the gap is significantly more reduced, but no separate band is found to occur. The ZnGe acceptorlike states now form a percolating defect band which is significantly wider and hence reaches deeper into the gap. In all cases, the wave functions near the top of the new VBM remain, to some extent, localized near the ZnGe sites. For a fully random case, the gap is even more severely reduced by almost 3 eV. The total energy of the system increases with the number of octet-rule-violating tetrahedra and the energy cost per

  6. Band offsets and electronic structures of interface between In{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5}As and InP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Genwang [School of Physical Science and Engineering and Key Laboratory of Materials Physics of Ministry of Education of China, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China); College of Science, Henan University of Technology, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Wang, Changhong; Wang, Weichao [College of Electronic Information and Optical Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Liang, Erjun, E-mail: ejliang@zzu.edu.cn [School of Physical Science and Engineering and Key Laboratory of Materials Physics of Ministry of Education of China, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China)

    2016-02-07

    III–V semiconductor interfacing with high-κ gate oxide is crucial for the high mobility metal-oxide-semiconductor field transistor device. With density functional theory calculations, we explored the band offsets and electronic structures of the In{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5}As/InP interfaces with various interfacial bondings. Among six different bonding interfaces, we found that P-In(Ga) bonding interface showed the highest stability. Local density of states calculations was adopted to calculate the band offsets. Except for the metallic interface, we noticed that neither valence band offset nor conduction band offset depended on the interfacial bondings. For the most stable P-In(Ga) interface, we did not observe any gap states. Furthermore, we explored the P-In(Ga) interfaces with interfacial P-As exchange defects, which slightly modified the interface stability and the band offsets but did not produce any gap states. These findings provide solid evidence that InP could serve as a promising interfacial passivation layer between III–V material and high-κ oxide in the application of high mobility devices.

  7. Effects of nonmetal doping on electronic structures of NaNbO3 based on hybrid density functional calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Haifeng; Lan, Benyue; Zhang, Chengliang; Ye, Enjia; Nie, Yanguang; Bian, Baoan

    2016-10-01

    The influences of a series of anion doping on the electronic structures of sodium niobate (NaNbO3) have been systematically investigated by density functional theory (DFT) calculations with the hybrid B3LYP functional. As for B(C,P)-doped NaNbO3, the isolated B 2p (C 2p, P 3p) states were formed above the valence band maximum (VBM) of NaNbO3, which were too weak to mix with O 2p states and thus produced band gap narrowing. While the band gap of NaNbO3 was slightly narrowed after F doping. As for S-doped NaNbO3, the S 3p states mixed with O 2p states well and thus reduced the band gap energy. According to the calculation results, we tentatively put forward that S doping would be appropriate for single anion doping NaNbO3, while the B(C,P) elements would be suitable candidates for co-doping NaNbO3.

  8. Band gap structure modification of amorphous anodic Al oxide film by Ti-alloying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canulescu, Stela; Rechendorff, K.; Borca, C. N.;

    2014-01-01

    The band structure of pure and Ti-alloyed anodic aluminum oxide has been examined as a function of Ti concentration varying from 2 to 20 at. %. The band gap energy of Ti-alloyed anodic Al oxide decreases with increasing Ti concentration. X-ray absorption spectroscopy reveals that Ti atoms...... are not located in a TiO2 unit in the oxide layer, but rather in a mixed Ti-Al oxide layer. The optical band gap energy of the anodic oxide layers was determined by vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy in the energy range from 4.1 to 9.2 eV (300–135 nm). The results indicate that amorphous anodic Al2O3 has a direct...

  9. The valence band structure of Ag{sub x}Rh{sub 1–x} alloy nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Anli [Synchrotron X-ray Station at SPring-8, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST), Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), 7 Goban-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0076 (Japan); Sakata, Osami, E-mail: SAKATA.Osami@nims.go.jp [Synchrotron X-ray Station at SPring-8, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST), Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), 7 Goban-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0076 (Japan); Synchrotron X-ray Group, Quantum Beam Unit, NIMS, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Kusada, Kohei; Kobayashi, Hirokazu [Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST), Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), 7 Goban-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0076 (Japan); Division of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Yayama, Tomoe; Ishimoto, Takayoshi [Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST), Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), 7 Goban-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0076 (Japan); INAMORI Frontier Research Center, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Yoshikawa, Hideki [Surface Chemical Analysis Group, Nano Characterization Unit, NIMS, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Koyama, Michihisa [Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST), Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), 7 Goban-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0076 (Japan); INAMORI Frontier Research Center, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); International Institute for Carbon-Neutral Energy Research, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); and others

    2014-10-13

    The valence band (VB) structures of face-centered-cubic Ag-Rh alloy nanoparticles (NPs), which are known to have excellent hydrogen-storage properties, were investigated using bulk-sensitive hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The observed VB spectra profiles of the Ag-Rh alloy NPs do not resemble simple linear combinations of the VB spectra of Ag and Rh NPs. The observed VB hybridization was qualitatively reproduced via a first-principles calculation. The electronic structure of the Ag{sub 0.5}Rh{sub 0.5} alloy NPs near the Fermi edge was strikingly similar to that of Pd NPs, whose superior hydrogen-storage properties are well known.

  10. Band structure of collective modes and effective properties of binary magnonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivieri, R.; Malagò, P.; Giovannini, L.

    2014-11-01

    In this paper a theoretical study of the band structure of collective modes of binary ferromagnetic systems formed by a submicrometric periodic array of cylindrical cobalt nanodots partially or completely embedded into a permalloy ferromagnetic film is performed. The binary ferromagnetic systems studied are two-dimensional periodic, but they can be regarded as three-dimensional, since the magnetization is non uniform also along the z direction due to the contrast between the saturation magnetizations of the two ferromagnetic materials along the thickness. The dynamical matrix method, a finite-difference micromagnetic approach, formulated for studying the dynamics in one-component periodic ferromagnetic systems is generalized to ferromagnetic systems composed by F ferromagnetic materials. It is then applied to investigate the spin dynamics in four periodic binary ferromagnetic systems differing each other for the volume of cobalt dots and for the relative position of cobalt dots within the primitive cell. The dispersion curves of the most representative frequency modes are calculated for each system for an in-plane applied magnetic field perpendicular to the Bloch wave vector. The dependence of the dispersion curves on the cobalt quantity and position is discussed in terms of distribution of effective "surface magnetic charges" at the interface between the two ferromagnetic materials. The metamaterial properties in the propagative regime are also studied (1) by introducing an effective magnetization and effective "surface magnetic charges" (2) by describing the metamaterial wave dispersion of the most representative mode in each system within an effective medium approximation and in the dipole-exchange regime. It is also shown that the interchange between cobalt and permalloy does not necessarily lead to an interchange of the corresponding mode dispersion. Analogously to the case of electromagnetic waves in two-dimensional photonic crystals, the degree of

  11. Synthesis,Crystal and Band Structures,and Optical Properties of Mercury Pnictide Halide Hg19As10Br18

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Jian-Ping; ZHANG Long-Zhu; ZENG Gui-Sheng; LUO Xu-Biao; PENG Qiang

    2011-01-01

    A mercury pnictide halide semiconductor Hg19As10Br18(1) has been prepared by the solid-state reaction and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis.Compound 1 crystallizes in triclinic,space group P with a = 11.262(4),b = 11.352(4),c = 12.309(5) ,α = 105.724(2),β = 105.788(4),γ = 109.0780(10)° and V = 1314.3(8) 3.The structure of 1 is composed of parallel perovskite-like layers bridged by the linearly coordinated Br atoms to form a three-dimensional framework.The optical properties were investigated in terms of the diffuse reflectance spectrum.The electronic band structure along with density of states(DOS) calculated by DFT method indicates that compound 1 is a semiconductor with an indirect band gap,and that the optical absorption is mainly originated from the charge transitions from Br-4p and As-4p to the Hg-6s states.

  12. Ground-based testing of the dynamics of flexible space structures using band mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, L. F.; Chew, Meng-Sang

    1991-01-01

    A suspension system based on a band mechanism is studied to provide the free-free conditions for ground based validation testing of flexible space structures. The band mechanism consists of a noncircular disk with a convex profile, preloaded by torsional springs at its center of rotation so that static equilibrium of the test structure is maintained at any vertical location; the gravitational force will be directly counteracted during dynamic testing of the space structure. This noncircular disk within the suspension system can be configured to remain unchanged for test articles with the different weights as long as the torsional spring is replaced to maintain the originally designed frequency ratio of W/k sub s. Simulations of test articles which are modeled as lumped parameter as well as continuous parameter systems, are also presented.

  13. Robust topology optimization of three-dimensional photonic-crystal band-gap structures

    CERN Document Server

    Men, Han; Freund, Robert M; Peraire, Jaime; Johnson, Steven G

    2014-01-01

    We perform full 3D topology optimization (in which "every voxel" of the unit cell is a degree of freedom) of photonic-crystal structures in order to find optimal omnidirectional band gaps for various symmetry groups, including fcc (including diamond), bcc, and simple-cubic lattices. Even without imposing the constraints of any fabrication process, the resulting optimal gaps are only slightly larger than previous hand designs, suggesting that current photonic crystals are nearly optimal in this respect. However, optimization can discover new structures, e.g. a new fcc structure with the same symmetry but slightly larger gap than the well known inverse opal, which may offer new degrees of freedom to future fabrication technologies. Furthermore, our band-gap optimization is an illustration of a computational approach to 3D dispersion engineering which is applicable to many other problems in optics, based on a novel semidefinite-program formulation for nonconvex eigenvalue optimization combined with other techniq...

  14. Band structure of a 2D photonic crystal based on ferrofluids of Co(1-x)Znx Fe2O4 nanoparticles under perpendicular applied magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Javier; Gonzalez, Luz Esther; Quinonez, Mario; Porras, Nelson; Zambrano, Gustavo; Gomez, Maria Elena

    2014-03-01

    Using a ferrfluid of cobalt-zinc ferrite nanoparticles Co(1 - x)ZnxFe2O4 coated with oleic acid and suspended in ethanol, we have fabricated a 2D photonic crystal (PC) by the application of an external magnetic field perpendicular to the plane of the ferrofluid. The 2D PC is made by rods of nanoparticles organized in a hexagonal structure. By means of the plane-wave expansion method, we study its photonic band structure (PBS) which depends on the effective permittivity and on the area ratio of the liquid phase. Additionaly, taking into account the Maxwell-Garnett theory we calculated the effective permittivity of the rods. We have found that the effective refractive index of the ferrofluid increases with its magnetization. Using these results we calculate the band structure of the photonic crystal at different applied magnetic fields, finding that the increase of the applied magnetic field shifts the band structure to lower frequencies with the appearance of more band gaps. Departamento de Física, Universidad del Valle, A.A. 25360, Cali, Colombia

  15. A simple algorithm to calculate the pulsed sound field of a wide-band linear phased array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Jing; QUE Pei-wen; ZHANG Zhi-gang; LEI Hua-ming; JIN Jian-hua

    2006-01-01

    A simple algorithm using an impulse response for a rectangular piston element is discussed. The impulse response of linear phased array is obtained by summing the impulse responses of rectangular piston elements with different delay times. The output response of the linear wide-band array is equal to the convolution of impulse response functions with wide-band pulse exciting signal. Sound field distributions and impulse responses of three kinds of transducers are compared. The results can be used to optimize the parameters of the linear phased array transducers used in ultrasonic imaging in nondestructive testing (NDT).

  16. Atomic and electronic structures evolution of the narrow band gap semiconductor Ag2Se under high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumov, P.; Barkalov, O.; Mirhosseini, H.; Felser, C.; Medvedev, S. A.

    2016-09-01

    Non-trivial electronic properties of silver telluride and other chalcogenides, such as the presence of a topological insulator state, electronic topological transitions, metallization, and the possible emergence of superconductivity under pressure have attracted attention in recent years. In this work, we studied the electronic properties of silver selenide (Ag2Se). We performed direct current electrical resistivity measurements, in situ Raman spectroscopy, and synchrotron x-ray diffraction accompanied by ab initio calculations to explore pressure-induced changes to the atomic and electronic structure of Ag2Se. The temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity was measured up to 30 GPa in the 4-300 K temperature interval. Resistivity data showed an unusual increase in the thermal energy gap of phase I, which is a semiconductor under ambient conditions. Recently, a similar effect was reported for the 3D topological insulator Bi2Se3. Raman spectroscopy studies revealed lattice instability in phase I indicated by the softening of observed vibrational modes with pressure. Our hybrid functional band structure calculations predicted that phase I of Ag2Se would be a narrow band gap semiconductor, in accordance with experimental results. At a pressure of ~7.5 GPa, Ag2Se underwent a structural transition to phase II with an orthorhombic Pnma structure. The temperature dependence of the resistivity of Ag2Se phase II demonstrated its metallic character. Ag2Se phase III, which is stable above 16.5 GPa, is also metallic according to the resistivity data. No indication of the superconducting transition is found above 4 K in the studied pressure range.

  17. Band structure in {sup 79}Y and the question of T=0 pairing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, S.D.; Baktash, C.; Gross, C.J.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Radford, D.C.; Rudolph, D.; Rykaczewski, K.; Shapira, D.; Toth, K.S.; Yu, C.H. [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Satula, W. [Joint Institute of Heavy Ion Research, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Satula, W.; Reviol, W.; Riedinger, L.L.; Weintraub, W. [Department of Physics, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States); Satula, W. [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Warsaw University, PL-00681 Warsaw (Poland); Gross, C.J. [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Birriel, I.; Saladin, J.X.; Winchell, D.F.; Wood, V.Q. [Department of Physics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260 (United States); Clark, R.M.; Fallon, P.; Lee, I.Y.; Macchiavelli, A.O. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Cunningham, R.A.; Kay, J.; Leyland, C.; Metcalfe, S.J. [CCLRC, Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Devlin, M.; Lafosse, D.R.; Lerma, F.; Sarantites, D.G. [Chemistry Department, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63130 (United States); Ginter, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States); MacDonald, B.D. [School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Piechaczek, A. [Department of Physics, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States); Sylvan, G.N.; Tabor, S.L. [Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32306 (United States); Wyss, R. [The Royal Institute of Technology, Physics Department Frescati, S-104 05 Stockholm (Sweden)

    1998-12-01

    Gamma rays in the N=Z+1 nucleus {sup 79}Y were identified using the reaction {sup 28}Si({sup 54}Fe,thinspp2n){sup 79}Y at a 200 MeV beam energy and an experimental setup consisting of an array of Ge detectors and the Recoil Mass Spectrometer at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. With the help of additional {gamma}-{gamma} coincidence data obtained with Gammasphere, these {gamma} rays were found to form a strongly coupled rotational band with rigid-rotor-like behavior. Results of conventional Nilsson-Strutinsky cranked shell model calculations, which predict a deformation of {beta}{sub 2}{approximately}0.4, are in excellent agreement with the properties of this band. Similar calculations for the neighboring N=Z and N=Z+1 nuclei are also in good agreement with experimental data. This suggests that the presence of the putative T=0 neutron-proton pairing does not significantly affect such simple observables as the moments of inertia of these bands at low spins. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  18. Structural basis for the discrepancy of spectral behavior in C-H stretching band between steroids and long chain hydrocarbon compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐怡庄; 陶靖; 许振华; 翁诗甫; 徐建平; 吴瑾光; 徐端夫; 徐光宪

    1999-01-01

    The discrepancies of the spectral behavior for the C-H stretching band between some long chain hydrocarbon compounds and steroids were investigated. At low temperature, the C-H stretching bands exhibit complex fine structure in steroids but remain simple in long chain hydrocarbon compounds. MM3 molecular mechanics calculation indicates that, for long chain hydrocarbon compounds, the C-H groups vibrate with large scale coupling. There exist a few bands where the C-H groups vibrate in synchronous and inphase mode. Thus the variations of dipole moment for these bands are enhanced and the intensities are obviously stronger than others and cover other band in the spectra. This is just the reason why the C-H stretching bands are simple even at low temperature environment. Nevertheless, for the steroids, the C-H stretching bands vibrate with local coupling mode. The synchronous enhancement effect does not occur, the differences of intensities for various modes are not as large as those in long chain hydrocarbo

  19. Rotational band structure in Mg32

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, H. L.; Fallon, P.; Macchiavelli, A. O.; Poves, A.; Bader, V. M.; Bazin, D.; Bowry, M.; Campbell, C. M.; Carpenter, M. P.; Clark, R. M.; Cromaz, M.; Gade, A.; Ideguchi, E.; Iwasaki, H.; Langer, C.; Lee, I. Y.; Loelius, C.; Lunderberg, E.; Morse, C.; Richard, A. L.; Rissanen, J.; Smalley, D.; Stroberg, S. R.; Weisshaar, D.; Whitmore, K.; Wiens, A.; Williams, S. J.; Wimmer, K.; Yamamato, T.

    2016-03-01

    There is significant evidence supporting the existence of deformed ground states within the neutron-rich N ≈ 20 neon, sodium, and magnesium isotopes that make up what is commonly called the “island of inversion.” However, the rotational band structures, which are a characteristic fingerprint of a rigid nonspherical shape, have yet to be observed. In this work, we report on a measurement and analysis of the yrast (lowest lying) rotational band in 32 Mg up to spin I = 6 + produced in a two-step projectile fragmentation reaction and observed using the state-of-the-art γ -ray tracking detector array, GRETINA ( γ -ray energy tracking in-beam nuclear array). Large-scale shell-model calculations using the SDPF-U-MIX effective interaction show excellent agreement with the new data. Moreover, a theoretical analysis of the spectrum of rotational states as a function of the pairing gap, together with cranked-shell-model calculations, provides intriguing evidence for a reduction in pairing correlations with increased angular momentum, also in line with the shell-model results.

  20. First-Principles Calculations Of Electronic Structures of New Ⅲ-Ⅴ Semiconductors: BxGa1-x As and Tlx Ga1-x As alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Jing; REN Xiao-Min; HUANG Yong-Qing; WANG Qi; HUANG Hui

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the electronic structures of new semiconductor alloys BxGa1-x As and Tlx Ga1-x As, employing first-principles calculations within the density-functional theory and the generalized gradient approximation.The calculation results indicate that alloying a small Tl content with GaAs will produce larger modifications of the band structures compared to B. A careful investigation of the internal lattice structure relaxation shows that significant bond-length relaxations takes place in both the alloys, and it turns out that difference between the band-gap bowing behaviours for B and Tl stems from the different impact of atomic relaxation on the electronic structure. The relaxed structure yields electronic-structure results, which are in good agreement with the experimental data. Finally, a comparison of formation enthalpies indicates that the production Tlx Ga1-x As with Tl concentration of at least 8% is possible.

  1. Bulk Modulus and Electronic Band Structure of ZnGa2X4 (X=S,Se): a First-Principles Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Xiao-Shu; MI Shu; SUN eeng-Jun; LU Yuan; LIANG Jiu-Qing

    2009-01-01

    First-principles local density functional calculations are presented for the compounds ZnGa2X4 (X = S, Se). We investigate the bulk moduli and electronic band structures in a defect chalcopyrite structure. The lattice constants and internal parameters axe optimized. The electronic structures are analysed with the help of total and partial density of states. The relation between the cohesive energy and the unit cell volume is obtained by fully relaxed structures. We derive the bulk modulus of ZnGa2X4 by fitting the Birch-Murnaghan's equation of state. The extended Cohen's empirical formula agrees well with our ab initio results.

  2. Comparing LDA-1/2, HSE03, HSE06 and G₀W₀ approaches for band gap calculations of alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pela, R R; Marques, M; Teles, L K

    2015-12-23

    It has long been known that the local density approximation and the generalized gradient approximation do not furnish reliable band gaps, and one needs to go beyond these approximations to reliably describe these properties. Among alternatives are the use of hybrid functionals (HSE03 and HSE06 being popular), the GW approximation or the recently proposed LDA-1/2 method. In this work, we compare rigorously the performance of these four methods in describing the band gaps of alloys, employing the generalized quasi-chemical approach to treat the disorder of the alloy and to obtain judiciously the band gap for the entire compositional range. Zincblende InGaAs and InGaN were chosen as prototypes due to their importance in optoelectronic applications. The comparison between these four approaches was guided both by the agreement between the predicted band gap and the experimental one, and by the demanded computational effort (time and memory). We observed that the HSE06 method provided the most accurate results (in comparison with experiments), whereas, surprisingly, the LDA-1/2 method gave the best compromise between accuracy and computational resources. Due to its low computational cost and good accuracy, we decided to double the supercell used to describe the alloys, and employing LDA-1/2 we observed that the bowing parameter changed remarkably, only agreeing with the measured one for the larger supercell, where LDA-1/2 plays an important role.

  3. Chromosome banding and gene localizations support extensive conservation of chromosome structure between cattle and sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hediger, R; Ansari, H A; Stranzinger, G F

    1991-01-01

    By using three gene probes, one derived from the porcine major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and two from bovine cytokeratin genes, type I (KRTA) and type II (KRTB), the hypothesis of conservation of genome structure in two members of the family Bovidae was examined. Gene mapping data revealed the MHC to be in chromosome region 23q15----q23 in cattle (BOLA) and 20q15----q23 in sheep (OLA). KRTA was localized to chromosome region 19q25----q29 in cattle and 11q25----q29 in sheep and KRTB to 5q14----q22 in cattle and 3q14----q22 in sheep. The banding patterns of the chromosome arms to which the loci were assigned were identical in both species. Moreover, the resemblances of GTG- or QFQ-banding patterns between the cattle and sheep karyotypes illustrated further chromosome homologies. These studies, based on gene mapping comparisons and comparative cytogenetics, document that within bovid chromosomes, homology of banding patterns corresponds to a homologous genetic structure. Hence, we propose that gene assignments on identified chromosomal segments in one species of the Bovidae can be extrapolated, in general, to other bovid species based on the banding homologies presented here.

  4. Electronic band structure of a Tl/Sn atomic sandwich on Si(111)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruznev, D. V.; Bondarenko, L. V.; Matetskiy, A. V.; Tupchaya, A. Y.; Alekseev, A. A.; Hsing, C. R.; Wei, C. M.; Eremeev, S. V.; Zotov, A. V.; Saranin, A. A.

    2015-01-01

    A two-dimensional compound made of one monolayer of Tl and one monolayer of Sn on Si(111) has been found to have a sandwichlike structure in which the Sn layer (having the milk-stool arrangement) resides on the bulklike terminated Si(111) surface and the Tl layer (having the honeycomb-chained-trimer arrangement) is located above the Sn layer. The electronic band structure of the compound contains two spin-split surface-state bands, of which one is nonmetallic and the other is metallic. Near the Fermi level the metallic band is split with the momentum splitting Δ k∥=0.037 Å-1 and energy splitting Δ EF=167 meV. The steep dispersion of the band when crossing the Fermi level corresponds to an electron velocity of ≈8.5 ×105 m/s, which is comparable to the value reported for graphene. The 2D Fermi contours have almost circular shape with spin texture typical for hexagonal surfaces.

  5. Strain effect on graphene nanoribbon carrier statistic in the presence of non-parabolic band structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izuani Che Rosid, N. A.; Ahmadi, M. T.; Ismail, Razali

    2016-09-01

    The effect of tensile uniaxial strain on the non-parabolic electronic band structure of armchair graphene nanoribbon (AGNR) is investigated. In addition, the density of states and the carrier statistic based on the tight-binding Hamiltonian are modeled analytically. It is found that the property of AGNR in the non-parabolic band region is varied by the strain. The tunable energy band gap in AGNR upon strain at the minimum energy is described for each of n-AGNR families in the non-parabolic approximation. The behavior of AGNR in the presence of strain is attributed to the breakable AGNR electronic band structure, which varies the physical properties from its normality. The linear relation between the energy gap and the electrical properties is featured to further explain the characteristic of the deformed AGNR upon strain. Project supported by the Ministry of Higher Education (MOHE), Malaysia under the Fundamental Research Grant Scheme (FRGS) (Grant No.Q.J130000.7823.4F477). We also thank the Research Management Center (RMC) of Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM) for providing an excellent research environment.

  6. Triaxial projected shell model description of high-spin band-structures in {sup 103,105}Rh isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, G.H. [Department of Physics, University of Kashmir, Srinagar 190 006 (India); Sheikh, J.A., E-mail: sjaphysics@gmail.com [Department of Physics, University of Kashmir, Srinagar 190 006 (India); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Dar, W.A. [Department of Physics, University of Kashmir, Srinagar 190 006 (India); Jehangir, S. [Department of Physics, University of Kashmir, Srinagar 190 006 (India); Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Srinagar 190 006 (India); Palit, R., E-mail: palit@tifr.res.in [Department of Nuclear and Atomic Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Colaba, Mumbai (India); Ganai, P.A. [Department of Physics, University of Kashmir, Srinagar 190 006 (India); Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Srinagar 190 006 (India)

    2014-11-10

    High-spin band structures in odd-proton {sup 103,105}Rh are investigated using the microscopic triaxial projected shell model approach. It is demonstrated that the observed band structures built on one- and three-quasiparticle states are reproduced reasonably well in the present work. Further, it is evident from the analysis of the projected wavefunctions that side-band in the low-spin regime is the normal γ-band built on the ground-state configuration. However, in the high-spin regime, the side band is shown to be highly mixed and ceases to be a γ-band. We provide a complete set of electromagnetic transition probabilities for the two bands and the experimental measurements are desirable to test the predictions of the present work.

  7. Tl{sub 4}CdI{sub 6} – Wide band gap semiconductor: First principles modelling of the structural, electronic, optical and elastic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piasecki, M., E-mail: m.piasecki@ajd.czest.pl [Institute of Physics, Jan Dlugosz University, Armii Krajowej 13/15, 42-200 Czestochowa (Poland); Brik, M.G. [College of Sciences, Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Chongqing 400065 (China); Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Ravila 14C, Tartu 50411 (Estonia); Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotników 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Kityk, I.V. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Czestochowa University of Technology, Armii Krajowej 17, 42-200 Czestochowa (Poland)

    2015-08-01

    A novel infrared optoelectronic material Tl{sub 4}CdI{sub 6} was studied using the density functional theory (DFT)-based techniques. Its structural, electronic, optical and elastic properties were all calculated in the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) with the Perdew–Burke–Ernzerhof (PBE) and the local density approximation (LDA) with the Ceperley-Alder–Perdew-Zunger (CA–PZ) functionals. The studied material is a direct band gap semiconductor with the calculated band gaps of 2.043 eV (GGA) and 1.627 eV (LDA). The wavelength dependence of the refractive index was fitted to the Sellmeier equation in the spectral range from 400 to 2000 nm. Good agreement between the GGA-calculated values of refractive index and experimental data was achieved. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first consistent theoretical description of the title compound, which includes calculations and analysis of the structural, electronic, optical and elastic properties. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Infrared optoelectronic material Tl{sub 4}CdI{sub 6} was studied using ab initio methods. • Structural, electronic, optical and elastic properties were calculated. • Independent components of the elastic constants tensor were calculated. • Good agreement with available experimental results was achieved.

  8. Electronic band structure and optical gain of GaNxBiyAs1-x-y/GaAs pyramidal quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhi-Gang; Bose, Sumanta; Fan, Wei-Jun; Li, Shu-Shen

    2016-04-01

    The electronic band structure and optical gain of GaNxBiyAs1-x-y/GaAs pyramidal quantum dots (QDs) are investigated using the 16-band k ṡ p model with constant strain. The optical gain is calculated taking both homogeneous and inhomogeneous broadenings into consideration. The effective band gap falls as we increase the composition of nitrogen (N) and bismuth (Bi) and with an appropriate choice of composition we can tune the emission wavelength to span within 1.3 μm-1.55 μm, for device application in fiber technology. The extent of this red shift is more profound in QDs compared with bulk material due to quantum confinement. Other factors affecting the emission characteristics include virtual crystal, strain profile, band anticrossing (BAC), and valence band anticrossing (VBAC). The strain profile has a profound impact on the electronic structure, specially the valence band of QDs, which can be determined using the composition distribution of wave functions. All these factors eventually affect the optical gain spectrum. With an increase in QD size, we observe a red shift in the emission energy and emergence of secondary peaks owing to transitions or greater energy compared with the fundamental transition.

  9. Two-dimensional microwave band-gap structures of different dielectric materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E D V Nagesh; G Santosh Babu; V Subramanian; V Sivasubramanian; V R K Murthy

    2005-12-01

    We report the use of low dielectric constant materials to form two-dimensional microwave band-gap structures for achieving high gap-to-midgap ratio. The variable parameters chosen are the lattice spacing and the geometric structure. The selected geometries are square and triangular and the materials chosen are PTFE ( = 2.1), PVC ( = 2.38) and glass ( = 5.5). Using the plane-wave expansion method, proper lattice spacing is selected for each structure and material. The observed experimental results are analyzed with the help of the theoretical prediction.

  10. Alternative structure of TiO2 with higher energy valence band edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coh, Sinisa; Yu, Peter Y.; Aoki, Yuta; Saito, Susumu; Louie, Steven G.; Cohen, Marvin L.

    2017-02-01

    We propose an alternative structure of TiO2 anatase that has a higher energy oxygen p -like valence band maximum than pristine TiO2 anatase and thus has a much better alignment with the water splitting levels. This alternative structure is unique when considering a large subspace of possible structural distortions of TiO2 anatase. We propose two routes towards this state and argue that one of them might have been realized in the recently discovered so-called black TiO2.

  11. Heat Transfer Principles in Thermal Calculation of Structures in Fire

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Chao; Usmani, Asif

    2015-01-01

    Structural fire engineering (SFE) is a relatively new interdisciplinary subject, which requires a comprehensive knowledge of heat transfer, fire dynamics and structural analysis. It is predominantly the community of structural engineers who currently carry out most of the structural fire engineering research and design work. The structural engineering curriculum in universities and colleges do not usually include courses in heat transfer and fire dynamics. In some institutions of higher educa...

  12. Photonic band structure of one-dimensional aperiodic superlattices composed of negative refraction metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyc, Michał H.; Salejda, Włodzimierz; Klauzer-Kruszyna, Agnieszka; Tarnowski, Karol

    2007-05-01

    The dispersion relation for polarized light transmitting through a one-dimensional superlattice composed of aperiodically arranged layers made of ordinary dielectric and negative refraction metamaterials is calculated with finite element method. Generalized Fibonacci, generalized Thue-Morse, double-periodic and Rudin-Shapiro superlattices are investigated, using their periodic approximants. Strong dispersion of metamaterials is taken into account. Group velocities and effective refraction indices in the structures are calculated. The self-similar structure of the transmission spectra is observed.

  13. Temperature dependences of self- and N2-broadened line-shape parameters in the ν3 and ν5 bands of 12CH3D: Measurements and calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predoi-Cross, A.; Malathy Devi, V.; Sutradhar, P.; Sinyakova, T.; Buldyreva, J.; Sung, K.; Smith, M. A. H.; Mantz, A. W.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents the results of a spectroscopic line shape study of self- and nitrogen-broadened 12CH3D transitions in the ν3 and ν5 bands in the Triad region. We combined five pure gas spectra with eighteen spectra of lean mixtures of 12CH3D and nitrogen, all recorded with a Bruker IFS-125 HR Fourier transform spectrometer. The spectra have been analyzed simultaneously using a multispectrum nonlinear least squares fitting technique. N2-broadened line parameters for 184 transitions in the ν3 band and 205 transitions in the ν5 band were measured. In addition, line positions and line intensities were measured for 168 transitions in the ν3 band and 214 transitions in the ν5 band. We have observed 10 instances of weak line mixing corresponding to K″=3 A1 or A2 transitions. Comparisons were made for the N2-broadening coefficients and associated temperature exponents with corresponding values calculated using a semi-classical Robert Bonamy type formalism that involved an inter-molecular potential with terms corresponding to short- and long-range interactions, and exact classical molecular trajectories. The theoretical N2-broadened coefficients are overestimated for high J values, but are in good agreement with the experimental values for small and middle range J values.

  14. Unified band-theoretic description of structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of vanadium dioxide phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Sheng; Shen, Xiao; Hallman, Kent A.; Haglund, Richard F.; Pantelides, Sokrates T.

    2017-03-01

    The debate about whether the insulating phases of vanadium dioxide (V O2 ) can be described by band theory or whether it requires a theory of strong electron correlations remains unresolved even after decades of research. Energy-band calculations using hybrid exchange functionals or including self-energy corrections account for the insulating or metallic nature of different phases but have not yet successfully accounted for the observed magnetic orderings. Strongly correlated theories have had limited quantitative success. Here we report that by using hard pseudopotentials and an optimized hybrid exchange functional, the energy gaps and magnetic orderings of both monoclinic V O2 phases and the metallic nature of the high-temperature rutile phase are consistent with available experimental data, obviating an explicit role for strong correlations. We also identify a potential candidate for the newly found metallic monoclinic phase.

  15. Bringing about matrix sparsity in linear-scaling electronic structure calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubensson, Emanuel H; Rudberg, Elias

    2011-05-01

    The performance of linear-scaling electronic structure calculations depends critically on matrix sparsity. This article gives an overview of different strategies for removal of small matrix elements, with emphasis on schemes that allow for rigorous control of errors. In particular, a novel scheme is proposed that has significantly smaller computational overhead compared with the Euclidean norm-based truncation scheme of Rubensson et al. (J Comput Chem 2009, 30, 974) while still achieving the desired asymptotic behavior required for linear scaling. Small matrix elements are removed while ensuring that the Euclidean norm of the error matrix stays below a desired value, so that the resulting error in the occupied subspace can be controlled. The efficiency of the new scheme is investigated in benchmark calculations for water clusters including up to 6523 water molecules. Furthermore, the foundation of matrix sparsity is investigated. This includes a study of the decay of matrix element magnitude with distance between basis function centers for different molecular systems and different methods. The studied methods include Hartree–Fock and density functional theory using both pure and hybrid functionals. The relation between band gap and decay properties of the density matrix is also discussed.

  16. First-principles energy band calculation of Ruddlesden–Popper compound Sr{sub 3}Sn{sub 2}O{sub 7} using modified Becke–Johnson exchange potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamimura, Sunao, E-mail: kamimura-sunao@che.kyutech.ac.jp [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, 1-1 Sensuicho, Tobata, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 804-8550 (Japan); National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 807-1 Shuku-machi, Tosu, Saga 841-0052 (Japan); Department of Molecular and Material Sciences, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Science, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga Kouen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 Japan (Japan); Obukuro, Yuki [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Agriculture and Engineering, University of Miyazaki, 1-1 Gakuenkibanadai-nishi, Miyazaki 889-2192 (Japan); Matsushima, Shigenori, E-mail: smatsu@kct.ac.jp [Department of Creative Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Kitakyushu College, 5-20-1 Shii, Kokuraminami-ku, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 802-0985 (Japan); Nakamura, Hiroyuki [Department of Creative Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Kitakyushu College, 5-20-1 Shii, Kokuraminami-ku, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 802-0985 (Japan); Arai, Masao [Computational Materials Science Unit (CMSU), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan); Xu, Chao-Nan, E-mail: cn-xu@aist.go.jp [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 807-1 Shuku-machi, Tosu, Saga 841-0052 (Japan); Department of Molecular and Material Sciences, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Science, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga Kouen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 Japan (Japan); International Institute for Carbon Neutral Energy Research (WPI-I2CNER), Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)

    2015-12-15

    The electronic structure of Sr{sub 3}Sn{sub 2}O{sub 7} is evaluated by the scalar-relativistic full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FLAPW+lo) method using the modified Becke–Johnson potential (Tran–Blaha potential) combined with the local density approximation correlation (MBJ–LDA). The fundamental gap between the valence band (VB) and conduction band (CB) is estimated to be 3.96 eV, which is close to the experimental value. Sn 5s states and Sr 4d states are predominant in the lower and upper CB, respectively. On the other hand, the lower VB is mainly composed of Sn 5s, 5p, and O 2p states, while the upper VB mainly consists of O 2p states. These features of the DOS are well reflected by the optical transition between the upper VB and lower CB, as seen in the energy dependence of the dielectric function. Furthermore, the absorption coefficient estimated from the MBJ–LDA is similar to the experimental result. - Graphical abstract: Calculated energy band structure along the symmetry lines of the first BZ of Sr{sub 3}Sn{sub 2}O{sub 7} crystal obtained using the MBJ potential. - Highlights: • Electronic structure of Sr{sub 3}Sn{sub 2}O{sub 7} is calculated on the basis of MBJ–LDA method for the first time. • Band gap of Sr{sub 3}Sn{sub 2}O{sub 7} is determined accurately on the basis of MBJ–LDA method. • The experimental absorption spectrum of Sr{sub 3}Sn{sub 2}O{sub 7} produced by MBJ–LDA is more accurate than that obtained by GGA method.

  17. Modeling the band gap of CdS quantum well structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, R. A.; Terblans, J. J.

    2016-10-01

    Within the framework of the effective mass approximation, an excited electron is studied in a cadmium sulfide (CdS) quantum well with varying well widths. The envelope function approximation is employed involving a three parameter variational calculation wherein one of these parameters is the distance between the electron and the hole. The relative change in the electron's energy (relative to its energy when it is in the valence band; in the hole) is investigated as a function of the electron-hole distance. Results from numerical calculations are presented and the non-linear behavior of different sized CdS quantum wells are discussed. Comparisons between experimentally measured CdS band gap energies (as a function of well-width) and the simulation data are made. A good agreement between the current model and experimental data exists. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations are done on crystallites of extremely small sizes to compare the current model's bandgap energies to DFT-predicted bandgap values at these extremes.

  18. Band structure, density of states, and crystal chemistry of ZrGa{sub 2} and ZrGa{sub 3} single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reshak, A.H., E-mail: maalidph@yahoo.co.uk [Institute of Complex systems, FFPW, CENAKVA, University of South Bohemia in CB, Nove Hrady 37333 (Czech Republic); School of Material Engineering, Malaysia University of Perlis, P.O Box 77, d/a Pejabat Pos Besar, 01007 Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); Lakshminarayana, G., E-mail: glnphysics@rediffmail.com [Materials Science and Technology Division (MST-7), Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Ebothe, J. [Laboratoire de Recherche en Nanosciences, E.A. 4682, Université de Reims, 21, rue Clément Ader, 51685 Reims cedex 02 (France); Fedorchuk, A.O. [Lviv National University of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies, Department of Inorganic and Organic Chemistry, Lviv (Ukraine); Fedyna, M.F. [National University of Forestry and Wood Technology of Ukraine Chuprynky Str., 103, 79057 Lviv (Ukraine); Kamarudin, H. [School of Material Engineering, Malaysia University of Perlis, P.O Box 77, d/a Pejabat Pos Besar, 01007 Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); Mandracci, P. [Politecnico di Torino, Department of Applied Science and Technology, corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129, Torino (Italy); Auluck, S. [Council of Scientific and Industrial Research - National Physical Laboratory Dr. K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► ZrGa{sub 2} and ZrGa{sub 3} crystals structure was analyzed. ► FP-LAPW method was used to solve the Kohn Sham DFT equations within the framework of the WIEN2K code. ► Electronic band structures are reported. ► The studied crystals exhibit potential optoelectronic applications. -- Abstract: Using FP-LAPW Method we have performed calculations of the band structure of the ZrGa{sub 2} and ZrGa{sub 3} crystals. The all-electron full potential linearized augmented plane wave method was used to solve the Kohn Sham DFT equations. We have explored different approximations using three kinds of exchange-correlation potentials on the electronic structure and we concluded that there is insignificant influence on the band structure and the density of states. It is clear that there exists a difference in the band dispersion with one move from ZrGa{sub 2} to ZrGa{sub 3} that is attributed to the fact that ZrGa{sub 2} has four formula per unit cell (Z = 4) while ZrGa{sub 3} has two formula per unit cell (Z = 2). Despite some similarity in the crystallochemistry of ZrGa{sub 2} to ZrGa{sub 3} some differences are observed in the band structure dispersion. There is a strong hybridization between the states. The interaction of charges between Zr and Ga atoms is due to the strong hybridization, and the covalent bond arises due to the degree of hybridization. Hence, there is a strong covalent bonding between these atoms. We have obtained a space electron charge density distribution in the average unit cell by calculations of the electron charge density distribution. The space electronic charge density contour distribution is illustrated in (1 0 0) and (1 1 0) planes.

  19. Impact of the electronic band structure in high-harmonic generation spectra of solids

    CERN Document Server

    Tancogne-Dejean, Nicolas; Kärtner, Franz X; Rubio, Angel

    2016-01-01

    An accurate analytic model describing high-harmonic generation (HHG) in solids is derived. Extensive first-principles simulations within a time-dependent density-functional framework corroborate the conclusions of the model. Our results reveal that: (i) the emitted HHG spectra are highly anisotropic and laser-polarization dependent even for cubic crystals, (ii) the harmonic emission is enhanced by the inhomogeneity of the electron-nuclei potential, the yield is increased for heavier atoms, and (iii) the cutoff photon energy is driver-wavelength independent. Moreover, we show that it is possible to predict the laser polarization for optimal HHG in bulk crystals solely from the knowledge of their electronic band structure. Our results pave the way to better control and optimize HHG in solids by engineering their band structure.

  20. Growth, Band Structure and Optical Properties of LiSrBO3 Crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The bulk crystal of LiSrBO3(8.39 g) with a size of 21mm × 20mm × 15mm was grown by high temperature solution growth method. The relationship between growth habit and crystal structure was discussed. The transmission spectrum shows an UV absorption edge at about 300 nm. The melting temperature of this crystal was determined to be 942 ℃ by DTA-TG measurement. The band structure of the LiSrBO3 crystal was studied by means of the first principle method. An indirect band gap was found to be about 4.0 eV, and a low dielectric constant was estimated to be about 1.9 in terms of theoretical results.

  1. Specific features of the electronic structure and optical properties of KPb2Br5: DFT calculations and X-ray spectroscopy measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrentyev, A. A.; Gabrelian, B. V.; Vu, V. T.; Denysyuk, N. M.; Shkumat, P. N.; Tarasova, A. Y.; Isaenko, L. I.; Khyzhun, O. Y.

    2016-03-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations are made in order to explore the total and partial densities of states of potassium dilead pentabromide, KPb2Br5, by using the augmented plane wave + local orbitals (APW + lo) method as incorporated in the WIEN2k package. The present calculations reveal that the principle contributors to the valence band of KPb2Br5 are the Pb 6s and Br 4p states contributing predominantly at the bottom and at the top of the band, respectively, while the bottom of the conduction band is formed mainly from contributions of the unoccupied Pb 6p states. The curves of total density of states derived by the present DFT calculations of KPb2Br5 are found to be in agreement with the experimental X-ray photoelectron valence-band spectrum of the compound studied. Comparison on a common energy scale of the X-ray emission bands representing the energy distribution of the valence Br p and K s states and the X-ray photoelectron valence-band spectrum of the KPb2Br5 single crystal indicate that the Br 4p and K 4s states contribute mainly at the top and in the upper portion of the valence band, respectively, being in agreement with data of the present DFT band-structure calculations of this compound. Principal optical characteristics of KPb2Br5, namely dispersion of the absorption coefficient, real and imaginary parts of dielectric function, electron energy-loss spectrum, refractive index, extinction coefficient and optical reflectivity are also studied by the DFT calculations.

  2. Short pulse equations and localized structures in frequency band gaps of nonlinear metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsitsas, N.L. [School of Applied Mathematical and Physical Sciences, National Technical University of Athens, Zografos, Athens 15773 (Greece); Horikis, T.P. [Department of Mathematics, University of Ioannina, Ioannina 45110 (Greece); Shen, Y.; Kevrekidis, P.G.; Whitaker, N. [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003-4515 (United States); Frantzeskakis, D.J., E-mail: dfrantz@phys.uoa.g [Department of Physics, University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, Zografos, Athens 157 84 (Greece)

    2010-03-01

    We consider short pulse propagation in nonlinear metamaterials characterized by a weak Kerr-type nonlinearity in their dielectric response. Two short-pulse equations (SPEs) are derived for the high- and low-frequency 'band gaps' (where linear electromagnetic waves are evanescent) with linear effective permittivity epsilon<0 and permeability mu>0. The structure of the solutions of the SPEs is also briefly discussed, and connections with the soliton solutions of the nonlinear Schroedinger equation are made.

  3. Band structure and Bloch states in birefringent 1D magnetophotonic crystals: An analytical approach

    CERN Document Server

    Lévy, M; Levy, Miguel; Jalali, Amir A

    2007-01-01

    An analytical formulation for the band structure and Bloch modes in elliptically birefringent magnetophotonic crystals is presented. The model incorporates both the effects of gyrotropy and linear birefringence generally present in magneto-optic thin film devices. Full analytical expressions are obtained for the dispersion relation and Bloch modes in a layered stack photonic crystal and their properties are analyzed. It is shown that other models recently discussed in the literature are contained as special limiting cases of the formulation presented herein.

  4. Band structures tunability of bulk 2D phononic crystals made of magneto-elastic materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. O. Vasseur

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of contactless tunability of the band structure of two-dimensional phononic crystals is demonstrated by employing magnetostrictive materials and applying an external magnetic field. The influence of the amplitude and of the orientation with respect to the inclusion axis of the applied magnetic field are studied in details. Applications to tunable selective frequency filters with switching functionnality and to reconfigurable wave-guides and demultiplexing devices are then discussed.

  5. Interface simulation of strained and non-abrupt III-V quantum wells. Part 1: band profile calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberti, C.

    1996-01-01

    This work presents a program, based on the Van de Walle-Martin model solid theory, able to compute the most important physical quantities of any In 1- xGa xAs yP 1- y quaternary epitaxially strained growth on any In 1- zGa zAs wP 1- w hypothetical substrate. The adopted interface-band alignment procedure is extensively described. The effect of strain on several examples of ideal heterostructures characterized by abrupt interfaces is discussed in detail. Furthermore, the problem of a composition gradient spread over some monolayers at the interfaces of III-V quantum wells and superlattices, due to the technological problems in group V switches in the present epitaxial techniques is treated extensively. The interface layers are thus non-intentionally strained on the substrate lattice parameter causing a local change in the bands profile along the growth direction. The differences between an ideal rectangular potential and the real profile are shown. The output files of this program consist in the band profiles for electrons, heavy and light holes, which will be used by the program PLSIMUL (described in a subsequent article) to compute the corresponding quantized levels to be compared with experimental 4 K photoluminescence data.

  6. Deformation behavior of metallic glasses with shear band like atomic structure: a molecular dynamics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, C; Zhang, H; Cao, Q P; Wang, X D; Zhang, D X; Ramamurty, U; Jiang, J Z

    2016-08-02

    Molecular dynamics simulations were employed to investigate the plastic deformation within the shear bands in three different metallic glasses (MGs). To mimic shear bands, MG specimens were first deformed until flow localization occurs, and then the volume of the material within the localized regions was extracted and replicated. Homogeneous deformation that is independent of the size of the specimen was observed in specimens with shear band like structure, even at a temperature that is far below the glass transition temperature. Structural relaxation and rapid cooling were employed to examine the effect of free volume content on the deformation behavior. This was followed by detailed atomic structure analyses, employing the concepts of Voronoi polyhedra and "liquid-like" regions that contain high fraction of sub-atomic size open volumes. Results suggest that the total fraction of atoms in liquid-like regions is a key parameter that controls the plastic deformation in MGs. These are discussed in the context of reported experimental results and possible strategies for synthesizing monolithic amorphous materials that can accommodate large tensile plasticity are suggested.

  7. Robust topology optimization of three-dimensional photonic-crystal band-gap structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Men, H; Lee, K Y K; Freund, R M; Peraire, J; Johnson, S G

    2014-09-22

    We perform full 3D topology optimization (in which "every voxel" of the unit cell is a degree of freedom) of photonic-crystal structures in order to find optimal omnidirectional band gaps for various symmetry groups, including fcc (including diamond), bcc, and simple-cubic lattices. Even without imposing the constraints of any fabrication process, the resulting optimal gaps are only slightly larger than previous hand designs, suggesting that current photonic crystals are nearly optimal in this respect. However, optimization can discover new structures, e.g. a new fcc structure with the same symmetry but slightly larger gap than the well known inverse opal, which may offer new degrees of freedom to future fabrication technologies. Furthermore, our band-gap optimization is an illustration of a computational approach to 3D dispersion engineering which is applicable to many other problems in optics, based on a novel semidefinite-program formulation for nonconvex eigenvalue optimization combined with other techniques such as a simple approach to impose symmetry constraints. We also demonstrate a technique for robust topology optimization, in which some uncertainty is included in each voxel and we optimize the worst-case gap, and we show that the resulting band gaps have increased robustness to systematic fabrication errors.

  8. Band-Structure Trend in Hole-Doped Cuprates and Correlation with {Tc}{sub MAX}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavarini, E.; Dasgupta, I.; Saha-Dasgupta, T.; Jepsen, O.; Andersen, O. K.

    2001-07-23

    By calculation and analysis of the bare conduction bands in a large number of hole-doped high-temperature superconductors, we have identified the range of the intralayer hopping as the essential, material-dependent parameter. It is controlled by the energy of the axial orbital, a hybrid between Cu4s , apical-oxygen 2p{sub z} , and farther orbitals. Materials with higher {Tc}{sub max} have larger hopping ranges and axial orbitals more localized in the CuO{sub 2} layers.

  9. A Calculation Model for Corrosion Cracking in RC Structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Gang; Wei Jun; Zhang Keqiang; Zhou Xiwu

    2007-01-01

    A novel calculation model is proposed aiming at the problem of concrete cover cracking induced by reinforcement corrosion. In this article, the relationship between the corrosion depth of the bar and the thickness of the rust layer is established. By deducing the radial displacement expression of concrete, the formula for corrosion depth and corrosion pressure before cracking is proposed. The crack depth of cover in accordance with the maximum corrosion pressure is deduced; furthermore, the corrosion depth and corrosion pressure at the cracking time are obtained. Finally, the theoretical model is validated by several experiments, and the calculated values agree well with the experiment results.

  10. Hyper-Temporal C-Band SAR for Baseline Woody Structural Assessments in Deciduous Savannas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Main

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Savanna ecosystems and their woody vegetation provide valuable resources and ecosystem services. Locally calibrated and cost effective estimates of these resources are required in order to satisfy commitments to monitor and manage change within them. Baseline maps of woody resources are important for analyzing change over time. Freely available, and highly repetitive, C-band data has the potential to be a viable alternative to high-resolution commercial SAR imagery (e.g., RADARSAT-2, ALOS2 in generating large-scale woody resources maps. Using airborne LiDAR as calibration, we investigated the relationships between hyper-temporal C-band ASAR data and woody structural parameters, namely total canopy cover (TCC and total canopy volume (TCV, in a deciduous savanna environment. Results showed that: the temporal filter reduced image variance; the random forest model out-performed the linear model; while the TCV metric consistently showed marginally higher accuracies than the TCC metric. Combinations of between 6 and 10 images could produce results comparable to high resolution commercial (C- & L-band SAR imagery. The approach showed promise for producing a regional scale, locally calibrated, baseline maps for the management of deciduous savanna resources, and lay a foundation for monitoring using time series of data from newer C-band SAR sensors (e.g., Sentinel1.

  11. A Ku-band magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator with overmoded slow-wave-structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tao; He, Jun-Tao; Zhang, Jian-De; Li, Zhi-Qiang; Ling, Jun-Pu

    2016-12-01

    In order to enhance the power capacity, an improved Ku-band magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator (MILO) with overmoded slow-wave-structure (SWS) is proposed and investigated numerically and experimentally. The analysis of the dispersion relationship and the resonant curve of the cold test indicate that the device can operate at the near π mode of the TM01 mode, which is useful for mode selection and control. In the particle simulation, the improved Ku-band MILO generates a microwave with a power of 1.5 GW and a frequency of 12.3 GHz under an input voltage of 480 kV and input current of 42 kA. Finally, experimental investigation of the improved Ku-band MILO is carried out. A high-power microwave (HPM) with an average power of 800 MW, a frequency of 12.35 GHz, and pulse width of 35 ns is generated under a diode voltage of 500 kV and beam current of 43 kA. The consistency between the experimental and simulated far-field radiation pattern confirms that the operating mode of the improved Ku-band MILO is well controlled in π mode of the TM01 mode. Project supported partly by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61171021).

  12. Fabrication of the CERN/PSI/ST X-Band accelerating structures

    CERN Document Server

    Dehler, Micha; Gudkov, Dmitry; Lebet, Serge; Riddone, Germana; Shi, Jiaru; Citterio, Alessandro; Zennaro, Riccardo; D'Auria, Gerardo; Serpico, Claudio

    2011-01-01

    In a collaboration between CERN, PSI and Sincrotrone Trieste (ST), a multi- purpose X-band accelerating structure has been designed and fabricated, used for high gradients tests in the CLIC structure testing program and in the FEL projects of PSI and ST. The structure has 72 cells with a phase advance of 5 pi/6 and includes upstream and down-stream wakefield monitors to measure the beam alignment. The SLAC mode launcher design is used to feed it with RF power. Following the CERN fabrication procedures for high-gradient structure, diffusion bonding and brazing in hydrogen atmosphere is used to assemble the cells. After tuning, a vacuum bakeout is required before the feedthroughs for the wake field monitors are welded in as a last step. We describe the experiences gained in finishing the first two structures out of a series of four and present the results from the RF tuning and low level RF tests.

  13. Observation of Wakefield Suppression in a Photonic-Band-Gap Accelerator Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simakov, Evgenya I; Arsenyev, Sergey A; Buechler, Cynthia E; Edwards, Randall L; Romero, William P; Conde, Manoel; Ha, Gwanghui; Power, John G; Wisniewski, Eric E; Jing, Chunguang

    2016-02-12

    We report experimental observation of higher order mode (HOM) wakefield suppression in a room-temperature traveling-wave photonic-band-gap (PBG) accelerating structure at 11.700 GHz. It has been long recognized that PBG structures have the potential for reducing long-range wakefields in accelerators. The first ever demonstration of acceleration in a room-temperature PBG structure was conducted in 2005. Since then, the importance of PBG accelerator research has been recognized by many institutions. However, the full experimental characterization of the wakefield spectrum and demonstration of wakefield suppression when the accelerating structure is excited by an electron beam has not been performed to date. We conducted an experiment at the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator test facility and observed wakefields excited by a single high charge electron bunch when it passes through a PBG accelerator structure. Excellent HOM suppression properties of the PBG accelerator were demonstrated in the beam test.

  14. Ab initio calculations and modelling of atomic cluster structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Lyalin, Andrey G.; Greiner, Walter

    2004-01-01

    framework for modelling the fusion process of noble gas clusters is presented. We report the striking correspondence of the peaks in the experimentally measured abundance mass spectra with the peaks in the size-dependence of the second derivative of the binding energy per atom calculated for the chain...... of the noble gas clusters up to 150 atoms....

  15. Structural, electronic and optical properties of cubic SrTiO{sub 3} and KTaO{sub 3}: Ab initio and GW calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benrekia, A.R., E-mail: benrekia.ahmed@yahoo.com [Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Medea (Algeria); Benkhettou, N. [Laboratoire des Materiaux Magnetiques, Faculte des Sciences, Universite Djillali Liabes de Sidi Bel Abbes (Algeria); Nassour, A. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie, Resonance Magnetique et Modelisations (CRM2, UMR CNRS 7036) Institut Jean Barriol, Nancy Universite BP 239, Boulevard des Aiguillettes, 54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Driz, M. [Applied Material Laboratory (AML), Electronics Department, University of Sidi bel Abbes (DZ 22000) (Algeria); Sahnoun, M. [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique de la Matiere et Modelisations Mathematique (LPQ3M), Faculty of Science and Technology,University of Mascara (Algeria); Lebegue, S. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie, Resonance Magnetique et Modelisations (CRM2, UMR CNRS 7036) Institut Jean Barriol, Nancy Universite BP 239, Boulevard des Aiguillettes, 54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    2012-07-01

    We present first-principles VASP calculations of the structural, electronic, vibrational, and optical properties of paraelectric SrTiO{sub 3} and KTaO{sub 3}. The ab initio calculations are performed in the framework of density functional theory with different exchange-correlation potentials. Our calculated lattice parameters, elastic constants, and vibrational frequencies are found to be in good agreement with the available experimental values. Then, the bandstructures are calculated with the GW approximation, and the corresponding band gap is used to obtain the optical properties of SrTiO{sub 3} and KTaO{sub 3}.

  16. PLATON SQUEEZE: a tool for the calculation of the disordered solvent contribution to the calculated structure factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spek, Anthony L

    2015-01-01

    The completion of a crystal structure determination is often hampered by the presence of embedded solvent molecules or ions that are seriously disordered. Their contribution to the calculated structure factors in the least-squares refinement of a crystal structure has to be included in some way. Traditionally, an atomistic solvent disorder model is attempted. Such an approach is generally to be preferred, but it does not always lead to a satisfactory result and may even be impossible in cases where channels in the structure are filled with continuous electron density. This paper documents the SQUEEZE method as an alternative means of addressing the solvent disorder issue. It conveniently interfaces with the 2014 version of the least-squares refinement program SHELXL [Sheldrick (2015). Acta Cryst. C71. In the press] and other refinement programs that accept externally provided fixed contributions to the calculated structure factors. The PLATON SQUEEZE tool calculates the solvent contribution to the structure factors by back-Fourier transformation of the electron density found in the solvent-accessible region of a phase-optimized difference electron-density map. The actual least-squares structure refinement is delegated to, for example, SHELXL. The current versions of PLATON SQUEEZE and SHELXL now address several of the unnecessary complications with the earlier implementation of the SQUEEZE procedure that were a necessity because least-squares refinement with the now superseded SHELXL97 program did not allow for the input of fixed externally provided contributions to the structure-factor calculation. It is no longer necessary to subtract the solvent contribution temporarily from the observed intensities to be able to use SHELXL for the least-squares refinement, since that program now accepts the solvent contribution from an external file (.fab file) if the ABIN instruction is used. In addition, many twinned structures containing disordered solvents are now also

  17. Calculation of hybrid joints used in modern aerospace structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel STERE

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The state – of - the art of aeronautical structures show that parts are manufactured and subsequently assembled with the use of fasteners and/ or bonding. Adhesive bonding is a key technology to low weight, high fatigue resistance, robustness and an attractive design for cost structures.The paper results resolve significant problems for two groups of end-users:1 for the aerospace design office: a robust procedure for the design of the hybrid joint structural components;2 for the aeronautical repair centres: a useful procedure for structural design and analysis with significant cost savings.

  18. Quasiparticle band structure for the Hubbard systems: Application to. alpha. -CeAl sub 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa-Quintana, J.; Lopez-Aguilar, F. (Departamento de Fisica, Grupo de Electromagnetismo, Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, E-08193 Barcelona, Spain (ES)); Balle, S. (Departament de Fisica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07071 Palma de Mallorca, Spain (ES)); Salvador, R. (Control Data Corporation, TALLAHASSEE, FL (USA) Supercomputer Computations Research Institute, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32306-4052 (USA))

    1990-04-01

    A self-energy formalism for determining the quasiparticle band structure of the Hubbard systems is deduced. The self-energy is obtained from the dynamically screened Coulomb interaction whose bare value is the correlation energy {ital U}. A method for integrating the Schroedingerlike equation with the self-energy operator is given. The method is applied to the cubic Laves phase of {alpha}-CeAl{sub 2} because it is a clear Hubbard system with a very complex electronic structure and, moreover, this system provides us with sufficient experimental data for testing our method.

  19. DFT Study of Effects of Potassium Doping on Band Structure of Crystalline Cuprous Azide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU,Wei-Hua; ZHANG,Xiao-Wen; WEI,Tao; XIAO,He-Ming

    2008-01-01

    The structure and defect formation energies of the K-doped CuN3 were studied using density functional theory within the generalized gradient approximation. The results show that the K-doping breaks the azide symmetry and causes asymmetric atomic displacement. As the K-doping level increases, the band gap of the doped system gradually increases. The K impurity is easily incorporated into the crystal thermodynamically. The Cu vacancy is easily created thermodynamically and the K impurity can serve as nucleation centers for vacancy clustering. Finally the effects of K-doping concentrations on the sensitivity of CuN3 were understood based on electronic structures.

  20. Electron transport and Goos-Haenchen shift in graphene with electric and magnetic barriers: optical analogy and band structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Manish [Centre for Applied Research in Electronics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi-110016 (India); Ghosh, Sankalpa [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi-110016 (India)

    2011-02-09

    Transport of massless Dirac fermions in graphene monolayers is analysed in the presence of a combination of singular magnetic barriers and applied electrostatic potential. Extending a recently proposed (Ghosh and Sharma 2009 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 21 292204) analogy between the transmission of light through a medium with modulated refractive index and electron transmission in graphene through singular magnetic barriers to the present case, we find the addition of a scalar potential profoundly changes the transmission. We calculate the quantum version of the Goos-Haenchen shift that the electron wave suffers upon being totally reflected by such barriers. The combined electric and magnetic barriers substantially modify the band structure near the Dirac point. This affects transport near the Dirac point significantly and has important consequences for graphene-based electronics.